Sample records for anatomy magnetic resonance

  1. Advanced imaging technologies for mapping cadaveric lymphatic anatomy: magnetic resonance and computed tomography lymphangiography.

    PubMed

    Pan, W R; Rozen, W M; Stretch, J; Thierry, B; Ashton, M W; Corlett, R J

    2008-09-01

    Lymphatic anatomy has become increasingly clinically important as surgical techniques evolve for investigating and treating cancer metastases. However, due to limited anatomical techniques available, research in this field has been insufficient. The techniques of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) lymphangiography have not been described previously in the imaging of cadaveric lymphatic anatomy. This preliminary work describes the feasibility of these advanced imaging technologies for imaging lymphatic anatomy. A single, fresh cadaveric lower limb underwent lymphatic dissection and cannulation utilizing microsurgical techniques. Contrast materials for both CT and MR studies were chosen based on their suitability for subsequent clinical use, and imaging was undertaken with a view to mapping lymphatic anatomy. Microdissection studies were compared with imaging findings in each case. Both MR-based and CT-based contrast media in current clinical use were found to be suitable for demonstrating cadaveric lymphatic anatomy upon direct intralymphatic injection. MR lymphangiography and CT lymphangiography are feasible modalities for cadaveric anatomical research for lymphatic anatomy. Future studies including refinements in scanning techniques may offer these technologies to the clinical setting. PMID:19013880

  2. Magnetic resonance assessment of pelvic anatomy and pelvic floor disorders after childbirth.

    PubMed

    Handa, Victoria L; Lockhart, Mark E; Kenton, Kimberly S; Bradley, Catherine S; Fielding, Julia R; Cundiff, Geoffrey W; Salomon, Caryl G; Hakim, Christiane; Ye, Wen; Richter, Holly E

    2009-02-01

    To compare pelvic anatomy, using magnetic resonance imaging, between postpartum women with or without pelvic floor disorders. We measured postpartum bony and soft tissue pelvic dimensions in 246 primiparas, 6-12-months postpartum. Anatomy was compared between women with and without urinary or fecal incontinence, or pelvic organ prolapse; P < 0.01 was considered statistically significant. A deeper sacral hollow was significantly associated with fecal incontinence (P = 0.005). Urinary incontinence was marginally associated with a wider intertuberous diameter (P = 0.017) and pelvic arch (P = 0.017). There were no significant differences in pelvimetry measures between women with and without prolapse (e.g., vaginal or cervical descent to or beyond the hymen). We did not detect meaningful differences in soft tissue dimensions for women with and without these pelvic floor disorders. Dimensions of the bony pelvis do not differ substantially between primiparous women with and without postpartum urinary incontinence, fecal incontinence and prolapse. PMID:18846311

  3. Pulmonary vein anatomy in patients undergoing catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. Lessons learned by use of magnetic resonance imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ritsushi Kato; Lars Lickfett; Glenn Meininger

    2003-01-01

    Background—This study sought to define the technique and results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of pulmonary vein (PV) anatomy before and after catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods and Results—Twenty-eight patients with AF underwent ablation. Patients underwent gadolinium-enhanced MRI before and 6 weeks after their procedures. A control group of 27 patients also underwent MRI. Variant PV anatomy was

  4. Magnetic Resonance Assessment of Pelvic Anatomy and Pelvic Floor Disorders after Childbirth

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Victoria L.; Lockhart, Mark E.; Kenton, Kimberly S.; Bradley, Catherine S.; Fielding, Julia R.; Cundiff, Geoffrey W.; Salomon, Caryl G.; Hakim, Christiane; Ye, Wen; Richter, Holly E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and Hypothesis To compare pelvic anatomy, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), between women with or without pelvic floor disorders 6-12 months after a first delivery. Methods We measured postpartum bony and soft tissue pelvic dimensions in 246 primiparas. Pelvic anatomy was compared between women with and without urinary or fecal incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, and obstetrical anal sphincter lacerations. Because of multiple comparisons, P<0.01 was considered statistically significant. Results A deeper sacral hollow was significantly associated with fecal incontinence (p=0.005). We identified trends between urinary incontinence and a wider intertuberous diameter (p=0.017) and a wider pelvic arch (p=0.017). We also noted a trend in increasing transverse inlet diameter with increasing prolapse (p=0.034). A shorter anterioposterior outlet was marginally associated with obstetrical sphincter laceration (p=0.020). None of these latter associations were statistically significant. Conclusions MR assessment of pelvic anatomy did not reliably distinguish postpartum women with uterovaginal prolapse or symptoms of urinary or fecal incontinence. PMID:18846311

  5. Anatomy and pathology of the male pelvis by magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hricak, H. (Univ. of California, San Francisco); Williams, R.D.; Spring, D.B.; Moon, K.L., Jr.; Hedgcock, M.W.; Watson, R.A.; Crooks, L.E.

    1983-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the male pelvis was performed in 25 subjects: five normal voluteers; six patients with carcinoma of the bladder; nine with benign nodular hyperplasia (including five with concomitant bladder carcinoma); nine with prostatic carcinoma; and one with a lymphocele after radical prostatectomy. The display of normal anatomy is enhanced by the ability of the MRI device to provide images in direct transverse, sagittal, and coronal planes. Sessile and pedunculated types of bladder carcinoma are readily shown due to the superior ability of MRI for soft-tissue characterization. Direct sagittal scans are advantageous for evaluation of tumors at the bladder base, and by combining two different planes of images, the extent of the neoplasm is better delineated. In the analysis of the prostate, MRI displays the gland in three dimensions and therefore allows accurate volumetric measurements. The greatest potential of MRI seems to be its ability to detect pathology confined to the gland. However, it is not yet known if a neoplastic nodule can be differentiated from chronic prostatitis. Unlike x-ray CT, metallic clips produce no streaking artifacts, giving MRI a definite advantage in the evaluation of patients after radical surgery. These observations were made on a small number of patients. If the results are confirmed with a larger number of patients, MRI will assume a prominent role in the clinical evaluation of bladder and prostate cancer.

  6. Magnetic resonance microneurography of rabbit sciatic nerve on a 1.5-T clinical MR system correlated with gross anatomy.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jun; Wang, Hua-Qiao; Zhou, Cui-Ping; Liang, Bi-Ling

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the feasibility and accuracy of magnetic resonance (MR) microneurography of the rabbit sciatic nerve on a 1.5-T clinical MR system by correlation with the gross anatomy. The 3D T2-weighted imaging (3D-T2WI), 3D T2-weighted imaging plus spectral presaturation with inversion recovery (SPIR), and T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) of the sciatic nerve in ten rabbits were performed on a 1.5-T MR system. The radiological anatomy of the sciatic nerve was observed and correlated with the gross anatomy. The anterior-posterior diameter of the sciatic nerve trunk was measured on 3D T2WI and on gross anatomy. The T1 and T2 relaxation times were also measured with multiecho spin echo and mixed sequence, respectively. The tibial nerve and peroneal nerve in the sciatic nerve trunk in all ten rabbits could be clearly displayed on T2WI and T2WI. The fine branches of the gastrocnemius nerve, posterior femoral cutaneous nerve, and the posterior gluteal nerve could be clearly depicted on T2WI. The T1 and T2 relaxation times of the sciatic nerves were 915 and 40 ms, respectively. The anterior-posterior diameter of sciatic nerve trunk was measured grossly, and on T2WI was 3.17 +/- 0.21 mm and 3.15 +/- 0.19 mm, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference (t = 0.768, P = 0.462). With the 1.5-T clinical MR system, the microneurography of the sciatic nerve could be revisualized, and the finer structure of the sciatic nerve trunk could be clearly and accurately delineated. PMID:17994593

  7. Anatomy, Variants, and Pathologies of the Superior Glenohumeral Ligament: Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Three-Dimensional Volumetric Interpolated Breath-Hold Examination Sequence and Conventional Magnetic Resonance Arthrography

    PubMed Central

    Ogul, Hayri; Karaca, Leyla; Can, Cahit Emre; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Tuncer, Kutsi; Topal, Murat; Okur, Aylin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to demonstrate magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography findings of anatomy, variants, and pathologic conditions of the superior glenohumeral ligament (SGHL). This review also demonstrates the applicability of a new MR arthrography sequence in the anterosuperior portion of the glenohumeral joint. The SGHL is a very important anatomical structure in the rotator interval that is responsible for stabilizing the long head of the biceps tendon. Therefore, a torn SGHL can result in pain and instability. Observation of the SGHL is difficult when using conventional MR imaging, because the ligament may be poorly visualized. Shoulder MR arthrography is the most accurately established imaging technique for identifying pathologies of the SGHL and associated structures. The use of three dimensional (3D) volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences produces thinner image slices and enables a higher in-plane resolution than conventional MR arthrography sequences. Therefore, shoulder MR arthrography using 3D VIBE sequences may contribute to evaluating of the smaller intraarticular structures such as the SGHL. PMID:25053912

  8. Overhauser enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for tumor oximetry: Coregistration of tumor anatomy and tissue oxygen concentration

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Murali C.; English, Sean; Yamada, Kenichi; Yoo, John; Murugesan, Ramachandran; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Cook, John A.; Golman, Klaes; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Subramanian, Sankaran; Mitchell, James B.

    2002-01-01

    An efficient noninvasive method for in vivo imaging of tumor oxygenation by using a low-field magnetic resonance scanner and a paramagnetic contrast agent is described. The methodology is based on Overhauser enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (OMRI), a functional imaging technique. OMRI experiments were performed on tumor-bearing mice (squamous cell carcinoma) by i.v. administration of the contrast agent Oxo63 (a highly derivatized triarylmethyl radical) at nontoxic doses in the range of 2–7 mmol/kg either as a bolus or as a continuous infusion. Spatially resolved pO2 (oxygen concentration) images from OMRI experiments of tumor-bearing mice exhibited heterogeneous oxygenation profiles and revealed regions of hypoxia in tumors (<10 mmHg; 1 mmHg = 133 Pa). Oxygenation of tumors was enhanced on carbogen (95% O2/5% CO2) inhalation. The pO2 measurements from OMRI were found to be in agreement with those obtained by independent polarographic measurements using a pO2 Eppendorf electrode. This work illustrates that anatomically coregistered pO2 maps of tumors can be readily obtained by combining the good anatomical resolution of water proton-based MRI, and the superior pO2 sensitivity of EPR. OMRI affords the opportunity to perform noninvasive and repeated pO2 measurements of the same animal with useful spatial (?1 mm) and temporal (2 min) resolution, making this method a powerful imaging modality for small animal research to understand tumor physiology and potentially for human applications. PMID:11854518

  9. Comparison of magnetic resonance contrast arthrography and arthroscopic anatomy of the equine palmar lateral outpouching of the middle carpal joint.

    PubMed

    Getman, Liberty M; McKnight, Alexia L; Richardson, Dean W

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this report was to provide an anatomic description of the equine palmar lateral outpouching of the middle carpal joint by comparing its arthroscopic and magnetic resonance (MR) contrast arthrography appearance and to define the structures within the palmar lateral outpouching of the middle carpal joint that can be assessed arthroscopically. MR contrast arthrography was performed on seven cadaveric limbs; images were compared with those obtained during arthroscopic exploration of the palmar lateral outpouching of the middle carpal joint. Gross dissection was performed to confirm identification of intra-articular structures. The MR images compared well with the arthroscopic and gross appearance of the palmar lateral outpouching of the middle carpal joint. Portions of the ulnar carpal bone, fourth carpal bone, fourth metacarpal bone, lateral palmar intercarpal ligament, and lateral collateral ligament of the carpus were identified within the palmar lateral outpouching of the middle carpal joint in all limbs. In addition, in three limbs areas of the third carpal bone and intermediate carpal bone could be seen. MR arthrography was a useful tool for helping to define the anatomy of the palmar lateral outpouching of the middle carpal joint. The arthroscopic approach to the palmar lateral outpouching of the middle carpal joint is technically easy, but the intra-articular anatomy can be confusing. Use of a motorized arthroscopic blade to remove excess synovial tissue is necessary to view all of the structures within the palmar lateral outpouching of the middle carpal joint. Arthroscopic removal of osteochondral fragments from this location may be facilitated by the information obtained from this study. PMID:18018719

  10. Review: magnetic resonance imaging of male/female differences in human adolescent brain anatomy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Improvements in neuroimaging technologies, and greater access to their use, have generated a plethora of data regarding male/female differences in the developing brain. Examination of these differences may shed light on the pathophysiology of the many illnesses that differ between the sexes and ultimately lead to more effective interventions. In this review, we attempt to synthesize the anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) literature of male/female brain differences with emphasis on studies encompassing adolescence – a time of divergence in physical and behavioral characteristics. Across all ages total brain size is consistently reported to be about 10% larger in males. Structures commonly reported to be different between sexes include the caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum – all noted to have a relatively high density of sex steroid receptors. The direction and magnitude of reported brain differences depends on the methodology of data acquisition and analysis, whether and how the subcomponents are adjusted for the total brain volume difference, and the age of the participants in the studies. Longitudinal studies indicate regional cortical gray matter volumes follow inverted U shaped developmental trajectories with peak size occurring one to three years earlier in females. Cortical gray matter differences are modulated by androgen receptor genotyope and by circulating levels of hormones. White matter volumes increase throughout childhood and adolescence in both sexes but more rapidly in adolescent males resulting in an expanding magnitude of sex differences from childhood to adulthood. PMID:22908911

  11. Review: magnetic resonance imaging of male/female differences in human adolescent brain anatomy.

    PubMed

    Giedd, Jay N; Raznahan, Armin; Mills, Kathryn L; Lenroot, Rhoshel K

    2012-01-01

    Improvements in neuroimaging technologies, and greater access to their use, have generated a plethora of data regarding male/female differences in the developing brain. Examination of these differences may shed light on the pathophysiology of the many illnesses that differ between the sexes and ultimately lead to more effective interventions. In this review, we attempt to synthesize the anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) literature of male/female brain differences with emphasis on studies encompassing adolescence - a time of divergence in physical and behavioral characteristics. Across all ages total brain size is consistently reported to be about 10% larger in males. Structures commonly reported to be different between sexes include the caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum - all noted to have a relatively high density of sex steroid receptors. The direction and magnitude of reported brain differences depends on the methodology of data acquisition and analysis, whether and how the subcomponents are adjusted for the total brain volume difference, and the age of the participants in the studies. Longitudinal studies indicate regional cortical gray matter volumes follow inverted U shaped developmental trajectories with peak size occurring one to three years earlier in females. Cortical gray matter differences are modulated by androgen receptor genotyope and by circulating levels of hormones. White matter volumes increase throughout childhood and adolescence in both sexes but more rapidly in adolescent males resulting in an expanding magnitude of sex differences from childhood to adulthood. PMID:22908911

  12. Magnetic resonance anatomy of the proximal metacarpal region of the horse described from images acquired from low- and high-field magnets.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Annamaria; Dyson, Sue

    2009-01-01

    While low-field magnetic resonance (MR) images can provide useful information in the investigation of proximal metacarpal region pain, an in-depth knowledge of anatomy and comparison with more detailed high-field images are essential to understand the meaning of different signal intensities within tissues. This anatomic description is based on low-field and high-field MR examination of 30 cadaver metacarpal regions of mature horses with no history of carpal or proximal metacarpal pain. Normal MR anatomy is described and is illustrated by high-field and low-field MR images in transverse, sagittal and dorsal planes. Normal anatomic variations of soft tissue and osseous structures are discussed. Differences between the signal intensity and definition of tissues on high-field and low-field MR images and in different pulse sequences are highlighted. Several structures could be evaluated in both high-field and low-field images that cannot easily be imaged using radiography and ultrasonography, including the abaxial margins of the suspensory ligament, the interosseous ligaments between the metacarpal bones and the carpometacarpal ligaments. Structures that have previously not been described in detail were also identified. PMID:19999342

  13. Coronary magnetic resonance angiography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Stuber; Robert G. Weiss

    2007-01-01

    Coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a pow- erful noninvasive technique with high soft-tissue contrast for the visualization of the coronary anatomy without X-ray exposure. Due to the small dimensions and tortuous na- ture of the coronary arteries, a high spatial resolution and sufficient volumetric coverage have to be obtained. How- ever, this necessitates scanning times that are typically much

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, D.D.; Bradley, W.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a review of magnetic resonance imaging. Many topics are explored from instrumentation, spectroscopy, blood flow and sodium imaging to detailed clinical applications such as the differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis or adrenal adenoma. The emphasis throughout is on descriptions of normal multiplanar anatomy and pathology as displayed by MRI.

  15. Magnetic resonance anatomy of the carpus of the horse described from images acquired from low-field and high-field magnets.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Annamaria; Dyson, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Cadaver carpi of 30 mature horses with no history of carpal or proximal metacarpal pain were examined using low-field (0.27?T) and high-field (1.5?T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Normal MRI anatomy in transverse, sagittal, and dorsal plane images was determined by comparison with anatomical specimens and standard texts. Subchondral bone and cortical bone thickness measurements were obtained from standardised sites. There was variable subchondral bone thickness in the radius and carpal bones; subchondral bone thickness was consistently larger at dorsal compared with palmar sites in the proximal row of carpal bones. The endosteal surface of the subchondral bone was smooth. The shape of the ulnar carpal bone was variable and one or more small osseous fragments were identified palmar to the bone in 5/30 limbs. There was no evidence to suggest that these were pathological fractures or avulsions of the lateral palmar intercarpal ligament. The amount of muscle tissue in the superficial and deep digital flexor tendons in the proximal aspect of the carpus varied, but none was present at the level of the middle carpal joint and distally. Several structures could be evaluated that cannot be imaged using radiography, ultrasonography, or arthroscopy, including the transverse intercarpal ligaments, the radiocarpal ligament, the short palmar carpal ligaments, and the carpometacarpal ligaments. Anatomical variations not previously described were identified, including the layers of the medial aspect of the carpal fascia. Knowledge of the variation in MRI appearance of the carpus of nonlame horses is helpful for interpretation of MR images of lame horses. PMID:21554475

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ewald Moser; Andreas Stadlbauer; Christian Windischberger; Harald H. Quick; Mark E. Ladd

    2009-01-01

    Introduction  Magnetic resonance (MR) methods are non-invasive techniques to provide detailed, multi-parametric information on human anatomy,\\u000a function and metabolism. Sensitivity, specificity, spatial and temporal resolution may, however, vary depending on hardware\\u000a (e.g., field strength, gradient strength and speed) and software (optimised measurement protocols and parameters for the various\\u000a techniques). Furthermore, multi-modality imaging may enhance specificity to better characterise complex disease patterns.

  17. Cross-sectional anatomy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the head of common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba).

    PubMed

    Alonso-Farré, J M; Gonzalo-Orden, M; Barreiro-Vázquez, J D; Barreiro-Lois, A; André, M; Morell, M; Llarena-Reino, M; Monreal-Pawlowsky, T; Degollada, E

    2015-02-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to scan seven by-caught dolphin cadavers, belonging to two species: four common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and three striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). CT and MRI were obtained with the animals in ventral recumbency. After the imaging procedures, six dolphins were frozen at -20°C and sliced in the same position they were examined. Not only CT and MRI scans, but also cross sections of the heads were obtained in three body planes: transverse (slices of 1 cm thickness) in three dolphins, sagittal (5 cm thickness) in two dolphins and dorsal (5 cm thickness) in two dolphins. Relevant anatomical structures were identified and labelled on each cross section, obtaining a comprehensive bi-dimensional topographical anatomy guide of the main features of the common and the striped dolphin head. Furthermore, the anatomical cross sections were compared with their corresponding CT and MRI images, allowing an imaging identification of most of the anatomical features. CT scans produced an excellent definition of the bony and air-filled structures, while MRI allowed us to successfully identify most of the soft tissue structures in the dolphin's head. This paper provides a detailed anatomical description of the head structures of common and striped dolphins and compares anatomical cross sections with CT and MRI scans, becoming a reference guide for the interpretation of imaging studies. PMID:24527804

  18. Three-dimensional volume rendering of the ankle based on magnetic resonance images enables the generation of images comparable to real anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Anastasi, Giuseppe; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Bruschetta, Daniele; Trimarchi, Fabio; Ielitro, Giuseppe; Cammaroto, Simona; Duca, Antonio; Bramanti, Placido; Favaloro, Angelo; Vaccarino, Gianluigi; Milardi, Demetrio

    2009-01-01

    We have applied high-quality medical imaging techniques to study the structure of the human ankle. Direct volume rendering, using specific algorithms, transforms conventional two-dimensional (2D) magnetic resonance image (MRI) series into 3D volume datasets. This tool allows high-definition visualization of single or multiple structures for diagnostic, research, and teaching purposes. No other image reformatting technique so accurately highlights each anatomic relationship and preserves soft tissue definition. Here, we used this method to study the structure of the human ankle to analyze tendon–bone–muscle relationships. We compared ankle MRI and computerized tomography (CT) images from 17 healthy volunteers, aged 18–30 years (mean 23 years). An additional subject had a partial rupture of the Achilles tendon. The MRI images demonstrated superiority in overall quality of detail compared to the CT images. The MRI series accurately rendered soft tissue and bone in simultaneous image acquisition, whereas CT required several window-reformatting algorithms, with loss of image data quality. We obtained high-quality digital images of the human ankle that were sufficiently accurate for surgical and clinical intervention planning, as well as for teaching human anatomy. Our approach demonstrates that complex anatomical structures such as the ankle, which is rich in articular facets and ligaments, can be easily studied non-invasively using MRI data. PMID:19678857

  19. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Criteria for Significant Risk Investigations of Magnetic Resonance Diagnostic Devices - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration ... the Submission Of Premarket Notifications for Magnetic Resonance Diagnostic Devices (Withdrawn) A Primer on Medical Device Interactions with ...

  20. Pediatric magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    This book defines the current clinical potential of magnetic resonance imaging and focuses on direct clinical work with pediatric patients. A section dealing with the physics of magnetic resonance imaging provides an introduction to enable clinicians to utilize the machine and interpret the images. Magnetic resonance imaging is presented as an appropriate imaging modality for pediatric patients utilizing no radiation.

  1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew, E. R.

    2009-06-01

    Author's preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Basic theory; 3. Experimental methods; 4. Measurement of nuclear properties and general physical applications; 5. Nuclear magnetic resonance in liquids and gases; 6. Nuclear magnetic resonance in non-metallic solids; 7. Nuclear magnetic resonance in metals; 8. Quadrupole effects; Appendices 1-6; Glossary of symbols; Bibliography and author index; Subject index.

  2. Plastic reconstruction of fetal anatomy using three-dimensional ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging scan data in a giant cervical teratoma. Case report.

    PubMed

    Werner, Heron; Lopez, Jorge; Tonni, Gabriele; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2015-06-01

    Cervical teratoma is a rare congenital tumor that tends to be large and is usually solid/cystic. Estimation of the degree of tracheal compression or distortion allows multidisciplinary planning for delivery and neonatal resuscitation. We present a case of prenatal diagnosis of cervical teratoma at 29 weeks of gestation. The use of a physical model from 3D ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging improved the understanding of spatial relationships of fetal anomaly and the adjacent structures, permitting better parent counselling. This technology can be used for educational purposes and as a method for parents to visualize their unborn baby. PMID:26052579

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging: prologue

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, H.G.

    1987-12-11

    Magnetic resonance imaging is becoming an increasingly important method of diagnostic imaging. This new method can compete with computed tomography for several applications, especially those involving the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging is rapidly evolving, and several advances can be anticipated in the near future.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of the knee

    SciTech Connect

    Mink, J.H.; Reicher, M.A.; Crues, J.V.

    1987-01-01

    Introducing a comprehensive, practical guide to the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting and evaluating knee disorders and planning arthroscopic surgery) This book integrates MRI findings with pertinent anatomy, physiology, and clinical signs to assist radiologists in selecting imaging protocols and interpreting scans. Detailed chapters focus on magnetic resonance imaging of the menisci and ligaments and evaluation of osteonecrosis, osteochondrosis, and osteochondritis. The authors demonstrate the potential of MRI for diagnosing various knee disorders such as arthritis, fractures, popliteal cysts, synovial disease, plicae, popliteal artery aneurysms, tumors, and bone marrow disorders.

  5. Ellipsoidal Coil for Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Hernandez; A. O. Rodriguez; P. Salgado; F. A. Barrios

    2003-01-01

    We developed an ellipse-shaped surface coil for magnetic resonance spectroscopy for a 1.5 T clinical MR Imager. This coil is to be used to obtain spectra from arms and legs. Standard volume and single-loop coils provide a poor signal because they can not be placed close to the region of interest and their shapes do not fit the anatomy of

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, B.C.

    1984-02-07

    A nuclear magnetic resonance gyro using two nuclear magnetic resonance gases, preferably xenon 129 and xenon 131, together with two alkaline metal vapors, preferably rubidium, potassium or cesium, one of the two alkaline metal vapors being pumped by light which has the wavelength of that alkaline metal vapor, and the other alkaline vapor being illuminated by light which has the wavelength of that other alkaline vapor.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Online Texts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    S�½kora, Stanislav

    This well-organized and very thorough website was developed by the physicist Stanislav Sykora with the aim of providing free online texts, theses, and course materials on the subjects of magnetic resonance (MR), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) and other related topics. The amount of material on the site is impressive. At the top of the page are links to an "MR Blog", as well as to "MR Links" and the "Site Plan & SEARCH". The NMR/MRI Extras section on the right side of the page is particularly useful for visitors interested in all things about MR. Its links to "Events" provides an up-to-date list of symposia, conferences, and meetings, along with links to the events' sites. The "Societies" link offers at least 50 groups about MR, some of which are country-based, and others that are region- or application-based.

  8. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Dementias

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yuan-Yu; Du, An-Tao; Schuff, Norbert; Weiner, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent studies of magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, idiopathic Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and vascular dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy can detect structural alteration and biochemical abnormalities in the brain of demented subjects and may help in the differential diagnosis and early detection of affected individuals, monitoring disease progression, and evaluation of therapeutic effect. PMID:11563438

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Retina

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Timothy Q.; Muir, Eric R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and its application to image anatomy, physiology, and function in the retina of animals. It describes technical issues and solutions in performing retinal MRI, anatomical MRI, blood oxygenation level-dependent functional MRI (fMRI), and blood-flow MRI both of normal retinas and of retinal degeneration. MRI offers unique advantages over existing retinal imaging techniques, including the ability to image multiple layers without depth limitation and to provide multiple clinically relevant data in a single setting. Retinal MRI has the potential to complement existing retinal imaging techniques. PMID:19763752

  10. Magnetic resonance urography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Leyendecker; John W. Gianini

    2009-01-01

    Excellent contrast resolution and lack of ionizing radiation make magnetic resonance urography (MRU) a promising technique\\u000a for noninvasively evaluating the entire urinary tract. While MRU currently lags behind CT urography (CTU) in spatial resolution\\u000a and efficiency, new hardware and sequence developments have contributed to a resurgence of interest in MRU techniques. By\\u000a combining unenhanced sequences with multiphase contrast-enhanced and excretory

  11. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Michael; Griffith, Robert; Bulatowicz, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) has concluded the fourth and final phase of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. Traditional MEMS gyros utilize springs as an inherent part of the sensing mechanism, leading to bias and scale factor sensitivity to acceleration and vibration. As a result, they have not met performance expectations in real world environments and to date have been limited to tactical grade applications. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) utilizes the fixed precession rate of a nuclear spin in a constant magnetic field as an inertial reference for determining rotation. The nuclear spin precession rate sensitivity to acceleration and vibration is negligible for most applications. Therefore, the application of new micro and batch fabrication methods to NMRG technology holds great promise for navigation grade performance in a low cost and compact gyro. This presentation will describe the operational principles, design basics, and demonstrated performance of the NMRG including an overview of the NGC designs developed and demonstrated in the DARPA gyro development program.

  12. Breast magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Marlene M

    2012-01-01

    Mammography has long been considered the gold standard for screening breast cancer. Although it reduces the risk of breast cancer mortality by enabling early diagnosis, it does not detect all breast cancers. Numerous breast imaging technologies are emerging as effective adjunctive diagnostic tools when mammography results are negative or inconclusive. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (CE-MR) imaging, in particular, has demonstrated a high sensitivity and has proven to be most effective, especially with patients at high risk for developing breast cancer. This article discusses the clinical applications for breast MR imaging, use of CE-MR for breast cancer detection, and other emerging breast imaging technologies. PMID:22267704

  13. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Michael

    2011-05-01

    The navigation grade micro Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (micro-NMRG) being developed by the Northrop Grumman Corporation is currently in phase 4 of the DARPA Navigation Grade Integrated Micro Gyro (NGIMG) program. The micro-NMRG technology is pushing the boundaries of size, weight, power, and performance allowing new small platform applications of navigation grade Inertial Navigation System (INS) technology. Information on the historical development of the technology, basics of operation, task performance goals, application opportunities, and a phase 2 sample of earth rate measurement data will be presented. Funding Provided by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)

  14. nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Karwacki, F. A.; Griffin, J.

    1985-04-02

    A nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope which derives angular rotation thereof from the phases of precessing nuclear moments utilizes a single-resonance cell situated in the center of a uniform DC magnetic field. The field is generated by current flow through a circular array of coils between parallel plates. It also utilizes a pump and read-out beam and associated electronics for signal processing and control. Encapsulated in the cell for sensing rotation are odd isotopes of Mercury Hg/sup 199/ and Hg/sup 201/. Unpolarized intensity modulated light from a pump lamp is directed by lenses to a linear polarizer, quarter wave plate combination producing circularly polarized light. The circularly polarized light is reflected by a mirror to the cell transverse to the field for optical pumping of the isotopes. Unpolarized light from a readout lamp is directed by lenses to another linear polarizer. The linearly polarized light is reflected by another mirror to the cell transverse to the field and orthogonal to the pump lamp light. The linear light after transversing the cell strikes an analyzer where it is converted to an intensity-modulated light. The modulated light is detected by a photodiode processed and utilized as feedback to control the field and pump lamp excitation and readout of angular displacement.

  15. PTK787\\/ZK 222584, a Specific Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, Affects the Anatomy of the Tumor Vascular Bed and the Functional Vascular Properties as Detected by Dynamic Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joachim Drevs; Ralph Muller-Driver; Christine Wittig; Stefan Fuxius; Norbert Esser; Harald Hugenschmidt; Moritz A. Konerding; Peter R. Allegrini; Jeanette Wood; Jurgen Hennig; Clemens Unger

    2002-01-01

    Antiangiogenic therapy is a promising new strategy of inhibiting tumor growth and formation of metastases. Recently, a number of compounds with different effects on tumor endothelial cells have entered clinical trials and revealed the need for diagnostic methods to detect their biological activity. Dynamic enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (dyMRI) is used in most clinical trials with antiangiogenic active compounds. We

  16. Magnetic resonance cell

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, T.M.; Volk, C.H.

    1984-05-01

    There is disclosed a nuclear magnetic alignment device for use in a nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope and the like. One embodiment includes a container for gas having a layer of rubidium hydride on its inner surface. The container comprising a spherical portion and a tip portion, is rotationally symmetric about an axis of symmetry. Enclosed within the container is a nuclear moment gas having a nuclear electric quadrupole moment, such as xenon-131, and an optically pumpable substance, such as rubidium. A portion of the rubidium is a vapor. The remainder is a condensed pellet which is deposited in the tip of the container such that the pellet is also rotationally symmetric about the axis of symmetry of the container. A layer of rubidium hydride is deposited on the inner surface of the container. The device further includes means for orienting the symmetry axis of the container at an angle to an applied magnetic field such that the relaxation time constant of the aligned nuclear moment gas is substantially at a maximum.

  17. [Magnetic resonance tomography in follow-up of hydatidiform mole].

    PubMed

    Marth, C; Judmaier, W; Helweg, G; Schwegel, P; Wicke, K; Zeimet, A G; Daxenbichler, G; Hetzel, H

    1992-08-01

    The value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was studied in a case of a gestational trophoblastic tumour. In addition to the tumour size, MRI made it possible to measure necrotic areas, which are assumed to be a sign of response to chemotherapy. Moreover, uterine zonal anatomy and subserosal uterine veins yielded important information on tumour biology. Complete remission was induced in high-risk patients by etoposide, methotrexate, and actinomycin D treatment. PMID:1327942

  18. The Value of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Heart Transplant Patients.

    PubMed

    Reid, Anna B; Waldron, Nick; Schmitt, Matthias; Miller, Christopher A

    2015-07-01

    Heart transplant patients present a unique set of anatomical and pathophysiological considerations. Patients often present non-specifically, requiring a low index for further investigation. Accurate assessment with standard imaging modalities can be difficult, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is becoming an increasingly useful modality in the assessment of heart transplant patients. This review describes the anatomy of the transplanted heart and typical CMR appearances and discusses the role of CMR in heart transplant disease. PMID:26055963

  19. Applications of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Cardiac Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Y. Desai; D. A. Bluemke

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is widely recognized as providung an accurate and reliable means of assessing the function\\u000a and anatomy of the heart and great vessels. Previously, the means to obtain images of the cardiovascular system were compromised\\u000a by extremely long examination times and software that was available only at specialized centers. With the recent development\\u000a of specialized cardiovascular MR

  20. Low field magnetic resonance imaging

    DOEpatents

    Pines, Alexander (Berkeley, CA); Sakellariou, Dimitrios (Billancourt, FR); Meriles, Carlos A. (Fort Lee, NJ); Trabesinger, Andreas H. (London, GB)

    2010-07-13

    A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.

  1. Stray Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Zick

    1994-01-01

    In many applications of magnetic resonance imaging large linewidths means that to achieve useful resolution in the image large magnetic field gradients should be employed. This paper outlines the principles of stray field imaging that utilises the large gradients intrinsic to the fringe field of superconducting solenoidal magnets. Examples of images from strongly broadened everyday objects are given.

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, P.H.; Brainard, J.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1997-12-30

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC{sub 16}H{sub 14}N{sub 6}. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques. 10 figs.

  3. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuhs, Bradley L.; Simsek, Senay

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a powerful analytical technique with a wide variety of applications. It may be used for complex structural studies, for protocol or process development, or as a simple quality assay for which structural information is important. It is nondestructive, and high-quality data may be obtained from milligram, even microgram, quantities of sample. Whereas other spectroscopy techniques may be used to determine the nature of the functional groups present in a sample, only NMR spectroscopy can provide the data necessary to determine the complete structure of a molecule. The applicability of NMR to food analysis has increased over the last three decades. In addition to improved instrumentation and much lower costs, very complex and specialized NMR techniques can now be routinely performed by a student or technician. These experiments can be set up with the click of a button/icon, as all the basic parameters are embedded into default experiment files listed in the data/work station software, and the results are obtained in a short time.

  4. Ellipsoidal Coil for Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, R.; Rodriguez, A. O.; Salgado, P.; Barrios, F. A.

    2003-09-01

    We developed an ellipse-shaped surface coil for magnetic resonance spectroscopy for a 1.5 T clinical MR Imager. This coil is to be used to obtain spectra from arms and legs. Standard volume and single-loop coils provide a poor signal because they can not be placed close to the region of interest and their shapes do not fit the anatomy of human extremities. The coil design proposed has more anatomical shape which allows to be placed closer to the region of interest. A higher signal-to-noise ratio can then be achieved resulting in better-quality spectra. Spectra from a phantom and from the arm of a healthy volunteer were acquired to show viability. A 1.5 T clinical scanner (Signa LX equipped with V. 5.8, General Electric Medical System) together with standard spin-echo sequences were used to perform all the spectroscopy experiments. This receiver coil can generate high resolution MR spectra of a spectroscopy phantom and is fully compatible with clinical magnetic resonance systems and standard pulse sequences.

  5. Basics of magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Oldendorf, W.; Oldendorf, W. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Beginning with the behavior of a compass needle in a magnetic field, this text uses analogies from everyday experience to explain the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance and how it is used for imaging. Using a minimum of scientific abbreviations and symbols, the basics of tissue visualization and characterization are presented. A description of the various types of magnets and scanners is followed by the practical advantages and limitations of MRI relative to x-ray CT scanning.

  6. Noble gas magnetic resonator

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2014-04-15

    Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

  7. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hengerer, A; Grimm, J

    2006-01-01

    Molecular MRI (mMRI) is a special implementation of Molecular Imaging for the non-invasive visualisation of biological processes at the cellular and molecular level. More specifically, mMRI comprises the contrast agent-mediated alteration of tissue relaxation times for the detection and localisation of molecular disease markers (such as cell surface receptors, enzymes or signaling molecules), cells (e.g. lymphocytes, stem cells) or therapeutic drugs (e.g. liposomes, viral particles). MRI yields topographical, anatomical maps; functional MRI (fMRI) provides rendering of physiologic functions and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) reveals the distribution patterns of some specific metabolites. mMRI provides an additional level of information at the molecular or cellular level, thus extending MRI further beyond the anatomical and physiological level. These advances brought by mMRI are mandatory for MRI to be competitive in the age of molecular medicine. mMRI is already today increasingly used for research purposes, e.g. to facilitate the examination of cell migration, angiogenesis, apoptosis or gene expression in living organisms. In medical diagnostics, mMRI will pave the way toward a significant improvement in early detection of disease, therapy planning or monitoring of outcome and will therefore bring significant improvement in the medical treatment for patients. In general, Molecular Imaging demands high sensitivity equipment, capable of quantitative measurements to detect probes that interact with targets at the pico- or nanomolar level. The challenge to detect such sparse targets can be exemplified with cell surface receptors, a common target for molecular imaging. At high expression levels (bigger than 106 per cell) the receptor concentration is approx. 1015 per ml, i.e. the concentration is in the micromole range. Many targets, however, are expressed in even considerably lower concentrations. Therefore the most sensitive modalities, namely nuclear imaging (PET and SPECT) have always been at the forefront of Molecular Imaging, and many nuclear probes in clinical use today are already designed to detect molecular mechanisms (such as FDG, detecting high glucose metabolism). In recent years however, Molecular Imaging has commanded attention from beyond the field of nuclear medicine. Further imaging modalities to be considered for molecular imaging primarily include optical imaging, MRI and ultrasound. PMID:21614236

  8. Interventional Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Saikus, Christina E.; Lederman, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) combines excellent soft-tissue contrast, multiplanar views, and dynamic imaging of cardiac function without ionizing radiation exposure. Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance (iCMR) leverages these features to enhance conventional interventional procedures or to enable novel ones. Although still awaiting clinical deployment, this young field has tremendous potential. We survey promising clinical applications for iCMR. Next, we discuss the technologies that allow CMR-guided interventions and, finally, what still needs to be done to bring them to the clinic. PMID:19909937

  9. Optically induced parametric magnetic resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, Ricardo; Knappe, Svenja; Kitching, John

    2011-05-01

    Optically pumped vector magnetometers based on zero-field resonances have reached very high sensitivities by operating at high atomic densities where dephasing due to spin-exchange collisions can be suppressed. Simplified setups, with just one laser beam have measured magnetic fields from the human brain and heart. A key feature in these magnetometers is the introduction of an rf magnetic field along the measurement axis to generate a parametric resonance. Lock-in detection of the transmitted light, at an odd harmonic of the modulation frequency, allows the reduction of the low frequency noise and generates a resonance with dispersive shape. Here we study a zero-field vector magnetometer where the parametric resonances are induced by the vector AC stark-shift of light. This approach does not produce any external magnetic field that could disturb the reading of other magnetometers in the vicinity and could provide an alternative in applications where an applied AC-field cannot be used. We have characterized the vector AC stark-shift effect of light on Rb atoms contained in a micromachined vapor cell with buffer gas. We have obtained parametric resonances induced by modulation of the light-shift. We also analyze the detunings and intensities of the light-shift beam that maintain the magnetometer within the spin-exchange relaxation-free regime.

  10. Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nola M. Hylton

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the breast is finding wider clinical application as an adjunct diagnostic procedure to mammography and ultrasound. Because of its high sensitivity and effectiveness in dense breast tissue, MRI can be a valuable addition to the diagnostic work up of a patient with a breast abnormality or biopsy-proven cancer. The major limitation of breast MRI is

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of atherosclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Leiner; S. Gerretsen; R. Botnar; E. Lutgens; V. Cappendijk; E. Kooi; J. van Engelshoven

    2005-01-01

    Abundant data now link composition of the vascular wall, rather than the degree of luminal narrowing, with the risk for acute ischemic syndromes in the coronary, central nervous system, and peripheral arterial beds. Over the past few years, magnetic resonance angiography has evolved as a well-established method to determine the location and severity of advanced, lumen-encroaching atherosclerotic lesions. In addition,

  12. Progress in Multimodality Imaging: Truly Simultaneous Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Curiel; Rajiv Chopra; Kullervo Hynynen

    2007-01-01

    Multimodality medical imaging takes advantage of the strengths of different imaging modalities to provide a more complete picture of the anatomy under investigation. Many complementary modalities have been combined to form such systems and some are gaining use clinically. One combination that has not been developed, in large part due to technical difficulties, is a combined magnetic resonance (MR) and

  13. Model-based 3-D segmentation of multiple sclerosis lesions in magnetic resonance brain images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Micheline Kamber; Rajjan Shinghal; D. L. Collins; Gordon S. Francis; Alan C. Evans

    1995-01-01

    Human investigators instinctively segment medical images into their anatomical components, drawing upon prior knowledge of anatomy to overcome image artifacts, noise, and lack of tissue contrast. The authors describe: 1) the development and use of a brain tissue probability model for the segmentation of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in magnetic resonance (MR) brain images, and 2) an empirical comparison of

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    NMR is remarkable in the number of innovations that have appeared and become established within the past five years. This thoroughly up-to-date account of the field explains fundamentals and applications of the NMR phenomenon from the viewpoint of a physical chemist. Beginning with descriptions of basic concepts involved in continuous wave operation, the book goes on to cover spectral analysis, relaxation phenomena, the effects of pulses, the Fourier transform model, double resonance and the effects of chemical exchange and quadrupolar interactions. The book also includes the new techniques for work on solids and for complicated pulse sequences, plus abundant figures and illustrative spectra.

  15. Technical failure to perform cardiac resynchronization therapy: Use of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging techniques to clarify a left-sided superior vena cava and coronary sinus morphology

    PubMed Central

    Keeble, William; Mohiaddin, Raad

    2008-01-01

    The most common reason for failure to implant a left ventricular lead to deliver cardiac resynchronization therapy is the presence of unfavourable coronary venous anatomy. The present report illustrates the use of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to delineate the anatomy of a left-sided superior vena cava in two patients in whom permanent cardiac pacing was unattainable. PMID:18612503

  16. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Experimental Models

    PubMed Central

    Price, Anthony N.; Cheung, King K.; Cleary, Jon O; Campbell, Adrienne E; Riegler, Johannes; Lythgoe, Mark F

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is the modality of choice for clinical studies of the heart and vasculature, offering detailed images of both structure and function with high temporal resolution. Small animals are increasingly used for genetic and translational research, in conjunction with models of common pathologies such as myocardial infarction. In all cases, effective methods for characterising a wide range of functional and anatomical parameters are crucial for robust studies. CMR is the gold-standard for the non-invasive examination of these models, although physiological differences, such as rapid heart rate, make this a greater challenge than conventional clinical imaging. However, with the help of specialised magnetic resonance (MR) systems, novel gating strategies and optimised pulse sequences, high-quality images can be obtained in these animals despite their small size. In this review, we provide an overview of the principal CMR techniques for small animals for example cine, angiography and perfusion imaging, which can provide measures such as ejection fraction, vessel anatomy and local blood flow, respectively. In combination with MR contrast agents, regional dysfunction in the heart can also be identified and assessed. We also discuss optimal methods for analysing CMR data, particularly the use of semi-automated tools for parameter measurement to reduce analysis time. Finally, we describe current and emerging methods for imaging the developing heart, aiding characterisation of congenital cardiovascular defects. Advanced small animal CMR now offers an unparalleled range of cardiovascular assessments. Employing these methods should allow new insights into the structural, functional and molecular basis of the cardiovascular system. PMID:21331311

  17. Magnetic resonance in solids

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    In this thesis electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electro-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) experiments are reported on paramagnetic defects in two host materials: (a) Cr[sup 3+] in the ferroelectric lecontite and (b) color centres and the Fe[sup 3+] centre in lithium oxide. A. Lecontite. Lecontite, NaNH[sub 4]SO[sub 4][center dot]2H[sub 2]O, undergoes a phase transition to a ferroelectric phase below [Tc] = 101 K. Reported here are EPR measurements on doped Cr[sup 3+] ions at two distinct sites, made at a variety of temperatures in an attempt to ascertain the details of the structural changes occurring at [Tc]. The room temperature data are compared to various models for the two defects using the Newman superposition model. The results show that the Cr[sup 3+] ions are at Na[sup +] sites, highly distorted due to charge compensation of the trivalent dopant and therefore that the EPR of these defects is not representative of the bulk material. B. Lithium oxide. Investigations of three defect in lithium oxide, Li[sub 2]O are reported here. (i) The electronic F[sup +] -centre has been investigated using EPR and [sup 7]Li ENDOR to determine the transferred hyperfine structure (THFS) due to hyperfine interactions of the defect wavefunction with the ligand nuclei. Comparison with F-centres in other simple ionic hosts shows that the centre is highly localized and this observation is explained by the charge states of the ligands and the defect site. (ii) EPR and [sup 7]Li ENDOR of the interstitial neutral hydrogen centre H[sup 0] show a novel tunnelling effect. At low temperatures the defect has tetragonal symmetry but at higher temperatures there is evidence of tunnelling between six equivalent sites, leading to effective cubic symmetry. (iii) THFS of Fe[sup 3+] centres, measured using [sup 7]Li ENDOR, interpreted using the Newman superposition model, are used to determine the distortions of the neighboring ligands.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Connectome Automated Pipeline

    E-print Network

    Gray, William R; Vogelstein, Joshua T; Landman, Bennett A; Prince, Jerry L; Vogelstein, R Jacob

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript presents a novel, tightly integrated pipeline for estimating a connectome, which is a comprehensive description of the neural circuits in the brain. The pipeline utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data to produce a high-level estimate of the structural connectivity in the human brain. The Magnetic Resonance Connectome Automated Pipeline (MRCAP) is efficient and its modular construction allows researchers to modify algorithms to meet their specific requirements. The pipeline has been validated and over 200 connectomes have been processed and analyzed to date. This tool enables the prediction and assessment of various cognitive covariates, and this research is applicable to a variety of domains and applications. MRCAP will enable MR connectomes to be rapidly generated to ultimately help spur discoveries about the structure and function of the human brain.

  19. Magnetic resonance neurography: technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Avneesh; Flammang, Aaron; Padua, Abraham; Carrino, John A; Andreisek, Gustav

    2014-02-01

    Proper performance of magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) is essential not only to make the examination easier to interpret but also for its accurate evaluation. This article outlines the technical considerations of MRN, various imaging pulse sequences available on current scanners, as well as their relative advantages and disadvantages. In addition, a guide to the optimal use of high-resolution and high-contrast MRN technique is provided, which will aid clinicians in attaining a good-quality examination. PMID:24210313

  20. Bistable electron magnetic resonance in solids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Didier Gourier; Laurent Binet; Olivier Guillot-Noël

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the phenomenon of Bistable Electron Magnetic Resonance, which manifests itself by a resonance line with a distorted shark fin-like shape. This effect requires only a fluctuating hyperfine interaction between electron spins and nuclear spins. It is demonstrated for shallow donors in semiconductors and conduction electrons in light metals. Bistability is an intrinsic property of electron magnetic resonance

  1. Wide-range nuclear magnetic resonance detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturman, J. C.; Jirberg, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Compact and easy to use solid state nuclear magnetic resonance detector is designed for measuring field strength to 20 teslas in cryogenically cooled magnets. Extremely low noise and high sensitivity make detector applicable to nearly all types of analytical nuclear magnetic resonance measurements and can be used in high temperature and radiation environments.

  2. Optically Detected Scanned Probe Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Christopher; Bhallamudi, Vidya; Wang, Hailong; Du, Chunhui; Manuilov, Sergei; Adur, Rohan; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P. Chris

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic resonance is a powerful tool for studying magnetic properties and dynamics of spin systems. Scanned magnetic probes can induce spatially localized resonance due to the strong magnetic field and gradient near the magnetic tip., Nitrogen vacancy centers (NV) in diamond provide a sensitive means of measuring magnetic fields at the nanoscale. We report preliminary results towards using the high sensitivity of NV detection with a scanned magnetic probe to study local magnetic phenomena. This work is supported by the Center for Emergent Materials at The Ohio State University, a NSF Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (DMR-0820414).

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of acquired cardiac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Carrol, C L; Higgins, C B; Caputo, G R

    1996-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, advances in magnetic resonance imaging techniques have increased the accuracy and applicability of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. These advances have improved the utility of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating cardiac morphology, blood flow, and myocardial contractility, all significant diagnostic features in the evaluation of the patient with acquired heart disease. Utilization of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging has been limited, primarily due to clinical reliance upon nuclear scintigraphy and echocardiography. Recent developments in fast and ultrafast imaging should continue to enhance the significance of magnetic resonance imaging in this field. Widespread use of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the cardiovascular system will ultimately depend upon its maturation into a comprehensive, noninvasive imaging technique for the varying manifestations of acquired heart disease, including cardiomyopathy, ischemic heart disease, and acquired valvular disease. Images PMID:8792545

  4. Brain Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Classifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susana Oliveira; Jaime Rocha; Victor Alves

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a During the last decade, the Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy modality has become an integrant part of the diagnostic routine.\\u000a However, the visual interpretation of these spectra is difficult and few clinicians are trained to use the technique. In this\\u000a study, sixty-eight spectra obtained from twenty-two multi-voxel spectroscopies were classified using three well-known classification\\u000a algorithms: K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Decision Trees and Naïve

  5. Tunable Magnetic Resonance in Microwave Spintronics Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yunpeng; Fan, Xin; Xie, Yungsong; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Tao; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Simons, Rainee N.; Chui, Sui-Tat; Xiao, John Q.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance is one of the key properties of magnetic materials for the application of microwave spintronics devices. The conventional method for tuning magnetic resonance is to use an electromagnet, which provides very limited tuning range. Hence, the quest for enhancing the magnetic resonance tuning range without using an electromagnet has attracted tremendous attention. In this paper, we exploit the huge exchange coupling field between magnetic interlayers, which is on the order of 4000 Oe and also the high frequency modes of coupled oscillators to enhance the tuning range. Furthermore, we demonstrate a new scheme to control the magnetic resonance frequency. Moreover, we report a shift in the magnetic resonance frequency as high as 20 GHz in CoFe-based tunable microwave spintronics devices, which is 10X higher than conventional methods.

  6. Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance guidelines for reporting cardiovascular magnetic resonance examinations

    PubMed Central

    Hundley, W Gregory; Bluemke, David; Bogaert, Jan G; Friedrich, Matthias G; Higgins, Charles B; Lawson, Mark A; McConnell, Michael V; Raman, Subha V; van Rossum, Albert C; Flamm, Scott; Kramer, Christopher M; Nagel, Eike; Neubauer, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    These reporting guidelines are recommended by the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) to provide a framework for healthcare delivery systems to disseminate cardiac and vascular imaging findings related to the performance of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) examinations. PMID:19257889

  7. Introduction to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manatt, Stanley L.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to try to give a short overview of what the status is on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). It's a subject where one really has to spend some time to look at the physics in detail to develop a proper working understanding. I feel it's not appropriate to present to you density matrices, Hamiltonians of all sorts, and differential equations representing the motion of spins. I'm really going to present some history and status, and show a few very simple concepts involved in NMR. It is a form of radio frequency spectroscopy and there are a great number of nuclei that can be studied very usefully with the technique. NMR requires a magnet, a r.f. transmitter/receiver system, and a data acquisition system.

  8. Nitinol in magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Melzer; Michitsch; Konak; Schaefers; Bertsch, Th

    2004-08-01

    Surgical and interventional instruments as well as implants can cause significant magnetic resonance image (MRI) artifacts. The artifacts can be used to visualize instruments, cannulae, guide wires, catheters during interventional MRI and Nitinol devices have proven to be useful for MRI procedures. Diagnostic imaging is often compromised in the area of an implant. Complete vanishing of signals occurs in close proximity or inside implants. The paper presents a fundamental evaluation of MRI artifact of Nitinol devices such as Stents, Vena Cava Filter, heart defect closure devices, cannulae, guide wire, localizer, anastomosis device, etc. in a 1.0 Tesla magnetic field. The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) recommendations for selection of sequences and test setup were used but the results of this paper are not sufficient for FDA approval. PMID:16754135

  9. Review of nuclear magnetic resonance magnet for oil well logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiming Zhang; Pingchou Xia; Yunjia Yu

    2000-01-01

    Compared with the magnet of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectrometer that of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Oil Well Logging is faced with some special difficulties. This paper begins with the explanation of these special difficulties, and then analyzes the main known borehole NMR logging apparatuses through strict calculations. Finally, this paper gives some useful clues to solve those problems existing in

  10. Advances in mechanical detection of magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Seppe; Hickman, Steven A.; Marohn, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The invention and initial demonstration of magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM) in the early 1990s launched a renaissance of mechanical approaches to detecting magnetic resonance. This article reviews progress made in MRFM in the last decade, including the demonstration of scanned probe detection of magnetic resonance (electron spin resonance, ferromagnetic resonance, and nuclear magnetic resonance) and the mechanical detection of electron spin resonance from a single spin. Force and force-gradient approaches to mechanical detection are reviewed and recent related work using attonewton sensitivity cantilevers to probe minute fluctuating electric fields near surfaces is discussed. Given recent progress, pushing MRFM to single proton sensitivity remains an exciting possibility. We will survey some practical and fundamental issues that must be resolved to meet this challenge. PMID:18266413

  11. MAGNETIC RESONANCE ELASTOGRAPHY: A REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Mariappan, Yogesh K; Glaser, Kevin J; Ehman, Richard L

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) is a rapidly developing technology for quantitatively assessing the mechanical properties of tissue. The technology can be considered to be an imaging-based counterpart to palpation, commonly used by physicians to diagnose and characterize diseases. The success of palpation as a diagnostic method is based on the fact that the mechanical properties of tissues are often dramatically affected by the presence of disease processes such as cancer, inflammation, and fibrosis. MRE obtains information about the stiffness of tissue by assessing the propagation of mechanical waves through the tissue with a special magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique. The technique essentially involves three steps: generating shear waves in the tissue,acquiring MR images depicting the propagation of the induced shear waves andprocessing the images of the shear waves to generate quantitative maps of tissue stiffness, called elastograms. MRE is already being used clinically for the assessment of patients with chronic liver diseases and is emerging as a safe, reliable and noninvasive alternative to liver biopsy for staging hepatic fibrosis. MRE is also being investigated for application to pathologies of other organs including the brain, breast, blood vessels, heart, kidneys, lungs and skeletal muscle. The purpose of this review article is to introduce this technology to clinical anatomists and to summarize some of the current clinical applications that are being pursued. PMID:20544947

  12. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance -- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Three Axis Vector Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulatowicz, Michael; Clark, Philip; Griffith, Robert; Larsen, Michael; Mirijanian, James

    2012-06-01

    The Northrop Grumman Corporation is leveraging the technology developed for the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG) to build a combined Electron Paramagnetic Resonance -- Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (EPR-NMR) magnetometer. The EPR-NMR approach provides a high bandwidth and high sensitivity simultaneous measurement of all three vector components of the magnetic field averaged over the small volume of the sensor's one vapor cell. This poster will describe the history, operational principles, and design basics of the EPR-NMR magnetometer including an overview of the NSD designs developed and demonstrated to date. General performance results will also be presented.

  13. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Pediatric Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Daniel S.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Peterson, Bradley S.; Gerber, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging in investigating pediatric anxiety disorders is studied. Functional magnetic resonance imaging can be utilized in demonstrating parallels between the neural architecture of difference in anxiety of humans and the neural architecture of attention-orienting behavior in nonhuman primates or rodents.…

  14. Magnetic resonance sees lesions of multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ziporyn, T.

    1985-02-15

    The value of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and quantitation of the progression of multiple sclerosis is discussed. Magnetic resonance imaging generates images that reflect differential density and velocity of hydrogen nuclei between cerebral gray and white matter, as well as between white matter and pathological lesions of the disease.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Electrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Arie; Hjouj, Mohammad; Rubinsky, Liel; Rubinsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the hypothesis that Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can image the process of electrolysis by detecting pH fronts. The study has relevance to real time control of cell ablation with electrolysis. To investigate the hypothesis we compare the following MR imaging sequences: T1 weighted, T2 weighted and Proton Density (PD), with optical images acquired using pH-sensitive dyes embedded in a physiological saline agar solution phantom treated with electrolysis and discrete measurements with a pH microprobe. We further demonstrate the biological relevance of our work using a bacterial E. Coli model, grown on the phantom. The results demonstrate the ability of MRI to image electrolysis produced pH changes in a physiological saline phantom and show that these changes correlate with cell death in the E. Coli model grown on the phantom. The results are promising and invite further experimental research. PMID:25659942

  16. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging of hypoplastic left heart syndrome in children.

    PubMed

    Dillman, Jonathan R; Dorfman, Adam L; Attili, Anil K; Agarwal, Prachi P; Bell, Aaron; Mueller, Gisela C; Hernandez, Ramiro J

    2010-03-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) plays an important complementary role to echocardiography and conventional angiography in the evaluation of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. This imaging modality is particularly useful for assessing cardiovascular postsurgical changes, extracardiac vascular anatomy, ventricular and valvular function, and a variety of complications. The purpose of this article is to provide a contemporary review of the role of CMR in the management of untreated and surgically palliated hypoplastic left heart syndrome in children. PMID:20107779

  17. Stepped Impedance Resonators for High Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Akgun, Can E.; DelaBarre, Lance; Yoo, Hyoungsuk; Sohn, Sung-Min; Snyder, Carl J.; Adriany, Gregor; Ugurbil, Kamil; Gopinath, Anand; Vaughan, J. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Multi-element volume radio-frequency (RF) coils are an integral aspect of the growing field of high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In these systems, a popular volume coil of choice has become the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) multi-element transceiver coil consisting of microstrip resonators. In this paper, to further advance this design approach, a new microstrip resonator strategy in which the transmission line is segmented into alternating impedance sections referred to as stepped impedance resonators (SIRs) is investigated. Single element simulation results in free space and in a phantom at 7 tesla (298 MHz) demonstrate the rationale and feasibility of the SIR design strategy. Simulation and image results at 7 tesla in a phantom and human head illustrate the improvements in transmit magnetic field, as well as, RF efficiency (transmit magnetic field versus SAR) when two different SIR designs are incorporated in 8-element volume coil configurations and compared to a volume coil consisting of microstrip elements. PMID:23508243

  18. Magnetic resonance in multilayer Gd\\/Si\\/Co magnetic films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Patrin; V. O. Vas’kovskii; A. V. Svalov; E. V. Eremin; M. A. Panova; V. N. Vasil’ev

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic properties of multilayer Gd\\/Si\\/Co magnetic films are experimentally studied by electron magnetic resonance and\\u000a analyzed theoretically. The introduction of a semiconductor silicon interlayer is found to substantially affect the magnetic\\u000a interlayer coupling and the magnetic dynamics of the system. The interlayer coupling is shown to be ferromagnetic for the\\u000a (Gd\\/Si)n films and to be antiferromagnetic for the (Gd\\/Si\\/Co\\/Si)n

  19. Quantitative Pulmonary Imaging Using Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Washko, George R.; Parraga, Grace; Coxson, Harvey O.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of lung function, including spirometry and body plethesmography, are easy to perform and are the current clinical standard for assessing disease severity. However, these lung functional techniques do not adequately explain the observed variability in clinical manifestations of disease and offer little insight into the relationship of lung structure and function. Lung imaging and the image based assessment of lung disease has matured to the extent that it is common for clinical, epidemiologic, and genetic investigation to have a component dedicated to image analysis. There are several exciting imaging modalities currently being used for the non-invasive study of lung anatomy and function. In this review we will focus on two of them, x-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Following a brief introduction of each method we detail some of the most recent work being done to characterize smoking-related lung disease and the clinical applications of such knowledge. PMID:22142490

  20. Primate comparative neuroscience using magnetic resonance imaging: promises and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Rogier B.; Neubert, Franz-Xaver; Verhagen, Lennart; Sallet, Jérôme; Miller, Karla L.; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Barton, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Primate comparative anatomy is an established field that has made rich and substantial contributions to neuroscience. However, the labor-intensive techniques employed mean that most comparisons are often based on a small number of species, which limits the conclusions that can be drawn. In this review we explore how new developments in magnetic resonance imaging have the potential to apply comparative neuroscience to a much wider range of species, allowing it to realize an even greater potential. We discuss (1) new advances in the types of data that can be acquired, (2) novel methods for extracting meaningful measures from such data that can be compared between species, and (3) methods to analyse these measures within a phylogenetic framework. Together these developments will allow researchers to characterize the relationship between different brains, the ecological niche they occupy, and the behavior they produce in more detail than ever before. PMID:25339857

  1. Artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Krupa, Katarzyna; Bekiesi?ska-Figatowska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Artifacts in magnetic resonance imaging and foreign bodies within the patient's body may be confused with a pathology or may reduce the quality of examinations. Radiologists are frequently not informed about the medical history of patients and face postoperative/other images they are not familiar with. A gallery of such images was presented in this manuscript. A truncation artifact in the spinal cord could be misinterpreted as a syrinx. Motion artifacts caused by breathing, cardiac movement, CSF pulsation/blood flow create a ghost artifact which can be reduced by patient immobilization, or cardiac/respiratory gating. Aliasing artifacts can be eliminated by increasing the field of view. An artificially hyperintense signal on FLAIR images can result from magnetic susceptibility artifacts, CSF/vascular pulsation, motion, but can also be found in patients undergoing MRI examinations while receiving supplemental oxygen. Metallic and other foreign bodies which may be found on and in patients' bodies are the main group of artifacts and these are the focus of this study: e.g. make-up, tattoos, hairbands, clothes, endovascular embolization, prostheses, surgical clips, intraorbital and other medical implants, etc. Knowledge of different types of artifacts and their origin, and of possible foreign bodies is necessary to eliminate them or to reduce their negative influence on MR images by adjusting acquisition parameters. It is also necessary to take them into consideration when interpreting the images. Some proposals of reducing artifacts have been mentioned. Describing in detail the procedures to avoid or limit the artifacts would go beyond the scope of this paper but technical ways to reduce them can be found in the cited literature. PMID:25745524

  2. Automated nuclear magnetic resonance analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Snoddy, M.L.; Mount, H.B., II.

    1989-12-05

    This patent describes an apparatus for oil and gas exploration by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses of sections of core. It comprises: NMR analysis means for NMR analysis of a portion of core positioned in a probe zone thereof, the NMR means having an inlet side and an outlet side; beltless drive means for engaging the drive engaging portion of a core trough comprising a receptacle portion for receiving a section of core and a drive engaging portion for engaging drive means and for supporting the core trough and for positioning portions of a core supported in the core trough in the target zone of NMR analysis means and for causing successive troughs supporting core sequentially to enter the inlet side of NMR means and after NMR analysis to exit the outlet side; and controller means for causing the drive means to position successive portions of supported core in the target zone and for causing NMR analysis means to generate a measure of NMR response of such positioned successive portions of core and for causing successive troughs supporting core to sequentially enter the inlet side of NMR analysis means and to exit the outlet side.

  3. Reducing Field Distortion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

    2010-01-01

    A concept for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system that would utilize a relatively weak magnetic field provides for several design features that differ significantly from the corresponding features of conventional MRI systems. Notable among these features are a magnetic-field configuration that reduces (relative to the conventional configuration) distortion and blurring of the image, the use of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as the detector, and an imaging procedure suited for the unconventional field configuration and sensor. In a typical application of MRI, a radio-frequency pulse is used to excite precession of the magnetic moments of protons in an applied magnetic field, and the decaying precession is detected for a short time following the pulse. The precession occurs at a resonance frequency proportional to the strengths of the magnetic field and the proton magnetic moment. The magnetic field is configured to vary with position in a known way; hence, by virtue of the aforesaid proportionality, the resonance frequency varies with position in a known way. In other words, position is encoded as resonance frequency. MRI using magnetic fields weaker than those of conventional MRI offers several advantages, including cheaper and smaller equipment, greater compatibility with metallic objects, and higher image quality because of low susceptibility distortion and enhanced spin-lattice-relaxation- time contrast. SQUID MRI is being developed into a practical MRI method for applied magnetic flux densities of the order of only 100 T

  4. Compact low field magnetic resonance imaging magnet: Design and optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sciandrone; G. Placidi; L. Testa; A. Sotgiu

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is performed with a very large instrument that allows the patient to be inserted into a region of uniform magnetic field. The field is generated either by an electromagnet (resistive or superconductive) or by a permanent magnet. Electromagnets are designed as air cored solenoids of cylindrical symmetry, with an inner bore of 80-100 cm in diameter.

  5. Gradient characterization in magnetic resonance imaging

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Joseph Yitan

    2007-01-01

    Special magnetic resonance (MR) scans, such as spiral imaging and echo-planar imaging, require speed and gradient accuracy while putting high demands on the MR gradient system that may cause gradient distortion. Additionally, ...

  6. International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Centre Information about Toronto Toronto Tours & Sightseeing! Visa Information The International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

  7. Instrumentation for parallel magnetic resonance imaging

    E-print Network

    Brown, David Gerald

    2007-04-25

    Parallel magnetic resonance (MR) imaging may be used to increase either the throughput or the speed of the MR imaging experiment. As such, parallel imaging may be accomplished either through a "parallelization" of the MR experiment, or by the use...

  8. Ferromagnetic Resonance Imaging with Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelekhov, Denis

    2009-03-01

    Magnetic resonance force microscopy achieves very high resolution three-dimensional imaging capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging by taking advantage of very high sensitivity mechanical force detection. This enables non-contacting, microscopic studies and imaging of a broad range of materials. As a consequence of the strong interactions between spins, the assumptions underlying conventional MRI are not applicable to FMR imaging. However, using a new approach to localizing the resonant volume in an FMR measurement founded on the strong, nonuniform magnetic field of the micromagnetic probe tip, we have demonstrated scanned probe Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR) imaging [1]. The scanned probe FMR images obtained in patterned ferromagnetic films are well explained by detailed numerical modeling. In addition to illuminating the mechanisms underlying localized FMR, the model provides the basis for submicron scanned probe FMR imaging of films and buried ferromagnetic elements. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy through Grant No. DE-FG02-03ER46054. [1] ``Local Ferromagnetic Resonance Imaging with Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy,'' Yu. Obukhov, D.V. Pelekhov, J. Kim, P. Banerjee, I. Martin, E. Nazaretski, R. Movshovich, S. An, T.J. Gramila, S. Batra, and P. C. Hammel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(19), 197601 (2008).

  9. Manual of clinical magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, J.P.; Glazer, H.S.; Lee, J.K.T.; Murphy, W.A.; Gado, M.

    1986-01-01

    This work is a guide to conducting magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. The manual presents specific imaging protocols for various MRI examinations of the body. An introductory section describes the physical principles and techniques of magnetic resonance imaging and describes the most commonly encountered artifacts. Guidelines are offered for selecting imaging protocols and conducting examinations of the head, spine, neck, chest, cardiovascular system, abdomen, pelvis, musculoskeletal system, and breast.

  10. Clinical Applications of Magnetic Resonance Imaging—Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Cammoun, Driss; Davis, Kathleen A.; Hendee, William R.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has far-reaching real and possible clinical applications. Its usefulness has been best explored and realized in the central nervous system, especially the posterior fossa and brain stem, where most abnormalities are better identified than with computed tomography. Its lack of ionizing radiation and extreme sensitivity to normal and abnormal patterns of myelination make magnetic resonance imaging advantageous for diagnosing many neonatal and pediatric abnormalities. New, reliable cardiac gating techniques open the way for promising studies of cardiac anatomy and function. The ability to image directly in three orthogonal planes gives us new insight into staging and follow-up of pelvic tumors and other pelvic abnormalities. Exquisite soft tissue contrast, far above that attainable by other imaging modalities, has made possible the early diagnosis of traumatic ligamentous knee injury, avascular necrosis of the hip and diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up of musculoskeletal neoplasms. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9. PMID:3911592

  11. 76 FR 58281 - Magnetic Resonance Imaging Safety; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ...factors affecting the safe use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and approaches...the International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (ISMRM...implants include the static magnetic field, maximum spatial gradient,...

  12. Investigation of laser polarized xenon magnetic resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-based investigations of a new biomedical diagnostic technology: nuclear magnetic resonance of laser polarized noble gas are addressed. The specific research tasks discussed are: (1) Development of a large-scale noble gas polarization system; (2) biomedical investigations using laser polarized noble gas in conventional (high magnetic field) NMR systems; and (3) the development and application of a low magnetic field system for laser polarized noble gas NMR.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Dendrite Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jay, William; Dolasinski, Brian; Wijesinghe, Ranjith; Roth, Bradley

    2011-10-01

    The action currents of active dendrites generate their own magnetic field, which can cause the phase of the spins to change. Many investigators have attempted to detect neural and dendritic currents directly using magnetic resonance imaging. Such a measurement of action currents would be remarkable, since it would allow functional imaging of neural activity using the high spatial resolution of MRI and avoid an ill-posed inverse problem to determine the current sources. Measurement of the magnetic field of neural currents would better follow the distribution of neural activity in time and space. Our goal in this presentation is to use the calculated magnetic field of a dendrite to estimate the resulting phase shift in the magnetic resonance signal. We find the phase shift produced by a collection of simultaneously active dendrites is below the threshold for detection using current MRI technology.

  14. Magnetic resonance in multilayer Gd/Si/Co magnetic films

    SciTech Connect

    Patrin, G. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kirenskii Institute of Physics, Siberian Division (Russian Federation)], E-mail: patrin@iph.krasn.ru; Vas'kovskii, V. O.; Svalov, A. V. [Ural State University (Russian Federation); Eremin, E. V.; Panova, M. A.; Vasil'ev, V. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Kirenskii Institute of Physics, Siberian Division (Russian Federation)

    2006-01-15

    The magnetic properties of multilayer Gd/Si/Co magnetic films are experimentally studied by electron magnetic resonance and analyzed theoretically. The introduction of a semiconductor silicon interlayer is found to substantially affect the magnetic interlayer coupling and the magnetic dynamics of the system. The interlayer coupling is shown to be ferromagnetic for the (Gd/Si){sub n} films and to be antiferromagnetic for the (Gd/Si/Co/Si){sub n} films. The temperature dependences of the exchange parameters and the gyromagnetic ratios are determined. Possible mechanisms responsible for the formation of the interlayer coupling are discussed.

  15. Magnetic resonance signal moment determination using the Earth's magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridjonsson, E. O.; Creber, S. A.; Vrouwenvelder, J. S.; Johns, M. L.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate a method to manipulate magnetic resonance data such that the moments of the signal spatial distribution are readily accessible. Usually, magnetic resonance imaging relies on data acquired in so-called k-space which is subsequently Fourier transformed to render an image. Here, via analysis of the complex signal in the vicinity of the centre of k-space we are able to access the first three moments of the signal spatial distribution, ultimately in multiple directions. This is demonstrated for biofouling of a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane module, rendering unique information and an early warning of the onset of fouling. The analysis is particularly applicable for the use of mobile magnetic resonance spectrometers; here we demonstrate it using an Earth's magnetic field system.

  16. Euclidean resonance in a magnetic field

    E-print Network

    B. Ivlev

    2007-05-19

    An analogy between Wigner resonant tunneling and tunneling across a static potential barrier in a static magnetic field is found. Whereas in the process of Wigner tunneling an electron encounters a classically allowed regions, where a discrete energy level coincides with its energy, in the magnetic field a potential barrier is a constant in the direction of tunneling. Along the tunneling path the certain regions are formed, where, in the classical language, the kinetic energy of the motion perpendicular to tunneling is negative. These regions play a role of potential wells, where a discrete energy level can coincide with the electron energy. Such phenomenon, which occurs at the certain magnetic field, is called Euclidean resonance and substantially depends on a shape of potential forces in the direction perpendicular to tunneling. Under conditions of Euclidean resonance a long distance underbarrier motion is possible.

  17. Euclidean resonance in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Ivlev, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and NanoCenter, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208 (United States) and Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi, 78000 (Mexico)

    2007-08-15

    An analogy is found between Wigner resonant tunneling and tunneling across a static potential barrier in a static magnetic field. Whereas in the process of Wigner tunneling an electron encounters a classically allowed region where a discrete energy level coincides with its energy, in the magnetic field the potential barrier is constant in the direction of tunneling. Along the tunneling path, certain regions are formed where, in the classical language, the kinetic energy of the motion perpendicular to tunneling is negative. These regions play the role of potential wells, where a discrete energy level can coincide with the electron energy. This phenomenon, which occurs at a certain magnetic field, is called Euclidean resonance and substantially depends on the shape of the potential forces in the direction perpendicular to tunneling. Under conditions of Euclidean resonance, a long-distance underbarrier motion is possible, which can be observed in experiments.

  18. Focal renal masses: magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Choyke, P.L.; Kressel, H.Y.; Pollack, H.M.; Arger, P.M.; Axel, L.; Mamourian, A.C.

    1984-08-01

    Thirty patients with focal renal masses were evaluated on a .12-Tesla resistive magnetic resonance unit using partial saturation and spin echo pulse sequence. Fifteen patients had cystic lesions, nine patients had renal cell carcinoma, two had metastatic lesions, one had an angiomyolipoma, and three had focal bacterial infection. Renal cell carcinomas demonstrated areas of increased signal using a partial saturation sequence. Magnetic resonance imaging accurately detected perinephric extension and vascular invasion in all patients. Metastatic disease to the kidney was uniformly low in signal, in contrast to primary renal cell carcinoma; an angiomyolipoma demonstrated very high signal intensity. Two masses resulting from acute focal bacterial nephritis were uniformly low in signal. Magnetic resonance imaging appears to be an accurate way of detecting, identifying, and staging focal renal masses.

  19. Magnetic plasmonic fano resonance at optical frequency.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yanjun; Hu, Zhijian; Li, Ziwei; Zhu, Xing; Fang, Zheyu

    2015-05-01

    Plasmonic Fano resonances are typically understood and investigated assuming electrical mode hybridization. Here we demonstrate that a purely magnetic plasmon Fano resonance can be realized at optical frequency with Au split ring hexamer nanostructure excited by an azimuthally polarized incident light. Collective magnetic plasmon modes induced by the circular electric field within the hexamer and each of the split ring can be controlled and effectively hybridized by designing the size and orientation of each ring unit. With simulated results reproducing the experiment, our suggested configuration with narrow line-shape magnetic Fano resonance has significant potential applications in low-loss sensing and may serves as suitable elementary building blocks for optical metamaterials. PMID:25594885

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of breast implants.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mala; Tanna, Neil; Margolies, Laurie

    2014-12-01

    Silicone breast implants have significantly evolved since their introduction half a century ago, yet implant rupture remains a common and expected complication, especially in patients with earlier-generation implants. Magnetic resonance imaging is the primary modality for assessing the integrity of silicone implants and has excellent sensitivity and specificity, and the Food and Drug Administration currently recommends periodic magnetic resonance imaging screening for silent silicone breast implant rupture. Familiarity with the types of silicone implants and potential complications is essential for the radiologist. Signs of intracapsular rupture include the noose, droplet, subcapsular line, and linguine signs. Signs of extracapsular rupture include herniation of silicone with a capsular defect and extruded silicone material. Specific sequences including water and silicone suppression are essential for distinguishing rupture from other pathologies and artifacts. Magnetic resonance imaging provides valuable information about the integrity of silicone implants and associated complications. PMID:25463409

  1. Stepped impedance resonators for high-field magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Akgun, Can E; DelaBarre, Lance; Yoo, Hyoungsuk; Sohn, Sung-Min; Snyder, Carl J; Adriany, Gregor; Ugurbil, Kamil; Gopinath, Anand; Vaughan, J Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Multi-element volume radio-frequency (RF) coils are an integral aspect of the growing field of high-field magnetic resonance imaging. In these systems, a popular volume coil of choice has become the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) transceiver coil consisting of microstrip resonators. In this paper, to further advance this design approach, a new microstrip resonator strategy in which the transmission line is segmented into alternating impedance sections, referred to as stepped impedance resonators (SIRs), is investigated. Single-element simulation results in free space and in a phantom at 7 T (298 MHz) demonstrate the rationale and feasibility of the SIR design strategy. Simulation and image results at 7 T in a phantom and human head illustrate the improvements in a transmit magnetic field, as well as RF efficiency (transmit magnetic field versus specific absorption rate) when two different SIR designs are incorporated in 8-element volume coil configurations and compared to a volume coil consisting of microstrip elements. PMID:23508243

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging safety: principles and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Stikova, E

    2012-07-01

    (Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). This paper provides an overview of the published literature regarding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) safety. It gives basic information about the electromagnetic fields that are generated during the MRI diagnostic procedure, followed by a description of the biological effects of those fields on humans. It concludes with a discussion of the safety issues related to MRI use in clinical practice, highlighting the existing MRI standards and guidelines. Key words: magnetic resonance imaging, biological effects of electromagnetic radiation, MRI standards, safety guidelines. PMID:23037190

  3. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Skull Base

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Claudia F.E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction?Over the past 20 years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has advanced due to new techniques involving increased magnetic field strength and developments in coils and pulse sequences. These advances allow increased opportunity to delineate the complex skull base anatomy and may guide the diagnosis and treatment of the myriad of pathologies that can affect the skull base. Objectives?The objective of this article is to provide a brief background of the development of MRI and illustrate advances in skull base imaging, including techniques that allow improved conspicuity, characterization, and correlative physiologic assessment of skull base pathologies. Data Synthesis?Specific radiographic illustrations of increased skull base conspicuity including the lower cranial nerves, vessels, foramina, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks, and effacement of endolymph are provided. In addition, MRIs demonstrating characterization of skull base lesions, such as recurrent cholesteatoma versus granulation tissue or abscess versus tumor, are also provided as well as correlative clinical findings in CSF flow studies in a patient pre- and post-suboccipital decompression for a Chiari I malformation. Conclusions?This article illustrates MRI radiographic advances over the past 20 years, which have improved clinicians' ability to diagnose, define, and hopefully improve the treatment and outcomes of patients with underlying skull base pathologies. PMID:25992137

  4. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of perpendicularly magnetized Permalloy multilayer disks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. de Loubens; V. V. Naletov; M. Viret; O. Klein; Hervé Hurdequint; J. Ben Youssef; F. Boust; N. Vukadinovic

    2007-01-01

    Using a magnetic resonance force microscope, we compare the ferromagnetic resonance spectra of individual micron size disks with identical diameter, 1 mum, but different layer structures. For a disk composed of a single 43.3-nm-thick Permalloy (Py) layer, the lowest energy mode in the perpendicular configuration is the uniform precession. The higher energy modes are standing spin waves confined along the

  5. A NEW CLUSTERING ALGORITHM FOR SEGMENTATION OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGES

    E-print Network

    Slatton, Clint

    A NEW CLUSTERING ALGORITHM FOR SEGMENTATION OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGES By ERHAN GOKCAY which improved the quality of this dissertation. I also wish to thank my wife Didem and my son Tugra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 Magnetic Resonance Image Segmentation

  6. Hyperpolarized noble gas magnetic resonance imaging of the animal lung: Approaches and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santyr, Giles E.; Lam, Wilfred W.; Parra-Robles, Juan M.; Taves, Timothy M.; Ouriadov, Alexei V.

    2009-05-01

    Hyperpolarized noble gas (HNG) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a very promising noninvasive tool for the investigation of animal models of lung disease, particularly to follow longitudinal changes in lung function and anatomy without the accumulated radiation dose associated with x rays. The two most common noble gases for this purpose are H3e (helium 3) and X129e (xenon 129), the latter providing a cost-effective approach for clinical applications. Hyperpolarization is typically achieved using spin-exchange optical pumping techniques resulting in ˜10 000-fold improvement in available magnetization compared to conventional Boltzmann polarizations. This substantial increase in polarization allows high spatial resolution (<1 mm) single-slice images of the lung to be obtained with excellent temporal resolution (<1 s). Complete three-dimensional images of the lungs with 1 mm slice thickness can be obtained within reasonable breath-hold intervals (<20 s). This article provides an overview of the current methods used in HNG MR imaging with an emphasis on ventilation studies in animals. Special MR hardware and software considerations are described in order to use the strong but nonrecoverable magnetization as efficiently as possible and avoid depolarization primarily by molecular oxygen. Several applications of HNG MR imaging are presented, including measurement of gross lung anatomy (e.g., airway diameters), microscopic anatomy (e.g., apparent diffusion coefficient), and a variety of functional parameters including dynamic ventilation, alveolar oxygen partial pressure, and xenon diffusing capacity.

  7. Sample spinner for nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Stejskal, E.O.

    1984-05-01

    A sample spinner for a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer having improved operating characteristics is described comprising a rotor supported at both ends by support gas bearings and positioned by a thrust gas bearing. Improved support gas bearings are also described which result in a spinner exhibiting long-term stable operation characteristics.

  8. Analytical Methods for Characterizing Magnetic Resonance Probes

    PubMed Central

    Manus, Lisa M.; Strauch, Renee C.; Hung, Andy H.; Eckermann, Amanda L.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The efficiency of Gd(III) contrast agents in magnetic resonance image enhancement is governed by a set of tunable structural parameters. Understanding and measuring these parameters requires specific analytical techniques. This Feature describes strategies to optimize each of the critical Gd(III) relaxation parameters for molecular imaging applications and the methods employed for their evaluation. PMID:22624599

  9. Prenatal magnetic resonance imaging enhances fetal diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theresa M Quinn; Anne M Hubbard; N. Scott Adzick

    1998-01-01

    Background: Ultrasound (US) evaluation of some fetal anomalies provides limited information. Anatomic details that affect prognosis and selection for fetal therapy, such as liver herniation and pulmonary hypoplasia in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and airway patency in giant neck masses, may be difficult to delineate using conventional sonographic methods. The authors evaluated the utility of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging in acute tendon ruptures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard H. Daffner; Barry L. Riemer; Anthony R. Lupetin; Nilima Dash

    1986-01-01

    The diagnosis of acute tendon ruptures of the extensor mechanism of the knee or the Achilles tendon of the ankle may usually be made by clinical means. Massive soft tissue swelling accompanying these injuries often obscures the findings, however. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can rapidly demonstrate these tendon ruptures. Examples of the use of MRI for quadriceps tendon, and Achilles

  11. Magnetic Resonance Appearance of Normal Inguinal Nodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. GREY; B. M. CARRINGTON; P. A. HULSE; R. SWINDELL; W. YATES

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To identify adult inguinal lymph node anatomical subgroups using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to derive a normal range for nodal number and size and to describe their morphology.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-three oncology patients with low stage pelvic tumours had inguinal lymph node assessment by MRI. Nodes were divided into proximal superficial (PS), distal superficial (DS) and deep inguinal (DI)

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance in rare earth metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. H. McCausland; I. S. Mackenzie

    1979-01-01

    This article describes the study, by nuclear magnetic resonance, of both static and dynamical aspects of the hyperfine interaction in rare earth metals, and illustrates the categories of information that can be obtained by using nuclei as microscopic probes in metallic media. The systems discussed include not only the pure rare earth metals but also their alloys and their metallic

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of Morgagni hernia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradford A. Yeager; Gwen E. Guglielmi; Mark L. Schiebler; Warren B. Gefter; Herbert Y. Kressel

    1987-01-01

    A case of a Morgagni hernia is demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The correct diagnosis was facilitated by the ability to image directly the anteromedial diaphragmatic defect in the coronal and sagittal planes. The findings from MRI, computed tomography, and radiographic studies are correlated.

  14. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Hydrocephalic Infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean A. McNatt; J. Gordon McComb; Marvin D. Nelson; Stefan Bluml

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors present the first report evaluating neonates with chronic hydrocephalus using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS). The goals of the study were (1) to determine absolute brain metabolite concentrations in premature infants and neonates with hydrocephalus and age-matched controls, (2) conduct an initial survey of potential biochemical abnormalities of the newborn hydrocephalic brain, and (3) determine whether

  15. Inversion of Magnetic Resonance Sounding data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Yaramanci; M. Hertrich; Hochschule Zürich

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the basics, state of the art, current and future developments considering inversion of Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS) data are presented. A very brief account is given about the MRS method as such to an extent for better understanding of inversion and what it relates to. The inversion is introduced in general terms as usual for the geophysical

  16. Quantitative cardiovascular magnetic resonance for molecular imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick M Winter; Shelton D Caruthers; Gregory M Lanza; Samuel A Wickline

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) molecular imaging aims to identify and map the expression of important biomarkers on a cellular scale utilizing contrast agents that are specifically targeted to the biochemical signatures of disease and are capable of generating sufficient image contrast. In some cases, the contrast agents may be designed to carry a drug payload or to be sensitive to

  17. Biliary Ascariasis on Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    Hashmi, Mohammad A; De, Jevan K

    2009-01-01

    A 17-year-old girl presented with features of biliary obstruction. Magnetic resonance cholangi-pancreatography revealed typical linear signals in common bile duct, which appears like Ascaris lumbricoides. The diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopic removal of the worm. PMID:20300405

  18. Magnetic resonance images of tuberous sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Inoue; S. Nakajima; T. Fukuda; Y. Nemoto; M. Shakudo; R. Murata; O. Matsuoka; K. Takemoto; Y. Matsumura; Y. Onoyama

    1988-01-01

    The cerebral lesions in tuberous sclerosis are of three kinds: subependymal nodules, cortical tubers, and cluster of heterotopic cells in the white matter. Understanding of these hamartomas is still incomplete even with modern imaging modalities. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of ten patients with tuberous sclerosis were reviewed and compared to computed tomographic (CT) scans and to the clinical severity of

  19. Magnetic resonance urography in pediatric urology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang H. Cerwinka; J. Damien Grattan-Smith; Andrew J. Kirsch

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of reviewMagnetic resonance urography (MRU) has emerged as a powerful diagnostic tool in the evaluation of the pediatric genitourinary tract. The purpose of this review is to familiarize the reader with the basic techniques, strengths and limitations, as well as the current and potential future applications of MRU in pediatric urology.

  20. Parallel magnetic resonance imaging: characterization and comparison 

    E-print Network

    Rane, Swati Dnyandeo

    2005-11-01

    . Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 b.FastSpinEcho(FSE) ............... 12 c. OtherPulseSequences ............... 14 2. ParallelImaging ..................... 14 III PARALLEL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING ....... 15 A...-SMASH (VD-AUTO-SMASH) . . 22 H.GRAPPA ........................... 23 I. SPACERIP.......................... 24 J. SingleEchoAcquisition(SEA)................ 24 IV CHARACTERIZATION AND COMPARISON OF PARAL- LEL MRI TECHNIQUES ..................... 26 vi CHAPTER...

  1. Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy Detected Long-Lived Spin Magnetization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Longenecker, Jonilyn G.; Moore, Eric W.; Marohn, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM), which combines magnetic resonance imaging with scanning probe microscopy together, is capable of performing ultra-sensitive detection of spin magnetization. In an attempt to observe dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) in an MRFM experiment, which could possibly further improve its sensitivity towards a single proton spin, a film of perdeuterated polystyrene doped with a nitroxide electron-spin probe was prepared. A high-compliance cantilever with a 4 ?m diameter magnetic tip was brought near the film at a temperature of 7.3 K and in a background magnetic field of ~0.6 T. The film was irradiated with 16.7 GHz microwaves while the resulting transient change in cantilever frequency was recorded in real time. In addition to observing the expected prompt change in cantilever frequency due to saturation of the nitroxide’s electron-spin magnetization, we observed a persistent cantilever frequency change. Based on its magnitude, lifetime, and field dependence, we tentatively attribute the persistent signal to polarized deuteron magnetization created via transfer of magnetization from electron spins. Further measurements of the persistent signal’s dependence on the cantilever amplitude and tip-sample separation are presented and explained by the cross-effect DNP mechanism in high magnetic field gradients. PMID:26097251

  2. Musculoskeletal applications of magnetic resonance imaging: Council on Scientific Affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, S.E.; Fisher, C.F.; Fulmer, J.M. (American Medical Association, Chicago, IL (USA))

    1989-11-03

    Magnetic resonance imaging provides superior contrast, resolution, and multiplanar imaging capability, allowing excellent definition of soft-tissue and bone marrow abnormalities. For these reasons, magnetic resonance imaging has become a major diagnostic imaging method for the evaluation of many musculoskeletal disorders. The applications of magnetic resonance imaging for musculoskeletal diagnosis are summarized and examples of common clinical situations are given. General guidelines are suggested for the musculoskeletal applications of magnetic resonance imaging.

  3. Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (L-TGA) with situs inversus totalis in adulthood: findings with magnetic resonance imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Schmidt; Peter Theissen; Hans J Deutsch; Birgit Dederichs; Damian Franzen; Erland Erdmann; Harald Schicha

    2000-01-01

    Diagnosis of congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (L-TGA) with situs inversus totalis in two adult patients was made by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Visualization of the complete anatomy and quantification of ventricular function was possible. Relevant concomitant disease such as perimembraneous ventricular septal defect, atrial secundum septal defect, tricuspid regurgitation, valvular pulmonic stenosis, and pulmonary artery dilatation were

  4. Anatomical delineation of congenital heart disease using 3D magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams Bornemeier, Renee; Fellows, Kenneth E.; Fogel, Mark A.; Weinberg, Paul M.

    1994-05-01

    Anatomic delineation of the heart and great vessels is a necessity when managing children with congenital heart disease. Spatial orientation of the vessels and chambers in the heart and the heart itself may be quite abnormal. Though magnetic resonance imaging provides a noninvasive means for determining the anatomy, the intricate interrelationships between many structures are difficult to conceptualize from a 2-D format. Taking the 2-D images and using a volumetric analysis package allows for a 3-D replica of the heart to be created. This model can then be used to view the anatomy and spatial arrangement of the cardiac structures. This information may be utilized by the physicians to assist in the clinical management of these children.

  5. The market for magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, L.

    1990-01-01

    The medical market is, at present, the most dominant market for low T{sub c} superconductors. Indeed, without magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), there would hardly be a low T{sub c} superconductor market at all. According to the author, any development that can expand the medical market for MRI machines would be a welcome one. This paper reports how the recent advances in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) are such a development. While the principle of MRS has bee around as long as MRI, only recently have advances in technique, computer programming and magnet technology allowed MRS to advance to a point where it may become an important technology-one that could increase the medical market for superconductors. The author discussed how MRS can be used to analyze oil core samples for their oil content, oil/water ratios, how the oil is bound and how to extract it.

  6. Manipulation of Raman Resonances Using Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desavage, Sara A.; Davis, Jon P.; Narducci, Frank A.

    2012-06-01

    We have theoretically and experimentally studied Raman resonances in multi-level atoms (specifically ^85Rb). Our emphasis has been on varying the relative orientation of the magnetic field with respect to the propagation direction of the Raman fields. We find that, in general, the spectrum consists of up to 11 peaks. By considering selection rules, we show that it is possible to orient the magnetic field so that either a 6 peak spectrum or 5 peak spectrum results, depending on whether the Raman fields contain a polarization component along the magnetic field direction or not. Furthermore, we find that the spectrum is not always symmetric with respect to the magnetically insensitive transition (clock transition). We explore the origins of the asymmetry and the overall shape of the spectra. We will discuss applications to magnetically sensitive atom interferometry.

  7. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging overlay to assist with percutaneous transhepatic access at the time of cardiac catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Whiteside, Wendy; Christensen, Jason; Zampi, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    Multimodality image overlay is increasingly used for complex interventional procedures in the cardiac catheterization lab. We report a case in which three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) overlay onto live fluoroscopic imaging was utilized to safely obtain transhepatic access in a 12-year-old patient with prune belly syndrome, complex and distorted abdominal anatomy, and a vascular mass within the liver.

  8. Diffusion magnetic resonance HE MAGNETIC resonance application that the rest of this thesis will be concerned with is that

    E-print Network

    Clayden, Jonathan D.

    4 Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging T HE MAGNETIC resonance application that the rest of this thesis will be concerned with is that of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI). This chapter provides a brief description of diffusion and how it can be examined in the brain with dMRI. Mathematical

  9. Differentiation of radiation fibrosis from recurrent pulmonary neoplasm by magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Glazer, H.S.; Levitt, R.G.; Lee, J.K.T.; Emami, B.; Gronemeyer, S.; Murphy, W.A.

    1984-10-01

    Recent reports have shown the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in demonstrating normal and abnormal mediastinal and hilar anatomy. The potential role of MRI in evaluating patients who have undergone prior chest irradiation for pulmonary neoplasm has not been emphasized. The MRI appearance of mediastinal fibrosis after treatment of a patient with Hodgkin disease has been illustrated. Although plain chest radiographs and CT can demonstrate radiation-induced changes within the thorax, it is often difficult to distinguish radiation fibrosis from residual tumor. The authors report a case in which MRI differentiated fibrosis from recurrent tumor, thus confirming both the conventional radiographic and CT suspicions of recurrent neoplasm.

  10. Infantile Sandhoff's disease: multivoxel magnetic resonance spectrosecopy findings.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Alpay; Kutlu, Ramazan; Yakinci, Cengiz; Sigirci, Ahmet; Aslan, Mehmet; Sarac, Kaya

    2003-06-01

    Sandhoff's disease is a rare, genetic lysosomal storage disease leading to delayed myelination or demyelination. Although neuroimaging findings in this disease have been reported previously, magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings have not been reported. In this report, we present magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectrscopy features of two cases with Sandhoff's disease. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed findings indicating widespread demyelination in both cases and neuroaxonal loss and anaerobic metabolism in the second case. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy could provide useful information in the explanation of the clinical picture of cases with Sandhoff's disease. PMID:12886980

  11. A hyperpolarized equilibrium for magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Hövener, Jan-Bernd; Schwaderlapp, Niels; Lickert, Thomas; Duckett, Simon B.; Mewis, Ryan E.; Highton, Louise A. R.; Kenny, Stephen M.; Green, Gary G. R.; Leibfritz, Dieter; Korvink, Jan G.; Hennig, Jürgen; von Elverfeldt, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging (MRI) play an indispensable role in science and healthcare but use only a tiny fraction of their potential. No more than ?10?p.p.m. of all 1H nuclei are effectively detected in a 3-Tesla clinical MRI system. Thus, a vast array of new applications lays dormant, awaiting improved sensitivity. Here we demonstrate the continuous polarization of small molecules in solution to a level that cannot be achieved in a viable magnet. The magnetization does not decay and is effectively reinitialized within seconds after being measured. This effect depends on the long-lived, entangled spin-order of parahydrogen and an exchange reaction in a low magnetic field of 10?3 Tesla. We demonstrate the potential of this method by fast MRI and envision the catalysis of new applications such as cancer screening or indeed low-field MRI for routine use and remote application. PMID:24336292

  12. Resonant dynamics of topological magnetic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Olle

    2014-03-01

    A variety of topological magnetic structures have recently been observed and discussed in atomic structures. Examples are spin ices in pyrochlore lattices, or skyrmion lattices in helical magnets, such as MnSi. Underlying these structures are competing interactions, which cannot all be simultaneously minimized. Patterned magnetic nanostructures can be engineered to have competing interactions that give rise to frustration, which can enable the formation of topological magnetic structures on the nanoscale and at room temperatures that can rather conveniently be observed. In addition to interesting ground states or metastable states, the resonant dynamics of topological structures can be very interesting and different from the dynamics of the non-topological states. This leads to the possibility of changing the resonant dynamics in magnetic system rather dramatically both in in frequency and space by small variations in a control parameter. In this introductory talk of the symposium, I will give examples of such states and the ensuing dynamics, and discuss possible future directions and applications.

  13. Magnetic resonance sounding applied to aquifer characterization.

    PubMed

    Legchenko, Anatoly; Baltassat, Jean-Michel; Bobachev, Alexey; Martin, Charlotte; Robain, Henri; Vouillamoz, Jean-Michel

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) is distinguished from other geophysical tools used for ground water investigation by the fact that it measures a magnetic resonance signal generated directly from subsurface water molecules. An alternating current pulse energizes a wire loop on the ground surface and the MRS signal is generated; subsurface water is indicated, with a high degree of reliability, by nonzero amplitude readings. Measurements with varied pulse magnitudes then reveal the depth and thickness of water saturated layers. The hydraulic conductivity of aquifers can also be estimated using boreholes for calibration. MRS can be used for both predicting the yield of water supply wells and for interpolation between boreholes, thereby reducing the number of holes required for hydrogeological modeling. An example of the practical application of MRS combined with two-dimensional electrical imaging, in the Kerbernez and Kerien catchments area of France, demonstrates the efficiency of the technique. PMID:15161153

  14. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in multiple sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wolinsky, J.S.; Narayana, P.A.; Fenstermacher, M.J. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, Houston (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Regional in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy provides quantitative data on selected chemical constituents of brain. We imaged 16 volunteers with clinically definite multiple sclerosis on a 1.5 tesla magnetic resonance scanner to define plaque-containing volumes of interest, and obtained localized water-suppressed proton spectra using a stimulated echo sequence. Twenty-five of 40 plaque-containing regions provided spectra of adequate quality. Of these, 8 spectra from 6 subjects were consistent with the presence of cholesterol or fatty acids; the remainder were similar to those obtained from white matter of normal volunteers. This early experience with regional proton spectroscopy suggests that individual plaques are distinct. These differences likely reflect dynamic stages of the evolution of the demyelinative process not previously accessible to in vivo investigation.

  15. Sensorineural Hearing Loss after Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Atighechi, Saeid; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) devices produce noise, which may affect patient's or operators' hearing. Some cases of hearing impairment after MRI procedure have been reported with different patterns (temporary or permanent, unilateral or bilateral, with or without other symptoms like tinnitus). In this report, a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in an otherwise healthy patient underwent brain MRI was described. The patient's hearing loss was accompanied with tinnitus and was not improved after 3 months of followup. PMID:23844303

  16. Alkali lasers for magnetic resonance imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris V. Zhdanov; Randall J. Knize

    2010-01-01

    Spin-polarized nuclei of such gases as 3He and 129Xe are successfully used for magnetic resonance imaging of lungs and other organs of human body. To produce large numbers\\u000a of spin-polarized nuclei required for this medical application, a high power narrowband tunable laser source is required.\\u000a Diode pumped alkali lasers, developed during last several years can be an ideal source for

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging: Principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kean, D.; Smith, M.

    1986-01-01

    This text covers the physics underlying magnetic resonance (MR) imaging; pulse sequences; image production; equipment; aspects of clinical imaging; and the imaging of the head and neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis, and musculoskeletal system; and MR imaging. The book provides about 150 examples of MR images that give an overview of the pathologic conditions imaged. There is a discussion of the physics of MR imaging and also on the spin echo.

  18. Magnetic resonance urography: a pictorial overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Garcia-Valtuille; A I GARCIA-VALTUILLE; F ABASCAL; L CEREZAL; M C ARGUELLO

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic resonance urography (MRU) can be performed on the basis of two different imaging strategies: static-fluid MRU, based on heavily T2 weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) sequences, and gadolinium-enhanced excretory MRU. Both MR urographic techniques in combination with standard MRI permit a comprehensive examination of the entire urinary tract. This pictorial review illustrates the MRU features of the a wide

  19. Structural magnetic resonance imaging in epilepsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karel Deblaere; Eric Achten

    2008-01-01

    Because of its sensitivity and high tissue contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the technique of choice for structural\\u000a imaging in epilepsy. In this review the effect of using optimised scanning protocols and the use of high field MR systems\\u000a on detection sensitivity is discussed. Also, the clinical relevance of adequate imaging in patients with focal epilepsy is\\u000a highlighted. The

  20. Resonantly detecting axion-mediated forces with nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Arvanitaki, Asimina; Geraci, Andrew A

    2014-10-17

    We describe a method based on precision magnetometry that can extend the search for axion-mediated spin-dependent forces by several orders of magnitude. By combining techniques used in nuclear magnetic resonance and short-distance tests of gravity, our approach can substantially improve upon current experimental limits set by astrophysics, and probe deep into the theoretically interesting regime for the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) axion. Our method is sensitive to PQ axion decay constants between 10(9) and 10(12) GeV or axion masses between 10(-6) and 10(-3) eV, independent of the cosmic axion abundance. PMID:25361250

  1. Simultaneous in vivo positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Catana, Ciprian; Procissi, Daniel; Wu, Yibao; Judenhofer, Martin S.; Qi, Jinyi; Pichler, Bernd J.; Jacobs, Russell E.; Cherry, Simon R.

    2008-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are widely used in vivo imaging technologies with both clinical and biomedical research applications. The strengths of MRI include high-resolution, high-contrast morphologic imaging of soft tissues; the ability to image physiologic parameters such as diffusion and changes in oxygenation level resulting from neuronal stimulation; and the measurement of metabolites using chemical shift imaging. PET images the distribution of biologically targeted radiotracers with high sensitivity, but images generally lack anatomic context and are of lower spatial resolution. Integration of these technologies permits the acquisition of temporally correlated data showing the distribution of PET radiotracers and MRI contrast agents or MR-detectable metabolites, with registration to the underlying anatomy. An MRI-compatible PET scanner has been built for biomedical research applications that allows data from both modalities to be acquired simultaneously. Experiments demonstrate no effect of the MRI system on the spatial resolution of the PET system and <10% reduction in the fraction of radioactive decay events detected by the PET scanner inside the MRI. The signal-to-noise ratio and uniformity of the MR images, with the exception of one particular pulse sequence, were little affected by the presence of the PET scanner. In vivo simultaneous PET and MRI studies were performed in mice. Proof-of-principle in vivo MR spectroscopy and functional MRI experiments were also demonstrated with the combined scanner. PMID:18319342

  2. Potential of magnetic resonance for imaging the fetal heart.

    PubMed

    Wielandner, Alice; Mlczoch, Elisabeth; Prayer, Daniela; Berger-Kulemann, Vanessa

    2013-10-01

    Significant congenital heart disease (sCHD) affects 3.6 per 1000 births, and is often associated with extracardiac and chromosomal anomalies. Although early mortality has been substantially reduced and the rate of long-term survival has improved, sCHD is, after preterm birth, the second most frequent cause of neonatal infant death. The prenatal detection of cardiac and vascular abnormalities enables optimal parental counselling and perinatal management. Echocardiography (ECG) is the first-line examination and gold standard by which cardiac malformations are defined. However, adequate examination by an experienced healthcare provider with modern technical imaging equipment is required. In addition, maternal factors and the gestational age may lower the image quality. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been implemented over the last several years and is already used in the clinical routine as a second-line approach to assess fetal abnormalities. MRI of the fetal heart is still not routinely performed. Nevertheless, fetal cardiac MRI has the potential to complement ultrasound in detecting cardiovascular malformations and extracardiac lesions. The present work reviews the potential of MRI to delineate the anatomy and pathologies of the fetal heart. This work also deals with the limitations and continuing developments designed to overcome the current problems in cardiac imaging, including fast fetal heart rates, the lack of ECG-gating, and the presence of fetal movements. PMID:23742821

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging and contrast enhancement. Scientific report

    SciTech Connect

    Swenberg, C.E.; Movius, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    Chapters II through VI of this report discuss: Relaxation of Nuclear Spins; Echo Techniques; Basic Imaging Pulse Sequences; Partial Saturation Recovery; Inversion Recovery; Spin Echo; Effects of Pulse Sequence on Image Contrast; Contrast Agents; Theoretical Aspects; Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity; and Physiological Rationale for Agent Selection. One of the major goals in all medical imaging techniques is to maximize one's ability to visualize and differentiate adjacent tissue regions in the body on the basis of differences in anatomy, physiology, or various pathological processes. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging offers distinct advantages over conventional x-ray imaging because of the possibility of selecting specific pulse sequences that can differentiate adjacent structures on the basis of differences in proton density, T/sub 1/ or T/sub 2/ relaxation rates, or flow. As a result of applying these various pulse sequences, numerous images have been obtained of the brain and other organs that demonstrate considerably more-detailed anatomical structure than had previously been available with computerized tomography, ultrasound, or nuclear medicine techniques. In some situations it is clearly superior, such as in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.

  4. Fluctuating magnetic field induced resonant activation.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Shrabani; Das, Sudip; Baura, Alendu; Bag, Bidhan Chandra

    2014-12-14

    In this paper, we have studied the properties of a Brownian particle at stationary state in the presence of a fluctuating magnetic field. Time dependence of the field makes the system thermodynamically open. As a signature of that the steady state distribution function becomes function of damping strength, intensity of fluctuations and constant parts of the applied magnetic field. It also depends on the correlation time of the fluctuating magnetic field. Our another observation is that the random magnetic field can induce the resonant activation phenomenon. Here correlation time is increased under the fixed variance of the fluctuating field. But if the correlation time (?) increases under the fixed field strength then the mean first passage time rapidly grows at low ? and it almost converges at other limit. This is sharp contrast to the usual colored noise driven open system case where the mean first passage time diverges exponentially. We have also observed that a giant enhancement of barrier crossing rate occurs particularly at large strength of constant parts of the applied magnetic field even for very weak fluctuating magnetic field. Finally, break down of the Arrhenius result and disappearance of the Kramers' turn over phenomenon may occur in the presence of a fluctuating magnetic field. PMID:25494726

  5. Compact low field magnetic resonance imaging magnet: Design and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciandrone, M.; Placidi, G.; Testa, L.; Sotgiu, A.

    2000-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is performed with a very large instrument that allows the patient to be inserted into a region of uniform magnetic field. The field is generated either by an electromagnet (resistive or superconductive) or by a permanent magnet. Electromagnets are designed as air cored solenoids of cylindrical symmetry, with an inner bore of 80-100 cm in diameter. In clinical analysis of peripheral regions of the body (legs, arms, foot, knee, etc.) it would be better to adopt much less expensive magnets leaving the most expensive instruments to applications that require the insertion of the patient in the magnet (head, thorax, abdomen, etc.). These "dedicated" apparati could be smaller and based on resistive magnets that are manufactured and operated at very low cost, particularly if they utilize an iron yoke to reduce power requirements. In order to obtain good field uniformity without the use of a set of shimming coils, we propose both particular construction of a dedicated magnet, using four independently controlled pairs of coils, and an optimization-based strategy for computing, a posteriori, the optimal current values. The optimization phase could be viewed as a low-cost shimming procedure for obtaining the desired magnetic field configuration. Some experimental measurements, confirming the effectiveness of the proposed approach (construction and optimization), have also been reported. In particular, it has been shown that the adoption of the proposed optimization based strategy has allowed the achievement of good uniformity of the magnetic field in about one fourth of the magnet length and about one half of its bore. On the basis of the good experimental results, the dedicated magnet can be used for MRI of peripheral regions of the body and for animal experimentation at very low cost.

  6. Multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging and cancer therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murali M. Yallapu; Shadi F. Othman; Evan T. Curtis; Brij K. Gupta; Meena Jaggi; Subhash C. Chauhan

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a multi-layer approach for the synthesis of water-dispersible superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for hyperthermia, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and drug delivery applications. In this approach, iron oxide core nanoparticles were obtained by precipitation of iron salts in the presence of ammonia and provided ?-cyclodextrin and pluronic polymer (F127) coatings. This formulation (F127250) was highly water dispersible which

  7. Portal biliopathy, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography findings: a case series.

    PubMed

    Baskan, Ozdil; Erol, Cengiz; Sahingoz, Yusuf

    2014-09-12

    Portal biliopathy (PB) is a rare disorder, characterized by biliary ductal and gallbladder wall abnormalities seen in patients with portal hypertension. It most commonly occurs due to idiopathic extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO). The abnormalities consist mainly of bile duct compression, stenoses, fibrotic strictures and dilation of both extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts, as well as gallbladder varices. PB may mimic cholangiocarcinoma, sclerosing cholangitis, or choledocholithiasis. Misdiagnosis can be avoided using appropriate imaging modalities to prevent complications. We present the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRCP) features of three patients with PB. PMID:25216728

  8. Improvements in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Excitation Pulse Design

    E-print Network

    Improvements in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Excitation Pulse Design by Adam Charles Zelinski;#12;Improvements in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Excitation Pulse Design by Adam Charles Zelinski Submitted inhomogeneity limitations. When magnetic spins are tilted by only a small amount, pulse transmission may

  9. Magnetic Resonance Driven Electrical Impedance Tomography: A Simulation Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michiro Negishi; Tangji Tong; R. Todd Constable

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomog- raphy (MREIT) is a method for reconstructing a three-dimen- sional image of the conductivity distribution in a target volume using magnetic resonance (MR). In MREIT, currents are applied to the volume through surface electrodes and their effects on the MR induced magnetic fields are analyzed to produce the conductance image. However, current injection through surface

  10. Molecular structure and motion in zero field magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvie, T.P.

    1989-10-01

    Zero field magnetic resonance is well suited for the determination of molecular structure and the study of motion in disordered materials. Experiments performed in zero applied magnetic field avoid the anisotropic broadening in high field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. As a result, molecular structure and subtle effects of motion are more readily observed.

  11. Pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Spin Echoes MIT Department of Physics

    E-print Network

    Seager, Sara

    Pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Spin Echoes MIT Department of Physics (Dated: February 5, 2014) In this experiment, the phenomenon of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is used to determine the magnetic moments-factor in atomic spectroscopy and is given by g = (µ/µN )/I, (2) and µN is the nuclear magneton, e /2mp

  12. Nanodiamond graphitization: a magnetic resonance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panich, A. M.; Shames, A. I.; Sergeev, N. A.; Olszewski, M.; McDonough, J. K.; Mochalin, V. N.; Gogotsi, Y.

    2013-06-01

    We report on the first nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study of the high-temperature nanodiamond-to-onion transformation. 1H, 13C NMR and EPR spectra of the initial nanodiamond samples and those annealed at 600, 700, 800 and 1800?° C were measured. For the samples annealed at 600 to 800?° C, our NMR data reveal the early stages of the surface modification, as well as a progressive increase in sp2 carbon content with increased annealing temperature. Such quantitative experimental data were recorded for the first time. These findings correlate with EPR data on the sensitivity of the dangling bond EPR line width to air content, progressing with rising annealing temperature, that evidences consequent graphitization of the external layers of the diamond core. The sample annealed at 1800?° C shows complete conversion of nanodiamond particles into carbon onions.

  13. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in small animals.

    PubMed

    Botnar, René M; Makowski, Marcus R

    2012-01-01

    Noninvasive imaging studies involving small animals are becoming increasingly important in preclinical pharmacological, genetic, and biomedical cardiovascular research. Especially small animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using high field and clinical MRI systems has gained significant importance in recent years. Compared to other imaging modalities, like computer tomography, MRI can provide an excellent soft tissue contrast, which enables the characterization of different kinds of tissues without the use of contrast agents. In addition, imaging can be performed with high spatial and temporal resolution. Small animal MRI cannot only provide anatomical information about the beating murine heart; it can also provide functional and molecular information, which makes it a unique imaging modality. Compared to clinical MRI examinations in humans, small animal MRI is associated with additional challenges. These included a smaller size of all cardiovascular structures and a up to ten times higher heart rate. Dedicated small animal monitoring devices make a reliable cardiac triggering and respiratory gating feasible. MRI in combination with molecular probes enables the noninvasive imaging of biological processes at a molecular level. Different kinds of iron oxide or gadolinium-based contrast agents can be used for this purpose. Compared to other molecular imaging modalities, like single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), MRI can also provide imaging with high spatial resolution, which is of high importance for the assessment of the cardiovascular system. The sensitivity for detection of MRI contrast agents is however lower compared to sensitivity of radiation associated techniques like PET and SPECT. This chapter is divided into the following sections: (1) "Introduction," (2) "Principals of Magnetic Resonance Imaging," (3) "MRI Systems for Preclinical Imaging and Experimental Setup," and (4) "Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging." PMID:22137434

  14. Review: Magnetic resonance imaging techniques in ophthalmology

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Imaging the eye with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proved difficult due to the eye’s propensity to move involuntarily over typical imaging timescales, obscuring the fine structure in the eye due to the resulting motion artifacts. However, advances in MRI technology help to mitigate such drawbacks, enabling the acquisition of high spatiotemporal resolution images with a variety of contrast mechanisms. This review aims to classify the MRI techniques used to date in clinical and preclinical ophthalmologic studies, describing the qualitative and quantitative information that may be extracted and how this may inform on ocular pathophysiology. PMID:23112569

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage repair procedures.

    PubMed

    Forney, Michael C; Gupta, Amit; Minas, Tom; Winalski, Carl S

    2014-11-01

    Cartilage injuries in the knee are common and can be a persistent source of pain or dysfunction. Many new surgical strategies have been developed to treat these lesions. It is important for the radiologist to have an understanding of these procedures and their appearance on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. This article provides the radiologist with an overview of the surgical strategies for repairing cartilage lesions in the knee followed by a discussion of their postoperative appearance on MR imaging in normal and abnormal cases. Guidelines for adequate reporting of the MR imaging findings after cartilage repair in the knee are also included. PMID:25442028

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging in gynecological oncology.

    PubMed

    Harry, Vanessa N; Deans, Heather; Ramage, Emma; Parkin, David E; Gilbert, Fiona J

    2009-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an indispensable tool in the assessment of malignant disease. With increasingly sophisticated systems and technical advancements, MRI has continued to expand its role in providing crucial information regarding cancer diagnosis and management. In gynecological malignancies, this modality has assumed greater responsibility, particularly in the evaluation of cervical and endometrial cancers. In addition to conventional imaging, innovative techniques such as dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI show promise in offering early assessment of tumor response. This paper reviews the current role of MRI in gynecological cancers and highlights the potential of novel techniques in improving patient care. PMID:19395992

  17. Cardiomyopathies: focus on cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Quarta, G; Sado, D M; Moon, J C

    2011-01-01

    Cardiomyopathies (CMPs) are a group of often inherited diseases characterised by abnormalities and associated dysfunction of heart muscle. In the past decade, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has emerged as a powerful tool in their assessment, providing data that are complementary to other aspects of clinical evaluation. Key advantages of CMR are three-dimensional visualisation of the heart and its relationship to thoracic structures; gold-standard quantification of cardiac volumes and function, which can safely be repeated over time (no ionising radiation is involved); and tissue characterisation to detect focal scar and fatty infiltration. This paper reviews the role of CMR in the clinical assessment of patients with CMPs. PMID:22723536

  18. Magnetic resonance of the musculoskeletal system

    SciTech Connect

    Berquist, T.H.; Ehman, R.L.; Richardson, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance of the Musculoskeletal System features coverage of the use of MRI in evaluation of specific diseases: bone and soft tissue tumors; infections; musculoskeletal trauma; spinal disorders; and miscellaneous conditions. The authors comparisons of MRI with computed tomography, ultrasound, isotopes, and other techniques will assist the physician in determining which clinical problems are best evaluated by MRI. Where MRI is the optimal technique, the text outlines the examination procedure, indicates which sequences provide the most information, and describes the pathologic findings that can be observed in MRI scans. An outstanding selection of more than 250 detail-revealing illustrations depicts representatives MRI findings.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of perianal fistulas.

    PubMed

    Vanbeckevoort, Dirk; Bielen, Didier; Vanslembrouck, Ragna; Van Assche, Gert

    2014-02-01

    Perianal fistulization is the result of a chronic inflammation of the perianal tissues. A wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from simple to complex fistulas, can be seen, the latter especially in patients with Crohn disease. Failure to detect secondary tracks and hidden abscesses may lead to therapeutic failure, such as insufficient response to medical treatment and relapse after surgery. Currently, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the preferred technique for evaluating perianal fistulas and associated complications. Initially used most often in the preoperative setting, MR imaging now also plays an important role in evaluating the response to medical therapy. PMID:24238135

  20. Developments in boron magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    SciTech Connect

    Schweizer, M.

    1995-11-01

    This report summarizes progress during the past year on maturing Boron-11 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methodology for noninvasive determination of BNCT agents (BSH) spatially in time. Three major areas are excerpted: (1) Boron-11 MRI of BSH distributions in a canine intracranial tumor model and the first human glioblastoma patient, (2) whole body Boron-11 MRI of BSH pharmacokinetics in a rat flank tumor model, and (3) penetration of gadolinium salts through the BBB as a function of tumor growth in the canine brain.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging features of allografts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. V. Kattapuram; M. S. Rosol; D. I. Rosenthal; W. E. Palmer; H. J. Mankin

    1999-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of allografts at various time intervals after surgery in patients\\u000a with osteoarticular allografts.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design and patients. Sixteen patients who were treated with osteoarticular allografts and who were followed over time with MRI studies as part\\u000a of their long-term follow-up were retrospectively selected for this study. T1-weighted images were obtained both before

  2. A Submicrosecond Resonator and Receiver System for Pulsed Magnetic Resonance with Large Samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Alecci; J. A. Brivati; G. Placidi; L. Testa; D. J. Lurie; A. Sotgiu

    1998-01-01

    We describe a submicrosecond resonator and receiver system for use in pulsed magnetic resonance at 220 MHz. This new resonator and receiver system design enables a reduction of the dead time, and in principle its complete elimination. We show experimentally that the resonator and receiver system permits the detection of free induction decay signals 300 ns from the end of

  3. Clinical applications of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Marcu, Constantin B.; Beek, Aernout M.; van Rossum, Albert C.

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has evolved from an effective research tool into a clinically proven, safe and comprehensive imaging modality. It provides anatomic and functional information in acquired and congenital heart disease and is the most precise technique for quantification of ventricular volumes, function and mass. Owing to its excellent interstudy reproducibility, cardiovascular MRI is the optimal method for assessment of changes in ventricular parameters after therapeutic intervention. Delayed contrast enhancement is an accurate and robust method used in the diagnosis of ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathies and less common diseases, such as cardiac sarcoidosis and myocarditis. First-pass magnetic contrast myocardial perfusion is becoming an alternative to radionuclide techniques for the detection of coronary atherosclerotic disease. In this review we outline the techniques used in cardiovascular MRI and discuss the most common clinical applications. PMID:17030942

  4. Novel Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques in Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Nechifor, Ruben E; Harris, Robert J; Ellingson, Benjamin M

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful, noninvasive imaging technique with exquisite sensitivity to soft tissue composition. Magnetic resonance imaging is primary tool for brain tumor diagnosis, evaluation of drug response assessment, and clinical monitoring of the patient during the course of their disease. The flexibility of magnetic resonance imaging pulse sequence design allows for a variety of image contrasts to be acquired, including information about magnetic resonance-specific tissue characteristics, molecular dynamics, microstructural organization, vascular composition, and biochemical status. The current review highlights recent advancements and novel approaches in MR characterization of brain tumors. PMID:26049817

  5. LASER-POLARIZED 129Xe MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY AND IMAGING;

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Matthew S

    LASER-POLARIZED 129Xe MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY AND IMAGING; THE DEVELOPMENT OF A METHOD ............................................................................38 3.2 Laser System and Optics

  6. Assessment of Myocardial Infarction by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Long-Term Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Petriz, João Luiz Fernandes; Gomes, Bruno Ferraz de Oliveira; Rua, Braulio Santos; Azevedo, Clério Francisco; Hadlich, Marcelo Souza; Mussi, Henrique Thadeu Periard; Taets, Gunnar de Cunto; do Nascimento, Emília Matos; Pereira, Basílio de Bragança; e Silva, Nelson Albuquerque de Souza

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging provides detailed anatomical information on infarction. However, few studies have investigated the association of these data with mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Objective To study the association between data regarding infarct size and anatomy, as obtained from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging after acute myocardial infarction, and long-term mortality. Methods A total of 1959 reports of “infarct size” were identified in 7119 cardiac magnetic resonance imaging studies, of which 420 had clinical and laboratory confirmation of previous myocardial infarction. The variables studied were the classic risk factors – left ventricular ejection fraction, categorized ventricular function, and location of acute myocardial infarction. Infarct size and acute myocardial infarction extent and transmurality were analyzed alone and together, using the variable named “MET-AMI”. The statistical analysis was carried out using the elastic net regularization, with the Cox model and survival trees. Results The mean age was 62.3 ± 12 years, and 77.3% were males. During the mean follow-up of 6.4 ± 2.9 years, there were 76 deaths (18.1%). Serum creatinine, diabetes mellitus and previous myocardial infarction were independently associated with mortality. Age was the main explanatory factor. The cardiac magnetic resonance imaging variables independently associated with mortality were transmurality of acute myocardial infarction (p = 0.047), ventricular dysfunction (p = 0.0005) and infarcted size (p = 0.0005); the latter was the main explanatory variable for ischemic heart disease death. The MET-AMI variable was the most strongly associated with risk of ischemic heart disease death (HR: 16.04; 95%CI: 2.64-97.5; p = 0.003). Conclusion The anatomical data of infarction, obtained from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging after acute myocardial infarction, were independently associated with long-term mortality, especially for ischemic heart disease death. PMID:25424161

  7. High Magnetic Field Superconducting Magnet for 400 MHz Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiuliang Wang; Baozhi Zhao; Shousen Song; Junsheng Cheng; Yi Li; Yuanzhong Lei; Yinming Dai; Shunzhong Chen; Hui Wang; Housheng Wang; Xinning Hu; Chunyan Cui; Haoyang Liu; Zengren Dong; Chunzhong Wang; Zhipeng Ni; Houcheng Huang; Hongjie Zhang; Luguang Yan; Jianghua Wang

    2011-01-01

    A superconducting magnet with the center field of 9.4 T is designed and fabricated for 400 MHz Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Superconducting coil with NbTi\\/Cu superconducting wire is employed and cooled by re-condensed liquid helium and the magnet system with the clear-bore of 54 mm. The pulsed tube refrigerator with separated valve is employed to cool the magnet system. The superconducting

  8. Purely electric and magnetic dipole resonances in metamaterial dielectric resonators through perturbation theory inspired geometries

    E-print Network

    Campione, Salvatore; Warne, Larry K; Sinclair, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe a methodology for tailoring the design of metamaterial dielectric resonators, which represent a promising path toward low-loss metamaterials at optical frequencies. We first describe a procedure to decompose the far field scattered by subwavelength resonators in terms of multipolar field components, providing explicit expressions for the multipolar far fields. We apply this formulation to confirm that an isolated high-permittivity cube resonator possesses frequency separated electric and magnetic dipole resonances, as well as a magnetic quadrupole resonance in close proximity to the electric dipole resonance. We then introduce multiple dielectric gaps to the resonator geometry in a manner suggested by perturbation theory, and demonstrate the ability to overlap the electric and magnetic dipole resonances, thereby enabling directional scattering by satisfying the first Kerker condition. We further demonstrate the ability to push the quadrupole resonance away from the degenerate dipole ...

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging in acute mastoiditis

    PubMed Central

    Kitzler, Hagen H; Gudziol, Volker; Laniado, Michael; Hahn, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Background In cases of suspected mastoiditis, imaging is used to evaluate the extent of mastoid destruction and possible complications. The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in mastoiditis has not been systematically evaluated. Purpose To assess the diagnostic performance of MRI in patients with suspected acute mastoiditis. Material and Methods Twenty-three patients with suspected acute mastoiditis were included in this retrospective study (15 boys, 8 girls; mean age, 2 years 11 months). All patients were examined on a 1.5?T MRI system. The MRI examination included both enhanced and non-enhanced turbo spin echo (TSE), diffusion-weighted images, and venous time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF MRA) for the evaluation of the venous sinuses. Surgical findings, as well as clinical and imaging follow-up were used as the standard of reference. The sensitivity and accuracy of MRI for mastoiditis and subperiosteal abscesses was calculated. Results Twenty (87%) of 23 patients had mastoiditis, and 12 (52%) of 23 patients had a subperiosteal abscess in addition to mastoiditis. Mastoiditis and subperiosteal abscesses were identified by MRI in all cases. Sensitivity for mastoiditis was 100%, specificity was 66%, and accuracy was 86%. Sensitivity for subperiosteal abscesses was 100% and accuracy was 100%. Conclusion Multiparametric MRI has high accuracy for mastoiditis and subperiosteal abscesses. PMID:24778805

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging. Application to family practice.

    PubMed Central

    Goh, R. H.; Somers, S.; Jurriaans, E.; Yu, J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review indications, contraindications, and risks of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to help primary care physicians refer patients appropriately for MRI, screen for contraindications to using MRI, and educate patients about MRI. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Recommendations are based on classic textbooks, the policies of our MRI group, and a literature search using MEDLINE with the MeSH headings magnetic resonance imaging, brain, musculoskeletal, and spine. The search was limited to human, English-language, and review articles. Evidence in favour of using MRI for imaging the head, spine, and joints is well established. For cardiac, abdominal, and pelvic conditions, MRI has been shown useful for certain indications, usually to complement other modalities. MAIN MESSAGE: For demonstrating soft tissue conditions, MRI is better than computed tomography (CT), but CT shows bone and acute bleeding better. Therefore, patients with trauma or suspected intracranial bleeding should have CT. Tumours, congenital abnormalities, vascular structures, and the cervical or thoracic spine show better on MRI. Either modality can be used for lower back pain. Cardiac, abdominal, and pelvic abnormalities should be imaged with ultrasound or CT before MRI. Contraindications for MRI are mainly metallic implants or shrapnel, severe claustrophobia, or obesity. CONCLUSIONS: With the increasing availability of MRI scanners in Canada, better understanding of the indications, contraindications, and risks will be helpful for family physicians and their patients. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:10509224

  11. Development of a micro nuclear magnetic resonance system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Artem Goloshevsky

    2004-01-01

    Application of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to on-line\\/in-line control of industrial processes is currently limited by equipment costs and requirements for installation. A superconducting magnet generating strong fields is the most expensive part of a typical NMR instrument. In industrial environments, fringe magnetic fields make accommodation of NMR instruments difficult. However, a portable, low-cost and low-field magnetic resonance system can

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments using laser- polarized noble gas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenn Patrick Teen Chung Wong

    2001-01-01

    Three different nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments using laser-polarized noble gas are reported. The first experiment demonstrates the feasibility of fast low magnetic field (~20 G) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with comparable resolution and signal-to-noise of conventional high magnetic field (~1 T) MRI. In addition, advantages of low field imaging over high field imaging are shown for certain applications. The

  13. Ultra-high-field magnetic resonance: Why and when?

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Ewald

    2010-01-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the development of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy in medicine. Aspects of magnetic resonancephysics and -technology relevant at ultra-high magnetic fields as well as current limitations are highlighted. Based on the first promising studies, potential clinical applications at 7 Tesla are suggested. Other aims are to stimulate awareness of the potential of ultra-high field magnetic resonance and to stimulate active participation in much needed basic or clinical research at 7 Tesla or higher. PMID:21160738

  14. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of perpendicularly magnetized Permalloy multilayer disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Loubens, G.; Naletov, V. V.; Viret, M.; Klein, O.; Hurdequint, H.; Youssef, J. Ben; Boust, F.; Vukadinovic, N.

    2007-05-01

    Using a magnetic resonance force microscope, we compare the ferromagnetic resonance spectra of individual micron size disks with identical diameter, 1?m, but different layer structures. For a disk composed of a single 43.3-nm-thick Permalloy (Py) layer, the lowest energy mode in the perpendicular configuration is the uniform precession. The higher energy modes are standing spin waves confined along the diameter of the disk. For a Cu (30nm)/Py (100nm)/Cu (30nm) multilayer structure, it has been interpreted that the lowest energy mode becomes a precession localized at the Cu/Py interfaces. When the multilayer is changed to Py (100nm)/Cu (10nm)/Py (10nm), this localized mode of the thick layer becomes coupled to the precession of the thin layer.

  15. Biliary anatomy in potential right hepatic lobe living donor liver transplantation (LDLT): The utility of CT cholangiography in the setting of inconclusive MRCP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean E. McSweeney; Tae Kyoung Kim; Hyun-Jung Jang; Korosh Khalili

    ObjectiveTo determine the utility of CT cholangiography (CT-Ch) in preoperative evaluation of the biliary anatomy of living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) donors when magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is inconclusive.

  16. Resonant and High Magnetic Available BE

    E-print Network

    Ohta, Shigemi

    .2 resonant scattering resonant and high magneticfield scattering resonant scattering and XMCD resonant and high magneticfield scattering and XMCD BE Beamline equivalent 1 BE is a station running Footnotes: a = Resonant scattering program inactive since summer 2010 b = Resonant and high magneticfield

  17. BROADBAND EXCITATION IN NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tycko, R.

    1984-10-01

    Theoretical methods for designing sequences of radio frequency (rf) radiation pulses for broadband excitation of spin systems in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are described. The sequences excite spins uniformly over large ranges of resonant frequencies arising from static magnetic field inhomogeneity, chemical shift differences, or spin couplings, or over large ranges of rf field amplitudes. Specific sequences for creating a population inversion or transverse magnetization are derived and demonstrated experimentally in liquid and solid state NMR. One approach to broadband excitation is based on principles of coherent averaging theory. A general formalism for deriving pulse sequences is given, along with computational methods for specific cases. This approach leads to sequences that produce strictly constant transformations of a spin system. The importance of this feature in NMR applications is discussed. A second approach to broadband excitation makes use of iterative schemes, i.e. sets of operations that are applied repetitively to a given initial pulse sequences, generating a series of increasingly complex sequences with increasingly desirable properties. A general mathematical framework for analyzing iterative schemes is developed. An iterative scheme is treated as a function that acts on a space of operators corresponding to the transformations produced by all possible pulse sequences. The fixed points of the function and the stability of the fixed points are shown to determine the essential behavior of the scheme. Iterative schemes for broadband population inversion are treated in detail. Algebraic and numerical methods for performing the mathematical analysis are presented. Two additional topics are treated. The first is the construction of sequences for uniform excitation of double-quantum coherence and for uniform polarization transfer over a range of spin couplings. Double-quantum excitation sequences are demonstrated in a liquid crystal system. The second additional topic is the construction of iterative schemes for narrowband population inversion. The use of sequences that invert spin populations only over a narrow range of rf field amplitudes to spatially localize NMR signals in an rf field gradient is discussed.

  18. Optimal control technique for magnet design in inside-out nuclear magnetic resonance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Luong; Jaideva C. Goswami; Apo Sezginer; Dylan Davies

    2001-01-01

    The magnets used in a family of inside-out nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well-logging tools usually consist of several segments of magnet materials, with each segment magnetized differently. In a tool, the magnet is surrounded with a nonlinear magnetic material, such as ferrite or steel, that is primarily used in the RF coil or in shielding the electronic components from strong

  19. PTFOS: Flexible and Absorbable Intracranial Electrodes for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bonmassar, Giorgio; Fujimoto, Kyoko; Golby, Alexandra J.

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial electrocortical recording and stimulation can provide unique knowledge about functional brain anatomy in patients undergoing brain surgery. This approach is commonly used in the treatment of medically refractory epilepsy. However, it can be very difficult to integrate the results of cortical recordings with other brain mapping modalities, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The ability to integrate imaging and electrophysiological information with simultaneous subdural electrocortical recording/stimulation and fMRI could offer significant insight for cognitive and systems neuroscience as well as for clinical neurology, particularly for patients with epilepsy or functional disorders. However, standard subdural electrodes cause significant artifact in MRI images, and concerns about risks such as cortical heating have generally precluded obtaining MRI in patients with implanted electrodes. We propose an electrode set based on polymer thick film organic substrate (PTFOS), an organic absorbable, flexible and stretchable electrode grid for intracranial use. These new types of MRI transparent intracranial electrodes are based on nano-particle ink technology that builds on our earlier development of an EEG/fMRI electrode set for scalp recording. The development of MRI-compatible recording/stimulation electrodes with a very thin profile could allow functional mapping at the individual subject level of the underlying feedback and feed forward networks. The thin flexible substrate would allow the electrodes to optimally contact the convoluted brain surface. Performance properties of the PTFOS were assessed by MRI measurements, finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations, micro-volt recording, and injecting currents using standard electrocortical stimulation in phantoms. In contrast to the large artifacts exhibited with standard electrode sets, the PTFOS exhibited no artifact due to the reduced amount of metal and conductivity of the electrode/trace ink and had similar electrical properties to a standard subdural electrode set. The enhanced image quality could enable routine MRI exams of patients with intracranial electrode implantation and could also lead to chronic implantation solutions. PMID:22984396

  20. The Nobel Prize in Medicine for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    Nobel Prize in Medicine awarded in December 2003 to chemist Paul C. Lauterbur and physicist Peter Mansfield for the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a long overdue recognition of the huge impact MRI has had in medical diagnostics and research is mentioned. MRI was derived, and remains an extension of nuclear magnetic resonance

  1. Sodium Magnetic Resonance Imaging: From Research to Clinical Use

    E-print Network

    Ouwerkerk, Ronald

    Sodium Magnetic Resonance Imaging: From Research to Clinical Use Ronald Ouwerkerk, PhD INTRODUCTION. Sodium MRI is no longer a stand- alone modality with 1 H MRI used only as a scout image. Instead, 23 Na the properties of this nu- cleus and what imaging techniques can be used to observe it. SODIUM-MAGNETIC RESONANCE

  2. A unitary parallel filter bank approach to magnetic resonance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binz, Ernst; Schempp, Walter

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to establish a unitary parallel multichannel filter bank approach to clinical magnetic resonance tomography and magnetic resonance microscopy. The approach which is based on the Stern-Gerlach filter explains the high resolution capabilities of these non-invasive cross-sectional imaging modalities which revolutionized the field of clinical diagnostics.

  3. Reduction of motion artifacts in magnetic resonance diffusion imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Archie Chih-Ching Chu

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion is capable of probing molecular displacement in vivo in a micrometer range. The clinical application of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used for early detecting acute stroke, and it may be a sensitive monitor of early response to cancer treatments. NMR diffusion techniques are sensitive to Brownian motion, but also enhance bulk-motion artifacts in

  4. The application of magnetic resonance in spinal cord disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Perovitch

    1987-01-01

    The introduction of the proton magnetic resonance imaging into clinical practice shows significant diagnostic potentials, and throws a new light on pathological changes involving the spinal cord, in particular on those related to trauma and its sequelae. The initial experience concerning the use of the proton magnetic resonance imaging in 28 patients, in whom paraplegia or quadriplegia developed following an

  5. Equipotential line method for magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ohin Kwon; June-Yub Lee; Jeong-Rock Yoon

    2002-01-01

    We consider magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography, which aims to reconstruct the conductivity distribution using the internal current density furnished by magnetic resonance imaging. We show the uniqueness of the conductivity reconstruction with one measurement imposing the Dirichlet boundary condition. We also propose a fast non-iterative numerical algorithm for the conductivity reconstruction using the internal current vector information. The algorithm

  6. Equipotential line metho df or magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ohin Kwon; J une-Yub Lee; Jeong-Rock Yoon

    2002-01-01

    We consider magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography, which aims to reconstruct the conductivity distribution using the internal current density furnished by magnetic resonance imaging. We show the uniqueness of the conductivity reconstruction with one measurement imposing the Dirichlet boundary condition. And we propose a fast non-iterative numerical algorithm for the conductivity reconstruction using the internal current vector information. The algorithm

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance in environmental engineering: principles and applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. N. L. Lens; M. A. Hemminga

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to applications in the field of environmental science and engineering. The underlying principles of high resolution solution and solid state NMR, relaxation time measurements and imaging are presented. Then, the use of NMR is illustrated and reviewed in studies of biodegradation and

  8. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Experiments using Laser-Polarized Noble Gas

    E-print Network

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Experiments using Laser-Polarized Noble Gas A thesis presented by Glenn Gas Abstract Three different nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments using laser- polarized noble.e., the probability that a spin has not changed sign up to time t) in the diffusion of laser-polarized noble gas

  9. Diagnosis of hematogenous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis by magnetic resonance imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Meyers; S. N. Wiener

    1991-01-01

    The clinical information and imaging data from 27 patients with hematogenous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis were reviewed. All patients had roentgenographic and magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Seventeen patients had computed tomograms; 17 had technetium Tc 99m medronate bone scans; and seven had gallium citrate Ga 67 scans. Magnetic resonance imaging, when used as a part of the initial radiologic evaluation, detected

  10. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Reveals the

    E-print Network

    Murray, Scott

    magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been extensively used to study the neural sub- strates of the handBehavioral/Systems/Cognitive Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Reveals the Neural Substrates the everyday act of reaching out to pick up a coffee cup seems like a single fluid action, arguably

  11. Understanding Understanding Source Code with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    E-print Network

    Kaestner, Christian

    Understanding Understanding Source Code with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Janet Siegmund languages, tools, or coding conventions to support developers in their everyday work. In this paper, we explore whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which is well established in cognitive

  12. Magnetic resonance tracking of fluorescent nanodiamond fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shames, A. I.; Osipov, V. Yu; Boudou, J. P.; Panich, A. M.; von Bardeleben, H. J.; Treussart, F.; Vul’, A. Ya

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic resonance techniques (electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)) are used for tracking the multi-stage process of the fabrication of fluorescent nanodiamonds (NDs) produced by high-energy electron irradiation, annealing, and subsequent nano-milling. Pristine commercial high pressure and high temperature microdiamonds (MDs) with mean size 150??m contain ~5? × ?1018?spins/g of singlet (S = 1/2) substitutional nitrogen defects P1, as well as sp3 C–C dangling bonds in the crystalline lattice. The half-field X-band EPR clearly shows (by the appearance of the intense ‘forbidden’ g = 4.26 line) that high-energy electron irradiation and annealing of MDs induce a large amount (~5? × ?1017?spins/g) of triplet (S = 1) magnetic centers, which are identified as negatively charged nitrogen vacancy defects (NV?). This is supported by EPR observations of the ‘allowed’ transitions between Zeeman sublevels of the triplet state. After progressive milling of the fluorescent MDs down to an ultrasubmicron scale (?100?nm), the relative abundance of EPR active NV? defects in the resulting fluorescent NDs (FND) substantially decreases and, vice versa, the content of C-inherited singlet defects correlatively increases. In the fraction of the finest FNDs (mean particle size <20?nm), which are contained in the dried supernatant of ultracentrifuged aqueous dispersion of FNDs, the NV? content is found to be reduced by one order of magnitude whereas the singlet defects content increases up to ~2? × ?1019?spins/g. In addition, another triplet-type defect, which is characterized by the g = 4.00 ‘forbidden’ line, appears. On reduction of the particle size below the 20?nm limit, the ‘allowed’ EPR lines become practically unobservable, whereas the ‘forbidden’ lines remain as a reliable fingerprint of the presence of NV? centers in small ND systems. The same size reduction causes the disappearance of the characteristic hyperfine satellites in the spectra of the P1 centers. We discuss the mechanisms that cause both the strong reduction of the peak intensity of the ‘allowed’ lines in EPR spectra of triplet defects and the transformation of the P1 spectra.

  13. Multivoxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata case.

    PubMed

    Sigirci, Ahmet; Alkan, Alpay; Kutlu, Ramazan; Gülcan, Hande

    2005-08-01

    A case of a 5-day-old newborn with rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata was investigated with multivoxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy, including chemical shift imaging maps, which disclosed a decrease in the choline peak and the choline signal intensity, respectively, in the right cerebral hemisphere. This is the second report of multivoxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy examination of the brain associated with rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata in the literature. Multivoxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy with chemical shift imaging maps has the advantage of obtaining more information in a short period of time, which shortens the duration of anesthesia and its associated risks and complications. We suggest that future efforts be directed to evaluating such patients with multivoxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy instead of single-voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PMID:16225820

  14. Plasma-induced magnetic responses during nonlinear dynamics of magnetic islands due to resonant magnetic perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Seiya

    2014-12-01

    Resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) produce magnetic islands in toroidal plasmas. Self-healing (annihilation) of RMP-induced magnetic islands has been observed in helical systems, where a possible mechanism of the self-healing is shielding of RMP penetration by plasma flows, which is well known in tokamaks. Thus, fundamental physics of RMP shielding is commonly investigated in both tokamaks and helical systems. In order to check this mechanism, detailed informations of magnetic island phases are necessary. In experiments, measurement of radial magnetic responses is relatively easy. In this study, based on a theoretical model of rotating magnetic islands, behavior of radial magnetic fields during the self-healing is investigated. It is confirmed that flips of radial magnetic fields are typically observed during the self-healing. Such behavior of radial magnetic responses is also observed in LHD experiments.

  15. Rotating-frame gradient fields for magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance in low fields

    DOEpatents

    Bouchard, Louis-Serge; Pines, Alexander; Demas, Vasiliki

    2014-01-21

    A system and method for Fourier encoding a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal is disclosed. A static magnetic field B.sub.0 is provided along a first direction. An NMR signal from the sample is Fourier encoded by applying a rotating-frame gradient field B.sub.G superimposed on the B.sub.0, where the B.sub.G comprises a vector component rotating in a plane perpendicular to the first direction at an angular frequency .omega.in a laboratory frame. The Fourier-encoded NMR signal is detected.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of pancreatitis: An update

    PubMed Central

    Manikkavasakar, Sriluxayini; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Busireddy, Kiran K; Ramalho, Miguel; Nilmini, Viragi; Alagiyawanna, Madhavi; Semelka, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and staging of acute and chronic pancreatitis and may represent the best imaging technique in the setting of pancreatitis due to its unmatched soft tissue contrast resolution as well as non-ionizing nature and higher safety profile of intravascular contrast media, making it particularly valuable in radiosensitive populations such as pregnant patients, and patients with recurrent pancreatitis requiring multiple follow-up examinations. Additional advantages include the ability to detect early forms of chronic pancreatitis and to better differentiate adenocarcinoma from focal chronic pancreatitis. This review addresses new trends in clinical pancreatic MR imaging emphasizing its role in imaging all types of acute and chronic pancreatitis, pancreatitis complications and other important differential diagnoses that mimic pancreatitis. PMID:25356038

  17. Lie detection by functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tatia M C; Liu, Ho-Ling; Tan, Li-Hai; Chan, Chetwyn C H; Mahankali, Srikanth; Feng, Ching-Mei; Hou, Jinwen; Fox, Peter T; Gao, Jia-Hong

    2002-03-01

    The accurate detection of deception or lying is a challenge to experts in many scientific disciplines. To investigate if specific cerebral activation characterized feigned memory impairment, six healthy male volunteers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging with a block-design paradigm while they performed forced-choice memory tasks involving both simulated malingering and under normal control conditions. Malingering that demonstrated the existence and involvement of a prefrontal-parietal-sub-cortical circuit with feigned memory impairment produced distinct patterns of neural activation. Because astute liars feign memory impairment successfully in testing once they understand the design of the measure being employed, our study represents an extremely significant preliminary step towards the development of valid and sensitive methods for the detection of deception. PMID:11835606

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Hash, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) affords high-resolution visualization of the soft tissue structures (menisci, ligaments, cartilage, etc) and bone marrow of the knee. Evidence Acquisition: Pertinent clinical and research articles in the orthopaedic and radiology literature over the past 30 years using PubMed. Results: Ligament tears can be accurately assessed with MRI, but distinguishing partial tears from ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) can be challenging. Determining the extent of a partial tear is often extremely difficult to accurately assess. The status of the posterolateral corner structures, menisci, and cartilage can be accurately evaluated, although limitations in the evaluation of certain structures exist. Patellofemoral joint, marrow, tibiofibular joint, and synovial pathology can supplement physical examination findings and provide definitive diagnosis. Conclusions: MRI provides an accurate noninvasive assessment of knee pathology. PMID:24381701

  19. Musculoskeletal applications of nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, K.L. Jr.; Genant, H.K.; Helms, C.A.; Chafetz, N.I.; Crooks, L.E.; Kaufman, L.

    1983-04-01

    Thirty healthy subjects and 15 patients with a variety of musculoskeletal disorders were examined by conventional radiography, computed tomography (CT), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). NMR proved capable of demonstrating important anatomic structures in the region of the lumbosacral spine. Lumbar disk protrusion was demonstrated in three patients with CT evidence of the disease. NMR appeared to differentiate annulus fibrosus from nucleus pulposus in intervertebral disk material. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head was demonstrated in two patients. The cruciate ligaments of the knee were well defined by NMR. Musceles, tendons and ligaments, and blood vessels could be reliably differentiated, and the excellent soft-tissue contrast of NMR proved useful in the evaluation of bony and soft-tissue tumors. NMR holds promise in the evaluation of musculoskeletal disorders.

  20. Magnetic resonance microscopy of osteoporotic bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toffanin, Renato; Szomolanyi, Pavol; Jellúš, Vladimír; Cova, Maria; Pozzi-Mucelli, Roberto S.; Vittur, Franco

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) may be very useful in the ex vivo study of osteoporosis as non destructive technique able to provide three dimensional information of the bone architecture. However, the trabecular width appears larger in conventional MR images, as the susceptibility effect at the bone-marrow interface causes signal dephasing. Such an effect can be minimized if the echo-time (TE) or voxel size are reduced. The purpose of our research was the development of new MRM techniques that have a potential role in the characterization of trabecular bone architecture. In this study we describe the use of short-TE projection reconstruction MRM for the study of normal and osteoporotic bone explants. This method promises to be more accurate than conventional MRM in the analysis of trabecular bone. In vivo projection reconstruction MR imaging could be applied to evaluate bone architecture and bone quality evolution after space flight exposure. .

  1. In vivo nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, A.; Evans, H.; Bryan, R. N.; Johnson, P.; Schonfeld, E.; Jhingran, S. G.

    1984-01-01

    A number of physiological changes have been demonstrated in bone, muscle and blood after exposure of humans and animals to microgravity. Determining mechanisms and the development of effective countermeasures for long duration space missions is an important NASA goal. The advent of tomographic nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR or MRI) gives NASA a way to greatly extend early studies of this phenomena in ways not previously possible; NMR is also noninvasive and safe. NMR provides both superb anatomical images for volume assessments of individual organs and quantification of chemical/physical changes induced in the examined tissues. The feasibility of NMR as a tool for human physiological research as it is affected by microgravity is demonstrated. The animal studies employed the rear limb suspended rat as a model of mucle atrophy that results from microgravity. And bedrest of normal male subjects was used to simulate the effects of microgravity on bone and muscle.

  2. Oxygenation-sensitive cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Oxygenation-sensitive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a non-contrast technique that allows the non-invasive assessment of myocardial oxygenation. It capitalizes on the fact that deoxygenated hemoglobin in blood can act as an intrinsic contrast agent, changing proton signals in a fashion that can be imaged to reflect the level of blood oxygenation. Increases in O2 saturation increase the BOLD imaging signal (T2 or T2*), whereas decreases diminish it. This review presents the basic concepts and limitations of the BOLD technique, and summarizes the preclinical and clinical studies in the assessment of myocardial oxygenation with a focus on recent advances. Finally, it provides future directions and a brief look at emerging techniques of this evolving CMR field. PMID:23706167

  3. The magnetic resonance imaging-linac system.

    PubMed

    Lagendijk, Jan J W; Raaymakers, Bas W; van Vulpen, Marco

    2014-07-01

    The current image-guided radiotherapy systems are suboptimal in the esophagus, pancreas, kidney, rectum, lymph node, etc. These locations in the body are not easily accessible for fiducials and cannot be visualized sufficiently on cone-beam computed tomographies, making daily patient set-up prone to geometrical uncertainties and hinder dose optimization. Additional interfraction and intrafraction uncertainties for those locations arise from motion with breathing and organ filling. To allow real-time imaging of all patient tumor locations at the actual treatment position a fully integrated 1.5-T, diagnostic quality, magnetic resonance imaging with a 6-MV linear accelerator is presented. This system must enable detailed dose painting at all body locations. PMID:24931095

  4. Magnetic Resonance Studies of Energy Storage Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez Reina, Rafael

    In today's society there is high demand to have access to energy for portable devices in different forms. Capacitors with high performance in small package to achieve high charge/discharge rates, and batteries with their ability to store electricity and make energy mobile are part of this demand. The types of internal dielectric material strongly affect the characteristics of a capacitor, and its applications. In a battery, the choice of the electrolyte plays an important role in the Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) formation, and the cathode material for high output voltage. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are research techniques that exploit the magnetic properties of the electron and certain atomic nuclei to determine physical and chemical properties of the atoms or molecules in which they are contained. Both EPR and NMR spectroscopy technique can yield meaningful structural and dynamic information. Three different projects are discussed in this dissertation. First, High energy density capacitors where EPR measurements described herein provide an insight into structural and chemical differences in the dielectric material of a capacitor. Next, as the second project, Electrolyte solutions where an oxygen-17 NMR study has been employed to assess the degree of preferential solvation of Li+ ions in binary mixtures of EC (ethylene carbonate) and DMC (dimethyl carbonate) containing LiPF6 (lithium hexafluo-rophosphate) which may be ultimately related to the SEI formation mechanism. The third project was to study Bismuth fluoride as cathode material for rechargeable batteries. The objective was to study 19F and 7Li MAS NMR of some nanocomposite cathode materials as a conversion reaction occurring during lithiation and delithation of the BiF3/C nanocomposite.

  5. Could magnetic resonance provide in vivo histology?

    PubMed Central

    Dominietto, Marco; Rudin, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of a suspected tumor lesion faces two basic problems: detection and identification of the specific type of tumor. Radiological techniques are commonly used for the detection and localization of solid tumors. Prerequisite is a high intrinsic or enhanced contrast between normal and neoplastic tissue. Identification of the tumor type is still based on histological analysis. The result depends critically on the sampling sites, which given the inherent heterogeneity of tumors, constitutes a major limitation. Non-invasive in vivo imaging might overcome this limitation providing comprehensive three-dimensional morphological, physiological, and metabolic information as well as the possibility for longitudinal studies. In this context, magnetic resonance based techniques are quite attractive since offer at the same time high spatial resolution, unique soft tissue contrast, good temporal resolution to study dynamic processes and high chemical specificity. The goal of this paper is to review the role of magnetic resonance techniques in characterizing tumor tissue in vivo both at morphological and physiological levels. The first part of this review covers methods, which provide information on specific aspects of tumor phenotypes, considered as indicators of malignancy. These comprise measurements of the inflammatory status, neo-vascular physiology, acidosis, tumor oxygenation, and metabolism together with tissue morphology. Even if the spatial resolution is not sufficient to characterize the tumor phenotype at a cellular level, this multiparametric information might potentially be used for classification of tumors. The second part discusses mathematical tools, which allow characterizing tissue based on the acquired three-dimensional data set. In particular, methods addressing tumor heterogeneity will be highlighted. Finally, we address the potential and limitation of using MRI as a tool to provide in vivo tissue characterization. PMID:24454320

  6. Burn injury by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Eising, Ernst G; Hughes, Justin; Nolte, Frank; Jentzen, Walter; Bockisch, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging has become a standard diagnostic procedure in clinical medicine and is well known to have hazards for patients with pacemaker or metallic foreign bodies. Compared to CT, the frequency of MRI examinations is increasing due to the missing exposure of the patients by X-rays. Furthermore, high-field magnetic resonance tomograph (MRT) with 3 T has entered clinical practice, and 7-T systems are installed in multiple scientific institutions. On the other hand, the possibility of burn injuries has been reported only in very few cases. Based on a clinical finding of a burn injury in a 31-year-old male patient during a routine MRI of the lumbar spine with standard protocol, the MR scanner was checked and the examination was simulated in an animal model. The patient received a third-degree burn injury of the skin of the right hand and pelvis in a small region of skin contact. The subsequent control of the MRI scanner indicated no abnormal values for radiofrequency (RF) and power. In the subsequent animal experiment, comparable injuries could only be obtained by high RF power in a microwave stove. It is concluded that 'tissue loops' resulting from a contact between hand and pelvis must be avoided. With regard to forensic aspects, the need to inform patients of such a minimal risk can be avoided if the patients are adequately positioned using an isolating material between the hands and pelvis. These facts must be emphasized more in the future, if high-field MRI with stronger RF gradients is available in routine imaging. PMID:20630342

  7. Novel Detection Schemes of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Applications from Analytical Chemistry to Molecular Sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elad Harel; Leif Schröder; Shoujun Xu

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a well-established analytical technique in chemistry. The ability to precisely control the nuclear spin interactions that give rise to the NMR phenomenon has led to revolutionary advances in fields as diverse as protein structure determination and medical diagnosis. Here, we discuss methods for increasing the sensitivity of magnetic resonance experiments, moving away from the paradigm

  8. Controlling interactions between highly magnetic atoms with Feshbach resonances.

    PubMed

    Kotochigova, Svetlana

    2014-09-01

    This paper reviews current experimental and theoretical progress in the study of dipolar quantum gases of ground and meta-stable atoms with a large magnetic moment. We emphasize the anisotropic nature of Feshbach resonances due to coupling to fast-rotating resonant molecular states in ultracold s-wave collisions between magnetic atoms in external magnetic fields. The dramatic differences in the distribution of resonances of magnetic (7)S3 chromium and magnetic lanthanide atoms with a submerged 4f shell and non-zero electron angular momentum is analyzed. We focus on dysprosium and erbium as important experimental advances have been recently made to cool and create quantum-degenerate gases for these atoms. Finally, we describe progress in locating resonances in collisions of meta-stable magnetic atoms in electronic P-states with ground-state atoms, where an interplay between collisional anisotropies and spin-orbit coupling exists. PMID:25221938

  9. Anatomy & Physiology

    MedlinePLUS

    Search SEER Training: SEER Training Modules Print Home Glossary Citation Help Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro ...

  10. REVISIONES Principios básicos de resonancia magnética cardiovascular (RMC): secuencias, planos de adquisición y protocolo de estudio Basic principles of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR): sequences, acquisition planes and study protocol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Hernández; B. Zudaire; S. Castaño; P. Azcárate; A. Villanueva; G. Bastarrika

    Evaluation of the cardiovascular system with magnetic resonance (CMR) has become one of the most relevant and up-to-the-minute clinical applications of this diagnostic technique, as CMR makes possible an exact and reproducible study of the anatomy and function of the heart and great vessels. The complexity of this technique is mainly due to the anatomical location and orientation of the

  11. Efficient heteronuclear dipolar decoupling in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance at rotary resonance conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Subhradip; Mithu, Venus Singh; Kurur, Narayanan D.; Madhu, P. K.

    2010-03-01

    We introduce here a heteronuclear dipolar decoupling scheme in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance that performs efficiently at the rotary resonance conditions, where otherwise dipolar couplings are re-introduced. Results are shown proving the efficiency of this scheme at two magnetic fields under magic-angle spinning frequencies of 30 and 20 kHz.

  12. Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR) of Triplet States in Photosynthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnold J. Hoff

    The triplet state of aromatic molecules and of polyenes is a versatile probe of molecular structure and of the interactions\\u000a with the environment, through the zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters and the sublevel decay rates. These tripletproperties\\u000a can be determined accurately with magnetic resonance. Optical detection of magnetic resonance (ODMR) is often advantageous\\u000a because it pairs the frequency resolution of magnetic

  13. Cardiac imaging using gated magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Lanzer, P.; Botvinick, E.H.; Schiller, N.B.

    1984-01-01

    To overcome the limitations of magnetic resonance (MR) cardiac imaging using nongated data acquisition, three methods for acquiring a gating signal, which could be applied in the presence of a magnetic field, were tested; an air-filled plethysmograph, a laser-Doppler capillary perfusion flowmeter, and an electrocardiographic gating device. The gating signal was used for timing of MR imaging sequences (IS). Application of each gating method yielded significant improvements in structural MR image resolution of the beating heart, although with both plethysmography and laser-Doppler velocimetry it was difficult to obtain cardiac images from the early portion of the cardiac cycle due to an intrinsic delay between the ECG R wave and peripheral detection of the gating signal. Variations in the temporal relationship between the R wave and plethysmographic and laser-Doppler signals produced inconsistencies in the timing of IS. Since the ECG signal is virtually free of these problems, the preferable gating technique is IS synchronization with an electrocardiogram. The gated images acquired with this method provide sharp definition of internal cardiac morphology and can be temporarily referenced to end diastole and end systole or intermediate points.

  14. Contrast mechanisms in magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepage, M.; Gore, J. C.

    2004-01-01

    The first publications describing gel dosimetry used magnetic resonance imaging to detect changes in the proton longitudinal relaxation rate of a gel infused with ferrous ions and irradiated with ionizing radiation. Later, different gel dosimeter systems were proposed that are based on the free-radical polymerization of monomers dispersed in a gel matrix. In these polymer gels, changes in transverse relaxation rates were shown to be dependent on the absorbed dose. More recently, contrast in MR images based on the exchange of magnetization between polymer and water protons, following saturation of the polymer protons, has been exploited in polymer gel dosimeters. In addition, variations in relaxation times in the rotating frame (T1?) have been shown to produce contrast in MR images of irradiated polymer gel dosimeters. The signal and contrast in MR images may be manipulated to reflect a variety of these and other processes within an irradiated sample, An attempt is made here to provide an overview of the main different types of MRI contrast that may be used in gel dosimetry and, where possible, to relate this contrast to the nature of the chemical processes and structural changes that occur within the gels following the absorption of ionizing radiation.

  15. Thoracic magnetic resonance imaging: pulmonary thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Fink, Christian; Henzler, Thomas; Shirinova, Aysel; Apfaltrer, Paul; Wasser, Klaus

    2013-05-01

    Ongoing technical developments have substantially improved the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the assessment of the pulmonary circulation. These developments includes improved magnet and hardware design, new k-space sampling techniques (ie, parallel imaging), and alternative contrast materials. With these techniques, not only can pulmonary vessels be visualized by MR angiography with high spatial resolution but also the perfusion of the lungs and its changes in relation to pulmonary thromboembolism (PE) can be assessed. Considering venous thromboembolism as a systemic disease, MR venography might be added for the diagnosis of underlying deep venous thrombosis. A unique advantage of MRI over other imaging tests is its potential to evaluate changes in cardiac function as a result of obstruction of the pulmonary circulation, which may have a significant impact on patient monitoring and treatment. Finally, MRI does not involve radiation, which is advantageous, especially in young patients. Over the years, a number of studies have shown promising results not only for MR angiography but also for MRI of lung perfusion and for MR venography. This review article summarizes and discusses the current evidence on pulmonary MRI for patients with suspected PE. PMID:23545949

  16. Ultrahigh-Resolution Magnetic Resonance in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields: Two-Dimensional Long-Lived-Coherence Correlation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinthalapalli, Srinivas; Bornet, Aurélien; Segawa, Takuya F.; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Jannin, Sami; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2012-07-01

    A half-century quest for improving resolution in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has enabled the study of molecular structures, biological interactions, and fine details of anatomy. This progress largely relied on the advent of sophisticated superconducting magnets that can provide stable and homogeneous fields with temporal and spatial variations below ?B0/B0<0.01ppm. In many cases however, inherent properties of the objects under investigation, pulsating arteries, breathing lungs, tissue-air interfaces, surgical implants, etc., lead to fluctuations and losses of local homogeneity. A new method dubbed “long-lived-coherence correlation spectroscopy” (LLC-COSY) opens the way to overcome both inhomogeneous and homogeneous broadening, which arise from local variations in static fields and fluctuating dipole-dipole interactions, respectively. LLC-COSY makes it possible to obtain ultrahigh resolution two-dimensional spectra, with linewidths on the order of ??=0.1 to 1 Hz, even in very inhomogeneous fields (?B0/B0>10ppm or 5000 Hz at 9.7 T), and can improve resolution by a factor up to 9 when the homogeneous linewidths are determined by dipole-dipole interactions. The resulting LLC-COSY spectra display chemical shift differences and scalar couplings in two orthogonal dimensions, like in “J spectroscopy.” LLC-COSY does not require any sophisticated gradient switching or frequency-modulated pulses. Applications to in-cell NMR and to magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of selected volume elements in MRI appear promising, particularly when susceptibility variations tend to preclude high resolution.

  17. Improvements in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Excitation Pulse Design

    E-print Network

    Goyal, Vivek K

    Improvements in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Excitation Pulse Design by Adam Charles Zelinski magnetic spins are tilted by only a small amount, pulse transmission may be interpreted as depositing by . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Terry P. Orlando Chairman, Department Committee on Graduate Students #12;2 #12;Improvements in Magnetic

  18. Insertable biplanar gradient coils for magnetic resonance imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Martens; L. S. Petropoulos; R. W. Brown; J. H. Andrews; M. A. Morich; J. L. Patrick

    1991-01-01

    Insertable planar gradient coils offer the potential for significant performance increases in magnetic resonance imaging through higher gradient strength and shorter rise times. Using variational methods to minimize inductance, and thereby to optimize switching speeds, we have analyzed and constructed a biplanar y-gradient coil for insertion into a solenoidal magnet system where z is the magnet axis. We have also

  19. Tuning Coler Magnetic Current Apparatus with Magneto-Acoustic Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Thorsten

    An attempt was made to tune the Coler magnetic current apparatus with the magneto acoustic resonance of the magnetic rods. Measurements with a replica of the famous Coler "Magnetstromapparat" were conducted. In order to tune the acoustic, magnetic and electric resonance circuits of the Coler device the magneto-acoustic resonance was measured with a frequency scan through a function generator and a lock-in amplifier. The frequency generator was powering a driving coil, while the lock-in was connected to a pickup coil. Both coils were placed on a magnetic rod. Resonances were observed up to the 17th harmonic. The quality Q of the observed resonances was 270. To study the magneto-acoustic resonance in the time domain a pair of Permendur rods were employed. The magneto-acoustic resonances of the Permendur rods were observed with an oscilloscope. Spectra of the magneto acoustic resonance were measured for the Permendur rods and for a Coler replica magnet in the frequency range from 25 kHz to 380 kHz. The next step was to bring the resonances of the Permendur rods close together so that they overlap. The 10thharmonic was chosen because it was close to the 180 kHz that Hans Coler related to ferromagnetism. Further more magneto-acoustic coupling between the Permendur rods was studied. Finally the question was explored if Hans Coler converted vacuum fluctuations via magnetic and acoustic resonance into electricity. There is a strong connection between magnetism and quantum field zero point energy (ZPE). An outlook is given on next steps in the experiments to unveil the working mechanism of the Coler magnetic current apparatus.

  20. Purcell factor of Mie resonators featuring electric and magnetic modes

    E-print Network

    Zambrana-Puyalto, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    We present a modal approach to compute the Purcell factor in Mie resonators exhibiting both electric and magnetic resonances. The analytic expressions of the normal modes are used to calculate the effective volumes. We show that important features of the effective volume can be predicted thanks to the translation-addition coefficients of a displaced dipole. Using our formalism, it is easy to see that, in general, the Purcell factor of Mie resonators is not dominated by a single mode, but rather by a large superposition. Finally we consider a silicon resonator homogeneously doped with electric dipolar emitters, and we show that the average electric Purcell factor dominates over the magnetic one.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Brant-Zawadzki, M.; Norman, D.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of disorders of the central nervous system, spine, neck, and nasopharynx. The book provides guidance in performing and interpreting MRI studies for specific clinical problems. Images showing pathologic findings for various disorders and demonstrating how abnormalities detected in MRI scans can aid both in differential diagnosis and clinical staging are shown. The book summarizes the basic principles of MRI and describes equipment components and contrast agents. Explanations of common artifacts and pitfalls in image interpretation and of pathophysiologic correlates of signal alterations in magnetic resonance imaging are given. A review of the principles and potential applications of magnetic resonance spectroscopy is also included.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging of the maxilla and mandible: signal characteristics and features in the differential diagnosis of common lesions.

    PubMed

    Mosier, Kristine M

    2015-02-01

    The maxilla and mandible are among the most difficult areas of the body to image with magnetic resonance techniques owing to the geometry of the jaws as well as the frequent susceptibility artifacts from dental restorations or appliances. This chapter briefly reviews the essentials of imaging techniques and basic anatomy and discusses the most common inflammatory conditions, benign and malignant lesions of the jaws, and temporomandibular joint. This review emphasizes and illustrates specific magnetic resonance features that facilitate characterization and diagnostic differentiation of these lesions. As the focus of this review is on the differentiation of infection and benign and malignant disease, a discussion of internal derangements and associated inflammatory disorders of the temporomandibular joint is beyond the scope of this review and is not discussed. PMID:25654419

  3. Bipolar programmable current supply for superconducting nuclear magnetic resonance magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koivuniemi, Jaakko; Luusalo, Reeta; Hakonen, Pertti

    1998-09-01

    In high resolution continuous-wave nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) work well-reproducible, linear sweeps of current are needed. We have developed a microcontroller based programmable current supply, tested with superconducting magnets with inductance of 10 mH and 10 H. We achieved a resolution and noise of 4 ppm. The supply has an internal sweep with programmable ramping rate and a possibility for remote operation from a computer with either GPIB or RS232 interface. It is based on an 18-bit D/A converter. The maximum output current is ±10 A, the sweep rate can be set between 1 ?A/s-140 mA/s, and the maximum output voltage is ±2.5 V. In work at ultralow temperatures, especially in superconducting quantum interference device NMR, all rf interference to the experiment should be avoided. One of the sources of this kind of unwanted input is the digital switching noise of fast logic devices. We discuss this problem in the context of our design.

  4. Partial volume effect modeling for segmentation and tissue classification of brain magnetic resonance images: A review

    PubMed Central

    Tohka, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of magnetic resonance (MR) brain images are facilitated by the development of automated segmentation algorithms. A single image voxel may contain of several types of tissues due to the finite spatial resolution of the imaging device. This phenomenon, termed partial volume effect (PVE), complicates the segmentation process, and, due to the complexity of human brain anatomy, the PVE is an important factor for accurate brain structure quantification. Partial volume estimation refers to a generalized segmentation task where the amount of each tissue type within each voxel is solved. This review aims to provide a systematic, tutorial-like overview and categorization of methods for partial volume estimation in brain MRI. The review concentrates on the statistically based approaches for partial volume estimation and also explains differences to other, similar image segmentation approaches. PMID:25431640

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of oscillating electrical currents.

    PubMed

    Halpern-Manners, Nicholas W; Bajaj, Vikram S; Teisseyre, Thomas Z; Pines, Alexander

    2010-05-11

    Functional MRI has become an important tool of researchers and clinicians who seek to understand patterns of neuronal activation that accompany sensory and cognitive processes. However, the interpretation of fMRI images rests on assumptions about the relationship between neuronal firing and hemodynamic response that are not firmly grounded in rigorous theory or experimental evidence. Further, the blood-oxygen-level-dependent effect, which correlates an MRI observable to neuronal firing, evolves over a period that is 2 orders of magnitude longer than the underlying processes that are thought to cause it. Here, we instead demonstrate experiments to directly image oscillating currents by MRI. The approach rests on a resonant interaction between an applied rf field and an oscillating magnetic field in the sample and, as such, permits quantitative, frequency-selective measurements of current density without spatial or temporal cancellation. We apply this method in a current loop phantom, mapping its magnetic field and achieving a detection sensitivity near the threshold required for the detection of neuronal currents. Because the contrast mechanism is under spectroscopic control, we are able to demonstrate how ramped and phase-modulated spin-lock radiation can enhance the sensitivity and robustness of the experiment. We further demonstrate the combination of these methods with remote detection, a technique in which the encoding and detection of an MRI experiment are separated by sample flow or translation. We illustrate that remotely detected MRI permits the measurement of currents in small volumes of flowing water with high sensitivity and spatial resolution. PMID:20421504

  6. Microscopic magnetic resonance elastography (?MRE) applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Shadi F.; Xu, Huihui; Royston, Thomas J.; Magin, Richard L.

    2005-04-01

    Microscopic magnetic resonance elastography (?MRE) is a phase contrast based imaging technique that is capable of mapping the acoustic shear waves resulting from low amplitude cyclic displacement in tissue-like materials. This new technique has proven successful in imaging gel phantoms mimicking soft biological tissues with shear moduli ranging from 0.7 to 40 kPa. The 4-dimensional (4D) spatial-temporal shear wave vector can be measured, which in turn can be used to identify material properties with high spatial resolution. Experiments were conducted using 5 and 10 mm RF saddle coils in the 10 mm vertical imaging bore of an 11.74 Tesla magnet. The field-of-view ranged from 4 to 14 mm, with in plane resolution up to 34 ?m x 34 ?m and slice thickness up to 100 ?m using shear wave excitation of 550 to 580 Hz. In this study, the capability and constraints of ?MRE are investigated. The constraints include the range of measured shear moduli, excitation frequency, and minimum physical sample volume. Applications investigated include: 1) late-stage frog oocytes with typical diameter from 1 to 1.5 mm; and 2) tissue engineered constructs at different growth stages. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) extracted from bone marrow can serve as progenitor cells that differentiate into specific types of tissues such as bone, adipose tissue, cartilage and muscle. ?MRE can monitor the growth of such tissues and evaluate their mechanical properties. Also, a silicon-based tissue phantom material (CF-11-2188, Nusil Technologies) is tested in order to address challenges associated with excitation frequency and the dispersive nature of the media.

  7. Radiofrequency coils for magnetic resonance applications: theory, design, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Giovannetti, Giulio; Hartwig, Valentina; Positano, Vincenzo; Vanello, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy are noninvasive diagnostic techniques based on the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance. Radiofrequency coils are key components in both the transmission and receiving phases of magnetic resonance systems. Transmitter coils have to produce a highly homogeneous alternating field in a wide field of view, whereas receiver coils have to maximize signal detection while minimizing noise. Development of modern magnetic resonance coils often is based on numerical methods for simulating and predicting coil performance. Numerical methods allows the behavior of the coil in the presence of realistic loads to be simulated and the coil's efficiency at high magnetic fields to be investigated. After being built, coils have to be characterized in the laboratory to optimize their setting and performance by extracting several quality indices. Successively, coils performance has to be evaluated in a scanner using standardized image quality parameters with phantom and human experiments. This article reviews the principles of radiofrequency coils, coil performance parameters, and their estimation methods using simulations, workbench, and magnetic resonance experiments. Finally, an overview of future developments in radiofrequency coils technology is included. PMID:25403875

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging: present and future applications

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Donald L.; Liu, Peter; Wismer, Gary L.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Stark, David D.; New, Paul F.J.; Okada, Robert D.; Brady, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has created considerable excitement in the medical community, largely because of its great potential to diagnose and characterize many different disease processes. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that, because MR imaging is similar to computed tomography (CT) scanning in identifying structural disorders and because it is more costly and difficult to use, this highly useful technique must be judged against CT before it can become an accepted investigative tool. At present MR imaging has demonstrated diagnostic superiority over CT in a limited number of important, mostly neurologic, disorders and is complementary to CT in the diagnosis of certain other disorders. For most of the remaining organ systems its usefulness is not clear, but the lack of ionizing radiation and MR's ability to produce images in any tomographic plane may eventually prove to be advantageous. The potential of MR imaging to display in-vivo spectra, multinuclear images and blood-flow data makes it an exciting investigative technique. At present, however, MR imaging units should be installed only in medical centres equipped with the clinical and basic research facilities that are essential to evaluate the ultimate role of this technique in the care of patients. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14 PMID:3884120

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of the kidneys

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, A.W.L.; Bydder, G.M.; Steinter, R.E.; Bryant, D.J.; Young, I.R.

    1984-12-01

    A study of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the kidneys in six normal volunteers and 52 patients is reported. Corticomedullary differentiation was seen with the inversion-recovery (IR 1400/400) sequence in the normal volunteers and in patients with functioning transplanted kidneys and acute tubular necrosis. Partial or total loss of corticomedullary differentiation was seen in glomerulonephritis, acute and chronic renal failure, renal artery stenosis, and transplant rejection. The T1 of the kidneys was increased in glomerulonephritis with neuphrotic syndrome, but the T1 was within the normal range for renal medulla in glomerulonephritis without nephrotic syndrome, renal artery stenosis, and chronic renal failure. A large staghorn calculus was demonstrated with MRI, but small calculi were not seen. Fluid within the hydonephrosis, simple renal cysts, and polycystic kidneys displayed very low signal intensity and long T1 values. Tumors displayed varied appearances. Hypernephromas were shown to be hypo- or hyperintense with the renal medulla on the IR 1400/400 sequence. After intravenous injection of gadolinium-DTPA, there was marked decrease in the tumor T1.

  10. Interventional and intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kettenbach, J; Kacher, D F; Koskinen, S K; Silverman, S G; Nabavi, A; Gering, D; Tempany, C M; Schwartz, R B; Kikinis, R; Black, P M; Jolesz, F A

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Image Guided Therapy Program, as the name implies, is to develop the use of imaging to guide minimally invasive therapy. The program combines interventional and intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with high-performance computing and novel therapeutic devices. In clinical practice the multidisciplinary program provides for the investigation of a wide range of interventional and surgical procedures. The Signa SP 0.5 T superconducting MRI system (GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI) has a 56-cm-wide vertical gap, allowing access to the patient and permitting the execution of interactive MRI-guided procedures. This system is integrated with an optical tracking system and utilizes flexible surface coils and MRI-compatible displays to facilitate procedures. Images are obtained with routine pulse sequences. Nearly real-time imaging, with fast gradient-recalled echo sequences, may be acquired at a rate of one image every 1.5 s with interactive image plane selection. Since 1994, more than 800 of these procedures, including various percutaneous procedures and open surgeries, have been successfully performed at Brigham and Women's Hospital (Boston, MA). PMID:11701527

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Trattnig, Siegfried; Winalski, Carl S.; Marlovits, Stephan; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Welsch, Goetz H.; Potter, Hollis G.

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage lesions are a common pathology of the knee joint, and many patients may benefit from cartilage repair surgeries that offer the chance to avoid the development of osteoarthritis or delay its progression. Cartilage repair surgery, no matter the technique, requires a noninvasive, standardized, and high-quality longitudinal method to assess the structure of the repair tissue. This goal is best fulfilled by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The present article provides an overview of the current state of the art of MRI of cartilage repair. In the first 2 sections, preclinical and clinical MRI of cartilage repair tissue are described with a focus on morphological depiction of cartilage and the use of functional (biochemical) MR methodologies for the visualization of the ultrastructure of cartilage repair. In the third section, a short overview is provided on the regulatory issues of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) regarding MR follow-up studies of patients after cartilage repair surgeries.

  12. Constraining groundwater modeling with magnetic resonance soundings.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Marie; Favreau, Guillaume; Nazoumou, Yahaya; Cappelaere, Bernard; Massuel, Sylvain; Legchenko, Anatoly

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) is a noninvasive geophysical method that allows estimating the free water content and transmissivity of aquifers. In this article, the ability of MRS to improve the reliability of a numerical groundwater model is assessed. Thirty-five sites were investigated by MRS over a ?5000 km(2) domain of the sedimentary Continental Terminal aquifer in SW Niger. Time domain electromagnetic soundings were jointly carried out to estimate the aquifer thickness. A groundwater model was previously built for this section of the aquifer and forced by the outputs from a distributed surface hydrology model, to simulate the observed long-term (1992 to 2003) rise in the water table. Uncertainty analysis had shown that independent estimates of the free water content and transmissivity values of the aquifer would facilitate cross-evaluation of the surface-water and groundwater models. MRS results indicate ranges for permeability (K = 1 × 10(-5) to 3 × 10(-4) m/s) and for free water content (w = 5% to 23% m(3) /m(3) ) narrowed by two orders of magnitude (K) and by ?50% (w), respectively, compared to the ranges of permeability and specific yield values previously considered. These shorter parameter ranges result in a reduction in the model's equifinality (whereby multiple combinations of model's parameters are able to represent the same observed piezometric levels), allowing a better constrained estimate to be derived for net aquifer recharge (?22 mm/year). PMID:22150349

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Living Brain

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbloom, Margaret J.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a safe, noninvasive method to examine the brain’s macrostructure, microstructure, and some aspects of how the living brain functions. MRI is capable of detecting abnormalities that can occur with alcoholism as well as changes that can occur with sobriety and relapse. The brain pathology associated with chronic excessive alcohol consumption is well documented with imaging of the living body (i.e., in vivo imaging). Consistent findings include shrinkage of the frontal cortex,1 underlying white matter, and cerebellum and expansion of the ventricles. Some of these changes are reversible with abstinence, but some appear to be enduring. Research showing correlations between brain structure and quantitative neuropsychological testing demonstrates the functional consequences of the pathology. In addition, functional imaging studies provide evidence that the brain compensates for cognitive deficits. The myriad concomitants of alcoholism, the antecedents, and the consumption patterns each may influence the observed brain changes associated with alcoholism, which tend to be more deleterious with increasing age. The multifaceted nature of alcoholism presents unique challenges and opportunities to understand the mechanisms underlying alcoholism-induced neuropathology and its recovery. Longitudinal MRI studies of animal models of alcoholism, however, can address questions about the development and course of alcohol dependence and the scope and limits of in vivo degeneration and recovery of brain structure and concomitant function that may not be readily addressed in clinical studies. PMID:23584010

  14. Magnetic Resonance Image Example Based Contrast Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Snehashis; Carass, Aaron; Prince, Jerry L.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of image analysis algorithms applied to magnetic resonance images is strongly influenced by the pulse sequences used to acquire the images. Algorithms are typically optimized for a targeted tissue contrast obtained from a particular implementation of a pulse sequence on a specific scanner. There are many practical situations, including multi-institution trials, rapid emergency scans, and scientific use of historical data, where the images are not acquired according to an optimal protocol or the desired tissue contrast is entirely missing. This paper introduces an image restoration technique that recovers images with both the desired tissue contrast and a normalized intensity profile. This is done using patches in the acquired images and an atlas containing patches of the acquired and desired tissue contrasts. The method is an example-based approach relying on sparse reconstruction from image patches. Its performance in demonstrated using several examples, including image intensity normalization, missing tissue contrast recovery, automatic segmentation, and multimodal registration. These examples demonstrate potential practical uses and also illustrate limitations of our approach. PMID:24058022

  15. INVITED TOPICAL REVIEW: Parallel magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkman, David J.; Nunes, Rita G.

    2007-04-01

    Parallel imaging has been the single biggest innovation in magnetic resonance imaging in the last decade. The use of multiple receiver coils to augment the time consuming Fourier encoding has reduced acquisition times significantly. This increase in speed comes at a time when other approaches to acquisition time reduction were reaching engineering and human limits. A brief summary of spatial encoding in MRI is followed by an introduction to the problem parallel imaging is designed to solve. There are a large number of parallel reconstruction algorithms; this article reviews a cross-section, SENSE, SMASH, g-SMASH and GRAPPA, selected to demonstrate the different approaches. Theoretical (the g-factor) and practical (coil design) limits to acquisition speed are reviewed. The practical implementation of parallel imaging is also discussed, in particular coil calibration. How to recognize potential failure modes and their associated artefacts are shown. Well-established applications including angiography, cardiac imaging and applications using echo planar imaging are reviewed and we discuss what makes a good application for parallel imaging. Finally, active research areas where parallel imaging is being used to improve data quality by repairing artefacted images are also reviewed.

  16. TOPICAL REVIEW: Endovascular interventional magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, L. W.; Bakker, C. J. G.

    2003-07-01

    Minimally invasive interventional radiological procedures, such as balloon angioplasty, stent placement or coiling of aneurysms, play an increasingly important role in the treatment of patients suffering from vascular disease. The non-destructive nature of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), its ability to combine the acquisition of high quality anatomical images and functional information, such as blood flow velocities, perfusion and diffusion, together with its inherent three dimensionality and tomographic imaging capacities, have been advocated as advantages of using the MRI technique for guidance of endovascular radiological interventions. Within this light, endovascular interventional MRI has emerged as an interesting and promising new branch of interventional radiology. In this review article, the authors will give an overview of the most important issues related to this field. In this context, we will focus on the prerequisites for endovascular interventional MRI to come to maturity. In particular, the various approaches for device tracking that were proposed will be discussed and categorized. Furthermore, dedicated MRI systems, safety and compatibility issues and promising applications that could become clinical practice in the future will be discussed.

  17. Broadband electrically detected magnetic resonance using adiabatic pulses.

    PubMed

    Hrubesch, F M; Braunbeck, G; Voss, A; Stutzmann, M; Brandt, M S

    2015-05-01

    We present a broadband microwave setup for electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) based on microwave antennae with the ability to apply arbitrarily shaped pulses for the excitation of electron spin resonance (ESR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of spin ensembles. This setup uses non-resonant stripline structures for on-chip microwave delivery and is demonstrated to work in the frequency range from 4MHz to 18GHz. ? pulse times of 50ns and 70?s for ESR and NMR transitions, respectively, are achieved with as little as 100mW of microwave or radiofrequency power. The use of adiabatic pulses fully compensates for the microwave magnetic field inhomogeneity of the stripline antennae, as demonstrated with the help of BIR4 unitary rotation pulses driving the ESR transition of neutral phosphorus donors in silicon and the NMR transitions of ionized phosphorus donors as detected by electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR). PMID:25828243

  18. Broadband electrically detected magnetic resonance using adiabatic pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrubesch, F. M.; Braunbeck, G.; Voss, A.; Stutzmann, M.; Brandt, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    We present a broadband microwave setup for electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) based on microwave antennae with the ability to apply arbitrarily shaped pulses for the excitation of electron spin resonance (ESR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of spin ensembles. This setup uses non-resonant stripline structures for on-chip microwave delivery and is demonstrated to work in the frequency range from 4 MHz to 18 GHz. ? pulse times of 50 ns and 70 ?s for ESR and NMR transitions, respectively, are achieved with as little as 100 mW of microwave or radiofrequency power. The use of adiabatic pulses fully compensates for the microwave magnetic field inhomogeneity of the stripline antennae, as demonstrated with the help of BIR4 unitary rotation pulses driving the ESR transition of neutral phosphorus donors in silicon and the NMR transitions of ionized phosphorus donors as detected by electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR).

  19. Design algorithms for parallel transmission in magnetic resonance imaging

    E-print Network

    Setsompop, Kawin

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation is on the algorithm design, implementation, and validation of parallel transmission technology in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Novel algorithms are proposed which yield excellent excitation ...

  20. Improvements in magnetic resonance imaging excitation pulse design

    E-print Network

    Zelinski, Adam Charles

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the design of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) radio-frequency (RF) excitation pulses, and its primary contributions are made through connections with the novel multiple-system single-output (MSSO) ...

  1. Model-based reconstruction of magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging

    E-print Network

    Chatnuntawech, Itthi

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique that is used to obtain images of soft tissue throughout the body. Since its development in the 1970s, MRI has gained tremendous importance in clinical practice ...

  2. Single-scan multidimensional magnetic resonance Assaf Tal, Lucio Frydman *

    E-print Network

    Frydman, Lucio

    Single-scan multidimensional magnetic resonance Assaf Tal, Lucio Frydman * The Department . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 1.1. Spatial encoding and single-scan 2D NMR spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 3. Single-scan ultrafast 2D NMR

  3. Microfluidically Cryo-Cooled Planar Coils for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    E-print Network

    Koo, Chiwan

    2013-08-09

    High signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is typically required for higher resolution and faster speed in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Planar microcoils as receiver probes in MRI systems offer the potential to be configured into array elements for fast...

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance data of CF3I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinowski, H.-O.; Kumar, M.; Gupta, V.; Gupta, R.

    This document is part of Part 1 `Aliphatic Compounds' of Subvolume D 'Chemical Shifts and Coupling Constants for Carbon-13' of Landolt-Börnstein III/35 'Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Data', Group III 'Condensed Matter'.

  5. An investigation of receiver probe development for magnetic resonance microscopy 

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Jeffrey Scott

    1995-01-01

    Much research in Magnetic Resonance Imaging has been directed toward the development of new hardware systems that can obtain high resolution images, typically on the order of tens of microns, for small field-of-views, ...

  6. Target-specific contrast agents for magnetic resonance microscopy

    E-print Network

    Hepler Blackwell, Megan Leticia

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) can be used to delineate prominent architectonic features in the human brain, but increased contrast is required to visualize more subtle distinctions. The goal ...

  7. Detection of brain metabolites in magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Kok, Trina

    2009-01-01

    While magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) derives its signal from protons in water, additional and potentially important biochemical compounds are detectable in vivo within the proton spectrum. The detection and mapping of ...

  8. A Bayesian time course model for functional magnetic resonance imaging

    E-print Network

    Worsley, Keith

    to a small number of pre-selected isolated regions (`plots'), such as Broca's or Wernicke's areas Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), and brain mapping in general, presents statisticians with new challenges

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents for chemical sensing

    E-print Network

    Liu, Vincent Hok

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used for examining the human body. MRI contrast agents currently used in the clinic assist physicians in locating problematic areas, but other tools are needed to interrogate ...

  10. Diagnosis of hematogenous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis by magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.P.; Wiener, S.N. (Mt Sinai Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (USA))

    1991-04-01

    The clinical information and imaging data from 27 patients with hematogenous pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis were reviewed. All patients had roentgenographic and magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Seventeen patients had computed tomograms; 17 had technetium Tc 99m medronate bone scans; and seven had gallium citrate Ga 67 scans. Magnetic resonance imaging, when used as a part of the initial radiologic evaluation, detected abnormalities consistent with osteomyelitis in all 27 patients. Magnetic resonance imaging also demonstrated paravertebral and/or epidural extension of infection in 14 patients, including seven patients who had neurologic signs of lower-extremity weakness. Roentgenograms, computed tomograms, technetium bone scans, and gallium scans had findings suggestive of the diagnosis in 48%, 65%, 71%, and 86% of the patients, respectively. We recommend magnetic resonance imaging as an important and perhaps critical imaging modality for detection of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis.

  11. Imaging agents for in vivo magnetic resonance and scintigraphic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Engelstad, Barry L. (Orinda, CA); Raymond, Kenneth N. (Berkeley, CA); Huberty, John P. (Corte Madera, CA); White, David L. (Oakland, CA)

    1991-01-01

    Methods are provided for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and/or scintigraphic imaging of a subject using chelated transition metal and lanthanide metal complexes. Novel ligands for these complexes are provided.

  12. Designing and characterizing hyperpolarizable silicon nanoparticles for magnetic resonance imaging

    E-print Network

    Anahtar, Melis Nuray

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is one of the most powerful noninvasive tools for diagnosing human disease, but its utility is limited because current contrast agents are ineffective when imaging air-tissue interfaces, ...

  13. Imaging agents for in vivo magnetic resonance and scintigraphic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Engelstad, B.L.; Raymond, K.N.; Huberty, J.P.; White, D.L.

    1991-04-23

    Methods are provided for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and/or scintigraphic imaging of a subject using chelated transition metal and lanthanide metal complexes. Novel ligands for these complexes are provided. No Drawings

  14. Assessment of coronary artery stenosis by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Pennell, D. J.; Bogren, H. G.; Keegan, J.; Firmin, D. N.; Underwood, S. R.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The findings of magnetic resonance and x-ray angiography were compared for assessment of coronary artery stenosis in this validation study. BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance angiography of the coronary arteries has recently been described, but there has been no comparison with x-ray angiography of localisation or assessment of important characteristics of coronary stenosis. METHODS: A breath hold, segmented k-space, 2D gradient echo imaging technique incorporating fat suppression was used in 39 patients (55 coronary stenoses) with known coronary artery disease. RESULTS: Overall, 47 stenoses (85%) were assessed by magnetic resonance (29 of 33 stenoses in the left anterior descending artery, one of one in the left main stem, 14 of 17 in the right coronary artery, and three of four in the left circumflex artery were detected). There was close agreement between magnetic resonance and x-ray angiography for the distance of the stenosis from the arterial origin (magnetic resonance mean (SD) 27 (16) mm versus x-ray angiography 27 (16) mm, P = NS, mean difference -0.2 mm). The distance to 39 stenoses (83%) agreed to within 5 mm, with increased scatter for more distal stenoses. The severity of magnetic resonance signal loss, assessed visually at the site of stenosis, varied significantly according to the percentage diameter stenosis (F = 30, P < 0.0001); stenosis severity with severe signal loss was 89 (7)%, with partial signal was 70 (16)%, and with irregular wall only 37 (11)%, with significant differences among the three groups (P < 0.001). A significant correlation was found between the proportional magnetic resonance signal loss at the stenosis and the percentage diameter stenosis severity (r = -0.67, P < 0.0001). The length of stenosis measured by magnetic resonance (6 (3) mm) was greater than by x-ray angiography (5 (2) mm, P < 0.006, mean difference +1.1 mm). Spearman's rank test showed that there was significant overestimation of stenosis length by magnetic resonance as stenosis severity increased (rs = 0.34, P < 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Accurate localisation of coronary stenosis and a qualitative assessment of stenosis severity are possible by magnetic resonance, but stenosis length is overestimated as severity increases, probably because of disturbed patterns of flow with turbulence distal to severe stenoses. Reasonable results for the detection of coronary artery stenosis by magnetic resonance were achieved in this highly selected population, but further progress in imaging techniques is necessary before moving towards appreciable clinical application. Images PMID:8673749

  15. Generalized method for partial volume estimation and tissue segmentation in cerebral magnetic resonance images

    PubMed Central

    Khademi, April; Venetsanopoulos, Anastasios; Moody, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. An artifact found in magnetic resonance images (MRI) called partial volume averaging (PVA) has received much attention since accurate segmentation of cerebral anatomy and pathology is impeded by this artifact. Traditional neurological segmentation techniques rely on Gaussian mixture models to handle noise and PVA, or high-dimensional feature sets that exploit redundancy in multispectral datasets. Unfortunately, model-based techniques may not be optimal for images with non-Gaussian noise distributions and/or pathology, and multispectral techniques model probabilities instead of the partial volume (PV) fraction. For robust segmentation, a PV fraction estimation approach is developed for cerebral MRI that does not depend on predetermined intensity distribution models or multispectral scans. Instead, the PV fraction is estimated directly from each image using an adaptively defined global edge map constructed by exploiting a relationship between edge content and PVA. The final PVA map is used to segment anatomy and pathology with subvoxel accuracy. Validation on simulated and real, pathology-free T1 MRI (Gaussian noise), as well as pathological fluid attenuation inversion recovery MRI (non-Gaussian noise), demonstrate that the PV fraction is accurately estimated and the resultant segmentation is robust. Comparison to model-based methods further highlight the benefits of the current approach.

  16. Assessment of coronary artery stenosis by magnetic resonance imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Pennell; H. G. Bogren; J. Keegan; D. N. Firmin; S. R. Underwood

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The findings of magnetic resonance and x-ray angiography were compared for assessment of coronary artery stenosis in this validation study. BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance angiography of the coronary arteries has recently been described, but there has been no comparison with x-ray angiography of localisation or assessment of important characteristics of coronary stenosis. METHODS: A breath hold, segmented k-space, 2D gradient

  17. Towards magnetic resonance imaging guided radiation therapy (MRIgRT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teodor Marius Stanescu

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this work is to address key aspects of the magnetic resonance imaging guided radiation therapy (MRIgRT) process of cancer sites. MRIgRT is implemented by using a system comprised of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner coupled with a radiation source, in our case a radiotherapy accelerator (Linac). The potential benefits of MRIgRT are the real-time tracking of

  18. Cost effectiveness of magnetic resonance imaging in the neurosciences.

    PubMed Central

    Szczepura, A K; Fletcher, J; Fitz-Patrick, J D

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To measure, in a service setting, the effect of magnetic resonance imaging on diagnosis, diagnostic certainty, and patient management in the neurosciences; to measure the cost per patient scanned; to estimate the marginal cost of imaging and compare this with its diagnostic impact; to measure changes in patients' quality of life; and to record the diagnostic pathway leading to magnetic resonance imaging. DESIGN--Controlled observational study using questionnaires on diagnosis and patient management before and after imaging. Detailed costing study. Quality of life questionnaires at the time of imaging and six months later. Diagnostic pathways extracted from medical records for a representative sample. SETTING--Regional superconducting 1.5 T magnetic resonance service. SUBJECTS--782 consecutive neuroscience patients referred by consultants for magnetic resonance imaging during June 1988-9; diagnostic pathways recorded for 158 cases. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Costs of magnetic resonance imaging and preliminary investigations; changes in planned management and resulting savings; changes in principal diagnosis and diagnostic certainty; changes in patients' quality of life. RESULTS--Average cost of magnetic resonance imaging was estimated at 206.20/patient pounds (throughput 2250 patients/year, 1989-90 prices including contrast and upgrading). Before magnetic resonance imaging diagnostic procedures cost 164.40/patient pounds (including inpatient stays). Management changed after imaging in 208 (27%) cases; saving an estimated 80.90/patient pounds. Confidence in planned management increased in a further 226 (29%) referrals. Consultants' principal diagnosis changed in 159 of 782 (20%) referrals; marginal cost per diagnostic change was 626 pounds. Confidence in diagnosis increased in 236 (30%) referrals. No improvement in patients' quality of life at six month assessment. CONCLUSIONS--Any improvement in diagnosis with magnetic resonance imaging is achieved at a higher cost. Techniques for monitoring the cost effectiveness of this technology need to be developed. PMID:1819260

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging appearance of hypertensive encephalopathy in a dog.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Chloe A; Witham, Adrian; Tyrrell, Dayle; Long, Sam N

    2015-01-01

    A 16-year-old female spayed English Staffordshire terrier was presented for evaluation of a 10-month history of intermittent myoclonic episodes, and a one weeks history of short episodes of altered mentation, ataxia and collapse. Magnetic resonance imaging identified subcortical oedema, predominately in the parietal and temporal lobes and multiple cerebral microbleeds. Serum biochemistry, indirect blood pressure measurements and magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities were consistent with hypertensive encephalopathy secondary to chronic kidney disease. PMID:25949801

  20. Equivalent Magnetization Current Method Applied to the Design of Gradient Coils for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hector Sanchez Lopez; Feng Liu; Michael Poole; Stuart Crozier

    2009-01-01

    A new method is described for the design of gradient coils for magnetic resonance imaging systems. The method is based on the known equivalence between a magnetized volume surrounded by a conducting surface and its equivalent representation by a surface current density. The curl of a vertical magnetization vector of a magnetized thin volume is equivalent to a surface current

  1. Magnetic characterization of austenitic stainless steel for nuclear magnetic resonance coils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Swenson; W. D. Markiewicz

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic field uniformity is critical to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Ferromagnetic materials can cause field inhomogeneity. Historically magnet constructions have avoided ferrous alloys to minimize field distortions. This strategy becomes problematic when fabricating large high field magnets because austenitic stainless steel is the preferred and necessary material for bore tubes and winding reinforcement in Nb3Sn coils. The selection of a

  2. Ferromagnetic resonance of a magnetic dimer with dipolar coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, A. F.; Déjardin, J. L.; Kachkachi, H.

    2014-12-01

    We develop a general formalism for analyzing the ferromagnetic resonance characteristics of a magnetic dimer consisting of two magnetic elements (in a horizontal or vertical configuration) coupled by dipolar interaction, taking account of their finite-size and aspect ratio. We study the effect on the resonance frequency and resonance field of the applied magnetic field (in amplitude and direction), the inter-element coupling, and the (uniaxial) anisotropy in various configurations. We obtain analytical expressions for the resonance frequency in various regimes of the interlayer coupling. We (numerically) investigate the behavior of the resonance field in the corresponding regimes. The critical value of the applied magnetic field at which the resonance frequency vanishes may be an increasing or a decreasing function of the dimer's coupling, depending on the anisotropy configuration. It is also a function of the nanomagnets aspect ratio in the case of in-plane anisotropy. This and several other results of this work, when compared with experiments using the standard ferromagnetic resonance with fixed frequency, or the network analyzer with varying frequency and applied magnetic field, provide a useful means for characterizing the effective anisotropy and coupling within systems of stacked or assembled nanomagnets. Comparing with the experimental data for the frequency splitting of coupled FeV nano disks, we find that our theory provides the same order of magnitude for the dipolar coupling.

  3. Optical Detection of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Paramagnetic Ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Thiel

    Methods of optically detecting nuclear magnetic resonance in materials that contain paramagnetic ions exhibiting electronic transitions in the visible or near-visible region of the spectrum are discussed with particular emphasis on the application to the study of crystalline insulators that contain dilute quantities of rare-earth ions. Experimental and theoretical aspects of spectral holeburning techniques (ODNMR), nuclear double resonance methods (PENDOR),

  4. Anisotropy Dispersion and Ferromagnetic Resonance of Amorphous Soft Magnetic Films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Jimbo; S. Tsunashima; S. Uchiyama

    1991-01-01

    Measurement of the anisotropy dispersion using ferromagnetic resonance at radio frequencies has been reconsidered, taking into account the skin effect in relatively thick soft magnetic films. Numerical calculations for 1 ¿m thick amorphous films showed that eddy current losses are comparable to the resonance absorption. The measured absorption for CoZr film is larger than the calculated absorption under a low

  5. Single Molecule Magnetic Force Detection with a Carbon Nanotube Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willick, Kyle; Walker, Sean; Baugh, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Single molecule magnets (SMMs) sit at the boundary between macroscopic magnetic behaviour and quantum phenomena. Detecting the magnetic moment of an individual SMM would allow exploration of this boundary, and could enable technological applications based on SMMs such as quantum information processing. Detection of these magnetic moments remains an experimental challenge, particularly at the time scales of relaxation and decoherence. We present a technique for sensitive magnetic force detection that should permit such measurements. A suspended carbon nanotube (CNT) mechanical resonator is combined with a magnetic field gradient generated by a ferromagnetic gate electrode, which couples the magnetic moment of a nanomagnet to the resonant motion of the CNT. Numerical calculations of the mechanical resonance show that resonant frequency shifts on the order of a few kHz arise due to single Bohr magneton changes in magnetic moment. A signal-to-noise analysis based on thermomechanical noise shows that magnetic switching at the level of a Bohr magneton can be measured in a single shot on timescales as short as 10 ?s. This sensitivity should enable studies of the spin dynamics of an isolated SMM, within the spin relaxation timescales for many available SMMs. Supported by NSERC.

  6. Properties of a novel magnetized alginate for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Shen, Feng; Poncet-Legrand, Celine; Somers, Sat; Slade, Andrea; Yip, Christopher; Duft, Andy M; Winnik, Françoise M; Chang, Patricia L

    2003-08-01

    Implanting recombinant cells encapsulated in alginate microcapsules to secrete therapeutic proteins has been proven clinically effective in treating several murine models of human diseases. However, once implanted, these microcapsules cannot be assessed without invasive surgery. We now report the preparation and characterization of a novel ferrofluid to render these microcapsules visible with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The ferrofluid was prepared as a colloidal iron oxide stabilized in water by alginate. The presence of iron particles in the ferrofluid was verified with chemical titration, dynamic light scattering, and magnetization measurement. The microcapsules fabricated with various concentrations of the ferrofluid in the core, or on the surface of alginate microcapsules, or both, all produced microcapsules with smooth surfaces as shown with light and scanning electron microscopy. However, at the nanoscale level, as revealed with atomic force microscopy, the ferrofluid-fabricated microcapsules demonstrated increased granularity, particularly when the ferrofluid was used to laminate the surface. From the force spectroscopy measurements, these modified microcapsules showed increasing surface rigidity in the following order: traditional alginate < ferrofluid in the core < ferrofluid on the surface. Although the mechanical stability of low-concentration ferrofluid (0.1%) microcapsules was reduced, increasing concentrations, up to 20%, were able to improve stability. When these ferrofluid microcapsules were examined with MRI, their T(2) relaxation time was reduced, thereby producing increased contrast readily detectable with MRI, whereas the traditional alginate microcapsules showed no difference when compared with water. In conclusion, such ferrofluid-enhanced alginate is suitable for fabricating microcapsules that offer the potential for in vivo tracking of implanted microcapsules without invasive surgery. PMID:12783484

  7. Functional investigations of exercising muscle: a noninvasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy-magnetic resonance imaging approach.

    PubMed

    Bendahan, D; Giannesini, B; Cozzone, P J

    2004-05-01

    Muscle fatigue, which is defined as the decline in muscle performance during exercise, may occur at different sites along the pathway from the central nervous system through to the intramuscular contractile machinery. Historically, both impairment of neuromuscular transmission and peripheral alterations within the muscle have been proposed as causative factors of fatigue development. However, according to more recent studies, muscle energetics play a key role in this process. Intramyoplasmic accumulation of inorganic phosphate (P(i)) and limitation in ATP availability have been frequently evoked as the main mechanisms leading to fatigue. Although attractive, these hypotheses have been elaborated on the basis of experimental results obtained in vitro, and their physiological relevance has never been clearly demonstrated in vivo. In that context, noninvasive methods such as 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy and surface electromyography have been employed to understand both metabolic and electrical aspects of muscle fatigue under physiological conditions. Mapping of muscles activated during exercise is another interesting issue which can be addressed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Exercise-induced T2 changes have been used in order to locate activated muscles and also as a quantitative index of exercise intensity. The main results related to both issues, i.e. the metabolic and electrical aspects of fatigue and the MRI functional investigation of exercising muscle, are discussed in the present review. PMID:15112049

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of thyroid nodules

    SciTech Connect

    Kroop, S.A.; Margouleff, D.; Stein, H.L.; Zanzi, I.; Susin, M.; Goldman, M.A.

    1985-05-01

    The capacity of Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging to characterize the nature of palpable thyroid nodules was prospectively evaluated in 9 patients. Seven nodules were nonfunctioning and 2 showed function on radio-iodine Nuclear Medicine (NM) scans. Each patient underwent high-resolution real time ultrasound (US) examination followed by MR imaging with a 0.6 Tesla superconducting whole body coil utilizing T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ weighted inversion recovery and spin-echo pulse sequences in coronal, transverse and sagittal planes. All NM, US and MR studies were evaluated independently by each of two physicians. Diagnoses were established by surgical pathology (n=7) or by radiologic and clinical correlation (n=2). There were 3 cases of solitary adenoma, 4 cases of adenomatous goiter, 1 case of papillary carcinoma and 1 case of epidermoid carcinoma. Lesions demonstrated variable signal intensity on T/sub 1/ weighted images. All lesions demonstrated nonspecific increased signal intensity on T/sub 2/ weighted images. One malignancy was correctly diagnosed by the identification of adjacent cervical lymph nodes of increased signal intensity and another by demonstration of tracheal invasion on MR images, both not visible by other imaging modalities. Regions of hemorrhage and cystic degeneration as well as additional non-palpable thyroid nodules could be detected on MR images. Vascular displacement, tracheal compression and deviation, and substernal thyroid extension were also well demonstrated. The findings suggest that qualitative assessment of MR signal intensity alone cannot reliably differentiate benign from malignant thyroid lesions, but that MR images can provide other useful information to aid in this differentiation.

  9. Small Animal Imaging with Magnetic Resonance Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Driehuys, Bastiaan; Nouls, John; Badea, Alexandra; Bucholz, Elizabeth; Ghaghada, Ketan; Petiet, Alexandra; Hedlund, Laurence W.

    2009-01-01

    Small animal magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) has evolved significantly from testing the boundaries of imaging physics to its expanding use today as a tool in non-invasive biomedical investigations. This review is intended to capture the state-of-the-art in MRM for scientists who may be unfamiliar with this modality, but who want to apply its capabilities to their research. We therefore include a brief review of MR concepts and methods of animal handling and support before covering a range of MRM applications including the heart, lung, brain, and the emerging field of MR histology. High-resolution anatomical imaging reveals increasingly exquisite detail in healthy animals and subtle architectural aberrations that occur in genetically altered models. Resolution of 100 µm in all dimensions is now routinely attained in living animals, and 10 µm3 is feasible in fixed specimens. Such images almost rival conventional histology while allowing the object to be viewed interactively in any plane. MRM is now increasingly used to provide functional information in living animals. Images of the beating heart, breathing lung, and functioning brain can be recorded. While clinical MRI focuses on diagnosis, MRM is used to reveal fundamental biology or to non-invasively measure subtle changes in the structure or function of organs during disease progression or in response to experimental therapies. The ability of MRM to provide a detailed functional and anatomical picture in rats and mice, and to track this picture over time, makes it a promising platform with broad applications in biomedical research. PMID:18172332

  10. Tools for cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Ramkumar; Cheong, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In less than fifteen years, as a non-invasive imaging option, cardiovascular MR has grown from a being a mere curiosity to becoming a widely used clinical tool for evaluating cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) is now routinely used to study myocardial structure, cardiac function, macro vascular blood flow, myocardial perfusion, and myocardial viability. For someone entering the field of cardiac MR, this rapid pace of development in the field of CMRI might make it difficult to identify a cohesive starting point. In this brief review, we have attempted to summarize the key cardiovascular imaging techniques that have found widespread clinical acceptance. In particular, we describe the essential cardiac and respiratory gating techniques that form the backbone of all cardiovascular imaging methods. It is followed by four sections that discuss: (I) the gradient echo techniques that are used to assess ventricular function; (II) black-blood turbo spin echo (SE) methods used for morphologic assessment of the heart; (III) phase-contrast based techniques for the assessment of blood flow; and (IV) CMR methods for the assessment of myocardial ischemia and viability. In each section, we briefly summarize technical considerations relevant to the clinical use of these techniques, followed by practical information for its clinical implementation. In each of those four areas, CMRI is considered either as the benchmark imaging modality against which the diagnostic performance of other imaging modalities are compared against, or provides a complementary capability to existing imaging techniques. We have deliberately avoided including cutting-edge CMR imaging techniques practiced at few academic centers, and restricted our discussion to methods that are widely used and are likely to be available in a clinical setting. Our hope is that this review would propel an interested reader toward more comprehensive reviews in the literature. PMID:24834409

  11. Use of magnetic resonance imaging in pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Viviani, Roberto; Lehmann, Marie-Louise; Stingl, Julia C

    2014-04-01

    Because of the large variation in the response to psychoactive medication, many studies have attempted to uncover genetic factors that determine response. While considerable knowledge exists on the large effects of genetic polymorphisms on pharmacokinetics and plasma concentrations of drugs, effects of the concentration at the target site and pharmacodynamic effects on brain functions in disease are much less known. This article reviews the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize response to medication in brain behaviour circuits in vivo in humans and assess the influence of pharmacogenetic factors. Two types of studies have been used to characterize effects of medication and genetic variation. In task-related activation studies the focus is on changes in the activity of a neural circuit associated with a specific psychological process. The second type of study investigates resting state perfusion. These studies provide an assessment of vascular changes associated with bioavailability of drugs in the brain, but may also assess changes in neural activity after binding of centrally active agents. Task-related pharmacogenetic studies of cognitive function have characterized the effects in the prefrontal cortex of genetic polymorphisms of dopamine receptors (DRD2), metabolic enzymes (COMT) and in the post-synaptic signalling cascade under the administration of dopamine agonists and antagonists. In contrast, pharmacogenetic imaging with resting state perfusion is still in its infancy. However, the quantitative nature of perfusion imaging, its non-invasive character and its repeatability might be crucial assets in visualizing the effects of medication in vivo in man during therapy. PMID:23802603

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Postprostatectomy Radiotherapy Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Sefrova, Jana, E-mail: sefrova@post.cz [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Odrazka, Karel [Department of Clinical and Radiation Oncology, Multiscan and Pardubice Regional Hospital, Pardubice (Czech Republic); First and Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Paluska, Petr [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Belobradek, Zdenek [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Brodak, Milos [Department of Urology, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Dolezel, Martin [Department of Clinical and Radiation Oncology, Multiscan and Pardubice Regional Hospital, Pardubice (Czech Republic); First and Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Prosvic, Petr [Department of Urology, Regional Hospital Nachod, Nachod (Czech Republic); Macingova, Zuzana; Vosmik, Milan [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Hoffmann, Petr [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Louda, Miroslav [Department of Urology, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Nejedla, Anna [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in prostate bed treatment planning could influence definition of the clinical target volume (CTV) and organs at risk. Methods and Materials: A total of 21 consecutive patients referred for prostate bed radiotherapy were included in the present retrospective study. The CTV was delineated according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer recommendations on computed tomography (CT) and T{sub 1}-weighted (T{sub 1}w) and T{sub 2}-weighted (T{sub 2}w) MRI. The CTV magnitude, agreement, and spatial differences were evaluated on the planning CT scan after registration with the MRI scans. Results: The CTV was significantly reduced on the T{sub 1}w and T{sub 2}w MRI scans (13% and 9%, respectively) compared with the CT scans. The urinary bladder was drawn smaller on the CT scans and the rectum was smaller on the MRI scans. On T{sub 1}w MRI, the rectum and urinary bladder were delineated larger than on T{sub 2}w MRI. Minimal agreement was observed between the CT and T{sub 2}w images. The main spatial differences were measured in the superior and superolateral directions in which the CTV on the MRI scans was 1.8-2.9 mm smaller. In the posterior and inferior border, no difference was seen between the CT and T{sub 1}w MRI scans. On the T{sub 2}w MRI scans, the CTV was larger in these directions (by 1.3 and 1.7 mm, respectively). Conclusions: The use of MRI in postprostatectomy radiotherapy planning resulted in a reduction of the CTV. The main differences were found in the superior part of the prostate bed. We believe T{sub 2}w MRI enables more precise definition of prostate bed CTV than conventional planning CT.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging–guided Vascular Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Cengizhan; Guttman, Michael; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Lederman, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which provides superior soft-tissue imaging and no known harmful effects, has the potential as an alternative modality to guide various medical interventions. This review will focus on MR-guided endovascular interventions and present its current state and future outlook. In the first technical part, enabling technologies such as developments in fast imaging, catheter devices, and visualization techniques are examined. This is followed by a clinical survey that includes proof-of-concept procedures in animals and initial experience in human subjects. In preclinical experiments, MRI has already proven to be valuable. For example, MRI has been used to guide and track targeted cell delivery into or around myocardial infarctions, to guide atrial septal puncture, and to guide the connection of portal and systemic venous circulations. Several investigational MR-guided procedures have already been reported in patients, such as MR-guided cardiac catheterization, invasive imaging of peripheral artery atheromata, selective intraarterial MR angiography, and preliminary angioplasty and stent placement. In addition, MR-assisted transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedures in patients have been shown in a novel hybrid double-doughnut x-ray/MRI system. Numerous additional investigational human MR-guided endovascular procedures are now underway in several medical centers around the world. There are also significant hurdles: availability of clinical-grade devices, device-related safety issues, challenges to patient monitoring, and acoustic noise during imaging. The potential of endovascular interventional MRI is great because as a single modality, it combines 3-dimensional anatomic imaging, device localization, hemodynamics, tissue composition, and function. PMID:16924170

  14. Use of magnetic resonance imaging in pharmacogenomics

    PubMed Central

    Viviani, Roberto; Lehmann, Marie-Louise; Stingl, Julia C

    2014-01-01

    Because of the large variation in the response to psychoactive medication, many studies have attempted to uncover genetic factors that determine response. While considerable knowledge exists on the large effects of genetic polymorphisms on pharmacokinetics and plasma concentrations of drugs, effects of the concentration at the target site and pharmacodynamic effects on brain functions in disease are much less known. This article reviews the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize response to medication in brain behaviour circuits in vivo in humans and assess the influence of pharmacogenetic factors. Two types of studies have been used to characterize effects of medication and genetic variation. In task-related activation studies the focus is on changes in the activity of a neural circuit associated with a specific psychological process. The second type of study investigates resting state perfusion. These studies provide an assessment of vascular changes associated with bioavailability of drugs in the brain, but may also assess changes in neural activity after binding of centrally active agents. Task-related pharmacogenetic studies of cognitive function have characterized the effects in the prefrontal cortex of genetic polymorphisms of dopamine receptors (DRD2), metabolic enzymes (COMT) and in the post-synaptic signalling cascade under the administration of dopamine agonists and antagonists. In contrast, pharmacogenetic imaging with resting state perfusion is still in its infancy. However, the quantitative nature of perfusion imaging, its non-invasive character and its repeatability might be crucial assets in visualizing the effects of medication in vivo in man during therapy. PMID:23802603

  15. Magnetic resonance findings in leucodystrophies and MS.

    PubMed

    Labauge, P

    2009-06-01

    White matter diseases are a frequent diagnosis problem in adult patients. They are divided into leucodystrophy, defined by abnormal white matter from the beginning, and leucoencephalopathy, with an initial normal white matter. In addition, two different natures have to be considered: vascular and non-vascular. Vascular diseases are mainly acquired and related to atherosclerosis. Genetic vascular disorders are mostly secondary to Notch3 mutations, defined as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL). Occurrence of leucoaraiosis and lacunae on T2 sequences, and microbleeds on Gradient Echo sequences, strongly suggest this diagnosis. Some magnetic resonance (MR) patterns can help to identify genetic leucodystrophies, such as childhood ataxia with central nervous system hypomyelination/leucoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter disease (progressive rarefaction and cystic degeneration of the affected white matter, replaced by water); Alexander disease (hypointense signals on T2 sequences involving grey matter, brainstem and cervical cord, with marked atrophy); megalencephalic leucoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts (diffuse, symmetrical white matter lesions, with constant frontoparietal and anterotemporal subcortical cysts); leucoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and high lactates syndrome (extensive demyelination, involvement of the brainstem, i.e. cerebellar peduncles, intraparenchymal and mesencephalic trigeminal nerves and spinal cord, mainly in the lateral corticospinal tracts and dorsal columns). Half of the genetic adult leucodystrophies remain without any precise diagnosis. This review describes MR in the adult leucoencephalopathies and in multiple sclerosis (MS). The first part will focus on MR patterns of vascular and nonvascular adult leucoencephalopathies, the second part on MR findings in MS and MS-related diseases. Specific MR patterns in both diseases will be summarized and compared. PMID:19671368

  16. Diagnostic Accuracy of Clinical Assessment, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Magnetic Resonance Arthrography, and Intra-Articular Injection in Hip Arthroscopy Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Thomas Byrd; Kay S. Jones

    2004-01-01

    Background: Hip arthroscopy has defined elusive causes of hip pain.Hypothesis\\/Purpose: It is postulated that the reliability of various investigative methods is inconsistent. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of these methods.Study Design: Retrospective review of prospectively collected data.Methods: Five parameters were assessed in 40 patients: clinical assessment, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance imaging with

  17. Least Squares Magnetic-Field Optimization for Portable Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Magnet Design

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsen, Jeffrey L; Franck, John; Demas, Vasiliki; Bouchard, Louis-S.

    2008-03-27

    Single-sided and mobile nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensors have the advantages of portability, low cost, and low power consumption compared to conventional high-field NMR and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. We present fast, flexible, and easy-to-implement target field algorithms for mobile NMR and MRI magnet design. The optimization finds a global optimum ina cost function that minimizes the error in the target magnetic field in the sense of least squares. When the technique is tested on a ring array of permanent-magnet elements, the solution matches the classical dipole Halbach solution. For a single-sided handheld NMR sensor, the algorithm yields a 640 G field homogeneous to 16 100 ppm across a 1.9 cc volume located 1.5 cm above the top of the magnets and homogeneous to 32 200 ppm over a 7.6 cc volume. This regime is adequate for MRI applications. We demonstrate that the homogeneous region can be continuously moved away from the sensor by rotating magnet rod elements, opening the way for NMR sensors with adjustable"sensitive volumes."

  18. Magnetic resonance velocimetry: applications of magnetic resonance imaging in the measurement of fluid motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkins, Christopher J.; Alley, Marcus T.

    2007-12-01

    Magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV) is a non-invasive technique capable of measuring the three-component mean velocity field in complex three-dimensional geometries with either steady or periodic boundary conditions. The technique is based on the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and works in conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnets used for clinical imaging. Velocities can be measured along single lines, in planes, or in full 3D volumes with sub-millimeter resolution. No optical access or flow markers are required so measurements can be obtained in clear or opaque MR compatible flow models and fluids. Because of its versatility and the widespread availability of MRI scanners, MRV is seeing increasing application in both biological and engineering flows. MRV measurements typically image the hydrogen protons in liquid flows due to the relatively high intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Nonetheless, lower SNR applications such as fluorine gas flows are beginning to appear in the literature. MRV can be used in laminar and turbulent flows, single and multiphase flows, and even non-isothermal flows. In addition to measuring mean velocity, MRI techniques can measure turbulent velocities, diffusion coefficients and tensors, and temperature. This review surveys recent developments in MRI measurement techniques primarily in turbulent liquid and gas flows. A general description of MRV provides background for a discussion of its accuracy and limitations. Techniques for decreasing scan time such as parallel imaging and partial k-space sampling are discussed. MRV applications are reviewed in the areas of physiology, biology, and engineering. Included are measurements of arterial blood flow and gas flow in human lungs. Featured engineering applications include the scanning of turbulent flows in complex geometries for CFD validation, the rapid iterative design of complex internal flow passages, velocity and phase composition measurements in multiphase flows, and the scanning of flows through porous media. Temperature measurements using MR thermometry are discussed. Finally, post-processing methods are covered to demonstrate the utility of MRV data for calculating relative pressure fields and wall shear stresses.

  19. Tagged magnetic resonance imaging of the heart: a survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leon Axel; Albert Montillo; Daniel Kim

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the heart with magnetization tagging provides a potentially useful new way to assess car-diac mechanical function, through revealing the local motion of otherwise indistinguishable portions of the heart wall. While still an evolving area, tagged cardiac MRI is already able to provide novel quantitative information on cardiac function. Exploiting this potential requires developing tailored methods

  20. Design of Optimized Gradient Coils for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoseph Shiferaw

    1990-01-01

    A gradient coil system for use in magnetic resonance imaging was designed and built. The geometry of the coil system was determined by computer simulation. An optimized variation of Anderson coils was chosen as a suitable configuration. This gradient coil system will be used in a Varian magnet system with a gap width of 4.4 cm.

  1. Design of gradient coils for magnetic resonance imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Adamiak; B. K. Rutt; W. J. Dabrowski

    1992-01-01

    A numerical technique for designing gradient coils used in magnetic resonance imaging is presented. It is assumed that the coil consists of a finite number of polygonal turns, each carrying identical current. Coordinates of the vertices defining the turns are determined to minimize the mean-square deviation of the actual magnetic flux density from the ideal linear distribution. The zeroth-order Powell

  2. Artificial magnetic metamaterial design by using spiral resonators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan D. Baena; Ricardo Marqués; Francisco Medina; Jesús Martel

    2004-01-01

    A metallic planar particle, that will be called spiral resonator (SR), is introduced as a useful artificial atom for artificial magnetic media design and fabrication. A simple theoretical model which provides the most relevant properties and parameters of the SR is presented. The model is validated by both electromagnetic simulation and experiments. The applications of SR's include artificial negative magnetic

  3. Acquisition of electrophysiologic signals during magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Parker, J M; Alger, J R; Woo, M A; Spriggs, D; Harper, R M

    1999-12-15

    We describe a low cost system for acquiring electrophysiological signals during magnetic resonance imaging. The system consists of high common-mode-rejection and low noise operational amplifiers, coupled by fiber optic cables to a receiver located at the periphery of the magnetic field. The system minimizes noise introduction which would contaminate image signals. PMID:10617174

  4. Influence of a magnetic field on quartz crystal resonators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Brendel

    1996-01-01

    The magnetic sensitivity of quartz crystal resonators is a consequence of the ferromagnetic properties of the metal used as support for the vibrating plate. Various magneto-mechanic interactions can contribute to the overall sensitivity, the most important of which is shown to be the change in Young's modulus of the spring material submitted to a magnetic field, which in turn modifies

  5. PERTURBING A SYMMETRIC RESONANCE: THE MAGNETIC SPHERICAL PENDULUM

    E-print Network

    Montaldi, James

    PERTURBING A SYMMETRIC RESONANCE: THE MAGNETIC SPHERICAL PENDULUM JAMES MONTALDI Institut Non, such as the spherical pendulum. Perturbing such a system by breaking the symmetry (e.g. adding a magnetic term) creates. Introduction The spherical pendulum is a 2-degree of freedom Hamiltonian system with O(2) symmetry. The stable

  6. Hypertension correlates with lenticulostriate arteries visualized by 7T magnetic resonance angiography.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chang-Ki; Park, Chan-A; Lee, Hyon; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Park, Cheol-Wan; Kim, Young-Bo; Cho, Zang-Hee

    2009-11-01

    Hypertension, a major risk factor for stroke, is associated with altered arterial anatomy and function; however, the limited resolution of current imaging techniques has restricted the in vivo study of microvascular changes in the brain. In this report, we quantitatively examined the lenticulostriate arteries in hypertensive patients using ultrahigh-field 7T MRI. We compared the number of stems and branches, curvature, and tortuosity of the lenticulostriate arteries by 3D time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography among 20 hypertensive patients (mean age: 46.6+/-9.1 years) and 20 age-matched healthy subjects (mean age: 47.7+/-8.1 years). The average numbers of stems and branches in hypertensive patients were significantly less than those of healthy subjects (P<0.002). However, this difference was abolished in older volunteers (>45 years old), whereas the difference between young hypertensive patients (< or = 45 years old) and age-matched healthy controls was augmented by 55% for stems and 91% for branches (P=0.001). In comparison, there were no differences in the average curvature and tortuosity of the lenticulostriate arteries and no significant difference when corrected for smoking (P=0.064). In conclusion, our results showed that there was a substantial difference in the lenticulostriate arteries of hypertensive patients compared with healthy individuals when observed in vivo by ultrahigh-resolution 7T magnetic resonance angiography, and the difference was considerable in young subjects. PMID:19805635

  7. Formation of multiple Alfvenic resonance layers in magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Reconnection dynamics and formation of Alfvenic resonance layers under different super-Alfvenic shear flows are systematically studied through incompressible MHD simulation. It is found that Alfvenic resonance layers is formed in the inflow region as the island develops. Different shear flow profiles can lead to one or two pairs of Alfvenic resonance layers. The appearance of Alfven layers usually suppresses the development of magnetic reconnection and modulates the structure of the reconnection layer. The suppressing effect depends largely on the intensity of the Alfvenic resonance layers and the distance between the two layers. For the case with the separation of Alfvenic resonance layers less than the current sheet thickness, the turbulence associated with KH instability strongly develops and then leads to fast magnetic reconnection.

  8. Realization of magnetic resonance current density imaging at 3 tesla.

    PubMed

    Goksu, C; Sadighi, M; Eroglu, H H; Eyuboglu, M

    2014-08-01

    Magnetic Resonance Current Density Imaging (MRCDI) is an imaging modality, which reconstructs electrical current density distribution inside a material by using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques. In this study, a current source with maximum current injection capability of 224.7mA, under 1k? resistive load is used. Experiments are performed with a 2D uniform phantom, in which a current steering insulator is inserted. Magnetic flux density distributions are measured, and current density images are reconstructed. The reconstructed images are in agreement with the reconstructions obtained with simulated measurements. PMID:25570158

  9. One-pot synthesis of magnetic nanoclusters enabling atherosclerosis-targeted magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kukreja, Aastha; Lim, Eun-Kyung; Kang, Byunghoon; Choi, Yuna; Lee, Taeksu; Suh, Jin-Suck; Huh, Yong-Min; Haam, Seungjoo

    2014-01-01

    In this study, dextran-encrusted magnetic nanoclusters (DMNCs) were synthesized using a one-pot solution phase method for detection of atherosclerosis by magnetic resonance imaging. Pyrenyl dextran was used as a surfactant because of its electron-stabilizing effect and its amphiphilic nature, rendering the DMNCs stable and water-dispersible. The DMNCs were 65.6±4.3 nm, had a narrow size distribution, and were superparamagnetic with a high magnetization value of 60.1 emu/g. Further, they showed biocompatibility and high cellular uptake efficiency, as indicated by a strong interaction between dextran and macrophages. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the ability of DMNCs to act as an efficient magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent capable of targeted detection of atherosclerosis. In view of these findings, it is concluded that DMNCs can be used as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents to detect inflammatory disease. PMID:24904209

  10. MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN CHEMISTRY Magn. Reson. Chem. 2004; 42: 453458

    E-print Network

    Loening, Niko

    & Sons, Ltd. KEYWORDS: NMR; 1 H NMR; 13 C NMR; oligosaccharides; high-resolution magic angle spinning to be useful methods for generating oligopeptides,1,2 oligonucleotides3 and, more recently, oligosaccharides.4 relevant in the analysis of oligosaccharides, where the 1 H resonances are dispersed over a relatively

  11. Lattice Boltzmann Simulations of Pulsed Field Gradient Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Boudjema; R. A. Guyer; K. R. McCall

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has become a powerful well-logging tool for understanding pore space geometry of reservoir rocks in-situ. This is because, in many rocks the decay of nuclear magnetization carried by a fluid, (e.g., proton magnetization on H2O molecules) is most strongly influenced by relaxation at the pore walls. We have developed a lattice Boltzmann computational procedure to model

  12. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-10-27

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  13. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-07-13

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  14. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-06-29

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  15. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-12-11

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of unpaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  16. Spin microscope based on optically detected magnetic resonance

    DOEpatents

    Berman, Gennady P. (Los Alamos, NM); Chernobrod, Boris M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-11-10

    The invention relates to scanning magnetic microscope which has a photoluminescent nanoprobe implanted in the tip apex of an atomic force microscope (AFM), a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) or a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) and exhibits optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in the vicinity of impaired electron spins or nuclear magnetic moments in the sample material. The described spin microscope has demonstrated nanoscale lateral resolution and single spin sensitivity for the AFM and STM embodiments.

  17. Pocket atlas of head and neck MRI anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Lufkin, R.B.; Hanafee, W.N.

    1989-01-01

    This pocket atlas depicts the anatomy of the head and neck as seen in magnetic resonance (MR) images. The collection of 140 high-resolution images covers all major areas - neck, larynx, oropharynx, tongue, nasopharynx, skull base, sinuses, and temporal bone - displayed in sagittal, axial, and coronal MR image planes. The images show maximum fat/muscle contrast for better visualization of fascial planes. In certain areas of the anatomy, such as the neck and temporal bone, surface coils were used to achieve significant advantages in image quality over standard head or body coils.

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Characterize a Rodent Model of Covert Stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Sheryl Lyn

    Covert stroke (CS) comprises lesions in the brain often associated by risk factors such as a diet high in fat, salt, cholesterol and sugar (HFSCS). Developing a rodent model for CS incorporating these characteristics is useful for developing and testing interventions. The purpose of this thesis was to determine if magnetic resonance (MR) can detect brain abnormalities to confirm this model will have the desired anatomical effects. Ex vivo MR showed brain abnormalities for rats with the induced lesions and fed the HFSCS diet. Spectra acquired on the fixed livers had an average percent area under the fat peak relative to the water peak of (20+/-4)% for HFSCS and (2+/-2)% for control. In vivo MR images had significant differences between surgeries to induce the lesions (p=0.04). These results show that applying MR identified abnormalities in the rat model and therefore is important in the development of this CS rodent model.

  19. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Findings of Children with Kernicterus

    PubMed Central

    Sar?, Sahabettin; Yavuz, Alpaslan; Batur, Aabdussamet; Bora, Ayd?n; Caksen, Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The term kernicterus, or bilirubin encephalopathy, is used to describe pathological bilirubin staining of the basal ganglia, brain stem, and cerebellum, and is associated with hyperbilirubinemia. Kernicterus generally occurs in untreated hyperbilirubinemia or cases where treatment is delayed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based studies have shown characteristic findings in kernicterus. The objective of our study was to describe the role of 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in demonstrating these metabolic changes and to review conventional MRI findings of kernicterus. Material/Methods Forty-eight pediatric cases with kernicterus were included in this study. MRI and MRS examinations were performed on variable dates (10–29 days after birth). NAA, Cr, Cho, NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, and Cho/Cr values were evaluated visually and by computer analysis. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the NAA and Cho levels in the acute kernicterus patients and the control group (healthy patients), whereas both were significantly elevated in the chronic kernicterus patients. Both the mean NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratio values were significantly higher in the acute and chronic cases compared to the control group. The NAA/Cho ratio value was statistically lower in the acute cases than in the control group while it was similar in the chronic cases. Conclusions Conventional MR imaging and 1H-MRS are important complementary tools in the diagnostics of neonatal bilirubin encephalopathy. This study provided important information for applying these MR modalities in the evaluation of neonates with bilirubin encephalopathy. PMID:25745520

  20. Raspberry-like metamolecules exhibiting strong magnetic resonances.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhaoxia; Hastings, Simon P; Li, Chen; Edward, Brian; McGinn, Christine K; Engheta, Nader; Fakhraai, Zahra; Park, So-Jung

    2015-02-24

    We report a synthetic approach to produce raspberry-like plasmonic nanostructures with unusually strong magnetic resonances, termed raspberry-like metamolecules (raspberry-MMs). The synthesis based on the surfactant-assisted templated seed-growth method allows for the simultaneous one-step synthesis and assembly of well-insulated gold nanoparticles. The aromatic surfactant used for the syntheses forms a thin protective layer around the nanoparticles, preventing them from touching each other and making it possible to pack discrete nanoparticles at close distances in a single cluster. The resulting isotropic gold nanoparticle clusters (i.e., raspberry-MMs) exhibit unusually broad extinction spectra in the visible and near-IR region. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modeling showed that the raspberry-MMs support strong magnetic resonances that contribute significantly to the broadband spectra. The strong magnetic scattering was also verified by far-field scattering measurements, which show that in the near-IR region the magnetic dipole resonance can be even stronger than the electric dipole resonance in these raspberry-MMs. Structural parameters such as the size and the number of gold nanoparticles composing raspberry-MMs can be readily tuned in our synthetic method. A series of syntheses with varying structure parameters, along with FDTD modeling and mode analyses of corresponding model structures, showed that the close packing of a large number of metal nanoparticles in raspberry-MMs is responsible for the unusually strong magnetic resonances observed here. PMID:25621502

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging with an optical atomic magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shoujun; Yashchuk, Valeriy V; Donaldson, Marcus H; Rochester, Simon M; Budker, Dmitry; Pines, Alexander

    2006-08-22

    We report an approach for the detection of magnetic resonance imaging without superconducting magnets and cryogenics: optical atomic magnetometry. This technique possesses a high sensitivity independent of the strength of the static magnetic field, extending the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging to low magnetic fields and eliminating imaging artifacts associated with high fields. By coupling with a remote-detection scheme, thereby improving the filling factor of the sample, we obtained time-resolved flow images of water with a temporal resolution of 0.1 s and spatial resolutions of 1.6 mm perpendicular to the flow and 4.5 mm along the flow. Potentially inexpensive, compact, and mobile, our technique provides a viable alternative for MRI detection with substantially enhanced sensitivity and time resolution for various situations where traditional MRI is not optimal. PMID:16885210

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging with an optical atomic magnetometer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shoujun; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Donaldson, Marcus H.; Rochester, Simon M.; Budker, Dmitry; Pines, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    We report an approach for the detection of magnetic resonance imaging without superconducting magnets and cryogenics: optical atomic magnetometry. This technique possesses a high sensitivity independent of the strength of the static magnetic field, extending the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging to low magnetic fields and eliminating imaging artifacts associated with high fields. By coupling with a remote-detection scheme, thereby improving the filling factor of the sample, we obtained time-resolved flow images of water with a temporal resolution of 0.1 s and spatial resolutions of 1.6 mm perpendicular to the flow and 4.5 mm along the flow. Potentially inexpensive, compact, and mobile, our technique provides a viable alternative for MRI detection with substantially enhanced sensitivity and time resolution for various situations where traditional MRI is not optimal. PMID:16885210

  3. Ion resonance cones in a magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccardi, C.; Salierno, M.; Cantù, P.; Fontanesi, M.

    1996-05-01

    An experimental and theoretical study on ion resonance cones has been carried out taking into account both thermal and source effects. The measurements have been performed in a small toroidal device, with different antenna systems to excite the waves.

  4. Ferromagnetic resonance imaging of Co films using magnetic resonance force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, B.J.; Hammel, P.C.; Zhang, Z. [Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Midzor, M.M.; Roukes, M.L. [Condensed Matter Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)] [Condensed Matter Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Childress, J.R. [University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)] [University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Lateral one-dimensional imaging of cobalt (Co) films by means of microscopic ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) detected using the magnetic resonance force microscope (MRFM) is demonstrated. A novel approach involving scanning a localized magnetic probe is shown to enable FMR imaging in spite of the broad resonance linewidth. We introduce a spatially selective local field by means of a small, magnetically polarized spherical crystallite of yttrium iron garnet (YIG). Using MRFM-detected FMR signals from a sample consisting of two Co films, we can resolve the {approximately}20 {mu}m lateral separation between the films. The results can be qualitatively understood by consideration of the calculated spatial profiles of the magnetic field generated by the YIG sphere. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Vacuum Society.}

  5. Anatomy Corner

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    This fascinating and informative website was created by a high school teacher in Granite City, Missouri. It brings together a wide range of resources designed to help students learn about anatomy. The materials are divided into three sections: Anatomy Galleries, Anatomy Topics, and Virtual Cat Dissection. The Anatomy Galleries area provides slides, photos, and illustrative materials related to eye dissection, sheep heart dissection, and cat muscles. The Anatomy Topics area includes overviews of the major body systems, including the nervous, circulatory, and endocrine systems. The site also includes a Virtual Cat Dissection, which walks interested parties through this process.

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonances in weak fields

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Richard Warren

    1953-01-01

    ?s technique involves ~ su41ng a molecular beam through tuo sueeessive static magnetic fields shish have gradients in opposite direotions, While passing from ene magnetic field ts tho other~ the beam is irradiated eith electro-mag- nstio ?nsrgy? When tho...Lgneto The ssmple was placed in, the best pert of the field Then a permanent magnet was brought close to the solenoid& snd pointed to a spot gust beyond the sample in such a manner that, the field of the permanent magnet was roughly opposibx to that...

  7. Magnetic anisotropy of polycrystalline magnetoferritin investigated by SQUID and electron magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moro, F.; de Miguel, R.; Jenkins, M.; Gómez-Moreno, C.; Sells, D.; Tuna, F.; McInnes, E. J. L.; Lostao, A.; Luis, F.; van Slageren, J.

    2014-06-01

    Magnetoferritin molecules with an average inorganic core diameter of 5.7±1.6 nm and polycrystalline internal structure were investigated by a combination of transmission electron microscopy, magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, and electron magnetic resonance (EMR) experiments. The temperature and frequency dependence of the magnetic susceptibility allowed for the determination of the magnetic anisotropy on an experimental time scale which spans from seconds to nanoseconds. In addition, angle-dependent EMR experiments were carried out for the determination of the nanoparticle symmetry and internal magnetic field. Due to the large surface to volume ratio, the nanoparticles show larger and uniaxial rather than cubic magnetic anisotropies compared to bulk maghemite and magnetite.

  8. Resonant Landau–Zener transitions in a helical magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójcik, P.; Adamowski, J.; Wo?oszyn, M.; Spisak, B. J.

    2015-06-01

    Spin-dependent electron transport has been studied in magnetic semiconductor waveguides (nanowires) in the helical magnetic field. We have shown that—apart from the well-known conductance dip located at the magnetic field equal to the helical-field amplitude Bh—the additional conductance dips (with zero conductance) appear at a magnetic field different from Bh. This effect occurring in the non-adiabatic regime is explained as resulting from the resonant Landau–Zener transitions between the spin-split subbands.

  9. Silicon Nanoparticles as Hyperpolarized Magnetic Resonance Imaging Agents

    PubMed Central

    Aptekar, Jacob W.; Cassidy, Maja C.; Johnson, Alexander C.; Barton, Robert A.; Lee, Menyoung; Ogier, Alexander C.; Vo, Chinh; Anahtar, Melis N.; Ren, Yin; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.; Ramanathan, Chandrasekhar; Cory, David G.; Hill, Alison L.; Mair, Ross W.; Rosen, Matthew S.; Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging of hyperpolarized nuclei provides high image contrast with little or no background signal. To date, in-vivo applications of pre-hyperpolarized materials have been limited by relatively short nuclear spin relaxation times. Here, we investigate silicon nanoparticles as a new type of hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging agent. Nuclear spin relaxation times for a variety of Si nanoparticles are found to be remarkably long, ranging from many minutes to hours at room temperature, allowing hyperpolarized nanoparticles to be transported, administered, and imaged on practical time scales. Additionally, we demonstrate that Si nanoparticles can be surface functionalized using techniques common to other biologically targeted nanoparticle systems. These results suggest that Si nanoparticles can be used as a targetable, hyperpolarized magnetic resonance imaging agent with a large range of potential applications. PMID:19950973

  10. Pyridoxine-dependent seizures: magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Alpay; Kutlu, Ramazan; Aslan, Mehmet; Sigirci, Ahmet; Orkan, Ismet; Yakinci, Cengiz

    2004-01-01

    Pyridoxine-dependent seizures are an extremely rare genetic disorder. Early diagnosis and treatment are important for the prevention of permanent brain damage. Elevated levels of glutamate and decreased levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the frontal and parietal cortices are among the characteristic features of this disorder. These metabolic abnormalities eventually lead to seizures and neuronal loss. In this case report, we present magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings of a 9-year-old girl with pyridoxine-dependent seizures with mental retardation. The N-acetylaspartate-to-creatine ratio was found to be decreased in the frontal and parieto-occipital cortices, which could indicate neuronal loss. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy could be a useful tool in the neuroimaging evaluation for assessment of parenchymal changes despite a normal-appearing brain magnetic resonance image in patients with pyridoxine-dependent seizures. PMID:15032392

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy in Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chavarria, Laia; Cordoba, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a brain alteration associated to liver failure that produces cognitive impairments at long term. Neuroimaging are non-invasive methods for the study of the brain by means of spectroscopy and imaging techniques. These technologies give huge information about cerebral metabolism and water distribution to explore brain pathways involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. Furthermore, new magnetic resonance implementations such as voxel-based morphometry or resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging allow studying brain atrophy and neuronal connectivity of the cerebral network involved in the neurocognitive impairments observed in the patients. The development of magnetic resonance technology will generate handy tools for the brain study of liver failure to elucidate the time-course of the pathology and thus to obtain an early diagnosis of cerebral complications.

  12. Low field strength magnetic resonance imaging of the neonatal brain

    PubMed Central

    Whitby, E; Paley, M; Smith, M; Sprigg, A; Woodhouse, N; Griffiths, P

    2003-01-01

    Background: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the neonate has been restricted by the need to transport the sick baby to the large magnetic resonance scanners and often the need for sedation or anaesthesia in order to obtain good quality images. Ultrasound is the reference standard for neonatal imaging. Objective: To establish a dedicated neonatal MR system and compare the clinical usefulness of MR imaging with ultrasound imaging. Design: Prospective double blind trial. Setting: Neonatal intensive care unit, Sheffield. Main outcome measures: Imaging reports. Patients: 134 premature and term babies. Results: In 56% of infants with pathology suspected on clinical grounds, MR provided additional useful clinical information over and above that obtained with ultrasound. Conclusion: Infants can be safely imaged by dedicated low field magnetic resonance on the neonatal intensive care unit without the need for sedation at a cost equivalent to ultrasound. PMID:12719393

  13. A prototype manipulator for magnetic resonance-guided interventions inside standard cylindrical magnetic resonance imaging scanners.

    PubMed

    Tsekos, Nikolaos V; Ozcan, Alpay; Christoforou, Eftychios

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a remotely controlled manipulator to perform minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions in the abdominal and thoracic cavities, with real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance inside clinical cylindrical MR scanners. The manipulator is composed of a three degree of freedom Cartesian motion system, which resides outside the gantry of the scanner, and serves as the holder and global positioner of a three degree of freedom arm which extends inside the gantry of the scanner At its distal end, the arm's end-effector can carry an interventional tool such as a biopsy needle, which can be advanced to a desired depth by means of a seventh degree of freedom. These seven degrees of freedom, provided by the entire assembly, offer extended manipulability to the device and a wide envelope of operation to the user, who can select a trajectory suitable for the procedure. The device is constructed of nonmagnetic and nonconductive fiberglass, and carbon fiber composite materials, to minimize artifacts and distortion on the MR images as well as eliminate effects on its operation from the high magnetic field and the fast switching magnetic field gradients used in MR imaging. A user interface was developed for man-in-the-loop control of the device using real-time MR images. The user interface fuses all sensor signals (MR and manipulator information) in a visualization, planning, and control command environment. Path planning is performed with graphical tools for setting the trajectory of insertion of the interventional tool using multislice and/or three dimensional MR images which are refreshed in real time. The device control is performed with an embedded computer which runs real-time control software. The manipulator compatibility with the MR environment and image-guided operation was tested on a 1.5 T MR scanner. PMID:16438235

  14. Duffing oscillation-induced reversal of magnetic vortex core by a resonant perpendicular magnetic field

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Kyoung-Woong; Chun, Byong Sun; Kim, Wondong; Qiu, Z. Q.; Hwang, Chanyong

    2014-01-01

    Nonlinear dynamics of the magnetic vortex state in a circular nanodisk was studied under a perpendicular alternating magnetic field that excites the radial modes of the magnetic resonance. Here, we show that as the oscillating frequency is swept down from a frequency higher than the eigenfrequency, the amplitude of the radial mode is almost doubled to the amplitude at the fixed resonance frequency. This amplitude has a hysteresis vs. frequency sweeping direction. Our result showed that this phenomenon was due to a Duffing-type nonlinear resonance. Consequently, the amplitude enhancement reduced the vortex core-switching magnetic field to well below 10?mT. A theoretical model corresponding to the Duffing oscillator was developed from the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation to explore the physical origin of the simulation result. This work provides a new pathway for the switching of the magnetic vortex core polarity in future magnetic storage devices. PMID:25145837

  15. Magnetic Resonance–Visible Meshes for Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair

    PubMed Central

    Pallwein-Prettner, Leo; Koch, Oliver Owen; Luketina, Ruzica Rosalia; Lechner, Michael; Emmanuel, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the first human use of magnetic resonance–visible implants for intraperitoneal onlay repair of incisional hernias regarding magnetic resonance presentability. Methods: Ten patients were surgically treated with intraperitoneally positioned superparamagnetic flat meshes. A magnetic resonance investigation with a qualified protocol was performed on postoperative day 1 and at 3 months postoperatively to assess mesh appearance and demarcation. The total magnetic resonance–visible mesh surface area of each implant was calculated and compared with the original physical mesh size to evaluate potential reduction of the functional mesh surfaces. Results: We were able to show a precise mesh demarcation, as well as accurate assessment of the surrounding tissue, in all 10 cases. We documented a significant decrease in the magnetic resonance–visualized total mesh surface area after release of the pneumoperitoneum compared with the original mesh size (mean, 190 cm2 vs 225 cm2; mean reduction of mesh area, 35 cm2; P < .001). At 3 months postoperatively, a further reduction of the surface area due to significant mesh shrinkage could be observed (mean, 182 cm2 vs 190 cm2; mean reduction of mesh area, 8 cm2; P < .001). Conclusion: The new method of combining magnetic resonance imaging and meshes that provide enhanced signal capacity through direct integration of iron particles into the polyvinylidene fluoride base material allows for detailed mesh depiction and quantification of structural changes. In addition to a significant early postoperative decrease in effective mesh surface area, a further considerable reduction in size occurred within 3 months after implantation. PMID:25848195

  16. Biological effects of exposure to magnetic resonance imaging: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Formica, Domenico; Silvestri, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    The literature on biological effects of magnetic and electromagnetic fields commonly utilized in magnetic resonance imaging systems is surveyed here. After an introduction on the basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging and the electric and magnetic properties of biological tissues, the basic phenomena to understand the bio-effects are described in classical terms. Values of field strengths and frequencies commonly utilized in these diagnostic systems are reported in order to allow the integration of the specific literature on the bio-effects produced by magnetic resonance systems with the vast literature concerning the bio-effects produced by electromagnetic fields. This work gives an overview of the findings about the safety concerns of exposure to static magnetic fields, radio-frequency fields, and time varying magnetic field gradients, focusing primarily on the physics of the interactions between these electromagnetic fields and biological matter. The scientific literature is summarized, integrated, and critically analyzed with the help of authoritative reviews by recognized experts, international safety guidelines are also cited. PMID:15104797

  17. Illustrated Speech Anatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, William M.

    Written for students in the fields of speech correction and audiology, the text deals with the following: structures involved in respiration; the skeleton and the processes of inhalation and exhalation; phonation and pitch, the larynx, and esophageal speech; muscles involved in articulation; muscles involved in resonance; and the anatomy of the…

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Brant-Zawadzki, M.; Norman, D.

    1987-01-01

    This text provides an introduction to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of disorders of the central nervous system, spine, neck, and nasopharynx. The book offers guidance in performing and interpreting MRI studies for specific clinical problems. Included are more than 800 images showing pathologic findings for various disorders and demonstrating how abnormalities detected in MRI scans can aid both in differential diagnosis and in clinical staging. The book summarizes the basic principles of MRI and describes the major equipment components and contrast agents. A review of the principles and potential applications of magnetic resonance spectroscopy is also included.

  19. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance guided electrophysiology studies

    PubMed Central

    Kolandaivelu, Aravindan; Lardo, Albert C; Halperin, Henry R

    2009-01-01

    Catheter ablation is a first line treatment for many cardiac arrhythmias and is generally performed under x-ray fluoroscopy guidance. However, current techniques for ablating complex arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia are associated with suboptimal success rates and prolonged radiation exposure. Pre-procedure 3D CMR has improved understanding of the anatomic basis of complex arrhythmias and is being used for planning and guidance of ablation procedures. A particular strength of CMR compared to other imaging modalities is the ability to visualize ablation lesions. Post-procedure CMR is now being applied to assess ablation lesion location and permanence with the goal of indentifying factors leading to procedure success and failure. In the future, intra-procedure real-time CMR, together with the ability to image complex 3-D arrhythmogenic anatomy and target additional ablation to regions of incomplete lesion formation, may allow for more successful treatment of even complex arrhythmias without exposure to ionizing radiation. Development of clinical grade CMR compatible electrophysiology devices is required to transition intra-procedure CMR from pre-clinical studies to more routine use in patients. PMID:19580654

  20. Magnetic resonance images of neuronal migration anomalies.

    PubMed

    Jaw, T S; Sheu, R S; Liu, G C; Chou, M S

    1998-08-01

    Neuronal migration anomalies are a spectrum of brain malformations caused by insults to migrating neuroblasts during the sixth week to fifth month of gestation. To study the characteristics of MRI findings in migration anomalies, MR images of 36 patients (28 children and 8 adults) with migration anomalies were evaluated. Five patients had lissencephaly, eight had pachygyria, twelve had schizencephaly, six had heterotopias of gray matter, three had hemimegalencephaly, and two had polymicrogyria. The frequency of migration anomalies was 0.51% of all cranial MRI studies and 1.21% of pediatric cranial MRI studies at our hospital. The major clinical presentations of these patients were seizure (64%), development delay (42%), motor deficits (42%) and mental retardation (25%). Twenty-five patients (69%) associated with other brain anomalies, including: other migration anomalies in 12 cases (33%), absence of the septum pellucidum in 10 cases (28%), Dandy-Walker malformation/variant in 5 cases, arachnoid cyst in 4 cases, agenesis of the corpus callosum in 3 cases, holoprosencephaly in 2 cases, mega cisterna magna in 1 case and cephalocele in 1 case. Some of them presented with multiple complicated anomalies. As MR imaging provides superb gray-white matter distinction, details of cortical anatomy and multiplanar capability, it can clearly delineate the detail morphologic changes of the brain caused by neuronal migration disorders as well as the associated anomalies. PMID:9780601

  1. The use of plasmon resonances in thermally assisted magnetic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Mayergoyz, I. D.

    2008-04-01

    The numerical study of plasmon resonances as optical means for light delivery in thermally assisted magnetic recording is reported. The analysis of two distinct designs is performed. In these designs, the plasmon resonances in metallic nanoparticles and perforated metallic nanofilms are used, respectively. The specific plasmon modes that create the strongest and well-localized (on nanoscale) optical fields have been identified. The issues of coupling of incident laser radiation to these plasmon modes as well as the sharpness of plasmon resonances are discussed.

  2. Magnetic moment oscillation in ammonium perchlorate in a DC SQUID-based magnetic resonance experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, V.; Cernicchiaro, G.

    In this work we describe experimental results in which a DC SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) is used as free induction decay detector. Measurements of a solid ammonium perchlorate (NH 4ClO 4) sample were performed, in zero field, at 4.2 K. Unexpected magnetic moment oscillations were detected at 1.5 kHz. The computation of the magnetic fields suggests that the proton nuclear magnetic resonance may explain the measured resonance, considering reorientation of the ammonium group by quantum tunneling of protons and a magnetic proton dipole-dipole intermolecular interaction model.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging without field cycling at less than earth's magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seong-Joo; Shim, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Kiwoong; Yu, Kwon Kyu; Hwang, Seong-min

    2015-03-01

    A strong pre-polarization field, usually tenths of a milli-tesla in magnitude, is used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in ordinary superconducting quantum interference device-based nuclear magnetic resonance/magnetic resonance imaging experiments. Here, we introduce an experimental approach using two techniques to remove the need for the pre-polarization field. A dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) technique enables us to measure an enhanced resonance signal. In combination with a ? / 2 pulse to avoid the Bloch-Siegert effect in a micro-tesla field, we obtained an enhanced magnetic resonance image by using DNP technique with a 34.5 ?T static external magnetic field without field cycling. In this approach, the problems of eddy current and flux trapping in the superconducting pickup coil, both due to the strong pre-polarization field, become negligible.

  4. Magnetic resonance, nuclear orientation and antiferromagnetism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Bleaney

    1998-01-01

    A small range of compounds contain ions from two transition groups, 3d and 4f. Most of these enter an ordered antiferromagnetic state only at liquid helium temperatures, and the internal fields are 1 tesla or less. Experiments are suggested on various single crystals. Measurements by electron spin resonance on impurity ions in antiferromagnetic dysprosium phosphate show that similar compounds could

  5. A magnetic anti-cancer compound for magnet-guided delivery and magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, Haruki; Umemura, Masanari; Kurotani, Reiko; Fukumura, Hidenobu; Sato, Itaru; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Hoshino, Yujiro; Lee, Jin; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Sato, Motohiko; Hirata, Kunio; Singh, David J.; Masuda, Takatsugu; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Urano, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Keiichiro; Tanigaki, Katsumi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Sato, Mamoru; Inoue, Seiichi; Aoki, Ichio; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro

    2015-03-01

    Research on controlled drug delivery for cancer chemotherapy has focused mainly on ways to deliver existing anti-cancer drug compounds to specified targets, e.g., by conjugating them with magnetic particles or encapsulating them in micelles. Here, we show that an iron-salen, i.e., ?-oxo N,N'- bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine iron (Fe(Salen)), but not other metal salen derivatives, intrinsically exhibits both magnetic character and anti-cancer activity. X-Ray crystallographic analysis and first principles calculations based on the measured structure support this. It promoted apoptosis of various cancer cell lines, likely, via production of reactive oxygen species. In mouse leg tumor and tail melanoma models, Fe(Salen) delivery with magnet caused a robust decrease in tumor size, and the accumulation of Fe(Salen) was visualized by magnetic resonance imaging. Fe(Salen) is an anti-cancer compound with magnetic property, which is suitable for drug delivery and imaging. We believe such magnetic anti-cancer drugs have the potential to greatly advance cancer chemotherapy for new theranostics and drug-delivery strategies.

  6. A magnetic anti-cancer compound for magnet-guided delivery and magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Eguchi, Haruki; Umemura, Masanari; Kurotani, Reiko; Fukumura, Hidenobu; Sato, Itaru; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Hoshino, Yujiro; Lee, Jin; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Sato, Motohiko; Hirata, Kunio; Singh, David J.; Masuda, Takatsugu; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Urano, Tsutomu; Yoshida, Keiichiro; Tanigaki, Katsumi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Sato, Mamoru; Inoue, Seiichi; Aoki, Ichio; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Research on controlled drug delivery for cancer chemotherapy has focused mainly on ways to deliver existing anti-cancer drug compounds to specified targets, e.g., by conjugating them with magnetic particles or encapsulating them in micelles. Here, we show that an iron-salen, i.e., ?-oxo N,N'- bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine iron (Fe(Salen)), but not other metal salen derivatives, intrinsically exhibits both magnetic character and anti-cancer activity. X-Ray crystallographic analysis and first principles calculations based on the measured structure support this. It promoted apoptosis of various cancer cell lines, likely, via production of reactive oxygen species. In mouse leg tumor and tail melanoma models, Fe(Salen) delivery with magnet caused a robust decrease in tumor size, and the accumulation of Fe(Salen) was visualized by magnetic resonance imaging. Fe(Salen) is an anti-cancer compound with magnetic property, which is suitable for drug delivery and imaging. We believe such magnetic anti-cancer drugs have the potential to greatly advance cancer chemotherapy for new theranostics and drug-delivery strategies. PMID:25779357

  7. The University of Hull: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Liney, Gary P.

    Gary P. Liney, at the University of Hull, offers an introduction to magnetic resonance physics and techniques. Users can download presentations about spin-echo and Fourier Transformation. The website discusses a host of artifacts such as Gibbs Ringing, chemical shift, and susceptibility. Students and educators can learn about the magnet, RF Coils, gradients, and other instruments used to produce MRIs. The many animations and figures help users learn about the difficult physical concepts.

  8. Microstructured magnetic materials for RF flux guides in magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Wiltshire, M C; Pendry, J B; Young, I R; Larkman, D J; Gilderdale, D J; Hajnal, J V

    2001-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy systems use coils, either singly or as arrays, to intercept radio-frequency (RF) magnetic flux from regions of interest, often deep within the body. Here, we show that a new magnetic material offers novel possibilities for guiding RF flux to the receiver coil, permitting a clear image to be obtained where none might otherwise be detectable. The new material contains microstructure designed according to concepts taken from the field of photonic band gap materials. In the RF range, it has a magnetic permeability that can be produced to specification while exhibiting negligible direct-current magnetism. The latter property is vital to avoid perturbing the static and audio-frequency magnetic fields needed to obtain image and spectral data. The concept offers a new paradigm for the manipulation of RF flux in all nuclear magnetic resonance systems. PMID:11157159

  9. Resonant soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet magnetic scattering in nanostructured magnetic materials: fundamentals and directions

    E-print Network

    Kortright, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet magnetic scattering in nanostructured magnetic materials:soft x-ray resonant scattering well-suited to study magnetic behavior in nanostructured materials,material systems. The ultimate utility of resonant soft x-ray magnetic

  10. Mediated Spatiotemporal Fusion of Multiple Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Datasets for Patient-specific Perfusion Analysis

    E-print Network

    Magee, Derek

    ). This paper de- scribes the crucial component of this framework designed to establish a reliable correlationMediated Spatiotemporal Fusion of Multiple Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Datasets for Patient. Introduction Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) imaging provides diagnostic information for the assessment

  11. Clinical Image Quality Assessment of Accelerated Magnetic Resonance Neuroimaging Using Compressed Sensing

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    Clinical Image Quality Assessment of Accelerated Magnetic Resonance Neuroimaging Using Compressed abnormality. Conclusion: Compressed sensing is able to moderately accelerate certain neu- roimaging sequences methods are capable of accelerating clinical magnetic resonance neuroimaging sequences. Methods: Two 2

  12. Rf coil design for multi-frequency magnetic resonance imaging & spectroscopy 

    E-print Network

    Dabirzadeh, Arash

    2009-05-15

    Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy is known as a valuable diagnostic tool for physicians as well as a research tool for biochemists. In addition to hydrogen (which is the most abundant atom with nuclear magnetic resonance ...

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging System Based on Earth's Magnetic Field

    E-print Network

    Stepi?nik, Janez

    of the magnetic field enables scanning of very large volume samples. Reduction in S/N ratio due to the weak in the case of strong magnetic fields, detection and processing of low frequency signal are less 655 DOI: 10 Vol. 32, No. 6, pp. 655­667, 2004 #12;demanding for the electronics. The techniques used

  14. Rotational resonance with multiple-pulse scaling in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Richard G. S.; Fishbein, Kenneth W.; Levitt, Malcolm H.; Griffin, Robert G.

    1994-04-01

    Multiple-pulse techniques are applied to rotational resonance experiments in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance. The usual rotational resonance condition is satisfied when an integral multiple of the magic-angle spinning speed equals the difference in isotropic chemical shifts of the two members of a homonuclear spin-1/2 pair. We show that sequences of rapid periodic radio-frequency pulses scale and rotate both the Zeeman and dipole-dipole Hamiltonians, leading to a modification of the resonance condition and to the introduction of new, single- and double-quantum, rotational resonances. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate these effects in the spectra of doubly 13C-labeled solids.

  15. Malignant breast tumor phospholipid profiles using 31P magnetic resonance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas E Merchant; John N Kasimos; Thea Vroom; Elco de Bree; Jan Lei Iwata; Peter W de Graaf; Thomas Glonek

    2002-01-01

    Biochemical markers improve the classification and staging of breast cancer and may refine management decisions if it can be shown that they correlate with accepted prognostic factors or patient outcome. Using phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS), we determined the phospholipid content of 43 malignant breast tumors, correlating the profiles with specific histopathologic and clinical features and hormone receptor status.

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance implementation of a quantum clock synchronization algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jingfu; Long, G.C; Liu Wenzhang [Key Laboratory For Quantum Information and Measurements, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Deng Zhiwei [Testing and Analytical Center, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875 (China); Lu Zhiheng [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875 (China)

    2004-12-01

    The quantum clock synchronization (QCS) algorithm proposed by Chuang [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2006 (2000)] has been implemented in a three qubit nuclear magnetic resonance quantum system. The time difference between two separated clocks can be determined by measuring the output states. The experimental realization of the QCS algorithm also demonstrates an application of the quantum phase estimation.

  17. PRECLINICAL RESEARCH Real-Time Magnetic Resonance-Guided

    E-print Network

    Atalar, Ergin

    receiver coils (antennae). Custom interactive rtMRI features included color coding the catheter-antenna-tissue pathology during endograft deployment. Active devices proved most useful. Intrapro- cedural MRI provided afforded by MRI for precise positioning and deployment. Magnetic resonance imaging also permits immediate

  18. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of myocardium at risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S Fieno; Raymond J Kim; Enn-Ling Chen; Jon W Lomasney; Francis J Klocke; Robert M Judd

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVESWe sought to determine the relationship of delayed hyperenhancement by contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to viable and nonviable myocardium within the region at risk throughout infarct healing.BACKGROUNDThe relationship of delayed MRI contrast enhancement patterns to injured but viable myocardium within the ischemic bed at risk has not been established.METHODSWe compared in vivo and ex vivo MRI contrast enhancement to

  19. Detection of Entorhinal Layer II Using Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    E-print Network

    Fischl, Bruce

    scanner using a solenoid coil. In 70 and 100 m isotropic data, the entorhinal islands were clearly visible lobe were robustly detected using the magnetic resonance images. Our ex vivo results could break ground used a human whole-body 7T scanner, obtaining images with 100 m isotropic voxels, and were able

  20. Heart muscle disease and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Sado, Daniel M; Fontana, Marianna; Moon, James C

    2014-07-01

    This article introduces the reader to the different types of heart muscle disease which are commonly encountered in clinical practice. It then discusses cardiovascular magnetic resonance and explains how it can help in the work up of these diverse conditions. PMID:25040517

  1. Facial Recognition From Volume-Rendered Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred W. Prior; Barry S. Brunsden; Charles Hildebolt; Tracy S. Nolan; Michael Pringle; S. Neil Vaishnavi; Linda J. Larson-Prior

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructions of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) brain imaging studies are a routine component of both clinical practice and clinical and translational research. A side effect of such reconstructions is the creation of a potentially recognizable face. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) Privacy Rule requires that individually identifiable health information may

  2. Observation of the uranium 235 nuclear magnetic resonance signal (*)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    L-1017 Observation of the uranium 235 nuclear magnetic resonance signal (*) H. Le Bail, C. Chachaty signal de résonance magnétique nucléaire de l'isotope 235 de l'uranium est présentée. Elle a été effectuée sur l'hexafluorure d'uranium pur, à l'état liquide à 380 K. Le rapport gyromagnétique mesuré est

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Water Distribution in Welded Woods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mojgan Vaziri; Greger Orädd; Owe Lindgren; Antonio Pizzi

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed for a better understanding of water effect on welded wood and improving its water resistance. In this article, we have also attempted to demonstrate the feasibility of using Magnetic Resonance Imaging technology to study water movement in welded woods. Water distribution in welded woods of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and beech (Fagus sylvatica) was investigated by

  4. Design of a dynamic heart phantom for magnetic resonance imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Gullans; E. Ollinick; S. Rein; C. Saffos; J. Shilling; K. C. Yan; J. J. Pilla; Chun Xu

    2009-01-01

    Extensive research in the field of magnetic resonance imaging has been done to improve diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. Using a dynamic heart phantom (DHP) is vital to improve and validate MR imaging techniques and protocols. We have developed an innovative DHP design using a motor driven hydraulic system that delivers XYZ translational motion, rotation of the gel and internal pressure

  5. High-Sensitivity Magnetic Resonance by Bolometer Detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Schmidt; I. Solomon

    1966-01-01

    It is shown that spin magnetic resonance can be observed by a rise in the temperature of the sample, with a sensitivity equal to or better than with the more conventional electromagnetic detection methods.An experimental demonstration is provided by a crude bolometer made of a thin copper wire with a small sample of DPPH glued in the center. A sensitivity

  6. Assessment of the sinus lift operation by magnetic resonance imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Figen Cizmeci Senel; Serpil Duran; Onur Icten; Izlem Izbudak; Fulya Cizmeci

    2006-01-01

    ObjectivesVertical bone loss in edentulous maxillary alveolar processes may necessitate a sinus lift before the placement of dental implants. We have measured and assessed maxillary sinuses meticulously before the operation and evaluated the postoperative results of the operation with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  7. Assessment of the sinus lift operation by magnetic resonance imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Figen Cizmeci Senel; Serpil Duran; Onur Icten; Izlem Izbudak; Fulya Cizmeci

    Objectives: Vertical bone loss in edentulous maxillary alveolar processes may necessitate a sinus lift before the placement of dental implants. We have measured and assessed maxillary sinuses meticulously before the operation and evaluated the postoperative results of the operation with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Thirteen edentulous maxillary regions in eight patients were included in the study. The patients were

  8. DENOISING OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGES USING MINIMUM DESCRIPTION LENGTH PRINCIPLE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satashu Goel; Jerry Tsai; Narayan Krishnamurthy

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images are routinely used for med- ical diagnosis. Denoising of these images to enhance their clinical usability has been an active area of research. This paper considers the thresholding based appproaches for im- age denoising. The paper investigates the use of appropriate basis for image representation and the choice of an appro- priate threshold. The use of

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar vertebral apophyseal ring fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilfred CG Peh; James F Griffith; Daniel KH Yip; John CY Leong

    1998-01-01

    SUMMARY Posterior lumbar vertebral apophyseal ring fractures are described in three adolescents presenting with severe low back pain, spinal tenderness and lower limb neurological deficit. Magnetic resonance imaging showed severe L4\\/5 posterior disc protrusion in all three patients. The actual fracture fragment was visualized with difficulty on MRI alone. The diagnosis of apophyseal ring fracture was made by either radiography

  10. Low Cost Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Compatible Stepper

    E-print Network

    Chesler, Naomi C.

    collection of cardio- vascular MRI data during exercise. We developed a low-cost exercise deviceLow Cost Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Compatible Stepper Exercise Device for Use in Cardiac Stress during a car- diac stress test. Current approaches include either exercise or pharmacological stress

  11. Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Velopharyngeal Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Youkyung; Kuehn, David P.; Sutton, Bradley P.; Conway, Charles A.; Perry, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report the feasibility of using a 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol for examining velopharyngeal structures. Using collected 3D MRI data, the authors investigated the effect of sex on the midsagittal velopharyngeal structures and the levator veli palatini (levator) muscle configurations. Method: Ten Caucasian…

  12. Applications of functional magnetic resonance imaging for market research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Kenning; Hilke Plassmann; Dieter Ahlert

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the methodology of several brain imaging techniques and in particular, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and its potential implications for market research. The aim is to enable the reader both to understand this emerging methodology and to conduct independent research in the area. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging mapping of brain function. Human visual cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Belliveau; K. K. Kwong; D. N. Kennedy; J. R. Baker; C. E. Stern; R. Benson; D. A. Chesler; R. M. Weisskoff; M. S. Cohen; R. B. Tootell; P. T. Fox; T. J. Brady

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of human brain activity are described. Task-induced changes in brain cognitive state were measured using high-speed MRI techniques sensitive to changes in cerebral blood volume (CBV), blood flow (CBF), and blood oxygenation. These techniques were used to generate the first functional MRI maps of human task activation, by using a visual stimulus paradigm. The methodology

  14. Functional Connectivity Magnetic Resonance Imaging Classification of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; DuBray, Molly B.; Druzgal, T. Jason; Cariello, Annahir N.; Cooperrider, Jason R.; Zielinski, Brandon A.; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Alexander, Andrew L.; Bigler, Erin D.; Lange, Nicholas; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2011-01-01

    Group differences in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity between individuals with autism and typically developing controls have been widely replicated for a small number of discrete brain regions, yet the whole-brain distribution of connectivity abnormalities in autism is not well characterized. It is also unclear…

  15. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Imaging in Animal Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Chatham; Stephen J. Blackband

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and imag- ing can be used to investigate, noninvasively, a wide range of biological processes in systems ,as diverse as protein solu- tions, single cells, isolated perfused organs, and tissues in vivo. It is also possible to combine ,different NMR tech- niques enabling metabolic, anatomical, and physiological information to be ,obtained in the same

  16. Semi-Supervised Tumor Detection in Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Images

    E-print Network

    Hamprecht, Fred A.

    for Scientific Computing (IWR), University of Heidelberg 3 Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center on metabolic processes and can thus be used for in vivo tumor diagnosis. However, each single spectrum has and prostate [9]. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) allows to acquire such spectra on two

  17. Array combination for parallel imaging in Magnetic Resonance Imaging 

    E-print Network

    Spence, Dan Kenrick

    2007-09-17

    In Magnetic Resonance Imaging, the time required to generate an image is proportional to the number of steps used to encode the spatial information. In rapid imaging, an array of coil elements and receivers are used to reduce the number of encoding...

  18. Breast cancer measurements with magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, and mammography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter L. Davis; Melinda J. Staiger; Kathleen B. Harris; Marie A. Ganott; Jolita Klementaviciene; Kenneth S. McCarty; Hector Tobon

    1996-01-01

    Summary Background: Accurate measurement of the size of breast cancers becomes more important as breast cancer therapy advances. This study reports the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasonography and mammography for measuring the largest breast cancer diameter in comparison to the pathology measurement.

  19. Classification of magnetic resonance images by using genetic algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziimray Dokur; Tamer Olmez; E. Yazgan

    1997-01-01

    A neural network trained by genetic algorithms (GANN) is presented. Each neuron of the network forms a closed region in the input space. The closed regions which are formed by the neurons overlap each other, like STAR. Genetic algorithms are used to improve the classification performances of the magnetic resonance (MR) images with minimized number of neurons. GANN is examined

  20. Accelerated Parallel Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Combined Gradient and Wavelet

    E-print Network

    Huang, Junzhou

    Accelerated Parallel Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Combined Gradient and Wavelet Sparsity Chen time. In pMRI, multi-channel coils simultaneously receive a fraction of k-space data and the field of view (FOV) is then reconstructed with the coil profiles. The techniques for pMRI can be mainly divided

  1. Linear constraint minimum variance beamformer functional magnetic resonance inverse imaging

    E-print Network

    ) coil array. The LCMV beamformer method generalizes the existing volumetric magnetic resonance inverse-related design to probe the spatial and temporal properties of task-related hemodynamic signal modulations methods is the product of the number of slices and phase encoding steps. In contrast to classical gradient

  2. Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Measuring Ternary Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodworth, Jennifer K.; Terrance, Jacob C.; Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is presented for the upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry curriculum in which the ternary phase diagram of water, 1-propanol and n-heptane is measured using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The experiment builds upon basic concepts of NMR spectral analysis, typically taught in the undergraduate…

  3. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of real and sham acupuncture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TODD B. PARRISH; ALISSA SCHAEFFER; MADELYN CATANESE; MARY J. ROGEL

    2005-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an ideal method to noninvasively explore the whole brain for cortical activation related to acupuncture. The results from this study demonstrate that fMRI can identify specific cortical regions associated with acupuncture stimulation. The choice of acupuncture stimulation using visual or auditory points simplifies the interpretation of the results because the anatomic correlates are well

  4. Nuclear magnetic resonance method and apparatus for reducing motion artifacts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus for imaging a region of a body in which part of the region is moving with a motion such that its displacement with respect to time is a nonmonotonic function during a time period over which a plurality of NMR data signals, which together define an image, are collected. The apparatus is described comprising: excitation

  5. Magnetic resonance and radio frequency mass spectrometers and their application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. N. Aruev

    2011-01-01

    Development of magnetic resonance mass spectrometers (MRMSs) was started at the Leningrad Physico-Technical Institute as far back as the early 1950s, and work on their upgrading and refinement is still in progress. For more than 50 years, the activities in the area of their modification and potential applications have been charged by Boris Aleksandrovich Mamyrin (May 25, 1919–March 05, 2006),

  6. The accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging for stereotactic localization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng Yu; M. L. J. Apuzzo; Chi-Shing Zee; G. Luxton; Z. Petrovich

    2000-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is based on the precise definition of intracranial target in relation to an extracranial reference system. A special plexiglas phantom for both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) was built to test the spatial accuracy of MR images using the Leksell stereotactic head frame and localizer system. The phantom was constructed in a shape of cube,

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Part II—Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Hendee, William R.; Morgan, Christopher J.

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the most promising new technology to appear in the clinical imaging arena since the advent of x-ray transmission computed tomography in the early 1970s. Five independent tissue characteristics (spin density, spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times, flow and spectral shift information) are accessible to MR imaging, and their relative influence in the magnetic resonance image can be varied by appropriate selection of pulse sequences and pulse times. All major organ systems appear to be amenable to MR imaging, and some are revealed with superior definition compared with their appearance in images obtained by alternate imaging technologies. Of particular interest is the superior contrast resolution in MR images of the brain and spinal cord, and the absence of bone- and motion-induced artifacts in images of the abdomen and pelvis. Applications of MR imaging to the heart and great vessels are just developing, as are new types of contrast agents for use in MR imaging. In vivo chemical spectroscopic measurements by magnetic resonance are heralded by some investigators as the most significant contribution that magnetic resonance will make ultimately to clinical diagnosis. At present, the number of MR imaging units is extremely low, and clinical studies are proceeding at a slow rate. Nevertheless, it is possible to provide a preliminary evaluation of the usefulness of MR imaging in a variety of clinical applications. This article is such an evaluation, tempered by the acknowledgement that much additional work remains to be done. Images PMID:6516335

  8. Refining 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for marine

    E-print Network

    Paytan, Adina

    31 P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has recently been used to characterize phosphorus.e., no storage, refrigeration, freezing, and oven-drying and grinding) prior to extraction for solution 31 P-NMR locations. Samples were also analyzed by solid-state 31 P-NMR spectroscopy before and after extraction

  9. Bioengineering 278: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Laboratory Winter 2012

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    water or fat, but not both. The goal of this lab is to plot the 2D response of the pulse in z-f (space-frequency of this transformed pulse is the frequency response at position z. Repeat for z=-10:(20/256):10 cm DisplayBioengineering 278: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Laboratory Winter 2012 Lab 4 1. The Spatial

  10. Magnetic resonance microwave absorption imaging: initial experimental results in phantoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Xie; John Weaver; Paul Meaney; Keith Paulsen

    2007-01-01

    We have used phase contrast magnetic resonance gradients to image small displacements induced by a pulsed 434 MHz microwave field. Thermoelastic expansions, which are related to the tissues' local microwave absorption properties and the applied microwave field distribution are encoded into the phase of MR images. The imaging principles are applicable to other irradiation sources. Initial efforts to develop the

  11. Automatic Segmentation of Adipose Tissue from Thigh Magnetic Resonance Images

    E-print Network

    Li, Baihua

    of fuzzy C-means clustering with spatial connectivity constraints to guide segmentation [4]. This methodAutomatic Segmentation of Adipose Tissue from Thigh Magnetic Resonance Images Senthil Purushwalkam1 segmentation. Existing image processing software such as Osyrix, Corresponding author: b.li@mmu.ac.uk #12

  12. Gegenbauer High Resolution Reconstruction of Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    E-print Network

    Renaut, Rosemary

    Gegenbauer High Resolution Reconstruction of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Jim Estipona and Prasanna K or dark rings seen at the borders of abrupt intensity change on the images. Gegenbauer High Resolution Velamuru Advisors: Dr. Rick Archibald, Dr. Rosemary Renaut Abstract- A variety of image artifacts

  13. Negative index metamaterial combining magnetic resonators with metal films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uday K. Chettiar; Alexander V. Kildishev; Thomas A. Klar; Vladimir M. Shalaev

    2006-01-01

    We present simulation results of a design for negative index materials that\\u000auses magnetic resonators to provide negative permeability and metal film for\\u000anegative permittivity. We also discuss the possibility of using semicontinuous\\u000ametal films to achieve better manufacturability and enhanced impedance\\u000amatching.

  14. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging: assessment of skeletal metastases.

    PubMed

    Moynagh, Michael R; Colleran, Gabrielle C; Tavernaraki, Katarina; Eustace, Stephen J; Kavanagh, Eoin C

    2010-03-01

    The concept of a rapid whole-body imaging technique with high resolution and the absence of ionizing radiation for the assessment of osseous metastatic disease is a desirable tool. This review article outlines the current perspective of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of skeletal metastatic disease, with comparisons made to alternative whole-body imaging modalities. PMID:20229438

  15. The Future of Real-time Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    The Future of Real-time Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Krishna S. Nayak, PhD* and Bob S. Hu, MD:45­51 Current Science Inc. ISSN 1523-3782 Copyright © 2005 by Current Science Inc. Introduction Cardiac function physiology and pathophysiology such as respiration and car- diac dysrhythmia disturbs this periodicity

  16. GEOMETRIC COMPUTATION OF HUMAN GYRIFICATION INDEXES FROM MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGES

    E-print Network

    GEOMETRIC COMPUTATION OF HUMAN GYRIFICATION INDEXES FROM MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGES By Shu Su Tonya;Geometric Computation of Gyrification Indexes Chiu-Yen Kao 1 Geometric Computation of Human Gyrification Computation of Gyrification Indexes Chiu-Yen Kao 2 Abstract Human Brains are highly convoluted surfaces

  17. Blood Flow Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Retinal Degeneration

    E-print Network

    Duong, Timothy Q.

    Blood Flow Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Retinal Degeneration Yingxia Li,1 Haiying Cheng,1 Qiang. Duong1,2,3,4,5,6,7 PURPOSE. This study aims to investigate quantitative basal blood flow as well as hypercapnia- and hyperoxia-induced blood flow changes in the retinas of the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Short T 2 Components in Tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. Gatehouse; G. M. Bydder

    2003-01-01

    The most widely used clinical magnetic resonance imaging techniques for the diagnosis of parenchymal disease employ heavily T2-weighted sequences to detect an increase or decrease in the signal from long T2 components in tissue. Tissues also contain short T2 components that are not detected or only poorly detected with conventional sequences. These components are the majority species in tendons, ligaments,

  19. Mediterranean Diet and Magnetic Resonance ImagingAssessed Cerebrovascular Disease

    E-print Network

    Mediterranean Diet and Magnetic Resonance Imaging­Assessed Cerebrovascular Disease Nikolaos of the previously reported relationship between Mediterranean-type diet (MeDi) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We;We previously reported that higher adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet (MeDi) is associated

  20. A humidifier for olfaction studies during functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Corcoran; H. Zee; C. Sotak; Y. Mendelson

    2005-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging has been used to study the transmission of olfactory sensations in the nervous system. Researchers hypothesize that olfactory sensation depends on the humidity of the air containing the odorant. We were asked to create this device for a biomedical design course offered at Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Our purpose was to create a device for researchers who

  1. BRAIN SURFACE SEGMENTATION OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGES OF THE FETUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Ferrario; M. Bach Cuadra; M. Schaer; N. Houhou; D. Zosso; S. Eliez; L. Guibaud

    In this work we present a method for the image anal- ysis of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of fetuses. Our goal is to segment the brain surface from multiple volumes (axial, coronal and sagittal acquisitions) of a fe- tus. To this end we propose a two-step approach: first, a Finite Gaussian Mixture Model (FGMM) will segment the image into 3

  2. Safety Guidelines for Conducting Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Experiments Involving

    E-print Network

    Squire, Larry R.

    Safety Guidelines for Conducting Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Experiments Involving Human Risks 7 Risk Management 14 Emergencies 18 Contact With Body Fluids 20 Visitors 20 Summary of Safety imaging (MRI) experiments involving human subjects and biomedical studies at the UCSD Functional MRI

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Pediatric Posterior Fossa Tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Zimmerman; Larissa T. Bilaniuk; Susan Rebsamen

    1992-01-01

    MR detected abnormality in all 115 pediatric patients who subsequently had pathologically proven posterior fossa tumors. In 114, the initial magnetic resonance (MR) diagnosis was that of brain tumor. In 1, with less than 1-cm2 area of gadolinium enhancement, the significance of the initial finding was uncertain. Common posterior fossa tumor subgroups (brainstem gliomas, cerebellar astrocytomas, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, and

  4. Voriconazole-related periostitis presenting on magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Derik L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Painful periostitis is a complication of long-term antifungal therapy with voriconazole. A high clinical suspicion coupled with imaging and laboratory assessment is useful to establish the diagnosis. Prompt discontinuance of voriconazole typically results in the resolution of symptoms and signs. This report describes the presentation of voriconazole-related periostitis on magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:26136804

  5. Noninvasive cineangiography by magnetic resonance global coherent free precession

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang G Rehwald; Enn-Ling Chen; Raymond J Kim; Robert M Judd

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is primarily diagnosed using invasive X-ray cineangiography. Here we introduce a new concept in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that, for the first time, produces similar images noninvasively and without a contrast agent. Protons in moving blood are 'tagged' every few milliseconds as they travel through an arbitrary region in space. Simultaneous with ongoing tagging of new blood, previously

  6. Serial magnetic resonance imaging in children with postinfectious encephalitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seiji Kimura; Atsuo Nezu; Noriyuki Ohtsuki; Takuya Kobayashi; Hitoshi Osaka; Saori Uehara

    1996-01-01

    We analyzed follow-up magnetic resonance images (MRI) in eight children with clinical postinfectious encephalitis (PIE), and discussed their pathogeneses. Three categories of MRI findings were apparent: (1) multifocal lesions in the white matter with\\/without basal ganglia involvement consistent with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) (three patients); (2) single or multifocal lesions localized only in the gray matter (two patients); and (3)

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of traumatic knee articular cartilage injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin P. Speer; Charles E. Spritzer; J. Leonard Goldner; William E. Garrett

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging in determining the pres ence of articular cartilage injuries of the knee with arthroscopy as the standard for comparison. Forty-nine articular cartilage lesions were documented in 28 knees (27 patients) by arthroscopy. There were 22 men and 5 women with an average age of 29 years.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of knee injuries in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. King; H. M. L. Carty; O. Brady

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of meniscal appearances and determine the frequency of abnormalities seen on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in children with knee injuries. We reviewed 78 consecutive MR imaging studies of 74 children aged 5–16 years with unfused epiphyses. Menisci were evaluated using conventional grading techniques. We used ?2 to compare the frequencies

  9. Lumbar vertebral pedicles: radiologic anatomy and pathology.

    PubMed

    Patel, N P; Kumar, R; Kinkhabwala, M; Wengrover, S I

    1988-01-01

    With the advancement of high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scanning the spine has added new knowledge to the various conditions affecting the pedicles. We wish to review the entire spectrum of pedicular lesions: the embryology, normal anatomy, normal variants, pitfalls, congenital anomalies, and pathological conditions are discussed. Different imaging modalities involving CT, isotope bone scanning, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are used to complement plain films of the lumbar spine. This subject review is an excellent source for future reference to lumbar pedicular lesions. PMID:3293918

  10. Magnetically tunable Feshbach resonances in Li+Er

    E-print Network

    González-Martínez, Maykel L

    2015-01-01

    We explore the magnetic Feshbach spectra of ultracold ground-state Li+Er systems. Our calculations predict many tunable resonances at fields below 1000 G that could be stably tuned in ultracold experiments. We show that Li+Er spectra are much less congested than those of systems involving heavier highly-magnetic atoms and exhibit non-chaotic properties. These features would facilitate identifying and addressing individual resonances. We derive a simple model for the mass-scaling shifting of low-field resonances that may simplify designing experiments with different Er bosonic isotopes. Our work establishes Li+Er as very promising systems for quantum simulation, precision measurements and the formation of polar paramagnetic molecules.

  11. Resonances of the helium atom in a strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lühr, Armin; Al-Hujaj, Omar-Alexander; Schmelcher, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We present an investigation of the resonances of a doubly excited helium atom in a strong magnetic field covering the regime B=0-100a.u. A full-interaction approach which is based on an anisotropic Gaussian basis set of one-particle functions being nonlinearly optimized for each field strength is employed. Accurate results for a total of 17 resonances below the threshold consisting of He+ in the N=2 state are reported in this work. This includes states with total magnetic quantum numbers M=0,-1,-2 and even z parity. The corresponding binding energies are compared to approximate energies of two-particle configurations consisting of two hydrogenlike electrons in the strong-field regime, thereby providing an understanding of the behavior of the energies of the resonances with varying field strength.

  12. Low-field magnetic resonance imaging of gases

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, D.M.; Espy, M.A.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a six-month, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The main goal of this project was to develop the capability to conduct low-field magnetic resonance imaging of hyper-polarized noble gas nuclei and of thermally polarized protons in water. The authors constructed a versatile low-field NMR system using a SQUID gradiometer detector inside a magnetically shielded room. This device has sufficient low-field sensitivity to detect the small signals associated with NMR at low magnetic fields.

  13. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging Jeffrey A. Fessler

    E-print Network

    Fessler, Jeffrey A.

    = 0 B 0 Anti-Parallel > 0 Higher Energy Parallel Lower Energy z E = h 2B0 Thermal agitation causes -4 10 -2 10 0 Wavelength [Angstroms] Transmission Transmission of EM Waves Through 25cm of Soft in magnetic susceptibility 3. RF field B1(t) (user-controlled, amplitude-modulated pulse) 4. Gradient fields G

  14. Mathematical challenges in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    E-print Network

    Fessler, Jeffrey A.

    of RF pulses / gradient waveforms (many possibilities!) · coil design · contrast agents · reconstruction, big, small bone signal...) #12;3 Overview Two inverse problems in MRI · RF pulse design (spatially Lauterbur and Peter Mansfield (independently) add magnetic field gradients, making images · 1991. Nobel

  15. An atlas of radiological anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, J.; Abrahams, P.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains a wealth of radiologic images of normal human anatomy; plain radiographs, contrast-enhanced radiographs, and computed tomography (CT) scans. There are 18 pages of magnetic resonance (MR) images, most on the brain and spinal cord, so that there are only two pages on MR imaging of the heart and two pages on abdominal and pelvic MR imaging. Twelve pages of ultrasound (US) images are included. This book has the radiologic image paired with an explanatory drawing; the image is on the left with a paragraph or two of text, and the drawing is on the right with legends. This book includes images of the brain and spinal cord obtained with arteriography, venography, myelography, encephalography, CT, and MR imaging.

  16. INTRODUCTION..........................................................................................................................................................3 ANATOMIE DU DIAPHRAGME.................................................................

    E-print Network

    Promayon, Emmanuel

    ..........................................................................................................................................................3 ANATOMIE DU DIAPHRAGME...............................................................................................................................4 Anatomie morphologique du diaphragme [,]..................................................................................................4 Anatomie fonctionnelle

  17. The Local Magnetic Anisotropy Effects and Magnetic Resonance of Amorphous Neodymium Transition Metal Thin Films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lanwai Wong

    1986-01-01

    Model calculations and magnetic resonance experiments were employed to investigate the microscopic and macroscopic properties of amorphous neodymium-iron and neodymium-cobalt thin films. The calculations yielding the magnetization as a function of the applied field and temperature, the coercivity, and the ordering temperature, were performed on a random dense packed model of an amorphous neodymium -iron thin film. The model includes

  18. Oxygenation-sensitive contrast in magnetic resonance image of rodent brain at high magnetic fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ogawa; T. M. Lee; A. S. Nayak; P. Glynn

    1990-01-01

    At high magnetic fields (7 and 8.4 T), water proton magnetic resonance images of brains of live mice and rats under pentobarbital anesthetization have been measured by a gradient echo pulse sequence with a spatial resolution of 65 x 65-microns pixel size and 700-microns slice thickness. The contrast in these images depicts anatomical details of the brain by numerous dark

  19. Two-photon two-color nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Eles, Philip T; Michal, Carl A

    2004-11-22

    Two-photon excitation has recently been demonstrated to be a practical means of exciting nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals by radio-frequency (rf) irradiation at half the normal resonance frequency. In this work, two-photon excitation is treated with average Hamiltonian theory and shown to be a consequence of higher order terms in the Magnus expansion. It is shown that the excitation condition may be satisfied not only with rf at half resonance, but also with two independent rf fields, where the two frequencies sum to or differ by the resonance frequency. The technique is demonstrated by observation of proton NMR signals at 400 MHz while simultaneously exciting at 30 and 370 MHz. Advantages of this so-called two-color excitation, such as a dramatic increase in nutation rate over half-frequency excitation, along with a variety potential applications are discussed. PMID:15549891

  20. Two-photon two-color nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eles, Philip T.; Michal, Carl A.

    2004-11-01

    Two-photon excitation has recently been demonstrated to be a practical means of exciting nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals by radio-frequency (rf) irradiation at half the normal resonance frequency. In this work, two-photon excitation is treated with average Hamiltonian theory and shown to be a consequence of higher order terms in the Magnus expansion. It is shown that the excitation condition may be satisfied not only with rf at half resonance, but also with two independent rf fields, where the two frequencies sum to or differ by the resonance frequency. The technique is demonstrated by observation of proton NMR signals at 400 MHz while simultaneously exciting at 30 and 370 MHz. Advantages of this so-called two-color excitation, such as a dramatic increase in nutation rate over half-frequency excitation, along with a variety potential applications are discussed.

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging with hyper-polarized noble gases

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, D.M.; George, J.S.; Penttila, S.I.; Caprihan, A.

    1997-10-01

    This is the final report of a six-month, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The nuclei of noble gases can be hyper polarized through a laser-driven spin exchange to a degree many orders of magnitude larger than that attainable by thermal polarization without requiring a strong magnetic field. The increased polarization from the laser pumping enables a good nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal from a gas. The main goal of this project was to demonstrate diffusion-weighted imaging of such hyper-polarized noble gas with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Possible applications include characterizing porosity of materials and dynamically imaging pressure distributions in biological or acoustical systems.

  2. Para-Hydrogen-Enhanced Gas-Phase Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, Louis-S.; Kovtunov, Kirill V.; Burt, Scott R.; Anwar,M. Sabieh; Koptyug, Igor V.; Sagdeev, Renad Z.; Pines, Alexander

    2007-02-23

    Herein, we demonstrate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) inthe gas phase using para-hydrogen (p-H2)-induced polarization. A reactantmixture of H2 enriched in the paraspin state and propylene gas is flowedthrough a reactor cell containing a heterogenized catalyst, Wilkinson'scatalyst immobilized on modified silica gel. The hydrogenation product,propane gas, is transferred to the NMR magnet and is spin-polarized as aresult of the ALTADENA (adiabatic longitudinal transport and dissociationengenders net alignment) effect. A polarization enhancement factor of 300relative to thermally polarized gas was observed in 1D1H NMR spectra.Enhancement was also evident in the magnetic resonance images. This isthe first demonstration of imaging a hyperpolarized gaseous productformed in a hydrogenation reaction catalyzed by a supported catalyst.This result may lead to several important applications, includingflow-through porous materials, gas-phase reaction kinetics and adsorptionstudies, and MRI in low fields, all using catalyst-free polarizedfluids.

  3. Magnetically tunable Mie resonance-based dielectric metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Ke; Guo, Yunsheng; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Qian; Xiao, Jinghua; Lei, Ming; Zhou, Ji

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic materials with tunable permeability and permittivity are highly desirable for wireless communication and radar technology. However, the tunability of electromagnetic parameters is an immense challenge for conventional materials and metamaterials. Here, we demonstrate a magnetically tunable Mie resonance-based dielectric metamaterials. The magnetically tunable property is derived from the coupling of the Mie resonance of dielectric cube and ferromagnetic precession of ferrite cuboid. Both the simulated and experimental results indicate that the effective permeability and permittivity of the metamaterial can be tuned by modifying the applied magnetic field. This mechanism offers a promising means of constructing microwave devices with large tunable ranges and considerable potential for tailoring via a metamaterial route. PMID:25384397

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of the rhesus monkey brain: use for stereotactic neurosurgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Saunders; T. G. Aigner; J. A. Frank

    1990-01-01

    Standard stereotactic procedures rely upon external cranial landmarks and standardized atlases for localization of subcortical neural regions. Magnetic resonance imaging permits the visualization of the neural structure of the brain in vivo. A stereotactic instrument compatible with a magnetic resonance unit was constructed and together with magnetic resonance imaging a procedure was developed that overcomes the limitations and inaccuracies of

  5. Hydrogen Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Autism: Preliminary Evidence of Elevated Choline\\/Creatine Ratio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah K. Sokol; David W. Dunn; Mary Edwards-Brown; Judy Feinberg

    2002-01-01

    Hydrogen proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is only beginning to be studied in autistic individuals. We report an association between hydrogen proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy choline\\/creatine ratios and severity of autism as measured by the Children's Autistic Rating Scale (Pearson r = .657, P = .04) in 10 autistic children. Hydrogen proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy choline\\/creatine ratio measures the concentration of

  6. Field-Concentrator-Based Resonant Magnetic Sensor With Integrated Planar Coils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Brugger; Oliver Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a highly sensitive resonant magnetic microsensor with a shift of the mechanical resonance frequency f res depending quadratically on the magnetic flux density B to be measured. The sensor combines an electrostatically driven micromechanical resonator with a geometrically optimized planar magnetic concentrator with two narrow gaps. Sensitivities df res\\/dB of several megahertz per tesla are achieved

  7. AGS Fast spin resonance jump, magnets and power supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn,J.W.; Huang, H.; Liaw, C. J.; Marneris, I.; Meng, W.; Mi, J. L.; Rosas, P.; Sandberg, J.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zhang, A.

    2009-05-04

    In order to cross more rapidly the 82 weak spin resonances caused by the horizontal tune and the partial snakes, we plan to jump the horizontal tune 82 times during the acceleration of polarized protons. The current in the magnets creating this tune jump will rise in 100 {micro}s, hold flat for about 4 ms and fan to zero in 100 {micro}s. Laminated beam transport quadrupole magnets have been recycled by installing new two turn coils and longitudinal laminated pole tip shims that reduce inductance and power supply current. The power supply uses a high voltage capacitor discharge to raise the magnet current, which is then switched to a low voltage supply, and then the current is switched back to the high voltage capacitor to zero the current. The current in each of the magnet pulses must match the order of magnitude change in proton momentum during the acceleration cycle. The magnet, power supply and operational experience are described.

  8. Cyclotron-resonance maser in a magnetic mirror.

    PubMed

    Caspi, R; Jerby, E

    1999-08-01

    A cyclotron-resonance maser (CRM) experiment is performed in a high-gradient magnetic field using a low-energy electron beam ( approximately 10 keV/1 A). The magnetic field exceeds 1.63 T, which corresponds to a 45-GHz cyclotron frequency. The CRM radiation output is observed in much lower frequencies, between 6.6 and 20 GHz only. This discrepancy is explained by the finite penetration depth of the electrons into the growing magnetic field, as in a magnetic mirror. The electrons emit radiation at the local cyclotron frequency in their reflection point from that magnetic mirror; hence, the radiation frequency depends mostly on the initial electron energy. A conceptual reflex gyrotron scheme is proposed in this paper, as a CRM analogue for the known reflex klystron. PMID:11970042

  9. Single spin optically detected magnetic resonance with 60-90 GHz (E-band) microwave resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslam, Nabeel; Pfender, Matthias; Stöhr, Rainer; Neumann, Philipp; Scheffler, Marc; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Abe, Hiroshi; Onoda, Shinobu; Ohshima, Takeshi; Isoya, Junichi; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic resonance with ensembles of electron spins is commonly performed around 10 GHz, but also at frequencies above 240 GHz and in corresponding magnetic fields of over 9 T. However, experiments with single electron and nuclear spins so far only reach into frequency ranges of several 10 GHz, where existing coplanar waveguide structures for microwave (MW) delivery are compatible with single spin readout techniques (e.g., electrical or optical readout). Here, we explore the frequency range up to 90 GHz, with magnetic fields of up to ?3 T for single spin magnetic resonance in conjunction with optical spin readout. To this end, we develop MW resonators with optical single spin access. In our case, rectangular 60-90 GHz (E-band) waveguides guarantee low-loss supply of microwaves to the resonators. Three dimensional cavities, as well as coplanar waveguide resonators, enhance MW fields by spatial and spectral confinement with a MW efficiency of 1 . 36 mT / ?{ W } . We utilize single nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers as hosts for optically accessible spins and show that their properties regarding optical spin readout known from smaller fields (<0.65 T) are retained up to fields of 3 T. In addition, we demonstrate coherent control of single nuclear spins under these conditions. Furthermore, our results extend the applicable magnetic field range of a single spin magnetic field sensor. Regarding spin based quantum registers, high fields lead to a purer product basis of electron and nuclear spins, which promises improved spin lifetimes. For example, during continuous single-shot readout, the 14N nuclear spin shows second-long longitudinal relaxation times.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging protocols for paediatric neuroradiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawn E. Saunders; Clare Thompson; Roxanne Gunny; Rod Jones; Tim Cox; Wui Khean Chong

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, radiologists are encouraged to have protocols for all imaging studies and to include imaging guidelines in care\\u000a pathways set up by the referring clinicians. This is particularly advantageous in MRI where magnet time is limited and a radiologist’s\\u000a review of each patient’s images often results in additional sequences and longer scanning times without the advantage of improvement\\u000a in diagnostic

  11. Zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Weitekamp, D.P.; Bielecki, A.; Zax, D.; Zilm, K.; Pines, A.

    1983-05-30

    In polycrystalline samples, NMR ''powder spectra'' are broad and much structural information is lost as a result of the orientational disorder. In this Letter Fourier transform NMR in zero magnetic field is described. With no preferred direction in space, all crystallites contribute equivalently and resolved dipolar splittings can be interpreted directly in terms of internuclear distances. This opens the possibility of molecular structure determination without the need for single crystals or oriented samples.

  12. Detection of magnetism in the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Slowik, T J; Green, B L; Thorvilson, H G

    1997-01-01

    Red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) workers, queens, and alates were analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the presence of natural magnetism. Images of ants showed distortion patterns similar to those of honey bees and monarch butterflies, both of which possess ferromagnetic material. The bipolar ring patterns of MRI indicated the presence in fire ants of small amounts of internal magnetic material, which may be used in orientation behaviors, as in the honey bees. PMID:9209721

  13. Double resonance response in nonlinear magnetic vortex dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.-S.; Kläui, M.; Fistul, M. V.; Yoon, J.; You, C.-Y.; Mattheis, R.; Ulysse, C.; Faini, G.

    2013-08-01

    We present experimental evidences for the dynamical bifurcation behavior of ac-driven magnetic vortex core gyration in a ferromagnetic disk. The dynamical bifurcation, i.e., appearance and disappearance of two stable dynamical states in the vortex gyration, occurring as the amplitude of the driving Oersted field increases to BOe>BOecr, manifests itself in a double resonance response in the dependence of homodyne the dc-voltage signal on the frequency ? of the applied microwave current. We find that the frequency range ?? between the two resonance features strongly increases with the excitation power. Our analysis based on the model of a low dissipative nonlinear oscillator subject to a resonant alternating force is in good agreement with the experimental results. This allows us to determine quantitatively key parameters of magnetic vortex dynamics, i.e., the critical value of the driving Oersted field BOecr for nonlinear dynamics to occur, the resonant frequency, and the quality factor as well as damping of the magnetic vortex gyration.

  14. Travelling Wave Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3 Tesla

    E-print Network

    Vazquez, F; Marrufo, O; Rodriguez, A O

    2013-01-01

    Waveguides have been successfully used to generate magnetic resonance images at 7 T with whole-body systems. The bore limits the magnetic resonance signal transmitted because its specific cut-off frequency is greater than the majority of resonant frequencies. This restriction can be overcome by using a parallel-plate waveguide whose cut-off frequency is zero for the transversal electric modes and it can propagate any frequency. To investigate the potential benefits for whole-body imaging at 3 T, we compare numerical simulations at 1.5 T, 3 T, 7 T, and 9 T via the propagation of the parallel-plate waveguide principal mode filled with a cylindrical phantom and two surface coils. B1 mapping was computed to investigate the feasibility of this approach at 3T. The point spread function method was used to measure the imager performance for the traveling-wave magnetic resonance imaging experiment. Human leg images were acquired to experimentally validate this approach. The principal mode shows very little field magni...

  15. Contour-based brain segmentation method for magnetic resonance imaging human head scans.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, K; Kalavathi, P

    2013-01-01

    The high-resolution magnetic resonance brain images often contain some nonbrain tissues (ie, skin, fat, muscle, neck, eye balls, etc) compared with the functional images such as positron emission tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, which usually contain few nonbrain tissues. Automatic segmentation of brain tissues from MRI scans remains a challenging task due to the variation in shape and size, use of different pulse sequences, overlapping signal intensities and imaging artifacts. This article presents a contour-based automatic brain segmentation method to segment the brain regions from T1-, T2-, and proton density-weighted MRI of human head scans. The proposed method consists of 2 stages. In stage 1, the brain regions in the middle slice is extracted. Many of the existing methods failed to extract brain regions in the lower and upper slices of the brain volume, where the brain appears in more than 1 connected region. To overcome this problem, in the proposed method, a landmark circle is drawn at the center of the extracted brain region of a middle slice and is likely to pass through all the brain regions in the remaining lower and upper slices irrespective of whether the brain is composed of 1 or more connected components. In stage 2, the brain regions in the remaining slices are extracted with reference to the landmark circle obtained in stage 1. The proposed method is robust to the variability of brain anatomy, image orientation, and image type, and it extracts the brain regions accurately in T1-, T2-, and proton density-weighted normal and abnormal brain images. Experimental results by applying the proposed method on 100 volumes of brain images show that the proposed method exhibits best and consistent performance than by the popular existing methods brain extraction tool, brain surface extraction, watershed algorithm, hybrid watershed algorithm, and skull stripping using graph cuts. PMID:23674005

  16. Inferences concerning anatomy and physiology of the human brain based on its magnetic field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. C. Okada

    1983-01-01

    Summary  Research in the evoked magnetic field reported in the last two years is reviewed. The studies have shown that the magnetic\\u000a technique may be used 1) to reveal complementary aspects of the current sources common to evoked potential, 2) to identify\\u000a the organization of the cerebral cortex and subcortical areas of the brain and 3) to measure functional properties of

  17. Dynamical magnetoelectric feedback effects in magnetic resonant tunneling structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertler, Christian; Fabian, Jaroslav

    2009-03-01

    Heterostructures made of stacked layers of both magnetic and nonmagnetic semiconductors provide a lot of opportunities for controlling and tuning their spin-dependent transport properties. For instance, highly efficient spin valves,spin switching and spin filtering devices have been demonstrated by using magnetic resonant tunneling structures [1]. Here, we show that in a resonant tunneling double barrier structure, which comprises a ferromagnetic quantum well made of a dilute magnetic semiconductor material, interesting dynamical effects can occur [2]. In such systems the transport and magnetic properties become strongly coupled, since the ferromagnetic order in the quantum well is mediated by the itinerant carriers. Both the Coulomb interaction of the particles and the magnetic exchange field give rise to strong feedback effects on the tunneling current. Interestingly, for a broad voltage range self-sustained high-frequency oscillating currents associated with an oscillating well magnetization appear. The requirements for the occurrence of these dc-driven magnetoelectric oscillations are investigated and possible device setups, which should allow for an experimental observation, are discussed. [1] J. Fabian, A. Matos-Abiague, C. Ertler, P. Stano and I. Zutic, Acta Phys. Slov. 57, 565 (2007). [2] C. Ertler and J. Fabian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 077202 (2008).

  18. Electromagnetically induced transparency resonances inverted in magnetic field

    E-print Network

    Sargsyan, A; Pashayan-Leroy, Y; Leroy, C; Cartaleva, S; Wilson-Gordon, A D; Auzinsh, M

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) phenomenon has been investigated in a $\\Lambda$-system of the $^{87}$Rb D$_1$ line in an external transverse magnetic field. Two spectroscopic cells having strongly different values of the relaxation rates $\\gamma_{rel}$ are used: a Rb cell with antirelaxation coating ($L\\sim$1 cm) and a Rb nanometric-thin cell (nano-cell) with thickness of the atomic vapor column $L$=795nm. For the EIT in the nano-cell, we have the usual EIT resonances characterized by a reduction in the absorption (i.e. dark resonance (DR)), whereas for the EIT in the Rb cell with an antirelaxation coating, the resonances demonstrate an increase in the absorption (i.e. bright resonances). We suppose that such unusual behavior of the EIT resonances (i.e. the reversal of the sign from DR to BR) is caused by the influence of alignment process. The influence of alignment strongly depends on the configuration of the coupling and probe frequencies as well as on the configuration of the magnetic f...

  19. Localized Spectroscopy using a Magnetic Resonance Force Microscope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moresi, Giorgio; Lin, Qiong; Mouaziz, Schahrazede; Hunkeler, Andreas; Degen, Christian; Meier, Urban; Brugger, Juerger; Meier, Beat

    2006-03-01

    The Magnetic Resonance Force Microscope (MRFM) constitutes a promising next-generation magnetic resonance detection device at room temperature. A MRFM observes nuclear (or electron) spin magnetization as a force, which occurs when a paramagnetic sample is polarized in inhomogeneous static magnetic field (10E5 T/m) and a high frequency drives the cantilever on-resonance by a cyclic adiabatic modulation, which make able to measure T1 rho. In this contribution, we combine the MRFM with spin-echo spectroscopy to add spectral resolution to NMR signals of micro-scale objects at room temperature. First experimental spectra recorded with the amplitude detection technique from a sample of barium chlorate monohydrate and ammonium sulfate single crystals mounted on a non commercial cantilever show resolution of 2?m and a sensitivity of 10E13 spins. The new microscope, which uses the frequency detection down to m-Hz resolution and the annealed non-commercials cantilevers, which have Q factor up to 250000 at room temperature, improve the sensitivity to 10E9 spins. This new setup and a new measurement technique should make able to measure T1.

  20. Specific Pathogen Detection Using Bioorthogonal Chemistry and Diagnostic Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Liong, Monty; Fernandez-Suarez, Marta; Issadore, David; Min, Changwook; Tassa, Carlos; Reiner, Thomas; Fortune, Sarah M.; Toner, Mehmet; Lee, Hakho; Weissleder, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    The development of faster and more sensitive detection methods capable of identifying specific bacterial types and strains has remained a longstanding clinical challenge. Thus to date, the diagnosis of bacterial infections continues to rely on the performance of time-consuming cultures. Here, we demonstrate the use of bioorthogonal chemistry for magnetically labeling specific pathogens to enable their subsequent detection by nuclear magnetic resonance. Antibodies against a bacterial target of interest were first modified with trans-cyclooctene and then coupled to tetrazine-modified magnetic nanoprobes, directly on the bacteria. This labeling method was verified using surface plasmon resonance as well as by using a miniaturized diagnostic magnetic resonance device capable of highly specific detection of Staphylococcus aureus. Compared to other copper-free bioorthogonal chemistries, the cycloaddition reaction described displayed faster kinetics and yielded higher labeling efficiency. Considering the short assay times and the portability of the necessary instrumentation, it is feasible that this approach could be adapted for clinical use in resource-limited settings. PMID:22043803

  1. Electron series resonance plasma discharges: Unmagnetized and magnetized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Weiguang

    2001-08-01

    This thesis explores high frequency electron series resonance in unmagnetized and magnetized bounded plasmas. Special interest is focused on low temperature plasmas in planar systems as such are useful for material processing and fusion devices. Chapter 1, Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 describe simulation studies of unmagnetized electron series resonance (ESR) sustained discharges with comparisons to theory and experiment. These plasmas have many desirable characteristics. The input resistance is small and the drive voltage and current are in phase. The drive voltage is small (˜Te) and the time average plasma potential is low (˜10Te). A strong kinetic phase space bunching process is shown to provide electrons of sufficient energy for ionization, which allows discharge operation at low neutral pressure and low electron temperatures. At low pressure, the ion flux to the wall has a narrow angular spread about the normal and the ion bombarding energy distribution has a sharp peak at the plasma potential. Scaling laws at fixed pressure nr?w3RF ,s¯?w -1RF are shown to hold when RF frequency is varied smoothly ("chirping") demonstrating continuous density control. Research on magnetized electron series resonance (MESR) discharges is described in Chapter 4, Chapter 5 and Chapter 6. The resonant frequency is derived from cold plasma theory and shows two resonant modes. Simulations verify these modes to be the natural oscillatory frequencies of weakly magnetized plasmas in a planar plasma diode. A global model is established for magnetized resonant discharges. The interrelations among the plasma parameters and the drive terms are formulated for both resonant modes. The initiation of a MESR discharge and its steady state properties are discussed and compared to the unmagnetized case. Weak lock-on of MESR frequency to the drive frequency is observed in simulation. Similar V - I characteristics as those in ESR are found both in theory and in simulation. Different from the ESR discharges, MESR discharges show strong bulk heating. The scaling laws from the analytical model are also tested by simulation. The results show that we may control the plasma discharge parameters by the applied magnetic field: its magnitude and tilted angle; two more external controls than the ESR discharges.

  2. Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance Studies on ?-conjugated semiconductor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ying

    2011-12-06

    Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR) techniques were used to investigate the dynamics of excitons and charge carriers in ?-conjugated organic semiconductors. Degradation behavior of the negative spin-1/2 electroluminescence-detected magnetic resonance (ELDMR) was observed in Alq3 devices. The increase in the resonance amplitude implies an increasing bipolaron formation during degradation, which might be the result of growth of charge traps in the device. The same behavior of the negative spin-1/2 ELDMR was observed in 2wt% Rubrene doped Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminium (Alq3) devices. However, with increasing injection current, a positive spin-1/2 ELDMR, together with positive spin 1 triplet powder patterns at {delta}m{sub S}={+-}1 and {delta}m{sub S}={+-}2, emerges. Due to the similarities in the frequency dependences of single and double modulated ELDMR and the photoluminescence-detected magnetic resonance (PLDMR) results in poly[2-methoxy-5-(2 -ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenyl ene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) films, the mechanism for this positive spin-1/2 ELDMR was assigned to enhanced triplet-polaron quenching under resonance conditions. The ELDMR in rubrene doped Alq3 devices provides a path to investigate charge distribution in the device under operational conditions. Combining the results of several devices with different carrier blocking properties and the results from transient EL, it was concluded trions not only exist near buffer layer but also exist in the electron transport layer. This TPQ model can also be used to explain the positive spin-1/2 PLDMR in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films at low temperature and in MEH-PPV films at various temperatures up to room temperature. Through quantitative analysis, TE-polaron quenching (TPQ) model is shown having the ability to explain most behaviors of the positive spin-1/2 resonance. Photocurrent detected magnetic resonance (PCDMR) studies on MEH-PPV devices revealed a novel transient resonance signal. The signal may originate from the higher concentration of deep traps near cathode. A quantitative analysis based on this assumption was carried out and found to be consistent with the experimental results.

  3. Field map reconstruction in magnetic resonance imaging using Bayesian estimation.

    PubMed

    Baselice, Fabio; Ferraioli, Giampaolo; Shabou, Aymen

    2010-01-01

    Field inhomogeneities in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can cause blur or image distortion as they produce off-resonance frequency at each voxel. These effects can be corrected if an accurate field map is available. Field maps can be estimated starting from the phase of multiple complex MRI data sets. In this paper we present a technique based on statistical estimation in order to reconstruct a field map exploiting two or more scans. The proposed approach implements a Bayesian estimator in conjunction with the Graph Cuts optimization method. The effectiveness of the method has been proven on simulated and real data. PMID:22315539

  4. W line shape in the resistively detected nuclear magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desrat, W.; Piot, B. A.; Maude, D. K.; Wasilewski, Z. R.; Henini, M.; Airey, R.

    2015-07-01

    The resistively detected nuclear magnetic resonance (RDNMR) performed on a two-dimensional electron gas is known to exhibit a peculiar ‘dispersive’ line shape at some filling factors, especially around ? =1 . Here, we study in detail the inversion of the dispersive line shape as a function of the filling factor from ? =1 to 2/3 . The RDNMR spectra show a new characteristic W line shape in the longitudinal resistance, whereas dispersive lines detected in the Hall resistance remain unchanged. This W resonance, like the dispersive line, can be fitted correctly by a model of two independent response functions, which are the signatures of polarized and unpolarized electronic sub-systems.

  5. Magnetic Resonance, Muon Spin Rotation and Magnetization Measurements of GdSr_2Cu_2RuO_8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackstead, H. A.; Dow, John D.; Harshman, D. R.; Pulling, D. B.; Ren, Z. F.; Wang, D. Z.

    2001-03-01

    We report magnetization,muon spin rotation,and microwave magnetic resonance experiments on superconducting and magnetic GdSr_2Cu_2RuO_8. The low temperature magnetization data indicate the presence of ferromagnetism with an ordering temperature of ~139 K. The microwave resonance data, through the selection rules, indicate that the magnetic sublattice responsible for the magnetic resonance exhibits weak ferromagnetism, for temperatures less than ~150K. Recently published neutron diffraction results indicate antiferromagnetic ordering of the Ru sublattice, while the Miller indices of the observed magnetic diffraction peaks are also consistent with ordered cuprate planes. We have been unable to detect resonance in materials with ordered Ru, but have detected similar magnetic resonance in GdSr_2Cu_2NbO8 which arises from the cuprate planes. We conclude that the cuprate planes of superconducting GdSr_2Cu_2RuO8 are at least partially ordered.

  6. Flat RF coils in static field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Stork, H; Gädke, A; Nestle, N; Fujara, F

    2009-10-01

    The use of flat RF coils allows considerable gains in the sensitivity of static field gradient (SFG) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments. In this article, this effect is studied theoretically as well as experimentally. Additionally, the flat coil geometry has been studied theoretically depending on magnetic field gradient, pulse sequence and amplifier power. Moreover, detecting the signal directly from the free induction decay (FID) turned out to be quite attractive for STRAFI-like microimaging experiments, especially when using flat coils. In addition to wound rectangular flat coils also spiral flat coils have been developed which can be manufactured by photolithography from printed circuit boards. PMID:19683951

  7. High-field small animal magnetic resonance oncology studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bokacheva, Louisa; Ackerstaff, Ellen; LeKaye, H. Carl; Zakian, Kristen; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the applications of high magnetic field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) to cancer studies in small animals. High-field MRI can provide information about tumor physiology, the microenvironment, metabolism, vascularity and cellularity. Such studies are invaluable for understanding tumor growth and proliferation, response to treatment and drug development. The MR techniques reviewed here include 1H, 31P, chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging and hyperpolarized 13C MRS as well as diffusion-weighted, blood oxygen level dependent contrast imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. These methods have been proven effective in animal studies and are highly relevant to human clinical studies.

  8. Stochastic dipolar recoupling in nuclear magnetic resonance of solids

    PubMed Central

    Tycko, Robert

    2008-01-01

    I describe a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, called stochastic dipolar recoupling (SDR), that permits continuous experimental control of the character of spin dynamics between coherent and incoherent limits in a system of magnetic dipole-coupled nuclei. In the fully incoherent limit of SDR, spin polarization transfers occur at distance-dependent rates without the quantum mechanical interferences among pairwise dipole-dipole couplings that often limit the feasibility or precision of structural studies of solids by NMR. In addition to facilitating structural studies, SDR represents a possible route to experimental studies of effects of decoherence on the dynamics of quantum many-body systems. PMID:17995438

  9. Effects of remaining magnetic islands in resonant magnetic perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. C.; Lu, J. C.; Nishimura, Y.; Cheng, C. Z.

    2014-10-01

    Effects of remaining magnetic islands in stochastic magnetic field is investigated. A guiding center orbit following code is employed. The island remnants play an important role in characterizing the radial particle and heat transport. By increasing the trapped particle fraction, the transport level is reduced due to the conservation of second adiabatic invariants. Three dimensional particle motion is projected onto one dimensional radial profile to compare with a 1D transport model. Furthermore, particle source is incorporated into the kinetic simulation to retain the global profile as in realistic tokamak discharge. This work is supported by National Science Council of Taiwan, NSC 100-2112-M-006-021, 103-2112-M-006-007, and NCKU Top University Project.

  10. Anatomy of field effects on magnetization dynamics and spin transfer noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Wang; G. C. Han; Y. K. Zheng

    2006-01-01

    Spin transfer-related phenomena in nanomagnets have attracted extensive studies. In this paper we shall focus on analysis of individual and combined effects of the external, anisotropy, and demagnetization fields on magnetization dynamics and spin transfer noise. It is found that individual roles of the external, anisotropy, and demagnetization fields, as well as the combined roles of external plus anisotropy fields

  11. Brain magnetic resonance imaging with contrast dependent on blood oxygenation

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, S.; Lee, T.M.; Kay, A.R.; Tank, D.W. (AT and T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ (United States))

    1990-12-01

    Paramagnetic deoxyhemoglobin in venous blood is a naturally occurring contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). By accentuating the effects of this agent through the use of gradient-echo techniques in high yields, the authors demonstrate in vivo images of brain microvasculature with image contrast reflecting the blood oxygen level. This blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast follows blood oxygen changes induced by anesthetics, by insulin-induced hypoglycemia, and by inhaled gas mixtures that alter metabolic demand or blood flow. The results suggest that BOLD contrast can be used to provide in vivo real-time maps of blood oxygenation in the brain under normal physiological conditions. BOLD contrast adds an additional feature to magnetic resonance imaging and complement other techniques that are attempting to provide position emission tomography-like measurements related to regional neural activity.

  12. Inelastic tunneling spectroscopy for magnetic atoms and the Kondo resonance.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, E C; Flores, F

    2013-06-01

    The interaction between a single magnetic atom and the metal environment (including a magnetic field) is analyzed by introducing an ionic Hamiltonian combined with an effective crystal-field term, and by using a Green-function equation of motion method. This approach describes the inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy and the Kondo resonances as due to atomic spin fluctuations associated with electron co-tunneling processes between the leads and the atom. We analyze in the case of Fe on CuN the possible spin fluctuations between states with S = 2 and 3/2 or 5/2 and conclude that the experimentally found asymmetries in the conductance with respect to the applied bias, and its marked structures, are well explained by the 2?3/2 spin fluctuations. The case of Co is also considered and shown to present, in contrast with Fe, a resonance at the Fermi energy corresponding to a Kondo temperature of 6 K. PMID:23587848

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer clinical application

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Du, Yong; Huang, Yayong; Meng, Jun; Xiao, Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    As prostate cancer is a biologically heterogeneous disease for which a variety of treatment options are available, the major objective of prostate cancer imaging is to achieve more precise disease characterization. In clinical practice, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the imaging tools for the evaluation of prostate cancer, the fusion of MRI or dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) with magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is improving the evaluation of cancer location, size, and extent, while providing an indication of tumor aggressiveness. This review summarizes the role of MRI in the application of prostate cancer and describes molecular MRI techniques (including MRSI and DCE-MRI) for aiding prostate cancer management. PMID:23592906

  14. Use of contrast agents in oncological imaging: magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cugini, Christian; Scatto, Giuliano; Zanato, Riccardo; Fusaro, Michele; Dorigo, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Magnetic resonance plays a leading role in the management of oncology patients, providing superior contrast resolution and greater sensitivity compared with other techniques, which enables more accurate tumor identification, characterization and staging. Contrast agents are widely used in clinical magnetic resonance imaging; approximately 40–50% of clinical scans are contrast enhanced. Most contrast agents are based on the paramagnetic gadolinium ion Gd3+, which is chelated to avoid the toxic effects of free gadolinium. Multiple factors such as molecule structure, molecule concentration, dose, field strength and temperature determine the longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates (R1 and R2, respectively) and thus the T1- and T2-relaxivities of these chelates. These T1- and T2-relaxivities, together with their pharmacokinetic properties (i.e. distribution and concentration in the area of interest), determine the radiologic efficacy of the gadolinium-based contrast agents. PMID:24060901

  15. Use of contrast agents in oncological imaging: magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Morana, Giovanni; Cugini, Christian; Scatto, Giuliano; Zanato, Riccardo; Fusaro, Michele; Dorigo, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance plays a leading role in the management of oncology patients, providing superior contrast resolution and greater sensitivity compared with other techniques, which enables more accurate tumor identification, characterization and staging. Contrast agents are widely used in clinical magnetic resonance imaging; approximately 40-50% of clinical scans are contrast enhanced. Most contrast agents are based on the paramagnetic gadolinium ion Gd3+, which is chelated to avoid the toxic effects of free gadolinium. Multiple factors such as molecule structure, molecule concentration, dose, field strength and temperature determine the longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates (R1 and R2, respectively) and thus the T1- and T2-relaxivities of these chelates. These T1- and T2-relaxivities, together with their pharmacokinetic properties (i.e. distribution and concentration in the area of interest), determine the radiologic efficacy of the gadolinium-based contrast agents. PMID:24060901

  16. Innovative computing for diagnoses from medical, magnetic-resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Diegert, C.

    1997-01-01

    The author presents a final report on a Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project, Innovative Computing for Diagnoses from Medical, Magnetic-Resonance Imaging, performed during fiscal years 1992 and 1993. The project defined a role for high-performance computing in surgery: the supercomputer can automatically summarize the three-dimensional extents of lesions and other clinically-relevant structures, and can deliver these summaries to workstation-based, augmented-reality environments at the clinical site. The author developed methods and software to make these summaries from the digital data already acquired using clinical, magnetic-resonance machines. In joint work with Albuquerque`s Department of Veterans Affairs Hospital, the author applied this work, and obtained a basis for planning, for rehearsal, and for guidance during surgery.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging using linear magneto-inductive waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syms, R. R. A.; Young, I. R.; Ahmad, M. M.; Rea, M.

    2012-12-01

    Magneto-inductive waveguides are arrays of magnetically coupled, lumped element resonators, which support slow waves at radio frequency. Their use in internal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), where they may provide an intrinsically safe method of signal detection and transmission, is described. A catheter-based receiver formed from a thin-film printed circuit mounted on a tubular scaffold using heat-shrink tubing is demonstrated, and its electrical response and imaging sensitivity are explained in terms of the excitation and propagation of magneto-inductive waves. The theoretical predictions are confirmed using the results of electrical measurement and 1H MRI at 1.5 T, and imaging is achieved over a total length greater than 1.5 m using a single receiver.

  18. Magnetic resonance detection of individual proton spins using quantum reporters.

    PubMed

    Sushkov, A O; Lovchinsky, I; Chisholm, N; Walsworth, R L; Park, H; Lukin, M D

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate a method of magnetic resonance imaging with single nuclear-spin sensitivity under ambient conditions. Our method employs isolated electronic-spin quantum bits (qubits) as magnetic resonance "reporters" on the surface of high purity diamond. These spin qubits are localized with nanometer-scale uncertainty, and their quantum state is coherently manipulated and measured optically via a proximal nitrogen-vacancy color center located a few nanometers below the diamond surface. This system is then used for sensing, coherent coupling, and imaging of individual proton spins on the diamond surface with angstrom resolution. Our approach may enable direct structural imaging of complex molecules that cannot be accessed from bulk studies. It realizes a new platform for probing novel materials, monitoring chemical reactions, and manipulation of complex systems on surfaces at a quantum level. PMID:25415924

  19. Functionalized 129Xe contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Taratula, Olena; Dmochowski, Ivan J.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of ‘xenon biosensor’ for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was first proposed by a Berkeley team in 2001, with evidence that hyperpolarized 129Xe bound to a biotin-labeled cryptophane can detect streptavidin at much lower concentrations (nM-?M) than is typical for contrast-enhanced MRI experiments. 129Xe biosensors have undergone many recent developments to address challenges in molecular imaging. For example, cryptophanes have been synthesized that exhibit 10-fold higher xenon affinity with distinct 129Xe magnetic resonance spectra. Also relevant are dendrimeric cryptophane assemblies and inorganic zeolites that localize many 129Xe atoms to rare targets. Finally, this article considers biosensors that produce measurable changes in 129Xe chemical shift based upon the activity of oligonucleotides, proteins, or enzymes, and includes the first cell studies. PMID:19914122

  20. Current-driven parametric resonance in magnetic multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Seinige, H.; Tsoi, M.

    2013-07-01

    Current-induced parametric excitations were observed in point-contact spin-valve nanodevices. Point contacts were used to inject high densities of direct and microwave currents into spin valves, thus producing oscillating spin-transfer and Oersted-field torques on magnetic moments. The resulting magnetodynamics were observed electrically by measuring rectified voltage signals across the contact. In addition to the spin-torque-driven ferromagnetic resonance we observe doubled-frequency signals which correspond to the parametric excitation of magnetic moments. Numerical simulations suggest that while both spin-transfer torque and ac Oersted field contribute to the parametrically excited dynamics, the ac spin torque dominates, and dc spin torque can switch it on and off. The dc bias dependence of the parametric resonance signal enabled the mapping of instability regions characterizing the nonlinearity of the oscillation.

  1. The origins and future of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wehrli, F.W. (Univ. of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1992-06-01

    What began as a curiosity of physics has become the preeminent method of diagnostic medical imaging and may displace x-ray-based techniques in the 21st century. During the past two decades nuclear magnetic resonance has revolutionized chemistry, biochemistry, biology and, more recently, diagnostic medicine. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, (MRI) as it is commonly called, is fundamentally different from x-ray-based techniques in terms of the principles of spatial encoding and mechanisms of signal and contrast generation involved. MRI has a far richer ultimate potential than any other imaging technique known today, and its technology and applications are still far from maturation, which may not occur until early in the 21st century. 23 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Basic Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging—An Update

    PubMed Central

    Scherzinger, Ann L.; Hendee, William R.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technology has undergone many technologic advances over the past few years. Many of these advances were stimulated by the wealth of information emerging from nuclear magnetic resonance research in the areas of new and optimal scanning methods and radio-frequency coil design. Other changes arose from the desire to improve image quality, ease siting restrictions and generally facilitate the clinical use of MR equipment. Many questions, however, remain unanswered. Perhaps the most controversial technologic question involves the optimal field strength required for imaging or spectroscopic applications or both. Other issues include safety and clinical efficacy. Technologic issues affect all aspects of MR use including the choice of equipment, examination procedure and image interpretation. Thus, an understanding of recent changes and their theoretic basis is necessary. ImagesFigure 9. PMID:3911591

  3. Novel gradient echo sequence-based amide proton transfer magnetic resonance imaging in hyperacute cerebral infarction

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, DEXIAO; LI, SHENKAI; DAI, ZHUOZHI; SHEN, ZHIWEI; YAN, GEN; WU, RENHUA

    2015-01-01

    In the progression of ischemia, pH is important and is essential in elucidating the association between metabolic disruption, lactate formation, acidosis and tissue damage. Chemical exchange-dependent saturation transfer (CEST) imaging can be used to detect tissue pH and, in particular, a specific form of CEST magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), termed amide proton transfer (APT) MRI, which is sensitive to pH and can detect ischemic lesions, even prior to diffusion abnormalities. The critical parameter governing the ability of CEST to detect pH is the sequence. In the present study, a novel strategy was used, based on the gradient echo sequence (GRE), which involved the insertion of a magnetization transfer pulse in each repetition time (TR) and minimizing the TR for in vivo APT imaging. The proposed GRE-APT MRI method was initially verified using a tissue-like pH phantom and optimized MRI parameters for APT imaging. In order to assess the range of acute cerebral infarction, rats (n=4) were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and MRI scanning at 7 telsa (T). Hyperacute ischemic tissue damage was characterized using multiparametric imaging techniques, including diffusion, APT and T2-Weighted MRI. By using a magnetization transfer pulse and minimizing TR, GRE-APT provided high spatial resolution and a homogeneous signal, with clearly distinguished cerebral anatomy. The GRE-APT and diffusion MRI were significantly correlated with lactate content and the area of cerebral infarction in the APT and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps matched consistently during the hyperacute period. In addition, compared with the infarction area observed on the ADC MRI map, the APT map contained tissue, which had not yet been irreversibly damaged. Therefore, GRE-APT MRI waa able to detect ischemic lactic acidosis with sensitivity and spatiotemporal resolution, suggesting the potential use of pH MRI as a surrogate imaging marker of impaired tissue metabolism for the diagnosis and prognosis of hyperacute stroke. PMID:25571956

  4. Human Anatomy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Schultz

    2007-11-09

    Please find links below: Human Anatomy Human Anatomy Online Human Body - Gray s Anatomy - Digestive Aparatus MEDtropolis - Virtual Body - can be viewed in English or Spanish. Contains tours of the Human Brain, Skeleton, Human Heart, and Digestive Tract. Respiratory System National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute HealthTalk COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) American Lung Association - Disease Finder Association of Legal Aid Attorneys/UAW 2325 Canadian Lung Association Kids Health Family Living and Personal Living - Ms. Schultz added this link because on this page there is CDC, American ...

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of interstitial laser photocoagulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleier, Alan R.; Higuchi, Nobuya; Panych, Lawrence P.; Jakab, Peter D.; Hrovat, Mirko I.; Jolesz, Ferenc A.

    1990-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated the detection of reversible and irreversible changes on MR images oflaser energy deposition and tissue heating and cooling1. It is possible to monitor and control energy deposition during interstitial laser therapy. This presentation describes some first steps toward optimizing the power and total energy deposited in various tissues in vivo, by analyzing the irreversible tissue changes and their spatial distribution as revealed by spin echo imaging. We used various power settings of an Nd.YAG laser delivered by a fiber optic inserted into several tissues (brain, muscle, liver) of anesthetized rats and rabbits. MR imaging was performed at 1.9 T. Photothermally-produced lesions were seen on both T1- and Ta-weighted images. The overall size of the lesions correlated with the magnitude of the energy applied. The MR image appearance depended not only on the laser energy but also on the way it was delivered, on the type of tissue, and the MR pulse sequence applied. While Ti-weighted images adequately demonstrated an area of tissue destruction, T2- weighted images showed a more heterogeneous and more extensive lesion which could be better correlated with the complex histological representation of these lesions. Typically, when rabbit brain, liver, and muscle had been exposed to laser power of 2.5 Watts for a range of 55 to 120 seconds, depending on the tissue, a central area of signal void was surrounded by an inner hypointensity and an outer hyperintensity on T2-weighted images. The 3D extent of the lesions was well demonstrated on multislice images, providing correlation of the affected volumes seen on MRI with volumes seen in histological or histochemical preparations. We are developing an analytical model of laser heating and its effect on MR images to assess whether heating during imaging will produce unacceptable artifacts during surgery. The effect of heating is modeled as a change in magnetization during image acquisition. The region in which the change occurs is blurred by the Fourier transform of the change in magnetization as a function of time. Thus, blurring is minimized when changes occur slowly, compared to image acquisition times. We conclude that MRI can demonstrate the 3D extent of the lesions induced by lasers and can be used to investigate and optimize the control of induced tissue change within the affected volume.

  6. Ferromagnetic resonance and magnetic properties of ALHA 81005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.

    1983-01-01

    Seven chips of primarily matrix material from the Antarctic meteorite ALHA 81005 were analyzed by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and magnetic hysteresis techniques. The FMR spectra of two chips have a resonance at g of about 2.1 that resembles the g of about 2.1 resonance that is characteristic of lunar soils. Thus the FMR spectra are consistent with the lunar regolith being a progenitor for the matrix material. For the two chips, the FMR surface exposure (maturity) index was about 5 units, which is equivalent to a value for an immature lunar soil. The total concentration of metallic iron is on the order of 0.11 equivalent wt. pct, which is within the observed range for Apollo 16 rocks and soils.

  7. Chemometric Analysis of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Data

    SciTech Connect

    ALAM,TODD M.; ALAM,M. KATHLEEN

    2000-07-20

    Chemometric analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has increased dramatically in recent years. A variety of different chemometric techniques have been applied to a wide range of problems in food, agricultural, medical, process and industrial systems. This article gives a brief review of chemometric analysis of NMR spectral data, including a summary of the types of mixtures and experiments analyzed with chemometric techniques. Common experimental problems encountered during the chemometric analysis of NMR data are also discussed.

  8. Starch Gelatinization Measured By Pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. MENDES DA SILVA; C. F. CIACCO; G. E. BARBERIS; W. M. R. SOLANO; C. RETTORI

    Cereal Chem. 73(3):297-301 The extent of starch gelatinization was quantified by pulsed-proton wheat starch in starch-water systems by the NMR method showed a first- nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. To quantify the gelatiniza- order reaction until the degree of gelatinization reached a fixed and tion of starch, a relative liquefying index (RLI), calculated from the ratio constant value, which increased

  9. Osteoid osteoma of the scaphoid: magnetic resonance imaging vessel sign.

    PubMed

    Kussman, Steven R; Thompson, Michael; Chang, Eric Y

    2015-01-01

    Osteoid osteomas can be a challenging diagnosis, especially in smaller bones and, particularly, in the carpus. Clinical and imaging diagnosis may both be delayed due to other, more common, post-traumatic or inflammatory pathology in the same area. We present a case of a pathologically proven scaphoid osteoid osteoma with a feeding vessel sign on magnetic resonance imaging, previously described in long bones with computed tomography, as a helpful sign for accurate diagnosis in the scaphoid. PMID:25721711

  10. Atypical magnetic resonance imaging findings in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Roumanis, Panayota S; Bhargava, Puneet; Kimia Aubin, Golnaz; Choi, Joon-Il; Demirjian, Aram N; Thayer, David A; Lall, Chandana

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is currently the modality of choice to evaluate liver lesions in patients with cirrhosis and hepatitis B and C. Hepatocellular carcinoma demonstrates typical imaging findings on contrast-enhanced MRI, which are usually diagnostic. Unfortunately, a subgroup of hepatocellular carcinoma presents with atypical imaging features, and awareness of these atypical presentations is important in ensuring early diagnosis and optimal patient outcomes. Herein, we review some of the more common atypical presentations with a focus on MRI. PMID:25823550

  11. Review of three magnetic resonance arthrography related infections.

    PubMed

    Vollman, Andrew T; Craig, Joseph G; Hulen, Rachel; Ahmed, Abraham; Zervos, Marcus J; van Holsbeeck, Marnix

    2013-02-28

    We report three cases of intra-articular infection which followed injection for magnetic resonance arthrography. In an effort to reduce the risk of arthrogram related infection, representatives from radiology, infectious disease medicine, and microbiology departments convened to analyze the contributing factors. The proposed source was oral contamination from barium swallow studies which preceded the arthrogram injections in the same room. We propose safety measures to reduce incidence of arthrogram related infections. PMID:23494542

  12. Cottonseed oil estimation by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. T. Srinivasan; B. B. Singh; P. K. Chidambareswaran; V. Sundaram

    1985-01-01

    Seed asymmetry and moisture associated with the seeds are known to affect seed oil estimation by pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance\\u000a (NMR) technique employing free induction decay or single spin echo (SE) pulse sequence. UsingGossypium (cottonseeds) as experimental material, it is shown that transverse relaxation times (T2) of seed oil, in different varieties of seeds, measured in vivo, are not the

  13. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in pediatric neuroradiology: clinical and research applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashok Panigrahy; Marvin D. Nelson Jr; Stefan Blüml

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) offers a unique, noninvasive approach to assess pediatric neurological abnormalities\\u000a at microscopic levels by quantifying cellular metabolites. The most widely available MRS method, proton (1H; hydrogen) spectroscopy, is FDA approved for general use and can be ordered by clinicians for pediatric neuroimaging studies\\u000a if indicated. There are a multitude of both acquisition and post-processing methods that

  14. Very low field magnetic resonance imaging with spintronic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herreros, Q.; Dyvorne, H.; Campiglio, P.; Jasmin-Lebras, G.; Demonti, A.; Pannetier-Lecoeur, M.; Fermon, C.

    2013-09-01

    A very low field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) setup based on magnetoresistive-superconducting mixed sensors is presented. A flux transformer is used to achieve coupling between the sample to image and the mixed sensor. The novel detector was implemented in a spin echo MRI experiment, exposing the mixed sensor to RF pulses without use of any RF switch. The performance of the novel detector is given in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and is compared with classical tuned coils.

  15. Proton magnetic resonance imaging of lipid in pecan embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Halloina; Thomas G. Cooper; E. James Potchen; Tommy E. Thompson

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic resonance images of plant tissues typically are manifestations of water protons in tissues. Within oilseeds, however,\\u000a lipids contain a major portion of the mobile protons, which should enable specific imaging of lipids. In this study, experiments\\u000a were done to demonstrate spin-echo imaging (SEI) and chemical-shift imaging (CSI) of lipid within nonimbibed and imbibed embryos\\u000a of pecan (Carya illinoensis), a

  16. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Radiosurgical Dose Planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Schulder; Jose Vega; Venkat Narra; Alexander Jacobs; Andrew Kalnin; Gudrun Lange; Wen-Ching Liu

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on stereotactic radiosurgical (SRS) dose planning. Methods: Patients included those undergoing SRS whose lesions were in or near areas that could be identified with fMRI. After processing, an fMR scan was registered to the anatomic scan, and this dataset was registered to a stereotactic CT scan. The imaged functional

  17. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic insults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernest B. Cady

    2001-01-01

    This article aims to review the major achievements of phosphorus (31P) and proton (1H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the field of perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic cerebral injury. Methodologies for applying\\u000a MRS to the routine study of the infant brain are now well developed. Both 31P and 1H MRS reveal gross abnormalities in severe hypoxic-ischaemic injury – in 31P studies [phosphocreatine] and

  18. Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance studies of glycolysis in protozoa

    E-print Network

    Rhoades, Teresa Ann

    1986-01-01

    from substrate glucose was found to be incorporated without scrambling irto mannitol. Incu- bations with singly labeled glucoses confirmed this information. Path- ways of mannitol biosynthesis im Euglena gracilis z were found to in- volve a NADPH... OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. TABLE OF CONTENTS. LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES. CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. lh h t hit d E th E ~Et E itits CHAPTER II. EXPERIMENTAL. Growth and Harvest of Euglena gracilis...

  19. Hemodynamic Assessment of Carotid Stenosis by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulf Jensen; Kathrin Börsch; Robert Stingele; Olav Jansen; Karsten Alfke

    2008-01-01

    Background: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a method usually used to identify cortical representations of cerebral functions. Some studies and case reports suggest that stenoses of the brain-supplying arteries influence the BOLD (blood-oxygenation-level-dependent) signal. The objective of this study was to find out whether the BOLD signal differs in the ipsilateral hemisphere of patients with hemodynamically relevant and those

  20. UNIVERSITY OF OREGON CAMCOR Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Facility

    E-print Network

    /19 F/13 C/31 P walk-up Varian INOVA 300 MHz NMR Spectrometer 1 H/19 F/31 P/11 B walk-up Varian Mercury 300 MHz NMR Spectrometer 1 H/19 F/13 C/31 P walk-up Bruker EleXsys EPR * Includes walkup or selfUNIVERSITY OF OREGON CAMCOR Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Facility INSTRUMENTS NMR 1H/19F

  1. 55Mn Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in MnO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. D. Jones

    1965-01-01

    The 55Mn NMR has been observed in the paramagnetic state of the antiferromagnet MnO. The separation between the absorption derivative extrema of the 55Mn NMR is 55(?H)?340 Oe, in satisfactory agreement with the predictions of exchange narrowing of hyperfine broadened nuclear magnetic resonances in paramagnetic media. The 55Mn NMR frequency shift 55a=(?v?v) is found to be temperature dependent, varying from

  2. Phase and sensitivity of receiver coils in magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    McVeigh, E. R.; Bronskill, M. J.; Henkelman, R. M.

    2007-01-01

    Receiver coil response is a major cause of nonuniformities in magnetic resonance images. The spatial dependence of the sensitivity and phase of single-saddle receiver coils has been investigated quantitatively by calculating the H1 field and comparing the results with measurements of a uniform phantom. Agreement between the measurements and calculations is excellent. A method is developed which corrects for both the nonuniform sensitivity and the phase shifts introduced by receiver coils. PMID:3796476

  3. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies on brain edema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shoji Naruse; Yoshiharu Horikawa; Chuzo Tanaka; Kimiyoshi Hirakawa; Hiroyasu Nishikawa; Kazuo Yoshizaki

    1982-01-01

    The water in normal and edematous brain tissues of rats was studied by the pulse nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, measuring the longitudinal relaxation time (T1) and the transverse relaxation time (T2). In the normal brain, T1 and T2 were single components, both shorter than in pure water. Prolongation and separation of T2 into two components, one fast and one

  4. Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging: methods and applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikolaus Weiskopf; Ranganatha Sitaram; Oliver Josephs; Ralf Veit; Frank Scharnowski; Rainer Goebele; Niels Birbaumer; Ralf Deichmann; Klaus Mathiakf

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been limited by time-consuming data analysis and a low signal-to-noise ratio, impeding online analysis. Recent advances in acquisition techniques, computational power and algorithms increased the sensitivity and speed of fMRI significantly, making real-time analysis and display of fMRI data feasible. So far, most reports have focused on the technical aspects of real-time fMRI (rtfMRI).

  5. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Imaging of Carbon Nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay K. Anuganti; Aldrik H. Velders

    \\u000a Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of the most versatile and powerful analytical tools developed in the\\u000a last century and have been proven to be a suitable means for the elucidation of structural properties as well as physico-chemical\\u000a characteristics in chemistry and material sciences. In the first part of this chapter a review is given on the investigation\\u000a of

  6. Imaging of ventricular function by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vikas K. Rathi; Robert W. W. Biederman

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) has vaulted to the forefront as the ideal diagnostic modality\\u000a for the evaluation of both left and right ventricular function. The accumulated literature supports this contention for the\\u000a left ventricle. However, for the right ventricle, typically poorly visualized accurately by traditional imaging techniques,\\u000a CMR has emerged as the test of

  7. Ultrashort echo time cardiovascular magnetic resonance of atherosclerotic carotid plaque

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheuk F Chan; Niall G Keenan; Sonia Nielles-Vallespin; Peter Gatehouse; Mary N Sheppard; Joseph J Boyle; Dudley J Pennell; David N Firmin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multi-contrast weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) allows detailed plaque characterisation and assessment of plaque vulnerability. The aim of this preliminary study was to show the potential of Ultra-short Echo Time (UTE) subtraction MR in detecting calcification. METHODS: 14 ex-vivo human carotid arteries were scanned using CMR and CT, prior to histological slide preparation. Two images were acquired using a

  8. Decoding brain states using functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongha Lee; Changwon Jang; Hae-Jeong Park

    2011-01-01

    Most leading research in basic and clinical neuroscience has been carried out by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI),\\u000a which detects the blood oxygenation level dependent signals associated with neural activities. Among new fMRI applications,\\u000a brain decoding is an emerging research area, which infers mental states from fMRI signals. Brain decoding using fMRI includes\\u000a classification, identification, and reconstruction of brain states.

  9. Automated Analysis of Craniofacial Morphology Using Magnetic Resonance Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mallar Chakravarty; Rosanne Aleong; Gabriel Leonard; Michel Perron; G. Bruce Pike; Louis Richer; Suzanne Veillette; Zdenka Pausova; Tomás Paus; Tianzi Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of craniofacial morphology is of interest to scholars working in a wide variety of disciplines, such as anthropology, developmental biology, and medicine. T1-weighted (anatomical) magnetic resonance images (MRI) provide excellent contrast between soft tissues. Given its three-dimensional nature, MRI represents an ideal imaging modality for the analysis of craniofacial structure in living individuals. Here we describe how T1-weighted

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Benign Cardiac Masses: A Pictorial Essay

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Thomas J.; Kadoch, Michael A.; Jacobi, Adam H.; Lopez, Pablo P.; Salvo, Javier Sanz; Cham, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    The differential diagnosis for a cardiac mass includes primary and metastatic neoplasms. While primary cardiac tumors are rare, metastatic disease to the heart is a common finding in cancer patients. Several “tumor-like” processes can mimic a true cardiac neoplasm with accurate diagnosis critical at guiding appropriate management. We present a pictorial essay of the most common benign cardiac masses and “mass-like” lesions with an emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging features. PMID:24083071

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of the bone marrow in hematological malignancies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Vande Berg; F. E. Lecouvet; L. Michaux; A. Ferrant; B. Maldague; J. Malghem

    1998-01-01

    .   Despite its lack of specificity, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the bone marrow has the potential to play a role in\\u000a the management of patients with primary neoplastic disorders of the hematopoietic system, including lymphomas, leukemias and\\u000a multiple myeloma. In addition to its use in the assessment of suspected spinal cord compression, bone marrow MRI could be\\u000a used as

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Anatomic Defects in Fecal Incontinence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaap Stoker; Andrew P. Zbar

    Endoanal probe technology provides high-resolution soft-tissue imaging for periluminal anal and rectal disease, most notably\\u000a in complex perirectal sepsis and in patients presenting with fecal incontinence and sphincter damage. The trend is a movement\\u000a away from direct sphincter repair toward sacral neuromodulation in external anal sphincter (EAS) injury. However, endoanal\\u000a magnetic resonance imaging (EAMRI) has shown clear accuracy in the

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Stroke in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    CHOPP, Michael; LI, Lian; ZHANG, Li; ZHANG, Zheng-gang; LI, Qing-jiang; JIANG, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now a routine neuroimaging tool in the clinic. Throughout all phases of stroke from acute to chronic, MRI plays an important role to diagnose, evaluate and monitor the cerebral tissue undergoing stroke. This review provides a description of various MRI methods and an overview of selected MRI studies, with an embolic stroke model of rat, performed in the MRI laboratory of Department of Neurology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, US. PMID:24920874

  14. Experiences with functional magnetic resonance imaging at 1 tesla

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A P JONES; D G HUGHES; D S BRETTLE; L ROBINSON; J R SYKES; Q AZIZ; S HAMDY; D G THOMPSON; S W G DERBYSHIRE; A C N CHEN

    1998-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been performed on a standard 1 T system using a pulse sequence developed to utilize blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) contrast and an oV-line analysis routine using correlation techniques. The sequence and the data analysis routine have been validated by reproducing the conventional hand movement paradigm studies reported by numerous other workers. Our work

  15. Experimental evaluation of the magnetization process in a high Tc bulk superconducting magnet using magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamada, Daiki; Nakamura, Takashi; Itoh, Yoshitaka; Kose, Katsumi

    2013-09-01

    We measured the magnetic field distribution of a high Tc bulk superconducting magnet (c-axis oriented EuBa2Cu3Oy crystals) during the magnetization process using magnetic resonance imaging. Measurements were performed in the field cooling process from 100 to 50 K in a 4.74 T magnetic field and in the field reducing process from 4.74 to 0 T at 50 K. In field cooling; we observed a significant decrease in the gradient coil efficiencies caused by the Meissner effect. Analysis of the trapped field suggested the presence of temperature gradients; microcracks; and inhomogeneity in the bulk crystals.

  16. Magnetic resonance elastography detected with a SQUID in microtesla magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelso, Nathan; Koski, Kristie; Reimer, Jeffrey

    2005-03-01

    We have used a SQUID-based microtesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system to perform magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) experiments in a measurement field of 132 microtesla. Magnetic resonance elastography is based on MRI and measures three-dimensional displacement and strain fields in a sample. With appropriate data processing this allows for a quantitative map of the physical response of a material to an applied deformation. In the past, MRE experiments using conventional (1.5 tesla and above) MRI systems have demonstrated that MRE may be used as a non-invasive method for measuring stiffness of human tissues, which may aid in the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer and other cancers. Our MRE experiment consists of applying a small axial deformation to a cylindrical sample of 0.5% agarose gel. For samples approximately 30 mm in height, we were able to measure displacements on the order of 500 micrometers. Supported by USDOE.

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of time-varying magnetic fields from therapeutic devices

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Garcia, Luis; Bhatia, Vivek; Prem-Kumar, Krishan; Ulfarsson, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    While magnetic resonance imaging of static magnetic fields generated by external probes has been previously demonstrated, there is an unmet need to image time-varying magnetic fields, such as those generated by transcranial magnetic stimulators or radiofrequency hyperthermia probes. A method to image such time-varying magnetic fields is introduced in this work. This article presents the theory behind the method and provides proof of concept by imaging time-varying magnetic fields generated by a figure-eight coil inside simple phantoms over a range of frequencies and intensities, using a 7T small animal MRI scanner. The method is able to reconstruct the three-dimensional components of the oscillating magnetic field vector. PMID:23355446

  18. Quantitative T2 Changes and Susceptibility-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Murine Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Uday; Szalai, Gabor; Neelavalli, Jaladhar; Shen, Yimin; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Than, Nandor Gabor; Wu, Zhonghui; Yeo, Lami; Haacke, Mark; Romero, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate gestational age-dependent changes in the T2 relaxation time in normal murine placentas in vivo. The role of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in visualization of the murine fetal anatomy was also elucidated. Methods Timed-pregnant CD-1 mice at gestational day (GD) 12 and GD17 underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Multi-echo, spin echo, and SWI data were acquired. The placental T2 values on GD12 and GD17 were quantified. To account for the influence of systemic maternal physiological factors on placental perfusion, maternal muscle was used as a reference for T2 normalization. A linear mixed-effects model was used to fit the normalized T2 values, and the significance of the coefficients was tested. Fetal SWI images were processed and reviewed for venous vasculature and skeletal structures. Results The average placental T2 value decreased significantly on GD17 (40.17 ± 4.10 ms) compared to the value on GD12 (55.78 ± 8.13 ms). The difference in normalized T2 values also remained significant (p = 0.001). Using SWI, major fetal venous structures like the cardinal vein, the subcardinal vein, and the portal vein were visualized on GD12. In addition, fetal skeletal structures could also be discerned on GD17. Conclusion The T2 value of a normal murine placenta decreases with advancing gestation. SWI provided clear visualization of the fetal venous vasculature and bony structures. PMID:24861575

  19. Elastomeric actuator devices for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubowsky, Steven (Inventor); Hafez, Moustapha (Inventor); Jolesz, Ferenc A. (Inventor); Kacher, Daniel F. (Inventor); Lichter, Matthew (Inventor); Weiss, Peter (Inventor); Wingert, Andreas (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention is directed to devices and systems used in magnetic imaging environments that include an actuator device having an elastomeric dielectric film with at least two electrodes, and a frame attached to the actuator device. The frame can have a plurality of configurations including, such as, for example, at least two members that can be, but not limited to, curved beams, rods, plates, or parallel beams. These rigid members can be coupled to flexible members such as, for example, links wherein the frame provides an elastic restoring force. The frame preferably provides a linear actuation force characteristic over a displacement range. The linear actuation force characteristic is defined as .+-.20% and preferably 10% over a displacement range. The actuator further includes a passive element disposed between the flexible members to tune a stiffness characteristic of the actuator. The passive element can be a bi-stable element. The preferred embodiment actuator includes one or more layers of the elastomeric film integrated into the frame. The elastomeric film can be made of many elastomeric materials such as, for example, but not limited to, acrylic, silicone and latex.

  20. Phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance in isolated perfused rat pancreas

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Takehisa; Kanno, Tomio; Seo, Yoshiteru; Murakami, Masataka; Watari, Hiroshi (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan) National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki (Japan))

    1988-04-01

    Phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was applied to measure phosphorus energy metabolites in isolated perfused rat pancreas. The gland was perfused with a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution at room temperature (25{degree}C). {sup 31}P resonances of creatine phosphate (PCr), ATP, ADP, inorganic phosphate (P{sub i}) and phosphomonoesters (PMEs) were observed in all the preparations of pancreas. In different individual preparations, the resonance of PCr varied, but those of ATP were almost the same. The initial levels of PCr and ATP in individual preparations, however, remained almost unchanged during perfusion with the standard solution for 2 h. When the perfusion was stopped, the levels of ATP and PCr decreased, while the levels of PME and P{sub i} increased. At that time, the P{sub i} resonance shfted to a higher magnetic field, indicating that the tissue pH decreased. On reperfusion, the tissue levels of phosphorus compounds and the tissue pH were restored to their initial resting levels. Continuous infusion of 0.1 {mu}M acetylcholine caused marked and sustained increases in the flow of pancreatic juice and protein output. During the stimulation the tissue levels of phosphorus compounds remained unchanged, while the tissue pH was decreased slightly.

  1. 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Williamson, P C; Brauer, M; Leonard, S; Thompson, T; Drost, D

    1996-08-01

    Phospholipid metabolism abnormalities have been suggested by a number of postmortem brain and red blood cell studies in schizophrenia. 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy enables the examination of phospholipid metabolism in living patients. These in vivo studies have demonstrated that schizophrenic patients have lower prefrontal levels of phosphomonoesters and higher levels of phosphodiesters compared to matched controls. Patients with psychotic depression also seem to show lower levels of phosphomonoesters compared to controls. This suggests that membrane phospholipid differences may not be specific to schizophrenia. Preliminary 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies at high field strength on postmortem temporal lobe samples show no differences between treated schizophrenic patients and controls for phosphoethanolamine and phosphocholine which are the main constituents of the phosphomonoester peak. Further studies are underway in the prefrontal region. While 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies have demonstrated membrane phospholipid abnormalities in schizophrenia, it is not clear whether these findings are specific to schizophrenia or part of a generalized membrane phospholipid abnormality. PMID:8888133

  2. Automatic contour propagation in cine cardiac magnetic resonance images.

    PubMed

    Hautvast, Gilion; Lobregt, Steven; Breeuwer, Marcel; Gerritsen, Frans

    2006-11-01

    We have developed a method for automatic contour propagation in cine cardiac magnetic resonance images. The method consists of a new active contour model that tries to maintain a constant contour environment by matching gray values in profiles perpendicular to the contour. Consequently, the contours should maintain a constant position with respect to neighboring anatomical structures, such that the resulting contours reflect the preferences of the user. This is particularly important in cine cardiac magnetic resonance images because local image features do not describe the desired contours near the papillary muscle. The accuracy of the propagation result is influenced by several parameters. Because the optimal setting of these parameters is application dependent, we describe how to use full factorial experiments to optimize the parameter setting. We have applied our method to cine cardiac magnetic resonance image sequences from the long axis two-chamber view, the long axis four-chamber view, and the short axis view. We performed our optimization procedure for each contour in each view. Next, we performed an extensive clinical validation of our method on 69 short axis data sets and 38 long axis data sets. In the optimal parameter setting, our propagation method proved to be fast, robust, and accurate. The resulting cardiac contours are positioned within the interobserver ranges of manual segmentation. Consequently, the resulting contours can be used to accurately determine physiological parameters such as stroke volume and ejection fraction. PMID:17117776

  3. Magnetic resonance force microscopy and a solid state quantum computer.

    SciTech Connect

    Pelekhov, D. V. (Denis V.); Martin, I. (Ivar); Suter, A. (Andreas); Reagor, D. W. (David W.); Hammel, P. C. (P. Chris)

    2001-01-01

    A Quantum Computer (QC) is a device that utilizes the principles of Quantum Mechanics to perform computations. Such a machine would be capable of accomplishing tasks not achievable by means of any conventional digital computer, for instance factoring large numbers. Currently it appears that the QC architecture based on an array of spin quantum bits (qubits) embedded in a solid-state matrix is one of the most promising approaches to fabrication of a scalable QC. However, the fabrication and operation of a Solid State Quantum Computer (SSQC) presents very formidable challenges; primary amongst these are: (1) the characterization and control of the fabrication process of the device during its construction and (2) the readout of the computational result. Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (MRFM)--a novel scanning probe technique based on mechanical detection of magnetic resonance-provides an attractive means of addressing these requirements. The sensitivity of the MRFM significantly exceeds that of conventional magnetic resonance measurement methods, and it has the potential for single electron spin detection. Moreover, the MRFM is capable of true 3D subsurface imaging. These features will make MRFM an invaluable tool for the implementation of a spin-based QC. Here we present the general principles of MRFM operation, the current status of its development and indicate future directions for its improvement.

  4. Functional Relevance of Coronary Artery Disease by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance and Cardiac Computed Tomography: Myocardial Perfusion and Fractional Flow Reserve

    PubMed Central

    Andreini, Daniele; Bertella, Erika; Mushtaq, Saima; Guaricci, Andrea Igoren; Pepi, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality and it is responsible for an increasing resource burden. The identification of patients at high risk for adverse events is crucial to select those who will receive the greatest benefit from revascularization. To this aim, several non-invasive functional imaging modalities are usually used as gatekeeper to invasive coronary angiography, but the diagnostic yield of elective invasive coronary angiography remains unfortunately low. Stress myocardial perfusion imaging by cardiac magnetic resonance (stress-CMR) has emerged as an accurate technique for diagnosis and prognostic stratification of the patients with known or suspected CAD thanks to high spatial and temporal resolution, absence of ionizing radiation, and the multiparametric value including the assessment of cardiac anatomy, function, and viability. On the other side, cardiac computed tomography (CCT) has emerged as unique technique providing coronary arteries anatomy and more recently, due to the introduction of stress-CCT and noninvasive fractional flow reserve (FFR-CT), functional relevance of CAD in a single shot scan. The current review evaluates the technical aspects and clinical experience of stress-CMR and CCT in the evaluation of functional relevance of CAD discussing the strength and weakness of each approach. PMID:25692133

  5. Anatomy of field effects on magnetization dynamics and spin transfer noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Han, G. C.; Zheng, Y. K.

    2006-08-01

    Spin transfer-related phenomena in nanomagnets have attracted extensive studies. In this paper we shall focus on analysis of individual and combined effects of the external, anisotropy, and demagnetization fields on magnetization dynamics and spin transfer noise. It is found that individual roles of the external, anisotropy, and demagnetization fields, as well as the combined roles of external plus anisotropy fields and anisotropy plus demagnetization fields, do not change the behavior of current induced magnetization switching. Such magnetization reversal procedures are of low noise. Our dynamics and power spectral density calculations show that it is the demagnetization field that plays a major role in inducing spin transfer noise: the demagnetization field itself or in combination with the anisotropy field will result in wave-like switching; moreover, the demagnetization field, together with the external field (not too small), will lead to precession and hence the system would be in noisy states. Our modeling work for an elliptical Py alloy is qualitatively consistent with Cornell's experiment and simulation [Science 307 (2005) 228].

  6. Magnetic resonance for in vitro medical diagnostics: superparamagnetic nanoparticle-based magnetic relaxation switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demas, Vasiliki; Lowery, Thomas J.

    2011-02-01

    Advances in magnetic resonance (MR) miniaturization, along with nanoparticles and biotechnology, are extending MR applications in diagnostics to beyond the medical imaging regime. The principles behind magnetic resonance switch (MRSw) biosensors, as well as a summary of rapidly developing fields including MR miniaturization and MRSw demonstrations, are presented here. Due to the range of applications of MRSw biosensor tests and the breakthroughs in downsized instruments, continued development will enable the deployment of MRSw biosensors in a wide variety of settings and with potentially unlimited targets.

  7. A personal computer-based nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Job, Constantin; Pearson, Robert M.; Brown, Michael F.

    1994-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy using personal computer-based hardware has the potential of enabling the application of NMR methods to fields where conventional state of the art equipment is either impractical or too costly. With such a strategy for data acquisition and processing, disciplines including civil engineering, agriculture, geology, archaeology, and others have the possibility of utilizing magnetic resonance techniques within the laboratory or conducting applications directly in the field. Another aspect is the possibility of utilizing existing NMR magnets which may be in good condition but unused because of outdated or nonrepairable electronics. Moreover, NMR applications based on personal computer technology may open up teaching possibilities at the college or even secondary school level. The goal of developing such a personal computer (PC)-based NMR standard is facilitated by existing technologies including logic cell arrays, direct digital frequency synthesis, use of PC-based electrical engineering software tools to fabricate electronic circuits, and the use of permanent magnets based on neodymium-iron-boron alloy. Utilizing such an approach, we have been able to place essentially an entire NMR spectrometer console on two printed circuit boards, with the exception of the receiver and radio frequency power amplifier. Future upgrades to include the deuterium lock and the decoupler unit are readily envisioned. The continued development of such PC-based NMR spectrometers is expected to benefit from the fast growing, practical, and low cost personal computer market.

  8. A Novel Data-Driven Approach to Preoperative Mapping of Functional Cortex Using Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Timothy J.; Hacker, Carl D.; Breshears, Jonathan D.; Szrama, Nick P.; Sharma, Mohit; Bundy, David T.; Pahwa, Mrinal; Corbetta, Maurizio; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Shimony, Joshua S.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent findings associated with resting-state cortical networks have provided insight into the brain's organizational structure. In addition to their neuroscientific implications, the networks identified by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) may prove useful for clinical brain mapping. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that a data-driven approach to analyze resting-state networks (RSNs) is useful in identifying regions classically understood to be eloquent cortex as well as other functional networks. METHODS: This study included 6 patients undergoing surgical treatment for intractable epilepsy and 7 patients undergoing tumor resection. rs-fMRI data were obtained before surgery and 7 canonical RSNs were identified by an artificial neural network algorithm. Of these 7, the motor and language networks were then compared with electrocortical stimulation (ECS) as the gold standard in the epilepsy patients. The sensitivity and specificity for identifying these eloquent sites were calculated at varying thresholds, which yielded receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves and their associated area under the curve (AUC). RSNs were plotted in the tumor patients to observe RSN distortions in altered anatomy. RESULTS: The algorithm robustly identified all networks in all patients, including those with distorted anatomy. When all ECS-positive sites were considered for motor and language, rs-fMRI had AUCs of 0.80 and 0.64, respectively. When the ECS-positive sites were analyzed pairwise, rs-fMRI had AUCs of 0.89 and 0.76 for motor and language, respectively. CONCLUSION: A data-driven approach to rs-fMRI may be a new and efficient method for preoperative localization of numerous functional brain regions. ABBREVIATIONS: AUC, area under the curve BA, Brodmann area BOLD, blood oxygen level dependent ECS, electrocortical stimulation fMRI, functional magnetic resonance imaging ICA, independent component analysis MLP, multilayer perceptron MP-RAGE, magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo ROC, receiver-operating characteristic rs-fMRI, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging RSN, resting-state network PMID:24264234

  9. Three-Dimensional Mapping of Hippocampal Anatomy in Unmedicated and Lithium-Treated Patients with Bipolar Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carrie E Bearden; Paul M Thompson; Rebecca A Dutton; Benício N Frey; Marco A M Peluso; Mark Nicoletti; Nicole Dierschke; Kiralee M Hayashi; Andrea D Klunder; David C Glahn; Paolo Brambilla; Roberto B Sassi; Alan G Mallinger; Jair C Soares

    2008-01-01

    Declarative memory impairments are common in patients with bipolar illness, suggesting underlying hippocampal pathology. However, hippocampal volume deficits are rarely observed in bipolar disorder. Here we used surface-based anatomic mapping to examine hippocampal anatomy in bipolar patients treated with lithium relative to matched control subjects and unmedicated patients with bipolar disorder. High-resolution brain magnetic resonance images were acquired from 33

  10. Partial volume segmentation of brain magnetic resonance images based on maximum a posteriori probability

    E-print Network

    resonance imaging, fuzzy C-mean algorithm, Markov random field, PV segmentation, intensity inhomogeneityPartial volume segmentation of brain magnetic resonance images based on maximum a posteriori, and image-intensity inhomogeneity render a challenging task for segmentation of brain magnetic resonance MR

  11. Methods for magnetic resonance analysis using magic angle technique

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Jian Zhi (Richland, WA); Wind, Robert A. (Kennewick, WA); Minard, Kevin R. (Kennewick, WA); Majors, Paul D. (Kennewick, WA)

    2011-11-22

    Methods of performing a magnetic resonance analysis of a biological object are disclosed that include placing the object in a main magnetic field (that has a static field direction) and in a radio frequency field; rotating the object at a frequency of less than about 100 Hz around an axis positioned at an angle of about 54.degree.44' relative to the main magnetic static field direction; pulsing the radio frequency to provide a sequence that includes a phase-corrected magic angle turning pulse segment; and collecting data generated by the pulsed radio frequency. In particular embodiments the method includes pulsing the radio frequency to provide at least two of a spatially selective read pulse, a spatially selective phase pulse, and a spatially selective storage pulse. Further disclosed methods provide pulse sequences that provide extended imaging capabilities, such as chemical shift imaging or multiple-voxel data acquisition.

  12. Magnetic nanoparticle imaging using multiple electron paramagnetic resonance activation sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coene, A.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles play an important role in several biomedical applications such as hyperthermia, drug targeting, and disease detection. To realize an effective working of these applications, the spatial distribution of the particles needs to be accurately known, in a non-invasive way. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) is a promising and sensitive measurement technique for recovering these distributions. In the conventional approach, EPR is applied with a homogeneous magnetic field. In this paper, we employ different heterogeneous magnetic fields that allow to stabilize the solution of the associated inverse problem and to obtain localized spatial information. A comparison is made between the two approaches and our novel adaptation shows an average increase in reconstruction quality by 5% and is 12 times more robust towards noise. Furthermore, our approach allows to speed up the EPR measurements while still obtaining reconstructions with an improved accuracy and noise robustness compared to homogeneous EPR.

  13. Magnetic nanoparticles with dual functional properties: Drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tapan K. Jain; John Richey; Michelle Strand; Diandra L. Leslie-Pelecky; Chris A. Flask; Vinod Labhasetwar

    2008-01-01

    There is significant interest in recent years in developing magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) having multifunctional characteristics with complimentary roles. In this study, we investigated the drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) properties of our novel oleic acid-coated iron-oxide and pluronic-stabilized MNPs. The drug incorporation efficiency of doxorubicin and paclitaxel (alone or in combination) in MNPs was 74–95%; the drug release

  14. A dual RF resonator system for high-field functional magnetic resonance imaging of small animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ludwig; G. Bodgdanov; J. King; A. Allard; C. F. Ferris

    2004-01-01

    A new apparatus has been developed that integrates an animal restrainer arrangement for small animals with an actively tunable\\/detunable dual radio-frequency (RF) coil system for in vivo anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging of small animals at 4.7T. The radio-frequency coil features an eight-element microstrip line configuration that, in conjunction with a segmented outer copper shield, forms a transversal electromagnetic

  15. Localization of dense intracranial electrode arrays using magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Werner K.; Halgren, Eric; Carlson, Chad; Belcher, Thomas L.; Cash, Sydney S.; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Intracranial electrode arrays are routinely used in the pre-surgical evaluation of patients with medically refractory epilepsy, and recordings from these electrodes have been increasingly employed in human cognitive neurophysiology due to their high spatial and temporal resolution. For both researchers and clinicians, it is critical to localize electrode positions relative to the subject-specific neuroanatomy. In many centers, a post-implantation MRI is utilized for electrode detection because of its higher sensitivity for surgical complications and the absence of radiation. However, magnetic susceptibility artifacts surrounding each electrode prohibit unambiguous detection of individual electrodes, especially those that are embedded within dense grid arrays. Here, we present an efficient method to accurately localize intracranial electrode arrays based on pre- and post-implantation MR images that incorporates array geometry and the individual's cortical surface. Electrodes are directly visualized relative to the underlying gyral anatomy of the reconstructed cortical surface of individual patients. Validation of this approach shows high spatial accuracy of the localized electrode positions (mean of 0.96 mm±0.81 mm for 271 electrodes across 8 patients). Minimal user input, short processing time, and utilization of radiation-free imaging are strong incentives to incorporate quantitatively accurate localization of intracranial electrode arrays with MRI for research and clinical purposes. Co-registration to a standard brain atlas further allows inter-subject comparisons and relation of intracranial EEG findings to the larger body of neuroimaging literature. PMID:22759995

  16. Hybrid Magnetic Nanostructures (MNS) for Magnetic Resonance Imaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    De, Mrinmoy; Chou, Stanley S.; Joshi, Hrushikesh M.

    2011-01-01

    The development of MRI contrast agents has experienced its version of the gilded age over the past decade, thanks largely to the rapid advances in nanotechnology. In addition to progress in single mode contrast agents, which ushered in unprecedented R1 or R2 sensitivities, there has also been a boon in the development of agents covering more than one mode of detection. These include T1-PET, T2-PET T1-optical, T2-optical, T1–T2 agents and many others. In this review, we describe four areas which we feel have experienced particular growth due to nanotechnology, specifically T2 magnetic nanostructure development, T1/T2-optical dual mode agents, and most recently the T1–T2 hybrid imaging systems. In each of these systems, we describe applications including in vitro, in vivo usage and assay development. In all, while the benefits and drawbacks of most MRI contrast agents depend on the application at hand, the recent development in multimodal nanohybrids may curtail the shortcomings of single mode agents in diagnostic and clinical settings by synergistically incorporating functionality. It is hoped that as nanotechnology advances over the next decade, it will produce agents with increased diagnostics and assay relevant capabilities in streamlined packages that can meaningfully improve patient care and prognostics. In this review article, we focus on T2 materials, its surface functionalization and coupling with optical and/or T1 agents. PMID:21851844

  17. Broadband Excitation Pulses for High-Field Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Loening, Niko

    Broadband Excitation Pulses for High-Field Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of fre- quency offsets. Excitation pulses (i.e., pulses that con- vert longitudinal magnetization Pharmakologie (FMP), Robert-R¨ossle-Strasse 10, 13125 Berlin, Germany Abstract In nuclear magnetic resonance

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance of laser-polarized noble gases in molecules, materials, and organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boyd Mclean Goodson; Boyd M

    1999-01-01

    Conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are fundamentally challenged by the insensitivity that stems from the ordinarily low spin polarization achievable in even the strongest NMR magnets. However, by transferring angular momentum from laser light to electronic and nuclear spins, optical pumping methods can increase the nuclear spin polarization of noble gases by several orders

  19. The magnetic resonance force microscope: A new microscopic probe of magnetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, P.C.; Zhang, Z. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Midzor, M.; Roukes, M.L. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States); Wigen, P.E. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Childress, J.R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1997-08-06

    The magnetic resonance force microscope (MRFM) marries the techniques of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), to produce a three-dimensional imaging instrument with high, potentially atomic-scale, resolution. The principle of the MRFM has been successfully demonstrated in numerous experiments. By virtue of its unique capabilities the MRFM shows promise to make important contributions in fields ranging from three-dimensional materials characterization to bio-molecular structure determination. Here the authors focus on its application to the characterization and study of layered magnetic materials; the ability to illuminate the properties of buried interfaces in such materials is a particularly important goal. While sensitivity and spatial resolution are currently still far from their theoretical limits, they are nonetheless comparable to or superior to that achievable in conventional MRI. Further improvement of the MRFM will involve operation at lower temperature, application of larger field gradients, introduction of advanced mechanical resonators and improved reduction of the spurious coupling when the magnet is on the resonator.

  20. Magnetic and structural characterization and ferromagnetic resonance study of thin film HITPERM soft magnetic materials

    E-print Network

    McHenry, Michael E.

    Magnetic and structural characterization and ferromagnetic resonance study of thin film HITPERM, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 Presented on 12 November 2002 HITPERM/SiO2 single and multilayer thin films and multilayered films are small 0.0055 0.0004 with each layer acting almost independently. Neither thickness