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Sample records for anchor markers link

  1. Mixtures with relatives and linked markers.

    PubMed

    Dørum, Guro; Kling, Daniel; Tillmar, Andreas; Vigeland, Magnus Dehli; Egeland, Thore

    2016-05-01

    Mixture DNA profiles commonly appear in forensic genetics, and a large number of statistical methods and software are available for such cases. However, most of the literature concerns mixtures where the contributors are assumed unrelated and the genetic markers are unlinked. In this paper, we consider mixtures of linked markers and related contributors. If no relationships are involved, linkage can be ignored. While unlinked markers can be treated independently, linkage introduces dependencies. The use of linked markers presents statistical and computational challenges, but may also lead to a considerable increase in power since the number of markers available is much larger if we do not require the markers to be unlinked. In addition, some cases that cannot be solved with an unlimited number of unlinked autosomal markers can be solved with linked markers. We focus on two special cases of linked markers: pairs of linked autosomal markers and X-chromosomal markers. A framework is presented for calculation of likelihood ratios for mixtures with general relationships and with linkage between any number of markers. Finally, we explore the effect of linkage disequilibrium, also called allelic association, on the likelihood ratio. PMID:26614310

  2. Facility 367/368, oblique overview from parking lot toward anchor link ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility 367/368, oblique overview from parking lot toward anchor link fence and ramp on left, view facing east-northeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Hospital Laboratory, Hospital Way, near intersection with Third Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Does Linking Mixed-Format Tests Using a Multiple-Choice Anchor Produce Comparable Results for Male and Female Subgroups? Research Report. ETS RR-11-44

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyeon; Walker, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the use of subpopulation invariance indices to evaluate the appropriateness of using a multiple-choice (MC) item anchor in mixed-format tests, which include both MC and constructed-response (CR) items. Linking functions were derived in the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design using an MC-only anchor set for 4…

  4. Use of Continuous Exponential Families to Link Forms via Anchor Tests. Research Report. ETS RR-11-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Shelby J.; Yan, Duanli

    2011-01-01

    Continuous exponential families are applied to linking test forms via an internal anchor. This application combines work on continuous exponential families for single-group designs and work on continuous exponential families for equivalent-group designs. Results are compared to those for kernel and equipercentile equating in the case of chained…

  5. TRIM5α requires Ube2W to anchor Lys63-linked ubiquitin chains and restrict reverse transcription.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Adam J; Christensen, Devin E; Nelson, Chad; Tan, Choon Ping; Schaller, Torsten; Lehner, Paul J; Sundquist, Wesley I; Towers, Greg J

    2015-08-01

    TRIM5α is an antiviral, cytoplasmic, E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase that assembles on incoming retroviral capsids and induces their premature dissociation. It inhibits reverse transcription of the viral genome and can also synthesize unanchored polyubiquitin (polyUb) chains to stimulate innate immune responses. Here, we show that TRIM5α employs the E2 Ub-conjugating enzyme Ube2W to anchor the Lys63-linked polyUb chains in a process of TRIM5α auto-ubiquitination. Chain anchoring is initiated, in cells and in vitro, through Ube2W-catalyzed monoubiquitination of TRIM5α. This modification serves as a substrate for the elongation of anchored Lys63-linked polyUb chains, catalyzed by the heterodimeric E2 enzyme Ube2N/Ube2V2. Ube2W targets multiple TRIM5α internal lysines with Ub especially lysines 45 and 50, rather than modifying the N-terminal amino group, which is instead αN-acetylated in cells. E2 depletion or Ub mutation inhibits TRIM5α ubiquitination in cells and restores restricted viral reverse transcription, but not infection. Our data indicate that the stepwise formation of anchored Lys63-linked polyUb is a critical early step in the TRIM5α restriction mechanism and identify the E2 Ub-conjugating cofactors involved. PMID:26101372

  6. TRIM5α requires Ube2W to anchor Lys63-linked ubiquitin chains and restrict reverse transcription

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Adam J; Christensen, Devin E; Nelson, Chad; Tan, Choon Ping; Schaller, Torsten; Lehner, Paul J; Sundquist, Wesley I; Towers, Greg J

    2015-01-01

    TRIM5α is an antiviral, cytoplasmic, E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase that assembles on incoming retroviral capsids and induces their premature dissociation. It inhibits reverse transcription of the viral genome and can also synthesize unanchored polyubiquitin (polyUb) chains to stimulate innate immune responses. Here, we show that TRIM5α employs the E2 Ub-conjugating enzyme Ube2W to anchor the Lys63-linked polyUb chains in a process of TRIM5α auto-ubiquitination. Chain anchoring is initiated, in cells and in vitro, through Ube2W-catalyzed monoubiquitination of TRIM5α. This modification serves as a substrate for the elongation of anchored Lys63-linked polyUb chains, catalyzed by the heterodimeric E2 enzyme Ube2N/Ube2V2. Ube2W targets multiple TRIM5α internal lysines with Ub especially lysines 45 and 50, rather than modifying the N-terminal amino group, which is instead αN-acetylated in cells. E2 depletion or Ub mutation inhibits TRIM5α ubiquitination in cells and restores restricted viral reverse transcription, but not infection. Our data indicate that the stepwise formation of anchored Lys63-linked polyUb is a critical early step in the TRIM5α restriction mechanism and identify the E2 Ub-conjugating cofactors involved. PMID:26101372

  7. Anchoring linkage groups of the Rosa genetic map to physical chromosomes with tyramide-FISH and EST-SNP markers.

    PubMed

    Kirov, Ilya; Van Laere, Katrijn; De Riek, Jan; De Keyser, Ellen; Van Roy, Nadine; Khrustaleva, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    In order to anchor Rosa linkage groups to physical chromosomes, a combination of the Tyramide-FISH technology and the modern molecular marker system based on High Resolution Melting (HRM) is an efficient approach. Although, Tyramide-FISH is a very promising technique for the visualization of short DNA probes, it is very challenging for plant species with small chromosomes such as Rosa. In this study, we successfully applied the Tyramide-FISH technique for Rosa and compared different detection systems. An indirect detection system exploiting biotinylated tyramides was shown to be the most suitable technique for reliable signal detection. Three gene fragments with a size of 1100 pb-1700 bp (Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase, Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthase and Orcinol O-Methyl Transferase) have been physically mapped on chromosomes 7, 4 and 1, respectively, of Rosa wichurana. The signal frequency was between 25% and 40%. HRM markers of these 3 gene fragments were used to include the gene fragments on the existing genetic linkage map of Rosa wichurana. As a result, three linkage groups could be anchored to their physical chromosomes. The information was used to check for synteny between the Rosa chromosomes and Fragaria. PMID:24755945

  8. Anchoring Linkage Groups of the Rosa Genetic Map to Physical Chromosomes with Tyramide-FISH and EST-SNP Markers

    PubMed Central

    Kirov, Ilya; Van Laere, Katrijn; De Riek, Jan; De Keyser, Ellen; Van Roy, Nadine; Khrustaleva, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    In order to anchor Rosa linkage groups to physical chromosomes, a combination of the Tyramide-FISH technology and the modern molecular marker system based on High Resolution Melting (HRM) is an efficient approach. Although, Tyramide-FISH is a very promising technique for the visualization of short DNA probes, it is very challenging for plant species with small chromosomes such as Rosa. In this study, we successfully applied the Tyramide-FISH technique for Rosa and compared different detection systems. An indirect detection system exploiting biotinylated tyramides was shown to be the most suitable technique for reliable signal detection. Three gene fragments with a size of 1100 pb–1700 bp (Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase, Pyrroline-5-Carboxylate Synthase and Orcinol O-Methyl Transferase) have been physically mapped on chromosomes 7, 4 and 1, respectively, of Rosa wichurana. The signal frequency was between 25% and 40%. HRM markers of these 3 gene fragments were used to include the gene fragments on the existing genetic linkage map of Rosa wichurana. As a result, three linkage groups could be anchored to their physical chromosomes. The information was used to check for synteny between the Rosa chromosomes and Fragaria. PMID:24755945

  9. BRCA1-linked marker in postmenopausal breast cancer families

    SciTech Connect

    Folsom, A.R.; Chen, P.L.; Sellers, T.A.

    1994-09-01

    A majority of breast and ovarian cancer families and half of the early-onset breast cancer families are linked to markers on 17q (BRCA1). While linkage has been demonstrated in families with premenopausal disease, few studies have tested these markers in families with postmenopausal breast cancer. In the Iowa Women`s Health Study, a population-based study of over 42,000 women, an association of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer was found predominantly in women with a positive family history -- this interaction was associated with a 3.2-fold elevated risk. This effect was even more pronounced when the definition of family history included breast and ovarian cancer, known to be linked to 17q markers. We evaluated evidence for linkage with D17S579, a BRCA-1-linked marker, in 13 families in which the index case had postmenopausal breast cancer. Genotyping for alleles at D17S579 was performed on 84 blood samples. Linkage analysis assumed that the breast cancer trait had an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with a penetrance of 80%. For the 13 families studied, the maximum lod score was 0.29 at a theta of 0.27. There was significant evidence against tight linkage of breast cancer with D17S579 (theta<0.4). Heterogeneity analysis suggested evidence for the presence of both linked and unlinked families. Partitioning informative families on WHR of the index case suggested heterogeneity. These data suggest that, in a subset of families identified by a postmenopausal breast cancer proband, risk of breast cancer may be mediated by BRCA1, with heterogeneity defined by WHR.

  10. Genetic marker anchoring by six-dimensional pools for development of a soybean physical map

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrated genetic and physical maps are extremely valuable for genomic studies and as important references for assembling of whole genome shotgun sequences. Screening of a BAC library using molecular markers is an indispensable procedure for integration of both physical and genetic maps of a genom...

  11. Bonding, Bridging, and Linking Social Capital and Self-Rated Health among Chinese Adults: Use of the Anchoring Vignettes Technique

    PubMed Central

    Chen, He; Meng, Tianguang

    2015-01-01

    Three main opposing camps exist over how social capital relates to population health, namely the social support perspective, the inequality thesis, and the political economy approach. The distinction among bonding, bridging, and linking social capital probably helps close the debates between these three camps, which is rarely investigated in existing literatures. Moreover, although self-rated health is a frequently used health indicator in studies on the relationship between social capital and health, the interpersonal incomparability of this measure has been largely neglected. This study has two main objectives. Firstly, we aim to investigate the relationship between bonding, bridging, and linking social capital and self-rated health among Chinese adults. Secondly, we aim to improve the interpersonal comparability in self-rated health measurement. We use data from a nationally representative survey in China. Self-rated health was adjusted using the anchoring vignettes technique to improve comparability. Two-level ordinal logistic regression was performed to model the association between social capital and self-rated health at both individual and community levels. The interaction between residence and social capital was included to examine urban/rural disparities in the relationship. We found that most social capital indicators had a significant relationship with adjusted self-rated health of Chinese adults, but the relationships were mixed. Individual-level bonding, linking social capital, and community-level bridging social capital were positively related with health. Significant urban/rural disparities appeared in the association between community-level bonding, linking social capital, and adjusted self-rated health. For example, people living in communities with higher bonding social capital tended to report poorer adjusted self-rated health in urban areas, but the opposite tendency held for rural areas. Furthermore, the comparison between multivariate analyses

  12. Affective traits link to reliable neural markers of incentive anticipation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Charlene C.; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.; Katovich, Kiefer; Knutson, Brian

    2013-01-01

    While theorists have speculated that different affective traits are linked to reliable brain activity during anticipation of gains and losses, few have directly tested this prediction. We examined these associations in a community sample of healthy human adults (n = 52) as they played a Monetary Incentive Delay Task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI). Factor analysis of personality measures revealed that subjects independently varied in trait Positive Arousal and Negative Arousal. In a subsample (n = 14) retested over 2.5 years later, left nucleus accumbens (NAcc) activity during anticipation of large gains (+$5.00) and right anterior insula activity during anticipation of large losses (−$5.00) showed significant test-retest reliability (intraclass correlations > 0.50, p’s < 0.01). In the full sample (n = 52), trait Positive Arousal correlated with individual differences in left NAcc activity during anticipation of large gains, while trait Negative Arousal correlated with individual differences in right anterior insula activity during anticipation of large losses. Associations of affective traits with neural activity were not attributable to the influence of other potential confounds (including sex, age, wealth, and motion). Together, these results demonstrate selective links between distinct affective traits and reliably-elicited activity in neural circuits associated with anticipation of gain versus loss. The findings thus reveal neural markers for affective dimensions of healthy personality, and potentially for related psychiatric symptoms. PMID:24001457

  13. Development of single-locus DNA microsatellite markers using 5'anchored ISSR-PCR method for the mangrove horseshoe crab, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda (Latreille, 1802) in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Adibah, A B; Ling, L Pui; Tan, S G; Faridah, Q Z; Christianus, A

    2012-04-01

    Horseshoe crabs are said to be declining worldwide. However, there is still no published report on the status of horseshoe crabs in Malaysia. Thus, we report here eight informative microsatellite markers that were developed using the 5'-anchored ISSR-PCR enrichment procedure to diagnose the population genetic structure of the mangrove horseshoe crab, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda from Peninsular Malaysia. This set of markers was tested on 127 samples and showed polymorphism in this species. Hence they should be useful in future essential population genetic studies of these living fossils in the Southeast Asian region. PMID:21744263

  14. User-friendly markers linked to Fusarium wilt race 1 resistance Fw gene for marker-assisted selection in pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt is one of the most widespread diseases of pea. Resistance to Fusarium wilt race 1 was reported as a single gene, Fw, located on linkage group III. The previously reported AFLP and RAPD markers linked to Fw have limited usage in marker-assisted selection due to their map distance and l...

  15. Intelligent DNA-based molecular diagnostics using linked genetic markers

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, D.K.; Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a knowledge-based system for molecular diagnostics, and its application to fully automated diagnosis of X-linked genetic disorders. Molecular diagnostic information is used in clinical practice for determining genetic risks, such as carrier determination and prenatal diagnosis. Initially, blood samples are obtained from related individuals, and PCR amplification is performed. Linkage-based molecular diagnosis then entails three data analysis steps. First, for every individual, the alleles (i.e., DNA composition) are determined at specified chromosomal locations. Second, the flow of genetic material among the individuals is established. Third, the probability that a given individual is either a carrier of the disease or affected by the disease is determined. The current practice is to perform each of these three steps manually, which is costly, time consuming, labor-intensive, and error-prone. As such, the knowledge-intensive data analysis and interpretation supersede the actual experimentation effort as the major bottleneck in molecular diagnostics. By examining the human problem solving for the task, we have designed and implemented a prototype knowledge-based system capable of fully automating linkage-based molecular diagnostics in X-linked genetic disorders, including Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Our system uses knowledge-based interpretation of gel electrophoresis images to determine individual DNA marker labels, a constraint satisfaction search for consistent genetic flow among individuals, and a blackboard-style problem solver for risk assessment. We describe the system`s successful diagnosis of DMD carrier and affected individuals from raw clinical data.

  16. EST-derived SSR markers used as anchor loci for the construction of a consensus linkage map in ryegrass (Lolium spp.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic markers and linkage mapping are basic prerequisites for marker-assisted selection and map-based cloning. In the case of the key grassland species Lolium spp., numerous mapping populations have been developed and characterised for various traits. Although some genetic linkage maps of these populations have been aligned with each other using publicly available DNA markers, the number of common markers among genetic maps is still low, limiting the ability to compare candidate gene and QTL locations across germplasm. Results A set of 204 expressed sequence tag (EST)-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers has been assigned to map positions using eight different ryegrass mapping populations. Marker properties of a subset of 64 EST-SSRs were assessed in six to eight individuals of each mapping population and revealed 83% of the markers to be polymorphic in at least one population and an average number of alleles of 4.88. EST-SSR markers polymorphic in multiple populations served as anchor markers and allowed the construction of the first comprehensive consensus map for ryegrass. The integrated map was complemented with 97 SSRs from previously published linkage maps and finally contained 284 EST-derived and genomic SSR markers. The total map length was 742 centiMorgan (cM), ranging for individual chromosomes from 70 cM of linkage group (LG) 6 to 171 cM of LG 2. Conclusions The consensus linkage map for ryegrass based on eight mapping populations and constructed using a large set of publicly available Lolium EST-SSRs mapped for the first time together with previously mapped SSR markers will allow for consolidating existing mapping and QTL information in ryegrass. Map and markers presented here will prove to be an asset in the development for both molecular breeding of ryegrass as well as comparative genetics and genomics within grass species. PMID:20712870

  17. Excap: Maximization of Haplotypic Diversity of Linked Markers

    PubMed Central

    Kahles, André; Sarqume, Fahad; Savolainen, Peter; Arvestad, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Genetic markers, defined as variable regions of DNA, can be utilized for distinguishing individuals or populations. As long as markers are independent, it is easy to combine the information they provide. For nonrecombinant sequences like mtDNA, choosing the right set of markers for forensic applications can be difficult and requires careful consideration. In particular, one wants to maximize the utility of the markers. Until now, this has mainly been done by hand. We propose an algorithm that finds the most informative subset of a set of markers. The algorithm uses a depth first search combined with a branch-and-bound approach. Since the worst case complexity is exponential, we also propose some data-reduction techniques and a heuristic. We implemented the algorithm and applied it to two forensic caseworks using mitochondrial DNA, which resulted in marker sets with significantly improved haplotypic diversity compared to previous suggestions. Additionally, we evaluated the quality of the estimation with an artificial dataset of mtDNA. The heuristic is shown to provide extensive speedup at little cost in accuracy. PMID:24244403

  18. Integration of novel SSR and gene-based SNP marker loci in the chickpea genetic map and establishment of new anchor points with Medicago truncatula genome

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Spurthi N.; Zhu, Hongyan; Varghese, Nicy; Datta, Subhojit; Choi, Hong-Kyu; Horres, Ralf; Jüngling, Ruth; Singh, Jagbir; Kavi Kishor, P. B.; Sivaramakrishnan, S.; Hoisington, Dave A.; Kahl, Günter; Winter, Peter; Cook, Douglas R.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the development and mapping of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in chickpea. The mapping population is based on an inter-specific cross between domesticated and non-domesticated genotypes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum ICC 4958 × C. reticulatum PI 489777). This same population has been the focus of previous studies, permitting integration of new and legacy genetic markers into a single genetic map. We report a set of 311 novel SSR markers (designated ICCM—ICRISAT chickpea microsatellite), obtained from an SSR-enriched genomic library of ICC 4958. Screening of these SSR markers on a diverse panel of 48 chickpea accessions provided 147 polymorphic markers with 2–21 alleles and polymorphic information content value 0.04–0.92. Fifty-two of these markers were polymorphic between parental genotypes of the inter-specific population. We also analyzed 233 previously published (H-series) SSR markers that provided another set of 52 polymorphic markers. An additional 71 gene-based SNP markers were developed from transcript sequences that are highly conserved between chickpea and its near relative Medicago truncatula. By using these three approaches, 175 new marker loci along with 407 previously reported marker loci were integrated to yield an improved genetic map of chickpea. The integrated map contains 521 loci organized into eight linkage groups that span 2,602 cM, with an average inter-marker distance of 4.99 cM. Gene-based markers provide anchor points for comparing the genomes of Medicago and chickpea, and reveal extended synteny between these two species. The combined set of genetic markers and their integration into an improved genetic map should facilitate chickpea genetics and breeding, as well as translational studies between chickpea and Medicago. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1265-1) contains supplementary material, which is

  19. Utilization of trait-linked DNA markers in rice breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA marker technology is being used in U.S. rice breeding programs to enhance development of rice cultivars with improved cooking quality and genetic resistance to rice blast disease. Because there is a continuous threat of race shifts within the Magnaporthe grisea populations found in rice fields t...

  20. Multiple Brain Markers are Linked to Age-Related Variation in Cognition.

    PubMed

    Hedden, Trey; Schultz, Aaron P; Rieckmann, Anna; Mormino, Elizabeth C; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Buckner, Randy L

    2016-04-01

    Age-related alterations in brain structure and function have been challenging to link to cognition due to potential overlapping influences of multiple neurobiological cascades. We examined multiple brain markers associated with age-related variation in cognition. Clinically normal older humans aged 65-90 from the Harvard Aging Brain Study (N = 186) were characterized on a priori magnetic resonance imaging markers of gray matter thickness and volume, white matter hyperintensities, fractional anisotropy (FA), resting-state functional connectivity, positron emission tomography markers of glucose metabolism and amyloid burden, and cognitive factors of processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Partial correlation and mediation analyses estimated age-related variance in cognition shared with individual brain markers and unique to each marker. The largest relationships linked FA and striatum volume to processing speed and executive function, and hippocampal volume to episodic memory. Of the age-related variance in cognition, 70-80% was accounted for by combining all brain markers (but only ∼20% of total variance). Age had significant indirect effects on cognition via brain markers, with significant markers varying across cognitive domains. These results suggest that most age-related variation in cognition is shared among multiple brain markers, but potential specificity between some brain markers and cognitive domains motivates additional study of age-related markers of neural health. PMID:25316342

  1. Fabrication of manganese dioxide nanoplates anchoring on biomass-derived cross-linked carbon nanosheets for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiju; Yu, Neng; Yan, Peng; Li, Yuguang; Zhou, Xuemei; Chen, Shuangling; Wang, Guiling; Wei, Tong; Fan, Zhuangjun

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, MnO2 nanoplates loading on biomass-derived cross-linked carbon nanosheets have been prepared by a two-step synthesis. At first, the cross-linked carbon nanosheets derived from willow catkin are synthesized by one-step pyrolysis and activation method, then the MnO2 anchored cross-linked carbon nanosheets is prepared via in-situ hydrothermal deposition. The asymmetric supercapacitor with terrific energy and power density is assembled by employing the MnO2 anchored cross-linked carbon nanosheets as the positive electrode and the cross-linked carbon nanosheets as the negative electrode in a 1 M Na2SO4 electrolyte. The asymmetric supercapacitor displays a high energy density of 23.6 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 188.8 W kg-1 within a wide voltage rage of 0-1.9 V. In addition, the asymmetric supercapacitor exhibits excellent cycling stability with only 1.4% capacitance loss after 10000 cycles at 1 A g-1. These discoveries open up the prospect of biomass/biowaste derived carbon-based composites for high-voltage asymmetric supercapacitors with superb energy and power density performance.

  2. Using Next Generation Sequencing for Multiplexed Trait-Linked Markers in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Bernardo, Amy; Wang, Shan; St. Amand, Paul; Bai, Guihua

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have become the major type of marker for genotyping in many crops. However, the availability of SNP markers for important traits of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that can be effectively used in marker-assisted selection (MAS) is still limited and SNP assays for MAS are usually uniplex. A shift from uniplex to multiplex assays will allow the simultaneous analysis of multiple markers and increase MAS efficiency. We designed 33 locus-specific markers from SNP or indel-based marker sequences that linked to 20 different quantitative trait loci (QTL) or genes of agronomic importance in wheat and analyzed the amplicon sequences using an Ion Torrent Proton Sequencer and a custom allele detection pipeline to determine the genotypes of 24 selected germplasm accessions. Among the 33 markers, 27 were successfully multiplexed and 23 had 100% SNP call rates. Results from analysis of "kompetitive allele-specific PCR" (KASP) and sequence tagged site (STS) markers developed from the same loci fully verified the genotype calls of 23 markers. The NGS-based multiplexed assay developed in this study is suitable for rapid and high-throughput screening of SNPs and some indel-based markers in wheat. PMID:26625271

  3. Sex-linked AFLP markers indicate a pseudoautosomal region in hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Peil, A; Flachowsky, H; Schumann, E; Weber, W E

    2003-06-01

    In dioecious plants of hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.), males are regarded as heterogametic XY and females as homogametic XX, although it is difficult to discriminate the X cytologically from the Y. The Y chromosome is somewhat larger than the X. Our aim was to analyse AFLP markers on X and Y, and to use them to gain some insight into the structure of the sex chromosomes. Markers located on the sex chromosomes can be grouped into different classes, depending on the presence or absence of a fragment on the X and/or the Y. They are detected by separately analysing male and female progenies of a single cross. Five markers were found to be located on both chromosomes. A few recombinants were observed for marker pairs of this class in the male progenies. Two completely linked markers located on the Y chromosome in the male parent show a recombination rate of r = 0.25 with sex. Recombination must have occurred between the sex chromosomes in the male parent. The recombination analysis led to the conclusion that there is a pseudoautosomal region (PAR) on the sex chromosomes, allowing recombination between the X and the Y chromosome. The other regions of the sex chromosomes show only a few recombination events, for the Y as well as for the X. These results are discussed in comparison to other dioecious plants. PMID:12835935

  4. Liposomes modified with superhydrophilic polymer linked to a nonphospholipid anchor exhibit reduced complement activation and enhanced circulation.

    PubMed

    Nag, Okhil K; Yadav, Vivek R; Croft, Brandon; Hedrick, Andria; Awasthi, Vibhudutta

    2015-01-01

    We report the synthesis of an acyl-anchored superhydrophilic polymer (SHP) for external surface modification of liposome surface. N¹-(2-aminoethyl)-N⁴-hexadecyl-2-tetradecylsuccinamide conjugated with SHP (HDAS-SHP) was synthesized and used for modifying the liposome surface. Unlike polyethylene glycol (PEG)-phospholipids, which are commonly used for manufacturing stealth liposomes, HDAS-SHP is devoid of both PEG and phosphoryl groups and possesses a zwitterionic polymeric chain. Circulation persistence of the ⁹⁹(m)Tc-labeled HDAS-SHP liposomes was documented by gamma camera imaging. After 24 h postinjection, approximately 30% of injected HDAS-SHP liposomes were present in blood as compared with only 4.5% of the plain liposomes. HDAS-SHP liposomes inhibited complement activation. They were found to be amenable to pH-gradient-based active loading of Adriamycin in a stable manner. At 37°C, HDAS-SHP liposomes provided better encapsulation efficiencies than the liposomes modified with DSPE-PEG₂₀₀₀. These results provide a strong basis for HDAS-SHP as a viable alternative to PEG-phospholipids for imparting stealth characteristics to drug delivery vehicles such as liposomes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:114-123, 2015. PMID:25393628

  5. Centromere-linked microsatellite markers for linkage groups 3, 4, 6, 7, 13, and 20 of zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Mohideen, M A; Moore, J L; Cheng, K C

    2000-07-01

    A large number of interesting mutations affecting development and organogenesis have been identified through genetic screens in zebrafish. Mapping of these mutations to a chromosomal region can be rapidly accomplished using half-tetrad analysis. However, knowledge of centromere-linked markers on every chromosome is essential to this mapping method. Centromeres on all 25 linkage groups have been mapped on the RAPD zebrafish genetic map. However, species specificity and the lack of codominance make RAPD markers less practical for mapping than microsatellite-based markers. On the microsatellite-based genetic map, centromere-linked markers have been identified for 19 linkage groups. No direct evidence has been published linking microsatellite markers to the centromeres of linkage groups 3, 4, 6, 7, 13, and 20. Therefore, we compared the microsatellite-based genetic map with the RAPD map to identify markers most likely linked to the centromeres of these 6 linkage groups. These candidate markers were tested for potential centromere linkage using four panels of half-tetrad embryos derived by early-pressure treatment of eggs from four different female zebrafish. We have identified microsatellite markers for linkage groups 3, 4, 6, 7, 13, and 20 to within 1.7 cM of their centromeres. These markers will greatly facilitate the rapid mapping of mutations in zebrafish by half-tetrad analysis. PMID:10945477

  6. [Microsatellite marker linked with stripe rust resistant gene Yr9 in wheat].

    PubMed

    Weng, Dong-Xu; Xu, Shi-Chang; Lin, Rui-Ming; Wan, An-Min; Li, Jing-Peng; Wu, Li-Ren

    2005-09-01

    SSR analysis was performed using a wheat near-isogenic line (NIL) Taichuang29 * 6/ Lovrin13, which carried the resistance gene Yr9 against wheat stripe rust and its recurrent parent Taichung29 as materials. After screening with 32 SSR primers on 1B chromosome, reproducible polymorphic DNA fragment amplified by Xgwm582 was identified. Genetic linkage was tested in 177 segregating F2 plants. The results indicated that microsatellite marker Xgwm582 was linked with gene Yr9 resistant to wheat stripe rust. A genetic distance of 3. 7 cM was calculated. PMID:16201237

  7. Microsatellite markers linked to the locus of the watermelon fruit stripe pattern.

    PubMed

    Gama, R N C S; Santos, C A F; Dias, R C S; Alves, J C S F; Nogueira, T O

    2015-01-01

    Agronomic performance and external and internal appearance of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit are important traits that should be taken into consideration during the development of a new cultivar, as well as being the principal identification elements used by the consumer, which are based on the external appearance and quality of the fruit. Externally, the fruit can be characterized in terms of the shape, the color of the lower rind, and the presence of grooves and stripes, the stripes can be classified as clearly defined or diffuse. The objective of this study was to identify microsatellite markers linked to the stripe pattern of watermelon fruit to support watermelon improvement programs, with the selection of this characteristic in the plantlet stage. F1 and F2 populations, result of a cross between the cultivars BRS Opara (clearly defined stripes) and Pérola (diffuse stripes), were phenotyped for their fruit stripe pattern. The CTAB 2X protocol was used for DNA extraction and 116 microsatellite markers were examined in a group of F2 plants that had fruit with well-defined stripes and fruit with diffuse stripes. The microsatellite loci MCPI_05 and MCPI_16 exhibited a linkage to the stripe pattern at a distance of 1.5 and 1.8 cM, respectively, with LOD scores of 39.28 and 38.11, respectively, which were located on chromosome six of the watermelon genome. These markers can be used in marker-assisted selection in watermelon improvement programs, by various research institutions. PMID:25729959

  8. Development of SSR Markers Linked to Low Hydrocyanic Acid Content in Sorghum-Sudan Grass Hybrid Based on BSA Method.

    PubMed

    Xiao-Xia, Yu; Zhi-Hua, Liu; Zhuo, Yu; Yue, Shi; Xiao-Yu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum-Sudan grass hybrid containing high hydrocyanic acid content can cause hydrocyanic acid poisoning to the livestock and limit the popularization of this forage crop. Molecular markers associated with low hydrocyanic acid content can speed up the process of identification of genotypes with low hydrocyanic acid content. In the present study, 11 polymorphic SSR primers were screened and used for bulked segregant analysis and single marker analysis. Three SSR markers Xtxp7230, Xtxp7375 and Bnlg667960 associated with low hydrocyanic acid content were rapidly identified by BSA. In single marker analysis, six markers Xtxp7230, Xtxp7375, Bnlg667960, Xtxp67-11, Xtxp295-7 and Xtxp12-9 were linked to low hydrocyanic acid content, which explained the proportion of phenotypic variation from 7.6 % to 41.2 %. The markers identified by BSA were also verified by single marker analysis. The three SSR marker bands were then cloned and sequenced for sequence homology analysis in NCBI. It is the first report on the development of molecular markers associated with low hydrocyanic acid content in sorghum- Sudan grass hybrid. These markers will be useful for genetic improvement of low hydrocyanic acid sorghum-Sudan grass hybrid by marker-assisted breeding. PMID:27001403

  9. Markers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    Dry erase whiteboards come with toxic dry erase markers and toxic cleaning products. Dry erase markers labeled "nontoxic" are not free of toxic chemicals and can cause health problems. Children are especially vulnerable to environmental health hazards; moreover, schools commonly have problems with indoor air pollution, as they are more densely…

  10. Markers, Models, and Measurement Error: Exploring the Links Between Attention Deficits and Language Impairments

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The empirical record regarding the expected co-occurrence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and specific language impairment is confusing and contradictory. A research plan is presented that has the potential to untangle links between these 2 common neurodevelopmental disorders. Method Data from completed and ongoing research projects examining the relative value of different clinical markers for separating cases of specific language impairment from ADHD are presented. Results The best option for measuring core language impairments in a manner that does not potentially penalize individuals with ADHD is to focus assessment on key grammatical and verbal memory skills. Likewise, assessment of ADHD symptoms through standardized informant rating scales is optimized when they are adjusted for overlapping language and academic symptoms. Conclusion As a collection, these clinical metrics set the stage for further examination of potential linkages between attention deficits and language impairments. PMID:26501406

  11. Massively parallel sequencing of single cells by epicPCR links functional genes with phylogenetic markers

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Sarah J; Tamminen, Manu V; Preheim, Sarah P; Guo, Mira T; Briggs, Adrian W; Brito, Ilana L; A Weitz, David; Pitkänen, Leena K; Vigneault, Francois; Virta, Marko PJuhani; Alm, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Many microbial communities are characterized by high genetic diversity. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing can determine community members, and metagenomics can determine the functional diversity, but resolving the functional role of individual cells in high throughput remains an unsolved challenge. Here, we describe epicPCR (Emulsion, Paired Isolation and Concatenation PCR), a new technique that links functional genes and phylogenetic markers in uncultured single cells, providing a throughput of hundreds of thousands of cells with costs comparable to one genomic library preparation. We demonstrate the utility of our technique in a natural environment by profiling a sulfate-reducing community in a freshwater lake, revealing both known sulfate reducers and discovering new putative sulfate reducers. Our method is adaptable to any conserved genetic trait and translates genetic associations from diverse microbial samples into a sequencing library that answers targeted ecological questions. Potential applications include identifying functional community members, tracing horizontal gene transfer networks and mapping ecological interactions between microbial cells. PMID:26394010

  12. Massively parallel sequencing of single cells by epicPCR links functional genes with phylogenetic markers.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Sarah J; Tamminen, Manu V; Preheim, Sarah P; Guo, Mira T; Briggs, Adrian W; Brito, Ilana L; A Weitz, David; Pitkänen, Leena K; Vigneault, Francois; Juhani Virta, Marko P; Alm, Eric J

    2016-02-01

    Many microbial communities are characterized by high genetic diversity. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing can determine community members, and metagenomics can determine the functional diversity, but resolving the functional role of individual cells in high throughput remains an unsolved challenge. Here, we describe epicPCR (Emulsion, Paired Isolation and Concatenation PCR), a new technique that links functional genes and phylogenetic markers in uncultured single cells, providing a throughput of hundreds of thousands of cells with costs comparable to one genomic library preparation. We demonstrate the utility of our technique in a natural environment by profiling a sulfate-reducing community in a freshwater lake, revealing both known sulfate reducers and discovering new putative sulfate reducers. Our method is adaptable to any conserved genetic trait and translates genetic associations from diverse microbial samples into a sequencing library that answers targeted ecological questions. Potential applications include identifying functional community members, tracing horizontal gene transfer networks and mapping ecological interactions between microbial cells. PMID:26394010

  13. A cryptic heterogametic transition revealed by sex-linked DNA markers in Palearctic green toads.

    PubMed

    Stöck, M; Croll, D; Dumas, Z; Biollay, S; Wang, J; Perrin, N

    2011-05-01

    In sharp contrast to birds and mammals, most cold-blooded vertebrates have homomorphic (morphologically undifferentiated) sex chromosomes. This might result either from recurrent X-Y recombination (occurring e.g. during occasional events of sex reversal) or from frequent turnovers (during which sex-determining genes are overthrown by new autosomal mutations). Evidence for turnovers is indeed mounting in fish, but very few have so far been documented in amphibians, possibly because of practical difficulties in identifying sex chromosomes. Female heterogamety (ZW) has long been established in Bufo bufo, based on sex reversal and crossing experiments. Here, we investigate a sex-linked marker identified from a laboratory cross between Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup). The F(1) offspring produced by a female Bufo balearicus and a male Bufo siculus were phenotypically sexed, displaying an even sex ratio. A sex-specific marker detected in highly reproducible AFLP genotypes was cloned. Sequencing revealed a noncoding, microsatellite-containing fragment. Reamplification and genotyping of families of this and a reciprocal cross showed B. siculus to be male heterogametic (XY) and suggested the same system for B. balearicus. Our results thus reveal a cryptic heterogametic transition within bufonid frogs and help explain patterns of hybrid fitness within the B. viridis subgroup. Turnovers of genetic sex-determination systems may be more frequent in amphibians than previously thought and thus contribute to the prevalence of homomorphic sex chromosomes in this group. PMID:21338434

  14. Accurate Quantification of Disease Markers in Human Serum Using Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linlin; Tong, Sheng; Zhou, Jun; Bao, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and reliable quantification of biomarkers in the blood is essential in disease screening and diagnosis. Here we describe an iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP)-linked immunosorbent assay (ILISA) for detecting biomolecules in human serum. Sandwich ILISA was optimized for the detection of four important serological markers, IgA, IgG, IgM, and C-reactive protein (CRP), and assessed with normal sera, simulated disease-state sera and the serum samples from patients infected with West Nile virus (WNV) or human herpes virus (HHV). Our study shows that using the detection assay formulated with 18.8 nm wüstite nanocrystals, ILISA can achieve sub-picomolar detection sensitivity, and all four markers can be accurately quantified over a large dynamic range. In addition, ILISA is not susceptible to variations in operating procedures and shows better linearity and higher stability compared with ELISA, which facilitates its integration into detection methods suitable for point of care. Our results demonstrate that ILISA is a simple and versatile nanoplatform for highly sensitive and reliable detection of serological biomarkers in biomedical research and clinical applications. PMID:27375784

  15. A Methylated Phosphate Group and Four Amide-linked Acyl Chains in Leptospira interrogans Lipid A. The Membrane Anchor of an Unusual Lipopolysaccharide that Activates TLR2*

    PubMed Central

    Que-Gewirth, Nanette L. S.; Ribeiro, Anthony A.; Kalb, Suzanne R.; Cotter, Robert J.; Bulach, Dieter M.; Adler, Ben; Girons, Isabelle Saint; Werts, Catherine; Raetz, Christian R. H.

    2008-01-01

    Leptospira interrogans differs from other spirochetes in that it contains homologs of all the Escherichia coli lpx genes required for the biosynthesis of the lipid A anchor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS from L. interrogans cells is unusual in that it activates TLR2 rather than TLR4. The structure of L. interrogans lipid A has now been determined by a combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, NMR spectroscopy, and biochemical studies. Lipid A was released from LPS of L. interrogans serovar Pomona by 100 °C hydrolysis at pH 4.5 in the presence of SDS. Following purification by anion exchange and thin layer chromatography, the major component was shown to have a molecular weight of 1727. Mild hydrolysis with dilute NaOH reduced this to 1338, consistent with the presence of four N-linked and two O-linked acyl chains. The lipid A molecules of both the virulent and nonvirulent forms of L. interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae (strain Verdun) were identical to those of L. interrogans Pomona by the above criteria. Given the selectivity of L. interrogans LpxA for 3-hydroxylaurate, we propose that L. interrogans lipid A is acylated with R-3-hydroxylaurate at positions 3 and 3′ and with R-3-hydroxypalmitate at positions 2 and 2′. The hydroxyacyl chain composition was validated by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry of fatty acid methyl esters. Intact hexa-acylated lipid A of L. interrogans Pomona was also analyzed by NMR, confirming the presence a β-1′,6-linked disaccharide of 2,3-diamino-2,3-dideoxy-D-glucopyranose units. Two secondary unsaturated acyl chains are attached to the distal residue. The 1-position of the disaccharide is derivatized with an axial phosphate moiety, but the 4′-OH is unsubstituted. 1H and 31P NMR analyses revealed that the 1-phosphate group is methylated. Purified L. interrogans lipid A is inactive against human THP-1 cells but does stimulate tumor necrosis factor production by

  16. Deep divergence and apparent sex-biased dispersal revealed by a Y-linked marker in rainbow trout

    PubMed Central

    Brunelli, Joseph P.; Steele, Craig A.; Thorgaard, Gary H.

    2010-01-01

    Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA markers can reveal phylogenetic patterns by allowing tracking of male and female lineages, respectively. We used sequence data from a recently discovered Y-linked marker and a mitochondrial marker to examine phylogeographic structure in the widespread and economically important rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Two distinct geographic groupings that generally correspond to coastal and inland subspecies were evident within the Y marker network while the mtDNA haplotype network showed little geographic structure. Our results suggest that male-specific behavior has prevented widespread admixture of Y haplotypes and that gene flow between the coastal and inland subspecies has largely occurred through females. This new Y marker may also aid conservation efforts by genetically identifying inland populations that have not hybridized with widely stocked coastal-derived hatchery fish. PMID:20546904

  17. Use of diversity arrays technology markers for integration into a cotton reference map and anchoring to a recombinant inbred line map

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A DArT marker platform is developed for the cotton genome to evaluate the use of DArT markers compared to AFLPs in mapping, and transferability across the mapping populations. We used a reference genetic map of tetraploid Gossypium that already contained ~5000 loci which coalesced into 26 chromosom...

  18. Identification of SCAR markers linked to Rca 2 anthracnose resistance gene and their assessment in strawberry germ plasm.

    PubMed

    Lerceteau-Köhler, E; Guérin, G; Denoyes-Rothan, B

    2005-09-01

    Bulked segregant analysis combined with AFLPs was used to identify molecular markers linked to the Rca 2 gene conferring resistance to Colletotrichum acutatum pathogenicity group 2 which causes anthracnose in the octoploid strawberry Fragaria x ananassa. DNA bulks originating from a cross between the resistant cultivar 'Capitola' and the susceptible cultivar 'Pajaro' were screened with 110 EcoRI/M se IAFLP combinations. Four AFLP markers were found linked in coupling phase to Rca 2 with recombination percentages between 0% and 17.7%. Among the four markers linked to the resistance gene, two were converted into SCAR markers (STS-Rca 2417 and STS-Rca 2240) and screened in a large segregating population including 179 genotypes. The Rca 2 resistance gene was estimated to be 0.6 cM from STS-Rca 2417 and 2.8 cM from STS-Rca 2240. The presence/absence of the two SCAR markers was further studied in 43 cultivars of F. x ananassa, including 14 susceptible, 28 resistant, and one intermediate genotype. Results showed that 81.4% and 62.8% of the resistant/susceptible genotypes were correctly predicted by using STS-Rca 2417 and STS-Rca 2240, respectively. The 14 susceptible genotypes showed no amplification for either SCARs. These developed SCARs constitute new tools for indirect selection criteria of anthracnose resistance genotypes in strawberry breeding programs. PMID:16003555

  19. Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers tightly linked to a gene for resistance to white pine blister rust in sugar pine.

    PubMed Central

    Devey, M E; Delfino-Mix, A; Kinloch, B B; Neale, D B

    1995-01-01

    We have genetically mapped a gene for resistance to white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola Fisch.) in sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) by using an approach which relies on three factors: (i) the ability to assay for genetic markers in the haploid stage of the host's life cycle, using megagametophyte seed tissue; (ii) a simple and clearly defined pathosystem; and (iii) the use of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers that can be quickly and efficiently evaluated. Resistance to white pine blister rust in sugar pine is known to be controlled by a single dominant gene (R). Maternal segregation of R and dominant RAPD markers were scored simultaneously following collection of megagametophytes for DNA assays and seedling inoculation with C. ribicola. Bulked samples of haploid megagametophyte DNA from resistant and susceptible offspring of segregating full-sib and half-sib families were used to evaluate 800 random decanucleotide primers. Ten loci linked with the gene for resistance to white pine blister rust were identified and segregation data were obtained from five families. Six of the linked markers were within 5 centimorgans of the gene, and one marker was 0.9 centimorgan from R. These and other markers derived by this approach may provide starting points for map-based cloning of this important gene. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:11607517

  20. Endothelial Markers May Link Kidney Function to Cardiovascular Events in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Christina; Clodi, Martin; Neuhold, Stephanie; Resl, Michael; Elhenicky, Marie; Prager, Rudolf; Moertl, Deddo; Strunk, Guido; Luger, Anton; Struck, Joachim; Pacher, Richard; Hülsmann, Martin

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The increased cardiovascular risk in diabetes has been linked to endothelial and renal dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of stable fragments of the precursors of adrenomedullin, endothelin-1, vasopressin, and atrial natriuretic peptide in progression of cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a prospective, observational study design with a composite end point (death or unexpected admission to hospital due to a cardiovascular event) on 781 patients with type 2 diabetes (54 events, median duration of observation 15 months). The four stable precursor peptides midregional adrenomedullin (MR-proADM), midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP), COOH-terminal proendothelin-1 (CT-proET-1), and COOH-terminal provasopressin or copeptin (CT-proAVP) were determined at baseline, and their association to renal function and cardiovascular events was studied using stepwise linear and Cox logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic analysis, respectively. RESULTS MR-proADM, CT-proET-1, CT-proAVP, and MR-proANP were all elevated in patients with future cardiovascular events and independently correlated to serum creatinine. MR-proADM and MR-proANP were significant predictors of a future cardiovascular event, with MR-proANP being the stronger (area under the curve 0.802 ± 0.034, sensitivity 0.833, specificity 0.576, positive predictive value 0.132, and negative predictive value 0.978 with a cutoff value of 75 pmol/l). CONCLUSIONS The four serum markers of vasoactive and natriuretic peptides are related to both kidney function and cardiovascular events, thus linking two major complications of diabetes, diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular disease. PMID:19564455

  1. Collagen cross-link metabolites in urine as markers of bone metastases in prostatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K K; McSherry, S A; Robins, S P; Besterman, J M; Mohler, J L

    1994-04-01

    The efficacy of radionuclide bone scans in monitoring metastatic bone activity remains controversial. Objective measurement of bone tumor burden would be useful for the evaluation of new therapies for metastatic carcinoma of the prostate. The recent discovery of the urinary excretion of pyridinoline (cross-link of mature collagen found in cartilage and bone) and deoxypyridinoline (collagen cross-link specific to bone) measured by high pressure liquid chromatography has provided sensitive specific indexes of cartilage and bone breakdown in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis and metabolic bone diseases. We compared the urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline,pyridinoline and hydroxyproline relative to urinary creatinine (nmol./mmol.creatinine) in 27 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (patient age 70.0 +/- 8.5 years, standard deviation), 29 with clinically confined prostate cancer (age 70.2 +/- 9.7 years), and 26 with prostate cancer and bone metastases (age 71.1 +/- 7.7 years). No diurnal variation of deoxypyridinoline or pyridinoline urinary excretion was detected in 5 patients with metastases. Urinary excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline was significantly greater in patients with metastatic carcinoma of the prostate compared with patients with either benign prostatic hyperplasia (Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon rank sum analysis, p < 0.00004 and 0.002, respectively) or localized prostate cancer (Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon, p < 0.00001 and 0.00005, respectively). Urinary hydroxyproline levels failed to separate the 3 groups. Pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline excretion in prostate cancer patients with metastases directly correlated with bone scan Soloway scores (r = 0.55, p < 0.005 and r = 0.57, p < 0.004 respectively), whereas serum prostate specific antigen did not (r = 0.36, p = 0.08). Serial measurements of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline progressively increased in 3 patients with clinical progression documented by new metastatic lesions by bone scan

  2. Identification of markers linked to genes for sprouting tolerance (independent of grain color) in hard white winter wheat (HWWW)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of markers linked to genes for sprouting tolerance (independent of grain color) in hard white winter wheat (HWWW) ABSTRACT Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can negatively impact end-use quality and seed viability at planting. Due to preferences for white ...

  3. Mixed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MELISA) for HLA class I antigen: a plasma membrane marker.

    PubMed

    Bjerrum, O W; Borregaard, N

    1990-03-01

    This study introduces a simple, reproducible assay for HLA class I antigen using antibodies against beta 2-microglobulin and the heavy chain on HLA. The sandwich technique was named mixed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MELISA), and was designed for identification of plasma membranes in neutrophil subcellular fractions. The subcellular localization of HLA was identical to that of other plasma membrane markers, [3H]concanavalin A and detergent-independent alkaline phosphatase, and was unchanged by stimulation of cells by weak and strong secretagogues. In addition to the presence as part of the HLA complex in the plasma membrane uncomplexed beta 2-microglobulin is present in the specific granules of neutrophils. However, the release of beta 2-microglobulin from intact neutrophils stimulated with formyl-methionylleucylphenylalanine was much higher than could be explained by exocytosis of specific granules. Subcellular fractionation studies demonstrated that beta 2-microglobulin is localized in fractions characterized by latent alkaline phosphatase and released from this novel secretory compartment in response to stimulation with formyl-methionylleucylphenylalanine. PMID:2181625

  4. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the anthropogenic marker isolithocholic acid in water.

    PubMed

    Baldofski, Stefanie; Hoffmann, Holger; Lehmann, Andreas; Breitfeld, Stefan; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Schneider, Rudolf J

    2016-11-01

    Bile acids are promising chemical markers to assess the pollution of water samples with fecal material. This study describes the optimization and validation of a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the bile acid isolithocholic acid (ILA). The quantification range of the optimized assay was between 0.09 and 15 μg/L. The assay was applied to environmental water samples. Most studies until now were focused on bile acid fractions in the particulate phase of water samples. In order to avoid tedious sample preparation, we undertook to evaluate the dynamics and significance of ILA levels in the aqueous phase. Very low concentrations in tap and surface water samples made a pre-concentration step necessary for this matrix as well as for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. Mean recoveries for spiked water samples were between 97% and 109% for tap water and WWTP influent samples and between 102% and 136% for WWTP effluent samples. 90th percentiles of intra-plate and inter-plate coefficients of variation were below 10% for influents and below 20% for effluents and surface water. ILA concentrations were quantified in the range of 33-72 μg/L in influent, 21-49 ng/L in effluent and 18-48 ng/L in surface water samples. During wastewater treatment the ILA levels were reduced by more than 99%. ILA concentrations of influents determined by ELISA and LC-MS/MS were in good agreement. However, findings in LC-ELISA experiments suggest that the true ILA levels in concentrated samples are lower due to interfering effects of matrix compounds and/or cross-reactants. Yet, the ELISA will be a valuable tool for the performance check and comparison of WWTPs and the localization of fecal matter input into surface waters. PMID:27544648

  5. Vitamin D receptor expression is linked to potential markers of human thyroid papillary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Izkhakov, Elena; Somjen, Dalia; Sharon, Orli; Knoll, Esther; Aizic, Asaf; Fliss, Dan M; Limor, Rona; Stern, Naftali

    2016-05-01

    Genes regulated cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion and degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been screened as potential markers of malignant thyroid nodules. The mRNA expression levels of two of them, the ECM protein-1 (ECM1) and the type II transmembrane serine protease-4 (TMPRSS4), were shown to be an independent predictor of an existing thyroid carcinoma. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in epithelial cells of the normal thyroid gland, as well as in malignant dividing cells, which respond to the active metabolite of vitamin D by decreased proliferative activity in vitro. We evaluated the relationship between mRNA gene expressions of TMPRSS4, ECM1 and VDR in 21 papillary thyroid carcinoma samples and compared it to 21 normal thyroid tissues from the same patients. Gene expression was considered as up- or down-regulated if it varied by more or less than 2-fold in the cancer tissue relative to the normal thyroid tissue (Ca/N) from the same patient. We found an overall significant adjusted correlation between the mRNA expression ratio (ExR) of VDR and that of ECM1 in Ca/N thyroid tissue (R=0.648, P<0.001). There was a high ExR of VDR between Ca/N thyroid tissue from the same patient (3.06±2.9), which also exhibited a high Ca/N ExR of ECM1 and/or of TMPRSS4 (>2, P=0.05).The finding that increased VDR expression in human thyroid cancer cells is often linked to increased ECM1 and/or TPMRSS4 expression warrants further investigation into the potential role of vitamin D analogs in thyroid carcinoma. PMID:26907966

  6. A link between oxytocin and serotonin in humans: supporting evidence from peripheral markers.

    PubMed

    Marazziti, Donatella; Baroni, Stefano; Giannaccini, Gino; Betti, Laura; Massimetti, Gabriele; Carmassi, Claudia; Catena-Dell'Osso, Mario

    2012-08-01

    Pharmacological studies indicate a functional interaction between the serotonergic and oxytocinergic systems. In particular, some selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors, such as citalopram and fluvoxamine, seem to exert part of their antidepressant effects through oxytocin (OT) release. Further, the administration of fenfluramine, a serotonergic agonist, to healthy subjects increases plasma OT levels. Interestingly, immunocytochemical and double-immunofluorescent techniques revealed a high degree of overlap between 5-HT transporter (SERT)-labeled fibers and OT-containing cells in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of primate hypothalamus. These findings suggest that the influence of 5-HT on OT system might be mediated by SERT. In this study, we explored the possible existence of a link between OT and SERT in human subjects, by means of two peripheral markers, the platelet SERT, as measured by [³H]-paroxetine ([³H]-Par) binding, and plasma OT levels. As far as [³H]-Par binding parameters are concerned, the Bmax (mean ± SD, fmol/mg protein) was 1155 + 130 and the Kd (mean ± SD, nM) was 1.31 ± 0.61. The OT plasma levels (mean ± SD, pg/ml) were 1.14 ± 1.07. A significant and positive correlation was found between plasma OT levels and Kd values (correlation coefficient: r: 0.466, p = .038). This result represents the first evidence of an interaction between OT and SERT, as measured by [³H]-Par binding, at peripheral levels in humans. Given the several activities mediated by both OT and 5-HT, such a relationship might provide new perspectives and insights into psychiatric disorders and/or social relationship disturbances, as well as novel treatment strategies overcoming and/or integrating the serotonergic paradigm. PMID:22297159

  7. Ultrasonic/Sonic Anchor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart

    2009-01-01

    The ultrasonic/sonic anchor (U/S anchor) is an anchoring device that drills a hole for itself in rock, concrete, or other similar material. The U/S anchor is a recent addition to a series of related devices, the first of which were reported in "Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corers With Integrated Sensors"

  8. Application of DNA markers linked to the potato H1 gene conferring resistance to pathotype Ro1 of Globodera rostochiensis.

    PubMed

    Galek, Renata; Rurek, Michał; De Jong, Walter S; Pietkiewicz, Grzegorz; Augustyniak, Halina; Sawicka-Sienkiewicz, Ewa

    2011-11-01

    Ninety-one potato genotypes (cultivars and breeding lines) selected as resistant or susceptible to pathotype Ro1 of Globodera rostochiensis were screened for the presence of two PCR markers, 0.14 and 0.76 kb in length. Both PCR markers were linked with the H1 gene, located at the distal end of the long arm of chromosome V, and were present in 88 to 100% of the resistant cultivars and breeding lines. The 0.76 kb PCR marker was detected in all resistant genotypes and in approximately 86% of susceptible breeding lines as well as in all susceptible cultivars. The 0.14 kb marker was detected in 88% of resistant breeding lines and in 94% of resistant cultivars. Most of the susceptible genotypes tested (91% of cultivars, but only 50% of breeding lines) did not show the presence of the 0.14 kb marker. We conclude that the 0.14 kb H1 marker is likely to be useful for the proper selection of potato genotypes resistant to the Ro1 pathotype of G. rostochiensis. PMID:21559993

  9. Comparative Analysis of Disease-Linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphic Markers from Brassica rapa for Their Applicability to Brassica oleracea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young-Il; Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Tripathi, Swati; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Do-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been conducted in humans, and other animals, and in major crops, including rice, soybean, and Chinese cabbage. However, the number of SNP studies in cabbage is limited. In this present study, we evaluated whether 7,645 SNPs previously identified as molecular markers linked to disease resistance in the Brassica rapa genome could be applied to B. oleracea. In a BLAST analysis using the SNP sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea genomic sequence data registered in the NCBI database, 256 genes for which SNPs had been identified in B. rapa were found in B. oleracea. These genes were classified into three functional groups: molecular function (64 genes), biological process (96 genes), and cellular component (96 genes). A total of 693 SNP markers, including 145 SNP markers [BRH—developed from the B. rapa genome for high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis], 425 SNP markers (BRP—based on the B. rapa genome that could be applied to B. oleracea), and 123 new SNP markers (BRS—derived from BRP and designed for HRM analysis), were investigated for their ability to amplify sequences from cabbage genomic DNA. In total, 425 of the SNP markers (BRP-based on B. rapa genome), selected from 7,645 SNPs, were successfully applied to B. oleracea. Using PCR, 108 of 145 BRH (74.5%), 415 of 425 BRP (97.6%), and 118 of 123 BRS (95.9%) showed amplification, suggesting that it is possible to apply SNP markers developed based on the B. rapa genome to B. oleracea. These results provide valuable information that can be utilized in cabbage genetics and breeding programs using molecular markers derived from other Brassica species. PMID:25790283

  10. Linking the potato genome to the Conserved Ortholog Set (COS) markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conserved ortholog set (COS) markers are an important functional genomics resource that has greatly improved orthology detection in Asterid species. A comprehensive list of these markers is available at Sol Genomics Network (http://www.sgn.cornell.edu) and many of these have been placed in the genet...

  11. FamLinkX - implementation of a general model for likelihood computations for X-chromosomal marker data.

    PubMed

    Kling, Daniel; Dell'Amico, Barbara; Tillmar, Andreas O

    2015-07-01

    The use of genetic markers located on the X chromosome has seen a significant increase in the last years and their utility has been well studied. This paper describes the software FamLinkX, freely available at http://www.famlink.se, implementing a new algorithm for likelihood computations accounting for linkage, linkage disequilibrium and mutations. It is obvious that such software is sought for among forensic users as more and more X-chromosomal markers become available. We provide some simulated examples demonstrating the utility of the implementation as well as its application in forensic casework. Though algebraic derivations are generally unfeasible, the paper outlines some theoretical considerations and provides a discussion on the validation of the software. The focus of this paper is to compare the software to existing methods in a forensic setting, perform a validation study as well as to provide an idea of the discriminatory power for X-chromosomal markers. PMID:25771099

  12. Identification of a Sex-Linked SNP Marker in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) Using RAD Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Taggart, John B.; Christie, Hayden R. L.; Bassett, David I.; Bron, James E.; Skuce, Philip J.; Gharbi, Karim; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus; Sturm, Armin

    2013-01-01

    The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837)) is a parasitic copepod that can, if untreated, cause considerable damage to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758) and incurs significant costs to the Atlantic salmon mariculture industry. Salmon lice are gonochoristic and normally show sex ratios close to 1:1. While this observation suggests that sex determination in salmon lice is genetic, with only minor environmental influences, the mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse is unknown. This paper describes the identification of a sex-linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) marker, providing the first evidence for a genetic mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) was used to isolate SNP markers in a laboratory-maintained salmon louse strain. A total of 85 million raw Illumina 100 base paired-end reads produced 281,838 unique RAD-tags across 24 unrelated individuals. RAD marker Lsa101901 showed complete association with phenotypic sex for all individuals analysed, being heterozygous in females and homozygous in males. Using an allele-specific PCR assay for genotyping, this SNP association pattern was further confirmed for three unrelated salmon louse strains, displaying complete association with phenotypic sex in a total of 96 genotyped individuals. The marker Lsa101901 was located in the coding region of the prohibitin-2 gene, which showed a sex-dependent differential expression, with mRNA levels determined by RT-qPCR about 1.8-fold higher in adult female than adult male salmon lice. This study’s observations of a novel sex-linked SNP marker are consistent with sex determination in the salmon louse being genetic and following a female heterozygous system. Marker Lsa101901 provides a tool to determine the genetic sex of salmon lice, and could be useful in the development of control strategies. PMID:24147087

  13. Segregation distortion of T-DNA markers linked to the self-incompatibility (S) locus in Petunia hybrida.

    PubMed Central

    Harbord, R M; Napoli, C A; Robbins, T P

    2000-01-01

    In plants with a gametophytic self-incompatibility system the specificity of the pollen is determined by the haploid genotype at the self-incompatibility (S) locus. In certain crosses this can lead to the exclusion of half the gametes from the male parent carrying a particular S-allele. This leads to pronounced segregation distortion for any genetic markers that are linked to the S-locus. We have used this approach to identify T-DNA insertions carrying a maize transposable element that are linked to the S-locus of Petunia hybrida. A total of 83 T-DNA insertions were tested for segregation distortion of the selectable marker used during transformation with Agrobacterium. Segregation distortion was observed for 12 T-DNA insertions and at least 8 of these were shown to be in the same linkage group by intercrossing. This indicates that differential transmission of a single locus (S) is probably responsible for all of these examples of T-DNA segregation distortion. The identification of selectable markers in coupling with a functional S-allele will allow the preselection of recombination events around the S-locus in petunia. Our approach provides a general method for identifying transgenes that are linked to gametophytic self-incompatibility loci and provides an opportunity for transposon tagging of the petunia S-locus. PMID:10757773

  14. Sex-linked markers and microsatellite locus duplication in the cichlid species Oreochromis tanganicae.

    PubMed

    Cnaani, Avner; Kocher, Thomas D

    2008-12-23

    Cichlid species of the genus Oreochromis vary in their genetic sex-determination systems. In this study, we used microsatellite DNA markers to characterize the sex-determination system in Oreochromis tanganicae. Markers on linkage group 3 were associated with phenotypic sex, with an inheritance pattern typical of a female heterogametic species (WZ-ZZ). Further, locus duplication was observed for two separate microsatellite markers on the sex chromosome. These results further advance our understanding of the rapidly evolving sex-determination systems among these closely related tilapia species. PMID:18700198

  15. Genetic Differentiation and Efficient Sex-specific Marker Development of a Pair of Y- and X-linked Markers in Yellow Catfish

    PubMed Central

    Dan, Cheng; Mei, Jie; Wang, Da; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Pf62-Y and Pf62-X is a pair of allelic Y chromosome-linked and X chromosome-linked markers, and have been used to identify YY super-males, XY males and XX females for commercial production of all-male populations in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). However, the SCAR primers used previously have only two nucleotide difference, which restricts the wide utility because of nucleotide polymorphism. In this study, a continuous 8102 bp Pf62-Y sequence and a 5362 bp Pf62-X sequence have been cloned by genome walking, and significant genetic differentiation has been revealed between the corresponding X and Y chromosome allele sequences. Moreover, three pairs of primers were designed to efficiently identify YY super-males, XY males and XX females in an artificial breeding population, and to distinguish XY males and XX females in various wild populations. Together, the three new sex-specific genetic markers develop a highly stable and efficient method for genetic sex identification and sex control application in sustainable aquaculture of all-male yellow catfish. PMID:24250249

  16. Genetic differentiation and efficient sex-specific marker development of a pair of Y- and X-linked markers in yellow catfish.

    PubMed

    Dan, Cheng; Mei, Jie; Wang, Da; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Pf62-Y and Pf62-X is a pair of allelic Y chromosome-linked and X chromosome-linked markers, and have been used to identify YY super-males, XY males and XX females for commercial production of all-male populations in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). However, the SCAR primers used previously have only two nucleotide difference, which restricts the wide utility because of nucleotide polymorphism. In this study, a continuous 8102 bp Pf62-Y sequence and a 5362 bp Pf62-X sequence have been cloned by genome walking, and significant genetic differentiation has been revealed between the corresponding X and Y chromosome allele sequences. Moreover, three pairs of primers were designed to efficiently identify YY super-males, XY males and XX females in an artificial breeding population, and to distinguish XY males and XX females in various wild populations. Together, the three new sex-specific genetic markers develop a highly stable and efficient method for genetic sex identification and sex control application in sustainable aquaculture of all-male yellow catfish. PMID:24250249

  17. Sequence characterization, in silico mapping and cytosine methylation analysis of markers linked to apospory in Paspalum notatum.

    PubMed

    Podio, Maricel; Rodríguez, María P; Felitti, Silvina; Stein, Juliana; Martínez, Eric J; Siena, Lorena A; Quarin, Camilo L; Pessino, Silvina C; Ortiz, Juan Pablo A

    2012-12-01

    In previous studies we reported the identification of several AFLP, RAPD and RFLP molecular markers linked to apospory in Paspalum notatum. The objective of this work was to sequence these markers, obtain their flanking regions by chromosome walking and perform an in silico mapping analysis in rice and maize. The methylation status of two apospory-related sequences was also assessed using methylation-sensitive RFLP experiments. Fourteen molecular markers were analyzed and several protein-coding sequences were identified. Copy number estimates and RFLP linkage analysis showed that the sequence PnMAI3 displayed 2-4 copies per genome and linkage to apospory. Extension of this marker by chromosome walking revealed an additional protein-coding sequence mapping in silico in the apospory-syntenic regions of rice and maize. Approximately 5 kb corresponding to different markers were characterized through the global sequencing procedure. A more refined analysis based on sequence information indicated synteny with segments of chromosomes 2 and 12 of rice and chromosomes 3 and 5 of maize. Two loci associated with apomixis locus were tested in methylation-sensitive RFLP experiments using genomic DNA extracted from leaves. Although both target sequences were methylated no methylation polymorphisms associated with the mode of reproduction were detected. PMID:23271945

  18. Genetic and physical mapping of sex-linked AFLP markers in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo-Young; Coutanceau, Jean-Pierre; Ozouf-Costaz, Catherine; D'Cotta, Helena; Baroiller, Jean-Francois; Kocher, Thomas D

    2011-06-01

    Identification of the sex-determining genes of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) has important implications for commercial aquaculture. We previously identified an XX/XY sex-determining locus in this species within a 10-cM interval between markers GM201 and UNH995 on linkage group one (LG1). In order to refine this region, we developed new AFLP markers using bulked segregant analysis of the mapping families. We identified three AFLP markers that showed a sex-specific pattern of segregation. All three mapped near, but just outside, the previously identified sex-determining region on LG1. Hybridization of BAC clones containing these markers to chromosome spreads confirmed that the XX/XY sex-determining locus is on one of the small chromosomes in O. niloticus. PMID:20953654

  19. Systematic search for markers linked to insulin-dependent diabetes on chromosome 17

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, S.R.; Shephard, J.M.; Berger, J.S.

    1994-09-01

    We tested 19 microsatellite markers on chromosome 17 for linkage with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Nuclear families (N = 235) with at least two affected offspring were provided by the British Diabetic Association, Human Biological Data Interchange, and our own lab. The mean interval ({plus_minus}sd) between markers was 8 {plus_minus} 3 cM. For each parent heterozygous at the marker locus being studied, we determined whether the same or different alleles were transmitted to the two affected sibs. The {open_quotes}degree of sharing{close_quotes} for each marker is the frequency with which the same parental allele is transmitted to both affected sibs. Linkage with IDDM susceptibility leads to values higher than 0.50 for degree of sharing. Unlike lods, this approach makes no assumption about mode of inheritance. Mean sharing for the 19 markers was 0.51 (range 0.460 to 0.557; sd = .03). Three markers on 17q (all mutually unlinked) showed sharing of {approximately}0.55. The degree of sharing was 228/414 = 0.551 for D17A807 ({chi}{sup 2} = 4.26, p = .04), 172/309 = 0.557 for D17S784 ({chi}{sup 2} = 3.96, p = .04), and 218/398 = 0.548 for D17S798 ({chi}{sup 2} = 3.63, p =.06). We also looked for evidence of linkage disequilibrium between IDDM and alleles of each of these markers, by means of the transmission/disequilibrium test of Spielman. No significant linkage disequilibrium was found for D17S784 or D17S798. However, allele 6 of D17S807 was transmitted from heterozygous parents to IDDM offspring with frequency 131/230 = 0.57 ({chi}{sup 2} = 4.45, p = .035), supporting linkage with IDDM. We are currently investigating other markers and candidate genes in the region of D17S807.

  20. Development of IP and SCAR markers linked to the yellow seed color gene in Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhen; Liu, Lu; Lu, Hong; Lang, Lina; Zhao, Na; Ding, Juan; Xu, Aixia

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies showed that the yellow seed color gene of a yellow mustard was located on the A09 chromosome. In this study, the sequences of the molecular markers linked to the yellow seed color gene were analyzed, the gene was primarily mapped to an interval of 23.304 to 29.402M. Twenty genes and eight markers' sequences in this region were selected to design the IP and SCAR primers. These primers were used to screen a BC8S1 population consisting of 1256 individuals. As a result, five IP and five SCAR markers were successfully developed. IP4 and Y1 were located on either side of the yellow seed color gene at a distance of 0.1 and 0.3 cM, respectively. IP1, IP2 and IP3 derived from Bra036827, Bra036828, Bra036829 separately, co-segregated with the target gene. BLAST analysis indicated that the sequences of newly developed markers showed good collinearity with those of the A09 chromosome, and that the target gene might exist between 27.079 and 27.616M. In light of annotations of the genes in this region, only Bra036828 is associated with flavonoid biosynthesis. This gene has high similarity with the TRANSPARENT TESTA6 gene, Bra036828 was hence identified as being the gene possibly responsible for yellow seed color, in our research. PMID:27162489

  1. GLOBAL EXPRESSION PROFILING AS A ROOL TO DEVELOP MOLECULAR MARKERS LINKED TO HERBICIDE STRESS IN ARABIDOPSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Herbicide drift (unintentional physical movement from target to off-target plants) is a cause of crop loss in US. Low-dose, high-potency herbicides that have short environmental persistence times constrain efforts to develop or identify metabolite or biochemical markers of exposu...

  2. Identification and Utility of Markers Linked to the Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus Resistance Gene in Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus Florida stain (ZYMV-FL) is one of the most economically important viruses affecting watermelon in the United States. Inheritance of resistance to ZYMV-FL is conferred by a single recessive gene. Described here is single-reaction, polymerase chain reaction-based marker l...

  3. Mapping of DNA markers linked to the cystic fibrosis locus on the long arm of chromosome 7.

    PubMed Central

    Zengerling, S; Tsui, L C; Grzeschik, K H; Olek, K; Riordan, J R; Buchwald, M

    1987-01-01

    We have used a panel of eight human/mouse somatic-cell hybrids, each containing various portions of human chromosome 7, and three patient cell lines with interstitial deletions on chromosome 7 for localization of six DNA markers linked to the cystic fibrosis locus. Our data suggest that D7S15 is located in the region 7 cen----q22, that MET is located in 7q22----31, and that D7S8 and 7C22 are located in q22----q32. The hybridization results for COL1A2 and TCRB are consistent with their previous assignment to 7q21----q22 and 7q32, respectively. Given the location of these six markers and their linkage relationships, it is probable that the cystic fibrosis locus is in either the distal region of band q22 or the proximal region of q31. Using the same set of cell lines, we have also examined the location of another chromosome 7 marker PGY1. The data show that PGY1 is located in the region 7cen----q22, a position very different from its previous assignment. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3472464

  4. Development of IP and SCAR markers linked to the yellow seed color gene in Brassica juncea L.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhen; Liu, Lu; Lu, Hong; Lang, Lina; Zhao, Na; Ding, Juan; Xu, Aixia

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the yellow seed color gene of a yellow mustard was located on the A09 chromosome. In this study, the sequences of the molecular markers linked to the yellow seed color gene were analyzed, the gene was primarily mapped to an interval of 23.304 to 29.402M. Twenty genes and eight markers’ sequences in this region were selected to design the IP and SCAR primers. These primers were used to screen a BC8S1 population consisting of 1256 individuals. As a result, five IP and five SCAR markers were successfully developed. IP4 and Y1 were located on either side of the yellow seed color gene at a distance of 0.1 and 0.3 cM, respectively. IP1, IP2 and IP3 derived from Bra036827, Bra036828, Bra036829 separately, co-segregated with the target gene. BLAST analysis indicated that the sequences of newly developed markers showed good collinearity with those of the A09 chromosome, and that the target gene might exist between 27.079 and 27.616M. In light of annotations of the genes in this region, only Bra036828 is associated with flavonoid biosynthesis. This gene has high similarity with the TRANSPARENT TESTA6 gene, Bra036828 was hence identified as being the gene possibly responsible for yellow seed color, in our research. PMID:27162489

  5. A Sex Chromosomal Restriction-Fragment-Length Marker Linked to Melanoma-Determining Tu Loci in Xiphophorus

    PubMed Central

    Schartl, M.

    1988-01-01

    In Xiphophorus, the causative genetic information for melanoma formation has been assigned by classical genetics to chromosomal loci, which are located on the sex chromosomes. In our attempts to molecularly clone these melanoma-determining loci, named Tu, we have looked for restriction-fragment-length markers (RFLMs) linked to the Tu loci. These RFLMs should be useful in obtaining a physical map of a Tu locus, which will aid in the cloning of the corresponding sequences. DNA samples from various Xiphophorus strains and hybrids including those bearing different Tu wild-type, deletion and translocation chromosomes, were screened for the presence of random RFLMs using homologous or heterologous sequences as hybridization probes. We find an EcoRI restriction fragment which shows limited crosshybridization to the v-erb B gene--but not representing the authentic c-erb B gene of Xiphophorus--to be polymorphic with respect to different sex chromosomes. Linkage analysis revealed that a 5-kb fragment is linked to the Tu-Sd locus on the X chromosome, a 7-kb fragment is linked to the Tu-Sr locus on the Y chromosome, both of Xiphophorus maculatus, and that a 12-kb fragment is linked to the Tu-Li locus on the X chromosome of Xiphophorus variatus. Using different chromosomal mutants this RFLM has been mapped to a frequent deletion/translocation breakpoint of the X chromosome, less than 0.3 cM apart from the Tu locus. PMID:2841190

  6. A sex chromosomal restriction-fragment-length marker linked to melanoma-determining Tu loci in Xiphophorus.

    PubMed

    Schartl, M

    1988-07-01

    In Xiphophorus, the causative genetic information for melanoma formation has been assigned by classical genetics to chromosomal loci, which are located on the sex chromosomes. In our attempts to molecularly clone these melanoma-determining loci, named Tu, we have looked for restriction-fragment-length markers (RFLMs) linked to the Tu loci. These RFLMs should be useful in obtaining a physical map of a Tu locus, which will aid in the cloning of the corresponding sequences. DNA samples from various Xiphophorus strains and hybrids including those bearing different Tu wild-type, deletion and translocation chromosomes, were screened for the presence of random RFLMs using homologous or heterologous sequences as hybridization probes. We find an EcoRI restriction fragment which shows limited crosshybridization to the v-erb B gene--but not representing the authentic c-erb B gene of Xiphophorus--to be polymorphic with respect to different sex chromosomes. Linkage analysis revealed that a 5-kb fragment is linked to the Tu-Sd locus on the X chromosome, a 7-kb fragment is linked to the Tu-Sr locus on the Y chromosome, both of Xiphophorus maculatus, and that a 12-kb fragment is linked to the Tu-Li locus on the X chromosome of Xiphophorus variatus. Using different chromosomal mutants this RFLM has been mapped to a frequent deletion/translocation breakpoint of the X chromosome, less than 0.3 cM apart from the Tu locus. PMID:2841190

  7. Development of Genetic Markers Linked to Straighthead Resistance through Fine Mapping in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wengui; Jia, Melissa; Jackson, Aaron; Li, Xiaobai; Jia, Limeng; Huang, Bihu; Xu, Peizhou; Correa-Victoria, Fernando; Li, Shigui

    2012-01-01

    Straighthead, a physiological disorder characterized by sterile florets and distorted spikelets, causes significant yield losses in rice, and occurs in many countries. The current control method of draining paddies early in the season stresses plants, is costly, and wastes water. Development of resistant cultivar is regarded as the most efficient way for its control. We mapped a QTL for straighthead resistance using two recombinant inbred line (RIL) F9 populations that were phenotyped over two years using monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) to induce the symptoms. One population of 170 RILs was genotyped with 136 SSRs and the other population of 91 RILs was genotyped with 159 SSRs. A major QTL qSH-8 was identified in an overlapping region in both populations, and explained 46% of total variation in one and 67% in another population for straighthead resistance. qSH-8 was fine mapped from 1.0 Mbp to 340 kb using 7 SSR markers and further mapped to 290 kb in a population between RM22573 and InDel 27 using 4 InDel markers. SSR AP3858-1 and InDel 11 were within the fine mapped region, and co-segregated with straighthead resistance in both RIL populations, as well as in a collection of diverse global accessions. These results demonstrate that AP3858-1 and InDel 11 can be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) for straighthead resistant cultivars, which is especially important because there is no effective way to directly evaluate straighthead resistance. PMID:23285082

  8. Markers, Models, and Measurement Error: Exploring the Links between Attention Deficits and Language Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The empirical record regarding the expected co-occurrence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and specific language impairment is confusing and contradictory. A research plan is presented that has the potential to untangle links between these 2 common neurodevelopmental disorders. Method: Data from completed and ongoing…

  9. Crystal Structure of Human Senescence Marker Protein 30: Insights Linking Structural, Enzymatic, and Physiological Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborti, Subhendu; Bahnson, Brian J.

    2010-05-25

    Human senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30), which functions enzymatically as a lactonase, hydrolyzes various carbohydrate lactones. The penultimate step in vitamin-C biosynthesis is catalyzed by this enzyme in nonprimate mammals. It has also been implicated as an organophosphate hydrolase, with the ability to hydrolyze diisopropyl phosphofluoridate and other nerve agents. SMP30 was originally identified as an aging marker protein, whose expression decreased androgen independently in aging cells. SMP30 is also referred to as regucalcin and has been suggested to have functions in calcium homeostasis. The crystal structure of the human enzyme has been solved from X-ray diffraction data collected to a resolution of 1.4 {angstrom}. The protein has a 6-bladed {beta}-propeller fold, and it contains a single metal ion. Crystal structures have been solved with the metal site bound with either a Ca{sup 2+} or a Zn{sup 2+} atom. The catalytic role of the metal ion has been confirmed by mutagenesis of the metal coordinating residues. Kinetic studies using the substrate gluconolactone showed a k{sub cat} preference of divalent cations in the order Zn{sup 2+} > Mn{sup 2+} > Ca{sup 2+} > Mg{sup 2+}. Notably, the Ca{sup 2+} had a significantly higher value of K{sub d} compared to those of the other metal ions tested (566, 82, 7, and 0.6 {micro}m for Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Mn{sup 2+}, respectively), suggesting that the Ca{sup 2+}-bound form may be physiologically relevant for stressed cells with an elevated free calcium level.

  10. Intrinsic hepatocyte dedifferentiation is accompanied by upregulation of mesenchymal markers, protein sialylation and core alpha 1,6 linked fucosylation.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Anand; Comunale, Mary Ann; Rawat, Siddhartha; Casciano, Jessica C; Lamontagne, Jason; Herrera, Harmin; Ramanathan, Aarti; Betesh, Lucy; Wang, Mengjun; Norton, Pamela; Steel, Laura F; Bouchard, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in N-linked glycosylation have long been associated with cancer but for the most part, the reasons why have remained poorly understood. Here we show that increased core fucosylation is associated with de-differentiation of primary hepatocytes and with the appearance of markers indicative of a transition of cells from an epithelial to a mesenchymal state. This increase in core fucosylation was associated with increased levels of two enzymes involved in α-1,6 linked fucosylation, GDP-mannose 4, 6-dehydratase (Gmds) and to a lesser extent fucosyltransferase 8 (Fut8). In addition, the activation of cancer-associated cellular signaling pathways in primary rat hepatocytes can increase core fucosylation and induce additional glycoform alterations on hepatocyte proteins. Specifically, we show that increased levels of protein sialylation and α-1,6-linked core fucosylation are observed following activation of the β-catenin pathway. Activation of the Akt signaling pathway or induction of hypoxia also results in increased levels of fucosylation and sialylation. We believe that this knowledge will help in the better understanding of the genetic factors associated with altered glycosylation and may allow for the development of more clinically relevant biomarkers. PMID:27328854

  11. Intrinsic hepatocyte dedifferentiation is accompanied by upregulation of mesenchymal markers, protein sialylation and core alpha 1,6 linked fucosylation

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Anand; Comunale, Mary Ann; Rawat, Siddhartha; Casciano, Jessica C.; Lamontagne, Jason; Herrera, Harmin; Ramanathan, Aarti; Betesh, Lucy; Wang, Mengjun; Norton, Pamela; Steel, Laura F.; Bouchard, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in N-linked glycosylation have long been associated with cancer but for the most part, the reasons why have remained poorly understood. Here we show that increased core fucosylation is associated with de-differentiation of primary hepatocytes and with the appearance of markers indicative of a transition of cells from an epithelial to a mesenchymal state. This increase in core fucosylation was associated with increased levels of two enzymes involved in α-1,6 linked fucosylation, GDP-mannose 4, 6-dehydratase (Gmds) and to a lesser extent fucosyltransferase 8 (Fut8). In addition, the activation of cancer-associated cellular signaling pathways in primary rat hepatocytes can increase core fucosylation and induce additional glycoform alterations on hepatocyte proteins. Specifically, we show that increased levels of protein sialylation and α-1,6-linked core fucosylation are observed following activation of the β-catenin pathway. Activation of the Akt signaling pathway or induction of hypoxia also results in increased levels of fucosylation and sialylation. We believe that this knowledge will help in the better understanding of the genetic factors associated with altered glycosylation and may allow for the development of more clinically relevant biomarkers. PMID:27328854

  12. Two genetic markers closely linked to adult polycystic kidney disease on chromosome 16.

    PubMed Central

    Reeders, S T; Breuning, M H; Corney, G; Jeremiah, S J; Meera Khan, P; Davies, K E; Hopkinson, D A; Pearson, P L; Weatherall, D J

    1986-01-01

    The genetic locus for autosomal dominant adult polycystic kidney disease was recently assigned to chromosome 16 by the finding of genetic linkage to the alpha globin gene cluster. Further study showed that the phosphoglycolate phosphatase locus is also closely linked to both the locus for adult polycystic kidney disease and the alpha globin gene cluster. These findings have important implications for the prenatal and presymptomatic diagnosis of adult polycystic kidney disease and for a better understanding of its pathogenesis. Images FIG 1 PMID:3008903

  13. Genetic variability of ten Chinese indigenous goats using MHC-linked microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    E, Guang-Xin; Huang, Yong-Fu; Zhao, Yong-Ju; Ma, Yue-Hui; Na, Ri-Su; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Gao, Hui-Jiang; Wu, Xin

    2015-10-15

    In this study, the genetic variability of Chinese indigenous goat breeds (Capra hircus) was analyzed using the MHC-associated microsatellite markers BF1, BM1818, BM1258, and DYMS1. To examine genetic variability, the levels of heterozigosity, degrees of inbreeding, and genetic differences among the breeds were analyzed. The mean number of alleles ranged from 5.50±3.70 in Enshi black goats (EB) to 11.50±3.70 in the Jianyang big ear (JE) breed. The mean observed heterozygosity and mean expected heterozygosity varied from 0.25±0.04 in Jining Qing goats (JQ) to 0.54±0.05 in Chuannan black goats (CN) and from 0.49±0.18 in Hechuan white goats (HW) to 0.78±0.05 in JE, respectively. The mean FIS values ranged from 0.23 in HW to 0.51 in JQ. In addition, the genetic variation among populations and geographic location did indicate a correlation of genetic differences with geographic distance, which was revealed by the phylogenetic network. In conclusion, the high variability and population structure among Chinese native goats in the Major Histocompatibility Complex would be caused by co-evolution between MHC alleles and the epidemic history or pathogens in different agro-ecological zones. PMID:26257111

  14. [A microsatellite marker linked to the stripe rust resistance gene YrV23 in the wheat variety Vilmorin23].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Bing; Xu, Shi-Chang; Xu, Zhong; Liu, Tai-Guo; Lin, Rui-Ming

    2006-03-01

    Vilmorin23 is an internationally used differential host variety for studies on the interactions between wheat stripe rust and wheat. It contains the stripe rust resistance gene YrV23 and is potentially an important source of stripe rust resistance worldwide. SSR analysis was performed on the wheat NIL Taichuang 29*6/YrV23 carrying the resistant gene YrV23 against stripe rust, Vilmorin 23 and its recurrent parent Taichung 29. Fifty pairs of SSR primers on wheat chromosome 2B were screened and a reproducible polymorphic DNA fragment amplified by Xwmc356 was found. Genetic linkage was tested on 150 segregating F2 plants. It showed that the microsatellite marker Xwmc356 was linked to the resistance gene YrV23 with a genetic distance of 9.4 cM. PMID:16551597

  15. Anchors for Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alok, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Education reforms, considering their significance, deserve better methods than mere "trial and error." This article conceptualizes a network of six anchors for education reforms: education policy, education system, curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, and teacher education. It establishes the futility to reform anchors in isolation and anticipates…

  16. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for hypoxia marker binding in tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Raleigh, J. A.; La Dine, J. K.; Cline, J. M.; Thrall, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed for measuring the in vivo binding of a hexafluorinated 2-nitroimidazole (CCI-103F) in tumour tissue biopsies. The binding of CCI-103F is believed to reflect the presence of hypoxia in tumours. The ELISA provides a sensitive and convenient method of measuring CCI-103F binding which does not require the injection of radioactive reagents. The ELISA is based on reagents prepared from synthetic antigens formed by the reductive activation and binding of CCI-103F to proteins in novel test tube experiments. Calibration of the ELISA involved comparing the ELISA with the radioactivity contained either in protein-CCI-103F adducts formed in vitro with tritiated CCI-103F or in tissues isolated from a tumour-bearing dog which had been injected with tritium-labelled CCI-103F. The two approaches to calibration are compared. The scope and limitation of the ELISA for measuring the binding of CCI-103F is discussed and an example of the application of the ELISA to measuring changes in tumour hypoxia in canine patients undergoing fractionated radiation therapy is presented. Images Figure 3 PMID:8286212

  17. SSR DNA markers linked with Broad-Spectrum rust resistance in common bean discovered by bulk segregant analysis using a large set of SNP markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA markers are invaluable plant breeding tools that can be used in the development of new crop cultivars with disease resistance. We wanted to develop the capacity for marker-assisted selection using the broad-spectrum rust resistance trait present in Mesoamerican common bean PI 310762. This commo...

  18. TbGT8 is a bifunctional glycosyltransferase that elaborates N-linked glycans on a protein phosphatase AcP115 and a GPI-anchor modifying glycan in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Masayuki; Karasudani, Moe; Shiraishi, Takahiro; Hashida, Kazunori; Hino, Mami; Ferguson, Michael A J; Nomoto, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    The procyclic form of Trypanosoma brucei expresses procyclin surface glycoproteins with unusual glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor side chain structures that contain branched N-acetyllactosamine and lacto-N-biose units. The glycosyltransferase TbGT8 is involved in the synthesis of the branched side chain through its UDP-GlcNAc: βGal β1-3N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity. Here, we explored the role of TbGT8 in the mammalian bloodstream form of the parasite with a tetracycline-inducible conditional null T. brucei mutant for TbGT8. Under non-permissive conditions, the mutant showed significantly reduced binding to tomato lectin, which recognizes poly-N-acetyllactosamine-containing glycans. Lectin pull-down assays revealed differences between the wild type and TbGT8 null-mutant T. brucei, notably the absence of a broad protein band with an approximate molecular weight of 110 kDa in the mutant lysate. Proteomic analysis revealed that the band contained several glycoproteins, including the acidic ecto-protein phosphatase AcP115, a stage-specific glycoprotein in the bloodstream form of T. brucei. Western blotting with an anti-AcP115 antibody revealed that AcP115 was approximately 10kDa smaller in the mutant. Enzymatic de-N-glycosylation demonstrated that the underlying protein cores were the same, suggesting that the 10-kDa difference was due to differences in N-linked glycans. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed the colocalization of hemagglutinin epitope-tagged TbGT8 and the Golgi-associated protein GRASP. These data suggest that TbGT8 is involved in the construction of complex poly-N-acetyllactosamine-containing type N-linked and GPI-linked glycans in the Golgi of the bloodstream and procyclic parasite forms, respectively. PMID:24508870

  19. Field level evaluation of rice introgression lines for heat tolerance and validation of markers linked to spikelet fertility.

    PubMed

    Prasanth, V Vishnu; Basava, Kumari Ramana; Babu, M Suchandranath; V G N, Venkata Tripura; Devi, S J S Rama; Mangrauthia, S K; Voleti, S R; Sarla, N

    2016-04-01

    Rice lines derived from wild species and mutants can serve as a good resource for favorable alleles for heat tolerance. In all, 48 stable lines including 17 KMR3/O. rufipogon introgression lines (KMR3 ILs), 15 Swarna/O. nivara ILs (Swarna ILs) along with their parents, Nagina 22 (N22) and its 4 EMS induced mutants and 7 varieties were evaluated for heat tolerance under irrigated conditions under field in two seasons, wet season 2012 using poly cover house method and dry season 2013 using late sown method. Spikelet fertility (SF), yield per plant (YP) and heat susceptibility index (HSI) for these two traits were considered as criteria to assess heat tolerance compared to control. Four KMR3 ILs and eight Swarna ILs were identified as heat tolerant based on SF and YP and their HSIs in both wet and dry seasons. S-65 and S-70 showed low SF and high YP consistently in response to heat in both seasons. We provide evidence that SF alone may not be the best criterion to assess heat tolerance and including YP is important as lines with low SF but high YP and vice versa were identified under heat stress. Out of 49 SSR markers linked to spikelet fertility, 18 were validated for five traits. RM229 in wet season and RM430 and RM210 in dry season were significantly associated with both SF and its HSI under heat stress. RM430 was also significantly associated with both YP and its HSI in dry season. Thirty two candidate genes were identified close to nine markers associated with traits under heat stress. PMID:27436910

  20. Anchor Trial Launch

    Cancer.gov

    NCI has launched a multicenter phase III clinical trial called the ANCHOR Study -- Anal Cancer HSIL (High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion) Outcomes Research Study -- to determine if treatment of HSIL in HIV-infected individuals can prevent anal canc

  1. Desired crystal oriented LiFePO4 nanoplatelets in situ anchored on a graphene cross-linked conductive network for fast lithium storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Liu, Anmin; Abdulla, Wael Al; Wang, Dianlong; Zhao, X S

    2015-05-21

    Electron transfer and lithium ion diffusion rates are the key factors limiting the lithium ion storage in anisotropic LiFePO4 electrodes. In this work, we employed a facile solvothermal method to synthesize a "platelet-on-sheet" LiFePO4/graphene composite (LFP@GNs), which is LiFePO4 nanoplatelets in situ grown on graphene sheets with highly oriented (010) facets of LiFePO4 crystals. Such a two-phase contact mode with graphene sheets cross-linked to form a three-dimensional porous network is favourable for both fast lithium ion and electron transports. As a result, the designed LFP@GNs displayed a high rate capability (∼56 mA h g(-1) at 60 C) and long life cycling stability (∼87% capacity retention over 1000 cycles at 10 C). For comparison purposes, samples ex situ modified with graphene (LFP/GNs) as well as pure LiFePO4 platelets (LFP) were also prepared and investigated. More importantly, the obtained LFP@GNs can be used as a basic unit for constructing more complex structures to further improve electrochemical performance, such as coating the exposed LFP surface with a thin layer of carbon to build a C@LFP@GN composite to further enhance its cycling stability (∼98% capacity retention over 1000 cycles at 10 C). PMID:25908535

  2. Male-specific Y-linked transgene markers to enhance biologically-based control of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reliable marking systems are critical to the prospective field release of transgenic insect strains. This is to unambiguously distinguish released insects from wild insects in the field that are collected in field traps, and tissue-specific markers, such as those that are sperm-specific, have particular uses such as identifying wild females that have mated with released males. For tephritid fruit flies such as the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, polyubiquitin-regulated fluorescent protein body markers allow transgenic fly identification, and fluorescent protein genes regulated by the spermatocyte-specific β2-tubulin promoter effectively mark sperm. For sterile male release programs, both marking systems can be made male-specific by linkage to the Y chromosome. Results An A. ludens wild type strain was genetically transformed with a piggyBac vector, pBXL{PUbnlsEGFP, Asβ2tub-DsRed.T3}, having the polyubiquitin-regulated EGFP body marker, and the β2-tubulin-regulated DsRed.T3 sperm-specific marker. Autosomal insertion lines effectively expressed both markers, but a single Y-linked insertion (YEGFP strain) expressed only PUbnlsEGFP. This insertion was remobilized by transposase helper injection, which resulted in three new autosomal insertion lines that expressed both markers. This indicated that the original Y-linked Asβ2tub-DsRed.T3 marker was functional, but specifically suppressed on the Y chromosome. The PUbnlsEGFP marker remained effective however, and the YEGFP strain was used to create a sexing strain by translocating the wild type allele of the black pupae (bp+) gene onto the Y, which was then introduced into the bp- mutant strain. This allows the mechanical separation of mutant female black pupae from male brown pupae, that can be identified as adults by EGFP fluorescence. Conclusions A Y-linked insertion of the pBXL{PUbnlsEGFP, Asβ2tub-DsRed.T3} transformation vector in A. ludens resulted in male-specific expression of the EGFP

  3. Identification of a candidate gene for the wheat endopeptidase Ep-D1 locus and two other STS markers linked to the eyespot resistance gene Pch1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is prone to strawbreaker foot rot (eye- spot), a fungal disease caused by Oculimacula yallundae and O. acuformis. The most effective source of genetic resistance is Pch1, a gene derived from Aegilops ventri- cosa. The endopeptidase isozyme marker allele Ep-D1b, linked to Pch1, has been shown t...

  4. Desired crystal oriented LiFePO4 nanoplatelets in situ anchored on a graphene cross-linked conductive network for fast lithium storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Liu, Anmin; Abdulla, Wael Al; Wang, Dianlong; Zhao, X. S.

    2015-05-01

    Electron transfer and lithium ion diffusion rates are the key factors limiting the lithium ion storage in anisotropic LiFePO4 electrodes. In this work, we employed a facile solvothermal method to synthesize a ``platelet-on-sheet'' LiFePO4/graphene composite (LFP@GNs), which is LiFePO4 nanoplatelets in situ grown on graphene sheets with highly oriented (010) facets of LiFePO4 crystals. Such a two-phase contact mode with graphene sheets cross-linked to form a three-dimensional porous network is favourable for both fast lithium ion and electron transports. As a result, the designed LFP@GNs displayed a high rate capability (~56 mA h g-1 at 60 C) and long life cycling stability (~87% capacity retention over 1000 cycles at 10 C). For comparison purposes, samples ex situ modified with graphene (LFP/GNs) as well as pure LiFePO4 platelets (LFP) were also prepared and investigated. More importantly, the obtained LFP@GNs can be used as a basic unit for constructing more complex structures to further improve electrochemical performance, such as coating the exposed LFP surface with a thin layer of carbon to build a C@LFP@GN composite to further enhance its cycling stability (~98% capacity retention over 1000 cycles at 10 C).Electron transfer and lithium ion diffusion rates are the key factors limiting the lithium ion storage in anisotropic LiFePO4 electrodes. In this work, we employed a facile solvothermal method to synthesize a ``platelet-on-sheet'' LiFePO4/graphene composite (LFP@GNs), which is LiFePO4 nanoplatelets in situ grown on graphene sheets with highly oriented (010) facets of LiFePO4 crystals. Such a two-phase contact mode with graphene sheets cross-linked to form a three-dimensional porous network is favourable for both fast lithium ion and electron transports. As a result, the designed LFP@GNs displayed a high rate capability (~56 mA h g-1 at 60 C) and long life cycling stability (~87% capacity retention over 1000 cycles at 10 C). For comparison purposes, samples

  5. Generation and Molecular Mapping of a Sequence Characterized Amplified Region Marker Linked with the Bct Gene for Resistance to Beet curly top virus in Common Bean.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Richard C; Miklas, Phillip N

    2004-04-01

    ABSTRACT A random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker directly linked (0.0 cM) with a resistance gene was identified in a snap bean recombinant inbred population (Moncayo x Primo) consisting of 94 F(5:7) recombinant inbred lines that had uniform segregation for disease reaction to Beet curly top virus (BCTV) across three field locations. Resistance was conditioned by a single dominant allele tentatively designated Bct. Seven hundred and fifty decamer primers were screened to obtain the linked RAPD marker that was then converted to a sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker SAS8.1550. The SCAR mapped within a cluster of resistance genes on linkage group B7 of the core map. A survey of 103 BCTV-resistant and -susceptible snap and dry bean genotypes was conducted using SAS8.1550. Results showed that the SCAR would be highly useful for marker-assisted selection of Bct in snap and dry bean originating from the Andean gene pool. Marker-assisted selection for Bct will expedite the development of BCTV-resistant cultivars and minimize the need for cumbersome pathogen tests. PMID:18944106

  6. Cooking quality and blast disease resistance linked markers: Genotyping a working rice germplasm collection for future marker-assisted breeding applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marker-assisted breeding is being used in US rice breeding programs to enhance development of rice cultivars with improved cooking quality and genetic resistance to rice blast disease. Because there is a continuous threat of race shifts within the Magnaporthe grisea populations found in Southern US...

  7. Development of MHC-Linked Microsatellite Markers in the Domestic Cat and Their Use to Evaluate MHC Diversity in Domestic Cats, Cheetahs, and Gir Lions

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Katrina M.; Kirby, Katherine; Beatty, Julia A.; Barrs, Vanessa R.; Cattley, Sonia; David, Victor; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Diversity within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) reflects the immunological fitness of a population. MHC-linked microsatellite markers provide a simple and an inexpensive method for studying MHC diversity in large-scale studies. We have developed 6 MHC-linked microsatellite markers in the domestic cat and used these, in conjunction with 5 neutral microsatellites, to assess MHC diversity in domestic mixed breed (n = 129) and purebred Burmese (n = 61) cat populations in Australia. The MHC of outbred Australian cats is polymorphic (average allelic richness = 8.52), whereas the Burmese population has significantly lower MHC diversity (average allelic richness = 6.81; P < 0.01). The MHC-linked microsatellites along with MHC cloning and sequencing demonstrated moderate MHC diversity in cheetahs (n = 13) and extremely low diversity in Gir lions (n = 13). Our MHC-linked microsatellite markers have potential future use in diversity and disease studies in other populations and breeds of cats as well as in wild felid species. PMID:24620003

  8. Heterozygosis deficit of polymorphic markers linked to the β-globin gene cluster region in the Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Tahereh; Vallian, Reihaneh; Fazeli, Zahra; Haghighatnia, Asieh; Vallian, Sadeq

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Iran is considered as one of the high-prevalence areas for β-thalassemia with a rate of about 10% carrier frequency. Molecular diagnosis of the disease is performed both by direct sequencing and indirectly by the use of polymorphic markers present in the beta globin gene cluster. However, to date there is no reliable information on the application of the markers in the Iranian population. Here we report the results of an extended molecular analysis of five RFLP markers, XmnI, HindIIIA, HindIIIG, RsaI and HinfI, located within the β-globin gene cluster region in four subpopulations of Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 552 blood samples taken from the Iranian subpopulations including Isfahan, Chaharmahal-O-Bakhtiari, Khuzestan and Hormozgan were genotyped using PCR-RFLP and sequencing. The allele frequency, the expected and observed heterozygosity, and Shannon’s information index (I) of these markers were calculated. Results: Distribution of the allele frequencies for XmnI, HindIIIA, HindIIIG, RsaI and HinfI polymorphic markers did not differ significantly among the subpopulations examined. Overall observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.1706 for HindIIIA to 0.4484 for RsaI. The Shannon index was <1 for all the polymorphic markers in the populations studied. The data indicated that heterozygosity of these markers was low in the Iranian population. Conclusion: The results suggested that genotyping of these markers is not informative enough once used as single markers for prenatal diagnosis and carrier detection of β-thalassemia in the Iranian population. However, haplotyping of these markers may provide more useful data in linkage analysis and prenatal diagnosis as well as carrier detections for β-thalassemia in Iranians. PMID:26229579

  9. Anchoring the Deficit of the Anchor Deficit: Dyslexia or Attention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willburger, Edith; Landerl, Karin

    2010-01-01

    In the anchoring deficit hypothesis of dyslexia ("Trends Cogn. Sci.", 2007; 11: 458-465), it is proposed that perceptual problems arise from the lack of forming a perceptual anchor for repeatedly presented stimuli. A study designed to explicitly test the specificity of the anchoring deficit for dyslexia is presented. Four groups, representing all…

  10. Lytic anti-alpha-galactosyl antibodies from patients with chronic Chagas' disease recognize novel O-linked oligosaccharides on mucin-like glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoproteins of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, I C; Ferguson, M A; Schenkman, S; Travassos, L R

    1994-01-01

    Sera of patients with chronic Chagas' disease (American trypanosomiasis) contain elevated levels of anti-alpha-galactosyl antibodies that are lytic to Trypanosoma cruzi. The T. cruzi trypomastigote F2/3 antigen complex recognized by these antibodies runs as a broad smear on SDS/PAGE [Almeida, Krautz, Krettli and Travassos (1993) J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 7, 307-316]. Treatment of T. cruzi trypomastigote cells with bacterial phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) abolished most of their reactivity to chronic Chagas'-disease ((Chagasic, Ch) anti-alpha-galactosyl antibodies (anti-Gal). The F2/3 antigen complex, purified by solvent extraction and hydrophobic-interaction chromatography, contained 60% carbohydrate by weight and substantial amounts of Thr, Ser, Glx, Asx, Gly, Ala and Pro, but relatively few hydrophobic amino acids. The presence of myoinositol, ethanolamine and 1-O-hexadecylglycerol suggested the presence of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol membrane anchors. This was confirmed by PI-PLC treatment, which rendered the F2/3 molecules hydrophilic and reactive to anti-(cross-reacting determinant) antibodies. The majority of the GlcNAc content of the F2/3 antigens was found at the reducing termini of oligosaccharides in O-glycosidic linkage to Thr residues. These O-linked oligosaccharides could be released by beta-elimination and by mild hydrazinolysis. The smallest released oligosaccharitol that was reactive with the Ch anti-Gal was Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAcol (where GlcNAcol is N-acetyl-glucosaminitol). Several other Gal-containing oligosaccharitols were observed, most of which were branched and contained 4,6-di-O-substituted GlcNAcol at their reducing termini. About half of the total released oligosaccharitols could bind to immobilized Ch anti-Gal, but none of them bound to the anti-Gal isolated from normal human sera. These data suggest that the specificities of the Ch anti-Gal are quite different from the natural anti-Gal isolated from normal

  11. Remarkable Variation in the Informativeness of RFLP Markers Linked to Hemophilia B Locus in Indian Population Groups: Implication in the Strategy for Carrier Detection

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, S.; Saha, A.; Kumar P., Senthil; Chandak, G. R.; Majumder, P. P.; Ray, K.

    2006-01-01

    Hemophilia B, an X-linked recessive bleeding disorder, is caused by heterogeneous mutations in the factor IX (F9) gene. Hence, carriers of the disease are usually detected by F9 gene linked RFLP analysis. We aimed to test a set of RFLP markers (DdeI, XmnI, MnlI, TaqI & HhaI), used worldwide for carrier detection, to estimate its heterozygosity in different population groups of India, and identify additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) if necessary. A total of 8 population groups encompassing different regions of India, consisting of 107 unrelated normal females without any history of hemophilia B in the family and 13 unrelated obligate carriers were recruited in the study. Regions of F9 gene were amplified by PCR from genomic DNA of the donors followed by restriction enzyme digestion and/or sequencing as appropriate. Combined informativeness for the markers varied between 52–86% among normal females belonging to different geographical locations of India. Haplotype analysis revealed that the most prevalent haplotype lacked the restriction sites for all five RFLP markers. Screening regions of F9 gene that harbor 10 SNPs reported in dbSNP yielded only two SNPs, which increased the overall informativeness in each population group and heterozygosity in the obligate carriers for the disease from 38% to 69%. Our data show that heterozygosity of commonly used RFLP markers is remarkably variable across different regions of India. Thus prudent selection of the markers based on specific population groups including usage of additional markers is recommended for efficient carrier detection. PMID:17264403

  12. Identification and Validation of SNP Markers Linked to Dwarf Traits Using SLAF-Seq Technology in Lagerstroemia.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yuanjun; Cai, Ming; Ju, Yiqian; Jiao, Yao; Feng, Lu; Pan, Huitang; Cheng, Tangren; Zhang, Qixiang

    2016-01-01

    The genetic control of plant architecture is a promising approach to breed desirable cultivars, particularly in ornamental flowers. In this study, the F1 population (142 seedlings) derived from Lagerstroemia fauriei (non-dwarf) × L. indica 'Pocomoke' (dwarf) was phenotyped for six traits (plant height (PH), internode length (IL), internode number, primary lateral branch height (PLBH), secondary lateral branch height and primary branch number), and the IL and PLBH traits were positively correlated with the PH trait and considered representative indexes of PH. Fifty non-dwarf and dwarf seedlings were pooled and subjected to a specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) method, which screened 1221 polymorphic markers. A total of 3 markers segregating between bulks were validated in the F1 population, with the M16337 and M38412 markers highly correlated with the IL trait and the M25207 marker highly correlated with the PLBH trait. These markers provide a predictability of approximately 80% using a single marker (M25207) and a predictability of 90% using marker combinations (M16337 + M25207) in the F1 population, which revealed that the IL and the PLBH traits, especially the PLBH, were the decisive elements for PH in terms of molecular regulation. Further validation was performed in the BC1 population and a set of 28 Lagerstroemia stocks using allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) technology, and the results showed the stability and reliability of the SNP markers and the co-determination of PH by multiple genes. Our findings provide an important theoretical and practical basis for the early prediction and indirect selection of PH using the IL and the PLBH, and the detected SNPs may be useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in crape myrtle. PMID:27404662

  13. Identification and Validation of SNP Markers Linked to Dwarf Traits Using SLAF-Seq Technology in Lagerstroemia

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Yiqian; Jiao, Yao; Feng, Lu; Pan, Huitang; Cheng, Tangren; Zhang, Qixiang

    2016-01-01

    The genetic control of plant architecture is a promising approach to breed desirable cultivars, particularly in ornamental flowers. In this study, the F1 population (142 seedlings) derived from Lagerstroemia fauriei (non-dwarf) × L. indica ‘Pocomoke’ (dwarf) was phenotyped for six traits (plant height (PH), internode length (IL), internode number, primary lateral branch height (PLBH), secondary lateral branch height and primary branch number), and the IL and PLBH traits were positively correlated with the PH trait and considered representative indexes of PH. Fifty non-dwarf and dwarf seedlings were pooled and subjected to a specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) method, which screened 1221 polymorphic markers. A total of 3 markers segregating between bulks were validated in the F1 population, with the M16337 and M38412 markers highly correlated with the IL trait and the M25207 marker highly correlated with the PLBH trait. These markers provide a predictability of approximately 80% using a single marker (M25207) and a predictability of 90% using marker combinations (M16337 + M25207) in the F1 population, which revealed that the IL and the PLBH traits, especially the PLBH, were the decisive elements for PH in terms of molecular regulation. Further validation was performed in the BC1 population and a set of 28 Lagerstroemia stocks using allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) technology, and the results showed the stability and reliability of the SNP markers and the co-determination of PH by multiple genes. Our findings provide an important theoretical and practical basis for the early prediction and indirect selection of PH using the IL and the PLBH, and the detected SNPs may be useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in crape myrtle. PMID:27404662

  14. Evolution of apomixis loci in Pilosella and Hieracium (Asteraceae) inferred from the conservation of apomixis-linked markers in natural and experimental populations.

    PubMed

    Hand, M L; Vít, P; Krahulcová, A; Johnson, S D; Oelkers, K; Siddons, H; Chrtek, J; Fehrer, J; Koltunow, A M G

    2015-01-01

    The Hieracium and Pilosella (Lactuceae, Asteraceae) genera of closely related hawkweeds contain species with two different modes of gametophytic apomixis (asexual seed formation). Both genera contain polyploid species, and in wild populations, sexual and apomictic species co-exist. Apomixis is known to co-exist with sexuality in apomictic Pilosella individuals, however, apomictic Hieracium have been regarded as obligate apomicts. Here, a developmental analysis of apomixis within 16 Hieracium species revealed meiosis and megaspore tetrad formation in 1 to 7% of ovules, for the first time indicating residual sexuality in this genus. Molecular markers linked to the two independent, dominant loci LOSS OF APOMEIOSIS (LOA) and LOSS OF PARTHENOGENESIS (LOP) controlling apomixis in Pilosella piloselloides subsp. praealta were screened across 20 phenotyped Hieracium individuals from natural populations, and 65 phenotyped Pilosella individuals from natural and experimental cross populations, to examine their conservation, inheritance and association with reproductive modes. All of the tested LOA and LOP-linked markers were absent in the 20 Hieracium samples irrespective of their reproductive mode. Within Pilosella, LOA and LOP-linked markers were essentially absent within the sexual plants, although they were not conserved in all apomictic individuals. Both loci appeared to be inherited independently, and evidence for additional genetic factors influencing quantitative expression of LOA and LOP was obtained. Collectively, these data suggest independent evolution of apomixis in Hieracium and Pilosella and are discussed with respect to current knowledge of the evolution of apomixis. PMID:25026970

  15. Evolution of apomixis loci in Pilosella and Hieracium (Asteraceae) inferred from the conservation of apomixis-linked markers in natural and experimental populations

    PubMed Central

    Hand, M L; Vít, P; Krahulcová, A; Johnson, S D; Oelkers, K; Siddons, H; Chrtek, J; Fehrer, J; Koltunow, A M G

    2015-01-01

    The Hieracium and Pilosella (Lactuceae, Asteraceae) genera of closely related hawkweeds contain species with two different modes of gametophytic apomixis (asexual seed formation). Both genera contain polyploid species, and in wild populations, sexual and apomictic species co-exist. Apomixis is known to co-exist with sexuality in apomictic Pilosella individuals, however, apomictic Hieracium have been regarded as obligate apomicts. Here, a developmental analysis of apomixis within 16 Hieracium species revealed meiosis and megaspore tetrad formation in 1 to 7% of ovules, for the first time indicating residual sexuality in this genus. Molecular markers linked to the two independent, dominant loci LOSS OF APOMEIOSIS (LOA) and LOSS OF PARTHENOGENESIS (LOP) controlling apomixis in Pilosella piloselloides subsp. praealta were screened across 20 phenotyped Hieracium individuals from natural populations, and 65 phenotyped Pilosella individuals from natural and experimental cross populations, to examine their conservation, inheritance and association with reproductive modes. All of the tested LOA and LOP-linked markers were absent in the 20 Hieracium samples irrespective of their reproductive mode. Within Pilosella, LOA and LOP-linked markers were essentially absent within the sexual plants, although they were not conserved in all apomictic individuals. Both loci appeared to be inherited independently, and evidence for additional genetic factors influencing quantitative expression of LOA and LOP was obtained. Collectively, these data suggest independent evolution of apomixis in Hieracium and Pilosella and are discussed with respect to current knowledge of the evolution of apomixis. PMID:25026970

  16. High-density genetic and physical mapping of DNA markers near the X-linked Alport syndrome locus: definition and use of flanking polymorphic markers.

    PubMed

    Barker, D F; Fain, P R; Goldgar, D E; Dietz-Band, J N; Turco, A E; Kashtan, C E; Gregory, M C; Tryggvason, K; Skolnick, M H; Atkin, C L

    1991-12-01

    To refine the genetic and physical mapping of the locus for Alport syndrome (ATS), 22 X-chromosome restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers that fall between Xq21.3 and Xq25 were tested for genetic linkage with the disease and also mapped with respect to a series of physical breakpoints in this region. The location of the COL4A5 gene, which has recently been shown to be mutated in at least some families with Alport syndrome, was determined with respect to the same physical breakpoints. Two large Utah kindreds were included in the genetic studies, kindreds P and C, with 125 and 63 potentially informative meioses, respectively. Both kindreds have essentially identical nephritis; however, kindred P has sensorineural hearing loss associated with the nephritis, while kindred C does not. A mutation in COL4A5 has been demonstrated for kindred P, but no change in this gene has yet been detected for kindred C. Twelve informative probes did not recombine with the disease locus in either kindred (theta = 0.0, with combined lod scores for the two kindreds ranging from 7.7 to 30.0). The closest markers that could be demonstrated to flank the disease locus were the same for each kindred and thus the locations of the mutations causing the two disease phenotypes are not distinguishable at the current level of genetic resolution. The flanking markers are also useful for the resolution of questionable diagnoses and allow accurate estimates for these families of the rate of sporadic hematuria in noncarrier females (7%) and the penetrance of hematuria for carrier females (93%). PMID:1684566

  17. Chromosome 18 markers: Linked or not linked to bipolar affective disorders in the Old Order Amish? A reply to Gershon et al.

    SciTech Connect

    Pauls, D.L.; Ott, J.; Fann, C.S.J.; Paul, S.M.

    1996-06-01

    We appreciate the careful review of our paper by examining linkage of bipolar affective disorder (BAD) to markers on chromosome 18. These authors have raised several issues concerning our article and specifically challenge our conclusion concerning the presence or absence of a major susceptibility locus for BAD on chromosome 18 in the Old Order Amish sample. 9 refs.

  18. Blind-Anchor-Nut-Installation Fixture (BANIF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willey, Norman F., Jr.; Linker, James F.

    1994-01-01

    Blind-anchor-nut-installation fixture, BANIF, developed for replacing or installing anchor nuts in blind holes or other inaccessible places. Attachment of anchor nut to BANIF enables placement of anchor nut on blind side of component.

  19. Identification and evaluation of two diagnostic markers linked to Fusarium wilt resistance (race 4) in banana (Musa spp.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Hu, Yulin; Sun, Dequan; Staehelin, Christian; Xin, Dawei; Xie, Jianghui

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4) results in vascular tissue damage and ultimately death of banana (Musa spp.) plants. Somaclonal variants of in vitro micropropagated banana can hamper success in propagation of genotypes resistant to FOC4. Early identification of FOC4 resistance in micropropagated banana plantlets is difficult, however. In this study, we identified sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers of banana associated with resistance to FOC4. Using pooled DNA from resistant or susceptible genotypes and 500 arbitrary 10-mer oligonucleotide primers, 24 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) products were identified. Two of these RAPD markers were successfully converted to SCAR markers, called ScaU1001 (GenBank accession number HQ613949) and ScaS0901 (GenBank accession number HQ613950). ScaS0901 and ScaU1001 could be amplified in FOC4-resistant banana genotypes ("Williams 8818-1" and Goldfinger), but not in five tested banana cultivars susceptible to FOC4. The two SCAR markers were then used to identify a somaclonal variant of the genotype "Williams 8818-1", which lost resistance to FOC4. Hence, the identified SCAR markers can be applied for a rapid quality control of FOC4-resistant banana plantlets immediately after the in vitro micropropagation stage. Furthermore, ScaU1001 and ScaS0901 will facilitate marker-assisted selection of new banana cultivars resistant to FOC4. PMID:21547366

  20. Close linkage of the locus for X chromosome-linked severe combined immunodeficiency to polymorphic DNA markers in Xq11-q13

    SciTech Connect

    de Saint Basile, G.; Arveiler, B.; Oberle, I.; Malcolm, S.; Levinsky, R.J.; Lau, Y.L.; Hofker, M.; Debre, M.; Fischer, A.; Griscelli, C.; Mandel, J.L.

    1987-11-01

    The gene for X chromosome-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a disease characterized by a block in early T-cell differentiation, has been mapped to the region Xq11-q13 by linkage analysis with restriction fragment length polymorphisms. High logarithm of odds (lod) scores were obtained with the marker 19.2 (DXS3) and with the marker cpX73 (DXS159) that showed complete cosegregation with the disease locus in the informative families analyzed. Other significant linkages were obtained with several markers from Xq11 to q22. With the help of a recently developed genetic map of the region, it was possible to perform multipoint linkage analysis, and the most likely genetic order is DXS1-(SCID, DXS159)-DXYS1-DXYS12-DXS3, with a maximum multipoint logarithm of odds score of 11.0. The results demonstrate that the SCID locus (gene symbol IMD4) is not closely linked to the locus of Bruton's agammaglobulinemia (a defect in B-cell maturation). They also provide a way for a better estimation of risk for carrier and antenatal diagnosis.

  1. Identification and mapping of amplified fragment length polymorphism markers linked to shell color in bay scallop, Argopecten irradians irradians (Lamarck, 1819).

    PubMed

    Qin, Yanjie; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Haibin; Zhang, Guofan; Guo, Ximing

    2007-01-01

    Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) were used to study the inheritance of shell color in Argopecten irradians. Two scallops, one with orange and the other with white shells, were used as parents to produce four F(1) families by selfing and outcrossing. Eighty-eight progeny, 37 orange and 51 white, were randomly selected from one of the families for segregation and mapping analysis with AFLP and microsatellite markers. Twenty-five AFLP primer pairs were screened, yielding 1138 fragments, among which 148 (13.0%) were polymorphic in two parents and segregated in progeny. Six AFLP markers showed significant (P < 0.05) association with shell color. All six loci were mapped to one linkage group. One of the markers, F1f335, is completely linked to the gene for orange shell, which we designated as Orange1, without any recombination in the progeny we sampled. The marker was amplified in the orange parent and all orange progeny, but absent in the white parent and all the white progeny. The close linkage between F1f335 and Orange1 was validated using bulk segregation analysis in two natural populations, and all our data indicate that F1f335 is specific for the shell color gene, Orange1. The genomic mapping of a shell color gene in bay scallop improves our understanding of shell color inheritance and may contribute to the breeding of molluscs with desired shell colors. PMID:17160637

  2. Bellow seal and anchor

    DOEpatents

    Mansure, Arthur J.

    2001-01-01

    An annular seal is made of a collapsible bellows. The bellows can function as an anchor or a seal and is easily set into position using relative component movement. The bellows folds can be slanted and their outer sealing edges can have different profiles to meet expected conditions. The bellows is expanded for insertion to reduce its outer dimension and sets by compaction as a result of relative movement. The bellows can be straight or tapered and is settable with a minimal axial force.

  3. Tightly linked flanking microsatellite markers for the Usher syndrome type I locus on the short arm of chromosome 11

    SciTech Connect

    Keats, B.J.B.; Nouri, N.; Pelias, M.Z.; Deininger, P.L. ); Litt, M. )

    1994-04-01

    Usher syndrome type I is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by profound congenital hearing impairment and vestibular dysfunction followed by the onset of progressive pigmentary retinopathy in childhood or early adolescence. A locus (USH1C) for one form of this disease was previously assigned to the short arm of chromosome 11 through linkage studies in the Acadian population of southwestern Louisiana. Linkage analyses of a set of microsatellite markers in 27 Acadian families provide evidence that USH1C lies between D11S861 and D11S928. Three markers (D11S419, D11S921, and D11S899) that lie between the flanking markers show no recombination with USH1C, and all 54 chromosomes with the abnormal allele at the disease locus have identical alleles for D11S419 and D11S921. This haplotype was found on only 10 of 50 chromosomes with the normal allele at the disease locus, suggesting a strong founder effect. Of the 54 chromosomes with the abnormal allele, 12 had a divergent allele at D11S899. These results suggest that USH1C is in the 2-3-cM interval between D11S861 and D11S899. 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Lightness, brightness, and anchoring.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barton L; Whitbread, Michael; de Silva, Chamila

    2014-01-01

    The majority of work in lightness perception has evaluated the perception of lightness using flat, matte, two-dimensional surfaces. In such contexts, the amount of light reaching the eye contains a conflated mixture of the illuminant and surface lightness. A fundamental puzzle of lightness perception is understanding how it is possible to experience achromatic surfaces as specific achromatic shades in the face of this ambiguity. It has been argued that the perception of lightness in such contexts implies that the visual system imposes an "anchoring rule" whereby a specific relative luminance (the highest) serves as a fixed point in the mapping of image luminance onto the lightness scale ("white"). We conducted a series of experiments to explicitly test this assertion in contexts where this mapping seemed most unlikely-namely, low-contrast images viewed in dim illumination. Our results provide evidence that the computational ambiguity in mapping luminance onto lightness is reflected in perceptual experience. The perception of the highest luminance in a two-dimensional Mondrian display varied monotonically with its brightness, ranging from midgray to white. Similar scaling occurred for the lowest luminance and, by implication, all other luminance values. We conclude that the conflation between brightness and lightness in two-dimensional Mondrian displays is reflected in perception and find no support for the claim that any specific relative luminance value acts as a fixed anchor point in this mapping function. PMID:25104828

  5. Identification of markers linked to the race Ug99 effective stem rust resistance gene Sr28 in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Rouse, Matthew N; Nava, Itamar C; Chao, Shiaoman; Anderson, James A; Jin, Yue

    2012-09-01

    Wheat stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici can cause devastating yield losses in wheat. Over the past several decades, stem rust has been controlled worldwide through the use of genetic resistance. Stem rust race TTKSK (Ug99), first detected in Uganda in 1998, threatens global wheat production because of its unique virulence combination. As the majority of the currently grown cultivars and advanced breeding lines are susceptible to race TTKSK, sources of resistance need to be identified and characterized to facilitate their use in agriculture. South Dakota breeding line SD 1691 displayed resistance to race TTKSK in the international wheat stem rust nursery in Njoro, Kenya. Seedling screening of progeny derived from SD 1691 crossed to susceptible LMPG-6 indicated that a single resistance gene was present. Allelism and race-specificity tests indicated the stem rust resistance gene in SD 1691 was Sr28. The chromosome arm location of Sr28 was previously demonstrated to be 2BL. We identified molecular markers linked to Sr28 and validated this linkage in two additional populations. Common spring wheat cultivars in the central United States displayed allelic diversity for markers flanking Sr28. These markers could be used to select for Sr28 in breeding populations and for combining Sr28 with other stem rust resistance genes. PMID:22584633

  6. A PCR marker linked to a THCA synthase polymorphism is a reliable tool to discriminate potentially THC-rich plants of Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    Staginnus, Christina; Zörntlein, Siegfried; de Meijer, Etienne

    2014-07-01

    Neither absolute THC content nor morphology allows the unequivocal discrimination of fiber cultivars and drug strains of Cannabis sativa L. unequivocally. However, the CBD/THC ratio remains constant throughout the plant's life cycle, is independent of environmental factors, and considered to be controlled by a single locus (B) with two codominant alleles (B(T) and B(D)). The homozygous B(T)/B(T) genotype underlies the THC-predominant phenotype, B(D)/B(D) is CBD predominant, and an intermediate phenotype is induced by the heterozygous state (B(T)/B(D)). Using PCR-based markers in two segregating populations, we proved that the THCA synthase gene represents the postulated B locus and that specific sequence polymorphisms are absolutely linked either to the THC-predominant or the THC-intermediate chemotype. The absolute linkage provides an excellent reliability of the marker signal in forensic casework. For validation, the species-specific marker system was applied to a large number of casework samples and fiber hemp cultivars. PMID:24579739

  7. Molecular method for sex identification of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) using a novel sex-linked microsatellite marker.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaolin; Xu, Genbo; Chen, Song-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) is one of the most important flatfish species for aquaculture in China. To produce a monosex population, we attempted to develop a marker-assisted sex control technique in this sexually size dimorphic fish. In this study, we identified a co-dominant sex-linked marker (i.e., CyseSLM) by screening genomic microsatellites and further developed a novel molecular method for sex identification in the tongue sole. CyseSLM has a sequence similarity of 73%-75% with stickleback, medaka, Fugu and Tetraodon. At this locus, two alleles (i.e., A244 and A234) were amplified from 119 tongue sole individuals with primer pairs CyseSLM-F1 and CyseSLM-R. Allele A244 was present in all individuals, while allele A234 (female-associated allele, FAA) was mostly present in females with exceptions in four male individuals. Compared with the sequence of A244, A234 has a 10-bp deletion and 28 SNPs. A specific primer (CyseSLM-F2) was then designed based on the A234 sequence, which amplified a 204 bp fragment in all females and four males with primer CyseSLM-R. A time-efficient multiplex PCR program was developed using primers CyseSLM-F2, CyseSLM-R and the newly designed primer CyseSLM-F3. The multiplex PCR products with co-dominant pattern could be detected by agarose gel electrophoresis, which accurately identified the genetic sex of the tongue sole. Therefore, we have developed a rapid and reliable method for sex identification in tongue sole with a newly identified sex-linked microsatellite marker. PMID:25054319

  8. Identification of SSR Markers Linked to the Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility Locus in Red Clover (Trifolium pratense)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Self-pollination is prevented in red clover by a gametophytic self-incompatibility system (SI). This SI system is likely controlled by two tightly linked genes, effectively creating a single locus. While SI genes have been identified in some plants, they have not been identified in red clover or o...

  9. Identification of O-Linked Glycoproteins Binding to the Lectin Helix pomatia Agglutinin as Markers of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, Diluka; Ossondo, Marlène; Fry, Simon; Loizidou, Marilena; Smith-Ravin, Juliette; Dwek, Miriam V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Protein glycosylation is an important post-translational modification shown to be altered in all tumour types studied to date. Mucin glycoproteins have been established as important carriers of O-linked glycans but other glycoproteins exhibiting altered glycosylation repertoires have yet to be identified but offer potential as biomarkers for metastatic cancer. Methodology In this study a glycoproteomic approach was used to identify glycoproteins exhibiting alterations in glycosylation in colorectal cancer and to evaluate the changes in O-linked glycosylation in the context of the p53 and KRAS (codon 12/13) mutation status. Affinity purification with the carbohydrate binding protein from Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) was coupled to 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis with mass spectrometry to enable the identification of low abundance O-linked glycoproteins from human colorectal cancer specimens. Results Aberrant O-linked glycosylation was observed to be an early event that occurred irrespective of the p53 and KRAS status and correlating with metastatic colorectal cancer. Affinity purification using the lectin HPA followed by proteomic analysis revealed annexin 4, annexin 5 and CLCA1 to be increased in the metastatic colorectal cancer specimens. The results were validated using a further independent set of specimens and this showed a significant association between the staining score for annexin 4 and HPA and the time to metastasis; independently (annexin A4: Chi square 11.45, P = 0.0007; HPA: Chi square 9.065, P = 0.0026) and in combination (annexin 4 and HPA combined: Chi square 13.47; P = 0.0002). Conclusion Glycoproteins showing changes in O-linked glycosylation in metastatic colorectal cancer have been identified. The glycosylation changes were independent of p53 and KRAS status. These proteins offer potential for further exploration as biomarkers and potential targets for metastatic colorectal cancer. PMID:26495974

  10. A high-density consensus map of barley linking DArT markers to SSR, RFLP and STS loci and agricultural traits

    PubMed Central

    Wenzl, Peter; Li, Haobing; Carling, Jason; Zhou, Meixue; Raman, Harsh; Paul, Edie; Hearnden, Phillippa; Maier, Christina; Xia, Ling; Caig, Vanessa; Ovesná, Jaroslava; Cakir, Mehmet; Poulsen, David; Wang, Junping; Raman, Rosy; Smith, Kevin P; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Chalmers, Ken J; Kleinhofs, Andris; Huttner, Eric; Kilian, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    Background Molecular marker technologies are undergoing a transition from largely serial assays measuring DNA fragment sizes to hybridization-based technologies with high multiplexing levels. Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) is a hybridization-based technology that is increasingly being adopted by barley researchers. There is a need to integrate the information generated by DArT with previous data produced with gel-based marker technologies. The goal of this study was to build a high-density consensus linkage map from the combined datasets of ten populations, most of which were simultaneously typed with DArT and Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR), Restriction Enzyme Fragment Polymorphism (RFLP) and/or Sequence Tagged Site (STS) markers. Results The consensus map, built using a combination of JoinMap 3.0 software and several purpose-built perl scripts, comprised 2,935 loci (2,085 DArT, 850 other loci) and spanned 1,161 cM. It contained a total of 1,629 'bins' (unique loci), with an average inter-bin distance of 0.7 ± 1.0 cM (median = 0.3 cM). More than 98% of the map could be covered with a single DArT assay. The arrangement of loci was very similar to, and almost as optimal as, the arrangement of loci in component maps built for individual populations. The locus order of a synthetic map derived from merging the component maps without considering the segregation data was only slightly inferior. The distribution of loci along chromosomes indicated centromeric suppression of recombination in all chromosomes except 5H. DArT markers appeared to have a moderate tendency toward hypomethylated, gene-rich regions in distal chromosome areas. On the average, 14 ± 9 DArT loci were identified within 5 cM on either side of SSR, RFLP or STS loci previously identified as linked to agricultural traits. Conclusion Our barley consensus map provides a framework for transferring genetic information between different marker systems and for deploying DArT markers in molecular breeding

  11. Display of GPI-anchored anti-EGFR nanobodies on extracellular vesicles promotes tumour cell targeting

    PubMed Central

    Kooijmans, Sander A. A.; Aleza, Clara Gómez; Roffler, Steve R.; van Solinge, Wouter W.; Vader, Pieter; Schiffelers, Raymond M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are attractive candidate drug delivery systems due to their ability to functionally transport biological cargo to recipient cells. However, the apparent lack of target cell specificity of exogenously administered EVs limits their therapeutic applicability. In this study, we propose a novel method to equip EVs with targeting properties, in order to improve their interaction with tumour cells. Methods EV producing cells were transfected with vectors encoding for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nanobodies, which served as targeting ligands for tumour cells, fused to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor signal peptides derived from decay-accelerating factor (DAF). EVs were isolated using ultrafiltration/size-exclusion liquid chromatography and characterized using western blotting, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, and electron microscopy. EV–tumour cell interactions were analyzed under static conditions using flow cytometry and under flow conditions using a live-cell fluorescence microscopy-coupled perfusion system. Results EV analysis showed that GPI-linked nanobodies were successfully displayed on EV surfaces and were highly enriched in EVs compared with parent cells. Display of GPI-linked nanobodies on EVs did not alter general EV characteristics (i.e. morphology, size distribution and protein marker expression), but greatly improved EV binding to tumour cells dependent on EGFR density under static conditions. Moreover, nanobody-displaying EVs showed a significantly improved cell association to EGFR-expressing tumour cells under flow conditions. Conclusions We show that nanobodies can be anchored on the surface of EVs via GPI, which alters their cell targeting behaviour. Furthermore, this study highlights GPI-anchoring as a new tool in the EV toolbox, which may be applied for EV display of a variety of proteins, such as antibodies, reporter proteins and signaling molecules. PMID:26979463

  12. Identification of markers tightly linked to tomato yellow leaf curl disease and root-knot nematode resistance by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Chen, S X; Du, J N; Hao, L N; Wang, C Y; Chen, Q; Chang, Y X

    2012-01-01

    Seven different commercial F₁ hybrids and two F₂ populations were evaluated by multiplex PCR to identify plants that are homozygous or heterozygous for Ty-1 and Mi, which confer resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl disease and root-knot nematode, respectively. The Ty-1 and Mi markers were amplified by PCR and identified by digestion of the amplicons with the TaqI enzyme. The hybrids E13 and 288 were found to be Ty/ty heterozygous plants with 398-, 303-, and 95-bp bands, and B08, 314, 198, and A10 were found to be ty/ty homozygous plants with a 398-bp band; whereas 098 did not give any PCR products. The hybrids E13 and 198 were found to be Mi/Mi homozygous plants with 570- and 180-bp bands, and 288 and A10 were found to be Mi/mi heterozygous plants, with 750-, 570- and 180-bp bands, and B08, 109 and 314 were found to be mi/mi homozygous plants with only a 750-bp band. We additionally developed a multiplex PCR technique for JB-1 and Mi, which confer resistance to tomato yellow leaf curl disease and root-knot nematode. The JB-1 marker identified the genotype of the Ty gene, and the plants that produced the 400-bp band were ty/ty homozygous plants, whereas the plants that produced 400- and 500-bp bands were resistant to tomato yellow leaf curl disease. We conclude that multiplex PCRs can be used to reproducibly and efficiently detect these resistance genes. PMID:22869069

  13. Granular Simulation of NEO Anchoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazhar, Hammad

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in designing a spacecraft capable of visiting a Near Earth Object (NEO), performing experiments, and then returning safely. Certain periods of this mission will require the spacecraft to remain stationary relative to the NEO. Such situations require an anchoring mechanism that is compact, easy to deploy and upon mission completion, easily removed. The design philosophy used in the project relies on the simulation capability of a multibody dynamics physics engine. On Earth it is difficult to create low gravity conditions and testing in low gravity environments, whether artificial or in space is costly and therefore not feasible. Through simulation, gravity can be controlled with great accuracy, making it ideally suited to analyze the problem at hand. Using Chrono::Engine [1], a simulation package capable of utilizing massively parallel GPU hardware, several validation experiments will be performed. Once there is sufficient confidence, modeling of the NEO regolith interaction will begin after which the anchor tests will be performed and analyzed. The outcome of this task is a study with an analysis of several different anchor designs, along with a recommendation on which anchor is better suited to the task of anchoring. With the anchors tested against a range of parameters relating to soil, environment and anchor penetration angles/velocities on a NEO.

  14. Cross-linked A alpha.gamma chain hybrids serve as unique markers for fibrinogen polymerized by tissue transglutaminase.

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, S N; Lorand, L

    1990-01-01

    Notwithstanding the high degree of amino acid sequence homologies between human factor XIIIa on the one hand and intracellular transglutaminases (protein-glutamine:amine gamma-glutamyltransferase, EC 2.3.2.13) from guinea pig liver or human erythrocytes on the other, we find that the two sets of enzymes differ remarkably in the mode of cross-linking the same protein substrate--i.e., human fibrinogen. In the program of polymerization with factor XIIIa, production of the known gamma-gamma' homologous chain pairs is the dominant feature, whereas with either intracellular transglutaminase, a series of hitherto unidentified A alpha.gamma hybrid chain combinations, designated A alpha p gamma q (p and q = 1, 2, 3...), is generated and practically no gamma-gamma' dimers are formed. Two-dimensional electrophoresis is particularly useful for demonstrating the production of A alpha p gamma q structures by protein staining as well as by immunoblotting against specific antibodies to the A alpha and gamma chains of fibrinogen. These findings should aid in deciding whether the direct cross-linking of fibrinogen by transglutaminase might contribute to thrombotic processes in addition to the thrombin- and factor XIIIa-dependent pathway of clot formation. Images PMID:1979874

  15. Population Structure, Diversity and Trait Association Analysis in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Germplasm for Early Seedling Vigor (ESV) Using Trait Linked SSR Markers.

    PubMed

    Anandan, Annamalai; Anumalla, Mahender; Pradhan, Sharat Kumar; Ali, Jauhar

    2016-01-01

    Early seedling vigor (ESV) is the essential trait for direct seeded rice to dominate and smother the weed growth. In this regard, 629 rice genotypes were studied for their morphological and physiological responses in the field under direct seeded aerobic situation on 14th, 28th and 56th days after sowing (DAS). It was determined that the early observations taken on 14th and 28th DAS were reliable estimators to study ESV as compared to 56th DAS. Further, 96 were selected from 629 genotypes by principal component (PCA) and discriminate function analyses. The selected genotypes were subjected to decipher the pattern of genetic diversity in terms of both phenotypic and genotypic by using ESV QTL linked simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. To assess the genetic structure, model and distance based approaches were used. Genotyping of 96 rice lines using 39 polymorphic SSRs produced a total of 128 alleles with the phenotypic information content (PIC) value of 0.24. The model based population structure approach grouped the accession into two distinct populations, whereas unrooted tree grouped the genotypes into three clusters. Both model based and structure based approach had clearly distinguished the early vigor genotypes from non-early vigor genotypes. Association analysis revealed that 16 and 10 SSRs showed significant association with ESV traits by general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM) approaches respectively. Marker alleles on chromosome 2 were associated with shoot dry weight on 28 DAS, vigor index on 14 and 28 DAS. Improvement in the rate of seedling growth will be useful for identifying rice genotypes acquiescent to direct seeded conditions through marker-assisted selection. PMID:27031620

  16. Population Structure, Diversity and Trait Association Analysis in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Germplasm for Early Seedling Vigor (ESV) Using Trait Linked SSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Anandan, Annamalai; Anumalla, Mahender; Pradhan, Sharat Kumar; Ali, Jauhar

    2016-01-01

    Early seedling vigor (ESV) is the essential trait for direct seeded rice to dominate and smother the weed growth. In this regard, 629 rice genotypes were studied for their morphological and physiological responses in the field under direct seeded aerobic situation on 14th, 28th and 56th days after sowing (DAS). It was determined that the early observations taken on 14th and 28th DAS were reliable estimators to study ESV as compared to56th DAS. Further, 96 were selected from 629 genotypes by principal component (PCA) and discriminate function analyses. The selected genotypes were subjected to decipher the pattern of genetic diversity in terms of both phenotypic and genotypic by using ESV QTL linked simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. To assess the genetic structure, model and distance based approaches were used. Genotyping of 96 rice lines using 39 polymorphic SSRs produced a total of 128 alleles with the phenotypic information content (PIC) value of 0.24. The model based population structure approach grouped the accession into two distinct populations, whereas unrooted tree grouped the genotypes into three clusters. Both model based and structure based approach had clearly distinguished the early vigor genotypes from non-early vigor genotypes. Association analysis revealed that 16 and 10 SSRs showed significant association with ESV traits by general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM) approaches respectively. Marker alleles on chromosome 2 were associated with shoot dry weight on 28 DAS, vigor index on 14 and 28 DAS. Improvement in the rate of seedling growth will be useful for identifying rice genotypes acquiescent to direct seeded conditions through marker-assisted selection. PMID:27031620

  17. Brief Report: Elastin Microfibril Interface 1 and Integrin-Linked Protein Kinase Are Novel Markers of Islet Regenerative Function in Human Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Jessie R; Creskey, Marybeth M; Muradia, Gauri; Bell, Gillian I; Sherman, Stephen E; Gao, Jun; Stewart, Duncan J; Cyr, Terry D; Hess, David A; Rosu-Myles, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) transplantation is proposed as a novel therapy for treating diabetes by promoting the regeneration of damaged islets. The clinical promise of such treatments may be hampered by a high degree of donor-related variability in MSC function and a lack of standards for comparing potency. Here, we set out to identify markers of cultured human MSCs directly associated with islet regenerative function. Stromal cultures from nine separate bone marrow donors were demonstrated to have differing capacities to reduce hyperglycemia in the NOD/SCID streptozotocin-induced diabetic model. Regenerative (R) and non-regenerative (NR) MSC cultures were directly compared using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics. A total of 1,410 proteins were quantified resulting in the identification of 612 upregulated proteins and 275 downregulated proteins by ± 1.2-fold in R-MSC cultures. Elastin microfibril interface 1 (EMILIN-1), integrin-linked protein kinase (ILK), and hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) were differentially expressed in R-MSCs, and Ingenuity Pathway Analyses revealed each candidate as known regulators of integrin signaling. Western blot validation of EMILIN-1, ILK, and HDGF not only showed significantly higher abundance levels in R-MSCs, as compared with NR-MSCs, but also correlated with passage-induced loss of islet-regenerative potential. Generalized estimating equation modeling was applied to examine the association between each marker and blood glucose reduction. Both EMILIN-1 and ILK were significantly associated with blood glucose lowering function in vivo. Our study is the first to identify EMILIN-1 and ILK as prospective markers of islet regenerative function in human MSCs. Stem Cells 2016;34:2249-2255. PMID:27090767

  18. A novel gene, Pi40(t), linked to the DNA markers derived from NBS-LRR motifs confers broad spectrum of blast resistance in rice.

    PubMed

    Jeung, J U; Kim, B R; Cho, Y C; Han, S S; Moon, H P; Lee, Y T; Jena, K K

    2007-11-01

    Rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe grisea is a continuous threat to stable rice production worldwide. In a modernized agricultural system, the development of varieties with broad-spectrum and durable resistance to blast disease is essential for increased rice production and sustainability. In this study, a new gene is identified in the introgression line IR65482-4-136-2-2 that has inherited the resistance gene from an EE genome wild Oryza species, O. australiensis (Acc. 100882). Genetic and molecular analysis localized a major resistance gene, Pi40(t), on the short arm of chromosome 6, where four blast resistance genes (Piz, Piz-5, Piz-t, and Pi9) were also identified, flanked by the markers S2539 and RM3330. Through e-Landing, 14 BAC/PAC clones within the 1.81-Mb equivalent virtual contig were identified on Rice Pseudomolecule3. Highly stringent primer sets designed for 6 NBS-LRR motifs located within PAC clone P0649C11 facilitated high-resolution mapping of the new resistance gene, Pi40(t). Following association analysis and detailed haplotyping approaches, a DNA marker, 9871.T7E2b, was identified to be linked to the Pi40(t) gene at the 70 Kb chromosomal region, and differentiated the Pi40(t) gene from the LTH monogenic differential lines possessing genes Piz, Piz-5, Piz-t, and Pi-9. Pi40(t) was validated using the most virulent isolates of Korea as well as the Philippines, suggesting a broad spectrum for the resistance gene. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) and pathotyping of BC progenies having two japonica cultivar genetic backgrounds further supported the potential of the resistance gene in rice breeding. Our study based on new gene identification strategies provides insight into novel genetic resources for blast resistance as well as future studies on cloning and functional analysis of a blast resistance gene useful for rice improvement. PMID:17909744

  19. Bone cement improves suture anchor fixation.

    PubMed

    Giori, Nicholas J; Sohn, David H; Mirza, Faisal M; Lindsey, Derek P; Lee, Arthur T

    2006-10-01

    Suture anchor fixation failure can occur if the anchor pulls out of bone. We hypothesized that suture anchor fixation can be augmented with polymethylmethacrylate cement, and that polymethylmethacrylate can be used to improve fixation in a stripped anchor hole. Six matched cadaveric proximal humeri were used. On one side, suture anchors were placed and loaded to failure using a ramped cyclic loading protocol. The stripped anchor holes then were injected with approximately 1 cc polymethylmethacrylate, and anchors were replaced and tested again. In the contralateral humerus, polymethylmethacrylate was injected into anchor holes before anchor placement and testing. In unstripped anchors, polymethylmethacrylate increased the number of cycles to failure by 34% and failure load by 71% compared with anchors not augmented with polymethylmethacrylate. Polymethylmethacrylate haugmentation of stripped anchors increased the cycles to failure by 31% and failure load by 111% compared with unstripped uncemented anchors. No difference was found in cycles to failure or failure load between cemented stripped anchors and cemented unstripped anchors. Polymethylmethacrylate can be used to augment fixation, reducing the risk of anchor pull-out failure, regardless whether the suture anchor hole is stripped or unstripped. PMID:16702922

  20. Development and validation of DNA markers linked to Sdvy-1, a common bean gene conferring resistance to the yellowing strain of Soybean dwarf virus.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yoko; Takeuchi, Toru; Okuyama, Masataka; Sasaki, Jun; Onodera, Kakumasa; Sato, Mikako; Souma, Chihiro; Ebe, Shigehiko

    2014-12-01

    The yellowing strain of Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV-YS) causes yellowing and yield loss in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). The most effective control is achieved through breeding for resistance. An indeterminate climbing cultivar with a white seed coat, 'Oofuku', is resistant to SbDV-YS in inoculation tests. We crossed 'Oofuku' with an elite cultivar, 'Taisho-Kintoki', which is SbDV-YS-susceptible, determinate dwarf with a red-purple seed coat, and performed amplified-fragment-length polymorphism analysis of F3 lines. From nucleotide sequences of the resistant-specific fragments and their flanking regions, we developed five DNA markers, of which DV86, DV386, and DV398 were closely linked to Sdvy-1, a resistance gene. Using the markers, we developed 'Toiku-B79' and 'Toiku-B80', the near-isogenic lines (NILs) incorporating Sdvy-1 in the background of 'Taisho-Kintoki'. The NILs had similar growth habit, maturity date and seed shape to those of 'Taisho-Kintoki'. The quality of boiled beans was also similar, except that the NILs had more seed coat cracking than 'Taisho-Kintoki'. The NILs showed no SbDV-YS infection in inoculation tests. We suggest that Sdvy-1 is a useful source of SbDV-YS resistance in common bean. PMID:25914596

  1. Usefulness of the serum cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen as a marker of bone metastasis from lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tamiya, Motohiro; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Kobayashi, Masashi; Sasada, Shinji; Okamoto, Norio; Morishita, Naoko; Yasue, Tomomi; Matsuura, Yuka; Hirashima, Tomonori; Kawase, Ichiro

    2012-03-01

    Bone metastasis is an important factor for determining the appropriate treatment for patients with lung cancer. The cross-linked N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx) is a metabolite of type I collagen, the main constituent of the bone matrix. Urinary NTx is recognized as a useful marker of bone metastasis, but the application of serum NTx and its cutoff value for determining bone metastasis from lung cancer have not been characterized. We measured serum NTx by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of individuals who underwent staging during hospitalization for initial treatment of lung cancer in our department and compared the NTx levels with the presence of bone metastasis in staging. The study included 166 patients with lung cancer (128 men and 38 women), including 85 adenocarcinoma, 42 squamous cell carcinoma, 32 small-cell carcinoma, and 7 other cancer types. Bone metastasis was present in 73 cases. The average/median serum NTx of bone metastasis (+) and bone metastasis (-) was 27.8/23.8 and 17.1/16.5 nmol bone collagen equivalents/L, respectively. There was an intentional difference with P < 0.001. The cutoff value of the serum NTx level indicating bone metastasis from lung cancer was estimated using the receiver operating characteristics curve. The optimal cutoff value was found to be 22.0 (sensitivity: 61.6%, specificity: 89.2%). The results of univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that the serum NTx levels were significantly related to bone metastasis from lung cancer (P < 0.001). Measurement of serum NTx levels provides a simple diagnostic marker of bone metastasis from lung cancer. PMID:21258879

  2. Complex patterns of population genetic structure of moose, Alces alces, after recent spatial expansion in Poland revealed by sex-linked markers.

    PubMed

    Swisłocka, Magdalena; Czajkowska, Magdalena; Duda, Norbert; Danyłow, Jan; Owadowska-Cornil, Edyta; Ratkiewicz, Mirosław

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, human activity directly and indirectly influenced the demography of moose in Poland. The species was close to extinction, and only a few isolated populations survived after the Second World War; then, unprecedented demographic and spatial expansions had occurred, possibly generating a very complex pattern of population genetic structure at the present-day margins of the species range in Poland. Over 370 moose from seven populations were collected from Poland, and partial sequences of the mitochondrial control region (mtDNA-cr; 607 bp) were obtained. In addition, the entire mtDNA cytochrome b gene (1,140 bp) and Y-chromosome markers (1,982 bp in total) were studied in a chosen set of individuals. Twelve mtDNA haplotypes that all belonged to the European moose phylogroup were recorded. They could be divided into two distinct clades: Central Europe and the Ural Mountains. The first clade consists of three distinct groups/branches: Biebrza, Polesie, and Fennoscandia. The Biebrza group has experienced spatial and demographic expansion in the recent past. Average genetic differentiation among moose populations in Poland at mtDNA-cr was great and significant (Φ ST = 0.407, p < 0.001). Using mtDNA-cr data, four separate groups of population were recognized using spatial analysis of molecular variance and principal coordinate analysis, including a relict population in Biebrza National Park, a reintroduced Kampinos National Park population, as well as populations that were descendants of moose that colonized Poland from the east (Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine) and the north (former East Prussia). Among all the sequenced Y-chromosome markers, polymorphisms were found in the DBY14 marker in three populations only; four haplotypes were recorded in total. No significant differentiation was detected for this Y-linked marker among moose populations in Poland. Our mtDNA study revealed that a variety of different factors-bottleneck, the presence of

  3. +2.71 LOD score at zero recombination is not sufficient for establishing linkage between X-linked mental retardation and X-chromosome markers

    SciTech Connect

    Robledo, R.; Melis, P.; Siniscalco, M.

    1996-07-12

    Nonspecific X-linked mental retardation (MRX) is the denomination attributed to the familial type of mental retardation compatible with X-linked inheritance but lacking specific phenotypic manifestations. It is thus to be expected that families falling under such broad definition are genetically heterogeneous in the sense that they may be due to different types of mutations occurring, most probably, at distinct X-chromosome loci. To facilitate a genetic classification of these conditions, the Nomenclature Committee of the Eleventh Human Gene Mapping Workshop proposed to assign a unique MRX-serial number to each family where evidence of linkage with one or more X-chromosome markers had been established with a LOD score of at least +2 at zero recombination. This letter is meant to emphasize the inadequacy of this criterion for a large pedigree where the segregation of the disease has been evaluated against the haplotype constitution of the entire X-chromosome carrying the mutation in question. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Hope Anchored in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyer, L. M.

    2011-01-01

    In South Africa, the processes of democratisation and social restructuring are inextricably linked to the debate on inclusive education. Although the debate on inclusive education originated in the disability discourse, it is increasingly viewed broader as a reform that supports and welcomes diversity. While the constitution and policy framework…

  5. Anchoring International sets new water depth record

    SciTech Connect

    Noble, H.J.

    1983-07-01

    Santa Barbara Channel has a history steeped in firsts in techniques for the production of offshore oil. Landscaped drilling and production islands, production piers, and directional drilling from land rigs to production under the channel, to name a few. The latest such project was handled by Anchoring International, Inc., a pipe line anchoring company headquartered in Houston, Texas. Contracted by Healy Tibbets Construction Company, prime contractor, Anchoring was commissioned to handle a new deep water record breaking anchoring job. The job was to anchor J-tube extensions in 820 feet of water--the deepest pipe line anchoring job ever undertaken. In most shallow water pipe line anchoring jobs, anchors and anchor installation unit placement over the pipe line is handled from a crane topside with visual assist from divers. However, due to the extreme depth of this project, the installation unit with anchors had to be modified for submersible operator-assisted placement capability. Anchoring International handled the anchor design and installation equipment, and submersible operator assistance was furnished by Oceaneering, International. WASP and JIM atmospheric diving systems were used. All ocean bottom activities were monitored topside with the JERED video-equipped remote controlled vehicle. Since the weight of the anchor sets and power installation unit are minimum, the entire operation was conducted from a small boat sufficient to carry dive equipment and the anchor installation unit power supply. A small pedestal crane was used to lower and retrieve the anchor installation unit.

  6. Efficiency of typing unaffected relatives in an affected-sib-pair linkage study with single-locus and multiple tightly linked markers

    SciTech Connect

    Holmans, P.; Clayton, D.

    1995-11-01

    In an affected-sib-pair study, the parents are often unavailable for typing, particularly for diseases of late onset. In many cases, however, it is possible to sample unaffected siblings. It is therefore desirable to assess the contribution of such siblings to the power of such a study. The likelihood ratio introduced by Risch and improved by Holmans was extended to incorporate data from unaffected siblings. Tests based on two likelihoods were considered: the full likelihood of the data, based on the identity-by-descent (IBD) sharing states of the entire sibship, and a pseudolikelihood based on the IBD sharing states of the affected pair only, using the unaffected siblings to infer parental genotypes. The latter approach was found to be more powerful, except when penetrance was high. Typing an unaffected sibling, or just one parent, was found to give only a small increase in power except when the PIC of the marker was low. Even then, typing an unaffected relative increased the overall number of individuals that had to be typed to achieve a given power. If there is no highly informative marker locus in the area under study, it may be possible to {open_quotes}build{close_quotes} one by combining the alleles from two or more neighboring tightly linked loci into haplotypes. Typing two loci gave a sizeable power increase over a single locus, but typing further loci gave much smaller gains. Building haplotypes will introduce phase uncertainties, with the result that such a system will yield less power than will a single locus with the same number of alleles. This power loss was small, however, and did not affect the conclusions regarding the worth of typing unaffected relatives. 14 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Bone Anchored Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) in improving the hearing of people with conduction or mixed hearing loss. The Technology The (BAHA) is a bone conduction hearing device that includes a titanium fixture permanently implanted into the mastoid bone of the skull and an external percutaneous sound processor. The sound processor is attached to the fixture by means of a skin penetrating abutment. Because the device bypasses the middle ear and directly stimulates the cochlea, it has been recommended for individuals with conduction hearing loss or discharging middle ear infection. The titanium implant is expected to last a lifetime while the external sound processor is expected to last 5 years. The total initial device cost is approximately $5,300 and the external sound processor costs approximately $3,500. Review of BAHA by the Medical Advisory Secretariat The Medical Advisory Secretariat’s review is a descriptive synthesis of findings from 36 research articles published between January 1990 and May 2002. Summary of Findings No randomized controlled studies were found. The evidence was derived from level 4 case series with relative small sample sizes (ranging from 30-188). The majority of the studies have follow-up periods of eight years or longer. All except one study were based on monaural BAHA implant on the side with the best bone conduction threshold. Safety Level 4 evidence showed that BAHA has been be implanted safely in adults and children with success rates of 90% or higher in most studies. No mortality or life threatening morbidity has been reported. Revision rates for tissue reduction or resiting were generally under 10% for adults but have been reported to be as high as 25% in pediatric studies. Adverse skin reaction around the skin penetration site was the most common complication reported. Most of these

  8. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of

  9. Generation of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchor Protein-Deficient Blood Cells From Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xuan; Braunstein, Evan M.; Ye, Zhaohui; Liu, Cyndi F.; Chen, Guibin; Zou, Jizhong; Cheng, Linzhao

    2013-01-01

    PIG-A is an X-linked gene required for the biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors; thus, PIG-A mutant cells have a deficiency or absence of all GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs). Acquired mutations in hematopoietic stem cells result in the disease paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and hypomorphic germline PIG-A mutations lead to severe developmental abnormalities, seizures, and early death. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can differentiate into cell types derived from all three germ layers, providing a novel developmental system for modeling human diseases. Using PIG-A gene targeting and an inducible PIG-A expression system, we have established, for the first time, a conditional PIG-A knockout model in human iPSCs that allows for the production of GPI-AP-deficient blood cells. PIG-A-null iPSCs were unable to generate hematopoietic cells or any cells expressing the CD34 marker and were defective in generating mesodermal cells expressing KDR/VEGFR2 (kinase insert domain receptor) and CD56 markers. In addition, PIG-A-null iPSCs had a block in embryonic development prior to mesoderm differentiation that appears to be due to defective signaling through bone morphogenetic protein 4. However, early inducible PIG-A transgene expression allowed for the generation of GPI-AP-deficient blood cells. This conditional PIG-A knockout model should be a valuable tool for studying the importance of GPI-APs in hematopoiesis and human development. PMID:24113066

  10. Permanent ground anchors: Nicholson design criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, P. J.; Uranowski, D. D.; Wycliffe-Jones, P. T.

    1982-09-01

    The methods used by Nicholson Construction Company in the design of permanent ground anchors specifically as related to retaining walls are discussed. Basic soil parameters, design concepts, drilling and grouting methods for ground anchors are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on anchors founded in soil rather than rock formations. Also, soil properties necessary for the proper design of anchored retaining walls are detailed. The second chapter of the report is devoted to a general discussion of retaining wall and anchor design. In addition, a design example of an anchored retaining wall is presented in a step by step manner.

  11. Advances in Linking Wintering Migrant Birds to Their Breeding-Ground Origins Using Combined Analyses of Genetic and Stable Isotope Markers

    PubMed Central

    Chabot, Amy A.; Hobson, Keith A.; Van Wilgenburg, Steven L.; McQuat, Gregory J.; Lougheed, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    An enduring problem in avian ecology and conservation is linking breeding and wintering grounds of migratory species. As migratory species and populations vary in the degree to which individuals from distinct breeding locales mix on stop-over sites and wintering grounds, establishing migratory connectivity informs our understanding of population demography and species management. We present a new Bayesian approach for inferring breeding grounds of wintering birds of unknown origins in North America. We incorporate prior information from analysis of genetic markers into geographic origin assignment based upon stable-hydrogen isotope analysis of feathers (δ2Hf), using the Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus). Likely geographic origins derived from analyses of DNA microsatellites were used as priors for Bayesian analyses in which birds were assigned to a breeding-ground origin using their δ2Hf values. As with most applications of Bayesian methods, our approach greatly improved the results (i.e. decreased the size of the potential area of origin). Area of origin decreased by 3 to 5-fold on average, but ranged up to a 10-fold improvement. We recommend this approach in future studies of migratory connectivity and suggest that our methodology could be applied more broadly to the study of dispersal, sources of productivity of migratory populations, and a range of evolutionary phenomena. PMID:22916285

  12. The construction of a high-density linkage map for identifying SNP markers that are tightly linked to a nuclear-recessive major gene for male sterility in Cryptomeria japonica D. Don

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background High-density linkage maps facilitate the mapping of target genes and the construction of partial linkage maps around target loci to develop markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS). MAS is quite challenging in conifers because of their large, complex, and poorly-characterized genomes. Our goal was to construct a high-density linkage map to facilitate the identification of markers that are tightly linked to a major recessive male-sterile gene (ms1) for MAS in C. japonica, a species that is important in Japanese afforestation but which causes serious social pollinosis problems. Results We constructed a high-density saturated genetic linkage map for C. japonica using expressed sequence-derived co-dominant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, most of which were genotyped using the GoldenGate genotyping assay. A total of 1261 markers were assigned to 11 linkage groups with an observed map length of 1405.2 cM and a mean distance between two adjacent markers of 1.1 cM; the number of linkage groups matched the basic chromosome number in C. japonica. Using this map, we located ms1 on the 9th linkage group and constructed a partial linkage map around the ms1 locus. This enabled us to identify a marker (hrmSNP970_sf) that is closely linked to the ms1 gene, being separated from it by only 0.5 cM. Conclusions Using the high-density map, we located the ms1 gene on the 9th linkage group and constructed a partial linkage map around the ms1 locus. The map distance between the ms1 gene and the tightly linked marker was only 0.5 cM. The identification of markers that are tightly linked to the ms1 gene will facilitate the early selection of male-sterile trees, which should expedite C. japonica breeding programs aimed at alleviating pollinosis problems without harming productivity. PMID:22424262

  13. SNP discovery and chromosome anchoring provide the first physically-anchored hexaploid oat map and reveal synteny with model species.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Rebekah E; Tinker, Nicholas A; Lazo, Gerard R; Chao, Shiaoman; Jellen, Eric N; Carson, Martin L; Rines, Howard W; Obert, Donald E; Lutz, Joseph D; Shackelford, Irene; Korol, Abraham B; Wight, Charlene P; Gardner, Kyle M; Hattori, Jiro; Beattie, Aaron D; Bjørnstad, Åsmund; Bonman, J Michael; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Sorrells, Mark E; Brown-Guedira, Gina L; Mitchell Fetch, Jennifer W; Harrison, Stephen A; Howarth, Catherine J; Ibrahim, Amir; Kolb, Frederic L; McMullen, Michael S; Murphy, J Paul; Ohm, Herbert W; Rossnagel, Brian G; Yan, Weikai; Miclaus, Kelci J; Hiller, Jordan; Maughan, Peter J; Redman Hulse, Rachel R; Anderson, Joseph M; Islamovic, Emir; Jackson, Eric W

    2013-01-01

    A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42) has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources. PMID:23533580

  14. Is interferon-gamma the right marker for bacille Calmette-Guérin-induced immune protection? The missing link in our understanding of tuberculosis immunology.

    PubMed

    Abebe, F

    2012-09-01

    Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), developed a century ago, is the only licensed tuberculosis (TB) vaccine in use to date. The protective efficacy of BCG against TB varies with no apparent protection in some population, and mechanisms of its immune protection is poorly known, and yet BCG is the most widely used vaccine, with more than 4 billion BCG-vaccinated children globally. BCG is probably the only licensed vaccine currently in use believed to mediate immune protection through the production of interferon (IFN)-γ by CD4 T cells, which in turn activates macrophages to kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Currently, a number of new TB candidate vaccines are in different phases of clinical trial. The majority of these new vaccines are either recombinant forms of BCG or prime boosters of BCG (rBCG) and their immunogenicity is tested using BCG as a benchmark by measuring specific IFN-γ produced by CD4(+) T cells as a protective immune marker. However, some recent studies that examined mechanisms of immune protection of BCG in animals and humans have reported a lack of correlation between IFN-γ production by CD4 cells and BCG-induced immune protection. These studies point to the fact that there is a missing link in our understanding of TB immunology. Conversely, there is emerging evidence that other T cell subsets (gammadelta, γδ), CD8(+) T cells and natural killer (NK) cells may play a vital role in immune protection against Mtb infection and BCG-induced immune protection. γδ T cells and NK cells, which were considered to be part of the innate immunity in the past, have been shown to develop immunological memory upon re-encounter with the same pathogen. In this paper, the controversy over the role of IFN-γ as a marker for protective immunity against TB, and emerging data on the role of γδ T cells, CD8(+) and NK cells in TB immunology, will be presented. PMID:22861360

  15. Bile acid signaling in lipid metabolism: metabolomic and lipidomic analysis of lipid and bile acid markers linked to anti-obesity and anti-diabetes in mice.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yunpeng; Jiang, Changtao; Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W; Li, Tiangang; Ferrell, Jessica M; Gonzalez, Frank J; Chiang, John Y L

    2015-01-01

    Bile acid synthesis is the major pathway for catabolism of cholesterol. Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway in the liver and plays an important role in regulating lipid, glucose and energy metabolism. Transgenic mice overexpressing CYP7A1 (CYP7A1-tg mice) were resistant to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, fatty liver, and diabetes. However the mechanism of resistance to HFD-induced obesity of CYP7A1-tg mice has not been determined. In this study, metabolomic and lipidomic profiles of CYP7A1-tg mice were analyzed to explore the metabolic alterations in CYP7A1-tg mice that govern the protection against obesity and insulin resistance by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with multivariate analyses. Lipidomics analysis identified seven lipid markers including lysophosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and ceramides that were significantly decreased in serum of HFD-fed CYP7A1-tg mice. Metabolomics analysis identified 13 metabolites in bile acid synthesis including taurochenodeoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, tauroursodeoxycholic acid, taurocholic acid, and tauro-β-muricholic acid (T-β-MCA) that differed between CYP7A1-tg and wild-type mice. Notably, T-β-MCA, an antagonist of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) was significantly increased in intestine of CYP7A1-tg mice. This study suggests that reducing 12α-hydroxylated bile acids and increasing intestinal T-β-MCA may reduce high fat diet-induced increase of phospholipids, sphingomyelins and ceramides, and ameliorate diabetes and obesity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Linking transcription to physiology in lipodomics. PMID:24796972

  16. A Low‐Frequency Variant in MAPK14 Provides Mechanistic Evidence of a Link With Myeloperoxidase: A Prognostic Cardiovascular Risk Marker

    PubMed Central

    Waterworth, Dawn M.; Li, Li; Scott, Robert; Warren, Liling; Gillson, Christopher; Aponte, Jennifer; Sarov‐Blat, Lea; Sprecher, Dennis; Dupuis, Josée; Reiner, Alex; Psaty, Bruce M.; Tracy, Russell P.; Lin, Honghuang; McPherson, Ruth; Chissoe, Stephanie; Wareham, Nick; Ehm, Margaret G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetics can be used to predict drug effects and generate hypotheses around alternative indications. To support Losmapimod, a p38 mitogen‐activated protein kinase inhibitor in development for acute coronary syndrome, we characterized gene variation in MAPK11/14 genes by exome sequencing and follow‐up genotyping or imputation in participants well‐phenotyped for cardiovascular and metabolic traits. Methods and Results Investigation of genetic variation in MAPK11 and MAPK14 genes using additive genetic models in linear or logistic regression with cardiovascular, metabolic, and biomarker phenotypes highlighted an association of RS2859144 in MAPK14 with myeloperoxidase in a dyslipidemic population (Genetic Epidemiology of Metabolic Syndrome Study), P=2.3×10−6). This variant (or proxy) was consistently associated with myeloperoxidase in the Framingham Heart Study and Cardiovascular Health Study studies (replication meta‐P=0.003), leading to a meta‐P value of 9.96×10−7 in the 3 dyslipidemic groups. The variant or its proxy was then profiled in additional population‐based cohorts (up to a total of 58 930 subjects) including Cohorte Lausannoise, Ely, Fenland, European Prospective Investigation of Cancer, London Life Sciences Prospective Population Study, and the Genetics of Obesity Associations study obesity case–control for up to 40 cardiovascular and metabolic traits. Overall analysis identified the same single nucleotide polymorphisms to be nominally associated consistently with glomerular filtration rate (P=0.002) and risk of obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2, P=0.004). Conclusions As myeloperoxidase is a prognostic marker of coronary events, the MAPK14 variant may provide a mechanistic link between p38 map kinase and these events, providing information consistent with current indication of Losmapimod for acute coronary syndrome. If replicated, the association with glomerular filtration rate, along with previous biological findings

  17. Application of in silico bulked segregant analysis for rapid development of markers linked to Bean common mosaic virus resistance in common bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common bean was one of the first crops that benefited from the development and utilization of molecular markers in tagging major disease resistance genes for marker-assisted selection (MAS). Efficiency of MAS breeding in common bean is still hampered; however, due to the dominance, linkage phase, an...

  18. Anchoring in Numeric Judgments of Visual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Langeborg, Linda; Eriksson, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious. PMID:26941684

  19. Anchoring in Numeric Judgments of Visual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Langeborg, Linda; Eriksson, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious. PMID:26941684

  20. Anchor for Fiberglas Guy Rod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    Solution to problem of anchoring fiberglas guy rods to install nut with threads on outer circumference, followed by aluminum sleeve. Sleeve has opening oval at upper and round at bottom end. End of rod is split so fiberglas wedge can be inserted to form V-shaped end. Spread end of rod fits into tapered hole in sleeve and threaded aluminum coupling is put over rod and sleeve.

  1. Independent control of polar and azimuthal anchoring.

    PubMed

    Anquetil-Deck, C; Cleaver, D J; Bramble, J P; Atherton, T J

    2013-07-01

    Monte Carlo simulation, experiment, and continuum theory are used to examine the anchoring exhibited by a nematic liquid crystal at a patterned substrate comprising a periodic array of rectangles that, respectively, promote vertical and planar alignment. It is shown that the easy axis and effective anchoring energy promoted by such surfaces can be readily controlled by adjusting the design of the pattern. The calculations reveal rich behavior: for strong anchoring, as exhibited by the simulated system, for rectangle ratios ≥2 the nematic aligns in the direction of the long edge of the rectangles, the azimuthal anchoring coefficient changing with pattern shape. In weak anchoring scenarios, however, including our experimental systems, preferential anchoring is degenerate between the two rectangle diagonals. Bistability between diagonally aligned and edge-aligned arrangement is predicted for intermediate combinations of anchoring coefficient and system length scale. PMID:23944468

  2. Electrostatically anchored branched brush layers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Dedinaite, Andra; Rutland, Mark; Thormann, Esben; Visnevskij, Ceslav; Makuska, Ricardas; Claesson, Per M

    2012-11-01

    A novel type of block copolymer has been synthesized. It consists of a linear cationic block and an uncharged bottle-brush block. The nonionic bottle-brush block contains 45 units long poly(ethylene oxide) side chains. This polymer was synthesized with the intention of creating branched brush layers firmly physisorbed to negatively charged surfaces via the cationic block, mimicking the architecture (but not the chemistry) of bottle-brush molecules suggested to be present on the cartilage surface, and contributing to the efficient lubrication of synovial joints. The adsorption properties of the diblock copolymer as well as of the two blocks separately were studied on silica surfaces using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and optical reflectometry. The adsorption kinetics data highlight that the diblock copolymers initially adsorb preferentially parallel to the surface with both the cationic block and the uncharged bottle-brush block in contact with the surface. However, as the adsorption proceeds, a structural change occurs within the layer, and the PEO bottle-brush block extends toward solution, forming a surface-anchored branched brush layer. As the adsorption plateau is reached, the diblock copolymer layer is 46-48 nm thick, and the water content in the layer is above 90 wt %. The combination of strong electrostatic anchoring and highly hydrated branched brush structures provide strong steric repulsion, low friction forces, and high load bearing capacity. The strong electrostatic anchoring also provides high stability of preadsorbed layers under different ionic strength conditions. PMID:23046176

  3. Investigating a First-Year Seminar as an Anchor Course in Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Daniel B.; Alexander, Julie S.

    2007-01-01

    First-year seminars have increasingly been used as anchor courses in learning communities. This study investigated the impact participation in Freshman Seminar had on the grade earned in a linked learning community course in fall 2004. Grades in the linked course for 1,294 first-year students who were enrolled in 37 different learning communities…

  4. A lunar/Martian anchor emplacement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clinton, Dustin; Holt, Andrew; Jantz, Erik; Kaufman, Teresa; Martin, James; Weber, Reed

    On the Moon or Mars, it is necessary to have an anchor, or a stable, fixed point able to support the forces necessary to rescue a stuck vehicle, act as a stake for a tent in a Martian gale, act as a fulcrum in the erection of general construction poles, or support tent-like regolith shields. The anchor emplacement system must be highly autonomous. It must supply the energy and stability for anchor deployment. The goal of the anchor emplacement system project is to design and build a prototype anchor and to design a conceptual anchor emplacement system. Various anchors were tested in a 1.3 cubic meter test bed containing decomposed granite. A simulated lunar soil was created by adjusting the moisture and compaction characteristics of the soil. We conducted tests on emplacement torque, amount of force the anchor could withstand before failure, anchor pull out force at various angles, and soil disturbances caused by placing the anchor. A single helix auger anchor performed best in this test bed based on energy to emplace, and the ultimate holding capacity. The anchor was optimized for ultimate holding capacity, minimum emplacement torque, and minimum soil disturbance in sandy soils yielding the following dimensions: helix diameter (4.45 cm), pitch (1.27 cm), blade thickness (0.15 cm), total length (35.56 cm), shaft diameter (0.78 cm), and a weight of 212.62 g. The experimental results showed that smaller diameter, single-helix augers held more force than larger diameter augers for a given depth. The emplacement system consists of a flywheel and a motor for power, sealed in a protective box supported by four legs. The flywheel system was chosen over a gear system based on its increased reliability in the lunar environment.

  5. A lunar/Martian anchor emplacement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Dustin; Holt, Andrew; Jantz, Erik; Kaufman, Teresa; Martin, James; Weber, Reed

    1993-01-01

    On the Moon or Mars, it is necessary to have an anchor, or a stable, fixed point able to support the forces necessary to rescue a stuck vehicle, act as a stake for a tent in a Martian gale, act as a fulcrum in the erection of general construction poles, or support tent-like regolith shields. The anchor emplacement system must be highly autonomous. It must supply the energy and stability for anchor deployment. The goal of the anchor emplacement system project is to design and build a prototype anchor and to design a conceptual anchor emplacement system. Various anchors were tested in a 1.3 cubic meter test bed containing decomposed granite. A simulated lunar soil was created by adjusting the moisture and compaction characteristics of the soil. We conducted tests on emplacement torque, amount of force the anchor could withstand before failure, anchor pull out force at various angles, and soil disturbances caused by placing the anchor. A single helix auger anchor performed best in this test bed based on energy to emplace, and the ultimate holding capacity. The anchor was optimized for ultimate holding capacity, minimum emplacement torque, and minimum soil disturbance in sandy soils yielding the following dimensions: helix diameter (4.45 cm), pitch (1.27 cm), blade thickness (0.15 cm), total length (35.56 cm), shaft diameter (0.78 cm), and a weight of 212.62 g. The experimental results showed that smaller diameter, single-helix augers held more force than larger diameter augers for a given depth. The emplacement system consists of a flywheel and a motor for power, sealed in a protective box supported by four legs. The flywheel system was chosen over a gear system based on its increased reliability in the lunar environment.

  6. Anchored Instruction and Anchored Assessment: An Ecological Approach to Measuring Situated Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael F.; Kulikowich, Jonna M.

    Anchored instruction and anchored assessment are described and illustrated through a mathematics problem from the Jasper problem solving series developed at Vanderbilt University in Nashville (Tennessee). Anchored instruction is instruction situated in a context complex enough to provide meaning and reasons for why information is useful. Problems…

  7. The Effect of Differential Motivation on IRT Linking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mittelhaëuser, Marie-Anne; Béguin, Anton A.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether simulated differential motivation between the stakes for operational tests and anchor items produces an invalid linking result if the Rasch model is used to link the operational tests. This was done for an external anchor design and a variation of a pretest design. The study also investigated…

  8. Tri-layer wrinkling as a mechanism for anchoring center initiation in the developing cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Lejeune, Emma; Javili, Ali; Weickenmeier, Johannes; Kuhl, Ellen; Linder, Christian

    2016-07-01

    During cerebellar development, anchoring centers form at the base of each fissure and remain fixed in place while the rest of the cerebellum grows outward. Cerebellar foliation has been extensively studied; yet, the mechanisms that control anchoring center initiation and position remain insufficiently understood. Here we show that a tri-layer model can predict surface wrinkling as a potential mechanism to explain anchoring center initiation and position. Motivated by the cerebellar microstructure, we model the developing cerebellum as a tri-layer system with an external molecular layer and an internal granular layer of similar stiffness and a significantly softer intermediate Purkinje cell layer. Including a weak intermediate layer proves key to predicting surface morphogenesis, even at low stiffness contrasts between the top and bottom layers. The proposed tri-layer model provides insight into the hierarchical formation of anchoring centers and establishes an essential missing link between gene expression and evolution of shape. PMID:27252048

  9. High-resolution tyramide-FISH mapping of markers tightly linked to the male-fertility restoration (Ms) locus of onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has not been readily exploited for physical mapping of molecular markers in plants due to the technical challenge to visualize small single-copy probes. Signal amplification using tyramide (tyr) FISH can increase sensitivity up to 100 fold. We used tyr-FISH ...

  10. Male-specific Y-linked transgene markers to enhance biologically-based control of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Reliable marking systems are critical to the prospective field release of transgenic insect strains. This is to unambiguously distinguish released insects from wild insects in the field that are collected in field traps, and tissue-specific markers, such as those that are sperm-specific,...

  11. CAPS markers in an eIF4E gene are linked to Zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistant locus in watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an economically important virus infecting cucurbits worldwide. Genetic sources of resistance to ZYMV have been identified in wild watermelon germplasm where a single recessive gene (zym) confers ZYMV resistance. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) would greatly fa...

  12. Anchors of Religious Commitment in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, Emily; Dollahite, David C.; Hardy, Sam A.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores adolescent religious commitment using qualitative data from a religiously diverse (Jewish, Christian, Muslim) sample of 80 adolescents. A new construct, "anchors of religious commitment," grounded in interview data, is proposed to describe what adolescents commit to as a part of their religious identity. Seven anchors of…

  13. Method of fabrication of anchored nanostructure materials

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2013-11-26

    Methods for fabricating anchored nanostructure materials are described. The methods include heating a nano-catalyst under a protective atmosphere to a temperature ranging from about 450.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. and contacting the heated nano-catalysts with an organic vapor to affix carbon nanostructures to the nano-catalysts and form the anchored nanostructure material.

  14. 77 FR 65496 - Commercial Acquisition; Anchor Tenancy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... limited conditions, to issue Anchor Tenancy contracts. Anchor Tenancy means ``an arrangement in which the... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Background NASA published a proposed rule in the Federal Register at 76 FR 30301... simplified; it is now discussed only in paragraph (a). The final rule identifies what is meant by an...

  15. 33 CFR 401.15 - Stern anchors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stern anchors. 401.15 Section 401.15 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.15 Stern anchors. (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preformed anchor. 872.3130 Section 872.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preformed anchor. 872.3130 Section 872.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A...

  18. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preformed anchor. 872.3130 Section 872.3130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A...

  19. The expansion of adult stem/progenitor cells and their marker expression fluctuations are linked with pituitary plastic adaptation during gestation and lactancy.

    PubMed

    Vaca, Alicia Maldré; Guido, Carolina Beatriz; Sosa, Liliana Del Valle; Nicola, Juan Pablo; Mukdsi, Jorge; Petiti, Juan Pablo; Torres, Alicia Ines

    2016-08-01

    Extensive evidence has revealed variations in the number of hormone-producing cells in the pituitary gland, which occur under physiological conditions such as gestation and lactancy. It has been proposed that new hormone-producing cells differentiate from stem cells. However, exactly how and when this takes place is not clear. In this work, we used immunoelectron microscopy to identify adult pituitary stem/progenitor cells (SC/P) localized in the marginal zone (MZ), and additionally, we detected GFRa2-, Sox2-, and Sox9-positive cells in the adenoparenchyma (AP) by fluorescence microscopy. Then, we evaluated fluctuations of SC/P mRNA and protein level markers in MZ and AP during gestation and lactancy. An upregulation in stemness markers was shown at term of gestation (AT) in MZ, whereas there were more progenitor cell markers in the middle of gestation and active lactancy. Concerning committed cell markers, we detected a rise in AP at beginning of lactancy (d1L). We performed a BrdU uptake analysis in MZ and AP cells. The highest level of BrdU uptake was observed in MZ AT cells, whereas in AP this was detected in d1L, followed by a decrease in both the MZ and AP. Finally, we detected double immunostaining for BrdU-GFRa2 in MZ AT cells and BrdU-Sox9 in the AP d1L cells. Taken together, we hypothesize that the expansion of the SC/P niche took place mainly in MZ from pituitary rats in AT and d1L. These results suggest that the SC niche actively participates in pituitary plasticity during these reproductive states, contributing to the origin of hormone cell populations. PMID:27302752

  20. Marker development

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.R.

    1987-05-01

    This report is to discuss the marker development for radioactive waste disposal sites. The markers must be designed to last 10,000 years, and place no undue burdens on the future generations. Barriers cannot be constructed that preclude human intrusion. Design specifications for surface markers will be discussed, also marker pictograms will also be covered.

  1. Anchored nanostructure materials and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-27

    Anchored nanostructure materials and methods for their fabrication are described. The anchored nanostructure materials may utilize nano-catalysts that include powder-based or solid-based support materials. The support material may comprise metal, such as NiAl, ceramic, a cermet, or silicon or other metalloid. Typically, nanoparticles are disposed adjacent a surface of the support material. Nanostructures may be formed as anchored to nanoparticles that are adjacent the surface of the support material by heating the nano-catalysts and then exposing the nano-catalysts to an organic vapor. The nanostructures are typically single wall or multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

  2. Auger anchors produce major cost savings

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, B.C.

    1981-10-01

    To meet specific-gravity standards, a 42-in.-diam, 0.598-in.-wall-thickness pipeline being installed in a glacial area full of potholes, peat swamps, and low-lying sections required 425 lb/ft of anchor hold-down. In spots where the underlying soil had an acceptable shear strength, the crew installed auger anchors (costing only $8/ft of pipeline) instead of the concrete set-on weights (at $80/ft) required in areas where the auger anchors would not hold; the savings amounted to about $380,000/mile of line laid.

  3. Induced change of formative processes in pepper (Capsicum annuum L. ). I. Effect of mutagenic treatment on the crossingover frequency of the linked and recombination of unlinked marker genes

    SciTech Connect

    Samovol, A.P.

    1986-05-01

    The effect of mutagenic treatment of the F/sub 1/ seeds of pepper on the crossingover frequency in the al/sub 2/-b segment, monohybrid and dihybrid segregation for the unlinked marker genes al/sub 2/ and pi was studied. It has been demonstrated that treatment leads to a significant reduction in the crossover frequency in the al/sub 2/-b zone. Highly significant differences between the control and individual treatment of the hybrid seeds indicated reduction in recombinations due to the mutagens used. A case of induced deviation in independent segregation of al/sub 2/ and pi, i.e., quasilinkage has been recorded.

  4. Anchoring Revisited: The Role of the Comparative Question

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Ina; Bohner, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    When people estimate a numeric value after judging whether it is larger or smaller than a high or low anchor value (comparative question), estimates are biased in the direction of the anchor. One explanation for this anchoring effect is that people selectively access knowledge consistent with the anchor value as part of a positive test strategy. Two studies (total N = 184) supported the alternative explanation that people access knowledge consistent with their own answer to the comparative question. Specifically, anchoring effects emerged when the answer to the comparative question was unexpected (lower than the low anchor or higher than the high anchor). For expected answers (lower than the high anchor or higher than the low anchor), however, anchoring effects were attenuated or reversed. The anchor value itself was almost never reported as an absolute estimate. PMID:24454953

  5. Mechanical characterization of bone anchors used with a bone-attached, parallel robot for skull surgery.

    PubMed

    Kobler, Jan-Philipp; Prielozny, Lenka; Lexow, G Jakob; Rau, Thomas S; Majdani, Omid; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2015-05-01

    Bone-attached robots and microstereotactic frames, intended for deep brain stimulation and minimally invasive cochlear implantation, typically attach to a patient's skull via bone anchors. A rigid and reliable link between such devices and the skull is mandatory in order to fulfill the high accuracy demands of minimally invasive procedures while maintaining patient safety. In this paper, a method is presented to experimentally characterize the mechanical properties of the anchor-bone linkage. A custom-built universal testing machine is used to measure the pullout strength as well as the spring constants of bone anchors seated in four different bone substitutes as well as in human cranial bone. Furthermore, the angles at which forces act on the bone anchors are varied to simulate realistic conditions. Based on the experimental results, a substitute material that has mechanical properties similar to those of cranial bone is identified. The results further reveal that the pullout strength of the investigated anchor design is sufficient with respect to the proposed application. However, both the measured load capacity as well as the spring constants vary depending on the load angles. Based on these findings, an alternative bone anchor design is presented and experimentally validated. Furthermore, the results serve as a basis for stiffness simulation and optimization of bone-attached microstereotactic frames. PMID:25771430

  6. 21 CFR 872.3130 - Preformed anchor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3130 Preformed anchor. (a) Identification. A preformed... the platinum group intended to be incorporated into a dental appliance, such as a denture, to...

  7. Behavior of soil anchors under dynamic loads

    SciTech Connect

    Picornell, M.; Olague, B.

    1997-07-01

    Helical anchors placed in a cohesionless soil in a laboratory setting were tested under static and dynamic loads. The dynamic tests were performed after subjecting the anchors to a seating load. The dynamic load had an intensity that changed in sinusoidal fashion and was superimposed to the static seating loads. Although, the anchors have a static pull-out capacity, when the dynamic loads are applied the anchor experiences additional deformations for each load cycle. The deformations per cycle are initially high but then decrease to a nearly constant rate. Eventually, the constant rate increases suddenly accelerating until failure. This failure can take place even at small fractions of the static pull-out capacity. The rate of deformation per load cycle is found to increase for larger seating loads and for larger dynamic pulsating loads. The results of this study shows that the designer can only adjust loads to decrease the deformation rate to suit the design life of the structure.

  8. An ABC Literacy Journey: Anchoring in Texts, Bridging Language, and Creating Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Amy J.; Lang, Lisa F.; Smith, Sharon V.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe how alphabet books teach so much more than just the ABCs. They provide excellent resources, allowing teachers to link and integrate the reciprocal processes of reading and writing. Encapsulated within the writing workshop framework, the authors use multigenre and multicultural alphabet books as anchor texts for a literacy…

  9. Bone Markers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alkaline Phosphatase; Osteocalcin; P1NP; Procollagen Type 1 N-Terminal Propeptide Formal name: Biochemical Markers of Bone Remodeling ... tests for evaluating bone turnover: C-telopeptide (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx)) – a marker ...

  10. Load transfer mechanisms in anchored geosynthetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hryciw, Roman D.

    1990-12-01

    Success of an anchored geosynthetic system (AGS) depends on the satisfactory transfer of load between: the surface-deployed geosynthetic and anchors (typically ribbed reinforcing rods) driven into the slope; the geosynthetic and soil; and the anchors and soil. A study was performed to evaluate the load transfer mechanisms at these interfaces in an AGS. A mathematical model was developed for predicting the pullout resistance of plane ribbed inclusions. The model considered the contribution of both frictional and passive resistance components of pullout resistance. Optical observation of sand around the ribs was made to determine the behavior of soil around the moving ribs during pullout. A theoretical study disclosed that the optimum anchor orientation for stabilization of infinite slopes depends on several factors including slope angle and in-situ stresses. It typically ranges from 20 to 30 degree from the normal to the slope with the anchor driven upslope. An experimental study confirmed that the soil-geosynthetic interface friction angle may be correctly predicted from the residual or critical state friction angle of the sand. Equations were developed for load transfer at curved soil-fabric interfaces. An experimental study verified that the increases in soil stress with distance from the anchor may be predicted by the developed equations.

  11. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  12. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  13. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  14. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  15. 46 CFR 28.235 - Anchors and radar reflectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Anchors and radar reflectors. 28.235 Section 28.235....235 Anchors and radar reflectors. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with an anchor(s) and chain(s), cable... rigged with gear that provides a radar signature from a distance of 6 miles, each nonmetallic hull...

  16. The Use of Comics-Based Cases in Anchored Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneller, Matthew F.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to understand how comics fulfill the role of anchor in an anchored instruction learning environment. Anchored instruction addresses the inert knowledge problem through the use of realistic multimedia stories, or "anchors," that embed a problem and the necessary data to solve it within the narrative. In the…

  17. Anchors as Semantic Primes in Value Construction: An EEG Study of the Anchoring Effect

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qiang; Qiu, Wenwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous research regarding anchoring effects has demonstrated that human judgments are often assimilated to irrelevant information. Studies have demonstrated that anchors influence the economic valuation of various products and experiences; however, the cognitive explanations of this effect remain controversial, and its neural mechanisms have rarely been explored. In the current study, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) experiment to investigate the anchoring effect on willingness to accept (WTA) for an aversive hedonic experience and the role of anchors in this judgment heuristic. The behavioral results demonstrated that random numbers affect participants’ WTA for listening to pieces of noise. The participants asked for higher pay after comparing their WTA with higher numbers. The EEG results indicated that anchors also influenced the neural underpinnings of the valuation process. Specifically, when a higher anchor number was drawn, larger P2 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited, reflecting the anticipation of more intensive pain from the subsequent noise. Moreover, higher anchors induced a stronger theta band power increase compared with lower anchors when subjects listened to the noises, indicating that the participants felt more unpleasant during the actual experience of the noise. The levels of unpleasantness during both anticipation and experience were consistent with the semantic information implied by the anchors. Therefore, these data suggest that a semantic priming process underlies the anchoring effect in WTA. This study provides proof for the robustness of the anchoring effect and neural evidence of the semantic priming model. Our findings indicate that activated contextual information, even seemingly irrelevant, can be embedded in the construction of economic value in the brain. PMID:26439926

  18. A-kinase anchoring proteins as potential drug targets

    PubMed Central

    Tröger, Jessica; Moutty, Marie C; Skroblin, Philipp; Klussmann, Enno

    2012-01-01

    A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) crucially contribute to the spatial and temporal control of cellular signalling. They directly interact with a variety of protein binding partners and cellular constituents, thereby directing pools of signalling components to defined locales. In particular, AKAPs mediate compartmentalization of cAMP signalling. Alterations in AKAP expression and their interactions are associated with or cause diseases including chronic heart failure, various cancers and disorders of the immune system such as HIV. A number of cellular dysfunctions result from mutations of specific AKAPs. The link between malfunctions of single AKAP complexes and a disease makes AKAPs and their interactions interesting targets for the development of novel drugs. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Novel cAMP Signalling Paradigms. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.166.issue-2 PMID:22122509

  19. Post-Messinian evolutionary relationships across the Sicilian channel: Mitochondrial and nuclear markers link a new green toad from Sicily to African relatives

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Little attention has been paid to the consequences of the last landbridge between Africa and Sicily on Mediterranean biogeography. Previous paleontological and scarce molecular data suggest possible faunal exchange later than the well-documented landbridge in the Messinian (5.3 My); however, a possible African origin of recent terrestrial Sicilian fauna has not been thoroughly tested with molecular methods. To gain insight into the phylogeography of the region, we examine two mitochondrial and two nuclear markers (one is a newly adapted intron marker) in green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) across that sea barrier, the Strait of Sicily. Results Extensive sampling throughout the western Mediterranean and North Africa revealed a deep sister relationship between Sicilian (Bufo siculus n.sp.) and African green toads (B. boulengeri) on the mitochondrial and nuclear level. Divergence times estimated under a Bayesian-coalescence framework (mtDNA control region and 16S rRNA) range from the Middle Pliocene (3.6 My) to Pleistocene (0.16 My) with an average (1.83 to 2.0 My) around the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary, suggesting possible land connections younger than the Messinian (5.3 My). We describe green toads from Sicily and some surrounding islands as a new endemic species (Bufo siculus). Bufo balearicus occurs on some western Mediterranean islands (Corsica, Sardinia, Mallorca, and Menorca) and the Apennine Peninsula, and is well differentiated on the mitochondrial and nuclear level from B. siculus as well as from B. viridis (Laurenti), whose haplotype group reaches northeastern Italy, north of the Po River. Detection of Calabrian B. balearicus haplotypes in northeastern Sicily suggests recent invasion. Our data agree with paleogeographic and fossil data, which suggest long Plio-Pleistocene isolation of Sicily and episodic Pleistocene faunal exchange across the Strait of Messina. It remains unknown whether both species (B. balearicus, B. siculus) occur in

  20. Group II Intron-Anchored Gene Deletion in Clostridium

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Kaizhi; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium plays an important role in commercial and medical use, for which targeted gene deletion is difficult. We proposed an intron-anchored gene deletion approach for Clostridium, which combines the advantage of the group II intron “ClosTron” system and homologous recombination. In this approach, an intron carrying a fragment homologous to upstream or downstream of the target site was first inserted into the genome by retrotransposition, followed by homologous recombination, resulting in gene deletion. A functional unknown operon CAC1493–1494 located in the chromosome, and an operon ctfAB located in the megaplasmid of C. acetobutylicum DSM1731 were successfully deleted by using this approach, without leaving antibiotic marker in the genome. We therefore propose this approach can be used for targeted gene deletion in Clostridium. This approach might also be applicable for gene deletion in other bacterial species if group II intron retrotransposition system is established. PMID:21304965

  1. A genetic map of chromosome 20q12-q13. 1: Multiple highly polymorphic microsatellite and RFLP markers linked to the maturity-onset diabetes of the Young (MODY) locus

    SciTech Connect

    Rothschild, C.B.; Akots, G.; Hayworth, R.; Pettenati, M.J.; Rao, P.N.; Wood, P. ); Stolz, F.M.; Hansmann, I. ); Serino, K.; Keith, T.P. ); Fajans, S.S. )

    1993-01-01

    Multiple highly polymorphic markers have been used to construct a genetic map of the q12-q13.1 region of chromosome 20 and to map the location of the maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) locus. The genetic map encompasses 23 cM and includes 11 loci with PIC values >.50, seven of which have PICs >.70. New dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms associated with the D20S17, PPGB, and ADA loci have been identified and mapped. The dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms have increased the PIC of the ADA locus to .89 and, with an additional RFLP at the D20S17 locus, the PIC of the D20S17 locus to .88. The order of the D20S17 and ADA loci determined genetically (cen-ADA-D20S17-qter) was confirmed by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization. The previously unmapped PPGB marker is closely linked to D20S17, with a two-point lod score of 50.53 at [cflx [theta

  2. Monitoring ground anchor using non-destructive ground anchor integrity test (NDT-GRANIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbany, Z.; Handayani, G.

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring at ground anchor commonly uses a pull out test method, therefor we developing a non-destructive ground anchor integrity testing (NDT-GRANIT). NDT-GRANIT using the principle of seismic waves that have been modified into form of sweep signal, the signal will be demodulated, filtered, and Fourier transformation (inverse discrete Fourier transform) so the data can be interpreted reflected wave from the ground anchor. The method was applied to determine whether the ground anchor still gripped in the subsurface by looking the attenuation of the wave generated sources. From the result we can see that ground anchor does not grip. To validate the results of the comparison method of measurement used pile integrity test.

  3. Monitoring ground anchor using non-destructive ground anchor integrity test (NDT-GRANIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Robbany, Z. Handayani, G.

    2015-09-30

    Monitoring at ground anchor commonly uses a pull out test method, therefor we developing a non-destructive ground anchor integrity testing (NDT-GRANIT). NDT-GRANIT using the principle of seismic waves that have been modified into form of sweep signal, the signal will be demodulated, filtered, and Fourier transformation (inverse discrete Fourier transform) so the data can be interpreted reflected wave from the ground anchor. The method was applied to determine whether the ground anchor still gripped in the subsurface by looking the attenuation of the wave generated sources. From the result we can see that ground anchor does not grip. To validate the results of the comparison method of measurement used pile integrity test.

  4. Bile acid signaling in lipid metabolism: Metabolomic and lipidomic analysis of lipid and bile acid markers linked to anti-obesity and anti-diabetes in mice

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yunpeng; Jiang, Changtao; Cheng, Jie; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Li, Tiangang; Ferrell, Jessica M.; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Chiang, John Y.L.

    2014-01-01

    Bile acid synthesis is the major pathway for catabolism of cholesterol. Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway in the liver and plays an important role in regulating lipid, glucose and energy metabolism. Transgenic mice overexpressing CYP7A1 (CYP7A1-tg mice) were resistant to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, fatty liver, and diabetes. However the mechanism of resistance to HFD-induced obesity of CYP7A1-tg mice has not been determined. In this study, metabolomic and lipidomic profiles of CYP7A1-tg mice were analyzed to explore the metabolic alterations in CYP7A1-tg mice that govern the protection against obesity and insulin resistance by using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with multivariate analyses. Lipidomics analysis identified seven lipid markers including lysophosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and ceramides that were significantly decreased in serum of HFD-fed CYP7A1-tg mice. Metabolomics analysis identified 13 metabolites in bile acid synthesis including taurochenodeoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, tauroursodeoxycholic acid, taurocholic acid, and tauro-β-muricholic acid (T-β-MCA) that differed between CYP7A1-tg and wild-type mice. Notably, T-β-MCA, an antagonist of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) was significantly increased in intestine of CYP7A1-tg mice. This study suggests that reducing 12α-hydroxylated bile acids and increasing intestinal T-β-MCA may reduce high fat diet-induced increase of phospholipids, sphingomyelins and ceramides, and ameliorate diabetes and obesity. PMID:24796972

  5. Monogenean anchor morphometry: systematic value, phylogenetic signal, and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Soo, Oi Yoon Michelle; Tan, Wooi Boon; Lim, Lee Hong Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anchors are one of the important attachment appendages for monogenean parasites. Common descent and evolutionary processes have left their mark on anchor morphometry, in the form of patterns of shape and size variation useful for systematic and evolutionary studies. When combined with morphological and molecular data, analysis of anchor morphometry can potentially answer a wide range of biological questions. Materials and Methods. We used data from anchor morphometry, body size and morphology of 13 Ligophorus (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) species infecting two marine mugilid (Teleostei: Mugilidae) fish hosts: Moolgarda buchanani (Bleeker) and Liza subviridis (Valenciennes) from Malaysia. Anchor shape and size data (n = 530) were generated using methods of geometric morphometrics. We used 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and ITS1 sequence data to infer a maximum likelihood phylogeny. We discriminated species using principal component and cluster analysis of shape data. Adams’s Kmult was used to detect phylogenetic signal in anchor shape. Phylogeny-correlated size and shape changes were investigated using continuous character mapping and directional statistics, respectively. We assessed morphological constraints in anchor morphometry using phylogenetic regression of anchor shape against body size and anchor size. Anchor morphological integration was studied using partial least squares method. The association between copulatory organ morphology and anchor shape and size in phylomorphospace was used to test the Rohde-Hobbs hypothesis. We created monogeneaGM, a new R package that integrates analyses of monogenean anchor geometric morphometric data with morphological and phylogenetic data. Results. We discriminated 12 of the 13 Ligophorus species using anchor shape data. Significant phylogenetic signal was detected in anchor shape. Thus, we discovered new morphological characters based on anchor shaft shape, the length between the inner root point and the outer root

  6. Monogenean anchor morphometry: systematic value, phylogenetic signal, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Khang, Tsung Fei; Soo, Oi Yoon Michelle; Tan, Wooi Boon; Lim, Lee Hong Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Anchors are one of the important attachment appendages for monogenean parasites. Common descent and evolutionary processes have left their mark on anchor morphometry, in the form of patterns of shape and size variation useful for systematic and evolutionary studies. When combined with morphological and molecular data, analysis of anchor morphometry can potentially answer a wide range of biological questions. Materials and Methods. We used data from anchor morphometry, body size and morphology of 13 Ligophorus (Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) species infecting two marine mugilid (Teleostei: Mugilidae) fish hosts: Moolgarda buchanani (Bleeker) and Liza subviridis (Valenciennes) from Malaysia. Anchor shape and size data (n = 530) were generated using methods of geometric morphometrics. We used 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, and ITS1 sequence data to infer a maximum likelihood phylogeny. We discriminated species using principal component and cluster analysis of shape data. Adams's K mult was used to detect phylogenetic signal in anchor shape. Phylogeny-correlated size and shape changes were investigated using continuous character mapping and directional statistics, respectively. We assessed morphological constraints in anchor morphometry using phylogenetic regression of anchor shape against body size and anchor size. Anchor morphological integration was studied using partial least squares method. The association between copulatory organ morphology and anchor shape and size in phylomorphospace was used to test the Rohde-Hobbs hypothesis. We created monogeneaGM, a new R package that integrates analyses of monogenean anchor geometric morphometric data with morphological and phylogenetic data. Results. We discriminated 12 of the 13 Ligophorus species using anchor shape data. Significant phylogenetic signal was detected in anchor shape. Thus, we discovered new morphological characters based on anchor shaft shape, the length between the inner root point and the outer root

  7. Peptide Anchor for Folate-Targeted Liposomal Delivery.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Eugénia; Mangialavori, Irene C; Loureiro, Ana; Azoia, Nuno G; Sárria, Marisa P; Nogueira, Patrícia; Freitas, Jaime; Härmark, Johan; Shimanovich, Ulyana; Rollett, Alexandra; Lacroix, Ghislaine; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Guebitz, Georg; Hebert, Hans; Moreira, Alexandra; Carmo, Alexandre M; Rossi, Juan Pablo F C; Gomes, Andreia C; Preto, Ana; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-09-14

    Specific folate receptors are abundantly overexpressed in chronically activated macrophages and in most cancer cells. Directed folate receptor targeting using liposomes is usually achieved using folate linked to a phospholipid or cholesterol anchor. This link is formed using a large spacer like polyethylene glycol. Here, we report an innovative strategy for targeted liposome delivery that uses a hydrophobic fragment of surfactant protein D linked to folate. Our proposed spacer is a small 4 amino acid residue linker. The peptide conjugate inserts deeply into the lipid bilayer without affecting liposomal integrity, with high stability and specificity. To compare the drug delivery potential of both liposomal targeting systems, we encapsulated the nuclear dye Hoechst 34580. The eventual increase in blue fluorescence would only be detectable upon liposome disruption, leading to specific binding of this dye to DNA. Our delivery system was proven to be more efficient (2-fold) in Caco-2 cells than classic systems where the folate moiety is linked to liposomes by polyethylene glycol. PMID:26241560

  8. Weighing Anchor in the "Ragged Times"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Tonya B.

    2012-01-01

    In today's middle school classroom, grouping is an essential learning tool that enhances students' ability to collaborate with others and deepen their own thinking. Implementing group work effectively, though, can be a challenge, especially since groups tend to end their work at "ragged" or staggered times. Creating "anchor activities"--respectful…

  9. Finding Chemical Anchors in the Kitchen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haim, Liliana

    2005-01-01

    ''The Chemistry Kitchen'', a unit composed of five activities with kitchen elements for elementary students ages 9-11, introduces the children to the skills and chemical working ideas to be used later as anchors for chemical concepts. These activities include kitchen elements, determining the relative mass and so on.

  10. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the United States' contribution to the International Lunar Network (ILN) project, the Anchor Nodes project. The ILN is an initiative of 9 national space agencies to establish a set of robotic geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon. The project is aimed at furthering the understanding of the lunar composition, and interior structure.

  11. Expectations of Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Rick; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) are no better or worse than other methods when assessed on a quantitative basis but have greater potential when assessed on use and qualitative criteria. Suggestions are offered for extending BARS research to process questions and domains other than performance appraisal. (Author)

  12. Simple suture and anchor in rabbit hips

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Filho, Fernando Cal; Guarniero, Roberto; de Godoy Júnior, Rui Maciel; Pereira, César Augusto Martins; Matos, Marcos Almeida; Garcia, Lucas Cortizo

    2012-01-01

    Objective Using biomechanical studies, this research aims to compare hip capsulorrhaphy in rabbits, carried out with two different techniques: capsulorrhaphy with simple sutures and with anchors. Method Thirteen New Zealand Albino (Oryctolaguscuniculus) male rabbits, twenty-six hip joints, were used. First, a pilot project was performed with three rabbits (six hip joints). This experiment consisted of ten rabbits divided into two groups: group 1 underwent capsulorrhaphy on both right and left hips with simple suture using polyglycolic acid absorbable thread, and group 2 underwent capsulorrhaphy with titanium anchors. After a four-week postoperative period, the animals were euthanized and the hip joints were frozen. On the same day of the biomechanical studies, after the hip joints were previously unfrozen, the following parameters were evaluated: rigidity, maximum force, maximum deformity and energy. Results There was no relevant statistical difference in rigidity, maximum force, maximum deformity and energy between the simple suture and anchor groups. Conclusion Through biomechanical analyses, using parameters of rigidity, maximum force, maximum deformity and energy, it has been shown that capsulorrhaphy with simple suture and with anchors has similar results in rabbit hip joints. Level of Evidence II, Prospective Comparative Study. PMID:24453618

  13. 50 CFR 622.432 - Anchoring restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Anchoring restriction. 622.432 Section 622.432 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Reef...

  14. 50 CFR 622.432 - Anchoring restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Anchoring restriction. 622.432 Section 622.432 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Reef...

  15. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative... must require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section. The...

  16. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285.401... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative... must require the home to be secured against the wind, as described in this section. The...

  17. Anchoring the Panic Disorder Severity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keough, Meghan E.; Porter, Eliora; Kredlow, M. Alexandra; Worthington, John J.; Hoge, Elizabeth A.; Pollack, Mark H.; Shear, M. Katherine; Simon, Naomi M.

    2012-01-01

    The Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) is a clinician-administered measure of panic disorder symptom severity widely used in clinical research. This investigation sought to provide clinically meaningful anchor points for the PDSS both in terms of clinical severity as measured by the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) and to extend…

  18. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  19. 63. ANCHOR WINDLASS ROOM AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. ANCHOR WINDLASS ROOM - AFT LOOKING FORWARD ON CENTERLINE SHOWING LINE REELS, MAIN ANCHOR CHAIN, CHAIN STOPPERS, CAPSTAN AND CONTROLS. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  20. 9. CABLE ANCHORAGE DETAIL, NORTHWEST ABUTMENT (NOTE MOSSCOVERED CONCRETE ANCHOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. CABLE ANCHORAGE DETAIL, NORTHWEST ABUTMENT (NOTE MOSS-COVERED CONCRETE ANCHOR LEFT OF ANCHOR BOLTS) - Nisqually Suspension Bridge, Spanning Nisqually River on Service Road, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  1. 345. Caltrans, Photographer September 20, 1935 "WEST ANCHOR ARM"; DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    345. Caltrans, Photographer September 20, 1935 "WEST ANCHOR ARM"; DETAIL VIEW OF CANTILEVER TRUSS WEST ANCHOR ARM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. 7-1023 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  3. Anchoring and ordering NGS contig assemblies by population sequencing (POPSEQ)

    PubMed Central

    Mascher, Martin; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Chapman, Jarrod; Schmutz, Jeremy; Barry, Kerrie; Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Close, Timothy J; Wise, Roger P; Schulman, Alan H; Himmelbach, Axel; Mayer, Klaus FX; Scholz, Uwe; Poland, Jesse A; Stein, Nils; Waugh, Robbie

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation whole-genome shotgun assemblies of complex genomes are highly useful, but fail to link nearby sequence contigs with each other or provide a linear order of contigs along individual chromosomes. Here, we introduce a strategy based on sequencing progeny of a segregating population that allows de novo production of a genetically anchored linear assembly of the gene space of an organism. We demonstrate the power of the approach by reconstructing the chromosomal organization of the gene space of barley, a large, complex and highly repetitive 5.1 Gb genome. We evaluate the robustness of the new assembly by comparison to a recently released physical and genetic framework of the barley genome, and to various genetically ordered sequence-based genotypic datasets. The method is independent of the need for any prior sequence resources, and will enable rapid and cost-efficient establishment of powerful genomic information for many species. PMID:23998490

  4. AnchorDock: Blind and Flexible Anchor-Driven Peptide Docking.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shimon, Avraham; Niv, Masha Y

    2015-05-01

    The huge conformational space stemming from the inherent flexibility of peptides is among the main obstacles to successful and efficient computational modeling of protein-peptide interactions. Current peptide docking methods typically overcome this challenge using prior knowledge from the structure of the complex. Here we introduce AnchorDock, a peptide docking approach, which automatically targets the docking search to the most relevant parts of the conformational space. This is done by precomputing the free peptide's structure and by computationally identifying anchoring spots on the protein surface. Next, a free peptide conformation undergoes anchor-driven simulated annealing molecular dynamics simulations around the predicted anchoring spots. In the challenging task of a completely blind docking test, AnchorDock produced exceptionally good results (backbone root-mean-square deviation ≤ 2.2Å, rank ≤15) for 10 of 13 unbound cases tested. The impressive performance of AnchorDock supports a molecular recognition pathway that is driven via pre-existing local structural elements. PMID:25914054

  5. Career Paths, Images and Anchors: A Study with Brazilian Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilimnik, Zelia Miranda; de Oliveira, Luiz Claudio Vieira; Sant'anna, Anderson De Souza; Barros, Delba Teixeira Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses career anchors changes associated to images and professionals trajectories. Its main question: Do anchors careers change through time? We conducted twelve interviews involving professionals from the Administration Area, applying Schein's Career Anchors Inventory (1993). We did the same two years later. In both of them, the…

  6. Students' Anchoring Predisposition: An Illustration from Spring Training Baseball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrweis, Lawrence C.

    2014-01-01

    The anchoring tendency results when decision makers anchor on initial values and then make final assessments that are adjusted insufficiently away from the initial values. The professional literature recognizes that auditors often risk falling into the judgment trap of anchoring and adjusting (Ranzilla et al., 2011). Students may also be unaware…

  7. Bottlebrush Polymer Synthesis by Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization: The Significance of the Anchor Group.

    PubMed

    Radzinski, Scott C; Foster, Jeffrey C; Chapleski, Robert C; Troya, Diego; Matson, John B

    2016-06-01

    Control over bottlebrush polymer synthesis by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of macromonomers (MMs) is highly dependent on the competition between the kinetics of the polymerization and the lifetime of the catalyst. We evaluated the effect of anchor group chemistry-the configuration of atoms linking the polymer to a polymerizable norbornene-on the kinetics of ROMP of polystyrene and poly(lactic acid) MMs initiated by (H2IMes)(pyr)2(Cl)2Ru═CHPh (Grubbs third generation catalyst). We observed a variance in the rate of propagation of >4-fold between similar MMs with different anchor groups. This phenomenon was conserved across all MMs tested, regardless of solvent, molecular weight (MW), or repeat unit identity. The observed >4-fold difference in propagation rate had a dramatic effect on the maximum obtainable backbone degree of polymerization, with slower propagating MMs reducing the maximum bottlebrush MW by an order of magnitude (from ∼10(6) to ∼10(5) Da). A chelation mechanism was initially proposed to explain the observed anchor group effect, but experimental and computational studies indicated that the rate differences likely resulted from a combination of varying steric demands and electronic structure among the different anchor groups. The addition of trifluoroacetic acid to the ROMP reaction substantially increased the propagation rate for all anchor groups tested, likely due to scavenging of the pyridine ligands. Based on these data, rational selection of the anchor group is critical to achieve high MM conversion and to prepare pure, high MW bottlebrush polymers by ROMP grafting-through. PMID:27219866

  8. Index, comprehensive microsatellite, and unified linkage maps of human chromosome 14 with cytogenetic tie points and a telomere microsatellite marker

    SciTech Connect

    Pandit, S.D.; Wang, Jen C.; Veile, R.A.

    1995-10-10

    Three sets of linkage maps (index, comprehensive microsatellite, and unified) have been constructed for human chromosome 14 based on genotypes from the CEPH reference pedigrees. The index maps consist of 18 microsatellite markers, with heterozygosities of at least 68% and intermarker spacing no greater than 11 cM. The sex-average comprehensive microsatellite map is 125 cM in length and includes 115 markers with 54 loci uniquely placed with odds for marker order of at least 1000:1. The sex-average index map length is 121 cM, and the female- and male-specific maps are l43 and 101 cM, respectively. A unified map was also constructed from 147 loci (162 marker systems), which includes 32 RFLP markers in addition to the 115 microsatellites. The sex-average length of the unified map is 128 cM with 69 loci uniquely placed. Our maps are anchored by a microsatellite telomere marker sCAW1 (D14S826), developed from a telomere YAC clone TYAC196, which extends the linkage map to the physical terminus of the long arm of chromosome 14. Furthermore, we have also physically mapped seven of the loci by fluorscence in situ hybridization of cosmid clones or Alu-PCR products amplified from YACs containing the marker sequences. Together with previously established cytogenetic map designations for other loci, our maps display links between genetic markers for 10 of 13 cytogenetic bands of chromosome 14 at the 550 genome band resolution. 54 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Gold nanoparticles assembled with dithiocarbamate-anchored molecular wires

    PubMed Central

    Reeler, Nini E. A.; Lerstrup, Knud A.; Somerville, Walter; Speder, Jozsef; Petersen, Søren V.; Laursen, Bo W.; Arenz, Matthias; Qiu, Xiaohui; Vosch, Tom; Nørgaard, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    A protocol for the bottom-up self-assembly of nanogaps is developed through molecular linking of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Two π-conjugated oligo(phenylene ethynylene) molecules (OPE) with dithiocarbamate anchoring groups are used as ligands for the AuNPs. OPE-4S with a dithiocarbamate in each end of the molecule and a reference molecule OPE-2S with only a single dithiocarbamate end group. The linking mechanism of OPE-4S is investigated by using a combination of TEM, UV-Vis absorption and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as well as studying the effect of varying the OPE-4S to AuNP concentration ratio. UV-Vis absorption confirms the formation of AuNP aggregates by the appearance of an extended plasmon band (EPB) for which the red shift and intensity depend on the OPE-4S:AuNP ratio. SERS confirms the presence of OPE-4S and shows a gradual increase of the signal intensity with increasing OPE-4S:AuNP ratios up to a ratio of about 4000, after which the SERS intensity does not increase significantly. For OPE-2S, no linking is observed below full coverage of the AuNPs indicating that the observed aggregate formation at high OPE-2S:AuNP ratios, above full AuNP coverage, is most likely of a physical nature (van der Waals forces or π-π interactions). PMID:26471461

  10. Gold nanoparticles assembled with dithiocarbamate-anchored molecular wires.

    PubMed

    Reeler, Nini E A; Lerstrup, Knud A; Somerville, Walter; Speder, Jozsef; Petersen, Søren V; Laursen, Bo W; Arenz, Matthias; Qiu, Xiaohui; Vosch, Tom; Nørgaard, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    A protocol for the bottom-up self-assembly of nanogaps is developed through molecular linking of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Two π-conjugated oligo(phenylene ethynylene) molecules (OPE) with dithiocarbamate anchoring groups are used as ligands for the AuNPs. OPE-4S with a dithiocarbamate in each end of the molecule and a reference molecule OPE-2S with only a single dithiocarbamate end group. The linking mechanism of OPE-4S is investigated by using a combination of TEM, UV-Vis absorption and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) as well as studying the effect of varying the OPE-4S to AuNP concentration ratio. UV-Vis absorption confirms the formation of AuNP aggregates by the appearance of an extended plasmon band (EPB) for which the red shift and intensity depend on the OPE-4S:AuNP ratio. SERS confirms the presence of OPE-4S and shows a gradual increase of the signal intensity with increasing OPE-4S:AuNP ratios up to a ratio of about 4000, after which the SERS intensity does not increase significantly. For OPE-2S, no linking is observed below full coverage of the AuNPs indicating that the observed aggregate formation at high OPE-2S:AuNP ratios, above full AuNP coverage, is most likely of a physical nature (van der Waals forces or π-π interactions). PMID:26471461

  11. Composite materials formed with anchored nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-03-10

    A method of forming nano-structure composite materials that have a binder material and a nanostructure fiber material is described. A precursor material may be formed using a mixture of at least one metal powder and anchored nanostructure materials. The metal powder mixture may be (a) Ni powder and (b) NiAl powder. The anchored nanostructure materials may comprise (i) NiAl powder as a support material and (ii) carbon nanotubes attached to nanoparticles adjacent to a surface of the support material. The process of forming nano-structure composite materials typically involves sintering the mixture under vacuum in a die. When Ni and NiAl are used in the metal powder mixture Ni.sub.3Al may form as the binder material after sintering. The mixture is sintered until it consolidates to form the nano-structure composite material.

  12. Geodesic defect anchoring on nematic shells.

    PubMed

    Mirantsev, Leonid V; Sonnet, André M; Virga, Epifanio G

    2012-08-01

    Nematic shells are colloidal particles coated with nematic liquid crystal molecules, which may freely glide and rotate on the colloid's surface while keeping their long axis on the local tangent plane. Molecular dynamics simulations on a nanoscopic spherical shell indicate that under appropriate adhesion conditions for the molecules on the equator, the equilibrium nematic texture exhibits at each pole a pair of +1/2 defects so close to one another to be treated as one +1 defect. Spirals connect the polar defects, though the continuum limit of the interaction potential would not feature any elastic anisotropy. A molecular averaging justifies an anchoring defect energy that feels the geodesics emanating from the defect. All our observations are explained by such a geodesic anchoring, which vanishes on flat manifolds. PMID:23005713

  13. Partial credit model and pivot anchoring.

    PubMed

    Bode, R K

    2001-01-01

    This article contains information on the Rasch measurement partial credit model: what it is, how it differs from other Rasch models, when to use it, and how to use it. The calibration of instruments with increasingly complex items is described, starting with dichotomous items and moving on to polychotomous items using a single rating scale, and mixed polychotomous items using multiple rating scales, and instruments in which each item has its own rating scale. It also introduces a procedure for aligning rating scale categories to be used when more than one rating scale is used in a single instrument. Pivot anchoring is defined and an illustration of its use with the mental health scale of the SF-36 that contains positive and negative worded items is provided. It finally describes the effect of pivot anchoring on step calibrations, the item hierarchy, and person measures. PMID:12000858

  14. CSIR at INEX 2008 Link-the-Wiki Track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei; Liu, Dan; Fu, Zhenzhen

    In this paper, we describe methods taken by CSIR in the INEX 2008 Link-the-Wiki track. For the incoming link detection, we use p(d|t), the probability to generate a document, when given the topic file, to judge which documents are proper link sources for the given topic. For the file-to-file task of outgoing link detection, we take a two-step approach: first, we identify a group of candidate target documents by literally matching the topic file title and document content; then, candidate documents are ranked by the number of incoming links. For the anchor-to-BEP task, we use p(d|a,t), the probability to generate a document, when given the topic file and an anchor name, to select anchors and link targets for a given topic.

  15. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews what we know about the interior and surface of the moon and the need to establish a robotic set of geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon for the purpose of providing significant scientific value to the exploration of the Moon. The ILN Anchor Nodes will provide the backbone of the network in a way that accomplishes new science and allows other nodes to be flexible contributors to the network.

  16. Anchoring in a novel bimanual coordination pattern.

    PubMed

    Maslovat, Dana; Lam, Melanie Y; Brunke, Kirstin M; Chua, Romeo; Franks, Ian M

    2009-02-01

    Anchoring in cyclical movements has been defined as regions of reduced spatial or temporal variability [Beek, P. J. (1989). Juggling dynamics. PhD thesis. Amsterdam: Free University Press] that are typically found at movement reversal points. For in-phase and anti-phase movements, synchronizing reversal points with a metronome pulse has resulted in decreased anchor point variability and increased pattern stability [Byblow, W. D., Carson, R. G., & Goodman, D. (1994). Expressions of asymmetries and anchoring in bimanual coordination. Human Movement Science, 13, 3-28; Fink, P. W., Foo, P., Jirsa, V. K., & Kelso, J. A. S. (2000). Local and global stabilization of coordination by sensory information. Experimental Brain Research, 134, 9-20]. The present experiment examined anchoring during acquisition, retention, and transfer of a 90 degrees phase-offset continuous bimanual coordination pattern (whereby the right limb lags the left limb by one quarter cycle), involving horizontal flexion about the elbow. Three metronome synchronization strategies were imposed: participants either synchronized maximal flexion of the right arm (i.e., single metronome), both flexion and extension of the right arm (i.e., double metronome within-limb), or flexion of each arm (i.e., double metronome between-limb) to an auditory metronome. In contrast to simpler in-phase and anti-phase movements, synchronization of additional reversal points to the metronome did not reduce reversal point variability or increase pattern stability. Furthermore, practicing under different metronome synchronization strategies did not appear to have a significant effect on the rate of acquisition of the pattern. PMID:18842313

  17. Test Score Equating Using a Mini-Version Anchor and a Midi Anchor: A Case Study Using SAT[R] Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jinghua; Sinharay, Sandip; Holland, Paul W.; Curley, Edward; Feigenbaum, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    This study explores an anchor that is different from the traditional miniature anchor in test score equating. In contrast to a traditional "mini" anchor that has the same spread of item difficulties as the tests to be equated, the studied anchor, referred to as a "midi" anchor (Sinharay & Holland), has a smaller spread of item difficulties than…

  18. Electropermanent magnetic anchoring for surgery and endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Tugwell, Josef; Brennan, Philip; O'Shea, Conor; O'Donoghue, Kilian; Power, Timothy; O'Shea, Michael; Griffiths, James; Cahill, Ronan; Cantillon-Murphy, Padraig

    2015-03-01

    The use of magnets for anchoring of instrumentation in minimally invasive surgery and endoscopy has become of increased interest in recent years. Permanent magnets have significant advantages over electromagnets for these applications; larger anchoring and retraction force for comparable size and volume without the need for any external power supply. However, permanent magnets represent a potential hazard in the operating field where inadvertent attraction to surgical instrumentation is often undesirable. The current work proposes an interesting hybrid approach which marries the high forces of permanent magnets with the control of electromagnetic technology including the ability to turn the magnet OFF when necessary. This is achieved through the use of an electropermanent magnet, which is designed for surgical retraction across the abdominal and gastric walls. Our electropermanent magnet, which is hand-held and does not require continuous power, is designed with a center lumen which may be used for trocar or needle insertion. The device in this application has been demonstrated successfully in the porcine model where coupling between an intraluminal ring magnet and our electropermanent magnet facilitated guided insertion of an 18 Fr Tuohy needle for guidewire placement. Subsequent investigations have demonstrated the ability to control the coupling distance of the system alleviating shortcomings with current methods of magnetic coupling due to variation in transabdominal wall thicknesses. With further refinement, the magnet may find application in the anchoring of endoscopic and surgical instrumentation for minimally invasive interventions in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25361499

  19. Short read DNA fragment anchoring algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wendi; Zhang, Peiheng; Liu, Xinchun

    2009-01-01

    Background The emerging next-generation sequencing method based on PCR technology boosts genome sequencing speed considerably, the expense is also get decreased. It has been utilized to address a broad range of bioinformatics problems. Limited by reliable output sequence length of next-generation sequencing technologies, we are confined to study gene fragments with 30~50 bps in general and it is relatively shorter than traditional gene fragment length. Anchoring gene fragments in long reference sequence is an essential and prerequisite step for further assembly and analysis works. Due to the sheer number of fragments produced by next-generation sequencing technologies and the huge size of reference sequences, anchoring would rapidly becoming a computational bottleneck. Results and discussion We compared algorithm efficiency on BLAT, SOAP and EMBF. The efficiency is defined as the count of total output results divided by time consumed to retrieve them. The data show that our algorithm EMBF have 3~4 times efficiency advantage over SOAP, and at least 150 times over BLAT. Moreover, when the reference sequence size is increased, the efficiency of SOAP will get degraded as far as 30%, while EMBF have preferable increasing tendency. Conclusion In conclusion, we deem that EMBF is more suitable for short fragment anchoring problem where result completeness and accuracy is predominant and the reference sequences are relatively large. PMID:19208116

  20. Coracoclavicular stabilization using a suture anchor technique.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Darren J; Barron, O Alton; Catalano, Louis; Donahue, Joseph P; Zambetti, George

    2008-06-01

    Multiple fixation options exist for coracoclavicular stabilization, but many are technically demanding and require hardware removal. In the study reported here, we reviewed a specific fixation technique that includes suture anchors moored in the base of the coracoid process. We retrospectively reviewed 24 consecutive cases of patients who underwent coracoclavicular stabilization with a suture anchor for a type III or type V acromioclavicular (AC) joint separation or a group II, type II or type V distal clavicle fracture. Eighteen of the 22 patients had full strength and painless range of motion (ROM) in the affected extremity by 3 months and at final follow-up (minimum, 24 months; mean, 39 months). Two patients were lost to follow-up. Four patients had early complications likely secondary to documented noncompliance. Two of these 4 patients underwent reoperation with a similar procedure and remained asymptomatic at a minimum follow-up of 15 months. One patient underwent osteophyte and knot excision 7 months after surgery and remained asymptomatic at 30 months. Our results suggest that coracoclavicular stabilization using a suture anchor technique is a safe and reliable method of treating acromioclavicular joint separations and certain distal clavicle fractures in the compliant patient. PMID:18716693

  1. Physical mapping in large genomes: accelerating anchoring of BAC contigs to genetic maps through in silico analysis.

    PubMed

    Paux, Etienne; Legeai, Fabrice; Guilhot, Nicolas; Adam-Blondon, Anne-Françoise; Alaux, Michaël; Salse, Jérôme; Sourdille, Pierre; Leroy, Philippe; Feuillet, Catherine

    2008-02-01

    Anchored physical maps represent essential frameworks for map-based cloning, comparative genomics studies, and genome sequencing projects. High throughput anchoring can be achieved by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library pools with molecular markers. However, for large genomes such as wheat, the development of high dimension pools and the number of reactions that need to be performed can be extremely large making the screening laborious and costly. To improve the cost efficiency of anchoring in such large genomes, we have developed a new software named Elephant (electronic physical map anchoring tool) that combines BAC contig information generated by FingerPrinted Contig with results of BAC library pools screening to identify BAC addresses with a minimal amount of PCR reactions. Elephant was evaluated during the construction of a physical map of chromosome 3B of hexaploid wheat. Results show that a one dimensional pool screening can be sufficient to anchor a BAC contig while reducing the number of PCR by 384-fold thereby demonstrating that Elephant is an efficient and cost-effective tool to support physical mapping in large genomes. PMID:18038165

  2. Robotic Ankle for Omnidirectional Rock Anchors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; Thatte, Nitish

    2013-01-01

    Future robotic exploration of near-Earth asteroids and the vertical and inverted rock walls of lava caves and cliff faces on Mars and other planetary bodies would require a method of gripping their rocky surfaces to allow mobility without gravitational assistance. In order to successfully navigate this terrain and drill for samples, the grippers must be able to produce anchoring forces in excess of 100 N. Additionally, the grippers must be able to support the inertial forces of a moving robot, as well gravitational forces for demonstrations on Earth. One possible solution would be to use microspine arrays to anchor to rock surfaces and provide the necessary load-bearing abilities for robotic exploration of asteroids. Microspine arrays comprise dozens of small steel hooks supported on individual suspensions. When these arrays are dragged along a rock surface, the steel hooks engage with asperities and holes on the surface. The suspensions allow for individual hooks to engage with asperities while the remaining hooks continue to drag along the surface. This ensures that the maximum possible number of hooks engage with the surface, thereby increasing the load-bearing abilities of the gripper. Using the microspine array grippers described above as the end-effectors of a robot would allow it to traverse terrain previously unreachable by traditional wheeled robots. Furthermore, microspine-gripping robots that can perch on cliffs or rocky walls could enable a new class of persistent surveillance devices for military applications. In order to interface these microspine grippers with a legged robot, an ankle is needed that can robotically actuate the gripper, as well as allow it to conform to the large-scale irregularities in the rock. The anchor serves three main purposes: deploy and release the anchor, conform to roughness or misalignment with the surface, and cancel out any moments about the anchor that could cause unintentional detachment. The ankle design contains a

  3. Developmnent of molecular markers for powdery mildew resistance in grapevines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular markers have been used as a tool for plant breeding for two decades. Markers linked to disease resistance can be used to pyramid resistance genes for improved durability and to improve the efficiency of evaluation. To develop molecular markers linked to resistance to grape powdery mildew ...

  4. Histologic and morphologic evaluation of explanted bone anchors from bone-anchored hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Mlynski, Robert; Goldberg, Eva; Ebmeyer, Joerg; Scheich, Matthias; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Schwager, Konrad; Hagen, Rudolf; Shehata-Dieler, Wafaa

    2009-05-01

    Bone-anchored hearing aids are a standard option in rehabilitation of patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss, and also CROS fitting. However, the skin-penetrating bone anchor repeatedly gives reason for discussion about the risk of infection of surrounding tissues as a major cause of malfunction. In the present study, explanted bone anchors with surrounding bone and soft tissue were examined and compared with the morphology of lost implants. The anchors originated from five patients. Two needed explantation due to deafness with the need of cochlea implantation. A third patient underwent explantation due to meningeal irritation by the bone anchor. Another patient lost the implant due to mechanical stress shortly after implantation. The last implant was lost in a child without apparent reason. All implants were clinically free of infection and had been stable for a median implantation period of 12 months. During the explantation procedure, the fixtures were recovered together with the attached soft tissue and bone. The specimens were examined by light microscopy or scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sectioning for light microscopy was performed with a diamond-coated saw microtome. Histopathologic examination of the surrounding skin and subcutaneous soft tissue showed slight inflammation in one case only. The bone was regularly vital, presenting no signs of inflammation. The threads of the fixtures were filled with bone, with particularly strong attachment to the flank of traction. The SEM investigation exposed the ultrastructural interaction of bone with the implant surface. Filiform- and podocyte-like processes of osteocytes attach to the implant; lost implants did not reflect these features. Implant integration involves both osseointegration as well as soft tissue integration. Titanium oxide as the active implant surface promotes this integration even in unstable implants. The morphologic analysis exposed structural areas of the implant with weak bone

  5. Mass spectrometric identification of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored peptides.

    PubMed

    Masuishi, Yusuke; Nomura, Ayako; Okayama, Akiko; Kimura, Yayoi; Arakawa, Noriaki; Hirano, Hisashi

    2013-10-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring is a post-translational modification widely observed among eukaryotic membrane proteins. GPI anchors are attached to proteins via the carboxy-terminus in the outer leaflet of the cell membrane, where GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) perform important functions as coreceptors and enzymes. Precursors of GPI-APs (Pre-GPI-APs) contain a C-terminal hydrophobic sequence that is involved in cleavage of the signal sequence from the protein and addition of the GPI anchor by the transamidase complex. In order to confirm that a given protein contains a GPI anchor, it is essential to identify the C-terminal peptide containing the GPI-anchor modification site (ω-site). Previously, efficient identification of GPI-anchored C-terminal peptides by mass spectrometry has been difficult, in part because of complex structure of the GPI-anchor moiety. We developed a method to experimentally identify GPI-APs and their ω-sites. In this method, a part of GPI-anchor moieties are removed from GPI-anchored peptides using phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) and aqueous hydrogen fluoride (HF), and peptide sequence is then determined by mass spectrometry. Using this method, we successfully identified 10 GPI-APs and 12 ω-sites in the cultured ovarian adenocarcinoma cells, demonstrating that this method is useful for identifying efficiently GPI-APs. PMID:24001144

  6. Analysis of Glenoid Inter-anchor Distance with an All-Suture Anchor System

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Jonathan; Robinson, Sean; Dutton, Pascual; Dickinson, Ephraim; Rodriguez, John Paul; Camisa, William; Leasure, Jeremi M.; Montgomery, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Arthroscopic shoulder stabilization using suture anchors are commonly used techniques. More recently developed all-suture systems employ smaller diameter anchors, which increase repair contact area and allow greater placement density on narrow surfaces such as the glenoid. Our goal is investigate the strength characteristics of various inter-anchor distances in a human glenoid model. Methods: Twelve fresh-frozen human cadaveric glenoids were potted after the labrum was excised. The glenoids were then implanted with 1.4 mm all-suture anchors (Juggerknot, Biomet, Warsaw, IN) at varying inter-anchor distances. Anchors were implanted adjacent to one another or at 2 mm, 3 mm, or 5 mm distances using a template with pre-drilled holes. The glenoids were then underwent single cycle pullout testing using a test frame (Instron 8521, Instron Inc., Norwood, MA). A 5 N preload was applied to the construct and the actuator was driven away from the shoulder at a rate of 12.5mm/s as seen in Figure 1. Force and displacement were collected from the test frame actuator at a rate of 500 Hz. The primary outcomes were failure strength and stiffness. Stiffness was calculated from the initial linear region of the force displacement curve. Failure strength was defined as the first local maximum inflection point in the force displacement curve. Results: During load to fail testing, all but three of the specimens had both anchors pull out of the glenoid. The other mode of failure included one or both of the sutures failing. Stiffness was 13.52 ± 3.8, 17.97 ± 5.02, 17.59 ± 4.65 and 18.95 ± 4.67 N/mm for the adjacent, 2 mm, 3 mm and 5 mm treatment groups as shown Table 1. The adjacent group had a significantly lower stiffness compared to the other treatment groups. Failure strength was 48.68 ± 20.64, 76.16 ± 23.78, 73.19 ± 35.83 and 87.04 ± 34.67 N for the adjacent, 2 mm, 3 mm and 5 mm treatment groups as shown in Table 1. The adjacent group had a significantly lower

  7. Genetic anchoring of whole-genome shotgun assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Mascher, Martin; Stein, Nils

    2014-01-01

    The recent advances in sequencing throughput and genome assembly algorithms have established whole-genome shotgun (WGS) assemblies as the cornerstone of the genomic infrastructure for many species. WGS assemblies can be constructed with comparative ease and give a comprehensive representation of the gene space even of large and complex genomes. One major obstacle in utilizing WGS assemblies for important research applications such as gene isolation or comparative genomics has been the lack of chromosomal positioning and contextualization of short sequence contigs. Assigning chromosomal locations to sequence contigs required the construction and integration of genome-wide physical maps and dense genetic linkage maps as well as synteny to model species. Recently, methods to rapidly construct ultra-dense linkage maps encompassing millions of genetic markers from WGS sequencing data of segregating populations have made possible the direct assignment of genetic positions to short sequence contigs. Here, we review recent developments in the integration of WGS assemblies and sequence-based linkage maps, discuss challenges for further improvement of the methodology and outline possible applications building on genetically anchored WGS assemblies. PMID:25071835

  8. High-Throughput SNP Discovery through Deep Resequencing of a Reduced Representation Library to Anchor and Orient Scaffolds in the Soybean Whole Genome Sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean Consensus Map 4.0 facilitated the anchoring of 95.6% of the soybean whole genome sequence developed by the Joint Genome Institute, Department of Energy but only properly oriented 66% of the sequence scaffolds. To find additional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for additiona...

  9. Anchoring of FRET Sensors—A Requirement for Spatiotemporal Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Elena V.; Figueroa, Ricardo A.; Gatsinzi, Tom; Hallberg, Einar; Iverfeldt, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    FRET biosensors have become a routine tool for investigating mechanisms and components of cell signaling. Strategies for improving them for particular applications are continuously sought. One important aspect to consider when designing FRET probes is the dynamic distribution and propagation of signals within living cells. We have addressed this issue by directly comparing an anchored (taFS) to a non-anchored (naFS) cleavable FRET sensor. We chose a microtubule-associated protein tau as an anchor, as microtubules are abundant throughout the cytosol of cells. We show that tau-anchored FRET sensors are concentrated at the cytoskeleton and enriched in the neurite-like processes of cells, providing high intensity of the total signal. In addition, anchoring limits the diffusion of the sensor, enabling spatiotemporally resolved monitoring of subcellular variations in enzyme activity. Thus, anchoring is an important aspect to consider when designing FRET sensors for deeper understanding of cell signaling. PMID:27196902

  10. Anchoring of FRET Sensors-A Requirement for Spatiotemporal Resolution.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Elena V; Figueroa, Ricardo A; Gatsinzi, Tom; Hallberg, Einar; Iverfeldt, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    FRET biosensors have become a routine tool for investigating mechanisms and components of cell signaling. Strategies for improving them for particular applications are continuously sought. One important aspect to consider when designing FRET probes is the dynamic distribution and propagation of signals within living cells. We have addressed this issue by directly comparing an anchored (taFS) to a non-anchored (naFS) cleavable FRET sensor. We chose a microtubule-associated protein tau as an anchor, as microtubules are abundant throughout the cytosol of cells. We show that tau-anchored FRET sensors are concentrated at the cytoskeleton and enriched in the neurite-like processes of cells, providing high intensity of the total signal. In addition, anchoring limits the diffusion of the sensor, enabling spatiotemporally resolved monitoring of subcellular variations in enzyme activity. Thus, anchoring is an important aspect to consider when designing FRET sensors for deeper understanding of cell signaling. PMID:27196902

  11. Anchor Toolkit - a secure mobile agent system

    SciTech Connect

    Mudumbai, Srilekha S.; Johnston, William; Essiari, Abdelilah

    1999-05-19

    Mobile agent technology facilitates intelligent operation insoftware systems with less human interaction. Major challenge todeployment of mobile agents include secure transmission of agents andpreventing unauthorized access to resources between interacting systems,as either hosts, or agents, or both can act maliciously. The Anchortoolkit, designed by LBNL, handles the transmission and secure managementof mobile agents in a heterogeneous distributed computing environment. Itprovides users with the option of incorporating their security managers.This paper concentrates on the architecture, features, access control anddeployment of Anchor toolkit. Application of this toolkit in a securedistributed CVS environment is discussed as a case study.

  12. BAHA: Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Hagr, Abdulrahman

    2007-01-01

    Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid (BAHA) has proven performance and advantages for patients with aural atresia or chronic ear drainage who cannot wear air-conduction hearing aids. The BAHA has both cosmetic and acoustic advantages over most conventional hearing aids and hence is becoming increasingly popular. Moreover, BAHA improves the quality of life and has also significantly reduces ear discharge. This extensive review of the literature pertaining to BAHA discus the history, the indications, the advantages, the prediction of the outcome and the complications of this device as well as comparing it to the conventional hearing aids. PMID:21475438

  13. The association between glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and heterotrimeric G protein alpha subunits in lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, K R; Rudd, C E; Finberg, R W

    1996-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins are nonmembrane spanning cell surface proteins that have been demonstrated to be signal transduction molecules. Because these proteins do not extend into the cytoplasm, the mechanism by which cross-linking of these molecules leads to intracellular signal transduction events is obscure. Previous analysis has indicated that these proteins are associated with src family member tyrosine kinases; however, the role this interaction plays in the generation of intracellular signals is not clear. Here we show that GPI-anchored proteins are associated with alpha subunits of heterotrimeric GTP binding proteins (G proteins) in both human and murine lymphocytes. When the GPI-anchored proteins CD59, CD48, and Thy-1 were immunoprecipitated from various cell lines or freshly isolated lymphocytes, all were found to be associated with a 41-kDa phosphoprotein that we have identified, by using specific antisera, as a mixture of tyrosine phosphorylated G protein alpha subunits: a small amount of Gialpha1, and substantial amounts of Gialpha2 and Gialpha3. GTP binding assays performed with immunoprecipitations of CD59 indicated that there was GTP-binding activity associated with this molecule. Thus, we have shown by both immunochemical and functional criteria that GPI-anchored proteins are physically associated with G proteins. These experiments suggest a potential role of G proteins in the transduction of signals generated by GPI-anchored molecules expressed on lymphocytes of both mouse and human. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8650218

  14. Beam and pump currents for a MARS anchor

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, P.D.; Devoto, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    The MARS anchor has been modeled and analyzed with a numerical bounce-average Fokker-Planck treatment. The interactions between the various ion classes (passing, spanning and trapped) are treated in detail. Consistent solutions have been obtained for the complete asymmetric anchor. For baseline MARS parameters, 5.7 MW per end must be delivered by the anchor neutral beams, and 6.5 A per end must be pumped to maintain the sloshing ion axial density profiles.

  15. Ion transport proteins anchor and regulate the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Denker, Sheryl P; Barber, Diane L

    2002-04-01

    Structurally diverse ion transport proteins anchor the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane by binding directly to linker proteins of the ankyrin and protein 4.1 families. Cytoskeletal anchoring regulates cell shape and restricts the activity of ion transport proteins to specialised membrane domains. New directions are being forged by recent findings that localised anchoring by ion transport proteins regulates the ordered assembly of actin filaments and the actin-dependent processes of cell adhesion and motility. PMID:11891121

  16. Anchor-induced chondral damage in the hip

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Dean K.; Bharam, Srino; White, Brian J.; Matsuda, Nicole A.; Safran, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the outcomes from anchor-induced chondral damage of the hip, both with and without frank chondral penetration. A multicenter retrospective case series was performed of patients with chondral deformation or penetration during initial hip arthroscopic surgery. Intra-operative findings, post-surgical clinical courses, hip outcome scores and descriptions of arthroscopic treatment in cases requiring revision surgery and anchor removal are reported. Five patients (three females) of mean age 32 years (range, 16–41 years) had documented anchor-induced chondral damage with mean 3.5 years (range, 1.5–6.0 years) follow-up. The 1 o'clock position (four cases) and anterior and mid-anterior portals (two cases each) were most commonly implicated. Two cases of anchor-induced acetabular chondral deformation without frank penetration had successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, while one case progressed from deformation to chondral penetration with clinical worsening. Of the cases that underwent revision hip arthroscopy, all three had confirmed exposed hard anchors which were removed. Two patients have had clinical improvement and one patient underwent early total hip arthroplasty. Anchor-induced chondral deformation without frank chondral penetration may be treated with close clinical and radiographic monitoring with a low threshold for revision surgery and anchor removal. Chondral penetration should be treated with immediate removal of offending hard anchor implants. Preventative measures include distal-based portals, small diameter and short anchors, removable hard anchors, soft suture-based anchors, curved drill and anchor insertion instrumentation and attention to safe trajectories while visualizing the acetabular articular surface. PMID:27011815

  17. Anchor-induced chondral damage in the hip.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Dean K; Bharam, Srino; White, Brian J; Matsuda, Nicole A; Safran, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the outcomes from anchor-induced chondral damage of the hip, both with and without frank chondral penetration. A multicenter retrospective case series was performed of patients with chondral deformation or penetration during initial hip arthroscopic surgery. Intra-operative findings, post-surgical clinical courses, hip outcome scores and descriptions of arthroscopic treatment in cases requiring revision surgery and anchor removal are reported. Five patients (three females) of mean age 32 years (range, 16-41 years) had documented anchor-induced chondral damage with mean 3.5 years (range, 1.5-6.0 years) follow-up. The 1 o'clock position (four cases) and anterior and mid-anterior portals (two cases each) were most commonly implicated. Two cases of anchor-induced acetabular chondral deformation without frank penetration had successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, while one case progressed from deformation to chondral penetration with clinical worsening. Of the cases that underwent revision hip arthroscopy, all three had confirmed exposed hard anchors which were removed. Two patients have had clinical improvement and one patient underwent early total hip arthroplasty. Anchor-induced chondral deformation without frank chondral penetration may be treated with close clinical and radiographic monitoring with a low threshold for revision surgery and anchor removal. Chondral penetration should be treated with immediate removal of offending hard anchor implants. Preventative measures include distal-based portals, small diameter and short anchors, removable hard anchors, soft suture-based anchors, curved drill and anchor insertion instrumentation and attention to safe trajectories while visualizing the acetabular articular surface. PMID:27011815

  18. Decoding Cytoskeleton-Anchored and Non-Anchored Receptors from Single-Cell Adhesion Force Data.

    PubMed

    Sariisik, Ediz; Popov, Cvetan; Müller, Jochen P; Docheva, Denitsa; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Benoit, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Complementary to parameters established for cell-adhesion force curve analysis, we evaluated the slope before a force step together with the distance from the surface at which the step occurs and visualized the result in a two-dimensional density plot. This new tool allows detachment steps of long membrane tethers to be distinguished from shorter jumplike force steps, which are typical for cytoskeleton-anchored bonds. A prostate cancer cell line (PC3) immobilized on an atomic-force-microscopy sensor interacted with three different substrates: collagen-I (Col-I), bovine serum albumin, and a monolayer of bone marrow-derived stem cells (SCP1). To address PC3 cells' predominant Col-I binding molecules, an antibody-blocking β1-integrin was used. Untreated PC3 cells on Col-I or SCP1 cells, which express Col-I, predominantly showed jumps in their force curves, while PC3 cells on bovine-serum-albumin- and antibody-treated PC3 cells showed long membrane tethers. The probability density plots thus revealed that β1-integrin-specific interactions are predominately anchored to the cytoskeleton, while the nonspecific interactions are mainly membrane-anchored. Experiments with latrunculin-A-treated PC3 cells corroborated these observations. The plots thus reveal details of the anchoring of bonds to the cell and provide a better understanding of receptor-ligand interactions. PMID:26445433

  19. Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Bevan, John E.; King, Grant W.

    1998-01-01

    An expandable anchor assembly is provided for anchoring the threaded end portion of an elongated roof bolt in a borehole. The anchoring assembly includes a hollow outer sleeve in the form of a plurality of symmetrically arranged, longitudinal segmented wall portions with exterior gripping teeth and an inner expander sleeve in the form of a corresponding plurality of longitudinal wall portions symmetrically arranged about a central axis to define an inner threaded cylindrical section. The inner sleeve is captured within and moveable axially relative to the outer sleeve. As the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt is inserted into the inner threaded cylindrical section of the inner sleeve from the trailing end to the leading end thereof, the inner sleeve expands over and clamps around the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt. Thereafter, partial withdrawal of the elongated bolt from the borehole causes the inner sleeve to axially move relative to the outer sleeve from the leading end toward the trailing end of the outer sleeve in a wedging action to cause the outer sleeve to radially expand and force engagement of the gripping teeth against the sidewall of the borehole to thereby secure the expandable anchor assembly and therewith the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt within the borehole.

  20. Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Bevan, J.E.; King, G.W.

    1998-12-08

    An expandable anchor assembly is provided for anchoring the threaded end portion of an elongated roof bolt in a borehole. The anchoring assembly includes a hollow outer sleeve in the form of a plurality of symmetrically arranged, longitudinal segmented wall portions with exterior gripping teeth and an inner expander sleeve in the form of a corresponding plurality of longitudinal wall portions symmetrically arranged about a central axis to define an inner threaded cylindrical section. The inner sleeve is captured within and moveable axially relative to the outer sleeve. As the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt is inserted into the inner threaded cylindrical section of the inner sleeve from the trailing end to the leading end thereof, the inner sleeve expands over and clamps around the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt. Thereafter, partial withdrawal of the elongated bolt from the borehole causes the inner sleeve to axially move relative to the outer sleeve from the leading end toward the trailing end of the outer sleeve in a wedging action to cause the outer sleeve to radially expand and force engagement of the gripping teeth against the sidewall of the borehole to thereby secure the expandable anchor assembly and therewith the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt within the borehole. 8 figs.

  1. Genome fingerprinting by simple sequence repeat (SSR)-anchored polymerase chain reaction amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Zietkiewicz, E.; Labuda, D. ); Rafalski, A. )

    1994-03-15

    Simple sequence repeats (SSR), or microsatellites, are ubiquitous in eukaryotic genomes. Here the authors demonstrate the utility of microsatellite-directed DNA fingerprinting by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the interrepeat region. No sequencing is required to design the oligonucleotide primers. They tested primers anchored at 3[prime] or 5[prime] termini of the (A)[sub n] repeats, extended into the flanking sequence by 2 to 4 nucleotide residues [3[prime]-anchored primers: (CA)[sub 8]RG, (CA)[sub 8]RY, and (CA)[sub 7]RTCY; and 5[prime]-anchored primers: BDB(CA)[sub 7]C, DBDA(CA)[sub 7], VHVG(TG)[sub 7] and HVH(TG)[sub 7]T]. Radioactively labeled amplification products were analyzed by electrophoresis, revealing information on multiple genomic loci in a single gel lane. Complex, species-specific patterns were obtained from a variety of eukaryotic taxa. Intraspecies polymorphisms were also observed and shown to segregate as Mendelian markers. Inter-SSR PCR provides a novel fingerprinting approach applicable for taxonomic and phylogenetic comparisons and as a mapping tool in a wide range of organisms. This application of (CA)[sub n] repeats may be extended to different microsatellites and other common dispersed elements. 24 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Investigation of a MMP-2 Activity-Dependent Anchoring Probe for Nuclear Imaging of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Temma, Takashi; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Yonezawa, Aki; Kondo, Naoya; Sano, Kohei; Sakamoto, Takeharu; Seiki, Motoharu; Ono, Masahiro; Saji, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Since matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is an important marker of tumor malignancy, we developed an original drug design strategy, MMP-2 activity dependent anchoring probes (MDAP), for use in MMP-2 activity imaging, and evaluated the usefulness of this probe in in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods We designed and synthesized MDAP1000, MDAP3000, and MDAP5000, which consist of 4 independent moieties: RI unit (111In hydrophilic chelate), MMP-2 substrate unit (short peptide), anchoring unit (alkyl chain), and anchoring inhibition unit (polyethylene glycol (PEGn; where n represents the approximate molecular weight, n = 1000, 3000, and 5000). Probe cleavage was evaluated by chromatography after MMP-2 treatment. Cellular uptake of the probes was then measured. Radioactivity accumulation in tumor xenografts was evaluated after intravenous injection of the probes, and probe cleavage was evaluated in tumor homogenates. Results MDAP1000, MDAP3000, and MDAP5000 were cleaved by MMP-2 in a concentration-dependent manner. MDAP3000 pretreated with MMP-2 showed higher accumulation in tumor cells, and was completely blocked by additional treatment with an MMP inhibitor. MDAP3000 exhibited rapid blood clearance and a high tumor accumulation after intravenous injection in a rodent model. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that MDAP3000 exhibited a considerably slow washout rate from tumors to blood. A certain fraction of cleaved MDAP3000 existed in tumor xenografts in vivo. Conclusions The results indicate the possible usefulness of our MDAP strategy for tumor imaging. PMID:25010662

  3. Transosseous Acetabular Labral Repair as an Alternative to Anchors

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Carro, Luis; Cabello, Andres Gonzalez; Rakha, Mohamed Ibrahim; Patnaik, Sarthak; Centeno, Elias; Miranda, Victor; Fernández, Ana Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Labral tears are the most common pathology in patients undergoing hip arthroscopy and the most common cause of mechanical hip symptoms. Labral repair techniques have been described in the literature using suture anchors placed as close as possible to the acetabular rim without penetrating the articular surface. Optimal surgical technique for labral repair is very important, and an inappropriate entry point and guide angulation may lead to intra-articular penetration of the anchor, chondral damage, anchor loosening, or inadequate fixation. A shallow dysplastic hip, the drilling trajectory, the narrow width of the acetabular rim, or some specific anatomic variations may generate difficulty during anchor placement. Suture anchors themselves have been associated with several significant complications, including rim fracture, osteolysis, enlargement of drill holes, and infection. The treatment of labral lesions with transosseous suture is an alternative to anchor use, eliminating the need for anchors and avoiding anchor-associated complications. This technique offers versatility to surgeons and is more cost-effective for patients and health services. We aim to describe the indications and technique for transosseous labral repair without anchors. PMID:26697295

  4. New Retrievable Coil Anchors: Preliminary In Vivo Experiences in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Konya, A. Wright, K.C.

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. To design and test retrievable coil anchors to improve the safety and efficacy of coil embolization. Methods. Fifty-two 0.038-inch homemade retrievable stainless steel coils were equipped with one of four different pre-shaped nitinol anchors and tested in 38 pigs. All coils with the anchor were completely retrieved and redeployed 3-18 times (median 7 times) prior to release. Types 1 and 2 anchored coils were acutely deployed in the external iliac arteries (n = 10 each), and chronically tested (1 week) in the common carotid arteries (n = 6 each). Larger type 1 (n = 4), type 3 (n = 6), and type 4 (n = 4) anchored coils were acutely deployed in the abdominal aorta. The largest type 1 anchors (n = 6) were acutely tested in the inferior vena cava. Results. All anchored coils were successfully retrieved and repositioned several times. All but two coils formed a compact plug and there was no coil migration except with two mechanically defective type 3 anchors. Conclusion. The use of retrievable anchors allowed the coils to be retrieved and repositioned, prevented coil migration, and enabled compact coil configuration.

  5. Minireview: Steroid/Nuclear Receptor-Regulated Dynamics of Occluding and Anchoring Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, Bhumika J.

    2014-01-01

    A diverse set of physiological signals control intercellular interactions by regulating the structure and function of occluding junctions (tight junctions) and anchoring junctions (adherens junctions and desmosomes). These plasma membrane junctions are comprised of multiprotein complexes of transmembrane and cytoplasmic peripheral plasma membrane proteins. Evidence from many hormone-responsive tissues has shown that expression, modification, molecular interactions, stability, and localization of junctional complex-associated proteins can be targeted by nuclear hormone receptors and their ligands through transcriptional and nontranscriptional mechanisms. The focus of this minireview is to discuss molecular, cellular, and physiological studies that directly link nuclear receptor- and ligand-triggered signaling pathways to the regulation of occluding and anchoring junction dynamics. PMID:25203673

  6. A-kinase anchoring proteins: molecular regulators of the cardiac stress response.

    PubMed

    Diviani, Dario; Maric, Darko; Pérez López, Irene; Cavin, Sabrina; Del Vescovo, Cosmo D

    2013-04-01

    In response to stress or injury the heart undergoes a pathological remodeling process, associated with hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte death and fibrosis, that ultimately causes cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. It has become increasingly clear that signaling events associated with these pathological cardiac remodeling events are regulated by scaffolding and anchoring proteins, which allow coordination of pathological signals in space and time. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) constitute a family of functionally related proteins that organize multiprotein signaling complexes that tether the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) as well as other signaling enzymes to ensure integration and processing of multiple signaling pathways. This review will discuss the role of AKAPs in the cardiac response to stress. Particular emphasis will be given to the adaptative process associated with cardiac hypoxia as well as the remodeling events linked to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Cardiac Pathways of Differentiation, Metabolism and Contraction. PMID:22889610

  7. The Ponto bone-anchored hearing system.

    PubMed

    Westerkull, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    Based on a foundation of a well-documented Brånemark implant experience and the most advanced sound processing technology from Oticon, Oticon Medical introduced in 2009 a new bone-anchored hearing system, the Ponto system. Although the principle of percutaneous direct bone conduction is established, new technology aiming at improving speech perception and sound comfort in noisy environments is introduced with the new Ponto system. This has been possible by using the sound-processing platform from the most advanced conventional hearing aids from Oticon. Furthermore, specific steps have been taken aiming at improving the implant as well as the skin-penetrating abutment. The Ponto sound processor coupling has been developed to withstand long-term wear and tear. With the Ponto system, a new alternative is offered to the various groups of both new and existing users of bone-anchored hearing systems. In clinical studies of the Ponto Pro sound processor, the objective testing verified the high performance of the adaptive directionality system. The subjective questionnaires on speech perception and device handling also verified that the Ponto system offers efficient hearing rehabilitation as well as other user benefits. The Ponto system also includes possibilities to fit the sound processor 2 weeks after surgery. Referred clinical studies with the Ponto system have, however, not yet been published in the literature (autumn 2010).Clinical results have this far been presented at scientific conferences. PMID:21389702

  8. Multifunctional Roles for the Protein Translocation Machinery in RNA Anchoring to the Endoplasmic Reticulum*

    PubMed Central

    Jagannathan, Sujatha; Hsu, Jack C.-C.; Reid, David W.; Chen, Qiang; Thompson, Will J.; Moseley, Arthur M.; Nicchitta, Christopher V.

    2014-01-01

    Signal sequence-encoding mRNAs undergo translation-dependent localization to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and at the ER are anchored via translation on Sec61-bound ribosomes. Recent investigations into the composition and membrane association characteristics of ER-associated mRNAs have, however, revealed both ribosome-dependent (indirect) and ribosome-independent (direct) modes of mRNA association with the ER. These findings raise important questions regarding our understanding of how mRNAs are selected, localized, and anchored to the ER. Using semi-intact tissue culture cells, we performed a polysome solubilization screen and identified conditions that distinguish polysomes engaged in the translation of distinct cohorts of mRNAs. To gain insight into the molecular basis of direct mRNA anchoring to the ER, we performed RNA-protein UV photocross-linking studies in rough microsomes and demonstrate that numerous ER integral membrane proteins display RNA binding activity. Quantitative proteomic analyses of HeLa cytosolic and ER-bound polysome fractions identified translocon components as selective polysome-interacting proteins. Notably, the Sec61 complex was highly enriched in polysomes engaged in the translation of endomembrane organelle proteins, whereas translocon accessory proteins, such as ribophorin I, were present in all subpopulations of ER-associated polysomes. Analyses of the protein composition of oligo(dT)-selected UV photocross-linked ER protein-RNA adducts identified Sec61α,β and ribophorin I as ER-poly(A) mRNA-binding proteins, suggesting unexpected roles for the protein translocation and modification machinery in mRNA anchoring to the ER. In summary, we propose that multiple mechanisms of mRNA and ribosome association with ER operate to enable an mRNA transcriptome-wide function for the ER in protein synthesis. PMID:25063809

  9. 30 CFR 56.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 56.9311 Section 56.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 56.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing...

  10. Memory for Dialogue: Recalling an Anchor through Talk and Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Pam

    This paper reports on a project involving student recall of the dialogue in a movie and retention of the "anchor," which in this case refers to a videotape recording of "To Kill a Mockingbird." The project looked at how students retained knowledge over a few days and what kind of activities resulted from expertise with an anchor. The goal of…

  11. Anchored Instruction in Preservice Educational Technology Classes: A Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Jeffrey W.

    This study examined the effectiveness of the anchored instruction (i.e., using a theme or anchor around which various learning activities take place) approach in preparing preservice teachers to integrate technology. Participants were 48 students enrolled in the three sections of a preservice educational technology class during the summer of 1997.…

  12. 30 CFR 56.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 56.9311 Section 56.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 56.9311 Anchoring stationary sizing devices. Grizzlies and other stationary sizing...

  13. Using Anchored Instruction to Evaluate Mathematical Growth and Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Terri L.; Batarelo, Ivana

    2005-01-01

    Anchored instruction is designed to present problems in a meaningful context to allow for investigations into real life environments. The Jasper Project was created to allow students to investigate mathematical dilemmas using anchored instruction techniques. This study uses case study methods to examine the perceptions that preservice teachers…

  14. Bearing area: a new indication for suture anchor pullout strength?

    PubMed

    Yakacki, Christopher Michael; Griffis, Jack; Poukalova, Mariya; Gall, Ken

    2009-08-01

    Studies performed to quantify the pullout strength of suture anchors have not adequately defined the basic device parameters that control monotonic pullout. The bearing area of a suture anchor can be used to understand and predict anchor pullout strength in a soft-bone model. First, conical-shaped test samples were varied in size and shape and tested for pullout in 5, 8, and 10 pcf sawbone models. Next, bearing area and pullout strength relationships developed from the test samples were validated against nine commercially available suture anchors, including the Mitek QuickAnchor and SpiraLok, Opus Magnum(2), ArthroCare ParaSorb, and Arthrex BioCorkscrew. The samples showed a direct correlation between bearing area and pullout strength. Increased insertion depth was a secondary condition that also increased pullout strength. The pullout strength for the suture anchors followed the predicted trends of conical devices based on their individual bearing areas. For the 5 and 8 pcf models, only two and three devices, respectively, fell outside the predicted pullout strength range by more than a standard deviation. The use of a synthetic sawbone model was validated against the pullout strength of an Arthrex Corkscrew in five fresh-frozen cadaver humeral heads. The bearing area of a suture anchor can be used to predict the pullout strength independent of design in a soft-bone model. This work helps provide a foundation to understand the principles that affect the pullout strength of suture anchors. PMID:19226593

  15. Understanding Rasch Measurement: Partial Credit Model and Pivot Anchoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bode, Rita K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Rasch measurement partial credit model, what it is, how it differs from other Rasch models, and when and how to use it. Also describes the calibration of instruments with increasingly complex items. Explains pivot anchoring and illustrates its use and describes the effect of pivot anchoring on step calibrations, item hierarchy, and…

  16. 107. View showing open caisson Pier 4 with anchor bolts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. View showing open caisson Pier 4 with anchor bolts placed ready for last pour of concrete. Also pile driver driving falsework piles for south anchor arm. Located at end of the old ferry landing slip at Crockett side of straits. - Carquinez Bridge, Spanning Carquinez Strait at Interstate 80, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  17. Software Note: Using BILOG for Fixed-Anchor Item Calibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMars, Christine E.; Jurich, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    The nonequivalent groups anchor test (NEAT) design is often used to scale item parameters from two different test forms. A subset of items, called the anchor items or common items, are administered as part of both test forms. These items are used to adjust the item calibrations for any differences in the ability distributions of the groups taking…

  18. Electrically insulated MLI and thermal anchor

    SciTech Connect

    Kamiya, Koji; Furukawa, Masato; Murakami, Haruyuki; Kizu, Kaname; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Koidea, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Hatakenaka, Ryuta; Miyakita, Takeshi

    2014-01-29

    The thermal shield of JT-60SA is kept at 80 K and will use the multilayer insulation (MLI) to reduce radiation heat load to the superconducting coils at 4.4 K from the cryostat at 300 K. Due to plasma pulse operation, the MLI is affected by eddy current in toroidal direction. The MLI is designed to suppress the current by electrically insulating every 20 degree in the toroidal direction by covering the MLI with polyimide films. In this paper, two kinds of designs for the MLI system are proposed, focusing on a way to overlap the layers. A boil-off calorimeter method and temperature measurement has been performed to determine the thermal performance of the MLI system. The design of the electrical insulated thermal anchor between the toroidal field (TF) coil and the thermal shield is also explained.

  19. Molecular Investigations into the Mechanics of a Muscle Anchoring Complex

    PubMed Central

    Bodmer, Nicholas K.; Theisen, Kelly E.; Dima, Ruxandra I.

    2015-01-01

    The titin-telethonin complex, essential for anchoring filaments in the Z-disk of the sarcomere, is composed of immunoglobulin domains. Surprisingly, atomic force microscopy experiments showed that it resists forces much higher than the typical immunoglobulin domain and that the force distribution is unusually broad. To investigate the origin of this behavior, we developed a multiscale simulation approach, combining minimalist and atomistic models (SOP-AT). By following the mechanical response of the complex on experimental timescales, we found that the mechanical stability of titin-telethonin is modulated primarily by the strength of contacts between telethonin and the two titin chains, and secondarily by the timescales of conformational excursions inside telethonin and the pulled titin domains. Importantly, the conformational transitions executed by telethonin in simulations support its proposed role in mechanosensing. Our SOP-AT computational approach thus provides a powerful tool for the exploration of the link between conformational diversity and the broadness of the mechanical response, which can be applied to other multidomain complexes. PMID:25954889

  20. Anchoring submersible ultrasonic receivers in river channels with stable substrate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettoli, Phillip William; Scholten, G.D.; Hubbs, D.

    2010-01-01

    We developed an anchoring system for submersible ultrasonic receivers (SURs) that we placed on the bottom of the riverine reaches of three main-stem reservoirs in the upper Tennessee River. Each anchor consisted of a steel tube (8.9 x 35.6 cm) welded vertically to a round plate of steel (5.1 x 40.6 cm). All seven SURs and their 57-kg anchors were successfully deployed and retrieved three times over 547 d by a dive team employing surface air-breathing equipment and a davit-equipped boat. All of the anchors and their SURs remained stationary over two consecutive winters on the hard-bottom, thalweg sites where they were deployed. The SUR and its anchor at the most downriver site experienced flows that exceeded 2,100 m(3)/s and mean water column velocities of about 0.9 m/s.

  1. Small-Sample Equating Using a Synthetic Linking Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sooyeon; von Davier, Alina A.; Haberman, Shelby

    2008-01-01

    This study addressed the sampling error and linking bias that occur with small samples in a nonequivalent groups anchor test design. We proposed a linking method called the synthetic function, which is a weighted average of the identity function and a traditional equating function (in this case, the chained linear equating function). Specifically,…

  2. Constructive and problem-based learning using blended learning anchored instruction approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, M.

    2012-04-01

    Based on an anchored instruction approach, an enriched blended learning lecture course ("Introduction into GNSS positioning") was established in order to enable constructive and problem-based learning. The lecture course "Introduction into GNSS positioning" is a compulsory part of the Bachelor study course "Geodesy and Geoinformatics" and also a supplementary module of the Bachelor study course "Geophysics". Within the lecture course, basic knowledge and basic principles of Global Navigation Satellite Systems, like GPS, are imparted. The presented higher education technique "anchored instruction" uses a real and up-to-date and therefore authentic scientific paper dealing with a recent large-scale geodetic project (Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link) in order to introduce the topic of GNSS-based positioning to the students. In the beginning of the semester, the students have to read the paper individually and carefully. This enables them to realize a lot of not-known GNSS-related facts. Therefore, questions can be formulated focusing on new, unclear or not-understood aspects of the paper. The lecture course deals with these questions, in order to answer them throughout the semester. During the lecture course this paper is referred, e.g., in the middle of the semester, the paper has to be read again in order to check which questions have been answered; in addition, new question arise. At the end of the lecture course, the author of the scientific paper gave a concluding lecture. The framing anchor technique enables the students to anchor their GNSS knowledge. The presented case study uses a teaching resp. learning setting consisting of classroom lectures (given by teachers and learners), practical trainings (e.g., field exercises, students select topics individually), and online lectures (learning management system ILIAS is used as data, result, and asynchronous communication platform). The implementation and the elements of the anchoring technique, which enables student

  3. Lipoarabinomannans: characterization of the multiacylated forms of the phosphatidyl-myo-inositol anchor by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Nigou, J; Gilleron, M; Puzo, G

    1999-01-01

    Lipoarabinomannans, which exhibit a large spectrum of immunological activities, emerge as the major antigens of mycobacterial envelopes. The lipoarabinomannan structure is based on a phosphatidyl-myo-inositol anchor whose integrity has been shown to be crucial for lipoarabinomannan biological activity and particularly for presentation to CD4/CD8 double-negative alphabetaT cells by CD1 molecules. In this report, an analytical approach was developed for high-resolution 31P-NMR analysis of native, i.e. multiacylated, lipoarabinomannans. The one-dimensional 31P spectrum of cellular lipoarabinomannans, from Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, exhibited four 31P resonances typifying four types of lipoarabinomannans. Two-dimensional 1H-31P heteronuclear multiple-quantum-correlation/homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn analysis of the native molecules showed that these four types of lipoarabinomannan differed in the number and localization of fatty acids (from 1 to 4) esterifying the anchor. Besides the three acylation sites previously described, i.e. positions 1 and 2 of glycerol and 6 of the mannosyl unit linked to the C-2 of myo-inositol, we demonstrate the existence of a fourth acylation position at the C-3 of myo-inositol. We report here the first structural study of native multiacylated lipoarabinomannans, establishing the structure of the intact phosphatidyl-myo-inositol anchor. Our findings would help gain more understanding of the molecular basis of lipoarabinomannan discrimination in the binding process to CD1 molecules. PMID:9895288

  4. ResearchIQ: Design of a Semantically Anchored Integrative Query Tool

    PubMed Central

    Lele, Omkar; Raje, Satyajeet; Yen, Po-Yin; Payne, Philip

    2015-01-01

    An important factor influencing the pace of research activity is the ability of researchers to discover and leverage heterogeneous resources. Usually, researcher profiles, laboratory equipment, data samples, clinical trials, and other research resources are stored in heterogeneous datasets in large organizations. Emergent semantic web technologies provide novel approaches to discover, annotate and consequently link such resources. In this manuscript, we describe the design of Research Integrative Query (ResearchIQ) tool, a semantically anchored resource discovery platform that facilitates semantic discovery of local and publically available data through a single web portal designed for researchers in the biomedical informatics domain within The Ohio State University. PMID:26306248

  5. Wave propagation in damage assessment of ground anchors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zima, B.; Rucka, M.

    2015-07-01

    The inspection possibilities of ground anchors are limited to destructive test such as pull-out test. Guided wave propagation gives an opportunity to develop an inspection system dedicated to determine the condition of inspected element without violation of their integrity. In this paper the experimental study on wave propagation in laboratory models of ground anchors are presented. Experiments were conducted for different bonding lengths and different frequencies of excitation. Waves were generated by a piezoelectric actuator and the laser vibrometry technique was used to register velocity signals. For all tested anchors it was possible to identify the boundary between steel and concrete based on the registered reflections in wave propagation signals.

  6. Ideals as Anchors for Relationship Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Margaret; Trinitapoli, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Research on young-adult sexuality in sub-Saharan Africa typically conceptualizes sex as an individual-level risk behavior. We introduce a new approach that connects the conditions surrounding the initiation of sex with subsequent relationship well-being, examines relationships as sequences of interdependent events, and indexes relationship experiences to individually held ideals. New card-sort data from southern Malawi capture young women’s relationship experiences and their ideals in a sequential framework. Using optimal matching, we measure the distance between ideal and experienced relationship sequences to (1) assess the associations between ideological congruence and perceived relationship well-being, (2) compare this ideal-based approach to other experience-based alternatives, and (3) identify individual- and couple-level correlates of congruence between ideals and experiences in the romantic realm. We show that congruence between ideals and experiences conveys relationship well-being along four dimensions: expressions of love and support, robust communication habits, perceived biological safety, and perceived relationship stability. We further show that congruence is patterned by socioeconomic status and supported by shared ideals within romantic dyads. We argue that conceiving of ideals as anchors for how sexual experiences are manifest advances current understandings of romantic relationships, and we suggest that this approach has applications for other domains of life. PMID:27110031

  7. Photoinduced anchoring on a chalcogenide surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheremet, N.; Kurioz, Yu.; Klebanov, M.; Lyubin, V.; Slyusarenko, K.; Reznikov, Yu.

    2012-05-01

    We present basic characteristics and a model of photoinduced anchoring of liquid crystals (LCs) on a chalcogenide surface. It was found that characteristics of the alignment strongly depend on the LC material for the same chalcogenide glass. The photoalignment is partially reversible and can be controlled by changing the light polarization direction. We propose a model in which the existence of dichroic units on the chalcogenide surface and competition between two mechanisms of the photoalignment is suggested. The first mechanism is related to the light-induced anisotropy on the chalcogenide surface and results in an easy orientation axes of a LC parallel to the polarization of the incident light. The second mechanism is attributed to an energy transfer from the dichroic units after the light absorption to the LC molecules adsorbed on the chalcogenide surface. The transferred energy causes polarization-sensitive desorption of the LC molecules from the chalcogenide surface and the light-induced easy orientation axis of a LC perpendicular to the incident light polarization. The competition between these mechanisms leads to the observed change of the direction of the easy axis with the exposure.

  8. Anchored boundary conditions for locally isostatic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theran, Louis; Nixon, Anthony; Ross, Elissa; Sadjadi, Mahdi; Servatius, Brigitte; Thorpe, M. F.

    2015-11-01

    Finite pieces of locally isostatic networks have a large number of floppy modes because of missing constraints at the surface. Here we show that by imposing suitable boundary conditions at the surface the network can be rendered effectively isostatic. We refer to these as anchored boundary conditions. An important example is formed by a two-dimensional network of corner sharing triangles, which is the focus of this paper. Another way of rendering such networks isostatic is by adding an external wire along which all unpinned vertices can slide (sliding boundary conditions). This approach also allows for the incorporation of boundaries associated with internal holes and complex sample geometries, which are illustrated with examples. The recent synthesis of bilayers of vitreous silica has provided impetus for this work. Experimental results from the imaging of finite pieces at the atomic level need such boundary conditions, if the observed structure is to be computer refined so that the interior atoms have the perception of being in an infinite isostatic environment.

  9. Material Testing for Robotic Omnidirectional Anchor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witkoe, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    To successfully explore near-Earth Asteroids the question of mobility emerges as the key issue for any robotic mission. When small bodies have extremely low escape velocities, traditional methods, such as wheels, would send the robot hurtling off of the asteroid's surface. To solve this problem, JPL has developed an omni-directional anchoring mechanism for use in microgravity that utilizes microspine technology. These microspines are placed in circular arrays with 16 independent carriages biasing the surface of the rock. The asperities in the surface allow the gripper to hold nearly 150N in all directions. While the gripper has been proven successful on consolidated rocks, it had yet to be tested on a variety of other surfaces that are suspected to separate the large boulders on an asteroid. Since asteroid surfaces vary widely, from friable rocks to lose ponds of regolith, the gripper was tested in a large variety of materials such as, bonded pumice, sand, gravel, and loose rocks. The forces are applied tangent, at 45 degrees, and normal to the surface of the material. The immediate results from this experiment will give insight into the gripper's effectiveness across the wide spectrum of materials found on asteroids.

  10. Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: More than just an anchor?

    PubMed Central

    Bate, Clive; Nolan, William; Williams, Alun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is increasing interest in the role of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors that attach some proteins to cell membranes. Far from being biologically inert, GPIs influence the targeting, intracellular trafficking and function of the attached protein. Our recent paper demonstrated the role of sialic acid on the GPI of the cellular prion protein (PrPC). The “prion diseases” arise following the conversion of PrPC to a disease-associated isoform called PrPSc or “prion”. Our paper showed that desialylated PrPC inhibited PrPSc formation. Aggregated PrPSc creates a signaling platform in the cell membrane incorporating and activating cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), an enzyme that regulates PrPC trafficking and hence PrPSc formation. The presence of desialylated PrPC caused the dissociation of cPLA2 from PrP-containing platforms, reduced the activation of cPLA2 and inhibited PrPSc production. We concluded that sialic acid contained within the GPI attached to PrPC modifies local membrane microenvironments that are important in PrP-mediated cell signaling and PrPSc formation. PMID:27195066

  11. Glycosylphosphatidylinositols: More than just an anchor?

    PubMed

    Bate, Clive; Nolan, William; Williams, Alun

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the role of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors that attach some proteins to cell membranes. Far from being biologically inert, GPIs influence the targeting, intracellular trafficking and function of the attached protein. Our recent paper demonstrated the role of sialic acid on the GPI of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). The "prion diseases" arise following the conversion of PrP(C) to a disease-associated isoform called PrP(Sc) or "prion". Our paper showed that desialylated PrP(C) inhibited PrP(Sc) formation. Aggregated PrP(Sc) creates a signaling platform in the cell membrane incorporating and activating cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), an enzyme that regulates PrP(C) trafficking and hence PrP(Sc) formation. The presence of desialylated PrP(C) caused the dissociation of cPLA2 from PrP-containing platforms, reduced the activation of cPLA2 and inhibited PrP(Sc) production. We concluded that sialic acid contained within the GPI attached to PrP(C) modifies local membrane microenvironments that are important in PrP-mediated cell signaling and PrP(Sc) formation. PMID:27195066

  12. Knotless anchors with sutures external to the anchor body may be at risk for suture cutting through osteopenic bone

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Y.; Woodmass, J. M.; Nelson, A. A.; Boorman, R. S.; Thornton, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the mechanical performance, under low-load cyclic loading, of two different knotless suture anchor designs: sutures completely internal to the anchor body (SpeedScrew) and sutures external to the anchor body and adjacent to bone (MultiFIX P). Methods Using standard suture loops pulled in-line with the rotator cuff (approximately 60°), anchors were tested in cadaveric bone and foam blocks representing normal to osteopenic bone. Mechanical testing included preloading to 10 N and cyclic loading for 500 cycles from 10 N to 60 N at 60 mm/min. The parameters evaluated were initial displacement, cyclic displacement and number of cycles and load at 3 mm displacement relative to preload. Video recording throughout testing documented the predominant source of suture displacement and the distance of ‘suture cutting through bone’. Results In cadaveric bone and foam blocks, MultiFIX P anchors had significantly greater initial displacement, and lower number of cycles and lower load at 3 mm displacement than SpeedScrew anchors. Video analysis revealed ‘suture cutting through bone’ as the predominant source of suture displacement in cadaveric bone (qualitative) and greater ‘suture cutting through bone’ comparing MultiFIX P with SpeedScrew anchors in foam blocks (quantitative). The greater suture displacement in MultiFIX P anchors was predominantly from suture cutting through bone, which was enhanced in an osteopenic bone model. Conclusions Anchors with sutures external to the anchor body are at risk for suture cutting through bone since the suture eyelet is at the distal tip of the implant and the suture directly abrades against the bone edge during cyclic loading. Suture cutting through bone may be a significant source of fixation failure, particularly in osteopenic bone. Cite this article: Y. Ono, J. M. Woodmass, A. A. Nelson, R. S. Boorman, G. M. Thornton, I. K. Y. Lo. Knotless anchors with sutures external to the anchor body may be

  13. Detail on west elevation of anchor above door; camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail on west elevation of anchor above door; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  14. 19. WEST ANCHOR SPAN OF THROUGH TRUSS AND PIERS NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. WEST ANCHOR SPAN OF THROUGH TRUSS AND PIERS NO. 2 AND 3, FROM WEST RIVERBANK. VIEW TO NORTH. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  15. 20. DETAIL OF WEST ANCHOR SPAN, CANTILEVER ARMS AND WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL OF WEST ANCHOR SPAN, CANTILEVER ARMS AND WEST HALF OF SUSPENDED SPAN OF THROUGH TRUSS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  16. Visual implant elastomer and anchor tag retention in largemouth bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartman, K.J.; Janney, E.C.

    2006-01-01

    We double-marked largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides with Floy FD-68B anchor tags and visible implant elastomer (VIE) marks before stocking to compare retention of the two marks for age-0 (178 mm total length [TL]) and age-1 (273 mm TL) largemouth bass. In a short-term (31-d) evaluation, retention rate of anchor tags was over 94% for each age-class and retention of VIE marks was 98% in both age-classes. In a longer-term comparison of fish stocked into the Ohio River, retention was substantially higher for VIE marks (92.9%) than for anchor tags (42.9%) after 403 d (ages combined). Although anchor tags had high retention in two sizes of largemouth bass during the short-term experiment, they should not be used in situations where accurate identification of marked fish is required for periods longer than 123 d. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2006.

  17. 21. DETAIL OF WEST (AMERICAN) CANTILEVER AND ANCHOR ARMS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL OF WEST (AMERICAN) CANTILEVER AND ANCHOR ARMS OF MAIN SPAN, SHOWING PIER M. VIEW TO NORTH. - Blue Water Bridge, Spanning St. Clair River at I-69, I-94, & Canadian Route 402, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  18. 22. DETAIL OF EAST (CANADIAN) CANTILEVER AND ANCHOR ARMS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL OF EAST (CANADIAN) CANTILEVER AND ANCHOR ARMS OF MAIN SPAN, SHOWING PIER C. VIEW TO NORTH. - Blue Water Bridge, Spanning St. Clair River at I-69, I-94, & Canadian Route 402, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  19. 34. View of pier 3, showing supporting main anchor arm ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. View of pier 3, showing supporting main anchor arm and cantilever arm spans, as seen from shore near pier 4, looking north - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  20. 22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main cantilever arm looking south. Note upper chord eyebar arrangement. - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  1. 43. DETAIL OF PINNED UPPER CHORD CONNECTION BETWEEN ANCHOR ARM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. DETAIL OF PINNED UPPER CHORD CONNECTION BETWEEN ANCHOR ARM AND SUSPENDED (PANEL 67). VIEW TO NORTH. - Blue Water Bridge, Spanning St. Clair River at I-69, I-94, & Canadian Route 402, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  2. ANCHOR SETTING PLAN FOR TYPICAL APPROACH SPANS AND ELEVATION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ANCHOR SETTING PLAN FOR TYPICAL APPROACH SPANS AND ELEVATION OF BENT CAPS FOR APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, SHEET 5509-M1 - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  3. ANCHOR SETTING PLAN FOR PIERS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ANCHOR SETTING PLAN FOR PIERS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 AND 6, APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, SHEET 5505 TO 8-M1 - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  4. ANCHOR SETTING PLAN, WITH DETAILS, FOR STEEL BENTS AT APPROACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ANCHOR SETTING PLAN, WITH DETAILS, FOR STEEL BENTS AT APPROACH SPANS FOR APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, SHEET 5509-M2 - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  5. Consensus mapping and identification of markers for marker-assisted selection of Wsm2 in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recently identified Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) resistance gene Wsm2 confers a high level of resistance. Objective of this study was to identify closely linked DNA markers for Wsm2 for use in marker-assisted selection (MAS) in wheat. Two segregating populations (CO960293-2/’TAM 111’ and CO96...

  6. Theory of anchoring on a two-dimensionally grooved surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Jun-Ichi; Gwag, Jin Seog; Yoneya, Makoto; Yokoyama, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    We investigate analytically the anchoring of a nematic liquid crystal on a two-dimensionally grooved surface of arbitrary shape, induced by the elastic distortions of a liquid crystal adjacent to the surface. Our theoretical framework applied to a surface with square grooves reveals that such a surface can exhibit bistable anchoring, while a direct extension of a well-known theory of Berreman [Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1683 (1972)] results in no azimuthal anchoring in the so-called one-constant case ( K1=K2=K3 , with K1 , K2 , and K3 being the splay, twist, and bend elastic constants, respectively). We show under the assumption of K1=K2=K that the direction of the bistable easy axes and the anchoring strength crucially depend on the ratios K3/K and K24/K , where K24 is the saddle-splay surface elastic constant. To demonstrate the applicability of our theory to general cases and to elucidate the effect of surface shape and the elastic constants on the properties of surface anchoring, we also consider several specific cases of interest; one-dimensional grooves of arbitrary shape, rhombic grooves, and surfaces possessing 2N -fold symmetry, including hexagonal grooves, and show the following: (i) The rescaled anchoring energy f(ϕ)/f(π/2) of one-dimensional grooves, with ϕ being the angle between the director n and the groove direction, is independent of the groove shape. (ii) Whether two diagonal axes of rhombic grooves can become easy axes depends sensitively on K3/K , K24/K and the angle α between the grooves. The angle α yielding the maximum anchoring strength for given groove pitch and amplitude depends again on K3/K and K24/K ; in some cases α=0 (one-dimensional grooves), and in other cases α≠0 , gives the maximum anchoring strength. Square grooves (α=π/2) do not necessarily exhibit the largest anchoring strength. (iii) A surface possessing 2N -fold symmetry can yield N -stable azimuthal anchoring. However, when K1=K2=K3 and N≥3 , azimuthal anchoring is

  7. Whole-genome profiling and shotgun sequencing delivers an anchored, gene-decorated, physical map assembly of bread wheat chromosome 6A.

    PubMed

    Poursarebani, Naser; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Simková, Hana; Safář, Jan; Witsenboer, Hanneke; van Oeveren, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Mayer, Klaus F X; Stein, Nils; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2014-07-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most important staple food crop for 35% of the world's population. International efforts are underway to facilitate an increase in wheat production, of which the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) plays an important role. As part of this effort, we have developed a sequence-based physical map of wheat chromosome 6A using whole-genome profiling (WGP™). The bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig assembly tools fingerprinted contig (fpc) and linear topological contig (ltc) were used and their contig assemblies were compared. A detailed investigation of the contigs structure revealed that ltc created a highly robust assembly compared with those formed by fpc. The ltc assemblies contained 1217 contigs for the short arm and 1113 contigs for the long arm, with an L50 of 1 Mb. To facilitate in silico anchoring, WGP™ tags underlying BAC contigs were extended by wheat and wheat progenitor genome sequence information. Sequence data were used for in silico anchoring against genetic markers with known sequences, of which almost 79% of the physical map could be anchored. Moreover, the assigned sequence information led to the 'decoration' of the respective physical map with 3359 anchored genes. Thus, this robust and genetically anchored physical map will serve as a framework for the sequencing of wheat chromosome 6A, and is of immediate use for map-based isolation of agronomically important genes/quantitative trait loci located on this chromosome. PMID:24813060

  8. Genome mapping by random anchoring: A discrete theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M. Q.; Marr, T. G.

    1993-11-01

    As a part of the international human genome project, large-scale genomic maps of human and other model organisms are being generated. More recently, mapping using various anchoring (as opposed to the traditional "fingerprinting") strategies have been proposed based largely on mathematical models. In all of the theoretical work dealing with anchoring, an anchor has been idealized as a point on a continuous, infinite-length genome. In general, it is not desirable to make these assumptions, since in practice they may be violated under a variety of actual biological situations. Here we analyze a discrete model that can be used to predict the expected progress made when mapping by random anchoring. By virtue of keeping all three length scales (genome length, clone length, and probe length) finite, our results for the random anchoring strategy are derived in full generality, which contain previous results as special cases and hence can have broad application for planning mapping experiments or assessing the accuracy of the continuum models. Finally, we pose a challenging nonrandom anchoring model corresponding to a more efficient mapping scheme.

  9. Filamentous structures in skeletal muscle: anchors for the subsarcolemmal space.

    PubMed

    Khairani, Astrid Feinisa; Tajika, Yuki; Takahashi, Maiko; Ueno, Hitoshi; Murakami, Tohru; Soenggono, Arifin; Yorifuji, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    In skeletal muscle fibers, intermediate filaments and actin filaments provide structural support to the myofibrils and the sarcolemma. For many years, it was poorly understood from ultrastructural observations that how these filamentous structures were kept anchored. The present study was conducted to determine the architecture of filamentous anchoring structures in the subsarcolemmal space and the intermyofibrils. The diaphragms (Dp) of adult wild type and mdx mice (mdx is a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy) were subjected to tension applied perpendicular to the long axis of the muscle fibers, with or without treatment with 1% Triton X-100 or 0.03% saponin. These experiments were conducted to confirm the presence and integrity of the filamentous anchoring structures. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that these structures provide firm transverse connections between the sarcolemma and peripheral myofibrils. Most of the filamentous structures appeared to be inserted into subsarcolemmal densities, forming anchoring connections between the sarcolemma and peripheral myofibrils. In some cases, actin filaments were found to run longitudinally in the subsarcolemmal space to connect to the sarcolemma or in some cases to connect to the intermyofibrils as elongated thin filaments. These filamentous anchoring structures were less common in the mdx Dp. Our data suggest that the transverse and longitudinal filamentous structures form an anchoring system in the subsarcolemmal space and the intermyofibrils. PMID:24519712

  10. Epoxy-coated rock anchors for upper Occoquan Dam

    SciTech Connect

    Bruen, M.P.; Pansic, N.; Schwartz, M.I.

    1995-12-31

    High-capacity, epoxy-coated anchors were installed at Upper Occoquan Dam to increase the stability of the 70-foot-high concrete gravity dam and powerhouse under revised Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) conditions. The post-tensioned anchorage system consisted of 56 multi-strand rock anchors with design loads of 700 to 1855 kips, averaging 1500 kips per tendon. A double corrosion protection system was specified to provide protection throughout the entire anchor length. During anchor stressing and testing, significant creep movement under constant loads equivalent to 133% of the design load was experienced and exceeded the requisite Post-Tensioning Institute (PTI) criteria. In addition to the creep phenomena, seating losses during transfer of the load to the end anchorage are at least 2 to 3 times greater than that which has been experienced with bare-wire strand tendons. On the basis of anchor test results, modifications were made to the anchor testing protocol, acceptance criteria, and the approach used for assessment of the long-term performance of the anchorage system.

  11. Free versus anchored numerical estimation: A unified approach.

    PubMed

    Opfer, John E; Thompson, Clarissa A; Kim, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Children's number-line estimation has produced a lively debate about representational change, supported by apparently incompatible data regarding descriptive adequacy of logarithmic (Opfer, Siegler, & Young, 2011) and cyclic power models (Slusser, Santiago, & Barth, 2013). To test whether methodological differences might explain discrepant findings, we created a fully crossed 2×2 design and assigned 96 children to one of four cells. In the design, we crossed anchoring (free, anchored) and sampling (over-, even-), which were candidate factors to explain discrepant findings. In three conditions (free/over-sampling, free/even-sampling, and anchored/over-sampling), the majority of children provided estimates better fit by the logarithmic than cyclic power function. In the last condition (anchored/even-sampling), the reverse was found. Results suggest that logarithmically-compressed numerical estimates do not depend on sampling, that the fit of cyclic power functions to children's estimates is likely an effect of anchors, and that a mixed log/linear model provides a useful model for both free and anchored numerical estimation. PMID:26774104

  12. Evaluation of mitral valve replacement anchoring in a phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Moore, John; Lang, Pencilla; Bainbridge, Dan; Campbell, Gordon; Jones, Doug L.; Guiraudon, Gerard M.; Peters, Terry M.

    2012-02-01

    Conventional mitral valve replacement requires a median sternotomy and cardio-pulmonary bypass with aortic crossclamping and is associated with significant mortality and morbidity which could be reduced by performing the procedure off-pump. Replacing the mitral valve in the closed, off-pump, beating heart requires extensive development and validation of surgical and imaging techniques. Image guidance systems and surgical access for off-pump mitral valve replacement have been previously developed, allowing the prosthetic valve to be safely introduced into the left atrium and inserted into the mitral annulus. The major remaining challenge is to design a method of securely anchoring the prosthetic valve inside the beating heart. The development of anchoring techniques has been hampered by the expense and difficulty in conducting large animal studies. In this paper, we demonstrate how prosthetic valve anchoring may be evaluated in a dynamic phantom. The phantom provides a consistent testing environment where pressure measurements and Doppler ultrasound can be used to monitor and assess the valve anchoring procedures, detecting pararvalvular leak when valve anchoring is inadequate. Minimally invasive anchoring techniques may be directly compared to the current gold standard of valves sutured under direct vision, providing a useful tool for the validation of new surgical instruments.

  13. The Dynamics of Scaling: A Memory-Based Anchor Model of Category Rating and Absolute Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrov, Alexander A.; Anderson, John R.

    2005-01-01

    A memory-based scaling model--ANCHOR--is proposed and tested. The perceived magnitude of the target stimulus is compared with a set of anchors in memory. Anchor selection is probabilistic and sensitive to similarity, base-level strength, and recency. The winning anchor provides a reference point near the target and thereby converts the global…

  14. 46 CFR 130.240 - Anchors and chains for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Miscellaneous Equipment and...— (1) One anchor of the tabular weight and one-half the tabulated length of anchor chain listed in the applicable standard; or (2) Two anchors of one-half the tabular weight with the total length of anchor...

  15. 46 CFR 130.240 - Anchors and chains for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Miscellaneous Equipment and...— (1) One anchor of the tabular weight and one-half the tabulated length of anchor chain listed in the applicable standard; or (2) Two anchors of one-half the tabular weight with the total length of anchor...

  16. 46 CFR 130.240 - Anchors and chains for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Miscellaneous Equipment and...— (1) One anchor of the tabular weight and one-half the tabulated length of anchor chain listed in the applicable standard; or (2) Two anchors of one-half the tabular weight with the total length of anchor...

  17. 46 CFR 130.240 - Anchors and chains for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SUPPLY VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL, AND MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Miscellaneous Equipment and...— (1) One anchor of the tabular weight and one-half the tabulated length of anchor chain listed in the applicable standard; or (2) Two anchors of one-half the tabular weight with the total length of anchor...

  18. A Unified Approach to IRT Scale Linking and Scale Transformations. Research Report. RR-04-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Davier, Matthias; von Davier, Alina A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines item response theory (IRT) scale transformations and IRT scale linking methods used in the Non-Equivalent Groups with Anchor Test (NEAT) design to equate two tests, X and Y. It proposes a unifying approach to the commonly used IRT linking methods: mean-mean, mean-var linking, concurrent calibration, Stocking and Lord and…

  19. Assessing the Falsifiability of Extreme Linking. Research Report. ETS RR-11-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Kyndra; Dorans, Neil J.

    2011-01-01

    Extreme linkings are performed in settings in which neither equivalent groups nor anchor material is available to link scores on two assessments. Examples of extreme linkages include links between scores on tests administered in different languages or between scores on tests administered across disability groups. The strength of interpretation…

  20. Adsorption-induced anchoring transitions at nematic-liquid-crystal-crystal interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieranski, P.; Jérôme, B.

    1989-07-01

    Discontinuous (first-order) anchoring transitions are shown to occur as a function of water adsorption at the nematic-liquid-crystal(E9)-gypsum and E9-mica interfaces. The transitions involve growth of domains with an anchoring a' making a finite angle with the direction a of the parent anchoring. The growth proceeds by motion of walls separating the domains with the new anchoring a' from the matrix with the parental anchoring a. A Landau-type expression for the interfacial energy is proposed and used to classify the anchoring transitions and to explain the behavior of the domains during the first-order anchoring transitions.

  1. High density linkage mapping of genomic and transcriptomic SNPs for synteny analysis and anchoring the genome sequence of chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, Rashmi; Jeena, Ganga; Shah, Niraj; Gupta, Shefali; Pradhan, Seema; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Jain, Mukesh; Chattopadhyay, Debasis; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    This study presents genome-wide discovery of SNPs through next generation sequencing of the genome of Cicer reticulatum. Mapping of the C. reticulatum sequenced reads onto the draft genome assembly of C. arietinum (desi chickpea) resulted in identification of 842,104 genomic SNPs which were utilized along with an additional 36,446 genic SNPs identified from transcriptome sequences of the aforementioned varieties. Two new chickpea Oligo Pool All (OPAs) each having 3,072 SNPs were designed and utilized for SNP genotyping of 129 Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs). Using Illumina GoldenGate Technology genotyping data of 5,041 SNPs were generated and combined with the 1,673 marker data from previously published studies, to generate a high resolution linkage map. The map comprised of 6698 markers distributed on eight linkage groups spanning 1083.93 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 0.16 cM. Utility of the present map was demonstrated for improving the anchoring of the earlier reported draft genome sequence of desi chickpea by ~30% and that of kabuli chickpea by 18%. The genetic map reported in this study represents the most dense linkage map of chickpea , with the potential to facilitate efficient anchoring of the draft genome sequences of desi as well as kabuli chickpea varieties. PMID:26303721

  2. Sustained load performance of adhesive anchor systems in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Todd Marshall

    Stemming from a tragic failure of an adhesive anchor system, this research project investigated the sustained load performance of adhesive anchors in concrete under different installation and in-service conditions. The literature review investigated the current state of art of adhesive anchors. Extensive discussion was devoted to the behavior of adhesive anchors in concrete as well as the many factors that can affect their short-term and sustained load strength. Existing standards and specifications for the testing, design, construction, and inspection of adhesive anchors were covered. Based on the results of the literature review and the experience of the research group, a triage was conducted on many parameters identified as possibly affecting the sustained load performance of adhesive anchors and the highest priority parameters were investigated in this project. A stress versus time-to-failure approach was used to evaluate sensitivity of three ICC-ES AC 308 approved adhesive anchor systems. Of the various parameters investigated, only elevated in-service temperature and manufacturer's cure time was shown to exhibit adverse effects on sustained loads more than that predicted by short-term tests of fully cured adhesive over a reasonable structure lifetime of 75 years. In a related study, various tests were conducted on the adhesive alone (time-temperature superposition, time-stress superposition, and dogbone tensile tests). The results of that study were used to investigate the existence of a correlation with long-term anchor pullout testing in concrete. No consistent correlations were detected for the adhesives in the study. Tests were also conducted on the effect of early-age concrete on adhesive anchor bond strength. On the basis of confined test bond-strength alone, adhesive A (vinyl ester) did not show any significant increase after 14 days (102% of 28 day strength at 14 days), and adhesive B and C (epoxies) did not show any significant increase after 7 days

  3. Therapeutic usability of two different fiducial gold markers for robotic stereotactic radiosurgery of liver malignancies: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Marsico, Maria; Gabbani, Tommaso; Livi, Lorenzo; Biagini, Maria Rosa; Galli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess how the application of different types of markers affects the tracking accuracy of CyberKnife’s. METHODS: Fifteen patients were recruited and subjected to the ultrasound-guided placement of markers. Two different type of needles 25 gauge (G) and 17 G containing two different fiducial marker, gold notched flexible anchor wire 0.28 mm × 10 mm (25 G needle) and gold cylindrical grain 1 mm × 4 mm (17 G), were used. Seven days after the procedure, a CyberKnife planning computed tomography (CT) for the simulation of radiation treatment was performed on all patients. A binary CT score was assigned to the fiducial markers visualization. Also, the CT number was calculated for each fiducial and the values compared with a specific threshold. RESULTS: For each patient from 1 to 5, intra-hepatic markers were placed (one in 2 patients, three in 8 patients, four in 3 patients, and five in 2 patients). A total of 48 needles were used (thirty-two 17 G and sixteen 25 G) and 48 gold markers were placed (32 Grain shaped markers and 16 Gold Anchor). The result showed that the CT visualization of the grain markers was better than the anchor markers (P = 5 × 10-9). Furthermore, the grain markers were shown to present minor late complications (P = 3 × 10-6), and the best CT threshold number (P = 0.0005). CONCLUSION: The study revealed that the Gold Anchor fiducial marker is correlated with a greater number of late minor complications and low visualization by the CT. PMID:27330682

  4. AFLP-RGA Markers in Comparison with RGA and AFLP in Cultivated Tetraploid Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease resistance (R) genes have been isolated in many plant species and R genes with domains of nucleotide binding sites (NBS) and leucine rich repeats (LRR) represent the largest R gene family. The objective of this investigation was to test a resistance gene analog (RGA) anchored marker system, ...

  5. Discourse Markers across Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Bruce

    This paper discusses discourse markers (e.g., "and, so, anyway") and offers an overview of their characteristics and occurrence, using English for illustration. The role of discourse markers is to signal speaker comment on the current utterance. The discourse marker is not part of the sentence's propositional content. While absence of markers does…

  6. Genome anchored QTLs for biomass productivity in Hybrid Populus: Heterosis and detection across Contrasting Environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Muchero, Wellington; Sewell, Mitchell; Gunter, Lee E; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Yin, Tongming; DiFazio, Steven P; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2013-01-01

    Traits related to biomass production were analyzed for the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in an interspecific F2 population derived from an outbred Populus trichocarpa P. deltoides parental cross. Three years of phenotypic data for stem growth traits (height and diameter) were collected from two parental, two F1 and 339 F2 trees in a clonal trial replicated both within and among two environmentally contrasting sites in the North American Pacific Northwest. A genetic linkage map comprised of 841 SSR, AFLP, and RAPD markers and phenotypic data from 310 progeny were used to identify genomic regions harboring QTL using the Multiple-QTL Model (MQM) package of the statistical program MapQTL 6. A total of twelve QTLs, nine putative and three suggestive, were identified with eight of these being identified at both sites in at least one experiment. Of these, three putative QTL BM-1, BM-2, BM-7, on LGs I, II, and XIV, respectively, were identified in all three years for both height and diameter. Two QTLs BM-2 and BM-7, on LG II and XIV, respectively, exhibited significant evidence of over-dominance in all three years for both traits. Conversely a QTL on BM-6 LG XIII exhibited out-breeding depression in two years for both height and diameter. The remaining nine QTLs showed difference levels of dominance and additive effects. Seven of the nine QTL were successfully anchored and QTL peak positions were estimated for each one on the P. trichocarpa genome assembly using flanking SSR markers with known physical positions positions. QTL BM-7 on LG XIV had been anchored on the genome assembly in a previous study, therefore eight QTLs identified in this study were assigned genome assembly positions. Physical distances encompassed by each QTL regions ranged from 1.3 to 8.8 Mb.

  7. A novel human erythrocyte glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoprotein ACA. Isolation, purification, primary structure determination, and molecular parameters of its lipid structure.

    PubMed

    Becker Kojić, Zorica A; Terness, Peter

    2002-10-25

    A method has been elaborated to isolate and purify up to homogeneity a novel membrane glycoprotein containing a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor by means of salting out with ammonium sulfate (40-80% saturation), followed by preparative SDS-PAGE, chromatography and acetone precipitation. The preparation obtained was homogeneous upon electrophoresis in the presence of 0.1% SDS after reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol. It is protein-soluble at its isoelectrical point (pH 5.5) with molecular mass of 65,000 daltons. The isolated protein is linked to the membrane via glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol susceptible to cleavage by purified phospholipase C. The hydrophobic portion of the glycolipid membrane anchor of the protein was radiolabeled with the photoactivated reagent 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-[(125)I]iodophenyl)diazirine and hydrolyzed with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C, followed by enzymatic deacetylation of the remaining lipid. Thin-layer chromatography showed that the generated radiolabeled fragment migrates with the same mobility as that of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG), obtained in the same manner. In this study we describe a novel erythrocyte membrane GPI-linked protein with the structural feature of an anchor that, in contrast to other GPI-linked erythrocyte proteins, has a non-acetylated inositol ring and diacylglycerol rather than alkyl-acyl glycerol as a lipid tail of the anchor. PMID:12167612

  8. Behavior of Giant Vesicles with Anchored DNA Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Nikolov, Vesselin; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Dimova, Rumiana

    2007-01-01

    We study changes in curvature and elastic properties of lipid membranes induced by anchoring of long hydrophilic polymers at low polymer surface concentrations (corresponding to the mushroom regime). The effect of anchored polymers on the membrane spontaneous curvature is characterized by monitoring the changes in the fluctuation spectra and the morphology of giant unilamellar vesicles. The polymers used in our study are fluorescently labeled and biotinylated λ-phage DNA molecules which bind to biotinylated giant unilamellar vesicles via a biotin-avidin-biotin linkage. By varying the amount of biotinylated lipid in the membrane, we control the surface concentration of anchors. At low anchor concentrations, the spontaneous curvature of the membrane increases linearly with the DNA concentration. The linear increase is consistent with theoretical predictions for polymer surface concentrations in the mushroom regime. At higher anchor concentrations, which should still belong to the mushroom regime, the vesicles undergo budding transitions. In this latter regime, the bud size is used to estimate the polymer-induced membrane curvature. PMID:17384074

  9. Colorimetric Immunoassay for Detection of Tumor Markers

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yongmei; Cao, Ya; Xu, Yuanyuan; Li, Genxi

    2010-01-01

    Tumor markers are substances, usually proteins, produced by the body in response to cancer growth, or by the cancer tissue itself. They can be detected in blood, urine, or tissue samples, and the discovery and detection of tumor markers may provide earlier diagnosis of cancer and improved therapeutic intervention. Colorimetric immunoassays for tumor marker detection have attracted considerable attention, due to their simplicity and high efficiency. The traditionally used colorimetric immunoassays for the detection of tumor markers are based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and the great achievement of nanotechnology has further opened opportunities for the development of such kind of immunoassays. This paper will summarize recent advances in the field of colorimetric immunoassays for detecting tumor markers, which is aimed to provide an overview in this field, as well as experimental guidance for the learner. PMID:21614193

  10. The "loop with anchor" technique to repair mitral valve prolapse.

    PubMed

    Isoda, Susumu; Osako, Motohiko; Kimura, Tamizo; Mashiko, Yuji; Yamanaka, Nozomu; Nakamura, Shingo; Maehara, Tadaaki

    2012-01-01

    The current surgical technique of using an artificial chord (composed of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene [ePTFE] sutures) to repair mitral prolapse is technically difficult to perform. Slippery knot tying and the difficulty of changing the chordae length after the hydrostatic test are frustrating problems. The loop technique solves the problem of slippery knot tying but not the problem of changing the chordae length. Our "loop with anchor" technique consists of the following elements: construction of an anchor at the papillary muscle; determining the loop length; tying the loop to the anchor; suturing the loop to the mitral valve; the hydrostatic test; and re-suturing or changing the loop, if needed. Adjustments can be made for the entire procedure or for a portion of the procedure. PMID:22156285

  11. Modeling and Simulation of Anchoring Processess for Small Body Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.; Mazahar, Hammad; Negrut, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes recent work done in modeling and simulation of anchoring processes in granular media, with applications to anchoring on a Near Earth Object (NEO), where the forces due to interactions with the regolith are much stronger than the local surface gravity field. This effort is part of a larger systems engineering capability developed at JPL to answer key questions, validate requirements, conduct key system and mission trades,and evaluate performance and risk related to NEO operations for any proposed human or robotic missions to a NEO.

  12. 17. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING EAST ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING EAST ALONG THE MAIN LINE TRACK LOCATED TO THE NORTH OF THE COS COB POWER PLANT. ANCHOR BRIDGES LOCATED AT TWO MILE INTERVALS WITHSTAND CATENARY TENSION AND PROVIDE A PLATFORM FOR MOUNTING OIL FILLED CIRCUIT BREAKERS, LIGHTNING ARRESTORS AND OTHER ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. THE ROOF OF THE LOAD DISPATCHER'S TOWER CAN BE SEEN DIRECTLY BEHIND THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE BRIDGE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  13. Current status of frameless anchored IUD for immediate intracesarean insertion.

    PubMed

    Wildemeersch, Dirk; Goldstuck, Norman D; Hasskamp, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Immediate postpartum intrauterine device (IUD) insertion deserves great attention as it can provide immediate, timely and convenient contraception plus the added benefit of preventing repeat unintended pregnancies. Although women post vaginal delivery can benefit from immediate post-placenta contraception, women undergoing Cesarean section clearly need contraception, as an inter-delivery interval shorter than 18 months places them at a high risk for uterine rupture. The main drawback of currently available framed IUD devices for immediate postpartum insertion of an IUD is their high expulsion and displacement rates when inserted immediately postpartum after both vaginal and Cesarean delivery. Current research suggests that a brief window of opportunity exists of 10 minutes for insertion of conventional IUDs after which time expulsion rates both immediately and over time are greatly enhanced. This paper summarizes the current research conducted to overcome the expulsion problems associated with conventional T-shaped devices as well as through the use of an anchored frameless device. In the 1970s and 1980s, attempts were made to solve the expulsion problem by modifying existing devices, such as adding absorbable sutures (Delta-T) or additional appendages. These attempts proved to be clinically unsuccessful as the catgut suture added to the transverse arms did not provide sufficient resistance to prevent downward displacement and expulsion. An anchoring technique to suspend a copper IUD to the fundus of the uterus was developed in Belgium in the 1980s and has been the subject of extensive ongoing clinical research since 1985. Recently the frameless copper releasing anchor IUD, GyneFix, has been tested for postplacental insertion. Initially, the anchor was modified by the inclusion of a biodegradable cone which was added below the anchoring knot. Clinical studies confirmed the adequacy of this approach suggesting that it was technically possible to anchor an IUD

  14. MyRIP anchors protein kinase A to the exocyst complex.

    PubMed

    Goehring, April S; Pedroja, Benjamin S; Hinke, Simon A; Langeberg, Lorene K; Scott, John D

    2007-11-01

    The movement of signal transduction enzymes in and out of multi-protein complexes coordinates the spatial and temporal resolution of cellular events. Anchoring and scaffolding proteins are key to this process because they sequester protein kinases and phosphatases with a subset of their preferred substrates. The protein kinase A-anchoring family of proteins (AKAPs), which target the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and other enzymes to defined subcellular microenvironments, represent a well studied group of these signal-organizing molecules. In this report we demonstrate that the Rab27a GTPase effector protein MyRIP is a member of the AKAP family. The zebrafish homolog of MyRIP (Ze-AKAP2) was initially detected in a two-hybrid screen for AKAPs. A combination of biochemical, cell-based, and immunofluorescence approaches demonstrate that the mouse MyRIP ortholog targets the type II PKA holoenzyme via an atypical mechanism to a specific perinuclear region of insulin-secreting cells. Similar approaches show that MyRIP interacts with the Sec6 and Sec8 components of the exocyst complex, an evolutionarily conserved protein unit that controls protein trafficking and exocytosis. These data indicate that MyRIP functions as a scaffolding protein that links PKA to components of the exocytosis machinery. PMID:17827149

  15. Covalent anchoring of chloroperoxidase and glucose oxidase on the mesoporous molecular sieve SBA-15.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dirk; Streb, Carsten; Hartmann, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Functionalization of porous solids plays an important role in many areas, including heterogeneous catalysis and enzyme immobilization. In this study, large-pore ordered mesoporous SBA-15 molecular sieves were synthesized with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) in the presence of the non-ionic triblock co-polymer Pluronic P123 under acidic conditions. These materials were grafted with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (ATS), 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GTS) and with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and glutaraldehyde (GA-ATS) in order to provide covalent anchoring points for enzymes. The samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, powder X-ray diffraction, solid-state NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, diffuse reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance UV/Vis spectroscopy. The obtained grafted materials were then used for the immobilization of chloroperoxidase (CPO) and glucose oxidase (GOx) and the resulting biocatalysts were tested in the oxidation of indole. It is found that enzymes anchored to the mesoporous host by the organic moieties can be stored for weeks without losing their activity. Furthermore, the covalently linked enzymes are shown to be less prone to leaching than the physically adsorbed enzymes, as tested in a fixed-bed reactor under continuous operation conditions. PMID:20386667

  16. Expression of GPI anchored human recombinant erythropoietin in CHO cells is devoid of glycosylation heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Devasahayam, Mercy; Devi, Sobita

    2015-04-01

    Erythropoietin is a glycohormone involved in the regulation of the blood cell levels. It is a 166 amino acid protein having 3 N-glycosylation and one O-linked glycosylation sites, and is used to treat anaemia related illness. Though human recombinant erythropoietin (rEPO) is produced in CHO cells, the loss in quality control is 80% due to incomplete glycosylation of the rEPO with low levels of fully glycosylated active rEPO. Here, we describe the expression from CHO cells of fully glycosylated human rEPO when expressed as a GPI anchored molecule (rEPO-g). The results demonstrated the production of a homogenous completely glycosylated human rEPO-g as a 42 kD band without any low molecular weight glycoform variants as shown by affinity chromatography followed by SDS-PAGE and anti-human EPO specific western blot. The western blot using specific monoclonal antibody is the available biochemical technique to prove the presence of homogeneity in the expressed recombinant protein. The GPI anchor can be removed during the purification process to yield a therapeutically relevant recombinant erythropoietin molecule cells with a higher in vivo biological activity due to its high molecular weight of 40 kD. This is possibly the first report on the production of a homogenous and completely glycosylated human rEPO from CHO cells for efficient therapy. PMID:26011979

  17. Impact of Anchoring Groups on Ballistic Transport: Single Molecule vs Monolayer Junctions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Tuning the transport properties of molecular junctions by chemically modifying the molecular structure is one of the key challenges for advancing the field of molecular electronics. In the present contribution, we investigate current–voltage characteristics of differently linked metal–molecule–metal systems that comprise either a single molecule or a molecular assembly. This is achieved by employing density functional theory in conjunction with a Green’s function approach. We show that the conductance of a molecular system with a specific anchoring group is fundamentally different depending on whether a single molecule or a continuous monolayer forms the junction. This is a consequence of collective electrostatic effects that arise from dipolar elements contained in the monolayer and from interfacial charge rearrangements. As a consequence of these collective effects, the “ideal” choice for an anchoring group is clearly different for monolayer and single molecule devices. A particularly striking effect is observed for pyridine-docked systems. These are subject to Fermi-level pinning at high molecular packing densities, causing an abrupt increase of the junction current already at small voltages. PMID:26401191

  18. [Dactylogyrids (Monogenea: Dactylogyridea) with an unusual number of anchors, their origin and phylogenetic significance. Reference data].

    PubMed

    Gerasev, P I

    2002-01-01

    It is considered that in Anacanthorinae, Markewitschiana and Pseudacolpenteron pavlovskii (Dactylogyridae s. s.) the anchors are absent originally. In the other dactylogyrids (s. l.) without anchors (Pseudacolpenteron ignotus; Acolpenteron; Anonchohaptor-Icelanchohaptor; Kritskyia-Telethecium-Pavanelliela) these structures are lost. In related genera Rhinoxenus and Nanotrema the dorsal pair of anchors is transformed into the "spikes"; in Heteronchocleidinae there is one anchor; in Trinigyrus and Schilbetrematoides are two anchors; and in Urogyrus three anchors are reduced. But in Rhinonaster, Cacatyocotyle, Callceostomella, Neocalseostoma elongatum and Pseudodactylogyridae the presence of one pair of ventral "peduncular" or "haptoral" anchors appear to be the original state. For Anacanthorinae and Dactylogyridae s. s. the presence of 18-16 hooks, original lacking of anchors, appearance of one pair of them, evolutionary development and subsequent reduction of these structures are characteristic. In the dactylogyrids (s. l.) having two pairs of anchors and 14 hooks, one pair of the anchors is present originally, then usually the second dorsal pair grows up, and finally, the reduction of a part of anchors or all the anchors is possible. In the 16-hooked dactylogyrids (s. l.) having two pairs of anchors (Tetraonchinea, Amphibdellainea, Neodactylodiscinea) the original lacking or reduction of the anchors is not reported. The author considers, that it is unwarranted to unite all dactylogyrids (s. l.) without anchors into the superorder Ananchorea Malmberg, 1990 or to postulate the original presence of the two pairs of ventral anchors in this group. It is also impossible to unit all dactylogyrids (s. l.) having 0-4 anchors and 18-14 hooks into Dactylogyridae sensu Boeger et Kritsky, 1993. PMID:12070963

  19. Ceramic subsurface marker prototypes

    SciTech Connect

    Lukens, C.E.

    1985-05-02

    The client submitted 5 sets of porcelain and stoneware subsurface (radioactive site) marker prototypes (31 markers each set). The following were determined: compressive strength, thermal shock resistance, thermal crazing resistance, alkali resistance, color retention, and chemical resistance.

  20. Detection of gene-anchored amplification polymorphism (GAAP) in the vicinity of plant mitochondrial genes.

    PubMed

    Loridon, K; Saumitou-Laprade, P

    2002-05-01

    A simple, semi-automatable method was established for assessing polymorphism in plant mitochondrial genome. A set of 41 mitochondrial markers based on the published Arabidopsis thaliana sequence was developed in Brassicaceae using a gene-anchored amplification polymorphism (GAAP) strategy. PCR primers were selected based on conserved coding regions of mitochondrial genes and used to amplify the corresponding 5' and/or 3' non-coding flanking regions in order to maximise sequence variability between haplotypes. The variations in fragment size were analysed on a LiCor DNA sequencer, but the methodology is compatible with various sequencing systems using denaturing polyacrylamide gels. One advantage of the method is that GAAP products can be directly sequenced (without any cloning steps) through labelled M13 consensus sequences. Mitochondrial GAAP loci gave clear and simple patterns (one or two bands) that were easy to score and highly reproducible. Nearly all mitochondrial loci examined in A. thaliana were conserved within the Brassicaceae family, and half of the primers generated products when DNA from a distant species, Beta vulgaris (Chenopodiaceae), was used as template. The GAAP markers revealed low levels of polymorphism within species but exhibited a high level of polymorphism among genera and families. Our results showed some discrepancies with respect to the published mtDNA sequence of A. thaliana. PMID:12073035

  1. The Effect of Anchor Test Construction on Scale Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antal, Judit; Melican, Gerald; Proctor, Thomas; Wiley, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Presented at the Annual Meeting of National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) in 2010. The focus of the research is to investigate the effect of applying the Sinharay & Holland (2007) midi-test idea for building anchor tests to an on-going testing program with a series of versions of the test and comparing these results to the more…

  2. Detecting Anchoring-and-Adjusting in Survey Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Proper survey design is essential to obtain reliable, replicable data from research subjects. One threat to inferences drawn from surveys is anchoring-and-adjusting. Tversky and Kahnemann (1974) observed that participants' responses to questions depended systematically on irrelevant information they received prior to answering. It is important for…

  3. Culturally-Anchored Values and University Education Experience Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitsis, Ann; Foley, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether business students' gender, age and culturally-anchored values affect their perceptions of their university course experience. Design/methodology/approach: Culturally diverse business students (n 1/4 548) studying at an Australian university were surveyed using previously established scales.…

  4. 20. DETAIL, ANCHOR BLOCK AND BUTTRESS AT SOUTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL, ANCHOR BLOCK AND BUTTRESS AT SOUTH END OF DAM, SHOWING PROMINENT GROOVE WHERE THE NEXT ARCH COULD HAVE BEEN JOINED TO THE NORTH-SOUTH TRENDING DAM. - Rock Creek Dam, East end of Rock Creek Road, Auburn, Placer County, CA

  5. 48 CFR 1812.7000 - Anchor tenancy contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Anchor tenancy contracts. 1812.7000 Section 1812.7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Commercial Space Hardware...

  6. 48 CFR 1812.7000 - Anchor tenancy contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Anchor tenancy contracts. 1812.7000 Section 1812.7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Commercial Space Hardware...

  7. Effective Leadership for Supervisors: Behaviorally Anchored Supervision System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukic, Stevan J.; Fister, Susan

    The paper describes the Behaviorally Anchored Supervision System (BASS), an approach to supervision in special education based on the definition of effective instruction developed by the Council for Exceptional Children in 1986. A comprehensive model for excellence in special education is based upon the following four elements: values,…

  8. Early active mobilization following UCL repair With Mitek bone anchor.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Timothy P; Stevenson, Susan; Taghizadeh, Reika; Addison, Patrick; Milner, Richard H

    2013-09-01

    Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries of the thumb are common. Surgical repair is accepted as the treatment of choice for complete rupture of the ligament. Biomechanical studies have suggested that Mitek bone anchor repairs are potentially safe and strong enough to allow early controlled active mobilization. To date, there have been no studies to compare early active mobilization following Mitek bone anchor repair to standard postoperative rehabilitation involving thumb spica immobilization for the first 4 to 6 weeks. We performed a small pilot randomized control trial to assess the outcome of this new rehabilitation technique to that of standard immobilization following UCL repair with Mitek bone anchor. Our results show that on average early active mobilization leads to an earlier return to full hand function (6 vs. 8 wk) and an earlier return to work (7 vs. 11 wk). There is no difference in the final range of motion achieved. We suggest that Mitek bone anchor repairs for UCL ruptures are robust enough to allow early active mobilization and that a larger trial is warranted to assess whether early active mobilization is superior to standard rehabilitation. PMID:23970193

  9. Isolating Suture Slippage During Cadaveric Testing of Knotless Anchors.

    PubMed

    Klinge, Stephen A; Vopat, Bryan G; Paller, David; Avery, Anthony L; Koruprolu, Sarath; Fadale, Paul D

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated a testing method designed to isolate and analyze the effectiveness of different suture-retention mechanisms in knotless suture anchors used for rotator cuff repairs. Six knotless PushLock implants (Arthrex) with a suture-retention mechanism dependent on a press-fit of suture between the anchor's outer diameter and surrounding bone were compared with 6 ReelX STT devices (Stryker) reliant on an intrinsic suture-locking mechanism. Suture slippage beyond minimal clinical failure thresholds, as well as ultimate failure load, were determined with a novel testing fixture that isolated suture slippage. Suture slippage was isolated from anchor-bone disengagement. Each PushLock exhibited suture slippage of more than 3 mm, and each ReelX exhibited slippage of less than 3 mm. The PushLock implants also exhibited significantly (P < .05) more interval and maximum slippage; 5 of these 6 implants failed via complete suture slippage before dynamic testing could be completed. All ReelX devices survived dynamic testing and ultimately failed via suture breakage. This novel axial load biomechanical testing technique isolated suture slippage in 2 uniquely designed knotless anchors. The press-fit PushLock implant was prone to slippage failure, whereas the ReelX device with its internal suture-locking mechanism exhibited minimal slippage. PMID:26161766

  10. Self Mountable and Extractable Ultrasonic/Sonic Anchor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Self drilling anchors and related methods and apparatus. In one embodiment an apparatus comprises a drill bit, a hammer mechanism for hammering the drill bit in a first direction and in a second direction, and a selection mechanism for controlling whether, at a given point in time, the drill bit is hammered in the first or second direction.

  11. When Does Scale Anchoring Work? A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinharay, Sandip; Haberman, Shelby J.; Lee, Yi-Hsuan

    2011-01-01

    Providing information to test takers and test score users about the abilities of test takers at different score levels has been a persistent problem in educational and psychological measurement. Scale anchoring, a technique which describes what students at different points on a score scale know and can do, is a tool to provide such information.…

  12. 33 CFR 401.14 - Anchor marking buoys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchor marking buoys. 401.14 Section 401.14 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.14...

  13. The Effect of Anchor Test Construction on Scale Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antal, Judit; Proctor, Thomas P.; Melican, Gerald J.

    2014-01-01

    In common-item equating the anchor block is generally built to represent a miniature form of the total test in terms of content and statistical specifications. The statistical properties frequently reflect equal mean and spread of item difficulty. Sinharay and Holland (2007) suggested that the requirement for equal spread of difficulty may be too…

  14. Equating without an Anchor for Nonequivalent Groups of Examinees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    2015-01-01

    An equating procedure for a testing program with evolving distribution of examinee profiles is developed. No anchor is available because the original scoring scheme was based on expert judgment of the item difficulties. Pairs of examinees from two administrations are formed by matching on coarsened propensity scores derived from a set of…

  15. Ten Anchor Points for Teaching Principles of Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomkovick, Chuck

    2004-01-01

    Effective marketing instructors commonly share a love for their students, an affinity for the subject matter, and a devotion to continuous quality improvement. The purpose of this article is to highlight 10 anchor points for teaching Principles of Marketing, which are designed to better engage students in the learning process. These anchor…

  16. 24 CFR 3285.402 - Ground anchor installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285... anchoring. Manufactured homes must also be stabilized against wind in the longitudinal direction in all Wind Zones. Manufactured homes located in Wind Zones II and III must have longitudinal ground...

  17. 24 CFR 3285.402 - Ground anchor installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Anchorage Against Wind § 3285... anchoring. Manufactured homes must also be stabilized against wind in the longitudinal direction in all Wind Zones. Manufactured homes located in Wind Zones II and III must have longitudinal ground...

  18. Aerothermal Anchoring of CBAERO Using High Fidelity CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, David J.

    2007-01-01

    The Configuration Based Aerodynamics (CBAERO) software package is used to predict the convective and radiative heating environments for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). A limited number of high fidelity CFD solutions are used to "anchor" the engineering level estimates obtained using CBAERO.

  19. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  20. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  1. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  2. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  3. 30 CFR 57.9311 - Anchoring stationary sizing devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Anchoring stationary sizing devices. 57.9311 Section 57.9311 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  4. 24. STARBOARD PROFILE OF ALABAMA (ALABAMIAN); VESSEL AT ANCHOR ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. STARBOARD PROFILE OF ALABAMA (ALABAMIAN); VESSEL AT ANCHOR ON STATION IN GULF OF MEXICO WITH MOTOR BOAT TIED AT STERN Original 4-3/4'x6-3/4' photograph taken c. 1930? - Pilot Schooner "Alabama", Moored in harbor at Vineyard Haven, Vineyard Haven, Dukes County, MA

  5. 16. STRUCTURAL DETAILS: CHANNEL, BIT & CLEAT, ANCHOR BOLTS & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. STRUCTURAL DETAILS: CHANNEL, BIT & CLEAT, ANCHOR BOLTS & PLATES FOR PIERS 4, 5, AND 6, DWG. NO. 97, 1-1/2" = 1', MADE BY A.F., JUNE 13, 1908 - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  6. Finding the Optimal Guidance for Enhancing Anchored Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; Bathke, Arne; Hasselbring, Ted S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of different methods of guidance with anchored instruction on students' mathematical problem-solving performance. The purpose of this research was to iteratively design a learning environment to find the optimal level of guidance. Two iterations of the software were compared. The first iteration used…

  7. Poor Anchoring Limits Dyslexics' Perceptual, Memory, and Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oganian, Yulia; Ahissar, Merav

    2012-01-01

    The basic deficits underlying the severe and persistent reading difficulties in dyslexia are still highly debated. One of the major topics of debate is whether these deficits are language specific, or affect both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Recently, Ahissar and colleagues proposed the "anchoring-deficit hypothesis" (Ahissar, Lubin,…

  8. Implementing Anchored Instruction: Guiding Principles for Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLarty, Kim; And Others

    A curriculum based on "anchored instruction" was developed to enhance students' literacy development and acquisition of knowledge. The curriculum was designed to create a rich, shared environment that generates interest and enables students to identify and define problems while they explore the content from many perspectives. Based on what is…

  9. Development of Behaviorally-Anchored Rating Scales for Pharmacy Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grussing, Paul G.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Seventeen behaviorally-anchored rating scales were developed for a comprehensive measure of performance in pharmacy practice, including pharmacist selection, performance appraisal, and promotion activities. The scales (which are included) were also used to evaluate extern performance, and to serve as a criterion measure in studies of concurrent…

  10. Corrected High-Frame Rate Anchored Ultrasound with Software Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Amanda L.; Finch, Kenneth B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To improve lingual ultrasound imaging with the Corrected High Frame Rate Anchored Ultrasound with Software Alignment (CHAUSA; Miller, 2008) method. Method: A production study of the IsiXhosa alveolar click is presented. Articulatory-to-acoustic alignment is demonstrated using a Tri-Modal 3-ms pulse generator. Images from 2 simultaneous…

  11. Impact of Enhanced Anchored Instruction in Inclusive Math Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottge, Brian A.; Toland, Michael D.; Gassaway, Linda; Butler, Mark; Choo, Sam; Griffen, Ann Katherine; Ma, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics will place more pressure on special education and math teachers to raise the skill levels of all students, especially those with disabilities in math (MD). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) on students with and without MD in co-taught general…

  12. 46 CFR 32.15-15 - Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers-TB/ALL

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... will evaluate the suitability of the equipment. (e) Barges Equipped with Anchors to Comply with 33 CFR 155.230(b)(1). Each barge equipped with an anchor, to comply with 33 CFR 155.230(b)(1), must be...

  13. 46 CFR 32.15-15 - Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers-TB/ALL

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... will evaluate the suitability of the equipment. (e) Barges Equipped with Anchors to Comply with 33 CFR 155.230(b)(1). Each barge equipped with an anchor, to comply with 33 CFR 155.230(b)(1), must be...

  14. Anchoring a Leviathan: How the Nuclear Membrane Tethers the Genome

    PubMed Central

    Czapiewski, Rafal; Robson, Michael I.; Schirmer, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the nuclear envelope has many distinct direct connections to chromatin that contribute to genome organization. The functional consequences of genome organization on gene regulation are less clear. Even less understood is how interactions of lamins and nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) with chromatin can produce anchoring tethers that can withstand the physical forces of and on the genome. Chromosomes are the largest molecules in the cell, making megadalton protein structures like the nuclear pore complexes and ribosomes seem small by comparison. Thus to withstand strong forces from chromosome dynamics an anchoring tether is likely to be much more complex than a single protein-protein or protein-DNA interaction. Here we will briefly review known NE-genome interactions that likely contribute to spatial genome organization, postulate in the context of experimental data how these anchoring tethers contribute to gene regulation, and posit several hypotheses for the physical nature of these tethers that need to be investigated experimentally. Significantly, disruption of these anchoring tethers and the subsequent consequences for gene regulation could explain how mutations in nuclear envelope proteins cause diseases ranging from muscular dystrophy to lipodystrophy to premature aging progeroid syndromes. The two favored hypotheses for nuclear envelope protein involvement in disease are (1) weakening nuclear and cellular mechanical stability, and (2) disrupting genome organization and gene regulation. Considerable experimental support has been obtained for both. The integration of both mechanical and gene expression defects in the disruption of anchoring tethers could provide a unifying hypothesis consistent with both. PMID:27200088

  15. ATG-anchored AFLP (ATG-AFLP) Analysis in Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker system has had broad applications in biology, genetics, breeding, evolution, and ecology due to its no requirement for prior sequence information, high reproducibility, robustness, and high throughput nature. However, the anonymous AFLP markers ar...

  16. Organometallic Complexes Anchored to Conductive Carbon for Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Methane at Low Temperature.

    PubMed

    Joglekar, Madhura; Nguyen, Vinh; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Ngo, Chilan; Li, Quanning; O'Reilly, Matthew E; Gray, Tristan S; Hubbard, William A; Gunnoe, T Brent; Herring, Andrew M; Trewyn, Brian G

    2016-01-13

    Low-temperature direct methane fuel cells (DMEFCs) offer the opportunity to substantially improve the efficiency of energy production from natural gas. This study focuses on the development of well-defined platinum organometallic complexes covalently anchored to ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) for electrochemical oxidation of methane in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell at 80 °C. A maximum normalized power of 403 μW/mg Pt was obtained, which was 5 times higher than the power obtained from a modern commercial catalyst and 2 orders of magnitude greater than that from a Pt black catalyst. The observed differences in catalytic activities for oxidation of methane are linked to the chemistry of the tethered catalysts, determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The chemistry/activity relationships demonstrate a tangible path for the design of electrocatalytic systems for C-H bond activation that afford superior performance in DMEFC for potential commercial applications. PMID:26492385

  17. N-acetylglucosamine deacetylases modulate the anchoring of the gamma-glutamyl capsule to the cell wall of Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Candela, Thomas; Balomenou, Stavroula; Aucher, Willy; Bouriotis, Vassilis; Simore, Jean-Pierre; Fouet, Agnes; Boneca, Ivo G

    2014-06-01

    Bacillus anthracis has a complex cell wall structure composed of a peptidoglycan (PG) layer to which major structures are anchored such as a neutral polysaccharide, an S-layer, and a poly-γ-D-glutamate (PDGA) capsule. Many of these structures have central roles in the biology of B. anthracis, particularly, in virulence. However, little attention has been devoted to structurally study the PG and how it is modified in the presence of these secondary cell wall components. We present here the fine structure of the PG of the encapsulated RPG1 strain harboring both pXO1 and pXO2 virulence plasmids. We show that B. anthracis has a high degree of cross-linking and its GlcNAc residues are highly modified by N-deacetylation. The PG composition is not dependent on the presence of either LPXTG proteins or the capsule. Using NMR analysis of the PG-PDGA complex, we provide evidence for the anchoring of the PDGA to the glucosamine residues. We show that anchoring of the PDGA capsule is impaired in two PG N-deacetylase mutants, Ba1961 and Ba3679. Thus, these multiple N-deactylase activities would constitute excellent drug targets in B. anthracis by simultaneously affecting its resistance to lysozyme and to phagocytosis impairing B. anthracis survival in the host. PMID:24833281

  18. Centriolar satellite– and hMsd1/SSX2IP-dependent microtubule anchoring is critical for centriole assembly

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Akiko; Peddie, Christopher J.; Collinson, Lucy M.; Toda, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Centriolar satellites are numerous electron-dense granules dispersed around the centrosome. Mutations in their components are linked to various human diseases, but their molecular roles remain elusive. In particular, the significance of spatial communication between centriolar satellites and the centrosome is unknown. hMsd1/SSX2IP localizes to both the centrosome and centriolar satellites and is required for tethering microtubules to the centrosome. Here we show that hMsd1/SSX2IP-mediated microtubule anchoring is essential for proper centriole assembly and duplication. On hMsd1/SSX2IP knockdown, the centriolar satellites become stuck at the microtubule minus end near the centrosome. Intriguingly, these satellites contain many proteins that normally localize to the centrosome. Of importance, microtubule structures, albeit not being anchored properly, are still required for the emergence of abnormal satellites, as complete microtubule depolymerization results in the disappearance of these aggregates from the vicinity of the centrosome. We highlighted, using superresolution and electron microscopy, that under these conditions, centriole structures are faulty. Remarkably, these cells are insensitive to Plk4 overproduction–induced ectopic centriole formation, yet they accelerate centrosome reduplication upon hydroxyurea arrest. Finally, the appearance of satellite aggregates is cancer cell specific. Together our findings provide novel insights into the mechanism of centriole assembly and microtubule anchoring. PMID:25833712

  19. Centriolar satellite- and hMsd1/SSX2IP-dependent microtubule anchoring is critical for centriole assembly.

    PubMed

    Hori, Akiko; Peddie, Christopher J; Collinson, Lucy M; Toda, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    Centriolar satellites are numerous electron-dense granules dispersed around the centrosome. Mutations in their components are linked to various human diseases, but their molecular roles remain elusive. In particular, the significance of spatial communication between centriolar satellites and the centrosome is unknown. hMsd1/SSX2IP localizes to both the centrosome and centriolar satellites and is required for tethering microtubules to the centrosome. Here we show that hMsd1/SSX2IP-mediated microtubule anchoring is essential for proper centriole assembly and duplication. On hMsd1/SSX2IP knockdown, the centriolar satellites become stuck at the microtubule minus end near the centrosome. Intriguingly, these satellites contain many proteins that normally localize to the centrosome. Of importance, microtubule structures, albeit not being anchored properly, are still required for the emergence of abnormal satellites, as complete microtubule depolymerization results in the disappearance of these aggregates from the vicinity of the centrosome. We highlighted, using superresolution and electron microscopy, that under these conditions, centriole structures are faulty. Remarkably, these cells are insensitive to Plk4 overproduction-induced ectopic centriole formation, yet they accelerate centrosome reduplication upon hydroxyurea arrest. Finally, the appearance of satellite aggregates is cancer cell specific. Together our findings provide novel insights into the mechanism of centriole assembly and microtubule anchoring. PMID:25833712

  20. Cotranscriptional Recruitment to the mRNA Export Receptor Mex67p Contributes to Nuclear Pore Anchoring of Activated Genes▿

    PubMed Central

    Dieppois, Guennaelle; Iglesias, Nahid; Stutz, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    Transcription activation of some Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes is paralleled by their repositioning to the nuclear periphery, but the mechanism underlying gene anchoring is poorly defined. We show that the nuclear pore complex-associated Mlp1p and the shuttling mRNA export receptor Mex67p contribute to the stable association of the activated GAL10 and HSP104 genes with the nuclear periphery. However, we find no obligatory link between gene positioning and gene expression. Furthermore, gene anchoring correlates with the cotranscriptional recruitment of Mex67p to transcribing genes. Notably, the association of Mex67p with chromatin is not mediated by RNA. Interestingly, a mutant GAL2 gene lacking the coding region is still able to recruit Mex67p upon transcriptional activation and to relocate to the nuclear periphery. Together these data suggest that, at least for GAL2, nascent messenger ribonucleoprotein does not play a major role in gene anchoring and that the early recruitment of Mex67p contributes to gene repositioning by virtue of an RNA-independent process. PMID:16954382

  1. N-Acetylglucosamine Deacetylases Modulate the Anchoring of the Gamma-Glutamyl Capsule to the Cell Wall of Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Candela, Thomas; Balomenou, Stavroula; Aucher, Willy; Bouriotis, Vassilis; Simore, Jean-Pierre; Fouet, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis has a complex cell wall structure composed of a peptidoglycan (PG) layer to which major structures are anchored such as a neutral polysaccharide, an S-layer, and a poly-γ-D-glutamate (PDGA) capsule. Many of these structures have central roles in the biology of B. anthracis, particularly, in virulence. However, little attention has been devoted to structurally study the PG and how it is modified in the presence of these secondary cell wall components. We present here the fine structure of the PG of the encapsulated RPG1 strain harboring both pXO1 and pXO2 virulence plasmids. We show that B. anthracis has a high degree of cross-linking and its GlcNAc residues are highly modified by N-deacetylation. The PG composition is not dependent on the presence of either LPXTG proteins or the capsule. Using NMR analysis of the PG-PDGA complex, we provide evidence for the anchoring of the PDGA to the glucosamine residues. We show that anchoring of the PDGA capsule is impaired in two PG N-deacetylase mutants, Ba1961 and Ba3679. Thus, these multiple N-deactylase activities would constitute excellent drug targets in B. anthracis by simultaneously affecting its resistance to lysozyme and to phagocytosis impairing B. anthracis survival in the host. PMID:24833281

  2. Community Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mary

    1975-01-01

    At Moraine Valley Community College (Illinois), a chain of events, programs, activities, and services has linked the college and community in such areas as fine arts, ethnic groups, public services, community action, community service, and community education. (Author/NHM)

  3. GPI-anchored single chain Fv - an effective way to capture transiently-exposed neutralization epitopes on HIV-1 envelope spike

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Identification of broad neutralization epitopes in HIV-1 envelope spikes is paramount for HIV-1 vaccine development. A few broad neutralization epitopes identified so far are present on the surface of native HIV-1 envelope spikes whose recognition by antibodies does not depend on conformational changes of the envelope spikes. However, HIV-1 envelope spikes also contain transiently-exposed neutralization epitopes, which are more difficult to identify. Results In this study, we constructed single chain Fvs (scFvs) derived from seven human monoclonal antibodies and genetically linked them with or without a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) attachment signal. We show that with a GPI attachment signal the scFvs are targeted to lipid rafts of plasma membranes. In addition, we demonstrate that four of the GPI-anchored scFvs, but not their secreted counterparts, neutralize HIV-1 with various degrees of breadth and potency. Among them, GPI-anchored scFv (X5) exhibits extremely potent and broad neutralization activity against multiple clades of HIV-1 strains tested. Moreover, we show that GPI-anchored scFv (4E10) also exhibited more potent neutralization activity than its secretory counterpart. Finally, we demonstrate that expression of GPI-anchored scFv (X5) in the lipid raft of plasma membrane of human CD4+ T cells confers long-term resistance to HIV-1 infection, HIV-1 envelope-mediated cell-cell fusion, and the infection of HIV-1 captured and transferred by human DCs. Conclusions Thus GPI-anchored scFv could be used as a general and effective way to identify antibodies that react with transiently-exposed neutralization epitopes in envelope proteins of HIV-1 and other enveloped viruses. The GPI-anchored scFv (X5), because of its breadth and potency, should have a great potential to be developed into anti-viral agent for HIV-1 prevention and therapy. PMID:20923574

  4. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements of the phospholipid bilayer anchoring stability and kinetics of hydrophobically modified DNA oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    van der Meulen, Stef A J; Dubacheva, Galina V; Dogterom, Marileen; Richter, Ralf P; Leunissen, Mirjam E

    2014-06-10

    Decorating lipid bilayers with oligonucleotides has great potential for both fundamental studies and applications, taking advantage of the membrane properties and the specific Watson-Crick base pairing. Here, we systematically studied the binding of DNA oligonucleotides with the frequently used hydrophobic anchors cholesterol, stearyl, and distearyl to supported lipid bilayers made of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). All three anchors were found to incorporate well into DOPC lipid membranes, yet only the distearyl-based anchor remained stable in the bilayer when it was rinsed. The unstable anchoring of the cholesterol- and stearyl-based oligonucleotides can, however, be stabilized by hybridization of the oligonucleotides to complementary DNA modified with a second hydrophobic anchor of the same type. In all cases, the incorporation into the lipid bilayer was found to be limited by mass transport, although micelle formation likely reduced the effective concentration of available oligonucleotides in some samples, leading to substantial differences in binding rates. Using a viscoelastic model to determine the thickness of the DNA layer and elucidating the surface coverage by SE, we found that at equal bulk concentrations double-stranded DNA constructs attached to the lipid bilayer establish a layer that is thicker than that of single-stranded oligonucleotides, whereas the DNA surface densities are similar. Shortening the length of the oligonucleotides, on the other hand, does alter both the thickness and surface density of the DNA layer. This indicates that at the bulk oligonucleotide concentrations employed in our experiments, the packing of the oligonucleotides is not affected by the anchor type, but rather by the length of the DNA. The results are useful for material and biomedical applications that require efficient linking of oligonucleotides to lipid membranes. PMID

  5. Link Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donoho, Steve

    Link analysis is a collection of techniques that operate on data that can be represented as nodes and links. This chapter surveys a variety of techniques including subgraph matching, finding cliques and K-plexes, maximizing spread of influence, visualization, finding hubs and authorities, and combining with traditional techniques (classification, clustering, etc). It also surveys applications including social network analysis, viral marketing, Internet search, fraud detection, and crime prevention.

  6. Corrosion of rock anchors in US coal mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bylapudi, Gopi

    The mining industry is a major consumer of rock bolts in the United States. Due to the high humidity in the underground mining environment, the rock bolts corrode and loose their load bearing capacity which in turn reduces the life expectancy of the ground support and, thus, creates operational difficulties and number of safety concerns[1]. Research on rock anchor corrosion has not been adequately extensive in the past and the effects of several factors in the mine atmosphere and waters are not clearly understood. One of the probable reasons for this lack of research may be attributed to the time required for gathering meaningful data that makes the study of corrosion quite challenging. In this particular work underground water samples from different mines in the Illinois coal basin were collected and the major chemical content was analyzed and used for the laboratory testing. The corrosion performance of the different commercial rock anchors was investigated by techniques such as laboratory immersion tests in five different corrosion chambers, and potentiodynamic polarization tests in simulated ground waters based on the Illinois coal basin. The experiments were conducted with simulate underground mining conditions (corrosive). The tensile strengths were measured for the selected rock anchors taken every 3 months from the salt spray corrosion chambers maintained at different pH values and temperatures. The corrosion potential (Ecorr ), corrosion current (Icorr) and the corresponding corrosion rates (CR) of the selected commercial rock bolts: #5, #6, #6 epoxy coated and #7 forged head rebar steels, #6 and #7 threaded head rebar steels were measured at the solution pH values of 5 and 8 at room temperature. The open circuit potential (OCP) values of the different rock anchors were recorded in 3 selected underground coal mines (A, B & C) in the Illinois coal basin and the data compared with the laboratory electrochemical tests for analyzing the life of the rock

  7. The Mouse C2C12 Myoblast Cell Surface N-Linked Glycoproteome

    PubMed Central

    Gundry, Rebekah L.; Raginski, Kimberly; Tarasova, Yelena; Tchernyshyov, Irina; Bausch-Fluck, Damaris; Elliott, Steven T.; Boheler, Kenneth R.; Van Eyk, Jennifer E.; Wollscheid, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Endogenous regeneration and repair mechanisms are responsible for replacing dead and damaged cells to maintain or enhance tissue and organ function, and one of the best examples of endogenous repair mechanisms involves skeletal muscle. Although the molecular mechanisms that regulate the differentiation of satellite cells and myoblasts toward myofibers are not fully understood, cell surface proteins that sense and respond to their environment play an important role. The cell surface capturing technology was used here to uncover the cell surface N-linked glycoprotein subproteome of myoblasts and to identify potential markers of myoblast differentiation. 128 bona fide cell surface-exposed N-linked glycoproteins, including 117 transmembrane, four glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored, five extracellular matrix, and two membrane-associated proteins were identified from mouse C2C12 myoblasts. The data set revealed 36 cluster of differentiation-annotated proteins and confirmed the occupancy for 235 N-linked glycosylation sites. The identification of the N-glycosylation sites on the extracellular domain of the proteins allowed for the determination of the orientation of the identified proteins within the plasma membrane. One glycoprotein transmembrane orientation was found to be inconsistent with Swiss-Prot annotations, whereas ambiguous annotations for 14 other proteins were resolved. Several of the identified N-linked glycoproteins, including aquaporin-1 and β-sarcoglycan, were found in validation experiments to change in overall abundance as the myoblasts differentiate toward myotubes. Therefore, the strategy and data presented shed new light on the complexity of the myoblast cell surface subproteome and reveal new targets for the clinically important characterization of cell intermediates during myoblast differentiation into myotubes. PMID:19656770

  8. Equilibrium Configuration in a Nematic Liquid Crystal Droplet with Homeotropic Anchoring of Finite Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanke, Masaki; Sasaki, Kazuo

    2013-09-01

    Equilibrium configuration of order parameter in a nematic liquid crystal droplet with homeotropic anchoring of finite strength at the surface is studied numerically by using the Landau--de Gennes approach. It is found that a hedgehog-like configuration with a disclination loop of a small radius is stable for strong anchoring while an axial configuration without defect is stable for weak anchoring. A first-order phase transition from one configuration to the other occurs as the strength of the anchoring is varied. The critical anchoring strength turns out to increase almost linearly with the inverse of the droplet radius.

  9. Simulation study of liquid crystal anchoring at a polymer surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaneh, Mehdi

    2005-03-01

    The process of rubbing a polymer substrate to induce planar anchoring has two effects. It aligns the polymer chains and also creates grooves in the surface. We have investigated which one of these effects is more important by conducting a series of simulations of molecules of 5CB in contact with a poly(vinyl alcohol) surface. The polymer surface was constructed from a set of parallel straight chains. It was then distorted to mimic the effect of grooves in a direction perpendicular to the chain direction, thus causing two opposing anchoring effects. It was found that the 5CB molecules ordered preferentially along the chain direction when the depth of the grooves was less than 20 percent of the distance between grooves. For grooves whose walls were more steeply pitched, the nematic ordering aligned with the grooves.

  10. Arthroscopic Suture Anchor Tenodesis: Loop-Suture Technique

    PubMed Central

    Shon, Min Soo; Koh, Kyoung Hwan; Lim, Tae Kang; Lee, Seung Won; Park, Young Eun; Yoo, Jae Chul

    2013-01-01

    With advancements in arthroscopic surgery, arthroscopic biceps tenodesis with suture anchor recently has been reported to be a reasonable option for the treatment of biceps pathologies, especially for those that are symptomatic or accompanied by a rotator cuff tear. We introduce our technique of arthroscopic biceps tenodesis with suture anchor that we call the loop-suture technique, which is constructed with 1 loop strand and another sutured strand. This technique can help to improve biceps grip and simultaneously minimize longitudinal splitting of the tendon. In addition, it is relatively simple and can be performed with the use of conventional devices and arthroscopic portals used for rotator cuff repair, without the formation of additional portals or a separate incision for the tenodesis. PMID:23875133

  11. Accessorizing and anchoring the LINC complex for multifunctionality

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wakam; Worman, Howard J.

    2015-01-01

    The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex, composed of outer and inner nuclear membrane Klarsicht, ANC-1, and Syne homology (KASH) and Sad1 and UNC-84 (SUN) proteins, respectively, connects the nucleus to cytoskeletal filaments and performs diverse functions including nuclear positioning, mechanotransduction, and meiotic chromosome movements. Recent studies have shed light on the source of this diversity by identifying factors associated with the complex that endow specific functions as well as those that differentially anchor the complex within the nucleus. Additional diversity may be provided by accessory factors that reorganize the complex into higher-ordered arrays. As core components of the LINC complex are associated with several diseases, understanding the role of accessory and anchoring proteins could provide insights into pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25559183

  12. Effective anchoring energy in dipolar organic film on metals surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Zakharov, A. V.

    2007-04-01

    The influence of electron injection from the metal electrode into organic liquid crystal dipolar film on the effective anchoring energy (EAE) of the polar organic film is discussed from the energy point of view. It is shown that the accounting for the injected carrier in organic film results in a polynomial function for the EAE expanded up to the fourth order in cos θs, where θs is the polar angle of the director nˆ at the film/metal interface. It is also shown that in a certain range of the location of centroid of the injected carrier z¯ the destabilizing surface polarization mechanism may lead to destruction of the linear anchoring strength coefficient w1. The strong influence of z¯ on the quadratic term w2 also has been demonstrated.

  13. Graphene Nanoribbons Anchored to a SiC Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Lilia; Le, Nam

    Due to their exceptional fundamental characteristics graphene nanoribbons play a major role in the development of future nano-technological applications. The high chemical reactivity of the graphene nanoribbon edges can be utilized to create modified materials. Using first principles simulations we explore this possibility to construct patterned systems composed of anchored ribbons of zigzag edges covalently bonded to a SiC substrate. The hybrid edge states are found to possess interesting electronic and magnetic properties, which alter the overall behavior of the entire system as compared to the behavior of the individual components. It is found that the van der Waals interactions are important for the overall stability and structure of the anchored ribbons. Also, spin-polarization effects play a profound role in the electronic structure and associated density of states. The hybrid graphene/SiC zigzag edges are analyzed in terms of their transport characteristics as well.

  14. Anchoring transition in confined discotic columnar liquid crystal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Thomas; Thiebaut, Olivier; Charlet, Émilie; Bock, Harald; Kelber, Julien; Grelet, Éric

    2011-01-01

    We report the achievement of ultrathin films (down to 25 nm thick) of thermotropic columnar liquid crystals in homeotropic alignment (columns normal to the interface) confined between a glass slide and a thin metallic electrode (about 150 nm thick). The face-on orientation of the discotic compound is obtained by anchoring transition of a columnar liquid crystalline phase from a degenerate planar orientation to the homeotropic alignment without any phase transition to the isotropic liquid phase. The kinetic dependence on temperature of such anchoring transition is investigated revealing various diffusive growth regimes of the homeotropic domains. Finally, confining effects are also considered by varying the thickness of the columnar liquid crystal film to reach the typical value required in organic solar cells thus demonstrating the reliability of such alignment process in a photovoltaic context.

  15. Graphene nanoribbons anchored to SiC substrates.

    PubMed

    Le, Nam B; Woods, Lilia M

    2016-09-14

    Graphene nanoribbons are quasi-one-dimensional planar graphene allotropes with diverse properties dependent on their width and types of edges. Graphene nanoribbons anchored to substrates is a hybrid system, which offers novel opportunities for property modifications as well as experimental control. Here we present electronic structure calculations of zigzag graphene nanoribbons chemically attached via the edges to the Si or C terminated surfaces of a SiC substrate. The results show that the edge characteristics are rather robust and the properties are essentially determined by the individual nanoribbon. While the localized spin polarization of the graphene nanoribbon edge atoms is not significantly affected by the substrate, secondary energy gaps in the highest conduction and lowest valence region may emerge in the anchored structures. The van der Waals interaction together with the electrostatic interactions due to the polarity of the surface bonds are found to be important for the structure parameters and energy stability. PMID:27392014

  16. Graphene nanoribbons anchored to SiC substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Nam B.; Woods, Lilia M.

    2016-09-01

    Graphene nanoribbons are quasi-one-dimensional planar graphene allotropes with diverse properties dependent on their width and types of edges. Graphene nanoribbons anchored to substrates is a hybrid system, which offers novel opportunities for property modifications as well as experimental control. Here we present electronic structure calculations of zigzag graphene nanoribbons chemically attached via the edges to the Si or C terminated surfaces of a SiC substrate. The results show that the edge characteristics are rather robust and the properties are essentially determined by the individual nanoribbon. While the localized spin polarization of the graphene nanoribbon edge atoms is not significantly affected by the substrate, secondary energy gaps in the highest conduction and lowest valence region may emerge in the anchored structures. The van der Waals interaction together with the electrostatic interactions due to the polarity of the surface bonds are found to be important for the structure parameters and energy stability.

  17. Arthroscopic suture anchor tenodesis: loop-suture technique.

    PubMed

    Shon, Min Soo; Koh, Kyoung Hwan; Lim, Tae Kang; Lee, Seung Won; Park, Young Eun; Yoo, Jae Chul

    2013-05-01

    With advancements in arthroscopic surgery, arthroscopic biceps tenodesis with suture anchor recently has been reported to be a reasonable option for the treatment of biceps pathologies, especially for those that are symptomatic or accompanied by a rotator cuff tear. We introduce our technique of arthroscopic biceps tenodesis with suture anchor that we call the loop-suture technique, which is constructed with 1 loop strand and another sutured strand. This technique can help to improve biceps grip and simultaneously minimize longitudinal splitting of the tendon. In addition, it is relatively simple and can be performed with the use of conventional devices and arthroscopic portals used for rotator cuff repair, without the formation of additional portals or a separate incision for the tenodesis. PMID:23875133

  18. Recycling Suture Limbs from Knotless Suture Anchors for Arthroscopic Shoulder Stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Timothy S.; DiPompeo, Christine M.; Ismaeli, Zahra C.; Porter, Polly A.; Nicholson, Shannon L.; Johnson, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent shoulder instability often leads to labral abnormality that requires surgical intervention that may require fixation with suture anchors. The proposed surgical technique allows the surgeon to achieve 2 points of fixation around the labrum and/or capsule with a single suture secured to the glenoid with a knotless anchor. Instead of cutting and discarding the residual suture limbs after anchor insertion, this technique uses the residual suture limbs of the knotless anchor for a second suture pass. This technique (1) creates a more cost- and time-efficient surgical procedure than using multiple single-loaded anchors or double-loaded anchors, (2) decreases the known risk of glenoid fracture from the stress riser at the implant tips of multi-anchor repairs by reducing the number of anchors required for stabilization, (3) decreases the surgical time compared with the use of double-loaded anchors through simpler suture management and less knot tying, (4) allows for the secure reapproximation of the labrum to the glenoid while offering a convenient option for capsulorrhaphy without the need to insert another anchor, and (5) yields more points of soft-tissue fixation with fewer anchors drilled into the glenoid. PMID:25126504

  19. Taking the high (or low) road: a quantifier priming perspective on basic anchoring effects.

    PubMed

    Sleeth-Keppler, David

    2013-01-01

    Current explanations of basic anchoring effects, defined as the influence of an arbitrary number standard on an uncertain judgment, confound numerical values with vague quantifiers. I show that the consideration of numerical anchors may bias subsequent judgments primarily through the priming of quantifiers, rather than the numbers themselves. Study 1 varied the target of a numerical comparison judgment in a between--participants design, while holding the numerical anchor value constant. This design yielded an anchoring effect consistent with a quantifier priming hypothesis. Study 2 included a direct manipulation of vague quantifiers in the traditional anchoring paradigm. Finally, Study 3 examined the notion that specific associations between quantifiers, reflecting values on separate judgmental dimensions (i.e., the price and height of a target) can affect the direction of anchoring effects. Discussion focuses on the nature of vague quantifier priming in numerically anchored judgments. PMID:23951950

  20. Creating Order from Chaos: Cellular Regulation by Kinase Anchoring

    PubMed Central

    Scott, John D.; Dessauer, Carmen W.; Tasken, Kjetil

    2012-01-01

    Second messenger responses rely on where and when the enzymes that propagate these signals become active. Spatial and temporal organization of certain signaling enzymes is controlled in part by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). This family of regulatory proteins was originally classified on the basis of their ability to compartmentalize the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (also known as protein kinase A, or PKA). However, it is now recognized that AKAPs position G protein–coupled receptors, adenylyl cyclases, G proteins, and their effector proteins in relation to protein kinases and signal termination enzymes such as phosphodiesterases and protein phosphatases. This arrangement offers a simple and efficient means to limit the scope, duration, and directional flow of information to sites deep within the cell. This review focuses on the pros and cons of reagents that define the biological role of kinase anchoring inside cells and discusses recent advances in our understanding of anchored second messenger signaling in the cardiovascular and immune systems. PMID:23043438

  1. Genome Assembly Anchored QTL Map of Bovine Chromosome 14

    PubMed Central

    Wibowo, Tito A.; Gaskins, Charles T.; Newberry, Ruth C.; Thorgaard, Gary H.; Michal, Jennifer J.; Jiang, Zhihua

    2008-01-01

    Bovine chromosome 14 (BTA14) has been widely explored for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genes related to economically important traits in both dairy and beef cattle. We reviewed more than 40 investigations and anchored 126 QTL to the current genome assembly (Btau 4_0). Using this anchored QTL map, we observed that, in dairy cattle, the region spanning 0 – 10 Mb on BTA14 has the highest density QTL map with a total of 56 QTL, mainly for milk production traits. It is very likely that both somatic cell score (SCS) and clinical mastitis share some common QTL in two regions: 61.48 Mb - 73.84 Mb and 7.86 Mb – 39.55 Mb, respectively. As well, both ovulation rate and twinning rate might share a common QTL region from 34.16 Mb to 65.38 Mb. However, there are no common QTL locations in three pregnancy related phenotypes: non-return rate, pregnancy rate and daughter pregnancy rate. In beef cattle, the majority of QTL are located in a broad region of 15 Mb – 45 Mb on the chromosome. Functional genes, such as CRH, CYP11B1, DGAT1, FABP4 and TG, as potential candidates for some of these QTL, were also reviewed. Therefore, our review provides a standardized QTL map anchored within the current genome assembly, which would enhance the process of selecting positional and physiological candidate genes for many important traits in cattle. PMID:19043607

  2. Linked Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC.

    Three papers are compiled here for research library directors: (1) "Background: Open Systems Interconnection," in which David F. Bishop provides fundamental background information to explain the concept of the emerging technology of linked systems and open systems interconnection--i.e., an agreed upon standard set of conventions or rules that,…

  3. The Effects of Different Types of Anchor Tests on Observed Score Equating. Research Report. ETS RR-09-41

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jinghua; Sinharay, Sandip; Holland, Paul W.; Feigenbaum, Miriam; Curley, Edward

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the use of a different type of anchor, a "midi anchor", that has a smaller spread of item difficulties than the tests to be equated, and then contrasts its use with the use of a "mini anchor". The impact of different anchors on observed score equating were evaluated and compared with respect to systematic error (bias), random…

  4. Genome-Wide Mining, Characterization, and Development of Microsatellite Markers in Gossypium Species

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiong; Fang, Lei; Chen, Jiedan; Hu, Yan; Si, Zhanfeng; Wang, Sen; Chang, Lijing; Guo, Wangzhen; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2015-01-01

    Although much research has been conducted to characterize microsatellites and develop markers, the distribution of microsatellites remains ambiguous and the use of microsatellite markers in genomic studies and marker-assisted selection is limited. To identify microsatellites for cotton research, we mined 100,290, 83,160, and 56,937 microsatellites with frequencies of 41.2, 49.1, and 74.8 microsatellites per Mb in the recently sequenced Gossypium species: G. hirsutum, G. arboreum, and G. raimondii, respectively. The distributions of microsatellites in their genomes were non-random and were positively and negatively correlated with genes and transposable elements, respectively. Of the 77,996 developed microsatellite markers, 65,498 were physically anchored to the 26 chromosomes of G. hirsutum with an average marker density of 34 markers per Mb. We confirmed 67,880 (87%) universal and 7,705 (9.9%) new genic microsatellite markers. The polymorphism was estimated in above three species by in silico PCR and validated with 505 markers in G. hirsutum. We further predicted 8,825 polymorphic microsatellite markers within G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 and G. barbadense cv. Hai7124. In our study, genome-wide mining and characterization of microsatellites, and marker development were very useful for the saturation of the allotetraploid genetic linkage map, genome evolution studies and comparative genome mapping. PMID:26030481

  5. New roles for DNA cytosine modification, eRNA, anchors, and superanchors in developing B cell progenitors.

    PubMed

    Benner, Christopher; Isoda, Takeshi; Murre, Cornelis

    2015-10-13

    B-cell fate is orchestrated by a series of well-characterized developmental regulators. Here, we found that the onset of B-cell development was accompanied by large-scale changes in DNA cytosine modifications associated with promoters, enhancers, and anchors. These changes were tightly linked to alterations in transcription factor occupancy and nascent RNA (eRNA) transcription. We found that the prepro-B to the pro-B-cell transition was associated with a global exchange of DNA cytosine modifications for polycomb-mediated repression at CpG islands. Hypomethylated regions were found exclusively in the active/permissive compartment of the nucleus and were predominantly associated with regulatory elements or anchors that orchestrate the folding patterns of the genome. We identified superanchors, characterized by clusters of hypomethylated CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-bound elements, which were predominantly located at boundaries that define topological associated domains. A particularly prominent hypomethylated superanchor was positioned down-stream of the Ig heavy chain (Igh) locus. Analysis of global formaldehyde-cross-linking studies indicated that the Igh locus superanchor interacts with the VH region repertoire across vast genomic distances. We propose that the Igh locus superanchor sequesters the VH and DHJH regions into a spatial confined geometric environment to promote rapid first-passage times. Collectively, these studies demonstrate how, in developing B cells, DNA cytosine modifications associated with regulatory and architectural elements affect patterns of gene expression, folding patterns of the genome, and antigen receptor assembly. PMID:26417104

  6. Monitoring Lipid Anchor Organization in Cell Membranes by PIE-FCCS

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the dynamic co-localization of lipid-anchored fluorescent proteins in living cells using pulsed-interleaved excitation fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (PIE-FCCS) and fluorescence lifetime analysis. Specifically, we look at the pairwise co-localization of anchors from lymphocyte cell kinase (LCK: myristoyl, palmitoyl, palmitoyl), RhoA (geranylgeranyl), and K-Ras (farnesyl) proteins in different cell types. In Jurkat cells, a density-dependent increase in cross-correlation among RhoA anchors is observed, while LCK anchors exhibit a more moderate increase and broader distribution. No correlation was detected among K-Ras anchors or between any of the different anchor types studied. Fluorescence lifetime data reveal no significant Förster resonance energy transfer in any of the data. In COS 7 cells, minimal correlation was detected among LCK or RhoA anchors. Taken together, these observations suggest that some lipid anchors take part in anchor-specific co-clustering with other existing clusters of native proteins and lipids in the membrane. Importantly, these observations do not support a simple interpretation of lipid anchor-mediated organization driven by partitioning based on binary lipid phase separation. PMID:22631607

  7. Not all nutrition claims are perceived equal: anchoring effects and moderating mechanisms in food advertising.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Yoon, Hye Jin; Hove, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Despite the increased use of health claims in food advertising, few studies have investigated how specific nutrition claims have differential effects depending on how they are presented. In this context, the current study tests the anchoring hypothesis. Anchoring refers to a common human tendency to evaluate information differently depending on the presence or absence of a numerical "anchor" or reference point. Two (pilot and main) experimental studies explore anchoring effects on audience response to food advertising both directly and moderated by cognitive, motivational, and message factors. The pilot study finds that food product ads employing nutrition claims with an anchor rather than without an anchor generate two results: First, participants perceive the product to have lower fat/lower calorie contents (anchoring hypothesis); second, they prefer the messages with an anchor over those without an anchor. The main study reports that when anchoring is successfully evoked, it produces favorable attitudes toward the ad, favorable attitudes toward the brand, and purchase intention-but only when moderated by health orientation, claim believability, and nutrition knowledge. Practical implications are provided with respect to regulatory guidelines and effective communication strategies for promoting low-fat and low-calorie products in food advertising. PMID:21308579

  8. SSR markers: a tool for species identification in Psidium (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Tuler, A C; Carrijo, T T; Nóia, L R; Ferreira, A; Peixoto, A L; da Silva Ferreira, M F

    2015-11-01

    Molecular DNA markers are used for detection of polymorphisms in individuals. As they are independent of developmental stage of the plant and environmental influences, they can be useful tools in taxonomy. The alleles of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers (or microsatellites) are traditionally used to identify taxonomic units. This application demands the laborious and costly delimitation of exclusive alleles in order to avoid homoplasy. Here, we propose a method for identification of species based on the amplification profile of groups of SSR markers obtained by a transferability study. The approach considers that the SSR are conserved among related species. In this context, using Psidium as a model, 141 SSR markers developed for Psidium guajava were transferred to 13 indigenous species of Psidium from the Atlantic Rainforest. Transferability of the markers was high and 28 SSR were conserved in all species. Four SSR groups were defined and they can help in the identification of all 13 Psidium species studied. A group of 31 SSR was genotyped, with one to six alleles each. The H0 varied from 0.0 to 0.46, and PIC from 0.0 to 0.74. Cluster analysis revealed shared alleles among species. The high percentage of SSR transferability found in Psidium evidences the narrow phylogenetic relationship existing among these species since transferability occurs by the preservation of the microsatellites and anchoring regions. The proposed method was useful for distinguishing the species of Psidium, being useful in taxonomic studies. PMID:26476530

  9. Study of anchoring behavior of nematic fluids at the interface of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian

    A liquid crystal (LC) at its boundary surface adopts a preferential alignment, which is referred to as anchoring. The direction of this alignment (i.e., anchoring direction) may be perpendicular, parallel or tilted with respect to the surface. Transitions from one anchoring condition to another may occur when the parameters (e.g., temperature) charactering the surface change, as referred to as anchoring transitions. In the LC-polymer composite systems under our study, the anchoring and temperature-driven anchoring transitions of nematic fluids is very sensitive to the structure of the side chain of poly (alkyl acrylate) matrixes that encapsulate the LC. We have shown that the anchoring transition temperature of these systems can be tuned far below the nematic-to-isotropic transition temperature, by varying either the length, branching structure of the side chains of homopolymers, or the composition of copolymer of two dissimilar monomers. Both sharp and broad anchoring transitions with respect to the temperature range over which a transition occurs were observed. It is postulated that microscopic interactions between the polymer side chains and LC molecules play an important role in determining the anchoring. In particular, the conformation of the polymer side chain is proposed to have important control over the anchoring. Anchoring strength and tilt angle as a function of temperature during the anchoring transitions were also experimentally investigated, which contribute to understanding of the microscopic mechanism for such transitions. Based on the LC-polymer composites with controlled anchoring, a LC display with reverse switching mode and a novel electrically switchable diffraction grating have been demonstrated. The advantages of these devices are ease of manufacturing, low operation voltage, and mechanical stability offered by polymer matrix. Moreover, a detailed study of the director configuration of wall defects found in these composite films was carried

  10. Dephosphorylated synapsin I anchors synaptic vesicles to actin cytoskeleton: an analysis by videomicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ceccaldi, P E; Grohovaz, F; Benfenati, F; Chieregatti, E; Greengard, P; Valtorta, F

    1995-03-01

    Synapsin I is a synaptic vesicle-associated protein which inhibits neurotransmitter release, an effect which is abolished upon its phosphorylation by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II). Based on indirect evidence, it was suggested that this effect on neurotransmitter release may be achieved by the reversible anchoring of synaptic vesicles to the actin cytoskeleton of the nerve terminal. Using video-enhanced microscopy, we have now obtained experimental evidence in support of this model: the presence of dephosphorylated synapsin I is necessary for synaptic vesicles to bind actin; synapsin I is able to promote actin polymerization and bundling of actin filaments in the presence of synaptic vesicles; the ability to cross-link synaptic vesicles and actin is specific for synapsin I and is not shared by other basic proteins; the cross-linking between synaptic vesicles and actin is specific for the membrane of synaptic vesicles and does not reflect either a non-specific binding of membranes to the highly surface active synapsin I molecule or trapping of vesicles within the thick bundles of actin filaments; the formation of the ternary complex is virtually abolished when synapsin I is phosphorylated by CaM kinase II. The data indicate that synapsin I markedly affects synaptic vesicle traffic and cytoskeleton assembly in the nerve terminal and provide a molecular basis for the ability of synapsin I to regulate the availability of synaptic vesicles for exocytosis and thereby the efficiency of neurotransmitter release. PMID:7876313

  11. Presenilin-1 influences processing of the acetylcholinesterase membrane anchor PRiMA.

    PubMed

    García-Ayllón, María-Salud; Campanari, María-Letizia; Montenegro, María-Fernanda; Cuchillo-Ibáñez, Inmaculada; Belbin, Olivia; Lleó, Alberto; Tsim, Karl; Vidal, Cecilio J; Sáez-Valero, Javier

    2014-07-01

    Presenilin-1 (PS1) is the catalytic component of the γ-secretase complex. In this study, we explore if PS1 participates in the processing of the cholinergic acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The major AChE variant expressed in the brain is a tetramer (G(4)) bound to a proline-rich membrane anchor (PRiMA). Overexpression of the transmembrane PRiMA protein in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing AChE and treated with the γ-secretase inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester have enabled us to study whether, through its γ-secretase activity, PS1 participates in the processing of PRiMA-linked AChE. γ-Secretase inhibition led to a notable increase in the level of PRiMA-linked AChE, suggesting that γ-secretase is involved in the cleavage of PRiMA. We demonstrate that cleavage of PRiMA by γ-secretase results in a C-terminal PRiMA fragment. Immunofluorescence labeling allowed us to identify this PRiMA fragment in the nucleus. Moreover, we have determined changes in the proportion of the raft-residing AChE-PRiMA in a PS1 conditional knockout mouse. Our results are of interest as both enzymes have therapeutic relevance for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24612677

  12. A-kinase anchoring proteins: cAMP compartmentalization in neurodegenerative and obstructive pulmonary diseases

    PubMed Central

    Poppinga, W J; Muñoz-Llancao, P; González-Billault, C; Schmidt, M

    2014-01-01

    The universal second messenger cAMP is generated upon stimulation of Gs protein-coupled receptors, such as the β2-adreneoceptor, and leads to the activation of PKA, the major cAMP effector protein. PKA oscillates between an on and off state and thereby regulates a plethora of distinct biological responses. The broad activation pattern of PKA and its contribution to several distinct cellular functions lead to the introduction of the concept of compartmentalization of cAMP. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) are of central importance due to their unique ability to directly and/or indirectly interact with proteins that either determine the cellular content of cAMP, such as β2-adrenoceptors, ACs and PDEs, or are regulated by cAMP such as the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP. We report on lessons learned from neurons indicating that maintenance of cAMP compartmentalization by AKAP5 is linked to neurotransmission, learning and memory. Disturbance of cAMP compartments seem to be linked to neurodegenerative disease including Alzheimer's disease. We translate this knowledge to compartmentalized cAMP signalling in the lung. Next to AKAP5, we focus here on AKAP12 and Ezrin (AKAP78). These topics will be highlighted in the context of the development of novel pharmacological interventions to tackle AKAP-dependent compartmentalization. PMID:25132049

  13. A mitochondria-anchored isoform of the actin-nucleating spire protein regulates mitochondrial division

    PubMed Central

    Manor, Uri; Bartholomew, Sadie; Golani, Gonen; Christenson, Eric; Kozlov, Michael; Higgs, Henry; Spudich, James; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial division, essential for survival in mammals, is enhanced by an inter-organellar process involving ER tubules encircling and constricting mitochondria. The force for constriction is thought to involve actin polymerization by the ER-anchored isoform of the formin protein inverted formin 2 (INF2). Unknown is the mechanism triggering INF2-mediated actin polymerization at ER-mitochondria intersections. We show that a novel isoform of the formin-binding, actin-nucleating protein Spire, Spire1C, localizes to mitochondria and directly links mitochondria to the actin cytoskeleton and the ER. Spire1C binds INF2 and promotes actin assembly on mitochondrial surfaces. Disrupting either Spire1C actin- or formin-binding activities reduces mitochondrial constriction and division. We propose Spire1C cooperates with INF2 to regulate actin assembly at ER-mitochondrial contacts. Simulations support this model's feasibility and demonstrate polymerizing actin filaments can induce mitochondrial constriction. Thus, Spire1C is optimally positioned to serve as a molecular hub that links mitochondria to actin and the ER for regulation of mitochondrial division. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08828.001 PMID:26305500

  14. Expression and clinical significance of A‐kinase anchor protein 4 in lung adenocarcinoma tissue

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Kang; Yu, Xiao‐Yun; Yu, Zhuang; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The A‐kinase anchor proteins (AKAP) are a growing family of scaffolding proteins involved in the occurrence, proliferation, and metastasis of tumors by controlling intracellular signals. In this study, the expression and significance of AKAP4 were analyzed in patients with lung adenocarcinoma and adjacent non‐cancerous tissues. Methods Using reverse transcriptase‐polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, AKAP4 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression levels were measured in 108 cases of lung adenocarcinoma and adjacent non‐cancerous tissues. Results AKAP4 mRNA and protein were expressed in lung adenocarcinoma tissues, but not in adjacent non‐cancerous tissues. The expression of AKAP4 mRNA and protein was closely associated with lymphatic metastasis (P < 0.05), but had no relationship with stage, differentiation degree, gender, age or smoking (P > 0.05). AKAP4 expression had an adverse effect on the overall survival rate (P < 0.05). Conclusion The expression of AKAP4 was high in lung adenocarcinoma tissue, which may be closely related to the lymphatic metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma. AKAP4 may be a novel lung adenocarcinoma molecule marker and a predictor of poor prognosis. PMID:27148411

  15. Aromatic Anchor at an Invariant Hormone-Receptor Interface

    PubMed Central

    Pandyarajan, Vijay; Smith, Brian J.; Phillips, Nelson B.; Whittaker, Linda; Cox, Gabriella P.; Wickramasinghe, Nalinda; Menting, John G.; Wan, Zhu-li; Whittaker, Jonathan; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Lawrence, Michael C.; Weiss, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Crystallographic studies of insulin bound to fragments of the insulin receptor have recently defined the topography of the primary hormone-receptor interface. Here, we have investigated the role of PheB24, an invariant aromatic anchor at this interface and site of a human mutation causing diabetes mellitus. An extensive set of B24 substitutions has been constructed and tested for effects on receptor binding. Although aromaticity has long been considered a key requirement at this position, MetB24 was found to confer essentially native affinity and bioactivity. Molecular modeling suggests that this linear side chain can serve as an alternative hydrophobic anchor at the hormone-receptor interface. These findings motivated further substitution of PheB24 by cyclohexanylalanine (Cha), which contains a nonplanar aliphatic ring. Contrary to expectations, [ChaB24]insulin likewise exhibited high activity. Furthermore, its resistance to fibrillation and the rapid rate of hexamer disassembly, properties of potential therapeutic advantage, were enhanced. The crystal structure of the ChaB24 analog, determined as an R6 zinc-stabilized hexamer at a resolution of 1.5 Å, closely resembles that of wild-type insulin. The nonplanar aliphatic ring exhibits two chair conformations with partial occupancies, each recapitulating the role of PheB24 at the dimer interface. Together, these studies have defined structural requirements of an anchor residue within the B24-binding pocket of the insulin receptor; similar molecular principles are likely to pertain to insulin-related growth factors. Our results highlight in particular the utility of nonaromatic side chains as probes of the B24 pocket and suggest that the nonstandard Cha side chain may have therapeutic utility. PMID:25305014

  16. Influence of anchoring on miscarriage risk perception associated with amniocentesis.

    PubMed

    Nuccio, Regina; Hashmi, S Shahrukh; Mastrobattista, Joan; Noblin, Sarah Jane; Refuerzo, Jerrie; Smith, Janice L; Singletary, Claire N

    2015-04-01

    One factor women consider when deciding whether to pursue amniocentesis is the risk of miscarriage. People use mechanisms like anchoring, or the prior belief regarding the magnitude of risk, as a frame of reference for new information. This study aimed to determine a woman's perception of miscarriage risk associated with amniocentesis before and after genetic counseling and to determine what factors anchor a woman's perception of miscarriage risk. One hundred thirteen women being seen for prenatal genetic counseling and possible amniocentesis at six Houston clinics participated in the two-part anonymous survey. While most women (56.7 %) perceived the risk as low or average pre-counseling and indicated the numeric risk of amniocentesis as <1 %, significantly more patients (73 %) correctly identified the numeric risk as <1 % post-counseling (p < 0.0001). However, the majority of patients' qualitative risk perception did not change after the genetic counseling session (60 %). Those who changed their feeling about the risk after counseling showed a decreased perception of the risk (p < 0.0001). Participants who elected amniocentesis had a significantly lower perception of the risk (p = 0.017) whereas those who declined amniocentesis were more likely to view the risk as high (p = 0.004). The only two anchoring factors that had an effect were having a friend or relative with a personal or family history of a genetic disorder (p = 0.001) and having a child already (p = 0.038); both were associated with a lower risk perception. The lack of significant factors may reflect the uniqueness of each patient's risk assessment framework and reinforces the importance of genetic counseling to elucidate individual concerns, particularly as non-invasive prenatal testing becomes more widely available and further complicates the prenatal testing landscape. PMID:25224777

  17. Control of anchoring of nematic fluids at polymer surfaces created by in situ photopolymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Collard, David M; Park, Jung O; Srinivasarao, Mohan

    2005-05-12

    In situ photopolymerization of alkyl acrylate monomers in the presence of a nematic fluid provides a cellular matrix of liquid crystalline droplets in which the chemical structure of the encapsulating polymer exerts control over the alignment (anchoring) of the liquid crystalline molecules. Control is obtained by variation of the alkyl side chains and through copolymerization of two dissimilar monofunctional acrylates. For example, among a series of poly(methylheptyl acrylate)s, the 1-methylheptyl analogue prefers planar anchoring of a nematic (TL205) over the temperature range studied. However, the polymers of other methylheptyl side chains display a homeotropic-to-planar anchoring thermal transition temperature similar to that of the n-heptyl analogue. Copolymerization of two monofunctional acrylates with opposing tendencies of aligning liquid crystal leads to tunability of anchoring behavior over a wide temperature range. The broad anchoring transitions we observed provide a way of achieving highly tilted anchoring. PMID:16852050

  18. Doubly anchored nematic polymer brushes: Shear, field effects, and quasipiezoelectricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halperin, A.; Williams, D. R. M.

    1994-02-01

    The shear behavior of a doubly anchored brush of liquid-crystalline polymers immersed in a nematic solvent is investigated. In such a brush the grafted polymers bridge two plates. Remarkably, the Franck nematic elasticity in this system can dominate the shear modulus. In the presence of a field the system undergoes a Fréedericksz transition modified by the bridging polymers. In particular: (i) the polymeric elasticity affects the critical field Ec; (ii) the shear modulus vanishes as the field approaches Ec; and (iii) the nematic distortion couples to a shear strain. The system exhibits quasipiezoelectricity, which is nonlinear and is not associated with any inverse effect.

  19. Molecular rectifiers: a new design based on asymmetric anchoring moieties.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Colin; Ratner, Mark A

    2015-03-11

    The quest for a molecular rectifier is among the major challenges of molecular electronics. We introduce three simple rules to design an efficient rectifying molecule and demonstrate its functioning at the theoretical level, relying on the NEGF-DFT technique. The design rules notably require both the introduction of asymmetric anchoring moieties and a decoupling bridge. They lead to a new rectification mechanism based on the compression and control of the HOMO/LUMO gap by the electrode Fermi levels, arising from a pinning effect. Significant rectification ratios up to 2 orders of magnitude are theoretically predicted as the mechanism opposes resonant to nonresonant tunneling. PMID:25706442

  20. Photolithography of Dithiocarbamate-Anchored Monolayers and Polymers on Gold

    PubMed Central

    Leonov, Alexei P.; Wei, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Dithiocarbamate (DTC)-anchored monolayers and polymers were investigated as positive resists for UV photolithography on planar and roughened Au surfaces. DTCs were formed in situ by the condensation of CS2 with monovalent or polyvalent amines such as linear polyethyleneimine (PEI) under mildly basic aqueous conditions, just prior to surface passivation. The robust adsorption of the polyvalent PEI-DTC to Au surfaces supported high levels of resistance to photoablation, providing opportunities to generate thin films with gradient functionality. Treatment of photopatterned substrates with alkanethiols produced binary coatings, enabling a direct visual comparison of DTC- and thiol-passivated surfaces against chemically induced corrosion using confocal microscopy. PMID:21894240

  1. Simulation of weak anchoring effects on nematic liquid crystal hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillen, Sean; Somers, David A. T.; Munday, Jeremy N.

    The free energy of a nematic liquid crystal droplet depends on an interplay between elastic and surface interactions. When the two contributions are of similar magnitude, there exists a transition of the nematic structure of the droplet. Because the two contributions scale differently with length scales, this transition is visible as a function of the size of the droplet. We carry out numerical simulations to explore the use of this transition in measuring surface anchoring energies. This technique could help elucidate alignment forces on liquid crystals, such as those caused by rubbed surfaces, electric fields, or even the Casimir torque. Electrical and Computer Engineering.

  2. 18. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING WEST ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF ANCHOR BRIDGE NUMBER 310 LOOKING WEST ALONG THE MAIN TRACK LOCATED TO THE NORTH OF THE COS COB POWER PLANT. THE LOAD DISPATCHER'S TOWER IS SHOWN IN THE LEFT FOREGROUND. AT THIS STATION THE DISPATCHER CONTROLLED POWER OUTPUT TO VARIOUS PARTS OF THE SYSTEM. THE STRUCTURE SERVES THE SAME PURPOSE IN 1993 AND CAN BE OPERATED LOCALLY OR REMOTELY FROM METRO-NORTH'S HEADQUARTERS IN MANHATTAN. THE STEEL STRUCTURE AND STACK IN THE BACKGROUND ARE PART OF THE BOILER 902-903 INSTALLATION. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  3. Direct imaging of rotating molecules anchored on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Jeongheon; Lee, Yangjin; Fang, Lei; Lee, Gun-Do; Bao, Zhenan; Kim, Kwanpyo

    2016-07-01

    There has been significant research interest in controlling and imaging molecular dynamics, such as translational and rotational motions, especially at a single molecular level. Here we applied aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (ACTEM) to actuate and directly image the rotational motions of molecules anchored on a single-layer-graphene sheet. Nanometer-sized carbonaceous molecules anchored on graphene provide ideal systems for monitoring rotational motions via ACTEM. We observed the preferential registry of longer molecular axis along graphene zigzag or armchair lattice directions due to the stacking-dependent molecule-graphene energy landscape. The calculated cross section from elastic scattering theory was used to experimentally estimate the rotational energy barriers of molecules on graphene. The observed energy barrier was within the range of 1.5-12 meV per atom, which is in good agreement with previous calculation results. We also performed molecular dynamics simulations, which revealed that the edge atoms of the molecule form stably bonds to graphene defects and can serve as a pivot point for rotational dynamics. Our study demonstrates the versatility of ACTEM for the investigation of molecular dynamics and configuration-dependent energetics at a single molecular level.There has been significant research interest in controlling and imaging molecular dynamics, such as translational and rotational motions, especially at a single molecular level. Here we applied aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (ACTEM) to actuate and directly image the rotational motions of molecules anchored on a single-layer-graphene sheet. Nanometer-sized carbonaceous molecules anchored on graphene provide ideal systems for monitoring rotational motions via ACTEM. We observed the preferential registry of longer molecular axis along graphene zigzag or armchair lattice directions due to the stacking-dependent molecule-graphene energy landscape. The

  4. Development of a RAD-Seq Based DNA Polymorphism Identification Software, AgroMarker Finder, and Its Application in Rice Marker-Assisted Breeding.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei; Zong, Jie; Luo, Zhijing; Chen, Mingjiao; Zhao, Xiangxiang; Zhang, Dabing; Qi, Yiping; Yuan, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and accurate genome-wide marker detection is essential to the marker-assisted breeding and functional genomics studies. In this work, we developed an integrated software, AgroMarker Finder (AMF: http://erp.novelbio.com/AMF), for providing graphical user interface (GUI) to facilitate the recently developed restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing data analysis in rice. By application of AMF, a total of 90,743 high-quality markers (82,878 SNPs and 7,865 InDels) were detected between rice varieties JP69 and Jiaoyuan5A. The density of the identified markers is 0.2 per Kb for SNP markers, and 0.02 per Kb for InDel markers. Sequencing validation revealed that the accuracy of genome-wide marker detection by AMF is 93%. In addition, a validated subset of 82 SNPs and 31 InDels were found to be closely linked to 117 important agronomic trait genes, providing a basis for subsequent marker-assisted selection (MAS) and variety identification. Furthermore, we selected 12 markers from 31 validated InDel markers to identify seed authenticity of variety Jiaoyuanyou69, and we also identified 10 markers closely linked to the fragrant gene BADH2 to minimize linkage drag for Wuxiang075 (BADH2 donor)/Jiachang1 recombinants selection. Therefore, this software provides an efficient approach for marker identification from RAD-seq data, and it would be a valuable tool for plant MAS and variety protection. PMID:26799713

  5. Development of a RAD-Seq Based DNA Polymorphism Identification Software, AgroMarker Finder, and Its Application in Rice Marker-Assisted Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhijing; Chen, Mingjiao; Zhao, Xiangxiang; Zhang, Dabing; Qi, Yiping; Yuan, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and accurate genome-wide marker detection is essential to the marker-assisted breeding and functional genomics studies. In this work, we developed an integrated software, AgroMarker Finder (AMF: http://erp.novelbio.com/AMF), for providing graphical user interface (GUI) to facilitate the recently developed restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing data analysis in rice. By application of AMF, a total of 90,743 high-quality markers (82,878 SNPs and 7,865 InDels) were detected between rice varieties JP69 and Jiaoyuan5A. The density of the identified markers is 0.2 per Kb for SNP markers, and 0.02 per Kb for InDel markers. Sequencing validation revealed that the accuracy of genome-wide marker detection by AMF is 93%. In addition, a validated subset of 82 SNPs and 31 InDels were found to be closely linked to 117 important agronomic trait genes, providing a basis for subsequent marker-assisted selection (MAS) and variety identification. Furthermore, we selected 12 markers from 31 validated InDel markers to identify seed authenticity of variety Jiaoyuanyou69, and we also identified 10 markers closely linked to the fragrant gene BADH2 to minimize linkage drag for Wuxiang075 (BADH2 donor)/Jiachang1 recombinants selection. Therefore, this software provides an efficient approach for marker identification from RAD-seq data, and it would be a valuable tool for plant MAS and variety protection. PMID:26799713

  6. SNP discovery and chromosome anchoring provide the first physically-anchored hexaploid oat map and reveal synteny with model species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For the first time in many years a comprehensive genome map for cultivated oat has been constructed using a combination of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and validated with a collection of cytogenetically defined germplasm lines. The markers were able to help distinguish the three geno...

  7. Percutaneous retrieval of a radiolucent anchoring sleeve embolized in pulmonary artery during pacemaker implantation.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Michifumi; Yamane, Teiichi; Sadaoka, Shunichi; Tokutake, Kenichi; Yokoyama, Kenichi; Hioki, Mika; Narui, Ryohsuke; Tanigawa, Shinichi; Inada, Keiichi; Matsuo, Seiichiro; Yoshimura, Michihiro

    2016-08-01

    An 85-year-old female presented to our institution with symptomatic sick sinus syndrome. During pacemaker implantation, an anchoring sleeve in the right ventricular lead was embolized in the left pulmonary artery. Although the anchoring sleeve was radiolucent, digital subtraction angiography revealed an angiographic filling defect in the lower branch of the left pulmonary artery, and a snare catheter enabled the anchoring sleeve to be grasped and extracted. PMID:26391679

  8. Effects of anchoring and adjustment in the evaluation of product pricing.

    PubMed

    Elaad, Eitan; Sayag, Neta; Ezer, Aliya

    2010-08-01

    Anchoring and adjustment comprise a heuristic that creates expectations. Two types of anchors were applied on participants' evaluation of products: the price reference of the product (maximum, minimum, or no price reference) and the context in which the products were evaluated (the prestige of the shopping center). Results showed that both factors anchored evaluations of products' value. Context effects were explained by the different expectations of visitors in prestigious (looking for quality) and less prestigious (seeking a bargain) centers. PMID:20923048

  9. An Improved Anchor Shot Detection Method Using Fitness of Face Location and Dissimilarity of Icon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keum, Ji-Soo; Lee, Hyon-Soo; Hagiwara, Masafumi

    In this letter, we propose an improved anchor shot detection (ASD) method in order to effectively retrieve anchor shots from news video. The face location and dissimilarity of icon region are used to reduce false alarms in the proposed method. According to the results of the experiment on several types of news video, the proposed method obtained high anchor detection results compared with previous methods.

  10. Knotless single-row rotator cuff repair: a comparative biomechanical study of 2 knotless suture anchors.

    PubMed

    Efird, Chad; Traub, Shaun; Baldini, Todd; Rioux-Forker, Dana; Spalazzi, Jeffrey P; Davisson, Twana; Hawkins, Monica; McCarty, Eric

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the gap formation during cyclic loading, maximum repair strength, and failure mode of single-row full-thickness supraspinatus repairs performed using 2 knotless suture anchors with differing internal suture-retention mechanisms in a human cadaver model. Nine matched pairs of cadaver shoulders were used. Full-thickness tears were induced by detaching the supraspinatus tendon from the greater tuberosity. Single-row repairs were performed with either type I (Opus Magnum PI; ArthroCare, Austin, Texas) or type II (ReelX STT; Stryker, Mahwah, New Jersey) knotless suture anchors. The repaired tendon was cycled from 10 to 90 N for 500 cycles, followed by load to failure. Gap formation was measured at 5, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 cycles with a video digitizing system. Anchor type or location (anterior or posterior) had no effect on gap formation during cyclic loading regardless of position (anterior, P=.385; posterior, P=.389). Maximum load to failure was significantly greater (P=.018) for repairs performed with type II anchors (288±62 N) compared with type I anchors (179±39 N). Primary failure modes were anchor pullout and tendon tearing for type II anchors and suture slippage through the anchor for type I anchors. The internal ratcheting suture-retention mechanism of type II anchors may have helped this anchor outperform the suture-cinching mechanism of type I anchors by supporting significantly higher loads before failure and minimizing suture slippage, potentially leading to stronger repairs clinically. PMID:23937749

  11. [MUSCULOSKELETAL MARKERS, ARTHROPATY, TRAUMAS].

    PubMed

    Caldarini, Carla; Zavaroni, Federica; Benassi, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    The bone tissue remodeling due to strong physical/working activity is defined as ergonomic markers or MSM (Muscoloskeletal Stress Markers) (Capasso et al. 1999) and MOS (Markers of Occupational Stress). Among them we can find: enthesopaties, arthropaties, non metrical stress and traumas markers. In the present study, the analysis of these traits has been used to clarify habitual activity patterns of four imperial populations from Suburbium: Castel Malnome, Casal Bertone area Q, Via Padre Semeria e Quarto Cappello del Prete. The very high prevalence of activity-induced stress lesions occurred among the individuals of Castel Malnome and Casal Bertone area Q suggests that these groups were involved in strenuous occupations such as, respectively: the processing and storage of salt and the dyeing of textiles and hides discernible from the archaeological context. For the individuals of Via Padre Semeria and Quarto Cappello del Prete the alterations, instead, could be compatibles with agricultural work. PMID:27348990

  12. Identification of markers closely linked to the peach "pillar" gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch], trees showing columnar (also termed "pillar" or "broomy") growth habit are of interest of high density production systems. However, in early breeding stages, the selection by this phenotype is very difficult, as the trait is recessively inherited and heterozyg...

  13. [Biological markers of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice. PMID:16194480

  14. Genetic linkage of type VII collagen (COL7A1) to dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa in families with abnormal anchoring fibrils.

    PubMed Central

    Ryynänen, M; Ryynänen, J; Sollberg, S; Iozzo, R V; Knowlton, R G; Uitto, J

    1992-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) in a group of genodermatoses characterized by the fragility of skin. Previous studies on the dystrophic (scarring) forms of EB have suggested abnormalities in anchoring fibrils, morphologically recognizable attachment structures that provide stability to the association of the cutaneous basement membrane to the underlying dermis. Since type VII collagen is the major component of the anchoring fibrils, we examined the genetic linkage of dominant dystrophic EB (EBDD) and the type VII collagen gene (COL7A1) locus, which we have recently mapped to chromosome 3p, in three large kindreds with abnormal anchoring fibrils. Strong genetic linkage of EBDD and COL7A1 loci was demonstrated with the maximum logarithm of odds (LOD) score of 8.77 at theta = 0. This linkage was further confirmed with two additional markers in this region of the short arm of chromosome 3, and these analyses allowed further refinement of the map locus of COL7A1. Since there were no recombinants between the COL7A1 and EBDD loci, our findings suggest that type VII collagen is the candidate gene that may harbor the mutations responsible for the EB phenotype in these three families. Images PMID:1347297

  15. Effects of Director Angle Anchoring Conditions on the Dynamic Moduli of Heterogeneous Nematic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choate, Eric P.; Forest, M. Gregory; Cui, Zhenlu; Ju, Lili

    2008-07-01

    We examine the linear viscoelastic response of heterogeneous nematic polymers to small amplitude oscillatory shear flow, paying special attention to the macroscopic influence of strong plate anchoring conditions. To predict the dynamic moduli, we model the system with Stokes hydrodynamic equations with viscous and nematic stresses coupled with orientational dynamics driven by the flow, an excluded volume potential, and an elasticity potential. First, we show that for special cases of normal and tangential anchoring, we recover explicitly solvable Leslie-Ericksen-Frank behavior. In this case we observe significant differences between the moduli for normal and tangential anchoring, including a two-to-three order of magnitude enhancement of the storage modulus for normal over tangential anchoring. Then, we turn to a numerical study of oblique anchoring conditions, which are more complicated due to the appearance of order parameter gradients at leading order. When the anchoring angle is near 45 degrees, we observe significantly different scaling behavior in the storage modulus for high frequencies compared to the behavior for normal or tangential anchoring. Furthermore, we find that for low frequencies, normal anchoring gives the largest storage modulus and tangential the smallest; however, we see a brief window of higher frequencies where the maximum storage modulus occurs at an oblique anchoring angle.

  16. Glucosamine-Anchored Graphene Oxide Nanosheets: Fabrication, Ultraviolet Irradiation, and Electrochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Veerapandian, Murugan; Lévaray, Nicolas; Lee, Min-Ho; Giasson, Suzanne; Zhu, X X

    2015-07-15

    A biofunctionalized graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet with improved physicochemical properties is useful for electrocatalysis and sensor development. Herein, a new class of functionalized GO with a chemically anchored biomolecule glucosamine is developed. Structural and chemical analyses confirm the glucosamine anchoring. Ultraviolet irradiation transforms the surface chemistry of GO. Glucosamine-anchored GO nanosheets exhibit improved cyclic voltammetric and amperometric sensing activity toward the model redox probe, ruthenium(II) and N-acetylneuraminic acid, respectively. The biomolecular anchoring and ultraviolet irradiation helped to tune and enhance the properties of GO, which may find multiple applications in optimizing sensor platforms. PMID:26120929

  17. Anchored Clathrate Waters Bind Antifreeze Proteins to Ice

    SciTech Connect

    C Garnham; R Campbell; P Davies

    2011-12-31

    The mechanism by which antifreeze proteins (AFPs) irreversibly bind to ice has not yet been resolved. The ice-binding site of an AFP is relatively hydrophobic, but also contains many potential hydrogen bond donors/acceptors. The extent to which hydrogen bonding and the hydrophobic effect contribute to ice binding has been debated for over 30 years. Here we have elucidated the ice-binding mechanism through solving the first crystal structure of an Antarctic bacterial AFP. This 34-kDa domain, the largest AFP structure determined to date, folds as a Ca{sup 2+}-bound parallel beta-helix with an extensive array of ice-like surface waters that are anchored via hydrogen bonds directly to the polypeptide backbone and adjacent side chains. These bound waters make an excellent three-dimensional match to both the primary prism and basal planes of ice and in effect provide an extensive X-ray crystallographic picture of the AFP{vert_ellipsis}ice interaction. This unobstructed view, free from crystal-packing artefacts, shows the contributions of both the hydrophobic effect and hydrogen bonding during AFP adsorption to ice. We term this mode of binding the 'anchored clathrate' mechanism of AFP action.

  18. Decisions Under Distress Stress Profiles Influence Anchoring and Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Kassam, Karim S.; Koslov, Katrina; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2009-01-01

    People frequently make decisions under stress. Understanding how stress affects decision making is complicated by the fact that not all stress responses are created equal. Challenge states, for example, occur when individuals appraise a stressful situation as demanding, but believe they have the personal resources to cope, and are characterized by efficient cardiovascular reactivity and approach motivation. Threat states, in contrast, occur when situational demands are perceived to outweigh resources and are characterized by less efficient cardiovascular reactivity and withdrawal motivation. We randomly assigned participants to social-feedback conditions (i.e., positive or negative feedback) designed to engender challenge or threat, or a no-stress condition. Participants then completed an anchoring-and-adjustment questionnaire. Those assigned to the challenge condition adjusted more from self-generated anchors than those assigned to the threat condition. Cardiovascular responses mediated the relationship between condition and adjustment. This study demonstrates the importance of considering profiles of cardiovascular reactivity when examining the influence of stress on decision making. PMID:19843261

  19. Lightness perception in simple images: Testing the anchoring rules

    PubMed Central

    Radonjić, Ana; Gilchrist, Alan L.

    2014-01-01

    One approach toward understanding how vision computes surface lightness is to first determine what principles govern lightness in simple stimuli and then test whether these hold for more complex stimuli. Gilchrist (2006) proposed that in the simplest images that produce the experience of a surface (two surfaces differing in luminance that fill the entire visual field) lightness can be predicted based on two anchoring rules: the highest luminance rule and the area rule, plus a scale normalization. To test whether these anchoring rules hold when critical features of the stimuli are varied, we probed lightness in simple stimuli, painted onto the inside of hemispheric domes viewed under diffuse lighting. We find that although the highest luminance surface appears nearly white across a large variation in illumination (as predicted by the highest luminance rule), its lightness tends to increase as its luminance increases. This effect is small relative to the size of the overall luminance change. Further, we find that when the darker region fills more than half of the visual field, it appears to lighten with further increases in area but only if it is a single surface. Splitting the dark region into smaller sectors that cover an equal cumulative area diminishes or eliminates the area effect. PMID:25424860

  20. Reliable anchoring groups for single-molecule junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, M. Teresa; Leary, Edmund; Evangeli, Charalambos; Arroyo, Carlos; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Agraïit, Nicolás

    2012-02-01

    In the field of molecular electronics, thiols have been extensively used as the most common anchoring groups to bind molecules to gold electrodes. However, other anchoring groups as amines can provide interesting advantages. Recently, C-60 has been also proposed as a possible very efficient binding group. In this talk, I will present our studies on molecular junctions formed by thiol-, amine-, and C-60-terminated molecules. We use a STM (scanning tunneling microscope) break-junction technique to create and characterized single-molecule junctions both in ambient and liquid environment. We compare thiols and amines on the alkane family and an oligo(phenylene ethynylene). Our study of the molecular-junction stretching length allows us to conclude that thiols affect atomic rearrangement at the electrodes significantly more than amines. Using C-60-terminated molecules, we have recently introduced a new technique for controllably wiring one molecule at a time. We first get STM images to located isolated molecules on a gold substrate, which are then specifically targeted and contacted using a STM gold tip. This technique offers a significant improvement over other techniques, as it guaranties that one and only one molecule is contacted at a time between the electrodes.

  1. Cognitive Advantages of Blending with Material Anchors in Energy Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Hunter; Close, Eleanor; Scherr, Rachel; McKagan, Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Conceptual blending theory [1] explains how the human imagination creates unreal situations that help us think about reality. In these imaginary blended situations, we establish new correspondences, interactions, and dynamics, and the outcomes of the dynamics lend insight to the nature of various real situations that were used to compose the blend. Blends are not just in the head, however; in some cases, a material system participates in the blend by lending its material structure as conceptual structure [2]. In the instructional activity Energy Theater [3], people represent units of energy and move around in order to solve puzzles of energy transfer and transformation. We use the ideas of blending and material anchors to understand how learners are able to use the representation to their cognitive advantage. [4pt] [1] Fauconnier, G. & Turner, M. (2002). The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind's Hidden Complexities. New York: Basic Books.[0pt] [2] Hutchins, E. (2005) Material anchors for conceptual blends. Journal of Pragmatics 37, 1555-1577.[0pt] [3] Scherr, R. E., Close, H. G., McKagan, S. B., & Close, E. W. (2010) ``Energy Theater'': Using the body symbolically to understand energy. In C. Singh, M. Sabella, & S. Rebello (Eds.) 2010 PERC Proceedings. Melville, NY: AIP Press.

  2. Computations of flow in an anchored Solar Vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Dahhea; Fischer, Paul F.; Pearlstein, Arne J.

    2015-11-01

    In regions with high solar insolation, there is a potential to extract mechanical energy from the gravitationally unstable ground-heated air layer, using the substantial axial and azimuthal momentum of an anchored buoyancy-induced columnar vortex to drive a vertical-axis turbine. The seasonal and diurnal availability (which extends well into the late afternoon and even past sunset, due to utilization of the thermal capacity of the ground to heat the air, rather than direct use of photons) is well-matched to air-conditioning loads in the southwestern US. Critical issues in the design of such systems are the geometry of the enclosure that serves to anchor the dust devil-like vortex and prevent it from being blown away by ambient wind, as well as the geometry of the stationary vanes used both to enhance entrainment of ground-heated air into the vortex from a collection area much larger than that of the enclosure, and to utilize any ambient wind to enhance the vortex. Here, we report computations (using the spectral-element code Nek5000) of heated and unheated flows in several geometries of interest. The results are discussed in the context of field experiments. Supported by ARPA-E award DE-AR0000296.

  3. Direct imaging of rotating molecules anchored on graphene.

    PubMed

    Choe, Jeongheon; Lee, Yangjin; Fang, Lei; Lee, Gun-Do; Bao, Zhenan; Kim, Kwanpyo

    2016-07-21

    There has been significant research interest in controlling and imaging molecular dynamics, such as translational and rotational motions, especially at a single molecular level. Here we applied aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (ACTEM) to actuate and directly image the rotational motions of molecules anchored on a single-layer-graphene sheet. Nanometer-sized carbonaceous molecules anchored on graphene provide ideal systems for monitoring rotational motions via ACTEM. We observed the preferential registry of longer molecular axis along graphene zigzag or armchair lattice directions due to the stacking-dependent molecule-graphene energy landscape. The calculated cross section from elastic scattering theory was used to experimentally estimate the rotational energy barriers of molecules on graphene. The observed energy barrier was within the range of 1.5-12 meV per atom, which is in good agreement with previous calculation results. We also performed molecular dynamics simulations, which revealed that the edge atoms of the molecule form stably bonds to graphene defects and can serve as a pivot point for rotational dynamics. Our study demonstrates the versatility of ACTEM for the investigation of molecular dynamics and configuration-dependent energetics at a single molecular level. PMID:27333828

  4. Dithiocarbamate anchoring in molecular wire junctions: a first principles study.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenyu; Kosov, Daniel S

    2006-05-25

    Recent experimental realization [J. Am. Chem. Soc., 127 (2005) 7328] of various dithiocarbamate self-assembly on gold surface opens the possibility for use of dithiocarbamate linkers to anchor molecular wires to gold electrodes. In this paper, we explore this hypothesis computationally. We computed the electron transport properties of 4,4'-bipyridine (BP), 4,4'-bipyridinium-1,1'-bis(carbodithioate) (BPBC), 4-(4'-pyridyl)-peridium-1-carbodithioate (BPC) molecule junctions based on the density functional theory and nonequilibrium Green's functions. We demonstrated that the stronger molecule-electrode coupling associated with the conjugated dithiocarbamate linker broadens transmission resonances near the Fermi energy. The broadening effect along with the extension of the pi conjugation from the molecule to the gold electrodes lead to enhanced electrical conductance for BPBC molecule. The conductance enhancement factor is as large as 25 at applied voltage bias 1.0 V. Rectification behavior is predicted for BPC molecular wire junction, which has the asymmetric anchoring groups. PMID:16706444

  5. Temperature-induced alteration of inositolphosphorylceramides in the putative glycosylated lipid precursors of Tetrahymena mimbres glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Hung, C Y; Ko, Y G; Thompson, G A

    1995-01-01

    Tetrahymena species contain relatively prominent glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins as well as their putative precursor phosphatidylinositol (PI) glycans. We have characterized the lipid components of the two principal T. mimbres PI glycans. Following their purification by preparative TLC, the PI glycans were hydrolysed in methanolic HCl or NaOH, and resulting lipids were analysed by chromatography and mass spectrometry. The two PI glycans contained nearly identical lipid moieties having long-chain bases with N-linked fatty acids. The predominant long-chain base, 3-O-methylsphinganine, was first assumed to be O-methylated as an artifact of hydrolysis, but subsequently, on the basis of control experiments, it was shown to be naturally occurring. PI glycans from cells grown at 28 degrees C contained primarily palmitic acid (79%) and some stearic acid (11%), whereas the principal PI glycan from 38 degrees C-grown T. mimbres contained 65% stearic acid. In 15 degrees C-grown cells stearic acid accounted for only 2% of ceramide-bound fatty acids and was almost totally replaced by palmitic acid (95%). The distributions of fatty acids bound to T. mimbres GPI-anchored proteins [Ko, Hung and Thompson (1995) Biochem. J. 307, 115-121] were similar but not identical to those of the PI glycans described here. Temperature-induced specification of the lipid components of mature T. mimbres GPI-anchored proteins appears to be established both at the level of PI-glycan synthesis and the level of PI-glycan utilization for protein attachment. PMID:7717964

  6. Monte Carlo simulations on marker grouping and ordering.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Jenkins, J; Zhu, J; McCarty, J; Watson, C

    2003-08-01

    Four global algorithms, maximum likelihood (ML), sum of adjacent LOD score (SALOD), sum of adjacent recombinant fractions (SARF) and product of adjacent recombinant fraction (PARF), and one approximation algorithm, seriation (SER), were used to compare the marker ordering efficiencies for correctly given linkage groups based on doubled haploid (DH) populations. The Monte Carlo simulation results indicated the marker ordering powers for the five methods were almost identical. High correlation coefficients were greater than 0.99 between grouping power and ordering power, indicating that all these methods for marker ordering were reliable. Therefore, the main problem for linkage analysis was how to improve the grouping power. Since the SER approach provided the advantage of speed without losing ordering power, this approach was used for detailed simulations. For more generality, multiple linkage groups were employed, and population size, linkage cutoff criterion, marker spacing pattern (even or uneven), and marker spacing distance (close or loose) were considered for obtaining acceptable grouping powers. Simulation results indicated that the grouping power was related to population size, marker spacing distance, and cutoff criterion. Generally, a large population size provided higher grouping power than small population size, and closely linked markers provided higher grouping power than loosely linked markers. The cutoff criterion range for achieving acceptable grouping power and ordering power differed for varying cases; however, combining all situations in this study, a cutoff criterion ranging from 50 cM to 60 cM was recommended for achieving acceptable grouping power and ordering power for different cases. PMID:12761620

  7. Transatlantic link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    (left) European Geophysical Society (EGS) President Rolf Meissner at AGU Headquarters with (center) Executive Director Fred Spilhaus and (right) Foreign Secretary Juan Roederer. Meissner attended the meeting of AGU's Committee on International Participation (CIP) on February 26, 1988. At that meeting, specific ways of fostering close links between AGU and EGS were discussed.A few weeks later, Roederer and AGU staff, working with EGS Secretary-General Arne Richter at the EGS meeting in Bologna, Italy, March 21-25, planned details of the establishment of an AGU office in Europe. The Copernicus Gesellschaft, a new entity located on the premises of the Max Planck Institute for Aeronomy in Lindau, Federal Republic of Germany, will provide the administrative staff and handle logistics.

  8. Multi-day anchor ice cycles and bedload transport in a gravel-bed stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Philippe; Leconte, Robert; Jay Lacey, R. W.; Bergeron, Normand

    2014-11-01

    River dynamics in cold regions and the physical processes involving ice formation and release remain relatively understudied topics. Current research suggests that anchor ice forms in diurnal cycles and has the potential to move sediments when released from the bed. Given the importance of river ice dynamics, studies are needed to describe the physical processes of anchor ice and its impact on sediment transport. The study presented in this paper investigated in situ anchor ice formation on the Stoke River in Quebec, Canada. In the fall of 2012, we observed multi-day anchor ice formation cycles and release, which usually ended with a small runoff event. During a cycle, there was little or no release of anchor ice, thus allowing its gradual growth as the air temperature remained cold. Surface and anchor ice layers also often merged, leading to the formation of thick ice masses. Sediment transport was monitored using bed particles individually tagged with passive integrated transponders (PIT-tags). Movement of the experimental particles, measured after each multi-day cycle event, ranged from 0.5 to 4 m. Possible transport mechanisms include: (1) anchor ice rafting, (2) ice jam breakup creating a jave with high erosive capacity, (3) flow corridors through anchor ice masses with high erosive capacity, (4) mechanical pushing of particles by drifting ice blocks during ice breakup, and (5) entrainment by flow or drifting ice blocks of anchored ice with strong ice-pebble bonds. Given the coincidental occurrence of anchor ice release and runoff events, it is uncertain which specific mechanism caused the particles to move. This study is a step forward in understanding the behavior of anchor ice processes and ice-related sediment transport.

  9. Using genetic markers to orient the edges in quantitative trait networks: The NEO software

    PubMed Central

    Aten, Jason E; Fuller, Tova F; Lusis, Aldons J; Horvath, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Background Systems genetic studies have been used to identify genetic loci that affect transcript abundances and clinical traits such as body weight. The pairwise correlations between gene expression traits and/or clinical traits can be used to define undirected trait networks. Several authors have argued that genetic markers (e.g expression quantitative trait loci, eQTLs) can serve as causal anchors for orienting the edges of a trait network. The availability of hundreds of thousands of genetic markers poses new challenges: how to relate (anchor) traits to multiple genetic markers, how to score the genetic evidence in favor of an edge orientation, and how to weigh the information from multiple markers. Results We develop and implement Network Edge Orienting (NEO) methods and software that address the challenges of inferring unconfounded and directed gene networks from microarray-derived gene expression data by integrating mRNA levels with genetic marker data and Structural Equation Model (SEM) comparisons. The NEO software implements several manual and automatic methods for incorporating genetic information to anchor traits. The networks are oriented by considering each edge separately, thus reducing error propagation. To summarize the genetic evidence in favor of a given edge orientation, we propose Local SEM-based Edge Orienting (LEO) scores that compare the fit of several competing causal graphs. SEM fitting indices allow the user to assess local and overall model fit. The NEO software allows the user to carry out a robustness analysis with regard to genetic marker selection. We demonstrate the utility of NEO by recovering known causal relationships in the sterol homeostasis pathway using liver gene expression data from an F2 mouse cross. Further, we use NEO to study the relationship between a disease gene and a biologically important gene co-expression module in liver tissue. Conclusion The NEO software can be used to orient the edges of gene co

  10. A human immunoglobulin G receptor exists in both polypeptide-anchored and phosphatidylinositol-glycan-anchored forms.

    PubMed Central

    Scallon, B J; Scigliano, E; Freedman, V H; Miedel, M C; Pan, Y C; Unkeless, J C; Kochan, J P

    1989-01-01

    Several cDNA clones encoding the human immunoglobulin G receptor CD16 were isolated from human lung or peripheral blood leukocyte cDNA libraries. Nucleotide sequence comparisons revealed that the cDNAs could be divided into two groups. cDNA clones in one group encode a protein that terminates 4 amino acids after the putative transmembrane domain. Clones in the second group encode a protein with an extra 21 amino acids that could comprise a cytoplasmic domain. Direct peptide sequencing was used to determine the N terminus of the mature CD16 receptor protein and supported the existence of the two forms of the receptor. Treatment of neutrophils with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C resulted in the release of a large percentage of the CD16 molecules from the cell surface. In contrast, treatment of natural killer cells with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C did not release any CD16 from the cell surface. These data demonstrate that both polypeptide-anchored and phosphatidylinositol-glycan-anchored forms of the CD16 molecule exist and that they are differentially expressed on neutrophils and natural killer cells. Images PMID:2525780

  11. Excision of plastid marker genes using directly repeated DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Elisabeth A; Madesis, Panagiotis; Avila, Elena Martin; Day, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Excision of marker genes using DNA direct repeats makes use of the predominant homologous recombination pathways present in the plastids of algae and plants. The method is simple, efficient, and widely applicable to plants and microalgae. Marker excision frequency is dependent on the length and number of directly repeated sequences. When two repeats are used a repeat size of greater than 600 bp promotes efficient excision of the marker gene. A wide variety of sequences can be used to make the direct repeats. Only a single round of transformation is required, and there is no requirement to introduce site-specific recombinases by retransformation or sexual crosses. Selection is used to maintain the marker and ensure homoplasmy of transgenic plastid genomes. Release of selection allows the accumulation of marker-free plastid genomes generated by marker excision, which is spontaneous, random, and a unidirectional process. Positive selection is provided by linking marker excision to restoration of the coding region of an herbicide resistance gene from two overlapping but incomplete coding regions. Cytoplasmic sorting allows the segregation of cells with marker-free transgenic plastids. The marker-free shoots resulting from direct repeat-mediated excision of marker genes have been isolated by vegetative propagation of shoots in the T0 generation. Alternatively, accumulation of marker-free plastid genomes during growth, development and flowering of T0 plants allows the collection of seeds that give rise to a high proportion of marker-free T1 seedlings. The simplicity and convenience of direct repeat excision facilitates its widespread use to isolate marker-free crops. PMID:24599849

  12. How up- or downslope anchoring affects root reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giadrossich, Filippo; Schwarz, Massimiliano; Cohen, Denis; Niedda, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    Root reinforcement is important for slope stability. In addition to the important contribution of roots to shear strength along the slip surface, root networks are also recognized to impart stabilization through lateral (parallel to slope) redistribution of forces under tension. The most common method to measure lateral root reinforcement is a pullout test where one root or a bundle of root is pulled out of the soil matrix. This condition represents the case where roots within the mass of a landslide slip out from the upper stable part of the slope. There is also, however, the situation where roots anchored in the upper stable part of the slope slip out from the sliding mass. In the latter it is difficult to quantify root reinforcement and no study has discussed this mechanism. We carried out a new series of laboratory and field experiments using Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) roots to quantify how up- or downslope anchoring affects root reinforcement. In addition, we carried out new field pullout tests on coarse roots (larger that 2 mm in diameter, up to 47 mm). Then, considering the state-of-the-art of root reinforcement modeling (the Root Bundle Model), we integrated results from our measurements into the model to verify the magnitude of this effect on overall root reinforcement at the stand scale. Results indicate that the ratio between pullout force and force transferred to the root during soil slip ranges between 0.5 and 1. This indicates that measured pullout force always overestimate the contribution of lateral slipping out roots in situations where the soil slide from anchored roots. This is general the case for root with diameter up to 3-4 mm. Root-size distribution is also a key factor influencing root reinforcement at the forest-stand scale. As most coarse roots break along tension cracks while fine roots slip out, the effect discussed in this study on root reinforcement modeling is negligible when coarse-root diameter classes are represented. Our

  13. Desmoglein 3 anchors telogen hair in the follicle.

    PubMed

    Koch, P J; Mahoney, M G; Cotsarelis, G; Rothenberger, K; Lavker, R M; Stanley, J R

    1998-09-01

    Little is known about the function of desmosomes in the normal structure and function of hair. Therefore, it was surprising that mice without desmoglein 3 (the autoantigen in pemphigus vulgaris) not only developed mucous membrane and skin lesions like pemphigus patients, but also developed hair loss. Analysis of this phenotype indicated that hair was normal through the first growth phase ('follicular neogenesis'). Around day 20, however, when the hair follicles entered the resting phase of the hair growth cycle (telogen), mice with a targeted disruption of the desmoglein 3 gene (DSG3-/-) lost hair in a wave-like pattern from the head to the tail. Hair then regrew and was lost again in the same pattern with the next synchronous hair cycle. In adults, hair was lost in patches. Gentle hair pulls with adhesive tape showed that anagen (growing) hairs were firmly anchored in DSG3-/- mice, but telogen hairs came out in clumps compared to that of DSG3+/- and +/+ littermates in which telogen hairs were firmly anchored. Histology of bald skin areas in DSG3-/- mice showed cystic telogen hair follicles without hair shafts. Histology of hair follicles in early telogen, just before clinical hair loss occurred, showed loss of cell adhesion (acantholysis) between the cells surrounding the telogen club and the basal layer of the outer root sheath epithelium. Electron microscopy revealed 'half-desmosomes' at the plasma membranes of acantholytic cells. Similar acantholytic histology and ultrastructural findings have been previously reported in skin and mucous membrane lesions of DSG3-/- mice and pemphigus vulgaris patients. Immunoperoxidase staining with an antibody raised against mouse desmoglein 3 showed intense staining on the cell surface of keratinocytes surrounding the telogen hair club in normal mice. Similar staining was seen in human telogen hair with an anti-human desmoglein 3 antibody. Finally, a scalp biopsy from a pemphigus vulgaris patient showed empty telogen hair

  14. Anchoring and Estimation of Alcohol Consumption: Implications for Social Norm Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Megan M.; Choplin, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the impact of anchors on students' estimates of personal alcohol consumption to better understand the role that this form of bias might have in social norm intervention programs. Experiments I and II found that estimates of consumption were susceptible to anchoring effects when an open-answer and a scale-response…

  15. Model test of anchoring effect on zonal disintegration in deep surrounding rock masses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration. PMID:23997683

  16. Structural models of the membrane anchors of envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 from pestiviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jimin Li, Yue; Modis, Yorgo

    2014-04-15

    The membrane anchors of viral envelope proteins play essential roles in cell entry. Recent crystal structures of the ectodomain of envelope protein E2 from a pestivirus suggest that E2 belongs to a novel structural class of membrane fusion machinery. Based on geometric constraints from the E2 structures, we generated atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors using computational approaches. The E1 anchor contains two amphipathic perimembrane helices and one transmembrane helix; the E2 anchor contains a short helical hairpin stabilized in the membrane by an arginine residue, similar to flaviviruses. A pair of histidine residues in the E2 ectodomain may participate in pH sensing. The proposed atomic models point to Cys987 in E2 as the site of disulfide bond linkage with E1 to form E1–E2 heterodimers. The membrane anchor models provide structural constraints for the disulfide bonding pattern and overall backbone conformation of the E1 ectodomain. - Highlights: • Structures of pestivirus E2 proteins impose constraints on E1, E2 membrane anchors. • Atomic models of the E1 and E2 membrane anchors were generated in silico. • A “snorkeling” arginine completes the short helical hairpin in the E2 membrane anchor. • Roles in pH sensing and E1–E2 disulfide bond formation are proposed for E1 residues. • Implications for E1 ectodomain structure and disulfide bonding pattern are discussed.

  17. An Exploratory Comparison of Traditional Classroom Instruction and Anchored Instruction with Secondary School Students: Turkish Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elcin, Melih; Sezer, Baris

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of anchored instruction on the students in secondary school math studies classrooms. This study adopted a quasi-experimental design. This research involved both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the effects of anchored instruction on students' academical achievement,…

  18. Career Anchors: A New Concept in Career Development for the Professional Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLong, Thomas J.

    Created by Dr. Edgar Schein of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the career anchor model suggests that certain motivational/talent/value drives, formed through work experience, function to guide and constrain entire careers; and that such anchors are the source of stability that permits growth and change in other areas. The concept…

  19. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  20. Model Test of Anchoring Effect on Zonal Disintegration in Deep Surrounding Rock Masses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xu-Guang; Zhang, Qiang-Yong; Wang, Yuan; Liu, De-Jun; Zhang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The deep rock masses show a different mechanical behavior compared with the shallow rock masses. They are classified into alternating fractured and intact zones during the excavation, which is known as zonal disintegration. Such phenomenon is a great disaster and will induce the different excavation and anchoring methodology. In this study, a 3D geomechanics model test was conducted to research the anchoring effect of zonal disintegration. The model was constructed with anchoring in a half and nonanchoring in the other half, to compare with each other. The optical extensometer and optical sensor were adopted to measure the displacement and strain changing law in the model test. The displacement laws of the deep surrounding rocks were obtained and found to be nonmonotonic versus the distance to the periphery. Zonal disintegration occurs in the area without anchoring and did not occur in the model under anchoring condition. By contrasting the phenomenon, the anchor effect of restraining zonal disintegration was revealed. And the formation condition of zonal disintegration was decided. In the procedure of tunnel excavation, the anchor strain was found to be alternation in tension and compression. It indicates that anchor will show the nonmonotonic law during suppressing the zonal disintegration. PMID:23997683

  1. 46 CFR 130.240 - Anchors and chains for OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... tons must be fitted with anchors and chains meeting the applicable standards set by the ABS for classed... feet) in length and with an equipment number from the ABS of less than 150 may be equipped with either... capable of heaving in either anchor. (c) Standards of classification societies other than the ABS may...

  2. An Anchor-Based Pedestrian Navigation Approach Using Only Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yang; Song, Qian; Li, Yanghuan; Ma, Ming; Zhou, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    In inertial-based pedestrian navigation, anchors can effectively compensate the positioning errors originating from deviations of Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), by putting constraints on pedestrians’ motions. However, these anchors often need to be deployed beforehand, which can greatly increase system complexity, rendering it unsuitable for emergency response missions. In this paper, we propose an anchor-based pedestrian navigation approach without any additional sensors. The anchors are defined as the intersection points of perpendicular corridors and are considered characteristics of building structures. In contrast to these real anchors, virtual anchors are extracted from the pedestrian’s trajectory and are considered as observations of real anchors, which can accordingly be regarded as inferred building structure characteristics. Then a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF) is used to solve the joint estimation of positions (trajectory) and maps (anchors) problem. Compared with other building structure-based methods, our method has two advantages. The assumption on building structure is minimum and valid in most cases. Even if the assumption does not stand, the method will not lead to positioning failure. Several real-scenario experiments are conducted to validate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. PMID:26959031

  3. The Double-Anchoring Theory of Lightness Perception: A Comment on Bressan (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Piers D. L.; Sagreiya, Hersh; Curtis, Dwight L.; Zheng, Chengjie; Livingstone, Margaret S.

    2007-01-01

    Comments on an article by Bressan. Recently, a double-anchoring theory (DAT) of lightness perception was proposed (P. Bressan, 2006), which offers explanations for all the data explained by the original anchoring theory (A. Gilchrist et al., 1999), as well as a number of additional lightness phenomena. Consequently, DAT can account for an…

  4. 46 CFR 32.15-15 - Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers-TB/ALL

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... directed to Commandant (CG-ENG-3), Attn: Systems Engineering Division, U.S. Coast Guard Stop 7509, 2703... will evaluate the suitability of the equipment. (e) Barges Equipped with Anchors to Comply with 33 CFR 155.230(b)(1). Each barge equipped with an anchor, to comply with 33 CFR 155.230(b)(1), must be...

  5. An Anchor-Based Pedestrian Navigation Approach Using Only Inertial Sensors.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yang; Song, Qian; Li, Yanghuan; Ma, Ming; Zhou, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    In inertial-based pedestrian navigation, anchors can effectively compensate the positioning errors originating from deviations of Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), by putting constraints on pedestrians' motions. However, these anchors often need to be deployed beforehand, which can greatly increase system complexity, rendering it unsuitable for emergency response missions. In this paper, we propose an anchor-based pedestrian navigation approach without any additional sensors. The anchors are defined as the intersection points of perpendicular corridors and are considered characteristics of building structures. In contrast to these real anchors, virtual anchors are extracted from the pedestrian's trajectory and are considered as observations of real anchors, which can accordingly be regarded as inferred building structure characteristics. Then a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF) is used to solve the joint estimation of positions (trajectory) and maps (anchors) problem. Compared with other building structure-based methods, our method has two advantages. The assumption on building structure is minimum and valid in most cases. Even if the assumption does not stand, the method will not lead to positioning failure. Several real-scenario experiments are conducted to validate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. PMID:26959031

  6. Effects of Anchored Instruction on Enhancing Chinese Students' Problem-Solving Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shyu, Hsin-Yih

    This study investigates the effects of computer-aided videodisc-based anchored instruction on promoting elementary school students' problem-solving skills in Taiwan. Anchored instruction combines theories such as situated cognition, cognitive apprenticeship, cooperative learning, and constructivist theories. With the help of interactive videodisc…

  7. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  8. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  9. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  10. Approaches to Interactive Video Anchors in Problem-Based Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, David Devraj

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an invited adaptation of the IEEE Education Society Distinguished Lecture Approaches to Interactive Video Anchors in Problem-Based Science Learning. Interactive video anchors have a cognitive theory base, and they help to enlarge the context of learning with information-rich real-world situations. Carefully selected movie clips and…

  11. The glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein repertoire of babesia bovis and its significance for erythrocyte invasion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycosylphosphatidyl-anchored proteins are particularly abundant on the surface of pathogenic protozoans and might play an important role for parasite survival. In the present work the relevance of GPI-anchored proteins for erythrocyte invasion of Babesia bovis, one of the tick-transmitted causative...

  12. Rapid Naming Deficits in Dyslexia: A Stumbling Block for the Perceptual Anchor Theory of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Filippo, Gloria; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi; Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2008-01-01

    According to a recent theory of dyslexia, the "perceptual anchor theory," children with dyslexia show deficits in classic auditory and phonological tasks not because they have auditory or phonological impairments but because they are unable to form a "perceptual anchor" in tasks that rely on a small set of repeated stimuli. The theory makes the…

  13. 48 CFR 252.225-7019 - Restriction on acquisition of anchor and mooring chain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of anchor and mooring chain. 252.225-7019 Section 252.225-7019 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and mooring chain. As prescribed in 225.7007-3, use the following clause: Restriction on Acquisition of Anchor and Mooring Chain (DEC 2009)) (a) Definition. “Component,” as used in this clause, means...

  14. Development, characterization, and transferability to other Solanaceae of microsatellite markers in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Nagy, István; Stágel, Anikó; Sasvári, Zsuzsanna; Röder, Marion; Ganal, Martin

    2007-07-01

    A novel set of informative microsatellite markers for pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is provided. Screening of approximately 168 000 genomic clones and 23 174 public database entries resulted in a total of 411 microsatellite-containing sequences that could be used for primer design and functional testing. A set of 154 microsatellite markers originated from short-insert genomic libraries and 257 markers originated from database sequences. Of those markers, 147 (61 from genomic libraries and 86 from database sequences) showed specific and scoreable amplification products and detected polymorphisms between at least 2 of the 33 lines of a test panel consisting of cultivated and wild Capsicum genotypes. These informative markers were subsequently surveyed for allelic variation and information content. The usefulness of the new markers for diversity and taxonomic studies was demonstrated by the construction of consistent phylogenetic trees based on the microsatellite polymorphisms. Conservation of a subset of microsatellite loci in pepper, tomato, and potato was proven by cross-species amplification and sequence comparisons. For several informative pepper microsatellite markers, homologous expressed sequence tag (EST) counterparts could be identified in these related species that also carry microsatellite motifs. Such orthologs can potentially be used as reference markers and common anchoring points on the genetic maps of different solanaceous species. PMID:17893745

  15. Adjusting for Year to Year Rater Variation in IRT Linking--An Empirical Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Shu Jing; Ochieng, Charles; Michaels, Hillary; Friedman, Greg

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to illustrate a polytomous IRT-based linking procedure that adjusts for rater variations. Test scores from two administrations of a statewide reading assessment were used. An anchor set of Year 1 students' constructed responses were rescored by Year 2 raters. To adjust for year-to-year rater variation in IRT…

  16. The Effect of Year-to-Year Rater Variation on IRT Linking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Shu Jing; Ochieng, Charles; Michaels, Hillary; Friedman, Greg

    2005-01-01

    Year-to-year rater variation may result in constructed response (CR) parameter changes, making CR items inappropriate to use in anchor sets for linking or equating. This study demonstrates how rater severity affected the writing and reading scores. Rater adjustments were made to statewide results using an item response theory (IRT) methodology…

  17. Exploring Alternative Characteristic Curve Approaches to Linking Parameter Estimates from the Generalized Partial Credit Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, James S.; Bao, Han; Huang, Chun-Wei; Gagne, Phill

    Characteristic curve approaches for linking parameters from the generalized partial credit model were examined for cases in which common (anchor) items are calibrated separately in two groups. Three of these approaches are simple extensions of the test characteristic curve (TCC), item characteristic curve (ICC), and operating characteristic curve…

  18. Informativeness of microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Valdés, M Humberto

    2013-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSR) are extensively used as genetic markers for studies of diversity, genetic mapping, and cultivar discrimination. The informativeness of a given SSR locus or a loci group depends on the number of alleles, their frequency distribution, as well as the kind of application. Here I describe several methods for calculating marker informativeness, all of them suitable for SSR polymorphisms, proposed by several authors and synthesized in an Information Theory framework. Additionally, free access software resources are described as well as their application through worked examples. PMID:23546797

  19. A Complication in Hypospadias Surgery Due to Anchoring Suture

    PubMed Central

    Gollu, Gulnur; Kucuk, Gonul; Karabulut, Ayse Anıl; Yagmurlu, Aydin; Cakmak, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The complication rates are still 1–90% both in proximal and distal hypospadias regardless of the surgeon’s experience and the usage of most developed techniques. The literature survey revealed few complications of glans penis including meatal stenosis, prolapsus and retraction. Despite our literature survey, we could not find any article concerning the permanent scar tissue at the dorsal part of glans following hypospadias surgeries. A new complication can be added to these, concerning glans which is the formation of postoperative scar tissue as a reaction to suture material used in traction, stent anchoring or both. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate four cases which had glanular scar due to traction suture following the surgical procedures for hypospadias repair. PMID:26180503

  20. Associative Self-Anchoring Interacts with Obtainability of Chosen Objects

    PubMed Central

    Prévost, Charlotte; Bolger, Niall; Mobbs, Dean

    2016-01-01

    While there is evidence that implicit self-esteem transfers to chosen objects (associative self-anchoring), it is still unknown whether this phenomenon extends to explicit self-esteem. Moreover, whether the knowledge that these objects might belong to the self in the future or not affects the evaluation of these objects has received little attention. Here, we demonstrate that evaluations of chosen objects are further enhanced when they are obtainable as compared to when they are not in participants with high explicit self-esteem, whereas participants with low explicit self-esteem exhibit the opposite pattern. These findings extend previous results and shed new light on the role of self-esteem in altering preferences for chosen objects depending on their obtainability. PMID:26913011

  1. Structural basis for membrane anchoring of HIV-1 envelope spike.

    PubMed

    Dev, Jyoti; Park, Donghyun; Fu, Qingshan; Chen, Jia; Ha, Heather Jiwon; Ghantous, Fadi; Herrmann, Tobias; Chang, Weiting; Liu, Zhijun; Frey, Gary; Seaman, Michael S; Chen, Bing; Chou, James J

    2016-07-01

    HIV-1 envelope spike (Env) is a type I membrane protein that mediates viral entry. We used nuclear magnetic resonance to determine an atomic structure of the transmembrane (TM) domain of HIV-1 Env reconstituted in bicelles that mimic a lipid bilayer. The TM forms a well-ordered trimer that protects a conserved membrane-embedded arginine. An amino-terminal coiled-coil and a carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic core stabilize the trimer. Individual mutations of conserved residues did not disrupt the TM trimer and minimally affected membrane fusion and infectivity. Major changes in the hydrophilic core, however, altered the antibody sensitivity of Env. These results show how a TM domain anchors, stabilizes, and modulates a viral envelope spike and suggest that its influence on Env conformation is an important consideration for HIV-1 immunogen design. PMID:27338706

  2. Amphipathic tail-anchoring peptide is a promising therapeutic agent for prostate cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    De, Gejing; Ko, Jae-Kyun; Tan, Tao; Zhu, Hua; Li, Haichang; Ma, Jianjie

    2014-01-01

    Amphipathic tail-anchoring peptide (ATAP) derived from the human anti-apoptotic protein Bfl-1 is a potent inducer of apoptosis by targeting mitochondria permeability transition. By linking ATAP to an internalizing RGD peptide (iRGD), selective targeting for ATAP to tumor cell was achieved. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that ATAP-iRGD could penetrate into cancer cells and distribute along the mitochondria network. ATAP-iRGD triggered mitochondria-dependent cell death through release of cytochrome c. In an effort to promote ATAP-iRGD physiochemical properties to approach clinic application, amino acid substitution and chemical modification were made with ATAP-iRGD to improve its bioactivity. One of these modified peptides, ATAP-iRGD-M8, was with improved stability and aqueous solubility without compromising in vitro cytotoxicity in cultured cancer cells. In vivo xenograft studies with multiple prostate cancer cell lines showed that intravenous administration of ATAP-iRGD-M8 suppressed tumor growth. Toxicological studies revealed that repetitive intravenous administration of ATAP-iRGD-M8 did not produce significant toxicity in the SV129 mice. Our data suggest that ATAP-iRGD-M8 is a promising agent with high selectivity and limited systemic toxicity for prostate cancer treatment. PMID:25245280

  3. Sortases and the Art of Anchoring Proteins to the Envelopes of Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Marraffini, Luciano A.; DeDent, Andrea C.; Schneewind, Olaf

    2006-01-01

    The cell wall envelopes of gram-positive bacteria represent a surface organelle that not only functions as a cytoskeletal element but also promotes interactions between bacteria and their environment. Cell wall peptidoglycan is covalently and noncovalently decorated with teichoic acids, polysaccharides, and proteins. The sum of these molecular decorations provides bacterial envelopes with species- and strain-specific properties that are ultimately responsible for bacterial virulence, interactions with host immune systems, and the development of disease symptoms or successful outcomes of infections. Surface proteins typically carry two topogenic sequences, i.e., N-terminal signal peptides and C-terminal sorting signals. Sortases catalyze a transpeptidation reaction by first cleaving a surface protein substrate at the cell wall sorting signal. The resulting acyl enzyme intermediates between sortases and their substrates are then resolved by the nucleophilic attack of amino groups, typically provided by the cell wall cross bridges of peptidoglycan precursors. The surface protein linked to peptidoglycan is then incorporated into the envelope and displayed on the microbial surface. This review focuses on the mechanisms of surface protein anchoring to the cell wall envelope by sortases and the role that these enzymes play in bacterial physiology and pathogenesis. PMID:16524923

  4. Anchoring of an immunogenic Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein on the surface of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Reymond, C D; Beghdadi-Rais, C; Roggero, M; Duarte, E A; Desponds, C; Bernard, M; Groux, D; Matile, H; Bron, C; Corradin, G

    1995-05-26

    The circumsporozoite protein (CSP), a major antigen of Plasmodium falciparum, was expressed in the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Fusion of the parasite protein to a leader peptide derived from Dictyostelium contact site A was essential for expression. The natural parasite surface antigen, however, was not detected at the slime mold cell surface as expected but retained intracellularly. Removal of the last 23 amino acids resulted in secretion of CSP, suggesting that the C-terminal segment of the CSP, rather than an ectoplasmic domain, was responsible for retention. Cell surface expression was obtained when the CSP C-terminal segment was replaced by the D. discoideum contact site A glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchor signal sequence. Mice were immunized with Dictyostelium cells harboring CSP at their surface. The raised antibodies recognized two different regions of the CSP. Anti-sporozoite titers of these sera were equivalent to anti-peptide titers detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thus, cell surface targeting of antigens can be obtained in Dictyostelium, generating sporozoite-like cells having potentials for vaccination, diagnostic tests, or basic studies involving parasite cell surface proteins. PMID:7759554

  5. Emerging roles of A-kinase anchoring proteins in cardiovascular pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Diviani, Dario; Reggi, Erica; Arambasic, Miroslav; Caso, Stefania; Maric, Darko

    2016-07-01

    Heart and blood vessels ensure adequate perfusion of peripheral organs with blood and nutrients. Alteration of the homeostatic functions of the cardiovascular system can cause hypertension, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease leading to heart injury and failure. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) constitute a family of scaffolding proteins that are crucially involved in modulating the function of the cardiovascular system both under physiological and pathological conditions. AKAPs assemble multifunctional signaling complexes that ensure correct targeting of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) as well as other signaling enzymes to precise subcellular compartments. This allows local regulation of specific effector proteins that control the function of vascular and cardiac cells. This review will focus on recent advances illustrating the role of AKAPs in cardiovascular pathophysiology. The accent will be mainly placed on the molecular events linked to the control of vascular integrity and blood pressure as well as on the cardiac remodeling process associated with heart failure. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. PMID:26643253

  6. Liberation of GPI-anchored prion from phospholipids accelerates amyloidogenic conversion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shen-Jie; Yu, Kun-Hua; Wu, Jhih-Ru; Lee, Chin-Fa; Jheng, Cheng-Ping; Chen, Hau-Ren; Lee, Cheng-I

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are a rare group of fatal neurodegenerative illnesses in humans and animals caused by misfolding of prion protein (PrP). Prion protein is a cell-surface glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored glycoprotein expressed mostly in the central and peripheral nervous system, and this membrane-bound protein can be cleaved from the cell membranes by phosphoinositide phospholipase C. Numerous studies have investigated GPI-free recombinant PrP, but the role of GPI on misfolding of PrP is not well known. In this study, we synthesized a GPI analog that was covalently linking to a PrP S230C mutant, resulting in S230C-GPI. The structural changes in S230C-GPI upon binding to lipid vesicles composed of mixtures of the zwitterionic lipid (POPC) and the anionic lipid (POPG) were analyzed by circular dichroism spectroscopy, and the amyloid aggregation of S230C-GPI in the liberation from phospholipid vesicles was monitored by proteinase K-digestion assay. Our results indicate that S230C-GPI in the liberation of lipid vesicles has high tendency to misfold into amyloid fibrils, while the membrane-bound S230C-GPI proteins are highly stable and rarely convert into amyloid forms. In addition, the role of cholesterol in S230C-GPI was studied. The effect of GPI, cholesterol and phospholipid vesicles on misfolding of PrP is further discussed. PMID:24005859

  7. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Jemmerson, R.; Low, M.G.

    1987-09-08

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either /sup 3/H-fatty acids or (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the /sup 3/H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from /sup 3/H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The /sup 3/H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase.

  8. Importance of anchor genomes for any plant genome project

    PubMed Central

    Messing, Joachim; Llaca, Victor

    1998-01-01

    Progress in agricultural and environmental technologies is hampered by a slower rate of gene discovery in plants than animals. The vast pool of genes in plants, however, will be an important resource for insertion of genes, via biotechnological procedures, into an array of plants, generating unique germ plasms not achievable by conventional breeding. It just became clear that genomes of grasses have evolved in a manner analogous to Lego blocks. Large chromosome segments have been reshuffled and stuffer pieces added between genes. Although some genomes have become very large, the genome with the fewest stuffer pieces, the rice genome, is the Rosetta Stone of all the bigger grass genomes. This means that sequencing the rice genome as anchor genome of the grasses will provide instantaneous access to the same genes in the same relative physical position in other grasses (e.g., corn and wheat), without the need to sequence each of these genomes independently. (i) The sequencing of the entire genome of rice as anchor genome for the grasses will accelerate plant gene discovery in many important crops (e.g., corn, wheat, and rice) by several orders of magnitudes and reduce research and development costs for government and industry at a faster pace. (ii) Costs for sequencing entire genomes have come down significantly. Because of its size, rice is only 12% of the human or the corn genome, and technology improvements by the human genome project are completely transferable, translating in another 50% reduction of the costs. (iii) The physical mapping of the rice genome by a group of Japanese researchers provides a jump start for sequencing the genome and forming an international consortium. Otherwise, other countries would do it alone and own proprietary positions. PMID:9482827

  9. Procedural debiasing of primacy/anchoring effects in clinical-like judgments.

    PubMed

    Mumma, G H; Wilson, S B

    1995-11-01

    Primacy (or anchoring) effects in clinical judgment occur when information presented at an early stage unduly influences a judgment compared to the effect of the same information presented at a later stage. Using recent theoretical models of these effects, three debiasing methods were developed and tested for their efficacy. Contrary to some recent failures to find anchoring effects, both single-cue and sequence anchoring manipulations produced medium-size effects on personality trait ratings and generalized to predictions of behavior. A consider-the-opposite procedure that involved cue sorting by diagnosticity debiased single-cue anchoring, but comparable results were obtained by subjects who simply took notes while reviewing each cue prior to judgment. Bias inoculation was marginally successful at reducing single-cue anchoring. Methodological issues as well as suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:8778134

  10. The detrimental consequences for seagrass of ineffective marine park management related to boat anchoring.

    PubMed

    La Manna, G; Donno, Y; Sarà, G; Ceccherelli, G

    2015-01-15

    Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile meadows are recognized as priority habitat for conservation by the EU Habitats Directive. The La Maddalena Archipelago National Park (Mediterranean Sea) P. oceanica meadow, the dominant coastal habitat of the area, is mostly threatened by boat anchoring. 12 years after the establishment of mooring fields and anchoring restrictions, a study was conducted to measure their effectiveness on the conservation of seagrass and the mitigation of anchoring damage. We found that: (i) the condition of P. oceanica was disturbed, both in the mooring fields and in control locations; (ii) mooring fields and anchoring restrictions did not show to be an efficient system for the protection of seagrass, in fact anchor scars increased after the tourist season; (iii) the mooring systems had an impact on the surrounding area of the meadow, probably due to their misuse. On the basis of these results, management recommendations for marine parks are proposed. PMID:25467874

  11. Data for identification of GPI-anchored peptides and ω-sites in cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Masuishi, Yusuke; Kimura, Yayoi; Arakawa, Noriaki; Hirano, Hisashi

    2016-06-01

    We present data obtained using a focused proteomics approach to identify the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored peptides in 19 human cancer cell lines. GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs), which localize to the outer leaflet of the membrane microdomains commonly referred to as lipid rafts play important roles in diverse biological processes. Due to the complex structure of the GPI-anchor moiety, it has been difficult to identify GPI-anchored peptide sequences on the proteomic scale by database searches using tools such as MASCOT. Here we provide data from 73 ω-sites derived from 49 GPI-APs in 19 human cancer cell lines. This article contains data related to the research article entitled "Identification of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and ω-sites using TiO2-based affinity purification followed by hydrogen fluoride treatment" (Masuishi et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27141528

  12. Data for identification of GPI-anchored peptides and ω-sites in cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Masuishi, Yusuke; Kimura, Yayoi; Arakawa, Noriaki; Hirano, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    We present data obtained using a focused proteomics approach to identify the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored peptides in 19 human cancer cell lines. GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs), which localize to the outer leaflet of the membrane microdomains commonly referred to as lipid rafts play important roles in diverse biological processes. Due to the complex structure of the GPI-anchor moiety, it has been difficult to identify GPI-anchored peptide sequences on the proteomic scale by database searches using tools such as MASCOT. Here we provide data from 73 ω-sites derived from 49 GPI-APs in 19 human cancer cell lines. This article contains data related to the research article entitled “Identification of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and ω-sites using TiO2-based affinity purification followed by hydrogen fluoride treatment” (Masuishi et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27141528

  13. Headstart for speech segmentation: a neural signature for the anchor word effect.

    PubMed

    Cunillera, Toni; Laine, Matti; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2016-02-01

    Learning a new language is an incremental process that builds upon previously acquired information. To shed light on the mechanisms of this incremental process, we studied the on-line neurophysiological correlates of the so-called anchor word effect where newly learned words facilitate segmentation of novel words from continuous speech. Higher segmentation performance was observed for speech streams embedded with newly learned anchor words. The anchor words elicited an enhanced Stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) component considered to be an index of expectation for incoming relevant information. Moreover, we confirmed a previously reported N400 amplitude increase for the to-be-segmented novel words, indicating a bottom-up learning process whereby new memory representations for the novel words emerge. We propose that the anchor word effect indexed by SPN reflects an expectation for an incoming novel word at the offset of the anchor word, thus facilitating the segmentation process. PMID:26792366

  14. Theoretical predictions and experimental observations of genomic mapping by anchoring random clones

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, A.V. )

    1993-02-01

    Genome mapping by anchoring random clones has recently been the subject of intensive theoretical study. In this paper, differences between published predictions of properties of anchored groups of clones ( contigs') are analyzed and simplifications of the mathematical formulae describing these properties are presented. The theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results from the physical mapping of the genome of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Information about the number of genome sections with no anchored clone on them ( oceans') and the number of undetected overlaps between the contigs at a given stage of the experiment is required for the decision to change from the random strategy to that of a directed closure of gaps. We demonstrate that the expected number of oceans can be approximated by the number of groups of clones anchored by a single probe ( singletons'), as can the expected number of undetected overlaps between contigs by the number of contigs containing more than one anchor. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Treatment of photoaged skin with topical tretinoin increases epidermal-dermal anchoring fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Woodley, D.T.; Briggaman, R.A. ); Zelickson, A.S. ); Hamilton, T.A.; Weiss, J.S.; Ellis, C.N.; Voorhees, J.J. )

    1990-06-13

    Topical 0.1% tretinoin or vehicle control was applied daily to the forearm skin of six caucasian adults for 4 months. Two-millimeter punch biopsy specimens were obtained from treatment sites at the beginning and end of the study period for electron microscopy. Anchoring fibrils within the epidermal-dermal junction of skin treatment sites were quantitated by blinded, standardized, computer-assisted morphometry. After 4 months of continual daily treatment, skin sites that received topical tretinoin showed double the anchoring fibril density compared with vehicle control sites. The possible mechanism by which topical tretinoin increases anchoring fibrils in skin include the drug's property of inhibiting collagenase, a dermal enzyme that degrades anchoring fibril collagen. The authors speculate that increased numbers of collagenous anchoring fibrils within the papillary dermis of human skin is one of the connective-tissue correlates of the clinical improvement observed in photoaged skin after treatment with topical tretinoin.

  16. Capillary and anchoring effects in thin hybrid nematic films and connection with bulk behavior.

    PubMed

    de las Heras, D; Mederos, Luis; Velasco, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    By means of a molecular model, we examine hybrid nematic films with antagonistic anchoring angles where one of the surfaces is in the strong anchoring regime. If anchoring at the other surface is weak, and in the absence of wetting by the isotropic phase, the anchoring transition may interact with the capillary isotropic-nematic transition. For general anchoring conditions on this surface we confirm the existence of the steplike biaxial phase and the associated transition to the linear constant-tilt-rotation, configuration. The steplike phase is connected with the bulk isotropic phase for increasing film thickness so that the latter transition is to be interpreted as the capillary isotropic-nematic transition in a hybrid film. PMID:19257057

  17. Molecular markers for leaf rust resistance genes in wheat.

    PubMed

    Chełkowski, J; Stepień, L

    2001-01-01

    Over 100 genes of resistance to rust fungi: Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici, (47 Lr - leaf rust genes), P. striiformis (18 Yr - yellow rust genes) and P. graminis f. sp. tritici (41 Sr - stripe rust genes) have been identified in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its wild relatives according to recent papers. Sixteen Lr resistance genes have been mapped using restriction fragments length polymorphism (RFLP) markers on wheat chromosomes. More than ten Lr genes can be identified in breeding materials by sequence tagged site (STS) specific markers. Gene Lrk 10, closely linked to gene Lr 10, has been cloned and its function recognized. Available markers are presented in this review. The STS, cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) and sequence characterized amplified regions (SCAR) markers found in the literature should be verified using Triticum spp. with different genetic background. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers for Lr resistance genes are now also available. PMID:14564046

  18. Strategy Markers in Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sindermann, Gerda; Horsella, Maria

    1989-01-01

    Part of a research project is presented that aims at identifying the difficulties tertiary level students encounter in reading scientific texts in a foreign language and the strategies they apply to overcome them. Strategy markers are identified and listed, and are then analyzed to interpret the linguistic difficulty and the strategy used.…

  19. The Swift Turbidity Marker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; MatJafri, Mohd Zubir

    2011-01-01

    The Swift Turbidity Marker is an optical instrument developed to measure the level of water turbidity. The components and configuration selected for the system are based on common turbidity meter design concepts but use a simplified methodology to produce rapid turbidity measurements. This work is aimed at high school physics students and is the…

  20. Glycosyl Phosphatidylinositol Anchor Biosynthesis Is Essential for Maintaining Epithelial Integrity during Caenorhabditis elegans Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zaidel-Bar, Ronen

    2015-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) is a post-translational modification resulting in the attachment of modified proteins to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. Tissue culture experiments have shown GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) to be targeted to the apical membrane of epithelial cells. However, the in vivo importance of this targeting has not been investigated since null mutations in GPI biosynthesis enzymes in mice result in very early embryonic lethality. Missense mutations in the human GPI biosynthesis enzyme pigv are associated with a multiple congenital malformation syndrome with a high frequency of Hirschsprung disease and renal anomalies. However, it is currently unknown how these phenotypes are linked to PIGV function. Here, we identify a temperature-sensitive hypomorphic allele of PIGV in Caenorhabditis elegans, pigv-1(qm34), enabling us to study the role of GPI-APs in development. At the restrictive temperature we found a 75% reduction in GPI-APs at the surface of embryonic cells. Consequently, ~80% of pigv-1(qm34) embryos arrested development during the elongation phase of morphogenesis, exhibiting internal cysts and/or surface ruptures. Closer examination of the defects revealed them all to be the result of breaches in epithelial tissues: cysts formed in the intestine and excretory canal, and ruptures occurred through epidermal cells, suggesting weakening of the epithelial membrane or membrane-cortex connection. Knockdown of piga-1, another GPI biosynthesis enzymes resulted in similar phenotypes. Importantly, fortifying the link between the apical membrane and actin cortex by overexpression of the ezrin/radixin/moesin ortholog ERM-1, significantly rescued cyst formation and ruptures in the pigv-1(qm34) mutant. In conclusion, we discovered GPI-APs play a critical role in maintaining the integrity of the epithelial tissues, allowing them to withstand the pressure and stresses of morphogenesis. Our findings may help to explain some of the

  1. Meta-stability of the hemifusion intermediate induced by glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored influenza hemagglutinin.

    PubMed Central

    Nüssler, F; Clague, M J; Herrmann, A

    1997-01-01

    Fusion between influenza virus and target membranes is mediated by the viral glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA). Replacement of the transmembrane domain of HA with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) membrane anchor allows lipid mixing but not the establishment of cytoplasmic continuity. This observation led to the proposal that the fusion mechanism passes through an intermediate stage corresponding to hemifusion between outer monolayers. We have used confocal fluorescence microscopy to study the movement of probes for specific bilayer leaflets of erythrocytes fusing with HA-expressing cells. N-Rh-PE and NBD-PC were used for specific labeling of the outer and inner membrane leaflet, respectively. In the case of GPI-HA-induced fusion, different behaviors of lipid transfer were observed, which include 1) exclusive movement of N-Rh-PE (hemifusion), 2) preferential movement of N-Rh-PE relative to NBD-PC, and 3) equal movement of both lipid analogs. The relative population of these intermediate states was dependent on the time after application of a low pH trigger for fusion. At early time points, hemifusion was more common and full redistribution of both bilayers was rare, whereas later full redistribution of both probes was frequently observed. In contrast to wild-type HA, the latter was not accompanied by mixing of the cytoplasmic marker Lucifer Yellow. We conclude that 1) the GPI-HA-mediated hemifusion intermediate is meta-stable and 2) expansion of an aqueous fusion pore requires the transmembrane and/or cytoplasmic domain of HA. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 PMID:9370425

  2. Mean-field density functional theory of a nanoconfined classical, three-dimensional Heisenberg fluid. I. The role of molecular anchoring.

    PubMed

    Cattes, Stefanie M; Gubbins, Keith E; Schoen, Martin

    2016-05-21

    In this work, we employ classical density functional theory (DFT) to investigate for the first time equilibrium properties of a Heisenberg fluid confined to nanoscopic slit pores of variable width. Within DFT pair correlations are treated at modified mean-field level. We consider three types of walls: hard ones, where the fluid-wall potential becomes infinite upon molecular contact but vanishes otherwise, and hard walls with superimposed short-range attraction with and without explicit orientation dependence. To model the distance dependence of the attractions, we employ a Yukawa potential. The orientation dependence is realized through anchoring of molecules at the substrates, i.e., an energetic discrimination of specific molecular orientations. If the walls are hard or attractive without specific anchoring, the results are "quasi-bulk"-like in that they can be linked to a confinement-induced reduction of the bulk mean field. In these cases, the precise nature of the walls is completely irrelevant at coexistence. Only for specific anchoring nontrivial features arise, because then the fluid-wall interaction potential affects the orientation distribution function in a nontrivial way and thus appears explicitly in the Euler-Lagrange equations to be solved for minima of the grand potential of coexisting phases. PMID:27208962

  3. Glycosyl Phosphatidylinositol-Anchored C34 Peptide Derived From Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Gp41 Is a Potent Entry Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihong; Wen, Michael; Zhu, Qianqian; Kimata, Jason T; Zhou, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Lipid rafts of the plasma membrane have been shown to be gateways for HIV-1 budding and entry. In nature, many glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored proteins are targeted to the lipid rafts. In the present study we constructed two fusion genes, in which C34 peptide or AVF peptide control was genetically linked with a GPI-attachment signal. Recombinant lentiviruses expressing the fusion genes were used to transduce TZM.bl and CEMss-CCR5 cells. Here, we show that with a GPI attachment signal both C34 and AVF are targeted to the lipid rafts through a GPI anchor. GPI-C34, but not GPI-AVF, in transduced TZM.bl cells efficiently blocks the infection of diverse HIV-1 strains of various subtypes. GPI-C34-transduced CEMss-CCR5 cells are totally resistant to HIV-1 infection. Importantly, maximum percentage of inhibition (MPI) by GPI-C34 is comparable to, if not higher than, a very high concentration of soluble C34. Potent blocking by GPI-C34 is likely due to its high local concentration, which allows GPI-C34 to efficiently bind to the prehairpin intermediate and prevent its transition to six helical bundle, thereby interfering with membrane fusion and virus entry. Our findings should have important implications in GPI-anchor-based therapy against HIV-1. PMID:27155865

  4. Metabolic markers in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Banfi, Giuseppe; Colombini, Alessandra; Lombardi, Giovanni; Lubkowska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Physical exercise induces adaptations in metabolism considered beneficial for health. Athletic performance is linked to adaptations, training, and correct nutrition in individuals with genetic traits that can facilitate such adaptations. Intense and continuous exercise, training, and competitions, however, can induce changes in the serum concentrations of numerous laboratory parameters. When these modifications, especially elevated laboratory levels, result outside the reference range, further examinations are ordered or participation in training and competition is discontinued or sports practice loses its appeal. In order to correctly interpret commonly used laboratory data, laboratory professionals and sport physicians need to know the behavior of laboratory parameters during and after practice and competition. We reviewed the literature on liver, kidney, muscle, heart, energy, and bone parameters in athletes with a view to increase the knowledge about clinical chemistry applied to sport and to stimulate studies in this field. In liver metabolism, the interpretation of serum aminotransferases concentration in athletes should consider the release of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) from muscle and of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) mainly from the liver, when bilirubin can be elevated because of continuous hemolysis, which is typical of exercise. Muscle metabolism parameters such as creatine kinase (CK) are typically increased after exercise. This parameter can be used to interpret the physiological release of CK from muscle, its altered release due to rhabdomyolysis, or incomplete recovery due to overreaching or trauma. Cardiac markers are released during exercise, and especially endurance training. Increases in these markers should not simply be interpreted as a signal of cardiac damage or wall stress but rather as a sign of regulation of myocardial adaptation. Renal function can be followed in athletes by measuring serum creatinine concentration, but it should

  5. Sex-linked dominant

    MedlinePlus

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... one of the sex chromosomes, which are the X and Y chromosomes. Dominant inheritance occurs when an ...

  6. Sex-linked recessive

    MedlinePlus

    Inheritance - sex-linked recessive; Genetics - sex-linked recessive; X-linked recessive ... X-linked recessive diseases usually occur in males. Males have only one X chromosome. A single recessive ...

  7. Sex-linked dominant

    MedlinePlus

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... type of chromosome that is affected (autosomal or sex chromosome). It also depends on whether the trait ...

  8. Career Anchors and the Effects of Downsizing: Implications for Generations and Cultures at Work. A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Verena; Bonner, Dede

    2003-01-01

    The relationships among career anchors, age, culture, gender, employment experience, and the impact of career planning on downsizing were examined with data from 423 management students (49% had been downsized). Lifestyle was the most valued anchor across age groups, stability/security the least; compared with Schein's earlier anchors research,…

  9. The Place of White in a World of Grays: A Double-Anchoring Theory of Lightness Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressan, Paola

    2006-01-01

    The specific gray shades in a visual scene can be derived from relative luminance values only when an anchoring rule is followed. The double-anchoring theory I propose in this article, as a development of the anchoring theory of Gilchrist et al. (1999), assumes that any given region (a) belongs to one or more frameworks, created by Gestalt…

  10. Hybrid approaches for interactive image segmentation using the live markers paradigm.

    PubMed

    Spina, Thiago Vallin; de Miranda, Paulo A V; Falcão, Alexandre Xavier

    2014-12-01

    Interactive image segmentation methods normally rely on cues about the foreground imposed by the user as region constraints (markers/brush strokes) or boundary constraints (anchor points). These paradigms often have complementary strengths and weaknesses, which can be addressed to improve the interactive experience by reducing the user’s effort. We propose a novel hybrid paradigm based on a new form of interaction called live markers, where optimum boundary-tracking segments are turned into internal and external markers for region-based delineation to effectively extract the object. We present four techniques within this paradigm: 1) LiveMarkers; 2) RiverCut; 3) LiveCut; and 4) RiverMarkers. The homonym LiveMarkers couples boundary-tracking via live-wire-on-the-fly (LWOF) with optimum seed competition by the image foresting transform (IFT-SC). The IFT-SC can cope with complex object silhouettes, but presents a leaking problem on weaker parts of the boundary that is solved by the effective live markers produced by LWOF. Conversely, in RiverCut, the long boundary segments computed by Riverbed around complex shapes provide markers for Graph Cuts by the Min-Cut/Max-Flow algorithm (GCMF) to complete segmentation on poorly defined sections of the object’s border. LiveCut and RiverMarkers further demonstrate that live markers can improve segmentation even when the combined approaches are not complementary (e.g., GCMFs shrinking bias is also dramatically prevented when using it with LWOF). Moreover, since delineation is always region based, our methodology subsumes both paradigms, representing a new way of extending boundary tracking to the 3D image domain, while speeding up the addition of markers close to the object’s boundary-a necessary but time consuming task when done manually. We justify our claims through an extensive experimental evaluation on natural and medical images data sets, using recently proposed robot users for boundary-tracking methods. PMID

  11. An SSR-based genetic map of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) serves as an anchor for the alignment of major pepper maps

    PubMed Central

    Mimura, Yutaka; Inoue, Takahiro; Minamiyama, Yasuhiro; Kubo, Nakao

    2012-01-01

    Of the Capsicum peppers (Capsicum spp.), cultivated C. annuum is the most commercially important, but has lacked an intraspecific linkage map based on sequence-specific PCR markers in accord with haploid chromosome numbers. We constructed a linkage map of pepper using a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross between two C. annuum genotypes, a bell-type cultivar ‘California Wonder’ and a Malaysian small-fruited cultivar ‘LS2341 (JP187992)’, which is used as a source of resistance to bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum). A set of 253 markers (151 SSRs, 90 AFLPs, 10 CAPSs and 2 sequence-tagged sites) was on the map which we constructed, spanning 1,336 cM. This is the first SSR-based map to consist of 12 linkage groups, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number in an intraspecific cross of C. annuum. As this map has a lot of PCR-based anchor markers, it is easy to compare it to other pepper genetic maps. Therefore, this map and the newly developed markers will be useful for cultivated C. annuum breeding. PMID:23136519

  12. An SSR-based genetic map of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) serves as an anchor for the alignment of major pepper maps.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Yutaka; Inoue, Takahiro; Minamiyama, Yasuhiro; Kubo, Nakao

    2012-03-01

    Of the Capsicum peppers (Capsicum spp.), cultivated C. annuum is the most commercially important, but has lacked an intraspecific linkage map based on sequence-specific PCR markers in accord with haploid chromosome numbers. We constructed a linkage map of pepper using a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a cross between two C. annuum genotypes, a bell-type cultivar 'California Wonder' and a Malaysian small-fruited cultivar 'LS2341 (JP187992)', which is used as a source of resistance to bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum). A set of 253 markers (151 SSRs, 90 AFLPs, 10 CAPSs and 2 sequence-tagged sites) was on the map which we constructed, spanning 1,336 cM. This is the first SSR-based map to consist of 12 linkage groups, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number in an intraspecific cross of C. annuum. As this map has a lot of PCR-based anchor markers, it is easy to compare it to other pepper genetic maps. Therefore, this map and the newly developed markers will be useful for cultivated C. annuum breeding. PMID:23136519

  13. Characterization of the C-terminal ER membrane anchor of PTP1B

    SciTech Connect

    Anderie, Ines Schulz, Irene; Schmid, Andreas

    2007-09-10

    The tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is an important regulator of cell function. In living cells PTP1B activity is restricted to the vicinity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by post-translational C-terminal attachment of PTP1B to the ER membrane network. In our study we investigated the membrane anchor of PTP1B by use of EGFP fusion proteins. We demonstrate that the membrane anchor of PTP1B cannot be narrowed down to a unique amino acid sequence with a defined start and stop point but rather is moveable within several amino acids. Removal of up to seven amino acids from the C-terminus, as well as exchange of single amino acids in the putative transmembrane sequence did not influence subcellular localization of PTP1B. With the method of bimolecular fluorescence complementation we could demonstrate dimerization of PTP1B in vivo. Homodimerization was, in contrast to other tail-anchored proteins, not dependent on the membrane anchor. Our data demonstrate that the C-terminal membrane anchor of PTP1B is formed by a combination of a single stretch transmembrane domain (TMD) followed by a tail. TMD and tail length are variable and there are no sequence-specific features. Our data for PTP1B are consistent with a concept that explains the ER membrane anchor of tail-anchored proteins as a physicochemical structure.

  14. Binding kinetics of membrane-anchored receptors and ligands: Molecular dynamics simulations and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinglei; Xu, Guang-Kui; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Weikl, Thomas R.

    2015-12-01

    The adhesion of biological membranes is mediated by the binding of membrane-anchored receptor and ligand proteins. Central questions are how the binding kinetics of these proteins is affected by the membranes and by the membrane anchoring of the proteins. In this article, we (i) present detailed data for the binding of membrane-anchored proteins from coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations and (ii) provide a theory that describes how the binding kinetics depends on the average separation and thermal roughness of the adhering membranes and on the anchoring, lengths, and length variations of the proteins. An important element of our theory is the tilt of bound receptor-ligand complexes and transition-state complexes relative to the membrane normals. This tilt results from an interplay of the anchoring energy and rotational entropy of the complexes and facilitates the formation of receptor-ligand bonds at membrane separations smaller than the preferred separation for binding. In our simulations, we have considered both lipid-anchored and transmembrane receptor and ligand proteins. We find that the binding equilibrium constant and binding on-rate constant of lipid-anchored proteins are considerably smaller than the binding constant and on-rate constant of rigid transmembrane proteins with identical binding domains.

  15. Controlling the Adsorption of Ruthenium Complexes on Carbon Surfaces through Noncovalent Bonding with Pyrene Anchors: An Electrochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Kohmoto, Mayuko; Ozawa, Hiroaki; Yang, Li; Hagio, Toshihiro; Matsunaga, Mariko; Haga, Masa-Aki

    2016-05-01

    Surface modifications of carbon nanomaterials, such as graphene or carbon nanotubes, through noncovalent π-π interactions between π-conjugated carbon surfaces and pyrene anchors have received much attention on account of the applications of these materials in organic electronic and sensor devices. Despite the rapidly expanding use of pyrene anchors, little is known about the number of pyrene groups required in order to achieve a stable attachment of molecules on nanocarbon surfaces. So far, systematic studies on such surface modifications through adsorption isotherms and desorption behavior of molecules still remain scarce. In this study, we have investigated the effect of the number of pyrene anchors in redox-active Ru complexes on their adsorption on carbon nanomaterials through noncovalent π-π interactions. The Ru(II/III) couple was used as a redox marker in order to determine the surface coverage on nanocarbon surfaces such as highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The amount of surface coverage as well as the kinetic stability of the Ru complexes was thereby observed to be directly proportional to the number of pyrene groups present in the ligands. The desorption rate from HOPG electrode increased in the order Ru-1 with eight pyrene groups (k = 2.0 × 10(-5) s(-1)) < Ru-2 with four pyrenes (4.1 × 10(-5) s(-1)) < Ru-3 with two pyrenes (6.8 × 10(-5) s(-1)) ≪ Ru-4 with one pyrene (4.1 × 10(-3) s(-1)). Furthermore, the electrochemical polymerization of the Ru complex with four pyrene groups proceeded more efficiently compared to complexes with one or two pyrene groups. As a consequence, compounds having more than two and/or optimally four pyrene groups revealed a stable adsorption on the nanocarbon surfaces. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate between the Ru complex, Ru-2, and the carbon nanomaterials increased in the order SWCNTs (kET = 1.3 s(-1)) < MWCNTs (

  16. Wireless and acoustic hearing with bone-anchored hearing devices

    PubMed Central

    Bosman, Arjan J.; Mylanus, Emmanuel A.M.; Hol, Myrthe K.S.; Snik, Ad F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The efficacy of wireless connectivity in bone-anchored hearing was studied by comparing the wireless and acoustic performance of the Ponto Plus sound processor from Oticon Medical relative to the acoustic performance of its predecessor, the Ponto Pro. Study sample: Nineteen subjects with more than two years' experience with a bone-anchored hearing device were included. Thirteen subjects were fitted unilaterally and six bilaterally. Design: Subjects served as their own control. First, subjects were tested with the Ponto Pro processor. After a four-week acclimatization period performance the Ponto Plus processor was measured. In the laboratory wireless and acoustic input levels were made equal. In daily life equal settings of wireless and acoustic input were used when watching TV, however when using the telephone the acoustic input was reduced by 9 dB relative to the wireless input. Results: Speech scores for microphone with Ponto Pro and for both input modes of the Ponto Plus processor were essentially equal when equal input levels of wireless and microphone inputs were used. Only the TV-condition showed a statistically significant (p <5%) lower speech reception threshold for wireless relative to microphone input. In real life, evaluation of speech quality, speech intelligibility in quiet and noise, and annoyance by ambient noise, when using landline phone, mobile telephone, and watching TV showed a clear preference (p <1%) for the Ponto Plus system with streamer over the microphone input. Due to the small number of respondents with landline phone (N = 7) the result for noise annoyance was only significant at the 5% level. Conclusion: Equal input levels for acoustic and wireless inputs results in equal speech scores, showing a (near) equivalence for acoustic and wireless sound transmission with Ponto Pro and Ponto Plus. The default 9-dB difference between microphone and wireless input when using the telephone results in a substantial

  17. Red electroluminescence of ruthenium sensitizer functionalized by sulfonate anchoring groups.

    PubMed

    Shahroosvand, Hashem; Abbasi, Parisa; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Janghouri, Mohammad

    2014-06-28

    We have synthesized five novel Ru(ii) phenanthroline complexes with an additional aryl sulfonate ligating substituent at the 5-position [Ru(L)(bpy)2](BF4)2 (1), [Ru(L)(bpy)(SCN)2] (2), [Ru(L)3](BF4)2 (3), [Ru(L)2(bpy)](BF4)2 (4) and [Ru(L)(BPhen)(SCN)2] (5) (where L = 6-one-[1,10]phenanthroline-5-ylamino)-3-hydroxynaphthalene 1-sulfonic, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, BPhen = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline), as both photosensitizers for oxide semiconductor solar cells (DSSCs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The absorption and emission maxima of these complexes red shifted upon extending the conjugation of the phenanthroline ligand. Ru phenanthroline complexes exhibit broad metal to ligand charge transfer-centered electroluminescence (EL) with a maximum near 580 nm. Our results indicated that a particular structure (2) can be considered as both DSSC and OLED devices. The efficiency of the LED performance can be tuned by using a range of ligands. Device (2) has a luminance of 550 cd m(-2) and maximum efficiency of 0.9 cd A(-1) at 18 V, which are the highest values among the five devices. The turn-on voltage of this device is approximately 5 V. The role of auxiliary ligands in the photophysical properties of Ru complexes was investigated by DFT calculation. We have also studied photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductor solar cells based on Ru phenanthroline complexes and an iodine redox electrolyte. A solar energy to electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 0.67% was obtained for Ru complex (2) under standard AM 1.5 irradiation with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 2.46 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 0.6 V, and a fill factor (ff) of 40%, which are all among the highest values for ruthenium sulfonated anchoring groups reported so far. Monochromatic incident photon to current conversion efficiency was 23% at 475 nm. Photovoltaic studies clearly indicated dyes with two SCN substituents yielded a higher Jsc for the

  18. Lipoprotein marker for hypertriglyceridemia

    DOEpatents

    Cubicciotti, Roger S.; Karu, Alexander E.; Krauss, Ronald M.

    1986-01-01

    Methods and compositions are provided for the detection of a particular low density lipoprotein which has been found to be a marker for patients suffering from type IV hypertriglyceridemia. A monoclonal antibody capable of specifically binding to a characteristic epitopic site on this LDL subspecies can be utilized in a wide variety of immunoassays. Hybridoma cell line SPL.IVA5A1 was deposited at the American Type Culture Collection on Mar. 29, 1984, and granted accession no. HB 8535.

  19. Transgenic Arabidopsis tester lines with dominant marker genes.

    PubMed

    Van Lijsebettens, M; Wang, X; Cnops, G; Boerjan, W; Desnos, T; Höfte, H; Van Montagu, M

    1996-06-12

    The map positions of a set of eight T-DNA insertions in the Arabidopsis genome have been determined by using closely linked visible markers. The insertions are dispersed over four of the five chromosomes. Each T-DNA insert contains one or more of the chimeric marker genes neomycin phosphotransferase (neo), hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt), phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (bar), beta-glucuronidase (gusA) and indole-3-acetamide hydrolase (iaaH). The neo, hpt and bar marker genes are dominant in a selective germination assay or when used as DNA markers in a polymerase chain reaction. These dominant markers will allow recombinants to be discerned in a germinating F2 population, one generation earlier than with a conventional recessive marker. The transgenic marker lines will speed up and simplify the isolation of recombinants in small genetic intervals, a rate-limiting step in positional cloning strategies. The transgenic lines containing the hpt marker will also be of interest for the isolation of deletion mutants at the T-DNA integration sites. PMID:8676880

  20. Comparison of Video Coding Methods to Pay Attention in Anchoring Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imaizumi, Keisuke; Sugiura, Akihiko

    In this study, we propose using the anchoring effect that is one of the cognitive bias as a new approach of the encoding. And we suggest technique to apply to encoding. As a result of experiments, we found that displaying High-definition image in the early part of video effects look clear than original video. In addition we noticed that the anchoring effect appear remarkably in a low rate video coding. And if changes the video rate is smoothly, the anchoring effect is shown clearness in a high average rate video.