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1

Archaeogenetic Evidence of Ancient Nubian Barley Evolution from Six to Two-Row Indicates Local Adaptation  

PubMed Central

Background Archaeobotanical samples of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) found at Qasr Ibrim display a two-row phenotype that is unique to the region of archaeological sites upriver of the first cataract of the Nile, characterised by the development of distinctive lateral bracts. The phenotype occurs throughout all strata at Qasr Ibrim, which range in age from 3000 to a few hundred years. Methodology and Findings We extracted ancient DNA from barley samples from the entire range of occupancy of the site, and studied the Vrs1 gene responsible for row number in extant barley. Surprisingly, we found a discord between the genotype and phenotype in all samples; all the barley had a genotype consistent with the six-row condition. These results indicate a six-row ancestry for the Qasr Ibrim barley, followed by a reassertion of the two-row condition. Modelling demonstrates that this sequence of evolutionary events requires a strong selection pressure. Conclusions The two-row phenotype at Qasr Ibrim is caused by a different mechanism to that in extant barley. The strength of selection required for this mechanism to prevail indicates that the barley became locally adapted in the region in response to a local selection pressure. The consistency of the genotype/phenotype discord over time supports a scenario of adoption of this barley type by successive cultures, rather than the importation of new barley varieties associated with individual cultures.

Palmer, Sarah A.; Moore, Jonathan D.; Clapham, Alan J.; Rose, Pamela; Allaby, Robin G.

2009-01-01

2

A complete ancient RNA genome: identification, reconstruction and evolutionary history of archaeological Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus  

PubMed Central

The origins of many plant diseases appear to be recent and associated with the rise of domestication, the spread of agriculture or recent global movements of crops. Distinguishing between these possibilities is problematic because of the difficulty of determining rates of molecular evolution over short time frames. Heterochronous approaches using recent and historical samples show that plant viruses exhibit highly variable and often rapid rates of molecular evolution. The accuracy of estimated evolution rates and age of origin can be greatly improved with the inclusion of older molecular data from archaeological material. Here we present the first reconstruction of an archaeological RNA genome, which is of Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus (BSMV) isolated from barley grain ~750 years of age. Phylogenetic analysis of BSMV that includes this genome indicates the divergence of BSMV and its closest relative prior to this time, most likely around 2000 years ago. However, exclusion of the archaeological data results in an apparently much more recent origin of the virus that postdates even the archaeological sample. We conclude that this viral lineage originated in the Near East or North Africa, and spread to North America and East Asia with their hosts along historical trade routes.

Smith, Oliver; Clapham, Alan; Rose, Pam; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Allaby, Robin G.

2014-01-01

3

A complete ancient RNA genome: identification, reconstruction and evolutionary history of archaeological Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus.  

PubMed

The origins of many plant diseases appear to be recent and associated with the rise of domestication, the spread of agriculture or recent global movements of crops. Distinguishing between these possibilities is problematic because of the difficulty of determining rates of molecular evolution over short time frames. Heterochronous approaches using recent and historical samples show that plant viruses exhibit highly variable and often rapid rates of molecular evolution. The accuracy of estimated evolution rates and age of origin can be greatly improved with the inclusion of older molecular data from archaeological material. Here we present the first reconstruction of an archaeological RNA genome, which is of Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus (BSMV) isolated from barley grain ~750 years of age. Phylogenetic analysis of BSMV that includes this genome indicates the divergence of BSMV and its closest relative prior to this time, most likely around 2000 years ago. However, exclusion of the archaeological data results in an apparently much more recent origin of the virus that postdates even the archaeological sample. We conclude that this viral lineage originated in the Near East or North Africa, and spread to North America and East Asia with their hosts along historical trade routes. PMID:24499968

Smith, Oliver; Clapham, Alan; Rose, Pam; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Allaby, Robin G

2014-01-01

4

Illuminating the Nubian 'Dark Age': A bioarchaeological analysis of dental non-metric traits during the Napatan Period.  

PubMed

The origins of one of the most powerful sociopolitical entities of the Nile Valley, the Napatan State (850-650BCE), are debated. Some scholars have suggested local development of this influential Nubian State, while others propose foreign involvement. This study uses a bioarchaeological approach to examine the biological affinity of these Ancient Nubians. The focal site of this research, Tombos, is one of few non-central Napatan Period sites that have been excavated and can, therefore, shed light on the broader Napatan populace. Dental non-metric trait frequencies were examined in the Tombos sample as well as in 12 comparative samples to elucidate the biological affinities of these populations. Analyses indicate that Tombos dental non-metric trait frequencies were not significantly different from the majority of Egyptian and Nubian samples examined here. Therefore, we propose that gene flow, encouraged by long-term coexistence and intermarriage in Nubia, created an Egyptian/Nubian transcultural environment. These findings suggest the Napatan population at Tombos included descendants of Egyptians and Nubians. The Napatan Tombos sample was found to significantly differ from the latter Kushite and Meroitic samples; however, these samples are so temporally removed from the Napatan Period, we suspect subsequent episodes of population movement may have contributed to this variation. PMID:24951408

Schrader, S; Buzon, M; Irish, J

2014-08-01

5

Experimental selenium poisoning in Nubian goats.  

PubMed

The toxicity of sodium selenite was studied in 28 Nubian goats, 20 of which died or were killed in extremis 2 h to 21 d after dosing. Single or repeated daily oral doses of 160, 80, 40, 20 and 5 mg sodium selenite/kg were toxic to goats while daily doses of selenite ranging from 0.25 to 1 mg/kg/d for 225 d were not toxic to this species of animals. The main signs of poisoning were uneasiness, inappetence, dyspnea, salivation, diarhea, paresis of the hind limbs, arching of the back, and recumbency. The main lesions were hemorrhages in the rumen, reticulum, osmasum and abomasum, hemorrhagic or catarrhal abomasitis and enteritis, fatty change and necrosis of the centrilobular hepatocytes and of the cells of the renal convoluted tubules, splenic hemosiderosis, pulmonary congestion, haemorrhage, edema and emphysema, accumulation of lymphocytes in the vital organs, and straw-colored fluid in the serous cavities. PMID:2353437

Ahmed, K E; Adam, S E; Idrill, O F; Wahbi, A A

1990-06-01

6

Nubian Complex strategies in the Egyptian high desert.  

PubMed

Systematic survey by the Abydos Survey for Paleolithic Sites project has recorded Nubian Complex artifact density, distribution, typology, and technology across the high desert landscape west of the Nile Valley in Middle Egypt. Our work contrasts with previous investigations of Nubian Complex settlement systems in Egypt, which focused on a small number of sites in the terraces of the Nile Valley, the desert oases, and the Red Sea Mountains. Earlier research interpreted the Nubian Complex, in particular, as a radiating settlement system that incorporated a specialized point production. Our high desert data, however, indicate that the Nubian Complex associated with early modern humans in this region of the high desert reflects a circulating, rather than a radiating, settlement system, and that point production has been over-emphasized. Data available from our work, as well as sites investigated by others, do not conclusively identify Nubian Complex behavioral strategies as modern. These data, however, do contribute to the understanding of landscape use by early modern human populations living along the Nile Valley Corridor route out of Africa. PMID:20659756

Olszewski, Deborah I; Dibble, Harold L; McPherron, Shannon P; Schurmans, Utsav A; Chiotti, Laurent; Smith, Jennifer R

2010-08-01

7

Tertiary age for upper Nubian sandstone formation, central Sudan  

SciTech Connect

In central and northern Sudan, oil exploration is now active in the basins containing sediments of the Nubian Sandstone Formation. On the evidence of planned pipeline construction, significant volumes of oil appear to have been discovered in southwestern Sudan. A newly discovered flora from the upper Nubian Sandstone Formation near Khartoum in central Sudan is Tertiary in age. The flora is well preserved, and comprises leaves, flowers, and fruits, many not yet described. At the generic level, they are comparable to forms that are known fro the Eocene to Miocene. Aquatic plants indicate a lacustrine paleoenvironment; humid tropical forests thrived on the lakeshores. The Nubian Sandstone Formation of Sudan had been considered to be entirely of Cretaceous age; this new flora shifts the upper boundary into the Tertiary. The Tertiary Hudi Chert, found in scattered outcrops in the region of Atbara, was considered to overlie the Nubian Sandstone Formation. The authors suggest that the Hudi Chert is partly age equivalent to the Tertiary upper Nubian Sandstone at Jebel Mudaha.

Prasad, G.; Lejal-Nicol, A.; Vaudois-Mieja, N.

1986-02-01

8

Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.  

PubMed

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming. PMID:24084493

Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

2014-01-01

9

Conception Rates following Oestrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination in the Nubian Goats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This experiment was designed to investigate into the efficiency of different hormonal treatments in inducing and synchronizing oestrus in Sudanese Nubian goats and their fertility following a fixed time artificial insemination programme using Saanen buck ...

A. Jubara

1996-01-01

10

Ancient Civilizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This subject guide includes Web sites and other resources on ancient civilizations with age levels and appropriate subject disciplines specified. Also includes CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, professional resources, and a sample student assignment. (LRW)

Web Feet K-8, 2000

2000-01-01

11

Ancient DNA.  

PubMed

In the past two decades, ancient DNA research has progressed from the retrieval of small fragments of mitochondrial DNA from a few late Holocene specimens, to large-scale studies of ancient populations, phenotypically important nuclear loci, and even whole mitochondrial genome sequences of extinct species. However, the field is still regularly marred by erroneous reports, which underestimate the extent of contamination within laboratories and samples themselves. An improved understanding of these processes and the effects of damage on ancient DNA templates has started to provide a more robust basis for research. Recent methodological advances have included the characterization of Pleistocene mammal populations and discoveries of DNA preserved in ancient sediments. Increasingly, ancient genetic information is providing a unique means to test assumptions used in evolutionary and population genetics studies to reconstruct the past. Initial results have revealed surprisingly complex population histories, and indicate that modern phylogeographic studies may give misleading impressions about even the recent evolutionary past. With the advent and uptake of appropriate methodologies, ancient DNA is now positioned to become a powerful tool in biological research and is also evolving new and unexpected uses, such as in the search for extinct or extant life in the deep biosphere and on other planets. PMID:15875564

Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

2005-01-01

12

Ancient Balances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apropos of Mr. Chisholm's interesting account of ancient weighing instruments, in your last number, I venture to call his attention to the representation of an equal-armed balance in an Egyptian papyrus of the nineteenth dynasty, about 1350 B.C. It is to be found in the celebrated ``Ritual of the Dead,'' a hieroglyphical papyrus of Hunnefer, of the reign of Seti

G. F. Rodwell

1873-01-01

13

Dental indicators of health and stress in early Egyptian and Nubian agriculturalists: a difficult transition and gradual recovery.  

PubMed

Although agriculture is now the globally predominant mode of food production, studies of the skeletal remains of early agriculturalists have indicated high levels of physiological stress and poor health relative to hunter-gatherers in similar environments. Previous studies identifying this trend in different regions prompt further research of the causes and effects of subsistence transitions in human societies. Here, 242 dentitions from five ancient Egyptian and Nubian populations are examined: 38 individuals from Jebel Sahaba (Upper Paleolithic), 56 from Badari (Predynastic), 54 from Naqada (Predynastic), 47 from Tarkhan (Dynastic), and 47 from Kerma (Dynastic). These populations span the early period of agricultural intensification along the Nile valley. Skeletal remains were scored for the presence of linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) of the dentition, an established indicator of physiological stress and growth interruption. The prevalence of LEH was highest in the "proto-agricultural" (pastoralist) Badari population, with a gradual decline throughout the late Predynastic and early Dynastic periods of state formation. This suggests that the period surrounding the emergence of early agriculture in the Nile valley was associated with high stress and poor health, but that the health of agriculturalists improved substantially with the increasing urbanization and trade that accompanied the formation of the Egyptian state. This evidence for poor health among proto- and early agriculturalists in the Nile valley supports theories that agricultural intensification occurred as a response to ecological or demographic pressure rather than simply as an innovation over an existing stable subsistence strategy. PMID:17786997

Starling, Anne P; Stock, Jay T

2007-12-01

14

The Importance of Barley Genetics and Domestication in a Global Perspective  

PubMed Central

Background Archaeological evidence has revealed that barley (Hordeum vulgare) is one of the oldest crops used by ancient farmers. Studies of the time and place of barley domestication may help in understanding ancient human civilization. Scope The studies of domesticated genes in crops have uncovered the mechanisms which converted wild and unpromising wild species to the most important food for humans. In addition to archaeological studies, molecular studies are finding new insights into the process of domestication. Throughout the process of barley domestication human selection on wild species resulted in plants with more harvestable seeds. One of the remarkable changes during barley domestications was the appearance of six-rowed barley. The gene associated with this trait results in three times more seed per spike compared with ancestral wild barley. This increase in number of seed resulted in a major dichotomy in the evolution of barley. The identification of the six-rowed spike gene provided a framework for understanding how this character was evolved. Some important barley domestication genes have been discovered and many are currently being investigated. Conclusions Identification of domestication genes in crops revealed that most of the drastic changes during domestication are the result of functional impairments in transcription factor genes, and creation of new functions is rare. Isolation of the six-rowed spike gene revealed that this trait was domesticated more than once in the domestication history of barley. Six-rowed barley is derived from two-rowed ancestral forms. Isolation of photoperiod-response genes in barley and rice revealed that different genes belonging to similar genetic networks partially control this trait.

Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Komatsuda, Takao

2007-01-01

15

Conserved Transcriptional Regulatory Programs Underlying Rice and Barley Germination  

PubMed Central

Germination is a biological process important to plant development and agricultural production. Barley and rice diverged 50 million years ago, but share a similar germination process. To gain insight into the conservation of their underlying gene regulatory programs, we compared transcriptomes of barley and rice at start, middle and end points of germination, and revealed that germination regulated barley and rice genes (BRs) diverged significantly in expression patterns and/or protein sequences. However, BRs with higher protein sequence similarity tended to have more conserved expression patterns. We identified and characterized 316 sets of conserved barley and rice genes (cBRs) with high similarity in both protein sequences and expression patterns, and provided a comprehensive depiction of the transcriptional regulatory program conserved in barley and rice germination at gene, pathway and systems levels. The cBRs encoded proteins involved in a variety of biological pathways and had a wide range of expression patterns. The cBRs encoding key regulatory components in signaling pathways often had diverse expression patterns. Early germination up-regulation of cell wall metabolic pathway and peroxidases, and late germination up-regulation of chromatin structure and remodeling pathways were conserved in both barley and rice. Protein sequence and expression pattern of a gene change quickly if it is not subjected to a functional constraint. Preserving germination-regulated expression patterns and protein sequences of those cBRs for 50 million years strongly suggests that the cBRs are functionally significant and equivalent in germination, and contribute to the ancient characteristics of germination preserved in barley and rice. The functional significance and equivalence of the cBR genes predicted here can serve as a foundation to further characterize their biological functions and facilitate bridging rice and barley germination research with greater confidence.

Lin, Li; Tian, Shulan; Kaeppler, Shawn; Liu, Zongrang; An, Yong-Qiang (Charles)

2014-01-01

16

Ancient Bedforms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

18 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows groupings of large ripple-like windblown bedforms on the floor of a large crater (larger than the image shown here) in Sinus Sabaeus, south of Schiaparelli Basin. These ripple-like features are much larger than typical wind ripples on Earth, but smaller than typical sand dunes on either planet. Like most of the other ripple-like bedforms in Sinus Sabaeus, they are probably ancient and no longer mobile. Dark streaks on the substrate between the bedforms were formed by passing dust devils. This image is located near 13.0oS, 343.7oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

2004-01-01

17

Barley Helps Reduce Cholesterol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Barley's many roles, in brewing beer, in breakfast foods, and as feed for stock, may now be expanding to include lowering cholesterol in chickens and pigs. Scientist...

1983-01-01

18

Palynology and Stratigraphy of the Nubian Sandstone in Libya and Comparison with Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The so-called "Nubian Sandstone" outcrops along a wide area from Algeria to the Red Sea, forming two regressive phases. The lower phase is represented in Egypt by the Basal Clastic Unit, the Desert Rose Unit, the Abu Ballas Formation and the Matruh Shale. In Libya it is represented by the Mesak Sandstone, Sarir Sandstone, Cabao Sandstone and Kiklah Formation. In both countries, these successions are covered by a carbonate sequence, resulting from the Tethyan transgression during the Cenomanian. In Egypt however, the upper regressive phase is represented by the Taref Sandstone which was deposited during a brief period of active progradation, following the Tethyan incursion. This is not observed in Libya. Comparison of palynological studies in Libya with those documented by several authors in Egypt reveals that the "Nubian" facies in Libya were deposited before equivalent facies in Egypt. The Basal Clastic Unit, dated as Hautrauvian-Barremian, may be equivalent, at least to a part of the Neocomian Cabao Sandstone in NW Libya. Jarmah Member of the Mesak Formation in Libya was dated as Berriasian on the basis of Pilosisporites and Trilobosporites. This makes it older than any "Nubian" unit in Egypt. The Matruh Shale was assigned to the Aptian on the basis of Tricolpites, and the Abu Balls Formation 34 as Aptian-Albian on the basis of Tricolpites and Rousisporites radiatus. Whereas, there is no equivalent to the Aptian in NW Libya, the Aptian-Albian of Egypt is similar to Zone 1 of the Kiklah Formation and As Sarir Sandstone, which were dated as early Albian on the basis of Afropollis spp., and Perotriletes pannuceus, an Albian element not recorded in Egypt. The Plant Beds in southwestern Egypt were dated as Cenomanian on the basis of advanced angiosperm pollen. In Libya, equivalent bodies were considered Vraconian, representing the uppermost Albian, because it lacks Cenomanian pollen (e.g. Tricolpites mutabilis). Comparison of local sea-level changes with global sea-level curves is used to reconstruct paleogeography. Integration of palynology with geological data and tectonic implications indicates that, despite similarity in paleogeographic processes of the Nubian Sandstone, geological and structural settings remain different. The "Nubian Sandstone" provides a typical succession that can be studied in the light of sequence stratigraphy.

Tekbali, Ali; Hlal, Osama

2013-04-01

19

Germinated Barley Foodstuff Feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A germinated barley foodstuff (GBF) contained glutamine-rich protein and the hemicellulose-rich fiber was made from brewer’s spent grain by physical isolation (milling and sieving). Both in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that the fiber fraction of GBF supports maintenance of epithelial cell populations, facilitates epithelial repair, and suppresses epithelial nuclear factor ?B-DNA binding activity through generating increased short-chain fatty

Osamu Kanauchi; Toshihiko Iwanaga; Keiichi Mitsuyama

2001-01-01

20

Barley Genomics: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Barley (Hordeum vulgare), first domesticated in the Near East, is a well-studied crop in terms of genetics, genomics, and breeding and qualifies as a model plant for Triticeae research. Recent advances made in barley genomics mainly include the following: (i) rapid accumulation of EST sequence data, (ii) growing number of studies on transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome, (iii) new modeling techniques, (iv) availability of genome-wide knockout collections as well as efficient transformation techniques, and (v) the recently started genome sequencing effort. These developments pave the way for a comprehensive functional analysis and understanding of gene expression networks linked to agronomically important traits. Here, we selectively review important technological developments in barley genomics and related fields and discuss the relevance for understanding genotype-phenotype relationships by using approaches such as genetical genomics and association studies. High-throughput genotyping platforms that have recently become available will allow the construction of high-density genetic maps that will further promote marker-assisted selection as well as physical map construction. Systems biology approaches will further enhance our knowledge and largely increase our abilities to design refined breeding strategies on the basis of detailed molecular physiological knowledge.

Sreenivasulu, Nese; Graner, Andreas; Wobus, Ulrich

2008-01-01

21

New interpretation of the so-called Nubian strata in northeast Africa  

SciTech Connect

Stratigraphical interpretation of the so-called Nubian Sandstone of Egypt and northern Sudan have led to new ideas on the structural and paleogeographical development of northeast Africa. The strata formerly comprised under the term Nubian Sandstone include sediments from Cambrian to Paleocene age. Based on field work and paleontological investigations during the last 10 years, these strata can be subdivided into three major cycles, each characterizing a certain structural situation of northeast Africa. The first or Paleozoic cycle comprises strata of Cambrian to Early Carboniferous age. These strata were deposited during a period of generally northern dip of northeast Africa; continental sediments transported northward interfinger with marine strata resulting from southward transgressions. Sediments of the second cycle were deposited during and after Gondwana and northern continents collided, which caused updoming of large areas of Egypt and bordering areas to the west and east. As a result, most of Egypt became subject to erosion; transgressions remained near the present northern edge of the continent, and purely continental deposition took place in northern Sudan and bordering areas in Chad and Libya. The resulting strata are similar to the Karroo of East Africa. Strata of the third cycle were deposited after Pangea began to disintegrate. Northeast Africa now had a generally northern dip again, and consequently deposition was controlled - as during the first cycle - by northward drainage and southward transgressions. This last cycle began during Late Jurassic time.

Klitzsch, E.H.; Squyres, C.H.

1988-08-01

22

Ancient World Mapping Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the Ancient World Mapping Center is funded by the UNC College of Arts and Sciences and the American Philological Association. The Center is primarily designed to promote the usage of cartography and geographic information science within the field of ancient studies. The Center's main web page begins with a host of recent news events related to ongoing research dealing with the ancient world from various fields, including geography, archaeology, and history. Equally helpful is the New Sites and Finds area, which gathers together new and useful sites dedicated to investigating various aspects of the ancient world. Of course there is also the map room area where visitors can download any one of a number of detailed maps (many of which have been created by the staff at the Center) of the ancient world. Some of these maps include those of Byzantine Constantinople, Ptolemaic Egypt, and several of ancient Greece.

23

Olympics: Ancient vs. Modern  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objective: Students will compare the Ancient Olympics invented by the Greeks to a Modern Olympic games Materials: Computer with internet connection Paper and writing Utensil OR open blank Word Document Procedures: 1. On your paper or in your Word Document, create two columns and label one Ancient Greeks and the other Modern Olympics 2. Use a minimum of 2 of the following links to find information to compare the Ancient Olympics to the ...

Schaefer, Mrs.

2008-09-13

24

Significance of the Tambien Group (Tigrai, N. Ethiopia) for Snowball Earth events in the Arabian–Nubian Shield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile continental crust of the Arabian–Nubian Shield (ANS) formed within a Neoproterozoic supercontinent cycle. Subsequent late Neoproterozoic deposition overlapped a series of dramatic climatic events that are unparalleled in subsequent Phanerozoic time, as proposed by the “Snowball Earth” hypothesis. In particular, extreme negative ?13C excursions coincident with glacial diamictite and cap carbonate sequences imply that profound carbon flux changes accompanied

Nathan R. Miller; Mulugeta Alene; Rosalino Sacchi; Robert J. Stern; Anna Conti; Alfred Kröner; Gianmaria Zuppi

2003-01-01

25

Orientation of late Precambrian sutures in the Arabian-Nubian shield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent tectonic models have resulted in conflicting descriptions of how the late Precambrian sutures of the Arabian-Nubian shield extend into northeast Africa. The Hamisana shear zone in northeastern Sudan is critical to this discussion because it truncates and disrupts two sutures, the Allaqi-Heiani and the Onib-Sol Hamed. Analysis of field structural data, Thematic Mapper imagery, and Rb-Sr and U-Pb geochronology suggests that the Allaqi-Heiani suture is the western extension of the Onib-Sol Hamed suture and that both make up the exposed parts of a far-traveled, polydeformed ophiolitic nappe complex. Subsequent deformation localized in the Hamisana shear zone disrupted this nappe and displaced the suture between 660 and 550 Ma during regional deformation associated with the Najd fault system. These results indicate that at least one suture extends westward into the interior of northern Africa.

Stern, Robert J.; Nielsen, Kent C.; Best, Eric; Sultan, Mohamed; Arvidson, Raymond E.

1990-01-01

26

Distribution of oceanic and continental leads in the Arabian-Nubian Shield  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New common lead data for feldspar, whole-rock, and galena samples from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, together with data from previous work, can be divided into two main groups. Group I leads have oceanic (mantle) characteristics, whereas group II leads have incorporated a continental-crustal component of at least early Proterozoic age. The group I leads are found in rocks from the Red Sea Hills of Egypt and the western and southern parts of the Arabian Shield. Group II leads are found in rocks from the northeastern and eastern parts of the Arabian Shield, as well as from the southeastern Shield near Najran. They are also found in rocks to the south in Yemen, to the east in Oman, and to the west at Aswan, Egypt. This distribution of data suggests that the Arabian-Nubian Shield has an oceanic core flanked by rocks that have developed, at least in part, from older continental material. Two mechanisms are suggested by which this older lead component could have been incorporated into the late Proterozoic rocks, and each may have operated in different parts of the Shield. The older lead component either was derived directly from an underlying early Proterozoic basement or was incorporated from subducted pelagic sediments or sediments derived from an adjacent continent. New U-Pb zircon data indicate the presence of an early Proterozoic basement southeast of Jabal Dahul in the eastern Arabian Shield. These data, together with 2,000-Ma-old zircons from the Al Amar fault zone, verify the implication of the common lead data that at least a part of the eastern Arabian Shield has an older continental basement. Because continental margins are particularly favorable locations for development of ore deposits, these findings may have important economic implications, particularly for tin, tungsten, and molybdenum exploration. ?? 1983 Springer-Verlag.

Stacey, J. S.; Stoeser, D. B.

1983-01-01

27

Interactive Ancient Mediterranean Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Interactive Ancient Mediterranean (IAM) Project is an online atlas of the ancient Mediterranean world designed to support the instruction of the classics, ancient history, archaeology, and related disciplines. Currently, IAM's Map Room has an index of over 50 maps of ten regions of the Mediterranean basin and northern Europe available for downloading and printing. Most maps are high-resolution .pdf files and the remainder are large, high-quality JPEG files. Users may also search the atlas by keyword, place name, cultural object, or ancient author. IAM is an ongoing joint effort of the American Philological Association's Classical Atlas Project and the departments of Classics and History at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

28

Albinism in barley androgenesis.  

PubMed

Androgenesis is highly useful for plant breeding, significantly reducing breeding cycle times, as well as in a wide range of biological research. However, for widespread use this process must be efficient. Despite several decades of research on the phenomenon of androgenesis, many processes involved are obscure and there is much to be understood about androgenesis. One of the problems inherent in androgenesis, and reducing its efficiency, is albinism. This article reviews albinism in barley anthers and microspores in vitro cultures. Of special interest is the fate of plastids throughout androgenesis, which is important at several levels, including the genes responsible for driving the green-to-albino ratios. We also summarize the external factors that reduce the incidence of albino plants that are regenerated via androgenesis. PMID:24326697

Makowska, Katarzyna; Oleszczuk, Sylwia

2014-03-01

29

Thermoregulation and performance of British Anglo-Nubian and Saanen goats reared in an intensive system in Trinidad.  

PubMed

Anglo-Nubian and Saanen goats were imported into Trinidad and Tobago to form the nucleus of the goat expansion and improvement programme. Thermoregulation and performance of the parent stock and the F1 were evaluated under intensive housing and management. Rectal temperature in the A.M.: irrespective of breed or season ranged from 38.5°C to 38.7°C and P.M.: ranged from 38.8°C to 39.0°C. After 2 h of exposure outdoors without shade, Saanen parent stock (SAPS) respiration rate (105 br/min) was significantly higher (p?Nubian parent stock (ANSP, 65 br/min) and Anglo-Nubian F1 (ANF1, 51 br/min). Rectal temperature over the same period showed significant differences (p??0.05) between breeds or between the parent stock and the F1 generations, ranging from 638 to 686 days. The ANPS were the most prolific of all groups (p??0.05) difference between the groups, ranging from 319 to 521 days. It was concluded that the Anglo-Nubian appears to be more suitable than the Saanen for the tropical humid environment in Trinidad as indicated by their thermoregulation, prolificacy and kidding interval. PMID:21739132

Lallo, Cicero H O; Paul, Ian; Bourne, Gregory

2012-03-01

30

Evidence for the Snowball Earth hypothesis in the Arabian-Nubian Shield and the East African Orogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formation of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) and the East African Orogen (EAO) occurred between 870Ma and the end of the Precambrian (?542Ma). ANS crustal growth encompassed a time of dramatic climatic change, articulated as the Snowball Earth hypothesis (SEH). SEH identifies tremendous paleoclimatic oscillations during Neoproterozoic time. Earth’s climate shifted wildly, from times when much of our planet’s surface was

R. J. Stern; D. Avigad; N. R. Miller; M. Beyth

2006-01-01

31

[Hordein locus polymorphism of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Turkey].  

PubMed

Starch gel electrophoresis has been used to study the polymorphism of hordeins encoded by the Hrd A, Hrd B, and Hrd F loci in 93 landrace specimens of barley assigned to 17 ancient provinces located in modem Turkey. Forty-five alleles of Hrd A with frequencies of 0.11-29.34%, 51 alleles of Hrd B with frequencies of 0.11-8.07%, and 5 alleles of Hrd F with frequencies of 0.75-41.29% have been detected. Cluster analysis of the matrix of allele frequencies has demonstrated that barley populations from different old provinces of Turkey are similar to one another. Cluster structure of local barley populations has been found, most populations (82%) falling into three clusters. The first cluster comprises barley populations from six provinces (Thracia, Bithynia, Pontus, Lydia, Cappadocia, and Armenia); the second cluster, populations from five provinces (Paphlagonia, Galatia, Lycaonia, Cilicia, and Mesopotamia); and the third one, populations from three provinces (Phrygia, Karia, and Lycia). Barley populations from Mysia, Pamphlya, and Syria do not fall in any cluster. PMID:18186193

Pomortsev, A A; Martynov, S P; Lialina, E V

2007-11-01

32

A Nubian Complex Site from Central Arabia: Implications for Levallois Taxonomy and Human Dispersals during the Upper Pleistocene  

PubMed Central

Archaeological survey undertaken in central Saudi Arabia has revealed 29 surface sites attributed to the Arabian Middle Paleolithic based on the presence of Levallois blank production methods. Technological analyses on cores retrieved from Al-Kharj 22 have revealed specific reduction modalities used to produce flakes with predetermined shapes. The identified modalities, which are anchored within the greater Levallois concept of core convexity preparation and exploitation, correspond with those utilized during the Middle Stone Age Nubian Complex of northeast Africa and southern Arabia. The discovery of Nubian technology at the Al-Kharj 22 site represents the first appearance of this blank production method in central Arabia. Here we demonstrate how a rigorous use of technological and taxonomic analysis may enable intra-regional comparisons across the Arabian Peninsula. The discovery of Al-Kharj 22 increases the complexity of the Arabian Middle Paleolithic archaeological record and suggests new dynamics of population movements between the southern and central regions of the Peninsula. This study also addresses the dichotomy within Nubian core typology (Types 1 and 2), which was originally defined for African assemblages.

Crassard, Remy; Hilbert, Yamandu Hieronymus

2013-01-01

33

Dentistry in ancient mesopotamia.  

PubMed

Sumer, an empire in ancient Mesopotamia (southern Iraq), is well known as the cradle of our modern civilization and the home of biblical Abraham. An analysis of skeletal remains from cemeteries at the ancient cities of Ur and Kish (circa 2000 B.C.), show a genetically homogeneous, diseased, and short-lived population. These ancient Mesopotamians suffered severe dental attrition (95 percent), periodontal disease (42 percent), and caries (2 percent). Many oral congenital and neoplastic lesions were noted. During this period, the "local dentists" knew only a few modern dental techniques. Skeletal (dental) evidence indicates that the population suffered from chronic malnutrition. Malnutrition was probably caused by famine, which is substantiated in historic cuneiform and biblical writings, geologic strata samples, and analysis of skeletal and forensic dental pathology. These people had modern dentition but relatively poor dental health. The population's lack of malocclusions, caries, and TMJ problems appear to be due to flat plane occlusion. PMID:11324038

Neiburger, E J

2000-01-01

34

Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.  

PubMed

Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities. PMID:16380966

Kozma, Chahira

2006-02-15

35

Barley leaf stripe disease.  

PubMed

Leaf stripe is one of the most important diseases of barley in Iran especially in Gorgan, Mazandran and near Tehran (Varamin). Most obvious symptoms of the disease are described. Long pale or yellow stripes become darker as the fungus sporulates on the leaf surface. Infected plants usually are stunted and produce sterile spikes, rarely a few seeds are produced. Infected spikes and late-forming tillers may produce fertile spikes. The fungus is seed brone and survives in the outer layers of infected seed. To study the seed-borne disease, we have used the different methods (ISTA). Coleoptiles of seedlings are infected by the fungus under cool, moist conditions, a soil temperature below 15 degrees C is necessary for seed infection. The fungus penetrates through coleoptiles and grows systemically within the plant, produces toxin and kills cells and discolors leaf tissue between veins, thus causing striped lesions. When conditions are wet or humid, spores are produced on the surface of leaves at above the time spikes of healthy plant. Morphological characteristics of the vegetative and reproductive structures of the fungus show that it is Drechslera graminea (Rabenh) Shoemaker. PMID:12701433

Zad, J; Aghakhani, M; Etebarian, R; Okhovat, M

2002-01-01

36

The Ancient Bristlecone Pine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Written by tree enthusiast Leonard Miller with additional input from expert dendrochronologists (including Dr. Henri Grissino-Mayer), this interesting and beautifully illustrated Website gives the reader insights about the oldest tree on earth: the Ancient Bristlecone Pine. The resource provides background information on the discovery of these ancient trees, the geographic setting of the westernmost trees in the US, growth (and other) characteristics of Bristlecone Pines, dendrochronology (the dating of past climate events using tree ring growth), and a select bibliography on Bristlecone Pines, among other topics. An internal search feature (keyword) streamlines the information mining process.

37

Sequence organization of barley centromeres  

PubMed Central

By sequencing, fingerprinting and in situ hybridization of a centromere-specific large insert clone (BAC 7), the sequence organization of centromeric DNA of barley could be elucidated. Within 23 kb, three copies of the Ty3/gypsy-like retroelement cereba were present. Two elements of ?7 kb, arranged in tandem, include long terminal repeats (LTRs) (?1 kb) similar to the rice centromeric retrotransposon RIRE 7 and to the cereal centromeric sequence family, the primer binding site, the complete polygene flanked by untranslated regions, as well as a polypurine tract 5? of the downstream LTR. The high density (?200 elements/centromere) and completeness of cereba elements and the absence of internally deleted elements and solo LTRs from the BAC 7 insert represent unique features of the barley centromeres as compared to those of other cereals. Obviously, the conserved cereba elements together with barley-specific G+C-rich satellite sequences constitute the major components of centromeric DNA in this species.

Hudakova, Sabina; Michalek, Wolfgang; Presting, Gernot G.; Hoopen, Rogier ten; Santos, Karla dos; Jasencakova, Zuzana; Schubert, Ingo

2001-01-01

38

Irrigation and infection: the immunoepidemiology of schistosomiasis in ancient Nubia.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis has been deemed "the most important water-based disease from a global public-health perspective" in modern populations. To better understand the burden of schistosomiasis in ancient populations, we conducted immunologic examinations of desiccated tissue samples from two ancient Nubian populations, Wadi Halfa (N = 46) and Kulubnarti (N = 191). Saqia irrigated agriculture increases the available habitat for the aquatic vector snails and the risk of exposure. On the basis of evidence regarding the impact of saqia irrigation on schistosomiasis prevalence and transmission in modern populations, we predicted that the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection would be higher in Wadi Halfa (saqia irrigation) than Kulubnarti (annual flooding). We also predicted that peak infection prevalence would occur at an earlier age within the Wadi Halfa population than the Kulubnarti population and that in both populations the prevalence of schistosomiasis would be higher in males than females due to differential water contact. The prevalence of S. mansoni was greater in the Wadi Halfa population (26.1%) than at Kulubnarti (9.4%) (P = 0.002). However, peak prevalence of infection did not occur in a younger age category within the Wadi Halfa population; prevalence of infection peaked at 66.7% in the mature adult age group (46+ years) in the Wadi Halfa population and at 16% in the later child age group (6-10 years) in the Kulubnarti population. There were no statistically significant differences in prevalence between males and females of either population. The impact of human alteration of the environment on the transmission of schistosomiasis is clearly shown in these populations. PMID:21469072

Hibbs, Amber Campbell; Secor, W Evan; Van Gerven, Dennis; Armelagos, George

2011-06-01

39

Ancient Observatories: Chaco Canyon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Exploratorium site offers an online "tour" of the sites and structures within Chaco Canyon, thought to have once been an ancient solar observatory. The different pages on the tour detail several of the most famous sites where significant solar alignments occur each year. A section called "seasons and solstices" provides further information.

2009-03-12

40

Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

Gadecki, Victoria L.

2010-01-01

41

Genetics of Barley Hooded Suppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular basis of the barley dominant Hooded (K ) mutant is a duplication of 305 bp in intron IV of the homeobox gene Bkn3. A chemical mutagenesis screen was carried out to identify genetical factors that participate in Bkn3 intron-mediated gene regulation. Plants from recurrently mutagenized KK seeds were examined for the suppression of the hooded awn phenotype induced

Cristina Roig; Carlo Pozzi; Luca Santi; Judith Muller; Yamei Wang; Maria Rosaria Stile; Laura Rossini; Michele Stanca; Francesco Salamini

2004-01-01

42

Population genetic structure in a social landscape: barley in a traditional Ethiopian agricultural system  

PubMed Central

Conservation strategies are increasingly driven by our understanding of the processes and patterns of gene flow across complex landscapes. The expansion of population genetic approaches into traditional agricultural systems requires understanding how social factors contribute to that landscape, and thus to gene flow. This study incorporates extensive farmer interviews and population genetic analysis of barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare) to build a holistic picture of farmer-mediated geneflow in an ancient, traditional agricultural system in the highlands of Ethiopia. We analyze barley samples at 14 microsatellite loci across sites at varying elevations and locations across a contiguous mountain range, and across farmer-identified barley types and management strategies. Genetic structure is analyzed using population-based and individual-based methods, including measures of population differentiation and genetic distance, multivariate Principal Coordinate Analysis, and Bayesian assignment tests. Phenotypic analysis links genetic patterns to traits identified by farmers. We find that differential farmer management strategies lead to markedly different patterns of population structure across elevation classes and barley types. The extent to which farmer seed management appears as a stronger determinant of spatial structure than the physical landscape highlights the need for incorporation of social, landscape, and genetic data for the design of conservation strategies in human-influenced landscapes.

Samberg, Leah H; Fishman, Lila; Allendorf, Fred W

2013-01-01

43

Review Article: Ancient Warfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Richard A. Gabriel and Karen S. Metz. From Sumer to Rome: The Military Capabilities of Ancient Armies. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1991. Pp. xxi, 182. $45.00 (us)Victor Davis Hanson, ed. Hoplites: The Classical Greek Battle Experience. London and New York: Roudledge, 1991. Pp. xvi, 286. $39.95 (us)W. Kendrick Pritchett. The Greek State at War. Part V. Berkeley: University of California

Paul Cartledge

1993-01-01

44

Ancient Flood Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan the teacher will share some ancient flood stories with the class and have them view pictures and discuss the evidence that has been found in the Black Sea. Current theory says that during the Ice Age, the Black Sea was an isolated freshwater lake surrounded by farmland that eventually flooded. Students will practice their creative writing by composing stories about what it might have been like immediately before and during the flood.

45

Ancient Mesoamerican Civilizations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by Kevin L. Callahan, an anthropology graduate student at the University of Minnesota, this site consists of short, referenced essays, organized by civilization (Maya, Mixtec, Zapotec, and Aztec), on Mesoamerican writing systems, governments, and religions. Users can also read essays on the Mayan calendar, "How the Sky Works," and on Maya and Zapotec political structures. These essays, along with a selective, eclectic list of Mesoamerican Internet resources, and a brief bibliography, form a good introduction to the topic of ancient Mesoamerican civilizations.

Callahan, Kevin L.

1997-01-01

46

Ancient Chinese Astronomical Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I am interested in the astronomical advances of the Ancient Chinese in measuring the solar day. Their development of gnomon & ruler, sundial, and water clock apparatuses enabled Chinese astronomers to measure the annual solar orbit and solar day more precisely than their contemporaries. I have built one of each of these devices to use in collecting data from Olympia, Washington. I will measure the solar day in the Pacific Northwest following the methodology of the ancient Chinese. I will compare with my data, the available historical Chinese astronomical records and current records from the United States Naval Observatory Master Clock. I seek to understand how ancient Chinese investigations into solar patterns enabled them to make accurate predictions about the movement of the celestial sphere and planets, and to develop analytic tests of their theories. Mayall, R. Newton; Sundials: their construction and use. Dover Publications 2000 North, John; The Norton History of Astronomy and Cosmology W.W. Norton& Co. 1995 Zhentao Xu, David W. Pankenier, Yaotiao Jiang; East Asian archaeoastronomy : historical records of astronomical observations of China, Japan and Korea Published on behalf of the Earth Space Institute by Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, c2000

Walsh, Jennifer Robin

2004-05-01

47

Barley yellow rust in North America.  

PubMed

Yellow rust of barley is an invasive disease that was found in the past 10 years in North America. The causal agent, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei, was introduced into Colombia, South America, from Europe in 1975. It spread to all major barley-producing areas in South America by 1982. In 1988 it was found in Mexico and in 1991 in Texas. Since then it has been found in all major barley-producing areas of the American West. Originally described as race (R) 24, barley yellow rust in North America is now known to be a very heterogeneous population. Resistance has been identified, evaluated, and is being introduced into commercial malting and other barley cultivars. Cultural and chemical controls are effective and available. An integrated approach using general field resistance and other tactics is described for sustainable management of barley yellow rust. PMID:11701870

Brown, W M; Hill, J P; Velasco, V R

2001-01-01

48

Effect of Feed Restriction and Realimentation with Monensin Supplementation on Placental Structure and Ultrastructure in Anglo-Nubian Goats  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feed restriction followed by a realimentation with monensin supplementation on morphological, ultrastructural, and apoptotic characteristics in the term placenta of Anglo-Nubian does. Treatments were a control group (C = 5), a group fed at 0.70 of that consumed by controls (R = 7), and the same as R with monensin (M = 7). After parturition, 27 placentas were gathered, C: 7, M: 10, and R: 10. No differences were detected between treatments in relation to morphological and ultrastructural analysis. The greatest values of binucleate cells were detected in placentas from R, and it could be due to the need to compensate and satisfy nutritional differences of restriction. We detected the highest apoptotic index in R as a consequence of nutritional treatment. We describe for the first time the structural and ultrastructural morphology and remodeling by apoptosis of Anglo-Nubian placenta at term of goats subjected to nutritional restriction during peripubertal period and the use of monensin as a growth promoter.

Cristofolini, A. L.; Turiello, M. P.; Sanchis, E. G.; Cufre, G.; Merkis, C. I.

2012-01-01

49

New isotopic evidence for the origin of groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer in the Negev, Israel  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geochemistry and isotopic composition (H, O, S, Osulfate, C, Sr) of groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone (Kurnub Group) aquifer in the Negev, Israel, were investigated in an attempt to reconstruct the origin of the water and solutes, evaluate modes of water-rock interactions, and determine mean residence times of the water. The results indicate multiple recharge events into the Nubian sandstone aquifer characterized by distinctive isotope signatures and deuterium excess values. In the northeastern Negev, groundwater was identified with deuterium excess values of ???16???, which suggests local recharge via unconfined areas of the aquifer in the Negev anticline systems. The ??18OH2O and ??2H values (-6.5??? and -35.4???) of this groundwater are higher than those of groundwater in the Sinai Peninsula and southern Arava valley (-7.5??? and -48.3???) that likewise have lower deuterium excess values of ???10???. Based on the geochemical differences between groundwater in the unconfined and confined zones of the aquifer, a conceptual geochemical model for the evolution of the groundwater in the Nubian sandstone aquifer has been reconstructed. The isotopic composition of shallow groundwater from the unconfined zone indicates that during recharge oxidation of pyrite to SO4 (??34SSO4 ???-13???; ??18OSO4 ???+7.7???) and dissolution of CaCO3 (87Sr/86Sr ???0.70787; ??13CDIC = -3.7???) occur. In the confined zone of the aquifer, bacterial SO4 reduction removes a significant part of dissolved SO42 -, thereby modifying its isotopic composition (??34SSO4 ???-2???; ??18OSO4 ???+8.5???) and liberating dissolved inorganic C that contains little or no radiocarbon (14C-free) with low ??13CDIC values (<-12???). In addition to local recharge, the Sr and S isotopic data revealed contribution of external groundwater sources to the Nubian Sandstone aquifer, resulting in further modifications of the groundwater chemical and isotopic signatures. In the northeastern Negev, it is shown that SO4-rich groundwater from the underlying Jurassic aquifer contributes significantly to the salt budget of the Nubian Sandstone aquifer. The unique chemical and isotopic composition of the Jurassic groundwater (??34SSO4 ??? +14???; ??18OSO4 ??? 14???; 87Sr/86Sr ???0.70764) is interpreted as reflecting dissolution of Late Triassic marine gypsum deposits. In the southern Arava Valley the authors postulate that SO4-rich groundwater with distinctively high Br/Cl (3 ?? 10-3) low 87Sr/86Sr (0.70734), and high ??34SSO4 values (+15???) is derived from mixing with underlying brines from the Paleozoic units. The radiocarbon measurements reveal low 14C activities (0.2-5.8 pmc) in both the northeastern Negev and southern Arava Valley. Taking into account dissolution of carbonate rocks and bacterial SO4 reduction in the unconfined area, estimated mean residence times of groundwater in the confined zone in the northeastern Negev are on the order of 21-38 ka, which suggests recharge predominantly during the last glacial period. The 14C signal in groundwater from the southern Arava Valley is equally low but due to evidence for mixing with external water sources the residence time estimates are questionable. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Vengosh, A.; Hening, S.; Ganor, J.; Mayer, B.; Weyhenmeyer, C. E.; Bullen, T. D.; Paytan, A.

2007-01-01

50

Strike-slip accommodated core complexes in the Najd fault system, Arabian-Nubian shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metamorphic core complexes are usually developed as extensional features during crustal thinning in a continental collision zone, such as the Basin and Range and the Aegean Terrane. The Najd fault system in Saudi Arabia is a 2000 km-long and 400 km-wide complex network of crustal-scale strike-slip shear zones in a Neoproterozoic collision zone. Locally, the anastomosing shear zones lead to exhumation of lower crustal segments and represent a new kinematic model for the development of core complexes. We report on two such dome structures: the Qazaz complex in Saudi Arabia and the Hafafit complex in Egypt. The 15-km-wide Qazaz complex is a triangular dome of gently dipping mylonitic foliations within the 140-km-long sinistral strike-slip Qazaz mylonite zone. The gneissic dome consists of high-grade rocks, surrounded by low-grade metasediments and metavolcanics. The main SE trending strike-slip Qazaz shear zone splits southwards into two branches around the gneiss dome: the western branch is continuous with the shallow dipping mylonites of the dome core, without overprinting, and curves by more than 90 degrees eastwards from a NS trending strike slip zone to an EW trending 40 degree south dipping detachment that bounds the gneiss dome to the south. The eastern SE trending sinistral strike slip shear zone branch is slightly younger and transects the central dome fabrics. The gneiss dome appears to have formed along a jog in the strike slip shear zone during 40 km of strike slip motion, which caused local exhumation of lower crustal rocks by 25 km along the detachment. The eastern shear zone branch formed late during exhumation, transacted the gneiss dome and offset the two parts by another 70 km. The Hafafit core complex in Egypt is of similar shape and size to the Qazaz structure, but forms the northern termination of a sinistral strike-slip zone that is at least 100 km in length. This zone may continue into Saudi Arabia as the Ajjaj shear zone for another 100 km. The NW trending strike slip mylonite zone grades into a gently N-dipping detachment to the west which accommodated strike slip by exhumation of high-grade lower crustal rocks. The Qazaz and the Hafafit Domes are similar, mirror-image structures with small differences in the accommodating shear zones. It is likely that this type of strike-slip related oblique core complexes are common in the Arabian Nubian shield, and possibly elsewhere.

Meyer, S. E.; Passchier, C. W.; Abu-Alam, T. S.; Stuewe, K.

2013-12-01

51

Rheological properties of barley ?-glucan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health benefits of cereal ?-glucan are linked to its high viscosity. Although viscosity of ?-glucan gum solutions has been reported previously, there are conflicting reports about its behavior at elevated temperatures. Therefore, the viscosity behavior of barley ?-glucan gum obtained in a pilot plant (PP) or in a laboratory (LAB) was determined at different shear rates (1.29–129s?1) and temperatures (0.1–75°C)

Zvonko Burkus; Feral Temelli

2005-01-01

52

Learning About Ancient Greece  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each one of these websites will teach you about different aspects of Greek culture, influence, and mythology. Spend some time at each site playing the games and learning the information. This site has tons of fun and useful information about the what the Olympics were like in Greece.Explore the First Olympics. This site is devoted to the heroes, gods and monsters of Greek mythology.Gods and Heros This site lists all of the Greek Gods and gives a brief description of each.Index of the Gods These sites tell what life in ancient ...

Woodruff, Mrs.

2010-05-26

53

Thematic Mapper Research in the Earth Sciences: Tectonic Evaluation of the Nubian Shield of Northeastern Sudan/Southeastern Egypt Using Thematic Mapper Imagery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield using the Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery is progressing well and shows great promise. The TM tapes for the six LANDSAT 5 scenes covering the northern portion of the Red Sea hills were received, and preliminary ma...

1986-01-01

54

Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts - strategies, methods and perspectives  

PubMed Central

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an important cereal grain that is used in a range of products for animal and human consumption. Crop yield and seed quality has been optimized during decades by plant breeding programs supported by biotechnology and molecular biology techniques. The recently completed whole-genome sequencing of barley revealed approximately 26,100 open reading frames, which provides a foundation for detailed molecular studies of barley by functional genomics and proteomics approaches. Such studies will provide further insights into the mechanisms of, for example, drought and stress tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics strategies and discuss their applications in characterization of the barley chloroplast as well as future perspectives for functional proteomics in barley research.

Petersen, J?rgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole N.

2013-01-01

55

A Study of Hydrogeological Conditions of the Nubian Sandstone Aguifer in the Area between Abu Simbel and Toschka, Western Desert, Egypt.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Study of Hydrogeological Conditions of the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer in the Area between Abu Simbel and Toschka, Western Desert, Egypt. By K. A. Dahab*, A. M. Ebraheem**, and E. El Sayed*** *Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Menofia University, Shibin El Kom, Egypt. ** Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt. *** Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, Minia, Egypt. The Nubian Sandstone Aquifer in the area between Toschka and Abu Simbil is small portion of the very well known Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System in the Eastern Sahara, which covers the entire area of southwest Egypt, southeast Libya, northeast Chad, and northern Sudan. Toscha area is currently the site of intensive drilling and development for a huge land reclamation project. The drilling information was used to study the hydrogeological setting of the Nubian Sandstone aquifer in the area. The obtained results indicate that the lithological characteristics and tectonic setting is strongly affecting the groundwater flow pattern as well as the aquifer potentiality of the nubian sandstone aquifer in the area. The aquifer potentiality in this area is low if compared to that of east Oweinat or Dakhla areas. The aquifer is mainly composed of hard ferruginous sandstone with great shale and clay intercalation with a thickness ranging from 140 to 230 meters. Groundwater in this aquifer belongs to fresh to slightly brackish type (salinity is ranging from 240 to 1300 ppm). Ion dominance ordering reveals that sodium cation is mostly predominating over calcium and magnesium whereas chloride is predominant over sulfate and bicarbonate. The groundwater is related to meteoric origin. The high concentration of sodium, chloride, and sulfates reflect leaching and dissolution processes of gypsiferous shales and clay as well as long residence time of water.

Dahab, K. A.; Ebraheem, A. M.; El Sayed, E. A.

2001-05-01

56

Two Uses of Ancient Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations from ancient astronomy are useful in studying the non-gravitational accelerations of the Earth and Moon, and recent developments in this study are reviewed. Such a study necessarily involves astronomical chronology and simultaneously shows some limitations in its use. Limitations include lack of veracity in many records, errors in dating events, and uncertainty in calculating the circumstances of ancient eclipses

R. R. Newton

1974-01-01

57

Epilepsy in ancient India.  

PubMed

The ancient Indian medical system, Ayurveda, meaning science of life, is the oldest system of medicine in the world. Epilepsy is defined as Apasmara: apa, meaning negation or loss of; smara, meaning recollection or consciousness. Aura was recognized and was called Apasmara Poorva Roopa. A large number of symptoms indicative of aura were listed. Worthy of mention are subjective sensation of sounds, sensation of darkness, feeling of delusion, and dream-like state. An actual attack of Apasmara includes falling down; shaking of the hands, legs, and body; rolling up of the eyes; grinding of the teeth; and foaming at the mouth. Four major types of epilepsy based on the disturbance of doshas (humors) that govern the physiological and physiochemical activities of the body are mentioned. Apasmara is considered a dangerous disease that is chronic and difficult to treat. Several causes are mentioned. Treatment included correcting the etiological factors and dietary regimen and avoiding dangerous places that may result in injuries. PMID:1592022

Manyam, B V

1992-01-01

58

AncientFaces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are countless genealogy resources online, but this site is unique. AncientFaces is a photo exchange, a database of photos submitted by users that enables people tracing their family trees to place faces with names. At present, the site contains over 5,000 photos. These may be searched by keyword, name, date, or location. They can also be browsed alphabetically by surname. There are several special collections here as well, including military photos. Photos are presented as thumbnails with a brief description, location, family, and a link to the email address and homepage (if available) of the person who submitted the photo. A great resource for making family connections or just browsing old photos.

2001-01-01

59

Chemical composition and microstructure of milled barley fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wholegrain barley and peeled and pearled barley were roller milled in a Bühler mill, each producing three fractions: endosperm,\\u000a middlings and bran. These fractions were compared and contrasted with one another and also with milled wheat fractions. Barley\\u000a endosperm had the highest total starch content in both wholegrain and peeled and pearled barley. Amylose-to-amylopectin ratios\\u000a (Am:Ap) were higher in barley

Paul Sullivan; John O’Flaherty; Nigel Brunton; Vivian L. Gee; Elke Arendt; Eimear Gallagher

2010-01-01

60

Ancient Astronomy in Ukraine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical culture and research have long-standing traditions in Ukraine. The first signs of astronomical knowledge were found in archaeological excavations and records. The most ancient find (dated as 15,000 B.C.) is a mammoth tusk with a fretwork image of a table of lunar phases found in the Poltava region. The so-called Trypillya culture (dated 4,000 - 3,000 B.C) had numerous examples of ornaments at the howls, distaffs, wheels and other everyday articles with symbolic images of zodiac constellations, and vessel-calendars indicating the vernal/autumnal equinoxes and the motion of the Sun. Some of such unique exhibits stored at the National Museum of History of Ukraine will be described in details in this paper. For example, the vessel calendar dating by IV century of our era (from village Romashki, Kyiv region). This image was interpreted by B. Rybakov as an agricultural calendar from May to August (time of harvesting). Most of exhibits of Museum were founded by archaeologist Vikenty Khvoyko and presented by him to Museum in 1905. Description and pictures of vessels and cups from Chernyahiv, Trypillya IV century B.C. with the Solar signs and tusk of the mammoth from Kyrilovska parking with notches interpreted as a calendar as well as tree-storied pictures of vessel from Trypillya interpreted as a “vertical cross section of the world” in dynamics will be also given. Another unique historical record relates to the times of the powerful state of the Kievan Rus' (X- XIII centuries), when astronomical observations were conducted mainly in cloisters. For example, the authors of the Lavrentievska chronicle describe the solar eclipses of the years 1064, 1091, and 1115 A.D. and the lunar eclipses of 1161 A.D. At that times some natural cataclysms have been connected with eclipses that, for example, was described in “The Word about Igor's shelf” by Nestor Letopisec. Thus, facts discussed in paper pointed out once more that astronomy is one of the most ancient science, accompanying all history of humanity, which has arisen from the practical demands of people.

Artemenko, Tatyana G.; Vavilova, Iryna B.

2007-08-01

61

Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

Simonia, I.

2011-06-01

62

Ancient Astronomical Monuments of Athens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, four ancient monuments of astronomical significance found in Athens and still kept in the same city in good condition are presented. The first one is the conical sundial on the southern slope of the Acropolis. The second one is the Tower of the Winds and its vertical sundials in the Roman Forum of Athens, a small octagonal marble tower with sundials on all 8 of its sides, plus a water-clock inside the tower. The third monument-instrument is the ancient clepsydra of Athens, one of the findings from the Ancient Agora of Athens, a unique water-clock dated from 400 B.C. Finally, the fourth one is the carved ancient Athenian calendar over the main entrance of the small Byzantine temple of the 8th Century, St. Eleftherios, located to the south of the temple of the Annunciation of Virgin Mary, the modern Cathedral of the city of Athens.

Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.

2010-07-01

63

Eating barley too frequently or in excess decreases lambs' preference for barley but sodium bicarbonate and lasalocid attenuate the response.  

PubMed

We conducted experiments to determine whether preference for barley was affected when lambs ate various amounts of barley and whether lambs ate more barley when it contained lasalocid and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), both of which attenuate acidosis. In Exp. 1, lambs were assigned to two treatments (six lambs/treatment). For 2 d, lambs in two treatments were offered either 400 or 1,200 g of rolled barley from 0600 to 0700 as a preload meal. A preference ratio [PR = barley ingested/(total amount of alfalfa + barley ingested)] was calculated based on lambs' intake when offered a choice of 200 g each of rolled barley and alfalfa pellets hourly from 0700 to 1100. After the preload meal, lambs in Treatment 1 (400 g preload) showed equal preference for barley (.52) and alfalfa (.48) for 4 h on d 1 (P > .05); their preference for barley was less after the meal of barley on d 1 (.52) than on d 2 (.72), but their preference for barley declined between h 3 (.81) and 4 (.55) of d 2 (P = .11). Lambs in Treatment 2 (1,200 g preload) showed a low preference for barley on d 1 (.29) and 2 (.19) (P < .001). In Exp. 2, lambs were assigned to four treatments (six lambs/treatment): 1) rolled barley + NaHCO3 (2%) + lasalocid (33 ppm); 2) rolled barley + NaHCO3 (2%); 3) rolled barley + lasalocid (33 ppm); or 4) rolled barley. Intake of barley by lambs offered NaHCO3 + lasalocid (Treatment 1) was greater (P = .07) than that by lambs offered NaHCO3 (Treatment 2), whereas intake by lambs offered lasalocid (Treatment 3) was similar (P > .05) to that by controls. We conclude that eating barley too frequently or in excess caused a decrease in lambs' preference for barley and that NaHCO3 and lasalocid attenuated the aversion. PMID:9655577

Phy, T S; Provenza, F D

1998-06-01

64

Ancient Writings Revealed!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sometime in the 3rd century BCE, the noted scholar and scientist Archimedes composed a series of diagrams and passages of text on a manuscript that was subsequently written over in the Middle Ages by a monk. Long thought to be lost forever, the document was given new life in 1906 when a Danish professor identified this item. Eventually the document found its way to The Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, and it now appears that scientists and researchers will be able to uncover Archimedesâ original writings. This delightful saga will unfold courtesy of this website, created by the Exploratorium Museum in San Francisco. Working in tandem with researchers at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, they will use an intense X-Ray to reveal the original letters and diagrams. Visitors will be able to watch all of this happen in real time on a webcast (or take a look on the archived webcast after the event is over), and learn about the original document, and how researchers read such ancient texts.

2006-01-01

65

GENETIC ANALYSES FROM ANCIENT DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract About 20 years ago, DNA sequences were separately described from the quagga,(a type of zebra) and an ancient Egyptian individual. What made,these DNA sequences,exceptional was that they were derived from 140- and 2400-year-old specimens. However, ancient DNA research, defined broadly as the retrieval of DNA sequences from museum specimens, archaeological finds, fossil remains, and other unusual sources of

Svante Paabo; Hendrik Poinar; David Serre; Viviane Jaenicke-Despres; Juliane Hebler; Nadin Rohland; Melanie Kuch; Johannes Krause; Linda Vigilant; Michael Hofreiter

2004-01-01

66

Mechanical behaviour of ancient masonry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was to build a behaviour law for ancient masonry made during the nineteenth century with bricks and\\u000a lime mortar bonds. This work should be of interest to researchers involved in the study of ancient masonry structures like\\u000a arch bridges built in this period. To assess the masonry capacity vaults to support service loads and to

N. Domède; G. Pons; A. Sellier; Y. Fritih

2009-01-01

67

Susceptibility of Sudanese Nubian goats, Nilotic dwarf goats and Garag ewes to experimental infection with a mechanically transmitted Trypanosoma vivax stock.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to study the susceptibility of two different types of Sudanese goats namely: Black Nubian, the Nilotic dwarf goats and ewes of Garag type to experimental infection with Trypanosoma vivax stock isolated from cattle outside tsetse area. The infection caused parasitaemia, anaemia and pyrexia in the infected goats. However, the Nilotic dwarf goats were more tolerant to the infection than the Nubian goats, showing significantly higher values of packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, total red and white blood cells counts and significantly low parasitaemia and low body temperature. Garag ewes which were found to be susceptible to T. vivax infection showed different signs of anaemia and pyrexia; it is recommended that comparative studies on sensitivity of this type and other different Sudanese types of sheep to Trypanosomosis should be conducted. PMID:18817176

Osman, Nadia M; Kaila, Ghada J; Eltahir, H A; Abdel-Rahman, A H

2008-02-01

68

Late Neoproterozoic rise and fall of the northern Arabian–Nubian shield: The role of lithospheric mantle delamination and subsequent thermal subsidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Review of the Late Neoproterozoic history of the northern Arabian–Nubian Shield (ANS) reveals that rapid and extensive erosional denudation, widespread late-orogenic calc–alkaline and alkaline igneous activity and intramontane basin formation affected this terrane at 630–590 Ma. Core-complex extension is also recorded at this time interval. To account for this coupling it is suggested that the mantle lithosphere was removed\\/delaminated from below

Dov Avigad; Zohar Gvirtzman

2009-01-01

69

Cosmogenic, radiogenic, and stable isotopic constraints on groundwater residence time in the nubian aquifer, western desert of egypt  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of radiochlorine ({sup 36}Cl), radiogenic noble gases ({sup 4}He and {sup 40}Ar), and stable chlorine isotope ratios were obtained to assess the residence time of groundwater in the Nubian Aquifer of the Western Desert of Egypt. Measured {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios yield apparent residence times from {approx}0.2 to 1.2 x 10{sup 6} years in the deep (600-1200 m) groundwater (assuming constant Cl) and {le} 0.16 x 10{sup 6} years in the shallow (<600 m) groundwater. Values of {delta}{sup 37}Cl in the groundwater strengthen the application of the {sup 36}Cl dating method by constraining Cl sources and identifying groundwater mixing. Dissolved gases were measured in some of the deep groundwater samples. Measured {sup 4}He concentrations indicate accumulation of radiogenic {sup 4}He that is qualitatively consistent with the age progression indicated by the {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios, but the flux of external {sup 4}He from the underlying crust has not been quantified and is not constant throughout the aquifer. Concentrations of {sup 40}Ar range from 3.3 to 6.7 x 10{sup -4} ccSTP/g and indicate excess air incorporation at recharge. Measured {sup 40}Ar/{sup 36}Ar ratios do not exceed the atmospheric ratio. A two-dimensional numerical hydrodynamic transect of the aquifer was modeled from the area of the Uweinat Uplift to the northern Bahariya Oasis. Predicted groundwater velocities in the deep portion of the aquifer are 0.5-3.5 m/yr with groundwater residence times up to 9 x 10{sup 5} years; residence times up to 1.3 x 10{sup 6} years are predicted in the confining shale. Aquifer properties are estimated by using the model to fit the measured {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios. Under these conditions, hydrodynamic residence times are within about 30 percent of those calculated from {sup 36}Cl when mixing of Cl{sup -} is accounted for in the highest-Cl{sup -} deep groundwaters. By mutually calibrating multiple methods (hydrodynamic, {sup 36}Cl, and {sup 4}He), a consistent picture of the Nubian Aquifer has emerged in which lateral flow from a southern recharge area dominates the deep horizons, while shallow horizons contain younger, autochthonous recharge.

Patterson, Leslie J.; Sturchio, Neil C.; Kennedy, B.Mack; van Soest, Matthias C.; Sultan, Mohamed; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Lehmann, Bernhard; Purtschert, Roland; El Alfy, Zeinhom; El Kaliouby, Baher; Dawood, Yehia; Abdallah, Ali

2004-06-01

70

Seismic anisotropy and subduction-induced mantle fabrics beneath the Arabian and Nubian Plates adjacent to the Red Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For most continental areas, the mechanisms leading to mantle fabrics responsible for the observed anisotropy remain ambiguous, partially due to the lack of sufficient spatial coverage of reliable seismological observations. Here we report the first joint analysis of shear-wave splitting measurements obtained at stations on the Arabian and Nubian Plates adjacent to the Red Sea. More than 1100 pairs of high-quality splitting parameters show dominantly N-S fast orientations at all 47 stations and larger-than-normal splitting times beneath the Afro-Arabian Dome (AAD). The uniformly N-S fast orientations and large splitting times up to 1.5 s are inconsistent with significant contributions from the lithosphere, which is about 50-80 km thick beneath the AAD and even thinner beneath the Red Sea. The results can best be explained by simple shear between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere associated with northward subduction of the African/Arabian Plates over the past 150 Ma.

Elsheikh, Ahmed A.; Gao, Stephen S.; Liu, Kelly H.; Mohamed, Abdelnasser A.; Yu, Youqiang; Fat-Helbary, Raafat E.

2014-04-01

71

Comparison of hull-less barley, barley, or corn for lactating cows: effects on extent of digestion and milk production.  

PubMed

Six lactating, cannulated Holstein cows were used in a double 3 x 3 Latin square design to compare the effects of hull-less barley with barley and corn on ruminal fermentation, rate of passage, flow of nutrients to the duodenum, and milk production. Diets consisted of 60% concentrate, 30% barley silage, and 10% alfalfa hay (dry matter basis). Concentrates contained steam-rolled grains: hull-less barley, barley, or corn. Dry matter intake was unaffected by grain source, but starch intake tended to be greatest when hull-less barley or corn was fed. The barley diet was more degradable in the rumen than was the hull-less barley or corn diet, and, therefore, flow of microbial organic matter to the duodenum was greatest for cows fed the barley diet. Flow of microbial N to the duodenum was greater (50 g/d) for cows fed the barley diet than for cows fed the other diets, and the flow of ruminally undegradable N was greater (43 and 28 g/d) for cows fed the hull-less barley and corn diets, respectively, than for cows fed the barley diet. As a result, flow of nonammonia N to the duodenum was unaffected by grain source. Total tract apparent digestibility was highest for cows fed the barley and corn diets. Despite its low digestibility, cows fed the hull-less barley diet produced a similar amount of milk as did cows fed the barley and corn diets. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of processing hull-less barley on its utilization by dairy cows. PMID:9361219

Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A; Koenig, K M; Rode, L M

1997-10-01

72

Watchers of the Ancient Skies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Lakota belief systems connected with the stars and how those beliefs directed Lakota existence, movements during the year, and ceremonies. Discusses winter camps, associated cultural practices such as storytelling, ancient wisdom, the concept of mirroring (constellations and corresponding land forms on earth), and the Black Hills annual…

Sherman, Ben

1998-01-01

73

Ancient genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

Amber is a plant resin mainly produced by coniferous trees that, after entrapping a variety of living beings, was subjected to a process of fossilization until it turned into yellowish, translucent stones. It is also one of the best sources of ancient DNA on which to perform studies on evolution. Here a method for the sterilization of amber that allows reliable ancient DNA extraction with no actual DNA contamination is described. Working with insects taken from amber, it was possible to amplify the ATP9, PGU1 and rRNA18S ancient genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae corresponding to samples from the Miocene and Oligocene. After comparison of the current genes with their ancient (up to 35-40 million years) counterparts it was concluded that essential genes such as rRNA18S are highly conserved and that even normal 'house-keeping' genes, such as PGU1, are strikingly conserved along the millions of years that S. cerevisiae has evolved. PMID:15256564

Veiga-Crespo, P; Poza, M; Prieto-Alcedo, M; Villa, T G

2004-07-01

74

Tawa hallae - Dinosaur Ancient History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When paleontologists unearthed the ancient dinosaur Tawa hallae, they knew it was different--and remarkably well preserved. What they did not know is that the animal has an intriguing lineage, one that answers questions about the earliest evolution of dinosaurs.

75

Geoscience of ancient Mediterranean harbours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although much has been written on the subject of ancient Mediterranean harbours, the relatively new area of harbour geoarchaeology remains dispersed in the geoscience and archaeological literature. Over a decade of research has amassed rich and varied datasets of anthropogenically forced coastal evolution, with a remarkable number of between-site analogies. This new research field also shows the rich potential of

Nick Marriner; Christophe Morhange

2007-01-01

76

Archaeoastronomy in the Ancient Americas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its popular resurgence in the 1960s, the interdisciplinary field of archaeoas- tronomy, which seeks evidence from the written as well as the unwritten record to shed light on the nature and practice of astronomy and timekeeping in ancient civ- ilizations, has made ever-increasing significant use of the archaeological record. This essay briefly touches on the origin and history of

Anthony F. Aveni

2003-01-01

77

Archaeoastronomy in the Ancient Americas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its popular resurgence in the 1960s, the interdisciplinary field of archaeoastronomy, which seeks evidence from the written as well as the unwritten record to shed light on the nature and practice of astronomy and timekeeping in ancient civilizations, has made ever-increasing significant use of the archaeological record. This essay briefly touches on the origin and history of these developments,

Anthony F. Aveni

2003-01-01

78

Ancient DNA: Prospects and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ancient DNAs hold tremendous potential for studies of phylogeny, biogeography, and molecular evolution. In this paper we review published reports of DNA extracted from preserved plant and animal tissues. These preserved materials range in age from a 120 year old museum specimen of the extinct marsupial wolf to Oligocene-Miocene (25-30 million year old) termites and stingless bees preserved in amber.

Pamela S. Soltis; Douglas E. Soltis

1993-01-01

79

Ancient aqueous sedimentation on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viking orbiter images are presently used to calculate approximate volumes for the inflow valleys of the ancient cratered terrain of Mars; a sediment-transport model is then used to conservatively estimate the amount of water required for the removal of this volume of debris from the valleys. The results obtained for four basins with well-developed inflow networks indicate basin sediment thicknesses

J. M. Goldspiel; S. W. Squyres

1991-01-01

80

Study of fluorescence quenching of Barley ?-amylase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluorescence quenching of Barley ?-amylase by acrylamide and succinimide has been studied in water using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The steady-state fluorescence quenching technique has been performed in three different pHs (i.e., 6, 7 and 8) of water. Ground state and excited state binding constants (Kg &Ke) have been calculated. From the calculated binding constants (Kg &Ke) the free energy changes for the ground (?Gg) and excited (?Ge) states have been calculated and are presented in tables. UV and FTIR spectra have also been recorded to prove the binding of Barley ?-amylase with acrylamide and succinimide.

Bakkialakshmi, S.; Shanthi, B.; Bhuvanapriya, T.

2012-05-01

81

Genetics of barley hooded suppression.  

PubMed Central

The molecular basis of the barley dominant Hooded (K) mutant is a duplication of 305 bp in intron IV of the homeobox gene Bkn3. A chemical mutagenesis screen was carried out to identify genetical factors that participate in Bkn3 intron-mediated gene regulation. Plants from recurrently mutagenized KK seeds were examined for the suppression of the hooded awn phenotype induced by the K allele and, in total, 41 suK (suppressor of K) recessive mutants were identified. Complementation tests established the existence of five suK loci, and alleles suKB-4, suKC-33, suKD-25, suKE-74, and suKF-76 were studied in detail. All K-suppressed mutants showed a short-awn phenotype. The suK loci have been mapped by bulked segregant analysis nested in a standard mapping procedure based on AFLP markers. K suppressor loci suKB, B, E, and F all map in a short interval of chromosome 7H, while the locus suKD is assigned to chromosome 5H. A complementation test between the four suK mutants mapping on chromosome 7H and the short-awn mutant lks2, located nearby, excluded the allelism between suK loci and lks2. The last experiment made clear that the short-awn phenotype of suK mutants is due to a specific dominant function of the K allele, a function that is independent from the control on hood formation. The suK loci are discussed as candidate participants in the regulation of Bkn3 expression.

Roig, Cristina; Pozzi, Carlo; Santi, Luca; Muller, Judith; Wang, Yamei; Stile, Maria Rosaria; Rossini, Laura; Stanca, Michele; Salamini, Francesco

2004-01-01

82

Ribonucleic acids from barley leaves  

PubMed Central

1. The total RNA and the RNA present in 27000g pellet (probably composed of chloroplasts, nuclei and mitochondria) and in 27000g supernatant (probably composed of microsomes and soluble proteins) fractions (separated by centrifugation at 27000g of a leaf homogenate prepared in 0·5m-sucrose–0·02m-tris–HCl, pH7·6) of barley leaves were extracted by phenol–sodium lauryl sulphate and their elution profiles on Sephadex G-200 and on ECTEOLA-cellulose anion-exchanger were examined and their nucleotide compositions and the melting curves were determined. 2. The pellet and the supernatant fractions contained respectively about 55% and 20% of the total RNA, whereas 25% of the total RNA was lost during homogenization of the leaf tissue with sucrose–buffer. 3. The total RNA or the RNA from pellet or supernatant fractions, which by its behaviour on Sephadex G-200 columns was found to be predominantly of high molecular weight (i.e. of ribosomal origin), produced about 13 peaks on ECTEOLA-cellulose columns. The RNA species in the pellet and supernatant fractions probably resembled each other in molecular size or secondary structure or both. However, they were present in relatively different amounts in these fractions. 4. The Tm (i.e. the temperature at which 50% of the maximal increase in extinction had occurred) of total RNA and of RNA from pellet fraction was 64·5° whereas Tm of RNA from the supernatant fraction was 73°. The total RNA and the RNA from pellet fraction also resembled each other in nucleotide composition, and the RNA from the supernatant fraction in accordance with its high Tm had a high GMP+CMP content.

Srivastava, B. I. Sahai

1965-01-01

83

Exhumation of Mid-Crustal Rocks in the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The Baladaya Complex of Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upper amphibolite facies rocks from mid-crustal levels are exhumed in the Arabian-Nubian Shield as metamorphic complexes surrounded by low-grade rocks. These middle crustal level rocks were exhumed during the East- and West-Gondwana collision (Pan-African event) in a time interval of ca. 630 to 590 Ma. One of these metamorphic complexes (i.e. Baladaya complex) shows a complicated exhumation history. Four major rock types are found in the study area. They are: a) metamorphic rocks of upper-amphibolite facies which represent the core of the Baladaya complex. Angular unconformity separates the upper-amphibolite facies rocks away from other rock types in the complex, b) metamorphic rocks of greenschist-amphibolite facies transition. These rocks lie directly above the upper-amphibolite facies rocks (type: a) and below Thalbah molasse sediments (type: c). The lower section of the Thalbah sediments shows metamorphism in lower-greenschist facies. The types (a) and (b) were exhumed underneath the Thalbah sediments (type c) as a flower structure. This flower structure can be confirmed in the field by presence of granitic rocks (rock type: d) bounded by thrust planes. The thrust planes surround the Baladaya complex and dip toward the inner part of the complex while the Thalbah molasse sediments as a footwall to the thrust planes. This geological setting indicates that the complex was exhumed at least three times during the activity of the Pan-African event. The first exhumation was prior to the deposition of sediments, which metamorphosed later to be metamorphic rocks of greenschist-amphibolite facies transition (type: b). The second exhumation was prior the deposition of Thalbah molasse sediments. The third exhumation was by the formation of thrust planes and the regional flower structure of the Baladaya complex.

Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hassan, Mahmoud; Stüwe, Kurt; Meyer, Sven; Passchier, Cees

2013-04-01

84

Nd-Sr-Hf-O isotope provinciality in the northernmost Arabian-Nubian Shield: implications for crustal evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-isotope study including whole-rock Nd-Sr, single zircon Hf, and SIMS ?18O analyses of zircons sheds light on magma sources in the northernmost Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) during ~820-570 Ma. Reconnaissance initial Nd and Sr isotope data for the older rocks (~820-740 Ma) reaffirms previous estimates that early crustal evolution in this part of the shield involved some crustal contamination by pre-ANS material. Prominent isotope provinciality is displayed by post-collisional calc-alkaline and alkaline igneous rocks of ~635-570 Ma across a NW-SE transect across basement of the Sinai Peninsula (Egypt) and southern Israel. Silicic rocks of the NW-region are characterized by lower ?Nd(T)-?Hf(T) and higher Sri and ?18O compared with rocks of the SE-region, and the transition between the regions is gradual. Within each region isotope ratios are independent of the extent of magma fractionation, and zircon cores and rims yield similar ?18O values. Comparison with southern segments of the ANS shows that the source for most ~635-570 Ma rocks can be modeled as the isotopically aged lower-intermediate crust in the ANS core (SE-region) and its northern, more contaminated ANS margins (NW-region). Nevertheless, Nd-Sr isotope enrichment of the lithospheric mantle is indicated by some basic magmas of the NW-region displaying the most enriched Nd-Sr isotope compositions. Comparison of Nd and Hf depleted mantle model ages for rocks of the SE-region may indicate that crustal formation events in the ANS geographical core took place at 1.1-1.2 Ga and were followed by crustal differentiation starting at ~0.9 Ga.

Be'Eri-Shlevin, Y.; Katzir, Y.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Kleinhanns, I. C.; Whitehouse, M. J.

2010-08-01

85

On the evolution of the Arabian-Nubian Shield and the largest shear zone on the Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Najd Fault System is known to be the largest pre-Mesozoic shear zone on the Earth. It developed in the context of the Pan African orogeny during the closure of the Mozambique Ocean and the subsequent collision between East- and West-Gondwanaland. The fault system crosses the entire Arabian Nubain Shield of northern Africa from northwest to southeast. During its activity, middle crustal level rocks were exhumed as a series of metamorphic complexes that are located in the Proterozoic rocks of Egypt and Saudi Arabia. It is now known that some of these complexes were exhumed as classical core complexes in extension regime. However, recent studies have shown that others (i.e those of Sinai) exhumed in oblique compression regime. Recent published age-dating data showed that this difference in exhumation mechanism is not only in a tectonic context but in the exhumation's age: Exhumation of the metamorphic complexes of the eastern part of the shield is much older than the exhumation of the western part. One way to test this new concept is to study the mid-crustal rocks of Saudi Arabia (eastern part of the shield). Preliminary work shows that all the metamorphic complexes of the Arabian-Nubian Shield exhumed due to the activity of the Najd Fault System over an interval of some tens of millions years (? 690 - 530 Ma). Early metamorphic complexes were exhumed in compression regime due to the collision between East- and West-Gondwanaland, while the later ones exhumed in extension setting due to the relaxation that follows the collision.

Hassan, M. M.; Abu-Alam, T. S.; Stuewe, K.; Meyer, S.; Passchier, C. W.

2012-12-01

86

A chemometric approach to determine the phenolic compounds in different barley samples by two different stationary phases: A comparison between C18 and pentafluorophenyl core shell columns.  

PubMed

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a cereal crop that has been cultivated since ancient times. However, its interest as nutritional food and as food ingredient is relatively new. Thus, in this study, the phenolic compounds of eighteen different varieties of barley (4 waxy and 14 non-waxy) grown under the same agronomic conditions in the same experimental field have been determined by HPLC-DAD-MS. Two new methodologies were developed using new generation superficially porous HPLC columns with different stationary phases: C18 and pentafluorophenyl (PFP). Twelve free phenolic compounds and eight bound phenolic compounds could be identified in barley samples in less than 22min. The study of different method parameters showed that C18 column was more suitable for the analysis of phenolic compounds of barley. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was conducted in order to assess the different ability of the two different core shell HPLC columns in the discrimination between "waxy" and "non-waxy" varieties, and only HCA of C18 column could separate waxy and non-waxy genotypes. Significant differences in the content of phenolic compounds between waxy and non-waxy samples were found, being waxy barley samples the ones which presented higher content of free and bound phenolic compounds. Once the best discriminant HPLC column was established, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied and it was able to discriminate between "waxy" and "non-waxy" varieties; however it discriminated the barley samples based only in free phenolic compounds. Because of that, partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were carried out. PLS-DA and ANN permitted the classification of waxy and non-waxy genotypes from both free and bound phenolic compounds. PMID:24958035

Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Verardo, Vito; Berardinelli, Annachiara; Marconi, Emanuele; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

2014-08-15

87

Molecular analysis of ancient caries.  

PubMed

An 84 base pair sequence of the Streptococcus mutans virulence factor, known as dextranase, has been obtained from 10 individuals from the Bronze Age to the Modern Era in Europe and from before and after the colonization in America. Modern samples show four polymorphic sites that have not been found in the ancient samples studied so far. The nucleotide and haplotype diversity of this region have increased over time, which could be reflecting the footprint of a population expansion. While this segment has apparently evolved according to neutral evolution, we have been able to detect one site that is under positive selection pressure both in present and past populations. This study is a first step to study the evolution of this microorganism, analysed using direct evidence obtained from ancient remains. PMID:25056622

Simón, Marc; Montiel, Rafael; Smerling, Andrea; Solórzano, Eduvigis; Díaz, Nancy; Alvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A; Jiménez-Marín, Andrea R; Malgosa, Assumpció

2014-09-01

88

Association mapping of partitioning loci in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Association mapping, initially developed in human disease genetics, is now being applied to plant species. The model species Arabidopsis provided some of the first examples of association mapping in plants, identifying previously cloned flowering time genes, despite high population sub-structure. More recently, association genetics has been applied to barley, where breeding activity has resulted in a high degree of

James Cockram; Jon White; Fiona J Leigh; Vincent J Lea; Elena Chiapparino; David A Laurie; Ian J Mackay; Wayne Powell; Donal M O'Sullivan

2008-01-01

89

GREENING BARLEY SEEDLINGS UNDER HIGH TEMPERATURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The influence of heating on the structure and functional activity of photosynthetic membranes in greening barley seedlings was studied. It was observed that plants respond differently under different heat treatments (40, 45 and 500Ñ). It was also observed that elevated temperature (400Ñ) enhances the stability of thylakoid membrane, reducing overall membrane fluidity. Interaction and mutual regulation of xanthophyll cycle

Y. A. Maiseyenkava; N. L. Pshybytko; L. F. Kabashnikova

2005-01-01

90

Uptake of Bromacil by Isolated Barley Roots.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of bromacil uptake by excised barley (Hordeum Vulgare) roots was used to evaluate this procedure as a tool to learn the uptake characteristics of toxic organic chemicals. Bromacil uptake was shown to be a passive process with an uptake rate (at 0....

C. Wickliff J. C. McFarlane H. Ratsch

1984-01-01

91

UPTAKE OF BROMACIL BY ISOLATED BARLEY ROOTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A study of bromacil uptake by excised barley (Hordeum Vulgare) roots was used to evaluate this procedure as a tool to learn the uptake characteristics of toxic organic chemicals. Bromacil uptake was shown to be a passive process with an uptake rate (at 0.8 mg/l) of 0.64 microgram...

92

Inheritance of grain fill rate in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grain fill rate is an important characteristic influencing productivity of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in northern areas of production. This study was conducted to determine the inheritance of grain fill rate and its relationship to other agronomic traits. Thirty?three doubled haploid lines and parents from two crosses were evaluated for three years at Palmer, Alaska. The distribution of lines for

Stephen M. Dofing

1998-01-01

93

The ancient lunar core dynamo.  

PubMed

Lunar paleomagnetism provides evidence for the existence of an ancient lunar magnetic field generated in an iron core. Paleointensity experiments give a surface field of 1.3 gauss, 4.0 x 10(9) years ago, subsequently decreasing exponentially. Thermodynamic arguments give a minimum value of the heat source in the core at that time: known sources, radioactive and other, are quantitatively implausible, and it is suggested that superheavy elements were present in the early moon. PMID:17836293

Runcorn, S K

1978-02-17

94

Dinosaurs: Ancient Fossils, New Discoveries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, created to complement the Museum's Dinosaurs: Ancient Fossils, New Discoveries exhibit, offers a virtual visit to the Museum, complete with text, photos, video clips, audio interviews, and more and includes much of the information which was in the original exhibit which is now closed. The site includes information on the bio-mechanics of dinosaurs and the reasons behind some of their strange appearances.

95

Exploring Ancient World Cultures: An Introduction to Ancient World Cultures on the World-Wide Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exploring Ancient World Cultures, provided by University of Evansville, "is an introductory, on-line, college-level 'textbook' of ancient world cultures, constructed around a series of cultural pages consisting of: The Ancient Near East, Ancient India, Ancient Egypt, Ancient China, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Early Islam, and Medieval Europe." Each home page may contain essays by subject specialists, an anthology of readings from the period, a chronology, bibliographic resources, hypertext links to related sites, and computer graded quizzes. Interested users can also navigate the site by topic across cultures. A highlight of the site is the ability it gives the user to view the entire chronology, or to click on a year and culture and then another culture, in order to compare cross-cultural developments at the same time period. The site is a work in progress that promises maps and images in the near future.

1996-01-01

96

Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy  

PubMed Central

Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L.) is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0); below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken), consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment.

2012-01-01

97

The ancient microbial RIO kinases.  

PubMed

The RIO kinases existed before the split between Archaea and Eubacteria and are essential in eukaryotes. Although much has been elucidated in the past few years regarding the function of these proteins in eukaryotes, questions remain about their role in prokaryotes. Comparison of structure and sequence suggests that the ancient RIO kinases may have similar functional properties in prokaryotes as they do in eukaryotes. The conservation of charge distribution, functional residues, and overall structure supports a role for these proteins in ribosome interactions, as is their purpose in eukaryotes. However, a lack of study in this area has left little direct evidence in support of this function. PMID:24554707

LaRonde, Nicole A

2014-04-01

98

Digestibility, nitrogen balance, and blood metabolites in llama ( Lama glama) and alpaca ( lama pacos) fed barley or barley alfalfa diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the effect of barley diets on digestibility, nitrogen balance, and blood metabolites, mature gelded llamas and alpacas (n=8; 4 llamas, 36±4 months, 90±10.7kg; 4 alpacas, 24–36 months, 50±4kg) were randomly fed 100% barley (B) and 20% alfalfa\\/80% barley (BA) hay. Animals were housed in metabolism crates and diets were fed for a 7 days adjustment period followed by

Heather L. Davies; T. F. Robinson; B. L. Roeder; M. E. Sharp; N. P. Johnston; A. C. Christensen; G. B. Schaalje

2007-01-01

99

Biology of barley shoot fly Delia flavibasis Stein (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) on resistant and susceptible barley cultivars  

PubMed Central

The biology of barley shoot fly Delia flavibasis was studied using resistant (Dinsho and Harbu) and susceptible (Holker) barley cultivars at Sinana Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia. A higher number of eggs was laid on Holker (17 eggs/female) than on Dinsho (11 eggs/female) or Harbu (12 eggs/female). However, there were no differences between cultivars in preoviposition and total reproductive periods. The shortest time required to complete larval, pupal and total developmental stages from egg to adult emergence occurred when the insect was reared on the cultivar Holker. Pupal weight, adult emergence and adult longevity did not differ between cultivars. The female to male sex ratio was 1:1. This study enabled us to understand the duration of each of the life stages of D.flavibasis, which will undoubtedly aid researchers and growers to design a sustainable management strategy against barley shoot fly.

Goftishu, Muluken; Getu, Emana

2008-01-01

100

Antioxidant Enzymes in Barley Green Biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green biomass of young barley plants exhibited statistically significant higher activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and\\u000a catalase (CAT) at sampling I (in the phase of plant development DC 29) compared to the later sampling II (DC 31). Significant\\u000a effects of varieties, years and interactions of the studied factors on the activity of the studied antioxidants were determined.\\u000a During the experiment

J. Ehrenbergerová; N. B?ezinová Belcredi; J. Kopá?ek; L. Melišová; P. Hrstková; S. Macuchová; K. Vaculová; I. Paulí?ková

2009-01-01

101

Zinc sulphate improved microspore embryogenesis in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ZnSO4 concentration on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) microspore embryogenesis was investigated using cultivars of different androgenetic response. Concentrations from 0 (control)\\u000a to 600 ?M in the stress pre-treatment medium alone or in combination with 30 (control) to 600 ?M in the embryo induction medium\\u000a were assayed in anther culture. Incorporation of Zn2+ in the pre-treatment medium itself did not

Begoña Echavarri; Mercedes Soriano; Luis Cistué; M. Pilar Vallés; Ana M. Castillo

2008-01-01

102

The genetic analysis of barley storage proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hordein polypeptide patterns in barley seeds are known to be controlled by structural genes at 2 loci, Hor-1 and Hor-2, on chromosome 5. Two-dimensional and high resolution one-dimensional electrophoretic analyses of seeds of F2 and doubled haploid progenies of four intervarietal crosses gave no evidence of recombination within these loci. Genetic analysis of the progenies showed that Hor-1 is 0·161

P R Shewry; Audrey J Faulks; R A Pickering; I T Jones; R A Finch; B J Miflin

1980-01-01

103

Gluten-free barley malt beers  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 75% of the barley proteins are gluten, with 50% prolamins and 25% glutenins. Gluten is related to gluten allergy and celiac disease. Malting and brewing processes removes much of the protein.More than 40 Belgian brewed commercial beers (gluten-free labeled, pils\\/lager, abbey, trappist, strong blond, amber, old brown, kriek and gueuze) and some foreign commercial beers are analyzed with R5

Anita Van Landschoot

2011-01-01

104

Authenticating ancient human mitochondrial DNA.  

PubMed

The use of ancient DNA techniques in human studies has been hampered by problems of contamination with modern human DNA. The main problem has been that the object of study belongs to the same species as the observer, and the complete elimination of the contamination risk is seemingly unlikely. Contamination has even been detected in the most specialized laboratories in this field. In these kinds of studies it is therefore very important to detect contamination and to distinguish contaminants from authentic results. Here, we report the use of a strategy to authenticate the identity of ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), based on the previously established relationship between D-loop sequence substitutions and haplogroup-specific restriction site changes. Forty-four individuals from a 16th-century necropolis were analyzed, from which 28 control region sequences were obtained. These sequences were preclassified into haplogroups, according to the observed motifs. Subsequently, the DNA extracts from which the sequences were obtained, along with independent extracts of subsets of the same individuals, were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis to compare and corroborate the results. Using this approach, 24 sequences were authenticated, while two were discarded because of result mismatches. The final distribution of the haplogroups in the sample, and the differences in the sequences, are two additional criteria of authentication. PMID:11758690

Montiel, R; Malgosa, A; Francalacci, P

2001-10-01

105

[Ancient history of Indian pharmacy].  

PubMed

The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ram?yana and Mah?bh?rata and in the Atharvaveda. Su?ruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahm?-->Daksa-->Praj?pati-->A?ivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Su?ruta-samhit?, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Su?ruta Both Caraka and Su?ruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism. PMID:21032887

Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko

2010-01-01

106

The Origins and Ancient History of Wine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, The Origins and Ancient History of Wine explores the roots of viniculture and its effects on the ancient civilizations of the Near East and Egypt. The site also explains how archaeological chemistry has improved methods for investigating organic artifacts, providing new means for studying technological and biocultural development of early peoples.

1998-01-01

107

Fossils: An Ancient Sea in Indiana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity from the Children's Museum of Indianapolis, Indiana, examine a piece of the ancient Borden Sea in what is now central Indiana. Explore the types of fossils found there and the clues they offer to ancient life on Earth.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-10-21

108

The practice of dentistry in ancient Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the questions of whether a dental profession existed in ancient Egypt and if it did then considers whether these practitioners were operative dental surgeons as we know them today or whether they were pharmacists. Evidence from hieroglyphic inscriptions, from the dentitions of the surviving mummified and skeletal remains, and from ancient documents and artefacts are examined. The

R. J. Forshaw

2009-01-01

109

INLAND WANDERINGS OF THE ANCIENT MURRELET  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE Ancient Murrelet (Synthliboramphus antiquus) has been reported from widely scattered areas of the United States and Canada. In an attempt to understand a recent record of this Pacific alcid in Illinois, I made an intensive search of the literature but found no generally inclusive dis- cussion of these wanderings. This paper, therefore, reviews the inland distribution of Ancient Murrelets

EDWARD A. MUNYER

110

The ancient shorelines of Lanai, Hawaii, revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three ancient shorelines (the Mahana, Kaluakapo and Manele) have been described at elevations of 365, 190 and 170 m in the Kaluakapo Crater, Lanai, Hawaii [Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 237 (1978) 1]. Stearns' original observation of a fossil-bearing outcrop at 326 m was interpreted as an ancient shoreline. Subsequently, Moore and Moore (1984, 1988) [Science 226 (1984) 1312; Geol.

Barbara H. Keating; Charles E. Helsley

2002-01-01

111

Magnetite biomineralization and ancient life on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain chemical and mineral features of the Martian meteorite ALH84001 were reported in 1996 to be probable evidence of ancient life on Mars. In spite of new observations and interpretations, the question of ancient life on Mars remains unresolved. Putative biogenic, nanometer magnetite has now become a leading focus in the debate.

Richard B Frankel; Peter R Buseck

2000-01-01

112

Magnetite biomineralization and ancient life on Mars.  

PubMed

Certain chemical and mineral features of the Martian meteorite ALH84001 were reported in 1996 to be probable evidence of ancient life on Mars. In spite of new observations and interpretations, the question of ancient life on Mars remains unresolved. Putative biogenic, nanometer magnetite has now become a leading focus in the debate. PMID:10742183

Frankel, R B; Buseck, P R

2000-04-01

113

Electronic Tools and Ancient Near Eastern Archives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of interesting digital projects have recently been sponsored by the National Science Foundation, and the Electronic Tools and Ancient Near Eastern Archives (ETANA) is one such project. With the support and primary documents of a number of important institutions, such as the Society of Biblical Literature and Case Western Reserve University, the mission of ETANA is to "develop and maintain a comprehensive Internet site for the student of the ancient Near East." While the project is still in development, the site's creators have added numerous helpful resources so far to the archive, including the ETANA Core Texts. In this section, visitors can view digitized texts related to scholarship on the ancient Near East, such as James Breasted's monumental work, "Ancient Records of Egypt", along with 171 other key documents. Visitors will also want to take a look at ABZU, which is another database collection that contains items relevant to the study of the ancient Near East that are available online.

114

Evidence for the Snowball Earth hypothesis in the Arabian-Nubian Shield and the East African Orogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) and the East African Orogen (EAO) occurred between 870 Ma and the end of the Precambrian (˜542 Ma). ANS crustal growth encompassed a time of dramatic climatic change, articulated as the Snowball Earth hypothesis (SEH). SEH identifies tremendous paleoclimatic oscillations during Neoproterozoic time. Earth’s climate shifted wildly, from times when much of our planet’s surface was frozen to unusually warm episodes and back again. There is evidence for four principal icehouse episodes: ˜585 582 Ma (Gaskiers), ˜660 635 Ma (Marinoan), ˜680 715 Ma (Sturtian), and ˜735 770 Ma (Kaigas). Evidence consistent with the SEH has been found at many locations around the globe but is rarely reported from the ANS, in spite of the fact that this may be the largest tract of Neoproterozoic juvenile crust on the planet, and in spite of the fact that Huqf Group sediments in Oman, flanking the ANS, record evidence for Sturtian and Marinoan low-latitude glaciations. This review identifies the most important evidence preserved in sedimentary rocks elsewhere for SEH: diamictites, dropstones, cap carbonates, and banded iron formation (BIF). Expected manifestations of SEH are integrated into our understanding of ANS and EAO tectonic evolution. If Kaigas and Sturtian events were global, sedimentary evidence should be preserved in ANS sequences, because these occurred during an embryonic stage of ANS evolution, when crustal components (island arcs, back-arc basins, and sedimentary basins) were mostly below sea level. Previous SEH investigations have been largely reconnaissance in scope, but potentially diagnostic sedimentary units such as diamictites, marine carbonates with ?13C excursions and banded iron formations are reported from the ANS and are worthy of further investigation. Collision and uplift to form the EAO destroyed most marine sedimentary basins about 630 Ma ago, so evidence of Marinoan and Gaskiers glaciations will be more difficult to identify. Several post-accretionary Neoproterozoic sedimentary basins in Arabia may preserve sedimentary evidence but such evidence has not been documented yet. The Huqf Group of Oman contains sedimentary evidence for the Marinoan glaciation but no evidence that the Gaskiers glaciation was significant in this part of the world. Deep erosion at ˜600 Ma throughout the northern ANS and EAO may be related to Marinoan continental glaciation, which may have accomplished much of the cutting of the ANS peneplain, but final shaping of the peneplain took place over the next 60 million years. African geoscientists can contribute to our understanding of Neoproterozoic climate change through careful field studies, and the international geoscientific community interested in Neoproterozoic climate change should pay attention to evidence from the ANS. Future investigations should include knowledge of the SEH and its controversial aspects, in addition to the greater plate tectonic setting of the ANS.

Stern, R. J.; Avigad, D.; Miller, N. R.; Beyth, M.

2006-01-01

115

Crustal evolution and recycling in a juvenile continent: Oxygen isotope ratio of zircon in the northern Arabian Nubian Shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crustal recycling patterns during the evolution of the Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) were defined using the oxygen isotope ratio of zircon [ ?18O(Zrn)]. Evidence for early (~ 870-740 Ma) crustal recycling in the northernmost ANS (southern Israel and Sinai, Egypt) is given by laser fluorination analysis of bulk zircon separates, which yield higher than mantle ?18O(Zrn) values of several island arc complex (IAC) orthogneisses (6.9 to 8.2‰) and also from the average ?18O(Zrn) value of 6.4‰ determined for detrital zircons (~ 870-780 Ma) from the Elat-schist; the latter representing the oldest known rock sources in the region. These results indicate prolonged availability of surface-derived rocks for burial or subduction, melting, and assimilation at the very early stages of island arc formation in the ANS. Other IAC intrusions of ~ 800 Ma show mantle-like ?18O(Zrn) values, implying that not all magmas involved supracrustal contribution. Much younger (650-625 Ma) deformed syn-collisional calc-alkaline (CA1) intrusions are characterized by ?18O(Zrn) values of 5.0 to 7.9‰ indicating continued recycling of the felsic crust. The main sample set of this study comprises rocks from the mostly granitic, post-collisional calc-alkaline (CA2: ~ 635-590 Ma) and alkaline (AL: ~ 608-580 Ma) magmatic suites. Despite having distinct geochemical characteristics and petrogenetic paths and spans of magmatic activity, the two suites are indistinguishable by their average ?18O(Zrn) values of 5.7 and 5.8‰ pointing to the dominance of mantle-like ?18O sources in their formation. Nonetheless, grouping the two suites together reveals geographical zoning in ?18O(Zrn) where a large southeastern region of ?18O(Zrn) = 4.5 to 5.9‰ is separated from a northwestern belt with ?18O(Zrn) = 6 to 8‰ by a '6‰ line'. It is thus suggested that all CA2 and AL magmas of the northernmost ANS were derived from mantle-like ?18O reservoirs in the mafic lower-crust and the lithospheric-mantle, respectively. However, while in the northwestern belt these magmas intruded a thick crustal section and assimilated ~ 15-35%, high- ?18O IAC+CA1 material, magmas in the southeastern region intruded a thinner crust and little or no contamination occurred. The proposed NW-SE variance in crustal thickness during the late Neoproterozoic fits well with the geometry of the fan shaped rifting model proposed by Stern [Stern, R.J., 1985. The Najd Fault System, Saudi Arabia and Egypt: a late Precambrian rift related transform system. Tectonics 4, 497-511.] for this region. Deep parts of the lithosphere were beginning to rift at ~ 630 Ma, allowing the asthenospheric mantle to rise and transfer heat to the lithosphere. This resulted in vast melting of the mafic lower-crust to produce the batholithic CA2 magmas. Later (~ 610 Ma) percolation of lithospheric-mantle melts (possibly along deep seated lithospheric-scale faults) introduced AL magmas to shallow levels of the crust. Intrusion of CA2 and AL mantle-like ?18O parent magmas into the thinned southeastern crust did not involve assimilation of older crust whereas similar intrusion into the thicker northwestern crust resulted in mild assimilation of high- ?18O pre-635 Ma crust. An important implication from our results is that petrogenesis of some high- ?18O AL magmas of the northernmost ANS involved assimilation of supracrustal material. Felsic intrusions of the AL suite were previously described as A-type granites derived solely from mantle melts with no crustal components. Our results contribute to the "A-type petrogenesis debate" by showing that their formation can involve recycling of crustal material.

Be'eri-Shlevin, Yaron; Katzir, Yaron; Valley, John W.

2009-02-01

116

Differential Gene Expression in the Developing Barley Endosperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley prolamin storage proteins account for 50% of the seed proteins. They are encoded by small multigene families that are only expressed in the developing endosperm. Previous work has shown that the major prolamins in barley are characterized by the presence of two or more unrelated structural domains, one of which contains repeated sequences. The non-repetitive domain is homologous with

M. Kreis; M. S. Williamson; J. Forde; D. Schmutz; J. Clark; B. Buxton; J. Pywell; C. Marris; J. Henderson; N. Harris; P. R. Shewry; B. G. Forde; B. J. Miflin

1986-01-01

117

Functional Properties of Dietary Fibre Enriched Extrudates from Barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Products with new functional and nutritional properties are a precondition for a higher acceptance of barley in human nutrition. Amylose can be partly converted into enzyme-resistant starch (RS) by technological treatments. Optimal conditions for generation of RS from barley using a single-screw laboratory extruder were the following: feed moisture approximately 20%, mass temperature approximately 150 °C, screw speed approximately 200

M. Huth; G. Dongowski; E. Gebhardt; W. Flamme

2000-01-01

118

Antenna chlorophyll a complexes in mutant and developing barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chlorophyll a antenna of photosystems I and II were each isolated after detergent treatment by gel electrophoresis or sucrose gradient centrifugation from a b-less mutant of barley grown in daylight and from wildtype barley developed in intermittent light. We identified each fraction by both its electrophoretic position and PS I activity (P700 content) in the case of the mutant,

Jeanette S. Brown; Jan M. Anderson; L. Horst Grimme

1982-01-01

119

Fusarium Species Pathogenic to Barley and Their Associated Mycotoxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salas, B., Steffenson, B. J., Casper, H. H., Tacke, B., Prom, L. K., Fetch, T. G., Jr., and Schwarz, P. B. 1999. Fusarium species pathogenic to barley and their associated mycotoxins. Plant Dis. 83:667-674. Epidemics of Fusarium head blight (FHB) occurred on barley in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota from 1993 to 1998. The Red River Valley region was

B. Salas; B. J. Steffenson; H. H. Casper; B. Tacke; L. K. Prom; T. G. Fetch; P. B. Schwarz

1999-01-01

120

Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Cadmium Toxicity in Barley Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in plant disease resistance and hypersensitive cell death but is also implicated in hardening responses to abiotic stressors. Cadmium (Cd) exposure increased the free SA contents of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots by a factor of about 2. Cultivation of dry barley caryopses presoaked in SA-containing solution for onl y6ho rsingle transient addition of

Ashraf Metwally; Iris Finkemeier; Manfred Georgi; Karl-Josef Dietz

2003-01-01

121

Agronomic performance of crosses between Nordic and exotic barleys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exotic germplasm may be useful for the improvement of agronomic performance of barley breeding material. This study was conducted in order 1) to evaluate if it is possible to improve performance of Nordic barley breeding material by utilizing exotic germplasm sources (unadapted landraces and H. spontaneum), 2) to evaluate incorporation of exotic germplasm into a genetic base widely adapted to

Merja Veteläinen; Mia Suominen; Eero Nissilä

1997-01-01

122

Sacred psychiatry in ancient Greece  

PubMed Central

From the ancient times, there are three basic approaches for the interpretation of the different psychic phenomena: the organic, the psychological, and the sacred approach. The sacred approach forms the primordial foundation for any psychopathological development, innate to the prelogical human mind. Until the second millennium B.C., the Great Mother ruled the Universe and shamans cured the different mental disorders. But, around 1500 B.C., the predominance of the Hellenic civilization over the Pelasgic brought great changes in the theological and psychopathological fields. The Hellenes eliminated the cult of the Great Mother and worshiped Dias, a male deity, the father of gods and humans. With the Father's help and divinatory powers, the warrior-hero made diagnoses and found the right therapies for mental illness; in this way, sacerdotal psychiatry was born.

2014-01-01

123

Sacred psychiatry in ancient Greece.  

PubMed

From the ancient times, there are three basic approaches for the interpretation of the different psychic phenomena: the organic, the psychological, and the sacred approach. The sacred approach forms the primordial foundation for any psychopathological development, innate to the prelogical human mind. Until the second millennium B.C., the Great Mother ruled the Universe and shamans cured the different mental disorders. But, around 1500 B.C., the predominance of the Hellenic civilization over the Pelasgic brought great changes in the theological and psychopathological fields. The Hellenes eliminated the cult of the Great Mother and worshiped Dias, a male deity, the father of gods and humans. With the Father's help and divinatory powers, the warrior-hero made diagnoses and found the right therapies for mental illness; in this way, sacerdotal psychiatry was born. PMID:24725988

Tzeferakos, Georgios; Douzenis, Athanasios

2014-01-01

124

Ancient aqueous sedimentation on Mars  

SciTech Connect

Viking orbiter images are presently used to calculate approximate volumes for the inflow valleys of the ancient cratered terrain of Mars; a sediment-transport model is then used to conservatively estimate the amount of water required for the removal of this volume of debris from the valleys. The results obtained for four basins with well-developed inflow networks indicate basin sediment thicknesses of the order of tens to hundreds of meters. The calculations further suggest that the quantity of water required to transport the sediment is greater than that which could be produced by a single discharge of the associated aquifer, unless the material of the Martian highlands was very fine-grained and noncohesive to depths of hundreds of meters. 48 refs.

Goldspiel, J.M.; Squyres, S.W. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

1991-02-01

125

Ancient aqueous sedimentation on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viking orbiter images are presently used to calculate approximate volumes for the inflow valleys of the ancient cratered terrain of Mars; a sediment-transport model is then used to conservatively estimate the amount of water required for the removal of this volume of debris from the valleys. The results obtained for four basins with well-developed inflow networks indicate basin sediment thicknesses of the order of tens to hundreds of meters. The calculations further suggest that the quantity of water required to transport the sediment is greater than that which could be produced by a single discharge of the associated aquifer, unless the material of the Martian highlands was very fine-grained and noncohesive to depths of hundreds of meters.

Goldspiel, J. M.; Squyres, S. W.

1991-02-01

126

Ancient Near East.net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ancient Near East has been the birthplace of some of civilization's most important advances, among them written language, the impulse to urbanism, and crop cultivation. Created and maintained by Paul James Cowie (a doctoral student at Australia's Macquarie University), the site is a fine resource for both scholars and the general public. Scholars will want to make sure and take a look at the conference diary section, which lists upcoming conferences and various calls for papers and other submissions. The announcements section is of additional interest, as it gives advance notice regarding related activities, including international symposia. For the general public, a host of sections (such as museums and galleries) offer comprehensive listings of Web-based resources ranging from Egyptology links to those dealing with cuneiform. The Web site also contains a listing of links to museums that specialize in the antiquities and archaeology of the Near East located around the world.

2000-01-01

127

Ancient aqueous sedimentation on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viking orbiter images are presently used to calculate approximate volumes for the inflow valleys of the ancient cratered terrain of Mars; a sediment-transport model is then used to conservatively estimate the amount of water required for the removal of this volume of debris from the valleys. The results obtained for four basins with well-developed inflow networks indicate basin sediment thicknesses of the order of tens to hundreds of meters. The calculations further suggest that the quantity of water required to transport the sediment is greater than that which could be produced by a single discharge of the associated aquifer, unless the material of the Martian highlands was very fine-grained and noncohesive to depths of hundreds of meters.

Goldspiel, Jules M.; Squyres, Steven W.

1991-01-01

128

Archimedes: Accelerator Reveals Ancient Text  

SciTech Connect

Archimedes (287-212 BC), who is famous for shouting 'Eureka' (I found it) is considered one of the most brilliant thinkers of all times. The 10th-century parchment document known as the 'Archimedes Palimpsest' is the unique source for two of the great Greek's treatises. Some of the writings, hidden under gold forgeries, have recently been revealed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC. An intense x-ray beam produced in a particle accelerator causes the iron in original ink, which has been partly erased and covered, to send out a fluorescence glow. A detector records the signal and a digital image showing the ancient writings is produced. Please join us in this fascinating journey of a 1,000-year-old parchment from its origin in the Mediterranean city of Constantinople to a particle accelerator in Menlo Park.

Bergmann, Uwe

2004-02-24

129

Archimedes: Accelerator Reveals Ancient Text  

ScienceCinema

Archimedes (287-212 BC), who is famous for shouting 'Eureka' (I found it) is considered one of the most brilliant thinkers of all times. The 10th-century parchment document known as the 'Archimedes Palimpsest' is the unique source for two of the great Greek's treatises. Some of the writings, hidden under gold forgeries, have recently been revealed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC. An intense x-ray beam produced in a particle accelerator causes the iron in original ink, which has been partly erased and covered, to send out a fluorescence glow. A detector records the signal and a digital image showing the ancient writings is produced. Please join us in this fascinating journey of a 1,000-year-old parchment from its origin in the Mediterranean city of Constantinople to a particle accelerator in Menlo Park.

130

Competitive Functions of Components Crops in Some Barley Based Intercropping Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behaviour of component crops in different barley based intercropping systems under different nutrient levels was investigated in a field study conducted for two consecutive years on a sandy-clay loam soil at the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The nutrient levels comprised 0-0-0 (control), 100-0-0, 100-75-0, 100-75-75 kg NPK ha-1 while intercropping systems were barley alone, barley+lentil, barley+gram, barley+methra, barley+linseed, barley+canola. The

INTKHAB HAZOOR WAHLA; RIAZ AHMAD; ASHFAQ AHMAD; ABDUL JABBAR

131

[Ancient Greek in modern language of medicine].  

PubMed

In order to standardize language of medicine, it is essential to have a good command of ancient Greek and Latin. We cannot deny a huge impact of ancient Greek medicine on medical terminology. Compounds of Greek origin related to terms for organs, illnesses, inflammations, surgical procedures etc. have been listed as examples. They contain Greek prefixes and suffixes transcribed into Latin and they have been analysed. It may be concluded that the modern language of medicine basically represents the ancient Greek language transcribed into Latin. PMID:18088050

Markovi?, Vera

2007-01-01

132

Exotic barley germplasms in breeding for resistance to soil-borne viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil-borne mosaic inducing viruses, i.e., barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV), barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV), and BaYMV-2, cause one of the most important diseases of winter barley in Western Europe. Since resistance of all commercial European barley cultivars is due to a single recessive gene (ym4) which is not effective against BaYMV-2, exotic barley germplasms (Hordeum vulgare L., H. spontaneum

Frank Ordon; Jens Weyen; Michael Korell; Wolfgang Friedt

1996-01-01

133

Uptake of bromacil by isolated barley roots.  

PubMed

A study of bromacil uptake by excised barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots was used to evaluate this procedure as a tool to learn the uptake characteristics of toxic organic chemicals. Bromacil uptake was shown to be a passive process with an uptake rate (at 0.8 mg l(-1)) of 0.64 ?g bromacil g(-1) fresh root hr(-1). A Q10 for the process was determined to be 1.5 and living roots were required for bromacil uptake. This procedure was judged to be a quick and inexpensive method to screen plant uptake of toxic chemicals. PMID:24259145

Wickliff, C; McFarlane, J C; Ratsch, H

1984-03-01

134

Cloning and characterization of root-specific barley lectin  

SciTech Connect

Cereal lectins are a class of biochemically and antigenically related proteins localized in a tissue-specific manner in embryos and adult plants. To study the specificity of lectin expression, a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) embryo cDNa library was constructed and a clone (BLc3) for barley lectin was isolated. BLc3 is 972 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 212 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 26 amino acid residues followed by a 186 amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide has 95% sequence identity to the antigenically indistinguishable wheat germ agglutinin isolectin-B (WGA-B) suggesting that BLc3 encodes barley lectin. Further evidence that BLc3 encodes barley lectin was obtained by immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translation products of BLc3 RNA transcripts and barley embryo poly(A{sup +}) RNA. In situ hybridizations with BLc3 showed that barley lectin gene expression is confined to the outermost cell layers of both embryonic and adult root tips. On Northern blots, BLc3 hybridizes to a 1.0 kilobyte mRNA in poly(A{sup +}) RNA from both embryos and root tips. We suggest, on the basis of immunoblot experiments, that barley lectin is synthesized as a glycosylated precursor and processed by removal of a portion of the carboxyl terminus including the single N-linked glycosylation site.

Lerner, D.R.; Raikhel, N.V. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1989-09-01

135

Ancient Pollen Yields Insight into Forest Biodiversity  

NSF Publications Database

... Va.?By analyzing data on tree pollen extracted from ancient lake sediments, ecologists have ... that stability in ways that remain poorly understood. "Quantifying the link between stability and ...

136

Ancient Lakes on Mars. Abstract Only.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The valley systems in Mars' ancient cratered terrain provide strong evidence for a warmer and wetter climate very early in planetary history. The valley systems in some instances debouch into closed depressions that could have acted as local ponding basin...

J. M. Goldspiel S. W. Squyres

1989-01-01

137

Ancient Admixture in Human History  

PubMed Central

Population mixture is an important process in biology. We present a suite of methods for learning about population mixtures, implemented in a software package called ADMIXTOOLS, that support formal tests for whether mixture occurred and make it possible to infer proportions and dates of mixture. We also describe the development of a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array consisting of 629,433 sites with clearly documented ascertainment that was specifically designed for population genetic analyses and that we genotyped in 934 individuals from 53 diverse populations. To illustrate the methods, we give a number of examples that provide new insights about the history of human admixture. The most striking finding is a clear signal of admixture into northern Europe, with one ancestral population related to present-day Basques and Sardinians and the other related to present-day populations of northeast Asia and the Americas. This likely reflects a history of admixture between Neolithic migrants and the indigenous Mesolithic population of Europe, consistent with recent analyses of ancient bones from Sweden and the sequencing of the genome of the Tyrolean “Iceman.”

Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Luo, Yontao; Mallick, Swapan; Rohland, Nadin; Zhan, Yiping; Genschoreck, Teri; Webster, Teresa; Reich, David

2012-01-01

138

Ancient wolf lineages in India.  

PubMed Central

All previously obtained wolf (Canis lupus) and dog (Canis familiaris) mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequences fall within an intertwined and shallow clade (the 'wolf-dog' clade). We sequenced mtDNA of recent and historical samples from 45 wolves from throughout lowland peninsular India and 23 wolves from the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau and compared these sequences with all available wolf and dog sequences. All 45 lowland Indian wolves have one of four closely related haplotypes that form a well-supported, divergent sister lineage to the wolf-dog clade. This unique lineage may have been independent for more than 400,000 years. Although seven Himalayan wolves from western and central Kashmir fall within the widespread wolf-dog clade, one from Ladakh in eastern Kashmir, nine from Himachal Pradesh, four from Nepal and two from Tibet form a very different basal clade. This lineage contains five related haplotypes that probably diverged from other canids more than 800,000 years ago, but we find no evidence of current barriers to admixture. Thus, the Indian subcontinent has three divergent, ancient and apparently parapatric mtDNA lineages within the morphologically delineated wolf. No haplotypes of either novel lineage are found within a sample of 37 Indian (or other) dogs. Thus, we find no evidence that these two taxa played a part in the domestication of canids.

Sharma, Dinesh K; Maldonado, Jesus E; Jhala, Yadrendradev V; Fleischer, Robert C

2004-01-01

139

Recognizing characters of ancient manuscripts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering printed Latin text, the main issues of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) systems are solved. However, for degraded handwritten document images, basic preprocessing steps such as binarization, gain poor results with state-of-the-art methods. In this paper ancient Slavonic manuscripts from the 11th century are investigated. In order to minimize the consequences of false character segmentation, a binarization-free approach based on local descriptors is proposed. Additionally local information allows the recognition of partially visible or washed out characters. The proposed algorithm consists of two steps: character classification and character localization. Initially Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features are extracted which are subsequently classified using Support Vector Machines (SVM). Afterwards, the interest points are clustered according to their spatial information. Thereby, characters are localized and finally recognized based on a weighted voting scheme of pre-classified local descriptors. Preliminary results show that the proposed system can handle highly degraded manuscript images with background clutter (e.g. stains, tears) and faded out characters.

Diem, Markus; Sablatnig, Robert

2010-02-01

140

The question of uniqueness of ancient bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Microorganisms are associated with a variety of ancient geological materials. However, conclusive proof that these organisms\\u000a are as old as the geological material and not more recent introductions has generally been lacking. Over the years, numerous\\u000a reports of the isolation of ancient bacteria from geological materials have appeared. Most of these have suffered from the\\u000a fact that the protocol for

RH Vreeland; WD Rosenzweig

2002-01-01

141

Characterizing avulsion stratigraphy in ancient alluvial deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guidelines for identifying ancient avulsion deposits were set forth by Kraus and Wells [Kraus, M.J., Wells, T.M., 1999. Recognizing avulsion deposits in the ancient stratigraphical record. In: Smith, N.D., Rogers, J. (Eds.), Fluvial Sedimentology VI, Special Publication of the International Association of Sedimentologists, vol. 28, pp. 251–268], building on the study by Smith et al. [Smith, N.D., Cross, T.A., Dufficy,

H. L. Jones; E. A. Hajek

2007-01-01

142

Barley ?-glucans extraction and partial characterization.  

PubMed

Barley is rarely used in the food industry, even though it is a main source of ?-glucans, which have important health benefits and a technological role in food. This work evaluated the humid extraction of barley ?-glucans and partially characterized them. The extraction was studied using surface response methodology with both temperature and pH as variables. The extracted ?-glucans were characterized by chemical and rheological analysis, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The effect on extraction of linear and quadratic terms of pH and temperature corresponding to the regression model was significant, and we obtained a maximum concentration of 53.4% at pH 7.56 and temperature 45.5°C, with protein and mainly starch contamination. The extracted ?-glucans presented a higher apparent viscosity than the commercial ones, the behavior of the commercial and extracted samples can be described as Newtonian and pseudoplastic, respectively. The results of infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were characteristic of commercial ?-glucans, indicating that this method is efficient for extracting ?-glucans. PMID:24518319

Limberger-Bayer, Valéria M; de Francisco, Alicia; Chan, Aline; Oro, Tatiana; Ogliari, Paulo J; Barreto, Pedro L M

2014-07-01

143

Genomic methylation patterns in archaeological barley show de-methylation as a time-dependent diagenetic process  

PubMed Central

Genomic methylation is variable under biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. In particular, viral infection is thought to significantly increase genomic methylation with particularly high activity around transposable elements. Here we present the genomic methylation profiles of grains of archaeological barley (Hordeum vulgare) from several strata from a site in southern Egypt, from the Napatan to the Islamic periods (800 BCE – 1812 CE). One sample tested positive for viral infection and exhibits an unusually high degree of genomic methylation compared to the rest. A decreasing trend in global methylation levels according to deposition date shows in-situ de-methylation of 5-methylcytosine, which can be described as a diagenetic process. This is most likely a deamination mediated de-methylation process and is expected to lead to 5?mC > T base modifications in addition to the C > U modifications due to cytosine deamination, so represents a time-dependent process of DNA diagenesis in ancient DNA.

Smith, Oliver; Clapham, Alan J.; Rose, Pam; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Allaby, Robin G.

2014-01-01

144

Genomic methylation patterns in archaeological barley show de-methylation as a time-dependent diagenetic process.  

PubMed

Genomic methylation is variable under biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. In particular, viral infection is thought to significantly increase genomic methylation with particularly high activity around transposable elements. Here we present the genomic methylation profiles of grains of archaeological barley (Hordeum vulgare) from several strata from a site in southern Egypt, from the Napatan to the Islamic periods (800 BCE - 1812 CE). One sample tested positive for viral infection and exhibits an unusually high degree of genomic methylation compared to the rest. A decreasing trend in global methylation levels according to deposition date shows in-situ de-methylation of 5-methylcytosine, which can be described as a diagenetic process. This is most likely a deamination mediated de-methylation process and is expected to lead to 5?mC > T base modifications in addition to the C > U modifications due to cytosine deamination, so represents a time-dependent process of DNA diagenesis in ancient DNA. PMID:24993353

Smith, Oliver; Clapham, Alan J; Rose, Pam; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Allaby, Robin G

2014-01-01

145

Chapter 26 Distribution Pattern and Provenance Implications of the Heavy Minerals in Neoproterozoic to Mesozoic Siliciclastic Successions in the Arabo-Nubian Shield and its Northern Periphery: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the consolidation and erosion of the Arabo-Nubian Shield (ANS) in the Neoproterozoic, extensive siliciclastics were deposited above it and along its northern margins. These sediments consist of two thick successions, which are separated by an erosional surface representing a regional peneplain. They comprise Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian orogenic, molasse-type, immature conglomerates and arkoses, and a Palaeozoic to Early Mesozoic succession of

Tuvia Weissbrod; Ron Bogoch

2007-01-01

146

Mechanisms of Radium Mobilization for Radium-Rich Groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone and Carbonate Aquifers in the Negev, Israel: Implications for Fossil Groundwater Resources in the Middle East  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radium isotope quartet (226-Ra, 228-Ra, 224-Ra, 223-Ra), radon, and uranium (238-U, 234-U) isotopes were investigated in brackish to saline groundwater from the Nubian sandstone and Lower Cretaceous carbonate aquifers in the Negev, Israel. Our data show that Ra activity in both aquifers are high and far exceeds international drinking water threshold levels. The 228-Ra\\/226-Ra and 224-Ra\\/223-Ra ratios in the

A. Vengosh; N. Peri; G. Haquin; A. Paytan; I. Pankratov; S. Elhanani; Z. Karpas

2007-01-01

147

Greening etiolated barley plants under clinorotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants are capable to react to change of a gravitational field and have sensitive and selective mechanisms, allowing to be guided in a field of gravitation of the Earth. It is known, that changes of gravitational conditions (hyper- or hypogravity) influence metabolic processes in alive organisms. One of the important problems of space biology is studying influence of microgravity on development of the photosynthetic apparatus. Damaging action of weightlessness on photosynthetic processes in plants was shown in a lot of space experiments. However, results of these experiments are inconsistent and do not allow to conclude how varied conditions of weight influence photosynthesis and in particular biosynthesis of chlorophyll. The aim of the communication is an analysis of clinorotation effects on the pigment accumulation and photochemical characteristics of the photosynthetic apparatus during its formation at greening of barley seedlings. Barley plants were grown on a slow horizontal clinostat (2 rpm) and in vertical control at room temperature for 7-8 days (6 days in the dark and 1 or 2 day on white light, ˜ 90 ? Mm-2s-1). Protochlorophyllide (Pchld) and carotenoid (? -carotene, lutein, neoxantin, violaxantin) content in dark grown plants, as well as photosynthetic pigment content after 24 and 48h of greening was determined by TLC. It was found that the content of ? -carotene, lutein and neoxantin in clinorotated etiolated plants was on 9-25% higher compared to control. Pchld and violaxantin level was less on 9-11% in clinorotated etiolated plants. The content of Chl a, b and carotenoids in control after 24h greening of barley seedlings exceeded on 10-20% their level in clinorotated variant. After 48h greening the total level of pigments doubled and the difference in the pigment content between control and clinorotated leaves averaged 0-12%, i.e. distinction in pigment content between control and clinorotated variants smoothed out in the greening process. No difference in Chl a/b ratio between variants was observed. A process of photosynthetic apparatus formation was controlled by chlorophyll fluorescence. It was shown that after 24 to 48 hour greening maximal quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) was increased in result of maturation of pigment apparatus. Proportion of open PSII (qP) was higher in control plants, especially when intensity of actinic light exceeded growth intensity. Chlorophyll fluorescence nonphotochemical quenching coefficient (qN) was higher in control plants in comparison with clinorotated ones on a different level of actinic light. Thus clinorotation influences formation of photosynthetic machinery through slowing down pigment biosynthesis and affecting photochemical characteristics.

Syvash, O. O.; Dovbysh, E. P.; Zolotareva, E. K.

148

Microbes in the Tailoring of Barley Malt Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Malted barley (malt) is traditionally used in the production of beer and distilled spirits. In addition, it can be processed into ingredients for different areas of the food industry. Malting, the controlled germination of cereal grains, is a complex biol...

A. Laitila

2009-01-01

149

Recent developments in the genetic engineering of barley  

SciTech Connect

Cereals are the most important group of plants for human nutrition and animal feed. Partially due to the commercial value of crop plants, there has been an ever-increasing interest in using modern biotechnological methods for the improvement of the characteristics of cereals during the past decade. The rapid progress in molecular biology, plant cell culture techniques, and gene transfer technology has resulted in successful transformations of all the major cereals--maize, rice, wheat, and barley. This brings the biotechnological methods closer to the routine also in barley breeding. In this article, the current status of barley genetic engineering, including the patent situation, is reviewed. The needs aims, and possible applications of genetic engineering in barley breeding are discussed. 179 refs.

Mannonen, L.; Kauppinen, V.; Enari, T.M. (VTT Biotechnology and Food Research, Espoo (Finland))

1994-01-01

150

Chloroplast DNA Diversity in Populations of Wild and Cultivated Barley  

PubMed Central

Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) diversity was found within and among populations (245 accessions total) of wild barley, Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. spontaneum Koch from Israel and Iran. Three polymorphic restriction sites (HindIII, EcoRI, BclI) which define three distinct cpDNA lineages were detected. One lineage is common to populations in the Hule Valley and Kinneret of northern Israel, and in Iran. The second lineage is found predominantly in the Lower Jordan Valley and Negev. The distribution of the third lineage is scattered but widespread throughout Israel. Sixty two accessions of cultivated barleys, H. vulgare L., were found, with two exceptions, to belong to just one cpDNA lineage of wild barley, indicating that the cpDNA of cultivated barley is less variable than its wild ancestor. These results demonstrate the need for assessing intraspecific cpDNA variability prior to choosing single accessions for phylogenetic constructions at the species level and higher.

Neale, D. B.; Saghai-Maroof, M. A.; Allard, R. W.; Zhang, Q.; Jorgensen, R. A.

1988-01-01

151

New interpretation of the ancient constellations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New method of study of the ancient constellations and mythes is discussed. It is based on the comparison of two maps - the sky and the Earth. The Stellar map is built in an equatorial system of coordinates, the geografic map - in the Mercator's projection and of the same scale. The former map is put on the laster one. The constellation of Pleiades (seven daughter of Atlant) is placed on the meridian of Atlant (Western coast of Africa). If the Stellar map is constructed for a epoch J-3000 (3000 years up to B.C.) then we could found the following. The constellations Andromeda (the daughter of the Ethiopian tsar), Cetus, Perseus and Cassiopeia (mother of Andromeda) are projected on the centre, south and west of Ancient Ethiopia and Mediterranean Sea, respectively. That is all the constellations fall to the places, where events described in mythes occured. A constellation Cepheus (Arabian name is "Burning") covers the Caucasus. Possibly, before a epoch J-1000 this group of stars was connected with Prometheus. It is known Prometheus was chained to the Caucasian rock because of stealing of a fire. Ancient Chineses divided the sky in other way. They called "The Heavenly Town" the area of sky consisting of stars in Herculis, Aquilae and Ophiuchi. Parts of the mentioned constellation were called as a provinces in Ancient China. If the Heavenly Town locate near the Ancient China then the Greek constellations (Andromeda, Perseus and Cetus) will appear over Africa. Three important conclusions follow from this: (i) the geography of the Earth is reflected on the sky; (ii) the ancient astronomers were investigating a connection between the sky and Earth; (iii) the ancient peoples exchanged by the information about a construction of the world.

Dementev, M. S.

152

Genetic relationships between preharvest sprouting and dormancy in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preharvest sprouting (PHS) and dormancy (DOR) can be problems in barley production and end use quality, especially for barley\\u000a used for seed and malting. Three crosses previously analyzed for DOR inheritance, were reanalyzed for PHS and DOR inheritance\\u000a using artificial rain to calculate sprout score (SSc) and measure alpha-amylase activity (AA). Germination percentage of untreated\\u000a grain for DOR was also

S. E. Ullrich; H. Lee; J. A. Clancy; I. A. del Blanco; V. A. Jitkov; A. Kleinhofs; F. Han; D. Prada; I. Romagosa; J. L. Molina-Cano

2009-01-01

153

Effect of growth irradiance on plastocyanin levels in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastocyanin levels in barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Boone) were found to be dependent on growth irradiance. An immunochemical assay was developed and used to measure the plastocyanin content of isolated thylakoid membranes. Barley grown under 600 µmole photons m-2s-1 contained two- to four-fold greater quantities of plastocyanin per unit chlorophyll compared with plants grown under 60 µmole photons m-2s-1. The

Kent O. Burkey

1993-01-01

154

Slender barley: A constitutive gibberellin-response mutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Herta), slender (sln1) is a single-locus recessive mutation which causes a plant to appear as if it had been grown in sturating concentrations of gibberellin (GA). We have investigated two of the GA-mediated processes in slender barley, shoot elongation and the induction of hydrolytic enzymes in aleurone layers. Shoot elongation is severely retarded in

Michael B. Lanahan; Tuan-Hua David Ho

1988-01-01

155

Biochemical mutant in barley renders chemical stabilization of beer superfluous  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recessive mutantant-13 isolated from Foma barley after a mutagen treatment with ethyl methanesulfonate is shown to be blocked in the formation\\u000a of anthocyanins, catechins and proanthocyanidins (=anthocyanogens). The mutant has been propagated, malted on a pilot scale\\u000a and the malt used for pilot brews of beer. Foma barley has been malted and brewed for comparison. Malt, wort and beer

D. von Wettstein; Barbro Jende-Strid; B. Ahrenst-Larsen; J. A. Sørensen

1977-01-01

156

Subcellular volumes and metabolite concentrations in barley leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolite concentrations in subcellular compartments from mature barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Apex) leaves after 9 h of illumination and 5 h of darkness were determined by nonaqueous fractionation and by the stereological evaluation of cellular and subcellular volumes from light and electron micrographs. Twenty one-day-old primary leaves of barley with a total leaf volume of 902 µL per mg

Heike Winter; David G. Robinson; Hans Walter Heldt

1993-01-01

157

High-throughput Agrobacterium-mediated barley transformation  

PubMed Central

Background Plant transformation is an invaluable tool for basic plant research, as well as a useful technique for the direct improvement of commercial crops. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is the fourth most abundant cereal crop in the world. It also provides a useful model for the study of wheat, which has a larger and more complex genome. Most existing barley transformation methodologies are either complex or have low (<10%) transformation efficiencies. Results A robust, simple and reproducible barley transformation protocol has been developed that yields average transformation efficiencies of 25%. This protocol is based on the infection of immature barley embryos with Agrobacterium strain AGL1, carrying vectors from the pBract series that contain the hpt gene (conferring hygromycin resistance) as a selectable marker. Results of large scale experiments utilising the luc (firefly luciferase) gene as a reporter are described. The method presented here has been used to produce hundreds of independent, transgenic plant lines and we show that a large proportion of these lines contain single copies of the luc gene. Conclusion This protocol demonstrates significant improvements in both efficiency and ease of use over existing barley transformation methods. This opens up opportunities for the development of functional genomics resources in barley.

Bartlett, Joanne G; Alves, Silvia C; Smedley, Mark; Snape, John W; Harwood, Wendy A

2008-01-01

158

Allele-Dependent Barley Grain ?-Amylase Activity1  

PubMed Central

The wild ancestor of cultivated barley, Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) A. & Gr. (H. spontaneum), is a source of wide genetic diversity, including traits that are important for malting quality. A high ?-amylase trait was previously identified in H. spontaneum strains from Israel, and transferred into the backcross progeny of a cross with the domesticated barley cv Adorra. We have used Southern-blot analysis and ?-amy1 gene characterization to demonstrate that the high ?-amylase trait in the backcross line is co-inherited with the ?-amy1 gene from the H. spontaneum parent. We have analyzed the ?-amy1 gene organization in various domesticated and wild-type barley strains and identified three distinct ?-amy1 alleles. Two of these ?-amy1 alleles were present in modern barley, one of which was specifically found in good malting barley cultivars. The third allele, linked with high grain ?-amylase activity, was found only in a H. spontaneum strain from the Judean foothills in Israel. The sequences of three isolated ?-amy1 alleles are compared. The involvement of specific intron III sequences, in particular a 126-bp palindromic insertion, in the allele-dependent expression of ?-amylase activity in barley grain is proposed.

Erkkila, Maria J.; Leah, Robert; Ahokas, Hannu; Cameron-Mills, Verena

1998-01-01

159

Characterizing avulsion stratigraphy in ancient alluvial deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Guidelines for identifying ancient avulsion deposits were set forth by Kraus and Wells [Kraus, M.J., Wells, T.M., 1999. Recognizing avulsion deposits in the ancient stratigraphical record. In: Smith, N.D., Rogers, J. (Eds.), Fluvial Sedimentology VI, Special Publication of the International Association of Sedimentologists, vol. 28, pp. 251-268], building on the study by Smith et al. [Smith, N.D., Cross, T.A., Dufficy, J.P., Clough, S.R., 1989. Anatomy of an avulsion. Sedimentology 36, 1-23] of the modern Saskatchewan River system (Cumberland Marshes, central Canada), and serve to characterize avulsion depositional sequences in the ancient Willwood and Fort Union Formations (Paleogene, Bighorn Basin, NW Wyoming, USA). We recognize, however, that the model is not universally applicable to avulsion-dominated successions, specifically systems which lack defining "heterolithic avulsion deposits", set forth by Kraus and Wells [Kraus, M.J., Wells, T.M., 1999. Recognizing avulsion deposits in the ancient stratigraphical record. In: Smith, N.D., Rogers, J. (Eds.), Fluvial Sedimentology VI, Special Publication of the International Association of Sedimentologists, vol. 28, pp. 251-268]. Observations in several fluvial intervals suggest that the avulsion stratigraphy outlined by Kraus and Wells [Kraus, M.J., Wells, T.M., 1999. Recognizing avulsion deposits in the ancient stratigraphical record. In: Smith, N.D., Rogers, J. (Eds.), Fluvial Sedimentology VI, Special Publication of the International Association of Sedimentologists, vol. 28, pp. 251-268] represents one category of avulsion stratigraphy found in the rock record, but does not capture the nature of avulsion deposits everywhere. Based on observations (using measured sections, outcrop photo-panels, and aerial photographs) in the Willwood Formation (Eocene, Wyoming) and Ferris Formation (Cretaceous/Paleogene, Wyoming), we present two end-member categories of avulsion stratigraphy in ancient deposits; stratigraphically abrupt, when a main paleochannel is stratigraphically juxtaposed directly atop floodplain/overbank deposits, and stratigraphically transitional, where crevasse splays and other non-floodplain/-overbank deposits stratigraphically precede a main paleochannel. This characterization provides a broader, more inclusive way to recognize and describe avulsion stratigraphy in ancient deposits and may be an important factor to consider when modeling connectivity in fluvial reservoirs. Furthermore, our observations show that one type of avulsion channel stratigraphy may prevail over another within an ancient basin, suggesting that system-wide factors such as splay-proneness or avulsion style (i.e. aggradational, incisional, etc.; [Slingerland, R., Smith, N.D., 2004. River avulsions and their deposits. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 32, 257-285]) may be primary controls on the type of avulsion stratigraphy deposited and preserved in ancient basin-fills.

Jones, H. L.; Hajek, E. A.

2007-11-01

160

Development of endosperm transfer cells in barley.  

PubMed

Endosperm transfer cells (ETCs) are positioned at the intersection of maternal and filial tissues in seeds of cereals and represent a bottleneck for apoplasmic transport of assimilates into the endosperm. Endosperm cellularization starts at the maternal-filial boundary and generates the highly specialized ETCs. During differentiation barley ETCs develop characteristic flange-like wall ingrowths to facilitate effective nutrient transfer. A comprehensive morphological analysis depicted distinct developmental time points in establishment of transfer cell (TC) morphology and revealed intracellular changes possibly associated with cell wall metabolism. Embedded inside the grain, ETCs are barely accessible by manual preparation. To get tissue-specific information about ETC specification and differentiation, laser microdissection (LM)-based methods were used for transcript and metabolite profiling. Transcriptome analysis of ETCs at different developmental stages by microarrays indicated activated gene expression programs related to control of cell proliferation and cell shape, cell wall and carbohydrate metabolism reflecting the morphological changes during early ETC development. Transporter genes reveal distinct expression patterns suggesting a switch from active to passive modes of nutrient uptake with the onset of grain filling. Tissue-specific RNA-seq of the differentiating ETC region from the syncytial stage until functionality in nutrient transfer identified a high number of novel transcripts putatively involved in ETC differentiation. An essential role for two-component signaling (TCS) pathways in ETC development of barley emerged from this analysis. Correlative data provide evidence for abscisic acid and ethylene influences on ETC differentiation and hint at a crosstalk between hormone signal transduction and TCS phosphorelays. Collectively, the data expose a comprehensive view on ETC development, associated pathways and identified candidate genes for ETC specification. PMID:24723929

Thiel, Johannes

2014-01-01

161

Genetic Diversity among Ancient Nordic Populations  

PubMed Central

Using established criteria for work with fossil DNA we have analysed mitochondrial DNA from 92 individuals from 18 locations in Denmark ranging in time from the Mesolithic to the Medieval Age. Unequivocal assignment of mtDNA haplotypes was possible for 56 of the ancient individuals; however, the success rate varied substantially between sites; the highest rates were obtained with untouched, freshly excavated material, whereas heavy handling, archeological preservation and storage for many years influenced the ability to obtain authentic endogenic DNA. While the nucleotide diversity at two locations was similar to that among extant Danes, the diversity at four sites was considerably higher. This supports previous observations for ancient Britons. The overall occurrence of haplogroups did not deviate from extant Scandinavians, however, haplogroup I was significantly more frequent among the ancient Danes (average 13%) than among extant Danes and Scandinavians (?2.5%) as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type “diluted” by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture) that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300–3,500 YBP) was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least for Southern Scandinavia, our findings do not support a possible replacement of a haplogroup U dominated hunter-gatherer population by a more haplogroup diverse Neolithic Culture.

Melchior, Linea; Lynnerup, Niels; Siegismund, Hans R.; Kivisild, Toomas; Dissing, J?rgen

2010-01-01

162

Effect of partial resistance to barley leaf rust, Puccinia hordei , on the yield of three barley cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three barley cultivars, Shyri, Clipper and Terán, with different levels of partial resistance to barley leaf rust, caused\\u000a by Puccinia hordei, were exposed to six levels of the pathogen. These levels were obtained by 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 and 0 fungicide (Propiconazol) applications\\u000a respectively and occurred every 15 days starting at 66 days after sowing. No application served as

J. Ochoa; J. E. Parlevliet

2007-01-01

163

Tibet is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley  

PubMed Central

The Near East Fertile Crescent is well recognized as a primary center of barley origin, diversity, and domestication. A large number of wild barleys have been collected from the Tibetan Plateau, which is characterized by an extreme environment. We used genome-wide diversity array technology markers to analyze the genotypic division between wild barley from the Near East and Tibet. Our results confirmed the existence of Tibetan wild barley and suggested that the split between the wild barleys in the Near East and those in Tibet occurred around 2.76 million years ago (Mya). To test the concept of polyphyletic domestication of barley, we characterized a set of worldwide cultivated barley. Some Chinese hulless and six-rowed barleys showed a close relationship with Tibetan wild barley but showed no common ancestor with other cultivated barley. Our data support the concept of polyphyletic domestication of cultivated barley and indicate that the Tibetan Plateau and its vicinity is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley. The current results may be highly significant in exploring the elite germplasm for barley breeding, especially against cold and drought stresses.

Dai, Fei; Nevo, Eviatar; Wu, Dezhi; Comadran, Jordi; Zhou, Meixue; Qiu, Long; Chen, Zhonghua; Beiles, Avigdor; Chen, Guoxiong; Zhang, Guoping

2012-01-01

164

The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modelin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world’s largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

2014-01-01

165

Carbonate-orthopyroxenite lenses from the Neoproterozoic Gerf ophiolite, South Eastern Desert, Egypt: The first record in the Arabian Nubian Shield ophiolites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonate-orthopyroxenites (classic sagvandites) are reported in the Gerf ophiolite, South Eastern Desert, Egypt: the first finding from the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS) ophiolites. They form massive lenses at the southern tip of the Gerf ophiolite, along the contact between the Shinai granite and Gerf serpentinized peridotites. The lenses show structural concordance with the neighboring country rocks and the granite contact. They consist mainly of metamorphic orthopyroxene + magnesite, among other metamorphic, relict primary and retrograde secondary minerals. Based only on chemistry, two types of carbonate-orthopyroxenites can be recognized, Types I (higher-Mg) and II (lower-Mg and higher-Fe). Field constraints, petrography and mineral chemistry indicate a metamorphic origin for the Gerf carbonate-orthopyroxenites. The euhedral form of relict primary chromian spinels combined with their high Cr#/low-TiO 2 character, and absence of clinopyroxene suggest that the protolith for the Gerf carbonate-orthopyroxenites is a highly depleted mantle peridotite derived from a sub-arc setting. Contact metamorphism accompanied by CO 2-metasomatism resulted in formation of the Gerf carbonate-orthopyroxenites during intrusion of the Shinai granite. The source of CO 2-rich fluids is most likely the neighboring impure carbonate layers. Correlation of the carbonate-orthopyroxenite mineral assemblages with experimental data for the system MgO-SiO 2-H 2O-CO 2 suggests metamorphic/metasomatic conditions of 520-560 °C, Pfluid = 2 kbar and extremely high X values (0.87-1).

Gahlan, Hisham A.; Arai, Shoji

2009-01-01

166

Thematic mapper research in the Earth sciences: Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield of northeastern Sudan/southeastern Egypt using thematic mapper imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield using the Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery is progressing well and shows great promise. The TM tapes for the six LANDSAT 5 scenes covering the northern portion of the Red Sea hills were received, and preliminary maps and interpretations were made for most of the area. It is apparent that faulting and shearing associated with the major suture zones such as the Sol Hamed are clearly visible and that considerable detail can be seen. An entire quadrant of scene 173,45 was examined in detail using all seven bands, and every band combination was evaluated to best display the geology. A comparison was done with color ratio combinations and color combinations of the eigen vector bands to verify if band combinations of 7-red, 4-green, and 2-blue were indeed superior. There is no single optimum enhancement which provides the greatest detail for every image and no single combination of spectral bands for all cases, although bands 7, 4, and 2 do provide the best overall display. The color combination of the eigen vector bands proved useful in distinguishing fine detailed features.

1986-01-01

167

Thermodynamic modelling of Sol Hamed serpentinite, South Eastern Desert of Egypt: implication for two serpentinization stages in the Arabian-Nubian Shield ophiolites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arabian-Nubian Shield is the largest tract of juvenile continental crust of Neoproterozoic age on Earth. This crust was generated due to arc-arc collision associated with the closing of the Mozambique Ocean. Distribution of ophiolitic rocks marks fossils suture zones in the shield. Petrological, mineral chemistry, whole-rock chemistry and thermodynamic studies are carried out to examine the serpentinite component of Sol Hamed ophiolite in south Eastern Desert of Egypt. The protolith mantle was harzburgite and formed in subduction zone of forearc setting. Serpentinization occurred in two stages. The first by intrusion of high concentrated CO2 fluid released from carbonate-bearing sediments and altered basalt at the subduction zone. The serpentinization achieved during isobaric cooling path at pressure of 1 kbar and before the emplacement. The minimum temperature limit of the serpentinization is above the breakdown of lizardite to antigorite and brucite (170 °C). The fluid composition during the isobaric cooling path was buffered by the metamorphic reactions. The second stage of serpentinization took place through prograde path which led to formation of chrysotile after lizardite. The increasing in the pressure during this stage occurred as a result of extensive duplex array and thrusting of oceanic crust. The crust in the forearc basin was overloaded by 28 km of obducted and thrusted oceanic crust from both mid-oceanic and forearc basins, respectively.

Abu-Alam, T.; Hamdy, M.

2012-04-01

168

The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world's largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

2014-03-01

169

Images Of Women In Ancient Art  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Subtitled "Issues of Interpretation and Identity," this Website, designed for an honors course at Sweet Briar College, explores the archaeological remnants of female representation in ancient art. Written primarily by the professor, Chris Witcombe, the site boasts images and commentary on women in prehistory, Ancient Egypt, the Aegean, Palestine, Greece, and "Barbarian Women." A special section goes into detailed analysis of the famous, apparently obese, stone figure, "Venus of Willendorf," sometimes taken to be a fertility figure. The site also features a "Women in Prehistory" bibliography, discussion topics and questions, and a fairly extensive directory of related sites, indexed by the specific artifacts discussed on the Website. The writing style is informative and casual, making this site an enjoyable means to reexamine some "ancient" stereotypes.

170

Analysis of pregerminated barley using hyperspectral image analysis.  

PubMed

Pregermination is one of many serious degradations to barley when used for malting. A pregerminated barley kernel can under certain conditions not regerminate and is reduced to animal feed of lower quality. Identifying pregermination at an early stage is therefore essential in order to segregate the barley kernels into low or high quality. Current standard methods to quantify pregerminated barley include visual approaches, e.g. to identify the root sprout, or using an embryo staining method, which use a time-consuming procedure. We present an approach using a near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging system in a mathematical modeling framework to identify pregerminated barley at an early stage of approximately 12 h of pregermination. Our model only assigns pregermination as the cause for a single kernel's lack of germination and is unable to identify dormancy, kernel damage etc. The analysis is based on more than 750 Rosalina barley kernels being pregerminated at 8 different durations between 0 and 60 h based on the BRF method. Regerminating the kernels reveals a grouping of the pregerminated kernels into three categories: normal, delayed and limited germination. Our model employs a supervised classification framework based on a set of extracted features insensitive to the kernel orientation. An out-of-sample classification error of 32% (CI(95%): 29-35%) is obtained for single kernels when grouped into the three categories, and an error of 3% (CI(95%): 0-15%) is achieved on a bulk kernel level. The model provides class probabilities for each kernel, which can assist in achieving homogeneous germination profiles. This research can further be developed to establish an automated and faster procedure as an alternative to the standard procedures for pregerminated barley. PMID:21932866

Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger; Larsen, Jan; Larsen, Rasmus

2011-11-01

171

Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astronomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors regarded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Consequently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

Han, Yanben; Qiao, Qiyuan

2009-11-01

172

Long-term hermetic storage of barley in PVC-covered concrete platforms under Mediterranean conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the bulk storage of barley in the open air under Mediterranean conditions was developed. A large (75 × 25 m) concrete platform with low walls was filled with barley and covered with a PVC overliner and a polyethylene underliner. The barley formed a pile of 4018 tonnes with a peak 7 m high and was stored for

A. Varnava; S. Navarro; E. Donahaye

1995-01-01

173

7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. 457.102 Section...REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. United States...Insurance Corporation Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage Endorsement (This is a...

2010-01-01

174

7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. 457.102 Section...REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. United States...Insurance Corporation Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage Endorsement (This is a...

2009-01-01

175

Structure and expression of the barley stem rust resistance gene Rpg1 messenger RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The barley stem rust resistance gene Rpg1 confers resistance to many pathotypes of the stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Rpg1 was recently cloned by a map-based approach from the barley cultivar Morex. Haplotype sequencing and transformation of a susceptible barley cultivar were employed to prove its identity. As a first step in understanding the molecular mechanism of

Nils Rostoks; Brian J. Steffenson; Andris Kleinhofs

2004-01-01

176

Effects of barley straw ( Hordeum vulgare ) on freshwater and brackish phytoplankton and cyanobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short-term laboratory study was conductedto investigate the effect of barley strawin controlling several common phytoplanktonand cyanobacterial species. Following aone-month incubation of barley straw incoarsely filtered fresh Potomac River andbrackish Patuxent River waters, the growthof six autotrophic taxa was followed inculture. Barley straw slurry reduced theyield of three taxa (Ankistrodesmusfalcatus, Chlorella capsulata, Isochrysis sp.) in comparison withcultures not receiving the

Emily F. Brownlee; Stella G. Sellner; Kevin G. Sellner

2003-01-01

177

Can ancient forests help slow climate warming?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The trees in the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, which is in China's Guangdong Province are really old. As in 400 years old! Chinese scientists have now discovered that this ancient forest soaks up carbon from the atmosphere much faster than they expected.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2006-11-30

178

Quality issues for archival of ancient documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports about a study concerning the application of error bounded encoding to lossy image compression of ancient documents handwritten on parchments. Images are acquired in the RGB color space and previously transformed in the YUV color coordinate system before coding. The coding algorithm, named RLP, considered here is based on a classified DPCM enhanced by a fuzzy clustering

Bruno Aiazzi; Stefano Baronti; Andrea Casini; Franco Lotti; Alberto Mattei; Leonardo Santurri

2000-01-01

179

Ancient Pyramids Help Students Learn Math Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an activity that allows students to use mathematics and critical-thinking skills to emulate processes used by the ancient Egyptians to prepare the site for the Pyramids of Giza. To accomplish this, they use three different methods. First, they create a square using only simple technological tools that were available to the…

Smith, Courtney D.; Stump, Amanda M.; Lazaros, Edward J.

2010-01-01

180

The Pronunciation of "Zeta" in Ancient Greek.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychological explanations of the choices of the orthographic symbols and the dialectal and other variations of orthographic symbols in ancient Greek are examined in the determination of the pronunciation of the modern Greek "zeta". The pronunciation of the "double-delta" that corresponds to it in Boetian, Thessalian, Elean, Cretan, Laconian, and…

Bailey, Charles-James N.

181

Differential Survival of Albumin in Ancient Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of blood proteins in ancient bone is important (1) because detection of simple proteins can give information on species specificity and evolution, and (2) because the methods used provide a sound technical basis for investigating the survival of more informative proteins, such as HLA and blood groups, which would shed light on genetic profiles and disease predispositions of

C. Cattaneo; K. Gelsthorpe; P. Phillips; R. J. Sokol

1995-01-01

182

Ancient Floodwaters and Seas on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of water in the origin and evolution of landforms on Mars has been a main topic of planetary science research for at least the past 30 years, certainly since Mariner 9 images first showed large winding channels. The ancient immense floods that presumably formed the channels would have left behind large bodies of water at the ends of

L. M. V. Martel

2003-01-01

183

Discovering the Ancient Maya From Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Peten region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use o f limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

Sever, T. L.

2007-01-01

184

Discovering the Ancient Maya from Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pet6n region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use of limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

Sever, T. L.

2008-01-01

185

Tapping Ancient Roots: Plaited Paper Baskets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With ancient roots, basket making has been practiced since the earliest civilizations, and according to textile experts, probably pre-dates pottery. This is partly conjecture since few baskets remain. It is through evidence found in clay impressions that the earliest baskets reveal themselves. Basically, basketry construction is like flat weaving.…

Patrick, Jane

2011-01-01

186

An ancient lunar magnetic dipole field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories giving the source of the previously hypothesized ancient strong lunar magnetic field and reasons for its disappearance are presented. It is suggested that since it was demonstrated that the moon possessed a small iron core, a dynamo process within this core may have accounted for the field. The disappearance of this magnetizing field can be explained; either the magnetic

S. K. Runcorn

1975-01-01

187

Comparative genomic analysis and expression of the APETALA2-like genes from barley, wheat, and barley-wheat amphiploids  

PubMed Central

Background The APETALA2-like genes form a large multi-gene family of transcription factors which play an important role during the plant life cycle, being key regulators of many developmental processes. Many studies in Arabidopsis have revealed that the APETALA2 (AP2) gene is implicated in the establishment of floral meristem and floral organ identity as well as temporal and spatial regulation of flower homeotic gene expression. Results In this work, we have cloned and characterised the AP2-like gene from accessions of Hordeum chilense and Hordeum vulgare, wild and domesticated barley, respectively, and compared with other AP2 homoeologous genes, including the Q gene in wheat. The Hordeum AP2-like genes contain two plant-specific DNA binding motifs called AP2 domains, as does the Q gene of wheat. We confirm that the H. chilense AP2-like gene is located on chromosome 5Hch. Patterns of expression of the AP2-like genes were examined in floral organs and other tissues in barley, wheat and in tritordeum amphiploids (barley × wheat hybrids). In tritordeum amphiploids, the level of transcription of the barley AP2-like gene was lower than in its barley parental and the chromosome substitutions 1D/1Hch and 2D/2Hch were seen to modify AP2 gene expression levels. Conclusion The results are of interest in order to understand the role of the AP2-like gene in the spike morphology of barley and wheat, and to understand the regulation of this gene in the amphiploids obtained from barley-wheat crossing. This information may have application in cereal breeding programs to up- or down-regulate the expression of AP2-like genes in order to modify spike characteristics and to obtain free-threshing plants.

Gil-Humanes, Javier; Piston, Fernando; Martin, Antonio; Barro, Francisco

2009-01-01

188

Research on ancient DNA in the Near East  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the early 1990s, when studies of ancient DNA became possible, new perspectives of analyzing archaeological data also developed. Nowadays, because the methodology related to ancient DNA research is well developed, it has been used to reveal several aspects of human history and interaction. Here we review the basic concepts, methodologies, and recent developments in the fi eld of ancient

Mateusz Baca; Martyna Molak

2008-01-01

189

27 CFR 9.227 - Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...determine the boundary of the Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley viticultural...c) Boundary. The Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley viticultural...The boundary of the Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley viticultural...western shoreline of the Columbia River in Kittitas County...

2013-04-01

190

A writing system for the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The writing system for the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs in the computer can be considered a simplified Japanese input system. By using the analogy to the Japanese writing method, the fluent writing system for hieroglyphs can be constructed. Such a computer aided writing system for hieroglyphs could revive the ancient Egyptian arts of typographies without pain that the ancient Egyptian secretaries

Tatsuo Minohara

2010-01-01

191

A Swarm of Ancient Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We know of about 150 of the rich collections of old stars called globular clusters that orbit our galaxy, the Milky Way. This sharp new image of Messier 107, captured by the Wide Field Imager on the 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, displays the structure of one such globular cluster in exquisite detail. Studying these stellar swarms has revealed much about the history of our galaxy and how stars evolve. The globular cluster Messier 107, also known as NGC 6171, is a compact and ancient family of stars that lies about 21 000 light-years away. Messier 107 is a bustling metropolis: thousands of stars in globular clusters like this one are concentrated into a space that is only about twenty times the distance between our Sun and its nearest stellar neighbour, Alpha Centauri, across. A significant number of these stars have already evolved into red giants, one of the last stages of a star's life, and have a yellowish colour in this image. Globular clusters are among the oldest objects in the Universe. And since the stars within a globular cluster formed from the same cloud of interstellar matter at roughly the same time - typically over 10 billion years ago - they are all low-mass stars, as lightweights burn their hydrogen fuel supply much more slowly than stellar behemoths. Globular clusters formed during the earliest stages in the formation of their host galaxies and therefore studying these objects can give significant insights into how galaxies, and their component stars, evolve. Messier 107 has undergone intensive observations, being one of the 160 stellar fields that was selected for the Pre-FLAMES Survey - a preliminary survey conducted between 1999 and 2002 using the 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, to find suitable stars for follow-up observations with the VLT's spectroscopic instrument FLAMES [1]. Using FLAMES, it is possible to observe up to 130 targets at the same time, making it particularly well suited to the spectroscopic study of densely populated stellar fields, such as globular clusters. M107 is not visible to the naked eye, but, with an apparent magnitude of about eight, it can easily be observed from a dark site with binoculars or a small telescope. The globular cluster is about 13 arcminutes across, which corresponds to about 80 light-years at its distance, and it is found in the constellation of Ophiuchus, north of the pincers of Scorpius. Roughly half of the Milky Way's known globular clusters are actually found in the constellations of Sagittarius, Scorpius and Ophiuchus, in the general direction of the centre of the Milky Way. This is because they are all in elongated orbits around the central region and are on average most likely to be seen in this direction. Messier 107 was discovered by Pierre Méchain in April 1782 and it was added to the list of seven Additional Messier Objects that were originally not included in the final version of Messier's catalogue, which was published the previous year. On 12 May 1793, it was independently rediscovered by William Herschel, who was able to resolve this globular cluster into stars for the first time. But it was not until 1947 that this globular cluster finally took its place in Messier's catalogue as M107, making it the most recent star cluster to be added to this famous list. This image is composed from exposures taken through the blue, green and near-infrared filters by the Wide Field Camera (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. Notes [1] Fibre Large Array Multi-Element Spectrograph More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based obs

2010-12-01

192

Identification of a Phytase Gene in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP) gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. Conclusions/Significance It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains.

Dai, Fei; Qiu, Long; Ye, Lingzhen; Wu, Dezhi; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

2011-01-01

193

Effects of phenolic compounds on the browning of cooked barley.  

PubMed

Barley grain products undergo browning when cooked. To evaluate effects of phenolic compounds on browning, various amounts of (+)-catechin, proanthocyanidins, or related phenolic compounds were added to aqueous barley extracts or barley pastes, which were heated at 90 degrees C for 1 or 2 h, respectively. In barley extract, (+)-catechin, procyanidin B3 (PCB3), prodelphinidin B3 (PDB3), and a trimer of gallocatechin-gallocatechin-catechin (PDT1) dose-dependently elevated absorbance at 420 nm after heating. PDB3 caused browning faster than PCB3 and (+)-catechin. In barley paste, PDB3 and PDT1 decreased the L* value and increased the a* and b* values of the paste dose-dependently after heating and PCB3 and (+)-catechin did so to a lesser extent. Caffeic acid promoted the browning in both of the extract and paste, while protocatechuic acid, eriodictyol, and (+)-taxifolin promoted it in the extract and myricetin and quercetin promoted it in the paste. Compounds promoting browning have catechol or pyrogallol structures in common. PMID:19601672

Kohyama, Noriko; Fujita, Masaya; Ono, Hiroshi; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Takayama, Toshiyuki; Murata, Masatsune

2009-07-22

194

Enzymatic hydrogenation of trans-2-nonenal in barley.  

PubMed

Conversion of undesirable, taste-active compounds is crucial for using barley as a suitable raw material for beer production. Here, ALH1, a barley alkenal hydrogenase enzyme that reduced the alpha,beta-unsaturated double bond of aldehydes and ketones, was found to convert trans-2-nonenal (T2N), a major contributor to the cardboard-like flavor of aged beer. Although the physiological function of ALH1 in barley development remains elusive, it exhibited high specificity with NADPH as a cofactor in the conversion of several oxylipins-including T2N, trans-2-hexenal, traumatin, and 1-octen-3-one. ALH1 action represents a previously unknown mechanism for T2N conversion in barley. Additional experimental results resolved the genomic sequence for barley ALH1, as well as the identification of a paralog gene encoding ALH2. Interestingly, T2N was not converted by purified, recombinant ALH2. The possibility to enhance ALH1 activity in planta is discussed--not only with respect to the physiological consequences thereof--but also in relation to improved beer quality. PMID:16248576

Hambraeus, Gustav; Nyberg, Nils

2005-11-01

195

Late Neoproterozoic rise and fall of the northern Arabian-Nubian shield: The role of lithospheric mantle delamination and subsequent thermal subsidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Review of the Late Neoproterozoic history of the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) reveals that rapid and extensive erosional denudation, widespread late-orogenic calc-alkaline and alkaline igneous activity and intramontane basin formation affected this terrane at 630-590 Ma. Core-complex extension is also recorded at this time interval. To account for this coupling it is suggested that the mantle lithosphere was removed/delaminated from below the northern ANS subsequent to significant crust-mantle thickening in the course of the Late Neoproterozoic orogeny. Because the physical properties of the delamination process are not clear, we use it as a conceptual term accounting for the replacement of mantle lithosphere by an asthenosphere. Removal and replacement of the thickened lithospheric mantle roots potentially caused uplift of the northern ANS to elevations of more than 3 km, thus triggering exceptionally-rapid erosional unroofing of a ca. 10 km thick rock carapace, and some lateral extension. Delamination and erosional decompression potentially caused partial melting of ANS residual upper mantle and lower crust to produce the widespread post-orogenic magmas. We emphasize that removal of the lithospheric mantle also played a key role in lowering ANS topography to sea level. Our data show that lowering ANS down to sea level was significantly accelerated by post-delamination cooling and thermal subsidence. Unlike erosional denudation which is followed by isostatic uplift, thermal contraction causes net surface lowering. We show that thermal subsidence plays a critical role in lowering mountain belts, particularly in the latest stages, when the topography reaches a threshold of ˜ 1.0 km and erosion rates greatly decrease. Post-delamination thermal subsidence can cause 1.3 km of net surface lowering within 100 m.y. regardless of the state of relief and elevation. Therefore, orogenic belts that experienced removal or delamination of their mantle lithosphere (hot orogens) would rapidly rise, but would relatively rapidly fall too.

Avigad, Dov; Gvirtzman, Zohar

2009-11-01

196

Late Neoproterozoic rise and fall of the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield: The role of lithospheric mantle delamination and subsequent thermal subsidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Review of the Late Neoproterozoic history of the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) reveals that rapid and extensive erosional denudation, widespread late-orogenic calc-alkaline and alkaline igneous activity and intramontane basin formation affected this terrane at 630-590 Ma. To account for this coupling it is suggested, that the mantle lithosphere was removed /delaminated from below the northern ANS subsequently to significant crust-mantle thickening in the course of Late Neoproterozoic orogeny. Because the physical properties of the delamination process are not clear, we use it as a conceptual term accounting for the replacement of mantle lithosphere by an asthenosphere. Removal of the thickened lithospheric mantle roots potentially caused instantaneous uplift of the northern ANS to elevations of more than 3 km, thus triggering exceptionally-rapid erosional unroofing and lateral extension. Delamination and erosional decompression potentially caused partial melting of ANS upper mantle and lower crust to produce the widespread post-orogenic magmas. In the present work we emphasis that removal of the lithospheric mantle also played a key role in lowering ANS topography to sea level. Our data show that lowering ANS down to sea level was significantly accelerated by post-delamination cooling and thermal subsidence. Unlike erosional denudation which is followed by isostatic uplift, thermal contraction causes net surface lowering. We show that thermal subsidence plays a critical role in lowering mountain belts, particularly in the latest stages of down wear, when the topography reaches a threshold of ~1.0 km and erosion slows down. Then, surface lowering by thermal subsidence is 5 folds faster (more efficient) than erosion. Post-delamination thermal subsidence can cause 1.3 km of net surface lowering within 100 m.y. regardless of the state of relief and elevation. Therefore, orogenic belts that experienced removal or delamination of their mantle lithosphere (hot orogens) would rapidly rise, but would relatively (!) rapidly fall too.

Avigad, D.; Gvirtzman, Z.

2009-04-01

197

The Neoproterozoic layered mafic-ultramafic intrusion of Gabal Imleih, south Sinai, Egypt: Implications of post-collisional magmatism in the north Arabian-Nubian Shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Imleih layered mafic-ultramafic body is a Neoproterozoic intrusion covering about 45 km 2 in southern Sinai. The field relations as well as the fine grained chilled margins indicate that the layered intrusion is younger than the surrounding calc-alkaline syn-tectonic granodiorite and Iqna Shar ,a volcanics and older than the post-tectonic Iqna granite. There is a general consensus that there are no ophiolitic rocks younger than the syn-tectonic granitoids in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), which supports the non-ophiolitic origin of the Imleih layered intrusion. The studied layered intrusion is tilted to the north, with lower layers (peridotite and pyroxenite) exposed to the south and upper layers (cumulus gabbro and anorthosite) exposed to the north. Imleih rocks are cumulates, dominated by cumulus gabbro with subsequent amounts of peridotite, pyroxenite and anorthosite. Pegmatitic gabbro is locally observed. These rocks are unmetamorphosed. In the peridotite, the Fo content of olivine ranges from 0.81 to 0.83. Clinopyroxenes of the studied rocks range in composition from diopside to augite and have subalkaline affinities. Plagioclase in the cumulus gabbro is mostly bytownite (An 73-82). Two types of spinel are observed, chromite and pleonaste. Chromite has Cr# (Cr/(Cr + Al) of 0.60-0.81 whereas pleonaste have Cr# lower than 0.02. The present study revealed that the mafic-ultramafic complex of Gabal Imleih fractionated from a single batch of high Al-basaltic magma and evolved by fractional crystallization at the base of a Neoproterozoic magma chamber. Olivine and chromite were the first crystallized phases followed by pyroxene and plagioclase. Amphibole appears at nearly the same time as plagioclase. The Imleih mafic-ultramafic body was emplaced post-tectonically in a transitional phase between the calc-alkaline and alkaline magmatism.

Azer, M. K.; El-Gharbawy, R. I.

2011-06-01

198

Mapping-by-sequencing accelerates forward genetics in barley  

PubMed Central

Mapping-by-sequencing has emerged as a powerful technique for genetic mapping in several plant and animal species. As this resequencing-based method requires a reference genome, its application to complex plant genomes with incomplete and fragmented sequence resources remains challenging. We perform exome sequencing of phenotypic bulks of a mapping population of barley segregating for a mutant phenotype that increases the rate of leaf initiation. Read depth analysis identifies a candidate gene, which is confirmed by the analysis of independent mutant alleles. Our method illustrates how the genomic resources of barley together with exome resequencing can underpin mapping-by-sequencing.

2014-01-01

199

Reconsidering domestication of legumes versus cereals in the ancient near east.  

PubMed

In this paper, we discuss, from both biological and cultural perspectives, the ancient human-plant liaison that gave rise to Near Eastern agriculture. We explain the biological aspects of Near Eastern plant domestication by a comparative analysis of legume vs. cereal crop evolution. This comparison is illustrated by the natural distribution, ecological affinity, physiology, population structure, floral biology, growth habit, plant stature, seed dispersal mode, and seed dormancy of both wild and domesticated plants of these crop groups. We discuss the differences between Near Eastern legumes and cereals with regard to each of the above aspects, and we highlight the relevance of these differences with regard to Neolithic decision-making, adoption for farming, and subsequent evolution under domestication. We reached the following conclusions: (1) Near Eastern legumes underwent different evolutionary trajectories under domestication as compared with their companion cereals, despite apparent similarities between selection under domestication of both crop groups. (2) Careful comparison of pea, lentil, and chickpea shows that each of the Near Eastern legume crops has a unique evolutionary history in its own right, and this also holds true for the cereal crops. (3) The evolutionary history of each of the Near Eastern crops, prior to as well as after domestication, is well-reflected in its adaptation profile in present-day cropping systems, which determines each crop's relative economic importance in different world regions (e.g., chickpea is a major pulse in the Indian subcontinent, and pea is a more important crop in temperate regions, while barley has the widest adaptation, extending from high-latitude temperate regions to semi-arid Mediterranean systems). (4) Ancient choice-making as reflected in the founder crops repertoire, involved nutritional considerations that may have outweighed grain yield per area and/or time unit criteria. PMID:19326787

Abbo, Shahal; Saranga, Yehoshua; Peleg, Zvi; Kerem, Zohar; Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Gopher, Avi

2009-03-01

200

Lipids of aquatic sediments, recent and ancient  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is now an essential tool in the analysis of the complex mixtures of lipids (geolipids) encountered in aquatic sediments, both 'recent' (less than 1 million years old) and ancient. The application of MS, and particularly GC-MS, has been instrumental in the rapid development of organic geochemistry and environmental organic chemistry in recent years. The techniques used have resulted in the identification of numerous compounds of a variety of types in sediments. Most attention has been concentrated on molecules of limited size, mainly below 500 molecular mass, and of limited functionality, for examples, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and alcohols. Examples from recent studies (at Bristol) of contemporary, 'recent' and ancient sediments are presented and discussed.

Eglinton, G.; Hajibrahim, S. K.; Maxwell, J. R.; Quirke, J. M. E.; Shaw, G. J.; Volkman, J. K.; Wardroper, A. M. K.

1979-01-01

201

Technology Through Time: Ancient Astronomical Alignments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online set of information about astronomical alignments of ancient structures and buildings. Learners will read background information about the alignments to the Sun in such structures as the Great Pyramid, Chichen Itza, and others. Next, the site contains 10 short problem sets that involve a variety of math skills, including determining the scale of a photo, measuring and drawing angles, plotting data on a graph, and creating an equation to match a set of data. Each set of problems is contained on one page and all of the sets utilize real-world problems relating to astronomical alignments of ancient structures. Each problem set is flexible and can be used on its own, together with other sets, or together with related lessons and materials selected by the educator. This was originally included as a folder insert for the 2010 Sun-Earth Day.

202

Lead in ancient Rome's city waters.  

PubMed

It is now universally accepted that utilization of lead for domestic purposes and water distribution presents a major health hazard. The ancient Roman world was unaware of these risks. How far the gigantic network of lead pipes used in ancient Rome compromised public health in the city is unknown. Lead isotopes in sediments from the harbor of Imperial Rome register the presence of a strong anthropogenic component during the beginning of the Common Era and the Early Middle Ages. They demonstrate that the lead pipes of the water distribution system increased Pb contents in drinking water of the capital city by up to two orders of magnitude over the natural background. The Pb isotope record shows that the discontinuities in the pollution of the Tiber by lead are intimately entwined with the major issues affecting Late Antique Rome and its water distribution system. PMID:24753588

Delile, Hugo; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Goiran, Jean-Philippe; Keay, Simon; Albarède, Francis

2014-05-01

203

Ancient Chinese Observations and Modern Cometary Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ancient astronomical observations, primarily by Chinese, represent the only data source for discerning the long-term behavior of comets. These sky watchers produced astrological forecasts for their emperors. The comets Halley, Swift-Tuttle, and Tempel-Tuttle have been observed for 2000 years. Records of the Leonid meteor showers, starting from A.D.902, are used to guide predictions for the 1998-1999 reoccurrence.

Yeomans, D. K.

1995-01-01

204

DOC Cycling in Ancient Tropical Lake Matano  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a Secchi depth of <= 27m, tropical, ancient (1-4Ma) Lake Matano has surface waters as clear as many ultra-oligotrophic lakes such as Great Bear Lake (secchi depth 590m deep, one of the largest and deepest anoxic freshwater basins in the world. These sub-anoxic conditions have developed in response to thermal stratification that caused oxygen demand to exceed oxygen supply.

S. A. Crowe; S. Katsev; C. Magen; S. Nomosatryo; G. D. Haffner; A. Mucci; B. Sundby; D. A. Fowle

2006-01-01

205

Superplume Formation Beneath An Ancient Slab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Graduate student Eh Tan, working with Michael Gurnis at the California Institute of Technology, has recently discovered a plausible mechanism of generating superplumes at the core mantle boundary. This animation shows how an ancient slab which is resting at the core mantle boundary for millions of years can trap heat, eventually resulting in a superplume substantially larger than the plumes which form from normal hot thermal boundary layers. Links to related references, including a pdf reprint, are also included at the site.

Eh, Tan; Technology, California I.

206

Maecenas: Images of Ancient Greece and Rome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by Classics Professor Leo Curran of the University at Buffalo, this collection of images could be a useful resource for courses in the Classics, Ancient History, or Archaeology. The collection currently contains many high-quality photos from France and Italy, with separate sections for Sicily and Rome. The images are offered free for any non-commercial purpose, and the site is periodically updated with new photos.

1998-01-01

207

The biochemistry of ancient DNA in bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of DNA in ancient bone was determined by ethidium bromide staining after the removal of the potent Taq inhibitor, fulvic acid. A complete decalcification and a perfusion protocol were used to recover DNA from bone. A variety of purification techniques including molecular sieve, hydroxyapatite binding and ‘Magic’ preparations yielded DNA that spanned from 3.4?g\\/g of bone to below

N. Tuross

1994-01-01

208

Ancient subduction zone in Sakhalin Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northern part of Sakhalin Island is an area of recent intensive tectonic movements and hydrothermal processes, as well as a place of accumulation of useful minerals. The deep structure of the lithosphere beneath the region of the Neftegorsk earthquake of May 27, 1995 in North Sakhalin, which killed residents and caused significant destruction, is examined in this paper. Our geodynamic model shows that North Sakhalin consists of the North Sakhalin Basin, Deryugin Basin and an ophiolite complex located between them. The Deryugin Basin was formed in place of an ancient deep trench after subducting the Okhotsk Sea Plate under Sakhalin in the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene. The North Sakhalin Basin was formed on the side of the back-arc basin at that time. The ophiolite complex is fixed in the position of ancient subduction zone that was active in the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene. Approximately in the Miocene, the subduction of the Okhotsk lithosphere apparently ceased. The remains of the subduction zone in the form of an ophiolite complex have been identified from geological and geophysical data. On the surface, the subduction zone is manifested as deep faults stretched along Sakhalin. It is probable that the Neftegorsk earthquake was a result of activation of this ancient subduction zone.

Rodnikov, A. G.; Sergeyeva, N. A.; Zabarinskaya, L. P.

2013-07-01

209

Transfection of germinating barley seed electrophoretically with exogenous DNA.  

PubMed

A method is described for transfection (genetic transformation) of barley caryopsis electrophoretically with DNA. ?-Glucuronidase activity was detected after the electrophoretic transfection with plasmid pBI221 DNA carrying the cauliflower mosaic virus promotor and bacterial ?-glucuronidase coding sequence. Electrophoretic transfection is evidently effective with pieces of callus and seeds of many plants. PMID:24232711

Ahokas, H

1989-04-01

210

Decline of pesticide residues from barley to malt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of dinitroaniline herbicides (pendimethalin and trifluralin), organophosphous insecticides (fenitrothion and malathion), and pyrimidine (nuarimol) and triazole (myclobutanil and propiconazole) fungicides from barley to malt was determined. Several samples for residue analysis were taken after each stage of malting (steeping, germination and kilning). Pesticide residue analysis was carried out by GC\\/ITMS in selected ion monitoring mode. Pesticides decline along

S. Navarro; G. Pérez; G. Navarro; N. Vela

2007-01-01

211

Chromosome banding patterns in cultivated and wild barleys (Hordeum SPP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of seven species of wild barley and ten different forms of the cultivated species (H. vulgare) has revealed that all the species and cultivars have mostly procentric constitutive heterochromatin. Relatively smaller heterochromatic segments are found in intercalary and distal positions. Larger bands of varying sizes and reacting somewhat differently from the rest of the heterochromatin are generally found

Canio G Vosa

1976-01-01

212

Interaction between isolates of barley yellow dwarf virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Some isolates of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) differing in vector transmission characteristics and in host plant reactions were studied in single and mixed inoculations in glass-house trials.2. The symptoms obtained depended on the isolate of BYDV, and the interval between the protective and test inoculation and the variety of host plant.3. Two of the isolates showed complete protection

Harvey C. Smith

1963-01-01

213

A survey of barley yellow dwarf virus in Australia 1963  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) in cereal crops in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania was carried out between 18 September and 4 October 1963.BYDV was identified by symptolllli in the field and confirmed in New Zealand by transmission tests with Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) fed on the leaf and stem samples of cereals and grasses collected

Harvey C. Smith

1964-01-01

214

THE OXYGEN EFFECT IN IRRADIATION OF DORMANT BARLEY SEEDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley seeds of two stralns, viz. the Moscow and Odessa 17, received ; 12,000 r of gamma rays from Co⁶°. The seeds of the former strain were ; irradiated in air in the state of dormancy. Immediately after irradiation they ; were divided into three groups, and for further storage one group was transferred ; into N, the second in

N. I. Nuzhdin; R. L. Dozortseva

1961-01-01

215

Phytosiderophore release in relation to micronutrient metal deficiencies in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytosiderophore release occurs under both iron and zinc deficiencies in representative Poaceae and has been speculated to be a general adaptive response to enhance the acquisition of micronutrient metals. To test this hypothesis, phytosiderophore (PS) release rates from barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. CM72) subjected to deficiencies of Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu were compared using chelator-buffered nutrient solutions. PS release

Dirk Gries; Sylke Brunn; David E. Crowley; David R. Parker

1995-01-01

216

Resolution of Dual Mechanisms of Potassium Absorption by Barley Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the rates of absorption of K and Rb by barley ; roots and the concentration of these ions in the external solution, over the ; range 0.002 to 50 mM, is predictable on the assumption that two carrier sites ; bind and transport the ions. One of these operates at half-maximal velocity at a ; concentration of

Emanuel Epstein; D. W. Rains; O. E. Elzam

1963-01-01

217

Infection of Triticum monococcum Protoplasts with Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Protoplasts from a Triticum monococcum cell culture line were successfully infected with barley yellow dwarf virus. Both purified virions and extracted RNA were shown to be infectious using a polyethylene glycol inoculation procedure. Up to 209\\/00 of the protoplasts contained viral antigens as judged by immunofluorescence assay. ELISA analysis showed that virus antigen expression was both dose- and time-dependent.

M. J. Young; P. J. Larkin; W. A. Miller; P. M. Waterhouse; W. L. Gerlach

1989-01-01

218

Yield Limiting Factors to Food Barley Production in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most previous studies conducted to examine food barley production constraints in Ethiopia were single factor experiments and unsuitable to determine the relative importance of various factors and interactions among these factors. To develop sustainable food systems in regions with limited resources, it is essential to understand the relative importance of alternative production inputs and their interactions. A replicated 2 factorial

Amsal Tarekegne; Hailu Gebre; Charles A. Francis

1997-01-01

219

Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone. Final technical report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca(sup 2+) in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretio...

R. L. Jones

1990-01-01

220

Protochlorophyllide b does not occur in barley etioplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) etioplasts were isolated, and the pigments were extracted with acetone. The extract was analyzed by HPLC. Only protochlorophyllide a and no protochlorophyllide b was detected (limit of detection <1% of protochlorophyllide a). Protochlorophyllide b was synthesized starting from chlorophyll b and incubated with etioplast membranes and NADPH. In the light, photoconversion to chlorophyllide b was observed,

Verena Scheumann; Harald Klement; Michael Helfrich; Ulrike Oster; Siegrid Schoch; Wolfhart Rüdiger

1999-01-01

221

The chickpea, summer cropping, and a new model for pulse domestication in the ancient near east.  

PubMed

The widely accepted models describing the emergence of domesticated grain crops from their wild type ancestors are mostly based upon selection (conscious or unconscious) of major features related either to seed dispersal (nonbrittle ear, indehiscent pod) or free germination (nondormant seeds, soft seed coat). Based on the breeding systems (self-pollination) and dominance relations between the allelomorphs of seed dispersal mode and seed dormancy, it was postulated that establishment of the domesticated forms and replacement of the wild ancestral populations occurred in the Near East within a relatively short time. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), however, appears as an exception among all other "founder crops" of Old World agriculture because of its ancient conversion into a summer crop. The chickpea is also exceptional because its major domestication trait appears to be vernalization insensitivity rather than pod indehiscence or free germination. Moreover, the genetic basis of vernalization response in wild chickpea (Cicer reticulatum Ladiz.) is polygenic, suggesting that a long domestication process was imperative due to the elusive phenotype of vernalization nonresponsiveness. There is also a gap in chickpea remains in the archaeological record between the Late Prepottery Neolithic and the Early Bronze Age. Contrary to the common view that Levantine summer cropping was introduced relatively late (Early Bronze Age), we argue for an earlier (Neolithic) Levantine origin of summer cropping because chickpea, when grown as a common winter crop, was vulnerable to the devastating pathogen Didymella rabiei, the causal agent of Ascochyta blight. The ancient (Neolithic) conversion of chickpea into a summer crop required seasonal differentiation of agronomic operation from the early phases of the Neolithic revolution. This topic is difficult to deal with, as direct data on seasonality in prehistoric Old World field crop husbandry are practically nonexistent. Consequently, this issue was hardly dealt with in the literature. Information on the seasonality of ancient (Neolithic, Chalcolithic, and Early Bronze Age, calibrated 11,500 to 4,500 years before present) Near Eastern agriculture may improve our understanding of the proficiency of early farmers. This in turn may provide a better insight into Neolithic agrotechniques and scheduling. It is difficult to fully understand chickpea domestication without a Neolithic seasonal differentiation of agronomic practice because the rapid establishment of the successful Near Eastern crop package which included wheats, barley, pea, lentil, vetches, and flax, would have preempted the later domestication of this rare wild legume. PMID:14737827

Abbo, Shahal; Shtienberg, Dan; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Gopher, Avi

2003-12-01

222

Effective groundwater modeling of the data-poor Nubian Aquifer System (Chad, Egypt, Libya, Sudan) - use of parsimony and 81Kr-based groundwater ages (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Important information for management of large aquifer systems can be obtained via a parsimonious approach to groundwater modeling, in part, employing isotope-interpreted groundwater ages. ';Parsimonious' modeling implies active avoidance of overly-complex representations when constructing models. This approach is essential for evaluation of aquifer systems that lack informative hydrogeologic databases. Even in the most remote aquifers, despite lack of typical data, groundwater ages can be interpreted from isotope samples at only a few downstream locations. These samples incorporate hydrogeologic information from the entire upstream groundwater flowpath; thus, interpreted ages are among the most-effective information sources for groundwater model development. This approach is applied to the world's largest non-renewable aquifer, the transboundary Nubian Aquifer System (NAS) of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan. In the NAS countries, water availability is a critical problem and NAS can reliably serve as a water supply for an extended future period. However, there are national concerns about transboundary impacts of water use by neighbors. These concerns include excessive depletion of shared groundwater by individual countries and the spread of water-table drawdown across borders, where neighboring country near-border shallow wells and oases may dry. Development of a parsimonious groundwater flow model, based on limited available NAS hydrogeologic data and on 81Kr groundwater ages below oases in Egypt, is a key step in providing a technical basis for international discussion concerning management of this non-renewable water resource. Simply-structured model analyses, undertaken as part of an IAEA/UNDP/GEF project, show that although the main transboundary issue is indeed drawdown crossing national boundaries, given the large scale of NAS and its plausible ranges of aquifer parameter values, the magnitude of transboundary drawdown will likely be small and may not be a matter of practical significance. Rather, modeling shows that the greatest impacts of pumping are to be expected on the local scale, entailing excessive local drawdown and possible disappearance of oases where these are co-located with pumping centers.

Voss, C. I.; Soliman, S. M.; Aggarwal, P. K.

2013-12-01

223

Interrelations between coeval mafic and A-type silicic magmas from composite dykes in a bimodal suite of southern Israel, northernmost Arabian Nubian Shield: Geochemical and isotope constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Neoproterozoic bimodal dyke suites are abundant in the Arabian-Nubian Shield. In southern Israel this suite includes dominant alkaline quartz porphyry dykes, rare mafic dykes, and numerous composite dykes with felsic interiors and mafic margins. The quartz porphyry chemically corresponds to A-type granite. Composite dykes with either abrupt or gradational contacts between the felsic and mafic rocks bear field, petrographic and chemical evidence for coexistence and mixing of basaltic and rhyolitic magmas. Mixing and formation of hybrid intermediate magmas commenced at depth and continued during emplacement of the dykes. Oxygen isotope ratios of alkali feldspar in quartz porphyry (13 to 15‰) and of plagioclase in trachydolerite (10-11‰) are much higher than their initial magmatic ratios predicted by equilibrium with unaltered quartz (8 to 9‰) and clinopyroxene (5.8‰). The elevation of ?18O in alkali feldspar and plagioclase, and extensive turbidization and sericitization call for post-magmatic low-temperature (? 100 °C) water-rock interaction. Hydrous alteration of alkali feldspar, the major carrier of Rb and Sr in the quartz-porphyry, also accounts for the highly variable and unusually high I(Sr) of 0.71253 to 0.73648. The initial 143Nd/ 144Nd ratios, expressed by ?Nd( T) values, are probably unaltered and show small variation in mafic and felsic rocks within a narrow range from + 1.4 to + 3.3. The Nd isotope signature suggests either a common mantle source for the mafic and silicic magmas or a juvenile crustal source for the felsic rocks (metamorphic rocks from the Elat area). However, oxygen isotope ratios of zircon in quartz porphyry [ ?18O(Zrn) = 6.5 to 7.2‰] reveal significant crustal contribution to the rhyolite magma, suggesting that mafic and A-type silicic magmas are not co-genetic, although coeval. Comparison of 18O/ 16O ratios in zircon allows to distinguish two groups of A-type granites in the region: those with mantle-derived source, ?18O(Zrn) ranging from 5.5 to 5.8‰ (Timna and Katharina granitoids) and those with major contribution of the modified juvenile crustal component, ?18O(Zrn) varying from 6.5 to 7.2‰ (Elat quartz porphyry dykes and the Yehoshafat alkaline granite). This suggests that A-type silicic magmas in the northern ANS originated by alternative processes almost coevally.

Katzir, Y.; Litvinovsky, B. A.; Jahn, B. M.; Eyal, M.; Zanvilevich, A. N.; Valley, J. W.; Vapnik, Ye.; Beeri, Y.; Spicuzza, M. J.

2007-09-01

224

Design and development of an ancient Chinese document recognition system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The digitization of ancient Chinese documents presents new challenges to OCR (Optical Character Recognition) research field due to the large character set of ancient Chinese characters, variant font types, and versatile document layout styles, as these documents are historical reflections to the thousands of years of Chinese civilization. After analyzing the general characteristics of ancient Chinese documents, we present a solution for recognition of ancient Chinese documents with regular font-types and layout-styles. Based on the previous work on multilingual OCR in TH-OCR system, we focus on the design and development of two key technologies which include character recognition and page segmentation. Experimental results show that the developed character recognition kernel of 19,635 Chinese characters outperforms our original traditional Chinese recognition kernel; Benchmarked test on printed ancient Chinese books proves that the proposed system is effective for regular ancient Chinese documents.

Peng, Liangrui; Xiu, Pingping; Ding, Xiaoqing

2003-12-01

225

The Atrium: For Devotees of Ancient Greece and Rome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the large number of quality ancient world sites already existing it is difficult for a new one to make room for itself. The Atrium accomplishes this by focusing on resources that connect the present and the past. Teachers can make good use of several features at this site. The Commentarium is a frequently updated journal that provides links to online news stories involving the ancient world. The Ancient World on Television offers a weekly guide to programs that depict the ancient world. The Rostra is a collection of RealAudio programs that discuss this era as well as the latest from Nuntii Latini, Radio Finland's news broadcast in Latin. Other features include This Day in Ancient History and the Bibliotheca, a collection of ancient world Internet resources currently under development.

1997-01-01

226

Mapping the Ancient Maya Landscape from Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project uses new satellite and airborne imagery in combination with remote sensing, GIS, and GPS technology to understand the dynamics of how the Maya successfully interacted with their karst topographic landscape for several centuries in the northern Peten region of Guatemala. The ancient Maya attained one of the greatest population densities in human history in the tropical forest of the Peten, Guatemala, and it was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared for unknown reasons around AD 800. How the Maya were able to successfully manage water and feed this dense population is not known at this time. However, a recent NASA-funded project was the first to investigate large seasonal swamps (bajos) that make up 40 percent of the landscape. Through the use of remote sensing, ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals and water reservoirs have been detected and verified through ground reconnaissance. The results of this research cast new light on the adaptation of the ancient Maya to their environment. Micro-environmental variation within the wetlands was elucidated and the different vegetational associations identified in the satellite imagery. More than 70 new archeological sites within and at the edges of the bajo were mapped and tested. Modification of the landscape by the Maya in the form of dams and reservoirs in the Holmul River and its tributaries and possible drainage canals in bajos was demonstrated. The recent acquisition of one-meter IKONOS imagery and high resolution STAR-3i radar imagery (2.5m backscatter/ 10m DEM), opens new possibilities for understanding how a civilization was able to survive for centuries upon a karst topographic landscape and their human-induced effects upon the local climate. This understanding is critical for the current population that is presently experiencing rapid population growth and destroying the landscape through non-traditional farming and grazing techniques, resulting in socioeconomic problems.

Sever, Tom

2003-01-01

227

Assessing the maximum contribution from ancient populations.  

PubMed

Ancestral relationships between populations separated by time represent an often neglected dimension in population genetics, a field which historically has focused on analysis of spatially distributed samples from the same point in time. Models are usually straightforward when two time-separated populations are assumed to be completely isolated from all other populations. However, this is usually an unrealistically stringent assumption when there is gene flow with other populations. Here, we investigate continuity in the presence of gene flow from unknown populations. This setup allows a more nuanced treatment of questions regarding population continuity in terms of "level of contribution" from a particular ancient population to a more recent population. We propose a statistical framework which makes use of a biallelic marker sampled at two different points in time to assess population contribution, and present two different interpretations of the concept. We apply the approach to published data from a prehistoric human population in Scandinavia (Malmström H, Gilbert MTP, Thomas MG, Brandström M, Storå J, Molnar P, Andersen PK, Bendixen C, Holmlund G, Götherström A, et al. 2009. Ancient DNA reveals lack of continuity between Neolithic hunter-gatherers and contemporary Scandinavians. Curr Biol. 19:1758-1762) and Pleistocene woolly mammoth (Barnes I, Shapiro B, Lister A, Kuznetsova T, Sher A, Guthrie D, Thomas MG. 2007. Genetic structure and extinction of the woolly mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius. Curr Biol. 17:1072-1075; Debruyne R, Chu G, King CE, Bos K, Kuch M, Schwarz C, Szpak P, Gröcke DR, Matheus P, Zazula G, et al. 2008. Out of America: ancient DNA evidence for a new world origin of late quaternary woolly mammoths. Curr Biol. 18:1320-1326). PMID:24497031

Sjödin, Per; Skoglund, Pontus; Jakobsson, Mattias

2014-05-01

228

Food, dietetics and nutrition in ancient India.  

PubMed

In pre-agricultural era, entire mankind consumed meat as early man was a hunter. Possibly he ate from plants sources which grew in the wilderness. With the advent of agriculture as an outcome of civilization, man acquired the ability to cultivate what he wanted, as by now he was influenced to some extent by the selection of the food that he wanted to eat. All this ultimately led to him taking to vegeterianism, which probably did not occur until approximately 1500 B.C. It is tried in this study to examine the concept of nutrition, balanced diet, appetite, food etiquette, food sanitation and food poisoning etc. in ancient India. PMID:11618846

Manyam, B V

1995-01-01

229

Identification of ancient comets and chronology.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taking the comet records in the book "Huai Nan Zi Bing Lue Xun" as an example, the authors discuss the possibility of determination of remote historic ages in the light of ancient comet records with the theory of statistics and dynamics. The conclusion is that the probability is less than 0.6%. For this reason, one cannot affirm remote historic ages if the comet record is simple. Even as a circumstantial evidence, its weight is very small. So one may ignore comet records, when one determines remote historic ages with other methods.

Lu, Xianwen; Jiang, Xiaoyuan; Niu, Weixing

1999-08-01

230

On Borders: From Ancient to Postmodern Times  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article deals with the evolution of the concept of borders between human groups and with its slow evolution from the initial no men's land zones to the ideal single-dimension linear borders. In ancient times the first borders were natural, such as mountain ranges or large rivers until, with the development of Geodesy, astronomical borders based on meridians and parallels became a favourite natural base. Actually, Modern States adopted these to fix limits in unknown conquered territories. The postmodern thought led give more importance to cultural borders until, in the most recent times, is becoming rather impossible to fix borders in the virtual cyberspace.

Bellezza, G.

2013-11-01

231

Ancient Astrology and Divination on the Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents over 100 links to "reliable information about ancient (primarily Greek and Roman) astrology and divination" compiled by graduate student Tim Spaulding for fellow non-believers in these arts and sciences. Materials listed include books, journal articles, and Websites with yet more links to additional sites. Some highlights under astrology are an exhibition of star atlases from the Linda Hall Library, Kansas City; a zodiac mosaic on the floor of Beth Alpha, a temple in Israel; and papyrus documents that mention astrological terms, from a pre-executed search of University of Michigan's collection. Resources open in a new window, allowing users to return to Spaulding's list easily.

232

Modern and ancient alluvial fan deposits  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the structure and depositional processes of alluvial fans (river outwash deposits) has a special interest for those involved with the exploration of petroleum and many minerals. This collection of facsimile reprints of significant and classical research papers sheds new light on the subject. This reference covers the stratigraphy, sedimentology, and depositional processes of modern and ancient alluvial fans. Geographical areas considered include Arctic Canada, the American Southwest, Australia, Wyoming, Norway, and Spain. It includes a state-of-the-art introduction by the editor along with commentaries on all the papers included, a master author citation index and a subject index, and a chronological listing of early studies of alluvial fans.

Nilsen, T.H.

1985-01-01

233

The Ancient Maya Landscape from Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Peten, once inhabited by a population of several million before the collapse of the ancient Maya in the 10th and 11th centuries, is being repopulated toward its former demographic peak. Environmental dynamics, however, impose severe constraints to further development. Current practices in subsistence, commercial agriculture, and cattle raising are causing rapid deforestation resulting in the destruction of environmental and archeological resources. The use of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology is a cost-effective methodology for addressing issues in Maya archeology as well as monitoring the environmental impacts being experienced by the current population.

Sever, T.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

234

China: A Simulation of Ancient Chung Kuo, the World's Most Ancient Civilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This simulation allows students to participate in the "ways" of ancient Chinese history and culture. The unit is organized into five major phases or "li's." Students may spend about one week on activities in each "li" which focuses on a major aspect of Chinese history, culture, or geography. In each "li" students participate in activities that…

Sargent, Marcia; Baral, Wanda

235

Rapid analysis of barley straw before and after dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment by photoluminescence.  

PubMed

The fluorescence intensities (FIs) of raw and pretreated barley straws were measured by fluorescence microscopy, and the difference in the fluorescence intensity of barley straw before and after dilute acid pretreatment was analyzed by investigation of the major compounds of barley straw. The difference in fluorescence intensity was due to the difference in xylan content. Barley straw was pretreated using dilute sulfuric acid at various conditions and the correlation between the fluorescence intensity and glucose yield of barley straw was investigated. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) of the correlation was found to be 72.28%. Also the calibration of fluorescence intensity with the xylan content was performed. In addition, the absorption and emission spectra of the raw and the pretreated barley straw were examined to verify the proposed method. The absorption and emission wave lengths were 550 nm and 665 nm, respectively. PMID:23972397

Kim, Sung Bong; Cui, Chunzhi; Lee, Ja Hyun; Lee, Sang Jun; Ahn, Dong June; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Jun Seok; Kim, Seung Wook

2013-10-01

236

Inheritance and chromosome locations of scald-resistance genes derived from Iranian and Turkish wild barleys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of advanced backcross barley lines derived from crosses between cv Clipper and different Iranian and Turkish wild barleys,\\u000a which are homozygous for particular isozyme-marked donor intervals, was screened for resistance to barley scald. Eight lines\\u000a that consistently exhibited scald resistance were identified, and genetic analysis indicated that single dominant genes encoded\\u000a resistance in five of the lines, single

D. F. Garvin; A. H. D. Brown; J. J. Burdon

1997-01-01

237

Influence of ? ?glucanase on feeding value of barley for poultry and moisture content of excreta  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The cause of the sticky droppings and poor performance that can occur when barley is fed to poultry was investigated.2. The problems could be overcome by water?treatment of the barley or by addition of ??glucanase.3. The problems appear to be caused by a viscous factor, which is hydrolysed by ??glucanase. Water?treatment allows hydrolysis by enzymes in the barley.4. Heat?treatment

B. Gohl; S. Aldén; K. Elwinger; S. Thomke

1978-01-01

238

Ribosomal DNA Spacer-Length Polymorphisms in Barley: Mendelian Inheritance, Chromosomal Location, and Population Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spacer-length (sl) variation in ribosomal RNA gene clusters (rDNA) was surveyed in 502 individual barley plants, including samples from 50 accessions of cultivated barley, 25 accessions of its wild ancestor, and five generations of composite cross II (CCII), an experimental population of barley. In total, 17 rDNA sl phenotypes, made up of 15 different rDNA sl variants, were observed. The

M. A. Saghai-Maroof; K. M. Soliman; R. A. Jorgensen; R. W. Allard

1984-01-01

239

The non-touching method of the malting barley quality evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first important stage of the malt production processes is the malting barley quality evaluation. Presented project was focused on the visual features of malting barley grains. The principal aim was to elaborate complete methodology to determine the level of grains contamination. The article describes the mechanisms of choosing parameters which can distinguish useful for the malt production grains from defects and impurities. Original computer system 'Hordeum v 3.1' helped obtain graphical data from images of contaminated barley samples. Research carried out in this area can improve the quality evaluation process of malting barley.

Raba, B.; Nowakowski, K.; Lewicki, A.; Przyby?, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Koszela, K.; Boniecki, P.; Mueller, W.

2014-04-01

240

Volatile compound-mediated interactions between barley and pathogenic fungi in the soil.  

PubMed

Plants are able to interact with their environment by emitting volatile organic compounds. We investigated the volatile interactions that take place below ground between barley roots and two pathogenic fungi, Cochliobolus sativus and Fusarium culmorum. The volatile molecules emitted by each fungus, by non-infected barley roots and by barley roots infected with one of the fungi or the two of them were extracted by head-space solid phase micro extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The effect of fungal volatiles on barley growth and the effect of barley root volatiles on fungal growth were assessed by cultivating both organisms in a shared atmosphere without any physical contact. The results show that volatile organic compounds, especially terpenes, are newly emitted during the interaction between fungi and barley roots. The volatile molecules released by non-infected barley roots did not significantly affect fungal growth, whereas the volatile molecules released by pathogenic fungi decreased the length of barley roots by 19 to 21.5% and the surface of aerial parts by 15%. The spectrum of the volatiles released by infected barley roots had no significant effect on F. culmorum growth, but decreased C. sativus growth by 13 to 17%. This paper identifies the volatile organic compounds emitted by two pathogenic fungi and shows that pathogenic fungi can modify volatile emission by infected plants. Our results open promising perspectives concerning the biological control of edaphic diseases. PMID:23818966

Fiers, Marie; Lognay, Georges; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Jijakli, M Haïssam

2013-01-01

241

Change of hydrolase activity in germinating seeds of trxS transgenic barley.  

PubMed

Genetic modification of barley variety can be an efficient way to improve beer quality. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of trxS gene on hydrolases activities in transgenic and non-transgenic barley seeds. The results showed that alpha-amylase, free beta-amylase and limit dextrinase activity were increased in transgenic seeds in comparison with non-transgenic seeds. Sulfhydryl content of protein in transgenic seeds was also higher than that in non-transgenic seeds, suggesting that trxS gene could express in barley seeds, which opens a new way for breeding new barley varieties to improve beer quality. PMID:19160832

Wei, Li; Kong, Weiwei; Yin, Jun

2008-09-01

242

Metal solubility enhancing peptides derived from barley protein.  

PubMed

Mineral supplements are required to be soluble as their bioavailability is highly correlated to their solubility in body fluids. In this study, metal binding capacity of barley protein hydrolysates and their purified fractions was investigated and expressed as increase in solubility of metal ions. Metal ions in the presence of hydrolysates exhibited a remarkable increase in solubility: 118, 32, 10, 29 and 35-fold for Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Ca(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+), respectively. A mixture of low molecular weight peptides possesses a synergistic combination of both charged and hydrophobic residues and achieves the best binding metal ions. Electrostatic interactions via charged side chains and coordination binding with His and Cys, initially attract the metal ions and, afterward, hydrophobic interactions and aromatic ring stacking stabilize the positioning of metal ions in the structure of the peptide. Barley hordein hydrolysates show potential as dietary supplements that enhance both mineral solubility and bioavailability. PMID:24767088

Eckert, Ewelina; Bamdad, Fatemeh; Chen, Lingyun

2014-09-15

243

Effect of ozone pretreatment on hydrogen production from barley straw.  

PubMed

Application of ozone technology to lignocellulosic biohydrogen production was explored with a barley straw. Ozone pretreatment effectively degraded the straw lignin and increased reducing sugar yield. A simultaneous enzyme hydrolysis and dark fermentation experiment was conducted using a mixed anaerobic consortium together with saccharification enzymes. Both untreated and ozonated samples produced hydrogen. Compared to the untreated group, hydrogen produced by the groups ozonated for 15, 30, 45 and 90 min increased 99%, 133%, 166% and 94%, respectively. Some inhibitory effect on hydrogen production was observed with the samples ozonated for 90 min, and the inhibition was on the fermentative microorganisms, not the saccharification enzymes. These results demonstrate that production of biohydrogen from barley straw, a lignocellulosic biomass, can be significantly enhanced by ozone pretreatment. PMID:23891834

Wu, Jiangning; Ein-Mozaffari, Farhad; Upreti, Simant

2013-09-01

244

The Learning of Ancient Languages as (super)Human Effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems around teaching ancient languages are discussed. It is suggested to assume that learning and teaching of languages require some superhuman effort. Author's experience of teaching ancient languages and producing electronic educational tools both for text version and for Internet in Faculty of Theology in University of Latvia is described. Problems around cognitive models of reasoning and place of languages

Dainis Zeps

245

Ancient Medicine/Medicina Antiqua (AM/MA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is dedicated to the study of ancient medicine. Medicina Antiqua, is a collaborative project sponsored by The Episcopal Academy and maintained by Dr. Lee T. Pearcy. Users will find modest, but selective collections of bibliographies, hypertexts, and links related to the study of ancient medicine. The site also posts recent news and announcements in the field.

1998-01-01

246

Computer animations of ancient Greek and Arabic planetary models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new set of computer animations is available for those who teach the ancient models of planetary motion, those who want to learn those models, or even those who enjoy simply contemplating just how clever the ancient astronomers were. The animations include the models from Ptolemy's Almagest (ca. 150 AD) and those from the Maragha school of Arabic astronomy (ca.

Dennis Duke

2004-01-01

247

An Ancient Inca Tax and Metallurgy in Peru  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The discovery of ancient Inca tax rulers and other metallurgical objects in Peru show that the ancient civilizations of the country smelted metals. The analysis shows that the smelters in Peru switched from the production of copper to silver after a tax was imposed on them by the Inca rulers.

Journal of Chemical Education, 2007

2007-01-01

248

Selective laser cleaning of chlorine on ancient coins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results about the efficiency of the laser cleaning on the reduction of corrosion products from the surface of ancient coins are reported. In this work an ancient copper coin datable from 1500 to 1600 A.D. and a UV excimer laser were utilized. The goal of this work consists to study the potentiality of UV laser treatment in the reduction of

Domenico Aiello; Alessandro Buccolieri; Giovanni Buccolieri; Alfredo Castellano; Massimo Di Giulio; Laura Sandra Leo; Antonella Lorusso; Gloria Nassisi; Vincenzo Nassisi; Lorenzo Torrisi

2007-01-01

249

ANIMAL DNA IN PCR REAGENTS PLAGUES ANCIENT DNA RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Ancient DNA analysis is becoming widespread. These studies use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify minute quantities of heavily damaged template. Unusual steps are taken to achieve the sensitivity necessary to detect ancient DNA, including high-cycle PCR amplification targ...

250

Effective Range Detection Approach for Ancient Malacca Virtual Walkthrough  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present and examine range detection approach for view frustum culling that effectively speed-up the interactive virtual heritage project namely Ancient Malacca Virtual Walkthrough. The Ancient Malacca Virtual Walkthrough is a project that focuses on the modeling and visualization of Malacca city in 15th century. Traditional six plane view frustum culling approach use the plane equation to

Mohd Shahrizal Sunar; Abdullah Mohd Zin; Tengku Mohd Tengku Sembok

251

Postulation of resistance genes to barley diseases in heterogeneous varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance to causal agents of diseases is an important varietal characteristic that influences the management practice of\\u000a crop plants and thus production costs of commodities. At present, almost all European barley varieties possess at least one\\u000a major gene for resistance to powdery mildew. After hybridizing selected parental varieties, resistance genes often segregate\\u000a in subsequent generations and, therefore, some varieties comprise

Antonín Dreiseitl

2011-01-01

252

Aluminum tolerance in barley: Methods for screening and genetic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum (Al) tolerance in roots of two cultivars of barley was studied using hematoxylin staining and root re-growth procedures.\\u000a This study was performed in two F2 segregating populations originated from crosses between the tolerant FM-404 and sensitive Harrington cultivars. The F2 progeny analysed with hematoxylin staining revealed a segregation ratio of 3 tolerant: 1 sensitive, showing that the Al tolerance

Cinara Lima Echart; José Fernandes Barbosa-Neto; David F. Garvin; Suzana Cavalli-Molina

2002-01-01

253

Genetic impacts of the hull on barley grain quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley hull plays an important role in malt and feed quality and processing. In this study we measured the variation in hull con-tent along with other grain quality traits namely, kernel discolouration and degree of pre-harvest sprouting, in a single map-ping population. There were significant (p < 0.05) genetic as well as environment effects. In addition, heritability was calculated for

Glen P Fox; Alison M Kelly; Mehmet Cakir; Gary Bloustein; David ME Poulsen; P Andrew Inkerman; Robert J Henry

2006-01-01

254

Accumulation of Sugars in Barley Seedlings on Very Acid Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

FOR a number of years it has been noticed at Woburn that seedling barley plants sown in soil too acid to allow normal growth (pH 4.3 or thereabouts) were very much more attractive to small birds (chaffinches and the like) than similar seedlings grown on a normal soil (pH 6.0-6.5) and that consequently a very large proportion of the growing

T. W. Barnes

1945-01-01

255

Control of barley yellow dwarf virus in cereals  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) is the most important disease affecting cereal crops in New Zealand.2. Losses from BYDV in the total wheat crop have been up to 25 per cent in recent years.3. Effective control of BYDV in autumn- and early winter-sown wheat in New Zealand has been achieved by 1 application of a good systemic organo-phosphate spray

Harvey C. Smith

1963-01-01

256

Production of Barley yellow dwarf virus antisera by DNA immunization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibodies were produced against the 22-kDa coat protein (CP) of Barley yellow dwarf virus strain PAV (BYDV-PAV) by DNA immunization. A cDNA sequence encoding the 22-kDa CP was cloned into a mammalian expression vector (pcDNA22K), entrapped in liposomes, and injected intramuscularly into BALB\\/c mice. To target the antigen to sites of immune induction and, thereby, enhance the immune response, the

Narinder Pal; Jae Sun Moon; Jagdeep Sandhu; Leslie L. Domier; Cleora J. DArcy

2000-01-01

257

Composition, Microstructure, Water Imbibition, and Thermal Properties of Abraded Barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 75(5):677-685 Barley, nonwaxy hull (cvs. Crystal and Meltan) and waxy hull-less (cvs. Merlin and Waxbar), was abraded at 10, 20, and 40% of kernel weight on a laboratory scale and commercially abraded at two levels: fine and coarse. In 40% abraded kernels of Crystal, protein, ash, and free lipids contents decreased by 1.6, 1.4, and 1.4%, respectively, and

A. Klamczynski; B.-K. Baik; Z. Czuchajowska

1998-01-01

258

Cadmium translocation and accumulation in developing barley grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination has posed a serious problem for safe food production and become a potential agricultural and\\u000a environmental hazard worldwide. In order to study the transport of Cd into the developing grains, detached ears of two-rowed\\u000a barley cv. ZAU 3 were cultured in Cd stressed nutrient solution containing the markers for phloem (rubidium) and xylem (strontium)\\u000a transport. Cd

Fei Chen; Feibo Wu; Jing Dong; Eva Vincze; Guoping Zhang; Fang Wang; Youzhong Huang; Kang Wei

2007-01-01

259

The nutritive value of new high-lysine barley mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four new high-lysine barley mutants, the mother variety ‘Sultan’, and the cultivar ‘Lysimax’ with the high-lysine gene lys3a were grown in a field trial in 1992 at Riso, Denmark. Yield and 1000 kernel weights were measured. The material was analyzed for protein, fat, starch, soluble non-starch polysaccharides, insoluble non-starch polysaccharides, lignin, ?-glucans, sugars, energy and amino acids. The nutritive value

B. O Eggum; G Brunsgaard; J Jensen

1995-01-01

260

Mercurial-sensitive water transport in barley roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

An isolated barley root was partitioned into the apical and basal part across the partition wall of the double-chamber osmometer.\\u000a Transroot water movement was induced by subjecting the apical part to a sorbitol solution, while the basal part with the cut\\u000a end was in artificial pond water. The rate of transroot osmosis was first low but enhanced by two means,

Masashi Tazawa; Eiji Ohkuma; Mineo Shibasaka; Susumu Nakashima

1997-01-01

261

Farmer participation in barley breeding in Syria, Morocco and Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes experiments on farmer participation in plant breeding conducted in three countries (Morocco, Syria and\\u000a Tunisia) on barley, which is the predominant annual rainfed crop in the most marginal areas of these countries. Trials with\\u000a different types and number of breeding material were planted both on research stations and in farmers' fields. Selection was\\u000a done by professional breeders

S. Ceccarelli; S. Grando; E. Bailey; A. Amri; M. El-Felah; F. Nassif; S. Rezgui; A. Yahyaoui

2001-01-01

262

Brassinosteroid enhances resistance to fusarium diseases of barley.  

PubMed

Fusarium pathogens are among the most damaging pathogens of cereals. These pathogens have the ability to attack the roots, seedlings, and flowering heads of barley and wheat plants with disease, resulting in yield loss and head blight disease and also resulting in the contamination of grain with mycotoxins harmful to human and animal health. There is increasing evidence that brassinosteroid (BR) hormones play an important role in plant defense against both biotic and abiotic stress agents and this study set out to determine if and how BR might affect Fusarium diseases of barley. Application of the epibrassinolide (epiBL) to heads of 'Lux' barley reduced the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium culmorum by 86% and reduced the FHB-associated loss in grain weight by 33%. Growth of plants in soil amended with epiBL resulted in a 28 and 35% reduction in Fusarium seedling blight (FSB) symptoms on the Lux and 'Akashinriki' barley, respectively. Microarray analysis was used to determine whether growth in epiBL-amended soil changed the transcriptional profile in stem base tissue during the early stages of FSB development. At 24 and 48 h post F. culmorum inoculation, there were 146 epiBL-responsive transcripts, the majority being from the 48-h time point (n = 118). Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis validated the results for eight transcripts, including five defense genes. The results of gene expression studies show that chromatin remodeling, hormonal signaling, photosynthesis, and pathogenesis-related genes are activated in plants as a result of growth in epiBL. PMID:23777406

Ali, Shahin S; Kumar, G B Sunil; Khan, Mojibur; Doohan, Fiona M

2013-12-01

263

Generation of Large Numbers of lndependently Transformed Fertile Barley Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid, efficient, and reproducible system to generate large numbers of independently transformed, self-fertile, transgenic bar- ley (Hordeum vurgare 1.) plants is described. lmmature zygotic embryos, young callus, and microspore-derived embryos were bombarded with a plasmid containing bar and uidA either alone or in combination with another plasmid containing a barley yellow dwarf virus coat protein (BYDVcp) gene. A total

Yuechun Wan; Peggy C. Lemaux

1994-01-01

264

Stabilization of emulsions and foams using barley ?-glucan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley ?-glucan (BBG) is receiving increasing attention as a food hydrocolloid. Stability of foams and emulsions was assessed using whey protein concentrate (WPC) as an emulsifier and foaming agent, and BBG gum extracted at pilot plant or laboratory scale as a stabilizer. WPC had a significant lowering effect (P?0.05) on surface tension of water and water–oil interfacial tension, while the

Zvonko Burkus; Feral Temelli

2000-01-01

265

Transformation of barley by microinjection into isolated zygote protoplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley zygote protoplasts were mechanically isolated, embedded in agarose droplets, and microinjected with a rice actin promoter Act1–gusA-nos gene construct. On average 62% of the cells survived the injection and of these 55% continued development into embryo-like structures and eventually to plants. PCR screening for the presence of a 307-bp fragment in the middle of the gusA gene showed that

Preben Bach Holm; Ole Olsen; Martin Schnorf; Henrik Brinch-Pedersen; Søren Knudsen

2000-01-01

266

Characterization of the epidermis from barley primary leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cation and anion distribution between the epidermis and mesophyll of primary leaves of 10-d-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings was studied in relation to growth conditions. A new method was employed to isolate epidermal protoplasts. The following observations were made: (i) Under standard hydroponic growth conditions, K+ was the dominant cation and NO33-the predominant anion, both in epidermal and

K. J. Dietz; M. Schramm; B. Lang; A. Lanzl-Schramm; C. Dürr; E. Martinoia

1992-01-01

267

Salinity-induced calcium deficiencies in wheat and barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity-calcium interactions, which have been shown to be important in plants grown in dryland saline soils of the Canadian prairies, were studied in two species differing in salt tolerance. In solution culture, wheat showed a greater reduction in growth and a higher incidence of foliar Ca deficiency symptoms than barley when grown under MgSO4 or Na2SO4 plus MgSO4 salt stress.

D. L. Ehret; R. E. Redmann; B. L. Harvey; A. Cipywnyk

1990-01-01

268

Estimating aquifer parameters from analysis of forced fluctuations in well level: An example from the Nubian Formation near Aswan, Egypt: 3. Diffusivity estimates for saturated and unsaturated zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure variations provide a broadband signal that may force a sympathetic response in well water levels. In this paper, time series analysis techniques are used to estimate the response as a frequency-dependent admittance function, which is then modeled to provide estimates of the fluid transport properties of strata. The data derive from five cased piezometer wells sampling aquifers in the Nubian Formation southwest of Aswan, Egypt. Three shallow wells (100-140 m deep) sample a water table aquifer; a fourth ("W3"; 400 m deep) samples a basal aquifer in the same area that behaves in a confined manner up to a period of several years. The fifth well samples another basal aquifer and shows evidence of partial blockage. Nontidal water level variations in the shallow wells are due almost entirely to barometrically driven flow of air and water. Using a simple model to fit the observed barometric admittance spectra, we obtain estimates of horizontal and vertical permeabilities (for water) in the saturated zone. Local horizontal permeability is constrained by modeling the effects of flow-induced pressure gradients near the screen. For the W3 deep well sampling the basal aquifer, the resulting values (0.15-0.3 ?2) are marginally lower than the large-scale (5 km) estimates (0.32-0.43 ?2) derived in a previous paper. However, the values for the three wells sampling the water table aquifer, although consistent among themselves (0.2-0.5 ?2), are significantly lower than the large-scale estimate (1.0-1.5 ?2). This is contrary to what might be expected given that the wells are preferentially screened in clean sandstones. Vertical permeability, estimated by modeling partial confinement effects, is constrained for only one well. A low value was obtained because of the presence of claystone beds in the diffusion path between screen and water table at this well. The effects of air wave diffusion are clearly manifest in the spectra of one well where the water table lay at a depth of about 40 m. The form of the spectra was well fit by ascribing a uniform pneumatic diffusivity of 1.75×10 m-3m2/s to the unsaturated zone. However, it was also necessary to include an apparent attenuation of the air wave at the capillary fringe of about 0.5. We propose that the effect is due not to attenuation but that it reflects "compression" of the phreatic surface arising from the presence of trapped air pockets in the underlying saturated zone. A 40-m rise in the water table at the site during the decade prior to the measurements might explain the presence of significant quantities of trapped air. This rise in water table, together with the arid climate, might be taken to suggest that the moisture content of the unsaturated zone is negligible (except within a meter or so of the water table). However, calculation of the intrinsic rock permeability from pneumatic diffusivity assuming zero moisture content yields an estimate which is considered to be too low. The likely explanation is that the assumption of zero moisture content is in error, despite conditions which are as favorable as are ever likely to be realized under field conditions.

Evans, Keith; Beavan, John; Simpson, David; Mousa, Sameh

1991-07-01

269

Westward prograding metamorphism in mantle peridotites from the Eastern Desert of Egypt: clues to the subduction polarity of the Arabian Nubian Shield intra-oceanic arc ophiolite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neoproterozoic arc mantle beneath the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS) in the Eastern Desert (ED) of Egypt exhumed due to intra-oceanic upthrusting are represented mainly by exposed ophiolitic peridotites serpentinized to different degree. Metamorphism is related to the Pan-African collision and the subduction of oceanic lithosphere. However, polarity of the Pan-African intra-oceanic subduction is still questionable. We here trace the variation of the degree of serpentinization and regional metamorphism of six serpentinite masses, widely distributed in the ED (from the east to the west: W (Wadi). Alam, W. Igla, W. Mubarak, G. El-Maiyit, W. Um El Saneyat and W. Atalla). This is based on their mineralogy, textures and mineral chemistry. The studied rocks have harzburgite composition and they all formed in oceanic mantle wedge in the fore-arc setting, except those from W. Atalla that formed in MOR-arc transition setting. Much difference in the degree of serpentinization is obvious among these rocks. They are mainly partly serpentinized containing primary olivine and orthopyroxene at W. Alam and W. Igla, while they are completely serpentinized in the other localities. With the increased degree of metamorphism, textures were transformed from the pseudomorphic to the non-pseudomorphic. The most common retrograde assemblage is composed of lizardite ± chrysotile± brucite± magnetite. The serpentine prograde textures can be viewed as a continuum from retrograde lizardite pseudomorphic textures, to very fine-grained transitional texture of lizardite and chrysotile, to chrysotile-antigorite interlocking texture and finally to antigorite interpenetrating texture. These textures appear to represent successive stages in a recrystallization event. In late subduction-related metamorphism and early collisional emplacement stage, mylonitic-antigorite serpentinites formed and antigorite became the major phase in G. El-Maiyit, Um El-Saneyat and W. Atalla. The polygonal units of the hourglass texture and the penetrative fabric of the serrate veins in all serpentinized peridotites indicate that fracturing of these rocks was developed in a dynamic regime. The late emplacement of veins of brucite, carbonates and oxides were most probably formed during the final stage of exhumation and under a stress regime in the brittle-ductile transition. As the grade of metamorphism increases Fe released from olivine and orthopyroxene and Cr released from chromite are accommodating in antigorite-rich serpentinites. Serpentine in veins also tends to have less substitutions, which is consistent with the fact that Al, Cr and Ni are relatively immobile during alteration and therefore remain in their original microstructural site. Compositional zoning in spinel grains in all serpentinites reflect variation in the degree of alteration. The biggest variation of spinel compositions are among serpentinites from Um El-Saneyat and W. Atalla. With increasing the degree of alteration, size of the aluminian chromite core decreases while width of the intermediate Fe3+-rich aluminian chromite to ferrian-chromite zone and the outer Cr-magnetite to magnetite zones increase. The alteration zones were formed in a temperature < 400 ° C to 550 ° C corresponding to the low green-schist to the lower amphibolite facies. We propose that this is concordant with a westward polarity of the subducting oceanic lithosphere, associating the intra-oceanic arc ophiolite during the closure of the Mozambique ocean.

Salam Abu El-Ela, Abdel; Hamdy, Mohamed; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hassan, Adel; Gamal El Dien, Hamed

2013-04-01

270

Nitrate Uptake into Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Plants 1  

PubMed Central

Evidence is presented that chlorate is an extremely good analog for nitrate during nitrate uptake by intact barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Fergus) roots. The depletion of ClO3? or NO3? from uptake media over 2 to 6 hours by seedlings was found to be dependent on combined NO3? plus ClO3? concentrations, and total anion uptake was equivalent at different NO3?/ClO3? ratios. After loading barley seedlings with 36ClO3? for 6 hours, kinetic parameters were derived from the analysis of efflux of [36Cl] chlorate into unlabeled solution. On the basis of this analysis, the half times for exchange for the cytoplasmic and vacuolar phases were 17 minutes and 20 hours, respectively. Data pooled from a number of different experiments were used to calculate kinetic constants (Km and Vmax) for 36ClO3? influx into barley roots at different external ClO3?/NO3? ratios, using short (10 minutes) influx times. There appeared to be no discrimination by the root cells between ClO3? and NO3?. Lineweaver-Burk analysis of the interaction between nitrate and chlorate were characteristic of competitive inhibition at low nitrate concentrations (0-0.5 mm). At higher concentrations, in the range of >1 mm, similar interactions between these ions were evident.

Deane-Drummond, Celia E.; Glass, Anthony D. M.

1982-01-01

271

Pyramiding and dissecting disease resistance QTL to barley stripe rust.  

PubMed

Quantitative resistance (QR) to disease is usually more durable than qualitative resistance, but its genetic basis is not well understood. We used the barley/barley stripe rust pathosystem as a model for the characterization of the QR phenotype and associated genomic regions. As an intermediate step in the preparation of near-isogenic lines representing individual QTL alleles and combinations of QTL alleles in a homogeneous genetic background, we developed a set of QTL introgression lines in a susceptible background. These intermediate barley near-isogenic (i-BISON) lines represent disease resistance QTL combined in one-, two-, and three-way combinations in a susceptible background. We measured four components of disease resistance on the i-BISON lines: latent period, infection efficiency, lesion size, and pustule density. The greatest differences between the target QTL introgressions and the susceptible controls were for the latter three traits. On average, however, the QTL introgressions also had longer latent periods than the susceptible parent (Baronesse). There were significant differences in the magnitudes of effects of different QTL alleles. The 4H QTL allele had the largest effect, followed by the alleles on 1H and 5H. Pyramiding multiple QTL alleles led to higher levels of resistance in terms of all components of QR except latent period. PMID:16736138

Richardson, K L; Vales, M I; Kling, J G; Mundt, C C; Hayes, P M

2006-08-01

272

Megapixel imaging of (micro)nutrients in mature barley grains  

PubMed Central

Understanding the accumulation and distribution of essential nutrients in cereals is of primary importance for improving the nutritional quality of this staple food. While recent studies have improved the understanding of micronutrient loading into the barley grain, a detailed characterization of the distribution of micronutrients within the grain is still lacking. High-definition synchrotron X-ray fluorescence was used to investigate the distribution and association of essential elements in barley grain at the micro scale. Micronutrient distribution within the scutellum and the embryo was shown to be highly variable between elements in relation to various morphological features. In the rest of the grain, the distribution of some elements such as Cu and Zn was not limited to the aleurone layer but extended into the endosperm. This pattern of distribution was less marked in the case of Fe and, in particular, Mn. A significant difference in element distribution was also found between the ventral and dorsal part of the grains. The correlation between the elements was not consistent between and within tissues, indicating that the transport and storage of elements is highly regulated. The complexity of the spatial distribution and associations has important implications for improving the nutritional content of cereal crops such as barley.

Lombi, Enzo; Smith, Euan; Hansen, Thomas H.; Paterson, David; de Jonge, Martin D.; Howard, Daryl L.; Persson, Daniel P.; Husted, S?ren; Ryan, Chris; Schjoerring, Jan K.

2011-01-01

273

Freezing of Barley Studied by Infrared Video Thermography1  

PubMed Central

Freezing of barley (Hordeum vulgare), Hordeum murinum, and Holcus lanatus was studied using infrared video thermography. In the field, ice could enter H. lanatus leaves through hydathodes. In laboratory tests with barley, initially 0.4% of the leaf water froze, spreading in alternate strips of high and low freezing intensity longitudinally at 1 to 4 cm s?1, and simultaneously spreading laterally at 0.3 cm s?1. Similar results were obtained in the field with H. lanatus. A distinct second, more intense, freezing event spread slowly from the margins of the leaves toward the midrib. Organs of uprooted barley tested in the laboratory froze in this order: nucleated leaf, roots, older leaves, younger leaves, and secondary tillers. When ice spread from one leaf to the rest of the plant the crown delayed spread to the roots and other leaves. There was a longer delay above than below ?2°C, helping to protect the crown from freezing during mild frosts. Initial spread of freezing was not damaging. However, the initial spread is a prerequisite for the second freezing event, which can cause damage. The route of the initial spread of ice may be extracellular, drawing water from more gel-like parts of the cell wall.

Pearce, Roger S.; Fuller, Michael P.

2001-01-01

274

Characterization of a barley Rubisco activase gene promoter  

SciTech Connect

Barley Rubisco Activase (Rca) is a nuclear encoded chloroplast enzyme that activates Rubisco to catalytic competence. Rca mRNA accumulation in barley is light-regulated; the 5{prime}-flanking region of a highly expressed barley Rca gene (HvRca-1) contains several sequence motifs similar to those found in the promoter of other light-regulated, nuclear genes. We have characterized the cis-acting regulatory regions of HvRca-1 by deletion analysis of the 5{prime} flanking region of a cloned gene. These constructs have been assayed in vitro by gel mobility shift assays, as well as by DNA footprinting. Putative regulatory sequences detected in vitro have also been tested in vivo by constructing chimeric genes consisting of deletion mutant promoters fused to a promoterless {beta}-glucuronidase reporter gene. Comparison of results obtained from complimentary parallel in vitro and in vivo assays of identical promoter deletions have provided information on cis-acting regulatory regions of HvRca-1.

Strickland, J.A.; Rundle, S.J.; Zielinski, R. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))

1990-05-01

275

Mapping The Ancient Maya Landscape From Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Peten region of northern Guatemala is one of the last places on earth where major archeological sites remain to be discovered. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper and IKONOS satellite and airborne Star3-I radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. The use of bajos for farming has been a source of debate within the professional community for many years. But the recent detection and verification of cultural features within the bajo system by our research team are providing conclusive evidence that the ancient Maya had adapted well to wetland environments from the earliest times and utilized them until the time of the Maya collapse. The use of the bajos for farming is also an important resource for the future of the current inhabitants who are experiencing rapid population growth. Remote sensing imagery is also demonstrating that in the Preclassic period (600 BC- AD 250), the Maya had already achieved a high organizational level as evidenced by the construction of massive temples and an elaborate inter-connecting roadway system. Although they experienced several setbacks such as droughts and hurricanes, the Maya nevertheless managed the delicate forest ecosystem successfully for several centuries. However, around AD 800, something happened to the Maya to cause their rapid decline and eventual disappearance from the region. The evidence indicates that at this time there was increased climatic dryness, extensive deforestation, overpopulation, and widespread warfare. This raises a question that is relevant to the contemporary world-namely, how severe do internal stresses in a civilization have to become before relatively minor climate shifts can trigger a widespread cultural collapse?

Sever, Tom; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

276

Information about Macedonian medicine in ancient Greece.  

PubMed

Ancient Greek Macedonians were highly interested in the improvement of their physical and psychological health. At first, they worshiped the mythical god Asclepius and his daughter Hygieia. In at least 24 places in northern Greece, in Halkidiki, Thessaloniki, Kozani, Kavala, Thassos, Serres and other places, archaelogical findings were related to Asclepius. Macedonian kings were also interested in the development of medicine, for the sake of their fellow citizens and their soldiers. Characteristic examples are the close relations of Hippocrates with king Perdikas (5(th) century B.C.) and of Nicomachus (Aristotle's father being a physician) with king Amintas. Alexander the Great had as his personal physician, the famous physician Philippos of Acarnania. An incident between Alexander and Philippos of Acarnania shows the respect of Macedonian kings to their doctors: Alexander became ill after a bath in the frozen river Cydnus (near ancient Tarsus). At this time he received a letter from his general Parmenion for not to trust his physician. Alexander gave this letter to Philippos to read it and while Philippos was reading it and was rather frightened, he saw Alexander drinking the medicine he had given him. We may note that Alexander the Great as a student of Aristotle had a general education about medicine. Archaeological findings revealed two funerary monuments of physicians: a doctor from Thasos, who practiced in Pella as a public physician during the 3rd quarter of the 4(th) century B.C. and a physician named Alexander, who lived in the 1rst half of the 5(th) century A.D. The tomb of a third physician, probably a surgeon, excavated in Pydna, near mount Olympus (3(rd) century BC)also indicates the importance of physicians in Macedonia. Archaeological findings, like surgical knives, from the Hellinistic and Roman periods, found in the city of Veria, also showed the respect of Ancient Greeks to medicine and to their physicians. An example is the skeleton of a young woman with an anterior cranial hole found in Veria. This trauma was attributed to a delicate surgical operation, perhaps performed to alleviate endocranial pressure. PMID:22087463

Giannouli, Vaitsa; Syrmos, Nikolaos

2011-01-01

277

The ancient shorelines of Lanai, Hawaii, revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three ancient shorelines (the Mahana, Kaluakapo and Manele) have been described at elevations of 365, 190 and 170 m in the Kaluakapo Crater, Lanai, Hawaii [Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 237 (1978) 1]. Stearns' original observation of a fossil-bearing outcrop at 326 m was interpreted as an ancient shoreline. Subsequently, Moore and Moore (1984, 1988) [Science 226 (1984) 1312; Geol. Soc. Am., Spec. Pap. 229 (1988) 101] argued that Stearns' fossil evidence represented the highest inundation of tsunami waves associated with the collapse of the flanks of the Hawaiian Islands chain (the Giant Wave Hypothesis, GWH). Subsequently, Stearns' fossil-bearing swale site has never been observed. Geological field studies of Kaluakapo Crater were conducted to clarify the nature of the highest coral-bearing outcrops preserved on Lanai. These field studies found no support for a shoreline at 326 m. However, the field studies did document a shingle terrace with numerous coral clasts at 190-m elevation. We find in situ fossil-bearing marine deposits at 170-m elevation within Kaluakapo Crater. Furthermore, we observe: the undisturbed nature of marine deposits at 190 m, the preservation of fine-grained materials at 170 m, the absence of in situ deposits with a biological component between 200 and 365 m, the dearth of rounded boulders (lacking weathering rinds) between 200 and 365 m, and the lack of post-depositional burial of the terrace deposit (despite loose debris being present on the high ground surrounding the 190-m terrace). These observations lead us to believe that erosion by the hypothesized giant waves did not take place. Our observations are inconsistent with the "Giant Wave" tsunami inundation of the Kaluakapo Crater area. Thus, we concur with Stearns (1938, 1978) [Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 49 (1938) 615; Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 237 (1978) 1], Jones (1993) [Jones, A.T., 1993. Elevated fossil coral deposits in the Hawaiian Islands: a measure of island uplift in the Quaternary. PhD Dissertation, Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii, 1-274] and Grigg and Jones (1997) [Mar. Geol. 141 (1997) 11.] that the coral-bearing deposits on Lanai represent ancient shorelines and reflect a history of uplift of the island associated with lithospheric deformation of the sea floor around the Hawaiian hot spot.

Keating, Barbara H.; Helsley, Charles E.

2002-06-01

278

The wheat Lr34 gene provides resistance against multiple fungal pathogens in barley.  

PubMed

The Lr34 gene encodes an ABC transporter and has provided wheat with durable, broad-spectrum resistance against multiple fungal pathogens for over 100 years. Because barley does not have an Lr34 ortholog, we expressed Lr34 in barley to investigate its potential as a broad-spectrum resistance resource in another grass species. We found that introduction of the genomic Lr34 sequence confers resistance against barley leaf rust and barley powdery mildew, two pathogens specific for barley but not virulent on wheat. In addition, the barley lines showed enhanced resistance against wheat stem rust. Transformation with the Lr34 cDNA or the genomic susceptible Lr34 allele did not result in increased resistance. Unlike wheat, where Lr34-conferred resistance is associated with adult plants, the genomic Lr34 transgenic barley lines exhibited multipathogen resistance in seedlings. These transgenic barley lines also developed leaf tip necrosis (LTN) in young seedlings, which correlated with an up-regulation of senescence marker genes and several pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. In wheat, transcriptional expression of Lr34 is highest in adult plants and correlates with increased resistance and LTN affecting the last emerging leaf. The severe phenotype of transgenic Lr34 barley resulted in reduced plant growth and total grain weight. These results demonstrate that Lr34 provides enhanced multipathogen resistance early in barley plant development and implies the conservation of the substrate and mechanism of the LR34 transporter and its molecular action between wheat and barley. With controlled gene expression, the use of Lr34 may be valuable for many cereal breeding programmes, particularly given its proven durability. PMID:23711079

Risk, Joanna M; Selter, Liselotte L; Chauhan, Harsh; Krattinger, Simon G; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Goetz; Viccars, Libby A; Richardson, Terese M; Buesing, Gabriele; Troller, Anna; Lagudah, Evans S; Keller, Beat

2013-09-01

279

RFLP mapping of three new loci for resistance genes to powdery mildew ( Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei ) in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new major, race-specific, resistance genes to powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei) were identified in three barley lines, RS42-6*O, RS137-28*E, and HSY-78*A, derived from crosses with wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum). The resistance gene origining from wild barley in line RS42-6*O, showed a recessive mode of inheritance, whereas the other wild barley genes were (semi)-dominant. RFLP mapping

M. Schfinfeld; A. Ragni; G. Fischbeck; A. Jahoor

1996-01-01

280

Ancient Forests and the Tree-Ring Reconstruction of Past Climate (Ancient Forests and Dendroclimatology)  

SciTech Connect

The original presettlement forests of North America have been dramatically altered, but thousands of unmolested ancient forests survive on remote or noncommercial terrain, including dry-site eastern hardwoods such as chestnut oak and post oak, the pinyon-juniper woodlands of the semiarid West, oak woodlands of California and in northeast Mexico, and the boreal forests of Canada and Alaska. Long tree-ring chronologies derived from these ancient forest remnants provide irreplaceable archives of environmental variability which are crucial for evaluating present and future change. Temperature sensitive tree -ring chronologies from cold treeline environments place 20th century warming into long historical perspective, and moisture sensitive tree-ring chronologies provide analogs to the decadal moisture regimes of the 20th century. These tree-ring data suggests that the 16th century megadrought was the most severe-sustained drought to impact North America in 1500 years, and had huge environmental and social impacts at the dawn of European settlement.

Stahle, David (Tree-Ring Laboratory, University of Arkansas) [Tree-Ring Laboratory, University of Arkansas

2003-02-12

281

The effect of ultrasound in combination with thermal treatment on the germinated barley’s alpha-amylase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ultrasound as emerging technology along with thermal treatment were investigated on the activity of barley’s\\u000a alpha-amylase after germination. All experiments were carried out at 20 kHz on an ultrasonic generator by considering the\\u000a three effective factors, temperature (30, 50 and 70°C) and ultrasonic intensities (20, 60 and 100% setting from total power\\u000a of device (460 W)) in

Maryam Yaldagard; Seyed. Ali. Mortazavi; Farideh. Tabatabaie

2008-01-01

282

NOVA: Ancient Creatures of the Deep  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PBS offers this companion Web site to Ancient Creatures of the Deep, a recent NOVA documentary about the coelacanth, a fascinating living fossil. Numerous educational activities are provided, covering a range of grade levels. Students can discover how coelacanth anatomy is like that of no other animal alive (grades 3-12), learn about eight other living fossil fishes (grades 3-12), or "relive the excitement" of the coelacanth's 1938 discovery by reading letters between the discoverer Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer and the expert she consulted (grades 6-12). The Web site also includes a 10-question quiz for 9-12th graders (with detailed explanations of the answers), and a printable activity sheet that has students compare and classify the coelacanth in relation to a moray eel and a bull shark (grades 3-8).

2003-01-01

283

Egypt: Secrets of an Ancient World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While ancient Egyptian civilization has captured the public interest and imagination in recent decades, this well-designed site from the National Geographic Society places its focus on the pyramids created several millennia ago. In the site's most compelling feature, titled Explore the Pyramids, visitors can scroll across the different pyramids, revealing their interior organization and a number of facts about their construction and so on. A brief timeline also gives some information about each of the different Egyptian dynasties. Educators will find much to enjoy here, as the site provides different lesson plans for students, complete with critical questions for discussion and lesson objectives. Finally, there is an online journal written by National Geographic reporter Nancy Gupton that documents her own personal experiences traveling around the pyramids of Egypt.

2002-01-01

284

Dino News / Ancient Mammals / The Sleepy Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These three twenty minute radio broadcasts discuss: a wrinkle-faced dinosaur from Africa; small mammals called solenodons; and the relationship between sleep and the brain. The wrinkle-faced dinosaur (Rugops primus) from Africa had cousins in South America and India, and could provide clues to how the ancient continents split. Paleontologist Paul Serreno discusses tracking continental drift through these dinosaurs. The solenodons radio broadcast explains how these small mammals date back to the age of dinosaurs - and could have lived through the asteroid impact that killed the huge reptiles. Finally, the radio broadcast about sleep and the brain explores new research published that suggests that sleep may be needed not to give overworked brain circuits some time off, but to allow for neural circuits to rearrange themselves to make sense of new learning.

285

Ancient Near East and the Mediterranean World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the University of Chicago Library and funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities, this online project contains numerous primary materials related to the study of the ancient Near East and covers topics ranging from archaeology; art history; language; law; and the religions of Sumer, Babylonia, Assyria, Egypt, Nubia, and Persia. Currently, the project includes full-text editions of 33 seminal works in the field, including works on Greek athletics and the exploration of Palestine during the first decade of the 20th century. For those seeking to read them in their language of origin, several of the texts are also available in the original French and German. This site will be of great interest to persons hoping to look through primary research texts, but find themselves unable to make a trip to the University of Chicago Library.

286

Possible test of ancient dense Martian atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have completed preliminary calculations of the minimum sizes of bolides that would penetrate various hypothetical Martian atmospheres with surface pressures ranging from 6 to 1000 mbar for projectiles of various strengths. The calculations are based on a computer program. These numbers are used to estimate the diameter corresponding to the turndown in the crater diameter distribution due to the loss of these bodies, analogous to the dramatic turndown at larger sized already discovered on Venus due to this effect. We conclude that for an atmosphere greater than a few hundred millibars, a unique downward displacement in the diameter distribution would develop in the crater diameter distribution at D approximately = 0.5-4 km, due to loss of all but Fe bolides. Careful search for this displacement globally, as outlined here, would allow us to place upper limits on the pressure of the atmosphere contemporaneous with the oldest surfaces, and possibly to get direct confirmation of dense ancient atmospheres.

Hartmann, W. K.; Engel, S.

1993-01-01

287

Special article: mandragora: anesthetic of the ancients.  

PubMed

Initial attempts at surgical anesthesia began many centuries ago, with the plants of antiquity. The mandragora, or mandrake, was used as a sedative and to induce pain relief for surgical procedures. It has been depicted in tablets and friezes since the 16th century before the common era (BCE) and used for its sedative effects by Hannibal (second century BCE) against his enemies. The Romans used the mandrake for surgery. The Arabs translated the scientific work of the Ancients and expanded on their knowledge. They developed the Spongia Somnifera, which contained the juice of the mandrake plant. After the fall of the Islamic cities of Europe to the Christians, scientific work was translated into Latin and the Spongia Somnifera was used in Europe until the discovery of the use of ether for surgical anesthesia. PMID:22584550

Chidiac, Elie J; Kaddoum, Romeo N; Fuleihan, Samir F

2012-12-01

288

Ancient asteroids enriched in refractory inclusions.  

PubMed

Calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) occur in all classes of chondritic meteorites and contain refractory minerals predicted to be the first condensates from the solar nebula. Near-infrared spectra of CAIs have strong 2-micrometer absorptions, attributed to iron oxide-bearing aluminous spinel. Similar absorptions are present in the telescopic spectra of several asteroids; modeling indicates that these contain approximately 30 +/- 10% CAIs (two to three times that of any meteorite). Survival of these undifferentiated, large (50- to 100-kilometer diameter) CAI-rich bodies suggests that they may have formed before the injection of radiogenic 26Al into the solar system. They have also experienced only modest post-accretionary alteration. Thus, these asteroids have higher concentrations of CAI material, appear less altered, and are more ancient than any known sample in our meteorite collection, making them prime candidates for sample return. PMID:18356491

Sunshine, J M; Connolly, H C; McCoy, T J; Bus, S J; La Croix, L M

2008-04-25

289

Roberts Victor eclogites: ancient oceanic crust  

SciTech Connect

New data on the oxygen isotopic chemistry of the oceanic crust and ophiolites illustrate the role of circulating seawater in changing the chemistry of aging oceanic crust. A similar range of oxygen isotope ratios in the eclogites suggests a comparable origin. The interpretation is consistent with the following observations: Whole rocks values of S /sup 18/O are negatively correlated with both the /sup 87///sup 86/Sr and K content. The internal whole rock correlations may be explained as a series of rocks that have undergone varying degrees of alteration on an ancient sea floor. Whole rock chemistry when recalculated to 1 atm. norms and compared with 1 atm. liquidus diagrams indicate two different groups of eclogites. One group has trends that are comparable to a series of liquids formed by the fractional crystallization of olivine followed by plagioclase and clinopyroxene while the other group correlate with cumulate assemblages of gabbroic composition. The REE chemistry of separated garnets and clinopyroxenes and whole rocks allow recalculation of the chemistry of the intergranular material which is significantly LREE enriched. K, Rb, Li and Ti are similarly enriched. The intergranular chemistry compares favorably with that of hypothesized mantle metasomatising fluids and is interpreted to evolve during the metamorphic transition to eclogite assemblages during subduction. The data allow for the interpretation that the Roberts Victor eclogite are relicts of at least 3.2 b.y. old oceanic crust and that the two different groups separately represent the volcanic and gabbroic rocks of the upper part of the ancient oceanic lithosphere.

MacGregor, I.D.

1985-01-01

290

Was the Ancient Geomagnetic Field Dipolar?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most useful assumptions in paleomagnetism is that the time-averaged geomagnetic field is closely approximated by a geocentric axial dipole (GAD). This has been found to be true for at least the last 5 million years with the largest non-GAD contribution to the spherical harmonic expansion generally being of the order of 5%. For the more ancient past, it is difficult to test the GAD (or any other field) hypothesis owing to plate motions, rock deformation and accumulating problems of overprinting. Although most paleomagnetic studies make the implicit assumption of a GAD field, several recent studies have called the essential GAD nature of the ancient field into question and have suggested large (up to 20%) contributions of the axial octupolar term to the geocentric axial dipole in the spherical harmonic expansion even in the Cenozoic. In this paper, we develop a new statistical model for the geomagnetic field to diagnose directional dispersion resulting from sedimentary inclination error, a widespread process that plausibly explains many of the observed discrepancies from the GAD field hypothesis. We also present a methodology to correct the resulting persistent shallow bias. Application of this technique to one of the few published studies from the Cenozoic of Asia with adequate data shows that the reported discrepancies from a GAD field in this region are most probably due to sedimentary inclination error rather than a non-GAD field geometry or undetected crustal shortening. Although non-GAD fields cannot in general be strongly rejected (actually, only GAD is a well posed and testable, i.e., refutable, hypothesis), the principle of least astonishment requires us to consider plausible geological mechanisms such as sedimentary inclination error as the cause of persistent shallow bias prior to the very ``expensive" option of throwing out the GAD hypothesis.

Tauxe, L.; Kent, D. V.

2003-12-01

291

Creating cometary models using ancient Chinese data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than two millennia, Chinese court astronomers maintained a rather comprehensive record of cometary sightings. Owing to the significance of comets as portents for the reigning emperor, early sky watchers from China (as well as their counterparts from Korea and Japan) carefully noted each cometary apparition for the purpose of astrological predictions. The dates and corresponding celestial locations and motions were usually recorded and in some cases, the colors, coma sizes, and tail lengths were also noted. These ancient observations represent the only source of information available for modeling the long-term behavior of periodic comets. For comets Halley and Swift-Tuttle, Chinese records have been identified as far back as 240 B.C. and 69 B.C. respectively and these data have been used to define their long-term motions. As a result, heliocentric and geocentric distances for each Chinese sighting of these two comets can be computed and estimates can be made for each comet's intrinsic brightness at various observed returns. Although the earliest identified apparition of comet Tempel-Tuttle is A.D. 1366, the associated Leonid meteor showers were noted back to at least A.D. 902. The Leonid meteor stream is young in the sense that outstanding meteor displays occur only near the time of the parent comet's perihelion passages. The ancient Chinese records of the Leonid meteor showers and storms have been used to map the particle distribution around the parent comet and this information was used to guide predictions for the 1998-1999 Leonid meteor showers.

Yeomans, D. K.

292

Potential and limitations of isozymes for chromosomal localization of resistance genes against barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the possibilities offered by isozymes to locate resistance genes against barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV), the isozyme patterns of 19 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes carrying genes different from ym4 were determined. Of the 15 isozyme systems tested, only three were polymorphic, namely aconitate hydratase, esterase, phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, providing markers on four of the seven barley chromosomes. Studies

J. Le Gouis; M. Erdogan; W. Friedt; F. Ordon

1995-01-01

293

The suitability of barley and corn starches in their native and chemically modified forms for volatile meat flavor encapsulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to minimize the evaporative flavor loss and to improve flavor stability, the encapsulation potential of native corn and barley starches [waxy corn starch (CW), regular corn starch (CR), waxy barley starch (BW), regular barley starch (BR)] and their chemically modified counterparts (succinylated starches: CWS; CRS; BWS; BRS and octenyl succinylated starches: CWOS; CROS; BWOS; BROS) were investigated. Four

You-Jin Jeon; Thava Vasanthan; Feral Temelli; Byung-Kwon Song

2003-01-01

294

The effect of combining scald resistance genes on disease levels, yield and quality traits in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pairwise combinations of genes for resistance to scald in barley were developed using linked isozyme markers to test whether such combinations conferred improved resistance to the pathogen, Rhynchosporium secalis. The resistance genes originally derived from Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum. The combinations were bred into an essentially similar genetic background because the scald-susceptible, Australian barley cultivar Clipper was the recurrent backcross

A. H. D. Brown; J. J. Burdon; D. F. Garvin; D. C. Abbott; B. J. Read

1996-01-01

295

Effects of mould and toxin contaminated barley on laying hens performance and health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moulded and mycotoxin containing barley was incorporated into the diets for laying hens to study the effects on performance and health. Health indicators were different blood plasma parameters and liver vitamin A and E levels. A total of 30 hens were fed 3 diets, one supplemented with 30% of toxin?free and two with differently moulded barley from 1997 and 1998

Dalia Garaleviciene; H. Pettersson; Giedre Augonyte; K. Elwinger; J. E. Lindberg

2001-01-01

296

[Slow fluorescence induction and productivity of barley treated with supercritical fluid extract of amaranth].  

PubMed

It is shown that treatment of barley plants with supercritical fluid extract of amaranth results in the increased fluorescence parameter (F(M) - F(T))/F(T) of slow fluorescence induction curve of the leaf. Barley treated with the extract showed higher productivity and higher indices of the yield. PMID:23035533

Karavaev, V A; Gunar, L E; Miakin'kov, A G; Gins, M S; Glazunova, S A; Levykina, I P; Lepeshkin, F D

2012-01-01

297

Mapping genes for resistance to barley stripe rust ( Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two genes conferring resistance to the barley stripe rust found in Mexico and South America, previously identified as race 24, were mapped to the M arms of barley chromosomes 7 and 4 in a doubled haploid population using molecular markers and the quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping approach. The resistance gene on chromosome 7 had a major effect, accounting for

F. Q. Chen; D. Prehn; P. M. Hayes; D. Mulrooney; A. Corey; H. Vivar

1994-01-01

298

Impacts of Crop Production Factors on Common Root Rot of Barley in Eastern Saskatchewan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has been spreading on the Cana- dian Prairies for the last decade. Fusarium spp. causing FHB can also cause crown and root rot of cereal crops. It is therefore of interest to determine the impact of agronomic practices on fungal populations associated with root rot of barley. From 1999 to 2001,

M. R. Fernandez; R. P. Zentner; R. M. DePauw; D. Gehl; F. C. Stevenson

2007-01-01

299

Quantifying relationships between rooting traits and water uptake under drought in Mediterranean barley and durum wheat.  

PubMed

In Mediterranean regions drought is the major factor limiting spring barley and durum wheat grain yields. This study aimed to compare spring barley and durum wheat root and shoot responses to drought and quantify relationships between root traits and water uptake under terminal drought. One spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Rum) and two durum wheat Mediterranean cultivars (Triticum turgidum L. var durum cvs Hourani and Karim) were examined in soil-column experiments under well watered and drought conditions. Root system architecture traits, water uptake, and plant growth were measured. Barley aerial biomass and grain yields were higher than for durum wheat cultivars in well watered conditions. Drought decreased grain yield more for barley (47%) than durum wheat (30%, Hourani). Root-to-shoot dry matter ratio increased for durum wheat under drought but not for barley, and root weight increased for wheat in response to drought but decreased for barley. The critical root length density (RLD) and root volume density (RVD) for 90% available water capture for wheat were similar to (cv. Hourani) or lower than (cv. Karim) for barley depending on wheat cultivar. For both species, RVD accounted for a slightly higher proportion of phenotypic variation in water uptake under drought than RLD. PMID:24112696

Carvalho, Pedro; Azam-Ali, Sayed; Foulkes, M John

2014-05-01

300

Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Aluminum Tolerance in Cultivated and Tibetan Wild Barley  

PubMed Central

Tibetan wild barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. spontaneum), originated and grown in harsh enviroment in Tibet, is well-known for its rich germpalsm with high tolerance to abiotic stresses. However, the genetic variation and genes involved in Al tolerance are not totally known for the wild barley. In this study, a genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) was performed by using four root parameters related with Al tolerance and 469 DArT markers on 7 chromosomes within or across 110 Tibetan wild accessions and 56 cultivated cultivars. Population structure and cluster analysis revealed that a wide genetic diversity was present in Tibetan wild barley. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed more rapidly in Tibetan wild barley (9.30 cM) than cultivated barley (11.52 cM), indicating that GWAS may provide higher resolution in the Tibetan group. Two novel Tibetan group-specific loci, bpb-9458 and bpb-8524 were identified, which were associated with relative longest root growth (RLRG), located at 2H and 7H on barely genome, and could explain 12.9% and 9.7% of the phenotypic variation, respectively. Moreover, a common locus bpb-6949, localized 0.8 cM away from a candidate gene HvMATE, was detected in both wild and cultivated barleys, and showed significant association with total root growth (TRG). The present study highlights that Tibetan wild barley could provide elite germplasm novel genes for barley Al-tolerant improvement.

Cai, Shengguan; Wu, Dezhi; Jabeen, Zahra; Huang, Yuqing; Huang, Yechang; Zhang, Guoping

2013-01-01

301

Effect of Barley Flour Incorporation on the Instrumental Texture of Sponge Cake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sponge cakes were prepared by incorporating barley flour (10, 20, 30, and 40%?w\\/w) into wheat flours. The sponge cakes were evaluated for their physical, chemical, nutritional, textural and sensory attributes. All the prepared products exhibited high in fiber, mineral and protein contents when compared with the 100%?wheat flour based product. Incorporation of barley flour improved the visual of the cake

Mahesh Gupta; Amarinder Singh Bawa; Anil Dutt Semwal

2009-01-01

302

Effects of heating procedures on deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone levels in naturally contaminated barley and wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of heating temperature and time on deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and zearalenone (ZEA) contents in naturally co-contaminated barley and wheat was investigated intending to establish the basis for a decontamination model of Fusarium mycotoxins in cereals. The standard toxins and whole barley powder samples were heated in a convection oven at 140, 160, 180, 200, or 220°C, and

B. E. Yumbe-Guevara; T. Imoto; T. Yoshizawa

2003-01-01

303

Predicting the Effect of Some Yield Stabilizing Agents on Increasing Drought Resistance in Barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to predict the role of two yield stabilizing agents (magnesium carbonate and sodium salicylate) on barley yield under water stress condition. Four hulled barley cultivars and two hull-less were sprayed with magnesium carbonate or sodium salicylate twice during vegetative growth and the last irrigation was skipped. Different growth and yield parameters were measured for five

S. A. Ouda; M. S. Gaballah; M. A. El-Kholy

2005-01-01

304

A constitutive cystatin-encoding gene from barley (Icy) responds differentially to abiotic stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

A barley cDNA clone encoding a cysteine proteinase inhibitor was characterized. The deduced amino acid sequence of this barley cystatin (Hv-CPI) contains the motif QXVXG conserved among members of the cystatin superfamily. The gene (Icy), located on chromosome 2, was expressed in embryos, developing endosperms, leaves and roots as assessed by northern blot analysis. Western blot analysis detected a slightly

Kamel Gaddour; Jesús Vicente-Carbajosa; Pilar Lara; Inés Isabel-Lamoneda; Isabel Díaz; Pilar Carbonero

2001-01-01

305

Bioethanol production from barley hull using SAA (soaking in aqueous ammonia) pretreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley hull, a lignocellulosic biomass, was pretreated using aqueous ammonia, to be converted into ethanol. Barley hull was soaked in 15 and 30 wt.% aqueous ammonia at 30, 60, and 75°C for between 12h and 11 weeks. This pretreatment method has been known as “soaking in aqueous ammonia” (SAA). Among the tested conditions, the best pretreatment conditions observed were 75°C,

Tae Hyun Kim; Frank Taylor; Kevin B. Hicks

2008-01-01

306

Trends in comparative genetics and their potential impacts on wheat and barley research  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review some general points about comparative mapping, the evolution of gene families and recent advances in the understanding of angiosperm phylogeny. These are considered in relation to studies of large-genome cereals, particularly barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum), with reference to methods of gene isolation. The relative merits of direct map-based cloning in barley and wheat, utilization of

David A. Laurie; Katrien M. Devos

2002-01-01

307

Influence of Whole Barley and Grit on Live Performance and Health of Turkey Toms1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Live performance to 96 d was compared for 1,584 turkey toms reared on diets containing four levels of whole barley and two levels of insoluble grit (0 or 9 g\\/bird per wk). Nutrient specifications for all diets were similar. The six dietary treatments were 1) 0% whole barley plus grit, 2) Treatment 1 minus grit, 3) grit plus 5% whole

C. D. Bennett; H. L. Classen; K. Schwean; C. Riddell

308

Transposition of the maize transposable element Ac in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transposition of the maize autonomous element Ac (Activator) was investigated in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with the aim of developing a transposon tagging system for the latter. The Ac element was introduced into meristematic tissue of barley by microprojectile bombardment. Transposon activity was then examined in the resulting transgenic plants. Multiple excision events were detected in leaf tissue of all

S. Scholz; H. Lörz; S. Lütticke

2001-01-01

309

Exploiting selective genotyping to study genetic diversity of resistance to Fusarium head blight in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous barley cultivars from around the world have been identified as potential sources of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance genes. All of these cultivars exhibit partial resistance, and several mapping studies have shown that resistance to FHB is controlled by multiple genes. Successful development of barley cultivars with high levels of FHB resistance will require combining genes from multiple sources.

W. J. Wingbermuehle; C. Gustus; K. P. Smith

2004-01-01

310

INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF SALINITY AND PHOSPHORUS NUTRITION ON PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF TWO BARLEY SPECIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity is one of the most important agricultural problems in Iran. The effect of different levels of salinity and phosphorus on shoot length, root and shoot fresh and dry weight, nutrient elements (sodium (Na), potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and chloride (Cl), proline and soluble sugar contents of barley were investigated. Two cultivars of barley, Hordeum murinum (wild resistant germplasm) and

N. A. Khosh Kholgh Sima; S. Tale Ahmad; R. A. Alitabar; Arezoo Mottaghi; Mohammad Pessarakli

2012-01-01

311

Variation for Grain Fill Characteristics in Northern-Adapted Spring Barley Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rate and duration of grain fill determine maturity and grain yield in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars. We assessed grain fill characteristics and agronomic performance of northern-adapted spring barley cultivars for two years at Palmer and Fairbanks, Alaska. Rapid grain fill rate was associated with high kernel weight, but not with grain fill duration. Cultivars with longer grain fill duration

S. M. Dofing; C. W. Knight

1994-01-01

312

Chlorotic leaf markings in Betzes barley grown in a controlled environment chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt was made to determine the cause of chlorotic fleck spots (FS) in barley. The growth and the development of barley was observed in controlled atmospheres using four different growth chambers. The results of the tests showed definitely that the typical expression of FS depends upon the precise combination of cool temperature and short photoperiods. Atmospheric agents may play

H. H. McKinney; H. A. Menser

1976-01-01

313

Hands-on mathematics: two cases from ancient Chinese mathematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In modern mathematical teaching, it has become increasingly emphasized that mathematical knowledge should be taught by problem-solving, hands-on activities, and interactive learning experiences. Comparing the ideas of modern mathematical education with the development of ancient Chinese mathematics, we find that the history of mathematics in ancient China is an abundant resource for materials to demonstrate mathematics by hands-on manipulation. In this article I shall present two cases that embody this idea of a hands-on approach in ancient Chinese mathematics, at the same time offering an opportunity to show how to utilize materials from the history of Chinese math in modern mathematical education.

Wang, Youjun

2009-05-01

314

Assessment of Genetic Diversity among Barley Cultivars and Breeding Lines Adapted to the US Pacific Northwest, and Its Implications in Breeding Barley for Imidazolinone-Resistance  

PubMed Central

Extensive application of imidazolinone (IMI) herbicides had a significant impact on barley productivity contributing to a continuous decline in its acreage over the last two decades. A possible solution to this problem is to transfer IMI-resistance from a recently characterized mutation in the ‘Bob’ barley AHAS (acetohydroxy acid synthase) gene to other food, feed and malting barley cultivars. We focused our efforts on transferring IMI-resistance to barley varieties adapted to the US Pacific Northwest (PNW), since it comprises ?23% (335,000 ha) of the US agricultural land under barley production. To effectively breed for IMI-resistance, we studied the genetic diversity among 13 two-rowed spring barley cultivars/breeding-lines from the PNW using 61 microsatellite markers, and selected six barley genotypes that showed medium to high genetic dissimilarity with the ‘Bob’ AHAS mutant. The six selected genotypes were used to make 29–53 crosses with the AHAS mutant and a range of 358–471 F1 seeds were obtained. To make informed selection for the recovery of the recipient parent genome, the genetic location of the AHAS gene was determined and its genetic nature assessed. Large F2 populations ranging in size from 2158–2846 individuals were evaluated for herbicide resistance and seedling vigor. Based on the results, F3 lines from the six most vigorous F2 genotypes per cross combination were evaluated for their genetic background. A range of 20%–90% recovery of the recipient parent genome for the carrier chromosome was observed. An effort was made to determine the critical dose of herbicide to distinguish between heterozygotes and homozygotes for the mutant allele. Results suggested that the mutant can survive up to the 10× field recommended dose of herbicide, and the 8× and 10× herbicide doses can distinguish between the two AHAS mutant genotypes. Finally, implications of this research in sustaining barley productivity in the PNW are discussed.

Mejias, Jaime H.; Gemini, Richa; Brew-Appiah, Rhoda A. T.; Wen, Nuan; Osorio, Claudia; Ankrah, Nii; Murphy, Kevin M.; von Wettstein, Diter

2014-01-01

315

Islands and streams: clusters and gene flow in wild barley populations from the Levant.  

PubMed

The domestication of plants frequently results in a high level of genetic differentiation between domesticated plants and their wild progenitors. This process is counteracted by gene flow between wild and domesticated plants because they are usually able to inter-mate and to exchange genes. We investigated the extent of gene flow between wild barley Hordeum spontaneum and cultivated barley Hordeum vulgare, and its effect on population structure in wild barley by analysing a collection of 896 wild barley accessions (Barley1K) from Israel and all available Israeli H. vulgare accessions from the Israeli gene bank. We compared the performance of simple sequence repeats (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) marker data genotyped over a core collection in estimating population parameters. Estimates of gene flow rates with SSR markers indicated a high level of introgression from cultivated barley into wild barley. After removing accessions from the wild barley sample that were recently admixed with cultivated barley, the inference of population structure improved significantly. Both SSR and SNP markers showed that the genetic population structure of wild barley in Israel corresponds to the three major ecogeographic regions: the coast, the Mediterranean north and the deserts in the Jordan valley and the South. Gene flow rates were estimated to be higher from north to south than in the opposite direction. As has been observed in other crop species, there is a significant exchange of alleles between the wild species and domesticated varieties that needs to be accounted for in the population genetic analysis of domestication. PMID:22256891

Hübner, Sariel; Günther, Torsten; Flavell, Andrew; Fridman, Eyal; Graner, Andreas; Korol, Abraham; Schmid, Karl J

2012-03-01

316

[Medicine in ancient Mesopotamia--part 1].  

PubMed

The present work summarizes the more elucidating aspects on the foundations and the practice of the medicine in Antique Mesopotamia, since the invention of the writing, more than 5000 thousand years ago, and the beginning of our era. The first part of the article includes a brief perspective about the political and social evolution that characterized those archaic civilizations, as well as the inventions and knowledge further used by the following Humanity's generations. Most of what is known on the subject, as well as the history and political-social events that occurred in the region during that remote epoch, resulted of the laborious decoding of about half a million small clay plates or fragments with text engravings in cuneiform characters that were discovered since the middle of the XIX century in the ruins of the main cities of the Babylonian and Assyrian empires. The second part embraces exclusively the main characteristics of the medicine in Ancient Mesopotamia, in its main facets: concept of disease, healers and practice. The disease was considered a divine punishment or resultant from a malign influence. In that base, the medicine began by being preventive, by the use of appropriate amulets, or by offerings or sacrifices intending to pacify those malign forces. The treatment of the generality of the diseases privileged the expulsion of those spirits and malign influences from the patient body, purifying it, which was done by the specific intervention of an ãshipu (clergyman-exorcist); not having results, the treatment was continued by the asû (practical healer) that appealed to a group of physical manipulations, limited surgical acts and the administration or application of prescriptions, resultants of the mixture of organic and inorganic substances. In case of failing, the patients (as well as individuals or rein leaders) could fall back upon a priest diviner (bârû) who, by examination of the organs of an animal especially sacrificed for the effect, would give a final decision about the disease or the future. Separated this more occult facet, nourished in religious faiths and in the magic, the medicine of Ancient Mesopotamia included rational knowledge, certainly as the result of a systematic patients observation and semiotic interpretation. From those observations and knowledge referred to the Sumerian period, carefully logged, refined and transmitted to the following generations, a valuable collection of texts was built with the description of symptoms, signs, diagnosis and prognostic of the most common diseases, still identifiable in the present. PMID:20350469

Martins E Silva, J

2009-01-01

317

Gakkel Ridge: A window to ancient asthenosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are accustomed to thinking of the ambient mantle as being a well-stirred reservoir, which contains at most regions of stored subducted slabs and "plums" containing lithophile trace element enrichments. What is forgotten in all of this is that the main process of formation of heterogeneities is a negative one - generating 10x more depleted mantle at any given moment than it does oceanic crust. Because the volume of lithosphere subducted over Earth history is so large, it has always been assumed that the process of subduction and convective mixing re-homogenizes the depleted and enriched reservoirs about as fast as it produces them. What if it doesn't? Our primary means of studying mantle heterogeneity however is basalts. Direct study of the mantle entails observations on xenoliths, ophiolites and orogenic lherzolites, and abyssal peridotites. The latter have the inherent problems of being melting residues, associated with fracture zones, are highly serpentinized and rare. The arctic ridge system gives us a unique perspective on the mantle, and samples we have recovered there are relatively free from these problems. Due to the slow spreading rate, which apparently severely limits the melt productivity, the thickest crust in the Arctic ridge system is approximately "normal". The most common crust is about half thickness and there are large expanses with no crust at all, in the sense of Hess, 1962, exposing mantle peridotite in the floor of extensive rift zones. We have shown Os isotopic evidence for the survival of ancient depletion signatures in Gakkel abyssal peridotites that apparently were not destroyed by subduction, convective stirring or resetting during magma genesis (Liu, et al., 2008). Additionally, preliminary Nd isotopic evidence suggests at least a 400Ma intact prehistory for these samples. Apparently, the low melt productivity on Gakkel Ridge has allowed the Gakkel mantle rocks to escape significant resetting due to melt interaction. This implies a very different picture of the mantle from the one above, one where nearly every part of the mantle has an ancient history prior to its incorporation into the lithosphere, and the distribution of heterogeneities (enriched and depleted) into small scale regions that only approximate the bulk mantle on average (Meibom and Anderson, 2004). Sampling of that mantle by basalts cannot test this hypothesis. Sampling of mantle directly may do so. What this means is that every region of mantle sampled on magma starved ridges may contain traces of a previous history of depletion going far back in geologic time.

Snow, J.; Hellebrand, E.; Dick, H.; Liu, C.; Stracke, A.

2008-12-01

318

Thiamine treatments alleviate aphid infestations in barley and pea.  

PubMed

Treatment of plants with thiamine (Vitamin B1) has before been shown to activate plant defence against microorganisms. Here, we have studied the effects of thiamine treatments of plants on aphid reproduction and behaviour. The work was mainly carried out with bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Aphid population growth and aphid acceptance on plants grown from seeds soaked in a 150?M thiamine solution were reduced to ca. 60% of that on control plants. R. padi life span and the total number of offspring were reduced on barley plants treated with thiamine. Healthy aphids and aphids infected with the R. padi virus were similarly affected. Spraying or addition of thiamine at 150?M to nutrient solutions likewise resulted in reduced aphid population growth to ca. 60%, as did plant exposure to thiamine odour at 4mM. Thiamine treatments resulted in reduced aphid population growth also when tested with grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) on barley and pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum H.) on pea (Pisum sativum L.). There was no direct effect of thiamine on aphid reproduction or thiamine odour on aphid behaviour, as evaluated using artificial diets and by olfactometer tests, respectively. Two gene sequences regulated by salicylic acid showed higher transcript abundance and one gene sequence regulated by methyl jasmonate showed lower transcript abundance in thiamine-treated plants but not in control plants after aphid infestation. These results suggest that the aphid antibiosis and antixenosis effects may be related to priming of defence, but more studies are needed to explain the effects against aphids. PMID:23787153

Hamada, Afaf M; Jonsson, Lisbeth M V

2013-10-01

319

Ethylene influences green plant regeneration from barley callus.  

PubMed

The plant hormone ethylene is involved in numerous plant processes including in vitro growth and regeneration. Manipulating ethylene in vitro may be useful for increasing plant regeneration from cultured cells. As part of ongoing efforts to improve plant regeneration from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), we investigated ethylene emanation using our improved system and investigated methods of manipulating ethylene to increase regeneration. In vitro assays of regeneration from six cultivars, involving 10 weeks of callus initiation and proliferation followed by 8 weeks of plant regeneration, showed a correlation between regeneration and ethylene production: ethylene production was highest from 'Golden Promise', the best regenerator, and lowest from 'Morex' and 'DH-20', the poorest regenerators. Increasing ethylene production by addition of 1-aminocyclopropane 1-carboxylic acid (ACC) during weeks 8-10 increased regeneration from Morex. In contrast, adding ACC to Golden Promise cultures during any of the tissue culture steps reduced regeneration, suggesting that Golden Promise may produce more ethylene than needed for maximum regeneration rates. Blocking ethylene action with silver nitrate during weeks 5-10 almost doubled the regeneration from Morex and increased the Golden Promise regeneration 1.5-fold. Silver nitrate treatment of Golden Promise cultures during weeks 8-14 more than doubled the green plant regeneration. These results indicate that differential ethylene production is related to regeneration in the improved barley tissue culture system. Specific manipulations of ethylene were identified that can be used to increase the green plant regeneration from barley cultivars. The timing of ethylene action appears to be critical for maximum regeneration. PMID:17043878

Jha, Ajay K; Dahleen, Lynn S; Suttle, Jeffrey C

2007-03-01

320

Ancient DNA: using molecular biology to explore the past.  

PubMed

Ancient DNA has been discovered in many types of preserved biological material, including bones, mummies, museum skins, insects in amber and plant fossils, and has become an important research tool in disciplines as diverse as archaeology, conservation biology and forensic science. In archaeology, ancient DNA can contribute both to the interpretation of individual sites and to the development of hypotheses about past populations. Site interpretation is aided by DNA-based sex typing of fragmentary human bones, and by the use of genetic techniques to assess the degree of kinship between the remains of different individuals. On a broader scale, population migrations can be traced by studying genetic markers in ancient DNA, as in recent studies of the colonisation of the Pacific islands, while ancient DNA in preserved plant remains can provide information on the development of agriculture. PMID:7980476

Brown, T A; Brown, K A

1994-10-01

321

Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) investigations of ancient Egyptian cosmetic powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The processing technologies available during the time of ancient Egypt are of present concern to the field of Archaeology and Egyptology. Materials characterization is the best tool for establishing the processing history of archaeological objects. In this study, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used, in addition to other techniques, for phase identification and study of the microstructure and characteristic defect structures in ancient Egyptian cosmetic powders. These powders generally consist of a mix of Pb-containing mineral phases: galena (PbS), cerussite (PbCO3), and phosgenite (Pb2Cl2CO3), among others. Modern materials are fabricated according to recipes found in ancient texts to mimic the processing of ancient times and to compare with the archaeological specimens. In particular, a comparison between the dislocation structures of PbS crystals deformed in the laboratory and PbS from archaeological specimens from the collections of the Louvre Museum is presented .

Deeb, C.; Walter, P.; Castaing, J.; Penhoud, P.; Veyssière, P.

322

Using the Ancient Method of False Position to Find Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several activities that are based on the ancient method of false position, also called false assumption, are presented in this article as a way to motivate students to find the solution of literal equations in beginning algebra.

Edwards, Thomas G.

2008-01-01

323

Deep Sequencing of RNA from Ancient Maize Kernels  

PubMed Central

The characterization of biomolecules from ancient samples can shed otherwise unobtainable insights into the past. Despite the fundamental role of transcriptomal change in evolution, the potential of ancient RNA remains unexploited – perhaps due to dogma associated with the fragility of RNA. We hypothesize that seeds offer a plausible refuge for long-term RNA survival, due to the fundamental role of RNA during seed germination. Using RNA-Seq on cDNA synthesized from nucleic acid extracts, we validate this hypothesis through demonstration of partial transcriptomal recovery from two sources of ancient maize kernels. The results suggest that ancient seed transcriptomics may offer a powerful new tool with which to study plant domestication.

Rasmussen, Morten; Cappellini, Enrico; Romero-Navarro, J. Alberto; Wales, Nathan; Alquezar-Planas, David E.; Penfield, Steven; Brown, Terence A.; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe; Montiel, Rafael; J?rgensen, Tina; Odegaard, Nancy; Jacobs, Michael; Arriaza, Bernardo; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

2013-01-01

324

Ancestry of modern Europeans: contributions of ancient DNA.  

PubMed

Understanding the peopling history of Europe is crucial to comprehend the origins of modern populations. Of course, the analysis of current genetic data offers several explanations about human migration patterns which occurred on this continent, but it fails to explain precisely the impact of each demographic event. In this context, direct access to the DNA of ancient specimens allows the overcoming of recent demographic phenomena, which probably highly modified the constitution of the current European gene pool. In recent years, several DNA studies have been successfully conducted from ancient human remains thanks to the improvement of molecular techniques. They have brought new fundamental information on the peopling of Europe and allowed us to refine our understanding of European prehistory. In this review, we will detail all the ancient DNA studies performed to date on ancient European DNA from the Middle Paleolithic to the beginning of the protohistoric period. PMID:23052219

Lacan, Marie; Keyser, Christine; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

2013-07-01

325

[Inheritance of capability to androgenesis in spring barley in vitro].  

PubMed

Inheritance of capability to androgenic structure production and plant regeneration in in vitro anther culture in recombinant spring barley doubled haploid lines derived from reciprocal F1 hybrids of three crosses including cultivars with contrast (high x low), high (high x high) and low (low x low) culture ability has been investigated. Common tendency to transgressive inheritance of androgenic response has been revealed. Data obtained show a predominant role of nonallelic gene interaction in the genetic control of androgenesis in vitro and their dispersed distribution among the parental forms of hybrids. PMID:19140428

Belinskaia, E V

2008-01-01

326

Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords: Wheat,Triticum<\\/span>spp<\\/span>., Barley,Hordeum<\\/span>vulgare<\\/span> L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality, Genetic Diversity, Ethiopia, Syria<\\/o:p><\\/ins><\\/span><\\/span>

ancient people previously considered beyond the realm of archaeological knowledge.

Robin, Cynthia

2001-01-01

335

Prospects for analyzing ancient RNA in preserved materials.  

PubMed

An ever increasing wealth of ancient biological material is providing opportunities to study biomolecules. Animal, plant, and microbial samples dating back hundreds, thousands, and even millions of years have been preserved in a dry state under climatic conditions ranging from the arctic to hot deserts. Various small molecules, often crystalized or polymerized, have improved preservation. Modern methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), mass spectrometry, and shotgun sequencing have detected and characterized ancient biomolecules. Modern sequencing has the capacity not only to assemble the whole genome of the target host but also those of the host's parasites, mutualists, and commensals. The study of ancient RNA has barely begun. Several studies show that RNA has been preserved for decades to hundreds of years and the germination of ancient seeds implies that messenger RNA can be preserved for thousands of years. This review briefly examines the types of ancient materials available and assesses their suitability for the study of ancient RNA. Sequencing RNA from this material has the potential not only to illuminate the target host's transcriptome and small RNAs but also to characterize the host's RNA parasites: viruses and viroids. PMID:24343860

Guy, Paul L

2014-01-01

336

Ancient DNA and the tropics: a rodent's tale.  

PubMed

Most genetic studies of Holocene fauna have been performed with ancient samples from dry and cold regions, in which preservation of fossils is facilitated and molecular damage is reduced. Ancient DNA work from tropical regions has been precluded owing to factors that limit DNA preservation (e.g. temperature, hydrolytic damage). We analysed ancient DNA from rodent jawbones identified as Ototylomys phyllotis, found in Holocene and Late Pleistocene stratigraphic layers from Loltún, a humid tropical cave located in the Yucatan peninsula. We extracted DNA and amplified six short overlapping fragments of the cytochrome b gene, totalling 666 bp, which represents an unprecedented success considering tropical ancient DNA samples. We performed genetic, phylogenetic and divergence time analyses, combining sequences from ancient and modern O. phyllotis, in order to assess the ancestry of the Loltún samples. Results show that all ancient samples fall into a unique clade that diverged prior to the divergence of the modern O. phyllotis, supporting it as a distinct Pleistocene form of the Ototylomys genus. Hence, this rodent's tale suggests that the sister group to modern O. phyllotis arose during the Miocene-Pliocene, diversified during the Pleistocene and went extinct in the Holocene. PMID:24899682

Gutiérrez-García, Tania A; Vázquez-Domínguez, Ella; Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquín; Kuch, Melanie; Enk, Jacob; King, Christine; Poinar, Hendrik N

2014-06-01

337

Effects of barley chromosome addition to wheat on behavior and development of Locusta migratoria nymphs  

PubMed Central

Locusta migratoria feeds on various Poaceae plants but barley. Barley genes related to feeding deterrence may be useful for developing novel resistant crops. We investigated the effects of barley cultivar Betzes, wheat cultivar Chinese Spring (CS), and six barley chromosome disomic addition lines of wheat (2H–7H) on locomotor activity, feeding behavior, survival and development of L. migratoria nymphs. Locomotor activity was similar in nymphs kept with wheat and 2H–7H in an actograph, whereas it was generally high in those kept with barely. No-choice and choice feeding tests suggested that barley genes related to inhibition of feeding by L. migratoria are located on barley chromosomes 5H and 6H and those related to the palatability of plants on chromosomes 2H, 5H and 6H. Rearing experiments suggested the presence of barley genes negatively affecting the survival and growth of locust nymphs on chromosomes 5H and 2H, respectively, and the effects are phase-dependent.

Suematsu, Shunji; Harano, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Seiji; Kawaura, Kanako; Ogihara, Yasunari; Watari, Yasuhiko; Saito, Osamu; Tokuda, Makoto

2013-01-01

338

bex-db: Bioinformatics workbench for comprehensive analysis of barley-expressed genes.  

PubMed

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is one of the world's most important cereal crops. Although its large and complex genome has held back barley genomics for quite a while, the whole genome sequence was released in 2012 by the International Barley Genome Sequencing Consortium (IBSC). Moreover, more than 30,000 barley full-length cDNAs (FLcDNAs) are now available in the public domain. Here we present the Barley Gene Expression Database (bex-db: http://barleyflc.dna.affrc.go.jp/bexdb/index.html) as a repository of transcriptome data including the sequences and the expression profiles of barley genes resulting from microarray analysis. In addition to FLcDNA sequences, bex-db also contains partial sequences of more than 309,000 novel expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Users can browse the data via keyword, sequence homology and expression profile search options. A genome browser was also developed to display the chromosomal locations of barley FLcDNAs and wheat (Triticum aestivum) transcripts as well as Aegilops tauschii gene models on the IBSC genome sequence for future comparative analysis of orthologs among Triticeae species. The bex-db should provide a useful resource for further genomics studies and development of genome-based tools to enhance the progress of the genetic improvement of cereal crops. PMID:24399916

Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Sakai, Hiroaki; Fujii, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Fuminori; Nakamura, Shingo; Itoh, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Wu, Jianzhong

2013-12-01

339

The distribution of transgene insertion sites in barley determined by physical and genetic mapping.  

PubMed Central

The exact site of transgene insertion into a plant host genome is one feature of the genetic transformation process that cannot, at present, be controlled and is often poorly understood. The site of transgene insertion may have implications for transgene stability and for potential unintended effects of the transgene on plant metabolism. To increase our understanding of transgene insertion sites in barley, a detailed analysis of transgene integration in independently derived transgenic barley lines was carried out. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to physically map 23 transgene integration sites from 19 independent barley lines. Genetic mapping further confirmed the location of the transgenes in 11 of these lines. Transgene integration sites were present only on five of the seven barley chromosomes. The pattern of transgene integration appeared to be nonrandom and there was evidence of clustering of independent transgene insertion events within the barley genome. In addition, barley genomic regions flanking the transgene insertion site were isolated for seven independent lines. The data from the transgene flanking regions indicated that transgene insertions were preferentially located in gene-rich areas of the genome. These results are discussed in relation to the structure of the barley genome.

Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Travella, Silvia; Bilham, Lorelei J; Harwood, Wendy A; Snape, John W

2004-01-01

340

Rapid LC-MS-based metabolomics method to study the Fusarium infection of barley.  

PubMed

Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry was applied to evaluate the potential of nontarget metabolomic fingerprinting in order to distinguish Fusarium-infected and control barley samples. First, the sample extraction and instrumental conditions were optimized to obtain the broadest possible representation of polar/medium-polar compounds occurring in extracts obtained from barley grain samples. Next, metabolomic fingerprints of extracts obtained from nine barley varieties were acquired under ESI conditions in both positive and negative mode. Each variety of barley was tested in two variants: artificially infected by Fusarium culmorum at the beginning of heading and a control group (no infection). In addition, the dynamics of barley infection development was monitored using this approach. The experimental data were statistically evaluated by principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis, and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. The differentiation of barley in response to F. culmorum infection was feasible using this metabolomics-based method. Analysis in positive mode provided a higher number of molecular features as compared to that performed under negative mode setting. However, the analysis in negative mode permitted the detection of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside considered as resistance-indicator metabolites in barley. PMID:24515453

Cajka, Tomas; Vaclavikova, Marta; Dzuman, Zbynek; Vaclavik, Lukas; Ovesna, Jaroslava; Hajslova, Jana

2014-04-01

341

Distribution, functional impact, and origin mechanisms of copy number variation in the barley genome  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing evidence for the prevalence of copy number variation (CNV) and its role in phenotypic variation in many eukaryotic species. Here we use array comparative genomic hybridization to explore the extent of this type of structural variation in domesticated barley cultivars and wild barleys. Results A collection of 14 barley genotypes including eight cultivars and six wild barleys were used for comparative genomic hybridization. CNV affects 14.9% of all the sequences that were assessed. Higher levels of CNV diversity are present in the wild accessions relative to cultivated barley. CNVs are enriched near the ends of all chromosomes except 4H, which exhibits the lowest frequency of CNVs. CNV affects 9.5% of the coding sequences represented on the array and the genes affected by CNV are enriched for sequences annotated as disease-resistance proteins and protein kinases. Sequence-based comparisons of CNV between cultivars Barke and Morex provided evidence that DNA repair mechanisms of double-strand breaks via single-stranded annealing and synthesis-dependent strand annealing play an important role in the origin of CNV in barley. Conclusions We present the first catalog of CNVs in a diploid Triticeae species, which opens the door for future genome diversity research in a tribe that comprises the economically important cereal species wheat, barley, and rye. Our findings constitute a valuable resource for the identification of CNV affecting genes of agronomic importance. We also identify potential mechanisms that can generate variation in copy number in plant genomes.

2013-01-01

342

Six-rowed spike4 (Vrs4) controls spikelet determinacy and row-type in barley  

PubMed Central

Inflorescence architecture of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is common among the Triticeae species, which bear one to three single-flowered spikelets at each rachis internode. Triple spikelet meristem is one of the unique features of barley spikes, in which three spikelets (one central and two lateral spikelets) are produced at each rachis internode. Fertility of the lateral spikelets at triple spikelet meristem gives row-type identity to barley spikes. Six-rowed spikes show fertile lateral spikelets and produce increased grain yield per spike, compared with two-rowed spikes with sterile lateral spikelets. Thus, far, two loci governing the row-type phenotype were isolated in barley that include Six-rowed spike1 (Vrs1) and Intermedium-C. In the present study, we isolated Six-rowed spike4 (Vrs4), a barley ortholog of the maize (Zea mays L.) inflorescence architecture gene RAMOSA2 (RA2). Eighteen coding mutations in barley RA2 (HvRA2) were specifically associated with lateral spikelet fertility and loss of spikelet determinacy. Expression analyses through mRNA in situ hybridization and microarray showed that Vrs4 (HvRA2) controls the row-type pathway through Vrs1 (HvHox1), a negative regulator of lateral spikelet fertility in barley. Moreover, Vrs4 may also regulate transcripts of barley SISTER OF RAMOSA3 (HvSRA), a putative trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase involved in trehalose-6-phosphate homeostasis implicated to control spikelet determinacy. Our expression data illustrated that, although RA2 is conserved among different grass species, its down-stream target genes appear to be modified in barley and possibly other species of tribe Triticeae.

Koppolu, Ravi; Anwar, Nadia; Sakuma, Shun; Tagiri, Akemi; Lundqvist, Udda; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Rutten, Twan; Seiler, Christiane; Himmelbach, Axel; Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Youssef, Helmy Mohamad; Stein, Nils; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Komatsuda, Takao; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

2013-01-01

343

Genomewide Analysis of Epistatic Effects for Quantitative Traits in Barley  

PubMed Central

The doubled-haploid (DH) barley population (Harrington × TR306) developed by the North American Barley Genome Mapping Project (NABGMP) for QTL mapping consisted of 145 lines and 127 markers covering a total genome length of 1270 cM. These DH lines were evaluated in ?25 environments for seven quantitative traits: heading, height, kernel weight, lodging, maturity, test weight, and yield. We applied an empirical Bayes method that simultaneously estimates 127 main effects for all markers and 127(127?1)/2=8001 interaction effects for all marker pairs in a single model. We found that the largest main-effect QTL (single marker) and the largest epistatic effect (single pair of markers) explained ?18 and 2.6% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. On average, the sum of all significant main effects and the sum of all significant epistatic effects contributed 35 and 6% of the total phenotypic variance, respectively. Epistasis seems to be negligible for all the seven traits. We also found that whether two loci interact does not depend on whether or not the loci have individual main effects. This invalidates the common practice of epistatic analysis in which epistatic effects are estimated only for pairs of loci of which both have main effects.

Xu, Shizhong; Jia, Zhenyu

2007-01-01

344

Adhesion of Cellulolytic Ruminal Bacteria to Barley Straw  

PubMed Central

Adhesion of the cellulolytic ruminal bacteria Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes to barley straw was measured by incubating bacterial suspensions with hammer-milled straw for 30 min, filtering the mixtures through sintered glass filters, and measuring the optical densities of the filtrates. Maximum adhesion of both species occurred at pH 6.0 and during mid- to late-exponential phase. Adhesion was saturable at 33 and 23 mg (dry weight) g of straw?1 for R. flavefaciens and F. succinogenes, respectively. Methyl cellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose inhibited adhesion by 24 to 33%. Competition between species was determined by measuring characteristic cell-associated enzyme activities in filtrates of mixtures incubated with straw; p-nitrophenyl-?-d-lactopyranoside hydrolysis was used as a marker for F. succinogenes, while either ?-xylosidase or carboxymethyl cellulase was used for R. flavefaciens, depending on the other species present. R. flavefaciens had no influence on F. succinogenes adhesion, and F. succinogenes had only a minor (<20%) effect on R. flavefaciens adhesion. The noncellulolytic ruminal bacteria Bacteroides ruminicola and Selenomonas ruminantium had no influence on adhesion of either cellulolytic species, although these organisms also adhered to the straw. We concluded that R. flavefaciens and F. succinogenes have separate, specific adhesion sites on barley straw that are not obscured by competition with non-cellulolytic species.

Bhat, Siva; Wallace, R. J.; ?rskov, E. R.

1990-01-01

345

Determination of phytic acid and inositolphosphates in barley.  

PubMed

Phytic acid (PA) and lower inositolphosphates (InsP(n) ) is the main storage form of phosphorus in grains or seeds. The content of PA and InsP(n) in different varieties of barley was analyzed by capillary isotachophoresis and online-coupled capillary isotachophoresis with CZE. The electrolytes (in demineralized water) for the isotachophoretic analysis consisted of 10?mM HCl, 14?mM glycylglycine, and 0.1% 2-hydroxyethylcellulose (leading) and 10?mM citric acid (terminating). The optimized electrolytes for the online coupling isotachophoresis with zone electrophoresis analysis were mixtures of 5?mM HCl, 7?mM glycylglycine, and 0.1% 2-hydroxyethylcellulose (leading), 20?mM citric acid, 10?mM glycylglycine, and 0.1% 2-hydroxyethylcellulose (background) and 10?mM citric acid (terminating). PA and all studied InsP(n) were separated within 25?min and detected by a conductivity detector. Simple sample preparation (acidic extraction), sufficient sensitivity, speed of analysis, and low running cost are important attributes of the electrophoretic methods. The method was used for the determination of PA and InsP(n) in barley varieties within an ongoing research project. PMID:21455911

Kvasni?ka, František; Copíková, Jana; Sev?ík, Rudolf; Václavíková, Eliška; Synytsya, Andriy; Vaculová, Kate?ina; Vold?ich, Michal

2011-04-01

346

Homeopathically prepared gibberellic acid and barley seed germination.  

PubMed

The potentisation process by which homeopathic preparations are produced raises the concern that these medicines have placebo effects only, since they theoretically no longer contain active molecules of the diluted substance. Plant models offer a method of examining the efficacy of homeopathically prepared solutions. This study examined the effects of homeopathically prepared gibberellic acid (HGA3) on the germination performance of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds. The effect of HGA3 (4-200 cH) on seed germination rate and seedling development was compared to that of the most commonly used form of gibberellic acid (GA3), 0.5 g l(-1), and control (distilled water). The extent and type of response was dependent on the vigour level of the seedlot. Treating seeds from three vigour groups in HGA3 consistently resulted in larger seedlings. High-vigour seeds treated with HGA3 4, 30 and 200 cH germinated faster, and roots of medium-vigour seedlots treated in HGA3 15 cH were longer. Biphasic effects of HGA3 were also demonstrated. As a plant model, germinating barley seeds successfully demonstrated the ability of HGA3 to produce a biological response. PMID:12884896

Hamman, B; Koning, G; Lok, K Him

2003-07-01

347

[Light and blindness in ancient Egypt].  

PubMed

In Ancient Egypt, light and fire, which were closely related to the Sun God Ra, were the sources of life and well-being, while the dark meant danger and death. Similar to death, darkness drops on human beings in deep sleep and they enter a space inhabited by shadows. Dreams were believed to reveal an unknown world, to give the sleeper a glimpse into the future. Vision attracts distant objects and their light, on the other hand, can hurt the eyes like a burning flame. Eyes were the most important organ in Egyptian thought, as they allowed perception of the real world. Their importance has been immortalised in the myth of the Eye of Horus that explains the role of either eye. One represents the moonlight, which disperses the darkness of the night, and the other represents the sunshine, which creates life, and both could also represents the power of human intellect. Blindness, in turn, congenital or disease-related, was considered a divine punishment. A man, thus handicapped, would sink in a state of uncertainty and darkness. To protect the eyes from blindness, people used drops and ointments, which were believed to chase away all kinds of insects and demons that threatened with a variety of eye infections. Egyptian eye doctors or physicians, carried a special kit that contained green chrysocolla and a black kohl makeup, highly appreciated as prophylaxis because they personified Osiris' humours or body fluids. These products were offered to Gods to restore the brightness of divine glance and incite sun and moon to spread their beneficial light. PMID:21192112

Maria Rosso, Ana

2010-01-01

348

DOC Cycling in Ancient Tropical Lake Matano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With a Secchi depth of ? 27m, tropical, ancient (1-4Ma) Lake Matano has surface waters as clear as many ultra-oligotrophic lakes such as Great Bear Lake (secchi depth ? 29m) in the Canadian Arctic. Lake Matano owes this remarkable clarity to its very low productivity that results in authocthonous POC concentrations of less than 1 ?mol C l-1. This relatively small quantity of autocthonous POC is completely remineralized within the 100m deep oxic epilimnion. The oxic epilimnion is underlain by a sub- anoxic hypolimnion that extends from 100m deep to the lake bottom at >590m deep, one of the largest and deepest anoxic freshwater basins in the world. These sub-anoxic conditions have developed in response to thermal stratification that caused oxygen demand to exceed oxygen supply. Oxygen demand in lakes is generated principally by heterotrophic respiration and requires an organic carbon source. As autocthonous POC is remineralized in the epilimnion, the development of anoxia and the subsequent accumulation of the products of anaerobic respiration in the hypolimnion suggests that allocthonous organic matter drives hypolimnetic respiration. Preliminary measurements of DOC reveal concentrations several orders of magnitude higher than autochthonous POC in the epilimnion and lower concentrations in the hypolimnion. This concentration gradient induces a flux of DOC from the epilimnion to the hypolimnion. Such a DOC flux may completely sustain anaerobic respiration in Lake Matano. Nutrient (P,N) scavenging from the oxic/anoxic boundary has been cited as important for maintaining the limited phytoplankton crops in the epilimneon. As P fluxes to the epilimnion result from the reductive dissolution of particulate Fe-oxyhydroxides (during bacterial Fe respiration) allocthonous DOC may drive productivity in Lake Matano.

Crowe, S. A.; Katsev, S.; Magen, C.; Nomosatryo, S.; Haffner, G. D.; Mucci, A.; Sundby, B.; Fowle, D. A.

2006-12-01

349

PIXE analysis of ancient Indian coins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of coins of Hindu Shahis Dynasty of Kabul (990-1015 A.D.) have been analysed using proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. The 3 MeV proton beam from the Pelletron Accelerator at the Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India was used for the production of X-rays. The X-rays were detected by Si(Li) detector ( FWHM=180 eV at 5.9 keV) placed at 90° to the beam direction. For the reliable calibration of the analytical system, thin foils of Micromatter standards of Fe, CuS, KCl, and RbNO 3 were used. The computer code GUPIX was employed to get concentration of trace elements in these coins. The elements Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, As, Sb, Pb, and Bi were detected in these coins alongwith the major component of Cu and Ag. The coins were classified in two groups, coins no. 3, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19 as copper or billon coins having major component of copper, while coins no. 6, 17, 20, 21, 22 as silver coins having the major component of silver. The first group seems to belong to lower denomination while the other group belongs to higher denomination coins. There is a strong positive correlation between lead and zinc and also a strong negative correlation between copper and silver. The weight of coins varied between 3.05 and 3.39 gram. The comparison of our results with that of the ores of various mines indicates that the source of copper in these coins is from Khetri mine in Rajasthan. Silver seems to come from Afghanistan since it is not reported to occur as a primary mineral in ancient India.

Hajivaliei, M.; Garg, M. L.; Handa, D. K.; Govil, K. L.; Kakavand, T.; Vijayan, V.; Singh, K. P.; Govil, I. M.

1999-04-01

350

A cDNA-based comparison of dehydration-induced proteins (dehydrins) in barley and corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several cDNAs related to an ABA-induced cDNA from barley aleurone were isolated from barley and corn seedlings that were undergoing dehydration. Four different barley polypeptides with sizes of 22.6, 16.2, 14.4 and 14.2 kDa and a single corn polypeptide with a size of 17.0 kDa were predicted from the nucleotide sequences of the cDNAs. These dehydration-induced proteins (dehydrins) are very

Timothy J. Close; Alexander A. Kortt; Peter M. Chandler

1989-01-01

351

[Genetic control of virulence of Pyrenophora teres drechs, the causative agent of net blotch in barley].  

PubMed

The genetic control of virulence was studied in four isolates of the fungus Pyrenophora teres f. teres, originating from various geographic regions in experiments with nine barley accessions, possessing known resistance genes. Experiments were performed with the ascospore progeny of two crosses. The results of segregation for virulence in the progeny of direct crosses were confirmed by analysis of backcrosses and sib crosses. One to four genes for avirulence toward various barley genotypes were found in the isolates under study. It is suggested that dominant suppressor genes are involved in the genetic control of avirulence toward four barley genotypes. PMID:16396454

Mironenko, N V; Afanasenko, O S; Filatova, O A; Kopahnke, D

2005-12-01

352

Magnetic Strips Preserve Record of Ancient Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is a map of Martian magnetic fields in the southern highlands near the Terra Cimmeria and Terra Sirenum regions, centered around 180 degrees longitude from the equator to the pole. It is where magnetic stripes possibly resulting from crustal movement are most prominent. The bands are oriented approximately east - west and are about 100 miles wide and 600 miles long, although the longest band stretches more than 1200 miles. The false blue and red colors represent invisible magnetic fields in the Martian crust that point in opposite directions. The magnetic fields appear to be organized in bands, with adjacent bands pointing in opposite directions, giving these stripes a striking similarity to patterns seen in the Earth's crust at the mid-oceanic ridges.

NASA's Mars Global Surveyor has discovered surprising new evidence of past movement of the Martian crust, suggesting that ancient Mars was a more dynamic, Earth-like planet than it is today.

Scientists using the spacecraft's magnetometer have found banded patterns of magnetic fields on the Martian surface. The adjacent magnetic bands point in opposite directions, giving these invisible stripes a striking similarity to patterns seen in the crust of Earth's sea floors.

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] (P50330,MRPS94769)

Above: An artist's concept comparing the present day magnetic fields on Earth and Mars. Earth's magnetic field is generated by an active dynamo - a hot core of molten metal. The magnetic field surrounds Earth and is considered global (left). The various Martian magnetic fields (right) do not encompass the entire planet and are local. The Martian dynamo is extinct, and its magnetic fields are 'fossil' remnants of its ancient, global magnetic field. I

On the Earth, the sea floor spreads apart slowly at mid-oceanic ridges as new crust flows up from Earth's hot interior. Meanwhile, the direction of Earth's magnetic field reverses occasionally, resulting in alternating stripes in the new crust that carry a fossil record of the past hundreds of million years of Earth's magnetic history, a finding that validated the once-controversial theory of plate tectonics.

'The discovery of this pattern on Mars could revolutionize current thinking of the red planet's evolution,' said Dr. Jack Connerney of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, an investigator on the Global Surveyor's magnetometer team. 'If the bands on Mars are an imprint of crustal spreading, they are a relic of an early era of plate tectonics on Mars. However, unlike on Earth, the implied plate tectonic activity on Mars is most likely extinct.'

Alternate explanations for the banded structure may involve the fracturing and breakup of an ancient, uniformly magnetized crust due to volcanic activity or tectonic stresses from the rise and fall of neighboring terrain.

'Imagine a thin coat of dried paint on a balloon, where the paint is the crust of Mars,' explained Dr. Mario Acuna of Goddard, principal investigator on the Global Surveyor magnetometer. 'If we inflate the balloon further, cracks can develop in the paint, and the edges of the cracks will automatically have opposite polarities, because nature does not allow there to be a positive pole without a negative counterpart.'

Peer-reviewed research based on the observations will be published in the April 30 issue of the journal Science.

The observations of the so-called magnetic stripes were made possible because of Mars Global Surveyor's special aerobraking orbit. This process of dipping into the upper atmosphere of Mars to gradually shape the probe's orbit into a circle was extended due to a problem with a solar panel on the spacecraft. The lowest point of each elliptically shaped orbit curved below the planet's ionosphere, allowing the magnetometer to obtain better-than-planned regional measurements of Mars.

'At its nominal orbit more than 200 miles high, the instruments face too much magnetic interfer

1999-01-01

353

A barley Engulfment and Motility domain containing protein modulates Rho GTPase activating protein HvMAGAP1 function in the barley powdery mildew interaction.  

PubMed

Engulfment and Motility (ELMO) proteins are involved in the regulation of small GTPase activity in eukaryotic organisms, but little is known about ELMO proteins in plants. We isolated the barley ELMO Domain Containing Protein, HvELMOD_C, in a yeast two hybrid screen for proteins interacting with HvMAGAP1 (Microtubule Associated ROP-GTPase Activating Protein 1). HvMAGAP1 is considered as an antagonist of barley RACB, a member of the RHO of plant (ROP) family GTPases, which functions as a susceptibility factor in the interaction of barley with the barley powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei. HvELMOD_C interacts with the central RHO-GAP domain of HvMAGAP1. Cytoplasmic HvELMOD_C translocates to microtubules on co-expression of HvMAGAP1 but not on co-expression of HvMAGAP1-R185G, a mutant of the catalytically active arginine R185 in the RHO-GAP domain. HvELMOD_C, when simultaneously expressed with HvMAGAP1, abolished the resistance-inducing effect of HvMAGAP1 to B. graminis f.sp. hordei. Therefore, HvELMOD_C might function as a new modulator of HvMAGAP1 and thus ROP activity in barley. PMID:24142383

Hoefle, Caroline; Hückelhoven, Ralph

2014-03-01

354

Ancient scientific basis of the "great serpent" from historical evidence  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zoological data and a growing mythology contributed to ancient Western knowledge about large serpents. Yet little modern attention has been paid to the sources, transmission, and receipt in the early Middle Ages of the ancients' information concerning "dragons" and "sea serpents." Real animals--primarily pythons and whales--lie behind the ancient stories. Other animals, conflations of different animals, simple misunderstandings, and willful exaggerations are found to account for the fanciful embellishments, but primitive myths played no significant role in this process during classical times. The expedition of Alexander the Great into India (327-325 B.C.) and the Bagradas River incident in North Africa (256 B.C.) had enormous repercussions on the development of serpent lore. Credible evidence is found for the presence of ancient populations of pythons living along the North African coast west of Egypt and along the coast of the Arabian Sea between the Indus River and the Strait of Hormuz--places where they no longer exist today. The maximum sizes of ancient pythons may have been greater than those of today's specimens.

Stothers, Richard B.

2004-01-01

355

Ancient scientific basis of the "great serpent" from historical evidence.  

PubMed

Zoological data and a growing mythology contributed to ancient Western knowledge about large serpents. Yet little modern attention has been paid to the sources, transmission, and receipt in the early Middle Ages of the ancients' information concerning "dragons" and "sea serpents." Real animals--primarily pythons and whales--lie behind the ancient stories. Other animals, conflations of different animals, simple misunderstandings, and willful exaggerations are found to account for the fanciful embellishments, but primitive myths played no significant role in this process during classical times. The expedition of Alexander the Great into India (327-325 B.C.) and the Bagradas River incident in North Africa (256 B.C.) had enormous repercussions on the development of serpent lore. Credible evidence is found for the presence of ancient populations of pythons living along the North African coast west of Egypt and along the coast of the Arabian Sea between the Indus River and the Strait of Hormuz--places where they no longer exist today. The maximum sizes of ancient pythons may have been greater than those of today's specimens. PMID:15490966

Stothers, Richard B

2004-06-01

356

Analysis of modern tides and implications for ancient tidalites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, stacked successions of ancient tidal rhythmites have been found to preserve long records of tidal cycles. These include semidaily, daily, semimonthly, monthly, semiannual, annual and multiyear periods. Though such deposits reveal much about ancient tidal dynamics, the tidal signatures within the rhythmites can be masked or modified by basinal or nontidal effects. This paper discusses the results of an analysis of data from several different modern tidal stations. We show how actual tidal data can be abstracted to a form similar to what might ideally be preserved in the rock record, and then power spectra are calculated to yield estimates of the astronomical periods which can be compared to the current values. In this study, data from four modern tidal stations, ranging from diurnal to semidiurnal, are analyzed as both time- and event-series. A series of tests, which involve selective removal of parts of the tidal signal, are made using the modern tidal-station data. These tests were performed in order to determine to what extent the tidal signal can be degraded and still be recognized. Finally, we discuss some implications of the similarities of the modern and ancient tidal data and suggest how ancient data may be used to constrain basinal paleography and make inferences regarding ancient lunar orbital geometries.

Kvale, Erik P.; Cutright, Jeff; BIlodeau, Douglas; Archer, Allen; Johnson, Hollis R.; Pickett, Brian

1995-12-01

357

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis in ancient clergymen  

PubMed Central

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a common but often unrecognized systemic disorder observed mainly in the elderly. DISH is diagnosed when the anterior longitudinal ligament of the spine is ossified on at least four contiguous spinal levels or when multiple peripheral enthesopathies are present. The etiology of DISH is unknown but previous studies have shown a strong association with obesity and insulin-independent diabetes mellitus. DISH can lead to back pain, dysphagia, myelopathy, musculoskeletal impairment and grossly unstable spine fractures after minor trauma. In archeological studies a high prevalence of DISH has been demonstrated in ancient clergymen. The present study describes the pathological changes of human remains excavated from the abbey court (Pandhof) in the city of Maastricht, The Netherlands. Human remains of 51 individuals buried between 275 and 1795 ce were excavated and examined. The remains were investigated according to a standardized physical anthropological report and individuals demonstrating ossification of spinal ligaments and/or multiple peripheral enthesopathies were included in the study group. The authors reviewed all available material and after reaching consensus, each abnormality found was given a diagnosis and subsequently recorded. After examination, 28 individuals were considered to be adult males; 11 adult females; three adults of indeterminate sex and nine individuals were of sub adult age. The mean age at death for adults was 36.8 years. Seventeen adult individuals (40.4% of all adults), displayed ossifications of at least four contiguous spinal levels and/or multiple enthesopathies of the appendicular skeleton and were therefore, assigned the diagnosis DISH. The mean age of these individuals was 49.5 ± 13.0 years. In at least three of these individuals, DISH had led to extensive ossification and subsequent ankylosis of axial and peripheral skeletal structures. In this population of (presumably) clergymen and high-ranking citizens, DISH was observed in unusual high numbers at a relatively young age. Some of the examined cases suggest that DISH may be a seriously incapacitating disorder when the more advanced stages of the disease have been reached. It is hypothesized that “a monastic way of life” can predispose to DISH. Present demographic trends in obesity and diabetes mellitus as potential co-factors for the development of DISH warrant further study to investigate its future prevalence.

Oner, F. C.; Maat, G. J. R.

2007-01-01

358

Sensitivity of barley varieties to weather in Finland.  

PubMed

Global climate change is predicted to shift seasonal temperature and precipitation patterns. An increasing frequency of extreme weather events such as heat waves and prolonged droughts is predicted, but there are high levels of uncertainty about the nature of local changes. Crop adaptation will be important in reducing potential damage to agriculture. Crop diversity may enhance resilience to climate variability and changes that are difficult to predict. Therefore, there has to be sufficient diversity within the set of available cultivars in response to weather parameters critical for yield formation. To determine the scale of such 'weather response diversity' within barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), an important crop in northern conditions, the yield responses of a wide range of modern and historical varieties were analysed according to a well-defined set of critical agro-meteorological variables. The Finnish long-term dataset of MTT Official Variety Trials was used together with historical weather records of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The foci of the analysis were firstly to describe the general response of barley to different weather conditions and secondly to reveal the diversity among varieties in the sensitivity to each weather variable. It was established that barley yields were frequently reduced by drought or excessive rain early in the season, by high temperatures at around heading, and by accelerated temperature sum accumulation rates during periods 2 weeks before heading and between heading and yellow ripeness. Low temperatures early in the season increased yields, but frost during the first 4 weeks after sowing had no effect. After canopy establishment, higher precipitation on average resulted in higher yields. In a cultivar-specific analysis, it was found that there were differences in responses to all but three of the studied climatic variables: waterlogging and drought early in the season and temperature sum accumulation rate before heading. The results suggest that low temperatures early in the season, delayed sowing, rain 3-7 weeks after sowing, a temperature change 3-4 weeks after sowing, a high temperature sum accumulation rate from heading to yellow ripeness and high temperatures (?25°C) at around heading could mostly be addressed by exploiting the traits found in the range of varieties included in the present study. However, new technology and novel genetic material are needed to enable crops to withstand periods of excessive rain or drought early in the season and to enhance performance under increased temperature sum accumulation rates prior to heading. PMID:22505777

Hakala, K; Jauhiainen, L; Himanen, S J; Rötter, R; Salo, T; Kahiluoto, H

2012-04-01

359

Evidence for Symplastic Phloem Unloading in Sink Leaves of Barley1  

PubMed Central

The pathway of phloem unloading in sink barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves was studied using a combination of electron microscopy, carboxyfluorescein transport, and systemic movement of barley stripe mosaic virus expressing the green fluorescent protein. Studies of plasmodesmatal frequencies between the phloem and mesophyll indicated a symplastic sieve element- (SE) unloading pathway involving thick-walled and thin-walled SEs. Phloem-translocated carboxyfluorescein was unloaded rapidly from major longitudinal veins and entered the mesophyll cells of sink leaves. Unloading was “patchy” along the length of a vein, indicating that sieve element unloading may be discontinuous along a single vascular bundle. This pattern was mirrored precisely by the unloading of barley stripe mosaic virus expressing the green fluorescent protein. Transverse veins were not utilized in the unloading process. The data collectively indicate a symplastic mechanism of SE unloading in the sink barley leaf.

Haupt, Sophie; Duncan, George H.; Holzberg, Steve; Oparka, Karl J.

2001-01-01

360

Radical scavenging activity of a purple pigment, hordeumin, from uncooked barley bran-fermented broth.  

PubMed

A novel purple pigment called hordeumin, a type of anthocyanin-tannin pigment, was produced from barley bran-fermented broth. The radical scavenging activity of hordeumin was analyzed by using an electron-spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer. The hordeumin scavenged superoxide radical in a concentration-dependent manner. Superoxide dismutase-like activity values were 118 and 195 units/mg for crude and partially purified hordeumin, respectively. The two types of hordeumins also scavenged the DPPH radical. Furthermore, barley bran-fermented filtrate before pigment formation and extract of barley bran also scavenged the DPPH radical. However, the DPPH radical scavenging activity of a filtrate, fermented over a long period, was stronger than that fermented over a short period. Thus, it was considered that radical scavenging activity of hordeumin resulted from barley bran polyphenol such as proanthocyanidins. PMID:10956091

Deguchi, T; Ohba, R; Ueda, S

2000-08-01

361

Expression of barley BAX Inhibitor-1 in carrots confers resistance to Botrytis cinerea.  

PubMed

SUMMARY BAX Inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is a protein that controls heterologous BAX-induced cell death, the hypersensitive reaction and abiotic stress-induced cell death in plants. When over-expressed in epidermal cells of barley, barley BI-1 induces susceptibility to the biotrophic fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis. When we expressed barley BI-1 in carrot susceptible to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea, we obtained BI-1-mediated resistance to fungus-induced leaf cell death and less fungal spreading on the leaves. Barley BI-1 also mediated resistance to Chalara elegans in carrot roots. The results support the idea that cell death inhibition is an applicable approach to control cell-death-inducing pathogens in crop plants. PMID:20507447

Imani, Jafargholi; Baltruschat, Helmut; Stein, Elke; Jia, Gengxiang; Vogelsberg, Jörg; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Hückelhoven, Ralph

2006-07-01

362

Uptake, Distribution and Metabolism of Four Organic Chemicals by Soybean Plants and Barley Roots.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The uptake of bromacil, dichlorobenzonitrile (DCBN), nitrobenzene (NB) and dinitrobenzene (DNB) was studied in isolated barley roots and mature soybean plants. The uptake rate constants for soybean plants were in the order of DCBN = bromacil < NB < DNB. T...

C. McFarlane C. Nolt C. Wickliff T. Pfleeger R. Shimabuku

1987-01-01

363

Unlocking the Barley Genome by Chromosomal and Comparative Genomics[W][OA  

PubMed Central

We used a novel approach that incorporated chromosome sorting, next-generation sequencing, array hybridization, and systematic exploitation of conserved synteny with model grasses to assign ~86% of the estimated ~32,000 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genes to individual chromosome arms. Using a series of bioinformatically constructed genome zippers that integrate gene indices of rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and Brachypodium distachyon in a conserved synteny model, we were able to assemble 21,766 barley genes in a putative linear order. We show that the barley (H) genome displays a mosaic of structural similarity to hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) A, B, and D subgenomes and that orthologous genes in different grasses exhibit signatures of positive selection in different lineages. We present an ordered, information-rich scaffold of the barley genome that provides a valuable and robust framework for the development of novel strategies in cereal breeding.

Mayer, Klaus F.X.; Martis, Mihaela; Hedley, Pete E.; Simkova, Hana; Liu, Hui; Morris, Jenny A.; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Taudien, Stefan; Roessner, Stephan; Gundlach, Heidrun; Kubalakova, Marie; Suchankova, Pavla; Murat, Florent; Felder, Marius; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Graner, Andreas; Salse, Jerome; Endo, Takashi; Sakai, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Itoh, Takeshi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Platzer, Matthias; Matsumoto, Takashi; Scholz, Uwe; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Waugh, Robbie; Stein, Nils

2011-01-01

364

Genetic stability of net × spot hybrid progeny of the barley pathogen Pyrenophora teres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid progeny produced from a mating between a net- and a spot-type isolate of the barley net blotch pathogen Pyrenophora teres were screened to assess their viability and genetic stability. Progeny (F1) inoculated onto seedlings of the barley cultivars Stirling (highly susceptible to net-, and slightly susceptible to spot-type\\u000a isolates), B87\\/14 and Clipper (only susceptible to spot-type isolates) produced jagged-type

G. F. Campbell; P. W. Crous

2003-01-01

365

Development of SCAR markers linked to a scald resistance gene derived from wild barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The F2 progeny of a third backcross(BC3) line, BC line 240, derived from a Turkish accession of wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum),segregated for resistance to scald (Rhynchosporium secalis) in a manner indicating the presence of a single dominant resistance gene. Two SCAR marker slinked to this resistance were\\u000a developed from AFLP markers. Screens of disomic and ditelosomic wheat-barley addition

Ruth K. Genger; Anthony H. D. Brown; Wolfgang Knogge; Katherine Nesbitt; Jeremy J. Burdon

2003-01-01

366

Allele mining and haplotype discovery in barley candidate genes for drought tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, allele mining was conducted on a panel of drought related candidate genes in a set of 96 barley genotypes\\u000a using EcoTILLING, which is a variant of the targeting induced local lesions in genomes (TILLING) technology. Analyzing approximately\\u000a 1.5 million basepairs in barley a total number of 94 verified unique haplotypes were identified in 18 amplicons designed

András Cseri; Mátyás Cserháti; Maria von Korff; Bettina Nagy; Gábor V. Horváth; András Palágyi; János Pauk; Dénes Dudits; Ottó Törjék

367

Effect of amino acids, growth regulators and genotype on androgenesis in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of an amino acid mixture and of plant growth regulators added to the FHG barley anther culture medium were examined\\u000a using three barley cultivars (Cadette, Léger, and Igri) grown in two environments (growth cabinet and glasshouse). ‘Léger’\\u000a and ‘Igri’ were known as responsive, and ‘Cadette’ as recalcitrant to androgenesis. Our first experiment showed that the amino\\u000a acid-supplemented medium

Jérémy Tinga Ouédraogo; Claude-André St-Pierre; Jean Collin; Sylvie Rioux; André Comeau

1998-01-01

368

Genetic analysis of preharvest sprouting in a six-row barley cross  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preharvest sprouting (PHS) can be a problem in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) especially malting barley, since rapid, uniform, and complete germination are critical. Information has been gained by\\u000a studying the genetics of dormancy (measured as germination percentage, GP). The objective of this study was to determine if\\u000a the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) discovered in previous research on dormancy are related

Steven E. Ullrich; Janet A. Clancy; Isabel A. del Blanco; Hyejin Lee; Vadim A. Jitkov; Feng Han; Andris Kleinhofs; Kunihiko Matsui

2008-01-01

369

Firming of Bread Crumb with Cross-Linked Waxy Barley Starch Substituted for Wheat Starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 69(3):321-325 White pan bread was baked from flour that had been fractionated a higher enthalpy of melting than that of control bread crumb, except and reconstituted using cross-linked waxy barley starch (5.9% amylose at 6 hr after baking. Furthermore, a 50% gel of cross-linked waxy barley content) in place of prime wheat starch (28.3% amylose content). starch in

TOSHIKI INAGAKI; PAUL A. SEIB

1992-01-01

370

Single nucleotide polymorphism, haplotype diversity and recombination in the Isa gene of barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Isa gene from barley—an intronless gene expressed in maternal tissues of the seed—has a likely role in defence against pathogens. The protein product—bi-functional ?-amylase\\/subtilisin inhibitor—inhibits the seed’s own amylase in addition to the bacterial protease subtilisin and fungal xylanase. Sixteen barley genotypes were targeted to amplify and sequence the Isa gene region to detect sequence polymorphisms, since little is

P. C. Bundock; R. J. Henry

2004-01-01

371

Improvement of Salt Tolerance Mechanisms of Barley Cultivated Under Salt Stress Using Azospirillum brasilense  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work was performed to study the improvement of the salt tolerance of two barley cultivars (Giza 123 and Giza 2000)\\u000a which are known for their different tolerance to salt stress by using selected PGPR strain. The present study aimed to assess\\u000a to what extent plant growth promoting rhizobacteria improve the salt tolerance to two barley cultivars (Giza 123

M. N. A. Omar; M. E. H. Osman; W. A. Kasim; I. A. Abd El-Daim

372

Destruction of Chlorophyll in Emerging Seedlings of Spring Barley Associated with Environmental Stresses  

Microsoft Academic Search

K?DELA V., VOŽENÍLKOV Á B., KREJZAROV Á R., KREJZAR V., JANOUCH M. (2005): Destruction of chlorophyll in emerging seedlings of spring barley associated with environmental stresses. Plant Protect. Sci., 41: 165-170. An unusual disorder occurred on spring barley seedlings in southern and central Bohemia in April 2005. Af- fected seedlings showed conspicuous bleached or straw-coloured areas on tips of the

BOHUMILA VOŽENÍLKOV Á; RADKA KREJZAROV Á; VÁCLAV KREJZAR; MICHAL JANOUCH

2005-01-01

373

Signal Transduction in Barley Aleurone Protoplasts 1s Calcium Dependent and lndependent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gibberellic acid (GA) increases Ca2+ and calmodulin (CaM) levels in barley aleurone cells, and abscisic acid (ABA) an- tagonizes the GA effect. These alterations in cytoplasmic Ca2+ and CaM have been suggested to be central regulators of the secretory response of the barley aleurone. Using microinjection of caged Ca2+, Ca2+ chelators, and CaM, we mim- icked or blocked these hormonally

Simon Gilroy

374

Cloning, mapping and expression analysis of barley MADS-box genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six MADS-box cDNA clones were isolated by heterologous screening from a barley inflorescence cDNA library. Based on sequence comparison to known MADS-box genes, the barley MADS-box (BM) genes were grouped into three distinct phylogenetic subclasses of the MADS-box gene family. The three MADS-box genes BM3, BM5 and BM8 share similarities with genes of the SQUAMOSA (SQUA) subgroup, while BM7 and

Jürgen Schmitz; Rainer Franzen; Thi Ha Ngyuen; Federico Garcia-Maroto; Carlo Pozzi; Francesco Salamini; Wolfgang Rohde

2000-01-01

375

Genetic improvement of yield responsiveness to nitrogen fertilization and its physiological determinants in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, barley in Argentina has been cultivated in low-yielding environments. A study was conducted to test whether\\u000a breeding for improved performance under these conditions would have also improved the responsiveness to nitrogen availability.\\u000a Four cultivars of two-rowed malting barley (released in 1944, 1960,1982 and 1998) were grown under 4 rates of nitrogen fertilizer\\u000a at sowing (20, 50, 110and 160 kgN

L. Gabriela Abeledo; Daniel F. Calderini; Gustavo A. Slafer

2003-01-01

376

Expression of stress/defense-related genes in barley grown under space environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants are exposed to the extreme environment in space, especially space radiation is suspected to induce oxidative stress by generating high-energy free radicals and microgravity would enhance the effect of space radiation, however, current understandings of plant growth and responses on this synergistic effect of radiation and microgravity is limited to a few experiments. In this study, expression of stress/defense-related genes in barley grown under space environment was analyzed by RT-PCR and DNA microarray experiments to understand plant responses and adaptation to space environment and to develop the space stress-tolerant plants. The seeds of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Haruna nijo, kept in the international space station (ISS) over 4 months, were germinated after 3 days of irrigation in LADA plant growth chamber onboard Russian segment of ISS and the final germination ratio was over 90 %. The height of plants was about 50 to 60 cm and flag leaf has been opened after 26 days of irrigation under 24 hr lighting, showing the similar growth to ground-grown barley. Expression levels of stress/defense-related genes in space-grown barley were compared to those in ground-grown barley by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. In 17 stress/defense-related genes that are up-regulated by oxidative stress or other abiotic stress, only catalase, pathogenesis-related protein 13, chalcone synthase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes were increased in space-grown barley. DNA microarrya analysis with the GeneChip Barley Genome Array showed the similar expression profiles of the stress/defense-related genes to those by RT-PCR experiment, suggesting that the barley germinated and grown in LADA onboard ISS is not damaged by space environment, especially oxidative stress induced by space radiation and microgravity.

Sugimoto, Manabu; Shagimardanova, Elena; Gusev, Oleg; Bingham, Gail; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir

377

Influence of exogenic salicylic acid on Fusarium seedling blight reduction in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) applied at concentrations from 1–10 µg·ml?1 to germinating seeds of 8 barley cultivars reduced the disease rating of seedlings. Seedlings of barley not treated with\\u000a SA and inoculated with Fusarium culmorum exhibited disease rating of root on avarage 76 %. Seedlings treated before inoculation with solution of SA 1, 2, 5 and 10\\u000a µg\\/ml exhibited significantly lower

H. Wi?niewska; J. Che?kowski

1999-01-01

378

Role of Chromium in Barley in Modulating the Symptoms of Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In adult diabetic rats, a diet containing barley had a modulating effect on the symptoms of diabetes (blood glucose concentration and water consumption) when compared with a starch or sucrose-based diet. It was postulated that the beneficial effect of barley might be explained by its very high content of chromium (5.69 ?g\\/g). Supplementation of the sucrose-based diet with an amount

Ghanim S. Mahdi; Donald J. Naismith

1991-01-01

379

Barley for Brewing: Characteristic Changes during Malting, Brewing and Applications of its By-Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley is the basic raw material for brewing. Its chemical composition, brewing, and technological indices are highly determinative for the beer quality and the economical efficiency of the brewing process. Barley is rich in protein, carbohydrates, dietary fibers, minerals, and vitamins. The presence of non starch polysaccharides as mixed linkage (1-3),(1-4)-?-D-glucans and arabinoxylans together with the enzymes are responsible for

Mahesh Gupta; Nissreen Abu-Ghannam; Eimear Gallaghar

2010-01-01

380

Effect of nitrogen stress and abscisic acid on nitrate absorption and transport in barley and tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) roots for net NO3-absorption increased two-to five fold within 2 d of being deprived of NO3-supply. Nitrogen-starved barley roots continued to maintain a high potential for NO3-absorption, whereas NO3-absorption by tomato roots declined below control levels after 10 d of N starvation. When placed in a 0.2 mM

F. Stuart Chapin; David T. Clarkson; John R. Lenton; Colin H. S. Walter

1988-01-01

381

Effect of tillage systems, mulches and nitrogen fertilization on spring barley (Hordeum vulgare)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield, N uptake, weeds and diseases of spring barley were examined under five mulching practices (white mustard, phacelia, oat-pea mixture, straw mulch, and no mulch), three tillage systems (conventional, reduced and no-tillage) and three doses of nitrogen fertilization (0, 50 and 100 kg N ha-1). In general the grain yield of spring barley for cover crops was 10-31% higher compared

I. Ma?ecka; A. Blecharczyk

2008-01-01

382

RFLP markers linked to scald ( Rhynchosporium secalis ) resistance gene Rh2 in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhynchosporium secalis is the causal organism of barley scald disease. A number of resistance genes against the fungus are well known; one of them, the single dominant Rh2 resistance gene, has been mapped on the linkage map of barley using RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers. The Rh2 gene was located on the distal part of chromosome arm 1S co-segregating

G. F. Schweizer; M. Baumer; G. Daniel; H. Rugel; M. S. Röder

1995-01-01

383

Mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting Drechslera teres resistance in barley with molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance loci for seedling-stage resistance to net blotch disease (Drechslera teres) in barley were mapped with molecular markers in an F2 population derived from a cross between the susceptible barley cultivar ‘Arena’ and the resistant Ethiopian landrace ‘Hor\\u000a 9088’. Disease reactions were scored with first and second leaves of 2-week-old plants 7 and 9 days after inoculation with\\u000a a single

K. Richter; J. Schondelmaier; C. Jung

1998-01-01

384

RFLP mapping of the ym4 virus resistance gene in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) mapping of a recessive gene (ym4) conferring resistance to barley yellow mosaic and barley mild mosaic virus was performed using progeny of 86 F1 anther-derived doubled haploid lines. Two closely linked RFLP markers that flank the gene at a distance of 1.2 centiMorgans were identified. Using one of these markers (MWG10) we obtained a clear

A. Graner; E. Bauer

1993-01-01

385

Fine mapping and syntenic integration of the semi-dwarfing gene sdw3 of barley.  

PubMed

The barley mutant allele sdw3 confers a gibberellin-insensitive, semi-dwarf phenotype with potential for breeding of new semi-dwarfed barley cultivars. Towards map-based cloning, sdw3 was delimited by high-resolution genetic mapping to a 0.04 cM interval in a "cold spot" of recombination of the proximal region of the short arm of barley chromosome 2H. Extensive synteny between the barley Sdw3 locus (Hvu_sdw3) and the orthologous regions (Osa_sdw3, Sbi_sdw3, Bsy_sdw3) of three other grass species (Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolor, Brachypodium sylvaticum) allowed for efficient synteny-based marker saturation in the target interval. Comparative sequence analysis revealed colinearity for 23 out of the 38, 35, and 29 genes identified in Brachypodium, rice, and Sorghum, respectively. Markers co-segregating with Hvu_sdw3 were generated from two of these genes. Initial attempts at chromosome walking in barley were performed with seven orthologous gene probes which were delimiting physical distances of 223, 123, and 127 kb in Brachypodium, rice, and Sorghum, respectively. Six non-overlapping small bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone contigs (cumulative length of 670 kb) were obtained, which indicated a considerably larger physical size of Hvu_sdw3. Low-pass sequencing of selected BAC clones from these barley contigs exhibited a substantially lower gene frequency per physical distance and the presence of additional non-colinear genes. Four candidate genes for sdw3 were identified within barley BAC sequences that either co-segregated with the gene sdw3 or were located adjacent to these co-segregating genes. Identification of genic sequences in the sdw3 context provides tools for marker-assisted selection. Eventual identification of the actual gene will contribute new information for a basic understanding of the mechanisms underlying growth regulation in barley. PMID:20464438

Vu, Giang T H; Wicker, Thomas; Buchmann, Jan P; Chandler, Peter M; Matsumoto, Takashi; Graner, Andreas; Stein, Nils

2010-11-01

386

Impact of Cultural Practices on Yield Variability of Semiarid Wall Barley (Hordeum murineum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wall barley (Hordeum murineum L.) is the dominant species in northeastern rangeland of Jordan. Field experiments were conducted during the winter seasons of 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 at the semi-arid region in north of Jordan, to study the effect on yield responses of wall barley (Hordeum murineum L.) of the following: seeding dates (1, 14 and 28 Dec.), seeding rates (200,

MUNIR A. TURK; ABDEL RAHMAN M. AL-TAWAHA; OLANI NIKUS; MOHAMMAD RIFAEE

387

Plant volatile-induced aphid resistance in barley cultivars is related to cultivar age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that volatile chemical interaction between certain barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars can cause reduced host plant acceptance by the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi, and that certain cultivars can induce this effect while others can respond. In this study, we tested whether inducing and\\u000a responding capabilities are linked to year of release in Swedish two-rowed spring barley. Eighteen cultivars

Martin Kellner; Agnese Kolodinska Brantestam; Inger Åhman; Velemir Ninkovic

2010-01-01

388

Ancient hyaenas highlight the old problem of estimating evolutionary rates.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analyses of ancient DNA data can provide a timeline for evolutionary change even in the absence of fossils. The power to infer the evolutionary rate is, however, highly dependent on the number and age of samples, the information content of the sequence data and the demographic history of the sampled population. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Sheng et al. (2014) analysed mitochondrial DNA sequences isolated from a combination of ancient and present-day hyaenas, including three Pleistocene samples from China. Using an evolutionary rate inferred from the ages of the ancient sequences, they recalibrated the timing of hyaena diversification and suggest a much more recent evolutionary history than was believed previously. Their results highlight the importance of accurately estimating the evolutionary rate when inferring timescales of geographical and evolutionary diversification. PMID:24450980

Shapiro, Beth; Ho, Simon Y W

2014-02-01

389

Enlightenment from ancient Chinese urban and rural stormwater management practices.  

PubMed

Hundreds of years ago, the ancient Chinese implemented several outstanding projects to cope with the changing climate and violent floods. Some of these projects are still in use today. These projects evolved from the experience and knowledge accumulated through the long coexistence of people with nature. The concepts behind these ancient stormwater management practices, such as low-impact development and sustainable drainage systems, are similar to the technology applied in modern stormwater management. This paper presents the cases of the Hani Terrace in Yunnan and the Fushou drainage system of Ganzhou in Jiangxi. The ancient Chinese knowledge behind these cases is seen in the design concepts and the features of these projects. These features help us to understand better their applications in the contemporary environment. In today's more complex environment, integrating traditional and advanced philosophy with modern technologies is extremely useful in building urban and rural stormwater management systems in China. PMID:23552234

Wu, Che; Qiao, Mengxi; Wang, Sisi

2013-01-01

390

Dissolution and depolymerization of barley starch in selected ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Polysaccharides like starch are poorly soluble in common solvents. However, certain ionic liquids (ILs) have been found to dissolve them, although some depolymerization happens during the dissolution. Dissolution and depolymerization of barley starch in ten ionic liquids have been studied with p-TsOH as a catalyst under controlled microwave heating. Dissolution time and the extent of the depolymerization of starch, determined by using HPLC-ELSD, were specific to each IL. Dialkylimidazolium halide ILs dissolved starch fast and depolymerized it substantially producing 79-100% water-soluble starch oligomers with the average molecular weight of 1000-2000Da. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium phosphate ([EMIM][Me2PO4]) and 2-hydroxyethylammonium formate ([NH3CH2CH2OH][HCOO]) dissolved starch slowly and depolymerized it least among the tested ILs. For the slow depolymerization of starch these ILs can be considered as suitable solvents for starch modifications where its depolymerization should be avoided. PMID:23465905

Lappalainen, Katja; Kärkkäinen, Johanna; Lajunen, Marja

2013-03-01

391

NASA crop calendars: Wheat, barley, oats, rye, sorghum, soybeans, corn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crop calenders used to determine when Earth Resources Technology Satellite ERTS data would provide the most accurate wheat acreage information and to minimize the amount of ground verified information needed are presented. Since barley, oats, and rye are considered 'confusion crops, i.e., hard to differentiate from wheat in ERTS imagery, specific dates are estimated for these crops in the following stages of development: (1) seed-bed operation, (2) planting or seeding, (3) intermediate growth, (4) dormancy, (5) development of crop to full ground cover, (6) heading or tasseling, and flowering, (7) harvesting, and (8) posting-harvest operations. Dormancy dates are included for fall-snow crops. A synopsis is given of each states' growing conditions, special cropping practices, and other characteristics which are helpful in identifying crops from ERTS imagery.

Stuckey, M. R.; Anderson, E. N.

1975-01-01

392

Hepatoprotective effect of feeding celery leaves mixed with chicory leaves and barley grains to hypercholesterolemic rats  

PubMed Central

Celery, chicory leaves, and barley grains are valuable in weight loss diets and regulate lipid metabolism. They may reduce risk of fatty liver. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of diet supplementation with celery, chicory, and barley powder on liver enzymes and blood lipids in rats fed with cholesterol-enriched diet. This study used four groups of rats fed with 3% cholesterol were supplemented diet to induce hypercholesterolemia and one group was fed on cholesterol-free basal diet. The dry powder of celery leaves, chicory leaves, and barley grains was separately added to the basal diet at 10% concentration or in combination of three plants at 15% for four weeks. Biochemical analyses of serum liver enzymes and blood lipids as well as histopathological examination of liver were performed. Feeding of diet supplemented with 10% of celery, 10% chicory, and 10% of barley lowered the elevated serum level of liver enzymes and blood lipids in rats. Feeding plant combination of celery, chicory, and barley at 15% concentration (5% from each) was more effective in decreasing the elevation of liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase) and blood lipids. The histopathological lesions seen in the livers of hypercholesterolemic rats were ameliorated by feeding this plant mixture. This study recommends that dietary intake of plant mixture of celery; chicory, and barley at 15% (5% of each) concentration can be beneficial to patients suffering from hypercholesterolemia and liver diseases.

Abd El-Mageed, Nehal M.

2011-01-01

393

Ancient Chinese Literature Reveals Pathways of Eggplant Domestication  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Changes in key traits occurring during the processes of plant domestication have long been subjects of debate. Only in the case of genetic analysis or with extensive plant remains can specific sets of changes be documented. Historical details of the plant domestication processes are rare and other evidence of morphological change can be difficult to obtain, especially for those vegetables that lack a substantial body of archaeological data. Botanical records chronicled in the ancient literature of established ancient civilizations, such as that of China, are invaluable resources for the study and understanding of the process of plant domestication. Here, the considerable body of ancient Chinese literature is used to explore the domestication process that has occurred with the eggplant (Solanum melongena), an important vegetable in Old World. Methods Information about eggplant domestication in the ancient Chinese literature was retrieved using a variety of methods. The information obtained was then sorted by taxon, examined and taxonomic identifications verified. Key Results It was found that the earliest record of the eggplant documented in ancient Chinese literature was in a work from 59 bc. As far as is known, this is the earliest reliable and accurately dated record of eggplant in cultivation. The analysis reveals that the process of domestication of the eggplant in China involved three principal aspects of fruit quality: size, shape and taste. These traits were actively and gradually selected; fruit size changed from small to large, taste changed from not palatable to what was termed at the time sweetish, and that over time, a wider variety of fruit shapes was cultivated. Conclusions The results indicate that, in addition to data gleaned from archaeology and genetics, evidence as to changes in key traits occurring during the process of plant domestication and selective forces responsible for these changes can be traced through the ancient literature in some civilizations.

Wang, Jin-Xiu; Gao, Tian-Gang; Knapp, Sandra

2008-01-01

394

Haploid formation in maize, barley, flax, and potato.  

PubMed

The article is reviewing some significant features and issues in the process of haploid formation in two important monocotyledonous crop plants - maize and barley - and in two dicotyledonous plants - flax and potato. Exotic maize lines with higher androgenic response turned up as a good source for this heritable trait and this valuable trait can be incorporated into elite maize lines via crossing. Lots of attempts were devoted to identifying some cytological and/or morphological markers for androgenic response in maize microspore cultures. The "starlike" organization of the cytoplasm inside the induced maize microspores together with the enlarged size of induced microspores can be considered as morphological markers for androgenic response. In barley, microspores with rich cytoplasm that was of granular appearance with the nucleus located near the cell wall and with no visible vacuole had the largest survival rate and many of these cells continued in development and produced embryos. In flax, a dramatic increase of induction rate in anther cultures (up to 25%) was achieved when flax anthers were pretreated for 3 days at 4 degrees C and afterwards kept for 1 day at 35 degrees C. Also gynogenesis in flax has been reported already and complete plants were obtained. In potato microspore cultures, formation of two dissimilar cells indicated a strong polarization in the system and as a result of this polarization a prominent suspensor developed that persisted until the torpedo stage of the androgenic embryo. This was the first time the formation of a well developed suspensor was described in connection with androgenesis. PMID:16937062

Pret'ová, A; Obert, B; Bartosová, Z

2006-08-01

395

Combinatorial Pooling Enables Selective Sequencing of the Barley Gene Space  

PubMed Central

For the vast majority of species – including many economically or ecologically important organisms, progress in biological research is hampered due to the lack of a reference genome sequence. Despite recent advances in sequencing technologies, several factors still limit the availability of such a critical resource. At the same time, many research groups and international consortia have already produced BAC libraries and physical maps and now are in a position to proceed with the development of whole-genome sequences organized around a physical map anchored to a genetic map. We propose a BAC-by-BAC sequencing protocol that combines combinatorial pooling design and second-generation sequencing technology to efficiently approach denovo selective genome sequencing. We show that combinatorial pooling is a cost-effective and practical alternative to exhaustive DNA barcoding when preparing sequencing libraries for hundreds or thousands of DNA samples, such as in this case gene-bearing minimum-tiling-path BAC clones. The novelty of the protocol hinges on the computational ability to efficiently compare hundred millions of short reads and assign them to the correct BAC clones (deconvolution) so that the assembly can be carried out clone-by-clone. Experimental results on simulated data for the rice genome show that the deconvolution is very accurate, and the resulting BAC assemblies have high quality. Results on real data for a gene-rich subset of the barley genome confirm that the deconvolution is accurate and the BAC assemblies have good quality. While our method cannot provide the level of completeness that one would achieve with a comprehensive whole-genome sequencing project, we show that it is quite successful in reconstructing the gene sequences within BACs. In the case of plants such as barley, this level of sequence knowledge is sufficient to support critical end-point objectives such as map-based cloning and marker-assisted breeding.

Lonardi, Stefano; Duma, Denisa; Alpert, Matthew; Cordero, Francesca; Beccuti, Marco; Bhat, Prasanna R.; Wu, Yonghui; Ciardo, Gianfranco; Alsaihati, Burair; Ma, Yaqin; Wanamaker, Steve; Resnik, Josh; Bozdag, Serdar; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Close, Timothy J.

2013-01-01

396

The barley Frost resistance-H2 locus.  

PubMed

Frost resistance-H2 (Fr-H2) is a major QTL affecting freezing tolerance in barley, yet its molecular basis is still not clearly understood. To gain a better insight into the structural characterization of the locus, a high-resolution linkage map developed from the Nure × Tremois cross was initially implemented to map 13 loci which divided the 0.602 cM total genetic distance into ten recombination segments. A PCR-based screening was then applied to identify positive bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from two genomic libraries of the reference genotype Morex. Twenty-six overlapping BACs from the integrated physical-genetic map were 454 sequenced. Reads assembled in contigs were subsequently ordered, aligned and manually curated in 42 scaffolds. In a total of 1.47 Mbp, 58 protein-coding sequences were identified, 33 of which classified according to similarity with sequences in public databases. As three complete barley C-repeat Binding Factors (HvCBF) genes were newly identified, the locus contained13 full-length HvCBFs, four Related to AP2 Triticeae (RAPT) genes, and at least five CBF pseudogenes. The final overall assembly of Fr-H2 includes more than 90 % of target region: all genes were identified along the locus, and a general survey of Repetitive Elements obtained. We believe that this gold-standard sequence for the Morex Fr-H2 will be a useful genomic tool for structural and evolutionary comparisons with Fr-H2 in winter-hardy cultivars along with Fr-2 of other Triticeae crops. PMID:24442711

Pasquariello, Marianna; Barabaschi, Delfina; Himmelbach, Axel; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Stein, Nils; Gandolfi, Francesco; Tenedini, Elena; Bernardis, Isabella; Tagliafico, Enrico; Pecchioni, Nicola; Francia, Enrico

2014-03-01

397

Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Cadmium Toxicity in Barley Seedlings1  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in plant disease resistance and hypersensitive cell death but is also implicated in hardening responses to abiotic stressors. Cadmium (Cd) exposure increased the free SA contents of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots by a factor of about 2. Cultivation of dry barley caryopses presoaked in SA-containing solution for only 6 h or single transient addition of SA at a 0.5 mm concentration to the hydroponics solution partially protected the seedlings from Cd toxicity during the following growth period. Both SA treatments had little effect on growth in the absence of Cd, but increased root and shoot length and fresh and dry weight and inhibited lipid peroxidation in roots, as indicated by malondialdehyde contents, in the presence of Cd. To test whether this protection was due to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, activities and transcript levels of the H2O2-metabolizing enzymes such as catalase and ascorbate peroxidase were measured in control and SA-treated seedlings in the presence or absence of 25 ?m Cd. Cd stress increased the activity of these enzymes by variable extent. SA treatments strongly or completely suppressed the Cd-induced up-regulation of the antioxidant enzyme activities. Slices from leaves treated with SA for 24 h also showed an increased level of tolerance toward high Cd concentrations as indicated by chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters. The results support the conclusion that SA alleviates Cd toxicity not at the level of antioxidant defense but by affecting other mechanisms of Cd detoxification.

Metwally, Ashraf; Finkemeier, Iris; Georgi, Manfred; Dietz, Karl-Josef

2003-01-01

398

Salicylic acid alleviates the cadmium toxicity in barley seedlings.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in plant disease resistance and hypersensitive cell death but is also implicated in hardening responses to abiotic stressors. Cadmium (Cd) exposure increased the free SA contents of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots by a factor of about 2. Cultivation of dry barley caryopses presoaked in SA-containing solution for only 6 h or single transient addition of SA at a 0.5 mM concentration to the hydroponics solution partially protected the seedlings from Cd toxicity during the following growth period. Both SA treatments had little effect on growth in the absence of Cd, but increased root and shoot length and fresh and dry weight and inhibited lipid peroxidation in roots, as indicated by malondialdehyde contents, in the presence of Cd. To test whether this protection was due to up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, activities and transcript levels of the H(2)O(2)-metabolizing enzymes such as catalase and ascorbate peroxidase were measured in control and SA-treated seedlings in the presence or absence of 25 microM Cd. Cd stress increased the activity of these enzymes by variable extent. SA treatments strongly or completely suppressed the Cd-induced up-regulation of the antioxidant enzyme activities. Slices from leaves treated with SA for 24 h also showed an increased level of tolerance toward high Cd concentrations as indicated by chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters. The results support the conclusion that SA alleviates Cd toxicity not at the level of antioxidant defense but by affecting other mechanisms of Cd detoxification. PMID:12746532

Metwally, Ashraf; Finkemeier, Iris; Georgi, Manfred; Dietz, Karl-Josef

2003-05-01

399

Acrotrisomic analysis in linkage mapping in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).  

PubMed

Three acrotrisomic lines, Triplo IL(1S), 3L(3S), and 4L(4S), each carrying an extra acrocentric chromosome, were used for cytogenetic linkage mapping of barley chromosomes. The cytological structures of the acrocentric chromosome of the three acrotrisomic lines were studied with an improved Giemsa N-banding technique. The long (1L) and short arm (1S) of chromosome 1 had deficiencies of approximately 38% and 65%, respectively. The percentages of deficiencies were 0 and 77.8% for 3L and 3S, and 31.7 and 59.3% for 4L and 4S, respectively. All three genes tested (br, f c , gs3) in 1S and all three genes tested, f8, n and 1k2 in 1L showed a disomic ratio indicating that they are located in the deficient segments. Two genes (a c , yst2) located in the middle segment of 3S in linkage map showed a trisomic ratio, and two others a n , x s showed a disomic ratio. The only gene(f9) tested in 4L showed a trisomic ratio. Two genes (1g4, g1) located in the proximal segment of 4S in the linkage map showed a trisomic ratio, whereas two genes (br2, g13) located distally in 4S showed a disomic ratio, indicating that the breakage occurred between g1 and br2. This experiment demonstrates a new method for physical localization of genes on chromosome segments in material such as barley in which pachytene analysis can not be effectively used for accurate determination of break points in structural changes. Problems associated with this new technique are discussed. PMID:24257733

Tsuchiya, T; Singh, R J; Shahla, A; Hang, A

1984-08-01

400

Evolution and Intensity of Hail in Wheat and Barley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cereals have represented a very important place in the agriculture along the history. The current expansion and growth of the energetic markets are changing the role of the agriculture. The cereals, with other crops, are becoming more significant as suppliers of raw material for the production of biofuels. The purpose of the present project is to carry out a study about the hail in cereals. The survey is focus in wheat and barley as they both represent the highest cereal production of Spain. Four provinces have been chosen (those with the values of production are higher): Burgos and Zaragoza for the wheat and Cuenca and Valladolid for the barley. The materials and methods that we had available for the study of the evolution and intensity of the damages for hail include an analysis of the correlation between the ratios of agricultural insurances provided by ENESA and the number of days of annual hail (from 1981 to 2007). At the same time, one weather station per province was selected by the longest more complete data recorded (from 1963 to 2007) to perform an analysis of monthly time series of the number of hail days (HD). The results of the study show us that there is no relation between the ratio of the agricultural insurances and the number of hail days. This can be due to the large area of which the ratio refers to and the low density of meteorological stations to cover the hail that is registered in every of the four provinces. On the other hand, it is observed that monthly HD time series don't show a change in pattern except in one of the stations studied. Therefore with the information available we cannot state that there are clear changes in the evolution of the hail registered for each province.

Bernaldo de Quirós, I.; Saa Requejo, A.; Tarquis, A. M.; Burgaz, F.

2009-04-01

401

Structure and tissue-specific regulation of genes encoding barley (1?3, 1?4)-?-glucan endohydrolases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Two genes encode (1?3, 1?4)-?-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.73) isoenzymes in barley. A gene for isoenzyme El has been isolated from a barley genomic library and the nucleotide sequence of a 4643 by fragment determined. The gene is located on barley chromosome 5 while the gene for (1?3, 1?4)-?-glucanase isoenzyme EII is carried on chromosome 1. The isoenzyme EI gene

Nada Slakeski; David C. Baulcombe; Katrien M. Devos; Bhavna Ahluwalia; Danny N. P. Doan; Geoffrey B. Fincher

1990-01-01

402

Influence of nitrogen fertilization on the nutritional value of high-lysine barley determined in growing pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was performed to examine the nutritional value of a high-lysine barley variety, Ca 7200202 (HLys) and four conventional barley varieties, namely cultivated varieties (cv) Galant, Inga, Romi and Zita, which were fertilized with either 0 or 180kg nitrogen (N)ha?1. The barley varieties were used in N balance and digestibility studies in growing pigs. The lysine content of protein

Henry Jørgensen; Vince M Gabert; José A Fernández

1999-01-01

403

Ancient schwannoma of the parapharynx causing dysphagia: a rare entity  

PubMed Central

A schwannoma is a benign, encapsulated tumour that is derived from neural sheath (Schwann) cells. Approximately 25–40% of schwannomas occur in the head and neck. The most common site is the parapharyngeal space of the neck; oropharyngeal occurrence is extremely rare. Among the various histological types of schwannomas reported to date, the ancient (degenerative) variant is the most rare. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an ancient schwannoma in the parapharynx with an extensive oropharyngeal component causing dysphagia. Dysphagia was the prominent symptom because of the location and volume of the lesion. The tumour was excised via a transcervical approach.

Sayed, SI; Rane, P; Deshmukh, A; Chaukar, D; Menon, S; Arya, S; D'cruz, AK

2012-01-01

404

Ancient impact and aqueous processes at Endeavour Crater, Mars  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The rover Opportunity has investigated the rim of Endeavour Crater, a large ancient impact crater on Mars. Basaltic breccias produced by the impact form the rim deposits, with stratigraphy similar to that observed at similar-sized craters on Earth. Highly localized zinc enrichments in some breccia materials suggest hydrothermal alteration of rim deposits. Gypsum-rich veins cut sedimentary rocks adjacent to the crater rim. The gypsum was precipitated from low-temperature aqueous fluids flowing upward from the ancient materials of the rim, leading temporarily to potentially habitable conditions and providing some of the waters involved in formation of the ubiquitous sulfate-rich sandstones of the Meridiani region.

Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Calef, F. III; Clark, B. C.; Cohen, B. A.; Crumpler, L. A.; de Souza, P. A., Jr.; Farrand, W. H.; Gellert, R.; Grant, J.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Johnson, J. R.; Jolliff, B. L.; Knoll, A. H.; Li, R.; McLennan, S. M.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Parker, T. J.; Paulsen, G.; Rice, M. S.; Ruff, S. W.; Schröder, C.; Yen, A. S.; Zacny, K.

2012-01-01

405

[Ancient mental healing and cognitive behavior therapy in comparison].  

PubMed

Although cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) is a relatively new psychotherapeutic approach, the theoretical antecedents actually date back two thousand years, to the period of the hellenistic philosophers. The Stoic Epictetus is often acknowledged as the main philosophical father of CBT and especially of rational-emotive therapy (RET). Beck and Ellis frequently noted that they have drawn upon the writings of the ancient philosophers in developing their psychotherapeutic techniques. This paper reviews some implications of hellenistic philosophy for CBT. We like to show that the teachings of the ancient 'healer of souls' are remarkably consistent with the current theoretical framework and techniques of CBT. PMID:3073604

Hoellen, B; Laux, J

1988-01-01

406

Uxoricide in pregnancy: ancient Greek domestic violence in evolutionary perspective.  

PubMed

Previous studies of ancient Greek examples of uxoricide in pregnancy have concluded that the theme is used to suggest tyrannical abuse of power and that the violence is a product of the patriarchal nature of ancient society. This article uses evolutionary analyses of violence during pregnancy to argue that the themes of sexual jealousy and uncertainty over paternity are as crucial as the theme of power to an understanding of these examples and that the examples can be seen as typical instances of spousal abuse as it occurs in all types of society. PMID:24153380

Deacy, Susan; McHardy, Fiona

2013-01-01

407

[Medical myths and notions in Ancient Greece].  

PubMed

The article deals with the views on health and disease prevalent in Ancient Greece, the cradle of modern European medicine, focusing on the ever-present myths functioning in that realm despite attempts to rationally explain medical phenomena. On the basis of the works of Hippocrates and Galen, the author has distinguished five different epistemological attitudes towards those phenomena: the holistic, macrocosmological, monistic, anti-hypothetical and eclectic. The first was based on the idea of mechanical and logical causes. In medicine it is marked by determinism connected with climatic conditions. Hippocrates believed that health depended on the weather, in particular on the effects of winds, types of water and properties of soil. Myth emerged in this conception in the way matter - earth, water, air and fire - was conceived, particular in the properties ascribed to them: cold, humidity, aridity and warmth. The author charges that this conception was permeated with ethnocentrism and cites examples invoked by Hippocrates on the basis of his observations on the Scythians. The macrocosmological attitude involves subordinating medicine to cosmology. Man's body is a microcosm. The author cites the treatise 'On Diets', in which the greatest importance both in the universe and in processes taking place in the human body as ascribed to two factors - fire and water. Their combination was said to have played a crucial role in the typology of corporal and mental constitutions. Those features, together with the seasons of the year, mode of behaviour and food, constitute the four forces guiding vital processes. The author then presents the embryogenic conception contained in the cosmological treatise. It was based on such things as numerological speculations, hence - despite its rationalistic assumptions, consigns it to the mythic. The third attitude, the monistic approach, presents a treatise ascribed to Hippocrates 'On the Sacred Disease' and dealing with epilepsy. The author of the article cites evidence desacralising epilepsy and, by the same token, other diseases. But the treatise stops short of separating medicine from meteorology, as the treatise attempts to present overall phenomena as dependent on one factor - air. The anti-hypothetical attitude marks a turning-away from cosmology towards the observation of man as such. Medicine is the art of applying the proper diet according to a given individual's digestive capacity. Nevertheless, this anti-methaphysical medicine creates a fictitious scheme explaining health-related phenomena through the antagonism of two forces: the force of food and the inborn force of the body consumming it. The last attitude- the eclectic approach, is associated with its most distinguished representative, Galen, whose cognitive pursuits combined observation with logic. The author cites Galen's opinions about then current philosophical schools and portrays his method of reasoning and behaviour. But Galen also relied on his imagination with regards to the physiological processes taking place in the human body. That can be illustrated by numerous examples, especially the introduction of the concept of a demiurge, in the author's words - a transcendental craftsman setting the universe in order. The conception made medicine metaphysical once again. In summing up, the author states that Greek authors, despite their attempts at objectivity, became slaves of mythical thinking whenever they tried to explain the invisible. Nevertheless, the significance of imagination, both in the realm of heuristics and in the creation of structures, cannot be denied. Modern medicine also makes use of imagination when faced with the limits of what is available to observation, even though those limits are constantly being extended. PMID:12568097

Boulogne, J

2001-01-01

408

How stable are the 'stable ancient shields'?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Archean cratons are relatively flat, stable regions of the crust that have remained undeformed since the Precambrian, forming the ancient cores of the continents" (King, EPSL, 2005). While this type of statement is supported by a wealth of constraints in the case of episodes of thoroughgoing ductile deformation affecting shield regions of Archean and also Peleoproterozoic age, a growing amount of research indicates that shields are not nearly as structurally stable within the broad field of environmental conditions leading to brittle deformation. In fact, old crystalline basements usually present compelling evidence of long brittle deformation histories, often very complex and challenging to unfold. Recent structural and geochronological studies point to a significant mechanical instability of the shield areas, wherein large volumes of 'stable' rocks actually can become saturated with fractures and brittle faults soon after regional cooling exhumes them to below c. 300-350° C. How cold, rigid and therefore strong shields respond to applied stresses remains, however, still poorly investigated and understood. This in turn precludes a better definition of the shallow rheological properties of large, old crystalline blocks. In particular, we do not yet have good constraints on the mechanisms of mechanical reactivation that control the partial (if not total) accommodation of new deformational episodes by preexisting structures, which remains a key to untangle brittle histories lasting several hundred Myr. In our analysis, we use the Svecofennian Shield (SS) as an example of a supposedly 'stable' region with Archean nucleii and Paleoproterozoic cratonic areas to show how it is possible to unravel the details of brittle histories spanning more than 1.5 Gyr. New structural and geochronological results from Finland are integrated with a review of existing data from Sweden to explore how the effects of far-field stresses are partitioned within a shield, which was growing progressively saturated with fractures as time passed from its initial consolidation. The comparison of time-constrained paleostress data derived from three different locations of the shield shows a remarkably similar stress evolution through time, despite the different geological frameworks of the investigated areas. This suggests that the southern SS has behaved as a coherent rigid crustal block since the Late Mesoproterozoic. By that time, the SS had already reached structural maturity with respect to the saturation of brittle structural features. Therefore, structural reactivation rather than generation of new faults and fractures is the key mechanism that has controlled the mechanical evolution of the shield and that will steer its future evolution within the brittle regime. Comparable brittle structural histories within parts of the shield that are far apart also imply that far-field stresses can propagate over large distances and can lead to similar deformational histories, with the local geological conditions only playing a second-order role on the final brittle strain pattern recorded by the rock.

Viola, Giulio; Mattila, Jussi

2014-05-01

409

76 FR 23642 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Marajo: Ancient Ceramics...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Marajo: Ancient Ceramics at the Mouth of the Amazon'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given...objects to be included in the exhibition ``Marajo: Ancient Ceramics at the Mouth of the Amazon'' imported from abroad for...

2011-04-27

410

Isotopic ages and characteristics of ancient (pre-Serenitatis) crustal rocks at Apollo 17  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics covered include the following: (1) problems with the isotopic systematics in lunar samples; (2) ancient crustal ages at the Apollo 17 site; and (3) isotopic characteristics of ancient Apollo 17 rocks - implications for their petrogenesis.

Premo, W. R.; Tatsumoto, M.

1992-01-01

411

76 FR 73759 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Ancient Egypt-Art and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Ancient Egypt--Art and Magic: Treasures From the Foundation Gandur pour L'Art, Geneva, Switzerland'' SUMMARY: Notice...exhibition ``Ancient Egypt--Art and Magic: Treasures from the Foundation Gandur pour L'Art, Geneva, Switzerland'' imported...

2011-11-29

412

78 FR 26682 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Hall of Ancient Egypt”  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Hall of Ancient...Department of State pertaining to the exhibition ``Hall of Ancient Egypt.'' The...include additional objects as part of the exhibition. Notice is hereby given of the...

2013-05-07

413

The Image of Daniel: An Ancient Graphic Organizer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers who use graphic organizers find that students' memory of important material is strengthened. Graphic organizers also lend themselves to the presentation of material in an interdisciplinary fashion. An example of a successful graphic organizer from religion and ancient history is the image of Nebuchadnezzar's dream that was interpreted by…

Li, Loretta F.

2008-01-01

414

Tracing the Origins of the Ancient Egyptian Cattle Cult  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of ancient Egyptian religion have examined texts for evidence of cattle worship, but the picture given by the texts is incomplete. Mortuary patterns, ceremonial buildings, grave goods, ceramics and other remains also contain evidence of cattle worship and underline its importance to early Egypt. The recently discovered cattle tumuli at Nabta Playa in the Western Desert are identified here

Michael Brass

415

Ancient granite gneiss in the Black Hills, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Granite gneiss, with an age of approximately 2.5 billion years, in the Black Hills, South Dakota , provides a link betweeen ancient rocks in western Wyoming and Montana and in eastern North and South Dakota and Minnesota. The discovery suggests that early Precambrian rocks covered an extensive area in northcentral United States and were not restricted to several small nuclei.

Zartman, R. E.; Norton, J. J.; Stern, T. W.

1964-01-01

416

The rise and fall of communal responsibility in ancient law  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ancient societies, rules of communal responsibility permitted the imposition of retaliatory sanctions on a wrongdoer's clan. These rules followed the collective ownership structure of early communities. Over time, notions of personal responsibility emerged, terminating the transfer of responsibility from one member to the whole clan. This paper intends to provide an economic explanation for this transition.

F. Parisi; G. Dari-Mattiacci

2010-01-01

417

Strategies for Advanced Learning: How Ancient Wisdom Enhances Modern Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines strategies to enhance learning, based on innovations in technology. It represents an evolution of thought from the ancient masters, great thinking, and the Great Learning all the way to the present. A syllabus for the future is constructed, using a model of communication, the Rhetorical Systems Model. The model is based on a…

Schornack, Gary R.; Beck, Charles E.

418

ABRUPT CHANGES OF THE EARTH'S ROTATION SPEED IN ANCIENT TIMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our recent work using ancient solar eclipse records we showed that the Earth's rotation rate changed abruptly in about AD 900 (Sôma and Tanikawa 2005). We show here that more abrupt changes in the Earth's rate of rotation occurred in about AD 500.

M. SÔMA; K. TANIKAWA

419

The roots of ancient medicine: an historical outline  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the beginning of tlie first millennium AD, there were three principal systems of medicine: Ayurveda, Greek and Chinese medicine. Their fundamental attitude to the rela­ tionship of man and nature was more or less the same; but their explanations of the human body and its physiology, pathology and therapy differed in some ways. Of the three ancient systems of

B. V. Subbarayappa

2001-01-01

420

Teaching Leadership: Graduate Students and Freshmen Learn from Ancient Leaders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a pedagogic strategy that uses ancient texts for teaching college freshmen academic skills, habits of inquiry, and leadership. Applicability of these pedagogic ideas to a graduate course in leadership is discussed. Among the texts discussed are: (1) Gilgamesh; (2) "The Odyssey"; (3) "Oedipus the King"; (4) Sundiata; and (5)…

McCarthy, Joseph M.

421

Perpetually mobile footprints of ancient infections in human genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up to 1% of the human genome is represented by human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and their fragments that are likely footprints of ancient primate germ-cell infections by retroviruses that occurred 10–60 million years ago. HERV solitary long terminal repeats (LTRs) can be often met in close vicinity to functional genes. The LTRs comprise a set of regulatory sequences like promoters,

Eugene D Sverdlov

1998-01-01

422

Another Way of Knowing: Visualizing the Ancient Silk Routes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One way that people learn, remember and communicate is visually. We combine past experiences with new visual information to construct meaning. In this study, elementary teachers introduced their students to the peoples and places of the ancient silk routes using illustrations from two children's picture books, "Marco Polo," written by Gian Paolo…

Bisland, Beverly Milner

2010-01-01

423

The Ethical Power of Music: Ancient Greek and Chinese Thoughts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both the ancient Chinese and Greeks from around the fifth century B.C. to around third century A.D. recognized the immense impact that music has on the development of one's personality, and both regarded it as crucial in the cultivation of proper disposition in youth. Music's power over one's ethos--that is, human disposition--was emphasized by…

Wang, Yuhwen

2004-01-01

424

Ancient Media in Literature: Golden Printers and Golden Authors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seal printing is explored as a literary topic in 28 works dating from the third millennium B.C. to A.D. 1613 (from Sumerian times through Shakespeare's). This ancient printing method is mentioned in the literature of the Egyptians, Greeks, Hebrews, and Arabians. It occurs in the works of Herodotus, Plutarch, and Marco Polo, as well as Chaucer and…

Mooradian, Karlen

425

Biomechanics: Halteres used in ancient Olympic long jump  

Microsoft Academic Search

Halteres (alphalambdatauetarho?zeta) are hand-held weights that were first used in the standing long jump in the eighteenth ancient Olympiad in 708 BC, and may have been introduced either to make the challenge more difficult or to extend the jumping distance. Here we use computer and experimental simulations to determine the optimal mass of halteres that would be needed to maximally

Alberto E. Minetti; Luca P. Ardigó

2002-01-01

426

Immunotherapies for Targeting Ancient Retrovirus during Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the human genome project, a set of ancient retrovirus named Human endogenous retrovirus (HERVs) was discovered to be stably integrated into the human genome forming 8.5% of the total human genome1. Among the HERVs, HERV- K was found as an oncogenic...

J. Krishnamurthy

2014-01-01

427

MODERN DAY PLASTINATION TECHNIQUES - SUCCESSOR OF ANCIENT EMBALMMENT METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to find, analyse and systematise the basic ways of embalmment and their application in contemporary methods of plastination. In most of the ancient mummies the internal organs and the brain were removed. Usually the best-preserved samples were under additional protective circumstances - low temperatures, dry air, draught, or isolating cover of the body. Chinchoros

D. Sivrev; M. Miklosova; A. Georgieva; N. Dimitrov

2005-01-01

428

"Ancient" blue nevi (cellular blue nevi with degenerative stromal changes).  

PubMed

Ancient melanocytic nevi are benign melanocytic neoplasms that show degenerative and atypical changes, sometimes leading to a misdiagnosis of melanoma. We describe 6 patients (M:F ratio 4:2; age range, 15-84 years; median, 50 years) who presented with cellular blue nevi showing stromal changes resembling those of ancient melanocytic nevi. The lesions were located on the buttocks (4 patients) and on the trunk (2 patients) and clinically consisted of heavily pigmented nodules. Histology revealed the architectural pattern of cellular blue nevi. However, the architecture was strikingly altered by stromal changes like those seen in ancient melanocytic nevi, including increased number of large, dilated vessels with pseudoangiomatous features in 4 cases, hyaline angiopathy in 4 cases, myxoid changes, sclerosis or hyalinization of the stroma in all cases, and variable amounts of edema in 4 cases. In 2 cases, a large edematous area was present in the center of the lesion, and nests of ovoidal melanocytes and single dendritic melanocytes appeared to "float" in the stroma. Pleomorphic melanocytes were observed in all cases. Ancient blue nevi represent a morphologic variation of cellular blue nevi-Masson neuronevi with degenerative stromal changes. Recognition of these lesions can help prevent overdiagnosis of melanoma. PMID:18212535

Cerroni, Lorenzo; Borroni, Riccardo G; Massone, Cesare; Kerl, Helmut

2008-02-01

429

Recovering Ancient Inscriptions by X-ray Fluorescence Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many ancient cultures including those of the Mediterranean, carved stone inscriptions provide our most detailed historical record. Over the ages the surfaces of many of these inscriptions have been eroded so that the original text can no longer be distinguished. A method that allowed at least partial recovery of this lost text would provide a major breakthrough for the

Judson Powers; Nora Dimitrova; Rong Huang; Detlef-M. Smilgies; Don Bilderback; Kevin Clinton; Robert Thorne

2006-01-01

430

Teaching Art with Art: Images of Ancient Monuments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses how 18th and 19th century artists made pictures of ancient ruins throughout Europe and the Middle East to sell. Expounds that watercolors, landscapes, and lithographs enabled artists to easily record the sights during their travels. Provides summaries of four artists (John Constable, David Roberts, Frederick Catherwood, and Giovanni…

Hubbard, Guy

1999-01-01

431

Inferring Ancient Environments from Fossil Foraminifera: A Classroom Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This student activity demonstrates how foraminifera can be used to infer ancient environments. It contains background information and the classroom activity, which includes instructions and the required charts and diagrams. Also included are references and active links for further study as well as suggestions for a follow-up activity.

Olson, Hilary

432

Ancient Wings: animating the evolution of butterfly wing patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Character optimization methods can be used to reconstruct ancestral states at the internal nodes of phylogenetic trees. However, seldom are these ancestral states visualized collectively. Ancient Wings is a computer program that provides a novel method of visualizing the evolution of several morphological traits simultaneously. It allows users to visualize how the ventral hindwing pattern of 54 butterflies in the

Samuel Arbesman; Leo Enthoven; Antónia Monteiro

2003-01-01

433

Slavery and information: a model with applications to ancient Rome  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ancient Rome, masters often used expensive “carrots” (rewards) instead of “sticks” (physical punishments) in order to induce their slaves to work. Moreover, the magnitude of the rewards varied significantly, ranging from better living conditions to the concession of freedom or the possibility to buy freedom. These patterns are explained by modeling the master-slave relationship as a principal-agent interaction in

G. Dari-Mattiacci

2011-01-01

434

High fidelity reconstruction of the ancient Egyptian temple of Kalabsha  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ancient Egyptian temple of Kalabsha dates back to 30 BC. In 1963 the temple was dismantled and moved to a new site in order to save it from the rising waters of the Lake Nasser. Computer graphics in collaboration with Egyptologists makes it possible to recreate the temple on a computer, place it back to its original location and

Veronica Sundstedt; Alan Chalmers; Philippe Martinez

2004-01-01

435

From Ancient Egyptian Language to Future Conceptual Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. This paper discusses the construction principles of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs from the point of view of conceptual modeling. The paper starts with a summary of author's previous work on the correspondence between the Entity-Relationship diagrammatic (ERD) technique and two natural languages: English and Chinese. In one previous work, the similarity between the English sentence structure\\/grammar and the construction blocks

Peter P. Chen

1997-01-01

436

Hands-On Mathematics: Two Cases from Ancient Chinese Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In modern mathematical teaching, it has become increasingly emphasized that mathematical knowledge should be taught by problem-solving, hands-on activities, and interactive learning experiences. Comparing the ideas of modern mathematical education with the development of ancient Chinese mathematics, we find that the history of mathematics in…

Wang, Youjun

2009-01-01

437

Empirical Foundations of Atomism in Ancient Greek Philosophy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how ancient Greek philosophers came to the concept of atoms at a time when the huge amount of experimental and theoretical information of today was not available. Concludes that similar experiences can be used in teaching the concept today. (JRH)

Sakkopoulos, Sotirios A.; Vitoratos, Evagelos G.

1996-01-01

438

The Secret and Beauty of Ancient Chinese Padlocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most ancient Chinese padlocks are key-operated loc ks with splitting springs, and partially keyless letter-combination l ocks. They can be character- ized based on the types of locks, the shapes of loc ks, the engravings of locks, the materials of locks, and the mechanisms of locks . Some locks and keys are not only very beautiful and artistic colorful, but

Hong-sen Yan; Hsing-hui Huang

2003-01-01

439

Computer-aided virtual reconstruction of Italian ancient clocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Italy has plenty of cultural heritages. The masterpieces are often placed in locations which are difficult to reach, moreover many artifacts, coming from man's creativity, have very complex functioning. The authors of this paper describe their experience in using the computer graphics capabilities in order to reproduce four ancient clocks functioning coming from different Italian regions. The study is based

E. Pennestrì; Eugenio Pezzuti; Pier Paolo Valentini; Leonardo Vita

2006-01-01

440

Ancient Granite Gneiss in the Black Hills, South Dakota.  

PubMed

Granite gneiss, with an age of approximately 2.5 billion years, in the Black Hills, South Dakota, provides a link between ancient rocks in western Wyoming and Montana and in eastern North and South Dakota and Minnesota. The discovery suggests that early Precambrian rocks covered an extensive area in northcentral United States and were not restricted to several small nuclei. PMID:17759093

Zartman, R E; Norton, J J; Stern, T W

1964-07-31

441

Virtual gallery of ancient coins through conoscopic holography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical access to historic and artistic manufactures can be limited by a lot of factors. In particular, the access to the collection of the ancient coins is difficult, especially for students. Indeed, for coins digital archive of high quality three-dimensional model and remote fruition is of great interest. In this work we propose 3D acquisition and digitizing techniques for the

Giuseppe Schirripa Spagnolo; Raffaele Majo; Marco Carli; Dario Ambrosini; Domenica Paoletti

2003-01-01

442

Atmospheric deterioration of ancient and modern hydraulic mortars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different types of ancient and recent hydraulic mortars were collected from well-documented archaeological, historic and modern buildings in various geographical locations (urban, suburban, rural and maritime) of Italy, Spain and Belgium, representative of different environmental impacts, types and degrees of deterioration. A synthesis of the characteristics of the collected samples is presented, along with the identification of the formation products

C. Sabbioni; G. Zappia; C. Riontino; M. T. Blanco-Varela; J. Aguilera; F. Puertas; K. Van Balen; E. E. Toumbakari

2001-01-01

443

Let's Play Doctor: Medical Rounds in Ancient Greece.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biology students are exposed to historical theories of medicine by contrasting modern medicine and germ theory with the humoral theory of medicine in ancient Greece. After spending one day describing basic theories in humoral medicine, the teacher role-plays a Hippocratic physician treating ailing Greek patients in a Hippocratic medical workshop.…

Bockler, Donald

1998-01-01

444

The Surpu: exorcism of antisocial personality disorder in ancient Mesopotamia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of the medical description of personality disorders is generally accepted as starting in the late eighteenth century with Pinel. However there may be a much earlier record of the problems of severe personality disorder. In this article we examine the Surpu, an ancient Mesopotamian incantation written in cuneiform on tablets found at the palace of Asurbanipal originating in

Walid Khalid Abdul-Hamid; George Stein

2012-01-01

445

Aberration corrected STEM to study an ancient hair dyeing formula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-based chemistry was initiated in ancient Egypt for cosmetic preparation more than 4000 years ago. Here, we study a hair-dyeing recipe using lead salts described in text since Greco-Roman times. We report direct evidence about the shape and distribution of PbS nanocrystals that form within the hair during blackening.

Patriarche, G.; Van Elslande, E.; Castaing, J.; Walter, P.

2014-05-01

446

Analyses of DNA from ancient bones of a pre-Columbian Cuban woman and a child  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular anthropology has brought new possibilities into the study of ancient human populations. Amplification of chromo- somal short tandem repeat (STR) loci and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been successfully employed in analyses of ancient bone material. Although several studies have reported on continental Amerindian populations, none have addressed the ancient populations inhabiting the Caribbean islands. We used STR and mtDNA

Ricardo Lleonart; Eileen Riego; Roberto Rodríguez Suárez; Rafael Travieso Ruiz; José de la Fuente

1999-01-01

447

STR typing of ancient DNA extracted from hair shafts of Siberian mummies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine if ancient hair shafts could be suitable for nuclear DNA analysis and to develop an efficient and straightforward protocol for DNA extraction and STR typing of ancient specimens. The developed method was validated on modern and forensic samples and then successfully applied on ancient hairs collected from Siberian mummies dating from the

S. Amory; C. Keyser; E. Crubézy; B. Ludes

2007-01-01

448

Sequence variation and haplotypes of lipoxygenase gene LOX-1 in the Australian barley varieties  

PubMed Central

Background Lipoxygenases are a family of enzymes which catalyse the hydroperoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids with a cis, cis-1,4-pentadiene to form conjugated hydroperoxydienes. Lipoxygenase-1 (LOX-1) in barley worsens the flavour and foam stability of beer. It has become a major selection criteria for malting quality in the last few years. Results Lipoxygenase activity was investigated in 41 Australian barley cultivars and advanced breeding lines released since the 1950s; the cultivars differed markedly, ranging from 22.3 to 46.5 U/g. The structural gene and its promoter of lipoxygenase-1 were sequenced from the barley varieties representing different levels of LOX. Based on the analysis of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences, two major haplotypes were identified. Barley varieties with lower LOX were classified into three categories based on their pedigrees and sequence variations in the structural gene: (1)