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1

Strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) variability in the Nile Valley: identifying residential mobility during ancient Egyptian and Nubian sociopolitical changes in the New Kingdom and Napatan periods.  

PubMed

As a successful technique for identifying residential mobility in other areas, this study investigates the feasibility of using 87Sr/86Sr analysis to track the movements of the ancient peoples of Egypt and Nubia in the Nile Valley, who interacted via trade, warfare, and political occupations over millennia. Dental enamel from faunal remains is used to examine variability in strontium sources in seven regional sites; human enamel samples are analyzed from eight Nile Valley sites in order to trace human movements. The faunal samples show a wide range of 87Sr/86Sr values demonstrating that some animals were raised in a variety of locales. The results of the human samples reveal overlap in 87Sr/86Sr values between Egyptian and Nubian sites; however, Egyptian 87Sr/86Sr values (mean/median [0.70777], sd [0.00027]) are statistically higher than the Nubian 87Sr/86Sr values (mean [0.70762], median [0.70757], sd [0.00036], suggesting that it is possible to identify if immigrant Egyptians were present at Nubian sites. Samples examined from the site of Tombos provide important information regarding the sociopolitical activities during the New Kingdom and Napatan periods. Based on a newly established local 87Sr/86Sr range, human values, and bioarchaeological evidence, this study confirms the preliminary idea that immigrants, likely from Egypt, were present during the Egyptian New Kingdom occupation of Nubia. In the subsequent Napatan period when Nubia ruled Egypt as the 25th Dynasty, 87Sr/86Sr values are statistically different from the New Kingdom component and indicate that only locals were present at Tombos during this developmental time. PMID:23440634

Buzon, Michele R; Simonetti, Antonio

2013-05-01

2

Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The U.S. malting and brewing industries are America’s largest consumers of barley, purchasing more than one-half of the U.S. barley grain crop. More than 70% of the hectares seeded to barley are seeded to cultivars recommended by the American Malting Barley Association (AMBA). The malting and brewi...

3

Barley Oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an ancient grain that has was domesticated for use as a food. Currently only about 2% is used for food, about two thirds is used for animal feed and one third for malting. Because the oil content of most barley cultivars is low (<2%), obtaining oil from whole barley gra...

4

Drought stress variability in ancient Near Eastern agricultural systems evidenced by ?13C in barley grain  

PubMed Central

The collapse and resilience of political systems in the ancient Near East and their relationship with agricultural development have been of wide interest in archaeology and anthropology. Despite attempts to link the archaeological evidence to local paleoclimate data, the precise role of environmental conditions in ancient agricultural production remains poorly understood. Recently, stable isotope analysis has been used for reconstructing site-specific ancient growing conditions for crop species in semiarid and arid landscapes. To open the discussion of the role of regional diversity in past agricultural production as a factor in societal development, we present 1.037 new stable carbon isotope measurements from 33 archaeological sites and modern fields in the geographic area of the Fertile Crescent, spanning the Aceramic Neolithic [10,000 calibrated years (cal) B.C.] to the later Iron Age (500 cal B.C.), alongside modern data from 13 locations. Our data show that drought stress was an issue in many agricultural settlements in the ancient Near East, particularly in correlation with the major Holocene climatic fluctuations, but its regional impact was diverse and influenced by geographic factors. Although cereals growing in the coastal areas of the northern Levant were relatively unaffected by Holocene climatic fluctuations, farmers of regions further inland had to apply irrigation to cope with increased water stress. However, inland agricultural strategies showed a high degree of variability. Our findings suggest that regional differences in climatic effects led to diversified strategies in ancient subsistence and economy even within spatially limited cultural units. PMID:25114225

Riehl, Simone; Pustovoytov, Konstantin E.; Weippert, Heike; Klett, Stefan; Hole, Frank

2014-01-01

5

Drought stress variability in ancient Near Eastern agricultural systems evidenced by ?13C in barley grain.  

PubMed

The collapse and resilience of political systems in the ancient Near East and their relationship with agricultural development have been of wide interest in archaeology and anthropology. Despite attempts to link the archaeological evidence to local paleoclimate data, the precise role of environmental conditions in ancient agricultural production remains poorly understood. Recently, stable isotope analysis has been used for reconstructing site-specific ancient growing conditions for crop species in semiarid and arid landscapes. To open the discussion of the role of regional diversity in past agricultural production as a factor in societal development, we present 1.037 new stable carbon isotope measurements from 33 archaeological sites and modern fields in the geographic area of the Fertile Crescent, spanning the Aceramic Neolithic [10,000 calibrated years (cal) B.C.] to the later Iron Age (500 cal B.C.), alongside modern data from 13 locations. Our data show that drought stress was an issue in many agricultural settlements in the ancient Near East, particularly in correlation with the major Holocene climatic fluctuations, but its regional impact was diverse and influenced by geographic factors. Although cereals growing in the coastal areas of the northern Levant were relatively unaffected by Holocene climatic fluctuations, farmers of regions further inland had to apply irrigation to cope with increased water stress. However, inland agricultural strategies showed a high degree of variability. Our findings suggest that regional differences in climatic effects led to diversified strategies in ancient subsistence and economy even within spatially limited cultural units. PMID:25114225

Riehl, Simone; Pustovoytov, Konstantin E; Weippert, Heike; Klett, Stefan; Hole, Frank

2014-08-26

6

Studying ancient crop provenance: implications from ?(13)C and ?(15)N values of charred barley in a Middle Bronze Age silo at Ebla(NW Syria).  

PubMed

The discovery of a storeroom full of barley and other cereals (L.9512) in the proto-historic site of Ebla has provided a unique opportunity to study the centralized storage system of the early city-state from a different perspective. Epigraphic evidence available within the site reveals a complex system of taxation which included gathering grain tributes from satellite sites and redistributing semi-finished products such as flour. In this paper, we intend to explore the possibilities of a combined approach to studying the storage system, based on estimated barley grain volumes and ?(13)C-?(15)N analyses. This approach is used to distinguish between grain from different harvesting sites and to identify any grain cultivated using special agricultural practices (e.g. manuring or irrigation). The basic assumption for this kind of analysis is that the growth-site conditions, natural or anthropogenic, of harvested cereals are reflected in their grain size and ?(13)C-?(15)N values. Since the remains found in the storeroom were charred, the first task was to evaluate the effect of carbonization on the ?(13)C-?(15)N and the size of the grains. Thus, the effect of charring was tested on modern samples of Syrian barley landraces. Once it had been ascertained that fresh grains reduced to charred remains retain their original biometric and isotopic traits, the ancient material was examined. Thirteen groups were identified, each characterized by a specific average volume and specific carbon and nitrogen values. The analysis revealed that what had first appeared to be a homogeneous concentration of grain was in fact an assemblage of barley harvested from different sites. PMID:22223320

Fiorentino, Girolamo; Caracuta, Valentina; Casiello, Grazia; Longobardi, Francesco; Sacco, Antonio

2012-02-15

7

Atlas of Ancient Nubia entries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six essays about six major ancient Nubian archaeological sites, dating from Neolithic to Early Christian period are part of a definitive, well-illustrated volume presenting the art, history and archaeology of Nubia (American University in Cairo Press) to the general public. Each essay offers a synthesis of published as well as unpublished data from their excavations in an accessible fashion explaining

Janice Yellin

2009-01-01

8

Tertiary age for upper Nubian sandstone formation, central Sudan  

SciTech Connect

In central and northern Sudan, oil exploration is now active in the basins containing sediments of the Nubian Sandstone Formation. On the evidence of planned pipeline construction, significant volumes of oil appear to have been discovered in southwestern Sudan. A newly discovered flora from the upper Nubian Sandstone Formation near Khartoum in central Sudan is Tertiary in age. The flora is well preserved, and comprises leaves, flowers, and fruits, many not yet described. At the generic level, they are comparable to forms that are known fro the Eocene to Miocene. Aquatic plants indicate a lacustrine paleoenvironment; humid tropical forests thrived on the lakeshores. The Nubian Sandstone Formation of Sudan had been considered to be entirely of Cretaceous age; this new flora shifts the upper boundary into the Tertiary. The Tertiary Hudi Chert, found in scattered outcrops in the region of Atbara, was considered to overlie the Nubian Sandstone Formation. The authors suggest that the Hudi Chert is partly age equivalent to the Tertiary upper Nubian Sandstone at Jebel Mudaha.

Prasad, G.; Lejal-Nicol, A.; Vaudois-Mieja, N.

1986-02-01

9

Ediacaran terrane accretion within the ArabianNubian Shield Grant M. Cox a,  

E-print Network

Ediacaran terrane accretion within the Arabian­Nubian Shield Grant M. Cox a, , Christopher J. Lewis 22 February 2011 Available online 5 March 2011 Keywords: Arabian Nubian Shield Ediacaran Saudi Arabia in the Arabian­Nubian Shield, but we suggest even younger sutures lie further east beneath the Phanerozoic cover

10

A middlelate Ediacaran volcano-sedimentary record from the eastern Arabian-Nubian shield  

E-print Network

A middle­late Ediacaran volcano-sedimentary record from the eastern Arabian-Nubian shield David-bound basins along the NW­SE-trending Najd fault system in the eastern Arabian- Nubian Shield. Like several African Orogen. Terra Nova, 26, 120­129, 2014 Introduction The Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) spans the north

11

Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.  

PubMed

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming. PMID:24084493

Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

2014-01-01

12

Ancient Rome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this internet project is to help students learn more about nine aspects of ancient Rome. These nine aspects will be of the student's own choosing. I have listed three websites that contain large amounts of information about Ancient Rome. Fill in the three handouts I give you, using information of your choice from the three websites. This is what the three handouts look like: Mr. Donn's Ancient History Click on Mr. Donn s Ancient History, then click on Rome. Scroll ...

Murray, Mrs.

2007-11-02

13

Resistance to Arranged Marriage among Nubian Youth: Ideology and Changing Times  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will focus on changes in the custom of arranged marriage among the Egyptian Nubians living near the town of Aswan, in southern Egypt. I lived among them in the village of West Aswan in 1981?1982 and again in 1986?1987. Additional fieldwork was conducted during shorter stays in 1992 and 1997. In traditional Nubian village society, arranged marriages were

Anne M. Jennings

2001-01-01

14

Geological Society of Africa Presidential Review, No. 10 Evidence for the Snowball Earth hypothesis in the Arabian-Nubian  

E-print Network

in the Arabian-Nubian Shield and the East African Orogen R.J. Stern a,*, D. Avigad b , N.R. Miller a , M. Beyth c September 2005; accepted 12 October 2005 Available online 27 December 2005 Abstract Formation of the Arabian-Nubian of the ANS. Ã? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Neoproterozoic; Snowball Earth; Arabian-Nubian

Stern, Robert J.

15

Crustal evolution and recycling in the northern1 Arabian-Nubian Shield: new perspectives from zircon2  

E-print Network

1 Crustal evolution and recycling in the northern1 Arabian-Nubian Shield: new perspectives from Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). The early,14 island-arc magmatic cycle in this area is recorded by detrital crust reworking.31 Keywords32 Arabian-Nubian Shield, Zircon, Hf isotopes, U-Pb geochronology, Crustal

Dov, Avigad

16

How juvenile is the ArabianNubian Shield? Evidence from Nd isotopes and pre-Neoproterozoic inherited  

E-print Network

How juvenile is the Arabian­Nubian Shield? Evidence from Nd isotopes and pre magmatic and tectonic events of the East African Orogen in the Arabian­Nubian Shield (ANS). New Nd isotopic not occur anywhere in the shield. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Arabian­Nubian Shield

Stern, Robert J.

17

Barley Production in Texas.  

E-print Network

Experimental Results ....................................... 16 Substation No. 6, Denton, Texas 16 Yields of Barley in Fall Sown Field Plat Trials 16 Yields of Barley in Fall Sown Nursery Plat Trials _-__----------- 19 Yields of Barley in Spring Sown... Nursery Plat Trials 19 U. S. Cotton Field Station, Greenville, Texas 19 Substation No. 5, Temple, Texas -------------_----------------------------------- 22 Substation No. 16, Iowa Park, Texas ................................... 24 Substation No. 12...

Dunkle, P. B. (Paul Burtch); Atkins, Irvin Milburn

1941-01-01

18

Uranium isotopic study of artesian and pluvial contributions to the Nubian Aquifer, Western Desert, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The groundwater systems of the Nubian Aquifer beneath six major oases (Baris, Kharga, Dakhla, Farafra, Bahariya, and Siwa) in the Western Desert of Egypt have been studied to establish their sources and mixing volumes using uranium isotopes. One hundred six groundwater samples from different depths of the Nubian Aquifer have been analyzed for uranium content and 234U\\/238U activity ratio (AR).The

A. A. Dabous; J. K. Osmond

2001-01-01

19

Ancient genomics.  

PubMed

The past decade has witnessed a revolution in ancient DNA (aDNA) research. Although the field's focus was previously limited to mitochondrial DNA and a few nuclear markers, whole genome sequences from the deep past can now be retrieved. This breakthrough is tightly connected to the massive sequence throughput of next generation sequencing platforms and the ability to target short and degraded DNA molecules. Many ancient specimens previously unsuitable for DNA analyses because of extensive degradation can now successfully be used as source materials. Additionally, the analytical power obtained by increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans, archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when testing specific hypotheses related to the past. PMID:25487338

Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten E; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Barnett, Ross; Campos, Paula F; Cappellini, Enrico; Ermini, Luca; Fernández, Ruth; da Fonseca, Rute; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Hansen, Anders J; Jónsson, Hákon; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Margaryan, Ashot; Martin, Michael D; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Raghavan, Maanasa; Rasmussen, Morten; Velasco, Marcela Sandoval; Schroeder, Hannes; Schubert, Mikkel; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Wales, Nathan; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

2015-01-19

20

Ancient China  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This excellent interactive site, produced by the British Museum, contains a wealth of information about ancient China. Explorers can follow any of five links that cover major sections of the website, including Crafts and Artisans, Geography, and Tombs and Ancestors. Each section contains historical information in the topical area and Story, Explore and Challenge links. The Challenge links are especially useful for classroom activities.

21

Ancient Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remnants of ancient landscapes (mostly plains but including many residual hills and ranges) are widely preserved in the Australian landscape. Dated by stratigraphic means, and by their relationships with duricrusted. surfaces and lava flows, they form an integral part of the Australian scenery of which, in fact they constitute about 20%. At least twice, evidently, the continent was essentially baselevelled:

C. R. Twidale; E. M. Campbell

1988-01-01

22

Ancient genomics  

PubMed Central

The past decade has witnessed a revolution in ancient DNA (aDNA) research. Although the field's focus was previously limited to mitochondrial DNA and a few nuclear markers, whole genome sequences from the deep past can now be retrieved. This breakthrough is tightly connected to the massive sequence throughput of next generation sequencing platforms and the ability to target short and degraded DNA molecules. Many ancient specimens previously unsuitable for DNA analyses because of extensive degradation can now successfully be used as source materials. Additionally, the analytical power obtained by increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans, archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when testing specific hypotheses related to the past. PMID:25487338

Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten E.; Ávila-Arcos, María C.; Barnett, Ross; Campos, Paula F.; Cappellini, Enrico; Ermini, Luca; Fernández, Ruth; da Fonseca, Rute; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Hansen, Anders J.; Jónsson, Hákon; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Margaryan, Ashot; Martin, Michael D.; Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Raghavan, Maanasa; Rasmussen, Morten; Velasco, Marcela Sandoval; Schroeder, Hannes; Schubert, Mikkel; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Wales, Nathan; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

2015-01-01

23

Conserved Transcriptional Regulatory Programs Underlying Rice and Barley Germination  

PubMed Central

Germination is a biological process important to plant development and agricultural production. Barley and rice diverged 50 million years ago, but share a similar germination process. To gain insight into the conservation of their underlying gene regulatory programs, we compared transcriptomes of barley and rice at start, middle and end points of germination, and revealed that germination regulated barley and rice genes (BRs) diverged significantly in expression patterns and/or protein sequences. However, BRs with higher protein sequence similarity tended to have more conserved expression patterns. We identified and characterized 316 sets of conserved barley and rice genes (cBRs) with high similarity in both protein sequences and expression patterns, and provided a comprehensive depiction of the transcriptional regulatory program conserved in barley and rice germination at gene, pathway and systems levels. The cBRs encoded proteins involved in a variety of biological pathways and had a wide range of expression patterns. The cBRs encoding key regulatory components in signaling pathways often had diverse expression patterns. Early germination up-regulation of cell wall metabolic pathway and peroxidases, and late germination up-regulation of chromatin structure and remodeling pathways were conserved in both barley and rice. Protein sequence and expression pattern of a gene change quickly if it is not subjected to a functional constraint. Preserving germination-regulated expression patterns and protein sequences of those cBRs for 50 million years strongly suggests that the cBRs are functionally significant and equivalent in germination, and contribute to the ancient characteristics of germination preserved in barley and rice. The functional significance and equivalence of the cBR genes predicted here can serve as a foundation to further characterize their biological functions and facilitate bridging rice and barley germination research with greater confidence. PMID:24558366

Lin, Li; Tian, Shulan; Kaeppler, Shawn; Liu, Zongrang; An, Yong-Qiang (Charles)

2014-01-01

24

Barley Production in Texas.  

E-print Network

two-row winter barley cle~elc$ in New Mexico. The six-row head type, Figme kt has three fertile florets in each spikelet which r8dl in six rows of seed around the spike. The twbm I type develops seed only in the center florets. O~hu types grown... Seed and grazing crop in three-crop, 2-year rotations of cotton-barley-grain sorghum. Unfortunately, no barley trials have been conducted in this area. Grower experience has shown that, even though winter temperatures are severe, spring varieties...

Atkins, I. M.; Gardenshire, J. H.; McDaniel, M. E.; Porter, K. B.

1969-01-01

25

Late precambrian volcanism in NE Sudan and the evolution of the Nubian shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two recent models: the intra-cratonic and the ensimatic island-arc for the evolution of the "Pan-African" (1200-500 M.a) Arabian-Nubian Shield have emerged from work mainly in Arabia and Eastern Egypt. To test these models, this study has focused on some of the late Precambrian metavolcanics and associated batholithic granitoids of the Nubian Shield, NE Sudan. New geochemical and mineralogical data indicate that the volcanism was predominantly calc-alkaline, representing a mature island-arc that evolved above possibly a westerly-dipping subduction zone. This tectonic setting is emphasised on a new discriminant diagram by the geochemical pattern displayed by the metavolcanic rocks occurring in the main study area, here named the Gebeit Mine arc. Trace and REE studies suggest that the rocks were derived from partial melting of modified garnet-free peridotite. The batholithic granitoids, dominated by tonalites, are geochemically similar to the metavolcanic rocks. A plate-tectonic evolutionary model for the Nubian Shield is devised in relation to the whole of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Within-plate magmatism, the younger "granites" were formed in the late stage of cratonisation. Evidence for mineralisation related to plate-tectonic regimes in the Nubian Shield is also reported.

El-Nadi, A. H.

26

Productivity of the Small East African goat and its crosses with the AngloNubian and the Alpine in Rwanda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a research station in the central African country of Rwanda relating to purebred Small East African (SEA) goats, Anglo-Nubian × SEA and Alpine × SEA goats were analysed. Both SEA (598 days) and Alpine crosses (557 days) were younger at first kidding than the Anglo-Nubian crosses (766 days). There were no differences among genotypes in kidding interval which

R. Trevor Wilson; Theophile Murayi

1988-01-01

27

Late CryogenianEdiacaran history of the ArabianNubian Shield: A review of depositional, plutonic, structural, and tectonic events in the closing stages  

E-print Network

Late Cryogenian­Ediacaran history of the Arabian­Nubian Shield: A review of depositional, plutonic Available online 23 July 2011 Keywords: Arabian­Nubian Shield Cryogenian Ediacaran Tectonics Magmatism Deposition a b s t r a c t During the late Cryogenian­Ediacaran (650­542 Ma), the Arabian­Nubian Shield (ANS

Stern, Robert J.

28

Late Neoproterozoic rise and fall of the northern ArabianNubian shield: The role of lithospheric mantle delamination and subsequent thermal subsidence  

E-print Network

Late Neoproterozoic rise and fall of the northern Arabian­Nubian shield: The role of lithospheric April 2009 Available online xxxx Keywords: Arabian­Nubian shield Late Neoproterozoic Pan-African orogeny of the northern Arabian­Nubian Shield (ANS) reveals that rapid and extensive erosional denudation, widespread late

Dov, Avigad

29

RECENT ADVANCES IN BARLEY TRANSFORMATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley, an important member of the cereals, has been successfully transformed through various methods such as particle bombardment, Agrobacterium-tumefaciens, DNA uptake, and electroporation. Initially, the transformation in barley concentrated on developing protocols using marker genes such as gus,...

30

Ancient Rome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following sources are intended to further our study of Ancient Rome. The Roman civilization spanned many hundreds of years, so many of these sources are designed to not only give us interesting details about Rome, but also to give us a framework for our study. Assignment: Timelines The links below include helpful timelines. Open and preview both websites, then decide which one you like better. Use the timeline to write down at least three events that are interesting to you. At least one of them should be from the time of the Roman Republic ...

Martin, Ms.

2008-11-17

31

Ancient Egypt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing on its superb collection of materials from archaeological excavations, the British Museum presents this extensive learning resource on Ancient Egypt. The site features texts, images, and interactive elements detailing Egyptian daily life, mythology, timekeeping, geography, architecture, governance, business, writing, and rituals of death. The material is clearly and simply written so that the site would be useful for primary school students, but it is informative and substantial enough to be of interest to college students and curious adults as well. Thoroughly hyperlinked and replete with images that can be enlarged for detailed perusal, the site goes beyond the typical teaser Websites so often posted by lesser museums.

32

Patch use, apprehension, and vigilance behavior of Nubian Ibex under perceived risk of predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraging theory predicts that animals will sacrifice feeding effort in order to reduce predation risk. Once a forager chooses a habitat, it must decide how to allocate its foraging effort. Nubian Ibex are diurnal, social, cliff-dwelling herbivores. Many of their characteristics seem to have evolved as responses to predation risk. In order to assess the effects that perceived risk of

Valeria Hochman; Burt P. Kotler

2006-01-01

33

Portulaca oleracea (purslane): nutritive composition and clinico-pathological effects on Nubian goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding trials of Portulaca oleracea were conducted in two groups of Nubian goats that received the plant at daily doses of 5g\\/kg BW and ad libitum, respectively. Consumption caused weakness of the fore and hind limbs with inability to stand, greenish watery diarrhoea and polyuria. Hepatonephropathy and enteritis accompanied by alterations in some blood and serum constituents were also observed.

W. A. Obied; E. N. Mohamoud; O. S. A. Mohamed

2003-01-01

34

Ancient Greece  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented with a physical relief map of Greece and its many islands, visitors to the homepage of this site will then be treated to a range of material objects, ranging from masks, urns, and stone tablets. All of these items are part of the British MuseumâÂÂs vast holdings of materials from ancient Greece, and brought together, they constitute the online website titled âÂÂAncient GreeceâÂÂ. Previous online collections have presented material from other civilizations, and this assemblage is divided into traditional sections that include geography, time, war, and Athens. While many of the sections follow traditional online collection conventions, there are a number of splendid Flash-enabled features that present a day in the life of the city of Athens, and of course, PlatoâÂÂs immortal cave.

2006-01-01

35

Dental affinities of the C-group inhabitants of Hierakonpolis, Egypt: Nubian, Egyptian, or both?  

PubMed

By c. 2050 BC a small community of C-Group Nubians was present deep within Egyptian territory at the city of Hierakonpolis. Their descendants stayed for the next 400 years. Today, the site of Hierakonpolis, 113 km north of Aswan, is known for its Egyptian deposits; however, it also contains a C-Group cemetery, which documents the northernmost occurrence of this culture. Sixty skeletons were excavated. Tombs feature Nubian architecture and goods, including leather garments, although the use of Egyptian mortuary practices and artifacts increased through time. Dates range from the early 11th Dynasty into the Second Intermediate period. During this time the Egyptian empire occupied Lower Nubia, and their state ideology vilified Nubians. Yet, at least in death, the C-Group inhabitants of Hierakonpolis proudly displayed their cultural heritage. Beyond discerning the reason(s) for their presence at the site (e.g., mercenaries, leather-workers, entertainers?), the focus of this report is to estimate their biological affinity. Were they akin to other Nubians, Egyptians, or both? And, was increasing 'Egyptianization' evident in the mortuary ritual accompanied by concomitant genetic influence? To address these queries, up to 36 dental morphological traits in the recovered individuals were compared to those in 26 regional comparative samples. The most influential traits were identified and phenetic affinities were calculated using the mean measure of divergence and other multivariate analyses. Assuming phenetic similarity provides an estimate of genetic relatedness, these affinities suggest the individuals comprising the C-Group sample were, and remained Nubian during their tenure at Hierakonpolis. PMID:20185126

Irish, J D; Friedman, R

2010-04-01

36

Mushroom Barley Soup Ingredients  

E-print Network

Mushroom Barley Soup Ingredients: 1 tablespoon oil 1 onion 2 celery stalks 2 carrots 2 cups of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Run under water to remove any dirt. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side on the cutting board. Slice across the onion, from one side to the other

Liskiewicz, Maciej

37

Uranium isotopic study of artesian and pluvial contributions to the Nubian Aquifer, Western Desert, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The groundwater systems of the Nubian Aquifer beneath six major oases (Baris, Kharga, Dakhla, Farafra, Bahariya, and Siwa) in the Western Desert of Egypt have been studied to establish their sources and mixing volumes using uranium isotopes. One hundred six groundwater samples from different depths of the Nubian Aquifer have been analyzed for uranium content and 234U/ 238U activity ratio (AR). The aquifer under the Western Desert is known to have more than one source of water. At Bahariya and Farafra Oases, the Nubian artesian water migrating from the south has been augmented by local recharge during pluvial times. At Siwa Oasis in the northwestern desert, a shallower aquifer component migrating from the north or west is also present. At Dakhla, Kharga and Baris Oases in the southwestern desert, the main source is the Nubian artesian water migrating from southeast Uweinat Upland and northwest Sudan. These water masses have distinctive uranium isotopic signatures. The Nubian Aquifer water is characterized by very low U concentrations (<0.05 ppb) and a relatively high 234U/ 238U AR (>1.5). The shallow northwest aquifer water also has a high AR but a much higher U concentration. The locally recharged pluvial waters have high U concentrations (>0.1 ppb) but low ARs, near unity. A diagnostic derivative parameter is excess 234U content. The deep Nubian Aquifer water is characterized by a relatively low excess 234U (<0.02 ppb equivalent), while the shallow Siwa water has a very high excess 234U [(AR-1)(U conc.)]. The Bahariya and Farafara waters are also high in this component, probably because of pluvial water percolation through phosphate rich strata. At all oases, U isotopic mixing diagrams show that the deep aquifer sources predominate; however, the pluvial contributions are significant, ranging from about 5% at remote Baris Oasis to about 26% at the more northerly Farafra Oasis. The observed lowering of potentiometric surfaces in the Western Desert is caused not only by pumping at a rate greater than inflow from the aquifer systems, but also by the withdrawal of pluvial water which in modern times is not being replaced at all.

Dabous, A. A.; Osmond, J. K.

2001-03-01

38

How ancient are ancient asexuals?  

PubMed Central

Ancient asexual animal groups, such as bdelloid rotifers and darwinuloid ostracods, are excellent model organisms to study the effects of long-term asexuality. However, the absolute length of time that these groups have been fully asexual is mostly ignored. In the case of the darwinuloid ostracods, the fossil record shows that sexual reproduction disappeared almost completely after the end of Permian mass extinction (ca. 245 Myr ago), although several putative records of males from the Mesozoic obscure the exact time-frame of obligate asexuality in darwinuloids. Here, we re-examine the Mesozoic darwinuloid records, with regard to the reproductive mode of the assemblages. Three criteria to distinguish males in fossil populations (lack of brood pouch, position of muscle scars and size dimorphism) are used here to test for the presence of males in darwinuloid assemblages. A large, well-preserved assemblage of Darwinula leguminella (Forbes 1885) from the latest Jurassic (ca. 145 Myr ago) of England is found to be markedly variable in size and shape, but nevertheless turns out to be an all female assemblage. The exceptional preservation of the material also allows the re-assignment of this species to the extant darwinuloid genus Alicenula. All other putative dimorphic darwinuloid records from the Mesozoic are re-examined using the same criteria. The hypothesis that these assemblages represent bisexual populations is rejected for all post-Triassic (ca. 208 Myr ago) records. PMID:12713746

Martens, Koen; Rossetti, Giampaolo; Horne, David J

2003-01-01

39

Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian shield of Northeastern Sudan using thematic mapper imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bechtel is nearing completion of a one-year program that uses digitally enhanced LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data to compile the first comprehensive regional tectonic map of the Proterozoic Nubian Shield exposed in the northern Red Sea Hills of northeastern Sudan. The status of significant objectives of this study are given. Pertinent published and unpublished geologic literature and maps of the northern Red Sea Hills to establish the geologic framework of the region were reviewed. Thematic mapper imagery for optimal base-map enhancements was processed. Photo mosaics of enhanced images to serve as base maps for compilation of geologic information were completed. Interpretation of TM imagery to define and delineate structural and lithogologic provinces was completed. Geologic information (petrologic, and radiometric data) was compiled from the literature review onto base-map overlays. Evaluation of the tectonic evolution of the Nubian Shield based on the image interpretation and the compiled tectonic maps is continuing.

1986-01-01

40

The Nubian Complex of Dhofar, Oman: an African middle stone age industry in Southern Arabia.  

PubMed

Despite the numerous studies proposing early human population expansions from Africa into Arabia during the Late Pleistocene, no archaeological sites have yet been discovered in Arabia that resemble a specific African industry, which would indicate demographic exchange across the Red Sea. Here we report the discovery of a buried site and more than 100 new surface scatters in the Dhofar region of Oman belonging to a regionally-specific African lithic industry--the late Nubian Complex--known previously only from the northeast and Horn of Africa during Marine Isotope Stage 5, ?128,000 to 74,000 years ago. Two optically stimulated luminescence age estimates from the open-air site of Aybut Al Auwal in Oman place the Arabian Nubian Complex at ?106,000 years ago, providing archaeological evidence for the presence of a distinct northeast African Middle Stone Age technocomplex in southern Arabia sometime in the first half of Marine Isotope Stage 5. PMID:22140561

Rose, Jeffrey I; Usik, Vitaly I; Marks, Anthony E; Hilbert, Yamandu H; Galletti, Christopher S; Parton, Ash; Geiling, Jean Marie; Cerný, Viktor; Morley, Mike W; Roberts, Richard G

2011-01-01

41

The Butana Region of Central Sudan: Sahara Craton or Arabian-Nubian Shield?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Butana region lies 250 km south east of Khartoum and is one of the few exposures of Proterozoic basement in Central Sudan. The area is characterized by a flat surface and isolated basement exposures. Various authors have allocated the region to part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield or to part of the reworked Sahara Craton. Although the area is indeed located in the rough region of this transition, little information exists on the details of the basement geology in Butana. Field work indicates that the geology of the study area is similar to the other parts of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The area consists of low-grade metavolcanic rocks (arc assemblage), pre- and syn-tectonic granitic intrusions. In particular the presence of serpentinites, ophiolitic metagabbro and high-grade metamorphic rocks may identify it as part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The main metamorphic foliation trend in the low-grade rocks is northeast-southwest with steep foliation plains and sub-horizontal lineation. In the high-grade rocks, at least three deformation phases were observed in the field. D1 associates with northeast-southwest foliation planes and D2 associates with high temperature folding mechanism which gave the high-grade rocks domal pattern. While D3 is a faulting phase with brittle features. The peak metamorphism most probably occurred after the D2 as indicated by the migmatic features. Geochronological work is in progress in order to identify uniquely if the region should be allocated to the Arabian-Nubian Shield or the Sahara Craton.

Abu-Alam, T.; Stüwe, K.

2012-04-01

42

Dental affinities of the C-group inhabitants of Hierakonpolis, Egypt: Nubian, Egyptian, or both?  

Microsoft Academic Search

By c. 2050 BC a small community of C-Group Nubians was present deep within Egyptian territory at the city of Hierakonpolis. Their descendants stayed for the next 400 years. Today, the site of Hierakonpolis, 113km north of Aswan, is known for its Egyptian deposits; however, it also contains a C-Group cemetery, which documents the northernmost occurrence of this culture. Sixty

J. D. Irish; R. Friedman

2010-01-01

43

Palynology and Stratigraphy of the Nubian Sandstone in Libya and Comparison with Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The so-called "Nubian Sandstone" outcrops along a wide area from Algeria to the Red Sea, forming two regressive phases. The lower phase is represented in Egypt by the Basal Clastic Unit, the Desert Rose Unit, the Abu Ballas Formation and the Matruh Shale. In Libya it is represented by the Mesak Sandstone, Sarir Sandstone, Cabao Sandstone and Kiklah Formation. In both countries, these successions are covered by a carbonate sequence, resulting from the Tethyan transgression during the Cenomanian. In Egypt however, the upper regressive phase is represented by the Taref Sandstone which was deposited during a brief period of active progradation, following the Tethyan incursion. This is not observed in Libya. Comparison of palynological studies in Libya with those documented by several authors in Egypt reveals that the "Nubian" facies in Libya were deposited before equivalent facies in Egypt. The Basal Clastic Unit, dated as Hautrauvian-Barremian, may be equivalent, at least to a part of the Neocomian Cabao Sandstone in NW Libya. Jarmah Member of the Mesak Formation in Libya was dated as Berriasian on the basis of Pilosisporites and Trilobosporites. This makes it older than any "Nubian" unit in Egypt. The Matruh Shale was assigned to the Aptian on the basis of Tricolpites, and the Abu Balls Formation 34 as Aptian-Albian on the basis of Tricolpites and Rousisporites radiatus. Whereas, there is no equivalent to the Aptian in NW Libya, the Aptian-Albian of Egypt is similar to Zone 1 of the Kiklah Formation and As Sarir Sandstone, which were dated as early Albian on the basis of Afropollis spp., and Perotriletes pannuceus, an Albian element not recorded in Egypt. The Plant Beds in southwestern Egypt were dated as Cenomanian on the basis of advanced angiosperm pollen. In Libya, equivalent bodies were considered Vraconian, representing the uppermost Albian, because it lacks Cenomanian pollen (e.g. Tricolpites mutabilis). Comparison of local sea-level changes with global sea-level curves is used to reconstruct paleogeography. Integration of palynology with geological data and tectonic implications indicates that, despite similarity in paleogeographic processes of the Nubian Sandstone, geological and structural settings remain different. The "Nubian Sandstone" provides a typical succession that can be studied in the light of sequence stratigraphy.

Tekbali, Ali; Hlal, Osama

2013-04-01

44

Barley tortillas and barley flours in corn tortillas  

E-print Network

-glucan content increased water absorption of the flours and moisture content of tortillas. Increased moisture gave softer and more extensible barley tortillas. Reheated and fresh tortillas had similar extensibilities. Reheated tortillas had less moisture...

Mitre-Dieste, Carlos Marcelo

2001-01-01

45

From plume head to continental lithosphere in the Arabian-Nubian shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lithosphere of the Arabian-Nubian shield was mainly formed during an interval of about 150 million years near the end of the Proterozoic aeon. The events recorded in the rocks of the shield indicate that an oceanic plateau, formed by the head of an upwelling mantle plume, was later overprinted with continent-like characteristics by plate convergence and its associated magmatism. Similar sequences of events are seen in the geological record from Archaean to recent times, suggesting that the transformation from plume head to continental lithosphere has been an important component of continent generation throughout Earth history.

Stein, Mordechai; Goldstein, Steven L.

1996-08-01

46

The aging of solder joints over 1,600 years: Evidence from Nubian bronze artifacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solder joints and coatings found in bronze artifacts recovered from the Nubian Desert in Egypt show evidence of the decomposition of the lead-tin eutectic structure and solid-state growth of the ? and ? intermetallic phases at the solder-bronze interface at ambient temperature. Accelerated aging experiments reproduced the structures observed in the artifacts. The data show that the growth of the intermetallic compounds is diffusion-controlled at low as well as high temperature with an activation energy of 20 kcal/mol.

Galli, Heather; Knopf, Robert; Gordon, Robert

2007-11-01

47

Ancient World Mapping Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the Ancient World Mapping Center is funded by the UNC College of Arts and Sciences and the American Philological Association. The Center is primarily designed to promote the usage of cartography and geographic information science within the field of ancient studies. The Center's main web page begins with a host of recent news events related to ongoing research dealing with the ancient world from various fields, including geography, archaeology, and history. Equally helpful is the New Sites and Finds area, which gathers together new and useful sites dedicated to investigating various aspects of the ancient world. Of course there is also the map room area where visitors can download any one of a number of detailed maps (many of which have been created by the staff at the Center) of the ancient world. Some of these maps include those of Byzantine Constantinople, Ptolemaic Egypt, and several of ancient Greece.

48

New interpretation of the so-called Nubian strata in northeast Africa  

SciTech Connect

Stratigraphical interpretation of the so-called Nubian Sandstone of Egypt and northern Sudan have led to new ideas on the structural and paleogeographical development of northeast Africa. The strata formerly comprised under the term Nubian Sandstone include sediments from Cambrian to Paleocene age. Based on field work and paleontological investigations during the last 10 years, these strata can be subdivided into three major cycles, each characterizing a certain structural situation of northeast Africa. The first or Paleozoic cycle comprises strata of Cambrian to Early Carboniferous age. These strata were deposited during a period of generally northern dip of northeast Africa; continental sediments transported northward interfinger with marine strata resulting from southward transgressions. Sediments of the second cycle were deposited during and after Gondwana and northern continents collided, which caused updoming of large areas of Egypt and bordering areas to the west and east. As a result, most of Egypt became subject to erosion; transgressions remained near the present northern edge of the continent, and purely continental deposition took place in northern Sudan and bordering areas in Chad and Libya. The resulting strata are similar to the Karroo of East Africa. Strata of the third cycle were deposited after Pangea began to disintegrate. Northeast Africa now had a generally northern dip again, and consequently deposition was controlled - as during the first cycle - by northward drainage and southward transgressions. This last cycle began during Late Jurassic time.

Klitzsch, E.H.; Squyres, C.H.

1988-08-01

49

COMPARISON OF THREE CEREALS : WHEAT, MAIZE, BARLEY AND MAIZE-BARLEY, MAIZE-WHEAT MIXTURES  

E-print Network

SUMMARY COMPARISON OF THREE CEREALS : WHEAT, MAIZE, BARLEY AND MAIZE-BARLEY, MAIZE-WHEAT MIXTURES IN GROWING-FINISHING PIG DIETS The purpose of our experiment was to compare the feeding value of maize, wheat and barley and of maize-wheat, maize-barley mixtures (at two levels : 2/3-1/3- r/3-2/3) in the rations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

50

Ancient Egyptian Architecture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Time to learn about Temples, Pyramids, and Obelisks in Ancient Egypt! Please use the links below to help you find the answers to the questions on your worksheets. Ancient Egypt (click on the pyramids and temples links) Architecture(use this link to answer questions in the Temples section) Obelisks pyramids ...

Mr. Myers

2011-10-06

51

Phanerozoic tectonothermal history of the ArabianNubian shield in the Eastern Desert of Egypt: evidence from fission track  

E-print Network

Phanerozoic tectonothermal history of the Arabian­Nubian shield in the Eastern Desert of Egypt were performed in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. The results provide insights into the processes driving sedimentary strata in the Eastern Desert of Egypt are largely missing. (2) The second major Phanerozoic event

Fritz, Harald

52

Ancient Egyptian herbal wines.  

PubMed

Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery jars from the beginning of advanced ancient Egyptian culture, ca. 3150 B.C., and continuing for millennia have revealed that a range of natural products--specifically, herbs and tree resins--were dispensed by grape wine. These findings provide chemical evidence for ancient Egyptian organic medicinal remedies, previously only ambiguously documented in medical papyri dating back to ca. 1850 B.C. They illustrate how humans around the world, probably for millions of years, have exploited their natural environments for effective plant remedies, whose active compounds have recently begun to be isolated by modern analytical techniques. PMID:19365069

McGovern, Patrick E; Mirzoian, Armen; Hall, Gretchen R

2009-05-01

53

Taenia multiceps brain cyst removal in two wild Nubian ibex (Capra nubianas).  

PubMed

Two wild adult Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana) were captured and admitted to the Hebrew University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with various neurologic signs, including alerted mentation, head tilt, and pathologic nystagmus. The lesion in the central nervous system was localized to the forebrain in one ibex and to the cerebellum of the other. Both ibex's were diagnosed with brain cyst using computed tomography (CT). Craniectomy was performed to remove the cysts, and both animals returned to their natural environment after a rehabilitation period. Parasitologic examination revealed cysts of Taenia multiceps coenurus. This is the first report to describe the neurologic signs, CT findings, surgical procedure, and follow-up postsurgery information in wild Capra nubiana. PMID:24712185

Merbl, Yael; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Chai, Orit; Chamisha, Yael; Anglister, Nili; King, Roni; Horowitz, Igal; Aizenberg, Zahi; Shamir, Merav H

2014-03-01

54

Orientation of late Precambrian sutures in the Arabian-Nubian shield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent tectonic models have resulted in conflicting descriptions of how the late Precambrian sutures of the Arabian-Nubian shield extend into northeast Africa. The Hamisana shear zone in northeastern Sudan is critical to this discussion because it truncates and disrupts two sutures, the Allaqi-Heiani and the Onib-Sol Hamed. Analysis of field structural data, Thematic Mapper imagery, and Rb-Sr and U-Pb geochronology suggests that the Allaqi-Heiani suture is the western extension of the Onib-Sol Hamed suture and that both make up the exposed parts of a far-traveled, polydeformed ophiolitic nappe complex. Subsequent deformation localized in the Hamisana shear zone disrupted this nappe and displaced the suture between 660 and 550 Ma during regional deformation associated with the Najd fault system. These results indicate that at least one suture extends westward into the interior of northern Africa.

Stern, Robert J.; Nielsen, Kent C.; Best, Eric; Sultan, Mohamed; Arvidson, Raymond E.

1990-01-01

55

Orientation of late Precambrian sutures in the Arabian-Nubian shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent tectonic models have resulted in conflicting descriptions of how the late Precambrian sutures of the Arabian-Nubian shield extend into northeast Africa. The Hamisana shear zone in northeastern Sudan is critical to this discussion because it truncates and disrupts two sutures, the Allaqi-Heiani and the Onib-Sol Hamed. Analysis of field structural data, Thematic Mapper imagery, and Rb-Sr and U-Pb geochronology suggests that the Allaqi-Heiani suture is the western extension of the Onib-Sol Hamed suture and that both make up the exposed parts of a far-traveled, polydeformed ophiolitic nappe complex. Subsequent deformation localized in the Hamisana shear zone disrupted this nappe and displaced the suture between 660 and 550 Ma during regional deformation associated with the Najd fault system. These results indicate that at least one suture extends westward into the interior of northern Africa.

Stern, Robert J.; Nielsen, Kent C.; Best, Eric; Sultan, Mohamed; Arvidson, Raymond E.

1990-11-01

56

Interactive Ancient Mediterranean Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Interactive Ancient Mediterranean (IAM) Project is an online atlas of the ancient Mediterranean world designed to support the instruction of the classics, ancient history, archaeology, and related disciplines. Currently, IAM's Map Room has an index of over 50 maps of ten regions of the Mediterranean basin and northern Europe available for downloading and printing. Most maps are high-resolution .pdf files and the remainder are large, high-quality JPEG files. Users may also search the atlas by keyword, place name, cultural object, or ancient author. IAM is an ongoing joint effort of the American Philological Association's Classical Atlas Project and the departments of Classics and History at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

57

Ancient ships of Japan  

E-print Network

Ancient ships of Japan, which are little known outside of Japan, are presented based on the studies of past researchers, as well as a comprehensive analysis of archaeological remains. The process of development from logboats to extended logboats...

Miyashita, Hiroaki

2006-10-30

58

HEALTH EFFECTS OF BARLEY CONSUMPTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cardiovascular disease remains the major health problem in the US. Consumption of soluble fiber, like that in oats, has been recognized as beneficial in decreasing blood cholesterol levels and other cardiovascular risk factors. Barley has high amounts of soluble fiber but is not extensively consumed...

59

Groundwater recharge and flow in the Lower Cretaceous Nubian Sandstone aquifer in the Sinai Peninsula, using isotopic techniques and hydrochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The present work was conducted in the Sinai Peninsula (1) to identify the recharge and flow characteristics and to evaluate\\u000a the continuity of the Lower Cretaceous Nubian Sandstone aquifer; and (2) to provide information for the aquifer's rational\\u000a appraisal. Isotopic and hydrochemical compositions combined with the geological and hydrogeological settings were used for\\u000a this purpose.\\u000a \\u000a A considerable depletion in

S. Abd El Samie; M. A. Sadek

2001-01-01

60

Population genetic structure in a social landscape: barley in a traditional Ethiopian agricultural system  

PubMed Central

Conservation strategies are increasingly driven by our understanding of the processes and patterns of gene flow across complex landscapes. The expansion of population genetic approaches into traditional agricultural systems requires understanding how social factors contribute to that landscape, and thus to gene flow. This study incorporates extensive farmer interviews and population genetic analysis of barley landraces (Hordeum vulgare) to build a holistic picture of farmer-mediated geneflow in an ancient, traditional agricultural system in the highlands of Ethiopia. We analyze barley samples at 14 microsatellite loci across sites at varying elevations and locations across a contiguous mountain range, and across farmer-identified barley types and management strategies. Genetic structure is analyzed using population-based and individual-based methods, including measures of population differentiation and genetic distance, multivariate Principal Coordinate Analysis, and Bayesian assignment tests. Phenotypic analysis links genetic patterns to traits identified by farmers. We find that differential farmer management strategies lead to markedly different patterns of population structure across elevation classes and barley types. The extent to which farmer seed management appears as a stronger determinant of spatial structure than the physical landscape highlights the need for incorporation of social, landscape, and genetic data for the design of conservation strategies in human-influenced landscapes. PMID:24478796

Samberg, Leah H; Fishman, Lila; Allendorf, Fred W

2013-01-01

61

Pan-African shear zone-hosted gold mineralization in the Arabian-Nubian shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new tectonic model of the exhumation mechanism of the Arabian-Nubian Shield will be presented at the EGU2013 by Abu-Alam and Stüwe (2013). According to this new tectonic model, the shear zones of the Arabian-Nubian Shield can be classified into two types; deep-seated and relatively shallow shear zones. The deep-seated shear zones are accompanied with deep sub-horizontal crustal channel flows which are response to the exhumation of the metamorphic complexes from the peak condition depth to a shallower crustal level (ductile-brittle transition). An example of these deep-seated shear zones is the Najd Fault System - the largest shear zone on the Earth. At the ductile-brittle transition crustal level, the deep-seated shear zones were overprinted by a greenschist facies condition or the ?2 and ?3 of the principle stresses may be flipped with each other. This flipping can produce other conjugate shallow shear zones in a greenschist facies conditions. The Egyptian gold deposits can be classified into three main types (Botros, 2004), These are stratabound deposits, non-stratabound deposits and placer gold deposits. The non-stratabound deposits are the most common (ex: Sukari, Wadi Allaqi, Abu Marawat, Atalla, El-Sid and Atud gold mines). They are found in form of vein type mineralization or as disseminated mineralization hosted in volcanics and volcaniclastic rocks (volcanogenic massive sulphides). Spatial and temporal relationships between gold veins and structures in the Arabian-Nubian Shield suggest a genetic relationship between mineralization and major tectonic events. At Sukari, Wadi Allaqi and Abu Marawat areas, the gold is hosted in quartz veins parallel to a deep-seated NW-SE to NNW-SSE shear zones. For Atud, El-Sid and Atalla area, the gold is hosted in NE-SW veins parallel to a shallow shear zone but at the conjugate point with a deep-seated NW-SE shear zone. According to the new tectonic model, we propose the following model for gold formation (non-stratabound). They were deposited from hydrothermal solutions which were produced in a deeper crustal level due to metamorphic or magmatic processes or combination between both. These solutions transfer through the deep-seated shear zones which cutting the all rock unites of the shield. The hydrothermal solutions can leach the gold out from a source rock (e.g. ophiolitic or gabbroic rocks). Once the solutions enter the ductile-brittle transition crustal level, the quartz veins and the hosted gold begin to precipitate parallel to the regional foliation of the deep-seated shear zones. Abu-Alam T.S. and Stüwe K. (2013) Sub-horizontal channel flow: an exhumation mechanism during the Gondwana collision. EGU2013-9778 Botros N. (2004) A new classification of the gold deposits of Egypt, Ore Geology Reviews 25, 1 -37

Abu-Alam, Tamer; Grosch, Eugene; Abd El Monsef, Mohamed

2013-04-01

62

A Nubian Complex Site from Central Arabia: Implications for Levallois Taxonomy and Human Dispersals during the Upper Pleistocene  

PubMed Central

Archaeological survey undertaken in central Saudi Arabia has revealed 29 surface sites attributed to the Arabian Middle Paleolithic based on the presence of Levallois blank production methods. Technological analyses on cores retrieved from Al-Kharj 22 have revealed specific reduction modalities used to produce flakes with predetermined shapes. The identified modalities, which are anchored within the greater Levallois concept of core convexity preparation and exploitation, correspond with those utilized during the Middle Stone Age Nubian Complex of northeast Africa and southern Arabia. The discovery of Nubian technology at the Al-Kharj 22 site represents the first appearance of this blank production method in central Arabia. Here we demonstrate how a rigorous use of technological and taxonomic analysis may enable intra-regional comparisons across the Arabian Peninsula. The discovery of Al-Kharj 22 increases the complexity of the Arabian Middle Paleolithic archaeological record and suggests new dynamics of population movements between the southern and central regions of the Peninsula. This study also addresses the dichotomy within Nubian core typology (Types 1 and 2), which was originally defined for African assemblages. PMID:23894434

Crassard, Rémy; Hilbert, Yamandú Hieronymus

2013-01-01

63

A barley RFLP map: alignment of three barley maps and comparisons to Gramineae species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several gene linkage maps have been produced for cultivated barley. We have produced a new linkage map for barley, based on a cross between Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum and Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare (Hvs x Hvv), having a higher level of polymorphism than most of the previous barley crosses used for RFLP mapping. Of 133 markers mapped in the Hvs

J. D. Sherman; A. L. Fenwick; D. M. Namuth; N. L. V. Lapitan

1995-01-01

64

Detecting Corn Syrup in Barley Malt Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 78(3):349-353 Methods for detecting corn syrup in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) malt extract were evaluated. Twelve samples representative of commercially available 2-rowed and 6-rowed malting barleys were malted. Extracts prepared from the finely ground malts were analyzed for 13 C\\/ 12 C ratios, Malt extract is produced from malted barley and used in the formulation of foodstuffs, where

David M. Peterson; Allen D. Budde; Cynthia A. Henson; Berne L. Jones

2001-01-01

65

Mapping Ancient Coastlines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use a graph to find sea level at various times in the past, then draw the ancient coastlines onto a bathymetric map by following the depth contours. They should develop an understanding of how to interpret a graph to discern changes in sea level, and an understanding that ancient coastlines parallel the contour lines on a bathymetric map. A materials list, directions, background information, and a printable worksheet are provided. National content standards and links to additional information are also included.

66

Geography of Ancient Egypt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity focuses on the importance of geographic features and the abundance of natural resources that helped ancient Egypt become the world's first superpower. Students will learn about the geography and resources available to the ancient Egyptians. Read each question below carefully. Using the following maps: modern political map geographical features map natural resources map archaeological sites map And the following features on the Egypt's Golden Empire website: natural resources farming Answer each question below using as much detail as possible. What countries border modern-day Egypt? (modern political map) Name the major bodies of water that surround an are a part of Egypt. (modern political map) What ...

Mr. Myers

2010-09-30

67

The Ancient Bristlecone Pine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Written by tree enthusiast Leonard Miller with additional input from expert dendrochronologists (including Dr. Henri Grissino-Mayer), this interesting and beautifully illustrated Website gives the reader insights about the oldest tree on earth: the Ancient Bristlecone Pine. The resource provides background information on the discovery of these ancient trees, the geographic setting of the westernmost trees in the US, growth (and other) characteristics of Bristlecone Pines, dendrochronology (the dating of past climate events using tree ring growth), and a select bibliography on Bristlecone Pines, among other topics. An internal search feature (keyword) streamlines the information mining process.

68

Nitrogen metabolism and kidney function in the Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana).  

PubMed

The nitrogen economy of the Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana), a ruminant that inhabits harsh deserts, was studied in the laboratory when fed three diets of different quality. Even on the low quality roughage (wheat straw) the ibex was found capable of balancing its nitrogen economy. On feeds low in protein, recycling of urea played a major role in helping the ibex maintaining a balanced nitrogen metabolism. When on wheat straw, the ibex recycled 71.6% of the urea synthesized in its liver. When on feeds lower in protein, blood urea concentration dropped (from 11.4 mM when on alfalfa hay to 3.2 mM when on wheat straw). GFR that amounted to 44.28 ml/min when on alfalfa hay decreased to 28.97 ml/min when on wheat straw. Reabsorption of urea amounted to 48% of the urea filtered when on alfalfa hay and increased to 78.8% on wheat straw. PMID:2864193

Choshniak, I; Arnon, H

1985-01-01

69

Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives  

PubMed Central

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an important cereal grain that is used in a range of products for animal and human consumption. Crop yield and seed quality has been optimized during decades by plant breeding programs supported by biotechnology and molecular biology techniques. The recently completed whole-genome sequencing of barley revealed approximately 26,100 open reading frames, which provides a foundation for detailed molecular studies of barley by functional genomics and proteomics approaches. Such studies will provide further insights into the mechanisms of, for example, drought and stress tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics strategies and discuss their applications in characterization of the barley chloroplast as well as future perspectives for functional proteomics in barley research. PMID:23515231

Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole N.

2013-01-01

70

Ancient deforestation revisited.  

PubMed

The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work. PMID:20669043

Hughes, J Donald

2011-01-01

71

Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

Gadecki, Victoria L.

2010-01-01

72

Ancient Egyptian surgical heritage.  

PubMed

Egyptian medicine influenced the medicine of neighboring cultures, including the culture of ancient Greece. From Greece, its influence spread onward, thereby affecting Western civilization significantly. The oldest extant Egyptian medical texts are six papyri: The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus and the Ebers Medical Papyrus are famous. PMID:21208098

Saber, Aly

2010-12-01

73

Descriptions of Barley Genetic Stocks For 2007  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Barley Genetics Stocks Database provides information on hundreds of morphological markers. We recently characterized and mapped 27 brachytic (brh) semidwarf mutants in barley. The brachytic lines were evaluated for ten phenotypic traits: height, awn, peduncle, rachis internode length, leaf lengt...

74

7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley varieties not...

2010-01-01

75

Tibet as a Potential Domestication Center of Cultivated Barley of China  

PubMed Central

The importance of wild barley from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the origin and domestication of cultivated barley has long been underestimated. Population-based phylogenetic analyses were performed to study the origin and genetic diversity of Chinese domesticated barley, and address the possibility that the Tibetan region in China was an independent center of barley domestication. Wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) populations from Southwest Asia, Central Asia, and Tibet along with domesticated barley from China were analyzed using two nuclear genes. Our results showed that Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Southwest Asian (Near East) wild barley, that Central Asian wild barley is related to Southwest Asian wild barley, and that Chinese domesticated barley shares the same haplotypes with Tibetan wild barley. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship between Chinese domesticated barley and the Tibetan wild barley, suggesting that Tibetan wild barley was the ancestor of Chinese domesticated barley. Our results favor the polyphyletic origin for cultivated barley. PMID:23658764

Ren, Xifeng; Nevo, Eviatar; Sun, Dongfa; Sun, Genlou

2013-01-01

76

Comets in ancient India  

E-print Network

The Indo-aryans of ancient India observed stars and constellations for ascertaining auspicious times for sacrificial rites ordained by vedas. It is but natural that they would have recounted in the vedic texts about comets. In Rigveda ($\\sim $ 1700 - 1500 BC) and Atharvaveda ($\\sim $ 1150 BC), there are references to dhumaketus and ketus, which stand for comets in Sanskrit. Varahamihira in 550 AD and Ballala Sena ($\\sim $ 1100 - 1200 AD) have described a large number of comets recorded by ancient seers such as Parashara, Vriddha Garga, Narada, Garga, etc. In this article, I conjecture that an episode narrated in Mahabharata of a radiant king, Nahusha, ruling the heavens, and later turning into a serpent after he had kicked the seer Agastya (also the star Canopus), is a mythological retelling of a cometary event.

Gupta, Patrick Das

2014-01-01

77

Ancient Sedimentary Rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-469, 31 August 2003

The terraced area in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image is an outcropping of ancient, sedimentary rock. It occurs in a crater in western Arabia Terra near 10.8oN, 4.5oW. Sedimentary rocks provide a record of past environments on Mars. Field work will likely be required to begin to get a good understanding of the nature of the record these rocks contain. Their generally uniform thickness and repeated character suggests that deposition of fine sediment in this crater was episodic, if not cyclic. These rocks might be indicators of an ancient lake, or they might have been deposited from grains settling out of an earlier, thicker, martian atmosphere. This image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated from the lower left.

2003-01-01

78

Ancient human microbiomes.  

PubMed

Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and we therefore lack a foundation for characterizing this change. High-throughput sequencing has opened up new opportunities in the field of paleomicrobiology, allowing us to investigate the evolution of the complex microbial ecologies that inhabit our bodies. By focusing on recent coprolite and dental calculus research, we explore how emerging research on ancient human microbiomes is changing the way we think about ancient disease and how archaeological studies can contribute to a medical understanding of health and nutrition today. PMID:25559298

Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J; Lewis, Cecil M

2015-02-01

79

Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone  

SciTech Connect

Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

Jones, R.L.

1990-02-21

80

Longevity Ancient and Modern  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article examines illustrations from ancient and modern societies to consider the connections between power, social elites\\u000a and knowledge of techniques to promote longevity. In pre-modern societies, knowledge of practices and substances to promote\\u000a longevity were cultivated by elites such as the Chinese imperial court. In modern societies, new technologies—cryonics, cloning,\\u000a stem-cell applications and nanotechnology—will offer exclusive and expensive methods

Bryan S. Turner

2009-01-01

81

Childbirth in ancient Egypt.  

PubMed

Medicine in ancient Egypt was much more advanced than the rest of the Biblical world, especially in trauma surgery. Care at the time of childbirth was however virtually non-existent. There were no trained obstetricians or midwives but a galaxy of gods were at hand. This article traces what we can piece together about pregnancy of childbirth from the evidence we have in tombs and papyri of Egypt. PMID:15602999

Chamberlain, Geoffrey

2004-11-01

82

Ancient Chinese Astronomical Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I am interested in the astronomical advances of the Ancient Chinese in measuring the solar day. Their development of gnomon & ruler, sundial, and water clock apparatuses enabled Chinese astronomers to measure the annual solar orbit and solar day more precisely than their contemporaries. I have built one of each of these devices to use in collecting data from Olympia, Washington. I will measure the solar day in the Pacific Northwest following the methodology of the ancient Chinese. I will compare with my data, the available historical Chinese astronomical records and current records from the United States Naval Observatory Master Clock. I seek to understand how ancient Chinese investigations into solar patterns enabled them to make accurate predictions about the movement of the celestial sphere and planets, and to develop analytic tests of their theories. Mayall, R. Newton; Sundials: their construction and use. Dover Publications 2000 North, John; The Norton History of Astronomy and Cosmology W.W. Norton& Co. 1995 Zhentao Xu, David W. Pankenier, Yaotiao Jiang; East Asian archaeoastronomy : historical records of astronomical observations of China, Japan and Korea Published on behalf of the Earth Space Institute by Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, c2000

Walsh, Jennifer Robin

2004-05-01

83

Nd–Sr–Hf–O isotope provinciality in the northernmost Arabian–Nubian Shield: implications for crustal evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-isotope study including whole-rock Nd–Sr, single zircon Hf, and SIMS ?18O analyses of zircons sheds light on magma sources in the northernmost Arabian–Nubian Shield (ANS) during ~820–570 Ma. Reconnaissance\\u000a initial Nd and Sr isotope data for the older rocks (~820–740 Ma) reaffirms previous estimates that early crustal evolution\\u000a in this part of the shield involved some crustal contamination by pre-ANS material. Prominent

Y. Be’eri-Shlevin; Y. Katzir; J. Blichert-Toft; I. C. Kleinhanns; M. J. Whitehouse

2010-01-01

84

Suicide in ancient Greece.  

PubMed

The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say that there were many reasons to suicide someone in antiquity. Very important factor was to avoid captivity and the consequent overcrowding of indignity, especially for politicians and military leaders. Also intention in these circumstances was to avoid torture and the disgrace of rape. Strong grief is another reason, as in case of death of family members. The erotic disappointment had place in ancient suicides, which concerned both men and women, while there were also suicide for financial reasons. Especially for the elderly, the despair of the anility in conjunction with physical illness and cachexia, were important factors for these people to decide thee suicidal. Finally, the methods of suicide fitted their epoch, but bear resemblance to those of the modern time. Poisoning was very common to both men and women but equally popular in both sexes was also the hanging. It was not unusual to fall from a high in order to reach the death, while stabbing a sword in the body for self killing was widespread in men and soldiers. PMID:25367664

Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

2014-01-01

85

Infectious diseases in ancient Egypt.  

PubMed

Techniques for studying infectious disease in the ancient world are discussed. A brief survey of infectious diseases, such as schistosomiasis and malaria, in ancient Egypt is presented, and the physical traces of these diseases are examined. A discussion of the ancient Egyptian physician's response to infectious disease is included. There are two substantial sources of evidence for infectious diseases-physical remains and descriptions in Egyptian medical papyri. This preliminary survey suggests that ancient Egypt was far from the idyllic paradise on the Nile that some historians would like to imagine. PMID:15081501

Brier, Bob

2004-03-01

86

Learning About Ancient Greece  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each one of these websites will teach you about different aspects of Greek culture, influence, and mythology. Spend some time at each site playing the games and learning the information. This site has tons of fun and useful information about the what the Olympics were like in Greece.Explore the First Olympics. This site is devoted to the heroes, gods and monsters of Greek mythology.Gods and Heros This site lists all of the Greek Gods and gives a brief description of each.Index of the Gods These sites tell what life in ancient ...

Mrs. Woodruff

2010-05-26

87

Gastroenterology in ancient Egypt.  

PubMed

Physicians in ancient Egypt devoted their care to disorders of individual organs. Notable among the specialties was gastroenterology, a subject matter that occupied a major portion of the surviving medical papyri. Although they did not name diseases as we know them, Pharaonic physicians described a host of gastroenterological symptoms for which an extensive array of therapeutics was prescribed. Their clinical accounts indicated an impressive knowledge of gastric and anorectal conditions. In their thinking on disease mechanism, the circulating materia peccans absorbed from feces represented a major cause of medical symptoms and disorders. This served as the rationale for the popular practice of self-purgation with enemas. PMID:2033225

Chen, T S; Chen, P S

1991-04-01

88

Urology in ancient India  

PubMed Central

The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland. PMID:19675749

Das, Sakti

2007-01-01

89

Crustal evolution and metamorphism in east-central Eritrea, south-east Arabian-Nubian Shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crust of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) was formed in oceanic settings in the Mozambique Ocean during the Neoproterozoic (c. 0.9-0.6 Ga). Convergence started to coalesce island arcs, closed the ocean, and continental collision followed (

Andersson, U. B.; Ghebreab, W.; Teklay, M.

2006-01-01

90

Ancient celtic horns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is considerable evidence from iconographic and documentary sources that musical lip-reed instruments were important in the early celtic communities of Scotland and Ireland. In recent years several studies have been undertaken with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the musical nature of these ancient horns, and of their place in the life and culture of the time. A valuable source of tangible evidence is to be found in the archaeological remains deposited across Scotland and the whole of Ireland. A project is now under way, under the auspices of the Kilmartin House Trust and the general direction of John Purser, which has brought together an international team of musicians, craftsmen, archaeologists, musicologists and physicists with the aim of analyzing ancient musical artifacts, reconstructing some of the original instruments, and analyzing the sounds they produce. This paper describes acoustical studies carried out on a number of recent reconstructions of wooden and bronze instruments, and discusses the role of acoustics in this type of investigation. [Work supported by Sciart and EPSRC.

Campbell, Murray

2002-11-01

91

Carbonate-orthopyroxenite lenses from the Neoproterozoic Gerf ophiolite, South Eastern Desert, Egypt: The first record in the Arabian Nubian Shield ophiolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbonate-orthopyroxenites (classic sagvandites) are reported in the Gerf ophiolite, South Eastern Desert, Egypt: the first finding from the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS) ophiolites. They form massive lenses at the southern tip of the Gerf ophiolite, along the contact between the Shinai granite and Gerf serpentinized peridotites. The lenses show structural concordance with the neighboring country rocks and the granite contact.

Hisham A. Gahlan; Shoji Arai

2009-01-01

92

Origin of Lower Cretaceous (`Nubian') sandstones of North-east Africa and Arabia from detrital zircon U-Pb SHRIMP dating  

E-print Network

Origin of Lower Cretaceous (`Nubian') sandstones of North-east Africa and Arabia from detrital Cretaceous sandstones of the type exposed in Israel, deposited over much of North Africa and Arabia as widespread sandstone sheets, typically are mineralogically and texturally mature. Previous petrographic

Dov, Avigad

93

Communication Media in Ancient Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in early means of communication and in the uses and kinds of media that existed in ancient cultures is starting to grow among communication scholars. Conversation analysis of these cultures is obviously impossible, so that the emphasis must rest with material cultural artifacts. Many ancient cultures used non-verbal codes for dyadic…

Jabusch, David M.

94

History Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern, Scottish  

E-print Network

112 History­ Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern, Scottish and Middle East Studies Degree options MA (Single Honours Degree) History BA (International Honours Degree) History (See page 51) (See also Ancient History page 62 History ­ Mediaeval History page 114 History ­ Middle East Studies page 116 History ­ Modern

Brierley, Andrew

95

History Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern, Scottish  

E-print Network

104 History­ Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern, Scottish and Middle East Studies MA (Single Honours Degree) History BA (International Honours Degree) History See page 13 (See also Ancient History page 52, and History ­ Mediaeval History page 106 History ­ Middle East Studies page 108 History ­ Modern History page

Brierley, Andrew

96

Tamil Merchant in Ancient Mesopotamia  

PubMed Central

Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade. PMID:25299580

Palanichamy, Malliya gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

2014-01-01

97

Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.  

PubMed

Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade. PMID:25299580

Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

2014-01-01

98

Neurology in ancient faces  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Clinical paleoneurology is almost non-existent, but recognition of neurological diseases in ancient people might be possible by scrutinising portraits apparently representing people as they appeared in life.?METHODS—About 200 mummy portraits painted in colour at the beginning of the first millennium were examined. Thirty two skulls excavated at Hawara in the Fayum (northern Egypt), where most of the portraits were found were measured, and nine caliper measures on each side of the skulls were taken. The right/left ratios were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). One skull was subjected to 3D CT scanning and transilluminated.?RESULTS—Two patients were found with progressive facial hemiatrophy (Parry-Romberg syndrome), three with deviations of the visual axes (tropia) and one with oval pupils (corectopia).?CONCLUSIONS—Clinical paleoneurology is possible in the absence of a living nervous system. The patients probably had focal epilepsy, hemiplegic migraine, and autonomic nervous system dysfunction.?? PMID:11254781

Appenzeller, O; Stevens, J; Kruszynski, R; Walker, S

2001-01-01

99

Reanimation of Ancient Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Recent highly publicized experiments conducted on salt crystals taken from the Permian Salado Formation in Southeastern New Mexico have shown that some ancient crystals contain viable microorganisms trapped within fluid inclusions. Stringent geological and microbiological selection criteria were used to select crystals and conduct all sampling. This talk will focus on how each of these lines of data support the conclusion that such isolated bacteria are as old as the rock in which they are trapped. In this case, the isolated microbes are salt tolerant bacilli that grow best in media containing 8% NaCl, and respond to concentrated brines by forming spores. One of the organisms is phylogenetically related to several bacilli, but does have several unique characteristics. This talk will trace the interdisciplinary data and procedures supporting these discoveries, and describe the various isolated bacteria.

Russell Vreeland

2009-01-09

100

Ancient Chinese Sundials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Timekeeping was essential in the agricultural society of ancient China. The use of sundials for timekeeping was associated with the use of the gnomon, which had its origin in remote antiquity. This chapter studies three sundials (guiyi ??) from the Qin and Han dynasties, the shorter shadow plane sundial (duanying ping yi ????) invented by Yuan Chong in the Sui Dynasty, and the sundial chart (guiyingtu ???) invented by Zeng Minxing in the Southern Song dynasty. This chapter also introduces Guo Shoujing's hemispherical sundial (yang yi ??). A circular stone sundial discovered at the Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an is also mentioned. It is dated from the Sui and Tang dynasties. A brief survey of sundials from the Qing dynasty shows various types of sundials.

Deng, Kehui

101

7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407...CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of...

2013-01-01

102

7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407...CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of...

2012-01-01

103

7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407...CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of...

2011-01-01

104

The geology of the northern tip of the Arabian-Nubian Shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a detailed (1:50,000) geological map of the Elat area, southern Israel was published. Attached to this map is a stratigraphic table of the Neoproterozoic metamorphic-magmatic complex of the study area. The Neoproterozoic basement in the Elat area encapsulates the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS) geologic evolution. Uranium-Lead and Lead-Lead zircon ages, included in previous studies and referred to in this paper, reveal that these rocks were formed during more than 300 million years of Neoproterozoic time. The major process controlling the formation of the ANS as part of the East African Orogen is the closure of the Mozambique Ocean. The first orogenic phase in the Elat area, represented by the metamorphic rocks, includes the development of an island arc, erosion of the islands and deposition, and metamorphism. This event took place between ?950 Ma and 780-790 Ma. Elat Schist, the oldest metamorphic rock in the area, was deformed and then intruded by quartz dioritic and granitic plutons that were later deformed and metamorphosed. The amphibolite metamorphic rock facies indicate metamorphic conditions of up to 650 °C and between 4 and 5 kbar. The peak of the metamorphic event was most probably before 750 Ma. A gradual change from compressional to extensional stress regime is evidenced by emplacement andesitic magnesium-rich dykes dated to 705 Ma that were later metamorphosed to schistose dykes at a greenschist metamorphic facies. The second orogenic phase (terrane amalgamation, main shaping of crust) was associated with the emplacement of large volumes (>50% of area) of calc-alkaline intrusions in a post-collision setting. These very last stages of metamorphism and deformation are characterized by intrusion of ?630 Ma granitoids exhibiting some foliation. Pluton emplacement continued also after the end of deformation. Exhumation and transition to an extensional regime is recorded by the intrusion of shallow alkaline granites in ?608 Ma which were accompanied in ?609 Ma by rhyolite, andesite and composite dykes. The last magmatic event in the Elat area is represented by the volcano-conglomeratic series comprising rhyolites, basalts, andesites, hypabyssal intrusions of monzonite and syenite and conglomerates. The conglomerates, dated to about 590 Ma, are the products of a major erosion phase in which about 12,000 m of the section were removed. These conglomerates were intruded by 585 Ma rhyolite, andesite and composite dykes. The Neoproterozoic basement is truncated by a peneplain whose age, post 532 Ma, is constrained by the age of the youngest eroded dolerite dykes. This Early Cambrian peneplain was associated with erosion of 2000 m of the section and by chemical weathering. Three major breaks in Neoproterozoic magmatic activity are recognized: the first, occurred in Cryogenian time, lasted ?60 million years after the amphibolite facies metamorphism and before emplacement of the calc alkaline plutons, separating the first and the second orogenic phases; the second break between the orogenic and the extensional phases occurred in early Ediacaran time, encompassed ?20 million years between the emplacement of the calc-alkaline and alkaline plutonic rocks and rhyolite, andesite and the composite dykes; and the third, ?50 Ma break, occurred between the emplacement of the last felsic intrusions at ?585 Ma and intrusion of the dolerite dykes in 532 Ma, before the Early Cambrian peneplain developed. The great lateral extension of the Cambrian to Eocene sedimentary rocks and their slow facies and thickness changes suggest a stable flat platform area at the northern tip of the ANS. Early Cambrian sedimentation began with fluviatile subarkoses of the Amudei Shlomo Formation. It was overlain by an Early to Middle Cambrian transgressive-regressive lagoonal cycle of dolostones, sandstones, and siltstones of the Timna Formation. Then Middle Cambrian subarkoses and siltstones of the Shehoret Formation and the quartz arenite of the Netafim Formation were deposited in a coastal, intertidal environment representing

Beyth, M.; Eyal, Y.; Garfunkel, Z.

2014-11-01

105

N release from livestock waste compost pellets in barley fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

N release patterns from dairy cattle, swine, and poultry waste compost pellets were studied using the buried glass filter paper method in barley fields. Field experiments with barley were also carried out to study the relationship between N release from pellets and N absorption by barley. Results showed that about 28, 36, 44% and of N were released from 3

Wang Yan; Katsumi Yamamoto; Ken-ichi Yakushido

2001-01-01

106

Introduction Modern winter barley cultivars are capable of yields in  

E-print Network

are one to two weeks earlier than for winter wheat, and thus fall N uptake can be greater for win- ter barley than for winter wheat. Excessive fall barley growth can occur and result in freeze injury to stemsIntroduction Modern winter barley cultivars are capable of yields in excess of 170 bu

Liskiewicz, Maciej

107

Giant ancient retroperitoneal schwannoma to retroperitoneal giant ancient schwannoma.  

PubMed

Ancient schwannoma is a rare variant of benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor, often morphologically mimicking malignancy. Retroperitoneum is an uncommon location. We describe one case of giant retroperitoneal ancient schwannoma. Literature concerning this variant is also reviewed. A 65 year old male presented with altered bowel habits. Imaging findings revealed a large heterogeneous mass in the retroperitoneum. The patient was treated with complete excision. Grossly, the tumor was predominantly solid with focal cystic degeneration. Histological examination showed an encapsulated spindle cell tumor with nuclear palisading, very focal nuclear atypia and widespread foam cell infiltration - findings consistent with ancient schwannoma. A diagnosis of ancient schwannoma can be considered for a solid-cystic encapsulated mass in the retroperitoneum. Malignant transformation is very rare. Local recurrence is uncommon following complete excision. The authors have nothing to disclose. PMID:25481325

Khandakar, Binny; Dey, Soumit; Chandra Paul, Prabir; Medda, Sriparna; Bhattacharya, Aparna; Datta, Saikat

2014-12-01

108

Analysis of ancient silver coins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Writing from the numismatist point of view, the authors open this paper by reviewing critically the use of scientific methods for the studies of ancient coins. They also report about an application of the PIXE method at low incident proton energy to one of the most celebrated and known coinage in the ancient history: the Athenian silver coins of the fifth century BC. The results of those analyses indicate that the metallic composition of several coins usually taken as ancient imitations of Athenian coins does not differ from that of the genuine ones. Those analyses confirm what the authors have inferred from numismatic sources: These coins are probably genuinely Athenian.

Flament, Christophe; Marchetti, Patrick

2004-11-01

109

Geochronologic and isotopic evidence for involvement of pre-Pan-African crust in the Nubian shield, Egypt  

SciTech Connect

Two Late Proterozoic granitic bodies from the Eastern Desert of Egypt, the ca. 578 Ma Nakhil and the ca. 595 Ma Aswan granites, provide insights into processes of crust formation in the Arabian-Nubian shield. Evidence for involvement of an older crustal component in the formation of the Nakhil granite includes (1) U/Pb zircon data that establish a crystallization age of 578 {plus minus} 15 Ma and indicate the presence of inherited zircons possibly as old as 1.6 Ga; (2) an elevated model initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr (0.7136); and (3) an elevated initial {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb (15.561) relative to model mantle compositions at 578 Ma. Evidence for involvement of an older crustal component in the Aswan granite comes from the elevated initial {sup 207}Pb/{sup 204}Pb (15.611). In contrast, extensive crustal contamination is not reflected in the high initial {epsilon}{sub Nd} (+5.7) for the Nakhil and the low initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr (0.7029) for the Aswan granite. The contrasting inferences from the different isotopic systems can be explained by the high whole-rock Nd and Sr concentration for the the Nakhil (87 ppm Nd) and the Aswan (173 ppm Sr) granites, respectively, that suggest that the Nd and Sr isotopic composition of the older component has been overshadowed by the more primitive material. Similar contrasts in Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic data from the eastern and western shield margins can be interpreted in the same manner and might suggest widespread involvement of older crustal components in the formation of the Late Proterozoic Arabian-Nubian shield.

Sultan, M.; Chamberlain, K.R.; Bowring, S.A.; Arvidson, R.E. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA)); Abuzied, H. (Cairo Univ. (Egypt)); El Kaliouby, B. (Ain Shams Univ., Abassia, Cairo (Egypt))

1990-08-01

110

Health, Economics and Ancient Greek Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A period of two and a half millennia separates us from the Classical period of ancient Greece. Nevertheless, looking at ancient Greek medicine from the perspective of modern health economics is an interesting endeavour in that it increases our understanding of the ancient world and provides insights into contemporary society. Ancient Greece is rightly famous for pioneering secular and scientific

Carl Hampus Lyttkens

2011-01-01

111

Ancient Astronomy in Ukraine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical culture and research have long-standing traditions in Ukraine. The first signs of astronomical knowledge were found in archaeological excavations and records. The most ancient find (dated as 15,000 B.C.) is a mammoth tusk with a fretwork image of a table of lunar phases found in the Poltava region. The so-called Trypillya culture (dated 4,000 - 3,000 B.C) had numerous examples of ornaments at the howls, distaffs, wheels and other everyday articles with symbolic images of zodiac constellations, and vessel-calendars indicating the vernal/autumnal equinoxes and the motion of the Sun. Some of such unique exhibits stored at the National Museum of History of Ukraine will be described in details in this paper. For example, the vessel calendar dating by IV century of our era (from village Romashki, Kyiv region). This image was interpreted by B. Rybakov as an agricultural calendar from May to August (time of harvesting). Most of exhibits of Museum were founded by archaeologist Vikenty Khvoyko and presented by him to Museum in 1905. Description and pictures of vessels and cups from Chernyahiv, Trypillya IV century B.C. with the Solar signs and tusk of the mammoth from Kyrilovska parking with notches interpreted as a calendar as well as tree-storied pictures of vessel from Trypillya interpreted as a “vertical cross section of the world” in dynamics will be also given. Another unique historical record relates to the times of the powerful state of the Kievan Rus' (X- XIII centuries), when astronomical observations were conducted mainly in cloisters. For example, the authors of the Lavrentievska chronicle describe the solar eclipses of the years 1064, 1091, and 1115 A.D. and the lunar eclipses of 1161 A.D. At that times some natural cataclysms have been connected with eclipses that, for example, was described in “The Word about Igor's shelf” by Nestor Letopisec. Thus, facts discussed in paper pointed out once more that astronomy is one of the most ancient science, accompanying all history of humanity, which has arisen from the practical demands of people.

Artemenko, Tatyana G.; Vavilova, Iryna B.

2007-08-01

112

[Ancient Egyptian Odontology].  

PubMed

In ancient Egypt during the reign of Pharaoh Djoser, circa 2650 BC, the Step Pyramid was constructed by Imhotep. He was later worshiped as the God of Medicine. One of his contemporaries was the powerful writer Hesy who is reproduced on a panel showing a rebus of a swallow, a tusk and an arrow. He is therefore looked upon as being the first depicted odontologist. The art of writing begun in Egypt in about 3100 BC and the medical texts we know from different papyri were copied with hieratic signs around 1900-1100 BC. One of the most famous is the Papyrus Ebers. It was purchased by professor Ebers on a research travel to Luxor in 1873. Two years later a beautiful facsimile in color was published and the best translation came in 1958 in German. The text includes 870 remedies and some of them are related to teeth and oral troubles like pain in the mouth, gingivitis, periodontitis and cavities in the teeth. The most common oral pain was probably pulpitis caused by extreme attrition due to the high consumption of bread contaminated with soil and/or quern minerals. Another text is the Papyrus Edwin Smith with four surgical cases of dental interest. The "toothworms" that were presumed to bring about decayed teeth have not been identified in the medical texts. It was not until 1889 W.D. Miller presented a scientific explanation that cavities were caused by bacteria. In spite of extensive research only a few evidence of prosthetic and invasive treatments have been found and these dental artifacts have probably been made post mortem. Some of the 150 identified doctors were associated with treatments of disorders of the mouth. The stele of Seneb from Sa'is during the 26th dynasty of Psamtik, 664-525 BC, shows a young man who probably was a dental healer well known to Pharaoh and his court. Clement of Alexandria mentions circa 200 AD that the written knowledge of the old Egyptians was gathered in 42 collections of papyri. Number 37-42 contained the medical writings. The household remedies in ancient Egypt were unique and future research will most likely give us new answers about pathology and health care of that time and a better understanding of old medical concepts. PMID:11625678

Berghult, B

1999-01-01

113

Layout of Ancient Maya Cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although there is little doubt that the ancient Maya of Mesoamerica laid their cities out based, in part, on astronomical considerations, the proliferation of "cosmograms" in contemporary scholarly discourse has complicated matters for the acceptance of rigorous archaeoastronomical research.

Aylesworth, Grant R.

114

Work Classification in Ancient Times.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The divisions of labor and the classifications of work in ancient times are described, and an early four-part classification based on the "Bhagavad Gita" is compared with that of the present "Dictionary of Occupational Titles." (Author)

Hopke, William

1979-01-01

115

Ancient Astronomical Monuments of Athens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, four ancient monuments of astronomical significance found in Athens and still kept in the same city in good condition are presented. The first one is the conical sundial on the southern slope of the Acropolis. The second one is the Tower of the Winds and its vertical sundials in the Roman Forum of Athens, a small octagonal marble tower with sundials on all 8 of its sides, plus a water-clock inside the tower. The third monument-instrument is the ancient clepsydra of Athens, one of the findings from the Ancient Agora of Athens, a unique water-clock dated from 400 B.C. Finally, the fourth one is the carved ancient Athenian calendar over the main entrance of the small Byzantine temple of the 8th Century, St. Eleftherios, located to the south of the temple of the Annunciation of Virgin Mary, the modern Cathedral of the city of Athens.

Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.

2010-07-01

116

Ancient schwannoma of the orbit  

PubMed Central

The ancient schwannoma is a rare variant of a neurilemoma with a course typical of a slow-growing benign neoplasm. Histologically, it can be confused with a malignant mesenchymal tumor because of increased cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, and hyperchromatism. Despite the degree of nuclear atypia, mitotic figures are absent. We describe the clinical and histopathologic features of an ancient schwannoma of the orbit. A need for early removal of such tumors is recommended to prevent complications. PMID:25136229

Kulkarni, Anjali S.; Anjum, Shaziya; Kokandakar, Hemant R.; Bindu, Rajan S.; Awargaonkar, Amarnath

2014-01-01

117

Ancient Writings Revealed!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sometime in the 3rd century BCE, the noted scholar and scientist Archimedes composed a series of diagrams and passages of text on a manuscript that was subsequently written over in the Middle Ages by a monk. Long thought to be lost forever, the document was given new life in 1906 when a Danish professor identified this item. Eventually the document found its way to The Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, and it now appears that scientists and researchers will be able to uncover Archimedesâ original writings. This delightful saga will unfold courtesy of this website, created by the Exploratorium Museum in San Francisco. Working in tandem with researchers at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, they will use an intense X-Ray to reveal the original letters and diagrams. Visitors will be able to watch all of this happen in real time on a webcast (or take a look on the archived webcast after the event is over), and learn about the original document, and how researchers read such ancient texts.

2006-01-01

118

Study of fluorescence quenching of Barley ?-amylase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluorescence quenching of Barley ?-amylase by acrylamide and succinimide has been studied in water using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The steady-state fluorescence quenching technique has been performed in three different pHs (i.e., 6, 7 and 8) of water. Ground state and excited state binding constants (Kg &Ke) have been calculated. From the calculated binding constants (Kg &Ke) the free energy changes for the ground (?Gg) and excited (?Ge) states have been calculated and are presented in tables. UV and FTIR spectra have also been recorded to prove the binding of Barley ?-amylase with acrylamide and succinimide.

Bakkialakshmi, S.; Shanthi, B.; Bhuvanapriya, T.

2012-05-01

119

Ancient lakes on Mars?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The valley systems in Mars' ancient cratered terrain provide strong evidence for a warmer and wetter climate very early in planetary history. The valley systems in some instances debouch into closed depressions that could have acted as local ponding basins for the flow. A survey of the Martian equatorial region shows that numerous local depressions at the confluence of valley systems exist. These depressions (approximately 100 km) typically are characterized by many valleys flowing into them and few or none flowing out. If ponding did take place, these basin would have contained lakes for some period during Mars' early warmer epoch. Although the collection basins are numerous, location of ones that have not suffered significant subsequent geologic modification is difficult. Some morphologic features suggest that volcanic lavas may have filled them subsequent to any early fluvial activity. Two detailed maps of valley systems and local ponding basins in USGC 1:2,000,000 subquadrangles were completed and a third is in progress. The completed regions are in Mare Tyrrhenum (MC-22 SW) and Margarifter Sinus (MC-19 SE), and the region in progress is in Iapygia (MC-21 NW). On the maps, the valley systems and interpreted margins of ponding basins are indicated. The depressions are of interest for two reasons. First, the depressions were surely the sites in which the materials eroded from the valleys were deposited. Such sediments could preserve important information about the physical conditions at the time of deposition. Second, the sediments could preserve evidence of water-atmosphere interactions during the early period of the Martian climate. Atmospheric carbon dioxide would dissolve in water, and solid carbonate minerals would tend to precipitate out to form carbonate sedimentary deposits. Formation of carbonates in this manner might account for some of the CO2 lost from the early more dense atmosphere.

Goldspiel, J. M.; Squyres, S. W.

1989-01-01

120

Registration of 'Dan' winter hulless barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dan’ (Reg. No. CV- , PI 659066) six-rowed winter hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2009. Dan was derived from the cross VA96-41-17 / SC872143. It was released for production in the eastern United States, as a poten...

121

A hairpin plastid genome in barley  

PubMed Central

A linear plastid genome of a barley albino plant derived from anther culture has been characterized. The monomeric genome is 21 kb long. This molecule has a hairpin structure. We discuss the possible origins of this genome. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:16453721

Ellis, T. H. N.; Day, A.

1986-01-01

122

EFFECTS OF DEOXYNIVALENOL ON BARLEY LEAF PIGMENTATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As a first step in characterizing the role deoxynivalenol (DON) plays in pathogenesis of Fusarium graminearum in leaf and head tissues, we treated detached barley leaf tissues with DON and examined them daily for signs of injury or other alterations. As shown here, DON had pronounced and unexpected ...

123

Registration of 'Eve' winter hulless barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Eve’ (Reg. No. CV- PI 659067 ), a six-row winter hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed and tested as VA01H-68 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in May 2007. Eve was derived from the cross SC860974 / VA94-42-13. Eve is widely adapted and provides producers with ...

124

Neonatal medicine in ancient art.  

PubMed

There are a limited number of artistic objects from ancient times with particular importance in neonatal medicine. The best examples are figurines from ancient Egypt of Isis nursing Horus, showing the importance of breastfeeding. The earliest images of the human fetus were made by the Olmecs in Mexico around 1200- 400 BCE. One of the earliest representations of congenital anomalies is a figurine of diencephalic twins thought to be the goddess of Anatolia, dated to around 6500 BCE. In addition to these figurines, three sets of twins in the ancient world have medical importance, and Renaissance artists often used them as a subject for their paintings: "direct suckling animals" (Romulus and Remus), "heteropaternal superfecundation" (mother: Leda, fathers: Zeus, the king of the Olympian gods, and Leda's husband, Tyndareus), and "twin-to-twin transfusion" in monozygotic twins (Jacob and Esau). PMID:20560265

Yurdakök, Murat

2010-01-01

125

The Ancient City of Petra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fun Web article is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they learn about the ancient city of Petra. The article begins with an overview of this city, which was located along the ancient trade routes between Arabia, Egypt, and the Mediterranean Sea. Kids then have the chance to take a walk through Petra's ruins. This clickable illustration has 11 places for them to explore. The article concludes with an extensive information section on the history of the city.

126

Comparison of different types of barley with variable crude fibre contents in growing-finishing pig diets  

E-print Network

Comparison of different types of barley with variable crude fibre contents in growing-finishing pig pens to compare several types of barley with variable contents of crude fibre components under the same : a naked barley, a spring barley, a two-row winter barley and two six-row winter barleys with a crude fibre

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

127

Understanding Malaria: Fighting an Ancient Scourge  

MedlinePLUS

... Malaria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 More Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Photo Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Fighting an Ancient Scourge iii What is ... who.int Fighting an Ancient Scourge 31 Photo Credits Front cover—(Background) DigitalVision/PunchStock Front cover—(Foreground) ...

128

Seismic anisotropy and subduction-induced mantle fabrics beneath the Arabian and Nubian Plates adjacent to the Red Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For most continental areas, the mechanisms leading to mantle fabrics responsible for the observed anisotropy remain ambiguous, partially due to the lack of sufficient spatial coverage of reliable seismological observations. Here we report the first joint analysis of shear-wave splitting measurements obtained at stations on the Arabian and Nubian Plates adjacent to the Red Sea. More than 1100 pairs of high-quality splitting parameters show dominantly N-S fast orientations at all 47 stations and larger-than-normal splitting times beneath the Afro-Arabian Dome (AAD). The uniformly N-S fast orientations and large splitting times up to 1.5 s are inconsistent with significant contributions from the lithosphere, which is about 50-80 km thick beneath the AAD and even thinner beneath the Red Sea. The results can best be explained by simple shear between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere associated with northward subduction of the African/Arabian Plates over the past 150 Ma.

Elsheikh, Ahmed A.; Gao, Stephen S.; Liu, Kelly H.; Mohamed, Abdelnasser A.; Yu, Youqiang; Fat-Helbary, Raafat E.

2014-04-01

129

Recommended Readings on the Ancient Near East  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Research Archives of the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago has posted an updated version of its 1996 printed Guide to Introductory Readings on the Peoples and Cultures of the Ancient Near East. Resources are grouped under three general headings: Ancient Egypt, Ancient Nubia, and Ancient Mesopotamia; each contains a list of general reference works. Sub-topics include mummification, religion, art, hieroglyphics, architecture, law and government, and books for students and young readers.

130

Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy  

PubMed Central

Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L.) is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0); below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken), consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment. PMID:22958810

2012-01-01

131

Barley doubled-haploid production by uniparental chromosome elimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uniparental elimination of chromosomes, which occurs in interspecific crosses between Hordeum vulgare (cultivated barley) and H. bulbosum (bulbous barley grass), is a process which can be used to produce doubled-haploid barley plants in breeding programs. We\\u000a review the procedure of haploid production and the mechanism underlying selective elimination of one of the genomes during\\u000a the early development of species hybrid embryos.

Andreas Houben; Maryam Sanei; Richard Pickering

2011-01-01

132

Ancient Mediterranean Civilizations The School of Humanities  

E-print Network

81 Ancient Mediterranean Civilizations The School of Humanities Director and Adviser Hilary Mackie and transformation of cultures in the ancient Mediterranean world. Students examine sources, such as texts, artifacts, and the Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies in Rome. Students majoring in Ancient Mediterranean Civilizations

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

133

Ancient Mediterranean Civilizations The School of Humanities  

E-print Network

88 Ancient Mediterranean Civilizations The School of Humanities Director and Adviser Michael Maas and transformation of cultures in the ancient Mediterranean world. Students examine sources, such as texts, artifacts, and the Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies in Rome. Students majoring in Ancient Mediterranean Civilizations

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

134

Ancient and Modern Coins Unit Plans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ancient times comes to life when a student can hold in his/her hand or read about an artifact, such as a coin of the Greek or Roman era. Students are familiar with coins, and this commonality helps them understand the similarities and differences between their lives and times in ancient Greece or Rome. Many symbols on the ancient coins can be…

United States Mint (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

135

Ancient medicine--a review.  

PubMed

Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples. PMID:18812066

Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozenci?, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetkovi?, Jasna; Mustajbegovi?, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Muci?-Puci?, Branka; Nerali?-Meniga, Inja

2008-01-01

136

Ergonomic design in ancient Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the science of ergonomics did not actually emerge until the 20th century, there is evidence to suggest that ergonomic principles were in fact known and adhered to 25 centuries ago. The study reported here is a first attempt to research the ergonomics concerns of ancient Greeks, on both a conceptual and a practical level. On the former we present

Nicolas Marmaras; George Poulakakis; Vasilis Papakostopoulos

1999-01-01

137

Watchers of the Ancient Skies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Lakota belief systems connected with the stars and how those beliefs directed Lakota existence, movements during the year, and ceremonies. Discusses winter camps, associated cultural practices such as storytelling, ancient wisdom, the concept of mirroring (constellations and corresponding land forms on earth), and the Black Hills annual…

Sherman, Ben

1998-01-01

138

Tawa hallae - Dinosaur Ancient History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When paleontologists unearthed the ancient dinosaur Tawa hallae, they knew it was different--and remarkably well preserved. What they did not know is that the animal has an intriguing lineage, one that answers questions about the earliest evolution of dinosaurs.

139

The Echoes of Ancient Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several artifacts found at the Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, or Daughters of Jacob Bridge, archaeological site in Israel provide a picture of ancient human ancestors that is different from the once accepted by most scholars. The discoveries by Israeli archaeologist Naama Goren-Inbar suggest that humans developed language and other key abilities far…

Watzman, Haim

2006-01-01

140

Astronomical Deities in Ancient Mesoamerica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The best known astronomical deities in ancient Mesoamerica are the sun, moon, and Venus. The Milky Way was also deified, and its constellations were visualized as celestial animals or locations. The sun and Venus were male deities, but the moon had both male and female aspects. Some of these concepts survive today in Mesoamerican ethnographic accounts referencing different transformations of the moon.

Milbrath, Susan

141

Transcriptome profiling reveals mosaic genomic origins of modern cultivated barley  

PubMed Central

The domestication of cultivated barley has been used as a model system for studying the origins and early spread of agrarian culture. Our previous results indicated that the Tibetan Plateau and its vicinity is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley. Here we reveal multiple origins of domesticated barley using transcriptome profiling of cultivated and wild-barley genotypes. Approximately 48-Gb of clean transcript sequences in 12 Hordeum spontaneum and 9 Hordeum vulgare accessions were generated. We reported 12,530 de novo assembled transcripts in all of the 21 samples. Population structure analysis showed that Tibetan hulless barley (qingke) might have existed in the early stage of domestication. Based on the large number of unique genomic regions showing the similarity between cultivated and wild-barley groups, we propose that the genomic origin of modern cultivated barley is derived from wild-barley genotypes in the Fertile Crescent (mainly in chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 3H) and Tibet (mainly in chromosomes 4H, 5H, 6H, and 7H). This study indicates that the domestication of barley may have occurred over time in geographically distinct regions. PMID:25197090

Dai, Fei; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Zefeng; Jin, Gulei; Wu, Dezhi; Cai, Shengguan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Feibo; Nevo, Eviatar; Zhang, Guoping

2014-01-01

142

Lysine Catabolism in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

PubMed Central

Lysine catabolism in seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Emir) was studied by direct injection of the following tracers into the endosperm of the seedlings: aspartic acid-3-14C, 2-aminoadipic acid-1-14C, saccharopine-14C, 2,6-diaminopimelic acid-1-(7)-14C, and lysine-1-14C. Labeled saccharopine was formed only after the administration of either labeled 2,6-diaminopimelic acid or labeled lysine to the seedlings. The metabolic fate of the other tracers administered also supported a catabolic lysine pathway via saccharopine, and apparently proceeding by a reversal of some of the biosynthetic steps of the 2-aminoadipic acid pathway known from lysine biosynthesis in most fungi. Pipecolic acid seems not to be on the main pathway of l-lysine catabolism in barley seedlings. PMID:16659552

Møller, Birger Lindberg

1976-01-01

143

The genetic analysis of barley storage proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hordein polypeptide patterns in barley seeds are known to be controlled by structural genes at 2 loci, Hor-1 and Hor-2, on chromosome 5. Two-dimensional and high resolution one-dimensional electrophoretic analyses of seeds of F2 and doubled haploid progenies of four intervarietal crosses gave no evidence of recombination within these loci. Genetic analysis of the progenies showed that Hor-1 is 0·161

P R Shewry; Audrey J Faulks; R A Pickering; I T Jones; R A Finch; B J Miflin

1980-01-01

144

Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.

Dunwell, Jim M.

145

Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds.  

PubMed

Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR. PMID:25242949

Zawoznik, Myriam S; Vázquez, Susana C; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M; Groppa, María D

2014-01-01

146

Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds  

PubMed Central

Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR. PMID:25242949

Zawoznik, Myriam S.; Vázquez, Susana C.; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M.; Groppa, María D.

2014-01-01

147

The effects of barley bran flour and barley oil on hypercholesterolemic men and women  

E-print Network

and women in a 30-day intervention trial. All participants were instructed to follow the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) step-one diet and were d ly 'g dto f th t t tg p*. G~t added 20 grams of cellulose fiber to their daily intake. mG2...% with some special strains of up to 16% (30) . Cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin are the main constituents of the crude or insoluble fiber portion of barley. The crude fiber content of cov- ered barley is approximately 4-8% and only 2% or less in hull...

Robinson, Michael Clayton

2012-06-07

148

Exhumation of Mid-Crustal Rocks in the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The Baladaya Complex of Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upper amphibolite facies rocks from mid-crustal levels are exhumed in the Arabian-Nubian Shield as metamorphic complexes surrounded by low-grade rocks. These middle crustal level rocks were exhumed during the East- and West-Gondwana collision (Pan-African event) in a time interval of ca. 630 to 590 Ma. One of these metamorphic complexes (i.e. Baladaya complex) shows a complicated exhumation history. Four major rock types are found in the study area. They are: a) metamorphic rocks of upper-amphibolite facies which represent the core of the Baladaya complex. Angular unconformity separates the upper-amphibolite facies rocks away from other rock types in the complex, b) metamorphic rocks of greenschist-amphibolite facies transition. These rocks lie directly above the upper-amphibolite facies rocks (type: a) and below Thalbah molasse sediments (type: c). The lower section of the Thalbah sediments shows metamorphism in lower-greenschist facies. The types (a) and (b) were exhumed underneath the Thalbah sediments (type c) as a flower structure. This flower structure can be confirmed in the field by presence of granitic rocks (rock type: d) bounded by thrust planes. The thrust planes surround the Baladaya complex and dip toward the inner part of the complex while the Thalbah molasse sediments as a footwall to the thrust planes. This geological setting indicates that the complex was exhumed at least three times during the activity of the Pan-African event. The first exhumation was prior to the deposition of sediments, which metamorphosed later to be metamorphic rocks of greenschist-amphibolite facies transition (type: b). The second exhumation was prior the deposition of Thalbah molasse sediments. The third exhumation was by the formation of thrust planes and the regional flower structure of the Baladaya complex.

Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hassan, Mahmoud; Stüwe, Kurt; Meyer, Sven; Passchier, Cees

2013-04-01

149

Recharge flux to the Nubian Sandstone aquifer and its impact on the present development in southwest Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southwestern part of Egypt (East El Oweinat) is an arid area with no surface water and only one resource of useable groundwater in the well-known Nubian Sandstone aquifer. This resource has been heavily exploited since 1990, which has led to a continuous decline in the potentiometric surface of this aquifer. The groundwater recharge in the concerned area depends exclusively on the subsurface inflow across the Egyptian/Sudanese borders. A FEFLOW, finite element groundwater model, has been used to investigate the length of the recharge window and to predict the hydrodynamic impacts of different groundwater extractions on the potentiometry of this aquifer. A complete database of the hydrogeological and drilling information of about 600 water wells drilled in the period 1985-2010 was evaluated and used for the model parameter input as well as for its simulation. The results of steady-state simulation indicate that the length of the southwest flux boundary is about 170 km with angle flow direction about 52°NW with a groundwater flow rate about 0.018 m/day. A calibrated regional numerical model with refined grid on the pumping centres, hydraulic properties and flux boundary in the southwest is used to simulate the impacts of the present and planned groundwater extraction on the potentiometry of the aquifer. The results show a real danger of increasing the water depth to uneconomic lifting depth. Through implementation of 135 pumping wells in time 2002-2008, the lowering of water table ranges from 1 to 1.5 m in the reclamation areas. On the other hand, the distribution of 1600 proposed wells with distance between every two adjacent wells not less than 2700 m indicates that the lowering of water table ranges from 5 m away of the reclamation areas to 15 m in the reclamation areas in time period of 27 years (2008-2035). This result seems to be the better for the present irrigation project in East El Oweinat area.

Masoud, M. H.; Schneider, M.; El Osta, M. M.

2013-09-01

150

Models of ancient sound vases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models were made of vases described by Vitruvius in Rome in about the year 70 A.D. and of sound vases (lydpotter) placed in Danish churches from 1100-1300 A.D. Measurements of vase's resonant frequencies and damping (reradiation) verified that the model vases obeyed expected physical rules. It was concluded that the excellent acoustical quality of many ancient Greek and Roman theaters cannot be ascribed to the vases placed under their seats. This study also found that sound vases placed in Nordic churches could not have shortened the reverberation time because there are far too few of them. Moreover, they could not have covered a broad frequency range. It remains a mystery why vases were installed under the seats of ancient Greek theaters and why, 1000 years later, Danes placed vases in their churches.

Bruel, Per V.

2002-11-01

151

The British Museum: Ancient India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ancient India Web site from the British Museum is designed especially for middle schoolers and teachers, but all ages will enjoy exploring. There are six chapters: Buddha, Geography, Hinduism, Indus Valley, Time, and Writing; each with divisions entitled Story, Explore, and Challenge. Story in the Buddha chapter is the life of the Buddha; Explore under Hinduism features trading card-sized images of 16 Hindu gods and short descriptions; and the Geography Challenge is to plan a pilgrimage to see holy sites of the Buddha's life, traveling on foot. Other fun sections include the Writing section challenge, where students decipher ancient Indian writing, and the interactive timelines in the Time chapter. Throughout the site, clicking linked words in the text pops open a glossary with definitions of difficult terms.

152

Molecular analysis of ancient caries.  

PubMed

An 84 base pair sequence of the Streptococcus mutans virulence factor, known as dextranase, has been obtained from 10 individuals from the Bronze Age to the Modern Era in Europe and from before and after the colonization in America. Modern samples show four polymorphic sites that have not been found in the ancient samples studied so far. The nucleotide and haplotype diversity of this region have increased over time, which could be reflecting the footprint of a population expansion. While this segment has apparently evolved according to neutral evolution, we have been able to detect one site that is under positive selection pressure both in present and past populations. This study is a first step to study the evolution of this microorganism, analysed using direct evidence obtained from ancient remains. PMID:25056622

Simón, Marc; Montiel, Rafael; Smerling, Andrea; Solórzano, Eduvigis; Díaz, Nancy; Álvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A; Jiménez-Marín, Andrea R; Malgosa, Assumpció

2014-09-01

153

Models of ancient sound vases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models were made of vases described by Vitruvius in Rome in about the year 70 A.D. and of sound vases (lydpotter) placed in Danish churches from 1100-1300 A.D. Measurements of vase's resonant frequencies and damping (reradiation) verified that the model vases obeyed expected physical rules. It was concluded that the excellent acoustical quality of many ancient Greek and Roman theaters

Per V. Bruel

2002-01-01

154

Ancient Architects of the Mississippi  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A feature of the US National Park Service (see the March 8, 1996 Scout Report), this site provides information about the American civilizations that resided in the lower Mississippi Delta from 500 to 1700. The highly advanced agrarian civilizations, collectively known as the Mississippians, erected massive earthworks, which formed the architectural and ceremonial foundations of their communities. This Website contains images, photos, maps, and essays offering historical, anthropological, and archaeological insight into the cultures of the ancient moundbuilding societies.

155

Dinosaurs: Ancient Fossils, New Discoveries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, created to complement the Museum's Dinosaurs: Ancient Fossils, New Discoveries exhibit, offers a virtual visit to the Museum, complete with text, photos, video clips, audio interviews, and more and includes much of the information which was in the original exhibit which is now closed. The site includes information on the bio-mechanics of dinosaurs and the reasons behind some of their strange appearances.

156

Characterization of Gibberellin Receptor Mutants of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequence of Gid1 (a gene for a gibberellin (GA) receptor from rice) was used to identify a putative ortho- logue from barley. This was expressed in E. coli, and produced a protein that was able to bind GA in vitro with both struc- tural specificity and saturability. Its potential role in GA responses was investigated using barley mutants with

Peter M. Chandler; Carol A. Harding; Anthony R. Ashton; Mark D. Mulcair; Nicholas E. Dixon; Lewis N. Mander

157

Control of stripe rusts of wheat and barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rusts of wheat and barley were monitored throughout the Pacific Northwest (PNW) using trap plots and through field surveys during the 2006 growing season. Through collaborators in other states, stripe rusts of wheat and barley were monitored throughout the US. In 2006, wheat stripe rust occurred in...

158

Fusarium Species Pathogenic to Barley and Their Associated Mycotoxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salas, B., Steffenson, B. J., Casper, H. H., Tacke, B., Prom, L. K., Fetch, T. G., Jr., and Schwarz, P. B. 1999. Fusarium species pathogenic to barley and their associated mycotoxins. Plant Dis. 83:667-674. Epidemics of Fusarium head blight (FHB) occurred on barley in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota from 1993 to 1998. The Red River Valley region was

B. Salas; B. J. Steffenson; H. H. Casper; B. Tacke; L. K. Prom; T. G. Fetch; P. B. Schwarz

1999-01-01

159

A BARLEY CONSENSUS MAP INTEGRATING SSR, RFLP, AND AFLP MARKERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A consensus map of barley combining SSR, RFLP, and AFLP markers has been developed by combining five Australian barley linkage maps, `Galleon x Harruna Nijo', `Chebec x Harrington', `Clipper x Sahara', `Alexis x Sloop', and `Amaji Nijo x WI2585' using the software package JOINMAP 2.0. The new consen...

160

Progressive hull removal from barley using the Fitzpatrick comminuting mill  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of the study was to explore an alternative use of the Fitzpatrick Comminuting Machine: to use it to remove the hull from hulled barley while keeping the barley kernel intact. Traditionally, this mill is used to grind material, but we have recently discovered that it also has the abili...

161

7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for...201 Definition of barley. Grain that, before the removal of...consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of cultivated barley...more than 25 percent of other grains for which standards have...

2010-01-01

162

Pyrenophora teres: Profile of an Iincreasingly Damaging Barley Pathogen  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pyrenophora teres, causal agent of net blotch of barley exists in two forms designated P. teres f. teres and P. teres f. maculata which induce net form net blotch (NFNB) and spot form net blotch (SFNB), respectively. Genetic studies demonstrate that net blotch resistance in barley is present in bot...

163

Orthopedic surgery in ancient Egypt  

PubMed Central

Background — Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. The modern literature is, however, sometimes rather too enthusiastic regarding the procedures that are attributed an Egyptian origin. I briefly present and analyze the claims regarding orthopedic surgery in Egypt, what was actually done by the Egyptians, and what may have been incorrectly ascribed to them. Methods — I reviewed the original sources and also the modern literature regarding surgery in ancient Egypt, concentrating especially on orthopedic surgery. Results — As is well known, both literary sources and the archaeological/osteological material bear witness to treatment of various fractures. The Egyptian painting, often claimed to depict the reduction of a dislocated shoulder according to Kocher’s method, is, however, open to interpretation. Therapeutic amputations are never depicted or mentioned in the literary sources, while the specimens suggested to demonstrate such amputations are not convincing. Interpretation — The ancient Egyptians certainly treated fractures of various kinds, and with varying degrees of success. Concerning the reductions of dislocated joints and therapeutic amputations, there is no clear evidence for the existence of such procedures. It would, however, be surprising if dislocations were not treated, even though they have not left traces in the surviving sources. Concerning amputations, the general level of Egyptian surgery makes it unlikely that limb amputations were done, even if they may possibly have been performed under extraordinary circumstances. PMID:25140982

Blomstedt, Patric

2014-01-01

164

Dental surgery in ancient Egypt.  

PubMed

Many different surgical procedures have over the years been attributed to the ancient Egyptians. This is also true regarding the field of dental surgery. The existence of dentists in ancient Egypt is documented and several recipes exist concerning dental conditions. However, no indications of dental surgery are found in the medical papyri or in the visual arts. Regarding the osteological material/mummies, the possible indications of dental surgery are few and weak. There is not a single example of a clear tooth extraction, nor of a filling or of an artificial tooth. The suggested examples of evacuation of apical abscesses can be more readily explained as outflow sinuses. Regarding the suggested bridges, these are constituted of one find likely dating to the Old Kingdom, and one possibly, but perhaps more likely, dating to the Ptolemaic era. Both seem to be too weak to have served any possible practical purpose in a living patient, and the most likely explanation would be to consider them as a restoration performed during the mummification process. Thus, while a form of dentistry did certainly exist in ancient Egypt, there is today no evidence of dental surgery. PMID:24665522

Blomstedt, Patric

2013-01-01

165

proportions of hay were replaced by ground barley until the final diet contained  

E-print Network

proportions of hay were replaced by ground barley until the final diet contained 24% hay, 66- zyme activities of SAM were not modified between 0 and 55% barley in the diet, ex- cept a small decrease with the 20% barley diet. Beyond 55 % barley, all enzyme ac- tivities dropped, and particularly

Boyer, Edmond

166

Using barley genomics to develop Fusarium head blight resistant wheat and barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a major problem for wheat and barley growers. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins (e.g., deoxynivalenol or DON) that increases fungal virulence and reduces grain quality and yield. Previous work in Arabidopsis sh...

167

Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gene silencing vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) are used extensively in cereals to study gene function, but nearly all studies have been limited to genes expressed in leaves of barley and wheat. However since many important aspects of plant biology are based on root-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes

Andrzej Pacak; Katrin Geisler; Bodil Jørgensen; Maria Barciszewska-Pacak; Lena Nilsson; Tom Hamborg Nielsen; Elisabeth Johansen; Mette Grønlund; Iver Jakobsen; Merete Albrechtsen

2010-01-01

168

Genome duplications (polyploidy) / ancientGenome duplications (polyploidy) / ancient genome duplications (genome duplications (paleopolyploidypaleopolyploidy))  

E-print Network

Genome duplications (polyploidy) / ancientGenome duplications (polyploidy) / ancient genome duplications (genome duplications (paleopolyploidypaleopolyploidy)) Mechanism? e.g. a diploid cell undergoes;Paramecium genome duplicationsParamecium genome duplications #12;Comparison of two scaffolds originating from

Utrecht, Universiteit

169

Genome duplications (polyploidy) / ancientGenome duplications (polyploidy) / ancient genome duplications (genome duplications (paleopolyploidypaleopolyploidy))  

E-print Network

Genome duplications (polyploidy) / ancientGenome duplications (polyploidy) / ancient genome duplications (genome duplications (paleopolyploidypaleopolyploidy)) e.g. a diploid cell undergoes failed genome duplicationsParamecium genome duplications #12;Comparison of two scaffolds originating from a

Utrecht, Universiteit

170

Exploring Ancient World Cultures: An Introduction to Ancient World Cultures on the World-Wide Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exploring Ancient World Cultures, provided by University of Evansville, "is an introductory, on-line, college-level 'textbook' of ancient world cultures, constructed around a series of cultural pages consisting of: The Ancient Near East, Ancient India, Ancient Egypt, Ancient China, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Early Islam, and Medieval Europe." Each home page may contain essays by subject specialists, an anthology of readings from the period, a chronology, bibliographic resources, hypertext links to related sites, and computer graded quizzes. Interested users can also navigate the site by topic across cultures. A highlight of the site is the ability it gives the user to view the entire chronology, or to click on a year and culture and then another culture, in order to compare cross-cultural developments at the same time period. The site is a work in progress that promises maps and images in the near future.

1996-01-01

171

Systemic signalling in barley through action potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using apoplastic voltage- and ion selective microprobes, in barley leaves action potentials (APs) have been measured, which\\u000a propagate acropetally as well as basipetally from leaf to leaf or from root to leaf following the application of mild salt\\u000a stress (e.g. 30–50 mM KCl or NH4Cl) or amino acids (e.g. 1 mM glutamic acid or 5 mM GABA). Voltage changes were biphasic, followed an

Hubert H. Felle; Matthias R. Zimmermann

2007-01-01

172

Gender and Sexuality in Ancient Stoic Philosophy.  

E-print Network

??My doctoral dissertation explores gender and sexuality in Ancient Stoic philosophy. It investigates the different areas of Stoicism, cosmology, metaphysics, ethics, philosophical therapy, and social… (more)

Grahn, Malin

2013-01-01

173

Evidence of three new members of malignant catarrhal fever virus group in muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (Oryx gazella).  

PubMed

Six members of the malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) virus group of ruminant rhadinoviruses have been identified to date. Four of these viruses are clearly associated with clinical disease: alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) carried by wildebeest (Connochaetes spp.); ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), ubiquitous in domestic sheep; caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2), endemic in domestic goats; and the virus of unknown origin found causing classic MCF in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; MCFV-WTD). Using serology and polymerase chain reaction with (degenerate primers targeting a portion of the herpesviral DNA polymerase gene, evidence of three previously unrecognized rhadinoviruses in the MCF virus group was found in muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (South African oryx, Oryx gazella), respectively. Base on sequence alignment, the viral sequence in the muskox is most closely related to MCFV-WTD (81.5% sequence identity) and that in the Nubian ibex is closest to CpHV-2 (89.3% identity). The viral sequence in the gemsbok is most closely related to AlHV-1 (85.1% identity). No evidence of disease association with these viruses has been found. PMID:14733283

Li, Hong; Gailbreath, Katherine; Bender, Louis C; West, Keith; Keller, Janice; Crawford, Timothy B

2003-10-01

174

Evidence of three new members of malignant catarrhal fever virus group in Muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (Oryx gazella)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Six members of the malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) virus group of ruminant rhadinoviruses have been identified to date. Four of these viruses are clearly associated with clinical disease: alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) carried by wildebeest (Connochaetes spp.); ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), ubiquitous in domestic sheep; caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2), endemic in domestic goats; and the virus of unknown origin found causing classic MCF in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; MCFV-WTD). Using serology and polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers targeting a portion of the herpesviral DNA polymerase gene, evidence of three previously unrecognized rhadinoviruses in the MCF virus group was found in muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (South African oryx, Oryx gazella), respectively. Based on sequence alignment, the viral sequence in the muskox is most closely related to MCFV-WTD (81.5% sequence identity) and that in the Nubian ibex is closest to CpHV-2 (89.3% identity). The viral sequence in the gemsbok is most closely related to AlHV-1 (85.1% identity). No evidence of disease association with these viruses has been found. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2003.

Li, H.; Gailbreath, K.; Bender, L.C.; West, K.; Keller, J.; Crawford, T.B.

2003-01-01

175

Beginning the Modern Regime of Subduction Tectonics in Neoproterozoic time: Inferences from Ophiolites of the Arabian-Nubian Shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now clear that the motive force for plate tectonics is provided by the sinking of dense lithosphere in subduction zones. Correspondingly, the modern tectonic regime is more aptly called ``subduction tectonics" than plate tectonics, which only describes the way Earth's thermal boundary layer adjusts to subduction. The absence of subduction tectonics on Mars and Venus implies that special circumstances are required for subduction to occur on a silicate planet. This begs the question: When did Earth's oceanic lithosphere cool sufficiently for subduction to began? This must be inferred from indirect lines of evidence; the focus here is on the temporal distribution of ophiolites. Well-preserved ophiolites with ``supra-subduction zone" (SSZ) affinities are increasingly regarded as forming when subduction initiates as a result of lithospheric collapse (± a nudge to get it started), and the formation of ophiolitic lithosphere in evolving forearcs favors their emplacement and preservation. The question now is what percentage of ophiolites with ``supra-subduction zone" (SSZ) chemical signatures formed in forearcs during subduction initiation events? Most of the large, well-preserved ophiolites (e.g., Oman, Cyprus, California, Newfoundland) may have this origin. If so, the distribution in space and time of such ophiolites can be used to identify ``subduction initiation" events, which are important events in the evolution of plate tectonics. Such events first occurred at the end of the Archean (˜2.5Ga) and again in the Paleoproterozoic (˜1.8 Ga), but ophiolites become uncommon after this. Well-preserved ophiolites become abundant in Neoproterozoic time, at about 800±50 Ma. Ophiolites of this age are common and well-preserved in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) of Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Saudi Arabia. ANS ophiolites mostly contain spinels with high Cr#, indicating SSZ affinities. Limited trace element data on pillowed lavas supports this interpretation. Boninites are unusual melts of harzburgite that result from asthenospheric upwelling interactng with slab-derived water. This environment is only common during subduction initiation events. Boninites associated with ophiolites have been reported from Egypt, Ethiopia and Eritrea, but most of the geochemical studies of ANS ophiolitic basalts are based on studies that are a decade or more old. The abundance of ANS ophiolites implies an episode of subduction initiation occurred in Neoproterozoic time.

Stern, R.

2003-04-01

176

[Urinary schistosomiasis in ancient Egypt].  

PubMed

First described by Theodor Bilharz in 1851, Schistosoma haematobium, the worm responsible for urinary schistosomiasis, was a major health problem along the Nile Valley until the present days. Haematuria, the main symptom of this parasitic disease, was known and treated in Egyptian medical papyri since 1550 B.C. A relationship between haematuria and the god Seth was envisaged. Sir Marc Armand Ruffer, pioneer of paleopathology, found (1910) calcified Schistosoma eggs in Egyptian mummies of the xxth dynasty, establishing that bilharzia plagued ancient Egypt people. The ELISA method demonstrated the Schistosoma circulating anodic antigen in 45% of mummies studied. PMID:19617021

Ziskind, Bernard

2009-12-01

177

Ancient Chinese Astronomy - An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Documentary and archaeological evidence testifies the early origin and continuous development of ancient Chinese astronomy to meet both the ideological and practical needs of a society largely based on agriculture. There was a long period when the beginning of the year, month, and season was determined by direct observation of celestial phenomena, including their alignments with respect to the local skyline. As the need for more exact study arose, new instruments for more exact observation were invented and the system of calendrical astronomy became entirely mathematized.

Shi, Yunli

178

[Biological evolution and ancient DNA].  

PubMed

Twenty years after the advent of ancient DNA studies, this discipline seems to have reached the maturity formerly lacking to the fulfilment of its objectives. In its early development paleogenetics, as it is now acknowledged, had to cope with very limited data due to the technical limitations of molecular biology. It led to phylogenetic assumptions often limited in their scope and sometimes non-focused or even spurious results that cast the reluctance of the scientific community. This time seems now over and huge amounts of sequences have become available which overcome the former limitations and bridge the gap between paleogenetics, genomics and population biology. The recent studies over the charismatic woolly mammoth (independent sequencing of the whole mitochondrial genome and of millions of base pairs of the nuclear genome) exemplify the growing accuracy of ancient DNA studies thanks to new molecular approaches. From the earliest publications up to now, the number of mammoth nucleotides was multiplied by 100,000. Likewise, populational approaches of ice-age taxa provide new historical scenarios about the diversification and extinction of the Pleistocene megafauna on the one hand, and about the processes of domestication of animal and vegetal species by Man on the other. They also shed light on the differential structure of molecular diversity between short-term populational research (below 2 My) and long-term (over 2 My) phylogenetic approaches. All those results confirm the growing importance of paleogenetics among the evolutionary biology disciplines. PMID:16687118

Debruyne, Régis; Barriel, Véronique

2006-05-01

179

Recording the Changing Seasons in Ancient Times  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students will learn about Stonehenge and read some ancient myths and stories explaining the seasons. They will pretend to be historians and use websites to find information about how ancient cultures kept track of and celebrated the seasons. They will then compile their findings into posters or illustrated reports.

2007-12-12

180

Contemporary Greek Presentations of Ancient Greek Theatre.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Confronted with the problems imposed by the stage presentation and interpretation of ancient Greek theatre to contemporary audiences, scholars have developed four major approaches to the presentation of Greek drama over the past 70 years. The first approach, referred to as modificationist or realist, claims that communicating ancient Greek drama…

Metallinos, Nikos

181

Fossils: An Ancient Sea in Indiana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity from the Children's Museum of Indianapolis, Indiana, examine a piece of the ancient Borden Sea in what is now central Indiana. Explore the types of fossils found there and the clues they offer to ancient life on Earth.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-10-21

182

The ancient shorelines of Lanai, Hawaii, revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three ancient shorelines (the Mahana, Kaluakapo and Manele) have been described at elevations of 365, 190 and 170 m in the Kaluakapo Crater, Lanai, Hawaii [Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 237 (1978) 1]. Stearns' original observation of a fossil-bearing outcrop at 326 m was interpreted as an ancient shoreline. Subsequently, Moore and Moore (1984, 1988) [Science 226 (1984) 1312; Geol.

Barbara H. Keating; Charles E. Helsley

2002-01-01

183

Ancient Music Recovery for Digital Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present a description and current state of the “ROMA” (Reconhecimento Óptico de Música Antiga or Ancient Music Optical Recognition) Project that consists on building an application, for the recognition and restoration\\u000a specialised in ancient music manuscripts (from XVI to XVIII century). This project, beyond the inventory of the Biblioteca Geral da Universidade de

João Rogério Caldas Pinto; Pedro Vieira; Mário Ramalho; M. Mengucci; Pedro Pina; Fernando Muge

2000-01-01

184

Fall 2013 BOSTONIA ancient Greece is alive  

E-print Network

, philosophy, science, and litera- ture," Sapiro says. "In- deed, these influences remain profound today-to-face with an ancient Greek, whose people invented trigonometry and con- ducted autopsies and dissections? DeLillo writes, "What could you tell an ancient Greek that he couldn't say, `Big deal'?" AL taken up the cause

Spence, Harlan Ernest

185

press.princeton.edu Ancient World  

E-print Network

book, full of new insights into the myths and past of the ancient Greeks. earthshak- ingly important. The image illustrates how the depiction of Greek mythological creatures might have been influenced.princeton.edu 1 New Rethinking the Other in Antiquity Erich S. Gruen "Did ancient Greeks regard Persians and egyp

Landweber, Laura

186

The Origins and Ancient History of Wine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, The Origins and Ancient History of Wine explores the roots of viniculture and its effects on the ancient civilizations of the Near East and Egypt. The site also explains how archaeological chemistry has improved methods for investigating organic artifacts, providing new means for studying technological and biocultural development of early peoples.

1998-01-01

187

Genomic methylation patterns in archaeological barley show de-methylation as a time-dependent diagenetic process  

PubMed Central

Genomic methylation is variable under biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. In particular, viral infection is thought to significantly increase genomic methylation with particularly high activity around transposable elements. Here we present the genomic methylation profiles of grains of archaeological barley (Hordeum vulgare) from several strata from a site in southern Egypt, from the Napatan to the Islamic periods (800 BCE – 1812 CE). One sample tested positive for viral infection and exhibits an unusually high degree of genomic methylation compared to the rest. A decreasing trend in global methylation levels according to deposition date shows in-situ de-methylation of 5-methylcytosine, which can be described as a diagenetic process. This is most likely a deamination mediated de-methylation process and is expected to lead to 5?mC > T base modifications in addition to the C > U modifications due to cytosine deamination, so represents a time-dependent process of DNA diagenesis in ancient DNA. PMID:24993353

Smith, Oliver; Clapham, Alan J.; Rose, Pam; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Allaby, Robin G.

2014-01-01

188

Electronic Tools and Ancient Near Eastern Archives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of interesting digital projects have recently been sponsored by the National Science Foundation, and the Electronic Tools and Ancient Near Eastern Archives (ETANA) is one such project. With the support and primary documents of a number of important institutions, such as the Society of Biblical Literature and Case Western Reserve University, the mission of ETANA is to "develop and maintain a comprehensive Internet site for the student of the ancient Near East." While the project is still in development, the site's creators have added numerous helpful resources so far to the archive, including the ETANA Core Texts. In this section, visitors can view digitized texts related to scholarship on the ancient Near East, such as James Breasted's monumental work, "Ancient Records of Egypt", along with 171 other key documents. Visitors will also want to take a look at ABZU, which is another database collection that contains items relevant to the study of the ancient Near East that are available online.

189

Greening etiolated barley plants under clinorotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants are capable to react to change of a gravitational field and have sensitive and selective mechanisms, allowing to be guided in a field of gravitation of the Earth. It is known, that changes of gravitational conditions (hyper- or hypogravity) influence metabolic processes in alive organisms. One of the important problems of space biology is studying influence of microgravity on development of the photosynthetic apparatus. Damaging action of weightlessness on photosynthetic processes in plants was shown in a lot of space experiments. However, results of these experiments are inconsistent and do not allow to conclude how varied conditions of weight influence photosynthesis and in particular biosynthesis of chlorophyll. The aim of the communication is an analysis of clinorotation effects on the pigment accumulation and photochemical characteristics of the photosynthetic apparatus during its formation at greening of barley seedlings. Barley plants were grown on a slow horizontal clinostat (2 rpm) and in vertical control at room temperature for 7-8 days (6 days in the dark and 1 or 2 day on white light, ˜ 90 ? Mm-2s-1). Protochlorophyllide (Pchld) and carotenoid (? -carotene, lutein, neoxantin, violaxantin) content in dark grown plants, as well as photosynthetic pigment content after 24 and 48h of greening was determined by TLC. It was found that the content of ? -carotene, lutein and neoxantin in clinorotated etiolated plants was on 9-25% higher compared to control. Pchld and violaxantin level was less on 9-11% in clinorotated etiolated plants. The content of Chl a, b and carotenoids in control after 24h greening of barley seedlings exceeded on 10-20% their level in clinorotated variant. After 48h greening the total level of pigments doubled and the difference in the pigment content between control and clinorotated leaves averaged 0-12%, i.e. distinction in pigment content between control and clinorotated variants smoothed out in the greening process. No difference in Chl a/b ratio between variants was observed. A process of photosynthetic apparatus formation was controlled by chlorophyll fluorescence. It was shown that after 24 to 48 hour greening maximal quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) was increased in result of maturation of pigment apparatus. Proportion of open PSII (qP) was higher in control plants, especially when intensity of actinic light exceeded growth intensity. Chlorophyll fluorescence nonphotochemical quenching coefficient (qN) was higher in control plants in comparison with clinorotated ones on a different level of actinic light. Thus clinorotation influences formation of photosynthetic machinery through slowing down pigment biosynthesis and affecting photochemical characteristics.

Syvash, O. O.; Dovbysh, E. P.; Zolotareva, E. K.

190

Chemiosmotic Principles of Solute Transport in Barley Roots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise will demonstrate to students the fluxes of certain inorganic ions in the roots of barley plants. It will familiarize them with the chemiosmotic principles that are involved in ATP synthesis and give them an understanding of solute transport .

Anthony D. M. Glass (University of British Columbia;)

1984-06-11

191

Late Precambrian (740 Ma) charnockite, enderbite, and granite from Jebel Moya, Sudan: A link between the Mozambique Belt and the Arabian-Nubian Shield  

SciTech Connect

New Rb-Sr and whole rock and U-Pb zircon data are reported for deep-seated igneous rocks from Jebel Moya in east-central Sudan. This exposure is important because it may link the high-grade metamorphic and deep-seated igneous rocks of the Mozambique Belt with the greenschist-facies and ophiolitic assemblages of the Arabian-Nubian Shield, both of Pan-African (ca. 900-550 Ma) age. The rocks of Jebel Moya consist of pink granite, green charnockite, and dark enderbite. A twelve-point Rb-Sr whole rock isochron for all three lithologies yields an age of 730 {plus minus} 31 Ma and an initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr of 0.7031 {plus minus} 1. Nearly concordant zircon ages for granite, charnockite, and enderbite are 744 {plus minus} 2,742 {plus minus} 2, and 739 {plus minus} 2 Ma, respectively. Initial {epsilon}-Nd for these rocks are indistinguishable at 3.0 {plus minus} 0.4. The data suggest that the charnockite, enderbite, and granite are all part of a deep-seated igneous complex. The initial isotopic compositions of Sr and Nd indicate that Jebel Moya melts were derived from a mantle source that experienced significantly less time-integrated depletion of LRE and LIL elements than the source of Arabian-Nubian Shield melts. The ages for Jebel Moya deep-seated igneous rocks are in accord with data from elsewhere in the Mozambique Belt indicating that peak metamorphism occurred about 700-750 Ma. The northward extension of the Mozambique Belt to the Arabian-Nubian Shield defines a single east Pan-African orogen. The principal difference between the northern and southern sectors of this orogen may be the greater degree of thickening and subsequent erosion experienced in the south during the late Precambrian, perhaps a result of continental collision between East (Australia-India) and West Gondwanaland (S. America-Africa) about 750 Ma.

Stern, R.J. (Univ. of Texas, Richardson (United States)); Dawoud, A.S. (Univ. of Khartoum (Sudan))

1991-09-01

192

Biochemical mutant in barley renders chemical stabilization of beer superfluous  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recessive mutantant-13 isolated from Foma barley after a mutagen treatment with ethyl methanesulfonate is shown to be blocked in the formation\\u000a of anthocyanins, catechins and proanthocyanidins (=anthocyanogens). The mutant has been propagated, malted on a pilot scale\\u000a and the malt used for pilot brews of beer. Foma barley has been malted and brewed for comparison. Malt, wort and beer

D. von Wettstein; Barbro Jende-Strid; B. Ahrenst-Larsen; J. A. Sørensen

1977-01-01

193

Protein body formation in the developing barley endosperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructure of the pericarp, testa, aleurone and endosperm in a developing barley grain is presented in the form of\\u000a a reconstructed section cut tangential to the dorsal surface of the grain and extending half way to the center of the endosperm.\\u000a \\u000a Protein body formation in the endosperm is examined in Carlsberg II and Bomi barley and two mutants defective

Verena Cameron-Mills; Diter von Wettstein

1980-01-01

194

Fusariosis of spring barley cultivated in Lublin region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diseases of spring barley in 1986–1988 seasons have been examined on barley plantations in Lublin region. Observations in\\u000a eight weeks after sowing each year spring showed the occurrence of root rot and sheath rot in seedlings. As a result of mycological\\u000a examination of infected seedlings 34 species of fungi were isolated:Fusarium spp. amounted up to 23% of all isolates. Each

Barbara ?acicowa; Irena Kiecana

1991-01-01

195

Barley Cbf3 gene identification, expression pattern, and map location.  

PubMed

Although cold and drought adaptation in cereals and other plants involve the induction of a large number of genes, inheritance studies in Triticeae (wheat [Triticum aestivum], barley [Hordeum vulgare], and rye [Secale cereale]) have revealed only a few major loci for frost or drought tolerance that are consistent across multiple genetic backgrounds and environments. One might imagine that these loci could encode highly conserved regulatory factors that have global effects on gene expression; therefore, genes encoding central regulators identified in other plants might be orthologs of these Triticeae stress tolerance genes. The CBF/DREB1 regulators, identified originally in Arabidopsis as key components of cold and drought regulation, merit this consideration. We constructed barley cDNA libraries, screened these libraries and a barley bacterial artificial chromosome library using rice (Oryza sativa) and barley Cbf probes, found orthologs of Arabidopsis CBF/DREB1 genes, and examined the expression and genetic map location of the barley Cbf3 gene, HvCbf3. HvCbf3 was induced by a chilling treatment. HvCbf3 is located on barley chromosome 5H between markers WG364b and saflp58 on the barley cv Dicktoo x barley cv Morex genetic linkage map. This position is some 40 to 50 cM proximal to the winter hardiness quantitative trait locus that includes the Vrn-1H gene, but may coincide with the wheat 5A Rcg1 locus, which governs the threshold temperature at which cor genes are induced. From this, it remains possible that HvCbf3 is the basis of a minor quantitative trait locus in some genetic backgrounds, though that possibility remains to be thoroughly explored. PMID:12177491

Choi, Dong-Woog; Rodriguez, Edmundo M; Close, Timothy J

2002-08-01

196

Analysis of durable resistance to stem rust in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-1940's, barley cultivars grown in the northern Great Plains of the USA and Canada have been resistant to stem rust caused byPuccinia graminis f. sp.tritici. This durable resistance is largely conferred by a single gene,Rpg1, derived from a single plant selection of the cultivar Wisconsin 37 and an unimproved Swiss cultivar. At the seedling stage, barley genotypes withRpg1

Brian J. Steffenson

1992-01-01

197

Barley ?-amylase\\/subtilisin inhibitor. I. Isolation and characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protein inhibitor of endogenous ?-amylase 2 has been isolated from germinated barley by glycogen precipitation followed\\u000a by cation-exchange chromatography. Preliminary kinetic analysis showed a mixed type mechanism of inhibition with an apparent\\u000a Ki of 4×10?8M. The inhibitor formed well-defined complexes with barley malt ?-amylase 2 and co-purified with the ?-amylase by cycloheptaamylose\\u000a affinity chromatography of glycogen precipitates. The inhibitor

John Mundy; IB Svendsen; Jørn Hejgaard

1983-01-01

198

The Properties and Genetics of Barley Malt Starch Degrading Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The properties and quality of barley malt starch degrading enzymes are of primary importance to the efficiency and profitability\\u000a of brewing (beer and whiskey), and the bio-fuel (bio-ethanol) industries. The barley starch degrading enzymes hydrolyse starch\\u000a into fermentable sugars that yeast converts into alcohol. This process is key for the alcohol producing industries as the\\u000a starch substrate makes up approximately

D. E. Evans; C. Li; J. K. Eglinton

199

Sacred psychiatry in ancient Greece  

PubMed Central

From the ancient times, there are three basic approaches for the interpretation of the different psychic phenomena: the organic, the psychological, and the sacred approach. The sacred approach forms the primordial foundation for any psychopathological development, innate to the prelogical human mind. Until the second millennium B.C., the Great Mother ruled the Universe and shamans cured the different mental disorders. But, around 1500 B.C., the predominance of the Hellenic civilization over the Pelasgic brought great changes in the theological and psychopathological fields. The Hellenes eliminated the cult of the Great Mother and worshiped Dias, a male deity, the father of gods and humans. With the Father's help and divinatory powers, the warrior-hero made diagnoses and found the right therapies for mental illness; in this way, sacerdotal psychiatry was born. PMID:24725988

2014-01-01

200

Ancient legacy of cranial surgery.  

PubMed

Cranial injury, as it is known today, is not a new concern of modern medicine. On stepping on the earth, the man was in reality encountered with various types of injuries, particularly those of a cranial nature. Leading a life, whether wild or civilized, has always been associated with injuries for human race from the very beginning of birth. Therefore, managing cases of this type has gradually forced him to establish and fix strategies and approaches to handle the dilemma. This study is thus focused on tracing the first documented traumatized cranial cases ever reported, ranging from those trials attributed to our ancient predecessors to the identical examples in the present time. PMID:24396747

Ghannaee Arani, Mohammad; Fakharian, Esmaeil; Sarbandi, Fahimeh

2012-01-01

201

Ancient aqueous sedimentation on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viking orbiter images are presently used to calculate approximate volumes for the inflow valleys of the ancient cratered terrain of Mars; a sediment-transport model is then used to conservatively estimate the amount of water required for the removal of this volume of debris from the valleys. The results obtained for four basins with well-developed inflow networks indicate basin sediment thicknesses of the order of tens to hundreds of meters. The calculations further suggest that the quantity of water required to transport the sediment is greater than that which could be produced by a single discharge of the associated aquifer, unless the material of the Martian highlands was very fine-grained and noncohesive to depths of hundreds of meters.

Goldspiel, Jules M.; Squyres, Steven W.

1991-01-01

202

Ancient aqueous sedimentation on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viking orbiter images are presently used to calculate approximate volumes for the inflow valleys of the ancient cratered terrain of Mars; a sediment-transport model is then used to conservatively estimate the amount of water required for the removal of this volume of debris from the valleys. The results obtained for four basins with well-developed inflow networks indicate basin sediment thicknesses of the order of tens to hundreds of meters. The calculations further suggest that the quantity of water required to transport the sediment is greater than that which could be produced by a single discharge of the associated aquifer, unless the material of the Martian highlands was very fine-grained and noncohesive to depths of hundreds of meters.

Goldspiel, J. M.; Squyres, S. W.

1991-02-01

203

Archimedes: Accelerator Reveals Ancient Text  

SciTech Connect

Archimedes (287-212 BC), who is famous for shouting 'Eureka' (I found it) is considered one of the most brilliant thinkers of all times. The 10th-century parchment document known as the 'Archimedes Palimpsest' is the unique source for two of the great Greek's treatises. Some of the writings, hidden under gold forgeries, have recently been revealed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC. An intense x-ray beam produced in a particle accelerator causes the iron in original ink, which has been partly erased and covered, to send out a fluorescence glow. A detector records the signal and a digital image showing the ancient writings is produced. Please join us in this fascinating journey of a 1,000-year-old parchment from its origin in the Mediterranean city of Constantinople to a particle accelerator in Menlo Park.

Bergmann, Uwe

2004-02-24

204

[Notes on ancient Islamic medicine].  

PubMed

Arab medicine arose as a consequence of the assimilation and breeding of Hellenistic medicine, particularly of Galenic medicine. It reached its high point between the X and XII centuries and, after the XIII century, lost all creative capabilities. Nevertheless, it achieved the status of being an incentive for European medieval medicine. Some aspects of the medical teaching and publications of the most distinguished Moslem physicians, such as Rhazes (865-932), Avicenna (980-1037), and Averroës (1126-1198) are described. The main characteristics of Moslem medical institutions such as guilds, hospitals, and organizations of professional practice also are discussed. Although Arab medicine essentially constituted a transmission vehicle of master ideas of ancient medical thought, this medicine awoke the interest and initiative of the medieval physicians of western Europe, for example, those at the medical school of Salerno. PMID:12096398

de Micheli-Serra, Alfredo

2002-01-01

205

Evidence for the Snowball Earth hypothesis in the Arabian-Nubian Shield and the East African Orogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) and the East African Orogen (EAO) occurred between 870 Ma and the end of the Precambrian (˜542 Ma). ANS crustal growth encompassed a time of dramatic climatic change, articulated as the Snowball Earth hypothesis (SEH). SEH identifies tremendous paleoclimatic oscillations during Neoproterozoic time. Earth’s climate shifted wildly, from times when much of our planet’s surface was frozen to unusually warm episodes and back again. There is evidence for four principal icehouse episodes: ˜585 582 Ma (Gaskiers), ˜660 635 Ma (Marinoan), ˜680 715 Ma (Sturtian), and ˜735 770 Ma (Kaigas). Evidence consistent with the SEH has been found at many locations around the globe but is rarely reported from the ANS, in spite of the fact that this may be the largest tract of Neoproterozoic juvenile crust on the planet, and in spite of the fact that Huqf Group sediments in Oman, flanking the ANS, record evidence for Sturtian and Marinoan low-latitude glaciations. This review identifies the most important evidence preserved in sedimentary rocks elsewhere for SEH: diamictites, dropstones, cap carbonates, and banded iron formation (BIF). Expected manifestations of SEH are integrated into our understanding of ANS and EAO tectonic evolution. If Kaigas and Sturtian events were global, sedimentary evidence should be preserved in ANS sequences, because these occurred during an embryonic stage of ANS evolution, when crustal components (island arcs, back-arc basins, and sedimentary basins) were mostly below sea level. Previous SEH investigations have been largely reconnaissance in scope, but potentially diagnostic sedimentary units such as diamictites, marine carbonates with ?13C excursions and banded iron formations are reported from the ANS and are worthy of further investigation. Collision and uplift to form the EAO destroyed most marine sedimentary basins about 630 Ma ago, so evidence of Marinoan and Gaskiers glaciations will be more difficult to identify. Several post-accretionary Neoproterozoic sedimentary basins in Arabia may preserve sedimentary evidence but such evidence has not been documented yet. The Huqf Group of Oman contains sedimentary evidence for the Marinoan glaciation but no evidence that the Gaskiers glaciation was significant in this part of the world. Deep erosion at ˜600 Ma throughout the northern ANS and EAO may be related to Marinoan continental glaciation, which may have accomplished much of the cutting of the ANS peneplain, but final shaping of the peneplain took place over the next 60 million years. African geoscientists can contribute to our understanding of Neoproterozoic climate change through careful field studies, and the international geoscientific community interested in Neoproterozoic climate change should pay attention to evidence from the ANS. Future investigations should include knowledge of the SEH and its controversial aspects, in addition to the greater plate tectonic setting of the ANS.

Stern, R. J.; Avigad, D.; Miller, N. R.; Beyth, M.

2006-01-01

206

Tissue Metabolic Responses to Salt Stress in Wild and Cultivated Barley  

PubMed Central

A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying barley salt tolerance and exploitation of elite genetic resource are essential for utilizing wild barley germplasm in developing barley varieties with salt tolerance. In order to reveal the physiological and molecular difference in salt tolerance between Tibetan wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) and cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare), profiles of 82 key metabolites were studies in wild and cultivated barley in response to salinity. According to shoot dry biomass under salt stress, XZ16 is a fast growing and salt tolerant wild barley. The results of metabolite profiling analysis suggested osmotic adjustment was a basic mechanism, and polyols played important roles in developing salt tolerance only in roots, and high level of sugars and energy in roots and active photosynthesis in leaves were important for barley to develop salt tolerance. The metabolites involved in tolerance enhancement differed between roots and shoots, and also between genotypes. Tibetan wild barley, XZ16 had higher chlorophyll content and higher contents of compatible solutes than CM72, while the cultivated barley, CM72 probably enhanced its salt tolerance mainly through increasing glycolysis and energy consumption, when the plants were exposed to high salinity. The current research extends our understanding of the mechanisms involved in barley salt tolerance and provides possible utilization of Tibetan wild barley in developing barley cultivars with salt tolerance. PMID:23383190

Wu, Dezhi; Cai, Shengguan; Chen, Mingxian; Ye, Lingzhen; Chen, Zhonghua; Zhang, Haitao; Dai, Fei; Wu, Feibo; Zhang, Guoping

2013-01-01

207

7 CFR 407.10 - Area risk protection insurance for barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for barley. 407...CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AREA RISK PROTECTION INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Area risk protection insurance for barley. The...

2014-01-01

208

Cults of Artemis in Ancient Greece  

E-print Network

places of mainland Greece (at Sparta, Athens and Patras) upon which to focus my attention. In the aetiological legends of their foundations the Spartan and Athenian cults share a common origin (located by ancient writers in the distant Black Sea...

Rangos, Spyridon

1996-02-27

209

Vascular medicine and surgery in ancient Egypt.  

PubMed

Lauded alike by ancient civilizations and modern society, pharaonic Egyptian medicine remains an object of fascination today. This article discusses its surprisingly sophisticated understanding of a cardiovascular system. The term "cardiovascular system," however, carries assumptions and meanings to a modern audience, especially readers of this journal, which simply do not apply when considering ancient conceptions of the heart and vessels. For lack of better language, this article will use "cardiovascular" and similar terms while recognizing the anachronistic inaccuracy. After briefly summarizing ancient Egyptian medicine generally, it will review the anatomy, pathology, and treatment of the vasculature. The practice of mummification in ancient Egypt provides a unique opportunity for paleopathology, and the conclusion will explore evidence of arterial disease from a modern scientific perspective. PMID:24970660

Barr, Justin

2014-07-01

210

Ancient Magnetic Reversals: Clues to the Geodynamo.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the question posed by some that the earth's magnetic field may reverse. States that rocks magnetized by ancient fields may offer clues to the underlying reversal mechanism in the earth's core. (TW)

Hoffman, Kenneth A.

1988-01-01

211

Navigation in the ancient Eastern Mediterranean  

E-print Network

persistent inquiries and conntbuted to my collection of relevant sources. I am deeply indebted to my dear and most-learned friend, William Murray, who graciously proofread parts of Chapters II and V for a conference paper. Cemal Pulak supplied sage advice... other ancient Near-Eastern languages. V111 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page AI3STRACT. . DEDICATION. . ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. Vl NOMENCLATURE. V 1 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS. . LIST OF FIGURES. . LIST OF TABLES. . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION. vln X lv II THE ANCIENT...

Davis, Danny Lee

2012-06-07

212

Recognizing characters of ancient manuscripts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering printed Latin text, the main issues of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) systems are solved. However, for degraded handwritten document images, basic preprocessing steps such as binarization, gain poor results with state-of-the-art methods. In this paper ancient Slavonic manuscripts from the 11th century are investigated. In order to minimize the consequences of false character segmentation, a binarization-free approach based on local descriptors is proposed. Additionally local information allows the recognition of partially visible or washed out characters. The proposed algorithm consists of two steps: character classification and character localization. Initially Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features are extracted which are subsequently classified using Support Vector Machines (SVM). Afterwards, the interest points are clustered according to their spatial information. Thereby, characters are localized and finally recognized based on a weighted voting scheme of pre-classified local descriptors. Preliminary results show that the proposed system can handle highly degraded manuscript images with background clutter (e.g. stains, tears) and faded out characters.

Diem, Markus; Sablatnig, Robert

2010-02-01

213

Ancient and modern environmental DNA.  

PubMed

DNA obtained from environmental samples such as sediments, ice or water (environmental DNA, eDNA), represents an important source of information on past and present biodiversity. It has revealed an ancient forest in Greenland, extended by several thousand years the survival dates for mainland woolly mammoth in Alaska, and pushed back the dates for spruce survival in Scandinavian ice-free refugia during the last glaciation. More recently, eDNA was used to uncover the past 50 000 years of vegetation history in the Arctic, revealing massive vegetation turnover at the Pleistocene/Holocene transition, with implications for the extinction of megafauna. Furthermore, eDNA can reflect the biodiversity of extant flora and fauna, both qualitatively and quantitatively, allowing detection of rare species. As such, trace studies of plant and vertebrate DNA in the environment have revolutionized our knowledge of biogeography. However, the approach remains marred by biases related to DNA behaviour in environmental settings, incomplete reference databases and false positive results due to contamination. We provide a review of the field. PMID:25487334

Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Ermini, Luca; Sarkissian, Clio Der; Haile, James; Hellstrom, Micaela; Spens, Johan; Thomsen, Philip Francis; Bohmann, Kristine; Cappellini, Enrico; Schnell, Ida Bærholm; Wales, Nathan A; Carøe, Christian; Campos, Paula F; Schmidt, Astrid M Z; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Hansen, Anders J; Orlando, Ludovic; Willerslev, Eske

2015-01-19

214

Ancient wolf lineages in India.  

PubMed Central

All previously obtained wolf (Canis lupus) and dog (Canis familiaris) mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequences fall within an intertwined and shallow clade (the 'wolf-dog' clade). We sequenced mtDNA of recent and historical samples from 45 wolves from throughout lowland peninsular India and 23 wolves from the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau and compared these sequences with all available wolf and dog sequences. All 45 lowland Indian wolves have one of four closely related haplotypes that form a well-supported, divergent sister lineage to the wolf-dog clade. This unique lineage may have been independent for more than 400,000 years. Although seven Himalayan wolves from western and central Kashmir fall within the widespread wolf-dog clade, one from Ladakh in eastern Kashmir, nine from Himachal Pradesh, four from Nepal and two from Tibet form a very different basal clade. This lineage contains five related haplotypes that probably diverged from other canids more than 800,000 years ago, but we find no evidence of current barriers to admixture. Thus, the Indian subcontinent has three divergent, ancient and apparently parapatric mtDNA lineages within the morphologically delineated wolf. No haplotypes of either novel lineage are found within a sample of 37 Indian (or other) dogs. Thus, we find no evidence that these two taxa played a part in the domestication of canids. PMID:15101402

Sharma, Dinesh K; Maldonado, Jesus E; Jhala, Yadrendradev V; Fleischer, Robert C

2004-01-01

215

Ancient history of flatfish research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Owing to both their special appearance and behavior flatfish have attracted the special attention of people since ages. The first records of humans having been in touch with flatfish date back to the Stone Age about 15,000 years B.C. Detailed descriptions were already given in the classical antiquity and were taken up 1400 years later in the Renaissance by the first ichthyologists, encyclopédists, and also by practical men. This was more than 200 years before a number of common flatfish species were given their scientific names by Linnaeus in 1758. Besides morphology, remarkable and sometimes amusing naturalistic observations and figures are bequeathed. Ancient history of flatfish research is still a wide and open array. Examples are presented how the yield of information and interpretation from these times increases with interdisciplinary cooperation including archeologists, zoologists, ichthyologists, historians, art historians, fisheries and fishery biologist. The timeline of this contribution ends with the start of modern fishery research at the end of the 19th century in the course of the rapidly increasing exploitation of fish stocks.

Berghahn, Rüdiger; Bennema, Floris Pieter

2013-01-01

216

Ancient technology in contemporary surgery.  

PubMed

Archaeologists have shown that ancient man developed the ability to produce cutting blades of an extreme degree of sharpness from volcanic glass. The finest of these prismatic blades were produced in Mesoamerica about 2,500 years ago. The technique of production of these blades was rediscovered 12 years ago by Dr. Don Crabtree, who suggested possible uses for the blades in modern surgery. Blades produced by Dr. Crabtree have been used in experimental microsurgery with excellent results. Animal experiments have shown the tensile strength of obsidian produced wounds to be equal to or greater than that of wounds produced by steel scalpels after 14 days of healing. We have been able to demonstrate neither flaking of glass blades into the wounds nor any foreign body reaction in healed wounds. Skin incisions in human patients have likewise healed well without complications. The prismatic glass blade is infinitely sharper than a honed steel edge, and these blades can be produced in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. It is therefore suggested that this type of blade may find an appropriate use in special areas of modern surgery. PMID:7046256

Buck, B A

1982-03-01

217

Ancient Admixture in Human History  

PubMed Central

Population mixture is an important process in biology. We present a suite of methods for learning about population mixtures, implemented in a software package called ADMIXTOOLS, that support formal tests for whether mixture occurred and make it possible to infer proportions and dates of mixture. We also describe the development of a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array consisting of 629,433 sites with clearly documented ascertainment that was specifically designed for population genetic analyses and that we genotyped in 934 individuals from 53 diverse populations. To illustrate the methods, we give a number of examples that provide new insights about the history of human admixture. The most striking finding is a clear signal of admixture into northern Europe, with one ancestral population related to present-day Basques and Sardinians and the other related to present-day populations of northeast Asia and the Americas. This likely reflects a history of admixture between Neolithic migrants and the indigenous Mesolithic population of Europe, consistent with recent analyses of ancient bones from Sweden and the sequencing of the genome of the Tyrolean “Iceman.” PMID:22960212

Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Luo, Yontao; Mallick, Swapan; Rohland, Nadin; Zhan, Yiping; Genschoreck, Teri; Webster, Teresa; Reich, David

2012-01-01

218

Ancient wolf lineages in India.  

PubMed

All previously obtained wolf (Canis lupus) and dog (Canis familiaris) mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequences fall within an intertwined and shallow clade (the 'wolf-dog' clade). We sequenced mtDNA of recent and historical samples from 45 wolves from throughout lowland peninsular India and 23 wolves from the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau and compared these sequences with all available wolf and dog sequences. All 45 lowland Indian wolves have one of four closely related haplotypes that form a well-supported, divergent sister lineage to the wolf-dog clade. This unique lineage may have been independent for more than 400,000 years. Although seven Himalayan wolves from western and central Kashmir fall within the widespread wolf-dog clade, one from Ladakh in eastern Kashmir, nine from Himachal Pradesh, four from Nepal and two from Tibet form a very different basal clade. This lineage contains five related haplotypes that probably diverged from other canids more than 800,000 years ago, but we find no evidence of current barriers to admixture. Thus, the Indian subcontinent has three divergent, ancient and apparently parapatric mtDNA lineages within the morphologically delineated wolf. No haplotypes of either novel lineage are found within a sample of 37 Indian (or other) dogs. Thus, we find no evidence that these two taxa played a part in the domestication of canids. PMID:15101402

Sharma, Dinesh K; Maldonado, Jesus E; Jhala, Yadrendradev V; Fleischer, Robert C

2004-02-01

219

Transnasal excerebration surgery in ancient Egypt.  

PubMed

Ancient Egyptians were pioneers in many fields, including medicine and surgery. Our modern knowledge of anatomy, pathology, and surgical techniques stems from discoveries and observations made by Egyptian physicians and embalmers. In the realm of neurosurgery, ancient Egyptians were the first to elucidate cerebral and cranial anatomy, the first to describe evidence for the role of the spinal cord in the transmission of information from the brain to the extremities, and the first to invent surgical techniques such as trepanning and stitching. In addition, the transnasal approach to skull base and intracranial structures was first devised by Egyptian embalmers to excerebrate the cranial vault during mummification. In this historical vignette, the authors examine paleoradiological and other evidence from ancient Egyptian skulls and mummies of all periods, from the Old Kingdom to Greco-Roman Egypt, to shed light on the development of transnasal surgery in this ancient civilization. The authors confirm earlier observations concerning the laterality of this technique, suggesting that ancient Egyptian excerebration techniques penetrated the skull base mostly on the left side. They also suggest that the original technique used to access the skull base in ancient Egypt was a transethmoidal one, which later evolved to follow a transsphenoidal route similar to the one used today to gain access to pituitary lesions. PMID:22224784

Fanous, Andrew A; Couldwell, William T

2012-04-01

220

Expression Analysis of Ethylene Biosynthesis and Receptor Genes From Barley Embryo and Tissue Culture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ethylene affects regeneration of green plants from barley tissue culture. With the availability of the HarvEST barley database and barley GeneChip, genome-wide expression studies have focused on differential development between Morex and Golden Promise at various stages of plant growth. The data f...

221

Movement of bymoviruses and functions of RNA2-encoded proteins of barley yellow mosaic virus  

E-print Network

Movement of bymoviruses and functions of RNA2- encoded proteins of barley yellow mosaic virus P and experimental data that were obtained from plants infected with bymoviruses such as barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV), barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV), or wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) suggested

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

222

CARBOHYDRATE DIGESTION IN HUMANS FROM A B-GLUCAN-ENRICHED BARLEY IS REDUCED  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Obese and diabetic patients may benefit from foodstuffs that are poorly absorbed and/or digested at a slower rate. Prowashonupana (PW) is a cultivar of barley, whose grains are enriched in beta-glucans, and thus may be less digestible than standard barley (barley cultivar (BZ) 594.35.e). To test thi...

223

UTILISATION OF NAKED OATS AND BARLEY IN THE FEED OF BROILERS AND LAYING HENS  

E-print Network

UTILISATION OF NAKED OATS AND BARLEY IN THE FEED OF BROILERS AND LAYING HENS J. GUILLAUME C. CALET Three varieties of hulless cereals : two oats and one barley were compared to maize (trial i), to maize, wheat and normal or dehulled oats and barley (trial 2) as main components of isocaloric diets in growing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

224

Comparative genomic analysis and expression of the APETALA2-like genes from barley, wheat, and barley-wheat amphiploids  

PubMed Central

Background The APETALA2-like genes form a large multi-gene family of transcription factors which play an important role during the plant life cycle, being key regulators of many developmental processes. Many studies in Arabidopsis have revealed that the APETALA2 (AP2) gene is implicated in the establishment of floral meristem and floral organ identity as well as temporal and spatial regulation of flower homeotic gene expression. Results In this work, we have cloned and characterised the AP2-like gene from accessions of Hordeum chilense and Hordeum vulgare, wild and domesticated barley, respectively, and compared with other AP2 homoeologous genes, including the Q gene in wheat. The Hordeum AP2-like genes contain two plant-specific DNA binding motifs called AP2 domains, as does the Q gene of wheat. We confirm that the H. chilense AP2-like gene is located on chromosome 5Hch. Patterns of expression of the AP2-like genes were examined in floral organs and other tissues in barley, wheat and in tritordeum amphiploids (barley × wheat hybrids). In tritordeum amphiploids, the level of transcription of the barley AP2-like gene was lower than in its barley parental and the chromosome substitutions 1D/1Hch and 2D/2Hch were seen to modify AP2 gene expression levels. Conclusion The results are of interest in order to understand the role of the AP2-like gene in the spike morphology of barley and wheat, and to understand the regulation of this gene in the amphiploids obtained from barley-wheat crossing. This information may have application in cereal breeding programs to up- or down-regulate the expression of AP2-like genes in order to modify spike characteristics and to obtain free-threshing plants. PMID:19480686

Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Martín, Antonio; Barro, Francisco

2009-01-01

225

Identification of a Phytase Gene in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP) gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. Conclusions/Significance It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains. PMID:21533044

Dai, Fei; Qiu, Long; Ye, Lingzhen; Wu, Dezhi; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

2011-01-01

226

Palladium exposure of barley: uptake and effects.  

PubMed

Motor vehicles are now equipped with exhaust gas catalytic converters containing rare metals, such as palladium (Pd), platinum and rhodium, as catalytic active materials, leading to significantly increased emission of these metals. Compared with platinum and rhodium, low concentrations of Pd have been shown to have more serious effects on cells and organisms. In the present study, uptake of Pd by barley and behaviour of Pd nanoparticles in nutrient solutions used to grow plants were observed in order to develop a model of Pd exposure of plant systems. Pd determination was performed using a selective separation and pre-concentration procedure, which was further developed for this study, and coupled to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The results show that uptake of Pd depends on Pd particle diameter. Compared to other toxic metals, like mercury, Pd causes stress effects in leaves at lower concentrations in nutrient solutions. Furthermore, Pd particles are dissolved at different rates, depending on size, in the nutrient solution during plant growth. PMID:18304202

Battke, F; Leopold, K; Maier, M; Schmidhalter, U; Schuster, M

2008-03-01

227

Burns treatment in ancient times.  

PubMed

Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques. PMID:23888738

Pe?anac, Marija; Janji?, Zlata; Komarcevi?, Aleksandar; Paji?, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Miskovi?, Sanja Skeledzija

2013-01-01

228

History through Art and Architecture: Ancient Greek Architecture [and] Ancient Greek Sculpture. Teacher's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of two teaching manuals designed to accompany a commercially-available "multicultural, interdisciplinary video program," consisting of four still videotape programs (72 minutes, 226 frames), one teaching poster, and these two manuals. "Teacher's Manual: Ancient Greek Architecture" covers: "Ancient Greek Architecture 1,"…

Campbell, Ann

229

An Endogenous ?-Amylase Inhibitor in Barley Kernels 1  

PubMed Central

Barley (Hordeum distichum cv Klages) kernels were shown to contain a factor that converted malted barley ?-amylase II to the ?-amylase III form. After purification by ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel, and gel-filtration on Bio Gel P60, the factor gave a single band of protein on isoelectric focusing. The purified factor inhibited hydrolysis of soluble starch by ?-amylase II from malted barley and germinated wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Neepawa). However, ?-amylase I from these cereals was not affected. The inhibitor was not dialyzable and was retained by a PM 10 ultrafiltration membrane suggesting a molecular weight greater than 10,000 daltons. Heat treatment of the inhibitor at 70°C for 15 minutes at pH 5.5 and 8.0 resulted in considerable loss of inhibitory activity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16663089

Weselake, Randall J.; MacGregor, Alexander W.; Hill, Robert D.

1983-01-01

230

Factors underlying restricted crossover localization in barley meiosis.  

PubMed

Meiotic recombination results in the formation of cytological structures known as chiasmata at the sites of genetic crossovers (COs). The formation of at least one chiasma/CO between homologous chromosome pairs is essential for accurate chromosome segregation at the first meiotic division as well as for generating genetic variation. Although DNA double-strand breaks, which initiate recombination, are widely distributed along the chromosomes, this is not necessarily reflected in the chiasma distribution. In many species there is a tendency for chiasmata to be distributed in favored regions along the chromosomes, whereas in others, such as barley and some other grasses, chiasma localization is extremely pronounced. Localization of chiasma to the distal regions of barley chromosomes restricts the genetic variation available to breeders. Studies reviewed herein are beginning to provide an explanation for chiasma localization in barley. Moreover, they suggest a potential route to manipulating chiasma distribution that could be of value to plant breeders. PMID:25089719

Higgins, James D; Osman, Kim; Jones, Gareth H; Franklin, F Chris H

2014-11-23

231

RFLP analysis of highly polymorphic loci in barley.  

PubMed

Barley middle-repeat sequences were screened for their ability to discriminate 51 barley commercial varieties. Two hordein clones, a clone encoding a leaf-specific thionin, a desiccation induced cDNA clone, a clone coding for 5S-rRNA and one corresponding to ubiquitin genes were tested. A very sensitive RFLP technique including four cutter restriction enzymes and denaturing 4% polyacrylamide gels were used to evidence the highest level of polymorphism.The RFLP data were analyzed by computer. Some probe/enzyme combinations were able to differentiate a large number of the cultivars tested, whereas three probe/enzyme combinations succeeded in identifying all the varieties. The use of this RFLP method can thus be suggested for cultivar identification in barley. PMID:24196141

Pecchioni, N; Stanca, A M; Terzi, V; Cattivelli, L

1993-02-01

232

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) transformation using embryogenic pollen cultures.  

PubMed

The temperate cereal barley is grown as a source of food, feed, and malt. The development of a broad range of genetic resources and associated technologies in this species has helped to establish barley as the prime model for the other Triticeae cereals. The specific advantage of the transformation method presented here is that transgene homozygosity is attained in the same generation as the transgenic event occurred through the coupling of haploid technology with Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Pollen is haploid and, following transformation, can be induced to regenerate into haploid plantlets, which can subsequently subjected to colchicine treatment to obtain diploid, genetically fixed plants. The routine application of the method based on the winter-type barley cultivar 'Igri' over a period of over 10 years has achieved an average yield of about two transgenic plants per donor spike. The whole procedure from pollen isolation to non-segregating transgenic, mature grain takes less than 12 months. PMID:25300833

Otto, Ingrid; Müller, Andrea; Kumlehn, Jochen

2015-01-01

233

The effects of barley bran flour on colonic physiology  

E-print Network

THE EFFECTS OF BARLEY BRAN FLOUR ON COLONIC PHYSIOLOGY A Thesis JANET LOUISE MORIN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990... Major Subject: Nutrition THE EFFECTS OF BARLEY BRAN FLOUR ON COLONIC PHYSIOLOGY A Thesis by JANET LOUISE MORIN Approved as to style and content by: OM A l I M/ Joanne R. Lupton (Chair of Committee) Karen S. Kubena (Member) John D. Williams...

Morin, Janet Louise

2012-06-07

234

Peroxidase changes in barley induced by ionizing and thermal radiation.  

PubMed

Thermal and ionizing (gamma-ray) radiations were used to induce damage to barley seeds (IB65). The activity and isozyme banding patterns of peroxidase were compared. It was found that both physical agents caused damage to barley seeds (as observed from seedling height), but their action on peroxidase activity is not similar. Gamma-Rays enhance peroxidase activity. Thermal radiation, on the other hand, tends to reduce it but fails to alter the number of peroxidase isozymes. It is conjectured that the pathways of damage by thermal and ionizing radiations are not the same. PMID:8601749

Sah, N K; Pramanik, S; Raychaudhuri, S S

1996-01-01

235

Metabolism of Linoleic Acid by Barley Lipoxygenase and Hydroperoxide Isomerase 1  

PubMed Central

The oxidation of linoleic acid in incubation mixtures containing extracts of barley lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide isomerase, and the production of these enzymes in quiescent and germinated barley, were investigated. The ratio of 9-hydroperoxylinoleic acid to 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid was higher for incubation mixtures containing extracts of quiescent barley than for mixtures containing extracts of germinated barley; production of 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid from germinated barley exceeded that of quiescent barley. Hydroperoxy metabolites of linoleic acid were converted to 9-hydroxy-10-oxo-cis-12-octadecenoic acid, 13-hydroxy-10-oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid, and small amounts of 11-hydroxy-12,13-epoxy-cis-9-octadecenoic acid and 11-hydroxy-9,10-epoxy-cis-13-octadecenoic acid whether quiescent or germinated barley was the enzyme source; a fifth product, 13-hydroxy-12-oxo-cis-9-octadecenoic acid was formed only when germinated barley was the enzyme source. Lipoxygenase was readily extracted by buffer, but hydroperoxide isomerase was bound in a catalytically active state to the insoluble barley grist and was efficiently extracted only when Triton X-100 was included in the extraction buffer. Hydroperoxide isomerase was localized in the embryo of quiescent barley, but it was present in the embryo, acrospire, and in small but concentrated amounts in the rootlet of germinating barley. The levels of both lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide isomerase increased through the thirteenth day of germination. Images PMID:16662032

Lulai, Edward C.; Baker, Charles W.; Zimmerman, Don C.

1981-01-01

236

Genetic Diversity among Ancient Nordic Populations  

PubMed Central

Using established criteria for work with fossil DNA we have analysed mitochondrial DNA from 92 individuals from 18 locations in Denmark ranging in time from the Mesolithic to the Medieval Age. Unequivocal assignment of mtDNA haplotypes was possible for 56 of the ancient individuals; however, the success rate varied substantially between sites; the highest rates were obtained with untouched, freshly excavated material, whereas heavy handling, archeological preservation and storage for many years influenced the ability to obtain authentic endogenic DNA. While the nucleotide diversity at two locations was similar to that among extant Danes, the diversity at four sites was considerably higher. This supports previous observations for ancient Britons. The overall occurrence of haplogroups did not deviate from extant Scandinavians, however, haplogroup I was significantly more frequent among the ancient Danes (average 13%) than among extant Danes and Scandinavians (?2.5%) as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type “diluted” by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture) that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300–3,500 YBP) was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least for Southern Scandinavia, our findings do not support a possible replacement of a haplogroup U dominated hunter-gatherer population by a more haplogroup diverse Neolithic Culture. PMID:20689597

Melchior, Linea; Lynnerup, Niels; Siegismund, Hans R.; Kivisild, Toomas; Dissing, Jørgen

2010-01-01

237

The Ancient Martian Climate System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Today Mars is a cold, dry, desert planet. The atmosphere is thin and liquid water is not stable. But there is evidence that very early in its history it was warmer and wetter. Since Mariner 9 first detected fluvial features on its ancient terrains researchers have been trying to understand what climatic conditions could have permitted liquid water to flow on the surface. Though the evidence is compelling, the problem is not yet solved. The main issue is coping with the faint young sun. During the period when warmer conditions prevailed 3.5-3.8 Gy the sun's luminosity was approximately 25% less than it is today. How can we explain the presence of liquid water on the surface of Mars under such conditions? A similar problem exists for Earth, which would have frozen over under a faint sun even though the evidence suggests otherwise. Attempts to solve the "Faint Young Sun Paradox" rely on greenhouse warming from an atmosphere with a different mass and composition than we see today. This is true for both Mars and Earth. However, it is not a straightforward solution. Any greenhouse theory must (a) produce the warming and rainfall needed, (b) have a plausible source for the gases required, (c) be sustainable, and (d) explain how the atmosphere evolved to its present state. These are challenging requirements and judging from the literature they have yet to be met. In this talk I will review the large and growing body of work on the early Mars climate system. I will take a holistic approach that involves many disciplines since our goal is to present an integrated view that touches on each of the requirements listed in the preceding paragraph. I will begin with the observational evidence, which comes from the geology, mineralogy, and isotopic data. Each of the data sets presents a consistent picture of a warmer and wetter past with a thicker atmosphere. How much warmer and wetter and how much thicker is a matter of debate, but conditions then were certainly different than what they are today. I will then discuss the origin and evolution of the early atmosphere from accretion and core formation to the end of the late heavy bombardment, including estimates of the volatile inventory, outgassing history, and potential escape mechanisms. This sets the stage for a comprehensive look at the climate system of early Mars and the attempts to solve the faint young sun problem. I will review the basic physics involved and then step through the different ideas highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. I will then conclude with a summary and a discussion of potentially promising avenues of future research

Haberle, Robert M.

2014-01-01

238

USDA Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades 2-5: S-1  

E-print Network

USDA ­ Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades 2-5: S-1 Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow (do the motions while singing) Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Can you or I or anyone know How oats, peas, beans and barley grow

Mathis, Wayne N.

239

USDA Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades PreK-1: S-1  

E-print Network

USDA ­ Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades PreK-1: S-1 Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow (do the motions while singing) Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Can you or I or anyone know How oats, peas, beans and barley grow

Mathis, Wayne N.

240

Ancient Mesopotamia: This History, Our History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago houses a world-renowned collection of artifacts from ancient Syria, Israel, Persia, Anatolia, Egypt, Nubia, and Mesopotamia. On this website, visitors can explore some of these artifacts up close while also learning more about the history of this important region. Visitors should first visit "Life in Mesopotamia" to learn more about the cultural importance of the area. Then, they can click on the "Learning Collection", here, visitors can zoom-in on artifacts selected by teachers in order to learn what these artifacts can tell us about ancient Mesopotamia. After browsing the learning collection, visitors should not miss the "Interactives." Here they can view additional artifacts as well as view video clips on various topics including a virtual archaeological dig and how these ancient artifacts are cared for and preserved. In addition, teaching materials are also provided and K-12 teachers can earn graduate credit from an online course also offered here.

241

The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology are summarized and interpreted, along with records of some related matters, like groundwater exploration and utilization, karst springs, water circulation, water conservation and saline-land transformation, mine drainage, and environmental hydrogeology. The report focuses only on the earliest recorded notes, mostly up until the Han Dynasty (206 BC - AD 25). Besides the references cited, the discussion in this report is based mainly on archaeological material, the preserved written classic literature, and some assumptions and/or conclusions that have been handed down in legends to later ages. Although most material relates to ancient China, the lessons learned may have practical significance worldwide. Compared to other contemporary parts of the world, ancient China, without doubt, took the lead in the field of groundwater hydrology. The great achievements and experience of the Chinese ancestors should provide motivation and inspiration for hydrogeologists to carry out their scientific research and exploration passionately and actively.

Zhou, Yu; Zwahlen, François; Wang, Yanxin

2011-08-01

242

Images Of Women In Ancient Art  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Subtitled "Issues of Interpretation and Identity," this Website, designed for an honors course at Sweet Briar College, explores the archaeological remnants of female representation in ancient art. Written primarily by the professor, Chris Witcombe, the site boasts images and commentary on women in prehistory, Ancient Egypt, the Aegean, Palestine, Greece, and "Barbarian Women." A special section goes into detailed analysis of the famous, apparently obese, stone figure, "Venus of Willendorf," sometimes taken to be a fertility figure. The site also features a "Women in Prehistory" bibliography, discussion topics and questions, and a fairly extensive directory of related sites, indexed by the specific artifacts discussed on the Website. The writing style is informative and casual, making this site an enjoyable means to reexamine some "ancient" stereotypes.

243

Did the ancient egyptians discover Algol?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fabritius discovered the first variable star, Mira, in 1596. Holwarda determined the 11 months period of Mira in 1638. Montanari discovered the next variable star, Algol, in 1669. Its period, 2.867 days, was determined by Goodricke (178). Algol was associated with demon-like creatures, "Gorgon" in ancient Greek and "ghoul" in ancient Arab mythology. This indicates that its variability was discovered much before 1669 (Wilk 1996), but this mythological evidence is ambiguous (Davis 1975). For thousands of years, the Ancient Egyptian Scribes (AES) observed stars for timekeeping in a region, where there are nearly 300 clear nights a year. We discovered a significant periodicity of 2.850 days in their calendar for lucky and unlucky days dated to 1224 BC, "the Cairo Calendar". Several astrophysical and astronomical tests supported our conclusion that this was the period of Algol three millennia ago. The "ghoulish habits" of Algol could explain this 0.017 days period increase (Battersby 2012).

Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S.; Porceddu, S.; Lyytinen, J.; Kajatkari, P.; Markkanen, T.; Toivari-Viitala, J.

2013-02-01

244

Ancient schwannoma of the female pelvis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The objective of this article is to define the imaging characteristics of ancient schwannoma, which is a rare variant of benign\\u000a schwannoma with degenerative changes, arising in the female pelvis simulating ovarian tumors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Eleven surgically proven ancient schwannomas of the female pelvis were evaluated retrospectively on the basis of CT and MR\\u000a findings.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Typical intra-pelvic schwannoma was a neurologically asymptomatic

Mayumi Takeuchi; Kenji Matsuzaki; Hiromu Nishitani; Hisanori Uehara

2008-01-01

245

Registration of ‘Transit’ High ß-glucan Spring Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transit’ (Reg. No. ______PI ); a two-rowed spring high ß-glucan barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed and submitted for release in 2009 by the Agricultural Research Service-USDA, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Transit is a sel...

246

Inferring geographic origin of barley accessions using molecular markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) has 207 landrace barleys obtained from a nursery grown in the Ukraine in 1930 by N.I. Vavilov, many of which have multiple resistance (MR) to disease similar to accessions from Ethiopia. Vavilov collected germplasm ...

247

Identifying and characterizing barley genes that protect against trichothecene mycotoxins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease problem around the world. During infection, trichothecene mycotoxins are produced and act as virulence factors, resulting in reduced grain yield and quality. There are two types of tricho...

248

POPULATION AND MULTILOCUS ISOZYME STRUCTURES IN A BARLEY LANDRACE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Isozyme data was used to assess genetic diversity within and among a subdivided population of the salt-tolerant Batini barley landrace. Total population diversity and its components were estimated on the basis of 12 isozymes scored on 450 single plants representing seven subpopulations. Of the 36 al...

249

A rapid hydroponic screening for aluminium tolerance in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection and breeding of crops for aluminium (Al) tolerance is a useful approach to increase production on acid soils. This requires a rapid and reliable system to discriminate between Al-tolerant and Al-sensitive genotypes. A hydroponic system was developed to screen for Al tolerance in barley (t Hordeum vulgare L.) to overcome several problems encountered in previous screening methods. Four levels

Jian Feng Ma; Shao Jian Zheng; Xiao Feng Li; Kazuyoshi Takeda; Hideaki Matsumoto

1997-01-01

250

Cultural Practices for Producing Dryland Malt Barley: Sulfur Fertilizer Rate  

E-print Network

on the yield and quality of malting barley. This Fertilizer Fact reports only the effect of S fertilizer rate/acre of potassium (K) as KCl while planting. In addition, S as potassium thiosulfate or ammonium thiosulfate, 25 lb/acre of K as KCl, and S as potassium sulfate was applied while seeding in a band approximately

Lawrence, Rick L.

251

Incidence of Boron Toxicity in Spring Barley in Southwestern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and four crops of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Stirling) grown throughout southwestern Australia (WA) were surveyed for symptoms of boron (B) toxicity. Symptoms were identified as B toxicity and not spot-type net blotch, a foliar disease, caused by the fungus Pyrenohora teres f. spp. maculata that produces similar leaf symptoms. Symptoms of B toxicity occurred in

R. F. Brennan; K. G. Adcock

2004-01-01

252

Generative cell division and sperm cell formation in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shortly before and during division, the generative cell of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is located near the vegetative nucleus, in the peripheral layer of the highly vacuolated vegetative cell at the aperture pole. This position is also characteristic of the two resulting sperm cells. Conventional mitosis of the generative cell is followed by cytokinesis through cell plate formation. Just after

Maria Charzyfiska; Fabrizio Ciampolini; Mauro Cresti

1988-01-01

253

2012 North Dakota Transgenic Barley FHB Nursery Report  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 2012 North Dakota transgenic field trials consisted of 23 barley lines, tested in three misted and three non-misted replicates. Plots were sown on May 9, 2012 in hill plots with 10 seed per hill spaced at 30 cm, and all plots were inoculated using the grain spawn method at heading. Lines include...

254

COMPREHENSIVE MUTANT ANALYSIS OF THE BARLEY LTP6 GENE PROMOTER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Differential display was used to identify a transcript that was highly expressed in the pericarp epidermis but not in leaves of barley. The sequence and its promoter were cloned. The ORF encoded a polypeptide of 124 amino acids showing 87% identity with WBP1A, a wheat lipid transfer protein (LTP) ...

255

Barley germplasm resistant to both Russian wheat aphid and greenbug  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Both Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov), and greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) are potential pests on winter cereals grown in the southern plains. In outbreak years, both aphids can drastically reduce grain yield of susceptible cultivars. In barley, two single dominant genes, R...

256

CHARACTERIZATION OF BARLEY TISSUE-UBIQUITOUS B-AMYLASE2  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are two barley b-amylases genes, encoding important starch degrading enzymes. The endosperm-specific b-amylase (Bmy1), the more abundant isozyme in cereal seeds, has been thoroughly characterized. The lesser abundant b-amylase2 (Bmy2), has not been biochemically characterized from any cereal s...

257

Serine proteinases from barley malt may degrade beta-amylase  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley seed proteinases are critically important to seed germination and malting in that they generate amino acids from seed N reserves, supporting embryo growth during germination and yeast fermentation during brewing. However, relatively little is known regarding the endogenous protein substrate ...

258

THE VIRTUAL CROP-MODELLING SYSTEM 'VICA' SPECIFIED FOR BARLEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an improved version of the Virtual Canopy model VICA (Wernecke et al. 2000), which is developed to establish a generic functional-structural plant model (FSPM; cf. Vos et al. this volume) specified for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The model core is formulated as a set of hierarchically structured objects. These objects are related to morphological and functional 'plant

P. WERNECKE; J. MÜLLER; T. DORNBUSCH; A. WERNECKE; W. DIEPENBROCK

259

Conserved transcriptional regulatory programs underlying rice and barley germination  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed germination is accompanied with concerted transcriptional expression of many genes and biological pathways. Barley and rice germinations have been divergent from each other for 50-60 million years. However, there is little knowledge about the conservation and divergence in transcriptional regul...

260

FUSARIUM SPECIES SYNTHESIZE ALKALINE PROTEINASES IN INFESTED BARLEY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) that is infested with Fusarium head blight (FHB, `scab') is unsuitable for malting and brewing because it may contain mycotoxins and has unacceptable malting quality. Fungal proteinases are apparently involved in plant-microbe interactions, because they degrade the storag...

261

Biotic stresses in barley: Insect problems and solutions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter is an overview of the 5 major insects of barley, Russian wheat aphid, greenbug, bird cherry-oat aphid, Hessian fly, and cereal leaf beetle, with emphasis on research reported in the last 20 years. History, distribution, plant damage, yield losses, host plant resistance, biological...

262

BARLEY PROMOTERS FOR ORGANS SUSCEPTIBLE TO FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium Head Blight (FHB, or scab) is a fungal disease that causes significant seed yield and quality losses in barley and wheat worldwide. The fungus lowers yield and deposits toxic levels of mycotoxins. The pericarp and lemma/palea (hull) are readily infected by Fusarium graminearum. The restrict...

263

Chromium uptake and transport in barley seedlings ( Hordeum vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potassium chromate is more toxic to the growth of barley in solution culture than chromic chloride, though apparent uptake of the latter is much faster. Inhibitor studies indicate that CrO42- uptake is “active” whereas Cr3+ uptake is passive, demonstrating that the two forms do not share a common uptake mechanism. Studies on the form of Cr inside root cells show

R. A. Skeffington; P. R. Shewry; P. J. Peterson

1976-01-01

264

RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID RESISTANT BARLEY-CULTIVAR AND GERMPLASM RELEASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

RWA continues to be a devastating pest of barley in the high and dry areas of the Western U.S.A. Screening of the entire National Small Grains Collection in Aberdeen, Idaho, by the USDA-ARS in Stillwater, Oklahoma, identified 115 accessions with some level of resistance ranging from 2 to 6 on Webst...

265

Thematic mapper research in the Earth sciences: Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield of northeastern Sudan/southeastern Egypt using thematic mapper imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield using the Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery is progressing well and shows great promise. The TM tapes for the six LANDSAT 5 scenes covering the northern portion of the Red Sea hills were received, and preliminary maps and interpretations were made for most of the area. It is apparent that faulting and shearing associated with the major suture zones such as the Sol Hamed are clearly visible and that considerable detail can be seen. An entire quadrant of scene 173,45 was examined in detail using all seven bands, and every band combination was evaluated to best display the geology. A comparison was done with color ratio combinations and color combinations of the eigen vector bands to verify if band combinations of 7-red, 4-green, and 2-blue were indeed superior. There is no single optimum enhancement which provides the greatest detail for every image and no single combination of spectral bands for all cases, although bands 7, 4, and 2 do provide the best overall display. The color combination of the eigen vector bands proved useful in distinguishing fine detailed features.

1986-01-01

266

Thermodynamic modelling of Sol Hamed serpentinite, South Eastern Desert of Egypt: implication for two serpentinization stages in the Arabian-Nubian Shield ophiolites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arabian-Nubian Shield is the largest tract of juvenile continental crust of Neoproterozoic age on Earth. This crust was generated due to arc-arc collision associated with the closing of the Mozambique Ocean. Distribution of ophiolitic rocks marks fossils suture zones in the shield. Petrological, mineral chemistry, whole-rock chemistry and thermodynamic studies are carried out to examine the serpentinite component of Sol Hamed ophiolite in south Eastern Desert of Egypt. The protolith mantle was harzburgite and formed in subduction zone of forearc setting. Serpentinization occurred in two stages. The first by intrusion of high concentrated CO2 fluid released from carbonate-bearing sediments and altered basalt at the subduction zone. The serpentinization achieved during isobaric cooling path at pressure of 1 kbar and before the emplacement. The minimum temperature limit of the serpentinization is above the breakdown of lizardite to antigorite and brucite (170 °C). The fluid composition during the isobaric cooling path was buffered by the metamorphic reactions. The second stage of serpentinization took place through prograde path which led to formation of chrysotile after lizardite. The increasing in the pressure during this stage occurred as a result of extensive duplex array and thrusting of oceanic crust. The crust in the forearc basin was overloaded by 28 km of obducted and thrusted oceanic crust from both mid-oceanic and forearc basins, respectively.

Abu-Alam, T.; Hamdy, M.

2012-04-01

267

Analysis of groundwater flow in arid areas with limited hydrogeological data using the Grey Model: a case study of the Nubian Sandstone, Kharga Oasis, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Management of groundwater resources can be enhanced by using numerical models to improve development strategies. However, the lack of basic data often limits the implementation of these models. The Kharga Oasis in the western desert of Egypt is an arid area that mainly depends on groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS), for which the hydrogeological data needed for groundwater simulation are lacking, thereby introducing a problem for model calibration and validation. The Grey Model (GM) was adopted to analyze groundwater flow. This model combines a finite element method (FEM) with a linear regression model to try to obtain the best-fit piezometric-level trends compared to observations. The GM simulation results clearly show that the future water table in the northeastern part of the study area will face a severe drawdown compared with that in the southwestern part and that the hydraulic head difference between these parts will reach 140 m by 2060. Given the uncertainty and limitation of available data, the GM produced more realistic results compared with those obtained from a FEM alone. The GM could be applied to other cases with similar data limitations.

Mahmod, Wael Elham; Watanabe, Kunio; Zahr-Eldeen, Ashraf A.

2013-08-01

268

Application of the resistivity/gravity joint inversion technique for Nubian sandstone aquifer assessment on the area located at the central part of Sinai, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eleven deep vertical electrical soundings of AB/2 spacing ranging from 5 to 3000 m were carried out to investigate the upper part of the Nubian groundwater aquifer at the central part of Sinai, Egypt. These soundings have been jointly inverted using the SA algorithm with 160 gravity stations measured in the study area, assuming that density and resistivity contrast are represented by coincident interfaces. One hundred and sixty magnetic stations were executed at the same locations as gravity measurements to estimate the depth of basement rocks. The results of the joint interpretation indicated that the depth of the groundwater aquifer ranges from 500 to 800 m with resistivity values ranging from 6 to 562 ? m, suggesting that the fresh water is of good quality towards the northern part of the area. The top of the basement, which is mainly defined by gravity and magnetic data, lies at a depth ranging from 830 to 2788 m. The results also show that the aquifer configuration is controlled by different regional faults in the NNW-SSE direction.

Sultan, S. A.; Monteiro Santos, F. A.; Abd Alla, M. A.; Mekhemer, H. M.

2010-03-01

269

Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astronomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors regarded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Consequently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

Han, Yanben; Qiao, Qiyuan

2009-11-01

270

Production of a recombinant industrial protein using barley cell cultures.  

PubMed

The use of recombinant DNA-based protein production using genetically modified plants could provide a reproducible, consistent quality, safe, animal-component free, origin-traceable, and cost-effective source for industrial proteins required in large amounts (1000s of metric tons) and at low cost (below US$100/Kg). The aim of this work was to demonstrate the feasibility of using barley suspension cell culture to support timely testing of the genetic constructs and early product characterization to detect for example post-translational modifications within the industrial protein caused by the selected recombinant system. For this study the human Collagen I alpha 1 (CIa1) chain gene encoding the complete helical region of CIa1 optimized for monocot expression was fused to its N- and C-terminal telopeptide and to a bacteriophage T4 fibritin foldon peptide encoding sequences. The CIa1 accumulation was targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by fusing the CIa1 gene to an ER-directing signal peptide sequence and an ER retention signal HDEL. The construct containing the CIa1 gene was then introduced into immature barley half embryos or barley cells by particle bombardment. Transgenic barley cells resulting from these transformations were grown as suspension cultures in flasks and in a Wave bioreactor producing CIa1 similar to CIa1 purified from the yeast Pichia pastoris based on Western blotting, pepsin resistance, and mass spectroscopy analysis. The barley cell culture derived-CIa1 intracellular accumulation levels ranged from 2 to 9 microg/l illustrating the need for further process improvement in order to use this technology to supply material for product development activities. PMID:18406168

Ritala, A; Wahlström, E H; Holkeri, H; Hafren, A; Mäkeläinen, K; Baez, J; Mäkinen, K; Nuutila, A M

2008-06-01

271

A comparison of barley malt osmolyte concentrations and standard malt quality measurements as indicators of barley malt amylolytic enzyme activities  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt osmolyte concentrations (OC) would correlate better with malt a-amylase, ß-amylase, and limit dextrinase activities than do the standard malt quality measurements (malt extract [ME], diastatic power [DP], ASBC a-amylase activity, solub...

272

iTAG Barley: A 9-12 classroom module to explore gene expression and segregation using Oregon Wolfe Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Oregon Wolfe Barleys (OWBs) are a model resource for genetics research and instruction (http://barleyworld.org/oregonwolfe ; http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/OWB_gallery/ISS-OWB/index.htm). The population of 94 doubled haploid lines was developed from an F1 of a cross between dominant and reces...

273

Transgenic wheat and barley carrying a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase exhibit high levels of Fusarium head blight resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an old yet unsolved problem of cereal crops, mainly caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. During infection, trichothecenes produced by Fusarium increase fungal virulence and decrease grain quality. Previous work identified a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase ...

274

Myths and Gods of Ancient Mexico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help Americans of Mexican descent understand their rich cultural heritage, this portfolio contains 12 full-color drawings of the myths and gods of the Olmecs and Toltecs of Ancient Mexico. These original drawings are by Vincent P. Rascon. Information captions in English and Spanish are given for each drawing which is printed on heavy…

Rascon, Vincent P.

275

Carbon cycling at ancient methane–seeps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oldest known seep deposits with macroinvertebrate taxa are Devonian in age. Although more and more examples continue to be discovered, the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic record of methane–seeps is still fragmentary. The relationship of ancient carbonate deposits to methane seepage is established by (i) the geological setting and structural features, (ii) the occurrence of low diversity but high abundance faunal

J Peckmann; V Thiel

2004-01-01

276

Communication Arts in the Ancient World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for both classicists and nonclassicists, this volume explores the beginnings of literacy in ancient Greece and Rome and examines the effects of written communication on these cultures. The nine articles, written by classical scholars and educators in the field of communication, discuss the following: the superiority of the alphabet over…

Havelock, Eric A., Ed.; Hershbell, Jackson P., Ed.

277

Hypermedia and the study of ancient culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author discusses how hypermedia databases can facilitate the study of ancient cultures, where evidence ranges from literary texts to archaeological sites to individual objects, by allowing fluid movement among disparate data. The Perseus Project, which set out to collect as many kinds of data as possible from the earliest period of Greek civilization, is described. The Perseus Project is

G. Crane

1991-01-01

278

Modelling an Ancient Theatre Using Analytical Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY An ancient (4th century BC) Greek theatre of a very unusual style has been excavated near Makyneia, close to Patras, Greece. This theatre consists of 14 arcuate rows of seats and a linear wing for prominent citizens (proedria). Because of the instability of the foundations of the slabs composing the rows of seats the reconstruction of the geometry of

Panos A. PSIMOULIS; Stathis C. STIROS

279

The Ancient African Civilization of Kush.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that early African civilizations should be taught to ameliorate the problem of many African-American students first encountering related peoples in discussions of colonialism and slavery. Observes that the absence of materials for middle grade teachers reinforces this tendency. Promotes the authors' teaching packs on the ancient African…

Mollet, David; Mollet, Joyce

1998-01-01

280

Ancient Pyramids Help Students Learn Math Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an activity that allows students to use mathematics and critical-thinking skills to emulate processes used by the ancient Egyptians to prepare the site for the Pyramids of Giza. To accomplish this, they use three different methods. First, they create a square using only simple technological tools that were available to the…

Smith, Courtney D.; Stump, Amanda M.; Lazaros, Edward J.

2010-01-01

281

Can ancient forests help slow climate warming?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The trees in the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, which is in China's Guangdong Province are really old. As in 400 years old! Chinese scientists have now discovered that this ancient forest soaks up carbon from the atmosphere much faster than they expected.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS;)

2006-11-30

282

Tapping Ancient Roots: Plaited Paper Baskets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With ancient roots, basket making has been practiced since the earliest civilizations, and according to textile experts, probably pre-dates pottery. This is partly conjecture since few baskets remain. It is through evidence found in clay impressions that the earliest baskets reveal themselves. Basically, basketry construction is like flat weaving.…

Patrick, Jane

2011-01-01

283

Microscopical Examination of Ancient Silver Coins  

SciTech Connect

The microstructure of three silver coins of the IIId century B.C. from the Illyrian king Monounios, the ancient Greek city of Dyrrachion and of Korkyra was studied with XRF and microscopy. From this investigation it turned out that these coins have different chemical composition and microstructure that imply different minting method.

Pistofidis, N.; Vourlias, G.; Pavlidou, El.; Stergioudis, G.; Polychroniadis, E. K. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Dilo, T.; Prifti, I.; Bilani, O. [Department of Physics, FNSc, University of Tirana, Tirana (Albania); Civici, N. [Department of Spectroscopy, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Tirana (Albania); Stamati, F. [Laboratory of Restoration and Archaeometry, Institute of Popular Culture, Tirana (Albania); Gjongecaj, Sh. [Department of Antiquity, Institute of Archaeology, Tirana (Albania)

2007-04-23

284

NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES MEASURING ANCIENT INEQUALITY  

E-print Network

Is inequality largely the result of the Industrial Revolution? Or, were pre-industrial incomes and life? Is inequality largely a byproduct of the Industrial Revolution? Or, were pre- industrial incomes and life answered. This paper infers inequality for 14 ancient, pre-industrial societies using what are known

Hickman, Mark

285

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL INDIA  

E-print Network

-west India (now in Pakistan). With the political influence of Hindus, Persians, Greeks and Kusans, TaxilaEDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL INDIA Indian education system can be traced to Vedic peri- od served as the capital of a number of dominions and through exposure of many cultural influences, acquired

Srinivasan, N.

286

Planetary science: Traces of ancient lunar water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of water in lunar volcanic rocks has been attributed to delivery after the Moon formed. Water detected in rocks from the ancient lunar highlands suggests that the Moon already contained water early in its history, and poses more challenges for the giant impact theory of Moon formation.

Hauri, Erik H.

2013-03-01

287

Women of Ancient Greece: Participating in Sport?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on evidence obtained from Greek literature and artifacts, this paper examines the extent to which women in ancient Greece participated in physical activity, sports, and games. Homer's "Odyssey" describes women playing ball and driving chariots; vases dating back to 700-675 B.C. portray women driving light chariots in a procession; a girl…

Mills, Brett D.

288

86 Ancient Mediterranean Civilizations 87 Core Courses  

E-print Network

Muhammad to Muhammad Ali HIST 283 Women in the Islamic World HIST 306 Politics and Society in Ancient Perspectives on Greek Tragedy CLAS 225 Women in Greece and Rome CLAS 315 Socrates: The Man and His Philosophy and Rome, Judaism, early Christianity, and early Islam, as well as their antecedents, explores

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

289

Where Virtual Reality Meets Ancient History  

E-print Network

Where Virtual Reality Meets Ancient History Beginning in June, the San Diego Museum of Natural, including a virtual model developed by UCLA scholars that reveals the community that produced some Museum is a virtual recreation designed by UCLA scholars of Qumran, the community believed

Grether, Gregory

290

Discovering the Ancient Maya From Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Peten region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use o f limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

Sever, T. L.

2007-01-01

291

Discovering the Ancient Maya from Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Pet6n region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use of limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

Sever, T. L.

2008-01-01

292

An ancient suicide ritual and its repercussions.  

E-print Network

and Seppuku An Ancient suicide ritual and its repercussions By Akemi Umino What image comes up in your mind. For example, Seppuku is a ceremonial death for the Samurai. They slit their own belly whenever they took the adults. While a person com- miting Seppuku usually thought little of death at the time, there are still

Qiu, Weigang

293

Ancient Lake Cahuilla High Water Mark  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Lake Cahuilla was an ancient freshwater lake in the Salton Trough of southern California. It covered parts of the Coachella, Imperial and Mexicali valleys and was formed when the Colorado River overflowed its banks or was diverted northwest by its own sediments, which temporarily blocked the flo...

294

Consuming Bodies: Cultural Fantasies of Ancient Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the legacy of ancient Egypt in popular culture, from the 19th century onwards - through the theme of consumption. A range of media is covered including literature, film and performance. I argue that Egypt has been a constant mirror for contemporary culture in terms of the body, sexuality and the Orient. In the West, Egyptian bodies have

LYNN MESKELL

1998-01-01

295

[Ancient tattooing from today's point of view].  

PubMed

Both literary and arachaeological evidence indicates that, up to now, ancient tattoos can be traced with certainty in painting only among Thracians. A comparison with modern tattoos reveals differences of motivation and motifs, whereas localization, technique, and removal show similarities. The illustrations demonstrate some tattoos typical for Thracians on Greek vases. PMID:7021475

Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, K

1981-06-01

296

Real Time Animation and Illumination in Ancient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article discusses and details the methodological approaches and the reconstruction strategies that have been employed to realize the 3D real-time virtual simulations of the populated ancient sites of Aspendos and Pompeii, respectively visualized using a virtual and an augmented reality setup. More specifically, the two case studies to which we refer concern the VR restitution of the Roman

Roman Sites

297

Ancient DNA analysis of dental calculus.  

PubMed

Dental calculus (calcified tartar or plaque) is today widespread on modern human teeth around the world. A combination of soft starchy foods, changing acidity of the oral environment, genetic pre-disposition, and the absence of dental hygiene all lead to the build-up of microorganisms and food debris on the tooth crown, which eventually calcifies through a complex process of mineralisation. Millions of oral microbes are trapped and preserved within this mineralised matrix, including pathogens associated with the oral cavity and airways, masticated food debris, and other types of extraneous particles that enter the mouth. As a result, archaeologists and anthropologists are increasingly using ancient human dental calculus to explore broad aspects of past human diet and health. Most recently, high-throughput DNA sequencing of ancient dental calculus has provided valuable insights into the evolution of the oral microbiome and shed new light on the impacts of some of the major biocultural transitions on human health throughout history and prehistory. Here, we provide a brief historical overview of archaeological dental calculus research, and discuss the current approaches to ancient DNA sampling and sequencing. Novel applications of ancient DNA from dental calculus are discussed, highlighting the considerable scope of this new research field for evolutionary biology and modern medicine. PMID:25476244

Weyrich, Laura S; Dobney, Keith; Cooper, Alan

2014-12-01

298

Microscopical Examination of Ancient Silver Coins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructure of three silver coins of the IIId century B.C. from the Illyrian king Monounios, the ancient Greek city of Dyrrachion and of Korkyra was studied with XRF and microscopy. From this investigation it turned out that these coins have different chemical composition and microstructure that imply different minting method.

Pistofidis, N.; Vourlias, G.; Pavlidou, El.; Dilo, T.; Civici, N.; Stamati, F.; Gjongecaj, Sh.; Prifti, I.; Bilani, O.; Stergioudis, G.; Polychroniadis, E. K.

2007-04-01

299

A Swarm of Ancient Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We know of about 150 of the rich collections of old stars called globular clusters that orbit our galaxy, the Milky Way. This sharp new image of Messier 107, captured by the Wide Field Imager on the 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, displays the structure of one such globular cluster in exquisite detail. Studying these stellar swarms has revealed much about the history of our galaxy and how stars evolve. The globular cluster Messier 107, also known as NGC 6171, is a compact and ancient family of stars that lies about 21 000 light-years away. Messier 107 is a bustling metropolis: thousands of stars in globular clusters like this one are concentrated into a space that is only about twenty times the distance between our Sun and its nearest stellar neighbour, Alpha Centauri, across. A significant number of these stars have already evolved into red giants, one of the last stages of a star's life, and have a yellowish colour in this image. Globular clusters are among the oldest objects in the Universe. And since the stars within a globular cluster formed from the same cloud of interstellar matter at roughly the same time - typically over 10 billion years ago - they are all low-mass stars, as lightweights burn their hydrogen fuel supply much more slowly than stellar behemoths. Globular clusters formed during the earliest stages in the formation of their host galaxies and therefore studying these objects can give significant insights into how galaxies, and their component stars, evolve. Messier 107 has undergone intensive observations, being one of the 160 stellar fields that was selected for the Pre-FLAMES Survey - a preliminary survey conducted between 1999 and 2002 using the 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, to find suitable stars for follow-up observations with the VLT's spectroscopic instrument FLAMES [1]. Using FLAMES, it is possible to observe up to 130 targets at the same time, making it particularly well suited to the spectroscopic study of densely populated stellar fields, such as globular clusters. M107 is not visible to the naked eye, but, with an apparent magnitude of about eight, it can easily be observed from a dark site with binoculars or a small telescope. The globular cluster is about 13 arcminutes across, which corresponds to about 80 light-years at its distance, and it is found in the constellation of Ophiuchus, north of the pincers of Scorpius. Roughly half of the Milky Way's known globular clusters are actually found in the constellations of Sagittarius, Scorpius and Ophiuchus, in the general direction of the centre of the Milky Way. This is because they are all in elongated orbits around the central region and are on average most likely to be seen in this direction. Messier 107 was discovered by Pierre Méchain in April 1782 and it was added to the list of seven Additional Messier Objects that were originally not included in the final version of Messier's catalogue, which was published the previous year. On 12 May 1793, it was independently rediscovered by William Herschel, who was able to resolve this globular cluster into stars for the first time. But it was not until 1947 that this globular cluster finally took its place in Messier's catalogue as M107, making it the most recent star cluster to be added to this famous list. This image is composed from exposures taken through the blue, green and near-infrared filters by the Wide Field Camera (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. Notes [1] Fibre Large Array Multi-Element Spectrograph More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based obs

2010-12-01

300

Haplotype structure at seven barley genes: relevance to gene pool bottlenecks, phylogeny of ear type and site of barley domestication.  

PubMed

Archaeological remains indicate that the origin of western agriculture occurred in a brief period about 10,500 years ago in a region of the Middle East known as the Fertile Crescent, where the wild progenitors of several key agricultural cereal species are endemic. Domestication entailed the appearance of agronomic traits such as seed size and threshability. For a representative sample of 20 domesticated barley (Hordeum vulgare) lines, including 13 two-rowed and 7 six-rowed varieties, we determined the haplotypes at seven loci-Adh2, Adh3, Amy1, Dhn9, GAPDH, PEPC and WAXY encompassing 5,616 bases per line-and compared them to the haplotypes at the same loci for 25 wild forms (Hordeum spontaneum) collected within and outside the Fertile Crescent. In comparisons of wild versus domesticated barley, the number of haplotypes (70 vs. 17), average nucleotide diversity, pi, (0.0077 vs. 0.0028), and Watterson's theta at silent sites (0.0104 vs. 0.0028) was reduced in domesticated lines. Two loci, Amy1 and PEPC, were monomorphic in domesticated lines; Amy1 and GAPDH produced significant values of Tajima's D. At GAPDH, pi was slightly higher in domesticated than wild forms, due to divergent high-frequency haplotypes; for the remaining six loci, 87% of nucleotide diversity has been lost in the domesticated forms. Bottlenecks acting on neutrally evolving loci either during the domestication process, during subsequent breeding, or both, are sufficient to account for reduced diversity and the results of Tajima's test, without the need to evoke selection at these loci. Phylogenetic networks data uncover distinct wild and domesticated barley genotypes and suggest that barley may have been domesticated in the Jordan valley. Because, based on AFLP data, the domesticated Turkish cultivars had a genetic basis as large as that present in large germplasm collections, all comparisons provided in this paper are of general value more than being restricted to the Turkish barley germplasm. PMID:16758198

Kilian, Benjamin; Ozkan, Hakan; Kohl, Jochen; von Haeseler, Arndt; Barale, Francesca; Deusch, Oliver; Brandolini, Andrea; Yucel, Cemal; Martin, William; Salamini, Francesco

2006-09-01

301

Reconsidering domestication of legumes versus cereals in the ancient near east.  

PubMed

In this paper, we discuss, from both biological and cultural perspectives, the ancient human-plant liaison that gave rise to Near Eastern agriculture. We explain the biological aspects of Near Eastern plant domestication by a comparative analysis of legume vs. cereal crop evolution. This comparison is illustrated by the natural distribution, ecological affinity, physiology, population structure, floral biology, growth habit, plant stature, seed dispersal mode, and seed dormancy of both wild and domesticated plants of these crop groups. We discuss the differences between Near Eastern legumes and cereals with regard to each of the above aspects, and we highlight the relevance of these differences with regard to Neolithic decision-making, adoption for farming, and subsequent evolution under domestication. We reached the following conclusions: (1) Near Eastern legumes underwent different evolutionary trajectories under domestication as compared with their companion cereals, despite apparent similarities between selection under domestication of both crop groups. (2) Careful comparison of pea, lentil, and chickpea shows that each of the Near Eastern legume crops has a unique evolutionary history in its own right, and this also holds true for the cereal crops. (3) The evolutionary history of each of the Near Eastern crops, prior to as well as after domestication, is well-reflected in its adaptation profile in present-day cropping systems, which determines each crop's relative economic importance in different world regions (e.g., chickpea is a major pulse in the Indian subcontinent, and pea is a more important crop in temperate regions, while barley has the widest adaptation, extending from high-latitude temperate regions to semi-arid Mediterranean systems). (4) Ancient choice-making as reflected in the founder crops repertoire, involved nutritional considerations that may have outweighed grain yield per area and/or time unit criteria. PMID:19326787

Abbo, Shahal; Saranga, Yehoshua; Peleg, Zvi; Kerem, Zohar; Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Gopher, Avi

2009-03-01

302

What can ancient mummies teach us about atherosclerosis?  

PubMed

Ancient mummies have captivated a wide variety of audiences for centuries. In order to better understand the evolution and causative features of atherosclerosis, the Horus group is applying modern scientific methods to study ancient mummies. We have used CT scanning to detect calcification in arteries as an indication of the presence of atherosclerosis, and are correlating these results with cultural and lifestyle features of various populations of ancient people as represented by their ancient mummified remains. We are also pursuing related studies of ancient DNA to define genotypes associated with atherosclerotic phenotypes. PMID:25106086

Wann, Samuel; Thomas, Gregory S

2014-10-01

303

Ribosomal DNA Spacer-Length Polymorphisms in Barley: Mendelian Inheritance, Chromosomal Location, and Population Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spacer-length (sl) variation in ribosomal RNA gene clusters (rDNA) was surveyed in 502 individual barley plants, including samples from 50 accessions of cultivated barley, 25 accessions of its wild ancestor, and five generations of composite cross II (CCII), an experimental population of barley. In total, 17 rDNA sl phenotypes, made up of 15 different rDNA sl variants, were observed. The

M. A. Saghai-Maroof; K. M. Soliman; R. A. Jorgensen; R. W. Allard

1984-01-01

304

Retention and growth performance of chicks given low-phytate conventional or hull-less barleys  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four low-phytate, hulled lines, M2 422 (now referred to as barley lpa1-1), M2 635 (now referred to as barley lpa3-1), M2 955 and M2 1070 (now referred to as barley lpa2-1), and a "hulless" version of M2 422, were evaluated in a chick feeding experiment. The diets were provided in meal form, with the...

305

Identification and phenotypic description of new wheat: six-rowed winter barley disomic additions.  

PubMed

To increase the allelic variation in wheat-barley introgressions, new wheat-barley disomic addition lines were developed containing the 2H, 3H, 4H, 6H, and 7H chromosomes of the six-rowed Ukrainian winter barley 'Manas'. This cultivar is agronomically much better adapted to Central European environmental conditions than the two-rowed spring barley 'Betzes' previously used. A single 'Asakaze' × 'Manas' wheat × barley hybrid plant was multiplied in vitro and one backcross plant was obtained after pollinating 354 regenerant hybrids with wheat. The addition lines were selected from the self-fertilized seeds of the 16 BC(2) plants using genomic in situ hybridization. The addition lines were identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization using repetitive DNA probes (HvT01, GAA, pTa71, and Afa family), followed by confirmation with barley SSR markers. The addition lines were grown in the phytotron and in the field, and morphological parameters (plant height, fertility, tillering, and spike characteristics) were measured. The production of the disomic additions will make it possible to incorporate the DNA of six-rowed winter barley into the wheat genome. Addition lines are useful for genetic studies on the traits of six-rowed winter barley and for producing new barley dissection lines. PMID:22439846

Molnár-Láng, Márta; Kruppa, Klaudia; Cseh, András; Bucsi, Julianna; Linc, Gabriella

2012-04-01

306

Formation of juvenile continental crust in the Arabian-Nubian shield: evidence from granitic rocks of the Nakasib suture, NE Sudan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major and trace element data, U-Pb zircon ages, and initial isotopic compositions of Sr, Nd, and Pb are reported for ten granitic and one rhyolitic rock sample from the neo-Proterozoic Nakasib suture in NE Sudan. Chemical data indicate that the samples are medium- to high-K, "I-type" granitic rocks that mostly plot as "volcanic arc granites" on discriminant diagrams. Geochronologic data indicate that rifting occurred 790+/-2Ma and constrain the time of deformation associated with suturing of the Gebeit and Haya terranes to have ended by approximately 740Ma. Isotopic data show a limited range, with initial 87Sr/86Sr=0.7021 to 0.7032 (mean=0.7025), ?Nd(t) =+5.5 to +7.0 (mean=+6.4), and 206Pb/204Pb = 17.50-17.62. Neodymium model ages (TDM; 0.69-0.85Ga mean = 0.76Ga) are indistinguishable from crystallization ages (0.79-0.71Ga mean=0.76Ga), and the isotopic data considered together indicate derivation from homogeneously depleted mantle. The geochronologic data indicate that the terrane accretion to form the Arabian-Nubian shield began just prior to 750Ma. The isotopic data reinforces models for the generation of large volumes of juvenile continental crust during neo-Proterozoic time, probably at intra-oceanic convergent margins. The data also indicate that crust formation was associated with two cycles of incompatible element enrichment in granitic rocks, with an earlier cycle beginning approximately 870Ma and culminating approximately 740Ma, and the second cycle beginning after pervasive high-degree melts - possibly hot-spot related - were emplaced approximately 690-720Ma.

Stern, Robert J.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.

307

The Neoproterozoic layered mafic-ultramafic intrusion of Gabal Imleih, south Sinai, Egypt: Implications of post-collisional magmatism in the north Arabian-Nubian Shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Imleih layered mafic-ultramafic body is a Neoproterozoic intrusion covering about 45 km 2 in southern Sinai. The field relations as well as the fine grained chilled margins indicate that the layered intrusion is younger than the surrounding calc-alkaline syn-tectonic granodiorite and Iqna Shar ,a volcanics and older than the post-tectonic Iqna granite. There is a general consensus that there are no ophiolitic rocks younger than the syn-tectonic granitoids in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), which supports the non-ophiolitic origin of the Imleih layered intrusion. The studied layered intrusion is tilted to the north, with lower layers (peridotite and pyroxenite) exposed to the south and upper layers (cumulus gabbro and anorthosite) exposed to the north. Imleih rocks are cumulates, dominated by cumulus gabbro with subsequent amounts of peridotite, pyroxenite and anorthosite. Pegmatitic gabbro is locally observed. These rocks are unmetamorphosed. In the peridotite, the Fo content of olivine ranges from 0.81 to 0.83. Clinopyroxenes of the studied rocks range in composition from diopside to augite and have subalkaline affinities. Plagioclase in the cumulus gabbro is mostly bytownite (An 73-82). Two types of spinel are observed, chromite and pleonaste. Chromite has Cr# (Cr/(Cr + Al) of 0.60-0.81 whereas pleonaste have Cr# lower than 0.02. The present study revealed that the mafic-ultramafic complex of Gabal Imleih fractionated from a single batch of high Al-basaltic magma and evolved by fractional crystallization at the base of a Neoproterozoic magma chamber. Olivine and chromite were the first crystallized phases followed by pyroxene and plagioclase. Amphibole appears at nearly the same time as plagioclase. The Imleih mafic-ultramafic body was emplaced post-tectonically in a transitional phase between the calc-alkaline and alkaline magmatism.

Azer, M. K.; El-Gharbawy, R. I.

2011-06-01

308

Metal solubility enhancing peptides derived from barley protein.  

PubMed

Mineral supplements are required to be soluble as their bioavailability is highly correlated to their solubility in body fluids. In this study, metal binding capacity of barley protein hydrolysates and their purified fractions was investigated and expressed as increase in solubility of metal ions. Metal ions in the presence of hydrolysates exhibited a remarkable increase in solubility: 118, 32, 10, 29 and 35-fold for Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Ca(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+), respectively. A mixture of low molecular weight peptides possesses a synergistic combination of both charged and hydrophobic residues and achieves the best binding metal ions. Electrostatic interactions via charged side chains and coordination binding with His and Cys, initially attract the metal ions and, afterward, hydrophobic interactions and aromatic ring stacking stabilize the positioning of metal ions in the structure of the peptide. Barley hordein hydrolysates show potential as dietary supplements that enhance both mineral solubility and bioavailability. PMID:24767088

Eckert, Ewelina; Bamdad, Fatemeh; Chen, Lingyun

2014-09-15

309

Constructing an alternative wheat karyotype using barley genomic DNA.  

PubMed

The established karyotype was generated by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using total barley genomic DNA as labelled probe on mitotic metaphase bread wheat chromosomes. GISH produced specific banding signals on 16 of the 21 chromosome pairs. The following chromosomes showed distinctive banding patterns: 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 1D, 2D, 7D and all of the B chromosomes. The remaining chromosomes showed either faint bands or no hybridization signals at all. The in situ hybridization patterns corresponded to the GAA-satellite sequence, which is similar to the N-banding pattern in wheat. In situ hybridization by labelling total barley genomic DNA made it possible to identify most of the bread wheat chromosomes. The present paper describes a GISH-banding method for hexaploid wheat chromosomes. It is a valuable alternative method for fast chromosome selection without using FISH repetitive DNA clones. PMID:25027628

Icsó, Diána; Molnár-Láng, Márta; Linc, Gabriella

2015-02-01

310

Asexual Genetic Exchange in the Barley Pathogen Rhynchosporium secalis.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The causal agent of barley scald, Rhynchosporium secalis, is a haploid anamorphic ascomycete with no known sexual stage. Nevertheless, a high degree of genetic variation has been observed in fungal populations on commercial barley cultivars and parasexuality has been suggested to contribute to this variation. In order to test whether asexual genetic exchange can occur, isolates of R. secalis were transformed to hygromycin B resistance or phleomycin resistance. Mixtures of transformants were co-inoculated either on agar or in planta and screened for the occurrence of dual-antibiotic-resistant colonies. No dual-antibiotic-resistant colonies resulted from mixing transformants of different fungal isolates. In contrast, with transformants originating from the same fungal isolate, asexual exchange of markers was demonstrated on agar plates and in planta. This is the first definitive evidence of asexual genetic exchange in R. secalis. PMID:18943585

Forgan, Angus H; Knogge, Wolfgang; Anderson, Peter A

2007-05-01

311

Low GI Food with Barley in Space Foods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The construction of the life-support system to perform space, moon base, Mars emigration is demanded. The space foods will play a very important role of life support on this occasion. Particularly, in environment of the microgravity, our metabolism becomes less than the face of the Earth. The management of the blood sugar level is very important. We need to eat the meal which will be rise in blood sugar level slowly. The barley which includes much water-soluble dietary fibers is helpful to make low GI space food. After eating 30% barley with unpolished rice, blood sugar level was rise slowly. The cooking process is very important to our body in thinking about digestion and absorption. Soft foods, long-heated foods and grind-foods are easy to digest. After eating these-foods, our blood sugar level will rise, easily. We introduce the space foods with 30% wheat that the blood sugar level is hard to rising.

Katayama, Naomi; Sugimoto, Manabu; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kihara, Makoto; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force

312

The ancient Greeks present: Rational Trigonometry  

E-print Network

Pythagoras ’ theorem, the area of a triangle as one half the base times the height, and Heron’s formula are amongst the most important and useful results of ancient Greek geometry. Here we look at all three in a new and improved light, using quadrance not distance. This leads to a simpler and more elegant trigonometry, in which angle is replaced by spread, and which extends to arbitrary fields and more general quadratic forms. Three ancient Greek theorems There are three classical theorems about triangles that every mathematics student traditionally meets. To state these, consider a triangle A1A2A3 with side lengths d1 ? |A2, A3|, d2 ? |A1, A3 | and d3 ? |A1, A2|. Pythagoras ’ theorem The triangle A1A2A3 has a right angle at A3 precisely when d 2 1 + d2 2 = d3 3.

N J Wildberger

2008-01-01

313

Lipids of aquatic sediments, recent and ancient  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is now an essential tool in the analysis of the complex mixtures of lipids (geolipids) encountered in aquatic sediments, both 'recent' (less than 1 million years old) and ancient. The application of MS, and particularly GC-MS, has been instrumental in the rapid development of organic geochemistry and environmental organic chemistry in recent years. The techniques used have resulted in the identification of numerous compounds of a variety of types in sediments. Most attention has been concentrated on molecules of limited size, mainly below 500 molecular mass, and of limited functionality, for examples, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and alcohols. Examples from recent studies (at Bristol) of contemporary, 'recent' and ancient sediments are presented and discussed.

Eglinton, G.; Hajibrahim, S. K.; Maxwell, J. R.; Quirke, J. M. E.; Shaw, G. J.; Volkman, J. K.; Wardroper, A. M. K.

1979-01-01

314

Should Dinosaurs be "Cloned" from Ancient DNA?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are the teaching notes for a case study in which students use cooperative learning and role-playing to explore the scientific, technical, environmental, and ethical issues related to the possibility of cloning dinosaurs from ancient DNA. The case was designed to enhance the learning environment in an introductory class through cooperative problem-solving and to promote active participation in learning by using library and web resources to do research on a controversial topic in science and ethics. As the students pursue this case, they will apply knowledge explored in readings, lectures, and in-class discussions about dinosaurs, gain a general understanding of the revolutionary techniques used to discover and retrieve ancient DNA and to produce a clone, and improve communication and collaboration skills by working cooperatively in small groups and arguing a position in an authoritative fashion.

Constance Soja

315

Newcomb's Data on Ancient Eclipses Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relying on the Greek text related to Babylonian-Hellenic observations of lunar eclipses in Ptolemy's "Almagest" (Halma M., 1813) and by analysing some Arabian notes about solar and lunar eclipses - for which S.Newcomb found considerable deviations from the adopted theory - a re-analysis of his results and conclusions is herewith undertaken. The results of ancient data revision are based on Newcomb's alternative presumption that these discrepancies are caused by one or more unknown long-term inequalities in the motion of the Moon. A quantitative analysis of ancient eclipse observations unambiguously indicates that they definitely are not to be rejected, provided, of course, that they are interpreted in proper way.

Protitch-Benishek, V.; Protitch, M. B.

316

Lead in ancient Rome's city waters.  

PubMed

It is now universally accepted that utilization of lead for domestic purposes and water distribution presents a major health hazard. The ancient Roman world was unaware of these risks. How far the gigantic network of lead pipes used in ancient Rome compromised public health in the city is unknown. Lead isotopes in sediments from the harbor of Imperial Rome register the presence of a strong anthropogenic component during the beginning of the Common Era and the Early Middle Ages. They demonstrate that the lead pipes of the water distribution system increased Pb contents in drinking water of the capital city by up to two orders of magnitude over the natural background. The Pb isotope record shows that the discontinuities in the pollution of the Tiber by lead are intimately entwined with the major issues affecting Late Antique Rome and its water distribution system. PMID:24753588

Delile, Hugo; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Goiran, Jean-Philippe; Keay, Simon; Albarède, Francis

2014-05-01

317

Technology Through Time: Ancient Astronomical Alignments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online set of information about astronomical alignments of ancient structures and buildings. Learners will read background information about the alignments to the Sun in such structures as the Great Pyramid, Chichen Itza, and others. Next, the site contains 10 short problem sets that involve a variety of math skills, including determining the scale of a photo, measuring and drawing angles, plotting data on a graph, and creating an equation to match a set of data. Each set of problems is contained on one page and all of the sets utilize real-world problems relating to astronomical alignments of ancient structures. Each problem set is flexible and can be used on its own, together with other sets, or together with related lessons and materials selected by the educator. This was originally included as a folder insert for the 2010 Sun-Earth Day.

318

The ancient Greeks present: Rational Trigonometry  

E-print Network

Pythagoras' theorem, the area of a triangle as one half the base times the height, and Heron's formula are amongst the most important and useful results of ancient Greek geometry. Here we look at all three in a new and improved light, using quadrance not distance. This leads to a simpler and more elegant trigonometry, in which angle is replaced by spread, and which extends to arbitrary fields and more general quadratic forms.

Wildberger, N J

2008-01-01

319

Extinct Plutonium Geochemistry of Ancient Hadean Zircons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance of 244Pu in the early solar system has important implications for r-process nucleosynthesis and models of noble gas transport within the Earth's mantle. Our recent discovery(1) of xenon isotopes from the in-situ decay of 244Pu in ancient Jack Hills zircons promises to provide a new time-sensitive window on the first 500 Ma of Earth history. We have extended

G. Turner; J. Gilmour; S. Crowther; A. Busfield; S. Mojzsis; M. Harrison

2005-01-01

320

The biochemistry of ancient DNA in bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of DNA in ancient bone was determined by ethidium bromide staining after the removal of the potent Taq inhibitor, fulvic acid. A complete decalcification and a perfusion protocol were used to recover DNA from bone. A variety of purification techniques including molecular sieve, hydroxyapatite binding and ‘Magic’ preparations yielded DNA that spanned from 3.4?g\\/g of bone to below

N. Tuross

1994-01-01

321

[Presacral schwannoma with degenerated areas ("ancient schwannoma")].  

PubMed

A presacral, degenerative schwannoma ("ancient schwannoma") is a rare entity. The clinical signs are nonspecific, and a reliable preoperative diagnosis is difficult. Tumor heterogeneity with calcifications may be seen in degenerated schwannomas on MRI or CT but not necessarily. First-line treatment is complete surgical excision. We present the case of a 44-year-old male who required surgery for a presacral mass. Histopathological examination revealed the diagnosis of a schwannoma with degenerated areas. PMID:20694717

Netsch, C; Oberhagemann, K; Bach, T; Feyerabend, B; Gross, A J

2010-10-01

322

Maecenas: Images of Ancient Greece and Rome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by Classics Professor Leo Curran of the University at Buffalo, this collection of images could be a useful resource for courses in the Classics, Ancient History, or Archaeology. The collection currently contains many high-quality photos from France and Italy, with separate sections for Sicily and Rome. The images are offered free for any non-commercial purpose, and the site is periodically updated with new photos.

1998-01-01

323

POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME: AN ANCIENT DISORDER?  

PubMed Central

PCOS appears to be an ancient disorder, which persisted in human evolution despite reduced fecundity because of benefits to affected women such as greater sturdiness and improved energy utilization, a rearing advantage for their children and kin, and a reduction in the risk of perinatal mortality. This raises the possibility that gene variants eventually found to be associated with PCOS will be similar across ethnic groups and races. PMID:20979996

Azziz, Ricardo; Dumesic, Daniel A.; Goodarzi, Mark O.

2010-01-01

324

Superplume Formation Beneath An Ancient Slab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Graduate student Eh Tan, working with Michael Gurnis at the California Institute of Technology, has recently discovered a plausible mechanism of generating superplumes at the core mantle boundary. This animation shows how an ancient slab which is resting at the core mantle boundary for millions of years can trap heat, eventually resulting in a superplume substantially larger than the plumes which form from normal hot thermal boundary layers. Links to related references, including a pdf reprint, are also included at the site.

Eh, Tan; Technology, California I.

325

DOC Cycling in Ancient Tropical Lake Matano  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a Secchi depth of <= 27m, tropical, ancient (1-4Ma) Lake Matano has surface waters as clear as many ultra-oligotrophic lakes such as Great Bear Lake (secchi depth 590m deep, one of the largest and deepest anoxic freshwater basins in the world. These sub-anoxic conditions have developed in response to thermal stratification that caused oxygen demand to exceed oxygen supply.

S. A. Crowe; S. Katsev; C. Magen; S. Nomosatryo; G. D. Haffner; A. Mucci; B. Sundby; D. A. Fowle

2006-01-01

326

Golgi Localized Barley MTP8 Proteins Facilitate Mn Transport  

PubMed Central

Many metabolic processes in plants are regulated by manganese (Mn) but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms controlling cellular Mn homeostasis. In this study, a yeast assay was used to isolate and characterize two genes, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2, which encode membrane-bound proteins belonging to the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family in the cereal species barley (Hordeum vulgare). Transient expression in onion epidermal cells showed that MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) are localized to Golgi. When heterologously expressed in yeast, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 were found to be Mn transporters catalysing Mn efflux in a similar manner as the Golgi localized endogenous yeast protein Pmr1p. The level of MTP8.1 transcripts in barley roots increased with external Mn supply ranging from deficiency to toxicity, while MTP8.2 transcripts decreased under the same conditions, indicating non-overlapping functions for the two genes. In barley leaves, the expression of both MTP8 genes declined in response to toxic Mn additions to the roots suggesting a role in ensuring proper delivery of Mn to Golgi. Based on the above we suggest that barley MTP8 proteins are involved in Mn loading to the Golgi apparatus and play a role in Mn homeostasis by delivering Mn to Mn-dependent enzymes and/or by facilitating Mn efflux via secretory vesicles. This study highlights the importance of MTP transporters in Mn homeostasis and is the first report of Golgi localized Mn2+ transport proteins in a monocot plant species. PMID:25486417

Pedas, Pai; Schiller Stokholm, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Ladegård, Anne Hald; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod; Husted, Søren

2014-01-01

327

Compositional and digestibility changes in sprouted barley and canola seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley and canola seeds were sprouted over a 5 day period, in laboratory conditions under room temperature (22°C) and room lighting. Following initial hydration, seeds were kept moist by wetting the germination trays at 9 a.m., 1 p.m. and 6 p.m. daily. A parallel germination experiment using 200 g quantities of seeds in petri dishes was conducted. Starting from the

T. Y. Chung; E. N. Nwokolo; J. S. Sim

1989-01-01

328

Tillage System Effects on Competition between Barley and Sterile Oat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short-term effect of three tillage systems (minimum (MT), reduced (RT), and conventional (CT)) on growth and yield com- ponents of two six-row barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. 'Athinaida' and 'Plaisant') in presence or absence of sterile oat (Avena sterilis L.) was studied in northern Greece during the 2003-2004 (Yr 1) and 2004- 2005 (Yr 2) growing seasons. Sterile oat

K. Dhima; I. Vasilakoglou; A. Lithourgidis; S. Papadopoulou; I. Eleftherohorinos

2006-01-01

329

High-resolution mapping of the Rym4\\/Rym5 locus conferring resistance to the barley yellow mosaic virus complex (BaMMV, BaYMV, BaYMV-2) in barley ( Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil-borne barley yellow mosaic virus disease – caused by a complex of at least three viruses, i.e. Barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV), Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) and BaYMV-2 – is one of the most important diseases of winter barley in Europe. The two genes rym4, effective against BaMMV and BaYMV, and rym5, additionally effective against BaYMV-2, comprise a complex

Bettina Pellio; Stefan Streng; Eva Bauer; Nils Stein; Dragan Perovic; Andrea Schiemann; Wolfgang Friedt; Frank Ordon; Andreas Graner

2005-01-01

330

Freezing of barley studied by infrared video thermography.  

PubMed

Freezing of barley (Hordeum vulgare), Hordeum murinum, and Holcus lanatus was studied using infrared video thermography. In the field, ice could enter H. lanatus leaves through hydathodes. In laboratory tests with barley, initially 0.4% of the leaf water froze, spreading in alternate strips of high and low freezing intensity longitudinally at 1 to 4 cm s(-1), and simultaneously spreading laterally at 0.3 cm s(-1). Similar results were obtained in the field with H. lanatus. A distinct second, more intense, freezing event spread slowly from the margins of the leaves toward the midrib. Organs of uprooted barley tested in the laboratory froze in this order: nucleated leaf, roots, older leaves, younger leaves, and secondary tillers. When ice spread from one leaf to the rest of the plant the crown delayed spread to the roots and other leaves. There was a longer delay above than below -2 degrees C, helping to protect the crown from freezing during mild frosts. Initial spread of freezing was not damaging. However, the initial spread is a prerequisite for the second freezing event, which can cause damage. The route of the initial spread of ice may be extracellular, drawing water from more gel-like parts of the cell wall. PMID:11154332

Pearce, R S; Fuller, M P

2001-01-01

331

An Anomaly in Potassium Accumulation by Barley Roots  

PubMed Central

Excised barley roots accumulated 40 to 50% more K+ from 0.04 mm than from 0.06 mm KCl when incubated for 24 hours in KCl solutions containing 0.2 mm CaSO4. This phenomenon was not markedly influenced by the rate of absorption of the counteranion. The presence of Na+ in the treatment solutions decreased total K accumulation but did not alter the K+ concentration at which the accumulation peak occurred. Short interval studies indicated that this phenomenon is easily observable after 4 hours and begins to become apparent within 2 hours. In comparison with barley, accumulation of K+ by excised wheat roots decreased as KCl concentration was increased from 0.02 to 0.06 mm; but K+ accumulation curve for corn roots showed no peaks or depressions in the concentration range of 0.01 to 0.1 mm. A normal hyperbolic curve was noted for the accumulation of Na+ from 0.01 to 1 mm NaCl by barley roots. PMID:16657324

Hiatt, A. J.

1970-01-01

332

Structure, morphology and functionality of acetylated and oxidised barley starches.  

PubMed

Acetylation and oxidation are chemical modifications which alter the properties of starch. The degree of modification of acetylated and oxidized starches is dependent on the catalyst and active chlorine concentrations, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetylation and oxidation on the structural, morphological, physical-chemical, thermal and pasting properties of barley starch. Barley starches were acetylated at different catalyst levels (11%, 17%, and 23% of NaOH solution) and oxidized at different sodium hypochlorite concentrations (1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% of active chlorine). Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractograms, thermal, morphological, and pasting properties, swelling power and solubility of starches were evaluated. The degree of substitution (DS) of the acetylated starches increased with the rise in catalyst concentration. The percentage of carbonyl (CO) and carboxyl (COOH) groups in oxidized starches also increased with the rise of active chlorine level. The presence of hydrophobic acetyl groups, carbonyl and carboxyl groups caused a partial disorganization and depolymerization of starch granules. The structural, morphological and functional changes in acetylated and oxidized starches varied according to reaction conditions. Acetylation makes barley starch more hydrophobic by the insertion of acetyl groups. Also the oxidation promotes low retrogradation and viscosity. All these characteristics are important for biodegradable film production. PMID:25172707

El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Bartz, Josiane; Radunz, Marjana; Carreño, Neftali Lenin Villarreal; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

2015-02-01

333

Megapixel imaging of (micro)nutrients in mature barley grains  

PubMed Central

Understanding the accumulation and distribution of essential nutrients in cereals is of primary importance for improving the nutritional quality of this staple food. While recent studies have improved the understanding of micronutrient loading into the barley grain, a detailed characterization of the distribution of micronutrients within the grain is still lacking. High-definition synchrotron X-ray fluorescence was used to investigate the distribution and association of essential elements in barley grain at the micro scale. Micronutrient distribution within the scutellum and the embryo was shown to be highly variable between elements in relation to various morphological features. In the rest of the grain, the distribution of some elements such as Cu and Zn was not limited to the aleurone layer but extended into the endosperm. This pattern of distribution was less marked in the case of Fe and, in particular, Mn. A significant difference in element distribution was also found between the ventral and dorsal part of the grains. The correlation between the elements was not consistent between and within tissues, indicating that the transport and storage of elements is highly regulated. The complexity of the spatial distribution and associations has important implications for improving the nutritional content of cereal crops such as barley. PMID:20819790

Lombi, Enzo; Smith, Euan; Hansen, Thomas H.; Paterson, David; de Jonge, Martin D.; Howard, Daryl L.; Persson, Daniel P.; Husted, Søren; Ryan, Chris; Schjoerring, Jan K.

2011-01-01

334

Lysine metabolism in antisense C-hordein barley grains.  

PubMed

The grain proteins of barley are deficient in lysine and threonine due to their low concentrations in the major storage protein class, the hordeins, especially in the C-hordein subgroup. Previously produced antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines have an improved amino acid composition, with increased lysine, methionine and threonine contents. The objective of the study was to investigate the possible changes in the regulation of key enzymes of the aspartate metabolic pathway and the contents of aspartate-derived amino acids in the nontransgenic line (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Golden Promise) and five antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines. Considering the amounts of soluble and protein-bound aspartate-derived amino acids together with the analysis of key enzymes of aspartate metabolic pathway, we suggest that the C-hordein suppression did not only alter the metabolism of at least one aspartate-derived amino acid (threonine), but major changes were also detected in the metabolism of lysine and methionine. Modifications in the activities and regulation of aspartate kinase, dihydrodipicolinate synthase and homoserine dehydrogenase were observed in most transgenic lines. Furthermore the activities of lysine ?-ketoglutarate reductase and saccharopine dehydrogenase were also altered, although the extent varied among the transgenic lines. PMID:25559386

Schmidt, Daiana; Rizzi, Vanessa; Gaziola, Salete A; Medici, Leonardo O; Vincze, Eva; Kozak, Marcin; Lea, Peter J; Azevedo, Ricardo A

2015-02-01

335

Ectoparasitic growth of Magnaporthe on barley triggers expression of the putative barley wax biosynthesis gene CYP96B22 which is involved in penetration resistance  

PubMed Central

Background Head blast caused by the fungal plant pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae is an upcoming threat for wheat and barley cultivation. We investigated the nonhost response of barley to an isolate of the Magnaporthe species complex which is pathogenic on Pennisetum spp. as a potential source for novel resistance traits. Results Array experiments identified a barley gene encoding a putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase whose transcripts accumulate to a higher concentration in the nonhost as compared to the host interaction. The gene clusters within the CYP96 clade of the P450 plant gene family and is designated as CYP96B22. Expression of CYP96B22 was triggered during the ectoparasitic growth of the pathogen on the outside of the leaf. Usage of a fungicidal treatment and a Magnaporthe mutant confirmed that penetration was not necessary for this early activation of CYP96B22. Transcriptional silencing of CYP96B22 using Barley stripe mosaic virus led to a decrease in penetration resistance of barley plants to Magnaporthe host and nonhost isolates. This phenotype seems to be specific for the barley-Magnaporthe interaction, since penetration of the adapted barley powdery mildew fungus was not altered in similarly treated plants. Conclusion Taken together our results suggest a cross-talk between barley and Magnaporthe isolates across the plant surface. Since members of the plant CYP96 family are known to be involved in synthesis of epicuticular waxes, these substances or their derivatives might act as signal components. We propose a functional overlap of CYP96B22 in the execution of penetration resistance during basal and nonhost resistance of barley against different Magnaporthe species. PMID:24423145

2014-01-01

336

Utilization of fermented barley extract obtained from a by-product of barley shochu for nisin production.  

PubMed

Fermented barley extract (FBE) obtained from a barley shochu by-product (shochu kasu) and its ethanol fractions were evaluated as a medium and supplement, respectively, for nisin A production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454. A Brix 2.5 FBE medium supplemented with glucose provided a high level of nisin A production with a nisin yield comparable to that from a nutritionally rich laboratory medium (basal medium). By adding the ethanol-insoluble (EI) fraction of FBE to the basal medium, nisin A production was enhanced concomitant with an increase in bacterial cell growth, while the ethanol-soluble (ES) fraction had a negative effect on nisin A production. These findings indicate that FBE obtained from shochu kasu can be utilized as a preferable medium for nisin A production and could be converted into a value-added food product having preservative functions. The procedure developed in this study would promote recycling of shochu kasu. PMID:19000617

Furuta, Yoshifumi; Maruoka, Naruyuki; Nakamura, Akihiro; Omori, Toshiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

2008-10-01

337

Evaluation of gaseous ozone and hydrogen peroxide treatments for reducing Fusarium survival in malting barley.  

PubMed

The use of Fusarium-infected barley for malting can lead to mycotoxin production and decreased malt quality. Methods for treatment of Fusarium-infected barley might prevent these safety and quality defects and allow use of otherwise good-quality barley. Gaseous ozone and hydrogen peroxide (HP) were evaluated for effectiveness in reducing Fusarium survival while maintaining germinative energy (GE) in barley. Gaseous ozone treatments (GOT) included concentrations of 11 and 26 mg/g for 0, 15, 30, and 60 min. HP treatments included 0, 5, 10, and 15% concentrations with exposure times of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min. For GOT, in naturally Fusarium-infected barley, a statistically significant (P < 0.05) decrease (24 to 36%) of Fusarium survival occurred within 15 min of exposure at either concentration. GE was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by 30 min at both concentrations in naturally Fusarium-infected barley, but not in sound barley. GOT did not cause any significant (P > 0.05) effect on GE in sound barley at either concentration over the full 30-min exposure time. For HP, Fusarium survival was significantly decreased (50 to 98%) within 5 min of exposure. With the exception of two treatments (10 and 15% HP agitated for 20 min), GE was not statistically significantly different from the control in naturally Fusarium-infected barley. In sound barley, HP had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on GE. The results suggest that GOT and HP might have potential for treatment of Fusarium-infected malting barley. PMID:15954715

Kottapalli, Balasubrahmanyam; Wolf-Hall, Charlene E; Schwarz, Paul

2005-06-01

338

RFLP mapping of three new loci for resistance genes to powdery mildew ( Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei ) in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new major, race-specific, resistance genes to powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei) were identified in three barley lines, RS42-6*O, RS137-28*E, and HSY-78*A, derived from crosses with wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum). The resistance gene origining from wild barley in line RS42-6*O, showed a recessive mode of inheritance, whereas the other wild barley genes were (semi)-dominant. RFLP mapping

M. Schfinfeld; A. Ragni; G. Fischbeck; A. Jahoor

1996-01-01

339

Removal and isolation of germ-rich fractions from hull-less barley using a fitzpatrick comminuting mill  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A process was developed to produce a germ-enriched fraction from hull-less barley using a Fitzpatrick Comminuting Mill followed by sieving. Hulled and hull-less barleys contain 1.5-2.5% oil and, like wheat kernels which contain wheat germ oil, much of the oil in barley kernels is in the germ fracti...

340

Design and development of an ancient Chinese document recognition system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The digitization of ancient Chinese documents presents new challenges to OCR (Optical Character Recognition) research field due to the large character set of ancient Chinese characters, variant font types, and versatile document layout styles, as these documents are historical reflections to the thousands of years of Chinese civilization. After analyzing the general characteristics of ancient Chinese documents, we present a solution for recognition of ancient Chinese documents with regular font-types and layout-styles. Based on the previous work on multilingual OCR in TH-OCR system, we focus on the design and development of two key technologies which include character recognition and page segmentation. Experimental results show that the developed character recognition kernel of 19,635 Chinese characters outperforms our original traditional Chinese recognition kernel; Benchmarked test on printed ancient Chinese books proves that the proposed system is effective for regular ancient Chinese documents.

Peng, Liangrui; Xiu, Pingping; Ding, Xiaoqing

2003-12-01

341

The Atrium: For Devotees of Ancient Greece and Rome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the large number of quality ancient world sites already existing it is difficult for a new one to make room for itself. The Atrium accomplishes this by focusing on resources that connect the present and the past. Teachers can make good use of several features at this site. The Commentarium is a frequently updated journal that provides links to online news stories involving the ancient world. The Ancient World on Television offers a weekly guide to programs that depict the ancient world. The Rostra is a collection of RealAudio programs that discuss this era as well as the latest from Nuntii Latini, Radio Finland's news broadcast in Latin. Other features include This Day in Ancient History and the Bibliotheca, a collection of ancient world Internet resources currently under development.

1997-01-01

342

BarleyBase/PLEXdb: A Unified Expression Profiling Database for Plants and Plant Pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BarleyBase (http://barleybase.org/) and its successor, PLEXdb (http://plexdb.org/), are public resources for large-scale gene expression analysis for plants and plant pathogens. BarleyBase/PLEXdb provides a unified web interface to support the functional interpretation of highly parallel microarray...

343

Enhanced tolerance of rice to low iron availability in alkaline soils using barley nicotianamine aminotransferase genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the widest ranging abiotic stresses in world agriculture arises from low iron (Fe) availability due to high soil pH, with 30% of arable land too alkaline for optimal crop production. Rice is especially susceptible to low iron supply, whereas other graminaceous crops such as barley are not. A barley genomic DNA fragment containing two naat genes, which encode

Michiko Takahashi; Hiromi Nakanishi; Shinji Kawasaki; Naoko K. Nishizawa; Satoshi Mori

2001-01-01

344

The draft genome of Tibetan hulless barley reveals adaptive patterns to the high stressful Tibetan Plateau.  

PubMed

The Tibetan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum), also called "Qingke" in Chinese and "Ne" in Tibetan, is the staple food for Tibetans and an important livestock feed in the Tibetan Plateau. The diploid nature and adaptation to diverse environments of the highland give it unique resources for genetic research and crop improvement. Here we produced a 3.89-Gb draft assembly of Tibetan hulless barley with 36,151 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative analyses revealed the divergence times and synteny between barley and other representative Poaceae genomes. The expansion of the gene family related to stress responses was found in Tibetan hulless barley. Resequencing of 10 barley accessions uncovered high levels of genetic variation in Tibetan wild barley and genetic divergence between Tibetan and non-Tibetan barley genomes. Selective sweep analyses demonstrate adaptive correlations of genes under selection with extensive environmental variables. Our results not only construct a genomic framework for crop improvement but also provide evolutionary insights of highland adaptation of Tibetan hulless barley. PMID:25583503

Zeng, Xingquan; Long, Hai; Wang, Zhuo; Zhao, Shancen; Tang, Yawei; Huang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yulin; Xu, Qijun; Mao, Likai; Deng, Guangbing; Yao, Xiaoming; Li, Xiangfeng; Bai, Lijun; Yuan, Hongjun; Pan, Zhifen; Liu, Renjian; Chen, Xin; WangMu, QiMei; Chen, Ming; Yu, Lili; Liang, Junjun; DunZhu, DaWa; Zheng, Yuan; Yu, Shuiyang; LuoBu, ZhaXi; Guang, Xuanmin; Li, Jiang; Deng, Cao; Hu, Wushu; Chen, Chunhai; TaBa, XiongNu; Gao, Liyun; Lv, Xiaodan; Abu, Yuval Ben; Fang, Xiaodong; Nevo, Eviatar; Yu, Maoqun; Wang, Jun; Tashi, Nyima

2015-01-27

345

Cytokinin enhancement of the light induction of nitrate reductase transcript levels in etiolated barley leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the molecular mechanism of cytokinin regulation of nitrate reductase (NR) activity, the influence of benzyladenine (BA) on the level of NR transcript was studied in etiolated barley leaves using a barley NR cDNA as a probe. Northern blot analyses of the levels of NR poly (A)+ RNA indicate that the amount present is proportional to the concentration of

Jia-ling Lu; John R. Ertl; Chong-maw Chen

1990-01-01

346

The draft genome of Tibetan hulless barley reveals adaptive patterns to the high stressful Tibetan Plateau  

PubMed Central

The Tibetan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum), also called “Qingke” in Chinese and “Ne” in Tibetan, is the staple food for Tibetans and an important livestock feed in the Tibetan Plateau. The diploid nature and adaptation to diverse environments of the highland give it unique resources for genetic research and crop improvement. Here we produced a 3.89-Gb draft assembly of Tibetan hulless barley with 36,151 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative analyses revealed the divergence times and synteny between barley and other representative Poaceae genomes. The expansion of the gene family related to stress responses was found in Tibetan hulless barley. Resequencing of 10 barley accessions uncovered high levels of genetic variation in Tibetan wild barley and genetic divergence between Tibetan and non-Tibetan barley genomes. Selective sweep analyses demonstrate adaptive correlations of genes under selection with extensive environmental variables. Our results not only construct a genomic framework for crop improvement but also provide evolutionary insights of highland adaptation of Tibetan hulless barley. PMID:25583503

Zeng, Xingquan; Long, Hai; Wang, Zhuo; Zhao, Shancen; Tang, Yawei; Huang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yulin; Xu, Qijun; Mao, Likai; Deng, Guangbing; Yao, Xiaoming; Li, Xiangfeng; Bai, Lijun; Yuan, Hongjun; Pan, Zhifen; Liu, Renjian; Chen, Xin; WangMu, QiMei; Chen, Ming; Yu, Lili; Liang, Junjun; DunZhu, DaWa; Zheng, Yuan; Yu, Shuiyang; LuoBu, ZhaXi; Guang, Xuanmin; Li, Jiang; Deng, Cao; Hu, Wushu; Chen, Chunhai; TaBa, XiongNu; Gao, Liyun; Lv, Xiaodan; Abu, Yuval Ben; Fang, Xiaodong; Nevo, Eviatar; Yu, Maoqun; Wang, Jun; Tashi, Nyima

2015-01-01

347

A Comparison Of Barley Malt Amylolytic Enzyme Thermostabilities As Indicators Of Malt Sugar Concentrations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt amylolytic enzyme thermostabilities would correlate negatively with malt sugar concentrations. Seeds of four two-row and four six-row North American elite barley cultivars were steeped and germinated in a micromalter for 6 days. At 2...

348

Interaction between barley and mixed cultures of nitrogen fixing and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pot experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of inoculation with pure and mixed cultures of nitrogen fixers Azospirillum lipoferum 137, Arthrobacter mysorens 7 and the phosphate-solubilizing strain Agrobacterium radiobacter 10 on growth and mineral nutrition of two barley cultivars. A significant positive effect on grain yield both of the studied barley cultivars was obtained after inoculation with mixtures

A. A. Belimov; A. P. Kojemiakov; C. V. Chuvarliyeva

1995-01-01

349

Quantifying relationships between rooting traits and water uptake under drought in Mediterranean barley and durum wheat.  

PubMed

In Mediterranean regions drought is the major factor limiting spring barley and durum wheat grain yields. This study aimed to compare spring barley and durum wheat root and shoot responses to drought and quantify relationships between root traits and water uptake under terminal drought. One spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Rum) and two durum wheat Mediterranean cultivars (Triticum turgidum L. var durum cvs Hourani and Karim) were examined in soil-column experiments under well watered and drought conditions. Root system architecture traits, water uptake, and plant growth were measured. Barley aerial biomass and grain yields were higher than for durum wheat cultivars in well watered conditions. Drought decreased grain yield more for barley (47%) than durum wheat (30%, Hourani). Root-to-shoot dry matter ratio increased for durum wheat under drought but not for barley, and root weight increased for wheat in response to drought but decreased for barley. The critical root length density (RLD) and root volume density (RVD) for 90% available water capture for wheat were similar to (cv. Hourani) or lower than (cv. Karim) for barley depending on wheat cultivar. For both species, RVD accounted for a slightly higher proportion of phenotypic variation in water uptake under drought than RLD. PMID:24112696

Carvalho, Pedro; Azam-Ali, Sayed; Foulkes, M John

2014-05-01

350

Compositional equivalence of barleys differing only in low and normal phytate levels  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent breeding advances have led to the development of several barley lines with reduced levels of phytate. One of them was further developed and released as a hulless low phytate cultivar (Clearwater). Because barley oil contains high levels of tocotrienols and other functional lipids, we conduc...

351

A Comparison of Barley Malt Amylolytic Enzyme Activities and Malt Sugar Concentrations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt alpha-amylase activity would correlate better with malt sugar concentrations than the activities of beta-amylase, or limit dextrinase. Seeds of four two-row and four six-row North American elite barley cultivars were steeped and germi...

352

Barley and Oat beta-Glucan content measured by Calcofluor fluorescence in a microplate assay  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Beta-glucans, linear glucan polymers of mixed linkage, are important constituents of cereal cell walls. They have important health benefits in the human diet, but also can negatively affect the use of barley grain as an animal feed. High beta-glucans in barley malt can also cause problems in brewi...

353

Cytologically Integrated Physical Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Maps for the Barley Genome Based on Translocation Breakpoints  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a new technique for the physical mapping of barley chromosomes using microdis- sected translocation chromosomes for PCR with sequence-tagged site primers derived from .300 geneti- cally mapped RFLP probes. The positions of 240 translocation breakpoints were integrated as physical landmarks into linkage maps of the seven barley chromosomes. This strategy proved to be highly efficient in relating

Gottfried Kunzel; Larissa Korzun; Armin Meister

354

Comparison of barley seed proteomic profiles associated with fusarium head blight reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB) incited primarily by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a destructive disease that affects the quality and yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain. At present, there is a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in barley resistance against infection by and the spread of F. graminearum. The objective of the current study was to identify proteins

J. Zantinge; K. Kumar; K. Xi; M. Johns; A. Murray; T. Jones; J. H. Helm; P. Juskiw

2010-01-01

355

Near-Infrared analysis of ground barley for use as a feedstock for fuel ethanol production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recently there has been growing interest in using barley as a feedstock for fuel ethanol in the United States. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy for determining the compositional quality properties of barley and to compare the prediction accuracy ...

356

Annual CO2 exchange of a peat field growing spring barley or perennial forage grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) measurements conducted with the eddy covariance method over agricultural peat soil in the 2-year period between October 2000 and October 2002. In 2001, spring barley and undersown grass were sown on the site. After the barley harvest, the perennial forage grass was left to grow, so that in 2002 the field was

Annalea Lohila; Mika Aurela; Juha-Pekka Tuovinen; Tuomas Laurila

2004-01-01

357

Ribosomal DNA polymorphisms and the Oriental-Occidental genetic differentiation in cultivated barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 289 accessions of cultivated barley were assayed for ribosomal DNA (rDNA) polymorphisms. These accessions comprised four independent samples: (1) 79 entries from China, (2) 59 accessions from Ethiopia, (3) 59 entries from Tibet and (4) 92 entries representing 36 barley growing countries of the world (referred to as “world sample”). In all, 17 rDNA phenotypes (genotypes) were

Qifa Zhang; M. A. Saghai Maroof; P. G. Yang

1992-01-01

358

LIGHT-DEPENDENT BLEACHING OF DETACHED BARLEY LEAF TISSUE BY DEOXYNIVALENOL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulates in wheat and barley heads infected with Fusarium graminearum. To assess the effects of DON on green plant tissues, we partially stripped the abaxial epidermis from detached Robust barley leaf segments (1 cm long) and floated them with stripped mesophyl...

359

The effect of combining scald resistance genes on disease levels, yield and quality traits in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pairwise combinations of genes for resistance to scald in barley were developed using linked isozyme markers to test whether such combinations conferred improved resistance to the pathogen, Rhynchosporium secalis. The resistance genes originally derived from Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum. The combinations were bred into an essentially similar genetic background because the scald-susceptible, Australian barley cultivar Clipper was the recurrent backcross

A. H. D. Brown; J. J. Burdon; D. F. Garvin; D. C. Abbott; B. J. Read

1996-01-01

360

Effect of the hull fraction on the beta-glucan contents of barley and oat grains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The hull fraction of barley and oat grains affects the beta-glucan (BG) content in whole grains. To evaluate the impact of the hull fraction on BG content in various genetic backgrounds and growth conditions, BG contents were analyzed in five hulled barley lines, seven hulled oat lines, and one F2 ...

361

TRANSFORMATION AND EXPRESSION OF AN ALTERED ANTIFUNGAL PROTEIN HORDOTHIONIN GENE IN TRANSGENIC BARLEY AND OAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alpha-hordothionin is produced in developing barley endosperms and has antimicrobial activity against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. We cloned an alpha-hordothionin gene (Hth1) from a cDNA library derived from developing barley endosperms, ligated the nearly full length hordothionin...

362

Development and Implementation of High-Throughput SNP Genotyping in Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Approximately 22,000 SNPs were identified from barley ESTs and sequenced amplicons; 4,596 of them were tested for performance in three pilot phase Illumina GoldenGate assays. Pilot phase data from three barley doubled haploid mapping populations supported the production of an initial consensus map, ...

363

Molecular mapping of greenbug (Schizaphis graminum) resistance gene Rsg1 in barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) is an extremely damaging aphid pest of barley (Hordeum vulgare L., 2n = 2x =14 L.) particularly in the southern Great Plains of the US. The simply inherited, dominant resistance gene Rsg1 is presented in all greenbug-resistant US barley cultivars, includi...

364

Capacity and Plasticity of Potassium Channels and High-Affinity Transporters in Roots of Barley  

E-print Network

Capacity and Plasticity of Potassium Channels and High-Affinity Transporters in Roots of Barley of potassium (K+ ) transporters in high- and low-affinity K+ uptake was examined in roots of intact barley important model systems and reveal novel aspects of K+ transport in planta. Potassium (K+ ), a major

Britto, Dev T.

365

Potassium and nitrogen poising: Physiological changes and biomass gains in rice and barley  

E-print Network

Potassium and nitrogen poising: Physiological changes and biomass gains in rice and barley D. T., Coskun, D., Huynh, W. Q. and Kronzucker, H. J. 2014. Potassium and nitrogen poising: Physiological changes and biomass gains in rice and barley. Can. J. Plant Sci, 94: 1085-1089. Soil nitrogen, potassium

Britto, Dev T.

366

A first genome sequence survey of the barley fungal pathogen Pyrenophora teres f. teres  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pyrenophora teres f. teres is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen and the cause of one of barley’s most important diseases, net form of net blotch. Here we report the first genome assembly for this species based solely on short Solexa sequencing reads of isolate 0-1. The assembly was validated by compari...

367

Crop stand density enhances competitive ability of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the research was to establish weediness, competitive ability and productivity of the crop. The experimental object was agrophytocenoses of spring barley – Hordeum vulgare L. – crop of spring barley ‘Aura’ and unsown soil, and weeds growing in them. The crop was formed sowing 0, 120, 200 and 280 kg ha (0, 2.7, 4.5 and 6.2 million

Vytautas Pilipavicius; Regina Romaneckiene; Kestutis Romaneckas

2011-01-01

368

Safeguarding world wheat and barley production against Russian wheat aphid: An international pre-breeding initiative  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia, is one of the most damaging insect pests of wheat and barley throughout the World. This aphid, although is not yet present in Australia, is extremely damaging with up to 70% yield loses in wheat and barley producing lands, causing significant financia...

369

Modelling dry matter production and resource use in intercrops of pea and barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FASSET whole farm model was extended with a sub-model for competition between several plant species for light, water and nitrogen. The new model was tested on intercrops of pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). A 3-year dataset on pea and barley sole crop growth was used for calibration. Two datasets that included detailed measurements of

J. Berntsen; H. Hauggard-Nielsen; J. E. Olesen; B. M. Petersen; E. S. Jensen; A. Thomsen

2004-01-01

370

Trends in comparative genetics and their potential impacts on wheat and barley research  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review some general points about comparative mapping, the evolution of gene families and recent advances in the understanding of angiosperm phylogeny. These are considered in relation to studies of large-genome cereals, particularly barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum), with reference to methods of gene isolation. The relative merits of direct map-based cloning in barley and wheat, utilization of

David A. Laurie; Katrien M. Devos

2002-01-01

371

Ancient Egyptian roots in the modern medical and pharmaceutical civilisation.  

PubMed

The Egyptian civilisation was long before any of the neighbouring countries. Medicine and pharmacy in ancient Egypt were deeply rooted since mellenia of years. The ancient Egyptian medical papyri, discovered more than a century ago, proved that the Egyptians were the first to attain civilisation, which was copied and adopted by all the neighbouring countries and not the reverse as believed by the Europeans that the ancient Greece was the cradle of civilisation. PMID:11609032

El-Gammal, S Y

1994-07-01

372

[Progress in researches on ancient history of atherosclerosis].  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis has been thought to be a disease of modern society, and its occurrence was closely related to contemporary diet and lifestyle. However, a series of investigations on ancient mummies by autopsy and CT scan concluded that atherosclerosis was commonly seen in ancient times. The presence of atherosclerosis in ancient human beings suggested that aging and genetic predisposition might be essential risk factors for atherosclerosis. PMID:24432667

Chen, Ke-Ji; Fu, Chang-Geng

2013-10-01

373

Polyphase deformation history and strain analyses of the post-amalgamation depositional basins in the Arabian-Nubian Shield: Evidence from Fatima, Ablah and Hammamat Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-amalgamation depositional basins <650 Ma (PADBs), dominated by volcano-sedimentary assemblages, unconformably overlying Neoproterozoic juvenile (mantle-derived) arcs, represent one of the main collage in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). In this work, three distinguished PADBs; namely Fatima, Ablah and Hammamat PADBs, are the subject matter of detailed field investigations and quantitative strain analysis in an attempt to highlight the polyphase deformation history of these PADBs and to discern whether the ANS's PADBs were deformed at the same time or not. The Fatima PADB is studied in its type locality along the northwestern flank of Wadi Fatima; between Jabal Abu Ghurrah and Jabal Daf, in Jeddah tectonic terrane. The Ablah PADB is examined around Wadi Yiba, further south of its type locality near Jabal Ablah in Al-Aqiq Quadrangle, in Asir tectonic terrane. The Hammamat PADB is investigated in Wadi Umm Gheig, Wadi Allaqi and Wadi Hodein in the Egyptian Eastern Desert tectonic terrane. It is supposed that the Fatima is a basin controlled by dextral transcurrent shearing occurred along the NE-oriented Wadi Fatima Shear Zone and the Ablah is a strike-slip pull-apart basin, and both basins were believed to be deposited during and soon after the Nabitah Orogeny (680-640 Ma) that marked suturing of the Afif terrane with the oceanic ANS terranes to the west. They were affected by at least three Neoproterozoic deformation phases and show geometric and kinematic relationships between folding and thrusting. The Hammamat PADB is a fault-bounded basin affected by a NW-SE- to NNW-SSE-oriented shortening phase just after the deposition of the molasse sediments, proved by NW- to NNW-verging folds and SE- to SSE-dipping thrusts that were refolded and thrusted in the same direction. The shortening phase in the Hammamat was followed by a transpressional wrenching phase related to the Najd Shear System, which resulted in the formation of NW-SE sinistral-slip faults associated with positive flower structures that comprise NE-verging folds and SW-dipping thrusts. Strain results in the three studied PADBs are nearly consistent, indicating that they are correlated and underwent the same history of deformation. The ANOVA test indicates that there is no significant difference for the Vector mean and ISYM for the three PADBs. There is only a significant difference for the Harmonic mean (P-value < 0.05). A Post Hoc test (Shefee) shows that the difference exists between the Allaqi and the Umm Gheig's deformed polymictic conglomeratic pebbles of the Hammamat PADB.

Hamimi, Zakaria; El-Fakharani, Abdelhamid; Abdeen, Mamdouh M.

2014-11-01

374

Interrelations between coeval mafic and A-type silicic magmas from composite dykes in a bimodal suite of southern Israel, northernmost Arabian Nubian Shield: Geochemical and isotope constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Neoproterozoic bimodal dyke suites are abundant in the Arabian-Nubian Shield. In southern Israel this suite includes dominant alkaline quartz porphyry dykes, rare mafic dykes, and numerous composite dykes with felsic interiors and mafic margins. The quartz porphyry chemically corresponds to A-type granite. Composite dykes with either abrupt or gradational contacts between the felsic and mafic rocks bear field, petrographic and chemical evidence for coexistence and mixing of basaltic and rhyolitic magmas. Mixing and formation of hybrid intermediate magmas commenced at depth and continued during emplacement of the dykes. Oxygen isotope ratios of alkali feldspar in quartz porphyry (13 to 15‰) and of plagioclase in trachydolerite (10-11‰) are much higher than their initial magmatic ratios predicted by equilibrium with unaltered quartz (8 to 9‰) and clinopyroxene (5.8‰). The elevation of ?18O in alkali feldspar and plagioclase, and extensive turbidization and sericitization call for post-magmatic low-temperature (? 100 °C) water-rock interaction. Hydrous alteration of alkali feldspar, the major carrier of Rb and Sr in the quartz-porphyry, also accounts for the highly variable and unusually high I(Sr) of 0.71253 to 0.73648. The initial 143Nd/ 144Nd ratios, expressed by ?Nd( T) values, are probably unaltered and show small variation in mafic and felsic rocks within a narrow range from + 1.4 to + 3.3. The Nd isotope signature suggests either a common mantle source for the mafic and silicic magmas or a juvenile crustal source for the felsic rocks (metamorphic rocks from the Elat area). However, oxygen isotope ratios of zircon in quartz porphyry [ ?18O(Zrn) = 6.5 to 7.2‰] reveal significant crustal contribution to the rhyolite magma, suggesting that mafic and A-type silicic magmas are not co-genetic, although coeval. Comparison of 18O/ 16O ratios in zircon allows to distinguish two groups of A-type granites in the region: those with mantle-derived source, ?18O(Zrn) ranging from 5.5 to 5.8‰ (Timna and Katharina granitoids) and those with major contribution of the modified juvenile crustal component, ?18O(Zrn) varying from 6.5 to 7.2‰ (Elat quartz porphyry dykes and the Yehoshafat alkaline granite). This suggests that A-type silicic magmas in the northern ANS originated by alternative processes almost coevally.

Katzir, Y.; Litvinovsky, B. A.; Jahn, B. M.; Eyal, M.; Zanvilevich, A. N.; Valley, J. W.; Vapnik, Ye.; Beeri, Y.; Spicuzza, M. J.

2007-09-01

375

Effective groundwater modeling of the data-poor Nubian Aquifer System (Chad, Egypt, Libya, Sudan) - use of parsimony and 81Kr-based groundwater ages (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Important information for management of large aquifer systems can be obtained via a parsimonious approach to groundwater modeling, in part, employing isotope-interpreted groundwater ages. ';Parsimonious' modeling implies active avoidance of overly-complex representations when constructing models. This approach is essential for evaluation of aquifer systems that lack informative hydrogeologic databases. Even in the most remote aquifers, despite lack of typical data, groundwater ages can be interpreted from isotope samples at only a few downstream locations. These samples incorporate hydrogeologic information from the entire upstream groundwater flowpath; thus, interpreted ages are among the most-effective information sources for groundwater model development. This approach is applied to the world's largest non-renewable aquifer, the transboundary Nubian Aquifer System (NAS) of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan. In the NAS countries, water availability is a critical problem and NAS can reliably serve as a water supply for an extended future period. However, there are national concerns about transboundary impacts of water use by neighbors. These concerns include excessive depletion of shared groundwater by individual countries and the spread of water-table drawdown across borders, where neighboring country near-border shallow wells and oases may dry. Development of a parsimonious groundwater flow model, based on limited available NAS hydrogeologic data and on 81Kr groundwater ages below oases in Egypt, is a key step in providing a technical basis for international discussion concerning management of this non-renewable water resource. Simply-structured model analyses, undertaken as part of an IAEA/UNDP/GEF project, show that although the main transboundary issue is indeed drawdown crossing national boundaries, given the large scale of NAS and its plausible ranges of aquifer parameter values, the magnitude of transboundary drawdown will likely be small and may not be a matter of practical significance. Rather, modeling shows that the greatest impacts of pumping are to be expected on the local scale, entailing excessive local drawdown and possible disappearance of oases where these are co-located with pumping centers.

Voss, C. I.; Soliman, S. M.; Aggarwal, P. K.

2013-12-01

376

Mapping the Ancient Maya Landscape from Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project uses new satellite and airborne imagery in combination with remote sensing, GIS, and GPS technology to understand the dynamics of how the Maya successfully interacted with their karst topographic landscape for several centuries in the northern Peten region of Guatemala. The ancient Maya attained one of the greatest population densities in human history in the tropical forest of the Peten, Guatemala, and it was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared for unknown reasons around AD 800. How the Maya were able to successfully manage water and feed this dense population is not known at this time. However, a recent NASA-funded project was the first to investigate large seasonal swamps (bajos) that make up 40 percent of the landscape. Through the use of remote sensing, ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals and water reservoirs have been detected and verified through ground reconnaissance. The results of this research cast new light on the adaptation of the ancient Maya to their environment. Micro-environmental variation within the wetlands was elucidated and the different vegetational associations identified in the satellite imagery. More than 70 new archeological sites within and at the edges of the bajo were mapped and tested. Modification of the landscape by the Maya in the form of dams and reservoirs in the Holmul River and its tributaries and possible drainage canals in bajos was demonstrated. The recent acquisition of one-meter IKONOS imagery and high resolution STAR-3i radar imagery (2.5m backscatter/ 10m DEM), opens new possibilities for understanding how a civilization was able to survive for centuries upon a karst topographic landscape and their human-induced effects upon the local climate. This understanding is critical for the current population that is presently experiencing rapid population growth and destroying the landscape through non-traditional farming and grazing techniques, resulting in socioeconomic problems.

Sever, Tom

2003-01-01

377

[Bow legged adjectives in ancient literature].  

PubMed

This article addresses the issue of capturing the medical entity called 'curved legs' in a terminologically exact way. In so doing, it refers to the long-lasting process of differentiation of exact nuances of meaning in Ancient Greek and Latin. In the chronological perusal of ancient Greek literature, it becomes evident that the various adjectives employed are often vague when looking at non-medical literature. By contrast, in the Hippocratic corpus these terms are for the first time annotated with explanations intended to lead to a more precise understanding of the described deformity. Further attempts of differentiation can be found in the writings of Galen, who not only distinguishes between outward and inward curvatures, but also between deformities of the thigh and lower leg as well as between pathological and natural curvatures. Latin literature also provides a series of adjectives that were initially often used in the meaning of 'curved' but it was not until Celsus that these were differentiated with respect to the type and direction of the curvature. When comparing Greek and Latin adjectives, it turns out that though the Latin term blaesus can be traced back etymologically to the Greek word beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta, the meaning of beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta does not fully correspond to that of the Latin word. It is not before the later common transliteration of Greek words that this adjective took on the meaning of beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta; however, this was finally lost again. In summary, the article concludes that exact word meanings in ancient literature are often unclear and precise ascriptions of meanings are inconsistent. In the case of "curved legs," this has led to misunderstandings regarding the respective types and directions of the curvature. PMID:22352134

Simon, Frantisek; Steger, Florian

2011-01-01

378

Visualising Ancient Maps as Cultural Heritage: A Relational Database of the Spanish Ancient Cartography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of the historical evolution of the territories and landscapes has been seldom based upon the study of old cartographic documents; they have been always set in a second place after texts and writings. Trying to bridge this gap, we have designed and implemented a relational database of the ancient maps and charts that are already preserved in the

Pilar Chias; Tomas Abad

2008-01-01

379

Ancient tropical climates warm San Francisco gathering  

SciTech Connect

Climate records preserved in the Greenland ice sheet got a lot of the attention at the fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in San Francisco last month, but ancient tropical records were a rival attraction. In talks scattered in unrelated sessions, researchers reported a possible role for the tropics in driving the last ice age, a link between high latitudes and the tropics that may have redirected human evolution, and a tropical climate periodicity that may fill a gap in the understanding of climate variability.

Kerr, R.A.

1994-01-14

380

Food, dietetics and nutrition in ancient India.  

PubMed

In pre-agricultural era, entire mankind consumed meat as early man was a hunter. Possibly he ate from plants sources which grew in the wilderness. With the advent of agriculture as an outcome of civilization, man acquired the ability to cultivate what he wanted, as by now he was influenced to some extent by the selection of the food that he wanted to eat. All this ultimately led to him taking to vegeterianism, which probably did not occur until approximately 1500 B.C. It is tried in this study to examine the concept of nutrition, balanced diet, appetite, food etiquette, food sanitation and food poisoning etc. in ancient India. PMID:11618846

Manyam, B V

1995-01-01

381

Ancient schwannoma of the infratemporal fossa  

PubMed Central

Schwannomas are benign tumors of neurogenic origin arising from the Schwann cells of peripheral, cranial, and autonomic nerves. Schwannomas in spite of constituting 25-40% of head and neck tumors the percentage of intraoral schwannomas is merely 1%. Among the intraoral schwannoma the occurrence of the variant “ancient schwannoma of the infratemporal fossa with an intraoral presentation is very rare. The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the rarity of this lesion, to stress the importance of an accurate diagnosis and to consider neurogenic lesions in the differential diagnosis of head and neck lesions.

Balasubramaniam, Saravanan; Balasubramanian, Sethurajan; Thirunavukkarasu, Rohini

2014-01-01

382

Basaltic Volcanism and Ancient Planetary Crusts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this project is to decipher the origin of rocks which form the ancient lunar crust. Our goal is to better understand how the moon evolved chemically and, more generally, the processes involved in the chemical fractionation of terrestrial planetoids. This research has implications for other planetary bodies besides the Moon, especially smaller planetoids which evolved early in the history of the solar system and are now thermally stable. The three main areas focused on in our work (lunar mare basalts, KREEP basalts, and plutonic rocks of the lunar highlands) provide complementary information on the lunar interior and the processes that formed it.

Shervais, John W.

1993-01-01

383

Extinct 244Pu in ancient zircons.  

PubMed

We have found evidence, in the form of fissiogenic xenon isotopes, for in situ decay of 244Pu in individual 4.1- to 4.2-billion-year-old zircons from the Jack Hills region of Western Australia. Because of its short half-life, 82 million years, 244Pu was extinct within 600 million years of Earth's formation. Detrital zircons are the only known relics to have survived from this period, and a study of their Pu geochemistry will allow us to date ancient metamorphic events and determine the terrestrial Pu/U ratio for comparison with the solar ratio. PMID:15459384

Turner, Grenville; Harrison, T Mark; Holland, Greg; Mojzsis, Stephen J; Gilmour, Jamie

2004-10-01

384

Ancient Astrology and Divination on the Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents over 100 links to "reliable information about ancient (primarily Greek and Roman) astrology and divination" compiled by graduate student Tim Spaulding for fellow non-believers in these arts and sciences. Materials listed include books, journal articles, and Websites with yet more links to additional sites. Some highlights under astrology are an exhibition of star atlases from the Linda Hall Library, Kansas City; a zodiac mosaic on the floor of Beth Alpha, a temple in Israel; and papyrus documents that mention astrological terms, from a pre-executed search of University of Michigan's collection. Resources open in a new window, allowing users to return to Spaulding's list easily.

385

Ancient Chinese Apiculture Constantine W. Lau  

E-print Network

), It took place in the sixth month of the Chinese calendar (approximately July). Beekeepers were already···················································· Ancient Chinese Apiculture Constantine W. Lau a great interest in the history of Chinese apiculture. He is currently teaching Biology at the Tsung Tsin

Nieh, James

386

Modern and ancient alluvial fan deposits  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the structure and depositional processes of alluvial fans (river outwash deposits) has a special interest for those involved with the exploration of petroleum and many minerals. This collection of facsimile reprints of significant and classical research papers sheds new light on the subject. This reference covers the stratigraphy, sedimentology, and depositional processes of modern and ancient alluvial fans. Geographical areas considered include Arctic Canada, the American Southwest, Australia, Wyoming, Norway, and Spain. It includes a state-of-the-art introduction by the editor along with commentaries on all the papers included, a master author citation index and a subject index, and a chronological listing of early studies of alluvial fans.

Nilsen, T.H.

1985-01-01

387

Islands and streams: clusters and gene flow in wild barley populations from the Levant.  

PubMed

The domestication of plants frequently results in a high level of genetic differentiation between domesticated plants and their wild progenitors. This process is counteracted by gene flow between wild and domesticated plants because they are usually able to inter-mate and to exchange genes. We investigated the extent of gene flow between wild barley Hordeum spontaneum and cultivated barley Hordeum vulgare, and its effect on population structure in wild barley by analysing a collection of 896 wild barley accessions (Barley1K) from Israel and all available Israeli H. vulgare accessions from the Israeli gene bank. We compared the performance of simple sequence repeats (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) marker data genotyped over a core collection in estimating population parameters. Estimates of gene flow rates with SSR markers indicated a high level of introgression from cultivated barley into wild barley. After removing accessions from the wild barley sample that were recently admixed with cultivated barley, the inference of population structure improved significantly. Both SSR and SNP markers showed that the genetic population structure of wild barley in Israel corresponds to the three major ecogeographic regions: the coast, the Mediterranean north and the deserts in the Jordan valley and the South. Gene flow rates were estimated to be higher from north to south than in the opposite direction. As has been observed in other crop species, there is a significant exchange of alleles between the wild species and domesticated varieties that needs to be accounted for in the population genetic analysis of domestication. PMID:22256891

Hübner, Sariel; Günther, Torsten; Flavell, Andrew; Fridman, Eyal; Graner, Andreas; Korol, Abraham; Schmid, Karl J

2012-03-01

388

Scandinavian mutation research in barley - a historical review.  

PubMed

In 1928, the Swedish geneticists Hermann Nilsson-Ehle and Åke Gustafsson started on their suggestion experiments with induced mutations using the barley crop. In 1953, at the instigation of the Swedish Government, the 'Group for Theoretical and Applied Mutation Research' was established. Its aim was to study basic research problems in order to influence and improve methods for breeding cultivated plants. The research was non-commercial, even if some mutants were of practical importance. The peaks of activities occurred during the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. Applying X-rays and UV-irradiation very soon the first chlorophyll mutations were obtained followed by the first viable mutations 'Erectoides'. Soon the X-ray experiments expanded with other types of irradiation such as neutrons etc. and finally with chemical mutagens, starting with mustard gas and concluding with the sodium azide. The research brought a wealth of observations of general biological importance, high increased mutation frequencies, difference in the mutation spectrum and to direct mutagenesis for specific genes. A rather large collection of morphological and physiological mutations, about 12 000 different mutant alleles, with a very broad variation were collected and incorporated into the Nordic Genetic Resource Center (NordGen) Sweden. Barley, the main experimental crop has become one of the few higher plants in which biochemical genetics and molecular biological studies are now feasible. The collection is an outstanding material for mapping genes and investigating the barley genome. Several characters have been studied and analyzed in more detail and are presented in this historical review. PMID:25491643

Lundqvist, Udda

2014-12-10

389

New starch phenotypes produced by TILLING in barley.  

PubMed

Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1:3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant for nutritional value or industrial applications. Here, the Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) approach was applied on the barley TILLMore TILLING population to identify 29 new alleles in five genes related to starch metabolism known to be expressed in the endosperm during grain filling: BMY1 (Beta-amylase 1), GBSSI (Granule Bound Starch Synthase I), LDA1 (Limit Dextrinase 1), SSI (Starch Synthase I), SSIIa (Starch Synthase IIa). Reserve starch of nine M3 mutant lines carrying missense or nonsense mutations was analysed for granule size, crystallinity and amylose/amylopectin content. Seven mutant lines presented starches with different features in respect to the wild-type: (i) a mutant line with a missense mutation in GBSSI showed a 4-fold reduced amylose/amylopectin ratio; (ii) a missense mutations in SSI resulted in 2-fold increase in A:B granule ratio; (iii) a nonsense mutation in SSIIa was associated with shrunken seeds with a 2-fold increased amylose/amylopectin ratio and different type of crystal packing in the granule; (iv) the remaining four missense mutations suggested a role of LDA1 in granule initiation, and of SSIIa in determining the size of A-granules. We demonstrate the feasibility of the TILLING approach to identify new alleles in genes related to starch metabolism in barley. Based on their novel physicochemical properties, some of the identified new mutations may have nutritional and/or industrial applications. PMID:25271438

Sparla, Francesca; Falini, Giuseppe; Botticella, Ermelinda; Pirone, Claudia; Talamè, Valentina; Bovina, Riccardo; Salvi, Silvio; Tuberosa, Roberto; Sestili, Francesco; Trost, Paolo

2014-01-01

390

New Starch Phenotypes Produced by TILLING in Barley  

PubMed Central

Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1?3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant for nutritional value or industrial applications. Here, the Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) approach was applied on the barley TILLMore TILLING population to identify 29 new alleles in five genes related to starch metabolism known to be expressed in the endosperm during grain filling: BMY1 (Beta-amylase 1), GBSSI (Granule Bound Starch Synthase I), LDA1 (Limit Dextrinase 1), SSI (Starch Synthase I), SSIIa (Starch Synthase IIa). Reserve starch of nine M3 mutant lines carrying missense or nonsense mutations was analysed for granule size, crystallinity and amylose/amylopectin content. Seven mutant lines presented starches with different features in respect to the wild-type: (i) a mutant line with a missense mutation in GBSSI showed a 4-fold reduced amylose/amylopectin ratio; (ii) a missense mutations in SSI resulted in 2-fold increase in A:B granule ratio; (iii) a nonsense mutation in SSIIa was associated with shrunken seeds with a 2-fold increased amylose/amylopectin ratio and different type of crystal packing in the granule; (iv) the remaining four missense mutations suggested a role of LDA1 in granule initiation, and of SSIIa in determining the size of A-granules. We demonstrate the feasibility of the TILLING approach to identify new alleles in genes related to starch metabolism in barley. Based on their novel physicochemical properties, some of the identified new mutations may have nutritional and/or industrial applications. PMID:25271438

Sparla, Francesca; Falini, Giuseppe; Botticella, Ermelinda; Pirone, Claudia; Talamè, Valentina; Bovina, Riccardo; Salvi, Silvio; Tuberosa, Roberto; Sestili, Francesco; Trost, Paolo

2014-01-01

391

Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Barley. Xi. the msm2 Cytoplasm  

PubMed Central

A new cytoplasmic male sterility in barley (Hordeum vulgare s.l.) is described and designated as msm2. The cytoplasm was derived from a selection of the wild progenitor of barley (H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum). This selection, 79BS14-3, originates from the Southern Coastal Plain of Israel. The selection 79BS14-3 has a normal spike fertility in Finland. When 79BS14-3 was crossed by cv. Adorra, the F1 displayed partial male fertility and progeny of recurrent backcrosses with cv. Adorra were completely male sterile. Evidently 79BS14-3 is a carrier of a recessive or semidominant restorer gene of fertility. The dominant restorer gene Rfm1a for another cytoplasmic male sterility, msm1, is also effective in msm2 cytoplasm. The different partial fertility restoration properties of msm2 and msm1 cause these cytoplasms to be regarded as being distinct. Seventy spontaneum accessions from Israel have been studied for their capacity to produce F1 restoration of male fertility both in msm1 and in msm2 cytoplasms with a cv. Adorra-like seed parent (nuclear gene) background. The msm2 cytoplasm shows partial restoration more commonly than msm1 in these F1 combinations. The mean restoration percentage per accession for msm2 is 28, and for msm1 4. Most of the F1 seed set differences of the two cytoplasms are statistically significant. When estimated with partially restored F1 combinations, msm2 cytoplasm appeared to be about 50 times more sensitive to the male fertility-promoting genes present in the spontaneum accessions. The spontaneum sample from Central and Western Negev, which has been found to be devoid of restoration ability in msm1 cytoplasm, had only low partial restoration ability in msm2 (mean 0.3%). The female fertility of msm2 appears normal. The new msm2 cytoplasm could be useful in producing hybrid barley. PMID:17246095

Ahokas, H.

1982-01-01

392

Acoustical measurements in ancient Roman theatres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Greek and Roman theatres are among the most precious and spectacular items of cultural heritage in the Mediterranean countries. The theatres are famous not only for their impressive architecture, but also for the acoustic qualities. For this reason it is important to consider these theatres as an acoustical heritage and to study their sound field. Within the activities of the ERATO (identification Evaluation and Revival of the Acoustical heritage of ancient Theatres and Odea) project, acoustical measurements were taken in well-preserved ancient Roman theatres at Aspendos (Turkey) and Jerash (Jordan). Roman theatres have an impressive stage building that forms a back wall in the orchestra area, and it was found that, from the analysis of the acoustical parameters, the reverberation time (e.g., 1.7 s at middle frequencies in the theatre of Aspendos) is quite long compared not only with other open-space theatres but also with closed spaces. Contrary to modern halls the clarity is high and this fact, together with a low sound level in most of the seats, gives the sound field a unique character.

Farnetani, Andrea; Fausti, Patrizio; Pompoli, Roberto; Prodi, Nicola

2001-05-01

393

Ancient-Pathogen Genomics: Coming of Age?  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The potentially debilitating zoonotic disease brucellosis is thought to have been a scourge of mankind throughout history. New work by Kay et al. [mBio 5(4):e01337-14, 2014] adds to evidence for this by exploiting the huge advances in next-generation sequencing technology and applying shotgun metagenomics to a calcified nodule obtained from a 14th-century skeleton from Sardinia. While not the first DNA-based confirmation of Brucella in medieval DNA samples, Kay et al.’s study goes much further than previous reports based on single gene fragments in that it allows a full-genome reconstruction and thus facilitates meaningful comparative analysis of relationships with extant Brucella strains. These analyses confirm the close relationship of the genome to contemporary isolates from the western Mediterranean, illustrating the continuity of this lineage in the region over centuries. The study, along with recent studies characterizing other ancient-pathogen genomes, confirms that shotgun metagenomics offers us a powerful tool to fully characterize pathogens from ancient samples. Such studies promise to revolutionize our understanding of the nature of infectious disease in these materials and of the wider picture of the emergence, evolution, and spread of bacterial pathogens over history. PMID:25182326

2014-01-01

394

Mitochondrial Phylogenomics of Modern and Ancient Equids  

PubMed Central

The genus Equus is richly represented in the fossil record, yet our understanding of taxonomic relationships within this genus remains limited. To estimate the phylogenetic relationships among modern horses, zebras, asses and donkeys, we generated the first data set including complete mitochondrial sequences from all seven extant lineages within the genus Equus. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic inference confirms that zebras are monophyletic within the genus, and the Plains and Grevy’s zebras form a well-supported monophyletic group. Using ancient DNA techniques, we further characterize the complete mitochondrial genomes of three extinct equid lineages (the New World stilt-legged horses, NWSLH; the subgenus Sussemionus; and the Quagga, Equus quagga quagga). Comparisons with extant taxa confirm the NWSLH as being part of the caballines, and the Quagga and Plains zebras as being conspecific. However, the evolutionary relationships among the non-caballine lineages, including the now-extinct subgenus Sussemionus, remain unresolved, most likely due to extremely rapid radiation within this group. The closest living outgroups (rhinos and tapirs) were found to be too phylogenetically distant to calibrate reliable molecular clocks. Additional mitochondrial genome sequence data, including radiocarbon dated ancient equids, will be required before revisiting the exact timing of the lineage radiation leading up to modern equids, which for now were found to have possibly shared a common ancestor as far as up to 4 Million years ago (Mya). PMID:23437078

Vilstrup, Julia T.; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Stiller, Mathias; Ginolhac, Aurelien; Raghavan, Maanasa; Nielsen, Sandra C. A.; Weinstock, Jacobo; Froese, Duane; Vasiliev, Sergei K.; Ovodov, Nikolai D.; Clary, Joel; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Cooper, Alan; Shapiro, Beth; Orlando, Ludovic

2013-01-01

395

Sample Return from Ancient Hydrothermal Springs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydrothermal spring deposits on Mars would make excellent candidates for sample return. Molecular phylogeny suggests that that life on Earth may have arisen in hydrothermal settings [1-3], and on Mars, such settings not only would have supplied energy-rich waters in which martian life may have evolved [4-7] but also would have provided warm, liquid water to martian life forms as the climate became colder and drier [8]. Since silica, sulfates, and clays associated with hydrothermal settings are known to preserve geochemical and morphological remains of ancient terrestrial life [9-11], such settings on Mars might similarly preserve evidence of martian life. Finally, because formation of hydrothermal springs includes surface and subsurface processes, martian spring deposits would offer the potential to assess astrobiological potential and hydrological history in a variety of settings, including surface mineralized terraces, associated stream deposits, and subsurface environments where organic remains may have been well protected from oxidation. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data [12-14]. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel, and based on these new data, we have interpreted several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra as ancient hydrothermal springs [15, 16].

Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.

2008-01-01

396

Ancient-pathogen genomics: coming of age?  

PubMed

The potentially debilitating zoonotic disease brucellosis is thought to have been a scourge of mankind throughout history. New work by Kay et al. [mBio 5(4):e01337-14, 2014] adds to evidence for this by exploiting the huge advances in next-generation sequencing technology and applying shotgun metagenomics to a calcified nodule obtained from a 14th-century skeleton from Sardinia. While not the first DNA-based confirmation of Brucella in medieval DNA samples, Kay et al.'s study goes much further than previous reports based on single gene fragments in that it allows a full-genome reconstruction and thus facilitates meaningful comparative analysis of relationships with extant Brucella strains. These analyses confirm the close relationship of the genome to contemporary isolates from the western Mediterranean, illustrating the continuity of this lineage in the region over centuries. The study, along with recent studies characterizing other ancient-pathogen genomes, confirms that shotgun metagenomics offers us a powerful tool to fully characterize pathogens from ancient samples. Such studies promise to revolutionize our understanding of the nature of infectious disease in these materials and of the wider picture of the emergence, evolution, and spread of bacterial pathogens over history. PMID:25182326

Whatmore, Adrian M

2014-01-01

397

[3'terminal nucleotide sequence of barley stripe mosaic virus RNA].  

PubMed

Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is a representative of the hordeiviruses which has a functionally fragmented RNA genom. 3'-terminal nucleotide sequence of the noncoding region of BSMV RNA 2 has been determined. This region contains the internal olygo(A) sequence (n = 21) and the tyrosine accepting tRNA-like structure at 3'-extreme end. tRNA-like sequence can fold into the two distinct secondary structure which strikingly similar to such a structures which has been proposed recently for cucumo- and bromoviruses. PMID:6708954

Rupasov, V V; Adyshev, D M; Morozov, S M; Belzhelarskaia, S N; Man'kin, A S

1984-01-01

398

Utilization of sorghum brans and barley flour in bread  

E-print Network

, functional foods As Hasler (1998) describes, functional foods, also called nutraceutical foods, are defined by the U S Institute of Medicine's Food and Nutrition Board as "any food or food ingredient that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional... the potential for use in baked goods to increase both total and soluble dietary fiber. Sorghum bran. as a good source of insoluble fiber. could be combined with barley for use in baking formulations to provide a balance of both types of dietary fiber. Baking...

Gordon, Leigh Ann

2001-01-01

399

Notions of "Rhetoric as Epistemic" in Ancient Greece.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The notion that rhetoric (and to a lesser extent, argument) is epistemic is an increasingly popular one today, although it can be traced to ancient Greece. The notion holds that rhetoric, or the art of persuasion, creates and shapes knowledge. Two ancient authors--Aristophanes and Plato--provide evidence that others had notions of rhetoric as…

Benoit, William L.

400

Crossroads of Civilizations from the Ancient Past to the Present  

E-print Network

, ancient Greek colonists, and Julius Caesar, who pronounced "Veni, Vidi, Vici" over the kings of PontusCrossroads of Civilizations from the Ancient Past to the Present Black Sea Voyage AboArd the All in the Yale Theater Studies Program while serving as its Director of Undergraduate Studies. A specialist

Qian, Ning

401

Acoustic evolution of ancient Greek and Roman theatres  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation the acoustic properties of ancient performance spaces for Greek and Roman drama were studied, from the viewpoint of material and design evolution. The paper first reviews the theatre evolution in antiquity. Following a systematic examination of computer simulation methodology for ancient Greek and Roman theatres, it then presents the results of a series of acoustic simulations in

K. Chourmouziadou; J. Kang

2008-01-01

402

Evolution of Management Thought in the Ancient Times.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that although systematic management thought is a distinctly modern development, the writings of ancient scholars and records of ancient rulers infer that they understood the rudiments of management principles and concepts. To support this thesis, the author reviews the evidence of management practices and concepts in various…

Sharma, C. L.

403

ANIMAL DNA IN PCR REAGENTS PLAGUES ANCIENT DNA RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Ancient DNA analysis is becoming widespread. These studies use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify minute quantities of heavily damaged template. Unusual steps are taken to achieve the sensitivity necessary to detect ancient DNA, including high-cycle PCR amplification targ...

404

Ancient Medicine/Medicina Antiqua (AM/MA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is dedicated to the study of ancient medicine. Medicina Antiqua, is a collaborative project sponsored by The Episcopal Academy and maintained by Dr. Lee T. Pearcy. Users will find modest, but selective collections of bibliographies, hypertexts, and links related to the study of ancient medicine. The site also posts recent news and announcements in the field.

1998-01-01

405

Restoration of Native Woodland on Ancient Woodland Sites  

E-print Network

Restoration of Native Woodland on Ancient Woodland Sites P R A C T I C E G U I D E #12;Restoration). Restoration of native woodland on ancient woodland sites. Forestry Commission Practice Guide. Forestry networks, habitat action plans, landscape ecology, native woodlands, restoration ecology. Printed

406

Design a Book: A Quest in Ancient Egypt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a classroom project that combines creative writing, basic book design, and social studies content. During this project, the authors' seventh grade students research a variety of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites while reviewing course material from a unit of study on ancient Egypt, practice project management skills…

Cooper, David

2005-01-01

407

Computer animations of ancient Greek and Arabic planetary models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new set of computer animations is available for those who teach the ancient models of planetary motion, those who want to learn those models, or even those who enjoy simply contemplating just how clever the ancient astronomers were. The animations include the models from Ptolemy's Almagest (ca. 150 AD) and those from the Maragha school of Arabic astronomy (ca.

Dennis Duke

2004-01-01

408

[Ancientness and maturity: Two complementary qualities of forest ecosystems].  

PubMed

Ancientness and maturity are two major qualities of forest ecosystems. They are components of naturalness and are affected by human impact. These qualities and the associated terms are often mixed up and incorrectly used. We have carried out a synthesis in order to propose an adapted French terminology based on international literature. The topics of ancientness and maturity for biodiversity and soil characteristics are explained. This review leads us to submit different potential thresholds for ancientness and maturity. An analysis on ancientness and maturity on forest data for France leads to the conclusion that about 29 % of all forests can be considered "ancient woodland", and less than 3 % of the even-age forest is older than the harvesting age. PMID:25455000

Cateau, Eugénie; Larrieu, Laurent; Vallauri, Daniel; Savoie, Jean-Marie; Touroult, Julien; Brustel, Hervé

2015-01-01

409

Development of 5006 Full-Length CDNAs in Barley: A Tool for Accessing Cereal Genomics Resources  

PubMed Central

A collection of 5006 full-length (FL) cDNA sequences was developed in barley. Fifteen mRNA samples from various organs and treatments were pooled to develop a cDNA library using the CAP trapper method. More than 60% of the clones were confirmed to have complete coding sequences, based on comparison with rice amino acid and UniProt sequences. Blastn homologies (E<1E-5) to rice genes and Arabidopsis genes were 89 and 47%, respectively. Of the 5028 possible amino acid sequences derived from the 5006 FLcDNAs, 4032 (80.2%) were classified into 1678 GreenPhyl multigenic families. There were 555 cDNAs showing low homology to both rice and Arabidopsis. Gene ontology annotation by InterProScan indicated that many of these cDNAs (71%) have no known molecular functions and may be unique to barley. The cDNAs showed high homology to Barley 1 GeneChip oligo probes (81%) and the wheat gene index (84%). The high homology between FLcDNAs (27%) and mapped barley expressed sequence tag enabled assigning linkage map positions to 151–233 FLcDNAs on each of the seven barley chromosomes. These comprehensive barley FLcDNAs provide strong platform to connect pre-existing genomic and genetic resources and accelerate gene identification and genome analysis in barley and related species. PMID:19150987

Sato, Kazuhiro; Shin-I, Tadasu; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yoshida, Hideya; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Conte, Matthieu; Kohara, Yuji

2009-01-01

410

Genetic and molecular analyses of resistance to a variant of Puccinia striiformis in barley.  

PubMed

Seedlings of 62 Australian barley cultivars and two exotic barley genotypes were assessed for resistance to a variant of Puccinia striiformis, referred to as "Barley Grass Stripe Rust" (BGYR), first detected in Australia in 1998, which is capable of infecting wild Hordeum species and some genotypes of cultivated barley. Fifty-three out of 62 cultivated barley cultivars tested were resistant to the pathogen. Genetic analyses of seedling resistance to BGYR in six Australian barley cultivars and one Algerian barley landrace indicated that they carried either one or two major resistance genes to the pathogen. A single recessive seedling resistance gene, rpsSa3771, identified in Sahara 3771, was located on the long arm of chromosome 1 (7 H), flanked by the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers Xwg420 and Xcdo347 at genetic distances of 12.8 and 21.9 cM, respectively. Mapping resistance to BGYR at adult plant growth stages using the doubled haploid (DH) population Clipper × Sahara 3771 identified two major quantitative trait loci (QTL), one on the long arm of chromosome 3 (3 H) and the second on the long arm of chromosome 1 (7 H), accounting for 26 % and 18 % of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. The QTL located on chromosome 7HL corresponded to seedling resistance gene rpsSa3771 and the second QTL was concluded to correspond to a single APR gene, designated rpsCl, contributed by cultivar Clipper. PMID:23090689

Golegaonkar, Prashant G; Wellings, Colin R; Singh, Davinder; Park, Robert F

2013-02-01

411

Legacy of the Ancient World: An Educational Guide. Understanding Ancient Culture through Art at the Tampa Museum of Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the many contributions made by Ancient Greeks and Romans to contemporary life, are those which influence art, architecture, literature, philosophy, mathematics and science, theater, athletics, religion, and the founding of democracy. The Tampa Museum of Art's classical collection offers a unique opportunity to learn about Ancient Greeks and…

Whitelaw, R. Lynn

412

Studies in Continuity and Change: A Comparative Study of the Mother Goddess in Ancient India and Ancient Egypt.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visiting the Temple of Kali in Calcutta, India, one understands the importance of an Afro-centric methodology in describing the complex nature of the Mother Goddess in ancient India. Discoveries of ancient female figurines indicate an early Indian concept of the female role in the creation of civilization and culture and of the notion of the…

Hardiman, W. J.

413

Ancient Greek Project (ID:359) We work in partnership with the successful Iris Project's Ancient Greek Project to  

E-print Network

Ancient Greek Project (ID:359) Outline We work in partnership with the successful Iris Project's Ancient Greek Project to introduce secondary age pupils (Years 7-9 and 10-12) to Latin as the root of attendance at the end of the year. Location: Schools - Swansea University students come to the school for one

Harman, Neal.A.

414

The ancient shorelines of Lanai, Hawaii, revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three ancient shorelines (the Mahana, Kaluakapo and Manele) have been described at elevations of 365, 190 and 170 m in the Kaluakapo Crater, Lanai, Hawaii [Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 237 (1978) 1]. Stearns' original observation of a fossil-bearing outcrop at 326 m was interpreted as an ancient shoreline. Subsequently, Moore and Moore (1984, 1988) [Science 226 (1984) 1312; Geol. Soc. Am., Spec. Pap. 229 (1988) 101] argued that Stearns' fossil evidence represented the highest inundation of tsunami waves associated with the collapse of the flanks of the Hawaiian Islands chain (the Giant Wave Hypothesis, GWH). Subsequently, Stearns' fossil-bearing swale site has never been observed. Geological field studies of Kaluakapo Crater were conducted to clarify the nature of the highest coral-bearing outcrops preserved on Lanai. These field studies found no support for a shoreline at 326 m. However, the field studies did document a shingle terrace with numerous coral clasts at 190-m elevation. We find in situ fossil-bearing marine deposits at 170-m elevation within Kaluakapo Crater. Furthermore, we observe: the undisturbed nature of marine deposits at 190 m, the preservation of fine-grained materials at 170 m, the absence of in situ deposits with a biological component between 200 and 365 m, the dearth of rounded boulders (lacking weathering rinds) between 200 and 365 m, and the lack of post-depositional burial of the terrace deposit (despite loose debris being present on the high ground surrounding the 190-m terrace). These observations lead us to believe that erosion by the hypothesized giant waves did not take place. Our observations are inconsistent with the "Giant Wave" tsunami inundation of the Kaluakapo Crater area. Thus, we concur with Stearns (1938, 1978) [Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 49 (1938) 615; Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 237 (1978) 1], Jones (1993) [Jones, A.T., 1993. Elevated fossil coral deposits in the Hawaiian Islands: a measure of island uplift in the Quaternary. PhD Dissertation, Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii, 1-274] and Grigg and Jones (1997) [Mar. Geol. 141 (1997) 11.] that the coral-bearing deposits on Lanai represent ancient shorelines and reflect a history of uplift of the island associated with lithospheric deformation of the sea floor around the Hawaiian hot spot.

Keating, Barbara H.; Helsley, Charles E.

2002-06-01

415

Mapping The Ancient Maya Landscape From Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Peten region of northern Guatemala is one of the last places on earth where major archeological sites remain to be discovered. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper and IKONOS satellite and airborne Star3-I radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. The use of bajos for farming has been a source of debate within the professional community for many years. But the recent detection and verification of cultural features within the bajo system by our research team are providing conclusive evidence that the ancient Maya had adapted well to wetland environments from the earliest times and utilized them until the time of the Maya collapse. The use of the bajos for farming is also an important resource for the future of the current inhabitants who are experiencing rapid population growth. Remote sensing imagery is also demonstrating that in the Preclassic period (600 BC- AD 250), the Maya had already achieved a high organizational level as evidenced by the construction of massive temples and an elaborate inter-connecting roadway system. Although they experienced several setbacks such as droughts and hurricanes, the Maya nevertheless managed the delicate forest ecosystem successfully for several centuries. However, around AD 800, something happened to the Maya to cause their rapid decline and eventual disappearance from the region. The evidence indicates that at this time there was increased climatic dryness, extensive deforestation, overpopulation, and widespread warfare. This raises a question that is relevant to the contemporary world-namely, how severe do internal stresses in a civilization have to become before relatively minor climate shifts can trigger a widespread cultural collapse?

Sever, Tom; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

416

Information about Macedonian medicine in ancient Greece.  

PubMed

Ancient Greek Macedonians were highly interested in the improvement of their physical and psychological health. At first, they worshiped the mythical god Asclepius and his daughter Hygieia. In at least 24 places in northern Greece, in Halkidiki, Thessaloniki, Kozani, Kavala, Thassos, Serres and other places, archaelogical findings were related to Asclepius. Macedonian kings were also interested in the development of medicine, for the sake of their fellow citizens and their soldiers. Characteristic examples are the close relations of Hippocrates with king Perdikas (5(th) century B.C.) and of Nicomachus (Aristotle's father being a physician) with king Amintas. Alexander the Great had as his personal physician, the famous physician Philippos of Acarnania. An incident between Alexander and Philippos of Acarnania shows the respect of Macedonian kings to their doctors: Alexander became ill after a bath in the frozen river Cydnus (near ancient Tarsus). At this time he received a letter from his general Parmenion for not to trust his physician. Alexander gave this letter to Philippos to read it and while Philippos was reading it and was rather frightened, he saw Alexander drinking the medicine he had given him. We may note that Alexander the Great as a student of Aristotle had a general education about medicine. Archaeological findings revealed two funerary monuments of physicians: a doctor from Thasos, who practiced in Pella as a public physician during the 3rd quarter of the 4(th) century B.C. and a physician named Alexander, who lived in the 1rst half of the 5(th) century A.D. The tomb of a third physician, probably a surgeon, excavated in Pydna, near mount Olympus (3(rd) century BC)also indicates the importance of physicians in Macedonia. Archaeological findings, like surgical knives, from the Hellinistic and Roman periods, found in the city of Veria, also showed the respect of Ancient Greeks to medicine and to their physicians. An example is the skeleton of a young woman with an anterior cranial hole found in Veria. This trauma was attributed to a delicate surgical operation, perhaps performed to alleviate endocranial pressure. PMID:22087463

Giannouli, Vaitsa; Syrmos, Nikolaos

2011-01-01

417

A cDNA-based comparison of dehydration-induced proteins (dehydrins) in barley and corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several cDNAs related to an ABA-induced cDNA from barley aleurone were isolated from barley and corn seedlings that were undergoing dehydration. Four different barley polypeptides with sizes of 22.6, 16.2, 14.4 and 14.2 kDa and a single corn polypeptide with a size of 17.0 kDa were predicted from the nucleotide sequences of the cDNAs. These dehydration-induced proteins (dehydrins) are very

Timothy J. Close; Alexander A. Kortt; Peter M. Chandler

1989-01-01

418

Regulation of barley miRNAs upon dehydration stress correlated with target gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aim to identify conserved and dehydration responsive microRNAs (miRNAs) in Hordeum vulgare (barley). A total of 28 new barley miRNAs belonging to 18 distinct miRNA families were identified. Detailed nucleotide analyses\\u000a revealed that barley pre-miRNAs are in the range of 46–114 nucleotides with average of 77.14. Using 28 newly detected miRNAs\\u000a as queries, 445 potential target mRNAs were predicted.

Melda Kantar; Turgay Unver; Hikmet Budak

2010-01-01

419

Westward prograding metamorphism in mantle peridotites from the Eastern Desert of Egypt: clues to the subduction polarity of the Arabian Nubian Shield intra-oceanic arc ophiolite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neoproterozoic arc mantle beneath the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS) in the Eastern Desert (ED) of Egypt exhumed due to intra-oceanic upthrusting are represented mainly by exposed ophiolitic peridotites serpentinized to different degree. Metamorphism is related to the Pan-African collision and the subduction of oceanic lithosphere. However, polarity of the Pan-African intra-oceanic subduction is still questionable. We here trace the variation of the degree of serpentinization and regional metamorphism of six serpentinite masses, widely distributed in the ED (from the east to the west: W (Wadi). Alam, W. Igla, W. Mubarak, G. El-Maiyit, W. Um El Saneyat and W. Atalla). This is based on their mineralogy, textures and mineral chemistry. The studied rocks have harzburgite composition and they all formed in oceanic mantle wedge in the fore-arc setting, except those from W. Atalla that formed in MOR-arc transition setting. Much difference in the degree of serpentinization is obvious among these rocks. They are mainly partly serpentinized containing primary olivine and orthopyroxene at W. Alam and W. Igla, while they are completely serpentinized in the other localities. With the increased degree of metamorphism, textures were transformed from the pseudomorphic to the non-pseudomorphic. The most common retrograde assemblage is composed of lizardite ± chrysotile± brucite± magnetite. The serpentine prograde textures can be viewed as a continuum from retrograde lizardite pseudomorphic textures, to very fine-grained transitional texture of lizardite and chrysotile, to chrysotile-antigorite interlocking texture and finally to antigorite interpenetrating texture. These textures appear to represent successive stages in a recrystallization event. In late subduction-related metamorphism and early collisional emplacement stage, mylonitic-antigorite serpentinites formed and antigorite became the major phase in G. El-Maiyit, Um El-Saneyat and W. Atalla. The polygonal units of the hourglass texture and the penetrative fabric of the serrate veins in all serpentinized peridotites indicate that fracturing of these rocks was developed in a dynamic regime. The late emplacement of veins of brucite, carbonates and oxides were most probably formed during the final stage of exhumation and under a stress regime in the brittle-ductile transition. As the grade of metamorphism increases Fe released from olivine and orthopyroxene and Cr released from chromite are accommodating in antigorite-rich serpentinites. Serpentine in veins also tends to have less substitutions, which is consistent with the fact that Al, Cr and Ni are relatively immobile during alteration and therefore remain in their original microstructural site. Compositional zoning in spinel grains in all serpentinites reflect variation in the degree of alteration. The biggest variation of spinel compositions are among serpentinites from Um El-Saneyat and W. Atalla. With increasing the degree of alteration, size of the aluminian chromite core decreases while width of the intermediate Fe3+-rich aluminian chromite to ferrian-chromite zone and the outer Cr-magnetite to magnetite zones increase. The alteration zones were formed in a temperature < 400 ° C to 550 ° C corresponding to the low green-schist to the lower amphibolite facies. We propose that this is concordant with a westward polarity of the subducting oceanic lithosphere, associating the intra-oceanic arc ophiolite during the closure of the Mozambique ocean.

Salam Abu El-Ela, Abdel; Hamdy, Mohamed; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hassan, Adel; Gamal El Dien, Hamed

2013-04-01

420

Ancient Near East and the Mediterranean World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the University of Chicago Library and funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities, this online project contains numerous primary materials related to the study of the ancient Near East and covers topics ranging from archaeology; art history; language; law; and the religions of Sumer, Babylonia, Assyria, Egypt, Nubia, and Persia. Currently, the project includes full-text editions of 33 seminal works in the field, including works on Greek athletics and the exploration of Palestine during the first decade of the 20th century. For those seeking to read them in their language of origin, several of the texts are also available in the original French and German. This site will be of great interest to persons hoping to look through primary research texts, but find themselves unable to make a trip to the University of Chicago Library.

421

Egypt: Secrets of an Ancient World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While ancient Egyptian civilization has captured the public interest and imagination in recent decades, this well-designed site from the National Geographic Society places its focus on the pyramids created several millennia ago. In the site's most compelling feature, titled Explore the Pyramids, visitors can scroll across the different pyramids, revealing their interior organization and a number of facts about their construction and so on. A brief timeline also gives some information about each of the different Egyptian dynasties. Educators will find much to enjoy here, as the site provides different lesson plans for students, complete with critical questions for discussion and lesson objectives. Finally, there is an online journal written by National Geographic reporter Nancy Gupton that documents her own personal experiences traveling around the pyramids of Egypt.

2002-01-01

422

Is atherosclerosis fundamental to human aging? Lessons from ancient mummies.  

PubMed

Case reports from Johan Czermak, Marc Ruffer, and others a century or more ago demonstrated ancient Egyptians had atherosclerosis three millennia ago. The Horus study team extended their findings, demonstrating that atherosclerosis was prevalent among 76 ancient Egyptian mummies and among 61 mummies from each of the ancient cultures of Peru, the American Southwest, and the Aleutian Islands. These findings challenge the assumption that atherosclerosis is a modern disease caused by present day risk factors. An extensive autopsy of an ancient Egyptian teenage male weaver named Nakht found that he was infected with four parasites: Schistosoma haematobium, Taenia species, Trichinella spiralis, and Plasmodium falciparum. Modern day patients with chronic inflammatory disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and human immunodeficiency virus experience premature atherosclerosis. Could the burden of chronic inflammatory disease have been a risk factor for atherosclerosis in these ancient cultures? The prevalence of atherosclerosis in four diverse ancient cultures is consistent with atherosclerosis being fundamental to aging. The impact of risk factors in modern times, and potentially in ancient times, suggests a strong gene-environmental interplay: human genes provide a vulnerability to atherosclerosis, the environment determines when and if atherosclerosis becomes manifest clinically. PMID:24582386

Clarke, Emily M; Thompson, Randall C; Allam, Adel H; Wann, L Samuel; Lombardi, Guido P; Sutherland, M Linda; Sutherland, James D; Cox, Samantha L; Soliman, Muhammad Al-Tohamy; Abd el-Maksoud, Gomaa; Badr, Ibrahem; Miyamoto, Michael I; Frohlich, Bruno; Nur el-din, Abdel-Halim; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Narula, Jagat; Zink, Albert R; Finch, Caleb E; Michalik, David E; Thomas, Gregory S

2014-05-01

423

A barley Engulfment and Motility domain containing protein modulates Rho GTPase activating protein HvMAGAP1 function in the barley powdery mildew interaction.  

PubMed

Engulfment and Motility (ELMO) proteins are involved in the regulation of small GTPase activity in eukaryotic organisms, but little is known about ELMO proteins in plants. We isolated the barley ELMO Domain Containing Protein, HvELMOD_C, in a yeast two hybrid screen for proteins interacting with HvMAGAP1 (Microtubule Associated ROP-GTPase Activating Protein 1). HvMAGAP1 is considered as an antagonist of barley RACB, a member of the RHO of plant (ROP) family GTPases, which functions as a susceptibility factor in the interaction of barley with the barley powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei. HvELMOD_C interacts with the central RHO-GAP domain of HvMAGAP1. Cytoplasmic HvELMOD_C translocates to microtubules on co-expression of HvMAGAP1 but not on co-expression of HvMAGAP1-R185G, a mutant of the catalytically active arginine R185 in the RHO-GAP domain. HvELMOD_C, when simultaneously expressed with HvMAGAP1, abolished the resistance-inducing effect of HvMAGAP1 to B. graminis f.sp. hordei. Therefore, HvELMOD_C might function as a new modulator of HvMAGAP1 and thus ROP activity in barley. PMID:24142383

Hoefle, Caroline; Hückelhoven, Ralph

2014-03-01

424

Metropolitan Museum of Art: Earth Materials and Ancient Cultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in a learning community that includes classics and geology complete labs involving rocks and minerals. The class meets at the Metropolitan Museum of Art on a weekend; in groups, the students document and describe the earth materials displayed in art halls of ancient cultures. The following week reformed groups meet in class to compare and contrast their museum-based findings and explore the geological concepts that underlie the use of materials by ancient cultures (jigsaw assignment). It is assumed that students have some prior knowledge of the ancient cultures being studied at the museum through a paired course, assigned reading, or introductory lecture.

Powell, Wayne

425

Sensitivity of barley varieties to weather in Finland  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Global climate change is predicted to shift seasonal temperature and precipitation patterns. An increasing frequency of extreme weather events such as heat waves and prolonged droughts is predicted, but there are high levels of uncertainty about the nature of local changes. Crop adaptation will be important in reducing potential damage to agriculture. Crop diversity may enhance resilience to climate variability and changes that are difficult to predict. Therefore, there has to be sufficient diversity within the set of available cultivars in response to weather parameters critical for yield formation. To determine the scale of such ‘weather response diversity’ within barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), an important crop in northern conditions, the yield responses of a wide range of modern and historical varieties were analysed according to a well-defined set of critical agro-meteorological variables. The Finnish long-term dataset of MTT Official Variety Trials was used together with historical weather records of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The foci of the analysis were firstly to describe the general response of barley to different weather conditions and secondly to reveal the diversity among varieties in the sensitivity to each weather variable. It was established that barley yields were frequently reduced by drought or excessive rain early in the season, by high temperatures at around heading, and by accelerated temperature sum accumulation rates during periods 2 weeks before heading and between heading and yellow ripeness. Low temperatures early in the season increased yields, but frost during the first 4 weeks after sowing had no effect. After canopy establishment, higher precipitation on average resulted in higher yields. In a cultivar-specific analysis, it was found that there were differences in responses to all but three of the studied climatic variables: waterlogging and drought early in the season and temperature sum accumulation rate before heading. The results suggest that low temperatures early in the season, delayed sowing, rain 3–7 weeks after sowing, a temperature change 3–4 weeks after sowing, a high temperature sum accumulation rate from heading to yellow ripeness and high temperatures (?25°C) at around heading could mostly be addressed by exploiting the traits found in the range of varieties included in the present study. However, new technology and novel genetic material are needed to enable crops to withstand periods of excessive rain or drought early in the season and to enhance performance under increased temperature sum accumulation rates prior to heading. PMID:22505777

HAKALA, K.; JAUHIAINEN, L.; HIMANEN, S. J.; RÖTTER, R.; SALO, T.; KAHILUOTO, H.

2012-01-01

426

Sensitivity of barley varieties to weather in Finland.  

PubMed

Global climate change is predicted to shift seasonal temperature and precipitation patterns. An increasing frequency of extreme weather events such as heat waves and prolonged droughts is predicted, but there are high levels of uncertainty about the nature of local changes. Crop adaptation will be important in reducing potential damage to agriculture. Crop diversity may enhance resilience to climate variability and changes that are difficult to predict. Therefore, there has to be sufficient diversity within the set of available cultivars in response to weather parameters critical for yield formation. To determine the scale of such 'weather response diversity' within barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), an important crop in northern conditions, the yield responses of a wide range of modern and historical varieties were analysed according to a well-defined set of critical agro-meteorological variables. The Finnish long-term dataset of MTT Official Variety Trials was used together with historical weather records of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The foci of the analysis were firstly to describe the general response of barley to different weather conditions and secondly to reveal the diversity among varieties in the sensitivity to each weather variable. It was established that barley yields were frequently reduced by drought or excessive rain early in the season, by high temperatures at around heading, and by accelerated temperature sum accumulation rates during periods 2 weeks before heading and between heading and yellow ripeness. Low temperatures early in the season increased yields, but frost during the first 4 weeks after sowing had no effect. After canopy establishment, higher precipitation on average resulted in higher yields. In a cultivar-specific analysis, it was found that there were differences in responses to all but three of the studied climatic variables: waterlogging and drought early in the season and temperature sum accumulation rate before heading. The results suggest that low temperatures early in the season, delayed sowing, rain 3-7 weeks after sowing, a temperature change 3-4 weeks after sowing, a high temperature sum accumulation rate from heading to yellow ripeness and high temperatures (?25°C) at around heading could mostly be addressed by exploiting the traits found in the range of varieties included in the present study. However, new technology and novel genetic material are needed to enable crops to withstand periods of excessive rain or drought early in the season and to enhance performance under increased temperature sum accumulation rates prior to heading. PMID:22505777

Hakala, K; Jauhiainen, L; Himanen, S J; Rötter, R; Salo, T; Kahiluoto, H

2012-04-01

427

Unlocking the Barley Genome by Chromosomal and Comparative Genomics[W][OA  

PubMed Central

We used a novel approach that incorporated chromosome sorting, next-generation sequencing, array hybridization, and systematic exploitation of conserved synteny with model grasses to assign ~86% of the estimated ~32,000 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genes to individual chromosome arms. Using a series of bioinformatically constructed genome zippers that integrate gene indices of rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and Brachypodium distachyon in a conserved synteny model, we were able to assemble 21,766 barley genes in a putative linear order. We show that the barley (H) genome displays a mosaic of structural similarity to hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) A, B, and D subgenomes and that orthologous genes in different grasses exhibit signatures of positive selection in different lineages. We present an ordered, information-rich scaffold of the barley genome that provides a valuable and robust framework for the development of novel strategies in cereal breeding. PMID:21467582

Mayer, Klaus F.X.; Martis, Mihaela; Hedley, Pete E.; Šimková, Hana; Liu, Hui; Morris, Jenny A.; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Taudien, Stefan; Roessner, Stephan; Gundlach, Heidrun; Kubaláková, Marie; Suchánková, Pavla; Murat, Florent; Felder, Marius; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Graner, Andreas; Salse, Jerome; Endo, Takashi; Sakai, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Itoh, Takeshi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Platzer, Matthias; Matsumoto, Takashi; Scholz, Uwe; Doležel, Jaroslav; Waugh, Robbie; Stein, Nils

2011-01-01

428

First report of barley yellow dwarf luteovirus on Miscanthus in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley yellow dwarf luteovirus (BYDV) was detected in field grownMiscanthus sacchariflorus propagated from root cuttings. Inoculation of BYDV toM. sinensis plants grown from seed had an adverse effect on shoot growth and leaf development.

D. G. Christian; J. N. L. Lamptey; S. M. D. Forde; R. T. Plumb

1994-01-01

429

7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...8 to 11/4 quarts of barley; or (c) Has a musty, sour, or commercially objectionable foreign odor (except smut or garlic odor); or (d) Is heating or otherwise of distinctly low quality. 1 Includes heat-damaged...

2010-01-01

430

Xylitol Production by Genetically Engineered Trichoderma reesei Strains Using Barley Straw  

E-print Network

Xylitol Production by Genetically Engineered Trichoderma reesei Strains Using Barley Straw. The xylitol production by T. reesei can be enhanced by genetic engineering of blocking further xylitol and Microbiology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria e

Qin, Wensheng

431

The effects of barley straw (Hordeum vulgare) on the growth of freshwater algae.  

PubMed

Bioassays were conducted to determine the efficacy of barley straw liquor in controlling algal growth of 12 freshwater species of algae representing three divisions. Barley straw liquor inhibited the growth of three nuisance algae common in freshwater: Synura petersenii, Dinobyron sp., and Microcystis aeruginosa. However, Selenastrum capricornutum, Spirogyra sp., Oscillatoria lutea var. contorta, and Navicula sp. had significantly increased growth in the presence of straw liquor. The growth of the remainder, Ulothrix fimbriata, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Chlorella vulgaris, Anabaena flos-aquae, and Synedra sp. showed no significant difference from controls. In a related field study, we treated four of six ponds with barley straw and monitored their chlorophyll a levels for one growing season. While phytoplankton populations in all ponds decreased in midsummer, the phytoplankton biomass in treated ponds did not differ significantly from that of control ponds, suggesting that the application of barley straw had no effect on algal growth in these systems. PMID:16051085

Ferrier, M D; Butler, B R; Terlizzi, D E; Lacouture, R V

2005-11-01

432

Signal Transduction in Barley Aleurone Protoplasts 1s Calcium Dependent and lndependent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gibberellic acid (GA) increases Ca2+ and calmodulin (CaM) levels in barley aleurone cells, and abscisic acid (ABA) an- tagonizes the GA effect. These alterations in cytoplasmic Ca2+ and CaM have been suggested to be central regulators of the secretory response of the barley aleurone. Using microinjection of caged Ca2+, Ca2+ chelators, and CaM, we mim- icked or blocked these hormonally

Simon Gilroy

433

Response to saline stress and aquaporin expression in Azospirillum -inoculated barley seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of two strains of Azospirillum brasilense to mitigate NaCl stress in barley plants was evaluated. Barley seedlings were inoculated and subjected to 200 mM NaCl for\\u000a 18 days. Several days after NaCl treatment, a significant decline in biomass as well as in height was observed in uninoculated\\u000a plants. However, smaller reductions in biomass and height were detected in plants inoculated

Myriam S. Zawoznik; Mayra Ameneiros; María P. Benavides; Susana Vázquez; María D. Groppa

2011-01-01

434

Genetically engineered stem rust resistance in barley using the Rpg1 gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stem-rust-susceptible barley cv. Golden Promise was transformed by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of immature zygotic embryos with the Rpg1 genomic clone of cv. Morex containing a 520-bp 5' promoter region, 4,919-bp gene region, and 547-bp 3' nontranscribed sequence. Representatives of 42 transgenic barley lines obtained were characterized for their seedling infection response to pathotype Pgt-MCC of the stem rust fungus Puccinia

Henriette Horvath; Nils Rostoks; Robert Brueggeman; Brian Steffenson; Diter von Wettstein; Andris Kleinhofs

2003-01-01

435

Competitive interactions of fifty barley cultivars with Avena sterilis and Asperugo procumbens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2-year study was conducted in northern Greece to assess the ability of 29 six-row and 21 two-row barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars to compete with winter wild oat [Avena sterilis spp. ludoviciana (Durieu) Gill & Magne] and German-madwort (Asperugo procumbens L.). The fresh weight of both weeds grown in competition with six of the most competitive six-row barley cultivars

Kico Dhima; Ioannis Vasilakoglou; Thomas Gatsis; Ilias Eleftherohorinos

2010-01-01

436

Complex interspecific hybridization in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) and the possible occurrence of apomixis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several complex hybrids were produced from the combination [(Hordeum lechleri, 6x xH. procerum, 6 x) × H. vulgare, 2 x]. Crosses with six diploid barley lines resulted in triple hybrids, most of which had a full complement of barley chromosomes (no. 1–7), but were mixoploid with respect to alien chromosomes (19–22). In one combination, chromosome no. 7 was duplicated. Meiosis

R. von Bothmer; M. Bengtsson; J. Flink; I. Linde-Laursen

1988-01-01

437

Characterization of barley starches of waxy, normal, and high amylose varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four varieties of barley starches, W.B. Merlin, glacier, high amylose glacier, and high amylose hull-less glacier, were isolated from barley seeds. Apparent and absolute amylose contents, molecular size distributions of amylose and amylopectin, amylopectin branch-chain-length distributions, and Naegeli dextrin structures of the starches were analyzed. W.B. Merlin amylopectin had the longest detectable chain length of DP 67, whereas glacier, high

Y. Song; J. Jane

2000-01-01

438

Barley Cbf3 Gene Identification, Expression Pattern, and Map Location1  

PubMed Central

Although cold and drought adaptation in cereals and other plants involve the induction of a large number of genes, inheritance studies in Triticeae (wheat [Triticum aestivum], barley [Hordeum vulgare], and rye [Secale cereale]) have revealed only a few major loci for frost or drought tolerance that are consistent across multiple genetic backgrounds and environments. One might imagine that these loci could encode highly conserved regulatory factors that have global effects on gene expression; therefore, genes encoding central regulators identified in other plants might be orthologs of these Triticeae stress tolerance genes. The CBF/DREB1 regulators, identified originally in Arabidopsis as key components of cold and drought regulation, merit this consideration. We constructed barley cDNA libraries, screened these libraries and a barley bacterial artificial chromosome library using rice (Oryza sativa) and barley Cbf probes, found orthologs of Arabidopsis CBF/DREB1 genes, and examined the expression and genetic map location of the barley Cbf3 gene, HvCbf3. HvCbf3 was induced by a chilling treatment. HvCbf3 is located on barley chromosome 5H between markers WG364b and saflp58 on the barley cv Dicktoo × barley cv Morex genetic linkage map. This position is some 40 to 50 cM proximal to the winter hardiness quantitative trait locus that includes the Vrn-1H gene, but may coincide with the wheat 5A Rcg1 locus, which governs the threshold temperature at which cor genes are induced. From this, it remains possible that HvCbf3 is the basis of a minor quantitative trait locus in some genetic backgrounds, though that possibility remains to be thoroughly explored. PMID:12177491

Choi, Dong-Woog; Rodriguez, Edmundo M.; Close, Timothy J.

2002-01-01

439

Differential responses to dietary cobalt in finishing steers fed corn- versus barley-based diets1  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to deter- mine the effects of dietary Co concentration on perfor- mance, carcass traits, and plasma, liver, and ruminal metabolites of steers fed corn- or barley-based diets. Sixty steers, initially averaging 316 kg, were stratified by BW and assigned randomly to treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, with factors being a corn- or barley-baseddietandsupplementalCoaddedat0,0.05,

M. E. Tiffany; J. W. Spears

2010-01-01

440

Potassium and sodium transporters of Pseudomonas aeruginosa regulate virulence to barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the role of three uncharacterized cation transporters of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 as virulence factors for barley: PA1207, PA5021, and PA2647. PAO1 displayed reduced barley virulence with inactivated\\u000a PA1207, PA5021, and PA2647 as well as with one known Na+\\/H+ antiporter, PA1820. Using the Escherichia coli LB2003 mutant lacking three K+ uptake systems, the expression of the PA5021 gene repressed

Akihiro Ueda; Thomas K. Wood

2008-01-01

441

Expression of stress/defense-related genes in barley grown under space environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants are exposed to the extreme environment in space, especially space radiation is suspected to induce oxidative stress by generating high-energy free radicals and microgravity would enhance the effect of space radiation, however, current understandings of plant growth and responses on this synergistic effect of radiation and microgravity is limited to a few experiments. In this study, expression of stress/defense-related genes in barley grown under space environment was analyzed by RT-PCR and DNA microarray experiments to understand plant responses and adaptation to space environment and to develop the space stress-tolerant plants. The seeds of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Haruna nijo, kept in the international space station (ISS) over 4 months, were germinated after 3 days of irrigation in LADA plant growth chamber onboard Russian segment of ISS and the final germination ratio was over 90 %. The height of plants was about 50 to 60 cm and flag leaf has been opened after 26 days of irrigation under 24 hr lighting, showing the similar growth to ground-grown barley. Expression levels of stress/defense-related genes in space-grown barley were compared to those in ground-grown barley by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. In 17 stress/defense-related genes that are up-regulated by oxidative stress or other abiotic stress, only catalase, pathogenesis-related protein 13, chalcone synthase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes were increased in space-grown barley. DNA microarrya analysis with the GeneChip Barley Genome Array showed the similar expression profiles of the stress/defense-related genes to those by RT-PCR experiment, suggesting that the barley germinated and grown in LADA onboard ISS is not damaged by space environment, especially oxidative stress induced by space radiation and microgravity.

Sugimoto, Manabu; Shagimardanova, Elena; Gusev, Oleg; Bingham, Gail; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir

442

[Fractions of barley spent grain as media for growth of probiotic bacteria].  

PubMed

The application of the protein and polysaccharide fractions of barley spent grain as a basis of growth media for probiotic bacteria was studied. High values of biomass yield, cell viability, and organic acid production were observed in the variants of media containing the barley spent grain supplemented with lactose, ascorbic acid, yeast extract, and mineral salts. Cells of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria had the typical rod-shaped morphology. PMID:18297884

Novik, G I; Wawrzynczyk, J; Norrlow, O; Szwajcer-Dey, E

2007-01-01

443

Fractions of barley spent grain as media for growth of probiotic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of the protein and polysaccharide fractions of barley spent grain as a basis of growth media for probiotic\\u000a bacteria was studied. High values of biomass yield, cell viability, and organic acid production were observed in the variants\\u000a of media containing the barley spent grain supplemented with lactose, ascorbic acid, yeast extract, and mineral salts. Cells\\u000a of lactic acid

G. I. Novik; J. Wawrzynczyk; O. Norrlow; E. Szwajcer-Dey

2007-01-01

444

Staining paraffin embedded sections of scald of barley before paraffin removal.  

PubMed

Staining of paraffin embedded sections with periodic acid-Schiff reagent and fast green before paraffin removal resulted in differentiation of barley seed and leaf tissue from fungal structures of Rhynchosporium secalis. Crystal violet, toluidine blue O and antiline blue also successfully stained fungal structures of R. secalis in barley leaf tissues. Staining of embedded sections before paraffin removal allows simple processing of a series of sections, saves time and reduces solvent consumption. PMID:9290905

Xi, K; Burnett, P A

1997-07-01

445

Effect of tillage systems, mulches and nitrogen fertilization on spring barley (Hordeum vulgare)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield, N uptake, weeds and diseases of spring barley were examined under five mulching practices (white mustard, phacelia, oat-pea mixture, straw mulch, and no mulch), three tillage systems (conventional, reduced and no-tillage) and three doses of nitrogen fertilization (0, 50 and 100 kg N ha-1). In general the grain yield of spring barley for cover crops was 10-31% higher compared

I. Ma?ecka; A. Blecharczyk

2008-01-01

446

Gn?monik? Techn?: The Dialer's Art and its Meaning for the Ancient World  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gn?monik? Techn?, the art of gnomonics, was a recognized branch of applied mathematics in Greek antiquity. The variety of ancient sundials that survive show us that ancient dialers were prolific and inventive. This paper places ancient gnomonics in scientific and cultural perspective and offers an overview of ancient dial types.

Evans, James

2005-01-01

447

Ancient History See also Classical Studies page 76, Classics page 78,  

E-print Network

including Ancient History and Russian are only available to non-beginners in Russian. Entrance Requirements62 Ancient History See also Classical Studies page 76, Classics page 78, Greek page 110, Latin page 126, Modern Languages page 140 Degree options MA (Single Honours Degrees) Ancient History Ancient

Brierley, Andrew

448

Ancient History See also Classics page 68, Classical Studies page 66,  

E-print Network

Year Abroad ­ see Modern Languages. R Combinations including Ancient History and Russian are only52 Ancient History See also Classics page 68, Classical Studies page 66, Greek page 102, Latin page 118, Modern Languages page 132 MA (Single Honours Degrees) Ancient History Ancient History

Brierley, Andrew

449

Mineralization of ancient carbon in the subsurface of riparian forests Noel P. Gurwick,1,2  

E-print Network

and 14 C dating of dissolved inorganic carbon revealed that ancient SOC mineralization was commonMineralization of ancient carbon in the subsurface of riparian forests Noel P. Gurwick,1,2 Daniel M or ancient (>500 ybp) soil organic carbon (SOC) in buried horizons. Metabolism of ancient SOC may

Gurwick, Noel P.

450

Barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing (BSMV-IGS) as a tool for functional analysis of barley genes potentially involved in nonhost resistance.  

PubMed

Barley is an alternative host for the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae but is resistant to Magnaporthe species associated with the grass genera Pennisetum and Digitaria. The latter cases are examples for nonhost resistance which confers effective and durable protection to plants against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Comparative transcript profiling of host and nonhost interaction revealed an early and pronounced change in gene expression in epidermal tissue of barley infected with a Magnaporthe nonhost isolate. Interestingly, this set of genes did not overlap considerably with the transcriptional response of barley against nonhost rust or powdery mildew isolates. For a functional testing of candidate genes a combined approach of virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and subsequent pathogen challenge was established. As anticipated, VIGS-mediated down-regulation of Mlo-transcripts led to higher resistance against Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei and enhanced susceptibility against M. oryzae. PMID:21586898

Delventhal, Rhoda; Zellerhoff, Nina; Schaffrath, Ulrich

2011-06-01

451

Selection screen for novel photorespiratory mutants of barley  

SciTech Connect

Selfed seed from a catalase mutant of barley (RPr 79/4) was treated with the mutagen N-nitroso-N-methyl urea, which is known to induce mutations in both chloroplast and nuclear genomes. Treated seed was grown to maturity at 0.8% CO/sub 2/, until the second leaf emerged, then plants were transferred to air under high light intensity for 5 days. Those plants which did not show the characteristic phenotype of the catalase mutant, silvering of the leaves, were selected and maintained in high CO/sub 2/. These should include plants with mutations upstream catalase (i.e. non-producers of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/); for example, those affecting glycollate oxidase, phosphoglycollate phosphatase and RuBP oxygenase, in addition to catalase revertants. Preliminary experiments showed a high (7%) frequency of pigment mutations and one plant was selected for further study.

Hall, N.P.; Kendall, A.C.; Turner, J.C.; Wallsgrove R.M.; Keys, A.J.

1987-04-01

452

Evaluation of hot water and electron beam irradiation for reducing Fusarium infection in malting barley.  

PubMed

The use of Fusarium-infected barley for malting may lead to mycotoxin production and decreased product quality. Physical methods for the treatment of Fusarium-infected barley may prevent these safety and quality defects and allow the use of otherwise good quality barley. Hot water and electron beam irradiation were evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing Fusarium infection while maintaining germinative energy in barley samples. Hot-water treatments involved temperatures of 45, 50. 55, and 60 degrees C and treatment times of 0, 1, 5, 10, and 15 min. Electron beam irradiation involved doses ranging from 0 to 11.4 kGy. Treatment with water at 45 degrees C for 15 min resulted in a reduction in Fusarium infection from 32 to 1% after 15 min, with only a very slight reduction in germination. Treatment with water at 50 degrees C for 1 min resulted in a reduction in Fusarium infection from 32 to 2%, and no effect on germination was observed for up to 5 min of treatment. At higher water temperatures. Fusarium infection was essentially eliminated, but germination was also severely reduced. Electron beam irradiation of Fusarium-infected barley reduced Fusarium infection at doses of >4 kGy, and a slight increase in germination for dry samples was observed with doses of 6 to 8 kGy. Doses of >10 kGy significantly decreased germination. Physical methods may have potential for the treatment of Fusarium-infected malting barley. PMID:12870759

Kottapalli, Balasubrahmanyam; Wolf-Hall, Charlene E; Schwarz, Paul; Schwarz, Jurgen; Gillespie, James

2003-07-01

453

Cytologically integrated physical restriction fragment length polymorphism maps for the barley genome based on translocation breakpoints.  

PubMed Central

We have developed a new technique for the physical mapping of barley chromosomes using microdissected translocation chromosomes for PCR with sequence-tagged site primers derived from >300 genetically mapped RFLP probes. The positions of 240 translocation breakpoints were integrated as physical landmarks into linkage maps of the seven barley chromosomes. This strategy proved to be highly efficient in relating physical to genetic distances. A very heterogeneous distribution of recombination rates was found along individual chromosomes. Recombination is mainly confined to a few relatively small areas spaced by large segments in which recombination is severely suppressed. The regions of highest recombination frequency (barley genome and harbor 47.3% of the 429 markers of the studied RFLP map. The results for barley correspond well with those obtained by deletion mapping in wheat. This indicates that chromosomal regions characterized by similar recombination frequencies and marker densities are highly conserved between the genomes of barley and wheat. The findings for barley support the conclusions drawn from deletion mapping in wheat that for all plant genomes, notwithstanding their size, the marker-rich regions are all of similar gene density and recombination activity and, therefore, should be equally accessible to map-based cloning. PMID:10628998

Künzel, G; Korzun, L; Meister, A

2000-01-01

454

The origin and colonization history of the barley scald pathogen Rhynchosporium secalis.  

PubMed

The origins of pathogens and their past and present migration patterns are often unknown. We used phylogenetic haplotype clustering in conjunction with model-based coalescent approaches to reconstruct the genetic history of the barley leaf pathogen Rhynchosporium secalis using the avirulence gene NIP1 and its flanking regions. Our results falsify the hypothesis that R. secalis emerged in association with its host during the domestication of barley 10,000 to 15,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent and was introduced into Europe through the migration of Neolithic farmers. Estimates of time since most recent common ancestor (2500-5000 BP) placed the emergence of R. secalis clearly after the domestication of barley. We propose that modern populations of R. secalis originated in northern Europe following a host switch, most probably from a wild grass onto cultivated barley shortly after barley was introduced into northern Europe. R. secalis subsequently spread southwards into already established European barley-growing areas. PMID:17584226

Brunner, P C; Schürch, S; McDonald, B A

2007-07-01

455

454 Transcriptome Sequencing Suggests a Role for Two-Component Signalling in Cellularization and Differentiation of Barley Endosperm Transfer Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Cell specification and differentiation in the endosperm of cereals starts at the maternal-filial boundary and generates the endosperm transfer cells (ETCs). Besides the importance in assimilate transfer, ETCs are proposed to play an essential role in the regulation of endosperm differentiation by affecting development of proximate endosperm tissues. We attempted to identify signalling elements involved in early endosperm differentiation by using a combination of laser-assisted microdissection and 454 transcriptome sequencing. Principal Findings 454 sequencing of the differentiating ETC region from the syncytial state until functionality in transfer processes captured a high proportion of novel transcripts which are not available in existing barley EST databases. Intriguingly, the ETC-transcriptome showed a high abundance of elements of the two-component signalling (TCS) system suggesting an outstanding role in ETC differentiation. All components and subfamilies of the TCS, including distinct kinds of membrane-bound receptors, have been identified to be expressed in ETCs. The TCS system represents an ancient signal transduction system firstly discovered in bacteria and has previously been shown to be co-opted by eukaryotes, like fungi and plants, whereas in animals and humans this signalling route does not exist. Transcript profiling of TCS elements by qRT-PCR suggested pivotal roles for specific phosphorelays activated in a coordinated time flow during ETC cellularization and differentiation. ETC-specificity of transcriptionally activated TCS phosphorelays was assessed for early differentiation and cellularization contrasting to an extension of expression to other grain tissues at the beginning of ETC maturation. Features of candidate genes of distinct phosphorelays and transcriptional activation of genes putatively implicated in hormone signalling pathways hint at a crosstalk of hormonal influences, putatively ABA and ethylene, and TCS signalling. Significance Our findings suggest an integral function for the TCS in ETC differentiation possibly coupled to sequent hormonal regulation by ABA and ethylene. PMID:22848641

Thiel, Johannes; Hollmann, Julien; Rutten, Twan; Weber, Hans; Scholz, Uwe; Weschke, Winfriede

2012-01-01

456

The Ancients' Conception of the Union of the Arts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the ancients' perspective of speech communication as an art bonded by common origins, techniques and processes. Suggests that a contemporary aesthetic approach to the speech field should be considered. (MH)

Trautmann, Fredrick

1975-01-01

457

Resurrecting ancient animal genomes: the extinct moa and more.  

PubMed

Recently two developments have had a major impact on the field of ancient DNA (aDNA). First, new advances in DNA sequencing, in combination with improved capture/enrichment methods, have resulted in the recovery of orders of magnitude more DNA sequence data from ancient animals. Second, there has been an increase in the range of tissue types employed in aDNA. Hair in particular has proven to be very successful as a source of DNA because of its low levels of contamination and high level of ancient endogenous DNA. These developments have resulted in significant advances in our understanding of recently extinct animals: namely their evolutionary relationships, physiology, and even behaviour. Hair has been used to recover the first complete ancient nuclear genome, that of the extinct woolly mammoth, which then facilitated the expression and functional analysis of haemoglobins. Finally, we speculate on the consequences of these developments for the possibility of recreating extinct animals. PMID:22674514

Huynen, Leon; Millar, Craig D; Lambert, David M

2012-08-01

458

Deep Sequencing of RNA from Ancient Maize Kernels  

PubMed Central

The characterization of biomolecules from ancient samples can shed otherwise unobtainable insights into the past. Despite the fundamental role of transcriptomal change in evolution, the potential of ancient RNA remains unexploited – perhaps due to dogma associated with the fragility of RNA. We hypothesize that seeds offer a plausible refuge for long-term RNA survival, due to the fundamental role of RNA during seed germination. Using RNA-Seq on cDNA synthesized from nucleic acid extracts, we validate this hypothesis through demonstration of partial transcriptomal recovery from two sources of ancient maize kernels. The results suggest that ancient seed transcriptomics may offer a powerful new tool with which to study plant domestication. PMID:23326310

Rasmussen, Morten; Cappellini, Enrico; Romero-Navarro, J. Alberto; Wales, Nathan; Alquezar-Planas, David E.; Penfield, Steven; Brown, Terence A.; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe; Montiel, Rafael; Jørgensen, Tina; Odegaard, Nancy; Jacobs, Michael; Arriaza, Bernardo; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

2013-01-01

459

On the Study of Ancient Chinese Rhetoric/Bian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Claims the ancient Chinese had "senses" of rhetoric which reveal a tradition of argumentation that should be recaptured by historians of rhetoric. Seeks to broaden and embellish the portrayal of that rhetoric. (NH)

Lu, Xing; Frank, David A.

1993-01-01

460

Ancestry of modern Europeans: contributions of ancient DNA.  

PubMed

Understanding the peopling history of Europe is crucial to comprehend the origins of modern populations. Of course, the analysis of current genetic data offers several explanations about human migration patterns which occurred on this continent, but it fails to explain precisely the impact of each demographic event. In this context, direct access to the DNA of ancient specimens allows the overcoming of recent demographic phenomena, which probably highly modified the constitution of the current European gene pool. In recent years, several DNA studies have been successfully conducted from ancient human remains thanks to the improvement of molecular techniques. They have brought new fundamental information on the peopling of Europe and allowed us to refine our understanding of European prehistory. In this review, we will detail all the ancient DNA studies performed to date on ancient European DNA from the Middle Paleolithic to the beginning of the protohistoric period. PMID:23052219

Lacan, Marie; Keyser, Christine; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

2013-07-01

461

Next Generation Sequencing of Ancient DNA: Requirements, Strategies and Perspectives  

PubMed Central

The invention of next-generation-sequencing has revolutionized almost all fields of genetics, but few have profited from it as much as the field of ancient DNA research. From its beginnings as an interesting but rather marginal discipline, ancient DNA research is now on its way into the centre of evolutionary biology. In less than a year from its invention next-generation-sequencing had increased the amount of DNA sequence data available from extinct organisms by several orders of magnitude. Ancient DNA research is now not only adding a temporal aspect to evolutionary studies and allowing for the observation of evolution in real time, it also provides important data to help understand the origins of our own species. Here we review progress that has been made in next-generation-sequencing of ancient DNA over the past five years and evaluate sequencing strategies and future directions. PMID:24710043

Knapp, Michael; Hofreiter, Michael

2010-01-01

462

Effect of electron-beam irradiation on the safety and quality of Fusarium-infected malting barley.  

PubMed

Utilization of Fusarium-infected barley for malting may lead to mycotoxin production during malting and decreased malt quality. Electron-beam irradiation may prevent safety and quality defects and allow use of otherwise good quality barley. We evaluated electron-beam irradiation for preventing Fusarium growth and mycotoxin production while maintaining barley-malt quality characteristics. Four barley lots with varying deoxynivalenol (DON) concentrations were irradiated at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 kGy. Treated barley was malted in a pilot-scale malting unit. Barley and malt were analyzed for Fusarium infection (FI), germinative energy (GE), aerobic plate counts (APC), mold and yeast counts (MYC), and DON. Malt quality parameters included malt extract, soluble protein, wort color, wort viscosity, free amino nitrogen, alpha-amylase, and diastatic power. FI, APC, and MYC decreased in barley with an increase in dosage. The APC and MYC for malts from barley exposed to 8-10 kGy were slightly higher than in other malted samples indicating that irradiation-resistant microflora could flourish during malting. Barley GE significantly decreased (3-15%) at 8-10 kGy. Although irradiation had no effect on DON in raw barley, DON decreased significantly (60-100%) in finished malts prepared from treated barley (6-10 kGy). Malt quality parameters were slightly affected by electron-beam radiation. The results suggest 6-8 kGy may be effective for reducing FI in barley and DON in malt with minimal effects on malt quality. PMID:16780979

Kottapalli, Balasubrahmanyam; Wolf-Hall, Charlene E; Schwarz, Paul

2006-08-01

463

Differential expression of endo-?-1,4-xylanase isoenzymes XI and XII at various stages throughout barley development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley endo-?-1,4-xylanases (EC 3.2.1.8) hydrolyse arabinoxylan, which is an abundant cell wall constituent in grass species. In addition to isoenzyme X-I, the major endo-?-1,4-xylanase released from the aleurone layer of germinating barley, another isoenzyme, named X-II, is expressed during germination. Using PCR on barley genomic DNA, we isolated the complete gene encoding sequence of this less-characterized isoenzyme. The gene, shown

Steven Van Campenhout; Guido Volckaert

2005-01-01

464

The influence of extruded vs. untreated barley in the feed, with and without dietary enzyme supplement on broiler performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment was conducted to study the effect of extruded vs. unprocessed barley in the diet (400 g kg?1) on the response of broiler chickens to Trichoderma viride enzyme supplement (cellulase, 10 500 U g?1; endo-?-(1:3) (1:4)-glucanase; 24 000 U g?1 and xylanase, 32 000 U g?1). The four experimental diets were as follows: B, unprocessed barley; BE, unprocessed barley

M. Vukic Vranjes; C. Wenk

1995-01-01

465

Thermal analytical investigation of ancient mortars from gothic churches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of thermal analysis in studying ancient mortars in English cathedrals is explained. Thermal analysis can be used to\\u000a investigate both mortar and stone in dated structures. Analysis of ancient mortars show that though recarbonated, they remain\\u000a soft, yielding to structural deformations. The use of hard (cement mortar) in modern renovation can result in micro-cracking\\u000a in the stone and

J. Adams; D. Dollimore; D. L. Griffiths

1993-01-01

466

Computational challenges in the analysis of ancient DNA  

PubMed Central

High-throughput sequencing technologies have opened up a new avenue for studying extinct organisms. Here we identify and quantify biases introduced by particular characteristics of ancient DNA samples. These analyses demonstrate the importance of closely related genomic sequence for correctly identifying and classifying bona fide endogenous DNA fragments. We show that more accurate genome divergence estimates from ancient DNA sequence can be attained using at least two outgroup genomes and appropriate filtering. PMID:20441577

2010-01-01

467

Unravelling ancient microbial history with community proteogenomics and lipid geochemistry.  

PubMed

Our window into the Earth's ancient microbial past is narrow and obscured by missing data. However, we can glean information about ancient microbial ecosystems using fossil lipids (biomarkers) that are extracted from billion-year-old sedimentary rocks. In this Opinion article, we describe how environmental genomics and related methodologies will give molecular fossil research a boost, by increasing our knowledge about how evolutionary innovations in microorganisms have changed the surface of planet Earth. PMID:19609261

Brocks, Jochen J; Banfield, Jillian

2009-08-01

468

Origins of Halophilic Microorganisms in Ancient Salt Deposits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This eight-page review article considers the evidence for and against long-term survival of halophilic microorganisms in ancient salt deposits. Included sections are hypersaline environments and their inhabitants, haloarchaea and halite precipitation, isolations of microorganisms from brines in salt mines, isolations of microorganisms from ancient rock salt, isolations of microorganisms directly from fluid inclusions, relationship of subsurface haloarchaea to surface isolates, dispersal of haloarchaea, and long-term survival of haloarchaea inside salt crystals.

Mcgenity, Terry; Gemmell, Renia; Grant, William; Stan-Lotter, Helga; Microbiology, Environmental

469

PRAAD: Preprocessing and Analysis Tool for Arabic Ancient Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the new system PRAAD for preprocessing and analysis of Arabic historical documents. It is composed of two important parts: pre-processing and analysis of ancient documents. After digitization, the color or greyscale ancient documents images are distorted by the presence of strong background artefacts such as scan optical blur and noise, show-through and bleed-through effects and spots. In

Wafa Boussellaa; Abderrazak Zahour; Bruno Taconet; Adel Alimi; Abdellatif Benabdelhafid

2007-01-01

470

M1 Godsie1 Ancient times Geodesy (6 century bc)  

E-print Network

M1 ­ Géodésie1 Ancient times Geodesy (6 century bc) · Geodesy is a very old science. It comes from below the horizon) Earth is spherical #12;M1 ­ Géodésie2 Ancient times Geodesy (Eratosthene, 300 bc «Modern» Geodesy (17th century) A correction has to be made if distance is not aligned with longitude d12

Vigny, Christophe

471

The Art of Ancient Greek Theater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Getty Museum provides this glimpse of Greek theater by utilizing both images and audio. Text at the website informs us that "Colorful characters, elaborate costumes, stage sets, music, and above all masks" were characteristic of Greek drama. Examples of images available to view on the site include sculpture and relief depicting actors. Many of these images feature actors wearing masks, such as Statue of an Actor as Papposilenos, dating from A.D. 100-199. In Greek myth, Papposilenos is the father of the band of satyrs that raised Dionysos. There are also over a dozen vessels to view; these vessels were used for various purposes including cooling wine, storage jars, and mixing vessels. The vessels are painted with scenes from the theater, and several are accompanied by audio of curators explaining the iconography. One of the featured items in the collection is a papyrus fragment from 175-200 A.D. with a few lines from a play by Sophocles. The exhibition closes with a reading, in ancient Greek, of an excerpt from this play, entitled The Trackers; a scene in which satyrs also appear, hearing music played on the then-newly invented lyre.

472

Ancient Hydrothermal Springs in Arabia Terra, Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydrothermal springs are important astrobiological sites for several reasons: 1) On Earth, molecular phylogeny suggests that many of the most primitive organisms are hyperthermophiles, implying that life on this planet may have arisen in hydrothermal settings; 2) on Mars, similar settings would have supplied energy- and nutrient-rich waters in which early martian life may have evolved; 3) such regions on Mars would have constituted oases of continued habitability providing warm, liquid water to primitive life forms as the planet became colder and drier; and 4) mineralization associated with hydrothermal settings could have preserved biosignatures from those martian life forms. Accordingly, if life ever developed on Mars, then hydrothermal spring deposits would be excellent localities in which to search for morphological or chemical remnants of that life. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel which allows detailed analysis of geologic structure and geomorphology. Based on these new data, we report several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra that we interpret as ancient hydrothermal springs.

Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

2008-01-01

473

Treatment of giant ancient pelvic schwannoma.  

PubMed

A 32-year-old patient presented with urinary retention and chronic constipation. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a 10 x 11cm encapsulated tumor with cystic areas lying ventral to the sacrum. There was no evidence of invasion of bladder or rectum. At laparotomy, a 10 x 11 cm mass was found in the left pelvis. Final pathology revealed an ancient schwannoma. In most large series, 80% to 90% of the primary retroperitoneal tumors are malignant. Retroperitoneal schwannomas can be benign or malignant, roughly half of the reported cases showed malignancy. Benign schwannomas may arise along the course of any myelinated nerve, with the acoustic neuroma being the most frequent site. Immunostaining showed a strong expression of S-100 protein. The staining for this protein is helpful for differentiation of a benign schwannoma from a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and from other benign spindle cell tumors. The treatment of choice for benign schwannomas is complete excision. Recurrence or persistence seems to be associated with incomplete resection, which occurred in 10% of the reported cases. After surgery, the patient had normal erection, normal micturition, and normal defecation but no symptoms of motor and sensory disturbances. PMID:11763493

Maneschg, C; Rogatsch, H; Bartsch, G; Stenzl, A

2001-12-01

474

Ancient single origin for Malagasy primates.  

PubMed Central

We report new evidence that bears decisively on a long-standing controversy in primate systematics. DNA sequence data for the complete cytochrome b gene, combined with an expanded morphological data set, confirm the results of a previous study and again indicate that all extant Malagasy lemurs originated from a single common ancestor. These results, as well as those from other genetic studies, call for a revision of primate classifications in which the dwarf and mouse lemurs are placed within the Afro-Asian lorisiforms. The phylogenetic results, in agreement with paleocontinental data, indicate an African origin for the common ancestor of lemurs and lorises (the Strepsirrhini). The molecular data further suggest the surprising conclusion that lemurs began evolving independently by the early Eocene at the latest. This indicates that the Malagasy primate lineage is more ancient than generally thought and places the split between the two strepsirrhine lineages well before the appearance of known Eocene fossil primates. We conclude that primate origins were marked by rapid speciation and diversification sometime before the late Paleocene. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8643538

Yoder, A D; Cartmill, M; Ruvolo, M; Smith, K; Vilgalys, R

1996-01-01

475

Materials design principles of ancient fish armour.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the structure-property-function relationships of dermal scales of armoured fish could enable pathways to improved bioinspired human body armour, and may provide clues to the evolutionary origins of mineralized tissues. Here, we present a multiscale experimental and computational approach that reveals the materials design principles present within individual ganoid scales from the 'living fossil' Polypterus senegalus. This fish belongs to the ancient family Polypteridae, which first appeared 96 million years ago during the Cretaceous period and still retains many of their characteristics. The mechanistic origins of penetration resistance (approximating a biting attack) were investigated and found to include the juxtaposition of multiple distinct reinforcing composite layers that each undergo their own unique deformation mechanisms, a unique spatial functional form of mechanical properties with regions of differing levels of gradation within and between material layers, and layers with an undetectable gradation, load-dependent effective material properties, circumferential surface cracking, orthogonal microcracking in laminated sublayers and geometrically corrugated junctions between layers. PMID:18660814

Bruet, Benjamin J F; Song, Juha; Boyce, Mary C; Ortiz, Christine

2008-09-01

476

Ancient Schwannoma of the Thumb Pulp  

PubMed Central

Summary: A 21-year-old woman had become aware of a mass on the palmar aspect of the distal phalanx of her left thumb 11 years earlier. Her medical history was unremarkable, with no traumatic injury of the left thumb. Initial examination revealed a hard but elastic, immovable tumor of 30?×?25?mm on the palmar aspect of the distal phalanx of the left thumb, with an ulcer formed at the center. No pain, sensory disturbance, or motor dysfunction was noted. The patient underwent punch biopsy at the outpatient clinic, and the tumor was histopathologically diagnosed as benign schwannoma. Total excision of the tumor was performed with digital nerve block under surgical microscope. Histopathological findings revealed a fibrous capsule covering the tumor, directional growth of tightly organized spindle-shaped cells, and mixed Antoni A and B patterns. The tumor also contained many various sized cysts and showed histological degenerative changes not observed in ordinary schwannoma, such as hemorrhage and prominent blood vessels with hyalinized walls. The S-100 stain was positive. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed as having ancient schwannoma. There was no evidence of infection, pain, complications such as ulcer formation, or recurrent tumor at 6 months postoperative.

Takeuchi, Masaki

2015-01-01

477

Revisiting Terminalia arjuna – An Ancient Cardiovascular Drug  

PubMed Central

Terminalia arjuna, commonly known as arjuna, belongs to the family of Combretaceae. Its bark decoction is being used in the Indian subcontinent for anginal pain, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and dyslipidemia, based on the observations of ancient physicians for centuries. The utility of arjuna in various cardiovascular diseases needs to be studied further. Therefore, the present review is an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature summarizing the experimental and clinical studies pertinent to arjuna in cardiovascular disorders, which were particularly performed during the last decade. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and clinical studies of arjuna were retrieved through the use of PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases. Most of the studies, both experimental and clinical, have suggested that the crude drug possesses anti-ischemic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antiatherogenic activities. Its useful phytoconstituents are: Triterpenoids, ?-sitosterol, flavonoids, and glycosides. Triterpenoids and flavonoids are considered to be responsible for its beneficial antioxidant cardiovascular properties. The drug has shown promising effect on ischemic cardiomyopathy. So far, no serious side effects have been reported with arjuna therapy. However, its long-term safety still remains to be elucidated. Though it has been found quite useful in angina pectoris, mild hypertension, and dyslipidemia, its exact role in primary/secondary coronary prevention is yet to be explored. PMID:25379463

Dwivedi, Shridhar; Chopra, Deepti

2014-01-01

478

The ancient origin of the complement system  

PubMed Central

The complement system has been thought to originate exclusively in the deuterostomes. Here, we show that the central complement components already existed in the primitive protostome lineage. A functional homolog of vertebrate complement 3, CrC3, has been isolated from a ‘living fossil', the horseshoe crab (Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda). CrC3 resembles human C3 and shows closest homology to C3 sequences of lower deuterostomes. CrC3 and plasma lectins bind a wide range of microbes, forming the frontline innate immune defense system. Additionally, we identified CrC2/Bf, a homolog of vertebrate C2 and Bf that participates in C3 activation, and a C3 receptor-like sequence. Furthermore, complement-mediated phagocytosis of bacteria by the hemocytes of horseshoe crab was also observed. Thus, a primitive yet complex opsonic complement defense system is revealed in the horseshoe crab, a protostome species. Our findings demonstrate an ancient origin of the critical complement components and the opsonic defense mechanism in the Precambrian ancestor of bilateral animals. PMID:15616573

Zhu, Yong; Thangamani, Saravanan; Ho, Bow; Ding, Jeak Ling

2005-01-01

479

Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians.  

PubMed

Egypt is famously known for its Nile and pyramids, yet not many people know that Egypt made possible the origin of the anatomical sciences. Several ancient papyri guide us through the Egyptians' exploration of the human body and how they applied anatomical knowledge to clinical medicine to the best of their knowledge. It is through records, such as the Edwin Smith, Ebers, and Kahun papyri and other literature detailing the work of the Egyptian embalmers, physicians, and Greek anatomists, that we are able to take a glimpse into the evolution of the anatomical sciences from 3000 B.C. to 250 B.C. It is through the Egyptian embalmer that we were able to learn of some of the first interactions with human organs and their detailed observation. The Egyptian physician's knowledge, being transcribed into the Ebers and Edwin Smith papyri, enabled future physicians to seek reference to common ailments for diagnosing and treating a variety of conditions ranging from head injuries to procedures, such as trans-sphenoidal surgery. In Alexandria, Herophilus, and Erasistratus made substantial contributions to the anatomical sciences by beginning the practice of human dissection. For instance, Herophilus described the anatomy of the heart valves along with Erasistratus who demonstrated how blood was prevented from flowing retrograde under normal conditions. Hence, from various records, we are able to unravel how Egypt paved the road for study of the anatomical sciences. PMID:21509810

Loukas, Marios; Hanna, Michael; Alsaiegh, Nada; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

2011-05-01

480

Chapter 3: neurology in ancient Egypt.  

PubMed

Neurology, in the modern sense, did not exist in ancient Egypt, where medicine was a compound of natural, magical and religious elements, with different practitioners for each form of healing. Nevertheless, Egyptian doctors made careful observations of illness and injury, some of which involved the nervous system. Modern scholars have three sources of information about Egyptian medicine: papyri, inscriptions, and mummified remains. These tell us that the Egyptians had words for the skull, brain, vertebrae, spinal fluid and meninges, though they do not say if they assigned any function to them. They described unconsciousness, quadriparesis, hemiparesis and dementia. We can recognize neurological injuries, such as traumatic hemiparesis and cervical dislocation with paraplegia, in the well known Edwin Smith surgical papyrus. Similarly recognizable in the Ebers papyrus is a description of migraine. An inscription from the tomb of the vizier Weshptah, dated c. 2455 BCE, seems to describe stroke, and Herodotus describes epilepsy in Hellenistic Egypt. We have very little understanding of how Egyptian physicians organized these observations, but we may learn something of Egyptian culture by examining them. At the same time, modern physicians feel some connection to Egyptian physicians and can plausibly claim to be filling a similar societal role. PMID:19892106

York, George K; Steinberg, David A

2010-01-01

481

Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA  

PubMed Central

Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful isolation and amplification of DNA from fossil eggshell up to 19 ka old. aDNA was successfully characterized from eggshell obtained from New Zealand (extinct moa and ducks), Madagascar (extinct elephant birds) and Australia (emu and owl). Our data demonstrate excellent preservation of the nucleic acids, evidenced by retrieval of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from many of the samples. Using confocal microscopy and quantitative PCR, this study critically evaluates approaches to maximize DNA recovery from powdered eggshell. Our quantitative PCR experiments also demonstrate that moa eggshell has approximately 125 times lower bacterial load than bone, making it a highly suitable substrate for high-throughput sequencing approaches. Importantly, the preservation of DNA in Pleistocene eggshell from Australia and Holocene deposits from Madagascar indicates that eggshell is an excellent substrate for the long-term preservation of DNA in warmer climates. The successful recovery of DNA from this substrate has implications in a number of scientific disciplines; most notably archaeology and palaeontology, where genotypes and/or DNA-based species identifications can add significantly to our understanding of diets, environments, past biodiversity and evolutionary processes. PMID:20219731

Oskam, Charlotte L.; Haile, James; McLay, Emma; Rigby, Paul; Allentoft, Morten E.; Olsen, Maia E.; Bengtsson, Camilla; Miller, Gifford H.; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc; Jacomb, Chris; Walter, Richard; Baynes, Alexander; Dortch, Joe; Parker-Pearson, Michael; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Holdaway, Richard N.; Willerslev, Eske; Bunce, Michael

2010-01-01

482

Ancient Layered Rocks in Schiaparelli Crater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the earliest results of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC)investigation shortly after the spacecraft began to orbit Mars in 1997 was the discovery of layered rock outcrops reaching deep down into the martian crust in the walls of the Valles Marineris. Since that time, thousands of MOC images have revealed layered rock in a variety of settings--crater floors, canyon interiors, and scarps exposed by faulting and pitting. This spectacular example taken by MOC in 2001 is found on the floor of an impact crater located near the equator in northwestern Schiaparelli Basin (0.15oN, 345.6oW). The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 miles) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. Layers of uniform thickness and appearance suggest that these materials are ancient sediments, perhaps deposited in water, or perhaps deposited by wind. Wind has subsequently eroded and exposed the layers. Dark drifts of sand occur at the lower center of the image, and lighter-toned windblown ripples dominate the center and upper right.

2001-01-01

483

Inheritance of Cold Tolerance, Plant Height, Maturity and Other Characters in a Spring-Winter Barley Cross.  

E-print Network

. 7:77-94. Nilan, R. A. 1964. The cytology and gentics of barley 1951-62. Washington State Univ. Press. 278 pp. Reid, D. A. 1965. Inheritance of growth habit in barley (Hordeurn vulgare L. Emend. Lam.) Crop Sic. 5:141-14.5. Reid, D. A. 1963.... Winterhardiness of progenies from winter x spring barley (Hordeum vulgare, L. Enlend. Lam.) crosses. Crop Sci. 5:263-266. Rohcle, C. R. and C. F. Pulham. 1960. Genetics studies of winterhardiness in barley. Res. Bul. Seb. Agr. Exp. Sta. Xo. 193. Sclliemann...

Abo-Elenein, Rashad Ahmed; Atkins, I. M.; Pawlisch, E.; Gardenhire, J. H.; Porter, K. B.

1967-01-01

484

Library construction for ancient genomics: single strand or double strand?  

PubMed

A novel method of library construction that takes advantage of a single-stranded DNA ligase has been recently described and used to generate high-resolution genomes from ancient DNA samples. While this method is effective and appears to recover a greater fraction of endogenous ancient material, there has been no direct comparison of results from different library construction methods on a diversity of ancient DNA samples. In addition, the single-stranded method is limited by high cost and lengthy preparation time and is restricted to the Illumina sequencing platform. Here we present in-depth comparisons of the different available library construction methods for DNA purified from 16 ancient and modern faunal and human remains, covering a range of different taphonomic and climatic conditions. We further present a DNA purification method for ancient samples that permits the concentration of a large volume of dissolved extract with minimal manipulation and methodological improvements to the single-stranded method to render it more economical and versatile, in particular to expand its use to both the Illumina and the Ion Torrent sequencing platforms. We show that the single-stranded library construction method improves the relative recovery of endogenous to exogenous DNA for most, but not all, of our ancient extracts. PMID:24924389

Bennett, E Andrew; Massilani, Diyendo; Lizzo, Giulia; Daligault, Julien; Geigl, Eva-Maria; Grange, Thierry

2014-06-01

485

Ancient population genomics and the study of evolution.  

PubMed

Recently, the study of ancient DNA (aDNA) has been greatly enhanced by the development of second-generation DNA sequencing technologies and targeted enrichment strategies. These developments have allowed the recovery of several complete ancient genomes, a result that would have been considered virtually impossible only a decade ago. Prior to these developments, aDNA research was largely focused on the recovery of short DNA sequences and their use in the study of phylogenetic relationships, molecular rates, species identification and population structure. However, it is now possible to sequence a large number of modern and ancient complete genomes from a single species and thereby study the genomic patterns of evolutionary change over time. Such a study would herald the beginnings of ancient population genomics and its use in the study of evolution. Species that are amenable to such large-scale studies warrant increased research effort. We report here progress on a population genomic study of the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae). This species is ideally suited to ancient population genomic research because both modern and ancient samples are abundant in the permafrost conditions of Antarctica. This species will enable us to directly address many of the fundamental questions in ecology and evolution. PMID:25487332

Parks, M; Subramanian, S; Baroni, C; Salvatore, M C; Zhang, G; Millar, C D; Lambert, D M

2015-01-19

486

Sequence variation and haplotypes of lipoxygenase gene LOX-1 in the Australian barley varieties  

PubMed Central

Background Lipoxygenases are a family of enzymes which catalyse the hydroperoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids with a cis, cis-1,4-pentadiene to form conjugated hydroperoxydienes. Lipoxygenase-1 (LOX-1) in barley worsens the flavour and foam stability of beer. It has become a major selection criteria for malting quality in the last few years. Results Lipoxygenase activity was investigated in 41 Australian barley cultivars and advanced breeding lines released since the 1950s; the cultivars differed markedly, ranging from 22.3 to 46.5 U/g. The structural gene and its promoter of lipoxygenase-1 were sequenced from the barley varieties representing different levels of LOX. Based on the analysis of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences, two major haplotypes were identified. Barley varieties with lower LOX were classified into three categories based on their pedigrees and sequence variations in the structural gene: (1) barley varieties derived from Canadian varieties with the pre-harvest sprouting susceptible allele, (2) Skiff and Hindmarsh with unique haplotype in the structural gene, and (3) Gairdner and Onslow with an unknown mechanism. Conclusion Lipoxygenase ac