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1

Archaeogenetic Evidence of Ancient Nubian Barley Evolution from Six to Two-Row Indicates Local Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundArchaeobotanical samples of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) found at Qasr Ibrim display a two-row phenotype that is unique to the region of archaeological sites upriver of the first cataract of the Nile, characterised by the development of distinctive lateral bracts. The phenotype occurs throughout all strata at Qasr Ibrim, which range in age from 3000 to a few hundred years.Methodology

Sarah A. Palmer; Jonathan D. Moore; Alan J. Clapham; Pamela Rose; Robin G. Allaby; Dorian Q. Fuller

2009-01-01

2

Ancient DNA from Nubian and Somali wild ass provides insights into donkey ancestry and domestication  

PubMed Central

Genetic data from extant donkeys (Equus asinus) have revealed two distinct mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, suggestive of two separate domestication events in northeast Africa about 5000 years ago. Without distinct phylogeographic structure in domestic donkey haplogroups and with little information on the genetic makeup of the ancestral African wild ass, however, it has been difficult to identify wild ancestors and geographical origins for the domestic mitochondrial clades. Our analysis of ancient archaeological and historic museum samples provides the first genetic information on the historic Nubian wild ass (Equus africanus africanus), Somali wild ass (Equus africanus somaliensis) and ancient donkey. The results demonstrate that the Nubian wild ass was an ancestor of the first donkey haplogroup. In contrast, the Somali wild ass has considerable mitochondrial divergence from the Nubian wild ass and domestic donkeys. These findings resolve the long-standing issue of the role of the Nubian wild ass in the domestication of the donkey, but raise new questions regarding the second ancestor for the donkey. Our results illustrate the complexity of animal domestication, and have conservation implications for critically endangered Nubian and Somali wild ass.

Kimura, Birgitta; Marshall, Fiona B.; Chen, Shanyuan; Rosenbom, Sonia; Moehlman, Patricia D.; Tuross, Noreen; Sabin, Richard C.; Peters, Joris; Barich, Barbara; Yohannes, Hagos; Kebede, Fanuel; Teclai, Redae; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Mulligan, Connie J.

2011-01-01

3

Nubian Voices: Studies in Christian Nubian Culture-Supplement 15  

Microsoft Academic Search

Giovanni Ruffini (with Adam Lajtar) is a contributing author, “Qasr Ibrim’s Last Land Sale”.\\u000aBook description: The book is a collection of articles dealing with various aspects of medieval Nubian literacy. It contains eleven articles by an international group of scholars, representing different areas of language studies (Greek and Latin epigraphy, Coptology, Old Nubian studies). The articles contain both editions

Adam Lajtar; Jacques van der Vliet; Giovanni Ruffini

2011-01-01

4

Evidence and evolutionary analysis of ancient whole-genome duplication in barley predating the divergence from rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Well preserved genomic colinearity among agronomically important grass species such as rice, maize, Sorghum, wheat and barley provides access to whole-genome structure information even in species lacking a reference genome sequence. We investigated footprints of whole-genome duplication (WGD) in barley that shaped the cereal ancestor genome by analyzing shared synteny with rice using a ~2000 gene-based barley genetic map

Thomas Thiel; Andreas Graner; Robbie Waugh; Ivo Grosse; Timothy J Close; Nils Stein

2009-01-01

5

Studying ancient crop provenance: implications from ?(13)C and ?(15)N values of charred barley in a Middle Bronze Age silo at Ebla(NW Syria).  

PubMed

The discovery of a storeroom full of barley and other cereals (L.9512) in the proto-historic site of Ebla has provided a unique opportunity to study the centralized storage system of the early city-state from a different perspective. Epigraphic evidence available within the site reveals a complex system of taxation which included gathering grain tributes from satellite sites and redistributing semi-finished products such as flour. In this paper, we intend to explore the possibilities of a combined approach to studying the storage system, based on estimated barley grain volumes and ?(13)C-?(15)N analyses. This approach is used to distinguish between grain from different harvesting sites and to identify any grain cultivated using special agricultural practices (e.g. manuring or irrigation). The basic assumption for this kind of analysis is that the growth-site conditions, natural or anthropogenic, of harvested cereals are reflected in their grain size and ?(13)C-?(15)N values. Since the remains found in the storeroom were charred, the first task was to evaluate the effect of carbonization on the ?(13)C-?(15)N and the size of the grains. Thus, the effect of charring was tested on modern samples of Syrian barley landraces. Once it had been ascertained that fresh grains reduced to charred remains retain their original biometric and isotopic traits, the ancient material was examined. Thirteen groups were identified, each characterized by a specific average volume and specific carbon and nitrogen values. The analysis revealed that what had first appeared to be a homogeneous concentration of grain was in fact an assemblage of barley harvested from different sites. PMID:22223320

Fiorentino, Girolamo; Caracuta, Valentina; Casiello, Grazia; Longobardi, Francesco; Sacco, Antonio

2012-02-15

6

Atlas of Ancient Nubia entries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six essays about six major ancient Nubian archaeological sites, dating from Neolithic to Early Christian period are part of a definitive, well-illustrated volume presenting the art, history and archaeology of Nubia (American University in Cairo Press) to the general public. Each essay offers a synthesis of published as well as unpublished data from their excavations in an accessible fashion explaining

Janice Yellin

2009-01-01

7

The Nubian Aquifer in Southwest Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, and topographic and groundwater data are used to understand heterogeneities of the\\u000a Nubian Aquifer between 20–24.5°N and 25–32°E in southwest Egypt. New fluvial and structural interpretations emphasize that\\u000a the desert landscape was produced by fluvial action, including newly mapped alluvial fans. In central locations, braided channels\\u000a are spatially aligned with a NE structural trend, suggesting

C. A. Robinson; A. Werwer; F. El-Baz; M. El-Shazly; T. Fritch; T. Kusky

2007-01-01

8

Late Proterozoic extensional collapse in the Arabian-Nubian Shield  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structural and petrological study of the Late Proterozoic rocks in the Wadi Kid area, Sinai, Egypt indicates the presence of an extensional metamorphic core complex in the northern Arabian–Nubian Shield. Gneissic domes throughout the Arabian–Nubian Shield resemble the core complex of the Wadi Kid area and as a result, they are interpreted as extensional metamorphic core complexes. The presence

B. B. Blasband; S. H. White; P. Brooijmans; H. de Boorder; W. Visser

2000-01-01

9

Barley for food: Characteristics, improvement, and renewed interest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley (Hordeum vulgare vulgare L.) is an ancient cereal grain, which upon domestication has evolved from largely a food grain to a feed and malting grain. However, barley food use today remains important in some cultures around the world, particularly in Asia and northern Africa, and there is renewed interest throughout the world in barley food because of its nutritional

Byung-Kee Baik; Steven E. Ullrich

2008-01-01

10

Neoproterozoic tectonics of the Arabian-Nubian Shield  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Neoproterozoic tectonic development of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) can be divided in three parts: 1) the oceanic stage; 2) the arc-accretion stage; 3) the extensional stage. Three key-areas in the Arabian-Nubian Shield, namely the Bi'r Umq Complex, The Tabalah and Tarj Complex and the Wadi Kid Complex, were studied in the framework of this research with the aim to

B. B. Blasband

2006-01-01

11

Ediacaran terrane accretion within the Arabian–Nubian Shield  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ad Dawadimi Terrane is an Ediacaran basin of the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS), Saudi Arabia. This basin terrane is situated in the far eastern part of the ANS and represents the youngest accretion event of the exposed ANS. Therefore, the timing of events within the basin is key to understanding both the closure of the Mozambique Ocean and the

Grant M. Cox; Christopher J. Lewis; Alan S. Collins; Galen P. Halverson; Fred Jourdan; John Foden; David Nettle; Fayek Kattan

12

Reproductive doe traits of the Nubian (Zaraibi) goats in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nubian does from the hot arid climate of upper Egypt were evaluated for productive and reproductive traits under Nile Delta (lower Egypt) conditions. The mean values for age at first kidding, abortion rate, and mortality rate were 691 days, 1.4 and 26.8%, respectively. Corresponding values for litter size at birth and weaning were 2.9 and 2.3 kids, respectively, and for

I. F. M Marai; E. I Abou-Fandoud; A. H Daader; A. A Abu-Ella

2002-01-01

13

Ancient Rome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this internet project is to help students learn more about nine aspects of ancient Rome. These nine aspects will be of the student's own choosing. I have listed three websites that contain large amounts of information about Ancient Rome. Fill in the three handouts I give you, using information of your choice from the three websites. This is what the three handouts look like: Mr. Donn's Ancient History Click on Mr. Donn s Ancient History, then click on Rome. Scroll ...

Murray, Mrs.

2007-11-02

14

Conception Rates following Oestrus Synchronization and Artificial Insemination in the Nubian Goats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This experiment was designed to investigate into the efficiency of different hormonal treatments in inducing and synchronizing oestrus in Sudanese Nubian goats and their fertility following a fixed time artificial insemination programme using Saanen buck ...

A. Jubara

1996-01-01

15

Metallogeny of gold in relation to the evolution of the Nubian Shield in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold mineralization in the Eastern Desert of Egypt is confined, almost completely, to the basement rocks of the Nubian Shield that was cratonized during the Panafrican orogeny.Island-arc, orogenic and post-orogenic stages are indicated for the tectonic-magmatic evolution of the Nubian Shield in Late Proterozoic times. Different styles of gold mineralization recognised in the Eastern Desert are inferred to have developed

Nagy Shawky Botros

2002-01-01

16

Uranium isotopic study of artesian and pluvial contributions to the Nubian Aquifer, Western Desert, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The groundwater systems of the Nubian Aquifer beneath six major oases (Baris, Kharga, Dakhla, Farafra, Bahariya, and Siwa) in the Western Desert of Egypt have been studied to establish their sources and mixing volumes using uranium isotopes. One hundred six groundwater samples from different depths of the Nubian Aquifer have been analyzed for uranium content and 234U\\/238U activity ratio (AR).The

A. A. Dabous; J. K. Osmond

2001-01-01

17

The Nubian Sandstone Basin in North Africa, A Source of Irrigation Water for Desert Oases  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Nubian sandstone basin in northern Africa is presented in this paper. This basin has total a total surface of about 1.8\\u000a million km2encompassing the north-western part of the Sudan, Egypt west of the Nile, the extreme north-east of Chad and southern and\\u000a eastern Libya. This surface is characterized by its extreme aridity. Groundwater is present in the Nubian basin

Mamdouh Shahin

18

Ancient Egypt.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

Evers, Virginia

19

AUTOTOXICITY OF BARLEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allelopathic potential of a crop species varies depending on stage of growth. Because allelopathy of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), an important cereal grain adapted to semi-arid conditions of northern Tunisia, has not been widely reported, a study was conducted to determine i) the potential autotoxicity of barley and ii) the differential allelopathic potential of barley plant components over four phenological

Moncef Ben-Hammouda; Habib Ghorbal; Robert J. Kremer; Oussama Oueslatt

2002-01-01

20

Ancient Civilizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This subject guide includes Web sites and other resources on ancient civilizations with age levels and appropriate subject disciplines specified. Also includes CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, professional resources, and a sample student assignment. (LRW)|

Web Feet K-8, 2000

2000-01-01

21

Ancient Astronomers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Conduct research on how different ancient peoples used astronomy. Please answer the questions under each ancient people in your journals. Try to include illustrations to help your understanding. Utah State Core: Standard 1 - Students will gain an understanding of early civilizations and their contributions to the foundations of human culture. Objective 2 - Assess the impact of geography on the locations of early civilizations.

Myers, Mr.

2010-06-04

22

Dental indicators of health and stress in early Egyptian and Nubian agriculturalists: a difficult transition and gradual recovery.  

PubMed

Although agriculture is now the globally predominant mode of food production, studies of the skeletal remains of early agriculturalists have indicated high levels of physiological stress and poor health relative to hunter-gatherers in similar environments. Previous studies identifying this trend in different regions prompt further research of the causes and effects of subsistence transitions in human societies. Here, 242 dentitions from five ancient Egyptian and Nubian populations are examined: 38 individuals from Jebel Sahaba (Upper Paleolithic), 56 from Badari (Predynastic), 54 from Naqada (Predynastic), 47 from Tarkhan (Dynastic), and 47 from Kerma (Dynastic). These populations span the early period of agricultural intensification along the Nile valley. Skeletal remains were scored for the presence of linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) of the dentition, an established indicator of physiological stress and growth interruption. The prevalence of LEH was highest in the "proto-agricultural" (pastoralist) Badari population, with a gradual decline throughout the late Predynastic and early Dynastic periods of state formation. This suggests that the period surrounding the emergence of early agriculture in the Nile valley was associated with high stress and poor health, but that the health of agriculturalists improved substantially with the increasing urbanization and trade that accompanied the formation of the Egyptian state. This evidence for poor health among proto- and early agriculturalists in the Nile valley supports theories that agricultural intensification occurred as a response to ecological or demographic pressure rather than simply as an innovation over an existing stable subsistence strategy. PMID:17786997

Starling, Anne P; Stock, Jay T

2007-12-01

23

New isotopic evidence for the origin of groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer in the Negev, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geochemistry and isotopic composition (H, O, S, Osulfate, C, Sr) of groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone (Kurnub Group) aquifer in the Negev, Israel, were investigated in an attempt to reconstruct the origin of the water and solutes, evaluate modes of water–rock interactions, and determine mean residence times of the water. The results indicate multiple recharge events into the Nubian

Avner Vengosh; Sharona Hening; Jiwchar Ganor; Bernhard Mayer; Constanze E. Weyhenmeyer; Thomas D. Bullen; Adina Paytan

2007-01-01

24

Productivity of the Small East African goat and its crosses with the AngloNubian and the Alpine in Rwanda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from a research station in the central African country of Rwanda relating to purebred Small East African (SEA) goats, Anglo-Nubian × SEA and Alpine × SEA goats were analysed. Both SEA (598 days) and Alpine crosses (557 days) were younger at first kidding than the Anglo-Nubian crosses (766 days). There were no differences among genotypes in kidding interval which

R. Trevor Wilson; Theophile Murayi

1988-01-01

25

Ancient Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online lecture and study guide presents evidence of the interest of ancient civilizations in astronomy. It first summarizes the apparent motions of the planets on the sky. Next, the ways early societies made and recorded observations of the Sun, Moon, planets, and stars are described. The Mayans are used as an example of how great accomplishments in astronomy helped shape a society's behavior. The material also includes information about the difficulties in interpreting ancient astronomical observatories do to the precession of the polar axis and a discussion of cyclic phenomena associated with the motion of the Moon.

O'Connell, Robert

2008-02-26

26

Mixed fluvial systems of the Messak Sandstone, a deposit of the Nubian lithofacies, southwestern Libya  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Messak Sandstone is a coarse to pebbly, tabular cross-bedded, Lower Cretaceous deposit of the widespread Nubian lithofacies. It was deposited at the northern edge of the Murzuq basin in southwestern Libya. Although the sedimentary record is predominantly one of braided fluvial systems, a common subfacies within the formation is interpreted to record the passage of straight-crested sand waves across

J. Lorenz

1987-01-01

27

new constraints on Red Sea rifting from correlations of Arabian and Nubian Neoproterozoic outcrops  

Microsoft Academic Search

New constraints on the mechanics of Red Sea opening were obtained by correlating Neoproterozoic outcrops of the Arabian and Nubian Shields along two thirds of the Red Sea coastlines. Using a mosaic of 23 Landsat thematic mapper scenes (5×105 km²) together with field, geochemical, and geochronological data, we identified and mapped lithologic units, mobile belts, and terranes within the Arabian

M. Sultan; R. Becker; R. E. Arvidson; P. Shore; R. J. Stern; Z. El Alfy; R. I. Attia

1993-01-01

28

New constraints on Red Sea rifting from correlations of Arabian and Nubian Neoproterozoic outcrops  

Microsoft Academic Search

New constraints on the mechanics of Red Sea opening were obtained by correlating Neoproterozoic outcrops of the Arabian and Nubian Shields along two thirds of the Red Sea coastlines. Using a mosaic of 23 Landsat thematic mapper scenes (5×105 km2) together with field, geochemical, and geochronological data, we identified and mapped lithologic units, mobile belts, and terranes within the Arabian

M. Sultan; R. Becker; R. E. Arvidson; P. Shore; R. J. Stern; Z. El Alfy; R. I. Attia

1993-01-01

29

Barley Helps Reduce Cholesterol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Barley's many roles, in brewing beer, in breakfast foods, and as feed for stock, may now be expanding to include lowering cholesterol in chickens and pigs. Scientist...

1983-01-01

30

The Nubian Complex of Dhofar, Oman: An African Middle Stone Age Industry in Southern Arabia  

PubMed Central

Despite the numerous studies proposing early human population expansions from Africa into Arabia during the Late Pleistocene, no archaeological sites have yet been discovered in Arabia that resemble a specific African industry, which would indicate demographic exchange across the Red Sea. Here we report the discovery of a buried site and more than 100 new surface scatters in the Dhofar region of Oman belonging to a regionally-specific African lithic industry - the late Nubian Complex - known previously only from the northeast and Horn of Africa during Marine Isotope Stage 5, ?128,000 to 74,000 years ago. Two optically stimulated luminescence age estimates from the open-air site of Aybut Al Auwal in Oman place the Arabian Nubian Complex at ?106,000 years ago, providing archaeological evidence for the presence of a distinct northeast African Middle Stone Age technocomplex in southern Arabia sometime in the first half of Marine Isotope Stage 5.

Rose, Jeffrey I.; Usik, Vitaly I.; Marks, Anthony E.; Hilbert, Yamandu H.; Galletti, Christopher S.; Parton, Ash; Geiling, Jean Marie; Cerny, Viktor; Morley, Mike W.; Roberts, Richard G.

2011-01-01

31

Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian shield of Northeastern Sudan using thematic mapper imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bechtel is nearing completion of a one-year program that uses digitally enhanced LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data to compile the first comprehensive regional tectonic map of the Proterozoic Nubian Shield exposed in the northern Red Sea Hills of northeastern Sudan. The status of significant objectives of this study are given. Pertinent published and unpublished geologic literature and maps of the northern Red Sea Hills to establish the geologic framework of the region were reviewed. Thematic mapper imagery for optimal base-map enhancements was processed. Photo mosaics of enhanced images to serve as base maps for compilation of geologic information were completed. Interpretation of TM imagery to define and delineate structural and lithogologic provinces was completed. Geologic information (petrologic, and radiometric data) was compiled from the literature review onto base-map overlays. Evaluation of the tectonic evolution of the Nubian Shield based on the image interpretation and the compiled tectonic maps is continuing.

1986-08-01

32

Distribution of oceanic and continental leads in the Arabian-Nubian Shield  

Microsoft Academic Search

New common lead data for feldspar, whole-rock, and galena samples from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, together with data from\\u000a previous work, can be divided into two main groups. Group I leads have oceanic (mantle) characteristics, whereas group II\\u000a leads have incorporated a continental-crustal component of at least early Proterozoic age. The group I leads are found in\\u000a rocks from the Red

John S. Stacey; Douglas B. Stoeser

1983-01-01

33

The Butana Region of Central Sudan: Sahara Craton or Arabian-Nubian Shield?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Butana region lies 250 km south east of Khartoum and is one of the few exposures of Proterozoic basement in Central Sudan. The area is characterized by a flat surface and isolated basement exposures. Various authors have allocated the region to part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield or to part of the reworked Sahara Craton. Although the area is indeed located in the rough region of this transition, little information exists on the details of the basement geology in Butana. Field work indicates that the geology of the study area is similar to the other parts of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The area consists of low-grade metavolcanic rocks (arc assemblage), pre- and syn-tectonic granitic intrusions. In particular the presence of serpentinites, ophiolitic metagabbro and high-grade metamorphic rocks may identify it as part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The main metamorphic foliation trend in the low-grade rocks is northeast-southwest with steep foliation plains and sub-horizontal lineation. In the high-grade rocks, at least three deformation phases were observed in the field. D1 associates with northeast-southwest foliation planes and D2 associates with high temperature folding mechanism which gave the high-grade rocks domal pattern. While D3 is a faulting phase with brittle features. The peak metamorphism most probably occurred after the D2 as indicated by the migmatic features. Geochronological work is in progress in order to identify uniquely if the region should be allocated to the Arabian-Nubian Shield or the Sahara Craton.

Abu-Alam, T.; Stüwe, K.

2012-04-01

34

RECENT ADVANCES IN BARLEY TRANSFORMATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley, an important member of the cereals, has been successfully transformed through various methods such as particle bombardment, Agrobacterium-tumefaciens, DNA uptake, and electroporation. Initially, the transformation in barley concentrated on developing protocols using marker genes such as gus,...

35

Ancient autophagy.  

PubMed

These days, when we talk about the origin of a protein, or even a pathway, we are typically referring to evolutionary lineages based on nucleotide sequences. For example, is a particular protein's function conserved? How far back did it first appear? Are there homologs in higher eukaryotes? However, a simpler question (or perhaps I should say, a non-molecular biology question) is when was the process first detected in the paleontological record? Of course I assumed that macroautophagy was ancient, but a new finding (see p. 632 in this issue of the journal) provides an unexpected--and exciting--piece of information for our field. For the first time, scientists have discovered fossil evidence for an actual subcellular pathway--and it looks like it might actually be autophagy (I admit I am biased, but you can decide for yourself). PMID:23388466

Klionsky, Daniel J

2013-02-06

36

Palynology and Stratigraphy of the Nubian Sandstone in Libya and Comparison with Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The so-called "Nubian Sandstone" outcrops along a wide area from Algeria to the Red Sea, forming two regressive phases. The lower phase is represented in Egypt by the Basal Clastic Unit, the Desert Rose Unit, the Abu Ballas Formation and the Matruh Shale. In Libya it is represented by the Mesak Sandstone, Sarir Sandstone, Cabao Sandstone and Kiklah Formation. In both countries, these successions are covered by a carbonate sequence, resulting from the Tethyan transgression during the Cenomanian. In Egypt however, the upper regressive phase is represented by the Taref Sandstone which was deposited during a brief period of active progradation, following the Tethyan incursion. This is not observed in Libya. Comparison of palynological studies in Libya with those documented by several authors in Egypt reveals that the "Nubian" facies in Libya were deposited before equivalent facies in Egypt. The Basal Clastic Unit, dated as Hautrauvian-Barremian, may be equivalent, at least to a part of the Neocomian Cabao Sandstone in NW Libya. Jarmah Member of the Mesak Formation in Libya was dated as Berriasian on the basis of Pilosisporites and Trilobosporites. This makes it older than any "Nubian" unit in Egypt. The Matruh Shale was assigned to the Aptian on the basis of Tricolpites, and the Abu Balls Formation 34 as Aptian-Albian on the basis of Tricolpites and Rousisporites radiatus. Whereas, there is no equivalent to the Aptian in NW Libya, the Aptian-Albian of Egypt is similar to Zone 1 of the Kiklah Formation and As Sarir Sandstone, which were dated as early Albian on the basis of Afropollis spp., and Perotriletes pannuceus, an Albian element not recorded in Egypt. The Plant Beds in southwestern Egypt were dated as Cenomanian on the basis of advanced angiosperm pollen. In Libya, equivalent bodies were considered Vraconian, representing the uppermost Albian, because it lacks Cenomanian pollen (e.g. Tricolpites mutabilis). Comparison of local sea-level changes with global sea-level curves is used to reconstruct paleogeography. Integration of palynology with geological data and tectonic implications indicates that, despite similarity in paleogeographic processes of the Nubian Sandstone, geological and structural settings remain different. The "Nubian Sandstone" provides a typical succession that can be studied in the light of sequence stratigraphy.

Tekbali, Ali; Hlal, Osama

2013-04-01

37

REGISTRATION OF 'RADIANT' BARLEY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Radiant' (PI 633971), a proanthocyanidin-free two-row spring feed and potential malting barley released in 2003, was developed by the Washington State University Agricultural Research Center cooperatively with the Idaho and Oregon Agricultural Research Experiment Stations and the USDA-ARS. Radiant...

38

New constraints on Red Sea rifting from correlations of Arabian and Nubian Neoproterozoic outcrops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New constraints on the mechanics of Red Sea opening were obtained by correlating Neoproterozoic outcrops of the Arabian and Nubian Shields along two thirds of the Red Sea coastlines. Using a mosaic of 23 Landsat thematic mapper scenes (5×105 km²) together with field, geochemical, and geochronological data, we identified and mapped lithologic units, mobile belts, and terranes within the Arabian and Nubian Shields. Features best align if Arabia is rotated by 6.7° around a pole at latitude 34.6°N, longitude 18.1°E. Implications of our reconstruction include (1) the amount of continental crust underlying the Red Sea is small because the restored Red Sea coasts are typically juxtaposed, (2) only a single pole is needed, implying that the Arabian and Nubian Shields were rigid plates during Red Sea rifting, (3) coastlines reorient to align with preexisting structures, suggesting the rift propagated in part along pre-existing zones of weakness, (4) large sinistral displacements of up to 350 km along the Red Sea are not supported, (5) the pole is inconsistent with the Pliocene-Pleistocene motion along the Dead Sea transform (pole: 32.8°N, 22.6°E +/- 0.5° [Joffe and Garfunkel, 1987]), indicating that more than one phase of motion is required to account for the Red Sea opening. However, our pole is similar to that for the total motion along the Dead Sea transform (pole: 32.7°N, 19.8°E +/- 2° [Joffe and Garfunkel, 1987]), suggesting that the motion between Arabia and Nubia was parallel to the total motion along the Dead Sea transform.

Sultan, M.; Becker, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Shore, P.; Stern, R. J.; El Alfy, Z.; Attia, R. I.

1993-12-01

39

Source of Groundwater Recharge over the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt: Geochemical and Geochronological Constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two main hypotheses have been advocated to address the origin of the fossil water of the Nubian Aquifer: (1) intensification of paleowesterlies during glacial periods and (2) intensification of paleomonsoons during interglacial periods. Seven groundwater samples were collected from deep (>300 m <800 m) productive wells tapping the Lower Cretaceous Nubian Sandstone Aquifer in Sinai and were analyzed for their isotopic compositions (?18O and ?D), ages (C-14), and recharge temperatures (dissolved noble gas concentrations). Analyses yielded two groups of samples: group I: (age: 26k yrs to 31k yrs; ?18O: -8.9% to -7.2%, ?D: -63.1% to -49.3%, and recharge T: 17.5°C to 22.03°C), and group II: (age: 1740 yrs to 6180 yrs; ?18O: -5.9% to -4.9%, ?D: -33.3% to -25.1%, and recharge T: 20.6°C to 26.2°C). The following observations could be made from the data: (1) C-14 ages indicate that Group I waters were recharged during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), whereas Group II waters were recharged during relatively dry interglacial periods; and (2) the depleted nature of Group I isotopic compositions compared to Group II (average ?18O: Group I: -8%; Group II: -5.4%; average ?D: Group I: -56%; Group II: -29.2%) and their lower recharge temperatures (Group I average T: 19.9°C; Group II average T: 23.4°C) are consistent with recharge of Group I waters during cooler time periods and Group II waters during warmer periods. We interpret these results to indicate that the Nubian Aquifer was largely recharged through the intensification of paleowesterlies during glacial periods (represented by Group I waters) but is still receiving modest contributions during relatively dry interglacial periods (represented by Group II waters).

Abouelmagd, A. A.; Sultan, M.; Kehew, A. E.; Milewski, A.; Sturchio, N. C.

2011-12-01

40

Ancient asexual scandals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asexual organisms that are descended from ancient asexual lineages defy current thinking on the evolution of sexual reproduction; theoreticians have been anxious to explain away their existence. However, a number of groups of organisms, from ferns to rotifers, have been suggested to be anciently asexual, and favourable evidence is being accumulated. Furthermore, new techniques for assessing claims of ancient asexuality

Olivia P. Judson; Benjamin B. Normark

1996-01-01

41

Apps for Ancient Civilizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

Thompson, Stephanie

2011-01-01

42

New interpretation of the so-called Nubian strata in northeast Africa  

SciTech Connect

Stratigraphical interpretation of the so-called Nubian Sandstone of Egypt and northern Sudan have led to new ideas on the structural and paleogeographical development of northeast Africa. The strata formerly comprised under the term Nubian Sandstone include sediments from Cambrian to Paleocene age. Based on field work and paleontological investigations during the last 10 years, these strata can be subdivided into three major cycles, each characterizing a certain structural situation of northeast Africa. The first or Paleozoic cycle comprises strata of Cambrian to Early Carboniferous age. These strata were deposited during a period of generally northern dip of northeast Africa; continental sediments transported northward interfinger with marine strata resulting from southward transgressions. Sediments of the second cycle were deposited during and after Gondwana and northern continents collided, which caused updoming of large areas of Egypt and bordering areas to the west and east. As a result, most of Egypt became subject to erosion; transgressions remained near the present northern edge of the continent, and purely continental deposition took place in northern Sudan and bordering areas in Chad and Libya. The resulting strata are similar to the Karroo of East Africa. Strata of the third cycle were deposited after Pangea began to disintegrate. Northeast Africa now had a generally northern dip again, and consequently deposition was controlled - as during the first cycle - by northward drainage and southward transgressions. This last cycle began during Late Jurassic time.

Klitzsch, E.H.; Squyres, C.H.

1988-08-01

43

Barley Genomics: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Barley (Hordeum vulgare), first domesticated in the Near East, is a well-studied crop in terms of genetics, genomics, and breeding and qualifies as a model plant for Triticeae research. Recent advances made in barley genomics mainly include the following: (i) rapid accumulation of EST sequence data, (ii) growing number of studies on transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome, (iii) new modeling techniques, (iv) availability of genome-wide knockout collections as well as efficient transformation techniques, and (v) the recently started genome sequencing effort. These developments pave the way for a comprehensive functional analysis and understanding of gene expression networks linked to agronomically important traits. Here, we selectively review important technological developments in barley genomics and related fields and discuss the relevance for understanding genotype-phenotype relationships by using approaches such as genetical genomics and association studies. High-throughput genotyping platforms that have recently become available will allow the construction of high-density genetic maps that will further promote marker-assisted selection as well as physical map construction. Systems biology approaches will further enhance our knowledge and largely increase our abilities to design refined breeding strategies on the basis of detailed molecular physiological knowledge.

Sreenivasulu, Nese; Graner, Andreas; Wobus, Ulrich

2008-01-01

44

Microflora of barley kernels.  

PubMed

Numbers and kinds of microflora were determined in 160 samples of barley grown in different regions of the United States; microflora were more abundant in the grains grown in the central states than in those grown in the western states. During steeping and germination in micromalting equipment, the number of colonies of filamentous fungi increased from two to five times, colonies of yeasts from five to ten times, and bacteria from 50 to more than 100 times the numbers present in the grain before malting. Kiln drying according to a commercial schedule reduced the number of all types of microflora below the number present before kilning, but all were present in larger numbers in the kilned malt than in the original grain. In barley stored at room temperature and at a moisture content of 15 to 18%, members of the Aspergillus glaucus group increased with increasing time and increasing moisture content, and germination percentage of the seeds decreased. Stored free of storage fungi at room temperature, barley with a moisture content just over 15% retained a high germination percentage for 5 months, but at a moisture content of 16% the germination decreased to zero. PMID:13893856

FOLLSTAD, M N; CHRISTENSEN, C M

1962-07-01

45

Paleodrainage Networks Recharging the Nubian Aquifer Dakhla and Kufra Sub-Basins Revealed From SIR-C and SRTM Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nubian Aquifer system of northeast Africa is one of the world's largest potable groundwater reserves. Because it occurs in one of the world's driest climates, understanding its history and behavior has both scientific and practical importance. The sparse settlement of the huge (2x106 km2) area underlain by this aquifer, and the limited resources of the nations in which it

M. Sultan; N. Manocha; R. Becker; N. Sturchio

2004-01-01

46

HEALTH EFFECTS OF BARLEY CONSUMPTION.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley has high amounts of soluble fiber but is not extensively consumed in the US diet. Two studies carried out at the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center investigated whether consumption of barley would reduce cardiovascular risk factors comparably to reductions observed with other soluble ...

47

APPLICATIONS OF MICROARRAYS TO BARLEY RESEARCH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Barley1 Affymetrix GeneChip probe array was developed in 2003 and has provided a new resource for barley geneticists to examine gene expression in barley. This article summarizes the development of the GeneChip and several applications to barley research. Traditionally, gene expression studies h...

48

Invigorated barley in diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

With over 41 million diabetics, India has become diabetes-capital of the world. The country is also a leader in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity, with hypertension to join the list soon. Historical evidences suggest that the ancient Indian physicians were able to stabilize dia- betes, obesity and related metabolic syndrome effectively through recommendations, which are not different from

Ashok K. Tiwari

49

Iron Site Population in Garnets from the Arabo-Nubian Shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently it has been found in two different locations in South Eastern Desert of Egypt that some pegmatitic veins which invaded in gneissic rocks are associated with Yttrium bearing garnets with the general chemical composition c3a2d3O12. The concentration of Yttrium in these garnets reached 10,000 ppm. Garnets with lower concentration up to 300 ppm were also found in south Sinai peninsula, and are associated with metamorphosed sedimentary rocks. Both locations are part of the Arabo-Nubian Shield, and were mapped using Landsat images (TM) and extensive field work. In the present study our main concern was to determine the cation site population and chemical composition of all samples. Two different garnets structure models were identified. The typical occurrence of spessartine, almandine and pyrope were present and confirm the site population.

Bahgat, A. A.; Ramadan, T. M.; Mostafa, M. A.

1998-12-01

50

Olympics: Ancient vs. Modern  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objective: Students will compare the Ancient Olympics invented by the Greeks to a Modern Olympic games Materials: Computer with internet connection Paper and writing Utensil OR open blank Word Document Procedures: 1. On your paper or in your Word Document, create two columns and label one Ancient Greeks and the other Modern Olympics 2. Use a minimum of 2 of the following links to find information to compare the Ancient Olympics to the ...

Schaefer, Mrs.

2008-09-13

51

Distribution of oceanic and continental leads in the Arabian-Nubian Shield  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New common lead data for feldspar, whole-rock, and galena samples from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, together with data from previous work, can be divided into two main groups. Group I leads have oceanic (mantle) characteristics, whereas group II leads have incorporated a continental-crustal component of at least early Proterozoic age. The group I leads are found in rocks from the Red Sea Hills of Egypt and the western and southern parts of the Arabian Shield. Group II leads are found in rocks from the northeastern and eastern parts of the Arabian Shield, as well as from the southeastern Shield near Najran. They are also found in rocks to the south in Yemen, to the east in Oman, and to the west at Aswan, Egypt. This distribution of data suggests that the Arabian-Nubian Shield has an oceanic core flanked by rocks that have developed, at least in part, from older continental material. Two mechanisms are suggested by which this older lead component could have been incorporated into the late Proterozoic rocks, and each may have operated in different parts of the Shield. The older lead component either was derived directly from an underlying early Proterozoic basement or was incorporated from subducted pelagic sediments or sediments derived from an adjacent continent. New U-Pb zircon data indicate the presence of an early Proterozoic basement southeast of Jabal Dahul in the eastern Arabian Shield. These data, together with 2,000-Ma-old zircons from the Al Amar fault zone, verify the implication of the common lead data that at least a part of the eastern Arabian Shield has an older continental basement. Because continental margins are particularly favorable locations for development of ore deposits, these findings may have important economic implications, particularly for tin, tungsten, and molybdenum exploration. ?? 1983 Springer-Verlag.

Stacey, J. S.; Stoeser, D. B.

1983-01-01

52

Paleodrainage Networks Recharging the Nubian Aquifer Dakhla and Kufra Sub-Basins Revealed From SIR-C and SRTM Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nubian Aquifer system of northeast Africa is one of the world's largest potable groundwater reserves. Because it occurs in one of the world's driest climates, understanding its history and behavior has both scientific and practical importance. The sparse settlement of the huge (2x106 km2) area underlain by this aquifer, and the limited resources of the nations in which it occurs, result in a situation where knowledge of its origin and history is incomplete. We defined the paleodrainage channels across the entire aquifer using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data (SRTM) and ARC/INFO watershed delineation routines. The SRTM-based streams, which are now partially covered by sand sheets and dunes, were validated by comparison to stream distribution inferred from co-registered Space-borne Imaging Radar-C/Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C) data. A good correspondence between the SRTM-derived channels and the SIR-C derived channels is evident. Results indicate that there are two major paleodrainage patterns: the first extends in a NE direction from the highlands of NW Sudan towards the Kharga oasis in Egypt and feeds the underlying Nubian Aquifer Dakhla sub-basin. The second trends N-S from the highlands of northern Chad along the eastern borders of Lybia and feeds the underlying Nubian Aquifer Kufra sub-basin. We postulate that extensive recharge of the underlying Nubian aquifer must have occurred beneath the paleodrainage networks during previous wet climatic periods since the Nubian sandstone crops out across major sectors of the entire area covered by the delineated watersheds. The autochtonous recharge is supported by the presence of surrounding highlands that are largely formed of basement uplifts suggesting that these sub-basins are probably largely disconnected. This suggestion is further corroborated by the progressive increase in ages of Nubian Aquifer groundwater in the Dakhla sub-basin along the hydraulic gradient (from SW to NE). For example, the youngest 36Cl age (~50 kyr) was obtained from East Uweinat and the oldest 81Kr age (~1million yr) was obtained from Bauti-1 (Baharyia).

Sultan, M.; Manocha, N.; Becker, R.; Sturchio, N.

2004-05-01

53

Ancient Egyptian Astronomical Calander  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss how certain astronomical concepts are related to the ancient Egyptian culture and their daily life. One of them is different ways of creating their calendar systems. The ancient Egyptian calendar seems to have quite a bit of its origin in astronomy and its development over the course of history. There is an important role played

Patrice Marshall; M. A. K. Lodhi

2001-01-01

54

Barley variety identification using SSRs.  

PubMed

There is a current and developing need for rapid and accurate methods of barley varietal identification which go beyond traditional morphological analysis. Methods using DNA analysis have the capacity to fulfil this role with microsatellites being the current marker of choice. The majority of barley cultivars on the National List can be differentiated using 6 SSRs and bulk samples, using the methods described here. PMID:19301765

Southworth, Cathy

2009-01-01

55

Recharge flux to the Nubian Sandstone aquifer and its impact on the present development in southwest Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We collect the hydrological data of wells in the study area.The water table of the Nubian aquifer is subject to continuous decline.We carry out groundwater flow model using FEFLOW.The results indicate that the length of the southwest flux boundary is about 170 km.Implementation of 1600 proposed wells shows lowering of water table (5-15 m) in time period of 27 years.

Masoud, M. H.; Schneider, M.; El Osta, M. M.

2013-09-01

56

Modelling of paleo-saltwater intrusion in the northern part of the Nubian Aquifer System, Northeast Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical groundwater model of the Nubian Aquifer System was established to prove the influence of rising seawater levels\\u000a on the groundwater salinity in northern Egypt over the last 140,000 years. In addition, the impact of a groundwater recharge\\u000a scenario for these 140,000 years, involving climatic change, on the saltwater\\/freshwater interface was investigated. Saltwater\\u000a intrusion induced by rising water levels of the

Wolfgang Gossel; Ahmed Sefelnasr; Peter Wycisk

2010-01-01

57

Cosmogenic, radiogenic, and stable isotopic constraints on groundwater residence time in the nubian aquifer, western desert of egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of radiochlorine (³⁶Cl), radiogenic noble gases (⁴He and ⁴°Ar), and stable chlorine isotope ratios were obtained to assess the residence time of groundwater in the Nubian Aquifer of the Western Desert of Egypt. Measured ³⁶Cl\\/Cl ratios yield apparent residence times from â0.2 to 1.2 x 10⁶ years in the deep (600-1200 m) groundwater (assuming constant Cl) and ⤠0.16

Leslie J. Patterson; Neil C. Sturchio; B. Mack Kennedy; Matthias C. van Soest; Mohamed Sultan; Zheng-Tian Lu; Bernhard Lehmann; Roland Purtschert; Zeinhom El Alfy; Baher El Kaliouby; Yehia Dawood; Ali Abdallah

2004-01-01

58

Cosmogenic, radiogenic, and stable isotopic constraints on groundwater residence time in the Nubian Aquifer, Western Desert of Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of radiochlorine (36Cl), radiogenic noble gases (4He and 40Ar), and stable chlorine isotope ratios were obtained to assess the residence time of groundwater in the Nubian Aquifer of the Western Desert of Egypt. Measured 36Cl\\/Cl ratios yield apparent residence times from ?0.2 to 1.2 × 106 years in the deep (600–1200 m) groundwater (assuming constant Cl) and ?0.16 ×

Leslie J. Patterson; Neil C. Sturchio; B. Mack Kennedy; Matthias C. van Soest; Mohamed Sultan; Zheng-Tian Lu; Bernhard Lehmann; Roland Purtschert; Zeinhom El Alfy; Baher El Kaliouby; Yehia Dawood; Ali Abdallah

2005-01-01

59

Groundwater recharge and flow in the Lower Cretaceous Nubian Sandstone aquifer in the Sinai Peninsula, using isotopic techniques and hydrochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The present work was conducted in the Sinai Peninsula (1) to identify the recharge and flow characteristics and to evaluate\\u000a the continuity of the Lower Cretaceous Nubian Sandstone aquifer; and (2) to provide information for the aquifer's rational\\u000a appraisal. Isotopic and hydrochemical compositions combined with the geological and hydrogeological settings were used for\\u000a this purpose.\\u000a \\u000a A considerable depletion in

S. Abd El Samie; M. A. Sadek

2001-01-01

60

Evidence for the Snowball Earth hypothesis in the Arabian-Nubian Shield and the East African Orogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formation of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) and the East African Orogen (EAO) occurred between 870Ma and the end of the Precambrian (?542Ma). ANS crustal growth encompassed a time of dramatic climatic change, articulated as the Snowball Earth hypothesis (SEH). SEH identifies tremendous paleoclimatic oscillations during Neoproterozoic time. Earth’s climate shifted wildly, from times when much of our planet’s surface was

R. J. Stern; D. Avigad; N. R. Miller; M. Beyth

2006-01-01

61

Simulation of impact of present and future groundwater extraction from the non-replenished Nubian Sandstone Aquifer in southwest Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical time-dependent groundwater model of the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer in Egypt is presented. A complete database of the hydrogeological and drilling information of 850 water wells drilled in the period 1960-2000 was evaluated and used for the model parameter input as well as for its calibration. A steady-state condition is rejected even for the pre-development time as the subsurface

A. M. Ebraheem; S. Riad; P. Wycisk; A. Seif El-Nasr

2002-01-01

62

A Nubian Complex Site from Central Arabia: Implications for Levallois Taxonomy and Human Dispersals during the Upper Pleistocene  

PubMed Central

Archaeological survey undertaken in central Saudi Arabia has revealed 29 surface sites attributed to the Arabian Middle Paleolithic based on the presence of Levallois blank production methods. Technological analyses on cores retrieved from Al-Kharj 22 have revealed specific reduction modalities used to produce flakes with predetermined shapes. The identified modalities, which are anchored within the greater Levallois concept of core convexity preparation and exploitation, correspond with those utilized during the Middle Stone Age Nubian Complex of northeast Africa and southern Arabia. The discovery of Nubian technology at the Al-Kharj 22 site represents the first appearance of this blank production method in central Arabia. Here we demonstrate how a rigorous use of technological and taxonomic analysis may enable intra-regional comparisons across the Arabian Peninsula. The discovery of Al-Kharj 22 increases the complexity of the Arabian Middle Paleolithic archaeological record and suggests new dynamics of population movements between the southern and central regions of the Peninsula. This study also addresses the dichotomy within Nubian core typology (Types 1 and 2), which was originally defined for African assemblages.

Crassard, Remy; Hilbert, Yamandu Hieronymus

2013-01-01

63

Hulless winter barley for ethanol production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hulless barley is viable feedstock alternative to corn for ethanol production in areas where small grains are produced. The first barley-based ethanol plant in the US is currently under construction by Osage BioEnergy LLC in Hopewell, VA. New hulless winter barley varieties developed by Virginia T...

64

Astronomy in ancient Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Focus: the ancients. Many of the artefacts constructed between three and six or more millennia ago in Egypt appear to be aligned in directions that have some astronomical or geographical significance.

Kitchin, Chris

2003-03-01

65

Reconstructing an Ancient Wonder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a Montessori class project involving the building of a model of the ancient Briton monument, Stonehenge. Illustrates how the flexibility of the Montessori elementary curriculum encourages children to make their own toys and learn from the process. (JPB)|

Imhof, Christopher J.

2001-01-01

66

Interactive Ancient Mediterranean Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Interactive Ancient Mediterranean (IAM) Project is an online atlas of the ancient Mediterranean world designed to support the instruction of the classics, ancient history, archaeology, and related disciplines. Currently, IAM's Map Room has an index of over 50 maps of ten regions of the Mediterranean basin and northern Europe available for downloading and printing. Most maps are high-resolution .pdf files and the remainder are large, high-quality JPEG files. Users may also search the atlas by keyword, place name, cultural object, or ancient author. IAM is an ongoing joint effort of the American Philological Association's Classical Atlas Project and the departments of Classics and History at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

67

Reconstructing an Ancient Wonder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a Montessori class project involving the building of a model of the ancient Briton monument, Stonehenge. Illustrates how the flexibility of the Montessori elementary curriculum encourages children to make their own toys and learn from the process. (JPB)

Imhof, Christopher J.

2001-01-01

68

Pharmacokinetics of ampicillin trihydrate following intravenous administration to water deprived Nubian goats.  

PubMed

The present study reports the effect of water deprivation in the Nubian goat on the pharmacokinetics of ampicillin trihydrate following intravenous administration at a dose rate of 10 mg kg(-1). Water deprivation for two days, which resulted in about 7.5 per cent loss in bodyweight, produced no significant effects on the pharmacokinetic parameters of the drug. In dehydrated goats that had lost an average of 9.8 per cent of their initial bodyweights, within three days of water deprivation, ampicillin showed significantly slower clearance values (P<0.001), without affecting significantly the pharmacokinetic parameters describing the distribution of the drug. After four days of water deprivation a dehydration level at which goats lost an average of 12.6 per cent bodyweight was reached, which resulted in significant alterations in the distribution and elimination pharmacokinetic parameters of ampicillin. The volume of the central compartment (Vc) and the volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss) were significantly decreased (P<0.01) leading to significant elevation in plasma concentrations of the drug (P<0.01) compared with the normally hydrated animals. In water deprived goats, significantly slower clearance of the drug (P<0.001) and reduced elimination rate constant (P<0.01) with the subsequent increases in the half-life time were also observed. Dosage intervals between the usual doses of ampicillin can be increased in dehydrated goats and concentrations which were high enough to kill susceptible microorganisms could still be achieved. PMID:9839887

Elsheikh, H A; Osman Intisar, A M; Abdullah, A S

69

Comparative pharmacokinetics of ampicillin trihydrate, gentamicin sulphate and oxytetracycline hydrochloride in Nubian goats and desert sheep.  

PubMed

In this investigation the pharmacokinetics of three commonly used antibiotics, ampicillin trihydrate (10 mg/kg), gentamicin sulphate (3 mg/kg) and oxytetracycline hydrochloride (5 mg/kg), given intravenously, were each studied in five Nubian goats and five desert sheep. The pharmacokinetic parameters were described by a two-compartment open model. The results indicated that there were significant differences between the two species in some kinetic parameters of ampicillin and oxytetracycline but not gentamicin. Ampicillin elimination half life (t[1/2beta]) in goats (1.20 h) was shorter than that in sheep (2.48 h), and its clearance (Cl) significantly higher in goats (2921 mL/h x kg) compared to sheep (262 mL/h x kg) (P < 0.01). Ampicillin volume of distribution (Vd[area]) was found to be significantly larger in goats (5673 mL/kg) than in sheep (992 mL/kg) (P < 0.01). For oxytetracycline, the t(1/2beta) in goats (3.89 h) was significantly shorter than that in sheep (6.30 h) and the Cl value in goats (437 mL/h x kg) was significantly higher than in sheep (281 mL/h x kg). The results suggest that when treating sheep and goats, the pharmacokinetic differences between the two species must be considered in order to optimize the therapeutic doses of ampicillin and oxytetracycline. PMID:9280365

Elsheikh, H A; Osman, I A; Ali, B H

1997-08-01

70

A Preliminary Survey of Un-diagnosed Hypertension among Nubians and Coptics in Atbara and Eldamer Cities, Sudan: Does Ethnicity Affect Prevalence?  

PubMed

Introduction: Hypertension is a non-communicable disease of increasing importance in developing countries. Due to its silent nature and serious complications, active screening is essential in case detection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension and to find out whether there are ethnic variations in prevalence between two Sudanese ethnicities. Methods: This is a cross-sectional community-based study in which 100 subjects from Nuba tribe and 70 Coptics not previously known to have hypertension volunteered to participate. Blood pressure was measured and a questionnaire delineating demographic, clinical and social data was obtained from each participant. Results: Female to male ratio was 2:1. The mean age was 39.5±8 years for Nubians and 40.5±5.5 years for Coptics. High blood pressure was detected in 48% of Nubians and 24.3% of Coptics (p>0.001). The prevalence of stage II hypertension was higher in Nubians compared to Coptics (25% vs. 3.8%; p<0.001). Besides the ethnic variation, other significant differences between the two groups were illiteracy and alcohol consumption, both of which were significantly commoner among Nubians. Conclusion: Undiagnosed high blood pressure is common in our local community, with some variations in prevalence and severity among different ethnic groups. Key words: Coptics; Nubians; River Nile State; Sudan; Undiagnosed hypertension. PMID:24053749

Noor, Sufian K M; Bushara, Sarra O E; Sulaiman, Amel A; Elmadhoun, Wadie M Y

2013-09-01

71

Irrigation and infection: the immunoepidemiology of schistosomiasis in ancient Nubia.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis has been deemed "the most important water-based disease from a global public-health perspective" in modern populations. To better understand the burden of schistosomiasis in ancient populations, we conducted immunologic examinations of desiccated tissue samples from two ancient Nubian populations, Wadi Halfa (N = 46) and Kulubnarti (N = 191). Saqia irrigated agriculture increases the available habitat for the aquatic vector snails and the risk of exposure. On the basis of evidence regarding the impact of saqia irrigation on schistosomiasis prevalence and transmission in modern populations, we predicted that the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection would be higher in Wadi Halfa (saqia irrigation) than Kulubnarti (annual flooding). We also predicted that peak infection prevalence would occur at an earlier age within the Wadi Halfa population than the Kulubnarti population and that in both populations the prevalence of schistosomiasis would be higher in males than females due to differential water contact. The prevalence of S. mansoni was greater in the Wadi Halfa population (26.1%) than at Kulubnarti (9.4%) (P = 0.002). However, peak prevalence of infection did not occur in a younger age category within the Wadi Halfa population; prevalence of infection peaked at 66.7% in the mature adult age group (46+ years) in the Wadi Halfa population and at 16% in the later child age group (6-10 years) in the Kulubnarti population. There were no statistically significant differences in prevalence between males and females of either population. The impact of human alteration of the environment on the transmission of schistosomiasis is clearly shown in these populations. PMID:21469072

Hibbs, Amber Campbell; Secor, W Evan; Van Gerven, Dennis; Armelagos, George

2011-04-05

72

Nd–Sr–Hf–O isotope provinciality in the northernmost Arabian–Nubian Shield: implications for crustal evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-isotope study including whole-rock Nd–Sr, single zircon Hf, and SIMS ?18O analyses of zircons sheds light on magma sources in the northernmost Arabian–Nubian Shield (ANS) during ~820–570 Ma. Reconnaissance\\u000a initial Nd and Sr isotope data for the older rocks (~820–740 Ma) reaffirms previous estimates that early crustal evolution\\u000a in this part of the shield involved some crustal contamination by pre-ANS material. Prominent

Y. Be’eri-Shlevin; Y. Katzir; J. Blichert-Toft; I. C. Kleinhanns; M. J. Whitehouse

2010-01-01

73

Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.  

PubMed

Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities. PMID:16380966

Kozma, Chahira

2006-02-15

74

[Psychiatry in ancient Mexico].  

PubMed

Using studies on prehispanic and early post-conquest documents of Ancient Mexico--such as the Badianus Manuscript, also known as Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis, and Brother Bernardino de Sahagún's famous work History of the Things of the New Spain, a description of some existing medical and psychiatric problems, and treatments Ancient Aztecs resorted to, is presented. The structure of the Aztec family, their problems with the excessive ingestion of alcoholic beverages, and the punishments native authorities had implemented in order to check alcoholism up are also described. PMID:1341125

Calderón Narváez, G

1992-12-01

75

Ancient Chinese constellations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China, a country with a long history and a specific culture, has also a long and specific astronomy. Ancient Chinese astronomers observed the stars, named and distributed them into constellations in a very specific way, which is quite different from the current one. Around the Zodiac, stars are divided into four big regions corresponding with the four orientations, and each is related to a totem, either the Azure Dragon, the Vermilion Bird, the White Tiger or the Murky Warrior. We present a general pattern of the ancient Chinese constellations, including the four totems, their stars and their names.

Xu, Junjun

2011-06-01

76

The Ancient Bristlecone Pine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Written by tree enthusiast Leonard Miller with additional input from expert dendrochronologists (including Dr. Henri Grissino-Mayer), this interesting and beautifully illustrated Website gives the reader insights about the oldest tree on earth: the Ancient Bristlecone Pine. The resource provides background information on the discovery of these ancient trees, the geographic setting of the westernmost trees in the US, growth (and other) characteristics of Bristlecone Pines, dendrochronology (the dating of past climate events using tree ring growth), and a select bibliography on Bristlecone Pines, among other topics. An internal search feature (keyword) streamlines the information mining process.

77

Mapping Ancient Coastlines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use a graph to find sea level at various times in the past, then draw the ancient coastlines onto a bathymetric map by following the depth contours. They should develop an understanding of how to interpret a graph to discern changes in sea level, and an understanding that ancient coastlines parallel the contour lines on a bathymetric map. A materials list, directions, background information, and a printable worksheet are provided. National content standards and links to additional information are also included.

78

Comparative expression analysis of dehydrins between two barley varieties, wild barley and Tibetan hulless barley associated with different stress resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought, salinity and cold are the major environmental factors impacting on survival and productivity of Tibetan hulless barley\\u000a in Tibetan Plateau of China. Tibetan hulless barley cultivar, Tibetan Heiqingke No. 1, has developed a strong tolerance and\\u000a adaptation to stresses in relation to the wild barley. The differences of dehydrin gene transcription and translation between\\u000a Tibetan Heiqingke No. 1 and

Jun-Bo DuShu; Shu Yuan; Yang-Er Chen; Xin Sun; Zhong-Wei Zhang; Fei Xu; Ming Yuan; Jing Shang; Hong-Hui Lin

2011-01-01

79

Senenmut: An Ancient Egyptian Astronomer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The celestial phenomena have always been a source of wonder and interest to people, even as long ago as the ancient Egyptians. While the ancient Egyptians did not know all the things about astronomy that we do now, they had a good understanding of some celestial phenomena. The achievements in astronomy of ancient Egyptians are relatively well known, but we

Bojan Novakovic

2008-01-01

80

Ancient Egyptian Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early astronomy of ancient Egypt is known to us from its practical application to time measurement, in the large sense of a calendar year and in the smaller of the 24 h day. The earliest calendar year was lunar, kept in place in the natural year by the star Sirius. From this lunistellar year evolved the well-known calendar year

R. A. Parker

1974-01-01

81

Ancient Egyptian Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a recent communication to NATURE1, Dr. H. Chatley points out that in my former communication2 I did not take account of a whole group of important papers of well-known scholars, and he adds some remarks on stars and planets in ancient Egypt. I think Dr. Chatley must have overlooked my first sentence, where I speak on ``Egyptian calculating astronomy''.

O. Neugebauer

1939-01-01

82

Ancient deforestation revisited.  

PubMed

The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work. PMID:20669043

Hughes, J Donald

2011-01-01

83

Measuring Ancient Inequality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is inequality largely the result of the Industrial Revolution? Or, were pre-industrial incomes and life expectancies as unequal as they are today? For want of sufficient data, these questions have not yet been answered. This paper infers inequality for 14 ancient, pre-industrial societies using what are known as social tables, stretching from the Roman Empire 14 AD, to Byzantium in

Branko Milanovic; Peter H. Lindert; Jeffrey G. Williamson

2007-01-01

84

Ancient Observatories: Chaco Canyon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Exploratorium site offers an online "tour" of the sites and structures within Chaco Canyon, thought to have once been an ancient solar observatory. The different pages on the tour detail several of the most famous sites where significant solar alignments occur each year. A section called "seasons and solstices" provides further information.

2009-03-12

85

Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

Gadecki, Victoria L.

2010-01-01

86

Ancient Atomism and Cosmogony  

Microsoft Academic Search

How should we treat the cosmogonies of the early ancient Greek philosophers? Much work has been done in showing how these cosmogonies diff er from crea- tion myths and how they relate to philosophical issues such as change, persist- ence through change and matter theory. Here, using Leucippus and Democritus as examples, I try to show that interesting light can

Andrew Gregory

87

Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

Stark, Rebecca

88

Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

Stark, Rebecca

89

Modelling of paleo-saltwater intrusion in the northern part of the Nubian Aquifer System, Northeast Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical groundwater model of the Nubian Aquifer System was established to prove the influence of rising seawater levels on the groundwater salinity in northern Egypt over the last 140,000 years. In addition, the impact of a groundwater recharge scenario for these 140,000 years, involving climatic change, on the saltwater/freshwater interface was investigated. Saltwater intrusion induced by rising water levels of the Mediterranean Sea led to salinisation from the Mediterranean Sea to the Qattara depression. This modeling approach was supported by a density-driven model setup and calculation. The modelled saltwater/freshwater interfaces partially fitted the observed ones, especially in the southern half of the Qattara depression. In other parts of the northern Nubian Aquifer System, the ingression of salt water was modelled adequately, but in the west, small regions of the measured interface were not. The development in the Qattara depression (Egypt) and Sirte basin (Libya) were investigated in more detail. The different behaviour in the Sirte basin may be due to high evapotranspiration rates in some former periods, salt solutions from the pre-Quaternary layers or saltwater infiltration from sabkha-like recent salt-bearing sediments.

Gossel, Wolfgang; Sefelnasr, Ahmed; Wycisk, Peter

2010-09-01

90

Detecting Corn Syrup in Barley Malt Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 78(3):349-353 Methods for detecting corn syrup in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) malt extract were evaluated. Twelve samples representative of commercially available 2-rowed and 6-rowed malting barleys were malted. Extracts prepared from the finely ground malts were analyzed for 13 C\\/ 12 C ratios, Malt extract is produced from malted barley and used in the formulation of foodstuffs, where

David M. Peterson; Allen D. Budde; Cynthia A. Henson; Berne L. Jones

2001-01-01

91

A 1,000-loci transcript map of the barley genome: new anchoring points for integrative grass genomics.  

PubMed

An integrated barley transcript map (consensus map) comprising 1,032 expressed sequence tag (EST)-based markers (total 1,055 loci: 607 RFLP, 190 SSR, and 258 SNP), and 200 anchor markers from previously published data, has been generated by mapping in three doubled haploid (DH) populations. Between 107 and 179 EST-based markers were allocated to the seven individual barley linkage groups. The map covers 1118.3 cM with individual linkage groups ranging from 130 cM (chromosome 4H) to 199 cM (chromosome 3H), yielding an average marker interval distance of 0.9 cM. 475 EST-based markers showed a syntenic organisation to known colinear linkage groups of the rice genome, providing an extended insight into the status of barley/rice genome colinearity as well as ancient genome duplications predating the divergence of rice and barley. The presented barley transcript map is a valuable resource for targeted marker saturation and identification of candidate genes at agronomically important loci. It provides new anchor points for detailed studies in comparative grass genomics and will support future attempts towards the integration of genetic and physical mapping information. PMID:17219208

Stein, Nils; Prasad, Manoj; Scholz, Uwe; Thiel, Thomas; Zhang, Hangning; Wolf, Markus; Kota, Raja; Varshney, Rajeev K; Perovic, Dragan; Grosse, Ivo; Graner, Andreas

2007-01-12

92

Water transport in barley roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radial transport of water in excised barley (Hordeum distichon, cv. Villa) roots was measured using a new method based on the pressure-probe technique. After attaching excised roots to the probe, root pressures of 0.9 to 2.9 bar were developed. They could be altered either by changing the root pressure artificially (with the aid of the probe) or by changing the

E. Steudle; W. D. Jeschke

1983-01-01

93

Microflora of Barley Kernels1  

PubMed Central

Numbers and kinds of microflora were determined in 160 samples of barley grown in different regions of the United States; microflora were more abundant in the grains grown in the central states than in those grown in the western states. During steeping and germination in micromalting equipment, the number of colonies of filamentous fungi increased from two to five times, colonies of yeasts from five to ten times, and bacteria from 50 to more than 100 times the numbers present in the grain before malting. Kiln drying according to a commercial schedule reduced the number of all types of microflora below the number present before kilning, but all were present in larger numbers in the kilned malt than in the original grain. In barley stored at room temperature and at a moisture content of 15 to 18%, members of the Aspergillus glaucus group increased with increasing time and increasing moisture content, and germination percentage of the seeds decreased. Stored free of storage fungi at room temperature, barley with a moisture content just over 15% retained a high germination percentage for 5 months, but at a moisture content of 16% the germination decreased to zero.

Follstad, M. N.; Christensen, C. M.

1962-01-01

94

A Study of Hydrogeological Conditions of the Nubian Sandstone Aguifer in the Area between Abu Simbel and Toschka, Western Desert, Egypt.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Study of Hydrogeological Conditions of the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer in the Area between Abu Simbel and Toschka, Western Desert, Egypt. By K. A. Dahab*, A. M. Ebraheem**, and E. El Sayed*** *Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Menofia University, Shibin El Kom, Egypt. ** Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt. *** Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, Minia, Egypt. The Nubian Sandstone Aquifer in the area between Toschka and Abu Simbil is small portion of the very well known Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System in the Eastern Sahara, which covers the entire area of southwest Egypt, southeast Libya, northeast Chad, and northern Sudan. Toscha area is currently the site of intensive drilling and development for a huge land reclamation project. The drilling information was used to study the hydrogeological setting of the Nubian Sandstone aquifer in the area. The obtained results indicate that the lithological characteristics and tectonic setting is strongly affecting the groundwater flow pattern as well as the aquifer potentiality of the nubian sandstone aquifer in the area. The aquifer potentiality in this area is low if compared to that of east Oweinat or Dakhla areas. The aquifer is mainly composed of hard ferruginous sandstone with great shale and clay intercalation with a thickness ranging from 140 to 230 meters. Groundwater in this aquifer belongs to fresh to slightly brackish type (salinity is ranging from 240 to 1300 ppm). Ion dominance ordering reveals that sodium cation is mostly predominating over calcium and magnesium whereas chloride is predominant over sulfate and bicarbonate. The groundwater is related to meteoric origin. The high concentration of sodium, chloride, and sulfates reflect leaching and dissolution processes of gypsiferous shales and clay as well as long residence time of water.

Dahab, K. A.; Ebraheem, A. M.; El Sayed, E. A.

2001-05-01

95

Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts - strategies, methods and perspectives  

PubMed Central

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an important cereal grain that is used in a range of products for animal and human consumption. Crop yield and seed quality has been optimized during decades by plant breeding programs supported by biotechnology and molecular biology techniques. The recently completed whole-genome sequencing of barley revealed approximately 26,100 open reading frames, which provides a foundation for detailed molecular studies of barley by functional genomics and proteomics approaches. Such studies will provide further insights into the mechanisms of, for example, drought and stress tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics strategies and discuss their applications in characterization of the barley chloroplast as well as future perspectives for functional proteomics in barley research.

Petersen, J?rgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole N.

2013-01-01

96

Ancient Mesoamerican Civilizations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by Kevin L. Callahan, an anthropology graduate student at the University of Minnesota, this site consists of short, referenced essays, organized by civilization (Maya, Mixtec, Zapotec, and Aztec), on Mesoamerican writing systems, governments, and religions. Users can also read essays on the Mayan calendar, "How the Sky Works," and on Maya and Zapotec political structures. These essays, along with a selective, eclectic list of Mesoamerican Internet resources, and a brief bibliography, form a good introduction to the topic of ancient Mesoamerican civilizations.

Callahan, Kevin L.

1997-01-01

97

Ancient Chinese Astronomical Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I am interested in the astronomical advances of the Ancient Chinese in measuring the solar day. Their development of gnomon & ruler, sundial, and water clock apparatuses enabled Chinese astronomers to measure the annual solar orbit and solar day more precisely than their contemporaries. I have built one of each of these devices to use in collecting data from Olympia, Washington. I will measure the solar day in the Pacific Northwest following the methodology of the ancient Chinese. I will compare with my data, the available historical Chinese astronomical records and current records from the United States Naval Observatory Master Clock. I seek to understand how ancient Chinese investigations into solar patterns enabled them to make accurate predictions about the movement of the celestial sphere and planets, and to develop analytic tests of their theories. Mayall, R. Newton; Sundials: their construction and use. Dover Publications 2000 North, John; The Norton History of Astronomy and Cosmology W.W. Norton& Co. 1995 Zhentao Xu, David W. Pankenier, Yaotiao Jiang; East Asian archaeoastronomy : historical records of astronomical observations of China, Japan and Korea Published on behalf of the Earth Space Institute by Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, c2000

Walsh, Jennifer Robin

2004-05-01

98

ALLELIC VARIATION IN BARLEY ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Starch degradation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seeds results from the combined action of alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, limit dextrinase and alpha-glucosidase. The thermal stability of these enzymes is important because the conversion of barley starch to fermentable sugars during industrial ethanol p...

99

Genetic variation in barley landraces from Bhutan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Bhutan, barley is usually grown in mountainous regions over 2,000 m elevation. The barleys investigated were six-rowed naked, and classified into three groups by spike and awn characters; lax spike and long awn, dense spike and long awn, and dense spike and elevated hood. They also varied in spike color; yellow, purple and black. For isozymes, there was no

Takeo Konishi; Yuko Yano; Yoshihisa Fukushima

1993-01-01

100

Descriptions of Barley Genetic Stocks For 2007  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Barley Genetics Stocks Database provides information on hundreds of morphological markers. We recently characterized and mapped 27 brachytic (brh) semidwarf mutants in barley. The brachytic lines were evaluated for ten phenotypic traits: height, awn, peduncle, rachis internode length, leaf lengt...

101

Developmental Expression of Amylases During Barley Malting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amylase activity and qualitative changes in amylase isoenzymes as a function of barley seedling age were investigated in 10 Brazilian barley cultivars. All cultivars showed few isoenzymes in early germination. An increase in general activity ensued in the following days when new isoenzymes were detected and those already observed since early germination had their activity increased. All cultivars disclosed increase

J. E. Georg-Kraemer; E. C. Mundstock; S. Cavalli-Molina

2001-01-01

102

Effect of Barley Flour on Quality of Balady Bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balady bread was prepared from barley flour (Rum and ACSAD 176 flour) with local wheat flour (Unified and Zero flour). Chemical, physical, and sensory analysis of the bread was performed. The results showed that there were variations in physical and chemical properties, between different barley varieties, barley flour, and the bread. This study showed that barley flour can be mixed

K. I. Ereifej; M. A. Al-Mahasneh; T. M. Rababah

2006-01-01

103

Tibet as a potential domestication center of cultivated barley of China.  

PubMed

The importance of wild barley from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the origin and domestication of cultivated barley has long been underestimated. Population-based phylogenetic analyses were performed to study the origin and genetic diversity of Chinese domesticated barley, and address the possibility that the Tibetan region in China was an independent center of barley domestication. Wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) populations from Southwest Asia, Central Asia, and Tibet along with domesticated barley from China were analyzed using two nuclear genes. Our results showed that Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Southwest Asian (Near East) wild barley, that Central Asian wild barley is related to Southwest Asian wild barley, and that Chinese domesticated barley shares the same haplotypes with Tibetan wild barley. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship between Chinese domesticated barley and the Tibetan wild barley, suggesting that Tibetan wild barley was the ancestor of Chinese domesticated barley. Our results favor the polyphyletic origin for cultivated barley. PMID:23658764

Ren, Xifeng; Nevo, Eviatar; Sun, Dongfa; Sun, Genlou

2013-05-03

104

Chemical composition and microstructure of milled barley fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wholegrain barley and peeled and pearled barley were roller milled in a Bühler mill, each producing three fractions: endosperm,\\u000a middlings and bran. These fractions were compared and contrasted with one another and also with milled wheat fractions. Barley\\u000a endosperm had the highest total starch content in both wholegrain and peeled and pearled barley. Amylose-to-amylopectin ratios\\u000a (Am:Ap) were higher in barley

Paul Sullivan; John O’Flaherty; Nigel Brunton; Vivian L. Gee; Elke Arendt; Eimear Gallagher

2010-01-01

105

Ancient human DNA.  

PubMed

The contribution of palaeogenetic data to the study of various aspects of hominin biology and evolution has been significant, and has the potential to increase substantially with the widespread implementation of next generation sequencing techniques. Here we discuss the present state-of-the-art of ancient human DNA analysis and the characteristics of hominin aDNA that make sequence validation particularly complex. A brief overview of the development of anthropological palaeogenetic analysis is given to illustrate the technical challenges motivating recent technological advancements. PMID:22169595

Kirsanow, Karola; Burger, Joachim

2011-11-18

106

Urology in ancient India  

PubMed Central

The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland.

Das, Sakti

2007-01-01

107

Urology in ancient India.  

PubMed

The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland. PMID:19675749

Das, Sakti

2007-01-01

108

Accounting and accountability in ancient civilizations: Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze and critique the growing literature on record-keeping practices in Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt with a particular focus on processes of ancient accountability, and provide a research agenda for future work. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Analyzes the contributions of accounting historians in this area as well as the research conducted by Assyriologists and

Salvador Carmona; Mahmoud Ezzamel

2007-01-01

109

Effects of barley chromosome on heading characters in wheat-barley chromosome addition lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heading time in cereals is a composite character determined by vernalization requirement, photoperiodic sensitivity and narrow-sense\\u000a earliness. To study the effects of added barley chromosomes on the heading characters in wheat, two sets of wheat-barley chromosome\\u000a addition lines, i.e., ‘Betzes’ barley chromosomes 2H to 7H added to ’Chinese Spring‘ wheat (CS-Be2H to CS-Be7H) and ‘New Golden’\\u000a barley chromosomes 5H and

Koji Murai; Takato Koba; Takiko Shimada

1997-01-01

110

When Greek Was an African Language: The Role of Greek Culture in Ancient and Medieval Nubia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nubian encounter with Greek language began in the third century b.c.e. and lasted until the fi fteenth century c.e. During the Hellenistic and Roman periods, Nubian interest in Greek was pragmatic, since the Greek language was used primarily as a diplomatic tool for dealing with Greco-Roman Egypt. During the Middle Ages, however, Greek became integral to Nubian culture as

Stanley M. Burstein

2008-01-01

111

The Bi'r Umq-Nakasib Suture Zone in the Arabian-Nubian Shield: A Key to Understanding Crustal Growth in the East African Orogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bi'r Umq-Nakasib suture zone, 5-65 km wide and over 600 km long, consists of highly deformed ophiolite nappes and metavolcanic, metasedimentary, and intrusive rocks contained in one of the longest ophiolite-decorated shear zones in the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The rocks originated in a variety of juvenile oceanic environments and include assemblages formed in mid-ocean-ridge, subduction-zone, passive-margin, and continental-slope settings. Dating

P. R. Johnson; M. G. Abdelsalam; R. J. Stern

2003-01-01

112

Geology and geophysics of the West Nubian Paleolake and the Northern Darfur Megalake (WNPL–NDML): Implication for groundwater resources in Darfur, northwestern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent delineation of a vastly expanded Holocene paleo-lake (the Northern Darfur Megalake which was originally mapped as the West Nubian Paleolake and here will be referred to as WNPL–NDML) in Darfur in northwestern Sudan has renewed hopes for the presence of an appreciable groundwater resource in this hyper-arid region of Eastern Sahara. This paleolake which existed within a closed

Ahmed Elsheikh; Mohamed G. Abdelsalam; Kevin Mickus

2011-01-01

113

How juvenile is the Arabian–Nubian Shield? Evidence from Nd isotopes and pre-Neoproterozoic inherited zircon in the Bi'r Umq suture zone, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bi'r Umq suture zone (BUSZ) in western Saudi Arabia comprises Neoproterozoic oceanic-arc plutonic, volcanosedimentary, and ophiolitic rocks that record some of the earliest magmatic and tectonic events of the East African Orogen in the Arabian–Nubian Shield (ANS). New Nd isotopic analyses are combined with data on zircon inheritance and published isotopic studies to establish the case that pre-Neoproterozoic crust

R. J. Stern; J.-I. Kimura; P. R. Johnson

2006-01-01

114

How juvenile is the Arabian Nubian Shield? Evidence from Nd isotopes and pre-Neoproterozoic inherited zircon in the Bi'r Umq suture zone, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bi'r Umq suture zone (BUSZ) in western Saudi Arabia comprises Neoproterozoic oceanic-arc plutonic, volcanosedimentary, and ophiolitic rocks that record some of the earliest magmatic and tectonic events of the East African Orogen in the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS). New Nd isotopic analyses are combined with data on zircon inheritance and published isotopic studies to establish the case that pre-Neoproterozoic

R. J. Stern; J.-I. Kimura; W. I. Manton; P. R. Johnson

2006-01-01

115

Effects of barley yellow mosaic disease resistant gene rym1 on the infection by strains of Barley yellow mosaic virus and Barley mild mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a Chinese landrace of barley, Mokusekko 3, is completely resistant to all strains of Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) and Barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV), and is known to have at least two resistant genes, rym1 and rym5, only rym5 has been utilized for BaYMV resistant barley breeding in Japan. In order to clarify the effect of rym1 on

Y. Okada; S. Kashiwazaki; R. Kanatani; S. Arai; K. Ito

2003-01-01

116

Neurology in ancient faces  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Clinical paleoneurology is almost non-existent, but recognition of neurological diseases in ancient people might be possible by scrutinising portraits apparently representing people as they appeared in life.?METHODS—About 200 mummy portraits painted in colour at the beginning of the first millennium were examined. Thirty two skulls excavated at Hawara in the Fayum (northern Egypt), where most of the portraits were found were measured, and nine caliper measures on each side of the skulls were taken. The right/left ratios were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). One skull was subjected to 3D CT scanning and transilluminated.?RESULTS—Two patients were found with progressive facial hemiatrophy (Parry-Romberg syndrome), three with deviations of the visual axes (tropia) and one with oval pupils (corectopia).?CONCLUSIONS—Clinical paleoneurology is possible in the absence of a living nervous system. The patients probably had focal epilepsy, hemiplegic migraine, and autonomic nervous system dysfunction.??

Appenzeller, O; Stevens, J; Kruszynski, R; Walker, S

2001-01-01

117

Reanimation of Ancient Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Recent highly publicized experiments conducted on salt crystals taken from the Permian Salado Formation in Southeastern New Mexico have shown that some ancient crystals contain viable microorganisms trapped within fluid inclusions. Stringent geological and microbiological selection criteria were used to select crystals and conduct all sampling. This talk will focus on how each of these lines of data support the conclusion that such isolated bacteria are as old as the rock in which they are trapped. In this case, the isolated microbes are salt tolerant bacilli that grow best in media containing 8% NaCl, and respond to concentrated brines by forming spores. One of the organisms is phylogenetically related to several bacilli, but does have several unique characteristics. This talk will trace the interdisciplinary data and procedures supporting these discoveries, and describe the various isolated bacteria.

Vreeland, Russell H. (West Chester University)

2002-01-09

118

AncientFaces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are countless genealogy resources online, but this site is unique. AncientFaces is a photo exchange, a database of photos submitted by users that enables people tracing their family trees to place faces with names. At present, the site contains over 5,000 photos. These may be searched by keyword, name, date, or location. They can also be browsed alphabetically by surname. There are several special collections here as well, including military photos. Photos are presented as thumbnails with a brief description, location, family, and a link to the email address and homepage (if available) of the person who submitted the photo. A great resource for making family connections or just browsing old photos.

2001-01-01

119

Microbial Dynamics during Barley Tempeh Fermentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tempeh is a traditional staple food in Indonesia mainly made from soybeans. Barley tempeh has been developed by adapting the soybean tempeh process. During soybean tempeh fermentation, the filamentous fungus Rhizopus oligosporus is dominant. However, othe...

X. M. Feng

2006-01-01

120

Structure and Functionality of Barley Starches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 75(5):747-754 Amylose contents of prime starches from nonwaxy and high-amylose barley, determined by colorimetric method, were 24.6 and 48.7%, respec- tively, whereas waxy starch contained only a trace (0.04%) of amylose. There was little difference in isoamylase-debranched amylopectin between nonwaxy and high-amylose barley, whereas amylopectin from waxy bar- ley had a significantly higher percentage of fraction with degree

Z. Czuchajowska; A. Klamczynski; B. Paszczynska; B.-K. Baik

1998-01-01

121

Cosmogenic, radiogenic, and stable isotopic constraints on groundwater residence time in the nubian aquifer, western desert of egypt  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of radiochlorine ({sup 36}Cl), radiogenic noble gases ({sup 4}He and {sup 40}Ar), and stable chlorine isotope ratios were obtained to assess the residence time of groundwater in the Nubian Aquifer of the Western Desert of Egypt. Measured {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios yield apparent residence times from {approx}0.2 to 1.2 x 10{sup 6} years in the deep (600-1200 m) groundwater (assuming constant Cl) and {le} 0.16 x 10{sup 6} years in the shallow (<600 m) groundwater. Values of {delta}{sup 37}Cl in the groundwater strengthen the application of the {sup 36}Cl dating method by constraining Cl sources and identifying groundwater mixing. Dissolved gases were measured in some of the deep groundwater samples. Measured {sup 4}He concentrations indicate accumulation of radiogenic {sup 4}He that is qualitatively consistent with the age progression indicated by the {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios, but the flux of external {sup 4}He from the underlying crust has not been quantified and is not constant throughout the aquifer. Concentrations of {sup 40}Ar range from 3.3 to 6.7 x 10{sup -4} ccSTP/g and indicate excess air incorporation at recharge. Measured {sup 40}Ar/{sup 36}Ar ratios do not exceed the atmospheric ratio. A two-dimensional numerical hydrodynamic transect of the aquifer was modeled from the area of the Uweinat Uplift to the northern Bahariya Oasis. Predicted groundwater velocities in the deep portion of the aquifer are 0.5-3.5 m/yr with groundwater residence times up to 9 x 10{sup 5} years; residence times up to 1.3 x 10{sup 6} years are predicted in the confining shale. Aquifer properties are estimated by using the model to fit the measured {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios. Under these conditions, hydrodynamic residence times are within about 30 percent of those calculated from {sup 36}Cl when mixing of Cl{sup -} is accounted for in the highest-Cl{sup -} deep groundwaters. By mutually calibrating multiple methods (hydrodynamic, {sup 36}Cl, and {sup 4}He), a consistent picture of the Nubian Aquifer has emerged in which lateral flow from a southern recharge area dominates the deep horizons, while shallow horizons contain younger, autochthonous recharge.

Patterson, Leslie J.; Sturchio, Neil C.; Kennedy, B.Mack; van Soest, Matthias C.; Sultan, Mohamed; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Lehmann, Bernhard; Purtschert, Roland; El Alfy, Zeinhom; El Kaliouby, Baher; Dawood, Yehia; Abdallah, Ali

2004-06-01

122

[Ancient Egyptian Odontology].  

PubMed

In ancient Egypt during the reign of Pharaoh Djoser, circa 2650 BC, the Step Pyramid was constructed by Imhotep. He was later worshiped as the God of Medicine. One of his contemporaries was the powerful writer Hesy who is reproduced on a panel showing a rebus of a swallow, a tusk and an arrow. He is therefore looked upon as being the first depicted odontologist. The art of writing begun in Egypt in about 3100 BC and the medical texts we know from different papyri were copied with hieratic signs around 1900-1100 BC. One of the most famous is the Papyrus Ebers. It was purchased by professor Ebers on a research travel to Luxor in 1873. Two years later a beautiful facsimile in color was published and the best translation came in 1958 in German. The text includes 870 remedies and some of them are related to teeth and oral troubles like pain in the mouth, gingivitis, periodontitis and cavities in the teeth. The most common oral pain was probably pulpitis caused by extreme attrition due to the high consumption of bread contaminated with soil and/or quern minerals. Another text is the Papyrus Edwin Smith with four surgical cases of dental interest. The "toothworms" that were presumed to bring about decayed teeth have not been identified in the medical texts. It was not until 1889 W.D. Miller presented a scientific explanation that cavities were caused by bacteria. In spite of extensive research only a few evidence of prosthetic and invasive treatments have been found and these dental artifacts have probably been made post mortem. Some of the 150 identified doctors were associated with treatments of disorders of the mouth. The stele of Seneb from Sa'is during the 26th dynasty of Psamtik, 664-525 BC, shows a young man who probably was a dental healer well known to Pharaoh and his court. Clement of Alexandria mentions circa 200 AD that the written knowledge of the old Egyptians was gathered in 42 collections of papyri. Number 37-42 contained the medical writings. The household remedies in ancient Egypt were unique and future research will most likely give us new answers about pathology and health care of that time and a better understanding of old medical concepts. PMID:11625678

Berghult, B

1999-01-01

123

Ancient Astronomers Along the Nile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed contributions to the field of astronomy made by ancient Egyptians. Provides examples of how some of the observations made were applied to science. The use of geometry is illustrated by several calculations of celestial alignment. (TW)

Reed, George

1986-01-01

124

Ancient Astronomical Monuments of Athens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, four ancient monuments of astronomical significance found in Athens and still kept in the same city in good condition are presented. The first one is the conical sundial on the southern slope of the Acropolis. The second one is the Tower of the Winds and its vertical sundials in the Roman Forum of Athens, a small octagonal marble tower with sundials on all 8 of its sides, plus a water-clock inside the tower. The third monument-instrument is the ancient clepsydra of Athens, one of the findings from the Ancient Agora of Athens, a unique water-clock dated from 400 B.C. Finally, the fourth one is the carved ancient Athenian calendar over the main entrance of the small Byzantine temple of the 8th Century, St. Eleftherios, located to the south of the temple of the Annunciation of Virgin Mary, the modern Cathedral of the city of Athens.

Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.

2010-07-01

125

Work Classification in Ancient Times.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The divisions of labor and the classifications of work in ancient times are described, and an early four-part classification based on the "Bhagavad Gita" is compared with that of the present "Dictionary of Occupational Titles." (Author)

Hopke, William

1979-01-01

126

Plant Growth Regulator Trials on Spring and Winter Barley.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present report encompasses trials conducted by the Scottish Agricultural Colleges on spring barley from 1980-82 and winter barley from 1979-82. The growth regulators assessed in the trials were: ethephon + mepiquat chloride (Terpal), ethephon (Cerone)...

W. G. W. Paterson G. A. Blackett W. D. Gill

1983-01-01

127

Possible eastward tectonic transport and northward gravitational tectonic collapse in the Arabian Nubian shield of western Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Neoproterozoic low-grade volcano-sedimentary and medium to high-grade gneissic domains in the Galesa area of western Ethiopia, which represent part of the Arabian Nubian Shield, are separated by NNE-trending thrusts that are often marked by transposed mafic ultramafic assemblages. These litho-tectonic domains preserve early Neoproterozoic east west shortening deformations in the form of east-facing recumbent isoclinal folds and east-verging thrusts with mylonitic fabrics containing down-dip stretching lineations along discrete shear zones within the metavolcano-sedimentary domains. These early structures are re-folded by N-trending, E-verging tight to open upright map-scale folds. The E W shortening and thrust stacking culminated with the development of the N-trending sinistral strike-slip Baruda shear zone and lithospheric thickening and exhumation, and subsequent development of low-angle normal-slip shearing along the ENE-trending Donbon shear zone interpreted to have developed during orogenic extensional collapse.

Yihunie, Tadesse; Hailu, Fekadu

2007-09-01

128

Barley seed proteomics from spots to structures.  

PubMed

Barley is a major cereal crop grown mainly for feed and malting. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has been used to analyse barley proteins for over 20 years and more recently, mass spectrometry was applied. In the absence of a genome sequence, barley gene and EST sequences combined with information from rice and other cereals facilitate identification of barley proteins. Several hundred barley seed proteins are identified and lower abundance proteins including membrane proteins are now being analysed. In the present review we focus on variation in protein profiles of seed tissues during grain filling, maturation, germination and radicle elongation. Cultivar comparisons and genetic mapping of polymorphic protein spots in doubled haploid populations provide a means to link the genome to the proteome and identify proteins that can influence grain quality. Many proteins appear in multiple forms on 2D-gels. Specific protein families, including peroxidases and alpha-amylases have been subjected to in-depth analysis resulting in characterisation of different isozymes, post-translational modifications and processing. A functional proteomics study focusing on the seed thioredoxin system has led to identification of thioredoxin target proteins, quantitative analysis of reduction of individual target disulphides and structural studies to gain insight into determinants for target protein recognition by thioredoxin. PMID:19118654

Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

2008-12-14

129

Study of fluorescence quenching of Barley ?-amylase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluorescence quenching of Barley ?-amylase by acrylamide and succinimide has been studied in water using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The steady-state fluorescence quenching technique has been performed in three different pHs (i.e., 6, 7 and 8) of water. Ground state and excited state binding constants (Kg &Ke) have been calculated. From the calculated binding constants (Kg &Ke) the free energy changes for the ground (?Gg) and excited (?Ge) states have been calculated and are presented in tables. UV and FTIR spectra have also been recorded to prove the binding of Barley ?-amylase with acrylamide and succinimide.

Bakkialakshmi, S.; Shanthi, B.; Bhuvanapriya, T.

2012-05-01

130

Barley Transformation Using Agrobacterium-Mediated Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods for the transformation of barley using Agrobacterium-mediated techniques have been available for the past 10 years. Agrobacterium offers a number of advantages over biolistic-mediated techniques in terms of efficiency and the quality of the transformed plants produced. This chapter describes a simple system for the transformation of barley based on the infection of immature embryos with Agrobacterium tumefaciens followed by the selection of transgenic tissue on media containing the antibiotic hygromycin. The method can lead to the production of large numbers of fertile, independent transgenic lines. It is therefore ideal for studies of gene function in a cereal crop system.

Harwood, Wendy A.; Bartlett, Joanne G.; Alves, Silvia C.; Perry, Matthew; Smedley, Mark A.; Leyland, Nicola; Snape, John W.

131

Milk yield and composition of crossbred Sahelian × Anglo-Nubian goats in the semi-intensive system in Mali during the preweaning period.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate milk yield and its composition during the preweaning period for Sahelian goats (SG) and Anglo-Nubian (AN) crossbred depending on some factors. The experiments were conducted from January to December 2008 for 44 suckled and hand-milked does, randomized, and divided into two equal groups: SG (n = 22) and F(1) Anglo-Nubian × Sahelian goats (1/2AN; n = 22). The does and their offsprings were kept in a pen where they stayed indoors for 45 days before they were allowed outdoors when the weather was suitable. Each category received supplemental feeds depending on the season (rainy season, dry cold season, and dry hot season). The average daily milk yield was recorded weekly from parturition to 100 days of age. Individual milk samples were taken for chemical analysis in connection with the yield measurements twice per month from the fourth week of lactation throughout the different seasons (rainy, cold dry, and hot dry). The daily milk yield differed between breed types (P = 0.001) during the preweaning, while the effect of kids' sex on daily milk production was not significant. Litter size affected milk yield up to day 60 (P = 0.032) where does with twins producing more milk than those with single kid. However, at day 100, both groups had similar (P = 0.001) milk production. Total milk yield at weaning increased by 103 % in 1/2AN over SG. The highest concentration of total solids of milk was (12.76 %) recorded in the hot dry season. The results of this study indicate that crossbreeding native Sahelian goats with high potential Anglo-Nubian buck improved milk production and its composition. PMID:22791216

Sanogo, Souleymane; Shaker, Mohamed Momani; Nantoumé, Hamidou; Salem, Abdel-Fattah Z M

2012-07-13

132

Geology and geophysics of the West Nubian Paleolake and the Northern Darfur Megalake (WNPL-NDML): Implication for groundwater resources in Darfur, northwestern Sudan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent delineation of a vastly expanded Holocene paleo-lake (the Northern Darfur Megalake which was originally mapped as the West Nubian Paleolake and here will be referred to as WNPL-NDML) in Darfur in northwestern Sudan has renewed hopes for the presence of an appreciable groundwater resource in this hyper-arid region of Eastern Sahara. This paleolake which existed within a closed basin paleo-drainage system might have allowed for the collection of surface water which was subsequently infiltrated to recharge the Paleozoic-Mesozoic Nubian Aquifer. However, the presence of surface exposures of Precambrian crystalline rocks in the vicinity of the paleolake has been taken as indicating the absence of a thick Paleozoic-Mesozoic sedimentary section capable of holding any meaningful quantity of groundwater. This work integrates surface geology and gravity data to show that WNPL-NDML is underlain by NE-trending grabens forming potential local Paleozoic-Mesozoic aquifers that can hold as much as 1120 km3 of groundwater if the sedimentary rocks are completely saturated. Nevertheless, it is advised here that recharge of the Nubian aquifer under WNPL-NDML is insignificant and that much of the groundwater is fossil water which was accumulated during different geological times much wetter than today's hyper-arid climate in Eastern Sahara. Excessive extraction will lead to quick depletion of this groundwater resource. This will result in lowering of the water table which in turn might lead to the drying out of the oases in the region which provide important habitats for humans, animals and plants in northern Darfur.

Elsheikh, Ahmed; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Mickus, Kevin

2011-08-01

133

Neonatal medicine in ancient art.  

PubMed

There are a limited number of artistic objects from ancient times with particular importance in neonatal medicine. The best examples are figurines from ancient Egypt of Isis nursing Horus, showing the importance of breastfeeding. The earliest images of the human fetus were made by the Olmecs in Mexico around 1200- 400 BCE. One of the earliest representations of congenital anomalies is a figurine of diencephalic twins thought to be the goddess of Anatolia, dated to around 6500 BCE. In addition to these figurines, three sets of twins in the ancient world have medical importance, and Renaissance artists often used them as a subject for their paintings: "direct suckling animals" (Romulus and Remus), "heteropaternal superfecundation" (mother: Leda, fathers: Zeus, the king of the Olympian gods, and Leda's husband, Tyndareus), and "twin-to-twin transfusion" in monozygotic twins (Jacob and Esau). PMID:20560265

Yurdakök, Murat

134

Exhumation of Mid-Crustal Rocks in the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The Baladaya Complex of Saudi Arabia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upper amphibolite facies rocks from mid-crustal levels are exhumed in the Arabian-Nubian Shield as metamorphic complexes surrounded by low-grade rocks. These middle crustal level rocks were exhumed during the East- and West-Gondwana collision (Pan-African event) in a time interval of ca. 630 to 590 Ma. One of these metamorphic complexes (i.e. Baladaya complex) shows a complicated exhumation history. Four major rock types are found in the study area. They are: a) metamorphic rocks of upper-amphibolite facies which represent the core of the Baladaya complex. Angular unconformity separates the upper-amphibolite facies rocks away from other rock types in the complex, b) metamorphic rocks of greenschist-amphibolite facies transition. These rocks lie directly above the upper-amphibolite facies rocks (type: a) and below Thalbah molasse sediments (type: c). The lower section of the Thalbah sediments shows metamorphism in lower-greenschist facies. The types (a) and (b) were exhumed underneath the Thalbah sediments (type c) as a flower structure. This flower structure can be confirmed in the field by presence of granitic rocks (rock type: d) bounded by thrust planes. The thrust planes surround the Baladaya complex and dip toward the inner part of the complex while the Thalbah molasse sediments as a footwall to the thrust planes. This geological setting indicates that the complex was exhumed at least three times during the activity of the Pan-African event. The first exhumation was prior to the deposition of sediments, which metamorphosed later to be metamorphic rocks of greenschist-amphibolite facies transition (type: b). The second exhumation was prior the deposition of Thalbah molasse sediments. The third exhumation was by the formation of thrust planes and the regional flower structure of the Baladaya complex.

Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hassan, Mahmoud; Stüwe, Kurt; Meyer, Sven; Passchier, Cees

2013-04-01

135

Skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt.  

PubMed

The ancient Egyptian civilization lasted for over 3000 years and ended in 30 BCE. Many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture, including the existence of skeletal dysplasias, and in particular achondroplasia, are well known through the monuments and records that survived until modern times. The hot and dry climate in Egypt allowed for the preservation of bodies and skeletal anomalies. The oldest dwarf skeleton, the Badarian skeleton (4500 BCE), possibly represents an epiphyseal disorder. Among the remains of dwarfs with achondroplasia from ancient Egypt (2686-2190 BCE), exists a skeleton of a pregnant female, believed to have died during delivery with a baby's remains in situ. British museums have partial skeletons of dwarfs with achondroplasia, humeri probably affected with mucopolysaccharidoses, and a skeleton of a child with osteogenesis imperfecta. Skeletal dysplasia is also found among royal remains. The mummy of the pharaoh Siptah (1342-1197 BCE) shows a deformity of the left leg and foot. A mummified fetus, believed to be the daughter of king Tutankhamun, has scoliosis, spina bifida, and Sprengel deformity. In 2006 I reviewed the previously existing knowledge of dwarfism in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this second historical review is to add to that knowledge with an expanded contribution. The artistic documentation of people with skeletal dysplasia from ancient Egypt is plentiful including hundreds of amulets, statues, and drawing on tomb and temple walls. Examination of artistic reliefs provides a glance of the role of people with skeletal dysplasia and the societal attitudes toward them. Both artistic evidence and moral teachings in ancient Egypt reveal wide integration of individuals with disabilities into the society. PMID:19006207

Kozma, Chahira

2008-12-01

136

Cranial surgery in ancient Peru.  

PubMed

Trephination is the oldest known surgical technique. Peru has been recognized as a major source of ancient trephined skulls, many of which date back 2300 years. This presentation reviews from a neurosurgical perspective many of the archaeological studies performed on these skulls. Comparative osteology has shown that almost 70% of patients survived the procedure. The various instruments, hemostatic agents, anesthetics, surgical techniques, and cranioplasties used are reconstructed from the anthropological literature. The possible reasons for the use of trephination are discussed. Analysis of the data leads to the conclusion that, despite their rudimentary knowledge of disease, the ancient Incas must have had some knowledge of anatomy and proper surgical procedure. PMID:3059210

Rifkinson-Mann, S

1988-10-01

137

Barley Protein and Rapeseed Meal as Protein Supplements for Growing Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing cattle on ad libitum hay- (H) or grass silage- (S) feeding were given supplements of barley (B), barley and rapeseed meal (BRSM) or barley and barley protein (BBP) in order to compare barley protein (BP), a by-product of integrated starch-ethanol production and rapeseed meal (RSM) as protein supplements for growing cattle. The protein intake was also calculated in terms

Ilmo Aronen

1990-01-01

138

AGRONOMIC AND QUALITY EVALUATIONS OF HULLESS BARLEY LINES FROM ABERDEEN, ID  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hulless barley is considered a good source of food and feed. Hulless barley has higher feed value and is more nutritious than hulled barley. However, hulless barley is usually associated with low grain yields. Development of hulless barley with increased agronomic performance and high value-added...

139

[Bull's blood as an ancient poison].  

PubMed

Article presents ancient tradition about poisoning with bull's blood and the modern attempts of its explanation. Greek and Roman literary sources are compared with the ancient medical texts. PMID:22010443

Ry?, Anna; Siek, Bart?omiej; Sein Anand, Jacek

2011-01-01

140

The classics of ancient Chinese literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay discusses the ancient Chinese literary classics by borrowing the prospective of “canon” from the studies of Western\\u000a literature. Studying the central issues of establishment, quality, type, and influence of ancient classics, the authors attempt\\u000a to present their ancient history, decadent practices, and their central position in ancient literature and literary criticism.\\u000a Moreover, from a broader perspective of modern

Chengxue Wu; Hongbing Sha

2007-01-01

141

Malting extremely small quantities of barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Micromalting procedures for malt quality analysis typically use 50 – 500 g of barley and are used to produce malt with characteristics suitable for malting quality analysis. Modifications to routine micromalting protocols in which small quantities of grain within inexpensive mesh containers are surr...

142

Quantitative ultrastructural analysis of barley sperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Complete serial ultrathin sections of seven sperm pairs, computer-assisted measurements of cell, nuclear and organelle surface areas and volumes, and three-dimensional imagery were used to demonstrate that a process of cytoplasm and organelle elimination occurs during sperm maturation in barley. The number of mitochondria per sperm cell is reduced by 50%; sperm cell surface area and volume are reduced

H. L. Mogensen; Maxine Losoff Rusche

1985-01-01

143

UPTAKE OF BROMACIL BY ISOLATED BARLEY ROOTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A study of bromacil uptake by excised barley (Hordeum Vulgare) roots was used to evaluate this procedure as a tool to learn the uptake characteristics of toxic organic chemicals. Bromacil uptake was shown to be a passive process with an uptake rate (at 0.8 mg/l) of 0.64 microgram...

144

Nuclear fusion in cultured microspores of barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion of the generative and vegetative nuclei physically separated by a wall has been observed in cultured microspores of barley. The generative cell appears to play an active role in fusion as it elongates toward the vegetative nucleus, becomes detached from the microspore wall, and finally completely encloses the vegetative nucleus. The generative cell wall disappears before nuclear fusion takes

Feng-Ming Lee; Chi-Chang Chen

1987-01-01

145

THE 2003 PROCEEDINGS FOR BARLEY IMPROVEMENT CONFERENCE.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since early in the 20th century, barley had been one of the primary targets of federally-funded research in Aberdeen, Idaho. Recently funding increases were made through congressional action to enhance support of small grains research and to plan an expansion of the current ARS research facility. ...

146

Combining ability of barley flour pasting properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malt extract is one of the major traits contributing to high malting quality and thus a major objective in malting barley breeding programs. Understanding the genetic behaviour of this trait could make selection more efficient. However, the measurement of this trait is very time-consuming and cannot be done in a single plant since it needs a certain amount of grain.

M. X. Zhou; H. B. Li; Z. H. Chen; N. J. Mendham

2008-01-01

147

APPLICATIONS OF GENECHIPS FOR BARLEY IMPROVEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of RNA profiling has become a powerful strategy to examine genome-wide gene transcript accumulation patterns. The Barley1 Affymetrix GeneChip probe array is a resource that can be used to examine the expression of greater than 20,000 genes in parallel. This article summarizes several researc...

148

Registration of 'Dan' winter hulless barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dan’ (Reg. No. CV- , PI 659066) six-rowed winter hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2009. Dan was derived from the cross VA96-41-17 / SC872143. It was released for production in the eastern United States, as a poten...

149

The history & practice of ancient astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ancient astronomical tradition is one of impressive duration and richness--from planet observations by the Babylonians in the second millennium BC to the astronomical revolution of the sixteenth century. Richly illustrated, this book brings the reader into direct contact with ancient astronomy. Throughout the book two questions constantly recur: what evidence permits us to reconstruct the astronomy of the ancient

James Evans

1998-01-01

150

Eclipses and Ancient Greek Philosophers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eclipses had attracted the interest of many ancient Greek philosophers, independently where they lived: on the mainland, or in the Greek colonies. In this short review their opinions are presented together with some predicted or registered solar or lunar eclipses. Moreover, the way of prediction as well as some other observations -like occultations by the Moon- are noted. Other findings

H. Rovithis-Livaniou; P. Rovithis

2007-01-01

151

The Echoes of Ancient Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several artifacts found at the Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, or Daughters of Jacob Bridge, archaeological site in Israel provide a picture of ancient human ancestors that is different from the once accepted by most scholars. The discoveries by Israeli archaeologist Naama Goren-Inbar suggest that humans developed language and other key abilities far…

Watzman, Haim

2006-01-01

152

Tawa hallae - Dinosaur Ancient History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When paleontologists unearthed the ancient dinosaur Tawa hallae, they knew it was different--and remarkably well preserved. What they did not know is that the animal has an intriguing lineage, one that answers questions about the earliest evolution of dinosaurs.

153

Geoscience of ancient Mediterranean harbours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although much has been written on the subject of ancient Mediterranean harbours, the relatively new area of harbour geoarchaeology remains dispersed in the geoscience and archaeological literature. Over a decade of research has amassed rich and varied datasets of anthropogenically forced coastal evolution, with a remarkable number of between-site analogies. This new research field also shows the rich potential of

Nick Marriner; Christophe Morhange

2007-01-01

154

Ancient India: The Asiatic Ethiopians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum unit was developed by a participant in the 1993 Fulbright-Hays Program "India: Continuity and Change." The unit attempts to place India in the "picture frame" of the ancient world as a part of a whole, not as a separate entity. Reading materials enable students to draw broader general conclusions based on the facts presented. The…

Scott, Carolyn McPherson

155

Discovering the Ancient Temperate Rainforest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two activities for grades 3 through 8 explore species adaptation and forestry issues in the North American rainforests. In one activity, students create imaginary species of plants or animals that are adapted for life in an ancient temperate rainforest. In the second activity, students role play groups affected by plans to log an area of the…

Lindsay, Anne

1997-01-01

156

Adult Reading of Ancient Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditionally, students of ancient languages have been taught to translate rather than read. The four most popular current approaches to language instruction--the grammar-translation method, the direct-reading or inductive approach, the audiolingual method, and the structural approach--all have inherent deficiencies that are magnified when applied…

Casler, Frederick H.

157

Ergonomic design in ancient Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the science of ergonomics did not actually emerge until the 20th century, there is evidence to suggest that ergonomic principles were in fact known and adhered to 25 centuries ago. The study reported here is a first attempt to research the ergonomics concerns of ancient Greeks, on both a conceptual and a practical level. On the former we present

Nicolas Marmaras; George Poulakakis; Vasilis Papakostopoulos

1999-01-01

158

The Echoes of Ancient Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several artifacts found at the Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, or Daughters of Jacob Bridge, archaeological site in Israel provide a picture of ancient human ancestors that is different from the once accepted by most scholars. The discoveries by Israeli archaeologist Naama Goren-Inbar suggest that humans developed language and other key abilities far…

Watzman, Haim

2006-01-01

159

Dream Interpretation in Ancient Civilizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dream interpretation was regarded by ancient peoples in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and Rome as an art requiring intelligence and, sometimes, divine inspiration. It became a motif in literature. It was treated as a science by philosophers and physicians. Dreams were thought to come either as clear messages, or as symbols requiring interpretation. In a method called incubation, the dreamer could

J. Donald Hughes

2000-01-01

160

Evidence of three new members of malignant catarrhal fever virus group in muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (Oryx gazella).  

PubMed

Six members of the malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) virus group of ruminant rhadinoviruses have been identified to date. Four of these viruses are clearly associated with clinical disease: alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) carried by wildebeest (Connochaetes spp.); ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), ubiquitous in domestic sheep; caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2), endemic in domestic goats; and the virus of unknown origin found causing classic MCF in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; MCFV-WTD). Using serology and polymerase chain reaction with (degenerate primers targeting a portion of the herpesviral DNA polymerase gene, evidence of three previously unrecognized rhadinoviruses in the MCF virus group was found in muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (South African oryx, Oryx gazella), respectively. Base on sequence alignment, the viral sequence in the muskox is most closely related to MCFV-WTD (81.5% sequence identity) and that in the Nubian ibex is closest to CpHV-2 (89.3% identity). The viral sequence in the gemsbok is most closely related to AlHV-1 (85.1% identity). No evidence of disease association with these viruses has been found. PMID:14733283

Li, Hong; Gailbreath, Katherine; Bender, Louis C; West, Keith; Keller, Janice; Crawford, Timothy B

2003-10-01

161

Models of ancient sound vases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Models were made of vases described by Vitruvius in Rome in about the year 70 A.D. and of sound vases (lydpotter) placed in Danish churches from 1100-1300 A.D. Measurements of vase's resonant frequencies and damping (reradiation) verified that the model vases obeyed expected physical rules. It was concluded that the excellent acoustical quality of many ancient Greek and Roman theaters cannot be ascribed to the vases placed under their seats. This study also found that sound vases placed in Nordic churches could not have shortened the reverberation time because there are far too few of them. Moreover, they could not have covered a broad frequency range. It remains a mystery why vases were installed under the seats of ancient Greek theaters and why, 1000 years later, Danes placed vases in their churches.

Bruel, Per V.

2002-11-01

162

Case Attraction in Ancient Greek  

Microsoft Academic Search

Case attraction has stood as a puzzling, and elusive, oddity of older Indo-European languages. This paper focuses on attraction in Ancient Greek, establishing both the regularity of the operation and its underlying motivation. A novel method is proposed for grounding case in terms of a feature-based representation of agentivity properties, loosely based on Dowty's proto-role theory, but reformulated in terms

Scott Grimm

2005-01-01

163

Ancient schwannoma of the orbit.  

PubMed

Schwannoma, also referred to as neurilemmoma or peripheral neurinoma, is an unusual orbital benign tumour that may pose diagnostic challenges. Awareness of the clinical features that may be associated with the tumour and prompt surgical excision with histopathologic examination enable correct diagnosis. The authors describe a progressively increasing inferolateral orbital mass in a 32-year-old patient that was demonstrated to be an orbital ancient schwannoma. PMID:23316621

Pecorella, I; Toth, J; Lukats, O

2012-08-01

164

Dinosaurs: Ancient Fossils, New Discoveries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, created to complement the Museum's Dinosaurs: Ancient Fossils, New Discoveries exhibit, offers a virtual visit to the Museum, complete with text, photos, video clips, audio interviews, and more and includes much of the information which was in the original exhibit which is now closed. The site includes information on the bio-mechanics of dinosaurs and the reasons behind some of their strange appearances.

165

Models of ancient sound vases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models were made of vases described by Vitruvius in Rome in about the year 70 A.D. and of sound vases (lydpotter) placed in Danish churches from 1100-1300 A.D. Measurements of vase's resonant frequencies and damping (reradiation) verified that the model vases obeyed expected physical rules. It was concluded that the excellent acoustical quality of many ancient Greek and Roman theaters

Per V. Bruel

2002-01-01

166

Digital Restoration of Ancient Papyri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image processing can be used for digital restoration of ancient papyri, that\\u000ais, for a restoration performed on their digital images. The digital\\u000amanipulation allows reducing the background signals and enhancing the\\u000areadability of texts. In the case of very old and damaged documents, this is\\u000afundamental for identification of the patterns of letters. Some examples of\\u000arestoration, obtained with

Amelia Sparavigna

2009-01-01

167

Ancient Architects of the Mississippi  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A feature of the US National Park Service (see the March 8, 1996 Scout Report), this site provides information about the American civilizations that resided in the lower Mississippi Delta from 500 to 1700. The highly advanced agrarian civilizations, collectively known as the Mississippians, erected massive earthworks, which formed the architectural and ceremonial foundations of their communities. This Website contains images, photos, maps, and essays offering historical, anthropological, and archaeological insight into the cultures of the ancient moundbuilding societies.

168

Kinship Myth in Ancient Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ancient Greece, interstate relations, such as in the formation of alliances, calls for assistance, exchanges of citizenship, and territorial conquest, were often grounded in mythical kinship. In these cases, the common ancestor was most often a legendary figure from whom both communities claimed descent.\\u000aIn this detailed study, Lee E. Patterson elevates the current state of research on kinship

Lee E. Patterson

2010-01-01

169

Nanoscience of an ancient pigment.  

PubMed

We describe monolayer nanosheets of calcium copper tetrasilicate, CaCuSi(4)O(10), which have strong near-IR luminescence and are amenable to solution processing methods. The facile exfoliation of bulk CaCuSi(4)O(10) into nanosheets is especially surprising in view of the long history of this material as the colored component of Egyptian blue, a well-known pigment from ancient times. PMID:23215240

Johnson-McDaniel, Darrah; Barrett, Christopher A; Sharafi, Asma; Salguero, Tina T

2013-01-28

170

Ancient medicine: the patient's perspective.  

PubMed

A number of previously unpublished therapeutic recipes from cuneiform tablets in Berlin (Pergamon Museum) and London (British Museum) list symptoms describing urinary tract disfunction. In addition to presenting extracts from this material, the present article discusses the roles of physician as apothecary or exorcist in ancient texts from Babylonia. This involves technical medical knowledge vs. "bed-side manner", taking into account the psychological effects of drug therapy and diagnosis. PMID:15372427

Geller, Mark J

171

Telomere-mediated truncation of barley chromosomes.  

PubMed

Engineered minichromosomes offer an enormous opportunity to plant biotechnology as they have the potential to simultaneously transfer and stably express multiple genes. Following a top-down approach, we truncated endogenous chromosomes in barley (Hordeum vulgare) by Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of T-DNA constructs containing telomere sequences. Blocks of Arabidopsis-like telomeric repeats were inserted into a binary vector suitable for stable transformation. After transfer of these constructs into immature embryos of diploid and tetraploid barley, chromosome truncation by T-DNA-induced de novo formation of telomeres could be confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridisation, primer extension telomere repeat amplification and DNA gel blot analysis in regenerated plants. Telomere seeding connected to chromosome truncation was found in tetraploid plants only, indicating that genetic redundancy facilitates recovery of shortened chromosomes. Truncated chromosomes were transmissible in sexual reproduction, but were inherited at rates lower than expected according to Mendelian rules. PMID:22080935

Kapusi, Eszter; Ma, Lu; Teo, Chee How; Hensel, Götz; Himmelbach, Axel; Schubert, Ingo; Mette, Michael Florian; Kumlehn, Jochen; Houben, Andreas

2011-11-13

172

Biology of barley shoot fly Delia flavibasis Stein (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) on resistant and susceptible barley cultivars  

PubMed Central

The biology of barley shoot fly Delia flavibasis was studied using resistant (Dinsho and Harbu) and susceptible (Holker) barley cultivars at Sinana Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia. A higher number of eggs was laid on Holker (17 eggs/female) than on Dinsho (11 eggs/female) or Harbu (12 eggs/female). However, there were no differences between cultivars in preoviposition and total reproductive periods. The shortest time required to complete larval, pupal and total developmental stages from egg to adult emergence occurred when the insect was reared on the cultivar Holker. Pupal weight, adult emergence and adult longevity did not differ between cultivars. The female to male sex ratio was 1:1. This study enabled us to understand the duration of each of the life stages of D.flavibasis, which will undoubtedly aid researchers and growers to design a sustainable management strategy against barley shoot fly.

Goftishu, Muluken; Getu, Emana

2008-01-01

173

The Potential of Hull-less Barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 76(5):589-599 Hull-less barley (HB) has been investigated in many countries for use in feed, food, and industry since the publication of the last review in 1986. Literature published since 1990 on various aspects of HB u tiliza- tion, other than in monogastric feeds, has been reviewed. Several HB cultivars containing low or high ?-glucan, low or high extract

R. S. Bhatty

1999-01-01

174

Enhancement of methane production from barley waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different approaches were attempted to try and enhance methane production from an industrial waste composed of 100% barley, which results from production of instant coffee substitutes. In previous work, this waste was co-digested with an excess of activated sludge produced in the wastewater treatment plant located in same industrial unit, resulting in a very poor methane yield (25LCH4(STP)\\/kgVSinitial), and

L. Neves; R. Ribeiro; R. Oliveira; M. M. Alves

2006-01-01

175

Antioxidant Enzymes in Barley Green Biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green biomass of young barley plants exhibited statistically significant higher activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and\\u000a catalase (CAT) at sampling I (in the phase of plant development DC 29) compared to the later sampling II (DC 31). Significant\\u000a effects of varieties, years and interactions of the studied factors on the activity of the studied antioxidants were determined.\\u000a During the experiment

J. Ehrenbergerová; N. B?ezinová Belcredi; J. Kopá?ek; L. Melišová; P. Hrstková; S. Macuchová; K. Vaculová; I. Paulí?ková

2009-01-01

176

Nove1 Phosphoinositides in Barley Aleurone Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel isomer of phosphatidylinositol that differs in the structure of the head group was detected in barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Himalaya) seeds. In this paper we describe our efforts to elucidate the structure of the novel isomer. Evidence from a variety of techniques, including chemical modification of in vivo 32Pi- and myo- (3H)inositol-labeled compounds, gas chromatography-mass spec- trometry analysis,

Bhuvarahamurthy Narasimhan; Cay Pliska-Matyshak; Richard Kinnard; Michele A. Ritter; Linda von Weymarn; Pushpalatha P. N. Murthy

177

Characteristics of amino acid uptake in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants have the ability to take up organic nitrogen (N) but this has not been thoroughly studied in agricultural plants. A\\u000a critical question is whether agricultural plants can acquire amino acids in a soil ecosystem. The aim of this study was to\\u000a characterize amino acid uptake capacity in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) from a mixture of amino acids at concentrations

Sandra Jämtgård; Torgny Näsholm; Kerstin Huss-Danell

2008-01-01

178

Grain protein content variation and its association analysis in barley  

PubMed Central

Background Grain protein content (GPC) is an important quality determinant for barley used as malt, feed as well as food. It is controlled by a complex genetic system. GPC differs greatly among barley genotypes and is also variable across different environments. It is imperative to understand the genetic control of barley GPC and identify the genotypes with less variation under the different environments. Results In this study, 59 cultivated and 99 Tibetan wild barley genotypes were used for a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a multi-platform candidate gene-based association analysis, in order to identify the molecular markers associated with GPC. Tibetan wild barley had higher GPC than cultivated barley. The significant correlation between GPC and diastatic power (DP), and malt extract confirmed the importance of GPC in determining malt quality. Diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers associated with barley GPC were detected by GWAS. In addition, GWAS revealed two HvNAM genes as the candidate genes controlling GPC. No association was detected between HvNAM1 polymorphism and GPC, while a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (798, P?barley. Conclusions The GWAS and candidate gene based-association study may be effectively used to determine the genetic variation of GPC in barley. The DArT markers and the polymorphism of HvNAM genes identified in this study are useful in developing high quality barley cultivars in the future. HvNAM genes could play a role in controlling barley GPC.

2013-01-01

179

Conceptions of Intelligence in Ancient Chinese Philosophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ancient Chinese philosophical conceptions of intelligence differ markedly from those in the ancient Western tradition, and also from contemporary Western conceptions. Understanding these ancient Chinese conceptions of intelligence may help us better understand how a very important culture—Chinese culture—influences people’s thinking and behavior, and may also help us broaden, deepen, as well as re-examine our own conceptions of intelligence. This

Shih-ying Yang; Robert J. Sternberg

1997-01-01

180

A hybrid composite dike suite from the northern Arabian Nubian Shield, southwest Jordan: Implications for magma mixing and partial melting of granite by mafic magma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arabian Nubian Shield is an exemplary juvenile continental crust of Neoproterozoic age (1000-542 Ma). The post-collisional rift-related stage (~ 610 to 542 Ma) of its formation is characterized among others by the intrusion of several generations of simple and composite dikes.This study documents a suite of hybrid composite dikes and a natural example of partial melting of granite by a mafic magma from the northernmost extremity of Arabian Nubian Shield in southwest Jordan. The petrogenesis of this suite is discussed on the basis of field, petrographic, geochemical, and Rb/Sr isotopic data. These dikes give spectacular examples of the interaction between basaltic magma and the granitic basement. This interaction ranges from brecciation, partial melting of the host alkali feldspar granite to complete assimilation of the granitic material. Field structures range from intrusive breccia (angular partially melted granitic fragments in a mafic groundmass) to the formation of hybrid composite dikes that are up to 14 m in thickness.The rims of these dikes are trachyandesite (latite) with alkali feldspar ovoids (up to 1 cm in diameter); while the central cores are trachydacite to dacite and again with alkali feldspar ovoids and xenoliths from the dike rims.The granitic xenoliths in the intrusive breccia have been subjected to at least 33% partial melting.A seven-point Rb/Sr isochron from one of these composite dikes yields an age of 561 ± 33 Ma and an initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70326 ± 0.0003 (2?) and MSWD of 0.62.Geochemical modeling using major, trace, rare earth elements and isotopes suggests the generation of the hybrid composite dike suite through the assimilation of 30% to 60% granitic crustal material by a basaltic magma, while the latter was undergoing fractional crystallization at different levels in the continental crust.

Jarrar, Ghaleb H.; Yaseen, Najel; Theye, Thomas

2013-03-01

181

A Simple Sequence Repeat-Based Linkage Map of Barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 568 new simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based markers for barley have been developed from a combination of database sequences and small insert genomic libraries enriched for a range of short simple sequence repeats. Analysis of the SSRs on 16 barley cultivars revealed variable levels of informativeness but no obvious correlation was found with SSR repeat length, motif type,

L. Ramsay; M. Macaulay; K. MacLean; L. Cardle; J. Fuller; K. J. Edwards; S. Tuvesson; M. Morgante; A. Massari; E. Maestri; N. Marmiroli; T. Sjakste; M. Ganal; W. Powell; R. Waugh

182

Microgeographic edaphic differentiation in hordein polymorphisms of wild barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity in the storage protein hordein encoded by two loci, Hor1 and Hor2, was analyzed electrophoretically in seeds from 123 individual plants of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, the progenitor of cultivated barley. The test was conducted in two topographically different 100 meter transects in Israel, each equally divided into basalt and terra rossa soil types. Altogether 15 Hor1 and

E. Nevo; A. Beiles; N. Storch; H. Doll; B. Andersen

1983-01-01

183

Expression of Ethylene Biosynthesis Genes in Barley Tissue Culture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The plant hormone ethylene influences green plant regeneration rates from barley callus cultures. Our studies have focused on the effects of short treatments of an ethylene inhibitor or an ethylene precursor on green plant regeneration from two barley cultivars and the expression patterns of two eth...

184

SCARIFICATION OF BARLEY TO PRODUCE VALUE-ADDED FRACTIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

New barley varieties are being developed to use this crop in nontraditional food and non-food value-added applications, such as ethanol production. The objective of this study was to abrade the outer layers of the barley kernel creating a fraction enriched in pericarp and keeping the physical integr...

185

TRANSFORMATION TO PRODUCE BARLEY RESISTANT TO FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum destroys barley and wheat crops by causing scab disease (Fusarium head blight, FHB). Spores infect seed spike tissues, leading to production of mycotoxins. There are no known barleys with biochemical resistance to Fusarium, although some have various levels ...

186

Control of stripe rusts of wheat and barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2005, stripe rust of wheat was the most widespread in the U.S. and also occurred unusually early and severe in the PNW. Barley stripe rust occurred in the western U.S. and was severe in some fields grown with susceptible cultivars. Stripe rusts of wheat and barley were accurately predicted. Fungi...

187

FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF CROSSLINKED AND ACETYLATED BARLEY PROTEIN ISOLATE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley protein isolate (BPI) was prepared using defatted barley flour. BPI was extracted in 0.05 N NaOH in a 10:1 ratio solvent:flour, was precipitated by adjusting the pH to 4.5 and freeze-dried. Portion of the BPI sample was crosslinked using Transglutaminase and acetylated using acetic anhydrid...

188

The CELLULOSE-SYNTHASE LIKE C (CSLC) family of barley includes members that are integral membrane proteins targeted to the plasma membrane.  

PubMed

The CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE C (CSLC) family is an ancient lineage within the CELLULOSE SYNTHASE/CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE (CESA/CSL) polysaccharide synthase superfamily that is thought to have arisen before the divergence of mosses and vascular plants. As studies in the flowering plant Arabidopsis have suggested synthesis of the (1,4)-beta-glucan backbone of xyloglucan (XyG), a wall polysaccharide that tethers adjacent cellulose microfibrils to each other, as a probable function for the CSLCs, CSLC function was investigated in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), a species with low amounts of XyG in its walls. Four barley CSLC genes were identified (designated HvCSLC1-4). Phylogenetic analysis reveals three well supported clades of CSLCs in flowering plants, with barley having representatives in two of these clades. The four barley CSLCs were expressed in various tissues, with in situ PCR detecting transcripts in all cell types of the coleoptile and root, including cells with primary and secondary cell walls. Co-expression analysis showed that HvCSLC3 was coordinately expressed with putative XyG xylosyltransferase genes. Both immuno-EM and membrane fractionation showed that HvCSLC2 was located in the plasma membrane of barley suspension-cultured cells and was not in internal membranes such as endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus. Based on our current knowledge of the sub-cellular locations of polysaccharide synthesis, we conclude that the CSLC family probably contains more than one type of polysaccharide synthase. PMID:19825677

Dwivany, Fenny M; Yulia, Dina; Burton, Rachel A; Shirley, Neil J; Wilson, Sarah M; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Bacic, Antony; Newbigin, Ed; Doblin, Monika S

2009-08-24

189

Ancient dna from pleistocene fossils: Preservation, recovery, and utility of ancient genetic information for quaternary research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, recovery and analysis of genetic information encoded in ancient DNA sequences from Pleistocene fossils were impossible. Recent advances in molecular biology offered technical tools to obtain ancient DNA sequences from well-preserved Quaternary fossils and opened the possibilities to directly study genetic changes in fossil species to address various biological and paleontological questions. Ancient DNA studies involving Pleistocene fossil

Hong Yang

1997-01-01

190

Grain composition of Virginia winter barley and implications for use in feed, food, and biofuels production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grain compositional components impacting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) use in food, feed and fuel products, must be combined with improved agronomic traits to produce a commercially viable barley cultivar. Little current information is available on grain composition and variability among winter barley genotypes. This study was conducted to determine the variability among modern hulled and hulless winter barley genotypes in

Carl Griffey; Wynse Brooks; Michael Kurantz; Wade Thomason; Frank Taylor; Don Obert; Robert Moreau; Rolando Flores; Miryeong Sohn; Kevin Hicks

2010-01-01

191

Energy Evaluation of Eight Barley Cultivars for Poultry: Effect of Dietary Enzyme Addition1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments were conducted to study eight barley cultivars and the effect of enzyme addition on their energy value for poultry. In Experi- ment 1, the AMEn of a reference barley (Beka cultivar) was calculated by increasing barley concentrations (30, 40, 50, and 60%) that replaced a high protein basal diet. In Experiment 2, eight barley cultivars (four spring and

M. J. VILLAMIDE; J. M. FUENTE; P. PEREZ DE AYALA; A. FLORES

192

Organoleptic and nutritional evaluation of wheat breads supplemented with soybean and barley flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplementations of soy (full fat and defatted) and barley flours to wheat flours at 5, 10, 15 and 20% levels were carried out to test the effects on organoleptic and nutritional evaluation of the supplemented bread. Additions of 15% barley flour, 10% soy flour (full fat and defatted), 15% barley plus full fat soy flour and 15% barley plus defatted

Shfali Dhingra; Sudesh Jood

2002-01-01

193

A Non-capsid Protein Associated with Unencapsidated Virus RNA in Barley Infected with Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley tissue with an acute systemic infection of barley stripe mosaic virus contained a large amount of unencapsidated virus RNA which was stable in extracts made in ribosome isolation buffer. The virus RNA in ribosome preparations sedimented in a broad band at 80S to 100S in sucrose gradients, which is less than the virion sedimentation rate of 180S to 200S.

MYRON K. BRAKKE; E. M. Ball; W. G. Langenberg

1988-01-01

194

Naked barley—Optimized recipe for pure barley bread with sufficient beta-glucan according to the EFSA health claims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naked barley is an underutilized crop that is suitable for the production of functional food: it contains remarkable amounts of ?-glucans, which are well known for their blood cholesterol and short-time blood sugar regulating properties and their impact on weight regulation. The aim of the present work was to develop naked barley bread with satisfying sensory characteristics and good baking

M. Kinner; S. Nitschko; J. Sommeregger; A. Petrasch; G. Linsberger-Martin; H. Grausgruber; E. Berghofer; S. Siebenhandl-Ehn

2011-01-01

195

[Ancient history of Indian pharmacy].  

PubMed

The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ram?yana and Mah?bh?rata and in the Atharvaveda. Su?ruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahm?-->Daksa-->Praj?pati-->A?ivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Su?ruta-samhit?, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Su?ruta Both Caraka and Su?ruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism. PMID:21032887

Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko

2010-01-01

196

The Horn of Africa as a centre of barley diversification and a potential domestication site  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to a widely accepted theory on barley domestication, wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) from the Fertile Crescent is the progenitor of all cultivated barley (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare). To determine whether barley has undergone one or more domestication events, barley accessions from three continents have\\u000a been studied (a) using 38 nuclear SSR (nuSSRs) markers, (b) using five chloroplast

Jihad Orabi; Gunter Backes; Asmelash Wolday; Amor Yahyaoui; Ahmed Jahoor

2007-01-01

197

Construction of barley consensus map showing chromosomal regions associated with economically important traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, it has been difficult to accurately determine the location of many types of barley molecular markers due to the lack of commonality between international barley linkage maps. In this study, a consensus map of barley was constructed from five different maps (OWB, VxHs, KxM, barley consensus 2 and barley consensus 2003) to produce the consensus AD-2005 map

Ayman A. Diab

198

Anti-oxidative compounds in barley tea.  

PubMed

Five phenolic compounds, p-hydroxyacetophenone, 5,7-dihydroxychromone, naringenin, quercetin, and iso-americanol A, were found first time in the barley tea, together with the known compounds, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, and p-coumaric acid. The anti-oxidative properties were evaluated by measuring their peroxynitrite-scavenging activities. Among these compounds, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, and isoamericanol A showed stronger activities than that of BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) at 400 microM. PMID:15618635

Etoh, Hideo; Murakami, Kazushi; Yogoh, Tokiyasu; Ishikawa, Hajime; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu; Tanaka, Hitoshi

2004-12-01

199

Geologically ancient DNA: fact or artefact?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies continue to report ancient DNA sequences and viable microbial cells that are many millions of years old. In this paper we evaluate some of the most extravagant claims of geologically ancient DNA. We conclude that although exciting, the reports suffer from inadequate experimental setup and insufficient authentication of results. Consequently, it remains doubtful whether amplifiable DNA sequences and viable

Martin B. Hebsgaard; Matthew J. Phillips; Eske Willerslev

2005-01-01

200

Geoarchaeology of Beirut's ancient harbour, Phoenicia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents geoarchaeological results from the ancient harbour of Beirut (Lebanon). As at Sidon, knowledge of Beirut's ancient tell has advanced significantly over the past decade, thanks namely to redevelopment of the city centre and excavations centred on the modern port. In spite of this research, understanding of the city's coastal palaeoenvironments during antiquity is poor. Buried Iron Age

Nick Marriner; Christophe Morhange; Muntaha Saghieh-Beydoun

2008-01-01

201

Sports, nationalism and peace in ancient Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 100 years ago, Baron Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympic movement, declared that the Olympic games should promote “international understanding, brotherhood and peace.” Was this a modern concept, a dream of Coubertin, or did it resurrect the ideals of the ancient Olympics?On the one hand, the ancient Olympic games certainly promoted in Greece a sense

Nigel Crowther

1999-01-01

202

Contemporary sport sociology and ancient Greek athletics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situated at a point of critical intersection between leisure and labour, ancient athletics was in the most essential respects just as complex and ‘modern’ as its contemporary counterpart and can thus benefit from the methods of contemporary sport sociology, which can in turn find in ancient Greece a useful comparandum. As with contemporary sport, athletic pursuits must be situated within

Thomas Hubbard

2008-01-01

203

Ancient earthquake data extraction by archeological findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent archeological excavations and findings helped a lot to reconstruct data and information about ancient earthquakes and their effects to the historical societies. Two cases are under investigations: 4550 years BC Solnitsata-Provadia archaeological site and Cybele temple (6th century BC) site. The first case is related to the destruction of the defensive bastions of the ancient society of the salt

Boyko Ranguelov; Vassil Nikolov

2010-01-01

204

Earthquake Faulting at Ancient Cnidus, SW Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ruins of Cnidus, an important ancient city in southwestern Asia Minor, lie directly on an earthquake fault — the Cnidus Fault. Offset and deformed archaeological remains along the trace of the fault testify to its recent activation. The ancient city's famous Round Temple of Aphrodite is vertically offset by 0.35 m across the fault. The fault also forms the

ERHAN ALTUNEL; IAIN S. STEWART; AYKUT BARKA; LUIGI PICCARDI

2003-01-01

205

Automatic attribution of ancient Roman imperial coins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classification of coins is an important but laborious aspect of numismatics - the field that studies coins and currency. It is particularly challenging in the case of ancient coins. Due to the way they were manufactured, as well as wear from use and exposure to chemicals in the soil, the same ancient coin type can exhibit great variability in appearance.

Ognjen Arandjelovic

2010-01-01

206

Ancient Repairs on Pottery from Olbia Pontica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ancient pottery repair has become a topic of growing interest to scholars of Greek and Roman pottery. This particular area of study is part of a larger one devoted to the diverse types of pottery reuse in classical antiquity. Quantification of ancient repairs remains a fundamental problem, however, and periods of intensified use of repaired pottery have been difficult to

Pia Guldager Bilde; Søren Handberg

2012-01-01

207

Magnetite biomineralization and ancient life on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain chemical and mineral features of the Martian meteorite ALH84001 were reported in 1996 to be probable evidence of ancient life on Mars. In spite of new observations and interpretations, the question of ancient life on Mars remains unresolved. Putative biogenic, nanometer magnetite has now become a leading focus in the debate.

Richard B Frankel; Peter R Buseck

2000-01-01

208

Recording the Changing Seasons in Ancient Times  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students will learn about Stonehenge and read some ancient myths and stories explaining the seasons. They will pretend to be historians and use websites to find information about how ancient cultures kept track of and celebrated the seasons. They will then compile their findings into posters or illustrated reports.

2007-12-12

209

The cluster structure of barley amylopectins of different genetic backgrounds.  

PubMed

The unit chains of amylopectin are organized into clusters. In this study, the cluster structure was analysed in detail in four different genotypes of barley, of which two possessed the amo1 genetic background. Amylose content of the barley starches differed from 0 to 32.6%. Isolated amylopectin was hydrolysed with ?-amylase from Bacillus subtilis into domains, defined as groups of clusters, which were size-fractionated by methanol. The domain fractions were further treated with ?-amylase to release single clusters. Amylopectin, domains and clusters were subsequently treated with phosphorylase and ?-amylase to produce ?,?-limit dextrins and the detailed internal structures of these different structure levels were investigated. Analysis was performed with gel-permeation and anion-exchange chromatography. Equal amount of A-chains were detected in all barleys, but the distribution of B-chains differed. At least two types of domain structures were identified in all four barley varieties. Large domains were built up by large clusters and small domains by small clusters. In all four barley samples the number of long chains was small suggesting that shorter chains with a degree of polymerization of 25-35 also are involved in the interconnection of clusters. The cluster structure of the amylopectin correlated with the genetic background. The two barley samples with amo1 genetic background possessed a more dense structure. Internal chain lengths in these two barleys were shorter resulting in larger domains built up by larger clusters. PMID:21704067

Bertoft, Eric; Källman, Anna; Koch, Kristine; Andersson, Roger; Aman, Per

2011-06-17

210

Chapter 26 Distribution Pattern and Provenance Implications of the Heavy Minerals in Neoproterozoic to Mesozoic Siliciclastic Successions in the Arabo-Nubian Shield and its Northern Periphery: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the consolidation and erosion of the Arabo-Nubian Shield (ANS) in the Neoproterozoic, extensive siliciclastics were deposited above it and along its northern margins. These sediments consist of two thick successions, which are separated by an erosional surface representing a regional peneplain. They comprise Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian orogenic, molasse-type, immature conglomerates and arkoses, and a Palaeozoic to Early Mesozoic succession of

Tuvia Weissbrod; Ron Bogoch

2007-01-01

211

Boron Uptake by Excised Barley Roots  

PubMed Central

At 2 C, all boron accumulated by excised barley roots (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Herta) remains in the free space; i.e. active uptake is nil at this temperature. Three component fractions of free space B were apparent: (a) a surface contaminant film of B on blotted roots, (b) water free space B, and (c) B reversibly bound in the cell walls. A stoichiometric release of H+ from the roots in the presence of B indicated that B was bound by borate complexes with polysaccharides in the cell walls. Polysaccharide-borate complexes are much less stable than those of monosaccharides, and the bound B fraction could be readily removed by rinsing the roots in the presence of a monomeric polyol possessing the necessary cis-diol configuration. Cell wall material separated from excised barley roots had a B binding capacity 66% greater than that of intact roots. A 30-minute rinse in distilled H2O or 0.5 mm CaSO4 was required to remove all cell wall-bound B from the roots after a 30-minute uptake period. Thus, although B in the contaminant surface film and the water free space is rinsed from the roots within 10 minutes, a 30-minute rinse is essential if all reversibly accumulated B is to be removed from the free space.

Bowen, John E.; Nissen, Per

1976-01-01

212

Ancient Near East.net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ancient Near East has been the birthplace of some of civilization's most important advances, among them written language, the impulse to urbanism, and crop cultivation. Created and maintained by Paul James Cowie (a doctoral student at Australia's Macquarie University), the site is a fine resource for both scholars and the general public. Scholars will want to make sure and take a look at the conference diary section, which lists upcoming conferences and various calls for papers and other submissions. The announcements section is of additional interest, as it gives advance notice regarding related activities, including international symposia. For the general public, a host of sections (such as museums and galleries) offer comprehensive listings of Web-based resources ranging from Egyptology links to those dealing with cuneiform. The Web site also contains a listing of links to museums that specialize in the antiquities and archaeology of the Near East located around the world.

2000-01-01

213

[Anomalous pregnancies in ancient medicine].  

PubMed

In ancient Greek medicine female physiology is determined by a particular state of non-steady equilibrium, largely based on pregnancy and lactation, presented as the only balanced and healthy periods in women's life. Nonetheless, pregnancy can be also a pathological moment, in particular referring to specific alterations of its 'normal time' ('seven-months', 'eight-months' and 'ten-months' children). The article analyzes the well-known case of myle, an abnormal pregnancy developing in three and sometimes four years, non resolving in a normal delivery, but often in a dramatic haemorrhagic flux. The author compares Hippocratic and Aristotelic testimonies about myle and abnormal pregnancies with the evidence fournished by the historical-religious recent studies about Hera and her parthenogenetic, monstrous children. PMID:21563479

Gazzaniga, Valentina

2010-01-01

214

Ergonomic design in ancient Greece.  

PubMed

Although the science of ergonomics did not actually emerge until the 20th century, there is evidence to suggest that ergonomic principles were in fact known and adhered to 25 centuries ago. The study reported here is a first attempt to research the ergonomics concerns of ancient Greeks, on both a conceptual and a practical level. On the former we present a collection of literature references to the concepts of usability and human-centred design. On the latter, examples of ergonomic design from a variety of fields are analysed. The fields explored here include the design of everyday utensils, the sculpture and manipulation of marble as a building material and the design of theatres. Though hardly exhaustive, these examples serve to demonstrate that the ergonomics principles, in content if not in name, actually emerged a lot earlier than is traditionally thought. PMID:10416849

Marmaras, N; Poulakakis, G; Papakostopoulos, V

1999-08-01

215

Stable isotopes and diet at Ancient Kerma, Upper Nubia (Sudan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values were measured from bone collagen extracted from archaeological Nubian human (n=54) and faunal (n=61) populations from the site of Kerma, Sudan. Collagen suitable for isotopic analysis was extracted from 22 faunal and 48 human samples from the Eastern cemetery site, dated to the Middle Kerma (c. 2050–1750 BC) and Classic Kerma (c. 1750–1500 BC)

A. H. Thompson; L. Chaix; M. P. Richards

2008-01-01

216

Race-specific resistance and cultivar-specific virulence in the barley-leaf rust pathosystem and their consequences for the breeding of leaf rust resistant barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of leaf rust (Puccinia hordei) isolates was tested on a series of barley cultivars among which the differential series. No resistance to all isolates seems to exist in the cultivated barley. The barley cultivars appear to carry zero to two race-specific resistance (Pa) genes. The isolates carry from three to eight virulence factors from the eight or nine

J. E. Parlevliet

1983-01-01

217

7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section... § 810.204 Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue...

2009-01-01

218

7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section... § 810.204 Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue...

2010-01-01

219

Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus and the Frequency of Triploids and Aneuploids in Barley  

PubMed Central

BSMV infection caused a pronounced increase in the frequency of triploid and aneuploid seeds in eleven barley varieties, but with considerable variation in frequency among varieties. In some of the varieties triploids exceeded three per cent. In virus-free material a few triploids were found in most of the varieties, but the frequency was very low. There was, however, a significant variation among varieties.

Sandfaer, Jens

1973-01-01

220

Recent developments in the genetic engineering of barley  

SciTech Connect

Cereals are the most important group of plants for human nutrition and animal feed. Partially due to the commercial value of crop plants, there has been an ever-increasing interest in using modern biotechnological methods for the improvement of the characteristics of cereals during the past decade. The rapid progress in molecular biology, plant cell culture techniques, and gene transfer technology has resulted in successful transformations of all the major cereals--maize, rice, wheat, and barley. This brings the biotechnological methods closer to the routine also in barley breeding. In this article, the current status of barley genetic engineering, including the patent situation, is reviewed. The needs aims, and possible applications of genetic engineering in barley breeding are discussed. 179 refs.

Mannonen, L.; Kauppinen, V.; Enari, T.M. (VTT Biotechnology and Food Research, Espoo (Finland))

1994-01-01

221

Variations in BARE-1 insertion patterns in barley callus cultures.  

PubMed

The stability of aging barley calli was investigated with the barley retroelement 1 (BARE-1) retrotransposon specific inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) technique. Mature embryos of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Zafer-160) were cultured on callus induction MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/L 2,4-D and maintained on the same medium for 60 days. Ten IRAP primers were used in 25 different combinations. The similarity index between 30-day-old and 45-day-old calli was 84%; however, the similarity index between mature embryos and 45-day-old calli was 75%. These culture conditions caused BARE-1 retrotransposon alterations to appear as different band profiles. This is the first report of the use of the IRAP technique in barley in an investigation of callus development. PMID:21710447

Evrensel, C; Yilmaz, S; Temel, A; Gozukirmizi, N

2011-05-31

222

Microbes in the Tailoring of Barley Malt Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Malted barley (malt) is traditionally used in the production of beer and distilled spirits. In addition, it can be processed into ingredients for different areas of the food industry. Malting, the controlled germination of cereal grains, is a complex biol...

A. Laitila

2009-01-01

223

Unlocking the barley genome by chromosomal and comparative genomics.  

PubMed

We used a novel approach that incorporated chromosome sorting, next-generation sequencing, array hybridization, and systematic exploitation of conserved synteny with model grasses to assign ~86% of the estimated ~32,000 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genes to individual chromosome arms. Using a series of bioinformatically constructed genome zippers that integrate gene indices of rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and Brachypodium distachyon in a conserved synteny model, we were able to assemble 21,766 barley genes in a putative linear order. We show that the barley (H) genome displays a mosaic of structural similarity to hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) A, B, and D subgenomes and that orthologous genes in different grasses exhibit signatures of positive selection in different lineages. We present an ordered, information-rich scaffold of the barley genome that provides a valuable and robust framework for the development of novel strategies in cereal breeding. PMID:21467582

Mayer, Klaus F X; Martis, Mihaela; Hedley, Pete E; Simková, Hana; Liu, Hui; Morris, Jenny A; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Taudien, Stefan; Roessner, Stephan; Gundlach, Heidrun; Kubaláková, Marie; Suchánková, Pavla; Murat, Florent; Felder, Marius; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Graner, Andreas; Salse, Jerome; Endo, Takashi; Sakai, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Itoh, Takeshi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Platzer, Matthias; Matsumoto, Takashi; Scholz, Uwe; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Waugh, Robbie; Stein, Nils

2011-04-05

224

Chemiosmotic Principles of Solute Transport in Barley Roots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise will demonstrate to students the fluxes of certain inorganic ions in the roots of barley plants. It will familiarize them with the chemiosmotic principles that are involved in ATP synthesis and give them an understanding of solute transport .

Anthony D. M. Glass (University of British Columbia;)

1984-06-11

225

Choice of selection strategy in breeding barley for stress environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the optimum selection environment for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) targeted at low-input, stress environment,\\u000a barley lines were selected for high yield under stress (YS), high yield under non-stress (YNS), or average yield in stress\\u000a and non-stress conditions (YA) during three breeding cycles (cohorts) of three years each. The lines were then tested in a\\u000a total of 21 year-location

Salvatore Ceccarelli; Stefania Grando; Alfredo Impiglia

1998-01-01

226

FEEDING VALUE OF CORN AND 'VALIER' BARLEY FOR FINISHING STEERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty crossbred steers (average initial weight 436 ± 3.9 kg) were used to evaluate the performance, nutrient digestibility, and grain energy content of finishing diets based on corn or 'Valier' barley. Barley was dry rolled prior to being fed and diets were formulated to be isocaloric (2.04 Mcal\\/kg NEm and 1.43 Mcal\\/kg NEg) and isonitrogenous (2.6% N). Diets were formulated

N. L. Iversen; A. V. Grove; J. G. P. Bowman; D. Boss; T. K. Blake

2007-01-01

227

The Properties and Genetics of Barley Malt Starch Degrading Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The properties and quality of barley malt starch degrading enzymes are of primary importance to the efficiency and profitability\\u000a of brewing (beer and whiskey), and the bio-fuel (bio-ethanol) industries. The barley starch degrading enzymes hydrolyse starch\\u000a into fermentable sugars that yeast converts into alcohol. This process is key for the alcohol producing industries as the\\u000a starch substrate makes up approximately

D. E. Evans; C. Li; J. K. Eglinton

228

Location of the proanthocyanidins in the barley grain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vanillin-HCl staining has been used to locate the proanthocyanidins in mature barley grains. These flavanoids were found\\u000a to be concentrated in the seed coat (testa) just outside the aleurone layer in the 7 varieties with yellow coloured grains\\u000a investigated. The seed coats of 10 proanthocyanidin-free barley mutants belonging to 4 different gene loci did not stain with\\u000a vanillin-HCl.

Sten Aastrup; Henrik Outtrup; Kenneth Erdal

1984-01-01

229

Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with barley net blotch resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net blotch of barley, caused by Pyrenophora teres Drechs., is an important foliar disease worldwide. Deployment of resistant cultivars is the most economic and eco-friendly\\u000a control method. This report describes mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with net blotch resistance in a\\u000a doubled-haploid (DH) barley population using diversity arrays technology (DArT®) markers. One hundred and fifty DH lines from

T. S. Grewal; B. G. Rossnagel; C. J. Pozniak; G. J. Scoles

2008-01-01

230

Characterization and sequence of a novel nitrate reductase from barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has both NADH-specific and NAD(P)H-bispecific nitrate reductases. Genomic and cDNA clones of the NADH nitrate reductase have been sequenced. In this study, a genomic clone (pMJ4.1) of a second type of nitrate reductase was isolated from barley by homology to a partial-length NADH nitrate reductase cDNA and the sequence determined. The open reading frame encodes a

John Miyazaki; Miloslav Juricek; Karel Angelis; Kirk M. Schnorr; Andris Kleinhofs; Robert L. Warner

1991-01-01

231

Response of barley aleurone layers to abscisic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cordycepin, an inhibitor of RNA synthesis in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone cells, does not inhibit the gibberellic acid-enhanced ..cap alpha..-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1.) synthesis in barley aleurone layers if it is added 12 hours or more after the addition of the hormone. However, the accumulation of ..cap alpha..-amylase activity after 12 hours of gibberellic acid can be decreased by abscisic

D. T.-H. Ho; J. E. Varner

1976-01-01

232

Zeatin-binding proteins in barley leaves  

SciTech Connect

Highly labelled tritium-zeatin was used in the work to clarify for the first time a protein factor that is present in cytokinin-sensitive vegetative organs of plants (barley leaves) and which possesses the properties of a cytokinin receptor. Aliquots of tritium-zeatin were mixed with a solution of protein and incubated for several hours in buffer. Following incubation, protein was precipitated by ammonium sulfate at 90% of saturation, and radioactivity of the precipitate was checked in a dioxane scintillator with an efficiency of about 35%. It is shown that the characteristics of interaction of the clarified specific protein sites with cytokinins in regard to a number of criteria correspond to the characteristics expected of receptors of these phytohormones.

Romanov, G.A.; Kulaeva, O.N.; Taryan, V.Y.

1986-01-01

233

Ancient Magnetic Reversals: Clues to the Geodynamo.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the question posed by some that the earth's magnetic field may reverse. States that rocks magnetized by ancient fields may offer clues to the underlying reversal mechanism in the earth's core. (TW)

Hoffman, Kenneth A.

1988-01-01

234

From Ancient Fortress to Modern Cyberdefense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Establishing an effective enterprise cyberdefense mechanism is conceptually similar to building a fortress city in ancient times. The authors describe the parallels by comparing observation towers, fortified walls, gates, alarms, guards, and cyberdefense.

Simon Liu; Jerry Ormaner

2009-01-01

235

An Artefactual Approach to Ancient Arithmetic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes work with elementary school students which combines a documentary approach to humanizing mathematics education together with two other artifactual approaches: students' own construction of objects and documents imitating those studied and using ancient calculating devices in modern reconstruction. (MM)|

Percival, Irene

2001-01-01

236

Archaeology: High tech from Ancient Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Antikythera Mechanism, salvaged 100 years ago from an ancient shipwreck, was long known to be some sort of mechanical calendar. But modern analysis is only now revealing just how sophisticated it was.

Charette, François

2006-11-01

237

Ancient Magnetic Reversals: Clues to the Geodynamo.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the question posed by some that the earth's magnetic field may reverse. States that rocks magnetized by ancient fields may offer clues to the underlying reversal mechanism in the earth's core. (TW)|

Hoffman, Kenneth A.

1988-01-01

238

Ancient Dry Spells Offer Clues About Drought  

NASA Video Gallery

New research indicates that the ancient Mesoamerican civilizations of the Mayans and Aztecs amplified droughts in the Yucatán and southern Mexico by clearing rainforests to make room for pastures and farmland.

gsfcvideo

2011-12-02

239

Allele-dependent barley grain beta-amylase activity.  

PubMed

The wild ancestor of cultivated barley, Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) A. & Gr. (H. spontaneum), is a source of wide genetic diversity, including traits that are important for malting quality. A high beta-amylase trait was previously identified in H. spontaneum strains from Israel, and transferred into the backcross progeny of a cross with the domesticated barley cv Adorra. We have used Southern-blot analysis and beta-amy1 gene characterization to demonstrate that the high beta-amylase trait in the backcross line is co-inherited with the beta-amy1 gene from the H. spontaneum parent. We have analyzed the beta-amy1 gene organization in various domesticated and wild-type barley strains and identified three distinct beta-amy1 alleles. Two of these beta-amy1 alleles were present in modern barley, one of which was specifically found in good malting barley cultivars. The third allele, linked with high grain beta-amylase activity, was found only in a H. spontaneum strain from the Judean foothills in Israel. The sequences of three isolated beta-amy1 alleles are compared. The involvement of specific intron III sequences, in particular a 126-bp palindromic insertion, in the allele-dependent expression of beta-amylase activity in barley grain is proposed. PMID:9625721

Erkkilä, M J; Leah, R; Ahokas, H; Cameron-Mills, V

1998-06-01

240

Immunotoxin construction with a ribosome-inactivating protein from barley.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the suitability of a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) from barley endosperm for use as an immunotoxin. This barley RIP is identical with the 30-kDa protein first reported by Coleman and Roberts [(1982) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 696, 239] and sequenced by Asano and co-workers [(1986) Carlsberg Res. Commun. 51, 75]. Use of the terms barley toxin I, II, and III is proposed to describe the three isoforms resolved by cation-exchange chromatography. An improved procedure for isolating the protein involving the steps of aqueous extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and cation-exchange HPLC is described. Barley toxin II retained activity after exposure to ca. 40% acetonitrile and 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid or lyophilization. In a comparative study using the rabbit reticulocyte lysate assay, the protein was about 68% and 30% as potent as gelonin and ricin A-chain (RTA), respectively. Introduction of SH groups with 2-iminothiolane resulted in a substantial loss of activity as the number of thiol groups approached four. Therefore, it was necessary to limit thiolation to an average of one to two SH groups per toxin molecule. Anti-transferrin receptor-based immunotoxins constructed with RTA, gelonin, and barley toxin II exhibited comparable cytotoxicity against a human colon tumor cell line. We conclude that the availability of raw material, ease of purification, and stability of barley toxin II to lyophilization and denaturing conditions render it a suitable protein for the construction of immunotoxins. PMID:2098110

Ebert, R F; Spryn, L A

241

High-throughput Agrobacterium-mediated barley transformation  

PubMed Central

Background Plant transformation is an invaluable tool for basic plant research, as well as a useful technique for the direct improvement of commercial crops. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is the fourth most abundant cereal crop in the world. It also provides a useful model for the study of wheat, which has a larger and more complex genome. Most existing barley transformation methodologies are either complex or have low (<10%) transformation efficiencies. Results A robust, simple and reproducible barley transformation protocol has been developed that yields average transformation efficiencies of 25%. This protocol is based on the infection of immature barley embryos with Agrobacterium strain AGL1, carrying vectors from the pBract series that contain the hpt gene (conferring hygromycin resistance) as a selectable marker. Results of large scale experiments utilising the luc (firefly luciferase) gene as a reporter are described. The method presented here has been used to produce hundreds of independent, transgenic plant lines and we show that a large proportion of these lines contain single copies of the luc gene. Conclusion This protocol demonstrates significant improvements in both efficiency and ease of use over existing barley transformation methods. This opens up opportunities for the development of functional genomics resources in barley.

Bartlett, Joanne G; Alves, Silvia C; Smedley, Mark; Snape, John W; Harwood, Wendy A

2008-01-01

242

Seismic Behaviour of Ancient Multidrum Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Strong earthquakes are common causes of destruction of ancient monuments, such as classical columns and colonnades. Ancient\\u000a columns of great archaeological significance can be found in high seismicity areas in the Eastern Mediterranean. Understanding\\u000a the behaviour and response of these historic structures during strong earthquakes is useful for the assessment of conservation\\u000a and rehabilitation proposals for such structures. The seismic

Loizos Papaloizou; Petros Komodromos

243

Characterizing avulsion stratigraphy in ancient alluvial deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guidelines for identifying ancient avulsion deposits were set forth by Kraus and Wells [Kraus, M.J., Wells, T.M., 1999. Recognizing avulsion deposits in the ancient stratigraphical record. In: Smith, N.D., Rogers, J. (Eds.), Fluvial Sedimentology VI, Special Publication of the International Association of Sedimentologists, vol. 28, pp. 251–268], building on the study by Smith et al. [Smith, N.D., Cross, T.A., Dufficy,

H. L. Jones; E. A. Hajek

2007-01-01

244

Recognizing characters of ancient manuscripts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Considering printed Latin text, the main issues of Optical Character Recognition (OCR) systems are solved. However, for degraded handwritten document images, basic preprocessing steps such as binarization, gain poor results with state-of-the-art methods. In this paper ancient Slavonic manuscripts from the 11th century are investigated. In order to minimize the consequences of false character segmentation, a binarization-free approach based on local descriptors is proposed. Additionally local information allows the recognition of partially visible or washed out characters. The proposed algorithm consists of two steps: character classification and character localization. Initially Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features are extracted which are subsequently classified using Support Vector Machines (SVM). Afterwards, the interest points are clustered according to their spatial information. Thereby, characters are localized and finally recognized based on a weighted voting scheme of pre-classified local descriptors. Preliminary results show that the proposed system can handle highly degraded manuscript images with background clutter (e.g. stains, tears) and faded out characters.

Diem, Markus; Sablatnig, Robert

2010-02-01

245

Ancient wolf lineages in India.  

PubMed

All previously obtained wolf (Canis lupus) and dog (Canis familiaris) mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequences fall within an intertwined and shallow clade (the 'wolf-dog' clade). We sequenced mtDNA of recent and historical samples from 45 wolves from throughout lowland peninsular India and 23 wolves from the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau and compared these sequences with all available wolf and dog sequences. All 45 lowland Indian wolves have one of four closely related haplotypes that form a well-supported, divergent sister lineage to the wolf-dog clade. This unique lineage may have been independent for more than 400,000 years. Although seven Himalayan wolves from western and central Kashmir fall within the widespread wolf-dog clade, one from Ladakh in eastern Kashmir, nine from Himachal Pradesh, four from Nepal and two from Tibet form a very different basal clade. This lineage contains five related haplotypes that probably diverged from other canids more than 800,000 years ago, but we find no evidence of current barriers to admixture. Thus, the Indian subcontinent has three divergent, ancient and apparently parapatric mtDNA lineages within the morphologically delineated wolf. No haplotypes of either novel lineage are found within a sample of 37 Indian (or other) dogs. Thus, we find no evidence that these two taxa played a part in the domestication of canids. PMID:15101402

Sharma, Dinesh K; Maldonado, Jesus E; Jhala, Yadrendradev V; Fleischer, Robert C

2004-02-01

246

Ancient history of flatfish research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Owing to both their special appearance and behavior flatfish have attracted the special attention of people since ages. The first records of humans having been in touch with flatfish date back to the Stone Age about 15,000 years B.C. Detailed descriptions were already given in the classical antiquity and were taken up 1400 years later in the Renaissance by the first ichthyologists, encyclopédists, and also by practical men. This was more than 200 years before a number of common flatfish species were given their scientific names by Linnaeus in 1758. Besides morphology, remarkable and sometimes amusing naturalistic observations and figures are bequeathed. Ancient history of flatfish research is still a wide and open array. Examples are presented how the yield of information and interpretation from these times increases with interdisciplinary cooperation including archeologists, zoologists, ichthyologists, historians, art historians, fisheries and fishery biologist. The timeline of this contribution ends with the start of modern fishery research at the end of the 19th century in the course of the rapidly increasing exploitation of fish stocks.

Berghahn, Rüdiger; Bennema, Floris Pieter

2013-01-01

247

[Metallurgic drugs in ancient Japan].  

PubMed

Advancements in metallurgic and pharmaceutical chemistry in ancient Japan were made by people like Mangan-Shonin, who combined elements from Shinto, Buddhism, and Taoism to take advantage of technologies brought by Chinese and Korean immigrants. The Shonin himself, though it may be considered a wild speculation, could well be such an immigrant. Along with the immigrants, the Shonin established government-subsidized temples (Jingu-ji, Jogaku-ji) throughout the country under sponsorship by the Imperial Court for the purpose of raising funds through private donations. Research and educational activities conducted in these temples ultimately resulted in a well-established body of chemical engineers who could excavate chemical substances as well as alter their natures. According to a list of regional products (Sasaki,19) 1972) up to the 14th century, these chemical substances and their derivative products included iron from the Hitachi region, cast metal from Shimotsuke, swords from Sagami, face powder (lead carbonate) from Ise, mercury, and gold. PMID:11776993

Sugiyama, S

2001-01-01

248

The question of uniqueness of ancient bacteria.  

PubMed

Microorganisms are associated with a variety of ancient geological materials. However, conclusive proof that these organisms are as old as the geological material and not more recent introductions has generally been lacking. Over the years, numerous reports of the isolation of ancient bacteria from geological materials have appeared. Most of these have suffered from the fact that the protocol for the surface sterilization of the sample was either poorly defined, inadequate or rarely included data to validate the overall effectiveness of the sterilization protocol. With proper sterility validation and isolation protocol, a legitimate claim for the isolation of an ancient microbe can be made. Biochemical, physiological, or morphological data indicate that these ancient microbes are not significantly different from modern isolates. As the role (decomposition) of modern and ancient microbes has not changed over time, it is probably unreasonable to expect these organisms to be vastly different. A discussion on the reasons for the homogeneity of ancient and modern microbes is presented. PMID:11938469

Vreeland, R H; Rosenzweig, W D

2002-01-01

249

Evolution of the Kid Group, southeast Sinai Peninsula: Thrusts, melanges, and implications for accretionary tectonics during the late Proterozoic of the Arabian-Nubian Shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The late Proterozoic age Kid Group in the southeast Sinai Peninsula is a volcano-sedimentary sequence of island-arc affinities. The group deformed in four main phases, with a thermal peak after D1, followed by a regional greenschist facies overprint during D2. Recumbent folding followed by thrusting began during D2, with the folds being propagated southward toward the arc foreland until D4, the last folding event. The thrusts are responsible for the juxtaposition of four megatectonic units above a substrate of unknown composition. These units, probably allochthonous, comprise a Basal Complex of infracrustal gneiss and three arc-related units, including inferred vestiges of a forearc accretionary prism and a marginal basin. Narrow slices of ophiolitic rocks were emplaced tectonically along the boundaries of some of these units. Melanges attributed to gravitational collapse of the forearc edifice and thrust tectonics formed, in particular, along the arc-forearc transition zone. The evolution of the Kid Group, coupled with data from the rest of the Arabian-Nubian Shield, can be well accommodated within the concept of oceanic-crust subduction, magmatic-arc development and ultimate collision between the arc complex and a continental margin.

Shimron, Aryeh E.

1984-04-01

250

Application of the resistivity/gravity joint inversion technique for Nubian sandstone aquifer assessment on the area located at the central part of Sinai, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eleven deep vertical electrical soundings of AB/2 spacing ranging from 5 to 3000 m were carried out to investigate the upper part of the Nubian groundwater aquifer at the central part of Sinai, Egypt. These soundings have been jointly inverted using the SA algorithm with 160 gravity stations measured in the study area, assuming that density and resistivity contrast are represented by coincident interfaces. One hundred and sixty magnetic stations were executed at the same locations as gravity measurements to estimate the depth of basement rocks. The results of the joint interpretation indicated that the depth of the groundwater aquifer ranges from 500 to 800 m with resistivity values ranging from 6 to 562 ? m, suggesting that the fresh water is of good quality towards the northern part of the area. The top of the basement, which is mainly defined by gravity and magnetic data, lies at a depth ranging from 830 to 2788 m. The results also show that the aquifer configuration is controlled by different regional faults in the NNW-SSE direction.

Sultan, S. A.; Monteiro Santos, F. A.; Abd Alla, M. A.; Mekhemer, H. M.

2010-03-01

251

Thematic mapper research in the Earth sciences: Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield of northeastern Sudan/southeastern Egypt using thematic mapper imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield using the Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery is progressing well and shows great promise. The TM tapes for the six LANDSAT 5 scenes covering the northern portion of the Red Sea hills were received, and preliminary maps and interpretations were made for most of the area. It is apparent that faulting and shearing associated with the major suture zones such as the Sol Hamed are clearly visible and that considerable detail can be seen. An entire quadrant of scene 173,45 was examined in detail using all seven bands, and every band combination was evaluated to best display the geology. A comparison was done with color ratio combinations and color combinations of the eigen vector bands to verify if band combinations of 7-red, 4-green, and 2-blue were indeed superior. There is no single optimum enhancement which provides the greatest detail for every image and no single combination of spectral bands for all cases, although bands 7, 4, and 2 do provide the best overall display. The color combination of the eigen vector bands proved useful in distinguishing fine detailed features.

1986-02-01

252

Analysis of groundwater flow in arid areas with limited hydrogeological data using the Grey Model: a case study of the Nubian Sandstone, Kharga Oasis, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Management of groundwater resources can be enhanced by using numerical models to improve development strategies. However, the lack of basic data often limits the implementation of these models. The Kharga Oasis in the western desert of Egypt is an arid area that mainly depends on groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS), for which the hydrogeological data needed for groundwater simulation are lacking, thereby introducing a problem for model calibration and validation. The Grey Model (GM) was adopted to analyze groundwater flow. This model combines a finite element method (FEM) with a linear regression model to try to obtain the best-fit piezometric-level trends compared to observations. The GM simulation results clearly show that the future water table in the northeastern part of the study area will face a severe drawdown compared with that in the southwestern part and that the hydraulic head difference between these parts will reach 140 m by 2060. Given the uncertainty and limitation of available data, the GM produced more realistic results compared with those obtained from a FEM alone. The GM could be applied to other cases with similar data limitations.

Mahmod, Wael Elham; Watanabe, Kunio; Zahr-Eldeen, Ashraf A.

2013-08-01

253

Tissue metabolic responses to salt stress in wild and cultivated barley.  

PubMed

A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying barley salt tolerance and exploitation of elite genetic resource are essential for utilizing wild barley germplasm in developing barley varieties with salt tolerance. In order to reveal the physiological and molecular difference in salt tolerance between Tibetan wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) and cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare), profiles of 82 key metabolites were studies in wild and cultivated barley in response to salinity. According to shoot dry biomass under salt stress, XZ16 is a fast growing and salt tolerant wild barley. The results of metabolite profiling analysis suggested osmotic adjustment was a basic mechanism, and polyols played important roles in developing salt tolerance only in roots, and high level of sugars and energy in roots and active photosynthesis in leaves were important for barley to develop salt tolerance. The metabolites involved in tolerance enhancement differed between roots and shoots, and also between genotypes. Tibetan wild barley, XZ16 had higher chlorophyll content and higher contents of compatible solutes than CM72, while the cultivated barley, CM72 probably enhanced its salt tolerance mainly through increasing glycolysis and energy consumption, when the plants were exposed to high salinity. The current research extends our understanding of the mechanisms involved in barley salt tolerance and provides possible utilization of Tibetan wild barley in developing barley cultivars with salt tolerance. PMID:23383190

Wu, Dezhi; Cai, Shengguan; Chen, Mingxian; Ye, Lingzhen; Chen, Zhonghua; Zhang, Haitao; Dai, Fei; Wu, Feibo; Zhang, Guoping

2013-01-31

254

Tissue Metabolic Responses to Salt Stress in Wild and Cultivated Barley  

PubMed Central

A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying barley salt tolerance and exploitation of elite genetic resource are essential for utilizing wild barley germplasm in developing barley varieties with salt tolerance. In order to reveal the physiological and molecular difference in salt tolerance between Tibetan wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) and cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare), profiles of 82 key metabolites were studies in wild and cultivated barley in response to salinity. According to shoot dry biomass under salt stress, XZ16 is a fast growing and salt tolerant wild barley. The results of metabolite profiling analysis suggested osmotic adjustment was a basic mechanism, and polyols played important roles in developing salt tolerance only in roots, and high level of sugars and energy in roots and active photosynthesis in leaves were important for barley to develop salt tolerance. The metabolites involved in tolerance enhancement differed between roots and shoots, and also between genotypes. Tibetan wild barley, XZ16 had higher chlorophyll content and higher contents of compatible solutes than CM72, while the cultivated barley, CM72 probably enhanced its salt tolerance mainly through increasing glycolysis and energy consumption, when the plants were exposed to high salinity. The current research extends our understanding of the mechanisms involved in barley salt tolerance and provides possible utilization of Tibetan wild barley in developing barley cultivars with salt tolerance.

Wu, Dezhi; Cai, Shengguan; Chen, Mingxian; Ye, Lingzhen; Chen, Zhonghua; Zhang, Haitao; Dai, Fei; Wu, Feibo; Zhang, Guoping

2013-01-01

255

Tibet is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley  

PubMed Central

The Near East Fertile Crescent is well recognized as a primary center of barley origin, diversity, and domestication. A large number of wild barleys have been collected from the Tibetan Plateau, which is characterized by an extreme environment. We used genome-wide diversity array technology markers to analyze the genotypic division between wild barley from the Near East and Tibet. Our results confirmed the existence of Tibetan wild barley and suggested that the split between the wild barleys in the Near East and those in Tibet occurred around 2.76 million years ago (Mya). To test the concept of polyphyletic domestication of barley, we characterized a set of worldwide cultivated barley. Some Chinese hulless and six-rowed barleys showed a close relationship with Tibetan wild barley but showed no common ancestor with other cultivated barley. Our data support the concept of polyphyletic domestication of cultivated barley and indicate that the Tibetan Plateau and its vicinity is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley. The current results may be highly significant in exploring the elite germplasm for barley breeding, especially against cold and drought stresses.

Dai, Fei; Nevo, Eviatar; Wu, Dezhi; Comadran, Jordi; Zhou, Meixue; Qiu, Long; Chen, Zhonghua; Beiles, Avigdor; Chen, Guoxiong; Zhang, Guoping

2012-01-01

256

Methane emissions from feedlot cattle fed barley or corn diets.  

PubMed

Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Understanding the variability in enteric methane production related to diet is essential to decreasing uncertainty in greenhouse gas emission inventories and to identifying viable greenhouse gas reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane in growing beef cattle fed corn- or barley-based diets typical of those fed to cattle in North American feedlots. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block (group) design with two treatments, barley and corn. Angus heifer calves (initial BW = 328 kg) were allocated to two groups (eight per group), with four cattle in each group fed a corn or barley diet. The experiment was conducted over a 42-d backgrounding phase, a 35-d transition phase and a 32-d finishing phase. Backgrounding diets consisted of 70% barley silage or corn silage and 30% concentrate containing steam-rolled barley or dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Finishing diets consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% concentrate containing barley or corn (DM basis). All diets contained monensin (33 mg/kg of DM). Cattle were placed into four large environmental chambers (two heifers per chamber) during each phase to measure enteric methane production for 3 d. During the backgrounding phase, DMI was greater by cattle fed corn than for those fed barley (10.2 vs. 7.6 kg/d, P < 0.01), but during the finishing phase, DMI was similar for both diets (8.3 kg/d). The DMI was decreased to 6.3 kg/d with no effect of diet or phase while the cattle were in the chambers; thus, methane emissions (g/d) reported may underestimate those of the feedlot industry. Methane emissions per kilogram of DMI and as a percentage of GE intake were not affected by grain source during the backgrounding phase (24.6 g/kg of DMI; 7.42% of GE), but were less (P < 0.05) for corn than for barley during the finishing phase (9.2 vs. 13.1 g/kg of DMI; 2.81 vs. 4.03% of GE). The results indicate the need to implement dietary strategies to decrease methane emissions of cattle fed high-forage backgrounding diets and barley-based finishing diets. Mitigating methane losses from cattle will have long-term environmental benefits by decreasing agriculture's contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:15705762

Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

2005-03-01

257

Genetic diversity analysis of barley landraces and cultivars in the Shanghai region of China.  

PubMed

We analyzed the genetic diversity of 115 barley germplasms, including 112 landraces and three new barley cultivars grown in the Shanghai region, using a set of 11 SSR markers. Sixty-six alleles were observed at the 11 SSR loci, ranged from three to ten, with a mean of six alleles per locus. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.568 to 0.853, with a mean of 0.732, indicating considerable genetic variation in barley in the Shanghai area. Clustering analysis indicated that these barley accessions could be divided into two categories (A and B). Ninety-seven six-rowed barley cultivars were classified in the A category; sixteen two-rowed and two six-rowed barley cultivars were classified in the B category. This demonstrated genetic differences between two-rowed and six-rowed barley varieties. In addition, we found that the three new barley cultivars are closely related. PMID:22535400

Chen, Z-W; Lu, R-J; Zou, L; Du, Z-Z; Gao, R-H; He, T; Huang, J-H

2012-03-16

258

History through Art and Architecture: Ancient Greek Architecture [and] Ancient Greek Sculpture. Teacher's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document consists of two teaching manuals designed to accompany a commercially-available "multicultural, interdisciplinary video program," consisting of four still videotape programs (72 minutes, 226 frames), one teaching poster, and these two manuals. "Teacher's Manual: Ancient Greek Architecture" covers: "Ancient Greek Architecture 1,"…

Campbell, Ann

259

Ancient dna from pleistocene fossils: Preservation, recovery, and utility of ancient genetic information for quaternary research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recently, recovery and analysis of genetic information encoded in ancient DNA sequences from Pleistocene fossils were impossible. Recent advances in molecular biology offered technical tools to obtain ancient DNA sequences from well-preserved Quaternary fossils and opened the possibilities to directly study genetic changes in fossil species to address various biological and paleontological questions. Ancient DNA studies involving Pleistocene fossil material and ancient DNA degradation and preservation in Quaternary deposits are reviewed. The molecular technology applied to isolate, amplify, and sequence ancient DNA is also presented. Authentication of ancient DNA sequences and technical problems associated with modern and ancient DNA contamination are discussed. As illustrated in recent studies on ancient DNA from proboscideans, it is apparent that fossil DNA sequence data can shed light on many aspects of Quaternary research such as systematics and phylogeny. conservation biology, evolutionary theory, molecular taphonomy, and forensic sciences. Improvement of molecular techniques and a better understanding of DNA degradation during fossilization are likely to build on current strengths and to overcome existing problems, making fossil DNA data a unique source of information for Quaternary scientists.

Yang, Hong

260

History through Art and Architecture: Ancient Greek Architecture [and] Ancient Greek Sculpture. Teacher's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of two teaching manuals designed to accompany a commercially-available "multicultural, interdisciplinary video program," consisting of four still videotape programs (72 minutes, 226 frames), one teaching poster, and these two manuals. "Teacher's Manual: Ancient Greek Architecture" covers: "Ancient Greek Architecture 1,"…

Campbell, Ann

261

Proteome analysis of Paenibacillus polymyxa E681 affected by barley.  

PubMed

Paenibacillus polymyxa E681 is known to be able to suppress plant diseases by producing antimicrobial compounds and to promote plant growth by producing phytohormones, and secreting diverse degrading enzymes. In spite of these capabilities, little is known regarding the flow of information from the bacterial strain to the barley roots. In an attempt to determine the flow of information from the bacterial strain to barley roots, the train was grown in the presence and absence of barley, and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were used. 2D-PAGE detected approximately 1000 spots in the cell and 1100 spots in the supernatant at a pH 4-10 gradient. Interestingly, about 80 spots from each sample showed quantitative variations. Fifty-three spots from these were analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 28 proteins were identified. Most of the cytosolic proteins expressed at higher levels were found in P. polymyxa E681 cells grown in the presence of barley rather than in the absence of barley. Proteins detected at a lower level in the surpernatant of P. polymyxa E681 cells grown in the presence of barley were lipoprotein, glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase, heat-shock protein HtpG spermidine synthase, OrfZ, ribonuclease PH, and coenzyme PQQ synthesis protein, and flagellar hook-associated protein 2 whereas proteins detected at a higher level in the surpernatant of P. polymyxa E681 cells grown in the presence of barley included D-alanyl-D-alanine ligase A, isopentenyldiphosphate delta-isomerase, ABC transporter ATP-binding protein Uup, lipase. Many of the proteins belonging to plant-induced stimulons are associated with biosynthetic metabolism and metabolites of proteins and transport. Some of these proteins would be expected to be induced by environmental changes resulting from the accumulation of plant-secreted substances. PMID:18050911

Seul, Keyung-Jo; Park, Seung-Hwan; Ryu, Choong-Min; Lee, Yong-Hyun; Ghim, Sa-Youl

2007-06-01

262

New interpretation of the ancient constellations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New method of study of the ancient constellations and mythes is discussed. It is based on the comparison of two maps - the sky and the Earth. The Stellar map is built in an equatorial system of coordinates, the geografic map - in the Mercator's projection and of the same scale. The former map is put on the laster one. The constellation of Pleiades (seven daughter of Atlant) is placed on the meridian of Atlant (Western coast of Africa). If the Stellar map is constructed for a epoch J-3000 (3000 years up to B.C.) then we could found the following. The constellations Andromeda (the daughter of the Ethiopian tsar), Cetus, Perseus and Cassiopeia (mother of Andromeda) are projected on the centre, south and west of Ancient Ethiopia and Mediterranean Sea, respectively. That is all the constellations fall to the places, where events described in mythes occured. A constellation Cepheus (Arabian name is "Burning") covers the Caucasus. Possibly, before a epoch J-1000 this group of stars was connected with Prometheus. It is known Prometheus was chained to the Caucasian rock because of stealing of a fire. Ancient Chineses divided the sky in other way. They called "The Heavenly Town" the area of sky consisting of stars in Herculis, Aquilae and Ophiuchi. Parts of the mentioned constellation were called as a provinces in Ancient China. If the Heavenly Town locate near the Ancient China then the Greek constellations (Andromeda, Perseus and Cetus) will appear over Africa. Three important conclusions follow from this: (i) the geography of the Earth is reflected on the sky; (ii) the ancient astronomers were investigating a connection between the sky and Earth; (iii) the ancient peoples exchanged by the information about a construction of the world.

Dementev, M. S.

263

Tocotrienol and fatty acid composition of barley oil and their effects on lipid metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley oil was extracted with hexane from the grain of a high oil waxy hull-les barley. Twelve male broiler chicks were fed corn-based diets with either 10% barley oil, 10% corn oil or 10% margarinead libitum for ten days. Total plasma cholesterol concentration of the chicks fed barley oil was 34% lower (pppp<0.05) body weight than those fed the corn

Linji Wang; R. K. Newman; C. W. Newman; L. L. Jackson; P. J. Hofer

1993-01-01

264

Effects of Barley Grain Processing on Extent of Digestion and Milk Production of Lactating Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of barley processing on site and extent of di- gestion and milk production in dairy cows were evalu- ated in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with four lactating cows with ruminal and duodenal cannulas. Barley grain was steam-rolled to four thicknesses: coarse, medium, medium-flat, and flat. The processing index (PI), mea- sured as volume weight of barley

W. Z. Yang; K. A. Beauchemin; L. M. Rode

2000-01-01

265

Discovery, characterization and exploitation of Mlo powdery mildew resistance in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mlo resistance to barley powdery mildew is a relatively new kind of resistance. It was originally described in a powdery mildew resistant barley mutant in 1942 and has been mutagen-induced repeatedly since then. About 1970 it was also recognized in barley landraces collected in Ethiopia in the 1930s. It is unique in that 1) Mlo resistance does not conform to

I. Helms Jørgensen

1992-01-01

266

The European barley database of the ECP\\/GR: an introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Passport data of 55,369 accessions from 35 barley collections in 26 countries are stored in the European Barley Database (EBDB) of the European Cooperative Programme for the Conservation and Exchange of Crop Genetic Resources (ECP\\/GR) which is maintained at the Zentralinstitut für Genetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung at Gatersleben, German Democratic Republic. A catalogue, the European Barley List, was published in

Helmut Knüpffer

1988-01-01

267

Influence of roasting or sodium hydroxide treatment of barley on digestion in lactating cows.  

PubMed

Three cannulated, lactating cows were used in a 3 x 3 Latin square design to determine the effect of roasting or NaOH treatment of barley on ruminal fermentation and site and extent of digestion of nutrients. Experimental treatments were rolled barley, roasted (exit temperature, 135 degrees C) and rolled barley, and treated with 4% NaOH and 220 L of H2O/tonne of barley. Diets also consisted of grass silage and soybean meal. Treatment with NaOH reduced concentrations of several AA, starch, and NDF in the barley. Starch digestibility in the rumen was lower for barley that was treated with NaOH but was unaffected for roasted barley. Digestibilities of N and starch in the small intestine were reduced for barley treated with NaOH, but values for rolled and roasted barley were similar. Apparent total tract digestibility of starch was reduced for the NaOH treated barley. Treatment of barley with NaOH tended to have a detrimental effect on feed intake, digestibility, and milk production. Roasting of barley did not appear to affect the site or extent of carbohydrate digestion, but roasting protected N from ruminal degradation. The protective effect on the carbohydrate fraction would be expected to be greater if the grain were cooled prior to rolling so that the protein matrix of the starch granule remained intact. PMID:7622721

McNiven, M A; Weisbjerg, M R; Hvelplund, T

1995-05-01

268

Evaluation of antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of typical malting barley varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen typical malting barley varieties from China were evaluated for their DPPH radical, ABTS radical cation and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities, reducing power, metal chelating activities, and total phenolic contents (TPC). All barley samples exhibited significant antioxidant activities determined by different assays, and contained significant levels of phenolic compounds. Gan4 and Wupi1 barley exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging

Haifeng Zhao; Wei Fan; Jianjun Dong; Jian Lu; Jian Chen; Lianju Shan; Yan Lin; Weibao Kong

2008-01-01

269

Long-term hermetic storage of barley in PVC-covered concrete platforms under Mediterranean conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the bulk storage of barley in the open air under Mediterranean conditions was developed. A large (75 × 25 m) concrete platform with low walls was filled with barley and covered with a PVC overliner and a polyethylene underliner. The barley formed a pile of 4018 tonnes with a peak 7 m high and was stored for

A. Varnava; S. Navarro; E. Donahaye

1995-01-01

270

Product development and sensory evaluation of cookies made with barley protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The barley industry needs to diversify both its domestic uses and export opportunities. This study was performed to determine whether the protein fraction of the barley grain has value in the production of convenient and healthful foods. A drop sugar cookie formulation was used in which barley protein was substituted as a percentage by weight for the all-purpose flour. Prototype

Melanie Auger

271

Soluble sugar availability of aerobically germinated barley, oat and rice coleoptiles in anoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological and metabolic responses to anoxia were compared for aerobically germinated seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare), oat (Avena sativa) and rice (Oryza sativa). Coleoptile growth of barley, oat and rice seedlings was suppressed by a 24h-anoxic stress, but the growth of the rice coleoptiles was much greater than that of the barley and oat coleoptiles. ATP concentration in the anoxic

Hisashi Kato-Noguchi; Yukihiro Yasuda; Ryosuke Sasaki

2010-01-01

272

Necrotic enteritis: Effect of barley, wheat and corn diets on proliferation of Clostridium perfringens type A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necrotic enteritis, caused by Clostridium perfringens type A, is more prevalent in broilers fed wheat or barley diets than in those fed a corn diet. We compared the effects of wheat, barley and corn diets on in vitro proliferation of C. perfringens type A. Bacteria were inoculated into the supernatants delivered from either digested or non-digested barley, wheat and corn

C. B. Annett; J. R. Viste; M. Chirino-Trejo; H. L. Classen; D. M. Middleton; E. Simko

2002-01-01

273

Properties and Composition of Turkish Flat Bread (Bazlama) Supplemented with Barley Flour and Wheat Bran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 76(4):506-511 In this study, effects of increasing levels of wheat bran and barley flour on dough properties and bazlama quality were investigated. Bazlama is a flat bread commonly consumed in Turkey. Flours of wheat cultivars Gün and Gerek, flour of barley cultivar Tokak, and Gerek bran mixture were used. Part of the wheat flours were replaced with barley

Arzu Ba?man; Hamit Köksel

1999-01-01

274

Identification of ancient remains through genomic sequencing.  

PubMed

Studies of ancient DNA have been hindered by the preciousness of remains, the small quantities of undamaged DNA accessible, and the limitations associated with conventional PCR amplification. In these studies, we developed and applied a genomewide adapter-mediated emulsion PCR amplification protocol for ancient mammalian samples estimated to be between 45,000 and 69,000 yr old. Using 454 Life Sciences (Roche) and Illumina sequencing (formerly Solexa sequencing) technologies, we examined over 100 megabases of DNA from amplified extracts, revealing unbiased sequence coverage with substantial amounts of nonredundant nuclear sequences from the sample sources and negligible levels of human contamination. We consistently recorded over 500-fold increases, such that nanogram quantities of starting material could be amplified to microgram quantities. Application of our protocol to a 50,000-yr-old uncharacterized bone sample that was unsuccessful in mitochondrial PCR provided sufficient nuclear sequences for comparison with extant mammals and subsequent phylogenetic classification of the remains. The combined use of emulsion PCR amplification and high-throughput sequencing allows for the generation of large quantities of DNA sequence data from ancient remains. Using such techniques, even small amounts of ancient remains with low levels of endogenous DNA preservation may yield substantial quantities of nuclear DNA, enabling novel applications of ancient DNA genomics to the investigation of extinct phyla. PMID:18426903

Blow, Matthew J; Zhang, Tao; Woyke, Tanja; Speller, Camilla F; Krivoshapkin, Andrei; Yang, Dongya Y; Derevianko, Anatoly; Rubin, Edward M

2008-04-21

275

Genetic Diversity among Ancient Nordic Populations  

PubMed Central

Using established criteria for work with fossil DNA we have analysed mitochondrial DNA from 92 individuals from 18 locations in Denmark ranging in time from the Mesolithic to the Medieval Age. Unequivocal assignment of mtDNA haplotypes was possible for 56 of the ancient individuals; however, the success rate varied substantially between sites; the highest rates were obtained with untouched, freshly excavated material, whereas heavy handling, archeological preservation and storage for many years influenced the ability to obtain authentic endogenic DNA. While the nucleotide diversity at two locations was similar to that among extant Danes, the diversity at four sites was considerably higher. This supports previous observations for ancient Britons. The overall occurrence of haplogroups did not deviate from extant Scandinavians, however, haplogroup I was significantly more frequent among the ancient Danes (average 13%) than among extant Danes and Scandinavians (?2.5%) as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type “diluted” by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture) that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300–3,500 YBP) was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least for Southern Scandinavia, our findings do not support a possible replacement of a haplogroup U dominated hunter-gatherer population by a more haplogroup diverse Neolithic Culture.

Melchior, Linea; Lynnerup, Niels; Siegismund, Hans R.; Kivisild, Toomas; Dissing, J?rgen

2010-01-01

276

Ancient earthquake data extraction by archeological findings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent archeological excavations and findings helped a lot to reconstruct data and information about ancient earthquakes and their effects to the historical societies. Two cases are under investigations: 4550 years BC Solnitsata-Provadia archaeological site and Cybele temple (6th century BC) site. The first case is related to the destruction of the defensive bastions of the ancient society of the salt producing ancient civilization. After field observations and modeling the source of the seismic force is located and the power of the ancient earthquake reconstructed. The second case is much more complicated but as well as much more informative about the complex disastrous event affected the 8 centuries active temple of the goddess Cybele. Effects of earthquake, tsunami and landslide activity are well preserved and documented in the soil layers covered the ancient ruins. Almost all parameters of these hazards are reconstructed by a logic tree, field investigation and documentations and time dependent scenario. Such investigations are able to help a lot the time frequency of such hazards, but need active participation of the different kinds of experts during the archaeological excavations.

Ranguelov, Boyko; Nikolov, Vassil

2010-05-01

277

Comparative genomic analysis and expression of the APETALA2-like genes from barley, wheat, and barley-wheat amphiploids  

PubMed Central

Background The APETALA2-like genes form a large multi-gene family of transcription factors which play an important role during the plant life cycle, being key regulators of many developmental processes. Many studies in Arabidopsis have revealed that the APETALA2 (AP2) gene is implicated in the establishment of floral meristem and floral organ identity as well as temporal and spatial regulation of flower homeotic gene expression. Results In this work, we have cloned and characterised the AP2-like gene from accessions of Hordeum chilense and Hordeum vulgare, wild and domesticated barley, respectively, and compared with other AP2 homoeologous genes, including the Q gene in wheat. The Hordeum AP2-like genes contain two plant-specific DNA binding motifs called AP2 domains, as does the Q gene of wheat. We confirm that the H. chilense AP2-like gene is located on chromosome 5Hch. Patterns of expression of the AP2-like genes were examined in floral organs and other tissues in barley, wheat and in tritordeum amphiploids (barley × wheat hybrids). In tritordeum amphiploids, the level of transcription of the barley AP2-like gene was lower than in its barley parental and the chromosome substitutions 1D/1Hch and 2D/2Hch were seen to modify AP2 gene expression levels. Conclusion The results are of interest in order to understand the role of the AP2-like gene in the spike morphology of barley and wheat, and to understand the regulation of this gene in the amphiploids obtained from barley-wheat crossing. This information may have application in cereal breeding programs to up- or down-regulate the expression of AP2-like genes in order to modify spike characteristics and to obtain free-threshing plants.

Gil-Humanes, Javier; Piston, Fernando; Martin, Antonio; Barro, Francisco

2009-01-01

278

Epiphytic populations of Pseudomonas syringae on barley.  

PubMed

The epiphytic populations of Pseudomonas syringae were monitored on 23 barley entries planted in the field in four replications during the summer of 1986, and on six selected entries during the summer of 1987, from the second-leaf stage until senescence. Populations were initially low (0-3 log colony-forming units (cfu) per leaf) in all but one entry; they generally increased throughout the season, and at the end they reached 3-7 log cfu/leaf. Significant differences among the average epiphytic populations were found in the 1986 trial; only one entry, however, had a significantly different average population in the 1987 trial. The slopes of population increase were also compared: significant differences were observed in 1986 but not in 1987. In addition to epiphytic population counts, the percentage of ice nucleation active bacteria was determined in the population isolated from each leaf sample, and averaged throughout the season for each entry. Significant differences were observed in 1986 and in 1987. When the entries were ranked according to their average epiphytic population and compared between the two experiments, they were found to be very similar. The same was not true for the other parameters studied in the experiment. PMID:1521185

Georgakopoulos, D G; Sands, D C

1992-02-01

279

Palladium exposure of barley: uptake and effects.  

PubMed

Motor vehicles are now equipped with exhaust gas catalytic converters containing rare metals, such as palladium (Pd), platinum and rhodium, as catalytic active materials, leading to significantly increased emission of these metals. Compared with platinum and rhodium, low concentrations of Pd have been shown to have more serious effects on cells and organisms. In the present study, uptake of Pd by barley and behaviour of Pd nanoparticles in nutrient solutions used to grow plants were observed in order to develop a model of Pd exposure of plant systems. Pd determination was performed using a selective separation and pre-concentration procedure, which was further developed for this study, and coupled to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The results show that uptake of Pd depends on Pd particle diameter. Compared to other toxic metals, like mercury, Pd causes stress effects in leaves at lower concentrations in nutrient solutions. Furthermore, Pd particles are dissolved at different rates, depending on size, in the nutrient solution during plant growth. PMID:18304202

Battke, F; Leopold, K; Maier, M; Schmidhalter, U; Schuster, M

2008-03-01

280

PIXE ANALYSIS ON AN ANCIENT SCROLL SAMPLE  

SciTech Connect

For years, scientists have developed several new techniques to read texts of Herculaneum scrolls without destroying them. Recently, the use of a custom built high-resolution CT scanner was proposed to scan and then virtually unroll the scrolls for reading. Identification of any unique chemical signatures in the ancient ink would allow better calibration of the CT scanner to improve the chances of resolving the ink from the burned papyrus background. To support this effort, we carried out one pilot study to see whether the composition of the ink can be obtained from an ancient scroll sample using PIXE technique. PIXE data were collected and analyzed in two different regions of the ancient scroll sample (ink and blank regions). This preliminary work shows that elemental distributions from the ink used in this scroll mainly contained Al, Fe and Ti as well as minor trace amounts of Cr, Cu and Zn.

Shutthanandan, V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Iuliano, Edward M.; Seales, William B.

2008-12-01

281

The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology are summarized and interpreted, along with records of some related matters, like groundwater exploration and utilization, karst springs, water circulation, water conservation and saline-land transformation, mine drainage, and environmental hydrogeology. The report focuses only on the earliest recorded notes, mostly up until the Han Dynasty (206 BC - AD 25). Besides the references cited, the discussion in this report is based mainly on archaeological material, the preserved written classic literature, and some assumptions and/or conclusions that have been handed down in legends to later ages. Although most material relates to ancient China, the lessons learned may have practical significance worldwide. Compared to other contemporary parts of the world, ancient China, without doubt, took the lead in the field of groundwater hydrology. The great achievements and experience of the Chinese ancestors should provide motivation and inspiration for hydrogeologists to carry out their scientific research and exploration passionately and actively.

Zhou, Yu; Zwahlen, François; Wang, Yanxin

2011-08-01

282

Ancient Mesopotamia: This History, Our History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago houses a world-renowned collection of artifacts from ancient Syria, Israel, Persia, Anatolia, Egypt, Nubia, and Mesopotamia. On this website, visitors can explore some of these artifacts up close while also learning more about the history of this important region. Visitors should first visit "Life in Mesopotamia" to learn more about the cultural importance of the area. Then, they can click on the "Learning Collection", here, visitors can zoom-in on artifacts selected by teachers in order to learn what these artifacts can tell us about ancient Mesopotamia. After browsing the learning collection, visitors should not miss the "Interactives." Here they can view additional artifacts as well as view video clips on various topics including a virtual archaeological dig and how these ancient artifacts are cared for and preserved. In addition, teaching materials are also provided and K-12 teachers can earn graduate credit from an online course also offered here.

283

Prehistoric polymers: rubber processing in ancient mesoamerica  

PubMed

Ancient Mesoamerican peoples harvested latex from Castilla elastica, processed it using liquid extracted from Ipomoea alba (a species of morning glory vine), and fashioned rubber balls, hollow rubber figurines, and other rubber artifacts from the resulting material. Chemical and mechanical analyses of the latex and of the processed rubber indicate that the enhanced elastic behavior of the rubber relative to the unprocessed latex is due to purification of the polymer component and to an increase in the strength and number of interchain interactions that are induced by organic compounds present in I. alba. These ancient peoples' control over the properties of latex and processed rubber gave rise to the Mesoamerican ball game, a central ritual element in all ancient Mesoamerican societies. PMID:10373117

Hosler; Burkett; Tarkanian

1999-06-18

284

The practice of dentistry in ancient Egypt.  

PubMed

This paper addresses the questions of whether a dental profession existed in ancient Egypt and if it did then considers whether these practitioners were operative dental surgeons as we know them today or whether they were pharmacists. Evidence from hieroglyphic inscriptions, from the dentitions of the surviving mummified and skeletal remains, and from ancient documents and artefacts are examined. The conclusion would suggest that operative dental treatment if it did exist at all was extremely limited. The dental treatment that appears to have been provided was mainly restricted to pharmaceutical preparations that were either applied to the gingival and mucosal tissues or used as mouthwashes, and these at best may only have provided some short term relief. It seems apparent that many ancient Egyptians suffered from widespread and painful dental disease, which the available treatments can have done relatively little to alleviate. PMID:19424250

Forshaw, R J

2009-05-01

285

Ancient and Modern Hydrology: The Common Ground  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The archeological site of Tzipori (near Nazareth) in Israel contains a beautiful ancient mosaic that depicts the Nile in an allegoric manner. One of the striking details is a Nilometer, a graded pillar that was used in order to measure the Nile level. These data were used by ancient hydrologists in order to predict the Nile regime during the coming season. In turn, these assessments provided the Pharaoh administration with the basis for taxation of the peasant population. These historical findings render Hydrology as one of the oldest technical professions. Furthermore, a few features of ancient hydrology characterize the modern one also: it is a quantitative discipline, it has an applied nature, it makes prediction under uncertainty and it is intertwined with economical and social considerations. The presentation is focused on these analogies and mainly with the need to cope with uncertainty, with emphasis on the novel and distinctive features of stochastic modeling of subsurface flow and transport.

Dagan, G.

2005-12-01

286

Faunal histories from Holocene ancient DNA.  

PubMed

Recent studies using ancient DNA have been instrumental in advancing understanding of the impact of Holocene climate change on biodiversity. Ancient DNA has been used to track demography, migration and diversity, and is providing new insights into the long-term dynamics of species and population distributions. The Holocene is key to understanding how the past has impacted on the present, as it bridges the gap between contemporary phylogeographic studies and those with inference on Pleistocene patterns, based on ancient DNA studies. Here, we examine the major patterns of Holocene faunal population dynamics and connectivity; highlighting the dynamic nature of species and population responses to Holocene climatic change, thereby providing an 'analogue' for understanding potential impacts of future change. PMID:21529992

de Bruyn, Mark; Hoelzel, A Rus; Carvalho, Gary R; Hofreiter, Michael

2011-04-27

287

Effect of Diets Containing Different Qualities of Barley on Growth Performance and Serum Amylase and Intestinal Villus Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to investigate protein metabolism and differences in length of intestinal villi in broiler chickens which consumed one of the barley based diets. The treatments were corn diet (1) as a control, barley diet with (4) or without (2) a commercial ?-glucanase enzyme, barley treated with rumen fluid without protozoa (3) and hulless barley (5). The effect

2005-01-01

288

Late Neoproterozoic rise and fall of the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield: The role of lithospheric mantle delamination and subsequent thermal subsidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Review of the Late Neoproterozoic history of the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) reveals that rapid and extensive erosional denudation, widespread late-orogenic calc-alkaline and alkaline igneous activity and intramontane basin formation affected this terrane at 630-590 Ma. To account for this coupling it is suggested, that the mantle lithosphere was removed /delaminated from below the northern ANS subsequently to significant crust-mantle thickening in the course of Late Neoproterozoic orogeny. Because the physical properties of the delamination process are not clear, we use it as a conceptual term accounting for the replacement of mantle lithosphere by an asthenosphere. Removal of the thickened lithospheric mantle roots potentially caused instantaneous uplift of the northern ANS to elevations of more than 3 km, thus triggering exceptionally-rapid erosional unroofing and lateral extension. Delamination and erosional decompression potentially caused partial melting of ANS upper mantle and lower crust to produce the widespread post-orogenic magmas. In the present work we emphasis that removal of the lithospheric mantle also played a key role in lowering ANS topography to sea level. Our data show that lowering ANS down to sea level was significantly accelerated by post-delamination cooling and thermal subsidence. Unlike erosional denudation which is followed by isostatic uplift, thermal contraction causes net surface lowering. We show that thermal subsidence plays a critical role in lowering mountain belts, particularly in the latest stages of down wear, when the topography reaches a threshold of ~1.0 km and erosion slows down. Then, surface lowering by thermal subsidence is 5 folds faster (more efficient) than erosion. Post-delamination thermal subsidence can cause 1.3 km of net surface lowering within 100 m.y. regardless of the state of relief and elevation. Therefore, orogenic belts that experienced removal or delamination of their mantle lithosphere (hot orogens) would rapidly rise, but would relatively (!) rapidly fall too.

Avigad, D.; Gvirtzman, Z.

2009-04-01

289

Intrathoracic ancient neurilemoma mimicking mesenchymal thoracic tumor.  

PubMed

: Ancient neurilemoma is a rare variant of neurilemoma and can grow into a large tumor, which results in several symptoms. It is often misdiagnosed to be malignant neoplasm because of its histological features of nuclear atypia. The authors reported an 87-year-old woman presenting with progressive dyspnea and chronic cough for more than 1 year. Computed tomography of the chest showed a huge heterogeneous, paravertebral mass with focal calcification, arising from intervertebral foramen. The tumor was successfully resected by thoracotomy and pathology disclosed ancient neurilemoma. PMID:23694925

Chen, Yu-Hung; Hsu, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Huai-Ren

2013-11-01

290

The facial reconstruction of an Ancient Egyptian Queen.  

PubMed

The National Museums of Scotland Mummy Project has provided important new information about a burial excavated in Egypt. This has resulted in the facial reconstruction of a woman who was probably a queen at Thebes ca. 1570-1520 BCE. There are strong suggestions from the grave goods and her diet that this woman may have been ethnically Nubian rather than Egyptian. However, it is not yet possible to establish her ethnic identity for sure, so a definitive reconstruction of her appearance in life remains elusive. PMID:12554294

Manley, Bill; Eremin, Katherine; Shortland, Andrew; Wilkinson, Caroline

2002-12-01

291

Moessbauer experiment on the clays and the imitative ancient porcelains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Moessbauer parameter variations of clays from ancient kilns change with temperature, time, and atmosphere in firing process. The variation of the Moessbauer parameters of imitative ancient Chinese Ru porcelain sky-green glaze with the firing conditions is...

Gao Zhengyao Chen Songhua

1995-01-01

292

Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astronomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors regarded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Consequently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

Han, Yanben; Qiao, Qiyuan

2009-11-01

293

The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from barley to beer  

SciTech Connect

Beer has been brewed from barley contaminated with {sup 137}Cs as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The {sup 137}Cs activity has been measured in all intermediate steps and in the by-products of the production process. About 35 % of the {sup 137}Cs in barley were recovered in beer. Processing factors defined as the concentration ratio of processed and raw products were determined to be 0.61, 3.3, 0.1 and 0.11 for malt, malt germs, spent grains and beer, respectively. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

Proehl, G.; Mueller, H.; Voigt, G. [Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleibheim (Germany)] [and others

1997-01-01

294

Effects of the supplementation of yeast, molasses and barley to barley straw diets on the intake, digestibility and ruminal fermentation in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the supplementation of yeast, molasses and barley to barley straw diets on the dry matter intake, digestibil- ity and ruminal fermentation in sheep were investigated. Ten male merino sheep were used in a changeover design trial of five 30-day periods. Baker's yeast (50 g\\/kg straw), molasses (100g\\/kg straw) and barley grain (100 g\\/kg straw) were given either

Ahmet G. ÖNOL; S. Yalçin; S. Ya?ar; A. ?ehu

1998-01-01

295

Metabolism of Linoleic Acid by Barley Lipoxygenase and Hydroperoxide Isomerase 1  

PubMed Central

The oxidation of linoleic acid in incubation mixtures containing extracts of barley lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide isomerase, and the production of these enzymes in quiescent and germinated barley, were investigated. The ratio of 9-hydroperoxylinoleic acid to 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid was higher for incubation mixtures containing extracts of quiescent barley than for mixtures containing extracts of germinated barley; production of 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid from germinated barley exceeded that of quiescent barley. Hydroperoxy metabolites of linoleic acid were converted to 9-hydroxy-10-oxo-cis-12-octadecenoic acid, 13-hydroxy-10-oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid, and small amounts of 11-hydroxy-12,13-epoxy-cis-9-octadecenoic acid and 11-hydroxy-9,10-epoxy-cis-13-octadecenoic acid whether quiescent or germinated barley was the enzyme source; a fifth product, 13-hydroxy-12-oxo-cis-9-octadecenoic acid was formed only when germinated barley was the enzyme source. Lipoxygenase was readily extracted by buffer, but hydroperoxide isomerase was bound in a catalytically active state to the insoluble barley grist and was efficiently extracted only when Triton X-100 was included in the extraction buffer. Hydroperoxide isomerase was localized in the embryo of quiescent barley, but it was present in the embryo, acrospire, and in small but concentrated amounts in the rootlet of germinating barley. The levels of both lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide isomerase increased through the thirteenth day of germination. Images

Lulai, Edward C.; Baker, Charles W.; Zimmerman, Don C.

1981-01-01

296

Earthquake Archaeology: a case study from Ancient Cnidus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ancient earthquakes can leave their mark in the mythical practices and literary accounts of ancient peoples, the stratigraphy of their site histories, and the structural integrity of their constructions. The ancient Greek\\/Roman city of Cnidus in southwestern Turkey records all three. A spectacular exposed fault plane cliff bordering the northern edge of the city appears to have been an important

I. S. Stewart; E. Altunel; L. Piccardi

2003-01-01

297

Ancient building simulation platform based on virtual geography environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protection of ancient building is a hot topic. Recently, so many techniques have been applied to this field. However, the best method to protect them is to present the treasure to more people. Virtual geography environment (VGE) is to visualize and analyze the phenomena on our earth, including ancient building. This paper illustrates a brand-new approach of managing ancient buildings

Ke Shengnan; Gong Jun

2010-01-01

298

A writing system for the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The writing system for the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs in the computer can be considered a simplified Japanese input system. By using the analogy to the Japanese writing method, the fluent writing system for hieroglyphs can be constructed. Such a computer aided writing system for hieroglyphs could revive the ancient Egyptian arts of typographies without pain that the ancient Egyptian secretaries

Tatsuo Minohara

2010-01-01

299

The Lamb of God hidden in the ancient Chinese characters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chinese invented the ancient Chinese characters nearly 4500 years ago. They invented the characters independent of the ancient Sumerian and Egyptian writings. The earliest forms of the characters,'wen'( ), were pictures of objects and symbols. The ancient Chinese combined the'wen'to make up compound characters ( ) in order to express complex ideas. Analysis of these two forms of the

K K K K Kui; Shin V; Larry Hovee

300

Ancient Indian Astronomy in Introductory Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is customary in introductory survey courses in astronomy to devote some time to the history of astronomy. In the available text books only the Greek contribution receives any attention. Apart from Stonehenge and Chichenitza pictures, contributions from Babylon and China are some times mentioned. Hardly any account is given of ancient Indian astronomy. Even when something is mentioned it

B. N. Narahari Achar

1997-01-01

301

- Ancient Hawaiian life vs Colonial life-  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today we are going to research about the 13 colonies. Here are the things you will be learning about: What were the first 13 colonies? What year was each colony discovered? Who discovered each colony? Compare and contrast life in colonial days with life in ancient Hawaii.

Mr.Haiola, Mr. Asahara, Mrs Abiva, Ms. Hamada

2011-02-09

302

Ancient Chinese Precedents in China's National Defense.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the strategy embodied in China's 1998 White Paper titled China's National Defense and compare it with the strategic concepts contained in a number of military classics from ancient china. The assumption is that sinc...

R. B. Geddis

1999-01-01

303

NIMI TANTRA (Opthalmology of Ancient India).  

PubMed

The art of opthalmology was well developed in ancient India and was known as Nimi Tantra. In this paper the author presents the main features of Nimi Tantra an authoritative treatises written by Nimi, a prominent opthalmologist of his time. PMID:22557403

Ramachandran, C K

1984-04-01

304

THE VOCAL REPERTOIRE OF THE ANCIENT MURRELET  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the vocalizations of the Ancient Mm-relet (Synthliboramphus antiquus), a seabird of the North Pacific, to determine how the size and structure of their vocal repertoire relates to their nocturnal activity at breeding colonies. Nine distinct vocal displays were found, a repertoire of similar size to that of two other alcid species and several passerines. Most vocalizations consisted of

IAN L. JONES; J. BRUCE FALLS; ANTHONY J. GASTON

1989-01-01

305

Resolving an Ancient, Rapid Radiation in Saxifragales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the prior use of ?9000 bp, deep-level relationships within the angiosperm clade, Saxifragales remain enigmatic, due to an ancient, rapid radiation (89.5 to 110 Ma based on the fossil record). To resolve these deep relationships, we constructed several new data sets: (1) 16 genes representing the three genomic compartments within plant cells (2 nuclear, 10 plastid, 4 mitochondrial; aligned,

S HUGUANG JIAN; PAMELA S. SOLTIS; MATTHEW A. GITZENDANNER; MICHAEL J. MOORE; RUIQI LI; TORY A. HENDRY; YIN-LONG QIU; AMIT DHINGRA; CHARLES D. BELL; D. E. Soltis

2008-01-01

306

Ancient tropical climates warm San Francisco gathering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate records preserved in the Greenland ice sheet got a lot of the attention at the fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in San Francisco last month, but ancient tropical records were a rival attraction. In talks scattered in unrelated sessions, researchers reported a possible role for the tropics in driving the last ice age, a link between

R. Kerr

1994-01-01

307

Projective Inversion in the Ancient Egyptian \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a brief review of the folkloristic scholarship devoted to the ancient Egyptian tale of two brothers, an attempt is made to distinguish between the concepts of projection and projective inversion. The utilization of the second concept seeks to illuminate the possible meaning of the tale including the initial part, which consists of the widespread Potiphar’s Wife motif. IN 1852,

ALAN D UNDES

2002-01-01

308

Eclipse theory in the ancient world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eclipses are arguably one of the most spectacular astronomical events. Significance was attached to their occurrence from very early on in recorded history, and their prediction and description became a focus for the practitioners of the astral sciences in ancient cultures. This dissertation seeks to determine the ways in which theoretical knowledge about eclipses was originated, developed, preserved, and transmitted.

Clemency J. Williams

2005-01-01

309

The Challenges of Qualitatively Coding Ancient Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We respond to several important and valid concerns about our study ("The Prevalence of Folk Dualism in Early China," "Cognitive Science" 35: 997-1007) by Klein and Klein, defending our interpretation of our data. We also argue that, despite the undeniable challenges involved in qualitatively coding texts from ancient cultures, the standard tools…

Slingerland, Edward; Chudek, Maciej

2012-01-01

310

Ancient Alexandria between Egypt and Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

As one of the greatest cities of antiquity, Alexandria has always been a severe challenge to its historians, all the more so because the surviving evidence, material and textual, is so disparate. New archaeological and literary discoveries and the startling diversity of ancient Alexandria (so reminiscent of some modern cities) add to the interest. The present volume contains the papers

Giovanni Ruffini; W. V. Harris

2004-01-01

311

Mechanisms in Ancient Philosophy of Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay considers the place of mechanisms in ancient theories of science. It might seem therefore to promise a meager discussion, since the importance of mechanisms in contemporary scientific explanation is the product of a revolution in scientific thinking connected with the late Renaissance and its mechanization of nature. Indeed the conception of astronomy as devoted merely to saving the

Aryeh Kosman

2004-01-01

312

Asklepios: Ancient Hero of Medical Caring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Western culture's demands of integrity, sacrifice, and com­ passion from its physician healers have roots in the mythic traditions of ancient Greece. By understanding these tra­ ditions, modern physicians can better understand their patients' expectations and the high expectations physi­ cians often have for themselves. The mythic figure Askl­ epios was the focus of Greek and Roman medical tradition from

James E. Bailey

1996-01-01

313

ROME REBORN - VIRTUALIZING THE ANCIENT IMPERIAL ROME  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1997 to 2007 an international effort involving research groups both in US and Italy, developed a virtual model of ancient Rome, as it appeared in 320 AD. The primary purpose of the project was to visually present theories and hypotheses about how the capital of the Roman Empire appeared at the peak of its development. The model is therefore

Gabriele Guidi; Bernard Frischer; Ignazio Lucenti

314

Dental health and disease in ancient Egypt.  

PubMed

In ancient Egypt the exceptionally dry climate together with the unique burial customs has resulted in the survival of large numbers of well-preserved skeletal and mummified remains. Examinations of these remains together with an analysis of the surviving documentary, archaeological and ethnographic evidence has enabled a detailed picture of the dental health of these ancient people to be revealed, perhaps more so than for any other civilisation in antiquity. In this, the first of two articles, the dental pathological conditions that afflicted the ancient Egyptians is considered. The commonest finding is that of tooth wear, which was often so excessive that it resulted in pulpal exposure. Multiple abscesses were frequently seen, but caries was not a significant problem. Overall the findings indicate that the various pathological conditions and non-pathological abnormalities of teeth evident in dentitions in the twenty-first century were also manifest in ancient Egypt, although the incidences of these conditions varies considerably between the civilisations. PMID:19396207

Forshaw, R J

2009-04-25

315

Roberts Victor eclogites - Ancient oceanic crust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three primary data sets are compared with the Samail ophiolite and a plate tectonic model to show that Roberts Victor eclogites are relicts of an ancient oceanic crust. The data are the variation of oxygen isotopes with whole rock chemistry, covariation of whole rock values for K2O and Rb and isotopes of oxygen and strontium, and the major element chemistry

Ian D. MacGregor; William I. Manton

1986-01-01

316

Tapping Ancient Roots: Plaited Paper Baskets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With ancient roots, basket making has been practiced since the earliest civilizations, and according to textile experts, probably pre-dates pottery. This is partly conjecture since few baskets remain. It is through evidence found in clay impressions that the earliest baskets reveal themselves. Basically, basketry construction is like flat…

Patrick, Jane

2011-01-01

317

Human uses of ultrasound: ancient and modern  

Microsoft Academic Search

For untold millennia certain animals have used ultrasound to probe places where light is unavailable, echo-locating bats being among the most adept. With ultrasonics, bats can quickly and safely ‘see’ at night in pursuing insects or flying in dark caves.Unable to hear ultrasound, humans have nevertheless made use of it. They did this anciently by taming wolves, with their keen

Glen Wade

2000-01-01

318

Persuasion in Ancient Greece and Rome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extract: Many of the central issues connected with verbal persuasion were being examined in great detail by the Greeks and Romans over two thousand years ago. Indeed, rhetoric — a topic they defined as ‘the art of persuasion’ — constituted the main focus of the ancient educational system. After the age of 15 or 16, students would spend virtually all

Jon Hall

2007-01-01

319

Planetary science: Traces of ancient lunar water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of water in lunar volcanic rocks has been attributed to delivery after the Moon formed. Water detected in rocks from the ancient lunar highlands suggests that the Moon already contained water early in its history, and poses more challenges for the giant impact theory of Moon formation.

Hauri, Erik H.

2013-03-01

320

The Astronomical Orientation of Ancient Greek Temples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite its appearing to be a simple question to answer, there has been no consensus as to whether or not the alignments of ancient Greek temples reflect astronomical intentions. Here I present the results of a survey of archaic and classical Greek temples in Sicily and compare them with temples in Greece. Using a binomial test I show strong evidence

Alun M. Salt

2009-01-01

321

Hypermedia and the study of ancient culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author discusses how hypermedia databases can facilitate the study of ancient cultures, where evidence ranges from literary texts to archaeological sites to individual objects, by allowing fluid movement among disparate data. The Perseus Project, which set out to collect as many kinds of data as possible from the earliest period of Greek civilization, is described. The Perseus Project is

G. Crane

1991-01-01

322

The Evil Eye—An Ancient Superstition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes and discusses the ancient superstition of the Evil Eye. The author describes his own personal childhood introduction to the subject of the Evil Eye which years later instigated his scholarly inquiry. The history of this very geographically widespread folk belief is elaborated\\u000a upon, along with common manifestations as they appear in a number of different countries and

Allan S. Berger

323

Ancient Israel in Western Civ Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author frequently teaches introductory courses in what was once generally called "Western Civilization" and has often been called upon to referee all or parts of the manuscripts of new editions of "Western Civ" textbooks. Through his own reading, he has become aware that much current scholarship on ancient Israel and Judah is inclined to…

Cargill, Jack

2001-01-01

324

The Sacred Tree in Ancient Greek Religion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine the role played by the tree cult in the religion of the ancient Greeks, and to discuss various aspects and instances of tree worship which survived into the Classical period and later. By this means it is to some extent possible to deduce information regarding the form and character of the religion

Karolyn Elizabeth Smardz

1979-01-01

325

Ancient Floodwaters and Seas on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of water in the origin and evolution of landforms on Mars has been a main topic of planetary science research for at least the past 30 years, certainly since Mariner 9 images first showed large winding channels. The ancient immense floods that presumably formed the channels would have left behind large bodies of water at the ends of

L. M. V. Martel

2003-01-01

326

Differential Survival of Albumin in Ancient Bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of blood proteins in ancient bone is important (1) because detection of simple proteins can give information on species specificity and evolution, and (2) because the methods used provide a sound technical basis for investigating the survival of more informative proteins, such as HLA and blood groups, which would shed light on genetic profiles and disease predispositions of

C. Cattaneo; K. Gelsthorpe; P. Phillips; R. J. Sokol

1995-01-01

327

Bulgarian Interpretations of Ancient and Medieval Philosophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is unique about the interpretation of the history of ancient and medieval philosophy in a small country like Bulgaria? In trying to grasp the essence of the intellectual tendencies that have evolved here over the past century, we could of course conduct a general retrospective analysis of several prominent scholars who have contributed greatly to the intellectual development of

Dimka Gitcheva

2001-01-01

328

Investment Casting Development: Ancient and Modern Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ancient art of bronze castings involved painstaking sculpturing of individual wax patterns, followed by clay covering, sun drying, dewaxing, metal pouring and manual finishing, taking several months for each casting. It required a high degree of aesthetic sensitivity and artistic skills honed over decades under the tutelage of senior craftsmen. This art is still practiced in several pockets of

B. Ravi

2003-01-01

329

The Ancient African Civilization of Kush.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Argues that early African civilizations should be taught to ameliorate the problem of many African-American students first encountering related peoples in discussions of colonialism and slavery. Observes that the absence of materials for middle grade teachers reinforces this tendency. Promotes the authors' teaching packs on the ancient African…

Mollet, David; Mollet, Joyce

1998-01-01

330

Precursors of Vocational Psychology in Ancient Civilizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines philosophical theories produced by two ancient civilizations (Eastern Mediterranean and Chinese) for applications to an applied psychology of work. Includes analysis of Egyptians, Semites, and Greeks, with a special emphasis on Plato. Suggests that many basic elements of vocational psychology were present during the first millennium B.C.…

Dumont, Frank; Carson, Andrew D.

1995-01-01

331

Communication Arts in the Ancient World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for both classicists and nonclassicists, this volume explores the beginnings of literacy in ancient Greece and Rome and examines the effects of written communication on these cultures. The nine articles, written by classical scholars and educators in the field of communication, discuss the following: the superiority of the alphabet over…

Havelock, Eric A., Ed.; Hershbell, Jackson P., Ed.

332

The Study of Women in Ancient Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents ideas for teaching about the roles of women in ancient Greek and Roman societies for undergraduate history and sociology classes. The discussion covers the roots of misogyny in Western culture, parallels between mythologies and sociocultural patterns, and the legal status of women in antiquity. (AM)

Moscovich, M. James

1982-01-01

333

PopulatingAncientPompeiiwithCrowdsofVirtualRomans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pompeii was a Roman city, destroyed and completely buried during an eruption of the volcano Mount Vesuvius. We have revived its past by creating a 3D model of its previous appearance and populated it with crowds of Virtual Romans. In this paper, we detail the process, based on archaeological data, to simulate ancient Pompeii life in real time. In a

Simon Haegler; Barbara Yersin; Pascal Mueller; Daniel Thalmann; Luc Van Gool

334

Experimental Approaches to Understanding Ancient Ecosystems Flammability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire is a natural process integral to the order and function of our planet. It produces unique products that interact with its carbon and nutrient balance. Fires are a significant source of atmospheric carbon dioxide and assist in the regulation of the oxygen content of our atmosphere. Natural fires have occurred on our planet for ~420 million years, where even the first tiny land plants were capable of being ignited and carrying a fire. Evidence for such fires comes from the record of fossil charcoal found, often abundantly, in ancient sediments. Fossil charcoal provides an exceptional means to record not only probable variations in ancient fire activity but also information about ancient plants, not least owing to its three-dimensional preservation of plant anatomy. However, fossil charcoal like all fossils is subject to taphonomic biases which mean that it is hard to decipher exactly what an abundance of charcoal means in the context of fire histories, ancient fire dynamics and ecosystems flammability. Fires require 3 basic ingredients; these are an ignition source, fuel to burn and a source of oxygen. We can therefore consider how variations in the past concentration of atmospheric oxygen and how the evolution of different plant groups and the types of fuel that they provide have influenced fire activity throughout geological time. By going back to basics we can design experiments that assess the fundamental behaviour of fire and the flammability of different fuels. Here I will present some experimental approaches that cross-cut a variety of disciplines within the fire sciences which aim to enhance our understanding of the interplay between fuel variations and past atmospheric composition on broad trends in ancient fire activity.

Belcher, C. M.

2012-04-01

335

BARLEY CONSUMPTION LOWERS CHOLESTEROL IN MEN AND OVERWEIGHT WOMEN.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heart disease continues to be the number one cause of death in the United States despite numerous plans to reduce its prevalence. Increasing soluble fiber from oats or psyllium has been reported to be effective in lowering cholesterol. Barley contains as much soluble fiber as oats, but it is not co...

336

Is barley yield in the UK sink limited?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the absence of serious post-anthesis stress, the potential supply of assimilates for grain filling in barley appears to exceed the storage (sink) capacity of the grains. The sink capacity is a function of the number of grains per unit land area and their potential size. In order to investigate the contribution of pre and early post-anthesis factors in the

Ian J. Bingham; Jonathan Blake; M. John Foulkes; John Spink

2007-01-01

337

Phytosiderophore release in relation to micronutrient metal deficiencies in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytosiderophore release occurs under both iron and zinc deficiencies in representative Poaceae and has been speculated to be a general adaptive response to enhance the acquisition of micronutrient metals. To test this hypothesis, phytosiderophore (PS) release rates from barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. CM72) subjected to deficiencies of Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu were compared using chelator-buffered nutrient solutions. PS release

Dirk Gries; Sylke Brunn; David E. Crowley; David R. Parker

1995-01-01

338

Increasing the efficiency of azide mutagenesis in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

In both the higher plant and bacterial systems, ozide appears to be a highly efficient mutagen with some apparently rather unique properties. However, its mechanism in vivo is not yet clear. Results are reported from studies on the effects of azide administered at fixed intervals to barley seedlings. Effects on DNA synthesis and chromosomes were studied. The effects of azide

C. Sander; R. A. Nilan; A. Kleinhofs; B. K. Vig

1976-01-01

339

Caffeine potentiation of propane sultone mutagenesis in barley.  

PubMed

Pre- and post-treatments with caffeine enhanced propane sultone (PS)-induced growth damage in barley. The caffeine post-treatments were, however, more effective in potentiating PS-induced growth damage and caused an additive effect on the frequency of chlorophyll mutations. PMID:4069141

Singh, C; Kaul, B L

1985-12-01

340

Breeding Malting Barley under Stress Conditions in South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annual average area sown with barley (Hordeum vulgare) in South America during 1999-2003 was 795 000 ha. In Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay, two-rowed spring cultivars are used mostly for malt production. Research has been developed in private malting companies and official institutions supported by the industry. In Argentina, tolerance to drought and heat stress during grain filling are

341

CALCIUMIONS INCREASE TOXICITY OF DEOXYNIVALENOL TO BARLEY LEAF TISSUES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Deoxynivalenol (DON) had a bleaching effect on detached barley leaf segments (Bushnell et al, Phytopathology 92:S11, 2002). Leaf tissues lost pigmentation after incubation with 30-200 ppm DON for 2-4 days in light. The bleaching was accompanied by disorganization of chloroplasts and other cytoplas...

342

Use of Barley in the Egyptian Late Paleolithic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several grains of barley have been recovered from archeological sites at Wadi Kubbaniya, near Aswan in Egypt. The sites are typical Late Paleolithic and are firmly dated between 18,300 and 17,000 years ago. They seem to represent a very early use of ground grain in the Nile Valley, and evidence is presented for its continued use over the subsequent 6000

Fred Wendorf; Romuald Schild; Nabil El Hadidi; Angela E. Close; Michael Kobusiewicz; Hanna Wieckowska; Bahay Issawi; Herbert Haas

1979-01-01

343

Association Mapping of Spot Blotch Resistance in Wild Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spot blotch, caused by Cochliobolus sativus, is an important foliar disease of barley. The disease has been controlled for over 40 years through the deployment of cultivars with durable resistance derived from line 'NDB112.' Pathotypes of C. sativus with virulence for the NDB112 resistance have be...

344

Procedure for malting extremely small quantities of barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Micromalting procedures for malt quality analysis typically use 50 – 500 g of barley, and can produce malt with characteristics representative of those produced at a commercial scale. Modifications to routine micromalting protocols in which small quantities of grain within inexpensive mesh container...

345

Simultaneous liquefaction, saccharification, and lactic acid fermentation on barley starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been demonstrated that a l(+)-lactic acid concentration as high as 162 g l?1 can be obtained from barley starch in a relatively short processing time of less than 48 h with a balanced simultaneous liquefaction, saccharification, and fermentation. Yields of 98 and 87% were obtained from 130 and 170 g l?1 starch, respectively. A 10% inoculum was determined

Y.-Y. Linko; P. Javanainen

1996-01-01

346

Inferring geographic origin of barley accessions using molecular markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) has 207 landrace barleys obtained from a nursery grown in the Ukraine in 1930 by N.I. Vavilov, many of which have multiple resistance (MR) to disease similar to accessions from Ethiopia. Vavilov collected germplasm ...

347

Random amplified polymorphic DNA and pedigree relationships in spring barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in 27 inbred barley lines with varying amounts of common ancestry and in 20 doubled-haploid (DH) lines from a biparental cross. Of 33 arbitrary 10 base primers that were tested, 19 distinguished a total of 31 polymorphisms. All polymorphisms were scored as dominant genetic markers except for 1, where Southern analysis indicated the

N. A. Tinker; M. G. Fortin; D. E. Mather

1993-01-01

348

PREGERMINATION IN THE 2002 MIDWESTERN BARLEY CROP: ASSESSMENT AND OCCURRENCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rainfall received during harvest resulted in a substantial portion of the 2002 Midwestern barley crop exhibiting pregermination (preharvest sprouting). The fact that the incidence was the most wide spread in more than 20 years, has provided a unique opportunity to evaluate and compare methodology f...

349

Yield Limiting Factors to Food Barley Production in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most previous studies conducted to examine food barley production constraints in Ethiopia were single factor experiments and unsuitable to determine the relative importance of various factors and interactions among these factors. To develop sustainable food systems in regions with limited resources, it is essential to understand the relative importance of alternative production inputs and their interactions. A replicated 2 factorial

Amsal Tarekegne; Hailu Gebre; Charles A. Francis

1997-01-01

350

Quantitative resistance of barley cultivars to Rhynchospohum secalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative resistance in spring barley cultivars with different genetic bases of resistance to scald was investigated in field trials conducted in 1993, 1995, and 1996. The variables measured included area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC), apparent infection rate (AIR), infection frequency (IF), lesion length (LL), lesion width (LW), time to disease onset at 5% severity (T5), final severity (FS),

K. Xi; A. G. Xue; P. A. Burnett; T. K. Turkington

2000-01-01

351

Patterns of polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium in cultivated barley  

PubMed Central

We carried out a genome-wide analysis of polymorphism (4,596 SNP loci across 190 elite cultivated accessions) chosen to represent the available genetic variation in current elite North West European and North American barley germplasm. Population sub-structure, patterns of diversity and linkage disequilibrium varied considerably across the seven barley chromosomes. Gene-rich and rarely recombining haplotype blocks that may represent up to 60% of the physical length of barley chromosomes extended across the ‘genetic centromeres’. By positioning 2,132 bi-parentally mapped SNP markers with minimum allele frequencies higher than 0.10 by association mapping, 87.3% were located to within 5 cM of their original genetic map position. We show that at this current marker density genetically diverse populations of relatively small size are sufficient to fine map simple traits, providing they are not strongly stratified within the sample, fall outside the genetic centromeres and population sub-structure is effectively controlled in the analysis. Our results have important implications for association mapping, positional cloning, physical mapping and practical plant breeding in barley and other major world cereals including wheat and rye that exhibit comparable genome and genetic features. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1466-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Comadran, Jordi; Ramsay, Luke; MacKenzie, Katrin; Hayes, Patrick; Close, Timothy J.; Muehlbauer, Gary; Stein, Nils

2010-01-01

352

A rapid hydroponic screening for aluminium tolerance in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection and breeding of crops for aluminium (Al) tolerance is a useful approach to increase production on acid soils. This requires a rapid and reliable system to discriminate between Al-tolerant and Al-sensitive genotypes. A hydroponic system was developed to screen for Al tolerance in barley (t Hordeum vulgare L.) to overcome several problems encountered in previous screening methods. Four levels

Jian Feng Ma; Shao Jian Zheng; Xiao Feng Li; Kazuyoshi Takeda; Hideaki Matsumoto

1997-01-01

353

Gradual enzymatic modification of barley and potato amylopectin  

Microsoft Academic Search

New potato and barley starches with no amylose were used in order to explore structural changes in amylopectin due to hydrolysis with ?-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquifaciens. The degradation pattern was monitored with size exclusion, with light scattering and viscometry detectors for determination of molecular weight and radius of gyration. Fractions with relatively narrow molecular weight distributions at high yields were

T Frigård; R Andersson; P Åman

2002-01-01

354

Screening for bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains both through its role as an efficient vector of the PAV strain of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by actual feeding damage to winter and spring small grains by aviruliferous BCOAs. Barl...

355

Screening for bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains both through its role as an efficient vector of the PAV strain of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by actual feeding damage to winter and spring small grains by aviruliferous BCOAs. Barl...

356

Screening for Bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains both through its role as an efficient vector of the PAV strain of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by actual feeding damage to winter and spring small grains by aviruliferous BCOAs. Barl...

357

EYTHYLENE INFLUENCES GREEN PLANT REGENERATION FROM BARLEY CALLUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The plant hormone ethylene is involved in numerous plant processes including in vitro growth and regeneration. Manipulating ethylene in vitro may be useful for increasing plant regeneration from cultured cells. As part of ongoing efforts to improve plant regeneration from barley (Hordeum vulgare L...

358

Deterioration and reactivation of beneficial rhizopseudomonads of barley ( Hordeum vulgare )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beneficial effect of rhizopseudomonad strains on the growth of the barley cultivar Iban as a function of the storage time under laboratory conditions was evaluated. The beneficial rhizopseudomonad strains were preserved on slants of Modified King Medium B (MKB) at 28 °C and transferred every 2 weeks. After 6 months of storage most strains lost their beneficial effect on

A. Iswandi; P. Bossier; J. Vandenabeele; W. Verstraete

1987-01-01

359

THE OMANI BARLEY LANDRAC BAHTINI: II. DIVERSITY OF ISOZYME MARKERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Patterns of variation, based on ten isozyme loci, were used in characterizing seven ecotypes of the salt tolerant "Bahtini" Omani barley landrace. A total of 22 alleles were observed on all ten isozyme loci; all were polymorphic except for Pgd-1. Seven of the loci were found to be common widespread,...

360

CHARACTERIZATION OF BARLEY TISSUE-UBIQUITOUS B-AMYLASE2  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are two barley b-amylases genes, encoding important starch degrading enzymes. The endosperm-specific b-amylase (Bmy1), the more abundant isozyme in cereal seeds, has been thoroughly characterized. The lesser abundant b-amylase2 (Bmy2), has not been biochemically characterized from any cereal s...

361

Volume changes of wheat and barley soaking in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volume changes of wheat and barley soaked in water were determined utilizing measurements of particle density and bulk density. The effects of moisture content and temperature on the specific volume of the sample were investigated. An empirical equation relating moisture content and temperature to specific volume was derived, and the measured data agreed well with the values calculated from the

Y. Muramatsu; A. Tagawa; T. Kasai; K. Takeya

2006-01-01

362

THE OMANI BARLEY LANDRAC BAHTINI. I. VARIABILITY FOR SALT TOLERANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One-hundred-twenty-five accessions representing seven ecotypes of the Omani barley landrace "Batini" were selected from a collection of 3,000 accessions based on their agronomic performance under optimum growing conditions. The 125 accessions were evaluated for biomass production, in a hydroponics s...

363

Reconsidering domestication of legumes versus cereals in the ancient near east.  

PubMed

In this paper, we discuss, from both biological and cultural perspectives, the ancient human-plant liaison that gave rise to Near Eastern agriculture. We explain the biological aspects of Near Eastern plant domestication by a comparative analysis of legume vs. cereal crop evolution. This comparison is illustrated by the natural distribution, ecological affinity, physiology, population structure, floral biology, growth habit, plant stature, seed dispersal mode, and seed dormancy of both wild and domesticated plants of these crop groups. We discuss the differences between Near Eastern legumes and cereals with regard to each of the above aspects, and we highlight the relevance of these differences with regard to Neolithic decision-making, adoption for farming, and subsequent evolution under domestication. We reached the following conclusions: (1) Near Eastern legumes underwent different evolutionary trajectories under domestication as compared with their companion cereals, despite apparent similarities between selection under domestication of both crop groups. (2) Careful comparison of pea, lentil, and chickpea shows that each of the Near Eastern legume crops has a unique evolutionary history in its own right, and this also holds true for the cereal crops. (3) The evolutionary history of each of the Near Eastern crops, prior to as well as after domestication, is well-reflected in its adaptation profile in present-day cropping systems, which determines each crop's relative economic importance in different world regions (e.g., chickpea is a major pulse in the Indian subcontinent, and pea is a more important crop in temperate regions, while barley has the widest adaptation, extending from high-latitude temperate regions to semi-arid Mediterranean systems). (4) Ancient choice-making as reflected in the founder crops repertoire, involved nutritional considerations that may have outweighed grain yield per area and/or time unit criteria. PMID:19326787

Abbo, Shahal; Saranga, Yehoshua; Peleg, Zvi; Kerem, Zohar; Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Gopher, Avi

2009-03-01

364

Interrelations between coeval mafic and A-type silicic magmas from composite dykes in a bimodal suite of southern Israel, northernmost Arabian Nubian Shield: Geochemical and isotope constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Neoproterozoic bimodal dyke suites are abundant in the Arabian Nubian Shield. In southern Israel this suite includes dominant alkaline quartz porphyry dykes, rare mafic dykes, and numerous composite dykes with felsic interiors and mafic margins. The quartz porphyry chemically corresponds to A-type granite. Composite dykes with either abrupt or gradational contacts between the felsic and mafic rocks bear field, petrographic and chemical evidence for coexistence and mixing of basaltic and rhyolitic magmas. Mixing and formation of hybrid intermediate magmas commenced at depth and continued during emplacement of the dykes. Oxygen isotope ratios of alkali feldspar in quartz porphyry (13 to 15‰) and of plagioclase in trachydolerite (10 11‰) are much higher than their initial magmatic ratios predicted by equilibrium with unaltered quartz (8 to 9‰) and clinopyroxene (5.8‰). The elevation of ?18O in alkali feldspar and plagioclase, and extensive turbidization and sericitization call for post-magmatic low-temperature (? 100 °C) water rock interaction. Hydrous alteration of alkali feldspar, the major carrier of Rb and Sr in the quartz porphyry, also accounts for the highly variable and unusually high I(Sr) of 0.71253 to 0.73648. The initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios, expressed by ?Nd(T) values, are probably unaltered and show small variation in mafic and felsic rocks within a narrow range from + 1.4 to + 3.3. The Nd isotope signature suggests either a common mantle source for the mafic and silicic magmas or a juvenile crustal source for the felsic rocks (metamorphic rocks from the Elat area). However, oxygen isotope ratios of zircon in quartz porphyry [?18O(Zrn) = 6.5 to 7.2‰] reveal significant crustal contribution to the rhyolite magma, suggesting that mafic and A-type silicic magmas are not co-genetic, although coeval. Comparison of 18O/16O ratios in zircon allows to distinguish two groups of A-type granites in the region: those with mantle-derived source, ?18O(Zrn) ranging from 5.5 to 5.8‰ (Timna and Katharina granitoids) and those with major contribution of the modified juvenile crustal component, ?18O(Zrn) varying from 6.5 to 7.2‰ (Elat quartz porphyry dykes and the Yehoshafat alkaline granite). This suggests that A-type silicic magmas in the northern ANS originated by alternative processes almost coevally.

Katzir, Y.; Litvinovsky, B. A.; Jahn, B. M.; Eyal, M.; Zanvilevich, A. N.; Valley, J. W.; Vapnik, Ye.; Beeri, Y.; Spicuzza, M. J.

2007-09-01

365

Leucine-Derived Cyano Glucosides in Barley1  

PubMed Central

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings contain five cyano glucosides derived from the amino acid l-leucine (Leu). The chemical structure and the relative abundance of the cyano glucosides were investigated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses using spring barley cultivars with high, medium, and low cyanide potential. The barley cultivars showed a 10-fold difference in their cyano glucoside content, but the relative content of the individual cyano glucosides remained constant. Epiheterodendrin, the only cyanogenic glucoside present, comprised 12% to 18% of the total content of cyano glucosides. It is proposed that the aglycones of all five cyano glucosides are formed by the initial action of a cytochrome P450 enzyme of the CYP79 family converting l-Leu into Z-3-methylbutanal oxime and subsequent action of a less specific CYP71E enzyme converting the oxime into 3-methylbutyro nitrile and mediating subsequent hydroxylations at the ?-, as well as ?- and ?-, carbon atoms. Presence of cyano glucosides in the barley seedlings was restricted to leaf tissue, with 99% confined to the epidermis cell layers of the leaf blade. Microsomal preparations from epidermal cells were not able to convert l-[14C]Leu into the biosynthetic intermediate, Z-3-methylbutanal-oxime. This was only achieved using microsomal preparations from other cell types in the basal leaf segment, demonstrating translocation of the cyano glucosides to the epidermal cell layers after biosynthesis. A ?-glucosidase able to degrade epiheterodendrin was detected exclusively in yet a third compartment, the endosperm of the germinating seed. Therefore, in barley, a putative function of cyano glucosides in plant defense is not linked to cyanide release.

Nielsen, Kirsten Annette; Olsen, Carl Erik; Pontoppidan, Katrine; M?ller, Birger Lindberg

2002-01-01

366

Production of a recombinant industrial protein using barley cell cultures.  

PubMed

The use of recombinant DNA-based protein production using genetically modified plants could provide a reproducible, consistent quality, safe, animal-component free, origin-traceable, and cost-effective source for industrial proteins required in large amounts (1000s of metric tons) and at low cost (below US$100/Kg). The aim of this work was to demonstrate the feasibility of using barley suspension cell culture to support timely testing of the genetic constructs and early product characterization to detect for example post-translational modifications within the industrial protein caused by the selected recombinant system. For this study the human Collagen I alpha 1 (CIa1) chain gene encoding the complete helical region of CIa1 optimized for monocot expression was fused to its N- and C-terminal telopeptide and to a bacteriophage T4 fibritin foldon peptide encoding sequences. The CIa1 accumulation was targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by fusing the CIa1 gene to an ER-directing signal peptide sequence and an ER retention signal HDEL. The construct containing the CIa1 gene was then introduced into immature barley half embryos or barley cells by particle bombardment. Transgenic barley cells resulting from these transformations were grown as suspension cultures in flasks and in a Wave bioreactor producing CIa1 similar to CIa1 purified from the yeast Pichia pastoris based on Western blotting, pepsin resistance, and mass spectroscopy analysis. The barley cell culture derived-CIa1 intracellular accumulation levels ranged from 2 to 9 microg/l illustrating the need for further process improvement in order to use this technology to supply material for product development activities. PMID:18406168

Ritala, A; Wahlström, E H; Holkeri, H; Hafren, A; Mäkeläinen, K; Baez, J; Mäkinen, K; Nuutila, A M

2008-02-29

367

The use of normal and heat-treated barley flour and waxy barley starch as anti-staling agents in laboratory and industrial baking processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal and heat-treated barley, both as flour and waxy starch, were added at a concentration of 3% to a white wheat bread. The effect not only of selected additives, but also of laboratory- and industrial baking processes on stalling was evaluated. Laboratory baked breads with heat-treated barley flour differed from control breads with regard to water content, firmness and amylopectin

Jeanette K. Purhagen; Malin E. Sjöö; Ann-Charlotte Eliasson

2011-01-01

368

[Traumatology due to ancient lead missile projectiles].  

PubMed

The lead missiles of slingers in antiquity, known as glans or molybdis, are widely considered to have been very dangerous projectiles of the ancient armies. Ballistic investigations and results of experimental archaeology seem to confirm this. However, the findings of medical history concerning these missiles disagree with this view. In ancient medical texts these missiles are only mentioned sporadically, as in Celsus or Paul of Aigina, and wounds caused by them are merely discussed incidentally. There is so far no evidence at all on them in palaeopathology. It is undisputed however that in individual cases these missiles were able to cause serious injuries, especially when they hit unprotected parts of the body. Accordingly, their main effect seems to have consisted in the intimidation of the enemy. PMID:12522915

Moog, Ferdinand Peter

2002-01-01

369

Histos: The New Journal of Ancient Historiography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Classics at the University of Durham (UK) has created this new refereed electronic journal focusing on ancient historiographical texts and media. Histos contains original articles as well as reviews, discussions, reader responses, and notices of relevant conferences and historiographical projects. Announcements of future articles and reviews are also featured. The balance of textual and historiographical analysis in this journal makes it equally useful to classicists and historians.

370

LIFEPLUS: Revival of life in ancient  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present our work on the LIFEPLUS project which proposes an innovative 3D reconstruction of ancient frescos-paintings through the real-time revival of their fauna and flora, featuring groups of virtual animated characters with artificial life dramaturgical behaviours, in an immersive AR environment. The goal of LIFEPLUS is to push the limits of current Augmented Reality (AR) technologies,

George Papagiannakis; Michal Ponder; Tom Molet; Frederic Cordier; Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann

371

THE PALEOME: LETTERS FROM ANCIENT EARTH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in molecular ecological techniques have led to the revelation that sedimentary environments contain molecular\\u000a signals in the form of DNA sequences: signals that tend to be consistent with the in situ geochemical environment. However,\\u000a as one moves to more ancient environments, the correlation of molecular signals with the in situ environment becomes more\\u000a difficult. We have called the

Fumio Inagaki; Kenneth H. Nealson

372

Water Technology in the Ancient American Societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Many ancient civilizations in the Americas developed water technologies during the same times that water technology was advancing\\u000a in other parts of the world. This chapter will address water technologies of societies of the pre-Columbian empires in the\\u000a southwestern United States, Mesoamerica, and the Inca in South America. These locations are shown in Fig. 9.1. In the southwestern\\u000a U.S. we

Larry W. Mays; Yuri Gorokhovich

373

Maecenas: Images of Ancient Greece and Rome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by Classics Professor Leo Curran of the University at Buffalo, this collection of images could be a useful resource for courses in the Classics, Ancient History, or Archaeology. The collection currently contains many high-quality photos from France and Italy, with separate sections for Sicily and Rome. The images are offered free for any non-commercial purpose, and the site is periodically updated with new photos.

1998-01-01

374

The biochemistry of ancient DNA in bone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of DNA in ancient bone was determined by ethidium bromide staining after the removal of the potent Taq inhibitor, fulvic acid. A complete decalcification and a perfusion protocol were used to recover DNA from bone. A variety of purification techniques including molecular sieve, hydroxyapatite binding and ‘Magic’ preparations yielded DNA that spanned from 3.4?g\\/g of bone to below

N. Tuross

1994-01-01

375

Thalassographeïn: Representing Maritime Spaces in Ancient Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ancient Greek literature gives us many relevant traces of the way people represented maritime spaces. Greek narratives endow\\u000a these spaces with meaning and make them legible. Indeed, these testimonies are a significant contribution to our knowledge\\u000a of the “odological” space at sea, a space of description including numerous cultural features rather than a space described.\\u000a This space is based on

Jean-marie Kowalski; Christophe Claramunt; Arnaud Zucker

2007-01-01

376

Superplume Formation Beneath An Ancient Slab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Graduate student Eh Tan, working with Michael Gurnis at the California Institute of Technology, has recently discovered a plausible mechanism of generating superplumes at the core mantle boundary. This animation shows how an ancient slab which is resting at the core mantle boundary for millions of years can trap heat, eventually resulting in a superplume substantially larger than the plumes which form from normal hot thermal boundary layers. Links to related references, including a pdf reprint, are also included at the site.

Eh, Tan; Technology, California I.

377

j Ancient DNAAnalysis of Human Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of ancient DNA (aDNA) in the reconstruction of population origins and evolution is becoming increasingly common. The resultant increase in number of samples and polymorphic sites assayed and the number of studies published may give the impression that all technologi- cal hurdles associated with aDNA technology have been overcome. However, analysis of aDNA is still plagued by two

CONNIE J. KOLI; D NOREEN TUROSS

2000-01-01

378

Environmental geology of ancient Greek cities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Man-environment relations in the ancient Greek world, as now, were complex interactions. To understand them, we need to study a range of physical features and man's impact on the setting. The underlying geological reality of this area is karst, which is widely distributed, dominating Greece, the southern half of Turkey, and southern Italy and Sicily, where the Greco-Roman cities that we study were located. Year-round water from karst springs was important because of scarce rainfall, intense evaporation, and infertile soil—none under human control. Examples from the Greek mainland (Corinth), an Aegean island (Rhodes), Turkey (Priene), and Sicily (Syracuse) are selected and described to suggest the way that karst water potential played an important role in site selection and development. A wider look at criteria for urban location and a new classification of urban patterns help to revise conventional understandings of these ancient cities. In conclusion, some modern findings about the interaction between city and setting suggest new research agendas for geologists and engineers, ancient historians and archaelogists, and water policy makers—preferrably working together.

Crouch, D. P.

1996-04-01

379

Ancient Greek psychotherapy for contemporary nurses.  

PubMed

Ancient Greek physicians as well as philosophers were fully cognizant of a human being's psychological function and used their particular art to influence individual or social behavior in accordance with their pursuit. This art or technique favorably compares with several of the methods currently called supportive psychotherapy. This psychotherapy was the first form of care for people with mental health problems. Nurses who base their practice on ancient Greek psychotherapy see the patient as a whole, a person who creates meaning in life. Applying the philosophical principles of ancient Greeks helps nurses understand the behavior of people with mental health problems and recognize and facilitate adaptive satisfaction of these psychological needs. In addition, psychiatric nurses are able to help distressed individuals understand their fears and anxieties, so they are freed from the causes of their symptoms that led them to seek therapy in the first place. Consequently, this understanding can make psychiatric nurses' work a living experience and add meaning to their work. PMID:12174513

Kourkouta, Lambrini

2002-08-01

380

Mechanisms of Radium Mobilization for Radium-Rich Groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone and Carbonate Aquifers in the Negev, Israel: Implications for Fossil Groundwater Resources in the Middle East  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radium isotope quartet (226-Ra, 228-Ra, 224-Ra, 223-Ra), radon, and uranium (238-U, 234-U) isotopes were investigated in brackish to saline groundwater from the Nubian sandstone and Lower Cretaceous carbonate aquifers in the Negev, Israel. Our data show that Ra activity in both aquifers are high and far exceeds international drinking water threshold levels. The 228-Ra/226-Ra and 224-Ra/223-Ra ratios in the groundwater from the two aquifers are closely associated with the measured of 232-Th/226-Ra and predicted 224-Ra/223-Ra ratios in the respective aquifers rocks. This indicating that Ra in the Nubian sandstone is derived from interactions with rocks hosting nuclides from both Th- and U-decay series, whereas the carbonate aquifer contributes nuclides exclusively from the U-decay series. In the sandstone aquifer we found that Ra activity is strongly correlated with temperature. The high 224-Ra/228-Ra, d223Ra (defined as 223-Ra/226-Ra/0.046) (>1) and 234-U/238-U (3.3) ratios in the Nubian groundwater suggest that Ra is primarily derived from recoil process on the aquifer solids. We quantified the Ra recoil and retention by normalizing the 224-Ra to 222-Rn activities in the water, taking into account the 232-Th/226-ra ratios in the aquifer rocks. Given that a large fraction of Ra is in the form of RaSO4 species (a range of 0.15 to 0.5) and the correlation of RaSO4 species with Ba content we propose that Ra recoil is retained by co-precipitation onto secondary barite mineral and/or exchange with surface coating. In the carbonate aquifer we show that Ra activity is strongly correlate with both salinity and dissolved oxygen content. Groundwater with high 226-Ra activity has typically low d223Ra ratios and 222-Rn/226-Ra ratios, which suggests that Ra mobilization is controlled by desorption from surface coating that is enhanced under conditions of high salinity and reduced groundwater. Our findings indicate that under stagnant groundwater conditions, Ra can be mobilized from aquifer rocks with common Ra activities, without significant Ra removal (e.g., adsorption). The lack of significant Ra sinks is due to combination of factors including reducing conditions, lack of available adsorption sites, high temperature (that inhibit both barite saturation and adsorption), and groundwater chemistry (e.g., formation of RaSO4 species). These findings could have implications for possible high Ra anomalies in many other similar groundwater basins in the Middle East.

Vengosh, A.; Peri, N.; Haquin, G.; Paytan, A.; Pankratov, I.; Elhanani, S.; Karpas, Z.

2007-05-01

381

A homogenizer with replaceable razor blades for bulk isolation of active barley plastids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modification of the cutting device of a kitchen homogenizer is described which allows the preparation of biochemically active\\u000a greening barley plastids. The new cutting device consists of four easily replaceable razor blades. Intact plastids are isolated\\u000a from the immature leaves of spinach or from greening barley leaves with a yield of 10% and from etiolated barley with a yield

C. Gamini Kannangara; Simon P. Gough; Bent Hansen; Jan N. Rasmussen; David J. Simpson

1977-01-01

382

Comparison of Water Absorption Patterns in Two Barley Cultivars, Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 75(6):792-795 Two barley cultivars, Excel and Prisma (six-row and two-row types, respectively), were obtained from the 1993 harvest at Crookston, MN. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to follow water imbibition in single, large seeds of Excel and Prisma barley. A comparison of mois- ture distribution on longitudinal sections of Prisma and Excel barley during early hours of

E. McEntyre; R. Ruan; R. G. Fulcher

1998-01-01

383

Estimating Yield Losses in Cereals Infected with Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a prediction model to estimate yield losses due to barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV, family Luteoviridae) infection, thus avoiding the need for a healthy control, could facilitate germplasm screening and reduce evaluation costs. In the 1999\\/2000 growing season, 69 barley, 58 spring and winter\\/facultative bread wheat, and 39 durum wheat lines derived from the ICARDA (barley) and CIMMYT\\/ICARDA (wheat)

K. M. Makkouk; W. Ghulam

384

Optimizing the replacement of pork fat with fractionated barley flour paste in reduced-fat sausage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced-fat sausages were prepared by replacing pork back fat with barley flours of different particle sizes. Three barley\\u000a flour fractions with different particle size were obtained by passing the ground barley material through a sieve. Fraction\\u000a 1 and 2 had a higher water absorption index than other fraction and showed higher peak and final viscosities due to higher\\u000a ?-glucan content.

Jin-Woong Choi; So-Hee Kim; Saehun Mun; Sung-Joon Lee; Jae-Yong Shim; Yong-Ro Kim

2011-01-01

385

Ribosomal DNA Spacer-Length Polymorphisms in Barley: Mendelian Inheritance, Chromosomal Location, and Population Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spacer-length (sl) variation in ribosomal RNA gene clusters (rDNA) was surveyed in 502 individual barley plants, including samples from 50 accessions of cultivated barley, 25 accessions of its wild ancestor, and five generations of composite cross II (CCII), an experimental population of barley. In total, 17 rDNA sl phenotypes, made up of 15 different rDNA sl variants, were observed. The

M. A. Saghai-Maroof; K. M. Soliman; R. A. Jorgensen; R. W. Allard

1984-01-01

386

Sensitivity analysis of energy inputs for barley production in Hamedan Province of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine the energy consumption and evaluation of inputs sensitivity for barley production in Hamedan Province, Iran. The sensitivity of energy inputs was estimated using the marginal physical productivity (MPP) method and partial regression coefficients on barley yield. The results revealed that total energy input for barley production was ?25,027MJha?1; the non-renewable energy shared

Hassan Ghasemi Mobtaker; Alireza Keyhani; Ali Mohammadi; Shahin Rafiee; Asadollah Akram

2010-01-01

387

Identification of a novel gene ( Hsdr4 ) involved in water-stress tolerance in wild barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought is one of the most severe stresses limiting plant growth and yield. Genes involved in water stress tolerance of wild\\u000a barley (Hordeum spontaneoum), the progenitor of cultivated barley, were investigated using genotypes contrasting in their response to water stress. Gene\\u000a expression profiles of water-stress tolerant vs. water-stress sensitive wild barley genotypes, under severe dehydration stress\\u000a applied at the seedling

Tatiana Suprunova; Tamar Krugman; Assaf Distelfeld; Tzion Fahima; Eviatar Nevo; Abraham Korol

2007-01-01

388

[Influence of granulated bacterial preparation complex action on the growth and yield of barley].  

PubMed

The influence of granulated bacterial preparation of complex action on the growth and yield of barley (H. distichum L.) has been studied. The treatment of barley seeds by this preparation has been established to have a very significant effect on the mass of 1000 grains, grain natural weight and to increase the yield of plants, but to different degree. Consequently, the interaction of certain barley varieties with bacteria-components of the preparation is rather specific. It has been displayed that the treatment of grains of different barley varieties by the bacterial preparation takes a very significant influence on the function of microbial associations in the rhizosphere. PMID:22830193

Skorokhod, I O; Tserkovniak, L S; Kurdysh, I K; Plotnikov, V V; Gyl'chuk, V G; Korni?chuk, O V

389

Design and development of an ancient Chinese document recognition system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The digitization of ancient Chinese documents presents new challenges to OCR (Optical Character Recognition) research field due to the large character set of ancient Chinese characters, variant font types, and versatile document layout styles, as these documents are historical reflections to the thousands of years of Chinese civilization. After analyzing the general characteristics of ancient Chinese documents, we present a solution for recognition of ancient Chinese documents with regular font-types and layout-styles. Based on the previous work on multilingual OCR in TH-OCR system, we focus on the design and development of two key technologies which include character recognition and page segmentation. Experimental results show that the developed character recognition kernel of 19,635 Chinese characters outperforms our original traditional Chinese recognition kernel; Benchmarked test on printed ancient Chinese books proves that the proposed system is effective for regular ancient Chinese documents.

Peng, Liangrui; Xiu, Pingping; Ding, Xiaoqing

2003-12-01

390

Pitfalls in the analysis of ancient human mtDNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retrieval of DNA from ancient human specimens is not always successful owing to DNA deterioration and contamination although\\u000a it is vital to provide new insights into the genetic structure of ancient people and to reconstruct the past history. Normally,\\u000a only short DNA fragments can be retrieved from the ancient specimens. How to identify the authenticity of DNA obtained and

Yonggang Yao; Yaping Zhang

2003-01-01

391

Gibberellin-repressible gene expression in the barley aleurone layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gibberellins are noted for their ability to induce expression of genes, such as a-amylase, in the aleurone layers of cereals. However, a number of mRNA species in the mature imbibed aleurone cell of barley, such as a storage globulin (Heck et al., Mol Gen Genet 239: 209–218 1993), are simultaneously and specifically repressed by gibberellin. In a continuing effort to

Gregory R. Heck; T. H. David Ho

1996-01-01

392

Photosynthesis of six barley genotypes as affected by water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of water stress on plant water status and net photosynthetic gas exchange (PN) in six barley genotypes (Hordeum\\u000a vulgare L.) differing in productivity and drought tolerance was studied in a controlled growth chamber. Osmotic adjustment\\u000a (OA), PN, stomatal conductance (gs), and the ratio intercellular\\/ambient. CO2 concentration (Ci\\/Ca) were evaluated at four\\u000a different levels of soil water availability, corresponding

G. Arnau; P. Monneveux; D. This; L. Alegre

1997-01-01

393

Identification, localization, and characterization of putative USP genes in barley.  

PubMed

The universal stress proteins (USPs) play an important role in enhancing survival rate during prolonged exposure to heat shock, nutrient starvation, or stressors from agents that arrest cell growth or damage DNA structures. Searching the HarvEST database of barley resulted in 25 putative USP cDNA sequences. Of these, 16 could translate into intact proteins (putative USPs). The alignments of multiple amino acid sequences between the putative barley USPs with those of Arabidopsis and Methanococcus jannaschii resulted in a set of common residues involved in ATP-binding. The 16 putative USPs in barley and the 21 in Arabidopsis were clustered into seven groups, which were distinct from those of E. coli. The genes in these different groups have different intron/exon structures. Nine putative USP genes of barley were cloned successfully based on their sequence characteristics, and they contain two or three introns each. Two of these introns were present in all the genes, one located between beta2 and alpha2, and the other between beta 4 and alpha 4. Five sets of primers were successfully developed for these putative USP genes. Two of them were mapped on chromosome 1H and the other three were located on three different chromosomes, 2H, 3H and 6H, respectively. Expression analyses were carried out for nine of these putative USP genes. The expression for two of them was undetectable within 27 h following exposure to salt stress. Six of the other seven were expressed in both root and leaf, and the remaining one was expressed in root only. The majority of these genes was expressed more in the salt-sensitive variety, Morex, than in the more tolerant variety, Steptoe. PMID:20523963

Li, Wei-Tao; Wei, Yu-Ming; Wang, Ji-Rui; Liu, Chun-Ji; Lan, Xiu-Jin; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Pu, Zhi-En; Zheng, You-Liang

2010-06-04

394

Inhibitory Activity by Barley Coffee Components Towards Streptococcus Mutans Biofilm  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was shown that barley coffee (BC) interferes with Streptococcus mutans adsorption to hydroxyapatite. After BC component fractionation by dialysis and gel filtration chromatography (GFC), it was\\u000a found that the low molecular mass (<1,000 Da) fraction (LMM fraction) containing polyphenols, zinc and fluoride ions and,\\u000a above all, a high molecular mass (HMM > 1,000 kDa) melanoidin fraction display strong anti-adhesive properties towards S. mutans.

Monica Stauder; Adele Papetti; Maria Daglia; Luigi Vezzulli; Gabriella Gazzani; Pietro E. Varaldo; Carla Pruzzo

2010-01-01

395

Cytological Effects of Phenothiazine Tranquilizing Agents on Barley Meristems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growth reduction of 30–40% was noted in barley plants grown in two phenothiazine tranquilizers. Similar reductions were noted in the number of mid-anaphase cells, indicating the reduced growth could have been the result of a reduced mitotic rate. Also observed were several types of chromosomal aberrations. Electron microscopy revealed less endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasmic organelles in the treated cells

Charles D. A. Polson; Jack D. Adams

1978-01-01

396

Generation of Large Numbers of lndependently Transformed Fertile Barley Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid, efficient, and reproducible system to generate large numbers of independently transformed, self-fertile, transgenic bar- ley (Hordeum vurgare 1.) plants is described. lmmature zygotic embryos, young callus, and microspore-derived embryos were bombarded with a plasmid containing bar and uidA either alone or in combination with another plasmid containing a barley yellow dwarf virus coat protein (BYDVcp) gene. A total

Yuechun Wan; Peggy C. Lemaux

1994-01-01

397

Brassinosteroid enhances resistance to Fusarium diseases of barley.  

PubMed

Fusarium pathogens are amongst the most damaging pathogens of cereals. These pathogens have the ability to attack the roots, seedlings and flowering heads of barley and wheat plants with disease resulting in yield loss and head blight disease also resulting in the contamination of grain with mycotoxins harmful to human and animal health. There is increasing evidence that brassinosteroid (BR) hormones play an important role in plant defense against both biotic and abiotic stress agents and this study set out to determine if and how BR might affect Fusarium diseases of barley. Application of the epibrassinolide (epiBL) to heads of the barley cultivar (cv.) Lux reduced the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium culmorum by 86 % and reduced the FHB-associated loss in grain weight by 33%. Growth of plants in soil amended with epiBL resulted in a 28% and 35% reduction in Fusarium seedling blight (FSB) symptoms on the barley cvs. Lux and Akashinriki, respectively. Microarray analysis was used to determine if growth in epiBL-amended soil changed the transcriptional profile in stem base tissue during the early stages of FSB development. At 24 and 48 h post-F. culmorum inoculation, there were a total of 146 epiBL-responsive transcripts, the majority being from the 48 h time point (n = 118). Real-time RT-PCR analysis validated the results for eight transcripts, including five defence genes. The results of gene expression studies show that chromatin remodelling, hormonal signaling, photosynthesis and pathogenesis related genes are activated in plants as a result of growth in epiBL. PMID:23777406

Ali, Shahin; Kumar, Sunil; Doohan, Fiona; Khan, Mojibur

2013-06-18

398

Haploid formation in maize, barley, flax, and potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  The article is reviewing some significant features and issues in the process of haploid formation in two important monocotyledonous\\u000a crop plants – maize and barley – and in two dicotyledonous plants – flax and potato. Exotic maize lines with higher androgenic\\u000a response turned up as a good source for this heritable trait and this valuable trait can be incorporated into

A. Pret’ová; B. Obert; Z. Bartošová

2006-01-01

399

Genetic markers for doubled haploid response in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to analyse the genetic control of anther culture response in barley, a doubled-haploid (DH) population from the cross\\u000a between a medium responsive cultivar ‘Dobla’ and the model cultivar ‘Igri’ was produced. A linkage map was constructed with\\u000a 91 markers. A sub-population of 41 lines was characterised for different components of the anther culture response, and was\\u000a used for

Xi-Wen Chen; Luís Cistué; María Muñoz-Amatriaín; Miguel Sanz; Ignacio Romagosa; Ana-María Castillo; María-Pilar Vallés

2007-01-01

400

Genetic analysis of several root hair mutants of barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutagenic treatment of barley varieties 'Rudzik', 'Dema', 'Krona', 'Diva', 'Karat', and 'Delisa' was performed with the use of N-methylo-N-nitroso-urea (MNU) and sodium azide. To generate high frequency of gene mutations, the combined treatment with both mutagenes (Szarejko and Maluszynski, 1999) or double treatment of MNU was applied. The doses for treatment of Rudzik and Dema varieties were as follows:

I. Szarejko; A. Janiak; B. Chmielewska; M. Nawrot

2005-01-01

401

Isolation of carboxypeptidase II from malted barley by affinity chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A serine carboxypeptidase isolated from malted barley by affinity chromatography was termed malt carboxypeptidase II to distinguish\\u000a it from another malt carboxypeptidase previously described (Carlsberg Res. Commun. 48, 217–230 (1983)), henceforth called\\u000a malt carboxypeptidase I. Our nomenclature is in agreement with the nomenclature formerly suggested byMikola. Malt carboxypeptidase II has a molecular weight of 110,000–120,000. It appears to be a

Klaus Breddam; Steen Bech Sørensen; Martin Ottesen

1985-01-01

402

Immunological screening for specific protein content in barley seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening method employing immunofluorescence has been developed to judge the amount of specific polypeptides, such as the\\u000a high lysine protein chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 (CI-2) in the endosperm of barley.\\u000a \\u000a Thin sections or sanded seeds were prepared fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and labelled with antibody against CI-2 conjugated\\u000a with fluorescein isothiocyanate. With this technique single seeds can be evaluated without

Ulla Rasmussen

1985-01-01

403

The nutritive value of new high-lysine barley mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four new high-lysine barley mutants, the mother variety ‘Sultan’, and the cultivar ‘Lysimax’ with the high-lysine gene lys3a were grown in a field trial in 1992 at Riso, Denmark. Yield and 1000 kernel weights were measured. The material was analyzed for protein, fat, starch, soluble non-starch polysaccharides, insoluble non-starch polysaccharides, lignin, ?-glucans, sugars, energy and amino acids. The nutritive value

B. O Eggum; G Brunsgaard; J Jensen

1995-01-01

404

Salinity-induced calcium deficiencies in wheat and barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity-calcium interactions, which have been shown to be important in plants grown in dryland saline soils of the Canadian prairies, were studied in two species differing in salt tolerance. In solution culture, wheat showed a greater reduction in growth and a higher incidence of foliar Ca deficiency symptoms than barley when grown under MgSO4 or Na2SO4 plus MgSO4 salt stress.

D. L. Ehret; R. E. Redmann; B. L. Harvey; A. Cipywnyk

1990-01-01

405

A theoretical framework for ?-glucan degradation during barley malting  

Microsoft Academic Search

During malting, barley germinates and produces hydrolytic enzymes that de-structure the endosperm, making the grains soft\\u000a and friable. This process starts close to the embryo and spreads throughout the whole grain. It is leaded by the degradation\\u000a of cell walls, which are mainly constituted of ?-glucans. Fast and extended breakdown of ?-glucans occurs by means of an expanding\\u000a reaction front

Alberto Gianinetti

2009-01-01

406

Molecular analysis of barley mutants deficient in chloroplast glutamine synthetase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A barley leaf cDNA library has been screened with two oligonucleotide probes designed to hybridize to conserved sequences in glutamine synthetase (GS) genes from higher plants. Two GS cDNA clones were identified as hybridizing strongly to one or both probes. The larger clone (pcHvGS6) contained a 1.6 kb insert which was shown by primer extension analysis to be an almost

Jacqueline Freeman; Antonio J. Marquez; Roger M. Wallsgrove; Ritva Saarelainen; Brian G. Forde

1990-01-01

407

Megapixel imaging of (micro)nutrients in mature barley grains  

PubMed Central

Understanding the accumulation and distribution of essential nutrients in cereals is of primary importance for improving the nutritional quality of this staple food. While recent studies have improved the understanding of micronutrient loading into the barley grain, a detailed characterization of the distribution of micronutrients within the grain is still lacking. High-definition synchrotron X-ray fluorescence was used to investigate the distribution and association of essential elements in barley grain at the micro scale. Micronutrient distribution within the scutellum and the embryo was shown to be highly variable between elements in relation to various morphological features. In the rest of the grain, the distribution of some elements such as Cu and Zn was not limited to the aleurone layer but extended into the endosperm. This pattern of distribution was less marked in the case of Fe and, in particular, Mn. A significant difference in element distribution was also found between the ventral and dorsal part of the grains. The correlation between the elements was not consistent between and within tissues, indicating that the transport and storage of elements is highly regulated. The complexity of the spatial distribution and associations has important implications for improving the nutritional content of cereal crops such as barley.

Lombi, Enzo; Smith, Euan; Hansen, Thomas H.; Paterson, David; de Jonge, Martin D.; Howard, Daryl L.; Persson, Daniel P.; Husted, S?ren; Ryan, Chris; Schjoerring, Jan K.

2011-01-01

408

The Astronomical Orientation of Ancient Greek Temples  

PubMed Central

Despite its appearing to be a simple question to answer, there has been no consensus as to whether or not the alignments of ancient Greek temples reflect astronomical intentions. Here I present the results of a survey of archaic and classical Greek temples in Sicily and compare them with temples in Greece. Using a binomial test I show strong evidence that there is a preference for solar orientations. I then speculate that differences in alignment patterns between Sicily and Greece reflect differing pressures in the expression of ethnic identity.

Salt, Alun M.

2009-01-01

409

The astronomical orientation of ancient Greek temples.  

PubMed

Despite its appearing to be a simple question to answer, there has been no consensus as to whether or not the alignments of ancient Greek temples reflect astronomical intentions. Here I present the results of a survey of archaic and classical Greek temples in Sicily and compare them with temples in Greece. Using a binomial test I show strong evidence that there is a preference for solar orientations. I then speculate that differences in alignment patterns between Sicily and Greece reflect differing pressures in the expression of ethnic identity. PMID:19936239

Salt, Alun M

2009-11-19

410

Ancient Indian Astronomy in Introductory Text Books  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introductory survey courses in astronomy usually devote some time to the history of astronomy. Quite often, only the Greek contribution receives any attention in the text books. Some times the contributions from Babylon and China are mentioned. Hardly any account is given of ancient Indian astronomy. Even when one is given, it is usually wrong as shown by examples taken from several current text books. An attempt is made to sketch the contributions from the earliest astronomy of India, namely Vedaanga Jyotisha, to the later Siddhaanta astronomies.

Narahari Achar, B. N.

1997-11-01

411

Modern and ancient alluvial fan deposits  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the structure and depositional processes of alluvial fans (river outwash deposits) has a special interest for those involved with the exploration of petroleum and many minerals. This collection of facsimile reprints of significant and classical research papers sheds new light on the subject. This reference covers the stratigraphy, sedimentology, and depositional processes of modern and ancient alluvial fans. Geographical areas considered include Arctic Canada, the American Southwest, Australia, Wyoming, Norway, and Spain. It includes a state-of-the-art introduction by the editor along with commentaries on all the papers included, a master author citation index and a subject index, and a chronological listing of early studies of alluvial fans.

Nilsen, T.H.

1985-01-01

412

The Evil Eye--an ancient superstition.  

PubMed

This paper describes and discusses the ancient superstition of the Evil Eye. The author describes his own personal childhood introduction to the subject of the Evil Eye which years later instigated his scholarly inquiry. The history of this very geographically widespread folk belief is elaborated upon, along with common manifestations as they appear in a number of different countries and cultures. Some of the methods used to thwart the negative effects of the Evil Eye are enumerated. Relevant psychodynamics and common expressions of the Evil Eye superstition are elucidated upon. PMID:21523505

Berger, Allan S

2012-12-01

413

Ancient Astrology and Divination on the Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents over 100 links to "reliable information about ancient (primarily Greek and Roman) astrology and divination" compiled by graduate student Tim Spaulding for fellow non-believers in these arts and sciences. Materials listed include books, journal articles, and Websites with yet more links to additional sites. Some highlights under astrology are an exhibition of star atlases from the Linda Hall Library, Kansas City; a zodiac mosaic on the floor of Beth Alpha, a temple in Israel; and papyrus documents that mention astrological terms, from a pre-executed search of University of Michigan's collection. Resources open in a new window, allowing users to return to Spaulding's list easily.

414

On Ancient Medicine and its intellectual context.  

PubMed

The argument of this paper is twofold. First, it shows that the 'anthropological digression' in chapter three of On Ancient Medicine is more original and sophisticated than is commonly supposed: the discussion of diet and of the discovery of medicine describes an empirical process that is non-teleological and subject to chance. Secondly, it shows that the programmatic claims in chapter one and elsewhere advance an empirical model of technê that is best paralleled in arguments of the later sophists. Taken together, these results find greater methodological coherence in the treatise and situate it more clearly in its intellectual context. PMID:17144064

Dunn, Francis

2005-01-01

415

Ancient Indian Astronomy in Introductory Texts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is customary in introductory survey courses in astronomy to devote some time to the history of astronomy. In the available text books only the Greek contribution receives any attention. Apart from Stonehenge and Chichenitza pictures, contributions from Babylon and China are some times mentioned. Hardly any account is given of ancient Indian astronomy. Even when something is mentioned it is incomplete or incorrect or both. Examples are given from several text books currently available. An attempt is made to correct this situation by sketching the contributions from the earliest astronomy of India, namely Vedaanga Jyotisha.

Narahari Achar, B. N.

1997-10-01

416

Ancient Egyptian hair gel: new insight into ancient Egyptian mummification procedures through chemical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial mummification in ancient Egypt involved the application of chemicals to the body mostly for the purpose of preservation; others were applied for ritual aspects. Unguents were used also in everyday toilette. Here we report a type of material which was applied specifically to the hair, a fatty material used as a ‘hair gel’. Personal appearance was important to the

N. C. McCreesh; A. P. Gize; A. R. David

2011-01-01

417

China: A Simulation of Ancient Chung Kuo, the World's Most Ancient Civilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This simulation allows students to participate in the "ways" of ancient Chinese history and culture. The unit is organized into five major phases or "li's." Students may spend about one week on activities in each "li" which focuses on a major aspect of Chinese history, culture, or geography. In each "li" students participate in activities that…

Sargent, Marcia; Baral, Wanda

418

Nutrient retention and growth performance of chicks given low-phytate conventional or hull-less barleys  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?The experimental barley samples included 4 hulled and one hull-less low-phytate barley cultivars and two commercial barley varieties as controls.2.?The diets were provided in meal form, with the experimental barley samples constituting the cereal source. Two additional treatments were added for each of the control varieties in which intermediate and recommended levels of phosphorus were provided.3.?A completely randomised design was

M. Salarmoini; G. L. Campbell; B. G. Rossnagel; V. Raboy

2008-01-01

419

Barley ?-amylase bound to its endogenous protein inhibitor BASI: crystal structure of the complex at 1.9 å resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Barley ?-amylase is a 45 kDa enzyme which is involved in starch degradation during barley seed germination. The released sugars provide the plant embryo with energy for growth. The major barley ?-amylase isozyme (AMY2) binds with high affinity to the endogenous inhibitor BASI (barley ?-amylase\\/subtilisin inhibitor) whereas the minor isozyme (AMY1) is not inhibited. BASI is a 19.6 kDa

François Vallée; Anders Kadziola; Yves Bourne; Michel Juy; Kees W Rodenburg; Birte Svensson; Richard Haser

1998-01-01

420

Gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and carbon isotope discrimination of 14 barley genetic lines in response to salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley is one of the most salt tolerant crop species, and differences between barley genotypes for salinity tolerance have been previously documented. Greenhouse experiments were conducted with barley seedlings (up to fourth leaf) from 14 genetic lines grown in control and saline (EC=20dSm?1) conditions. Some of these barley genotypes are parental lines to diverse mapping populations. Others have been bred

Qingzhen Jiang; Dominique Roche; Thomas A. Monaco; Susan Durham

2006-01-01

421

Effect of electron-beam irradiation on the safety and quality of Fusarium-infected malting barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization of Fusarium-infected barley for malting may lead to mycotoxin production during malting and decreased malt quality. Electron-beam irradiation may prevent safety and quality defects and allow use of otherwise good quality barley. We evaluated electron-beam irradiation for preventing Fusarium growth and mycotoxin production while maintaining barley-malt quality characteristics. Four barley lots with varying deoxynivalenol (DON) concentrations were irradiated at

Balasubrahmanyam Kottapalli; Charlene E. Wolf-Hall; Paul Schwarz

2006-01-01

422

A region of barley chromosome 6H harbors multiple major genes associated with net type blotch resistance.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Net type of net blotch (NTNB) on barley, caused by Pyrenophora teres f. teres Drechs. is prevalent in barley growing regions worldwide and is particularly damaging under cool, wet conditions. A population of 118 doubled haploid (DH) lines developed from a cross between barley cultivars ‘Rika’ and ‘K...

423

The suitability of barley and corn starches in their native and chemically modified forms for volatile meat flavor encapsulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to minimize the evaporative flavor loss and to improve flavor stability, the encapsulation potential of native corn and barley starches [waxy corn starch (CW), regular corn starch (CR), waxy barley starch (BW), regular barley starch (BR)] and their chemically modified counterparts (succinylated starches: CWS; CRS; BWS; BRS and octenyl succinylated starches: CWOS; CROS; BWOS; BROS) were investigated. Four

You-Jin Jeon; Thava Vasanthan; Feral Temelli; Byung-Kwon Song

2003-01-01

424

Fibrolytic Enzyme Treatment of Barley Grain and Source of Forage in High-Grain Diets Fed to Growing Cattle1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a study to determine the effects of treating barley grain with a fibrolytic enzyme mixture on chewing activities, ruminal fer- mentation, and total tract digestibility in cattle. We also investigated the potential benefits of using barley straw rather than barley silage as a roughage source in high-grain diets for feedlot cattle. Steers were given ad libitum access to

M. Krause; K. A. Beauchemin; L. M. Rode; B. I. Farr; P. Nørgaard

425

Probabilistic methodology for assessing changes in the level and molecular weight of barley ?-glucan during bread baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to create a probabilistic model to assess changes in the levels and molecular weight (Mw) of ?-glucan during the bread baking process using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Three different composite flours were formulated by substituting wheat flour (WF) with barley whole meal flour (BWMF), barley straight grade flour (BSGF) or barley fibre rich fraction

U. Tiwari; E. Cummins; P. Sullivan; J. O’. Flaherty; N. Brunton; E. Gallagher

2011-01-01

426

Acoustical measurements in ancient Roman theatres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Greek and Roman theatres are among the most precious and spectacular items of cultural heritage in the Mediterranean countries. The theatres are famous not only for their impressive architecture, but also for the acoustic qualities. For this reason it is important to consider these theatres as an acoustical heritage and to study their sound field. Within the activities of the ERATO (identification Evaluation and Revival of the Acoustical heritage of ancient Theatres and Odea) project, acoustical measurements were taken in well-preserved ancient Roman theatres at Aspendos (Turkey) and Jerash (Jordan). Roman theatres have an impressive stage building that forms a back wall in the orchestra area, and it was found that, from the analysis of the acoustical parameters, the reverberation time (e.g., 1.7 s at middle frequencies in the theatre of Aspendos) is quite long compared not only with other open-space theatres but also with closed spaces. Contrary to modern halls the clarity is high and this fact, together with a low sound level in most of the seats, gives the sound field a unique character.

Farnetani, Andrea; Fausti, Patrizio; Pompoli, Roberto; Prodi, Nicola

2001-05-01

427

Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair  

PubMed Central

Recent claims of cultivable ancient bacteria within sealed environments highlight our limited understanding of the mechanisms behind long-term cell survival. It remains unclear how dormancy, a favored explanation for extended cellular persistence, can cope with spontaneous genomic decay over geological timescales. There has been no direct evidence in ancient microbes for the most likely mechanism, active DNA repair, or for the metabolic activity necessary to sustain it. In this paper, we couple PCR and enzymatic treatment of DNA with direct respiration measurements to investigate long-term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability.

Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B.; Christensen, Torben R.; Mastepanov, Mikhail; Nielsen, Rasmus; Munch, Kasper; Brand, Tina; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Zuber, Maria T.; Bunce, Michael; R?nn, Regin; Gilichinsky, David; Froese, Duane; Willerslev, Eske

2007-01-01

428

A Practical Approach to Ancient Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current astronomical measurements analyzing every passband of the electromagnetic spectrum imply a wealth of extremely sophisticated techniques with respect to accumulation, detection, and subsequent data processing. Thus, naked eye observations have become obsolete for research purposes in modern astrophysics. Nonetheless, the foundation and development of astronomy in the history of mankind are related to thorough recording and preserving of phenomena directly visible with the naked eye. Architectural relics of ancient cultures prove that astronomical concepts played a major role in the religious and social life of our ancestors. The scientific discussion contributing astronomical, historical, anthropological, and archaeological aspects to elucidate cultural meaning and technical methods of early astronomy still remains controversial. Transcending the historical debate the authors have inaugurated an `observatory' designated to reconstruct fundamental techniques of ancient astronomy. The main unit of the anticipated observatory at Recklinghausen/Herten consists of a plateau with central immersion (height 170 m, diameter 100 m) creating an almost perfect mathematical horizon. The central observer is guided due to the construction of arcs indicating the meridian and the celestial equator. Gnomon and foresights are arranged to transform diurnal, annual, and secular dynamical aspects of planetary and stellar objects into a lively experience. Embedded in a `science-park' the observatory will create a unique opportunity to motivate and develop astronomical culture based on observational experience for the general public.

Steinrücken, B.; Morawe, T.; Bleul, H.; König, I.; Bennert, N.; Nielbock, M.; Brown, D.; Vanscheidt, R.

429

Ancient medical texts, modern reading problems.  

PubMed

The word tradition has a very specific meaning in linguistics: the passing down of a text, which may have been completed or corrected by different copyists at different times, when the concept of authorship was not the same as it is today. When reading an ancient text the word tradition must be in the reader's mind. To discuss one of the problems an ancient text poses to its modern readers, this work deals with one of the first printed medical texts in Portuguese, the Regimento proueytoso contra ha pestenença, and draws a parallel between it and two related texts, A moche profitable treatise against the pestilence, and the Recopilaçam das cousas que conuem guardar se no modo de preseruar à Cidade de Lixboa E os sãos, & curar os que esteuerem enfermos de Peste. The problems which arise out of the textual structure of those books show how difficult is to establish a tradition of another type, the medical tradition. The linguistic study of the innumerable medieval plague treatises may throw light on the continuities and on the disruptions of the so-called hippocratic-galenical medical tradition. PMID:17308822

Rosa, Maria Carlota

2006-12-01

430

Natural contamination of Manitoba barley by 3,15-diacetyldeoxynivalenol and its detection by immunochromatography.  

PubMed Central

Contamination of Canadian barley samples by 3,15-diacetyldeoxynivalenol was detected by enzyme immunoassays combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. This is the first reported natural occurrence of this mycotoxin. The barley was infected mainly with Fusarium graminearum. Deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and zearalenone were also found.

Usleber, E; Abramson, D; Gessler, R; Smith, D M; Clear, R M; Martlbauer, E

1996-01-01

431

Evaluation of Nitrate-Nitrogen Transport in a Potato–Barley Rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

nant crop rotation of potato followed by barley. This region produced 90% of the potato, 77% of the spring Well water NO 2 3 -N concentrations have been found to exceed 10 wheat (Triticum aestivumL.), 81% of the barley, 32% of mg L 21 of NO 2 3 -N for some areas of the San Luis Valley (SLV) of South-Central

Jorge A. Delgado; Ronald R. Riggenbach; Richard T. Sparks; Merlin A. Dillon; Lawrence M. Kawanabe; Randall J. Ristau

2001-01-01

432

AN ATLAS OF GENE EXPRESSION FROM SEED TO SEED THROUGH BARLEY DEVELOPMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We assessed the global regulation of gene expression from seed to seed during barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) development by quantifying transcript abundance in key tissues and developmental stages of two diverse genotypes using the Barley1 GeneChip. Differential abundance was observed both between tis...

433

Embryogenic callus formation and plant regeneration from immature embryos of some barley genotypes (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genotypic restrictions on plant regeneration from cultured cells have hindered the genetic transformation of most barley cultivars. Optimizing culturing protocols for some genotypes may facilitate their genetic transformation to produce transgenic plants with desired characters. Plant regeneration from embryogenic callus of six barley genotypes (Hordeum vulgare L.) was examined on four different media compositions. Regeneration was improved for all genotypes

Ebtissam H. A. Hussein; Magdy A. Madkour; Shireen K. Assem; Al-Zahraa M. A. Radwan

2004-01-01

434

Simulation analysis of relative yield advantage of barley and wheat in an eastern Mediterranean climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) are similar crops that can be grown in the arid regions of southwestern Asia. Generally, barley is favored over wheat in drier areas. However, the quantitative basis for the relative advantage of each crop under differing growing conditions has not been resolved. This study was undertaken to compare the two crops using the

Ammar Wahbi; Thomas R. Sinclair

2005-01-01

435

A Comparison Of Barley Malt Amylolytic Enzyme Thermostabilities As Indicators Of Malt Sugar Concentrations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt amylolytic enzyme thermostabilities would correlate negatively with malt sugar concentrations. Seeds of four two-row and four six-row North American elite barley cultivars were steeped and germinated in a micromalter for 6 days. At 2...

436

A Comparison of Barley Malt Amylolytic Enzyme Activities and Malt Sugar Concentrations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt alpha-amylase activity would correlate better with malt sugar concentrations than the activities of beta-amylase, or limit dextrinase. Seeds of four two-row and four six-row North American elite barley cultivars were steeped and germin...

437

Registration of nineteen spring six-rowed barley germplasm lines resistant to Russian wheat aphid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is a new and devastating pest of barley in the western US. No resistance was found in US cultivars whether two-row, six-row, malt, feed, spring or winter. A screening of the entire collection of barley accessions in the National Small Grains Collection by the USDA-ARS in ...

438

Beta-amylase degradation by serine endoproteinases from green barley malt  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Proteolytic degradation of barley proteins is examined in green malt from Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Harrington. Zymographic analysis of the Harrington green malt extracts using commercial preparations of barley beta-amylase incorporated as a proteolytic substrate in 2-D SDS gels shows at least three di...

439

Molecular mapping of greenbug (Schizaphis graminum) resistance gene Rsg1 in barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) is an extremely damaging aphid pest of barley (Hordeum vulgare L., 2n = 2x =14 L.) particularly in the southern Great Plains of the US. The simply inherited, dominant resistance gene Rsg1 is presented in all greenbug-resistant US barley cultivars, includi...

440

BarleyBase/PLEXdb: A Unified Expression Profiling Database for Plants and Plant Pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BarleyBase (http://barleybase.org/) and its successor, PLEXdb (http://plexdb.org/), are public resources for large-scale gene expression analysis for plants and plant pathogens. BarleyBase/PLEXdb provides a unified web interface to support the functional interpretation of highly parallel microarray...

441

MOLECULAR MAPPING OF A GENE FOR RESISTANCE TO STRIPE RUST IN BBA 2890 BARLEY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei (PSH), is an important disease on barley. Growing resistant cultivars is the best approach for controlling the disease. Barley genotype BBA 2890 has all-stage (also known as seedling) resistance against all PSH races identified thus far in t...

442

Influence of jet-cooking Prowashonupana barley flour on phenolic composition, antioxidant activities, and viscoelastic properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The influence of jet-cooking Prowashonupana barley flour on total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, water holding capacities, and viscoelastic properties was studied. Barley flour was jet-cooked without or with pH adjustment at 7, 9, or 11. Generally, the free phenolic content and antioxi...

443

Population structure and linkage disequilibrium in US barley germplasm: implications for association mapping  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous studies have shown that there is considerable population structure in cultivated barley, with the strongest structure corresponding to differences in row number and growth habit. US barley breeding programs include 6-row and 2-row types and winter and spring types in all combinations. To fa...

444

Abscisic Acid StructureActivity Relationships in Barley Aleurone Layers and Protoplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optically active forms of abscisic acid (ABA) and their oxygen- ated metabolites were tested for their biological activity by exam- ining the effects of the compounds on the reversal of gibberellic acid-induced a-amylase activity in barley (Hordeum dgare cv Himalaya) aleurone layers and the induction of gene expression in barley aleurone protoplasts transformed with a chimeric construct containing the promoter

Robert D. Hill; Jin-Hao Liu; Douglas Durnin; Nancy Lamb; Angela Shaw; Suzanne R. Abrams

445

BARLEY INSECT RESEARCH AT THE USDA-ARS PLANT SCIENCE RESEARCH LABORATORY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect pests pose a major constraint to the profitable production of barley in the USA. The use of genetically resistant barley cultivars in conjunction with prudent integrated pest management tactics is an economical, environmentally friendly approach to controlling pest damage. Research is ongoi...

446

Minimizing Risk by Maximizing Production Through Barley as a Rotational Crop  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A CD was produced that contained the presentations of the speakers, plus supplemental material. This was an effort at showing growers the benefits of rotating with barley, and educating growers in barley breeding, weeds, diseases, economics and government support programs. It was sponsored by the ...

447

Limited Effects of Barley Straw on Algae and Zooplankton in a Midwestern Pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers in the United Kingdom have reported that barley straw can be used to control a variety of planktonic algae, as well as the filamentous alga Cladophora spp. This method appears to be cost-effective, user-friendly, and environmentally sound. If these results could be obtained in the United States, using barley straw would be a good alternative to using copper sulfate.

Joseph D. Boylan; Joseph E. Morris

2003-01-01

448

Trends in comparative genetics and their potential impacts on wheat and barley research  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review some general points about comparative mapping, the evolution of gene families and recent advances in the understanding of angiosperm phylogeny. These are considered in relation to studies of large-genome cereals, particularly barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum), with reference to methods of gene isolation. The relative merits of direct map-based cloning in barley and wheat, utilization of

David A. Laurie; Katrien M. Devos

2002-01-01

449

TRANSFORMATION AND EXPRESSION OF AN ALTERED ANTIFUNGAL PROTEIN HORDOTHIONIN GENE IN TRANSGENIC BARLEY AND OAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alpha-hordothionin is produced in developing barley endosperms and has antimicrobial activity against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. We cloned an alpha-hordothionin gene (Hth1) from a cDNA library derived from developing barley endosperms, ligated the nearly full length hordothionin...

450

Genome-wide association analysis of aluminum tolerance in cultivated and Tibetan wild barley.  

PubMed

Tibetan wild barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. spontaneum), originated and grown in harsh enviroNment in Tibet, is well-known for its rich germpalsm with high tolerance to abiotic stresses. However, the genetic variation and genes involved in Al tolerance are not totally known for the wild barley. In this study, a genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) was performed by using four root parameters related with Al tolerance and 469 DArT markers on 7 chromosomes within or across 110 Tibetan wild accessions and 56 cultivated cultivars. Population structure and cluster analysis revealed that a wide genetic diversity was present in Tibetan wild barley. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed more rapidly in Tibetan wild barley (9.30 cM) than cultivated barley (11.52 cM), indicating that GWAS may provide higher resolution in the Tibetan group. Two novel Tibetan group-specific loci, bpb-9458 and bpb-8524 were identified, which were associated with relative longest root growth (RLRG), located at 2H and 7H on barely genome, and could explain 12.9% and 9.7% of the phenotypic variation, respectively. Moreover, a common locus bpb-6949, localized 0.8 cM away from a candidate gene HvMATE, was detected in both wild and cultivated barleys, and showed significant association with total root growth (TRG). The present study highlights that Tibetan wild barley could provide elite germplasm novel genes for barley Al-tolerant improvement. PMID:23922796

Cai, Shengguan; Wu, Dezhi; Jabeen, Zahra; Huang, Yuqing; Huang, Yechang; Zhang, Guoping

2013-07-26

451

Regeneration of Fertile Barley Plants from Mechanically lsolated Protoplasts of the Fertilized Egg Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple procedure is described for the mechanical isolation of protoplasts of unfertilized and fertilized barley egg cells from dissected ovules. Viable protoplasts were isolated from m75% of the dissected ovules. Unfertilized protoplasts did not divide, whereas almost all fertilized protoplasts developed into microcalli. These degenerated when grown in medium only. When cocultivated with barley microspores undergoing microspore embryogenesis, the

Preben B. Holm; Peter Mouritzen; Diana Negri; Finn L. OIsen; Catherine Roue

1994-01-01

452

Greenhouse screening for bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains through its role as a vector of the PAV strain of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by feeding damage to winter and spring small grains. Barley accessions have been reported to have BCOA ...

453

Effect of Barley Flour Incorporation on the Instrumental Texture of Sponge Cake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sponge cakes were prepared by incorporating barley flour (10, 20, 30, and 40%?w\\/w) into wheat flours. The sponge cakes were evaluated for their physical, chemical, nutritional, textural and sensory attributes. All the prepared products exhibited high in fiber, mineral and protein contents when compared with the 100%?wheat flour based product. Incorporation of barley flour improved the visual of the cake

Mahesh Gupta; Amarinder Singh Bawa; Anil Dutt Semwal

2009-01-01

454

Worldwide patterns of genetic variation among four esterase loci in Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrophoretic assays of 1506 accessions of domestic (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wild (H. spontaneum Koch.) barley, maintained in the USDA World Barley Collection, led to the following conclusions: (1) worldwide the four esterase loci, Est 1, Est 2, Est 3, and Est 4, have a minimum of 7, 12, 6, and 7 alleles, respectively; (2) little or no genetic differentation

A. L. Kahler; R. W. Allard

1981-01-01

455

Biothanol production from barley hull using SAA (Soaking in aqueous ammonia) pretreatment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley hull, a type of lignocellulosic biomass, was pretreated using aqueous ammonia to improve its enzymatic saccharification. Barley hull was soaked in 15-30 wt.% aqueous ammonia (SAA method) at 30-75'C for 1 day-11 weeks using a batch reactor. Under these conditions, SAA (soaking in aqueous ammon...

456

Annual CO2 exchange of a peat field growing spring barley or perennial forage grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) measurements conducted with the eddy covariance method over agricultural peat soil in the 2-year period between October 2000 and October 2002. In 2001, spring barley and undersown grass were sown on the site. After the barley harvest, the perennial forage grass was left to grow, so that in 2002 the field was

Annalea Lohila; Mika Aurela; Juha-Pekka Tuovinen; Tuomas Laurila

2004-01-01

457

Assessment of genetically diverse international barley germplasm for development of food product applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley landraces have experienced years of natural and farmer massal selection in favour of his particular trait of interest (food, feed or malt) without any scientific background on their performance, quality or inner properties. Eight hundred and seventy eight barley landraces, collected from farmers’ sites typically used for food belonging to forty three countries, were investigated to uncover the elite

Abderrazek Jilal

2011-01-01

458

MAS IN CEREALS: GREEN FOR MAIZE, AMBER FOR RICE, STILL RED FOR WHEAT AND BARLEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper reviews the uptake of marker assisted selection in the major cereals maize, wheat, rice and barley, and contrasts the growing and substantial use of MAS in maize with the slow pace of uptake in wheat breeding. The difference largely reflects the fact that maize varieties are predominantly F1 hybrid, whereas wheat and barley varieties are almost exclusively

Robert Koebner

459

Role of Phenolic Acids in Expression of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Autotoxicity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The role of phenolic acids in autotoxicity of four barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties was investigated using radicle growth bioassays and analytical techniques. Total phenolic content of barley plant components varied within and between varieties during the 1999-2002 growing seasons. Inhibition o...

460

DIETS CONTAINING BARLEY REDUCE LIPIDS SIGNIFICANTLY IN MODERATELY HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC MEN AND WOMEN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Barley has high amounts of soluble fiber but is not extensively consumed in the US diet. Objective: This study investigated whether consumption of barley would reduce cardiovascular risk factors comparably to reductions observed with other soluble fiber sources. Design: After instit...

461

LIGHT-DEPENDENT BLEACHING OF DETACHED BARLEY LEAF TISSUE BY DEOXYNIVALENOL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulates in wheat and barley heads infected with Fusarium graminearum. To assess the effects of DON on green plant tissues, we partially stripped the abaxial epidermis from detached Robust barley leaf segments (1 cm long) and floated them with stripped mesophyl...

462

An Ancient Eye Test—Using the Stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vision testing in ancient times was as important as it is today. The predominant vision testing in some cultures was the recognition and identification of constellations and celestial bodies of the night sky. A common ancient naked eye test used the double star of the Big Dipper in the constellation Ursa Major or the Big Bear. The second star from

George M. Bohigian

2008-01-01

463

Text\\/Graphic labelling of Ancient Printed Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a text\\/graphic labelling for ancient printed documents. Our approach is based on the extraction and the quantification of the various orientations that are present in ancient printed document images. The documents are initially cut into normalized square windows in which we analyze significant orientations with a directional rose. Each kind of information (textual or graphical) is typically

Nicholas Journet; Véronique Eglin; Jean-yves Ramel; Rémy Mullot

2005-01-01

464

Networks, Territories, and the Cartography of Ancient States  

Microsoft Academic Search

With broad lines and dark shading, the cartographic depictions of ancient states and empires convey the impression of comprehensive political entities having firm boundaries and uniform territorial control. These depictions oversimplify the complexities of early state growth, as well as overstating the capacity of central governments to control large territories. Archaeological and textual evidence suggests that ancient states are better

Monica L. Smith

2005-01-01

465

Criticisms of Segal's Interpretation of the Ancient Greek Pentathlon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the ancient Greek pentathlon as it was conducted during the Olympic games. The pentathlon was comprised of five sub-exercises: (1) the jump; (2) the discus throw; (3) the javelin throw; (4) the stade run; and (5) wrestling. Using scholarship in the fields of archaeology, ancient poetry and legends, and pictorial evidence such…

Barney, Robert Knight

466

Archaeogeophysical Studies in Ancient Tios, Zonguldak-Caycuma-Filyos, Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ancient Tios is located in the Filyos township of the Caycuma District of Zonguldak on the western Black Sea region, Turkey. The ancient city was probably founded by Milesians in the 7th cent. B.C. The region was inhabited through the centuries by Persians, Romans, Genoese and all the way to the Ottoman times. About the archaeological history of the city

Fethi Ahmet Yuksel; Nihan Hoskan; Yusuf Sumer Atasoy

2010-01-01

467

Ancient and Modern Women in the Womans World  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the editorship of Oscar Wilde, the Woman’s World exemplified the popular dissemination of Hellenism through periodical culture. Addressing topics such as marriage, politics, and education in relation to the lives of women in the ancient world, the magazine offered an unfamiliar version of the reception of ancient Greece and Rome in late-Victorian aestheticism, one that was accessible to a

Isobel Hurst

2009-01-01

468

Ancient Greek and Chinese Patterns of Definition: A Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study contributes to the understanding of the difference between Western and Chinese thought by comparing the cultural patterns of definition in ancient Greece and China, two cultures that have, in many ways, come to define the West and East. Current studies of the classical period of these two ancient cultures have focused on what the Greek and Chinese sages

Xiaosui Xiao

2008-01-01

469

ANIMAL DNA IN PCR REAGENTS PLAGUES ANCIENT DNA RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Ancient DNA analysis is becoming widespread. These studies use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify minute quantities of heavily damaged template. Unusual steps are taken to achieve the sensitivity necessary to detect ancient DNA, including high-cycle PCR amplification targ...

470

Detecting Text Areas and Decorative Elements in Ancient Manuscripts  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach for the detection of decorative elements - such as initials and headlines - and text regions, focused on ancient manuscripts, is presented. Due to their age, ancient manuscripts suffer from degradation and staining as well as ink is faded-out over the time. Identifying decorative elements and text regions allows indexing a manuscript and serves as input for Optical

Angelika Garz; Markus Diem; Robert Sablatnig

2010-01-01

471

Computer animations of ancient Greek and Arabic planetary models  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new set of computer animations is available for those who teach the ancient models of planetary motion, those who want to learn those models, or even those who enjoy simply contemplating just how clever the ancient astronomers were. The animations include the models from Ptolemy's Almagest (ca. 150 AD) and those from the Maragha school of Arabic astronomy (ca.

Dennis Duke

2004-01-01

472

Notions of "Rhetoric as Epistemic" in Ancient Greece.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The notion that rhetoric (and to a lesser extent, argument) is epistemic is an increasingly popular one today, although it can be traced to ancient Greece. The notion holds that rhetoric, or the art of persuasion, creates and shapes knowledge. Two ancient authors--Aristophanes and Plato--provide evidence that others had notions of rhetoric as…

Benoit, William L.

473

Contamination controls when preparing archaeological remains for ancient DNA analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination is of utmost concern when working with ancient DNA as it easily leads to false positive results. The best way to prevent or minimize contamination is to start precautionary measures as early as possible, ideally commencing with sample collection and preparation by field archaeologists. This paper discusses the nature of contamination in ancient DNA studies and offers some practical

Dongya Y. Yang; Kathy Watt

2005-01-01

474

An Ancient Inca Tax and Metallurgy in Peru  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The discovery of ancient Inca tax rulers and other metallurgical objects in Peru show that the ancient civilizations of the country smelted metals. The analysis shows that the smelters in Peru switched from the production of copper to silver after a tax was imposed on them by the Inca rulers.|

Journal of Chemical Education, 2007

2007-01-01

475

Empirical foundations of atomism in ancient Greek philosophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way by which ancient Greek philosophers came to the concept of atom is presented. The concept of atom, a great creation of the human mind, gave a direct, modern-like explanation of the world, at times in which the huge amount of experimental and theoretical information of today was not available. This lack proved not an impossible obstacle for ancient

Sotirios A. Sakkopoulos; Evagelos G. Vitoratos

1996-01-01

476

Money and its Uses in the Ancient Greek World  

Microsoft Academic Search

The papers in this volume re-assess the role of coined money in the ancient Greek world. Using new approaches, the book makes the results of numismatic as well as historical research accessible to students and scholars of ancient history. The chapters provide a wide-ranging account of the political, social, and economic contexts within which coined money was used. In Part

Coins

477

Design a Book: A Quest in Ancient Egypt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a classroom project that combines creative writing, basic book design, and social studies content. During this project, the authors' seventh grade students research a variety of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites while reviewing course material from a unit of study on ancient Egypt, practice project management skills…

Cooper, David

2005-01-01

478

Religiosity as a main element in the ancient Olympic Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this essay is to explore the factors which linked the ancient Olympic Games with the religious feelings and practices of ancient Greek society. From their origins in prehistoric times the games celebrated at Olympia were based on the religious traditions of the community and formed an integral part of the religious feelings and practices of the individual.

G. Papantoniou

2008-01-01

479

Evolution of Management Thought in the Ancient Times.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper argues that although systematic management thought is a distinctly modern development, the writings of ancient scholars and records of ancient rulers infer that they understood the rudiments of management principles and concepts. To support this thesis, the author reviews the evidence of management practices and concepts in various…

Sharma, C. L.

480

Purification and Properties of Hypoxically Induced Lactate Dehydrogenase from Barley Roots 1  

PubMed Central

Using Affigel Blue and oxamate-agarose affinity chromatography, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was purified 2000-fold from hypoxically induced barley roots. Molecular weights of the native and sodium dodecyl sulfate-denatured LDH protein were 157 and 40 kilodaltons, respectively, indicating a tetramer. Purified barley LDH was very similar in size and kinetic properties to potato LDH. However, their amino acid compositions differed substantially and antibodies raised against barley LDH did not cross-react with potato LDH on immunoblots, implying that the barley and potato LDHs are not closely related proteins. In vivo [35S] methionine labeling and immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that hypoxia increased the rate of LDH protein synthesis, and immunoblot analysis showed that LDH protein levels rose during hypoxia. We conclude that increased enzyme synthesis plays a major part in the induction of LDH enzyme activity by low O2 levels in barley roots. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7

Hoffman, Neil E.; Hanson, Andrew D.

1986-01-01

481

Early changes in protein expression of barley following inoculation with erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei  

SciTech Connect

Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei is an obligate pathogen of barley causing the powdery mildew disease. Resistance to this disease is the product of a highly specific interaction between barley lines with specific resistance alleles and pathogen races carrying complementary avirulence alleles. Using congenic barley lines which differ at the M1-a disease reaction locus, we hope to define the early molecular events of this interaction. Accordingly, resistant and susceptible barley seedlings were labelled with {sup 35}S-methionine and examined by two-dimensional electrophoresis at two hour intervals following inoculation. Infection related changes were observed with both isolines during the four to twelve hour time period. Additional differences existed constitutively between the barley lines. These differences have been quantified. Further characterization of these proteins will yield useful markers for events preceding or coinciding with cytological responses any may lead to identification and cloning of the M1-a gene.

Simons, S.P.; Somerville, S.C. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1989-04-01

482

3,4-Dihydroxybenzaldehyde purified from the barley seeds ( Hordeum vulgare) inhibits oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis via its antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley is a major crop worldwide. It has been reported that barley seeds have an effect on scavenging ROS. However, little has been known about the functional role of the barley on the inhibition of DNA damage and apoptosis by ROS. In this study, we purified 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde from the barley with silica gel column chromatography and HPLC and then identified

Jin Boo Jeong; Se Chul Hong; Hyung Jin Jeong

2009-01-01

483

Soluble sugar availability of aerobically germinated barley, oat and rice coleoptiles in anoxia.  

PubMed

Physiological and metabolic responses to anoxia were compared for aerobically germinated seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare), oat (Avena sativa) and rice (Oryza sativa). Coleoptile growth of barley, oat and rice seedlings was suppressed by a 24 h-anoxic stress, but the growth of the rice coleoptiles was much greater than that of the barley and oat coleoptiles. ATP concentration in the anoxic rice coleoptiles was greater than that in the anoxic barley and oat coleoptiles. Concentrations of ethanol and activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in the anoxic rice coleoptiles were also greater than those of the anoxic barley and oat coleoptiles, suggesting that ethanolic fermentation may be more active in the rice coleoptiles than in the barley and oat coleoptiles, where glycolysis and ethanolic fermentation are the main source of ATP production. Soluble sugar concentration in the anoxic rice coleoptiles was greater than that of the anoxic barley and oat coleoptiles. However, ?-amylase, which catabolizes reserve starch to soluble sugars, was active in anoxic barley, oat and rice endosperms, and soluble sugar concentration in the anoxic barley, oat and rice endosperms was not significantly different. Therefore, anoxia stress may inhibit soluble sugar transport from the endosperms to the coleoptiles in barley and oat more than in rice. Since the availability of soluble sugar is essential for operation of glycolysis and fermentation in plant cells, ability for sugar transport from the endosperms to the coleoptiles may be one means to distinguish the coleoptile growth of these plant species in anoxia and anoxia tolerance of these plants. PMID:20727618

Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Yasuda, Yukihiro; Sasaki, Ryosuke

2010-08-19

484

Legacy of the Ancient World: An Educational Guide. Understanding Ancient Culture through Art at the Tampa Museum of Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the many contributions made by Ancient Greeks and Romans to contemporary life, are those which influence art, architecture, literature, philosophy, mathematics and science, theater, athletics, religion, and the founding of democracy. The Tampa Museum of Art's classical collection offers a unique opportunity to learn about Ancient Greeks and…

Whitelaw, R. Lynn

485

Legacy of the Ancient World: An Educational Guide. Understanding Ancient Culture through Art at the Tampa Museum of Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Among the many contributions made by Ancient Greeks and Romans to contemporary life, are those which influence art, architecture, literature, philosophy, mathematics and science, theater, athletics, religion, and the founding of democracy. The Tampa Museum of Art's classical collection offers a unique opportunity to learn about Ancient Greeks and…

Whitelaw, R. Lynn

486

Ancient Forests and the Tree-Ring Reconstruction of Past Climate (Ancient Forests and Dendroclimatology)  

SciTech Connect

The original presettlement forests of North America have been dramatically altered, but thousands of unmolested ancient forests survive on remote or noncommercial terrain, including dry-site eastern hardwoods such as chestnut oak and post oak, the pinyon-juniper woodlands of the semiarid West, oak woodlands of California and in northeast Mexico, and the boreal forests of Canada and Alaska. Long tree-ring chronologies derived from these ancient forest remnants provide irreplaceable archives of environmental variability which are crucial for evaluating present and future change. Temperature sensitive tree -ring chronologies from cold treeline environments place 20th century warming into long historical perspective, and moisture sensitive tree-ring chronologies provide analogs to the decadal moisture regimes of the 20th century. These tree-ring data suggests that the 16th century megadrought was the most severe-sustained drought to impact North America in 1500 years, and had huge environmental and social impacts at the dawn of European settlement.

Stahle, David (Tree-Ring Laboratory, University of Arkansas)

2003-02-12

487

Elevated phosphorus impedes manganese acquisition by barley plants.  

PubMed

The occurrence of manganese (Mn) deficiency in cereal crops has increased in recent years. This coincides with increasing phosphorus (P) status of many soils due to application of high levels of animal manure and P-fertilizers. In order to test the hypothesis that elevated P my lead to Mn deficiency we have here conducted a series of hydroponics and soil experiments examining how the P supply affects the Mn nutrition of barley. Evidence for a direct negative interaction between P and Mn during root uptake was obtained by on-line inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Addition of a pulse of KH(2)PO(4) rapidly and significantly reduced root Mn uptake, while a similar concentration of KCl had no effect. Addition of a P pulse to the same nutrient solution without plants did not affect the concentration of Mn, revealing that no precipitation of Mn-P species was occurring. Barley plants growing at a high P supply in hydroponics with continuous replenishment of Mn(2+) had up to 50% lower Mn concentration in the youngest leaves than P limited plants. This P-induced depression of foliar Mn accelerated the development of Mn deficiency as evidenced by a marked change in the fluorescence induction kinetics of chlorophyll a. Also plants growing in soil exhibited lower leaf Mn concentrations in response to elevated P. In contrast, leaf concentrations of Fe, Cu, and N increased with the P supply, supporting that the negative effect of P on Mn acquisition was specific rather than due to a general dilution effect. It is concluded that elevated P supply directly interferes with Mn uptake in barley roots and that this negative interaction can induce Mn deficiency in the shoot. This finding has major implications in commercial plant production where many soils have high P levels. PMID:22639592

Pedas, Pai; Husted, Søren; Skytte, Kristian; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod

2011-08-05

488

Characterization of recombinant barley oxalate oxidase expressed by Pichia pastoris.  

PubMed

Oxalate oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of oxalate to carbon dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, making it useful for clinical analysis of oxalate in biological fluids. An artificial gene for barley oxalate oxidase has been used to produce functional recombinant enzyme in a Pichia pastoris heterologous expression system, yielding 250 mg of purified oxalate oxidase from 5 L of fermentation medium. The recombinant oxalate oxidase was expressed as a soluble, hexameric 140 kDa glycoprotein containing 0.2 g-atom Mn/monomer with a specific activity of 10 U/mg, similar to the properties reported for enzyme isolated from barley. No superoxide dismutase activity was detected in the recombinant oxalate oxidase. EPR spectra indicate that the majority of the manganese in the protein is present as Mn(II), and are consistent with the six-coordinate metal center reported in the recent X-ray crystal structure for barley oxalate oxidase. The EPR spectra change when bulky anions such as iodide bind, indicating conversion to a five-coordinate complex. Addition of oxalate perturbs the EPR spectrum of the Mn(II) sites, providing the first characterization of the substrate complex. The optical absorption spectrum of the concentrated protein contains features associated with a minor six-coordinate Mn(III) species, which disappears on addition of oxalate. EPR spin-trapping experiments indicate that carboxylate free radicals (CO2*-) are transiently produced by the enzyme in the presence of oxalate, most likely during reduction of the Mn(III) sites. These features are incorporated into a turnover mechanism for oxalate oxidase. PMID:11862550

Whittaker, Mei M; Whittaker, James W

2001-07-24

489

Elevated Phosphorus Impedes Manganese Acquisition by Barley Plants  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of manganese (Mn) deficiency in cereal crops has increased in recent years. This coincides with increasing phosphorus (P) status of many soils due to application of high levels of animal manure and P-fertilizers. In order to test the hypothesis that elevated P my lead to Mn deficiency we have here conducted a series of hydroponics and soil experiments examining how the P supply affects the Mn nutrition of barley. Evidence for a direct negative interaction between P and Mn during root uptake was obtained by on-line inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Addition of a pulse of KH2PO4 rapidly and significantly reduced root Mn uptake, while a similar concentration of KCl had no effect. Addition of a P pulse to the same nutrient solution without plants did not affect the concentration of Mn, revealing that no precipitation of Mn–P species was occurring. Barley plants growing at a high P supply in hydroponics with continuous replenishment of Mn2+ had up to 50% lower Mn concentration in the youngest leaves than P limited plants. This P-induced depression of foliar Mn accelerated the development of Mn deficiency as evidenced by a marked change in the fluorescence induction kinetics of chlorophyll a. Also plants growing in soil exhibited lower leaf Mn concentrations in response to elevated P. In contrast, leaf concentrations of Fe, Cu, and N increased with the P supply, supporting that the negative effect of P on Mn acquisition was specific rather than due to a general dilution effect. It is concluded that elevated P supply directly interferes with Mn uptake in barley roots and that this negative interaction can induce Mn deficiency in the shoot. This finding has major implications in commercial plant production where many soils have high P levels.

Pedas, Pai; Husted, S?ren; Skytte, Kristian; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod

2011-01-01

490

[The ancient Alexandria school of medicine].  

PubMed

A famous medical school was established in old Alexandria during the third century BC. Although mainly Greek in essence, and following the Hippocratic teachings, it was heavily tainted by the medical practices of ancient Egypt. Anatomy was particularly advanced due to the possibility of dissecting the human body. The most important Alexandrian physicians were Herophilus and Erasistratus. Many graduates of this medical school traveled and practiced throughout the Mediterranean basin. Galen, the famous Roman physician studied in Alexandria before practicing in Rome. His teachings and writings survived well into the sixteenth century and formed the basis of more modern medical practices during the renaissance. These writings were conserved partly by Christian monks and partly by Arab and Jewish scholars of the middle ages. The medical school of Alexandria was still active until late in the 3rd century AD. However, it slipped slowly into oblivion after the fire of 389 AD, which also devastated its famous library. PMID:11875862

Sallam, H N

2002-01-01

491

Asklepios: ancient hero of medical caring.  

PubMed

Western culture's demands of integrity, sacrifice, and compassion from its physician healers have roots in the mythic traditions of ancient Greece. By understanding these traditions, modern physicians can better understand their patients' expectations and the high expectations physicians often have for themselves. The mythic figure Asklepios was the focus of Greek and Roman medical tradition from approximately 1500 BC to 500 AD. As a physician-hero, Asklepios exemplified the ideal physician and the pitfalls he or she may face. With the progressive deification of Asklepios and the spread of his worship first in Greece and then in the Roman empire, Asklepios became generally recognized as the god of healing and served as an object of supplication, particularly for the poor and disregarded. Asklepian traditions for medical service provide historical insight into the role of modern physicians and their obligations to care for the underserved. PMID:8534003

Bailey, J E

1996-01-15

492

Ancient Near East and the Mediterranean World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the University of Chicago Library and funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities, this online project contains numerous primary materials related to the study of the ancient Near East and covers topics ranging from archaeology; art history; language; law; and the religions of Sumer, Babylonia, Assyria, Egypt, Nubia, and Persia. Currently, the project includes full-text editions of 33 seminal works in the field, including works on Greek athletics and the exploration of Palestine during the first decade of the 20th century. For those seeking to read them in their language of origin, several of the texts are also available in the original French and German. This site will be of great interest to persons hoping to look through primary research texts, but find themselves unable to make a trip to the University of Chicago Library.

493

Ancient asteroids enriched in refractory inclusions.  

PubMed

Calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) occur in all classes of chondritic meteorites and contain refractory minerals predicted to be the first condensates from the solar nebula. Near-infrared spectra of CAIs have strong 2-micrometer absorptions, attributed to iron oxide-bearing aluminous spinel. Similar absorptions are present in the telescopic spectra of several asteroids; modeling indicates that these contain approximately 30 +/- 10% CAIs (two to three times that of any meteorite). Survival of these undifferentiated, large (50- to 100-kilometer diameter) CAI-rich bodies suggests that they may have formed before the injection of radiogenic 26Al into the solar system. They have also experienced only modest post-accretionary alteration. Thus, these asteroids have higher concentrations of CAI material, appear less altered, and are more ancient than any known sample in our meteorite collection, making them prime candidates for sample return. PMID:18356491

Sunshine, J M; Connolly, H C; McCoy, T J; Bus, S J; La Croix, L M

2008-03-20

494

Ancient Maya astronomical tables from Xultun, Guatemala.  

PubMed

Maya astronomical tables are recognized in bark-paper books from the Late Postclassic period (1300 to 1521 C.E.), but Classic period (200 to 900 C.E.) precursors have not been found. In 2011, a small painted room was excavated at the extensive ancient Maya ruins of Xultun, Guatemala, dating to the early 9th century C.E. The walls and ceiling of the room are painted with several human figures. Two walls also display a large number of delicate black, red, and incised hieroglyphs. Many of these hieroglyphs are calendrical in nature and relate astronomical computations, including at least two tables concerning the movement of the Moon, and perhaps Mars and Venus. These apparently represent early astronomical tables and may shed light on the later books. PMID:22582260

Saturno, William A; Stuart, David; Aveni, Anthony F; Rossi, Franco

2012-05-11

495

Phobias in Poetry: Coleridge's Ancient Mariner.  

PubMed

The Rime of the Ancient Mariner was written by Coleridge and is a classic poetry about retribution, punishment, guilt, and curse. Religious beliefs and delusions can arise from neurologic lesions and anomalous experiences, suggesting that at least some religious beliefs can be pathological. Looking at the poem through the psychiatric and psychological domain, the symbolism, the narration and the entire setting of the poem represents Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Mariner's reactions are beautifully portrayed from the psychoanalytic point of view and the literary piece shows claustrophobia, stygiophobia, dikephobia, and poinephobia. The mental stress of a person under a crisis situation has remarkably been evoked in this poem. This incredible piece of art expresses how the realization of divine love within oneself has the power to heal pain and suffer. PMID:23162202

Singh, Satendra; Khetarpal, Abha

2012-04-01

496

Recognition of dementia in ancient China.  

PubMed

A search of previous records in the literatures was done to summarize the opinions for dementia in ancient China. The earliest description of dementia was traced in the Yellow emperor's internal classic, a book written 2000 years ago. Hua Tuo (AD 140-208) in Han Dynasty first denominated "dementia" in the book, Hua Tuo Shen Yi Mi Zhuan. The pathogenesis of dementia could be generalized as the insufficiency of Qi, a flowing energy; the stagnation of phlegm, a harmful liquid substance in the body; and the blood stasis, which were also regarded as therapeutic targets. Therefore, we can conclude that dementia has been recognized and investigated in traditional Chinese medicine, which is definitely before the industrial civilization era. PMID:22835605

Liu, Jia; Wang, Lu-Ning; Tian, Jin-Zhou

2012-07-24

497

Was the Ancient Geomagnetic Field Dipolar?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most useful assumptions in paleomagnetism is that the time-averaged geomagnetic field is closely approximated by a geocentric axial dipole (GAD). This has been found to be true for at least the last 5 million years with the largest non-GAD contribution to the spherical harmonic expansion generally being of the order of 5%. For the more ancient past, it is difficult to test the GAD (or any other field) hypothesis owing to plate motions, rock deformation and accumulating problems of overprinting. Although most paleomagnetic studies make the implicit assumption of a GAD field, several recent studies have called the essential GAD nature of the ancient field into question and have suggested large (up to 20%) contributions of the axial octupolar term to the geocentric axial dipole in the spherical harmonic expansion even in the Cenozoic. In this paper, we develop a new statistical model for the geomagnetic field to diagnose directional dispersion resulting from sedimentary inclination error, a widespread process that plausibly explains many of the observed discrepancies from the GAD field hypothesis. We also present a methodology to correct the resulting persistent shallow bias. Application of this technique to one of the few published studies from the Cenozoic of Asia with adequate data shows that the reported discrepancies from a GAD field in this region are most probably due to sedimentary inclination error rather than a non-GAD field geometry or undetected crustal shortening. Although non-GAD fields cannot in general be strongly rejected (actually, only GAD is a well posed and testable, i.e., refutable, hypothesis), the principle of least astonishment requires us to consider plausible geological mechanisms such as sedimentary inclination error as the cause of persistent shallow bias prior to the very ``expensive" option of throwing out the GAD hypothesis.

Tauxe, L.; Kent, D. V.

2003-12-01

498

Creating cometary models using ancient Chinese data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than two millennia, Chinese court astronomers maintained a rather comprehensive record of cometary sightings. Owing to the significance of comets as portents for the reigning emperor, early sky watchers from China (as well as their counterparts from Korea and Japan) carefully noted each cometary apparition for the purpose of astrological predictions. The dates and corresponding celestial locations and motions were usually recorded and in some cases, the colors, coma sizes, and tail lengths were also noted. These ancient observations represent the only source of information available for modeling the long-term behavior of periodic comets. For comets Halley and Swift-Tuttle, Chinese records have been identified as far back as 240 B.C. and 69 B.C. respectively and these data have been used to define their long-term motions. As a result, heliocentric and geocentric distances for each Chinese sighting of these two comets can be computed and estimates can be made for each comet's intrinsic brightness at various observed returns. Although the earliest identified apparition of comet Tempel-Tuttle is A.D. 1366, the associated Leonid meteor showers were noted back to at least A.D. 902. The Leonid meteor stream is young in the sense that outstanding meteor displays occur only near the time of the parent comet's perihelion passages. The ancient Chinese records of the Leonid meteor showers and storms have been used to map the particle distribution around the parent comet and this information was used to guide predictions for the 1998-1999 Leonid meteor showers.

Yeomans, D. K.

499

Roberts Victor eclogites: ancient oceanic crust  

SciTech Connect

New data on the oxygen isotopic chemistry of the oceanic crust and ophiolites illustrate the role of circulating seawater in changing the chemistry of aging oceanic crust. A similar range of oxygen isotope ratios in the eclogites suggests a comparable origin. The interpretation is consistent with the following observations: Whole rocks values of S /sup 18/O are negatively correlated with both the /sup 87///sup 86/Sr and K content. The internal whole rock correlations may be explained as a series of rocks that have undergone varying degrees of alteration on an ancient sea floor. Whole rock chemistry when recalculated to 1 atm. norms and compared with 1 atm. liquidus diagrams indicate two different groups of eclogites. One group has trends that are comparable to a series of liquids formed by the fractional crystallization of olivine followed by plagioclase and clinopyroxene while the other group correlate with cumulate assemblages of gabbroic composition. The REE chemistry of separated garnets and clinopyroxenes and whole rocks allow recalculation of the chemistry of the intergranular material which is significantly LREE enriched. K, Rb, Li and Ti are similarly enriched. The intergranular chemistry compares favorably with that of hypothesized mantle metasomatising fluids and is interpreted to evolve during the metamorphic transition to eclogite assemblages during subduction. The data allow for the interpretation that the Roberts Victor eclogite are relicts of at least 3.2 b.y. old oceanic crust and that the two different groups separately represent the volcanic and gabbroic rocks of the upper part of the ancient oceanic lithosphere.

MacGregor, I.D.

1985-01-01

500

Assessment of genetic diversity by simple sequence repeat markers among forty elite varieties in the germplasm for malting barley breeding*  

PubMed Central

The genetic diversity and relationship among 40 elite barley varieties were analyzed based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) genotyping data. The amplified fragments from SSR primers were highly polymorphic in the barley accessions investigated. A total of 85 alleles were detected at 35 SSR loci, and allelic variations existed at 29 SSR loci. The allele number per locus ranged from 1 to 5 with an average of 2.4 alleles per locus detected from the 40 barley accessions. A cluster analysis based on the genetic similarity coefficients was conducted and the 40 varieties were classified into two groups. Seven malting barley varieties from China fell into the same subgroup. It was found that the genetic diversity within the Chinese malting barley varieties was narrower than that in other barley germplasm sources, suggesting the importance and feasibility of introducing elite genotypes from different origins for malting barley breeding in China.

Wang, Jun-mei; Yang, Jian-ming; Zhu, Jing-huan; Jia, Qiao-jun; Tao, Yue-zhi

2010-01-01