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Ancient DNA from Nubian and Somali wild ass provides insights into donkey ancestry and domestication  

PubMed Central

Genetic data from extant donkeys (Equus asinus) have revealed two distinct mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, suggestive of two separate domestication events in northeast Africa about 5000 years ago. Without distinct phylogeographic structure in domestic donkey haplogroups and with little information on the genetic makeup of the ancestral African wild ass, however, it has been difficult to identify wild ancestors and geographical origins for the domestic mitochondrial clades. Our analysis of ancient archaeological and historic museum samples provides the first genetic information on the historic Nubian wild ass (Equus africanus africanus), Somali wild ass (Equus africanus somaliensis) and ancient donkey. The results demonstrate that the Nubian wild ass was an ancestor of the first donkey haplogroup. In contrast, the Somali wild ass has considerable mitochondrial divergence from the Nubian wild ass and domestic donkeys. These findings resolve the long-standing issue of the role of the Nubian wild ass in the domestication of the donkey, but raise new questions regarding the second ancestor for the donkey. Our results illustrate the complexity of animal domestication, and have conservation implications for critically endangered Nubian and Somali wild ass. PMID:20667880

Kimura, Birgitta; Marshall, Fiona B.; Chen, Shanyuan; Rosenbom, Sónia; Moehlman, Patricia D.; Tuross, Noreen; Sabin, Richard C.; Peters, Joris; Barich, Barbara; Yohannes, Hagos; Kebede, Fanuel; Teclai, Redae; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Mulligan, Connie J.




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The U.S. malting and brewing industries are America’s largest consumers of barley, purchasing more than one-half of the U.S. barley grain crop. More than 70% of the hectares seeded to barley are seeded to cultivars recommended by the American Malting Barley Association (AMBA). The malting and brewi...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter is part of a series reviewing advances in transgenic crop plants. The chapter covers advances in barley transformation. Conventional and biotechnological approaches to barley improvement are discussed. Experiments conducted around the world to improve barley food, feed and malting ...


Barley Oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an ancient grain that has was domesticated for use as a food. Currently only about 2% is used for food, about two thirds is used for animal feed and one third for malting. Because the oil content of most barley cultivars is low (<2%), obtaining oil from whole barley gra...


Lesson Plan: Ancient Nubia Inquiry Lesson.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this lesson plan, students (grades 11-12) examine photographs of the Nubian environment and the Nubian people. Students critically examine artifacts of ancient Nubia and write a two page essay outlining the Nubian environment, describing the Nubia people, and explaining how they adapted physically, materially, politically, and intellectually to…

Stanik, Joseph T.


Drought stress variability in ancient Near Eastern agricultural systems evidenced by ?13C in barley grain  

PubMed Central

The collapse and resilience of political systems in the ancient Near East and their relationship with agricultural development have been of wide interest in archaeology and anthropology. Despite attempts to link the archaeological evidence to local paleoclimate data, the precise role of environmental conditions in ancient agricultural production remains poorly understood. Recently, stable isotope analysis has been used for reconstructing site-specific ancient growing conditions for crop species in semiarid and arid landscapes. To open the discussion of the role of regional diversity in past agricultural production as a factor in societal development, we present 1.037 new stable carbon isotope measurements from 33 archaeological sites and modern fields in the geographic area of the Fertile Crescent, spanning the Aceramic Neolithic [10,000 calibrated years (cal) B.C.] to the later Iron Age (500 cal B.C.), alongside modern data from 13 locations. Our data show that drought stress was an issue in many agricultural settlements in the ancient Near East, particularly in correlation with the major Holocene climatic fluctuations, but its regional impact was diverse and influenced by geographic factors. Although cereals growing in the coastal areas of the northern Levant were relatively unaffected by Holocene climatic fluctuations, farmers of regions further inland had to apply irrigation to cope with increased water stress. However, inland agricultural strategies showed a high degree of variability. Our findings suggest that regional differences in climatic effects led to diversified strategies in ancient subsistence and economy even within spatially limited cultural units. PMID:25114225

Riehl, Simone; Pustovoytov, Konstantin E.; Weippert, Heike; Klett, Stefan; Hole, Frank



Drought stress variability in ancient Near Eastern agricultural systems evidenced by ?13C in barley grain.  


The collapse and resilience of political systems in the ancient Near East and their relationship with agricultural development have been of wide interest in archaeology and anthropology. Despite attempts to link the archaeological evidence to local paleoclimate data, the precise role of environmental conditions in ancient agricultural production remains poorly understood. Recently, stable isotope analysis has been used for reconstructing site-specific ancient growing conditions for crop species in semiarid and arid landscapes. To open the discussion of the role of regional diversity in past agricultural production as a factor in societal development, we present 1.037 new stable carbon isotope measurements from 33 archaeological sites and modern fields in the geographic area of the Fertile Crescent, spanning the Aceramic Neolithic [10,000 calibrated years (cal) B.C.] to the later Iron Age (500 cal B.C.), alongside modern data from 13 locations. Our data show that drought stress was an issue in many agricultural settlements in the ancient Near East, particularly in correlation with the major Holocene climatic fluctuations, but its regional impact was diverse and influenced by geographic factors. Although cereals growing in the coastal areas of the northern Levant were relatively unaffected by Holocene climatic fluctuations, farmers of regions further inland had to apply irrigation to cope with increased water stress. However, inland agricultural strategies showed a high degree of variability. Our findings suggest that regional differences in climatic effects led to diversified strategies in ancient subsistence and economy even within spatially limited cultural units. PMID:25114225

Riehl, Simone; Pustovoytov, Konstantin E; Weippert, Heike; Klett, Stefan; Hole, Frank



A complete ancient RNA genome: identification, reconstruction and evolutionary history of archaeological Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus  

PubMed Central

The origins of many plant diseases appear to be recent and associated with the rise of domestication, the spread of agriculture or recent global movements of crops. Distinguishing between these possibilities is problematic because of the difficulty of determining rates of molecular evolution over short time frames. Heterochronous approaches using recent and historical samples show that plant viruses exhibit highly variable and often rapid rates of molecular evolution. The accuracy of estimated evolution rates and age of origin can be greatly improved with the inclusion of older molecular data from archaeological material. Here we present the first reconstruction of an archaeological RNA genome, which is of Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus (BSMV) isolated from barley grain ~750 years of age. Phylogenetic analysis of BSMV that includes this genome indicates the divergence of BSMV and its closest relative prior to this time, most likely around 2000 years ago. However, exclusion of the archaeological data results in an apparently much more recent origin of the virus that postdates even the archaeological sample. We conclude that this viral lineage originated in the Near East or North Africa, and spread to North America and East Asia with their hosts along historical trade routes. PMID:24499968

Smith, Oliver; Clapham, Alan; Rose, Pam; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Allaby, Robin G.



Studying ancient crop provenance: implications from ?(13)C and ?(15)N values of charred barley in a Middle Bronze Age silo at Ebla(NW Syria).  


The discovery of a storeroom full of barley and other cereals (L.9512) in the proto-historic site of Ebla has provided a unique opportunity to study the centralized storage system of the early city-state from a different perspective. Epigraphic evidence available within the site reveals a complex system of taxation which included gathering grain tributes from satellite sites and redistributing semi-finished products such as flour. In this paper, we intend to explore the possibilities of a combined approach to studying the storage system, based on estimated barley grain volumes and ?(13)C-?(15)N analyses. This approach is used to distinguish between grain from different harvesting sites and to identify any grain cultivated using special agricultural practices (e.g. manuring or irrigation). The basic assumption for this kind of analysis is that the growth-site conditions, natural or anthropogenic, of harvested cereals are reflected in their grain size and ?(13)C-?(15)N values. Since the remains found in the storeroom were charred, the first task was to evaluate the effect of carbonization on the ?(13)C-?(15)N and the size of the grains. Thus, the effect of charring was tested on modern samples of Syrian barley landraces. Once it had been ascertained that fresh grains reduced to charred remains retain their original biometric and isotopic traits, the ancient material was examined. Thirteen groups were identified, each characterized by a specific average volume and specific carbon and nitrogen values. The analysis revealed that what had first appeared to be a homogeneous concentration of grain was in fact an assemblage of barley harvested from different sites. PMID:22223320

Fiorentino, Girolamo; Caracuta, Valentina; Casiello, Grazia; Longobardi, Francesco; Sacco, Antonio



Nubian Complex strategies in the Egyptian high desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systematic survey by the Abydos Survey for Paleolithic Sites project has recorded Nubian Complex artifact density, distribution, typology, and technology across the high desert landscape west of the Nile Valley in Middle Egypt. Our work contrasts with previous investigations of Nubian Complex settlement systems in Egypt, which focused on a small number of sites in the terraces of the Nile

Deborah I. Olszewski; Harold L. Dibble; Shannon P. McPherron; Utsav A. Schurmans; Laurent Chiotti; Jennifer R. Smith



Nubian Complex strategies in the Egyptian high desert.  


Systematic survey by the Abydos Survey for Paleolithic Sites project has recorded Nubian Complex artifact density, distribution, typology, and technology across the high desert landscape west of the Nile Valley in Middle Egypt. Our work contrasts with previous investigations of Nubian Complex settlement systems in Egypt, which focused on a small number of sites in the terraces of the Nile Valley, the desert oases, and the Red Sea Mountains. Earlier research interpreted the Nubian Complex, in particular, as a radiating settlement system that incorporated a specialized point production. Our high desert data, however, indicate that the Nubian Complex associated with early modern humans in this region of the high desert reflects a circulating, rather than a radiating, settlement system, and that point production has been over-emphasized. Data available from our work, as well as sites investigated by others, do not conclusively identify Nubian Complex behavioral strategies as modern. These data, however, do contribute to the understanding of landscape use by early modern human populations living along the Nile Valley Corridor route out of Africa. PMID:20659756

Olszewski, Deborah I; Dibble, Harold L; McPherron, Shannon P; Schurmans, Utsav A; Chiotti, Laurent; Smith, Jennifer R



Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.  


Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming. PMID:24084493

Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr



Barley stripe mosaic and Barley yellow stripe  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley stripe mosaic was described in Wisconsin as "barley false stripe" in 1910, making it perhaps the first cereal virus disease described in the United States. The disease has been reported from most barley-producing areas of the world, including North and South America, Asia, Africa, Europe, an...


Reproductive doe traits of the Nubian (Zaraibi) goats in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nubian does from the hot arid climate of upper Egypt were evaluated for productive and reproductive traits under Nile Delta (lower Egypt) conditions. The mean values for age at first kidding, abortion rate, and mortality rate were 691 days, 1.4 and 26.8%, respectively. Corresponding values for litter size at birth and weaning were 2.9 and 2.3 kids, respectively, and for

I. F. M Marai; E. I Abou-Fandoud; A. H Daader; A. A Abu-Ella



Resistance to Arranged Marriage among Nubian Youth: Ideology and Changing Times  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will focus on changes in the custom of arranged marriage among the Egyptian Nubians living near the town of Aswan, in southern Egypt. I lived among them in the village of West Aswan in 1981?1982 and again in 1986?1987. Additional fieldwork was conducted during shorter stays in 1992 and 1997. In traditional Nubian village society, arranged marriages were

Anne M. Jennings



Effects of intrauterine infection by Staphylococcus aureus and Mycoplasma capricolum on the fertility of Nubian goats  

E-print Network

on the fertility of Nubian goats A. A. SHALLALI, A. M. HOMEIDA E. A. DAFALLA Central Veterinary Research Laboratory of mature female Nubian goats. Two groups of 4 and 3 goats each were experimentally infected by an in utero group of 4 goats served as a control. Both bacterial infections persisted in all experimental animals

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Ancient Rome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this internet project is to help students learn more about nine aspects of ancient Rome. These nine aspects will be of the student's own choosing. I have listed three websites that contain large amounts of information about Ancient Rome. Fill in the three handouts I give you, using information of your choice from the three websites. This is what the three handouts look like: Mr. Donn's Ancient History Click on Mr. Donn s Ancient History, then click on Rome. Scroll ...

Mrs. Murray



Association genetics in barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Applied and basic barley geneticists have begun to use association genetics as a tool to identify and fine map polymorphisms directly in breeding populations or diversity panels. Barley presents an ideal system because its populations present different extents of LD, from long-range LD in elite cult...


Barley Production in Texas.  

E-print Network

. No recent feeding trials of barley have been made by the Texas Experi- ment Station but frequent analysis of barley grown in the state show that it is nearly equal to corn in feeding value. It is higher in protein, ash, and crude fibre; but lower... in nitrogen free extract and productive energy per 100 pounds of feed. The analysis of barley and several other grains as given in Texas Bulletin Number 461, "The Composition and Utilization of Texas Feeding Stuffs," are given in table 2. Table 2. Analysi...

Dunkle, P. B. (Paul Burtch); Atkins, Irvin Milburn



Conserved Transcriptional Regulatory Programs Underlying Rice and Barley Germination  

PubMed Central

Germination is a biological process important to plant development and agricultural production. Barley and rice diverged 50 million years ago, but share a similar germination process. To gain insight into the conservation of their underlying gene regulatory programs, we compared transcriptomes of barley and rice at start, middle and end points of germination, and revealed that germination regulated barley and rice genes (BRs) diverged significantly in expression patterns and/or protein sequences. However, BRs with higher protein sequence similarity tended to have more conserved expression patterns. We identified and characterized 316 sets of conserved barley and rice genes (cBRs) with high similarity in both protein sequences and expression patterns, and provided a comprehensive depiction of the transcriptional regulatory program conserved in barley and rice germination at gene, pathway and systems levels. The cBRs encoded proteins involved in a variety of biological pathways and had a wide range of expression patterns. The cBRs encoding key regulatory components in signaling pathways often had diverse expression patterns. Early germination up-regulation of cell wall metabolic pathway and peroxidases, and late germination up-regulation of chromatin structure and remodeling pathways were conserved in both barley and rice. Protein sequence and expression pattern of a gene change quickly if it is not subjected to a functional constraint. Preserving germination-regulated expression patterns and protein sequences of those cBRs for 50 million years strongly suggests that the cBRs are functionally significant and equivalent in germination, and contribute to the ancient characteristics of germination preserved in barley and rice. The functional significance and equivalence of the cBR genes predicted here can serve as a foundation to further characterize their biological functions and facilitate bridging rice and barley germination research with greater confidence. PMID:24558366

Lin, Li; Tian, Shulan; Kaeppler, Shawn; Liu, Zongrang; An, Yong-Qiang (Charles)



Ancient Astronomers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Conduct research on how different ancient peoples used astronomy. Please answer the questions under each ancient people in your journals. Try to include illustrations to help your understanding. Utah State Core: Standard 1 - Students will gain an understanding of early civilizations and their contributions to the foundations of human culture. Objective 2 - Assess the impact of geography on the locations of early civilizations.

Mr. Myers



Ancient DNA  

PubMed Central

In the past two decades, ancient DNA research has progressed from the retrieval of small fragments of mitochondrial DNA from a few late Holocene specimens, to large-scale studies of ancient populations, phenotypically important nuclear loci, and even whole mitochondrial genome sequences of extinct species. However, the field is still regularly marred by erroneous reports, which underestimate the extent of contamination within laboratories and samples themselves. An improved understanding of these processes and the effects of damage on ancient DNA templates has started to provide a more robust basis for research. Recent methodological advances have included the characterization of Pleistocene mammal populations and discoveries of DNA preserved in ancient sediments. Increasingly, ancient genetic information is providing a unique means to test assumptions used in evolutionary and population genetics studies to reconstruct the past. Initial results have revealed surprisingly complex population histories, and indicate that modern phylogeographic studies may give misleading impressions about even the recent evolutionary past. With the advent and uptake of appropriate methodologies, ancient DNA is now positioned to become a powerful tool in biological research and is also evolving new and unexpected uses, such as in the search for extinct or extant life in the deep biosphere and on other planets. PMID:15875564

Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan



Barley tortillas and barley flours in corn tortillas  

E-print Network

and required more force to rupture. Barley flours were also substituted at 10 to 25% in corn tortillas. As barley flours increased in the formulation, tortilla extensibility improved. Color was not affected, dietary fiber was increased and a slight off...

Mitre-Dieste, Carlos Marcelo




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley, an important member of the cereals, has been successfully transformed through various methods such as particle bombardment, Agrobacterium-tumefaciens, DNA uptake, and electroporation. Initially, the transformation in barley concentrated on developing protocols using marker genes such as gus,...


Ediacaran terrane accretion within the ArabianNubian Shield Grant M. Cox a,  

E-print Network

Arabia c Western Australia Argon lsotope Facility, Department of Applied Geology and John de Laeter, University of Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia b Saudi Geological Survey, P.O. Box 54141, Jiddah 21514, Saudi 22 February 2011 Available online 5 March 2011 Keywords: Arabian Nubian Shield Ediacaran Saudi Arabia


Patch use, apprehension, and vigilance behavior of Nubian Ibex under perceived risk of predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraging theory predicts that animals will sacrifice feeding effort in order to reduce predation risk. Once a forager chooses a habitat, it must decide how to allocate its foraging effort. Nubian Ibex are diurnal, social, cliff-dwelling herbivores. Many of their characteristics seem to have evolved as responses to predation risk. In order to assess the effects that perceived risk of

Valeria Hochman; Burt P. Kotler




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley yellow streak mosaic virus (BaYSMV) was discovered in barley from Montana, U.S.A. in 1982, and later reported in several western states, Alaska, and Alberta, Canada. Barley plants show chlorotic streaks, stripes, and dashes parallel to the leaf veins and varying degrees of stunting; increased...


Barley peroxidase isozymes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirteen peroxidase spots on two-dimensional gels were identified by comprehensive proteome analysis of the barley seed. Mass spectrometry tracked multiple forms of three different peroxidase isozymes: barley seed peroxidase 1, barley seed-specific peroxidase BP1 and a not previously identified putative barley peroxidase. The presence of multiple spots for each of the isozymes reflected variations in post-translational glycosylation and protein truncation. Complete sequence coverage was achieved by using a series of proteases and chromatographic resins for sample preparation prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Distinct peroxidase spot patterns divided the 16 cultivars tested into two groups. The distribution of the three isozymes in different seed tissues (endosperm, embryo, and aleurone layer) suggested the peroxidases to play individual albeit partially overlapping roles during germination. In summary, a subset of three peroxidase isozymes was found to occur in the seed, whereas products of four other barley peroxidase genes were not detected. The present analysis documents the selective expression profiles and post-translational modifications of isozymes from a large plant gene family.

Laugesen, Sabrina; Bak-Jensen, Kristian Sass; Hägglund, Per; Henriksen, Anette; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Roepstorff, Peter




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore the rich history of Ancient China. Part 1 Lets start by looking at some of the famous Dynasties. Choose three from the list below. Make sure you take good notes. I want you to decide what is important, but whatever you choose make sure it is the same for all three. Good ...




Ancient genomics.  


The past decade has witnessed a revolution in ancient DNA (aDNA) research. Although the field's focus was previously limited to mitochondrial DNA and a few nuclear markers, whole genome sequences from the deep past can now be retrieved. This breakthrough is tightly connected to the massive sequence throughput of next generation sequencing platforms and the ability to target short and degraded DNA molecules. Many ancient specimens previously unsuitable for DNA analyses because of extensive degradation can now successfully be used as source materials. Additionally, the analytical power obtained by increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans, archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when testing specific hypotheses related to the past. PMID:25487338

Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten E; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Barnett, Ross; Campos, Paula F; Cappellini, Enrico; Ermini, Luca; Fernández, Ruth; da Fonseca, Rute; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Hansen, Anders J; Jónsson, Hákon; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Margaryan, Ashot; Martin, Michael D; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Raghavan, Maanasa; Rasmussen, Morten; Velasco, Marcela Sandoval; Schroeder, Hannes; Schubert, Mikkel; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Wales, Nathan; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic



Ancient genomics  

PubMed Central

The past decade has witnessed a revolution in ancient DNA (aDNA) research. Although the field's focus was previously limited to mitochondrial DNA and a few nuclear markers, whole genome sequences from the deep past can now be retrieved. This breakthrough is tightly connected to the massive sequence throughput of next generation sequencing platforms and the ability to target short and degraded DNA molecules. Many ancient specimens previously unsuitable for DNA analyses because of extensive degradation can now successfully be used as source materials. Additionally, the analytical power obtained by increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans, archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when testing specific hypotheses related to the past. PMID:25487338

Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten E.; Ávila-Arcos, María C.; Barnett, Ross; Campos, Paula F.; Cappellini, Enrico; Ermini, Luca; Fernández, Ruth; da Fonseca, Rute; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Hansen, Anders J.; Jónsson, Hákon; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Margaryan, Ashot; Martin, Michael D.; Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Raghavan, Maanasa; Rasmussen, Morten; Velasco, Marcela Sandoval; Schroeder, Hannes; Schubert, Mikkel; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Wales, Nathan; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic



Ancient China  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This excellent interactive site, produced by the British Museum, contains a wealth of information about ancient China. Explorers can follow any of five links that cover major sections of the website, including Crafts and Artisans, Geography, and Tombs and Ancestors. Each section contains historical information in the topical area and Story, Explore and Challenge links. The Challenge links are especially useful for classroom activities.


Barley Yellow Dwarf  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley yellow dwarf is the most economically important virus disease affecting most cereal crops world wide. This manuscript summarizes the current knowledge of the disease etiology, epidemiology and management. This information is incorporated into the latest revision of the American Phytopathologi...


Malting Barley Characteristics  

E-print Network

Malting Barley Characteristics for Craft Brewers Executive Summary The brewing industry is evolving.S. brewing industry is currently undergoing profound and lasting structural change. Craft brewers for a growing brewing Industry. Nonetheless, prior to the advent of craft brewery companies in the late 1970s


Mushroom Barley Soup Ingredients  

E-print Network

Mushroom Barley Soup Ingredients: 1 tablespoon oil 1 onion 2 celery stalks 2 carrots 2 cups of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Run under water to remove any dirt. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side on the cutting board. Slice across the onion, from one side to the other

Liskiewicz, Maciej



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Herald' (Reg. No. xxx, P.I. 642403 ) is a low-phytate six-rowed spring feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar developed cooperatively and released in 2006 by the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. It is the first released...


Registration of Endeavor Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Endeavor’ (Reg. No. ______PI 654824); a two-rowed winter malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed and submitted for release in 2007 by the Agricultural Research Service-USDA, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Endeavor is a selection...


Registration of ‘Tetonia’ barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Tetonia’, a spring two-rowed feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed by the Agricultural Research Service-USDA, Aberdeen, ID in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agriculture Experiment Station. Tetonia has performed particularly well in trials at the University of Idaho experiment sta...


Ancient Greece  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented with a physical relief map of Greece and its many islands, visitors to the homepage of this site will then be treated to a range of material objects, ranging from masks, urns, and stone tablets. All of these items are part of the British Museumâ??s vast holdings of materials from ancient Greece, and brought together, they constitute the online website titled â??Ancient Greeceâ?. Previous online collections have presented material from other civilizations, and this assemblage is divided into traditional sections that include geography, time, war, and Athens. While many of the sections follow traditional online collection conventions, there are a number of splendid Flash-enabled features that present a day in the life of the city of Athens, and of course, Platoâ??s immortal cave.



Uranium isotopic study of artesian and pluvial contributions to the Nubian Aquifer, Western Desert, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The groundwater systems of the Nubian Aquifer beneath six major oases (Baris, Kharga, Dakhla, Farafra, Bahariya, and Siwa) in the Western Desert of Egypt have been studied to establish their sources and mixing volumes using uranium isotopes. One hundred six groundwater samples from different depths of the Nubian Aquifer have been analyzed for uranium content and 234U/ 238U activity ratio (AR). The aquifer under the Western Desert is known to have more than one source of water. At Bahariya and Farafra Oases, the Nubian artesian water migrating from the south has been augmented by local recharge during pluvial times. At Siwa Oasis in the northwestern desert, a shallower aquifer component migrating from the north or west is also present. At Dakhla, Kharga and Baris Oases in the southwestern desert, the main source is the Nubian artesian water migrating from southeast Uweinat Upland and northwest Sudan. These water masses have distinctive uranium isotopic signatures. The Nubian Aquifer water is characterized by very low U concentrations (<0.05 ppb) and a relatively high 234U/ 238U AR (>1.5). The shallow northwest aquifer water also has a high AR but a much higher U concentration. The locally recharged pluvial waters have high U concentrations (>0.1 ppb) but low ARs, near unity. A diagnostic derivative parameter is excess 234U content. The deep Nubian Aquifer water is characterized by a relatively low excess 234U (<0.02 ppb equivalent), while the shallow Siwa water has a very high excess 234U [(AR-1)(U conc.)]. The Bahariya and Farafara waters are also high in this component, probably because of pluvial water percolation through phosphate rich strata. At all oases, U isotopic mixing diagrams show that the deep aquifer sources predominate; however, the pluvial contributions are significant, ranging from about 5% at remote Baris Oasis to about 26% at the more northerly Farafra Oasis. The observed lowering of potentiometric surfaces in the Western Desert is caused not only by pumping at a rate greater than inflow from the aquifer systems, but also by the withdrawal of pluvial water which in modern times is not being replaced at all.

Dabous, A. A.; Osmond, J. K.



Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian shield of Northeastern Sudan using thematic mapper imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bechtel is nearing completion of a one-year program that uses digitally enhanced LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data to compile the first comprehensive regional tectonic map of the Proterozoic Nubian Shield exposed in the northern Red Sea Hills of northeastern Sudan. The status of significant objectives of this study are given. Pertinent published and unpublished geologic literature and maps of the northern Red Sea Hills to establish the geologic framework of the region were reviewed. Thematic mapper imagery for optimal base-map enhancements was processed. Photo mosaics of enhanced images to serve as base maps for compilation of geologic information were completed. Interpretation of TM imagery to define and delineate structural and lithogologic provinces was completed. Geologic information (petrologic, and radiometric data) was compiled from the literature review onto base-map overlays. Evaluation of the tectonic evolution of the Nubian Shield based on the image interpretation and the compiled tectonic maps is continuing.



The Nubian Complex of Dhofar, Oman: An African Middle Stone Age Industry in Southern Arabia  

PubMed Central

Despite the numerous studies proposing early human population expansions from Africa into Arabia during the Late Pleistocene, no archaeological sites have yet been discovered in Arabia that resemble a specific African industry, which would indicate demographic exchange across the Red Sea. Here we report the discovery of a buried site and more than 100 new surface scatters in the Dhofar region of Oman belonging to a regionally-specific African lithic industry - the late Nubian Complex - known previously only from the northeast and Horn of Africa during Marine Isotope Stage 5, ?128,000 to 74,000 years ago. Two optically stimulated luminescence age estimates from the open-air site of Aybut Al Auwal in Oman place the Arabian Nubian Complex at ?106,000 years ago, providing archaeological evidence for the presence of a distinct northeast African Middle Stone Age technocomplex in southern Arabia sometime in the first half of Marine Isotope Stage 5. PMID:22140561

Rose, Jeffrey I.; Usik, Vitaly I.; Marks, Anthony E.; Hilbert, Yamandu H.; Galletti, Christopher S.; Parton, Ash; Geiling, Jean Marie; ?erný, Viktor; Morley, Mike W.; Roberts, Richard G.



Distribution of oceanic and continental leads in the Arabian-Nubian Shield  

Microsoft Academic Search

New common lead data for feldspar, whole-rock, and galena samples from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, together with data from\\u000a previous work, can be divided into two main groups. Group I leads have oceanic (mantle) characteristics, whereas group II\\u000a leads have incorporated a continental-crustal component of at least early Proterozoic age. The group I leads are found in\\u000a rocks from the Red

John S. Stacey; Douglas B. Stoeser



Ancient Egypt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing on its superb collection of materials from archaeological excavations, the British Museum presents this extensive learning resource on Ancient Egypt. The site features texts, images, and interactive elements detailing Egyptian daily life, mythology, timekeeping, geography, architecture, governance, business, writing, and rituals of death. The material is clearly and simply written so that the site would be useful for primary school students, but it is informative and substantial enough to be of interest to college students and curious adults as well. Thoroughly hyperlinked and replete with images that can be enlarged for detailed perusal, the site goes beyond the typical teaser Websites so often posted by lesser museums.


Nitrate Absorption by Barley  

PubMed Central

The influence of protein synthesis and nitrate reductase activity on nitrate absorption by barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was investigated. Cycloheximide decreased nitrate absorption. Pretreatment studies showed that cycloheximide affects either energy transfer or nitrate reductase activity or both. Illumination increased plant capacity for nitrate absorption, possibly through increased energy supply and/or increased nitrate reductase activity. There was a positive correlation between nitrate reductase activity and light. Inhibiting the development of nitrate reductase activity by tungstate decreased nitrate absorption. At least two nitrate transport systems are thus proposed in barley: one operating in the dark, with little nitrate reductase activity detectable; and one closely correlated with nitrate reductase activity. Total absorption is the sum of dark absorption and absorption facilitated by nitrate reductase. PMID:16659426

Rao, K. Prasad; Rains, D. William



Ancient Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

Swamy, Ashwin Balegar


Barley Genomics: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Barley (Hordeum vulgare), first domesticated in the Near East, is a well-studied crop in terms of genetics, genomics, and breeding and qualifies as a model plant for Triticeae research. Recent advances made in barley genomics mainly include the following: (i) rapid accumulation of EST sequence data, (ii) growing number of studies on transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome, (iii) new modeling techniques, (iv) availability of genome-wide knockout collections as well as efficient transformation techniques, and (v) the recently started genome sequencing effort. These developments pave the way for a comprehensive functional analysis and understanding of gene expression networks linked to agronomically important traits. Here, we selectively review important technological developments in barley genomics and related fields and discuss the relevance for understanding genotype-phenotype relationships by using approaches such as genetical genomics and association studies. High-throughput genotyping platforms that have recently become available will allow the construction of high-density genetic maps that will further promote marker-assisted selection as well as physical map construction. Systems biology approaches will further enhance our knowledge and largely increase our abilities to design refined breeding strategies on the basis of detailed molecular physiological knowledge. PMID:18382615

Sreenivasulu, Nese; Graner, Andreas; Wobus, Ulrich



Palynology and Stratigraphy of the Nubian Sandstone in Libya and Comparison with Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The so-called "Nubian Sandstone" outcrops along a wide area from Algeria to the Red Sea, forming two regressive phases. The lower phase is represented in Egypt by the Basal Clastic Unit, the Desert Rose Unit, the Abu Ballas Formation and the Matruh Shale. In Libya it is represented by the Mesak Sandstone, Sarir Sandstone, Cabao Sandstone and Kiklah Formation. In both countries, these successions are covered by a carbonate sequence, resulting from the Tethyan transgression during the Cenomanian. In Egypt however, the upper regressive phase is represented by the Taref Sandstone which was deposited during a brief period of active progradation, following the Tethyan incursion. This is not observed in Libya. Comparison of palynological studies in Libya with those documented by several authors in Egypt reveals that the "Nubian" facies in Libya were deposited before equivalent facies in Egypt. The Basal Clastic Unit, dated as Hautrauvian-Barremian, may be equivalent, at least to a part of the Neocomian Cabao Sandstone in NW Libya. Jarmah Member of the Mesak Formation in Libya was dated as Berriasian on the basis of Pilosisporites and Trilobosporites. This makes it older than any "Nubian" unit in Egypt. The Matruh Shale was assigned to the Aptian on the basis of Tricolpites, and the Abu Balls Formation 34 as Aptian-Albian on the basis of Tricolpites and Rousisporites radiatus. Whereas, there is no equivalent to the Aptian in NW Libya, the Aptian-Albian of Egypt is similar to Zone 1 of the Kiklah Formation and As Sarir Sandstone, which were dated as early Albian on the basis of Afropollis spp., and Perotriletes pannuceus, an Albian element not recorded in Egypt. The Plant Beds in southwestern Egypt were dated as Cenomanian on the basis of advanced angiosperm pollen. In Libya, equivalent bodies were considered Vraconian, representing the uppermost Albian, because it lacks Cenomanian pollen (e.g. Tricolpites mutabilis). Comparison of local sea-level changes with global sea-level curves is used to reconstruct paleogeography. Integration of palynology with geological data and tectonic implications indicates that, despite similarity in paleogeographic processes of the Nubian Sandstone, geological and structural settings remain different. The "Nubian Sandstone" provides a typical succession that can be studied in the light of sequence stratigraphy.

Tekbali, Ali; Hlal, Osama




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley has high amounts of soluble fiber but is not extensively consumed in the US diet. Two studies carried out at the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center investigated whether consumption of barley would reduce cardiovascular risk factors comparably to reductions observed with other soluble ...


Barley Transformation Using Biolistic Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microprojectile bombardment or biolistic techniques have been widely used for cereal transformation. These methods rely on the acceleration of gold particles, coated with plasmid DNA, into plant cells as a method of directly introducing the DNA. The first report of the generation of fertile, transgenic barley plants used biolistic techniques. However, more recently Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been adopted as the method of choice for most cereals including barley. Biolistic procedures are still important for some barley transformation applications and also provide transient test systems for the rapid checking of constructs. This chapter describes methods for the transformation of barley using biolistic procedures and also highlights the use of the technology in transient assays.

Harwood, Wendy A.; Smedley, Mark A.


Barley variety identification using SSRs.  


There is a current and developing need for rapid and accurate methods of barley varietal identification which go beyond traditional morphological analysis. Methods using DNA analysis have the capacity to fulfil this role with microsatellites being the current marker of choice. The majority of barley cultivars on the National List can be differentiated using 6 SSRs and bulk samples, using the methods described here. PMID:19301765

Southworth, Cathy



Phanerozoic tectonothermal history of the ArabianNubian shield in the Eastern Desert of Egypt: evidence from fission track  

E-print Network

Phanerozoic tectonothermal history of the Arabian­Nubian shield in the Eastern Desert of Egypt were performed in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. The results provide insights into the processes driving reserved. Keywords: Phanerozoic; Fission track thermochronology; Palaeostress; Arabian­Nubien shield; Egypt

Fritz, Harald


Ancient DNA provides new insight into the maternal lineages and domestication of Chinese donkeys.  


BackgroundThe donkey (Equus asinus) is an important domestic animal that provides a reliable source of protein and method of transportation for many human populations. However, the process of domestication and the dispersal routes of the Chinese donkey are still unclear, as donkey remains are sparse in the archaeological record and often confused with horse remains. To explore the maternal origins and dispersal route of Chinese donkeys, both mitochondrial DNA D-loop and cytochrome b gene fragments of 21 suspected donkey remains from four archaeological sites in China were amplified and sequenced.ResultsMolecular methods of species identification show that 17 specimens were donkeys and three samples had the maternal genetic signature of horses. One sample that dates to about 20,000 years before present failed to amplify. In this study, the phylogenetic analysis reveals that ancient Chinese donkeys have high mitochondrial DNA diversity and two distinct mitochondrial maternal lineages, known as the Somali and Nubian lineages. These results indicate that the maternal origin of Chinese domestic donkeys was probably related to the African wild ass, which includes the Nubian wild ass (Equus africanus africanus) and the Somali wild ass (Equus africanus somaliensis). Combined with historical records, the results of this study implied that domestic donkeys spread into west and north China before the emergence of the Han dynasty. The number of Chinese domestic donkeys had increased primarily to meet demand for the expansion of trade, and they were likely used as commodities or for shipping goods along the Silk Road during the Tang Dynasty, when the Silk Road reached its golden age.ConclusionsThis study is the first to provide valuable ancient animal DNA evidence for early trade between African and Asian populations. The ancient DNA analysis of Chinese donkeys also sheds light on the dynamic process of the maternal origin, domestication, and dispersal route of ancient Chinese donkeys. PMID:25433485

Han, Lu; Zhu, Songbiao; Ning, Chao; Cai, Dawei; Wang, Kai; Chen, Quanjia; Hu, Songmei; Yang, Junkai; Shao, Jing; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Hui



Ancient asexual scandals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asexual organisms that are descended from ancient asexual lineages defy current thinking on the evolution of sexual reproduction; theoreticians have been anxious to explain away their existence. However, a number of groups of organisms, from ferns to rotifers, have been suggested to be anciently asexual, and favourable evidence is being accumulated. Furthermore, new techniques for assessing claims of ancient asexuality

Olivia P. Judson; Benjamin B. Normark



Apps for Ancient Civilizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

Thompson, Stephanie



Taenia multiceps brain cyst removal in two wild Nubian ibex (Capra nubianas).  


Two wild adult Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana) were captured and admitted to the Hebrew University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with various neurologic signs, including alerted mentation, head tilt, and pathologic nystagmus. The lesion in the central nervous system was localized to the forebrain in one ibex and to the cerebellum of the other. Both ibex's were diagnosed with brain cyst using computed tomography (CT). Craniectomy was performed to remove the cysts, and both animals returned to their natural environment after a rehabilitation period. Parasitologic examination revealed cysts of Taenia multiceps coenurus. This is the first report to describe the neurologic signs, CT findings, surgical procedure, and follow-up postsurgery information in wild Capra nubiana. PMID:24712185

Merbl, Yael; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Chai, Orit; Chamisha, Yael; Anglister, Nili; King, Roni; Horowitz, Igal; Aizenberg, Zahi; Shamir, Merav H



Distribution of oceanic and continental leads in the Arabian-Nubian Shield  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New common lead data for feldspar, whole-rock, and galena samples from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, together with data from previous work, can be divided into two main groups. Group I leads have oceanic (mantle) characteristics, whereas group II leads have incorporated a continental-crustal component of at least early Proterozoic age. The group I leads are found in rocks from the Red Sea Hills of Egypt and the western and southern parts of the Arabian Shield. Group II leads are found in rocks from the northeastern and eastern parts of the Arabian Shield, as well as from the southeastern Shield near Najran. They are also found in rocks to the south in Yemen, to the east in Oman, and to the west at Aswan, Egypt. This distribution of data suggests that the Arabian-Nubian Shield has an oceanic core flanked by rocks that have developed, at least in part, from older continental material. Two mechanisms are suggested by which this older lead component could have been incorporated into the late Proterozoic rocks, and each may have operated in different parts of the Shield. The older lead component either was derived directly from an underlying early Proterozoic basement or was incorporated from subducted pelagic sediments or sediments derived from an adjacent continent. New U-Pb zircon data indicate the presence of an early Proterozoic basement southeast of Jabal Dahul in the eastern Arabian Shield. These data, together with 2,000-Ma-old zircons from the Al Amar fault zone, verify the implication of the common lead data that at least a part of the eastern Arabian Shield has an older continental basement. Because continental margins are particularly favorable locations for development of ore deposits, these findings may have important economic implications, particularly for tin, tungsten, and molybdenum exploration. ?? 1983 Springer-Verlag.

Stacey, J.S.; Stoeser, D.B.



Paleodrainage Networks Recharging the Nubian Aquifer Dakhla and Kufra Sub-Basins Revealed From SIR-C and SRTM Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nubian Aquifer system of northeast Africa is one of the world's largest potable groundwater reserves. Because it occurs in one of the world's driest climates, understanding its history and behavior has both scientific and practical importance. The sparse settlement of the huge (2x106 km2) area underlain by this aquifer, and the limited resources of the nations in which it occurs, result in a situation where knowledge of its origin and history is incomplete. We defined the paleodrainage channels across the entire aquifer using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data (SRTM) and ARC/INFO watershed delineation routines. The SRTM-based streams, which are now partially covered by sand sheets and dunes, were validated by comparison to stream distribution inferred from co-registered Space-borne Imaging Radar-C/Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C) data. A good correspondence between the SRTM-derived channels and the SIR-C derived channels is evident. Results indicate that there are two major paleodrainage patterns: the first extends in a NE direction from the highlands of NW Sudan towards the Kharga oasis in Egypt and feeds the underlying Nubian Aquifer Dakhla sub-basin. The second trends N-S from the highlands of northern Chad along the eastern borders of Lybia and feeds the underlying Nubian Aquifer Kufra sub-basin. We postulate that extensive recharge of the underlying Nubian aquifer must have occurred beneath the paleodrainage networks during previous wet climatic periods since the Nubian sandstone crops out across major sectors of the entire area covered by the delineated watersheds. The autochtonous recharge is supported by the presence of surrounding highlands that are largely formed of basement uplifts suggesting that these sub-basins are probably largely disconnected. This suggestion is further corroborated by the progressive increase in ages of Nubian Aquifer groundwater in the Dakhla sub-basin along the hydraulic gradient (from SW to NE). For example, the youngest 36Cl age (~50 kyr) was obtained from East Uweinat and the oldest 81Kr age (~1million yr) was obtained from Bauti-1 (Baharyia).

Sultan, M.; Manocha, N.; Becker, R.; Sturchio, N.



Isozymes in wheat-barley hybrid derivative lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zymogram analysis was used to identify the barley chromosomes that carry the structural genes for particular isozymes. Wheat, barley, and wheatbarley hybrid derivative lines (which contained identified barley chromosomes) were tested by gel electrophoresis for isozymes of particular enzymes. It was found that barley chromosome 4 carries structural genes for acid phosphatase and ß amylase isozymes, barley chromosome 5 carries

A. Powling; A. K. M. R. Islam; K. W. Shepherd



Ancient World Mapping Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the Ancient World Mapping Center is funded by the UNC College of Arts and Sciences and the American Philological Association. The Center is primarily designed to promote the usage of cartography and geographic information science within the field of ancient studies. The Center's main web page begins with a host of recent news events related to ongoing research dealing with the ancient world from various fields, including geography, archaeology, and history. Equally helpful is the New Sites and Finds area, which gathers together new and useful sites dedicated to investigating various aspects of the ancient world. Of course there is also the map room area where visitors can download any one of a number of detailed maps (many of which have been created by the staff at the Center) of the ancient world. Some of these maps include those of Byzantine Constantinople, Ptolemaic Egypt, and several of ancient Greece.



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cardiovascular disease remains the major health problem in the US. Consumption of soluble fiber, like that in oats, has been recognized as beneficial in decreasing blood cholesterol levels and other cardiovascular risk factors. Barley has high amounts of soluble fiber but is not extensively consumed...


A Nubian Complex Site from Central Arabia: Implications for Levallois Taxonomy and Human Dispersals during the Upper Pleistocene  

PubMed Central

Archaeological survey undertaken in central Saudi Arabia has revealed 29 surface sites attributed to the Arabian Middle Paleolithic based on the presence of Levallois blank production methods. Technological analyses on cores retrieved from Al-Kharj 22 have revealed specific reduction modalities used to produce flakes with predetermined shapes. The identified modalities, which are anchored within the greater Levallois concept of core convexity preparation and exploitation, correspond with those utilized during the Middle Stone Age Nubian Complex of northeast Africa and southern Arabia. The discovery of Nubian technology at the Al-Kharj 22 site represents the first appearance of this blank production method in central Arabia. Here we demonstrate how a rigorous use of technological and taxonomic analysis may enable intra-regional comparisons across the Arabian Peninsula. The discovery of Al-Kharj 22 increases the complexity of the Arabian Middle Paleolithic archaeological record and suggests new dynamics of population movements between the southern and central regions of the Peninsula. This study also addresses the dichotomy within Nubian core typology (Types 1 and 2), which was originally defined for African assemblages. PMID:23894434

Crassard, Rémy; Hilbert, Yamandú Hieronymus



Application of Molecular Genetics and Transformation to Barley Improvement  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter of the new barley monograph summarizes current applications of molecular genetics and transformation to barley improvement. The chapter describes recent applications of molecular markers including association genetics, QTL mapping and marker assisted selection in barley programs, and in...


Anisotropic Layering in the Proterozoic Crust of the Arabian-Nubian Shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arabian-Nubian shield (ANS) assembled in the late Proterozoic at the climax of the Pan-African orogeny, primarily from "juvenile" crustal terranes that have been identified as oceanic plateaus or island arcs. Geochemical data suggests that the crust of the shield and the underlying mantle lithosphere have not separated since that time. The shield remained tectonically stable and intact until the Oligocene opening of the Red Sea separated its Nubian and Arabian portions. We contrast two seismic stations on opposite sides of this nascent ocean basin, Ar-Rayn in Saudi Arabia (RAYN) and Kottamiya in Egypt (KEG), with a receiver function (RF) technique that incorporates both regional and teleseismic earthquake data. A broad range of source distances provides opportunity for migration of converted phases, making their interpretation more robust. High frequencies in the P coda allow us to construct RF gathers with useful energy up to 2.5--3 Hz. Crustal thickness is very similar at both sites. Anisotropic layering is found beneath the crust-mantle transition. In their early, "crustal" parts, the RFs display numerous features with characteristic attributes of anisotropic layering, i.e., strong transversely-polarized pulses in broad backazimuth sectors. These pulses change polarity with backazimuth. Because the temporal moveout that would be expected from inclined interfaces is not evident, we conclude that anisotropy is the cause. At KEG the first 4 s of the transverse RF contain multiple phases with clear polarity reversals. The pulse shapes depend on the RF passband, suggesting their origin in fine-scale lamination of the crust. RAYN shows evidence for localized anisotropic layering at the Moho and in the middle crust. Interpretation of the middle crust is challenging, because some pulses exhibit polarity reversals with back azimuth in both radial and transverse receiver functions. RAYN lies more than 700 km from the zone affected by the continental breakup, and thus lithospheric structure here likely reflects Proterozoic tectonics of shield assembly, or earlier processes that shaped the individual terranes that comprise the ANS. KEG lies within the zone affected by the rifting in the Gulf of Suez, and thus may bear marks of both Proterozoic and relatively recent (Miocene) activity.

Park, J.; Levin, V.



Ancient Egyptian Architecture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Time to learn about Temples, Pyramids, and Obelisks in Ancient Egypt! Please use the links below to help you find the answers to the questions on your worksheets. Ancient Egypt (click on the pyramids and temples links) Architecture(use this link to answer questions in the Temples section) Obelisks pyramids ...

Mr. Myers



Anthelmintic action of eprinomectin in lactating Anglo-Nubian goats in Brazil.  


Eprinomectin is the only avermectin approved for use to control gastrointestinal nematodes in lactating cows. Some studies in the USA and Europe have also demonstrated that this drug is highly effective in small ruminants. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy of pour-on eprinomectin in Anglo-Nubian goats at the end of lactation. Twenty-four goats were used, naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, and divided into two groups: control and treated with eprinomectin (Eprinex, Merial, pour-on 0.5%) at a dose of 850 microg/kg. Counts were made of the eggs per gram (EPG) of feces, along with coprocultures, on days -7, 0, 4, 8, 11, 15, 18, 22, 25 and 29. The milk production of each group was recorded throughout the experiment. The coprocultures detected 98% Haemonchus contortus and 2% Oesophagostomum. There was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in daily milk output between the two groups. Eprinomectin at the tested dosage was not effective (P > 0.05) in reducing the EPG. Positive results would serve as basis for use of an avermectin without residues in dairy goats, providing a scientific basis for greater food safety. PMID:17031697

de Souza Chagas, Ana Carolina; da Silva Vieira, Luiz; Rodrigues Aragão, Wladimir; do Carmo Navarro, Andrine Maria; Vasques Villela, Luciana Cristine



Cataclastic slip band distribution in normal fault damage zones, Nubian sandstones, Suez rift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we characterize the geometry of damage zones that form around the main slip planes of normal faults. Specifically, we examine five faults of varying throws that affect the Nubian sandstones along the Suez rift. To quantify the density of cataclastic slip bands (CSBs) associated with the main slip plane, we recorded the position of all visible CSBs along a scan line perpendicular to the fault through to the damage zone. For each outcrop the scan line record is ~30 m long. Resulting density diagrams display concentrations of CSBs and clearly indicate a widening of the damage zone with increasing throw. A correlation integral was calculated for each CSB population in order to analyze both the scaling property of the density distribution and potential correlation lengths. From centimeter to meter scale, representing 2 orders of magnitude, the correlation integral appears adequately modeled by a power law, emphasizing the fractal property for the CSB distribution. For the five faults the calculated correlation dimension is constant within its error of determination, Dc = 0.87 +/- 0.05. The validity range of the fractal nature was derived from an adequate normalization of the correlation integral and from a comparison with synthetic fractal fracture networks. It appears that a finite correlation length corresponding to the damage zone width is detectable for meter-scale throws; for larger throws the correlation length is not detectable within the sampling domain.

Du Bernard, X.; Labaume, P.; Darcel, C.; Davy, P.; Bour, O.



Experience Ancient Egypt Uncover the secrets of the ancient world...  

E-print Network

Experience Ancient Egypt Uncover the secrets of the ancient world... A day event for Children in Care in school years 7 - 9 Discover the secrets of Ancient Egypt at this FREE taster day. Explore the incredible Ancient Egypt Gallery at the Fitzwilliam Museum and create some Egyptian artwork. Plus enjoy

Travis, Adrian


Wheat and Barley Genome Sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high quality reference genome sequence is a prerequisite resource for accessing any gene, driving genomics-based approaches\\u000a to systems biology, and for efficient exploitation of natural and induced genetic diversity of an organism. Wheat and barley\\u000a possess genomes of a size that was long presumed to be not amenable for whole genome sequencing. So far, only limited genomic\\u000a sequencing of

Kellye Eversole; Andreas Graner; Nils Stein


Enumeration of fungi in barley.  


Estimation of fungal contamination of barley grain is important as certain fungi can proliferate during the malting process. The following factors which may affect the enumeration of fungi were evaluated: dilution versus direct plating, presoaked versus unsoaked grain, five culture media: potato dextrose agar (PDA), acidified Czapek-Dox agar (ACA), pentachloronitrobenzene agar; (PCNB) dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) and malt salt agar; two disinfectants' ethanol/water (80:20 v/v) and sodium hypochlorite (3.5% w/v in H2O). Two barley samples, one having a high incidence of storage fungi and one with a high incidence of field fungi were used and most fungi were identified to species level. Results showed that direct plating was superior to dilution plating for assessing the mycoflora of barley. Unsoaked grain gave significantly higher counts than presoaked grain in the case of Alternaria alternata, Rhizopus oryzae, Epicoccum nigrum and Mucor spp. Presoaked grain resulted in higher counts of Penicillium spp. Chlorine disinfection resulted in significantly higher counts of Aspergillus flavus, Eurotium spp. and Penicillium spp. Ethanol disinfection resulted in higher counts of Mucor spp., Phoma sorghina, Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus restrictus. PDA and ACA, in general gave some what better results than DRBC for both field and storage fungi. PCNB consistently gave the highest Fusarium counts. More than thiry fungal genera were found in the two samples. PMID:9105919

Rabie, C J; Lübben, A; Marais, G J; Jansen van Vuuren, H



Ancient Egyptian herbal wines  

PubMed Central

Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery jars from the beginning of advanced ancient Egyptian culture, ca. 3150 B.C., and continuing for millennia have revealed that a range of natural products—specifically, herbs and tree resins—were dispensed by grape wine. These findings provide chemical evidence for ancient Egyptian organic medicinal remedies, previously only ambiguously documented in medical papyri dating back to ca. 1850 B.C. They illustrate how humans around the world, probably for millions of years, have exploited their natural environments for effective plant remedies, whose active compounds have recently begun to be isolated by modern analytical techniques. PMID:19365069

McGovern, Patrick E.; Mirzoian, Armen; Hall, Gretchen R.



Ancient Egypt: the Mythology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Website, "dedicated to supplying information about the religious beliefs of ancient Egypt," offers internally linked essays and descriptions from scholarly sources detailing the relationship between the land and ancient beliefs; glossaries with healthy descriptions of the deities and symbols; and eighteen prominent mythological stories of Ancient Egypt. An annotated list of about a dozen other pertinent sites is also posted. A simple search engine is provided and can be accessed by going to the incongruously titled "Egypt" page, which offers users an opportunity to search the site, sign the guestbook, or email the author -- a college instructor -- questions about Egyptian mythology, but which offers no additional information on Egypt itself.


Interactive Ancient Mediterranean Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Interactive Ancient Mediterranean (IAM) Project is an online atlas of the ancient Mediterranean world designed to support the instruction of the classics, ancient history, archaeology, and related disciplines. Currently, IAM's Map Room has an index of over 50 maps of ten regions of the Mediterranean basin and northern Europe available for downloading and printing. Most maps are high-resolution .pdf files and the remainder are large, high-quality JPEG files. Users may also search the atlas by keyword, place name, cultural object, or ancient author. IAM is an ongoing joint effort of the American Philological Association's Classical Atlas Project and the departments of Classics and History at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.


Issues surrounding health claims for barley.  


Government-approved health claims support dietary intervention as a safe and practical approach to improving consumer health and provide industry with regulatory guidelines for food product labels. Claims already allowed in the United States, United Kingdom, Sweden, and The Netherlands for reducing cholesterol through consumption of oat or barley soluble fiber provide a basis for review, but each country may have different criteria for assessing clinical evidence for a physiological effect. For example, the FDA-approved barley health claim was based on a petition that included 39 animal model studies and 11 human clinical trials. Since then, more studies have been published, but with few exceptions, clinical data continue to demonstrate that the consumption of barley products is effective for lowering total and LDL cholesterol. More research is needed to fully understand the mechanism of cholesterol reduction and the role of beta-glucan molecular weight, viscosity, and solubility. In an assessment of the physiological efficacy of a dietary intervention, consideration should also be given to the potential impact of physical and thermal food-processing treatments and genotypic variation in the barley source. New barley cultivars have been generated specifically for food use, possessing increased beta-glucan, desirable starch composition profiles, and improved milling/processing traits. These advances in barley production, coupled with the establishment of a government-regulated health claim for barley beta-glucan, will stimulate new processing opportunities for barley foods and provide consumers with reliable, healthy food choices. PMID:18492863

Ames, Nancy P; Rhymer, Camille R



New leaf diseases of barley in Egypt.  


Leaf diseases of barley were observed also in Egypt. From leaves of barley were isolated: Helminthosporium teres, H. gramineum, Stemphylium vesicarium, Alternaria triticina, Vlocladium chartarum, Acnemonium kiliense, Stemphylium spec. accompanied with the Pleospora stage. Inoculations on both attached and detached leaves showed that all the tested fungi were pathogenic, except Acremonium kiliense and Ulocladium chartarum. PMID:1037183

Mehiar, F F; El-Deen, E; Wasfy, H; El-Samra, I A



7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley varieties not...



Modelling of paleo-saltwater intrusion in the northern part of the Nubian Aquifer System, Northeast Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A numerical groundwater model of the Nubian Aquifer System was established to prove the influence of rising seawater levels on the groundwater salinity in northern Egypt over the last 140,000 years. In addition, the impact of a groundwater recharge scenario for these 140,000 years, involving climatic change, on the saltwater/freshwater interface was investigated. Saltwater intrusion induced by rising water levels of the Mediterranean Sea led to salinisation from the Mediterranean Sea to the Qattara depression. This modeling approach was supported by a density-driven model setup and calculation. The modelled saltwater/freshwater interfaces partially fitted the observed ones, especially in the southern half of the Qattara depression. In other parts of the northern Nubian Aquifer System, the ingression of salt water was modelled adequately, but in the west, small regions of the measured interface were not. The development in the Qattara depression (Egypt) and Sirte basin (Libya) were investigated in more detail. The different behaviour in the Sirte basin may be due to high evapotranspiration rates in some former periods, salt solutions from the pre-Quaternary layers or saltwater infiltration from sabkha-like recent salt-bearing sediments.

Gossel, Wolfgang; Sefelnasr, Ahmed; Wycisk, Peter



New isotopic evidence for the origin of groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer in the Negev, Israel  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The geochemistry and isotopic composition (H, O, S, Osulfate, C, Sr) of groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone (Kurnub Group) aquifer in the Negev, Israel, were investigated in an attempt to reconstruct the origin of the water and solutes, evaluate modes of water-rock interactions, and determine mean residence times of the water. The results indicate multiple recharge events into the Nubian sandstone aquifer characterized by distinctive isotope signatures and deuterium excess values. In the northeastern Negev, groundwater was identified with deuterium excess values of ???16???, which suggests local recharge via unconfined areas of the aquifer in the Negev anticline systems. The ??18OH2O and ??2H values (-6.5??? and -35.4???) of this groundwater are higher than those of groundwater in the Sinai Peninsula and southern Arava valley (-7.5??? and -48.3???) that likewise have lower deuterium excess values of ???10???. Based on the geochemical differences between groundwater in the unconfined and confined zones of the aquifer, a conceptual geochemical model for the evolution of the groundwater in the Nubian sandstone aquifer has been reconstructed. The isotopic composition of shallow groundwater from the unconfined zone indicates that during recharge oxidation of pyrite to SO4 (??34SSO4 ???-13???; ??18OSO4 ???+7.7???) and dissolution of CaCO3 (87Sr/86Sr ???0.70787; ??13CDIC = -3.7???) occur. In the confined zone of the aquifer, bacterial SO4 reduction removes a significant part of dissolved SO42 -, thereby modifying its isotopic composition (??34SSO4 ???-2???; ??18OSO4 ???+8.5???) and liberating dissolved inorganic C that contains little or no radiocarbon (14C-free) with low ??13CDIC values (<-12???). In addition to local recharge, the Sr and S isotopic data revealed contribution of external groundwater sources to the Nubian Sandstone aquifer, resulting in further modifications of the groundwater chemical and isotopic signatures. In the northeastern Negev, it is shown that SO4-rich groundwater from the underlying Jurassic aquifer contributes significantly to the salt budget of the Nubian Sandstone aquifer. The unique chemical and isotopic composition of the Jurassic groundwater (??34SSO4 ??? +14???; ??18OSO4 ??? 14???; 87Sr/86Sr ???0.70764) is interpreted as reflecting dissolution of Late Triassic marine gypsum deposits. In the southern Arava Valley the authors postulate that SO4-rich groundwater with distinctively high Br/Cl (3 ?? 10-3) low 87Sr/86Sr (0.70734), and high ??34SSO4 values (+15???) is derived from mixing with underlying brines from the Paleozoic units. The radiocarbon measurements reveal low 14C activities (0.2-5.8 pmc) in both the northeastern Negev and southern Arava Valley. Taking into account dissolution of carbonate rocks and bacterial SO4 reduction in the unconfined area, estimated mean residence times of groundwater in the confined zone in the northeastern Negev are on the order of 21-38 ka, which suggests recharge predominantly during the last glacial period. The 14C signal in groundwater from the southern Arava Valley is equally low but due to evidence for mixing with external water sources the residence time estimates are questionable. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Vengosh, A.; Hening, S.; Ganor, J.; Mayer, B.; Weyhenmeyer, C.E.; Bullen, T.D.; Paytan, A.



Mapping Ancient Coastlines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use a graph to find sea level at various times in the past, then draw the ancient coastlines onto a bathymetric map by following the depth contours. They should develop an understanding of how to interpret a graph to discern changes in sea level, and an understanding that ancient coastlines parallel the contour lines on a bathymetric map. A materials list, directions, background information, and a printable worksheet are provided. National content standards and links to additional information are also included.


[Psychiatry in ancient Mexico].  


Using studies on prehispanic and early post-conquest documents of Ancient Mexico--such as the Badianus Manuscript, also known as Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis, and Brother Bernardino de Sahagún's famous work History of the Things of the New Spain, a description of some existing medical and psychiatric problems, and treatments Ancient Aztecs resorted to, is presented. The structure of the Aztec family, their problems with the excessive ingestion of alcoholic beverages, and the punishments native authorities had implemented in order to check alcoholism up are also described. PMID:1341125

Calderón Narváez, G



Geography of Ancient Egypt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity focuses on the importance of geographic features and the abundance of natural resources that helped ancient Egypt become the world's first superpower. Students will learn about the geography and resources available to the ancient Egyptians. Read each question below carefully. Using the following maps: modern political map geographical features map natural resources map archaeological sites map And the following features on the Egypt's Golden Empire website: natural resources farming Answer each question below using as much detail as possible. What countries border modern-day Egypt? (modern political map) Name the major bodies of water that surround an are a part of Egypt. (modern political map) What ...

Mr. Myers



The Ancient Bristlecone Pine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Written by tree enthusiast Leonard Miller with additional input from expert dendrochronologists (including Dr. Henri Grissino-Mayer), this interesting and beautifully illustrated Website gives the reader insights about the oldest tree on earth: the Ancient Bristlecone Pine. The resource provides background information on the discovery of these ancient trees, the geographic setting of the westernmost trees in the US, growth (and other) characteristics of Bristlecone Pines, dendrochronology (the dating of past climate events using tree ring growth), and a select bibliography on Bristlecone Pines, among other topics. An internal search feature (keyword) streamlines the information mining process.


Strike-slip accommodated core complexes in the Najd fault system, Arabian-Nubian shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metamorphic core complexes are usually developed as extensional features during crustal thinning in a continental collision zone, such as the Basin and Range and the Aegean Terrane. The Najd fault system in Saudi Arabia is a 2000 km-long and 400 km-wide complex network of crustal-scale strike-slip shear zones in a Neoproterozoic collision zone. Locally, the anastomosing shear zones lead to exhumation of lower crustal segments and represent a new kinematic model for the development of core complexes. We report on two such dome structures: the Qazaz complex in Saudi Arabia and the Hafafit complex in Egypt. The 15-km-wide Qazaz complex is a triangular dome of gently dipping mylonitic foliations within the 140-km-long sinistral strike-slip Qazaz mylonite zone. The gneissic dome consists of high-grade rocks, surrounded by low-grade metasediments and metavolcanics. The main SE trending strike-slip Qazaz shear zone splits southwards into two branches around the gneiss dome: the western branch is continuous with the shallow dipping mylonites of the dome core, without overprinting, and curves by more than 90 degrees eastwards from a NS trending strike slip zone to an EW trending 40 degree south dipping detachment that bounds the gneiss dome to the south. The eastern SE trending sinistral strike slip shear zone branch is slightly younger and transects the central dome fabrics. The gneiss dome appears to have formed along a jog in the strike slip shear zone during 40 km of strike slip motion, which caused local exhumation of lower crustal rocks by 25 km along the detachment. The eastern shear zone branch formed late during exhumation, transacted the gneiss dome and offset the two parts by another 70 km. The Hafafit core complex in Egypt is of similar shape and size to the Qazaz structure, but forms the northern termination of a sinistral strike-slip zone that is at least 100 km in length. This zone may continue into Saudi Arabia as the Ajjaj shear zone for another 100 km. The NW trending strike slip mylonite zone grades into a gently N-dipping detachment to the west which accommodated strike slip by exhumation of high-grade lower crustal rocks. The Qazaz and the Hafafit Domes are similar, mirror-image structures with small differences in the accommodating shear zones. It is likely that this type of strike-slip related oblique core complexes are common in the Arabian Nubian shield, and possibly elsewhere.

Meyer, S. E.; Passchier, C. W.; Abu-Alam, T. S.; Stuewe, K.



Crustal evolution and metamorphism in east-central Eritrea, south-east Arabian-Nubian Shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The crust of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) was formed in oceanic settings in the Mozambique Ocean during the Neoproterozoic (c. 0.9-0.6 Ga). Convergence started to coalesce island arcs, closed the ocean, and continental collision followed (

Andersson, U. B.; Ghebreab, W.; Teklay, M.



Origin of Lower Cretaceous (`Nubian') sandstones of North-east Africa and Arabia from detrital zircon U-Pb SHRIMP dating  

E-print Network

Origin of Lower Cretaceous (`Nubian') sandstones of North-east Africa and Arabia from detrital* *Institute of Earth Sciences ­ Geology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Givat Ram, Jerusalem 91904 Cretaceous sandstones of the type exposed in Israel, deposited over much of North Africa and Arabia

Dov, Avigad



Microsoft Academic Search

Data came from a commercial goat stud at Imperial Valley California. The objectives were to compare the performance of the progeny of goats involving inheritance of Nubian(N), French Alpine (A), Saanen (S) Toggenburgh (T), and Spanish (SP) (n=160), and to estimate genetic parameters of reproduction, and growth traits. Traits analyzed were prolificacy (P), survival rate (S) weight at birth BWT

A. P. Márquez; J. F. Ponce; V. M. Vega; J. Rodríguez; V. G. Vizcarra; M. Montaño; J. N. Guerrero



Structure and Functionality of Barley Starches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 75(5):747-754 Amylose contents of prime starches from nonwaxy and high-amylose barley, determined by colorimetric method, were 24.6 and 48.7%, respec- tively, whereas waxy starch contained only a trace (0.04%) of amylose. There was little difference in isoamylase-debranched amylopectin between nonwaxy and high-amylose barley, whereas amylopectin from waxy bar- ley had a significantly higher percentage of fraction with degree

Z. Czuchajowska; A. Klamczynski; B. Paszczynska; B.-K. Baik



Germanium accumulation and toxicity in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of germanium (Ge) by barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. ‘Arivat') grown at various Ge and pH levels was investigated because Ge is an industrially important metal and bioaccumulation of Ge is a potentially useful means of concentrating this trace metal. Six?day?old barley seedlings were grown in perlite and nutrient solution adjusted to a pH of 4.5, 6.0, or 7.5

Stephen J. Halperin; Adam Barzilay; Matthew Carson; Cory Roberts; Jonathan Lynch; Sridhar Komarneni



A Study of Hydrogeological Conditions of the Nubian Sandstone Aguifer in the Area between Abu Simbel and Toschka, Western Desert, Egypt.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Study of Hydrogeological Conditions of the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer in the Area between Abu Simbel and Toschka, Western Desert, Egypt. By K. A. Dahab*, A. M. Ebraheem**, and E. El Sayed*** *Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Menofia University, Shibin El Kom, Egypt. ** Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt. *** Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Minia University, Minia, Egypt. The Nubian Sandstone Aquifer in the area between Toschka and Abu Simbil is small portion of the very well known Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System in the Eastern Sahara, which covers the entire area of southwest Egypt, southeast Libya, northeast Chad, and northern Sudan. Toscha area is currently the site of intensive drilling and development for a huge land reclamation project. The drilling information was used to study the hydrogeological setting of the Nubian Sandstone aquifer in the area. The obtained results indicate that the lithological characteristics and tectonic setting is strongly affecting the groundwater flow pattern as well as the aquifer potentiality of the nubian sandstone aquifer in the area. The aquifer potentiality in this area is low if compared to that of east Oweinat or Dakhla areas. The aquifer is mainly composed of hard ferruginous sandstone with great shale and clay intercalation with a thickness ranging from 140 to 230 meters. Groundwater in this aquifer belongs to fresh to slightly brackish type (salinity is ranging from 240 to 1300 ppm). Ion dominance ordering reveals that sodium cation is mostly predominating over calcium and magnesium whereas chloride is predominant over sulfate and bicarbonate. The groundwater is related to meteoric origin. The high concentration of sodium, chloride, and sulfates reflect leaching and dissolution processes of gypsiferous shales and clay as well as long residence time of water.

Dahab, K. A.; Ebraheem, A. M.; El Sayed, E. A.



The geology of the northern tip of the Arabian-Nubian Shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a detailed (1:50,000) geological map of the Elat area, southern Israel was published. Attached to this map is a stratigraphic table of the Neoproterozoic metamorphic-magmatic complex of the study area. The Neoproterozoic basement in the Elat area encapsulates the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS) geologic evolution. Uranium-Lead and Lead-Lead zircon ages, included in previous studies and referred to in this paper, reveal that these rocks were formed during more than 300 million years of Neoproterozoic time. The major process controlling the formation of the ANS as part of the East African Orogen is the closure of the Mozambique Ocean. The first orogenic phase in the Elat area, represented by the metamorphic rocks, includes the development of an island arc, erosion of the islands and deposition, and metamorphism. This event took place between ?950 Ma and 780-790 Ma. Elat Schist, the oldest metamorphic rock in the area, was deformed and then intruded by quartz dioritic and granitic plutons that were later deformed and metamorphosed. The amphibolite metamorphic rock facies indicate metamorphic conditions of up to 650 °C and between 4 and 5 kbar. The peak of the metamorphic event was most probably before 750 Ma. A gradual change from compressional to extensional stress regime is evidenced by emplacement andesitic magnesium-rich dykes dated to 705 Ma that were later metamorphosed to schistose dykes at a greenschist metamorphic facies. The second orogenic phase (terrane amalgamation, main shaping of crust) was associated with the emplacement of large volumes (>50% of area) of calc-alkaline intrusions in a post-collision setting. These very last stages of metamorphism and deformation are characterized by intrusion of ?630 Ma granitoids exhibiting some foliation. Pluton emplacement continued also after the end of deformation. Exhumation and transition to an extensional regime is recorded by the intrusion of shallow alkaline granites in ?608 Ma which were accompanied in ?609 Ma by rhyolite, andesite and composite dykes. The last magmatic event in the Elat area is represented by the volcano-conglomeratic series comprising rhyolites, basalts, andesites, hypabyssal intrusions of monzonite and syenite and conglomerates. The conglomerates, dated to about 590 Ma, are the products of a major erosion phase in which about 12,000 m of the section were removed. These conglomerates were intruded by 585 Ma rhyolite, andesite and composite dykes. The Neoproterozoic basement is truncated by a peneplain whose age, post 532 Ma, is constrained by the age of the youngest eroded dolerite dykes. This Early Cambrian peneplain was associated with erosion of 2000 m of the section and by chemical weathering. Three major breaks in Neoproterozoic magmatic activity are recognized: the first, occurred in Cryogenian time, lasted ?60 million years after the amphibolite facies metamorphism and before emplacement of the calc alkaline plutons, separating the first and the second orogenic phases; the second break between the orogenic and the extensional phases occurred in early Ediacaran time, encompassed ?20 million years between the emplacement of the calc-alkaline and alkaline plutonic rocks and rhyolite, andesite and the composite dykes; and the third, ?50 Ma break, occurred between the emplacement of the last felsic intrusions at ?585 Ma and intrusion of the dolerite dykes in 532 Ma, before the Early Cambrian peneplain developed. The great lateral extension of the Cambrian to Eocene sedimentary rocks and their slow facies and thickness changes suggest a stable flat platform area at the northern tip of the ANS. Early Cambrian sedimentation began with fluviatile subarkoses of the Amudei Shlomo Formation. It was overlain by an Early to Middle Cambrian transgressive-regressive lagoonal cycle of dolostones, sandstones, and siltstones of the Timna Formation. Then Middle Cambrian subarkoses and siltstones of the Shehoret Formation and the quartz arenite of the Netafim Formation were deposited in a coastal, intertidal environment representing

Beyth, M.; Eyal, Y.; Garfunkel, Z.



Ancient human microbiomes.  


Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and we therefore lack a foundation for characterizing this change. High-throughput sequencing has opened up new opportunities in the field of paleomicrobiology, allowing us to investigate the evolution of the complex microbial ecologies that inhabit our bodies. By focusing on recent coprolite and dental calculus research, we explore how emerging research on ancient human microbiomes is changing the way we think about ancient disease and how archaeological studies can contribute to a medical understanding of health and nutrition today. PMID:25559298

Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J; Lewis, Cecil M



Didaskalia: Ancient Theater Today  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The term Didaskalia is taken from the inscriptions used to record the outcomes of drama and music festivals in ancient Athens, and as such, serves as the name of this rather intriguing website. On the site, visitors will find the group's academic journal, a number of study resources, and an interactive discussion area known (appropriately) as the Agora. The archives of the journal stretch all the way back to 1994, but full-text articles don't appear in the archives until 1995. Some of the articles offered here include "Ancient Drama in Performance" and "Classics and Its Position in Future Cultural Politics". If they so desire, visitors may also elect to sign up to receive email updates about future issues of the journal and such.


Ancient Sedimentary Rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-469, 31 August 2003

The terraced area in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image is an outcropping of ancient, sedimentary rock. It occurs in a crater in western Arabia Terra near 10.8oN, 4.5oW. Sedimentary rocks provide a record of past environments on Mars. Field work will likely be required to begin to get a good understanding of the nature of the record these rocks contain. Their generally uniform thickness and repeated character suggests that deposition of fine sediment in this crater was episodic, if not cyclic. These rocks might be indicators of an ancient lake, or they might have been deposited from grains settling out of an earlier, thicker, martian atmosphere. This image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated from the lower left.



Comets in ancient India  

E-print Network

The Indo-aryans of ancient India observed stars and constellations for ascertaining auspicious times for sacrificial rites ordained by vedas. It is but natural that they would have recounted in the vedic texts about comets. In Rigveda ($\\sim $ 1700 - 1500 BC) and Atharvaveda ($\\sim $ 1150 BC), there are references to dhumaketus and ketus, which stand for comets in Sanskrit. Varahamihira in 550 AD and Ballala Sena ($\\sim $ 1100 - 1200 AD) have described a large number of comets recorded by ancient seers such as Parashara, Vriddha Garga, Narada, Garga, etc. In this article, I conjecture that an episode narrated in Mahabharata of a radiant king, Nahusha, ruling the heavens, and later turning into a serpent after he had kicked the seer Agastya (also the star Canopus), is a mythological retelling of a cometary event.

Gupta, Patrick Das



7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407...CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of...



Analysis of Pre-Germinated Barley using Hyperspectral Image Analysis.  

E-print Network

Analysis of Pre-Germinated Barley using Hyperspectral Image Analysis. TECHNICAL REPORT v1.0 Morten) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5 Germination Time Classification entitled 'Analysis of Pre- Germinated Barley using Hyperspectral Image Analysis.' [1]. It is not self


7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407...CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of...



7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407...CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of...



7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407...CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of...



Ancient Mesoamerican Civilizations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by Kevin L. Callahan, an anthropology graduate student at the University of Minnesota, this site consists of short, referenced essays, organized by civilization (Maya, Mixtec, Zapotec, and Aztec), on Mesoamerican writing systems, governments, and religions. Users can also read essays on the Mayan calendar, "How the Sky Works," and on Maya and Zapotec political structures. These essays, along with a selective, eclectic list of Mesoamerican Internet resources, and a brief bibliography, form a good introduction to the topic of ancient Mesoamerican civilizations.

Callahan, Kevin L.


Ancient Flood Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan the teacher will share some ancient flood stories with the class and have them view pictures and discuss the evidence that has been found in the Black Sea. Current theory says that during the Ice Age, the Black Sea was an isolated freshwater lake surrounded by farmland that eventually flooded. Students will practice their creative writing by composing stories about what it might have been like immediately before and during the flood.


Ancient Chinese Astronomical Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I am interested in the astronomical advances of the Ancient Chinese in measuring the solar day. Their development of gnomon & ruler, sundial, and water clock apparatuses enabled Chinese astronomers to measure the annual solar orbit and solar day more precisely than their contemporaries. I have built one of each of these devices to use in collecting data from Olympia, Washington. I will measure the solar day in the Pacific Northwest following the methodology of the ancient Chinese. I will compare with my data, the available historical Chinese astronomical records and current records from the United States Naval Observatory Master Clock. I seek to understand how ancient Chinese investigations into solar patterns enabled them to make accurate predictions about the movement of the celestial sphere and planets, and to develop analytic tests of their theories. Mayall, R. Newton; Sundials: their construction and use. Dover Publications 2000 North, John; The Norton History of Astronomy and Cosmology W.W. Norton& Co. 1995 Zhentao Xu, David W. Pankenier, Yaotiao Jiang; East Asian archaeoastronomy : historical records of astronomical observations of China, Japan and Korea Published on behalf of the Earth Space Institute by Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, c2000

Walsh, Jennifer Robin



7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...810.201 Definition of barley. Grain that, before the removal of dockage...and not more than 25 percent of other grains for which standards have been established under the United States Grain Standards Act. The term “barley” as...these standards does not include hull-less barley or black...



Screening the Spanish Barley Core Collection for disease resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spanish Barley Core Collection comprises 159 landrace-derived inbred lines and 16 cultivars adapted to Southern European condi- tions. The collection was screened for resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis), scald (Rhynchosporium secalis), leaf rust (Puccinia hordei), net blotch (Pyrenophora teres f. teres), Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and Barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV). Resistance to powdery mildew was outstanding,



Mapping barley genes to chromosome arms by transcript profiling of wheat-barley ditelosomic chromosome addition lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat-barley disomic and ditelosomic chromosome addition lines have been used as genetic tools for a range of applications since their development in the 1980's. In the present study, we utilized the Barley1 Affymetrix GeneChip for comparative transcript analysis of Betzes barley, Chinese Spring whe...


Urology in ancient India  

PubMed Central

The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland. PMID:19675749

Das, Sakti



[Sexuality in Ancient Egypt].  


The present article explores the sexuality in ancient Egypt. In particular in this article are presented the ways of concubinage (marriage, concubinage, adultery), the incest, loves of the pharaohs and of the common people, the freedom of choice in garments, the status of the hetairas and of the whores, the sexual perversions (male and female homosexuality, necrophilia, sodomism, bestiality, rape, masturbation, exhibitionism), the operations of the genitals (circumcision, excision, castration) and finally the level of knowledge in gynaecology, fertility, contraception and obstetrics that even today demands our admiration. PMID:7858632

Androutsos, G; Marketos, S



Gnomons in Ancient China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gnomon shadow measurement was one of the most fundamental astronomical observations in ancient China. It was crucial for calendar making, which constituted an important aspect of imperial governance. A painted stick discovered from a prehistoric (2300 BC) astronomical site of Taosi (see Chap. 201, "Taosi Observatory", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_215") is the oldest gnomon known of China. From second century BC onward, gnomon shadow measurements have been essential part of calendrical practice. Various historical measurements are discussed in this chapter.

Li, Geng


Barley Transformation Using Agrobacterium-Mediated Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods for the transformation of barley using Agrobacterium-mediated techniques have been available for the past 10 years. Agrobacterium offers a number of advantages over biolistic-mediated techniques in terms of efficiency and the quality of the transformed plants produced. This chapter describes a simple system for the transformation of barley based on the infection of immature embryos with Agrobacterium tumefaciens followed by the selection of transgenic tissue on media containing the antibiotic hygromycin. The method can lead to the production of large numbers of fertile, independent transgenic lines. It is therefore ideal for studies of gene function in a cereal crop system.

Harwood, Wendy A.; Bartlett, Joanne G.; Alves, Silvia C.; Perry, Matthew; Smedley, Mark A.; Leyland, Nicola; Snape, John W.


Enrichment from plume interaction in the generation of Neoproterozoic arc rocks in northern Eritrea: implications for crustal accretion in the southern Arabian–Nubian Shield  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Neoproterozoic volcano–sedimentary–plutonic associations in Eritrea are part of the Arabian–Nubian Shield (ANS). In the Nakfa region, northern Eritrea, low-grade metavolcanic rocks consist of calc-alkaline crystal tuffs, lapilli tuffs and basic and felsic lava flows. These are intruded by pre\\/syn- to late-tectonic calc-alkaline intrusive rocks ranging in composition from gabbro to granite. They have element characteristics and MORB-normalized geochemical patterns

Mengist Teklay; Alfred Kröner; Klaus Mezger



Prospects & Overviews Analysis of ancient human genomes  

E-print Network

Prospects & Overviews Analysis of ancient human genomes Using next generation sequencing, 20-fold: .Greenland; human ancient DNA; next generation sequencing; population affinities; Saqqaq Introduction The introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS) tech- nology has transformed the field of ancient DNA

Shapiro, Beth


Evaluation of barley yellow dwarf tolerance from plant traits in two winter × spring barley crosses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter-type experimental lines from crosses of two winter-type barley cultivars with a spring-type, barley yellow dwarf (BYD) tolerant cultivar were compared in inoculated and uninoculated hill plots. Mature plants traits-winter survival, height, number of spike-bearing tillers, and biomass-were examined. The experimental lines could not be compared with the BYD tolerant parent using these diagnostic symptoms since the spring-type parent would

Timothy F. Bourne; J. M. Poehlman



History Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern, Scottish  

E-print Network

112 History­ Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern, Scottish and Middle East Studies Degree options MA (Single Honours Degree) History BA (International Honours Degree) History (See page 51) (See also Ancient History page 62 History ­ Mediaeval History page 114 History ­ Middle East Studies page 116 History ­ Modern

Brierley, Andrew


History Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern, Scottish  

E-print Network

104 History­ Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern, Scottish and Middle East Studies MA (Single Honours Degree) History BA (International Honours Degree) History See page 13 (See also Ancient History page 52, and History ­ Mediaeval History page 106 History ­ Middle East Studies page 108 History ­ Modern History page

Brierley, Andrew


The Ancients' Appliance of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An innovative collaboration between the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge and the University of Cambridge Faculty of Education encourages new questions to be asked of ancient objects. In the museum galleries children work directly from ancient Egyptian objects through activities designed to encourage questioning that unpicks the technologies of the…

Stephenson, Philip; Sword, Frances



Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.  


Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade. PMID:25299580

Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping



Tamil Merchant in Ancient Mesopotamia  

PubMed Central

Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade. PMID:25299580

Palanichamy, Malliya gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley contains high amounts of soluble fiber but is not consumed as extensively as oats. Oat soluble fiber has been shown to lower blood lipids and glycemic parameters. Three studies found that hypercholesterolemic subjects had significantly lower total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations after cons...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of RNA profiling has become a powerful strategy to examine genome-wide gene transcript accumulation patterns. The Barley1 Affymetrix GeneChip probe array is a resource that can be used to examine the expression of greater than 20,000 genes in parallel. This article summarizes several researc...


Nuclear fusion in cultured microspores of barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion of the generative and vegetative nuclei physically separated by a wall has been observed in cultured microspores of barley. The generative cell appears to play an active role in fusion as it elongates toward the vegetative nucleus, becomes detached from the microspore wall, and finally completely encloses the vegetative nucleus. The generative cell wall disappears before nuclear fusion takes

Feng-Ming Lee; Chi-Chang Chen



Malting extremely small quantities of barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Micromalting procedures for malt quality analysis typically use 50 – 500 g of barley and are used to produce malt with characteristics suitable for malting quality analysis. Modifications to routine micromalting protocols in which small quantities of grain within inexpensive mesh containers are surr...


Thionin antifungal peptide synthesis in transgenic barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In seeds and vegetative organs of barley and other cereals, thionins are processed into peptides with pronounced anti-microbial properties. In vitro studies demonstrated the toxicity of a- and ß-hordothionins (HTHs) to the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. Increasing the expression of thionin g...


Pasang Temba 1, Barley and Nawa  

E-print Network

Pasang Temba explains the traditional system under which barley was planted in the Khumbu.These recordings were made on a trek in the spring of 2011 up to Mount Everest Base Camp. The recordings span a wide variety of topics from making and drinking...

Loomis, Molly


Registration of 'Eve' winter hulless barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Eve’ (Reg. No. CV- PI 659067 ), a six-row winter hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed and tested as VA01H-68 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in May 2007. Eve was derived from the cross SC860974 / VA94-42-13. Eve is widely adapted and provides producers with ...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight re-emerged in the 1990s as a devastating disease of wheat and barley in the mid-western United States. Few diseases of modern times have been so severe. This book contains a comprehensive compilation of scientific knowledge of the disease. Included are 18 chapters by world autho...


Rheological properties of barley and flaxseed composites  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prowashonupana, a barley variety with high ß-glucan content, was dry blended with flaxseed at 10, 20, and 50% for improving nutritional, physical, and functional qualities. Flaxseed is rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) that is known for lowering blood cholesterol and preve...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As a first step in characterizing the role deoxynivalenol (DON) plays in pathogenesis of Fusarium graminearum in leaf and head tissues, we treated detached barley leaf tissues with DON and examined them daily for signs of injury or other alterations. As shown here, DON had pronounced and unexpected ...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Sublette’, a 2-row spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), was developed by the Agricultural Research Service-USDA, Aberdeen, ID in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agriculture Experiment Station. Sublette was named after William L. ‘Bill’ Sublette, an early explorer of the Western United State...


Ancient Chinese Sundials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Timekeeping was essential in the agricultural society of ancient China. The use of sundials for timekeeping was associated with the use of the gnomon, which had its origin in remote antiquity. This chapter studies three sundials (guiyi ??) from the Qin and Han dynasties, the shorter shadow plane sundial (duanying ping yi ????) invented by Yuan Chong in the Sui Dynasty, and the sundial chart (guiyingtu ???) invented by Zeng Minxing in the Southern Song dynasty. This chapter also introduces Guo Shoujing's hemispherical sundial (yang yi ??). A circular stone sundial discovered at the Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an is also mentioned. It is dated from the Sui and Tang dynasties. A brief survey of sundials from the Qing dynasty shows various types of sundials.

Deng, Kehui



NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are countless genealogy resources online, but this site is unique. AncientFaces is a photo exchange, a database of photos submitted by users that enables people tracing their family trees to place faces with names. At present, the site contains over 5,000 photos. These may be searched by keyword, name, date, or location. They can also be browsed alphabetically by surname. There are several special collections here as well, including military photos. Photos are presented as thumbnails with a brief description, location, family, and a link to the email address and homepage (if available) of the person who submitted the photo. A great resource for making family connections or just browsing old photos.


Reanimation of Ancient Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Recent highly publicized experiments conducted on salt crystals taken from the Permian Salado Formation in Southeastern New Mexico have shown that some ancient crystals contain viable microorganisms trapped within fluid inclusions. Stringent geological and microbiological selection criteria were used to select crystals and conduct all sampling. This talk will focus on how each of these lines of data support the conclusion that such isolated bacteria are as old as the rock in which they are trapped. In this case, the isolated microbes are salt tolerant bacilli that grow best in media containing 8% NaCl, and respond to concentrated brines by forming spores. One of the organisms is phylogenetically related to several bacilli, but does have several unique characteristics. This talk will trace the interdisciplinary data and procedures supporting these discoveries, and describe the various isolated bacteria.

Russell Vreeland



Preliminary evaluation of growth and conformation traits of local goats and Nubians upgraded by a black Boer line in Taiwan.  


The goal of this research, conducted in the most southern part of Taiwan, was to create a new genotype: the "Hengchun Black Goat" (HB). Nubian (NU) goats were first crossed with a local breed, the Taiwan native (TN), then the F1 females were crossed with the imported black Boer (BO) bucks. The upgraded genotypes were then compared with the parental breeds and Kinmen (KM), another local breed, for growth traits and body conformation. The study concerned 1,136 kids born between 2005 and 2007. The analysed traits were body weight (BW), average daily gain and three linear measurements, namely height at withers, body length and chest girth. The results indicated that environmental factors, sex, birth and rearing type, dam parity and birth year had significant effects from birth to 6 months of age. The same differences persisted to 1 year. At 6 months of age, the least square means of BW were 16.2, 19.2, 25.1, 32.0, 23.9, 23.8, 23.0 and 23.9 kg, for KM, TN, NU, 1/2BO, 3/4BO, 7/8BO, BO and HB, respectively. These first results also indicate that the growth performances of the newly created line, Hengchun Black, were equivalent to those of Boer goats. PMID:22252146

Su, An-Kuo; Yang, Shen-Suan; Chen, Shui-Tsai; Cheng, Yu-Shin; Huang, Jan-Chi; Wu, Ming-Che; Poivey, Jean-Paul



7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage...



7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage...



7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage...



7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage...



7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage...



Lightning protection of Chinese ancient architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lightning phenomenon have long been a focus of ancient people. For ancient Chinese, lightning is an even huge threat for their wooden structure. This paper shows that ancient Chinese may have taken some measures to protect their buildings from lightning strike hundreds years ago. According to existing literature, some installations in ancient buildings have played the role of lightning rod.

Jun Hu; Chen Li



Ancient Astronomy in Ukraine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical culture and research have long-standing traditions in Ukraine. The first signs of astronomical knowledge were found in archaeological excavations and records. The most ancient find (dated as 15,000 B.C.) is a mammoth tusk with a fretwork image of a table of lunar phases found in the Poltava region. The so-called Trypillya culture (dated 4,000 - 3,000 B.C) had numerous examples of ornaments at the howls, distaffs, wheels and other everyday articles with symbolic images of zodiac constellations, and vessel-calendars indicating the vernal/autumnal equinoxes and the motion of the Sun. Some of such unique exhibits stored at the National Museum of History of Ukraine will be described in details in this paper. For example, the vessel calendar dating by IV century of our era (from village Romashki, Kyiv region). This image was interpreted by B. Rybakov as an agricultural calendar from May to August (time of harvesting). Most of exhibits of Museum were founded by archaeologist Vikenty Khvoyko and presented by him to Museum in 1905. Description and pictures of vessels and cups from Chernyahiv, Trypillya IV century B.C. with the Solar signs and tusk of the mammoth from Kyrilovska parking with notches interpreted as a calendar as well as tree-storied pictures of vessel from Trypillya interpreted as a “vertical cross section of the world” in dynamics will be also given. Another unique historical record relates to the times of the powerful state of the Kievan Rus' (X- XIII centuries), when astronomical observations were conducted mainly in cloisters. For example, the authors of the Lavrentievska chronicle describe the solar eclipses of the years 1064, 1091, and 1115 A.D. and the lunar eclipses of 1161 A.D. At that times some natural cataclysms have been connected with eclipses that, for example, was described in “The Word about Igor's shelf” by Nestor Letopisec. Thus, facts discussed in paper pointed out once more that astronomy is one of the most ancient science, accompanying all history of humanity, which has arisen from the practical demands of people.

Artemenko, Tatyana G.; Vavilova, Iryna B.



Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy  

PubMed Central

Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L.) is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0); below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken), consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment. PMID:22958810



Work Classification in Ancient Times.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The divisions of labor and the classifications of work in ancient times are described, and an early four-part classification based on the "Bhagavad Gita" is compared with that of the present "Dictionary of Occupational Titles." (Author)

Hopke, William



Ancient Astronomical Monuments of Athens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, four ancient monuments of astronomical significance found in Athens and still kept in the same city in good condition are presented. The first one is the conical sundial on the southern slope of the Acropolis. The second one is the Tower of the Winds and its vertical sundials in the Roman Forum of Athens, a small octagonal marble tower with sundials on all 8 of its sides, plus a water-clock inside the tower. The third monument-instrument is the ancient clepsydra of Athens, one of the findings from the Ancient Agora of Athens, a unique water-clock dated from 400 B.C. Finally, the fourth one is the carved ancient Athenian calendar over the main entrance of the small Byzantine temple of the 8th Century, St. Eleftherios, located to the south of the temple of the Annunciation of Virgin Mary, the modern Cathedral of the city of Athens.

Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.



Ancient schwannoma of the orbit  

PubMed Central

The ancient schwannoma is a rare variant of a neurilemoma with a course typical of a slow-growing benign neoplasm. Histologically, it can be confused with a malignant mesenchymal tumor because of increased cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, and hyperchromatism. Despite the degree of nuclear atypia, mitotic figures are absent. We describe the clinical and histopathologic features of an ancient schwannoma of the orbit. A need for early removal of such tumors is recommended to prevent complications. PMID:25136229

Kulkarni, Anjali S.; Anjum, Shaziya; Kokandakar, Hemant R.; Bindu, Rajan S.; Awargaonkar, Amarnath



Mechanical behaviour of ancient masonry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this research was to build a behaviour law for ancient masonry made during the nineteenth century with bricks and\\u000a lime mortar bonds. This work should be of interest to researchers involved in the study of ancient masonry structures like\\u000a arch bridges built in this period. To assess the masonry capacity vaults to support service loads and to

N. Domède; G. Pons; A. Sellier; Y. Fritih



Ancient Writings Revealed!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sometime in the 3rd century BCE, the noted scholar and scientist Archimedes composed a series of diagrams and passages of text on a manuscript that was subsequently written over in the Middle Ages by a monk. Long thought to be lost forever, the document was given new life in 1906 when a Danish professor identified this item. Eventually the document found its way to The Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, and it now appears that scientists and researchers will be able to uncover Archimedesâ?? original writings. This delightful saga will unfold courtesy of this website, created by the Exploratorium Museum in San Francisco. Working in tandem with researchers at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, they will use an intense X-Ray to reveal the original letters and diagrams. Visitors will be able to watch all of this happen in real time on a webcast (or take a look on the archived webcast after the event is over), and learn about the original document, and how researchers read such ancient texts.



Characters of very ancient proteins.  


Tracing the characters of very ancient proteins represents one of the biggest challenges in the study of origin of life. Although there are no primitive protein fossils remaining, the characters of very ancient proteins can be traced by molecular fossils embedded in modern proteins. In this paper, first the prior findings in this area are outlined and then a new strategy is proposed to address the intriguing issue. It is interesting to find that various molecular fossils and different protein datasets lead to similar conclusions on the features of very ancient proteins, which can be summarized as follows: (i) the architectures of very ancient proteins belong to the following folds: P-loop containing nucleoside triphosphate hydrolases (c.37), TIM beta/alpha-barrel (c.1), NAD(P)-binding Rossmann-fold domains (c.2), Ferredoxin-like (d.58), Flavodoxin-like (c.23) and Ribonuclease H-like motif (c.55); (ii) the functions of very ancient proteins are related to the metabolisms of purine, pyrimidine, porphyrin, chlorophyll and carbohydrates; (iii) a certain part of very ancient proteins need cofactors (such as ATP, NADH or NADPH) to work normally. PMID:18073136

Ma, Bin-Guang; Chen, Lei; Ji, Hong-Fang; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Yang, Fu-Rong; Wang, Ling; Qu, Ge; Jiang, Ying-Ying; Ji, Cong; Zhang, Hong-Yu



The genetic analysis of barley storage proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hordein polypeptide patterns in barley seeds are known to be controlled by structural genes at 2 loci, Hor-1 and Hor-2, on chromosome 5. Two-dimensional and high resolution one-dimensional electrophoretic analyses of seeds of F2 and doubled haploid progenies of four intervarietal crosses gave no evidence of recombination within these loci. Genetic analysis of the progenies showed that Hor-1 is 0·161

P R Shewry; Audrey J Faulks; R A Pickering; I T Jones; R A Finch; B J Miflin



Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.

Dunwell, Jim M.


Proteomic response of barley leaves to salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought and salinity stresses are adverse environmental factors that affect crop growth and yield. Proteomic analysis offers\\u000a a new approach to identify a broad spectrum of genes that are expressed in living system. We applied this technique to investigate\\u000a protein changes that were induced by salinity in barley genotypes (Hordeum vulgare L.), Afzal, as a salt-tolerant genotype and L-527, as

Abdolrahman Rasoulnia; Mohammad Reza Bihamta; Seyed Ali Peyghambari; Houshang Alizadeh; Afrasyab Rahnama


Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds  

PubMed Central

Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR. PMID:25242949

Zawoznik, Myriam S.; Vázquez, Susana C.; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M.; Groppa, María D.



Biology of barley shoot fly Delia flavibasis Stein (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) on resistant and susceptible barley cultivars  

PubMed Central

The biology of barley shoot fly Delia flavibasis was studied using resistant (Dinsho and Harbu) and susceptible (Holker) barley cultivars at Sinana Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia. A higher number of eggs was laid on Holker (17 eggs/female) than on Dinsho (11 eggs/female) or Harbu (12 eggs/female). However, there were no differences between cultivars in preoviposition and total reproductive periods. The shortest time required to complete larval, pupal and total developmental stages from egg to adult emergence occurred when the insect was reared on the cultivar Holker. Pupal weight, adult emergence and adult longevity did not differ between cultivars. The female to male sex ratio was 1:1. This study enabled us to understand the duration of each of the life stages of D.flavibasis, which will undoubtedly aid researchers and growers to design a sustainable management strategy against barley shoot fly. PMID:21151718

Goftishu, Muluken; Getu, Emana



Milk yield and composition of crossbred Sahelian × Anglo-Nubian goats in the semi-intensive system in Mali during the preweaning period.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate milk yield and its composition during the preweaning period for Sahelian goats (SG) and Anglo-Nubian (AN) crossbred depending on some factors. The experiments were conducted from January to December 2008 for 44 suckled and hand-milked does, randomized, and divided into two equal groups: SG (n = 22) and F(1) Anglo-Nubian × Sahelian goats (1/2AN; n = 22). The does and their offsprings were kept in a pen where they stayed indoors for 45 days before they were allowed outdoors when the weather was suitable. Each category received supplemental feeds depending on the season (rainy season, dry cold season, and dry hot season). The average daily milk yield was recorded weekly from parturition to 100 days of age. Individual milk samples were taken for chemical analysis in connection with the yield measurements twice per month from the fourth week of lactation throughout the different seasons (rainy, cold dry, and hot dry). The daily milk yield differed between breed types (P = 0.001) during the preweaning, while the effect of kids' sex on daily milk production was not significant. Litter size affected milk yield up to day 60 (P = 0.032) where does with twins producing more milk than those with single kid. However, at day 100, both groups had similar (P = 0.001) milk production. Total milk yield at weaning increased by 103 % in 1/2AN over SG. The highest concentration of total solids of milk was (12.76 %) recorded in the hot dry season. The results of this study indicate that crossbreeding native Sahelian goats with high potential Anglo-Nubian buck improved milk production and its composition. PMID:22791216

Sanogo, Souleymane; Shaker, Mohamed Momani; Nantoumé, Hamidou; Salem, Abdel-Fattah Z M



Recharge flux to the Nubian Sandstone aquifer and its impact on the present development in southwest Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southwestern part of Egypt (East El Oweinat) is an arid area with no surface water and only one resource of useable groundwater in the well-known Nubian Sandstone aquifer. This resource has been heavily exploited since 1990, which has led to a continuous decline in the potentiometric surface of this aquifer. The groundwater recharge in the concerned area depends exclusively on the subsurface inflow across the Egyptian/Sudanese borders. A FEFLOW, finite element groundwater model, has been used to investigate the length of the recharge window and to predict the hydrodynamic impacts of different groundwater extractions on the potentiometry of this aquifer. A complete database of the hydrogeological and drilling information of about 600 water wells drilled in the period 1985-2010 was evaluated and used for the model parameter input as well as for its simulation. The results of steady-state simulation indicate that the length of the southwest flux boundary is about 170 km with angle flow direction about 52°NW with a groundwater flow rate about 0.018 m/day. A calibrated regional numerical model with refined grid on the pumping centres, hydraulic properties and flux boundary in the southwest is used to simulate the impacts of the present and planned groundwater extraction on the potentiometry of the aquifer. The results show a real danger of increasing the water depth to uneconomic lifting depth. Through implementation of 135 pumping wells in time 2002-2008, the lowering of water table ranges from 1 to 1.5 m in the reclamation areas. On the other hand, the distribution of 1600 proposed wells with distance between every two adjacent wells not less than 2700 m indicates that the lowering of water table ranges from 5 m away of the reclamation areas to 15 m in the reclamation areas in time period of 27 years (2008-2035). This result seems to be the better for the present irrigation project in East El Oweinat area.

Masoud, M. H.; Schneider, M.; El Osta, M. M.



Tectonostratigraphy and depositional history of the Neoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary sequences in Kid area, southeastern Sinai, Egypt: Implications for intra-arc to foreland basin in the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a stratigraphic and sedimentary study of Neoproterozoic successions of the South Sinai, at the northernmost segment of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), including the Kid complex. This complex is composed predominantly of thick volcano-sedimentary successions representing different depositional and tectonic environments, followed by four deformational phases including folding and brittle faults (D1-D4). The whole Kid area is divisible from north to south into the lower, middle, and upper rock sequences. The higher metamorphic grade and extensive deformational styles of the lower sequence distinguishes them from the middle and upper sequences. Principal lithofacies in the lower sequence include thrust-imbricated tectonic slice of metasediments and metavolcanics, whereas the middle and upper sequences are made up of clastic sediments, intermediate-felsic lavas, volcaniclastics, and dike swarms. Two distinct Paleo- depositional environments are observed: deep-marine and alluvial fan regime. The former occurred mainly during the lower sequence, whereas the latter developed during the other two sequences. These alternations of depositional conditions in the volcano-sedimentary deposits suggest that the Kid area may have formed under a transitional climate regime fluctuating gradually from warm and dry to warm and humid conditions. Geochemical and petrographical data, in conjunction with field relationships, suggest that the investigated volcano-sedimentary rocks were built from detritus derived from a wide range of sources, ranging from Paleoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic continental crust. Deposition within the ancient Kid basin reflects a complete basin cycle from rifting and passive margin development, to intra-arc and foreland basin development and, finally, basin closure. The early phase of basin evolution is similar to various basins in the Taupo volcanics, whereas the later phases are similar to the Cordilleran-type foreland basin. The progressive change in lithofacies from marine intra-arc basin to continental molasses foreland basin and from compression to extension setting respectively, imply that the source area became peneplained, where the Kid basin became stabilized as sedimentation progressed following uplift. The scenario proposed of the study area supports the role of volcanic and tectonic events in architecting the facies and stratigraphic development.

Khalaf, E. A.; Obeid, M. A.



Grain protein content variation and its association analysis in barley  

PubMed Central

Background Grain protein content (GPC) is an important quality determinant for barley used as malt, feed as well as food. It is controlled by a complex genetic system. GPC differs greatly among barley genotypes and is also variable across different environments. It is imperative to understand the genetic control of barley GPC and identify the genotypes with less variation under the different environments. Results In this study, 59 cultivated and 99 Tibetan wild barley genotypes were used for a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a multi-platform candidate gene-based association analysis, in order to identify the molecular markers associated with GPC. Tibetan wild barley had higher GPC than cultivated barley. The significant correlation between GPC and diastatic power (DP), and malt extract confirmed the importance of GPC in determining malt quality. Diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers associated with barley GPC were detected by GWAS. In addition, GWAS revealed two HvNAM genes as the candidate genes controlling GPC. No association was detected between HvNAM1 polymorphism and GPC, while a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (798, P?barley. Conclusions The GWAS and candidate gene based-association study may be effectively used to determine the genetic variation of GPC in barley. The DArT markers and the polymorphism of HvNAM genes identified in this study are useful in developing high quality barley cultivars in the future. HvNAM genes could play a role in controlling barley GPC. PMID:23452582



Control of stripe rusts of wheat and barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rusts of wheat and barley were monitored throughout the Pacific Northwest (PNW) using trap plots and through field surveys during the 2006 growing season. Through collaborators in other states, stripe rusts of wheat and barley were monitored throughout the US. In 2006, wheat stripe rust occurred in...


Field tests of transgenic barley lines in North Dakota  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Testing transgenic barley lines for FHB in the greenhouse does not necessarily give the same results as field tests. The objective of this project was to test 18 transgenic lines in replicated trials in an inoculated FHB nursery. Several programs have developed barley lines expressing anti-fungal a...


Extension Bulletin GMI-035 New July 2014 Malting Barley Production  

E-print Network

and agriculture, including beer production. The Michigan craft brewing industry has seen tremendous growth. Aside from feed uses, 30 percent to 40 percent of U.S. barley is malted for brewing, 2 percent to 3 and adaptability have led to consistent use of the grain in brewing for at least 5,000 years. Barley destined


Expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) during salinity stress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a salt-tolerant crop species with considerable economic importance in salinity-affected arid and semiarid regions of the world. In this work, barley cultivar Morex was used for transcriptional profiling during salinity stress using a microarray containing ~22,750 prob...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

De-embryonated cereal aleurone has been established as a model system to study GA and ABA responses, and their interaction. Using Barley 1 GeneChip, we examined mRNA accumulation of over 22,000 genes in de-embryonated barley aleurone treated with GA and ABA. We observed that 1328 genes had more than...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previously we described a system of quantifying Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in barley by ELISA. ELISA had lower variability (lower CV's) than visual scoring or deoxynivalenol (DON) analyses. Thus we tested ELISA, DON, and visual assessment of FHB in 1) selections from a barley doubled-haploid mappi...


Fusarium Species Pathogenic to Barley and Their Associated Mycotoxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salas, B., Steffenson, B. J., Casper, H. H., Tacke, B., Prom, L. K., Fetch, T. G., Jr., and Schwarz, P. B. 1999. Fusarium species pathogenic to barley and their associated mycotoxins. Plant Dis. 83:667-674. Epidemics of Fusarium head blight (FHB) occurred on barley in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota from 1993 to 1998. The Red River Valley region was

B. Salas; B. J. Steffenson; H. H. Casper; B. Tacke; L. K. Prom; T. G. Fetch; P. B. Schwarz



Transgenic resistance to Fusarium head blight in barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight (FHB) and its mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) have been a major problem in the primary malting barley growing regions in North America since 1993. Resistance to FHB and DON accumulation in barley is quantitative, with no immunity available in the primary or secondary gene pools. ...


Pasting and rheological properties of chia composites containing barley flour  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The chia containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) was composited with barley flour having high ß-glucan content. Both omega-3 PUFAs and ß-glucan are well known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing coronary heart disease. Barley flour was dry blended with ground chia ...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A brief overview of the barley-related research programs within the Cereal Crops Research Unit will be presented, followed by a brief overview of plans and progress in establishing an ARS Genotyping Laboratory. Topics covered will include research on virus diseases of barley, particularly research ...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley malt contains endoproteinases belonging to all four of the commonly occurring classes, including serine proteinases. It also contains low-molecular-weight proteins that inhibit the activities of many of these endoproteinases, but it had never been shown that any barley or malt serine protein...


Low Phytic Acid Barley Responses to Phosphorus Rates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Low phytic acid (LPA) barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars partition phosphorus in seed tissue differently than conventional barley cultivars through a reduction in seed phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexkisphosphate) coupled with an increase in inorganic phosphorus. The response of the LPA...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A consensus map of barley combining SSR, RFLP, and AFLP markers has been developed by combining five Australian barley linkage maps, `Galleon x Harruna Nijo', `Chebec x Harrington', `Clipper x Sahara', `Alexis x Sloop', and `Amaji Nijo x WI2585' using the software package JOINMAP 2.0. The new consen...


Introduction Modern winter barley cultivars are capable of yields in  

E-print Network

and/or early winter lodging of the crop. Such situations have been observed with early planting datesIntroduction Modern winter barley cultivars are capable of yields in excess of 170 bu and protection of ground and surface waters. Excessive plant-available N produces barley plants

Liskiewicz, Maciej


Progressive hull removal from barley using the Fitzpatrick comminuting mill  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of the study was to explore an alternative use of the Fitzpatrick Comminuting Machine: to use it to remove the hull from hulled barley while keeping the barley kernel intact. Traditionally, this mill is used to grind material, but we have recently discovered that it also has the abili...


Using barley genomics to develop Fusarium head blight resistant wheat and barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a major problem for wheat and barley growers. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins (e.g., deoxynivalenol or DON) that increases fungal virulence and reduces grain quality and yield. Previous work in Arabidopsis sh...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To learn how the head blight pathogen, Fusarium graminearum, enters barley florets, field-grown plants were sprayed with macroconidial inoculum and then mist-irrigated daily in morning and evening. On selected days, 1-8 days after inoculation (DAI), 80-190 florets per day were harvested, dissected, ...


RFLP analysis of resistance to the barley yellow mosaic virus complex  

E-print Network

RFLP analysis of resistance to the barley yellow mosaic virus complex A Graner E Bauer A Kellermann yellow mosaic virus complex consists of barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV), barley yellow mosaic virus type 1 (BaYMV-1) and barley yellow mosaic virus type 2 (BaYMV-2). In an attempt to investigate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


proportions of hay were replaced by ground barley until the final diet contained  

E-print Network

proportions of hay were replaced by ground barley until the final diet contained 24% hay, 66- zyme activities of SAM were not modified between 0 and 55% barley in the diet, ex- cept a small decrease with the 20% barley diet. Beyond 55 % barley, all enzyme ac- tivities dropped, and particularly

Boyer, Edmond


WHEAT AND BARLEY New Jersey producers have expressed concern over the lack  

E-print Network

WHEAT AND BARLEY New Jersey producers have expressed concern over the lack of Revenue coverage for wheat and barley. Both have had Yield coverage available, but producers wanted to protect their revenue Coverage for wheat and barley! The prices for barley will be based on a percentage of the Chicago Board

Goodman, Robert M.


Ancient "Observatories" - A Relevant Concept?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is quite common, when reading popular books on astronomy, to see a place referred to as "the oldest observatory in the world". In addition, numerous books on archaeoastronomy, of various levels of quality, frequently refer to the existence of "prehistoric" or "ancient" observatories when describing or citing monuments that were certainly not built with the primary purpose of observing the skies. Internet sources are also guilty of this practice. In this chapter, the different meanings of the word observatory will be analyzed, looking at how their significances can be easily confused or even interchanged. The proclaimed "ancient observatories" are a typical result of this situation. Finally, the relevance of the concept of the ancient observatory will be evaluated.

Belmonte, Juan Antonio


Neoproterozoic diamictite in the Eastern Desert of Egypt and Northern Saudi Arabia: evidence of ~750 Ma glaciation in the Arabian-Nubian Shield?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Neoproterozoic Atud diamictite in Wadi Kareim and Wadi Mobarak in the Eastern Desert of Egypt and the Nuwaybah formation in NW Saudi Arabia consist of poorly sorted, polymictic breccia, with clasts up to 1 m of granitoid, quartz porphyry, quartzite, basalt, greywacke, marble, arkose, and microconglomerate in fine-grained matrix. Stratigraphic relations indicate that the diamictite was deposited in a marine environment. Integrated field investigation, petrographic study and U-Pb SHRIMP zircon ages demonstrate that the Atud and Nuwaybah are correlative. The distribution of zircon ages indicate that ~750 Ma ages are dominant with a significant component of older materials, characterized by minor Mesoproterozoic and more abundant Paleoproterozoic and Neoarchean ages. Some matrix and metasedimentary clast zircons yield ages that are a few 10s of Ma younger than the age of the youngest clast (754 ± 15 Ma), suggesting Atud/Nuwaybah diamictite deposition ~750 Ma or slightly later, broadly consistent with being deposited during the Sturtian glaciation (740-660 Ma). The Paleoproterozoic and Neoarchean clasts have no source within the ensimatic Arabian-Nubian Shield. The distribution of the pre-Neoproterozoic ages are similar to the distribution of the pre-Neoproterozoic ages in Yemen and Saharan Metacraton, suggesting that these clasts have been transported hundreds of kilometers, maybe by ice-rafting. The Atud diamictite may represent important evidence for Cryogenian “Snowball Earth” in the Arabian-Nubian Shield.

Ali, Kamal A.; Stern, Robert J.; Manton, William I.; Johnson, Peter R.; Mukherjee, Sumit K.



Evidence of three new members of malignant catarrhal fever virus group in Muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (Oryx gazella)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Six members of the malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) virus group of ruminant rhadinoviruses have been identified to date. Four of these viruses are clearly associated with clinical disease: alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) carried by wildebeest (Connochaetes spp.); ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), ubiquitous in domestic sheep; caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2), endemic in domestic goats; and the virus of unknown origin found causing classic MCF in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; MCFV-WTD). Using serology and polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers targeting a portion of the herpesviral DNA polymerase gene, evidence of three previously unrecognized rhadinoviruses in the MCF virus group was found in muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (South African oryx, Oryx gazella), respectively. Based on sequence alignment, the viral sequence in the muskox is most closely related to MCFV-WTD (81.5% sequence identity) and that in the Nubian ibex is closest to CpHV-2 (89.3% identity). The viral sequence in the gemsbok is most closely related to AlHV-1 (85.1% identity). No evidence of disease association with these viruses has been found. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2003.

Li, H.; Gailbreath, K.; Bender, L.C.; West, K.; Keller, J.; Crawford, T.B.



Night Blindness and Ancient Remedy  

PubMed Central

The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A. PMID:25774260

Al Binali, H.A. Hajar



Night blindness and ancient remedy.  


The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A. PMID:25774260

Al Binali, H A Hajar



The Ancient City of Petra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fun Web article is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they learn about the ancient city of Petra. The article begins with an overview of this city, which was located along the ancient trade routes between Arabia, Egypt, and the Mediterranean Sea. Kids then have the chance to take a walk through Petra's ruins. This clickable illustration has 11 places for them to explore. The article concludes with an extensive information section on the history of the city.


Distribution of wild wheats and barley.  


If we accept the evidence at face value, we are led to conclude that emmer was probably domesticated in the upper Jordan watershed and that einkorn was domesticated in southeast Turkey. Barley could have been domesticated almost anywhere within the arc bordering the fertile crescent. All three cereals may well have been harvested in the wild state throughout their regions of adaptation long before actual farming began. The primary habitats for barley, however, are not the same as those for the wheats. Wild barley is more xerophytic and extends farther downslope and into the steppes and deserts along the wadis. It seems likely that, while all three early cereals were domesticated within an are flanking the fertile crescent, each was domesticated in a different subregion of the zone. Lest anyone should be led to think the problem is solved, we wish to close with a caveat. Domestication may not have taken place where the wild cereals were most abundant. Why should anyone cultivate a cereal where natural stands are as dense as a cultivated field? If wild cereal grasses can be harvested in unlimited quantities, why should anyone bother to till the soil and plant the seed? We suspect that we shall find, when the full story is unfolded, that here and there harvesting of wild cereals lingered on long after some people had learned to farm, and that farming itself may have orig inated in areas adjacent to, rather than in, the regions of greatest abundance of wild cereals. We need far more specific information on the climate during incipient domestication and many more carefully conducted excavations of sites in the appropriate time range. The problem is far from solved, but some knowledge of the present distribution of the wild forms should be helpful. PMID:17737582

Harlan, J R; Zohary, D



Beginning the Modern Regime of Subduction Tectonics in Neoproterozoic time: Inferences from Ophiolites of the Arabian-Nubian Shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now clear that the motive force for plate tectonics is provided by the sinking of dense lithosphere in subduction zones. Correspondingly, the modern tectonic regime is more aptly called ``subduction tectonics" than plate tectonics, which only describes the way Earth's thermal boundary layer adjusts to subduction. The absence of subduction tectonics on Mars and Venus implies that special circumstances are required for subduction to occur on a silicate planet. This begs the question: When did Earth's oceanic lithosphere cool sufficiently for subduction to began? This must be inferred from indirect lines of evidence; the focus here is on the temporal distribution of ophiolites. Well-preserved ophiolites with ``supra-subduction zone" (SSZ) affinities are increasingly regarded as forming when subduction initiates as a result of lithospheric collapse (± a nudge to get it started), and the formation of ophiolitic lithosphere in evolving forearcs favors their emplacement and preservation. The question now is what percentage of ophiolites with ``supra-subduction zone" (SSZ) chemical signatures formed in forearcs during subduction initiation events? Most of the large, well-preserved ophiolites (e.g., Oman, Cyprus, California, Newfoundland) may have this origin. If so, the distribution in space and time of such ophiolites can be used to identify ``subduction initiation" events, which are important events in the evolution of plate tectonics. Such events first occurred at the end of the Archean (˜2.5Ga) and again in the Paleoproterozoic (˜1.8 Ga), but ophiolites become uncommon after this. Well-preserved ophiolites become abundant in Neoproterozoic time, at about 800±50 Ma. Ophiolites of this age are common and well-preserved in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) of Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Saudi Arabia. ANS ophiolites mostly contain spinels with high Cr#, indicating SSZ affinities. Limited trace element data on pillowed lavas supports this interpretation. Boninites are unusual melts of harzburgite that result from asthenospheric upwelling interactng with slab-derived water. This environment is only common during subduction initiation events. Boninites associated with ophiolites have been reported from Egypt, Ethiopia and Eritrea, but most of the geochemical studies of ANS ophiolitic basalts are based on studies that are a decade or more old. The abundance of ANS ophiolites implies an episode of subduction initiation occurred in Neoproterozoic time.

Stern, R.



Systemic signalling in barley through action potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using apoplastic voltage- and ion selective microprobes, in barley leaves action potentials (APs) have been measured, which\\u000a propagate acropetally as well as basipetally from leaf to leaf or from root to leaf following the application of mild salt\\u000a stress (e.g. 30–50 mM KCl or NH4Cl) or amino acids (e.g. 1 mM glutamic acid or 5 mM GABA). Voltage changes were biphasic, followed an

Hubert H. Felle; Matthias R. Zimmermann



Ancient Wings Evolution of Bicyclus Wing Patterns  

E-print Network

Ancient Wings Evolution of Bicyclus Wing Patterns By Samuel Arbesman Overview Phylogenetic trees of these trees. However, seldom are these ancestral traits visualized in an intuitive manner. Ancient Wings and The Evolutionary Tree. The Wing This panel shows a schematic view of the butterfly hindwing pattern (ancient

Monteiro, Antónia


Evaluación de características productivas en cabritos Boer × local, Nubia × local y locales en el trópico seco de Guerrero, México Evaluation of productive traits in Boer × local, Nubian × local and local kids in the dry tropic of Guerrero, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of the GLM procedure of the SAS statistical package, the effects of the genetic groups (GG) Boer ? local (BL), Nubian ? local (NL) and local ? local (LL) kids, sex of kid (SK), type of birth (TB), age of dam (AD), season (SB) and year (YB) of birth, as well as genotype ? environment interactions on birth

Mayra I. Merlos-Brito; Rubén D. Martínez-Rojero; Ángel A. Mastache-Lagunas; Jaime Gallegos-Sánchez


Dream Interpretation in Ancient Civilizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dream interpretation was regarded by ancient peoples in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and Rome as an art requiring intelligence and, sometimes, divine inspiration. It became a motif in literature. It was treated as a science by philosophers and physicians. Dreams were thought to come either as clear messages, or as symbols requiring interpretation. In a method called incubation, the dreamer could

J. Donald Hughes



The ancient art of memory.  


Revision of Freud's theory requires a new way of seeking dream meaning. With the idea of elaborative encoding, Sue Llewellyn has provided a method of dream interpretation that takes into account both modern sleep science and the ancient art of memory. Her synthesis is elegant and compelling. But is her hypothesis testable? PMID:24304762

Hobson, Allan



GPR prospection in ancient Ephesos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban area of ancient Ephesos (present Turkey) is too large to be fully excavated, so geophysical prospection and mapping can help with the investigation. Georadar is one of the most effective tools for it. Two different tasks solved by georadar are presented. The first problem was the interconnection between the city and the temple of Artemis. By historical records, it

Jiri Hruska; Gerald Fuchs



Tawa hallae - Dinosaur Ancient History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When paleontologists unearthed the ancient dinosaur Tawa hallae, they knew it was different--and remarkably well preserved. What they did not know is that the animal has an intriguing lineage, one that answers questions about the earliest evolution of dinosaurs.


Ancient stunted trees on cliffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An undisturbed ancient woodland, dominated by tiny, slow-growing and widely spaced trees, grows on vertical cliffs of the Niagara escarpment in southern Canada. To investigate whether this woodland is unusual or is part of a previously undetected global pattern, we sampled ages and radial growth rates for trees on cliffs in the United States and in western Europe. We find

D. W. Larson; U. Matthes; J. A. Gerrath; J. M. Gerrath; J. C. Nekola; G. L. Walker; S. Porembski; A. Charlton; N. W. K. Larson



Ancient India: The Asiatic Ethiopians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum unit was developed by a participant in the 1993 Fulbright-Hays Program "India: Continuity and Change." The unit attempts to place India in the "picture frame" of the ancient world as a part of a whole, not as a separate entity. Reading materials enable students to draw broader general conclusions based on the facts presented. The…

Scott, Carolyn McPherson


Physiological and molecular changes in barley and wheat under salinity.  


In this study, it was aimed to compare salinity-induced changes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Bornova-92) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Gerek-79). Seeds were germinated under saline conditions (0, 50, 100, 250, and 500 mM NaCl) for 2 days and recovered under non-saline conditions for 2 days. At the end of the salt treatment, germination, water content (WC), total soluble protein content, and catalase (CAT, EC activity were affected in both species, while superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC activity was affected in barley. Salinity affected WC, protein content, and CAT activity in both species, while it affected germination in barley and affected fresh weight and SOD activity in wheat after recovery. Physiological responses of both species were correlated. Expression of ?-tubulin, Atls1, and Lls1 genes was down-regulated in barley after 250 mM NaCl treatment. HVA1 gene was highly (more than 50-fold) stimulated by salinity in barley. However, ?-tubulin and Atls1 genes were down-regulated, and Lls1 gene was up-regulated in wheat after recovery from 250-mM NaCl treatment. Increase in HVA1 expression was not significant in wheat. The expression profiles of barley and wheat under salinity are different, and barley tended to regulate gene expression faster than wheat. PMID:25578157

Temel, Aslihan; Gozukirmizi, Nermin



Late Precambrian (740 Ma) charnockite, enderbite, and granite from Jebel Moya, Sudan: A link between the Mozambique Belt and the Arabian-Nubian Shield  

SciTech Connect

New Rb-Sr and whole rock and U-Pb zircon data are reported for deep-seated igneous rocks from Jebel Moya in east-central Sudan. This exposure is important because it may link the high-grade metamorphic and deep-seated igneous rocks of the Mozambique Belt with the greenschist-facies and ophiolitic assemblages of the Arabian-Nubian Shield, both of Pan-African (ca. 900-550 Ma) age. The rocks of Jebel Moya consist of pink granite, green charnockite, and dark enderbite. A twelve-point Rb-Sr whole rock isochron for all three lithologies yields an age of 730 {plus minus} 31 Ma and an initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr of 0.7031 {plus minus} 1. Nearly concordant zircon ages for granite, charnockite, and enderbite are 744 {plus minus} 2,742 {plus minus} 2, and 739 {plus minus} 2 Ma, respectively. Initial {epsilon}-Nd for these rocks are indistinguishable at 3.0 {plus minus} 0.4. The data suggest that the charnockite, enderbite, and granite are all part of a deep-seated igneous complex. The initial isotopic compositions of Sr and Nd indicate that Jebel Moya melts were derived from a mantle source that experienced significantly less time-integrated depletion of LRE and LIL elements than the source of Arabian-Nubian Shield melts. The ages for Jebel Moya deep-seated igneous rocks are in accord with data from elsewhere in the Mozambique Belt indicating that peak metamorphism occurred about 700-750 Ma. The northward extension of the Mozambique Belt to the Arabian-Nubian Shield defines a single east Pan-African orogen. The principal difference between the northern and southern sectors of this orogen may be the greater degree of thickening and subsequent erosion experienced in the south during the late Precambrian, perhaps a result of continental collision between East (Australia-India) and West Gondwanaland (S. America-Africa) about 750 Ma.

Stern, R.J. (Univ. of Texas, Richardson (United States)); Dawoud, A.S. (Univ. of Khartoum (Sudan))



Effect of particle size on rate and extent of degradation of alfalfa hay, barley straw and ammonia-treated barley straw  

E-print Network

Effect of particle size on rate and extent of degradation of alfalfa hay, barley straw and ammonia experiment alfalfa hay (A, 57.4 % DOM), barley straw (S, 40.2 % DOM) and ammonia-treated barley straw (TS, 51 characteristics were also studied for alfalfa hay. Average dry matter (DM) intakes were 74.5, 29.2 and 45.9 g

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


The British Museum: Ancient India  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ancient India Web site from the British Museum is designed especially for middle schoolers and teachers, but all ages will enjoy exploring. There are six chapters: Buddha, Geography, Hinduism, Indus Valley, Time, and Writing; each with divisions entitled Story, Explore, and Challenge. Story in the Buddha chapter is the life of the Buddha; Explore under Hinduism features trading card-sized images of 16 Hindu gods and short descriptions; and the Geography Challenge is to plan a pilgrimage to see holy sites of the Buddha's life, traveling on foot. Other fun sections include the Writing section challenge, where students decipher ancient Indian writing, and the interactive timelines in the Time chapter. Throughout the site, clicking linked words in the text pops open a glossary with definitions of difficult terms.


Chemiosmotic Principles of Solute Transport in Barley Roots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise will demonstrate to students the fluxes of certain inorganic ions in the roots of barley plants. It will familiarize them with the chemiosmotic principles that are involved in ATP synthesis and give them an understanding of solute transport .

Anthony D. M. Glass (University of British Columbia; )



Ancient Architects of the Mississippi  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A feature of the US National Park Service (see the March 8, 1996 Scout Report), this site provides information about the American civilizations that resided in the lower Mississippi Delta from 500 to 1700. The highly advanced agrarian civilizations, collectively known as the Mississippians, erected massive earthworks, which formed the architectural and ceremonial foundations of their communities. This Website contains images, photos, maps, and essays offering historical, anthropological, and archaeological insight into the cultures of the ancient moundbuilding societies.


Dinosaurs: Ancient Fossils, New Discoveries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, created to complement the Museum's Dinosaurs: Ancient Fossils, New Discoveries exhibit, offers a virtual visit to the Museum, complete with text, photos, video clips, audio interviews, and more and includes much of the information which was in the original exhibit which is now closed. The site includes information on the bio-mechanics of dinosaurs and the reasons behind some of their strange appearances.


Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India*  

PubMed Central

A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry.

Abhyankar, Ravi



Orthopedic surgery in ancient Egypt  

PubMed Central

Background — Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. The modern literature is, however, sometimes rather too enthusiastic regarding the procedures that are attributed an Egyptian origin. I briefly present and analyze the claims regarding orthopedic surgery in Egypt, what was actually done by the Egyptians, and what may have been incorrectly ascribed to them. Methods — I reviewed the original sources and also the modern literature regarding surgery in ancient Egypt, concentrating especially on orthopedic surgery. Results — As is well known, both literary sources and the archaeological/osteological material bear witness to treatment of various fractures. The Egyptian painting, often claimed to depict the reduction of a dislocated shoulder according to Kocher’s method, is, however, open to interpretation. Therapeutic amputations are never depicted or mentioned in the literary sources, while the specimens suggested to demonstrate such amputations are not convincing. Interpretation — The ancient Egyptians certainly treated fractures of various kinds, and with varying degrees of success. Concerning the reductions of dislocated joints and therapeutic amputations, there is no clear evidence for the existence of such procedures. It would, however, be surprising if dislocations were not treated, even though they have not left traces in the surviving sources. Concerning amputations, the general level of Egyptian surgery makes it unlikely that limb amputations were done, even if they may possibly have been performed under extraordinary circumstances. PMID:25140982

Blomstedt, Patric



Genomic methylation patterns in archaeological barley show de-methylation as a time-dependent diagenetic process  

PubMed Central

Genomic methylation is variable under biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. In particular, viral infection is thought to significantly increase genomic methylation with particularly high activity around transposable elements. Here we present the genomic methylation profiles of grains of archaeological barley (Hordeum vulgare) from several strata from a site in southern Egypt, from the Napatan to the Islamic periods (800 BCE – 1812 CE). One sample tested positive for viral infection and exhibits an unusually high degree of genomic methylation compared to the rest. A decreasing trend in global methylation levels according to deposition date shows in-situ de-methylation of 5-methylcytosine, which can be described as a diagenetic process. This is most likely a deamination mediated de-methylation process and is expected to lead to 5?mC > T base modifications in addition to the C > U modifications due to cytosine deamination, so represents a time-dependent process of DNA diagenesis in ancient DNA. PMID:24993353

Smith, Oliver; Clapham, Alan J.; Rose, Pam; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Allaby, Robin G.



Lactic acid fermentation on barley flour without additional nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

An amylolytic lactic acid producing Lactobacillus amylovorus produced 36 g\\/l of lactic acid in mixed cultures with L. casei without additional nutrients at 37 °C in 48 h, when barley flour concentration was 180 g\\/l (appr. 108 g\\/l starch) and barley malt quantity 0.8% of flour weight. This represented an improvement of up to 20% in comparison to the fermentation

P. Javanainen; Y.-Y. Linko



Metabolomics technology to phenotype resistance in barley against Gibberella zeae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms of resistance in barley to fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Gibberella zeae are complex. Metabolomics technology was explored to phenotype resistance. Spikelets of barley genotypes with contrasting\\u000a levels of resistance to FHB, mock inoculated or with the pathogen, were extracted with aqueous methanol and the metabolites\\u000a were analyzed using liquid chromatography and hybrid mass spectrometry. Peaks were

G. Kenchappa Kumaraswamy; Venkatesh Bollina; Ajjamada C. Kushalappa; Thin M. Choo; Yves Dion; Sylvie Rioux; Orval Mamer; Denis Faubert



Slender barley: A constitutive gibberellin-response mutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Herta), slender (sln1) is a single-locus recessive mutation which causes a plant to appear as if it had been grown in sturating concentrations of gibberellin (GA). We have investigated two of the GA-mediated processes in slender barley, shoot elongation and the induction of hydrolytic enzymes in aleurone layers. Shoot elongation is severely retarded in

Michael B. Lanahan; Tuan-Hua David Ho



Thermodynamic modelling of Sol Hamed serpentinite, South Eastern Desert of Egypt: Implication for fluid interaction in the Arabian-Nubian Shield ophiolites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arabian-Nubian Shield is the largest tract of juvenile continental crust of the Neoproterozoic. This juvenile crust is composed of intra-oceanic island arc/back arc basin complexes and micro-continents welded together along sutures as the Mozambique Ocean was closed. Some of these sutures are marked by ophiolite decorated linear belts. The Sol Hamed ophiolite (808 ± 14 Ma) in southeastern Egypt at the Allaqi-Heiani-Onib-Sol Hamed-Yanbu arc-arc suture represents an uncommon example of rocks that might be less deformed than other ophiolites in the Arabian-Nubian Shield. In order to understand fluid-rock interactions before and during arc-arc collision, petrological, mineral chemistry, whole-rock chemistry and thermodynamic studies were applied to the Sol Hamed serpentinized ophiolitic mantle fragment. These studies reveal that the protolith had a harzburgite composition that probably originated as forearc mantle in the subducted oceanic slab. We propose that these rocks interacted with Ti-rich melts (boninite) in suprasubduction zone, which latter formed the Sol Hamed cumulates. Spinel's Cr# associated with the whole rock V-MgO composition suggest that the harzburgites are highly refractory residues after partial melting up to 29%. The melt extraction mostly occurred under reducing conditions, similar to peridotites recovered from the subducted lithosphere. Protolith alteration resulted from two stages of fluid-rock interaction. The first stage occurred as a result of infiltration of concentrated CO2-rich fluid released from carbonate-bearing sediments and altered basalt at the subduction zone. The alteration occurred during isobaric cooling at a pressure of 1 kbar. The fluid composition during the isobaric cooling was buffered by the metamorphic reactions. The second stage of fluid-rock interactions took place through prograde metamorphism. The increase in pressure during this stage occurred as a result of thrusting within the oceanic crust. In this process the forearc crust was loaded by roughly 20-30 km of overthrust rocks.

Abu-Alam, Tamer S.; Hamdy, Mohamed M.



A hybrid composite dike suite from the northern Arabian Nubian Shield, southwest Jordan: Implications for magma mixing and partial melting of granite by mafic magma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arabian Nubian Shield is an exemplary juvenile continental crust of Neoproterozoic age (1000-542 Ma). The post-collisional rift-related stage (~ 610 to 542 Ma) of its formation is characterized among others by the intrusion of several generations of simple and composite dikes. This study documents a suite of hybrid composite dikes and a natural example of partial melting of granite by a mafic magma from the northernmost extremity of Arabian Nubian Shield in southwest Jordan. The petrogenesis of this suite is discussed on the basis of field, petrographic, geochemical, and Rb/Sr isotopic data. These dikes give spectacular examples of the interaction between basaltic magma and the granitic basement. This interaction ranges from brecciation, partial melting of the host alkali feldspar granite to complete assimilation of the granitic material. Field structures range from intrusive breccia (angular partially melted granitic fragments in a mafic groundmass) to the formation of hybrid composite dikes that are up to 14 m in thickness. The rims of these dikes are trachyandesite (latite) with alkali feldspar ovoids (up to 1 cm in diameter); while the central cores are trachydacite to dacite and again with alkali feldspar ovoids and xenoliths from the dike rims. The granitic xenoliths in the intrusive breccia have been subjected to at least 33% partial melting. A seven-point Rb/Sr isochron from one of these composite dikes yields an age of 561 ± 33 Ma and an initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.70326 ± 0.0003 (2?) and MSWD of 0.62. Geochemical modeling using major, trace, rare earth elements and isotopes suggests the generation of the hybrid composite dike suite through the assimilation of 30% to 60% granitic crustal material by a basaltic magma, while the latter was undergoing fractional crystallization at different levels in the continental crust.

Jarrar, Ghaleb H.; Yaseen, Najel; Theye, Thomas



High-throughput Agrobacterium-mediated barley transformation  

PubMed Central

Background Plant transformation is an invaluable tool for basic plant research, as well as a useful technique for the direct improvement of commercial crops. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is the fourth most abundant cereal crop in the world. It also provides a useful model for the study of wheat, which has a larger and more complex genome. Most existing barley transformation methodologies are either complex or have low (<10%) transformation efficiencies. Results A robust, simple and reproducible barley transformation protocol has been developed that yields average transformation efficiencies of 25%. This protocol is based on the infection of immature barley embryos with Agrobacterium strain AGL1, carrying vectors from the pBract series that contain the hpt gene (conferring hygromycin resistance) as a selectable marker. Results of large scale experiments utilising the luc (firefly luciferase) gene as a reporter are described. The method presented here has been used to produce hundreds of independent, transgenic plant lines and we show that a large proportion of these lines contain single copies of the luc gene. Conclusion This protocol demonstrates significant improvements in both efficiency and ease of use over existing barley transformation methods. This opens up opportunities for the development of functional genomics resources in barley. PMID:18822125

Bartlett, Joanne G; Alves, Sílvia C; Smedley, Mark; Snape, John W; Harwood, Wendy A



Triple hybridization with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).  


A crossing programme for trispecific hybridization including cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as the third parent was carried out. The primary hybrids comprised 11 interspecific combinations, each of which had either H. jubatum or H. lechleri as one of the parents. The second parent represented species closely or distantly related to H. jubatum and H. lechleri. In trispecific crosses with diploid barley, the seed set was 5.7%. Crosses with tetraploid barley were highly unsuccessful (0.2% seed set). Three lines of diploid barley were used in the crosses, i.e. 'Gull', 'Golden Promise' and 'Vada'. Generally, cv 'Gull' had high crossability in crosses with related species in the primary hybrid. It is suggested that 'Gull' has a genetic factor for crossability not present in cv 'Vada' and cv 'Golden Promise'. One accession of H. brachyantherum used in the primary hybrid had a very high crossability (seed set 54.7%) in combination with cv 'Vada' but no viable offspring was produced. In all, two trispecific hybrids were raised, viz. (H. lechleri x H. brevisubulatum) x 'Gull' (2n=7-30) and (H. jubatum x H. lechleri) x 'Gull' (2n=20-22). The first combination invariably had a full complement of seven barley chromosomes plus an additional chromosome no. 7, but a varying number of chromosomes (19-22) of the wild-species hybrid. The second combination had a full set of barley chromosomes. The meiotic pairing was low in both combinations. PMID:24226012

von Bothmer, R; Claesson, L; Flink, J; Linde-Laursen, I



Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) transformation using immature embryos.  


Barley is a major crop species, and also has become a genetic model for the small grain temperate cereals. A draft barley genome sequence has recently been completed, opening many opportunities for candidate gene isolation and functionality testing. Thanks to the development of customizable endonucleases, also site-directed genome modification recently became feasible for higher plants, which marks the beginning of a new era of genetic engineering. The development of improved binary vectors and hypervirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains has raised the efficiency of genetic transformation in barley to a level where the technique has become relatively routine. The transformation method described here involves immature barley embryos cocultivated with Agrobacterium after removal of their embryo axis. Critical adjustments to the protocol have included the supplementation of the cocultivation medium with the polyphenolic signaling compound acetosyringone at comparatively high concentration and the use of cysteine to reduce the extent of cellular oxidation upon agroinfection. In addition, the use of liquid, rather than solid, cocultivation medium promotes the throughput of the method. The protocol has delivered well over 10,000 transgenic barley plants over the past 10 years. Routine transformation efficiency, calculated on the basis of the recovery of independent transgenics per 100 explants, has reached about 25 % in cultivar (cv.) "Golden Promise". The protocol has proven effective for more than 20 barley cultivars, although some adjustments to the culture conditions have had to be made in some cases. The transformation efficiency of cv. "Golden Promise" remains higher than that of any other cultivar tested. PMID:25300832

Marthe, Cornelia; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Goetz



Tissue Metabolic Responses to Salt Stress in Wild and Cultivated Barley  

PubMed Central

A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying barley salt tolerance and exploitation of elite genetic resource are essential for utilizing wild barley germplasm in developing barley varieties with salt tolerance. In order to reveal the physiological and molecular difference in salt tolerance between Tibetan wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) and cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare), profiles of 82 key metabolites were studies in wild and cultivated barley in response to salinity. According to shoot dry biomass under salt stress, XZ16 is a fast growing and salt tolerant wild barley. The results of metabolite profiling analysis suggested osmotic adjustment was a basic mechanism, and polyols played important roles in developing salt tolerance only in roots, and high level of sugars and energy in roots and active photosynthesis in leaves were important for barley to develop salt tolerance. The metabolites involved in tolerance enhancement differed between roots and shoots, and also between genotypes. Tibetan wild barley, XZ16 had higher chlorophyll content and higher contents of compatible solutes than CM72, while the cultivated barley, CM72 probably enhanced its salt tolerance mainly through increasing glycolysis and energy consumption, when the plants were exposed to high salinity. The current research extends our understanding of the mechanisms involved in barley salt tolerance and provides possible utilization of Tibetan wild barley in developing barley cultivars with salt tolerance. PMID:23383190

Wu, Dezhi; Cai, Shengguan; Chen, Mingxian; Ye, Lingzhen; Chen, Zhonghua; Zhang, Haitao; Dai, Fei; Wu, Feibo; Zhang, Guoping



Exploring Ancient World Cultures: An Introduction to Ancient World Cultures on the World-Wide Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exploring Ancient World Cultures, provided by University of Evansville, "is an introductory, on-line, college-level 'textbook' of ancient world cultures, constructed around a series of cultural pages consisting of: The Ancient Near East, Ancient India, Ancient Egypt, Ancient China, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Early Islam, and Medieval Europe." Each home page may contain essays by subject specialists, an anthology of readings from the period, a chronology, bibliographic resources, hypertext links to related sites, and computer graded quizzes. Interested users can also navigate the site by topic across cultures. A highlight of the site is the ability it gives the user to view the entire chronology, or to click on a year and culture and then another culture, in order to compare cross-cultural developments at the same time period. The site is a work in progress that promises maps and images in the near future.


Molecular Characterization of Barley 3H Semi-Dwarf Genes  

PubMed Central

The barley chromosome 3H accommodates many semi-dwarfing genes. To characterize these genes, the two-rowed semi-dwarf Chinese barley landrace ‘TX9425’ was crossed with the Australian barley variety ‘Franklin’ to generate a doubled haploid (DH) population, and major QTLs controlling plant height have been identified in our previous study. The major QTL derived from ‘TX9425’ was targeted to investigate the allelism of the semi-dwarf gene uzu in barley. Twelve sets of near-isogenic lines and a large NILF2 fine mapping population segregating only for the dwarfing gene from ‘TX9425’ were developed. The semi-dwarfing gene in ‘TX9425’ was located within a 2.8 cM region close to the centromere on chromosome 3H by fine mapping. Molecular cloning and sequence analyses showed that the ‘TX9425’-derived allele contained a single nucleotide substitution from A to G at position 2612 of the HvBRI1 gene. This was apparently the same mutation as that reported in six-rowed uzu barley. Markers co-segregating with the QTL were developed from the sequence of the HvBRI1 gene and were validated in the ‘TX9425’/‘Franklin’ DH population. The other major dwarfing QTL derived from the Franklin variety was distally located on chromosome 3HL and co-segregated with the sdw1 diagnostic marker hv20ox2. A third dwarfing gene, expressed only in winter-sown trials, was identified and located on chromosome 3HS. The effects and interactions of these dwarfing genes under different growing conditions are discussed. These results improve our understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling semi-dwarf stature in barley and provide diagnostic markers for the selection of semi-dwarfness in barley breeding programs. PMID:25826380

Li, Haobing; Chen, Guangdeng; Yan, Wei



Ancient Chinese Astronomy - An Overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Documentary and archaeological evidence testifies the early origin and continuous development of ancient Chinese astronomy to meet both the ideological and practical needs of a society largely based on agriculture. There was a long period when the beginning of the year, month, and season was determined by direct observation of celestial phenomena, including their alignments with respect to the local skyline. As the need for more exact study arose, new instruments for more exact observation were invented and the system of calendrical astronomy became entirely mathematized.

Shi, Yunli


Identification of wheat-barley addition lines with N-banding of chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seven chromosomes of barley (Hordeum vulgare) have been identified individually by their distinctive N-banding pattern. Furthermore all of the barley chromosome N-banding patterns were found to be recognizably different from those exhibited by wheat chromosomes, making it possible to identify individual barley chromosomes when present in a wheat background. N-banding has therefore been used to identify the individual barley

A. K. M. R. Islam



Movement of bymoviruses and functions of RNA2-encoded proteins of barley yellow mosaic virus  

E-print Network

Movement of bymoviruses and functions of RNA2- encoded proteins of barley yellow mosaic virus P and experimental data that were obtained from plants infected with bymoviruses such as barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV), barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV), or wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) suggested

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Effects of barley variety fed to steers on carcass characteristics and color of meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effect of bar- ley varieties in the diets of finishing steers on carcass composition,fat,andleancolorandthefattyacidprofile of subcutaneous fat. Crossbred steers (391 kg initial BW) were assigned randomly to one of five finishing diets composed primarily of corn (n = 9), Morex barley (n = 9), Steptoe barley, (n = 9), or two experimental barley varieties SM3 (n

J. A. Boles; J. G. Bowman; L. M. M. Surber; D. L. Boss



The Quantum Mixed-Spin Heme State of Barley Peroxidase: A Paradigm for Class III Peroxidases  

E-print Network

The Quantum Mixed-Spin Heme State of Barley Peroxidase: A Paradigm for Class III Peroxidases Barry and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the ferric form of barley grain peroxidase (BP 1) at various pH values, the QS species remains in all cases the dominant heme spin species. Barley peroxidase appears

Shelnutt, John A.


A root hairless barley mutant for elucidating genetic of root hairs and phosphorus uptake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a new barley mutant missing root hairs. The mutant was spontaneously discovered among the population of wild type (Pallas, a spring barley cultivar), producing normal, 0.8 mm long root hairs. We have called the mutant bald root barley (brb). Root anatomical studies confirmed the lack of root hairs on mutant roots. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analyses

Tara S. Gahoonia; Niels Erik Nielsen; Priyavadan A. Joshi; Ahmed Jahoor



MSU University News New wheat, barley and specialty crop varieties okayed for pipeline  

E-print Network

MSU University News New wheat, barley and specialty crop varieties okayed for pipeline February 03, 2004 Several new wheat, barley and specialty crop varieties were approved during the January meeting new research lines of wheat, barley and specialty crops, approving some for release

Maxwell, Bruce D.


Genetic dissection of grain beta-glucan and amylose content in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High beta glucan (BG) barleys (Hordeum vulgare L.) have major potential as food ingredients due to the well know health benefits. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with BG have been reported in hulled barley, however no QTL studies have been reported in hulless barley. In this study, QTL an...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Obese and diabetic patients may benefit from foodstuffs that are poorly absorbed and/or digested at a slower rate. Prowashonupana (PW) is a cultivar of barley, whose grains are enriched in beta-glucans, and thus may be less digestible than standard barley (barley cultivar (BZ) 594.35.e). To test thi...


Expression Analysis of Ethylene Biosynthesis and Receptor Genes From Barley Embryo and Tissue Culture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ethylene affects regeneration of green plants from barley tissue culture. With the availability of the HarvEST barley database and barley GeneChip, genome-wide expression studies have focused on differential development between Morex and Golden Promise at various stages of plant growth. The data f...


Molecular mapping of a recessive gene for resistance to stripe rust in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei, is one of the most important barley (Hordeum vulgare) diseases in the United States. The disease is best controlled using resistant cultivars. Barley genotype Grannenlose Zweizeilige (GZ) has a recessive gene (rpsGZ) that is effective against all races of P. striiformis f. sp. hordei identified so far in the USA.

G. P. Yan; X. M. Chen



Influences of lactic acid bacteria on technological, nutritional, and sensory properties of barley sour dough bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley bread was baked with and without admixture of barley sour doughs, individually fermented with seven starter cultures containing lactic acid bacteria (including two with ?-glucanase activity).The aim of the study was to investigate how starter cultures influenced the baking-technological, nutritional and sensory properties of barley bread. Could degradation of ?-glucans caused by sour dough admixture result in bread that

Ingela Marklinder; Åsa Haglund; Lisbeth Johansson



Identification of a Phytase Gene in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP) gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. Conclusions/Significance It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains. PMID:21533044

Dai, Fei; Qiu, Long; Ye, Lingzhen; Wu, Dezhi; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping



Ancient Mediterranean Civilizations The School of Humanities  

E-print Network

major in the cultures of ancient Greece and Rome, Judaism, early Christianity, and early Islam, as well The Ancient City ANTH 460* Advanced Archaeological Theory ANTH 474 Advanced Seminar on the Prehistoric Greek I GREE 202* Intermediate Greek II GREE 301 Advanced Greek I GREE 302 Advanced Greek II GREE 491

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca


Geologically ancient DNA: fact or artefact?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies continue to report ancient DNA sequences and viable microbial cells that are many millions of years old. In this paper we evaluate some of the most extravagant claims of geologically ancient DNA. We conclude that although exciting, the reports suffer from inadequate experimental setup and insufficient authentication of results. Consequently, it remains doubtful whether amplifiable DNA sequences and viable

Martin B. Hebsgaard; Matthew J. Phillips; Eske Willerslev



An ancient suicide ritual and its repercussions.  

E-print Network

Hunter Times An ancient suicide ritual and its repercussions. Hollywood tidbits and moviereviews and Seppuku An Ancient suicide ritual and its repercussions By Akemi Umino What image comes up in your mind suicide. Seppuku has a meaning of sincerity and even little children committed Sep- puku following

Qiu, Weigang


The ancient shorelines of Lanai, Hawaii, revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three ancient shorelines (the Mahana, Kaluakapo and Manele) have been described at elevations of 365, 190 and 170 m in the Kaluakapo Crater, Lanai, Hawaii [Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 237 (1978) 1]. Stearns' original observation of a fossil-bearing outcrop at 326 m was interpreted as an ancient shoreline. Subsequently, Moore and Moore (1984, 1988) [Science 226 (1984) 1312; Geol.

Barbara H. Keating; Charles E. Helsley



Ancient Music Recovery for Digital Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present a description and current state of the “ROMA” (Reconhecimento Óptico de Música Antiga or Ancient Music Optical Recognition) Project that consists on building an application, for the recognition and restoration\\u000a specialised in ancient music manuscripts (from XVI to XVIII century). This project, beyond the inventory of the Biblioteca Geral da Universidade de

João Rogério Caldas Pinto; Pedro Vieira; Mário Ramalho; M. Mengucci; Pedro Pina; Fernando Muge



Cameras, Computers Help to Decipher Ancient Texts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Epigrapher and philologist Bruce Zuckerman, directs an archive of photographs and other images of ancient biblical and related texts. By using sophisticated technical photography and computer graphics, he makes his photographs of ancient texts reveal more than a camera alone ever could. (MLW)

Coughlin, Ellen K.



Giant ancient schwannoma of the pelvis.  


A 43-year-old man with a large ancient schwannoma of the pelvis, presenting with varicose veins, is reported. Ancient schwannoma (neurilemmoma) is a benign tumour of nerve sheath origin characterised histologically by features of severe degeneration and which rarely can grow to a large size. Malignant transformation, though reported, is extremely rare. PMID:11000301

Hide, I G; Baudouin, C J; Murray, S A; Malcolm, A J




E-print Network

MEDIEVAL DISTORTIONS: THE PROJECTIONS OF ANCIENT MAPS W.R TOBLER University of Michigan, Ann Arbor ABSTRACT. Estimates of the map projection employed for an ancient map is a prerequisite for a variety for the Hereford map and illustrated the agreement of a portolan chart with an oblique Mercator projection

Tobler, Waldo


The Origins and Ancient History of Wine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, The Origins and Ancient History of Wine explores the roots of viniculture and its effects on the ancient civilizations of the Near East and Egypt. The site also explains how archaeological chemistry has improved methods for investigating organic artifacts, providing new means for studying technological and biocultural development of early peoples.


Recording the Changing Seasons in Ancient Times  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students will learn about Stonehenge and read some ancient myths and stories explaining the seasons. They will pretend to be historians and use websites to find information about how ancient cultures kept track of and celebrated the seasons. They will then compile their findings into posters or illustrated reports.




Microsoft Academic Search

HE Ancient Murrelet (Synthliboramphus antiquus) has been reported from widely scattered areas of the United States and Canada. In an attempt to understand a recent record of this Pacific alcid in Illinois, I made an intensive search of the literature but found no generally inclusive dis- cussion of these wanderings. This paper, therefore, reviews the inland distribution of Ancient Murrelets



Palladium exposure of barley: uptake and effects.  


Motor vehicles are now equipped with exhaust gas catalytic converters containing rare metals, such as palladium (Pd), platinum and rhodium, as catalytic active materials, leading to significantly increased emission of these metals. Compared with platinum and rhodium, low concentrations of Pd have been shown to have more serious effects on cells and organisms. In the present study, uptake of Pd by barley and behaviour of Pd nanoparticles in nutrient solutions used to grow plants were observed in order to develop a model of Pd exposure of plant systems. Pd determination was performed using a selective separation and pre-concentration procedure, which was further developed for this study, and coupled to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The results show that uptake of Pd depends on Pd particle diameter. Compared to other toxic metals, like mercury, Pd causes stress effects in leaves at lower concentrations in nutrient solutions. Furthermore, Pd particles are dissolved at different rates, depending on size, in the nutrient solution during plant growth. PMID:18304202

Battke, F; Leopold, K; Maier, M; Schmidhalter, U; Schuster, M



Electronic Tools and Ancient Near Eastern Archives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of interesting digital projects have recently been sponsored by the National Science Foundation, and the Electronic Tools and Ancient Near Eastern Archives (ETANA) is one such project. With the support and primary documents of a number of important institutions, such as the Society of Biblical Literature and Case Western Reserve University, the mission of ETANA is to "develop and maintain a comprehensive Internet site for the student of the ancient Near East." While the project is still in development, the site's creators have added numerous helpful resources so far to the archive, including the ETANA Core Texts. In this section, visitors can view digitized texts related to scholarship on the ancient Near East, such as James Breasted's monumental work, "Ancient Records of Egypt", along with 171 other key documents. Visitors will also want to take a look at ABZU, which is another database collection that contains items relevant to the study of the ancient Near East that are available online.


Proof and evolutionary analysis of ancient genome duplication in the  

E-print Network

Proof and evolutionary analysis of ancient genome duplication in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Saccharomyces cerevisiae arose from ancient whole-genome duplication, by sequencing and analysing Kluyveromyces

Kellis, Manolis


Analysis and comparison of bio-oil produced by fast pyrolysis from three barley biomass/byproduct streams  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fluidized bed fast pyrolysis was carried out on three different barley biomass coproduct streams, barley straw, barley hulls and DDGS from Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of barley grain. Each of these are possible sources of feedstock for advanced bio-fuels production via fast pyrolysis as b...


Sacred psychiatry in ancient Greece  

PubMed Central

From the ancient times, there are three basic approaches for the interpretation of the different psychic phenomena: the organic, the psychological, and the sacred approach. The sacred approach forms the primordial foundation for any psychopathological development, innate to the prelogical human mind. Until the second millennium B.C., the Great Mother ruled the Universe and shamans cured the different mental disorders. But, around 1500 B.C., the predominance of the Hellenic civilization over the Pelasgic brought great changes in the theological and psychopathological fields. The Hellenes eliminated the cult of the Great Mother and worshiped Dias, a male deity, the father of gods and humans. With the Father's help and divinatory powers, the warrior-hero made diagnoses and found the right therapies for mental illness; in this way, sacerdotal psychiatry was born. PMID:24725988



Ancient Legacy of Cranial Surgery  

PubMed Central

Cranial injury, as it is known today, is not a new concern of modern medicine. On stepping on the earth, the man was in reality encountered with various types of injuries, particularly those of a cranial nature. Leading a life, whether wild or civilized, has always been associated with injuries for human race from the very beginning of birth. Therefore, managing cases of this type has gradually forced him to establish and fix strategies and approaches to handle the dilemma. This study is thus focused on tracing the first documented traumatized cranial cases ever reported, ranging from those trials attributed to our ancient predecessors to the identical examples in the present time. PMID:24396747

Ghannaee Arani, Mohammad; Fakharian, Esmaeil; Sarbandi, Fahimeh



Ancient aqueous sedimentation on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viking orbiter images are presently used to calculate approximate volumes for the inflow valleys of the ancient cratered terrain of Mars; a sediment-transport model is then used to conservatively estimate the amount of water required for the removal of this volume of debris from the valleys. The results obtained for four basins with well-developed inflow networks indicate basin sediment thicknesses of the order of tens to hundreds of meters. The calculations further suggest that the quantity of water required to transport the sediment is greater than that which could be produced by a single discharge of the associated aquifer, unless the material of the Martian highlands was very fine-grained and noncohesive to depths of hundreds of meters.

Goldspiel, Jules M.; Squyres, Steven W.



Archimedes: Accelerator Reveals Ancient Text  

SciTech Connect

Archimedes (287-212 BC), who is famous for shouting 'Eureka' (I found it) is considered one of the most brilliant thinkers of all times. The 10th-century parchment document known as the 'Archimedes Palimpsest' is the unique source for two of the great Greek's treatises. Some of the writings, hidden under gold forgeries, have recently been revealed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC. An intense x-ray beam produced in a particle accelerator causes the iron in original ink, which has been partly erased and covered, to send out a fluorescence glow. A detector records the signal and a digital image showing the ancient writings is produced. Please join us in this fascinating journey of a 1,000-year-old parchment from its origin in the Mediterranean city of Constantinople to a particle accelerator in Menlo Park.

Bergmann, Uwe



Mapping-by-sequencing accelerates forward genetics in barley  

PubMed Central

Mapping-by-sequencing has emerged as a powerful technique for genetic mapping in several plant and animal species. As this resequencing-based method requires a reference genome, its application to complex plant genomes with incomplete and fragmented sequence resources remains challenging. We perform exome sequencing of phenotypic bulks of a mapping population of barley segregating for a mutant phenotype that increases the rate of leaf initiation. Read depth analysis identifies a candidate gene, which is confirmed by the analysis of independent mutant alleles. Our method illustrates how the genomic resources of barley together with exome resequencing can underpin mapping-by-sequencing. PMID:24917130



Thematic mapper research in the Earth sciences: Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield of northeastern Sudan/southeastern Egypt using thematic mapper imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield using the Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery is progressing well and shows great promise. The TM tapes for the six LANDSAT 5 scenes covering the northern portion of the Red Sea hills were received, and preliminary maps and interpretations were made for most of the area. It is apparent that faulting and shearing associated with the major suture zones such as the Sol Hamed are clearly visible and that considerable detail can be seen. An entire quadrant of scene 173,45 was examined in detail using all seven bands, and every band combination was evaluated to best display the geology. A comparison was done with color ratio combinations and color combinations of the eigen vector bands to verify if band combinations of 7-red, 4-green, and 2-blue were indeed superior. There is no single optimum enhancement which provides the greatest detail for every image and no single combination of spectral bands for all cases, although bands 7, 4, and 2 do provide the best overall display. The color combination of the eigen vector bands proved useful in distinguishing fine detailed features.



The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modelin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world’s largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.



Analysis of groundwater flow in arid areas with limited hydrogeological data using the Grey Model: a case study of the Nubian Sandstone, Kharga Oasis, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Management of groundwater resources can be enhanced by using numerical models to improve development strategies. However, the lack of basic data often limits the implementation of these models. The Kharga Oasis in the western desert of Egypt is an arid area that mainly depends on groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS), for which the hydrogeological data needed for groundwater simulation are lacking, thereby introducing a problem for model calibration and validation. The Grey Model (GM) was adopted to analyze groundwater flow. This model combines a finite element method (FEM) with a linear regression model to try to obtain the best-fit piezometric-level trends compared to observations. The GM simulation results clearly show that the future water table in the northeastern part of the study area will face a severe drawdown compared with that in the southwestern part and that the hydraulic head difference between these parts will reach 140 m by 2060. Given the uncertainty and limitation of available data, the GM produced more realistic results compared with those obtained from a FEM alone. The GM could be applied to other cases with similar data limitations.

Mahmod, Wael Elham; Watanabe, Kunio; Zahr-Eldeen, Ashraf A.



USDA Ag in the Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades PreK-1: S-1  

E-print Network

USDA ­ Ag in the Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades PreK-1: S-1 Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow (do the motions while singing) Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Can you or I or anyone know How oats, peas, beans and barley grow

Mathis, Wayne N.


USDA Ag in the Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades 2-5: S-1  

E-print Network

USDA ­ Ag in the Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades 2-5: S-1 Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow (do the motions while singing) Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Can you or I or anyone know How oats, peas, beans and barley grow

Mathis, Wayne N.


Biotic stress in barley: disease problems and solutions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is cultivated over a wider geographic range than almost any other major crop species. It can be found growing from the tropics to the high latitudes and from the seacoast to the highest arable mountaintops. On marginal lands where alkaline soils, drought, or cold summer t...


The B-hordein prolamin family of barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The spectrum of B-hordein prolamins and genes in the single barley cultivar Barke is described from an in silico analysis of 1452 B-hordein ESTs and available genomic DNA. Eleven unique B-hordein proteins are derived from EST contigs. Ten contigs encode apparent full-length B-hordeins and the ele...


Artificial seeds in barley: encapsulation of microspore-derived embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in vitro culture system has been developed for barley (Hordeum vulgare), which yields high frequencies of high quality microspore-derived embryos without an intervening callus phase. The embryos are very similar to zygotic embryos with regard to their morphology and germination capacity. These embryos were encapsulated in sodium alginate to produce individual beads containing one embryo each. In accordance with

S. K. Datta; I. Potrykus



Serine proteinases from barley malt may degrade beta-amylase  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley seed proteinases are critically important to seed germination and malting in that they generate amino acids from seed N reserves, supporting embryo growth during germination and yeast fermentation during brewing. However, relatively little is known regarding the endogenous protein substrate ...


Inferring geographic origin of barley accessions using molecular markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) has 207 landrace barleys obtained from a nursery grown in the Ukraine in 1930 by N.I. Vavilov, many of which have multiple resistance (MR) to disease similar to accessions from Ethiopia. Vavilov collected germplasm ...


Combinatorial Pooling Enables Selective Sequencing of the Barley Gene Space  

E-print Network

that it is quite successful in reconstructing the gene sequences within BACs. In the case of plants such as barley show that combinatorial pooling is a cost- effective and practical alternative to exhaustive DNA barcoding when preparing sequencing libraries for hundreds or thousands of DNA samples, such as in this case

Lonardi, Stefano


Combined mapping of AFLP and RFLP markers in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

AFLP marker technology allows efficient DNA fingerprinting and the analysis of large numbers of polymorphic restriction fragments on polyacrylamide gels. Using the doubled haploids from the F1 of the cross Proctor × Nudinka, 118 AFLP markers were mapped onto a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) RFLP map, also including five microsatellite and four protein marker loci. The AFLP markers mapped to

Jörg Becker; Pieter Vos; Martin Kuiper; Francesco Salamini; Manfred Heun



Screening for bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains both through its role as an efficient vector of the PAV strain of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by actual feeding damage to winter and spring small grains by aviruliferous BCOAs. Barl...


Breeding Malting Barley under Stress Conditions in South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annual average area sown with barley (Hordeum vulgare) in South America during 1999-2003 was 795 000 ha. In Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay, two-rowed spring cultivars are used mostly for malt production. Research has been developed in private malting companies and official institutions supported by the industry. In Argentina, tolerance to drought and heat stress during grain filling are



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rainfall received during harvest resulted in a substantial portion of the 2002 Midwestern barley crop exhibiting pregermination (preharvest sprouting). The fact that the incidence was the most wide spread in more than 20 years, has provided a unique opportunity to evaluate and compare methodology f...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

RWA continues to be a devastating pest of barley in the high and dry areas of the Western U.S.A. Screening of the entire National Small Grains Collection in Aberdeen, Idaho, by the USDA-ARS in Stillwater, Oklahoma, identified 115 accessions with some level of resistance ranging from 2 to 6 on Webst...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One-hundred-twenty-five accessions representing seven ecotypes of the Omani barley landrace "Batini" were selected from a collection of 3,000 accessions based on their agronomic performance under optimum growing conditions. The 125 accessions were evaluated for biomass production, in a hydroponics s...


Relative toxicity of cadmium, lead, and zinc on barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative toxicity of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) on the growth performance of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was measured. Lead and Zn resulted in an increase in dry matter production at the lower additions. All the Cd and the higher Pb and Zn additions resulted in significant decreases in growth over the controls, the roots showing a

N. C. Aery; B. L. Jagetiya



Resolution of Dual Mechanisms of Potassium Absorption by Barley Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the rates of absorption of K and Rb by barley ; roots and the concentration of these ions in the external solution, over the ; range 0.002 to 50 mM, is predictable on the assumption that two carrier sites ; bind and transport the ions. One of these operates at half-maximal velocity at a ; concentration of

Emanuel Epstein; D. W. Rains; O. E. Elzam




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium Head Blight (FHB, or scab) is a fungal disease that causes significant seed yield and quality losses in barley and wheat worldwide. The fungus lowers yield and deposits toxic levels of mycotoxins. The pericarp and lemma/palea (hull) are readily infected by Fusarium graminearum. The restrict...


Genetical Genomic Dissection of Stem Rust Infection in Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To identify breeding and biochemical targets that will mitigate a stem rust epidemic currently threatening barley and wheat crops worldwide, we have performed QTL and eQTL mapping experiments to connect genetic loci that confer stem rust resistance with gene expression networks that are responsive t...


Chromium uptake and transport in barley seedlings ( Hordeum vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potassium chromate is more toxic to the growth of barley in solution culture than chromic chloride, though apparent uptake of the latter is much faster. Inhibitor studies indicate that CrO42- uptake is “active” whereas Cr3+ uptake is passive, demonstrating that the two forms do not share a common uptake mechanism. Studies on the form of Cr inside root cells show

R. A. Skeffington; P. R. Shewry; P. J. Peterson



Conserved transcriptional regulatory programs underlying rice and barley germination  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed germination is accompanied with concerted transcriptional expression of many genes and biological pathways. Barley and rice germinations have been divergent from each other for 50-60 million years. However, there is little knowledge about the conservation and divergence in transcriptional regul...


Registration of ‘Transit’ High ß-glucan Spring Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transit’ (Reg. No. ______PI ); a two-rowed spring high ß-glucan barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed and submitted for release in 2009 by the Agricultural Research Service-USDA, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Transit is a sel...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley seed osmolyte concentrations can be used as an indicator of preharvest sprouting (PHS). Osmolyte concentrations from the 2002 Minnesota and North Dakota crops were compared to pearling and other techniques for assessment of PHS. Approxim...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Differential display was used to identify a transcript that was highly expressed in the pericarp epidermis but not in leaves of barley. The sequence and its promoter were cloned. The ORF encoded a polypeptide of 124 amino acids showing 87% identity with WBP1A, a wheat lipid transfer protein (LTP) ...


Structural and Functional Characterization of a Winter Malting Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The development of winter malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties is emerging as a worldwide priority due to the numerous advantages of these varieties over spring types. However, the complexity of both malting quality and winter hardiness phenotypes makes simultaneous improvement a challenge....



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Injury of barley plants by spring freezing is a major cause of crop loss, but most cold tolerance research has focused on cold acclimation, which confers freezing tolerance upon exposure to low nonfreezing temperatures. In order to address freezing tolerance per se, we have chosen a cold sensitive ...


Original article Screening barley germplasm for resistance to a new  

E-print Network

be detected using a RFLP marker (MWG10), linked to ym4, the recessive gene conferring resistance to barley' showed that resistance in 'L 541' is conferred by a single recessive gene. (© Inra/Elsevier, Paris mosaic virus disease is originated from the variety 'Ragusa' that pos- sesses a recessive gene (ym4

Boyer, Edmond


VRIKSHAYURVEDA (Arboreal Medicine in Ancient India).  


This paper discusses the special branch of the Ancient Indian science on plant life as depicted by Vrikshayurveda, and the obvious relevance of the insights these provide to enrich our knowledge and practice in this field. PMID:22557461

Ramachanran, C K



Ancient history of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.  


Although there are many erudite reports on the history of endocrinology and endocrine disorders, the history of congenital adrenal hyperplasia has not been published. I have tried to review ancient as well as modern history of CAH. PMID:21164274

New, Maria I



Archaeology: High tech from Ancient Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Antikythera Mechanism, salvaged 100 years ago from an ancient shipwreck, was long known to be some sort of mechanical calendar. But modern analysis is only now revealing just how sophisticated it was.

Charette, François



VRIKSHAYURVEDA (Arboreal Medicine in Ancient India)  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses the special branch of the Ancient Indian science on plant life as depicted by Vrikshayurveda, and the obvious relevance of the insights these provide to enrich our knowledge and practice in this field PMID:22557461

Ramachanran, C.K.



Ancient Magnetic Reversals: Clues to the Geodynamo.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the question posed by some that the earth's magnetic field may reverse. States that rocks magnetized by ancient fields may offer clues to the underlying reversal mechanism in the earth's core. (TW)

Hoffman, Kenneth A.



Transcriptome analysis of the barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction.  


Fusarium head blight (FHB) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is caused by Fusarium graminearum. FHB causes yield losses and reduction in grain quality primarily due to the accumulation of trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). To develop an understanding of the barley-F. graminearum interaction, we examined the relationship among the infection process, DON concentration, and host transcript accumulation for 22,439 genes in spikes from the susceptible cv. Morex from 0 to 144 h after F. graminearum and water control inoculation. We detected 467 differentially accumulating barley gene transcripts in the F. graminearum-treated plants compared with the water control-treated plants. Functional annotation of the transcripts revealed a variety of infection-induced host genes encoding defense response proteins, oxidative burst-associated enzymes, and phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes. Of particular interest was the induction of transcripts encoding potential trichothecene catabolic enzymes and transporters, and the induction of the tryptophan biosynthetic and catabolic pathway enzymes. Our results define three stages of E graminearum infection. An early stage, between 0 and 48 h after inoculation (hai), exhibited limited fungal development, low DON accumulation, and little change in the transcript accumulation status. An intermediate stage, between 48 and 96 hai, showed increased fungal development and active infection, higher DON accumulation, and increased transcript accumulation. A majority of the host gene transcripts were detected by 72 hai, suggesting that this is an important timepoint for the barley-F. graminearum interaction. A late stage also identified between 96 and 144 hai, exhibiting development of hyphal mats, high DON accumulation, and a reduction in the number of transcripts observed. Our study provides a baseline and hypothesis-generating dataset in barley during F. graminearum infection and in other grasses during pathogen infection. PMID:16610744

Boddu, Jayanand; Cho, Seungho; Kruger, Warren M; Muehlbauer, Gary J



Biochemical properties and hormonal regulation of barley nuclease.  


The amino acid composition and NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of barley nuclease (EC were determined. The amino acid composition is similar to that of mung bean nuclease, and therefore the biochemical properties of barley nuclease were characterized and compared with those of mung bean and other plant nucleases. The 3'-nucleotidase activity of barley nuclease is greater for purine than for pyrimidine ribonucleotides. The enzyme has little activity towards ribonucleoside 2' and 5'-monophosphates, and deoxyribonucleoside 3' and 5'-monophosphates, and is also inactive towards the 3'-phosphoester linkage of nucleoside cyclic 2',3' and 3',5'-monophosphates. The enzyme hydrolyzes dinucleoside monophosphates, showing strong preference for purine nucleosides as the 5' residues. Barley nuclease shows significant base preference for homoribonucleic acids, catalyzing the hydrolysis of polycytidylic acid greater than polyuridylic acid greater than polyadenylic acid much greater than polyguanylic acid. The enzyme also has preference for single-stranded nucleic acids. Hydrolysis of nucleic acids is primarily endonucleolytic, whereas the products of digestion possess 5'-phosphomonoester groups. Nuclease activity is inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and zinc is required for reactivation. Secretion of nuclease from barley aleurone layers is dependent on the hormone gibberellic acid [Brown, P.H. and Ho, T.-h. D. (1986) Plant Physiol. 82, 801-806]. Consistent with these results, gibberellic acid induces up to an eight-fold increase in the de novo synthesis of nuclease in aleurone layers. The secreted enzyme is a glycoprotein having an apparent molecular mass of 35 kDa. It consists of a single polypeptide having an asparagine-linked, high-mannose oligosaccharide. The protein portion of the molecule has a molecular mass of 33 kDa. PMID:2822411

Brown, P H; Ho, T H



An aluminum-activated citrate transporter in barley.  


Soluble ionic aluminum (Al) inhibits root growth and reduces crop production on acid soils. Al-resistant cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) detoxify Al by secreting citrate from the roots, but the responsible gene has not been identified yet. Here, we identified a gene (HvAACT1) responsible for the Al-activated citrate secretion by fine mapping combined with microarray analysis, using an Al-resistant cultivar, Murasakimochi, and an Al-sensitive cultivar, Morex. This gene belongs to the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family and was constitutively expressed mainly in the roots of the Al-resistant barley cultivar. Heterologous expression of HvAACT1 in Xenopus oocytes showed efflux activity for (14)C-labeled citrate, but not for malate. Two-electrode voltage clamp analysis also showed transport activity of citrate in the HvAACT1-expressing oocytes in the presence of Al. Overexpression of this gene in tobacco enhanced citrate secretion and Al resistance compared with the wild-type plants. Transiently expressed green fluorescent protein-tagged HvAACT1 was localized at the plasma membrane of the onion epidermal cells, and immunostaining showed that HvAACT1 was localized in the epidermal cells of the barley root tips. A good correlation was found between the expression of HvAACT1 and citrate secretion in 10 barley cultivars differing in Al resistance. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HvAACT1 is an Al-activated citrate transporter responsible for Al resistance in barley. PMID:17634181

Furukawa, Jun; Yamaji, Naoki; Wang, Hua; Mitani, Namiki; Murata, Yoshiko; Sato, Kazuhiro; Katsuhara, Maki; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Ma, Jian Feng



Lipochitooligosaccharide recognition: an ancient story.  


Chitin is the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature, found in crustacean shells, insect exoskeletons and fungal cell walls. The action of chitin and chitin derivatives on plants has become a very interesting story of late. Chitin is a b1-4-linked polymer of N-acetyl-Dglucosamine(GlcNAc). In this unmodified form, chitooligosaccharides (degree of polymerization(dp) = 6–8)) are strong inducers of plant innate immunity. By contrast, when these chitooligosaccharides are acylated (so-called lipochitooligosaccharides, LCOs) and further modified, they can act as Nod factors, the key signaling molecules that play an important role in the initiation of the legume–rhizobium symbiosis. In a similar form, these molecules can also act as Myc factors, the key signaling molecules involved in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM)symbiosis. It has been proposed that Nod factor perception might have evolved from the more ancient AM symbiosis. Increasing evidence now suggests that LCO perception might have evolved from plant innate immunity signaling. In this review, we will discuss the evolutionary origin of symbiotic LCO recognition. PMID:25453133

Liang, Yan; Tóth, Katalin; Cao, Yangrong; Tanaka, Kiwamu; Espinoza, Catherine; Stacey, Gary



Ancient and modern environmental DNA.  


DNA obtained from environmental samples such as sediments, ice or water (environmental DNA, eDNA), represents an important source of information on past and present biodiversity. It has revealed an ancient forest in Greenland, extended by several thousand years the survival dates for mainland woolly mammoth in Alaska, and pushed back the dates for spruce survival in Scandinavian ice-free refugia during the last glaciation. More recently, eDNA was used to uncover the past 50 000 years of vegetation history in the Arctic, revealing massive vegetation turnover at the Pleistocene/Holocene transition, with implications for the extinction of megafauna. Furthermore, eDNA can reflect the biodiversity of extant flora and fauna, both qualitatively and quantitatively, allowing detection of rare species. As such, trace studies of plant and vertebrate DNA in the environment have revolutionized our knowledge of biogeography. However, the approach remains marred by biases related to DNA behaviour in environmental settings, incomplete reference databases and false positive results due to contamination. We provide a review of the field. PMID:25487334

Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Ermini, Luca; Sarkissian, Clio Der; Haile, James; Hellstrom, Micaela; Spens, Johan; Thomsen, Philip Francis; Bohmann, Kristine; Cappellini, Enrico; Schnell, Ida Bærholm; Wales, Nathan A; Carøe, Christian; Campos, Paula F; Schmidt, Astrid M Z; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Hansen, Anders J; Orlando, Ludovic; Willerslev, Eske



Ancient Admixture in Human History  

PubMed Central

Population mixture is an important process in biology. We present a suite of methods for learning about population mixtures, implemented in a software package called ADMIXTOOLS, that support formal tests for whether mixture occurred and make it possible to infer proportions and dates of mixture. We also describe the development of a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array consisting of 629,433 sites with clearly documented ascertainment that was specifically designed for population genetic analyses and that we genotyped in 934 individuals from 53 diverse populations. To illustrate the methods, we give a number of examples that provide new insights about the history of human admixture. The most striking finding is a clear signal of admixture into northern Europe, with one ancestral population related to present-day Basques and Sardinians and the other related to present-day populations of northeast Asia and the Americas. This likely reflects a history of admixture between Neolithic migrants and the indigenous Mesolithic population of Europe, consistent with recent analyses of ancient bones from Sweden and the sequencing of the genome of the Tyrolean “Iceman.” PMID:22960212

Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Luo, Yontao; Mallick, Swapan; Rohland, Nadin; Zhan, Yiping; Genschoreck, Teri; Webster, Teresa; Reich, David



Ancient history of flatfish research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Owing to both their special appearance and behavior flatfish have attracted the special attention of people since ages. The first records of humans having been in touch with flatfish date back to the Stone Age about 15,000 years B.C. Detailed descriptions were already given in the classical antiquity and were taken up 1400 years later in the Renaissance by the first ichthyologists, encyclopédists, and also by practical men. This was more than 200 years before a number of common flatfish species were given their scientific names by Linnaeus in 1758. Besides morphology, remarkable and sometimes amusing naturalistic observations and figures are bequeathed. Ancient history of flatfish research is still a wide and open array. Examples are presented how the yield of information and interpretation from these times increases with interdisciplinary cooperation including archeologists, zoologists, ichthyologists, historians, art historians, fisheries and fishery biologist. The timeline of this contribution ends with the start of modern fishery research at the end of the 19th century in the course of the rapidly increasing exploitation of fish stocks.

Berghahn, Rüdiger; Bennema, Floris Pieter



iTAG Barley: A 9-12 classroom module to explore gene expression and segregation using Oregon Wolfe Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Oregon Wolfe Barleys (OWBs) are a model resource for genetics research and instruction ( ; The population of 94 doubled haploid lines was developed from an F1 of a cross between dominant and reces...


Tocopherols and tocotrienols in barley oil prepared from germ and other fractions from scarification and sieving of hulless barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two cultivars of hulless barley (Doyce and Merlin), were scarified to abrade the outer layers of the kernels (germ, pericarp, and aleurone). The resulting scarification fines fractions were then separated into four particle size subfractions using sieves. Each of the size subfractions was then extr...


Ancient dna from pleistocene fossils: Preservation, recovery, and utility of ancient genetic information for quaternary research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recently, recovery and analysis of genetic information encoded in ancient DNA sequences from Pleistocene fossils were impossible. Recent advances in molecular biology offered technical tools to obtain ancient DNA sequences from well-preserved Quaternary fossils and opened the possibilities to directly study genetic changes in fossil species to address various biological and paleontological questions. Ancient DNA studies involving Pleistocene fossil material and ancient DNA degradation and preservation in Quaternary deposits are reviewed. The molecular technology applied to isolate, amplify, and sequence ancient DNA is also presented. Authentication of ancient DNA sequences and technical problems associated with modern and ancient DNA contamination are discussed. As illustrated in recent studies on ancient DNA from proboscideans, it is apparent that fossil DNA sequence data can shed light on many aspects of Quaternary research such as systematics and phylogeny. conservation biology, evolutionary theory, molecular taphonomy, and forensic sciences. Improvement of molecular techniques and a better understanding of DNA degradation during fossilization are likely to build on current strengths and to overcome existing problems, making fossil DNA data a unique source of information for Quaternary scientists.

Yang, Hong


History through Art and Architecture: Ancient Greek Architecture [and] Ancient Greek Sculpture. Teacher's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of two teaching manuals designed to accompany a commercially-available "multicultural, interdisciplinary video program," consisting of four still videotape programs (72 minutes, 226 frames), one teaching poster, and these two manuals. "Teacher's Manual: Ancient Greek Architecture" covers: "Ancient Greek Architecture 1,"…

Campbell, Ann


Burns treatment in ancient times.  


Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques. PMID:23888738

Pe?anac, Marija; Janji?, Zlata; Komarcevi?, Aleksandar; Paji?, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Miskovi?, Sanja Skeledzija



Acid phosphatases and growth of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars under diverse phosphorus nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological and physiological responses of barley to moderate Pi deficiency and the ability of barley to grow on phytate\\u000a were investigated. Barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L., Promyk, Skald and Stratus) were grown for 1–3 weeks on different nutrient media with contrasting phosphorus source: KH2PO4 (control), phytic acid (PA) and without phosphate (?P). The growth on ?P medium strongly decreased Pi

Iwona CiereszkoEwa; Ewa ?ebrowska; Marta Ruminowicz


Ribosomal DNA Spacer-Length Polymorphisms in Barley: Mendelian Inheritance, Chromosomal Location, and Population Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spacer-length (sl) variation in ribosomal RNA gene clusters (rDNA) was surveyed in 502 individual barley plants, including samples from 50 accessions of cultivated barley, 25 accessions of its wild ancestor, and five generations of composite cross II (CCII), an experimental population of barley. In total, 17 rDNA sl phenotypes, made up of 15 different rDNA sl variants, were observed. The

M. A. Saghai-Maroof; K. M. Soliman; R. A. Jorgensen; R. W. Allard



Characterizing avulsion stratigraphy in ancient alluvial deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Guidelines for identifying ancient avulsion deposits were set forth by Kraus and Wells [Kraus, M.J., Wells, T.M., 1999. Recognizing avulsion deposits in the ancient stratigraphical record. In: Smith, N.D., Rogers, J. (Eds.), Fluvial Sedimentology VI, Special Publication of the International Association of Sedimentologists, vol. 28, pp. 251-268], building on the study by Smith et al. [Smith, N.D., Cross, T.A., Dufficy, J.P., Clough, S.R., 1989. Anatomy of an avulsion. Sedimentology 36, 1-23] of the modern Saskatchewan River system (Cumberland Marshes, central Canada), and serve to characterize avulsion depositional sequences in the ancient Willwood and Fort Union Formations (Paleogene, Bighorn Basin, NW Wyoming, USA). We recognize, however, that the model is not universally applicable to avulsion-dominated successions, specifically systems which lack defining "heterolithic avulsion deposits", set forth by Kraus and Wells [Kraus, M.J., Wells, T.M., 1999. Recognizing avulsion deposits in the ancient stratigraphical record. In: Smith, N.D., Rogers, J. (Eds.), Fluvial Sedimentology VI, Special Publication of the International Association of Sedimentologists, vol. 28, pp. 251-268]. Observations in several fluvial intervals suggest that the avulsion stratigraphy outlined by Kraus and Wells [Kraus, M.J., Wells, T.M., 1999. Recognizing avulsion deposits in the ancient stratigraphical record. In: Smith, N.D., Rogers, J. (Eds.), Fluvial Sedimentology VI, Special Publication of the International Association of Sedimentologists, vol. 28, pp. 251-268] represents one category of avulsion stratigraphy found in the rock record, but does not capture the nature of avulsion deposits everywhere. Based on observations (using measured sections, outcrop photo-panels, and aerial photographs) in the Willwood Formation (Eocene, Wyoming) and Ferris Formation (Cretaceous/Paleogene, Wyoming), we present two end-member categories of avulsion stratigraphy in ancient deposits; stratigraphically abrupt, when a main paleochannel is stratigraphically juxtaposed directly atop floodplain/overbank deposits, and stratigraphically transitional, where crevasse splays and other non-floodplain/-overbank deposits stratigraphically precede a main paleochannel. This characterization provides a broader, more inclusive way to recognize and describe avulsion stratigraphy in ancient deposits and may be an important factor to consider when modeling connectivity in fluvial reservoirs. Furthermore, our observations show that one type of avulsion channel stratigraphy may prevail over another within an ancient basin, suggesting that system-wide factors such as splay-proneness or avulsion style (i.e. aggradational, incisional, etc.; [Slingerland, R., Smith, N.D., 2004. River avulsions and their deposits. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 32, 257-285]) may be primary controls on the type of avulsion stratigraphy deposited and preserved in ancient basin-fills.

Jones, H. L.; Hajek, E. A.



Genetic Diversity among Ancient Nordic Populations  

PubMed Central

Using established criteria for work with fossil DNA we have analysed mitochondrial DNA from 92 individuals from 18 locations in Denmark ranging in time from the Mesolithic to the Medieval Age. Unequivocal assignment of mtDNA haplotypes was possible for 56 of the ancient individuals; however, the success rate varied substantially between sites; the highest rates were obtained with untouched, freshly excavated material, whereas heavy handling, archeological preservation and storage for many years influenced the ability to obtain authentic endogenic DNA. While the nucleotide diversity at two locations was similar to that among extant Danes, the diversity at four sites was considerably higher. This supports previous observations for ancient Britons. The overall occurrence of haplogroups did not deviate from extant Scandinavians, however, haplogroup I was significantly more frequent among the ancient Danes (average 13%) than among extant Danes and Scandinavians (?2.5%) as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type “diluted” by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture) that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300–3,500 YBP) was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least for Southern Scandinavia, our findings do not support a possible replacement of a haplogroup U dominated hunter-gatherer population by a more haplogroup diverse Neolithic Culture. PMID:20689597

Melchior, Linea; Lynnerup, Niels; Siegismund, Hans R.; Kivisild, Toomas; Dissing, Jørgen



Ancient earthquake data extraction by archeological findings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent archeological excavations and findings helped a lot to reconstruct data and information about ancient earthquakes and their effects to the historical societies. Two cases are under investigations: 4550 years BC Solnitsata-Provadia archaeological site and Cybele temple (6th century BC) site. The first case is related to the destruction of the defensive bastions of the ancient society of the salt producing ancient civilization. After field observations and modeling the source of the seismic force is located and the power of the ancient earthquake reconstructed. The second case is much more complicated but as well as much more informative about the complex disastrous event affected the 8 centuries active temple of the goddess Cybele. Effects of earthquake, tsunami and landslide activity are well preserved and documented in the soil layers covered the ancient ruins. Almost all parameters of these hazards are reconstructed by a logic tree, field investigation and documentations and time dependent scenario. Such investigations are able to help a lot the time frequency of such hazards, but need active participation of the different kinds of experts during the archaeological excavations.

Ranguelov, Boyko; Nikolov, Vassil



Volatile Compound-Mediated Interactions between Barley and Pathogenic Fungi in the Soil  

PubMed Central

Plants are able to interact with their environment by emitting volatile organic compounds. We investigated the volatile interactions that take place below ground between barley roots and two pathogenic fungi, Cochliobolus sativus and Fusarium culmorum. The volatile molecules emitted by each fungus, by non-infected barley roots and by barley roots infected with one of the fungi or the two of them were extracted by head-space solid phase micro extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The effect of fungal volatiles on barley growth and the effect of barley root volatiles on fungal growth were assessed by cultivating both organisms in a shared atmosphere without any physical contact. The results show that volatile organic compounds, especially terpenes, are newly emitted during the interaction between fungi and barley roots. The volatile molecules released by non-infected barley roots did not significantly affect fungal growth, whereas the volatile molecules released by pathogenic fungi decreased the length of barley roots by 19 to 21.5% and the surface of aerial parts by 15%. The spectrum of the volatiles released by infected barley roots had no significant effect on F. culmorum growth, but decreased C. sativus growth by 13 to 17%. This paper identifies the volatile organic compounds emitted by two pathogenic fungi and shows that pathogenic fungi can modify volatile emission by infected plants. Our results open promising perspectives concerning the biological control of edaphic diseases. PMID:23818966

Fiers, Marie; Lognay, Georges; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Jijakli, M. Haïssam



Karyotyping of barley chromosomes by a new fluorescence banding technique combined with scanning probe microscopy.  


Fluorescence banding has been used to classify chromosomes, except those of barley. Four of the seven barley chromosomes are indistinguishable by length or arm ratio. C-banding has been used for classification; however, it requires a long aging period. Here, we describe a new fluorescence banding method for barley. The chromosomes are treated with warm acetate followed by staining with a fluorescent dye, YOYO-1. Using this method, all seven barley chromosomes can be clearly distinguished. Atomic force microscopy and scanning near-field microscopy analyses revealed that the surfaces of the banded chromosomes were flat, indicating that the fluorescence intensity reflected the internal DNA density or condensation of chromatin. PMID:22058025

Sugiyama, Shigeru; Yoshino, Tomoyuki; Hirose, Tamaki; Ohtani, Toshio



Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat  

PubMed Central

Background Gene silencing vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) are used extensively in cereals to study gene function, but nearly all studies have been limited to genes expressed in leaves of barley and wheat. However since many important aspects of plant biology are based on root-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species) have created a need for tools to study gene function in these species. Results Here we demonstrate the successful BSMV-mediated virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) of three different genes in barley roots, i.e. the barley homologues of the IPS1, PHR1, and PHO2 genes known to participate in Pi uptake and reallocation in Arabidopsis. Attempts to silence two other genes, the Pi transporter gene HvPht1;1 and the endo-?-1,4-glucanase gene HvCel1, in barley roots were unsuccessful, probably due to instability of the plant gene inserts in the viral vector. In B. distachyon leaves, significant silencing of the PHYTOENE DESATURASE (BdPDS) gene was obtained as shown by photobleaching as well as quantitative RT-PCR analysis. On the other hand, only very limited silencing of the oat AsPDS gene was observed in both hexaploid (A. sativa) and diploid (A. strigosa) oat. Finally, two modifications of the BSMV vector are presented, allowing ligation-free cloning of DNA fragments into the BSMV-? component. Conclusions Our results show that BSMV can be used as a vector for gene silencing in barley roots and in B. distachyon leaves and possibly roots, opening up possibilities for using VIGS to study cereal root biology and to exploit the wealth of genome information in the new cereal model plant B. distachyon. On the other hand, the silencing induced by BSMV in oat seemed too weak to be of practical use. The new BSMV vectors modified for ligation-free cloning will allow rapid insertion of plant gene fragments for future experiments. PMID:21118486



The Ancient Martian Climate System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Today Mars is a cold, dry, desert planet. The atmosphere is thin and liquid water is not stable. But there is evidence that very early in its history it was warmer and wetter. Since Mariner 9 first detected fluvial features on its ancient terrains researchers have been trying to understand what climatic conditions could have permitted liquid water to flow on the surface. Though the evidence is compelling, the problem is not yet solved. The main issue is coping with the faint young sun. During the period when warmer conditions prevailed 3.5-3.8 Gy the sun's luminosity was approximately 25% less than it is today. How can we explain the presence of liquid water on the surface of Mars under such conditions? A similar problem exists for Earth, which would have frozen over under a faint sun even though the evidence suggests otherwise. Attempts to solve the "Faint Young Sun Paradox" rely on greenhouse warming from an atmosphere with a different mass and composition than we see today. This is true for both Mars and Earth. However, it is not a straightforward solution. Any greenhouse theory must (a) produce the warming and rainfall needed, (b) have a plausible source for the gases required, (c) be sustainable, and (d) explain how the atmosphere evolved to its present state. These are challenging requirements and judging from the literature they have yet to be met. In this talk I will review the large and growing body of work on the early Mars climate system. I will take a holistic approach that involves many disciplines since our goal is to present an integrated view that touches on each of the requirements listed in the preceding paragraph. I will begin with the observational evidence, which comes from the geology, mineralogy, and isotopic data. Each of the data sets presents a consistent picture of a warmer and wetter past with a thicker atmosphere. How much warmer and wetter and how much thicker is a matter of debate, but conditions then were certainly different than what they are today. I will then discuss the origin and evolution of the early atmosphere from accretion and core formation to the end of the late heavy bombardment, including estimates of the volatile inventory, outgassing history, and potential escape mechanisms. This sets the stage for a comprehensive look at the climate system of early Mars and the attempts to solve the faint young sun problem. I will review the basic physics involved and then step through the different ideas highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. I will then conclude with a summary and a discussion of potentially promising avenues of future research

Haberle, Robert M.



Evidence for Ancient Mesoamerican Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence for past earthquake damage at Mesoamerican ruins is often overlooked because of the invasive effects of tropical vegetation and is usually not considered as a casual factor when restoration and reconstruction of many archaeological sites are undertaken. Yet the proximity of many ruins to zones of seismic activity would argue otherwise. Clues as to the types of damage which should be soughtwere offered in September 1999 when the M = 7.5 Oaxaca earthquake struck the ruins of Monte Alban, Mexico, where archaeological renovations were underway. More than 20 structures were damaged, 5 of them seriously. Damage features noted were walls out of plumb, fractures in walls, floors, basal platforms and tableros, toppling of columns, and deformation, settling and tumbling of walls. A Modified Mercalli Intensity of VII (ground accelerations 18-34 %b) occurred at the site. Within the diffuse landward extension of the Caribbean plate boundary zone M = 7+ earthquakes occur with repeat times of hundreds of years arguing that many Maya sites were subjected to earthquakes. Damage to re-erected and reinforced stelae, walls, and buildings were witnessed at Quirigua, Guatemala, during an expedition underway when then 1976 M = 7.5 Guatemala earthquake on the Motagua fault struck. Excavations also revealed evidence (domestic pttery vessels and skeleton of a child crushed under fallen walls) of an ancient earthquake occurring about the teim of the demise and abandonment of Quirigua in the late 9th century. Striking evidence for sudden earthquake building collapse at the end of the Mayan Classic Period ~A.D. 889 was found at Benque Viejo (Xunantunich), Belize, located 210 north of Quirigua. It is argued that a M = 7.5 to 7.9 earthquake at the end of the Maya Classic period centered in the vicinity of the Chixoy-Polochic and Motagua fault zones cound have produced the contemporaneous earthquake damage to the above sites. As a consequences this earthquake may have accelerated the collapse of the hiearchical authority at these locations and may have contributed to the end of the Classic culture at other nearby sites in proximity to the Caribbean plate boundary zone.

Kovach, R. L.; Garcia, B.



Low GI Food with Barley in Space Foods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The construction of the life-support system to perform space, moon base, Mars emigration is demanded. The space foods will play a very important role of life support on this occasion. Particularly, in environment of the microgravity, our metabolism becomes less than the face of the Earth. The management of the blood sugar level is very important. We need to eat the meal which will be rise in blood sugar level slowly. The barley which includes much water-soluble dietary fibers is helpful to make low GI space food. After eating 30% barley with unpolished rice, blood sugar level was rise slowly. The cooking process is very important to our body in thinking about digestion and absorption. Soft foods, long-heated foods and grind-foods are easy to digest. After eating these-foods, our blood sugar level will rise, easily. We introduce the space foods with 30% wheat that the blood sugar level is hard to rising.

Katayama, Naomi; Sugimoto, Manabu; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kihara, Makoto; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force


Ochratoxin A in stored U.S. barley and wheat.  


Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin of significant health concern that is present in a variety of cereal grains and other foods around the world. Although OTA contamination can occur prior to harvest, it is largely considered a storage issue that can be controlled through the implementation of proper storage practices. Barley, durum, and hard red spring wheat samples that had been stored for various lengths of time were collected (n = 262) over a period of 2 years by multiple commercial grain companies located in the northwestern and northern Great Plains regions of the United States. Samples were analyzed for OTA concentration using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. OTA was detected in 12.2% of the samples, and of those samples, 81.3% had been stored for ?6 months. One sample of barley and four samples of wheat exceeded 5 ng/g of OTA. PMID:25719887

Kuruc, Julie A; Schwarz, Paul; Wolf-Hall, Charlene



Golgi Localized Barley MTP8 Proteins Facilitate Mn Transport  

PubMed Central

Many metabolic processes in plants are regulated by manganese (Mn) but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms controlling cellular Mn homeostasis. In this study, a yeast assay was used to isolate and characterize two genes, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2, which encode membrane-bound proteins belonging to the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family in the cereal species barley (Hordeum vulgare). Transient expression in onion epidermal cells showed that MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) are localized to Golgi. When heterologously expressed in yeast, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 were found to be Mn transporters catalysing Mn efflux in a similar manner as the Golgi localized endogenous yeast protein Pmr1p. The level of MTP8.1 transcripts in barley roots increased with external Mn supply ranging from deficiency to toxicity, while MTP8.2 transcripts decreased under the same conditions, indicating non-overlapping functions for the two genes. In barley leaves, the expression of both MTP8 genes declined in response to toxic Mn additions to the roots suggesting a role in ensuring proper delivery of Mn to Golgi. Based on the above we suggest that barley MTP8 proteins are involved in Mn loading to the Golgi apparatus and play a role in Mn homeostasis by delivering Mn to Mn-dependent enzymes and/or by facilitating Mn efflux via secretory vesicles. This study highlights the importance of MTP transporters in Mn homeostasis and is the first report of Golgi localized Mn2+ transport proteins in a monocot plant species. PMID:25486417

Pedas, Pai; Schiller Stokholm, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Ladegård, Anne Hald; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod; Husted, Søren



Molecular Approaches and Breeding Strategies for Drought Tolerance in Barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley genotypes, in particular landraces and wild species, represent an important source of variation for adaptive traits\\u000a that may contribute to increase yield and yield stability under drought conditions, and that could be introgressed into improved\\u000a varieties. Traits that have been investigated include physiological\\/biochemical and developmental\\/ morphological traits. Yield\\u000a performance under drought is particularly a complex phenomenon, and plants exhibit

Michael Baum; MARIA VON KORFF; Peiguo Guo; Berhane Lakew; Aladdin Hamwieh; Samer Lababidi; Sripada M. Udupa; Haitham Sayed; Wafa Choumane; Stefania Grando; Salvatore Ceccarelli


RAPD divergence caused by microsite edaphic selection in wild barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPDPCR) was used to assess genetic diversity in four subpopulations\\u000a (86 individuals) of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, sampled from Tabigha microsite near the Sea of Galilee, Israel. The microsite\\u000a consists of two 100?m transects that are topographically separated by 100?m, each equally subdivided into 50?m of basalt and\\u000a terra rossa soil types. Despite

Edward D. Owuor; Tzion Fahima; Alex Beharav; Abraham Korol; Eviatar Nevo



A high-throughput DNA extraction method for barley seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-destructive, quick DNA extraction method for barley seed is described. The method is simple and consists of drilling\\u000a out a sample from the seed, adding sodium hydroxide, heating in a microwave oven and neutralizing with Tris-HCl. The seed\\u000a DNA extract can be used directly for PCR with extra cycles added to the PCR programme compared to PCR programmes used

Rebecka von Post; Lars von Post; Christophe Dayteg; Marie Nilsson; Brian P. Forster; Stine Tuvesson



Salinity-induced calcium deficiencies in wheat and barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity-calcium interactions, which have been shown to be important in plants grown in dryland saline soils of the Canadian prairies, were studied in two species differing in salt tolerance. In solution culture, wheat showed a greater reduction in growth and a higher incidence of foliar Ca deficiency symptoms than barley when grown under MgSO4 or Na2SO4 plus MgSO4 salt stress.

D. L. Ehret; R. E. Redmann; B. L. Harvey; A. Cipywnyk



The relative sensitivity of algae to decomposing barley straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decomposing barley straw has previously been shown to inhibit the growth of a limited number of algae under both laboratory\\u000a and field conditions. Bioassays were conducted on a range of algae to evaluate their relative sensitivities to straw-derived\\u000a inhibitor(s). A range of sensitivities was found, including some species that were resistant to the straw-derived inhibitor(s).\\u000a A microcystin-producing strain of Microcystis

Derek Martin; Irene Ridge



Comparison of Gibberellins in Normal and Slender Barley Seedlings  

PubMed Central

Gibberellins A1, A3, A8, A19, A20, and A29 were identified by full scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in leaf sheath segments of 7-day-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Golden Promise) seedlings grown at 20°C under long days. In a segregating population of barley, cv Herta (Cb 3014), containing the recessive slender allele, (sln 1) the concentration of GA1 and GA3 was reduced by 10-fold and 6-fold, respectively, in rapidly growing homozygous slender, compared with normal, leaf sheath segments. However, the concentration of the C20 precursor, GA19, was nearly 2-fold greater in slender than in normal seedlings. There was little difference in the ABA content of sheath segments between the two genotypes. The gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor, paclobutrazol, reduced the final sheath length of normal segregants (50% inhibition at 15 micromolar) but had no effect on the growth of slender seedlings at concentrations below 100 micromolar. There was a 15-fold and 4-fold reduction in GA1 and GA3, respectively, in sheath segments of 8-day-old normal seedlings following application of 10 micromolar paclobutrazol. The same treatment also reduced the already low concentrations of these gibberellins in slender segregants. The results show that the pool sizes of gibberellins A1 and A3 are small in slender barley and that leaf sheath extension in this genotype appears to be gibberellin-independent. The relationship between gibberellin status and tissue growth-rate in slender barley is contrasted with other gibberellin nonresponsive, but dwarf, mutants of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and maize (Zea mays). PMID:16667686

Croker, Stephen J.; Hedden, Peter; Lenton, John R.; Stoddart, John L.



The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology are summarized and interpreted, along with records of some related matters, like groundwater exploration and utilization, karst springs, water circulation, water conservation and saline-land transformation, mine drainage, and environmental hydrogeology. The report focuses only on the earliest recorded notes, mostly up until the Han Dynasty (206 BC - AD 25). Besides the references cited, the discussion in this report is based mainly on archaeological material, the preserved written classic literature, and some assumptions and/or conclusions that have been handed down in legends to later ages. Although most material relates to ancient China, the lessons learned may have practical significance worldwide. Compared to other contemporary parts of the world, ancient China, without doubt, took the lead in the field of groundwater hydrology. The great achievements and experience of the Chinese ancestors should provide motivation and inspiration for hydrogeologists to carry out their scientific research and exploration passionately and actively.

Zhou, Yu; Zwahlen, François; Wang, Yanxin



Ancient Mesopotamia: This History, Our History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago houses a world-renowned collection of artifacts from ancient Syria, Israel, Persia, Anatolia, Egypt, Nubia, and Mesopotamia. On this website, visitors can explore some of these artifacts up close while also learning more about the history of this important region. Visitors should first visit "Life in Mesopotamia" to learn more about the cultural importance of the area. Then, they can click on the "Learning Collection", here, visitors can zoom-in on artifacts selected by teachers in order to learn what these artifacts can tell us about ancient Mesopotamia. After browsing the learning collection, visitors should not miss the "Interactives." Here they can view additional artifacts as well as view video clips on various topics including a virtual archaeological dig and how these ancient artifacts are cared for and preserved. In addition, teaching materials are also provided and K-12 teachers can earn graduate credit from an online course also offered here.


Images Of Women In Ancient Art  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Subtitled "Issues of Interpretation and Identity," this Website, designed for an honors course at Sweet Briar College, explores the archaeological remnants of female representation in ancient art. Written primarily by the professor, Chris Witcombe, the site boasts images and commentary on women in prehistory, Ancient Egypt, the Aegean, Palestine, Greece, and "Barbarian Women." A special section goes into detailed analysis of the famous, apparently obese, stone figure, "Venus of Willendorf," sometimes taken to be a fertility figure. The site also features a "Women in Prehistory" bibliography, discussion topics and questions, and a fairly extensive directory of related sites, indexed by the specific artifacts discussed on the Website. The writing style is informative and casual, making this site an enjoyable means to reexamine some "ancient" stereotypes.


The ancient lunar crust, Apollo 17 region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 17 highland collection is dominated by fragment-laden melt rocks, generally thought to represent impact melt from the Serenitatis basin-forming impact. Fortunately for our understanding of the lunar crust, the melt rocks contain unmelted clasts of preexisting rocks. Similar ancient rocks are also found in the regolith; most are probably clasts eroded out of melt rocks. The ancient rocks can be divided into groups by age, composition, and history. Oldest are plutonic igneous rocks, representing the magmatic components of the ancient crust. The younger are granulitic breccias, which are thoroughly recrystallized rocks of diverse parentages. The youngest are KREEPy basalts and felsites, products of relatively evolved magmas. Some characteristics of each group are given.

James, O. B.



Did the ancient egyptians discover Algol?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fabritius discovered the first variable star, Mira, in 1596. Holwarda determined the 11 months period of Mira in 1638. Montanari discovered the next variable star, Algol, in 1669. Its period, 2.867 days, was determined by Goodricke (178). Algol was associated with demon-like creatures, "Gorgon" in ancient Greek and "ghoul" in ancient Arab mythology. This indicates that its variability was discovered much before 1669 (Wilk 1996), but this mythological evidence is ambiguous (Davis 1975). For thousands of years, the Ancient Egyptian Scribes (AES) observed stars for timekeeping in a region, where there are nearly 300 clear nights a year. We discovered a significant periodicity of 2.850 days in their calendar for lucky and unlucky days dated to 1224 BC, "the Cairo Calendar". Several astrophysical and astronomical tests supported our conclusion that this was the period of Algol three millennia ago. The "ghoulish habits" of Algol could explain this 0.017 days period increase (Battersby 2012).

Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S.; Porceddu, S.; Lyytinen, J.; Kajatkari, P.; Markkanen, T.; Toivari-Viitala, J.




SciTech Connect

For years, scientists have developed several new techniques to read texts of Herculaneum scrolls without destroying them. Recently, the use of a custom built high-resolution CT scanner was proposed to scan and then virtually unroll the scrolls for reading. Identification of any unique chemical signatures in the ancient ink would allow better calibration of the CT scanner to improve the chances of resolving the ink from the burned papyrus background. To support this effort, we carried out one pilot study to see whether the composition of the ink can be obtained from an ancient scroll sample using PIXE technique. PIXE data were collected and analyzed in two different regions of the ancient scroll sample (ink and blank regions). This preliminary work shows that elemental distributions from the ink used in this scroll mainly contained Al, Fe and Ti as well as minor trace amounts of Cr, Cu and Zn.

Shutthanandan, V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Iuliano, Edward M.; Seales, William B.



Megapixel imaging of (micro)nutrients in mature barley grains  

PubMed Central

Understanding the accumulation and distribution of essential nutrients in cereals is of primary importance for improving the nutritional quality of this staple food. While recent studies have improved the understanding of micronutrient loading into the barley grain, a detailed characterization of the distribution of micronutrients within the grain is still lacking. High-definition synchrotron X-ray fluorescence was used to investigate the distribution and association of essential elements in barley grain at the micro scale. Micronutrient distribution within the scutellum and the embryo was shown to be highly variable between elements in relation to various morphological features. In the rest of the grain, the distribution of some elements such as Cu and Zn was not limited to the aleurone layer but extended into the endosperm. This pattern of distribution was less marked in the case of Fe and, in particular, Mn. A significant difference in element distribution was also found between the ventral and dorsal part of the grains. The correlation between the elements was not consistent between and within tissues, indicating that the transport and storage of elements is highly regulated. The complexity of the spatial distribution and associations has important implications for improving the nutritional content of cereal crops such as barley. PMID:20819790

Lombi, Enzo; Smith, Euan; Hansen, Thomas H.; Paterson, David; de Jonge, Martin D.; Howard, Daryl L.; Persson, Daniel P.; Husted, Søren; Ryan, Chris; Schjoerring, Jan K.



Arabinogalactan proteins are involved in root hair development in barley  

PubMed Central

The arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are involved in a range of plant processes, including cell differentiation and expansion. Here, barley root hair mutants and their wild-type parent cultivars were used, as a model system, to reveal the role of AGPs in root hair development. The treatment of roots with different concentrations of ?GlcY (a reagent which binds to all classes of AGPs) inhibited or totally suppressed the development of root hairs in all of the cultivars. Three groups of AGP (recognized by the monoclonal antibodies LM2, LM14, and MAC207) were diversely localized in trichoblasts and atrichoblasts of root hair-producing plants. The relevant epitopes were present in wild-type trichoblast cell walls and cytoplasm, whereas in wild-type atrichoblasts and in all epidermal cells of a root hairless mutant, they were only present in the cytoplasm. In all of cultivars the higher expression of LM2, LM14, and MAC207 was observed in trichoblasts at an early stage of development. Additionally, the LM2 epitope was detected on the surface of primordia and root hair tubes in plants able to generate root hairs. The major conclusion was that the AGPs recognized by LM2, LM14, and MAC207 are involved in the differentiation of barley root epidermal cells, thereby implying a requirement for these AGPs for root hair development in barley. PMID:25465033

Marzec, Marek; Szarejko, Iwona; Melzer, Michael



Analysis of the barley chromosome 2 region containing the six-rowed spike gene vrs1 reveals a breakdown of rice-barley micro collinearity by a transposition.  


In cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare), six-rowed spikes produce three times as many seeds per spike as do two-rowed spikes. The determinant of this trait is the Mendelian gene vrs1, located on chromosome 2H, which is syntenous with rice (Oryza sativa) chromosomes 4 and 7. We exploited barley-rice micro-synteny to increase marker density in the vrs1 region as a prelude to its map-based cloning. The rice genomic sequence, covering a 980 kb contig, identified barley ESTs linked to vrs1. A high level of conservation of gene sequence was obtained between barley chromosome 2H and rice chromosome 4. A total of 22 EST-based STS markers were placed within the target region, and the linear order of these markers in barley and rice was identical. The genetic window containing vrs1 was narrowed from 0.5 to 0.06 cM, which facilitated covering the vrs1 region by a 518 kb barley BAC contig. An analysis of the contig sequence revealed that a rice Vrs1 orthologue is present on chromosome 7, suggesting a transposition of the chromosomal segment containing Vrs1 within barley chromosome 2H. The breakdown of micro-collinearity illustrates the limitations of synteny cloning, and stresses the importance of implementing genomic studies directly in the target species. PMID:17375281

Pourkheirandish, M; Wicker, T; Stein, N; Fujimura, T; Komatsuda, T



Ectoparasitic growth of Magnaporthe on barley triggers expression of the putative barley wax biosynthesis gene CYP96B22 which is involved in penetration resistance  

PubMed Central

Background Head blast caused by the fungal plant pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae is an upcoming threat for wheat and barley cultivation. We investigated the nonhost response of barley to an isolate of the Magnaporthe species complex which is pathogenic on Pennisetum spp. as a potential source for novel resistance traits. Results Array experiments identified a barley gene encoding a putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase whose transcripts accumulate to a higher concentration in the nonhost as compared to the host interaction. The gene clusters within the CYP96 clade of the P450 plant gene family and is designated as CYP96B22. Expression of CYP96B22 was triggered during the ectoparasitic growth of the pathogen on the outside of the leaf. Usage of a fungicidal treatment and a Magnaporthe mutant confirmed that penetration was not necessary for this early activation of CYP96B22. Transcriptional silencing of CYP96B22 using Barley stripe mosaic virus led to a decrease in penetration resistance of barley plants to Magnaporthe host and nonhost isolates. This phenotype seems to be specific for the barley-Magnaporthe interaction, since penetration of the adapted barley powdery mildew fungus was not altered in similarly treated plants. Conclusion Taken together our results suggest a cross-talk between barley and Magnaporthe isolates across the plant surface. Since members of the plant CYP96 family are known to be involved in synthesis of epicuticular waxes, these substances or their derivatives might act as signal components. We propose a functional overlap of CYP96B22 in the execution of penetration resistance during basal and nonhost resistance of barley against different Magnaporthe species. PMID:24423145



Utilization of fermented barley extract obtained from a by-product of barley shochu for nisin production.  


Fermented barley extract (FBE) obtained from a barley shochu by-product (shochu kasu) and its ethanol fractions were evaluated as a medium and supplement, respectively, for nisin A production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454. A Brix 2.5 FBE medium supplemented with glucose provided a high level of nisin A production with a nisin yield comparable to that from a nutritionally rich laboratory medium (basal medium). By adding the ethanol-insoluble (EI) fraction of FBE to the basal medium, nisin A production was enhanced concomitant with an increase in bacterial cell growth, while the ethanol-soluble (ES) fraction had a negative effect on nisin A production. These findings indicate that FBE obtained from shochu kasu can be utilized as a preferable medium for nisin A production and could be converted into a value-added food product having preservative functions. The procedure developed in this study would promote recycling of shochu kasu. PMID:19000617

Furuta, Yoshifumi; Maruoka, Naruyuki; Nakamura, Akihiro; Omori, Toshiro; Sonomoto, Kenji



Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astronomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors regarded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Consequently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

Han, Yanben; Qiao, Qiyuan



Barley ?-amylase bound to its endogenous protein inhibitor BASI: crystal structure of the complex at 1.9 å resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Barley ?-amylase is a 45 kDa enzyme which is involved in starch degradation during barley seed germination. The released sugars provide the plant embryo with energy for growth. The major barley ?-amylase isozyme (AMY2) binds with high affinity to the endogenous inhibitor BASI (barley ?-amylase\\/subtilisin inhibitor) whereas the minor isozyme (AMY1) is not inhibited. BASI is a 19.6 kDa

François Vallée; Anders Kadziola; Yves Bourne; Michel Juy; Kees W Rodenburg; Birte Svensson; Richard Haser



Validation of rice blast resistance genes in barley using a QTL mapping population and near-isolines.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are prior reports of Pyricularia grisea – the causal agent of blast of rice – causing disease in barley. In order to determine the specificity of this resistance in barley, we extended our previous mapping efforts to include blast isolates from barley and rice grown in Thailand and we assesse...


Genetic diversity analysis of wild close relatives of barley from Tibet and the Middle East by ISSR and SSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic diversity analysis of 90 barley samples, including 45 wild close relatives of barley from the Tibet region of China and 45 wild accessions from different countries throughout the Middle East, were carried out using ISSR and SSR markers. The results showed that Tibetan wild close relatives of barley had a higher genetic diversity than those from the Middle

Aihua Wang; Zhiyong Yu; Yi Ding



Necrotrophic effector-triggered susceptibility (NETS) underlies the barley-Pyrenophora teres f. teres interaction specific to chromosome 6H  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley net form net blotch, caused by Pyrenophora teres f. teres, is a destructive foliar disease in barley-growing regions worldwide. Our overall understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of the barley- P. teres f. teres interaction is limited. Intercellular wash fluids (IWF) from infected...


Evaluating the potential of barley and wheat microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of Elymus trachycaulus complex species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of barley and wheat microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of Elymus trachycaulus complex species was evaluated. A set of 25 barley and 3 wheat microsatellite markers were tested for their ability to cross-amplify DNA from four accessions of E. trachycaulus and two accessions Pseudoroegneria spicata. Thirteen barley (52%) and two (68%) wheat primer pairs successfully amplified consistent products

D. MacRitchie; G. Sun



Removal and isolation of germ-rich fractions from hull-less barley using a fitzpatrick comminuting mill  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A process was developed to produce a germ-enriched fraction from hull-less barley using a Fitzpatrick Comminuting Mill followed by sieving. Hulled and hull-less barleys contain 1.5-2.5% oil and, like wheat kernels which contain wheat germ oil, much of the oil in barley kernels is in the germ fracti...


A genome-wide association study of malting quality across eight U.S. barley breeding programs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study leverages the breeding data of 1,862 breeding lines evaluated in 97 field trials for genome-wide association study of malting quality traits in barley. The breeding lines were six-row and two-row barley advanced breeding lines from eight barley breeding populations established at six pub...


Polyphase deformation history and strain analyses of the post-amalgamation depositional basins in the Arabian-Nubian Shield: Evidence from Fatima, Ablah and Hammamat Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-amalgamation depositional basins <650 Ma (PADBs), dominated by volcano-sedimentary assemblages, unconformably overlying Neoproterozoic juvenile (mantle-derived) arcs, represent one of the main collage in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). In this work, three distinguished PADBs; namely Fatima, Ablah and Hammamat PADBs, are the subject matter of detailed field investigations and quantitative strain analysis in an attempt to highlight the polyphase deformation history of these PADBs and to discern whether the ANS's PADBs were deformed at the same time or not. The Fatima PADB is studied in its type locality along the northwestern flank of Wadi Fatima; between Jabal Abu Ghurrah and Jabal Daf, in Jeddah tectonic terrane. The Ablah PADB is examined around Wadi Yiba, further south of its type locality near Jabal Ablah in Al-Aqiq Quadrangle, in Asir tectonic terrane. The Hammamat PADB is investigated in Wadi Umm Gheig, Wadi Allaqi and Wadi Hodein in the Egyptian Eastern Desert tectonic terrane. It is supposed that the Fatima is a basin controlled by dextral transcurrent shearing occurred along the NE-oriented Wadi Fatima Shear Zone and the Ablah is a strike-slip pull-apart basin, and both basins were believed to be deposited during and soon after the Nabitah Orogeny (680-640 Ma) that marked suturing of the Afif terrane with the oceanic ANS terranes to the west. They were affected by at least three Neoproterozoic deformation phases and show geometric and kinematic relationships between folding and thrusting. The Hammamat PADB is a fault-bounded basin affected by a NW-SE- to NNW-SSE-oriented shortening phase just after the deposition of the molasse sediments, proved by NW- to NNW-verging folds and SE- to SSE-dipping thrusts that were refolded and thrusted in the same direction. The shortening phase in the Hammamat was followed by a transpressional wrenching phase related to the Najd Shear System, which resulted in the formation of NW-SE sinistral-slip faults associated with positive flower structures that comprise NE-verging folds and SW-dipping thrusts. Strain results in the three studied PADBs are nearly consistent, indicating that they are correlated and underwent the same history of deformation. The ANOVA test indicates that there is no significant difference for the Vector mean and ISYM for the three PADBs. There is only a significant difference for the Harmonic mean (P-value < 0.05). A Post Hoc test (Shefee) shows that the difference exists between the Allaqi and the Umm Gheig's deformed polymictic conglomeratic pebbles of the Hammamat PADB.

Hamimi, Zakaria; El-Fakharani, Abdelhamid; Abdeen, Mamdouh M.



Ancient and Medieval History Year One Year Two Year Three  

E-print Network

Ancient and Medieval History (V116) Year One Year Two Year Three Discovering the Middle Ages and lectures) Ancient and Medieval History in Theory and Practice (Autumn and Spring) (20 credits) 2,500 word. Taken either in Medieval History or Ancient History and Classics (individual one-to-one supervision

Miall, Chris



Microsoft Academic Search

Music technology is being advanced in many ways; these include measuring acoustic resonant patterns within environments and implementing biofeedback methods through specifically designed electro-acoustic music. The question must be asked what effect does specifically designed environments have on given biological subjects. Computers are advancing rapidly in the 21st Century, but what researchers are finding is that the ancient Egyptians and

Darren Curtis


Precursors of Vocational Psychology in Ancient Civilizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines philosophical theories produced by two ancient civilizations (Eastern Mediterranean and Chinese) for applications to an applied psychology of work. Includes analysis of Egyptians, Semites, and Greeks, with a special emphasis on Plato. Suggests that many basic elements of vocational psychology were present during the first millennium B.C.…

Dumont, Frank; Carson, Andrew D.




E-print Network

Is inequality largely the result of the Industrial Revolution? Or, were pre-industrial incomes and life? Is inequality largely a byproduct of the Industrial Revolution? Or, were pre- industrial incomes and life answered. This paper infers inequality for 14 ancient, pre-industrial societies using what are known

Hickman, Mark


Women of Ancient Greece: Participating in Sport?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on evidence obtained from Greek literature and artifacts, this paper examines the extent to which women in ancient Greece participated in physical activity, sports, and games. Homer's "Odyssey" describes women playing ball and driving chariots; vases dating back to 700-675 B.C. portray women driving light chariots in a procession; a girl…

Mills, Brett D.


Ancient Israel in Western Civ Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author frequently teaches introductory courses in what was once generally called "Western Civilization" and has often been called upon to referee all or parts of the manuscripts of new editions of "Western Civ" textbooks. Through his own reading, he has become aware that much current scholarship on ancient Israel and Judah is inclined to…

Cargill, Jack



Watermarking ancient documents based on wavelet packets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ancient documents present an important part of our individual and collective memory. In addition to their preservation, the digitization of these documents may offer users a great number of services like remote look-up and browsing rare documents. However, the documents, digitally formed, are likely to be modified or pirated. Therefore, we need to develop techniques of protecting images stemming from ancient documents. Watermarking figures to be one of the promising solutions. Nevertheless, the performance of watermarking procedure depends on being neither too robust nor too invisible. Thus, choosing the insertion field or mode as well as the carrier points of the signature is decisive. We propose in this work a method of watermarking images stemming from ancient documents based on wavelet packet decomposition. The insertion is carried out into the maximum amplitude ratio being in the best base of decomposition, which is determined beforehand according to a criterion on entropy. This work is part of a project of digitizing ancient documents in cooperation with the National Library of Tunis (BNT).

Maatouk, Med Neji; Jedidi, Ola; Essoukri Ben Amara, Najoua



The Study of Women in Ancient Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents ideas for teaching about the roles of women in ancient Greek and Roman societies for undergraduate history and sociology classes. The discussion covers the roots of misogyny in Western culture, parallels between mythologies and sociocultural patterns, and the legal status of women in antiquity. (AM)

Moscovich, M. James



Ancient bronze disks, decorations and calendars  

E-print Network

Recently, it was published that some ancient bronze disks could had been calendars, that is, that their decorations had this function. Here I am discussing an example, the disk of the Trundholm Sun Chariot, proposing a new interpretation of it, giving a calendar of 360 days. Some geometric diagrams concerning the decoration layout are also proposed.

Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina



Technologies Old and New: Teaching Ancient Navigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One educator presents maritime history to students using technologies available to ancient seafarers. Techniques include dead reckoning, the sandglass, the magnetic compass, celestial navigation, and various navigation techniques of precontact Polynesia that depended upon oral transmission of knowledge. The paper notes differences between…

Spalding, Simon



Functional Divergence Caused by Ancient Positive Selection  

E-print Network

candidate hybrid incompatibility genes. Several Drosophila melanogaster genes involved in hybrid with the Dobzhansky-Muller model. By introducing transgenic copies of the X-linked Hybrid male rescue (Hmr) geneFunctional Divergence Caused by Ancient Positive Selection of a Drosophila Hybrid Incompatibility

Nachman, Michael


Ancient Pyramids Help Students Learn Math Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an activity that allows students to use mathematics and critical-thinking skills to emulate processes used by the ancient Egyptians to prepare the site for the Pyramids of Giza. To accomplish this, they use three different methods. First, they create a square using only simple technological tools that were available to the…

Smith, Courtney D.; Stump, Amanda M.; Lazaros, Edward J.



Genomic correlates of atherosclerosis in ancient humans.  


Paleogenetics offers a unique opportunity to study human evolution, population dynamics, and disease evolution in situ. Although histologic and computed x-ray tomographic investigations of ancient mummies have clearly shown that atherosclerosis has been present in humans for more than 5,000 years, limited data are available on the presence of genetic predisposition for cardiovascular disease in ancient human populations. In a previous whole-genome study of the Tyrolean Iceman, a 5,300-year-old glacier mummy from the Alps, an increased risk for coronary heart disease was detected. The Iceman's genome revealed several single nucleotide polymorphisms that are linked with cardiovascular disease in genome-wide association studies. Future genetic studies of ancient humans from various geographic origins and time periods have the potential to provide more insights into the presence and possible changes of genetic risk factors in our ancestors. The study of ancient humans and a better understanding of the interaction between environmental and genetic influences on the development of heart diseases may lead to a more effective prevention and treatment of the most common cause of death in the modern world. PMID:25667090

Zink, Albert; Wann, L Samuel; Thompson, Randall C; Keller, Andreas; Maixner, Frank; Allam, Adel H; Finch, Caleb E; Frohlich, Bruno; Kaplan, Hillard; Lombardi, Guido P; Sutherland, M Linda; Sutherland, James D; Watson, Lucia; Cox, Samantha L; Miyamoto, Michael I; Narula, Jagat; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Thomas, Gregory S; Krause, Johannes



Modern Views of Ancient Solar Observatories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF) annually promotes an event called Sun-Earth Day. The event emphasizes the study of the Sun and its effects on the Earth and the rest of the Solar System. Sun-Earth Day 2004 will emphasize the June 8th Transit of Venus as a theme. For 2005 the highlight will be the study of the Sun by ancient cultures and how that relates to contemporary solar knowledge. There are many examples of ancient solar observatories around the world, but some of the best are found in National Parks. SECEF has been working with Chaco Culture National Historical Park in New Mexico to do a webcast showing knowledge about the Sun by the Chacoan people that is evident in the park. The Sun Dagger and other pictographs as well as Chaco building alignments indicate the influence of the Sun in the lives of this people. The cooperative planning for this event by NASA and the National Park Service (NPS) will be discussed. Other events emphasizing ancient observatories in other locations are also planned for the future. The partnership between SECEF and NPS is not limited to ancient observatories, however. The influence of the Sun on our daily lives is an appropriate topic for many parks and the possibilities for solar exhibits, daytime astronomy sessions, scientist lectures, etc. will be discussed as well.

Thieman, J. R.; Cornucopia, G. B.



Microscopical Examination of Ancient Silver Coins  

SciTech Connect

The microstructure of three silver coins of the IIId century B.C. from the Illyrian king Monounios, the ancient Greek city of Dyrrachion and of Korkyra was studied with XRF and microscopy. From this investigation it turned out that these coins have different chemical composition and microstructure that imply different minting method.

Pistofidis, N.; Vourlias, G.; Pavlidou, El.; Stergioudis, G.; Polychroniadis, E. K. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece); Dilo, T.; Prifti, I.; Bilani, O. [Department of Physics, FNSc, University of Tirana, Tirana (Albania); Civici, N. [Department of Spectroscopy, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Tirana (Albania); Stamati, F. [Laboratory of Restoration and Archaeometry, Institute of Popular Culture, Tirana (Albania); Gjongecaj, Sh. [Department of Antiquity, Institute of Archaeology, Tirana (Albania)



On Some Comet Observations in Ancient India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief review of the ancient prose text of Parasara, referring to comets, as transmitted by later non-religious Sanskrit literature is presented. The information passed on appears to belong to 2 nd millennium BC or earlier. A sequence of 26 comets with names and purported effects are given. The form of each comet sometimes with its position in the sky



Ancient DNA analysis of dental calculus.  


Dental calculus (calcified tartar or plaque) is today widespread on modern human teeth around the world. A combination of soft starchy foods, changing acidity of the oral environment, genetic pre-disposition, and the absence of dental hygiene all lead to the build-up of microorganisms and food debris on the tooth crown, which eventually calcifies through a complex process of mineralisation. Millions of oral microbes are trapped and preserved within this mineralised matrix, including pathogens associated with the oral cavity and airways, masticated food debris, and other types of extraneous particles that enter the mouth. As a result, archaeologists and anthropologists are increasingly using ancient human dental calculus to explore broad aspects of past human diet and health. Most recently, high-throughput DNA sequencing of ancient dental calculus has provided valuable insights into the evolution of the oral microbiome and shed new light on the impacts of some of the major biocultural transitions on human health throughout history and prehistory. Here, we provide a brief historical overview of archaeological dental calculus research, and discuss the current approaches to ancient DNA sampling and sequencing. Novel applications of ancient DNA from dental calculus are discussed, highlighting the considerable scope of this new research field for evolutionary biology and modern medicine. PMID:25476244

Weyrich, Laura S; Dobney, Keith; Cooper, Alan



Ancient Lake Cahuilla High Water Mark  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Lake Cahuilla was an ancient freshwater lake in the Salton Trough of southern California. It covered parts of the Coachella, Imperial and Mexicali valleys and was formed when the Colorado River overflowed its banks or was diverted northwest by its own sediments, which temporarily blocked the flo...


The Sacred Tree in Ancient Greek Religion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine the role played by the tree cult in the religion of the ancient Greeks, and to discuss various aspects and instances of tree worship which survived into the Classical period and later. By this means it is to some extent possible to deduce information regarding the form and character of the religion

Karolyn Elizabeth Smardz



Can ancient forests help slow climate warming?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The trees in the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, which is in China's Guangdong Province are really old. As in 400 years old! Chinese scientists have now discovered that this ancient forest soaks up carbon from the atmosphere much faster than they expected.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )



Myths and Gods of Ancient Mexico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help Americans of Mexican descent understand their rich cultural heritage, this portfolio contains 12 full-color drawings of the myths and gods of the Olmecs and Toltecs of Ancient Mexico. These original drawings are by Vincent P. Rascon. Information captions in English and Spanish are given for each drawing which is printed on heavy…

Rascon, Vincent P.


Ancient dicrocoeliosis: Occurrence, distribution and migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the lancet fluke, Dicrocoelium sp., and includes a complete review of the literature as well as numerous new research results. The compilation of all these data led to a global overview of ancient dicrocoeliosis history. The presence of the lancet fluke in Western Europe was attested from 550,000 years BP to the 16th century AD Moreover,

Matthieu Le Bailly; Françoise Bouchet




E-print Network

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL INDIA Indian education system can be traced to Vedic peri- od-west India (now in Pakistan). With the political influence of Hindus, Persians, Greeks and Kusans, Taxila. Numerous technical skills such as carpentry, smithy, foundry and weaving were taught at Taxila. South India

Srinivasan, N.


Crop stand density enhances competitive ability of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the research was to establish weediness, competitive ability and productivity of the crop. The experimental object was agrophytocenoses of spring barley – Hordeum vulgare L. – crop of spring barley ‘Aura’ and unsown soil, and weeds growing in them. The crop was formed sowing 0, 120, 200 and 280 kg ha (0, 2.7, 4.5 and 6.2 million

Vytautas Pilipavicius; Regina Romaneckiene; Kestutis Romaneckas




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The expression level of the selectable marker bar, which encodes phosphinothricin acetyl transferase (PAT), was negatively correlated with the viability of barley hybrids between 20 Golden Promise-derived transgenic lines (Ds-bar lines) and a specialized marker stock, Oregon Wolfe Barley Dominant (O...


A Comparison Of Barley Malt Amylolytic Enzyme Thermostabilities As Indicators Of Malt Sugar Concentrations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt amylolytic enzyme thermostabilities would correlate negatively with malt sugar concentrations. Seeds of four two-row and four six-row North American elite barley cultivars were steeped and germinated in a micromalter for 6 days. At 2...


Relationship between gibberellins, height, and stress tolerance in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between gibberellin (GA) levels, height, and stress tolerance was investigated using barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings, which were exposed to heat stress (50 °C for 3 h) and a free radical generator (Paraquat). Barley cv. Perth seedlings were treated with GA-inhibitors, either a triazole or one of two acylcyclohexanediones. They were tested along with four mutants that were

Sunita Sarkar; Michel R. Perras; Duane E. Falk; Ruichuan Zhang; Richard P. Pharis; R. Austin Fletcher



A Comparison of Barley Malt Amylolytic Enzyme Activities and Malt Sugar Concentrations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt alpha-amylase activity would correlate better with malt sugar concentrations than the activities of beta-amylase, or limit dextrinase. Seeds of four two-row and four six-row North American elite barley cultivars were steeped and germi...


A Comparison of Barley Malt Amylolytic Enzyme Activities and Malt Sugar Concentrations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt alpha-amylase activity would correlate better with malt sugar concentrations than the activities of beta-amylase, or limit dextrinase. Seeds of four two-row and four six-row North American elite barley cultivars were steeped and germin...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

New varieties are being developed to widen the applications of barley to nontraditional food and non-food value-added applications, such as ethanol production. The objective of this study was to fractionate a new hulless barley variety, Doyce, to produce starch rich fractions using two methods: (a) ...


Quantifying relationships between rooting traits and water uptake under drought in Mediterranean barley and durum wheat.  


In Mediterranean regions drought is the major factor limiting spring barley and durum wheat grain yields. This study aimed to compare spring barley and durum wheat root and shoot responses to drought and quantify relationships between root traits and water uptake under terminal drought. One spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Rum) and two durum wheat Mediterranean cultivars (Triticum turgidum L. var durum cvs Hourani and Karim) were examined in soil-column experiments under well watered and drought conditions. Root system architecture traits, water uptake, and plant growth were measured. Barley aerial biomass and grain yields were higher than for durum wheat cultivars in well watered conditions. Drought decreased grain yield more for barley (47%) than durum wheat (30%, Hourani). Root-to-shoot dry matter ratio increased for durum wheat under drought but not for barley, and root weight increased for wheat in response to drought but decreased for barley. The critical root length density (RLD) and root volume density (RVD) for 90% available water capture for wheat were similar to (cv. Hourani) or lower than (cv. Karim) for barley depending on wheat cultivar. For both species, RVD accounted for a slightly higher proportion of phenotypic variation in water uptake under drought than RLD. PMID:24112696

Carvalho, Pedro; Azam-Ali, Sayed; Foulkes, M John



The draft genome of Tibetan hulless barley reveals adaptive patterns to the high stressful Tibetan Plateau  

PubMed Central

The Tibetan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum), also called “Qingke” in Chinese and “Ne” in Tibetan, is the staple food for Tibetans and an important livestock feed in the Tibetan Plateau. The diploid nature and adaptation to diverse environments of the highland give it unique resources for genetic research and crop improvement. Here we produced a 3.89-Gb draft assembly of Tibetan hulless barley with 36,151 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative analyses revealed the divergence times and synteny between barley and other representative Poaceae genomes. The expansion of the gene family related to stress responses was found in Tibetan hulless barley. Resequencing of 10 barley accessions uncovered high levels of genetic variation in Tibetan wild barley and genetic divergence between Tibetan and non-Tibetan barley genomes. Selective sweep analyses demonstrate adaptive correlations of genes under selection with extensive environmental variables. Our results not only construct a genomic framework for crop improvement but also provide evolutionary insights of highland adaptation of Tibetan hulless barley. PMID:25583503

Zeng, Xingquan; Long, Hai; Wang, Zhuo; Zhao, Shancen; Tang, Yawei; Huang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yulin; Xu, Qijun; Mao, Likai; Deng, Guangbing; Yao, Xiaoming; Li, Xiangfeng; Bai, Lijun; Yuan, Hongjun; Pan, Zhifen; Liu, Renjian; Chen, Xin; WangMu, QiMei; Chen, Ming; Yu, Lili; Liang, Junjun; DunZhu, DaWa; Zheng, Yuan; Yu, Shuiyang; LuoBu, ZhaXi; Guang, Xuanmin; Li, Jiang; Deng, Cao; Hu, Wushu; Chen, Chunhai; TaBa, XiongNu; Gao, Liyun; Lv, Xiaodan; Abu, Yuval Ben; Fang, Xiaodong; Nevo, Eviatar; Yu, Maoqun; Wang, Jun; Tashi, Nyima




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulates in wheat and barley heads infected with Fusarium graminearum. To assess the effects of DON on green plant tissues, we partially stripped the abaxial epidermis from detached Robust barley leaf segments (1 cm long) and floated them with stripped mesophyl...


Transgenic Field Trials for FHB Resistance and Related Research in Wheat and Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transgenic wheat and barley lines expressing genes with the potential to reduce FHB and DON have been tested in field trials in Minnesota since 1997 and in North Dakota since 2001 (barley only). Replicated trials are planted, grown, and harvested to meet containment regulations of the Animal and Pla...


Fertilizer Facts: December 2000, Number 24 Nitrogen Fertilization of Dryland Malt Barley for Yield and Quality  

E-print Network

Fertilizer Facts: December 2000, Number 24 Nitrogen Fertilization of Dryland Malt Barley for Yield factors as well as yield. Fourteen experiments from Central, North central, and the Western Triangle areas-row, malt barley cultivars with similar yield potential (Harrington and Clark). Nitrogen and K fertilizers

Lawrence, Rick L.


Population structure and linkage disequilibrium in US barley germplasm: implications for association mapping  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous studies have shown that there is considerable population structure in cultivated barley, with the strongest structure corresponding to differences in row number and growth habit. US barley breeding programs include 6-row and 2-row types and winter and spring types in all combinations. To fa...


Barley and Oat beta-Glucan content measured by Calcofluor fluorescence in a microplate assay  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Beta-glucans, linear glucan polymers of mixed linkage, are important constituents of cereal cell walls. They have important health benefits in the human diet, but also can negatively affect the use of barley grain as an animal feed. High beta-glucans in barley malt can also cause problems in brewi...


How can varieties and rain-fed production environments affect malting quality in spring barley?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rain-fed barley production environments can be highly variable across a region and across years. Almost all malting barley production in Washington State is under rain-fed conditions. The industry has noticed that in some cases malt beta-glucan levels and other malting quality parameters have been u...


Biothanol production from barley hull using SAA (Soaking in aqueous ammonia) pretreatment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley hull, a type of lignocellulosic biomass, was pretreated using aqueous ammonia to improve its enzymatic saccharification. Barley hull was soaked in 15-30 wt.% aqueous ammonia (SAA method) at 30-75'C for 1 day-11 weeks using a batch reactor. Under these conditions, SAA (soaking in aqueous ammon...


Cytokinin enhancement of the light induction of nitrate reductase transcript levels in etiolated barley leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the molecular mechanism of cytokinin regulation of nitrate reductase (NR) activity, the influence of benzyladenine (BA) on the level of NR transcript was studied in etiolated barley leaves using a barley NR cDNA as a probe. Northern blot analyses of the levels of NR poly (A)+ RNA indicate that the amount present is proportional to the concentration of

Jia-ling Lu; John R. Ertl; Chong-maw Chen



The draft genome of Tibetan hulless barley reveals adaptive patterns to the high stressful Tibetan Plateau.  


The Tibetan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum), also called "Qingke" in Chinese and "Ne" in Tibetan, is the staple food for Tibetans and an important livestock feed in the Tibetan Plateau. The diploid nature and adaptation to diverse environments of the highland give it unique resources for genetic research and crop improvement. Here we produced a 3.89-Gb draft assembly of Tibetan hulless barley with 36,151 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative analyses revealed the divergence times and synteny between barley and other representative Poaceae genomes. The expansion of the gene family related to stress responses was found in Tibetan hulless barley. Resequencing of 10 barley accessions uncovered high levels of genetic variation in Tibetan wild barley and genetic divergence between Tibetan and non-Tibetan barley genomes. Selective sweep analyses demonstrate adaptive correlations of genes under selection with extensive environmental variables. Our results not only construct a genomic framework for crop improvement but also provide evolutionary insights of highland adaptation of Tibetan hulless barley. PMID:25583503

Zeng, Xingquan; Long, Hai; Wang, Zhuo; Zhao, Shancen; Tang, Yawei; Huang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yulin; Xu, Qijun; Mao, Likai; Deng, Guangbing; Yao, Xiaoming; Li, Xiangfeng; Bai, Lijun; Yuan, Hongjun; Pan, Zhifen; Liu, Renjian; Chen, Xin; WangMu, QiMei; Chen, Ming; Yu, Lili; Liang, Junjun; DunZhu, DaWa; Zheng, Yuan; Yu, Shuiyang; LuoBu, ZhaXi; Guang, Xuanmin; Li, Jiang; Deng, Cao; Hu, Wushu; Chen, Chunhai; TaBa, XiongNu; Gao, Liyun; Lv, Xiaodan; Abu, Yuval Ben; Fang, Xiaodong; Nevo, Eviatar; Yu, Maoqun; Wang, Jun; Tashi, Nyima



Cytologically Integrated Physical Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Maps for the Barley Genome Based on Translocation Breakpoints  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a new technique for the physical mapping of barley chromosomes using microdis- sected translocation chromosomes for PCR with sequence-tagged site primers derived from .300 geneti- cally mapped RFLP probes. The positions of 240 translocation breakpoints were integrated as physical landmarks into linkage maps of the seven barley chromosomes. This strategy proved to be highly efficient in relating

Gottfried Kunzel; Larissa Korzun; Armin Meister


Pathogenicity of fungi associated with wheat and barley seedling emergence and fungicide efficacy of seed treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented study focused on the influence of Cochliobolus sativus isolates origin on pathogenicity towards wheat and barley seedlings in comparison with pathogenicity of certain Fusarium species and Microdochium nivale. The efficacy of fungicide seed treatment against C. sativus was estimated. The C. sativus isolates were collected from different locations and were isolated from wheat, barley and sunflower seeds. The pathogenicity

Kamil Hudec



Minimizing Risk by Maximizing Production Through Barley as a Rotational Crop  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A CD was produced that contained the presentations of the speakers, plus supplemental material. This was an effort at showing growers the benefits of rotating with barley, and educating growers in barley breeding, weeds, diseases, economics and government support programs. It was sponsored by the ...



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum destroys barley and wheat crops in the U.S. and elsewhere by causing scab (Fusarium head blight) and depositing mycotoxins such as DON. These make the harvest unsuitable for food, feed or malting. There are no known barleys with biochemical resistance to Fusa...


Registration of nineteen spring six-rowed barley germplasm lines resistant to Russian wheat aphid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is a new and devastating pest of barley in the western US. No resistance was found in US cultivars whether two-row, six-row, malt, feed, spring or winter. A screening of the entire collection of barley accessions in the National Small Grains Collection by the USDA-ARS in ...


Energy dispersive X?ray fluorescence for rapid potassium, calcium, and chloride diagnosis in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Doriru) leaf samples were collected from a field comprising three plots, plot F chemical fertilizer treated, plot S receiving sewage sludge and sawdust mixed compost, and plot H receiving sewage sludge and rice husk mixed compost. Relative concentrations of selected elements, potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and chloride (Cl) of young, mature, and old barley leaves

M. Y. Miah; M. K. Wang; M. Chino



Greenhouse evaluation of transgenic barley expressing gastrodianin for resistance to Fusarium head blight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 2010 field screening nursery, with 88 barley plots was located at UMore Park, Rosemount MN. Trial entries (n=18) and an the untransformed 2-row control Conlon (susceptible) were submitted by USDA-ARS, RRVARC Fargo. Barley lines with known reactions to Fusarium head blight (FHB) were also incl...


Development and Implementation of High-Throughput SNP Genotyping in Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Approximately 22,000 SNPs were identified from barley ESTs and sequenced amplicons; 4,596 of them were tested for performance in three pilot phase Illumina GoldenGate assays. Pilot phase data from three barley doubled haploid mapping populations supported the production of an initial consensus map, ...


Compositional equivalence of barleys differing only in low and normal phytate levels  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent breeding advances have led to the development of several barley lines with reduced levels of phytate. One of them was further developed and released as a hulless low phytate cultivar (Clearwater). Because barley oil contains high levels of tocotrienols and other functional lipids, we conduc...


BarleyBase/PLEXdb: A Unified Expression Profiling Database for Plants and Plant Pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BarleyBase ( and its successor, PLEXdb (, are public resources for large-scale gene expression analysis for plants and plant pathogens. BarleyBase/PLEXdb provides a unified web interface to support the functional interpretation of highly parallel microarray...


Characterisation of bacteria in soils under barley monoculture and crop rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizobacterial populations on barley roots, originating from experimental fields with barley monoculture (MC) and crop rotation (CR), were analyzed for their fatty profiles. In the first part of the study, the profiles of 1188 isolates were statistically analyzed to identify clusters of bacteria with a possible high prevalence in MC or CR soil. One such cluster was found, termed Ps4-C4,

Stig Olsson; Sadhna Alström



A walk on the wild side: mining wild wheat and barley collections for rust resistance genes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leaf rust, stem rust, and stripe rust are among the most important diseases of wheat and barley worldwide and are best controlled using genetic resistance. To increase the diversity of rust resistance in wheat and barley, a project was initiated to identify and characterize rust resistance genes fr...


Comparison of Pretreatment Strategies for Enzymatic Saccharification and Fermentation of Barley Straw to Ethanol  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley straw used in this study contained 34.1±0.6% cellulose, 22.6±0.4% hemicellulose, and 13.3±0.2% lignin (moisture, 6.5±0.0%). Several pretreatments (dilute acid, lime, and alkaline peroxide) and enzymatic saccharification procedures were evaluated for the conversion of barley straw to monomeri...


Limited Effects of Barley Straw on Algae and Zooplankton in a Midwestern Pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers in the United Kingdom have reported that barley straw can be used to control a variety of planktonic algae, as well as the filamentous alga Cladophora spp. This method appears to be cost-effective, user-friendly, and environmentally sound. If these results could be obtained in the United States, using barley straw would be a good alternative to using copper sulfate.

Joseph D. Boylan; Joseph E. Morris



The 1980 US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment. Volume 2: Addenda  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three study areas supporting the U.S./Canada Wheat and Barley Exploratory Experiment are discussed including an evaluation of the experiment shakedown test analyst labeling results, an evaluation of the crop proportion estimate procedure 1A component, and the evaluation of spring wheat and barley crop calendar models for the 1979 crop year.

Bizzell, R. M.; Prior, H. L.; Payne, R. W.; Disler, J. M.



On Black Athena: Ancient Critiques of the 'Ancient Model' of Greek History  

E-print Network

's work the term "home growth" appears as a rationalized paraphrase of the ancient myth.9 Although ancient sources are less unanimous than Bernal implies, the fact that Diogenes Laertius' denial of foreign influence is framed as an attack on previous....... These authors forget that the achievements which they attribute to the barbarians belong to the Greeks, with whom not merely philosophy but the human race itself began. In the following chapters, Diogenes Laertius tries to demonstrate that Egyptian and other...

Gordon, Pamela



A Swarm of Ancient Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We know of about 150 of the rich collections of old stars called globular clusters that orbit our galaxy, the Milky Way. This sharp new image of Messier 107, captured by the Wide Field Imager on the 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, displays the structure of one such globular cluster in exquisite detail. Studying these stellar swarms has revealed much about the history of our galaxy and how stars evolve. The globular cluster Messier 107, also known as NGC 6171, is a compact and ancient family of stars that lies about 21 000 light-years away. Messier 107 is a bustling metropolis: thousands of stars in globular clusters like this one are concentrated into a space that is only about twenty times the distance between our Sun and its nearest stellar neighbour, Alpha Centauri, across. A significant number of these stars have already evolved into red giants, one of the last stages of a star's life, and have a yellowish colour in this image. Globular clusters are among the oldest objects in the Universe. And since the stars within a globular cluster formed from the same cloud of interstellar matter at roughly the same time - typically over 10 billion years ago - they are all low-mass stars, as lightweights burn their hydrogen fuel supply much more slowly than stellar behemoths. Globular clusters formed during the earliest stages in the formation of their host galaxies and therefore studying these objects can give significant insights into how galaxies, and their component stars, evolve. Messier 107 has undergone intensive observations, being one of the 160 stellar fields that was selected for the Pre-FLAMES Survey - a preliminary survey conducted between 1999 and 2002 using the 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, to find suitable stars for follow-up observations with the VLT's spectroscopic instrument FLAMES [1]. Using FLAMES, it is possible to observe up to 130 targets at the same time, making it particularly well suited to the spectroscopic study of densely populated stellar fields, such as globular clusters. M107 is not visible to the naked eye, but, with an apparent magnitude of about eight, it can easily be observed from a dark site with binoculars or a small telescope. The globular cluster is about 13 arcminutes across, which corresponds to about 80 light-years at its distance, and it is found in the constellation of Ophiuchus, north of the pincers of Scorpius. Roughly half of the Milky Way's known globular clusters are actually found in the constellations of Sagittarius, Scorpius and Ophiuchus, in the general direction of the centre of the Milky Way. This is because they are all in elongated orbits around the central region and are on average most likely to be seen in this direction. Messier 107 was discovered by Pierre Méchain in April 1782 and it was added to the list of seven Additional Messier Objects that were originally not included in the final version of Messier's catalogue, which was published the previous year. On 12 May 1793, it was independently rediscovered by William Herschel, who was able to resolve this globular cluster into stars for the first time. But it was not until 1947 that this globular cluster finally took its place in Messier's catalogue as M107, making it the most recent star cluster to be added to this famous list. This image is composed from exposures taken through the blue, green and near-infrared filters by the Wide Field Camera (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. Notes [1] Fibre Large Array Multi-Element Spectrograph More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based obs



Assessment of genetic diversity among barley cultivars and breeding lines adapted to the US Pacific Northwest, and its implications in breeding barley for imidazolinone-resistance.  


Extensive application of imidazolinone (IMI) herbicides had a significant impact on barley productivity contributing to a continuous decline in its acreage over the last two decades. A possible solution to this problem is to transfer IMI-resistance from a recently characterized mutation in the 'Bob' barley AHAS (acetohydroxy acid synthase) gene to other food, feed and malting barley cultivars. We focused our efforts on transferring IMI-resistance to barley varieties adapted to the US Pacific Northwest (PNW), since it comprises ?23% (335,000 ha) of the US agricultural land under barley production. To effectively breed for IMI-resistance, we studied the genetic diversity among 13 two-rowed spring barley cultivars/breeding-lines from the PNW using 61 microsatellite markers, and selected six barley genotypes that showed medium to high genetic dissimilarity with the 'Bob' AHAS mutant. The six selected genotypes were used to make 29-53 crosses with the AHAS mutant and a range of 358-471 F1 seeds were obtained. To make informed selection for the recovery of the recipient parent genome, the genetic location of the AHAS gene was determined and its genetic nature assessed. Large F2 populations ranging in size from 2158-2846 individuals were evaluated for herbicide resistance and seedling vigor. Based on the results, F3 lines from the six most vigorous F2 genotypes per cross combination were evaluated for their genetic background. A range of 20%-90% recovery of the recipient parent genome for the carrier chromosome was observed. An effort was made to determine the critical dose of herbicide to distinguish between heterozygotes and homozygotes for the mutant allele. Results suggested that the mutant can survive up to the 10× field recommended dose of herbicide, and the 8× and 10× herbicide doses can distinguish between the two AHAS mutant genotypes. Finally, implications of this research in sustaining barley productivity in the PNW are discussed. PMID:24967712

Rustgi, Sachin; Matanguihan, Janet; Mejías, Jaime H; Gemini, Richa; Brew-Appiah, Rhoda A T; Wen, Nuan; Osorio, Claudia; Ankrah, Nii; Murphy, Kevin M; von Wettstein, Diter



Assessment of Genetic Diversity among Barley Cultivars and Breeding Lines Adapted to the US Pacific Northwest, and Its Implications in Breeding Barley for Imidazolinone-Resistance  

PubMed Central

Extensive application of imidazolinone (IMI) herbicides had a significant impact on barley productivity contributing to a continuous decline in its acreage over the last two decades. A possible solution to this problem is to transfer IMI-resistance from a recently characterized mutation in the ‘Bob’ barley AHAS (acetohydroxy acid synthase) gene to other food, feed and malting barley cultivars. We focused our efforts on transferring IMI-resistance to barley varieties adapted to the US Pacific Northwest (PNW), since it comprises ?23% (335,000 ha) of the US agricultural land under barley production. To effectively breed for IMI-resistance, we studied the genetic diversity among 13 two-rowed spring barley cultivars/breeding-lines from the PNW using 61 microsatellite markers, and selected six barley genotypes that showed medium to high genetic dissimilarity with the ‘Bob’ AHAS mutant. The six selected genotypes were used to make 29–53 crosses with the AHAS mutant and a range of 358–471 F1 seeds were obtained. To make informed selection for the recovery of the recipient parent genome, the genetic location of the AHAS gene was determined and its genetic nature assessed. Large F2 populations ranging in size from 2158–2846 individuals were evaluated for herbicide resistance and seedling vigor. Based on the results, F3 lines from the six most vigorous F2 genotypes per cross combination were evaluated for their genetic background. A range of 20%–90% recovery of the recipient parent genome for the carrier chromosome was observed. An effort was made to determine the critical dose of herbicide to distinguish between heterozygotes and homozygotes for the mutant allele. Results suggested that the mutant can survive up to the 10× field recommended dose of herbicide, and the 8× and 10× herbicide doses can distinguish between the two AHAS mutant genotypes. Finally, implications of this research in sustaining barley productivity in the PNW are discussed. PMID:24967712

Mejías, Jaime H.; Gemini, Richa; Brew-Appiah, Rhoda A. T.; Wen, Nuan; Osorio, Claudia; Ankrah, Nii; Murphy, Kevin M.; von Wettstein, Diter



Islands and streams: clusters and gene flow in wild barley populations from the Levant.  


The domestication of plants frequently results in a high level of genetic differentiation between domesticated plants and their wild progenitors. This process is counteracted by gene flow between wild and domesticated plants because they are usually able to inter-mate and to exchange genes. We investigated the extent of gene flow between wild barley Hordeum spontaneum and cultivated barley Hordeum vulgare, and its effect on population structure in wild barley by analysing a collection of 896 wild barley accessions (Barley1K) from Israel and all available Israeli H. vulgare accessions from the Israeli gene bank. We compared the performance of simple sequence repeats (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) marker data genotyped over a core collection in estimating population parameters. Estimates of gene flow rates with SSR markers indicated a high level of introgression from cultivated barley into wild barley. After removing accessions from the wild barley sample that were recently admixed with cultivated barley, the inference of population structure improved significantly. Both SSR and SNP markers showed that the genetic population structure of wild barley in Israel corresponds to the three major ecogeographic regions: the coast, the Mediterranean north and the deserts in the Jordan valley and the South. Gene flow rates were estimated to be higher from north to south than in the opposite direction. As has been observed in other crop species, there is a significant exchange of alleles between the wild species and domesticated varieties that needs to be accounted for in the population genetic analysis of domestication. PMID:22256891

Hübner, Sariel; Günther, Torsten; Flavell, Andrew; Fridman, Eyal; Graner, Andreas; Korol, Abraham; Schmid, Karl J



Net ecosystem exchange, gross primary production, and ecosystem respiration of carbon dioxide during barley growing season in rice-barley paddy field of Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was conducted to measure carbon dioxide exchange between customarily cultivated rice-barley double cropping paddy field and the atmosphere during barley growing season (October 2012 and June 2013) and to estimate carbon dioxide fluxes using agro-meteorological factors (temperature, net radiation etc. ) and barley biomass. The carbon dioxide fluxes were quantified by eddy covariance technique in paddy fields with rice-barley double cropping system, located at the Gimje flux site in the southwestern coast of Korea. The total values of net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange (NEE), gross primary production (GPP), and ecosystem respiration (Re) were -100.6, 782.7, and 682.5 g C m-2 during barley growing season, respectively. The NEE was tended to keep between 0 and 5 g C m-2 d-1 from sowing date (Oct. 21, 2012) to winter rest stage (Dec. 3, 2012 to Feb. 22, 2013), and gradually decreased in tillering stage (Feb. 23, 2013 to May 5, 2013) with its maximum around heading date, and then started to increase in ripening stage (May 6, 2013 to Jun. 8, 2013). The soil temperature was strongly correlated with the Re (r2=0.86), while the net radiation showed the weak relationship with the GPP during the emergence, seedling, and winter rest stage. The aboveground biomass of barley was significantly correlated with the values of NEE (r2=0.79), GPP (r2=0.83), and Re (r2=0.77), respectively.

Jung, M.; Shim, K.; Min, S.; Kim, Y.; Kim, S.; So, K.



Degradation of Native Starch Granules by Barley ?-Glucosidases 1  

PubMed Central

The initial hydrolysis of native (unboiled) starch granules in germinating cereal kernels is considered to be due to ?-amylases. We report that barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seed ?-glucosidases (EC can hydrolyze native starch granules isolated from barley kernels and can do so at rates comparable to those of the predominant ?-amylase isozymes. Two ?-glucosidase charge isoforms were used individually and in combination with purified barley ?-amylases to study in vitro starch digestion. Dramatic synergism, as much as 10.7-fold, of native starch granule hydrolysis, as determined by reducing sugar production, occurred when high pl ?-glucosidase was combined with either high or low pl ?-amylase. Synergism was also found when low pl ?-glucosidase was combined with ?-amylases. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that starch granule degradation by ?-amylases alone occurred specifically at the equatorial grooves of lenticular granules. Granules hydrolyzed by combinations of ?-glucosidases and ?-amylases exhibited larger and more numerous holes on granule surfaces than did those granules attacked by ?-amylase alone. As the presence of ?-glucosidases resulted in more areas being susceptible to hydrolysis, we propose that this synergism is due, in part, to the ability of the ?-glucosidases to hydrolyze glucosidic bonds other than ?-1,4- and ?-1,6- that are present at the granule surface, thereby eliminating bonds which were barriers to hydrolysis by ?-amylases. Since both ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase are synthesized in aleurone cells during germination and secreted to the endosperm, the synergism documented here may function in vivo as well as in vitro. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:16667704

Sun, Zhuotao; Henson, Cynthia A.



Thiamine treatments alleviate aphid infestations in barley and pea.  


Treatment of plants with thiamine (Vitamin B1) has before been shown to activate plant defence against microorganisms. Here, we have studied the effects of thiamine treatments of plants on aphid reproduction and behaviour. The work was mainly carried out with bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Aphid population growth and aphid acceptance on plants grown from seeds soaked in a 150?M thiamine solution were reduced to ca. 60% of that on control plants. R. padi life span and the total number of offspring were reduced on barley plants treated with thiamine. Healthy aphids and aphids infected with the R. padi virus were similarly affected. Spraying or addition of thiamine at 150?M to nutrient solutions likewise resulted in reduced aphid population growth to ca. 60%, as did plant exposure to thiamine odour at 4mM. Thiamine treatments resulted in reduced aphid population growth also when tested with grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) on barley and pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum H.) on pea (Pisum sativum L.). There was no direct effect of thiamine on aphid reproduction or thiamine odour on aphid behaviour, as evaluated using artificial diets and by olfactometer tests, respectively. Two gene sequences regulated by salicylic acid showed higher transcript abundance and one gene sequence regulated by methyl jasmonate showed lower transcript abundance in thiamine-treated plants but not in control plants after aphid infestation. These results suggest that the aphid antibiosis and antixenosis effects may be related to priming of defence, but more studies are needed to explain the effects against aphids. PMID:23787153

Hamada, Afaf M; Jonsson, Lisbeth M V



Scandinavian mutation research in barley - a historical review.  


In 1928, the Swedish geneticists Hermann Nilsson-Ehle and Åke Gustafsson started on their suggestion experiments with induced mutations using the barley crop. In 1953, at the instigation of the Swedish Government, the 'Group for Theoretical and Applied Mutation Research' was established. Its aim was to study basic research problems in order to influence and improve methods for breeding cultivated plants. The research was non-commercial, even if some mutants were of practical importance. The peaks of activities occurred during the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. Applying X-rays and UV-irradiation very soon the first chlorophyll mutations were obtained followed by the first viable mutations 'Erectoides'. Soon the X-ray experiments expanded with other types of irradiation such as neutrons etc. and finally with chemical mutagens, starting with mustard gas and concluding with the sodium azide. The research brought a wealth of observations of general biological importance, high increased mutation frequencies, difference in the mutation spectrum and to direct mutagenesis for specific genes. A rather large collection of morphological and physiological mutations, about 12 000 different mutant alleles, with a very broad variation were collected and incorporated into the Nordic Genetic Resource Center (NordGen) Sweden. Barley, the main experimental crop has become one of the few higher plants in which biochemical genetics and molecular biological studies are now feasible. The collection is an outstanding material for mapping genes and investigating the barley genome. Several characters have been studied and analyzed in more detail and are presented in this historical review. PMID:25491643

Lundqvist, Udda



New Starch Phenotypes Produced by TILLING in Barley  

PubMed Central

Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1?3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant for nutritional value or industrial applications. Here, the Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) approach was applied on the barley TILLMore TILLING population to identify 29 new alleles in five genes related to starch metabolism known to be expressed in the endosperm during grain filling: BMY1 (Beta-amylase 1), GBSSI (Granule Bound Starch Synthase I), LDA1 (Limit Dextrinase 1), SSI (Starch Synthase I), SSIIa (Starch Synthase IIa). Reserve starch of nine M3 mutant lines carrying missense or nonsense mutations was analysed for granule size, crystallinity and amylose/amylopectin content. Seven mutant lines presented starches with different features in respect to the wild-type: (i) a mutant line with a missense mutation in GBSSI showed a 4-fold reduced amylose/amylopectin ratio; (ii) a missense mutations in SSI resulted in 2-fold increase in A:B granule ratio; (iii) a nonsense mutation in SSIIa was associated with shrunken seeds with a 2-fold increased amylose/amylopectin ratio and different type of crystal packing in the granule; (iv) the remaining four missense mutations suggested a role of LDA1 in granule initiation, and of SSIIa in determining the size of A-granules. We demonstrate the feasibility of the TILLING approach to identify new alleles in genes related to starch metabolism in barley. Based on their novel physicochemical properties, some of the identified new mutations may have nutritional and/or industrial applications. PMID:25271438

Sparla, Francesca; Falini, Giuseppe; Botticella, Ermelinda; Pirone, Claudia; Talamè, Valentina; Bovina, Riccardo; Salvi, Silvio; Tuberosa, Roberto; Sestili, Francesco; Trost, Paolo



Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords: Wheat,Triticum<\\/span>spp<\\/span>., Barley,Hordeum<\\/span>vulgare<\\/span> L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality, Genetic Diversity, Ethiopia, Syria<\\/o:p><\\/ins><\\/span><\\/span>

Krueger, Rolf; Jäger, Hans-Jürgen; Hintz, Martin; Pahlich, Edwin



Should Dinosaurs be "Cloned" from Ancient DNA?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are the teaching notes for a case study in which students use cooperative learning and role-playing to explore the scientific, technical, environmental, and ethical issues related to the possibility of cloning dinosaurs from ancient DNA. The case was designed to enhance the learning environment in an introductory class through cooperative problem-solving and to promote active participation in learning by using library and web resources to do research on a controversial topic in science and ethics. As the students pursue this case, they will apply knowledge explored in readings, lectures, and in-class discussions about dinosaurs, gain a general understanding of the revolutionary techniques used to discover and retrieve ancient DNA and to produce a clone, and improve communication and collaboration skills by working cooperatively in small groups and arguing a position in an authoritative fashion.

Constance Soja


Technology Through Time: Ancient Astronomical Alignments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an online set of information about astronomical alignments of ancient structures and buildings. Learners will read background information about the alignments to the Sun in such structures as the Great Pyramid, Chichen Itza, and others. Next, the site contains 10 short problem sets that involve a variety of math skills, including determining the scale of a photo, measuring and drawing angles, plotting data on a graph, and creating an equation to match a set of data. Each set of problems is contained on one page and all of the sets utilize real-world problems relating to astronomical alignments of ancient structures. Each problem set is flexible and can be used on its own, together with other sets, or together with related lessons and materials selected by the educator. This was originally included as a folder insert for the 2010 Sun-Earth Day.


DOC Cycling in Ancient Tropical Lake Matano  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a Secchi depth of <= 27m, tropical, ancient (1-4Ma) Lake Matano has surface waters as clear as many ultra-oligotrophic lakes such as Great Bear Lake (secchi depth 590m deep, one of the largest and deepest anoxic freshwater basins in the world. These sub-anoxic conditions have developed in response to thermal stratification that caused oxygen demand to exceed oxygen supply.

S. A. Crowe; S. Katsev; C. Magen; S. Nomosatryo; G. D. Haffner; A. Mucci; B. Sundby; D. A. Fowle



Superplume Formation Beneath An Ancient Slab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Graduate student Eh Tan, working with Michael Gurnis at the California Institute of Technology, has recently discovered a plausible mechanism of generating superplumes at the core mantle boundary. This animation shows how an ancient slab which is resting at the core mantle boundary for millions of years can trap heat, eventually resulting in a superplume substantially larger than the plumes which form from normal hot thermal boundary layers. Links to related references, including a pdf reprint, are also included at the site.

Tan Eh


Histos: The New Journal of Ancient Historiography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Department of Classics at the University of Durham (UK) has created this new refereed electronic journal focusing on ancient historiographical texts and media. Histos contains original articles as well as reviews, discussions, reader responses, and notices of relevant conferences and historiographical projects. Announcements of future articles and reviews are also featured. The balance of textual and historiographical analysis in this journal makes it equally useful to classicists and historians.


Vanadyl ions in ancient marine carbonaceous sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vanadyl ions in ancient shaly-type sedimentary rocks of marine origin from a variety of world sources and geological periods have been investigated using electron spin resonance. These and other results provide evidence that there are two types of vanadyl ions. The first is inorganically bound in the clay/ silicate fraction of these rocks and the second type is associated with vanadyl porphyrin compounds.

Premovi?, Pavle I.



The ancient Greeks present: Rational Trigonometry  

E-print Network

Pythagoras' theorem, the area of a triangle as one half the base times the height, and Heron's formula are amongst the most important and useful results of ancient Greek geometry. Here we look at all three in a new and improved light, using quadrance not distance. This leads to a simpler and more elegant trigonometry, in which angle is replaced by spread, and which extends to arbitrary fields and more general quadratic forms.

Wildberger, N J



Geomorphic evidence for ancient seas on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geomorphic evidence is presented for ancient seas on Mars. Several features, similar to terrestrial lacustrine and coastal features, were identified along the northern plains periphery from Viking images. The nature of these features argues for formation in a predominantly liquid, shallow body of standing water. Such a shallow sea would require either relatively rapid development of shoreline morphologies or a warmer than present climate at the time of outflow channel formation.

Parker, Timothy J.; Schneeberger, Dale M.; Pieri, David C.; Saunders, R. Stephen



Ancient subduction zone in Sakhalin Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northern part of Sakhalin Island is an area of recent intensive tectonic movements and hydrothermal processes, as well as a place of accumulation of useful minerals. The deep structure of the lithosphere beneath the region of the Neftegorsk earthquake of May 27, 1995 in North Sakhalin, which killed residents and caused significant destruction, is examined in this paper. Our geodynamic model shows that North Sakhalin consists of the North Sakhalin Basin, Deryugin Basin and an ophiolite complex located between them. The Deryugin Basin was formed in place of an ancient deep trench after subducting the Okhotsk Sea Plate under Sakhalin in the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene. The North Sakhalin Basin was formed on the side of the back-arc basin at that time. The ophiolite complex is fixed in the position of ancient subduction zone that was active in the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene. Approximately in the Miocene, the subduction of the Okhotsk lithosphere apparently ceased. The remains of the subduction zone in the form of an ophiolite complex have been identified from geological and geophysical data. On the surface, the subduction zone is manifested as deep faults stretched along Sakhalin. It is probable that the Neftegorsk earthquake was a result of activation of this ancient subduction zone.

Rodnikov, A. G.; Sergeyeva, N. A.; Zabarinskaya, L. P.



Estimating aquifer parameters from analysis of forced fluctuations in well level: An example from the Nubian Formation near Aswan, Egypt: 3. Diffusivity estimates for saturated and unsaturated zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric pressure variations provide a broadband signal that may force a sympathetic response in well water levels. In this paper, time series analysis techniques are used to estimate the response as a frequency-dependent admittance function, which is then modeled to provide estimates of the fluid transport properties of strata. The data derive from five cased piezometer wells sampling aquifers in the Nubian Formation southwest of Aswan, Egypt. Three shallow wells (100-140 m deep) sample a water table aquifer; a fourth ("W3"; 400 m deep) samples a basal aquifer in the same area that behaves in a confined manner up to a period of several years. The fifth well samples another basal aquifer and shows evidence of partial blockage. Nontidal water level variations in the shallow wells are due almost entirely to barometrically driven flow of air and water. Using a simple model to fit the observed barometric admittance spectra, we obtain estimates of horizontal and vertical permeabilities (for water) in the saturated zone. Local horizontal permeability is constrained by modeling the effects of flow-induced pressure gradients near the screen. For the W3 deep well sampling the basal aquifer, the resulting values (0.15-0.3 ?2) are marginally lower than the large-scale (5 km) estimates (0.32-0.43 ?2) derived in a previous paper. However, the values for the three wells sampling the water table aquifer, although consistent among themselves (0.2-0.5 ?2), are significantly lower than the large-scale estimate (1.0-1.5 ?2). This is contrary to what might be expected given that the wells are preferentially screened in clean sandstones. Vertical permeability, estimated by modeling partial confinement effects, is constrained for only one well. A low value was obtained because of the presence of claystone beds in the diffusion path between screen and water table at this well. The effects of air wave diffusion are clearly manifest in the spectra of one well where the water table lay at a depth of about 40 m. The form of the spectra was well fit by ascribing a uniform pneumatic diffusivity of 1.75×10 m-3m2/s to the unsaturated zone. However, it was also necessary to include an apparent attenuation of the air wave at the capillary fringe of about 0.5. We propose that the effect is due not to attenuation but that it reflects "compression" of the phreatic surface arising from the presence of trapped air pockets in the underlying saturated zone. A 40-m rise in the water table at the site during the decade prior to the measurements might explain the presence of significant quantities of trapped air. This rise in water table, together with the arid climate, might be taken to suggest that the moisture content of the unsaturated zone is negligible (except within a meter or so of the water table). However, calculation of the intrinsic rock permeability from pneumatic diffusivity assuming zero moisture content yields an estimate which is considered to be too low. The likely explanation is that the assumption of zero moisture content is in error, despite conditions which are as favorable as are ever likely to be realized under field conditions.

Evans, Keith; Beavan, John; Simpson, David; Mousa, Sameh



Ground versus steam-rolled barley grain for lactating cows: a clarification into conventional beliefs.  


Our objective was to compare the effects of grinding versus steam-rolling of barley grain at 30 or 35% of diet dry matter on feed intake, chewing behavior, rumen fermentation, and milk production in high-producing lactating cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (85 +/- 9 d in milk) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment with four 21-d periods. Each period included 14 d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling. Treatments included grinding (GB) or steam-rolling (SB) of barley grains at either 35 or 30% of dietary dry matter. Diets were prepared as a total mixed ration and delivered twice daily at 0730 and 1600 h. Neither processing method nor dietary barley grain inclusion rate affected dry matter intake, daily eating, ruminating and chewing times, rumen pH and major volatile fatty acid molar percentages, or milk percentages and yields of fat and protein. Energy-corrected milk yield increased for SB compared with GB at 35% but not at 30% barley grain. Feed efficiency was increased by SB, but was unaffected by dietary barley grain level. Results suggest that at 30% dietary barley grain, GB resulted in similar lactation performance as SB and that SB did not affect productivity when dietary barley grain increased from 30 to 35%. Regardless of barley grain level, grinding effectively maintained dry matter intake and rumen pH at 4 h postfeeding, whereas steam-rolling increased feed efficiency. Increasing barley grain from 30 to 35% of diet dry matter did not improve feed intake and milk production. PMID:19528607

Soltani, A; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Samie, A; Nikkhah, A



Dynamics of Nuclear DNA Quantities during Zygote Development in Barley.  

PubMed Central

Quantities of DNA were estimated in the nuclei of mechanically isolated egg and zygote protoplasts in two cultivars of barley using 4[prime],6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining and microfluorometry. Unlike many previous studies on DNA amounts within the sex cells of flowering plants, we obtained consistent and unambiguous results indicating that the egg and sperm nuclei are at the 1C DNA level (basic haploid amount) at the time of karyogamy. Karyogamy was initiated within 60 min postpollination, and the male chromatin became completely integrated into the egg nucleus within 6 to 7 hr postpollination (hpp). Zygotic nuclear DNA levels began to increase at ~9 to 12 hpp in cultivar Alexis and at 12 to 15 hpp in cultivar Igri. The 4C DNA complement was reached in most zygotes by 22 to 26 hpp in cultivar Alexis and by 23 to 29 hpp in cultivar Igri. These data are fundamental to a better understanding of fertilization and zygote maturation in flowering plants. They are also relevant to studies in which the timing of zygotic DNA replication is of interest, such as ongoing investigations on genetic transformations in barley using the microinjection technique. PMID:12242375

Mogensen, H. L.; Holm, P. B.



Barley: a translational model for adaptation to climate change.  


913 I. 913 II. 915 III. 917 IV. 919 V. 922 VI. 926 927 References 927 SUMMARY: Barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) is an excellent model for understanding agricultural responses to climate change. Its initial domestication over 10 millennia ago and subsequent wide migration provide striking evidence of adaptation to different environments, agro-ecologies and uses. A bottleneck in the selection of modern varieties has resulted in a reduction in total genetic diversity and a loss of specific alleles relevant to climate-smart agriculture. However, extensive and well-curated collections of landraces, wild barley accessions (H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum) and other Hordeum species exist and are important new allele sources. A wide range of genomic and analytical tools have entered the public domain for exploring and capturing this variation, and specialized populations, mutant stocks and transgenics facilitate the connection between genetic diversity and heritable phenotypes. These lay the biological, technological and informational foundations for developing climate-resilient crops tailored to specific environments that are supported by extensive environmental and geographical databases, new methods for climate modelling and trait/environment association analyses, and decentralized participatory improvement methods. Case studies of important climate-related traits and their constituent genes - including examples that are indicative of the complexities involved in designing appropriate responses - are presented, and key developments for the future highlighted. PMID:25605349

Dawson, Ian K; Russell, Joanne; Powell, Wayne; Steffenson, Brian; Thomas, William T B; Waugh, Robbie



Accumulation of Transcripts Abundance after Barley Inoculation with Cochliobolus sativus  

PubMed Central

Spot blotch caused by the hemibiotrophic pathogen Cochliobolus sativus has been the major yield-reducing factor for barley production during the last decade. Monitoring transcriptional reorganization triggered in response to this fungus is an essential first step for the functional analysis of genes involved in the process. To characterize the defense responses initiated by barley resistant and susceptible cultivars, a survey of transcript abundance at early time points of C. sativus inoculation was conducted. A notable number of transcripts exhibiting significant differential accumulations in the resistant and susceptible cultivars were detected compared to the non-inoculated controls. At the p-value of 0.0001, transcripts were divided into three general categories; defense, regulatory and unknown function, and the resistant cultivar had the greatest number of common transcripts at different time points. Quantities of differentially accumulated gene transcripts in both cultivars were identified at 24 h post infection, the approximate time when the pathogen changes trophic lifestyles. The unique and common accumulated transcripts might be of considerable interest for enhancing effective resistance to C. sativus. PMID:25774113

Arabi, Mohammad Imad Eddin; AL-Daoude, Antonious; Shoaib, Amina; Jawhar, Mohammad



Exploiting induced variation to dissect quantitative traits in barley.  


The identification of genes underlying complex quantitative traits such as grain yield by means of conventional genetic analysis (positional cloning) requires the development of several large mapping populations. However, it is possible that phenotypically related, but more extreme, allelic variants generated by mutational studies could provide a means for more efficient cloning of QTLs (quantitative trait loci). In barley (Hordeum vulgare), with the development of high-throughput genome analysis tools, efficient genome-wide identification of genetic loci harbouring mutant alleles has recently become possible. Genotypic data from NILs (near-isogenic lines) that carry induced or natural variants of genes that control aspects of plant development can be compared with the location of QTLs to potentially identify candidate genes for development--related traits such as grain yield. As yield itself can be divided into a number of allometric component traits such as tillers per plant, kernels per spike and kernel size, mutant alleles that both affect these traits and are located within the confidence intervals for major yield QTLs may represent extreme variants of the underlying genes. In addition, the development of detailed comparative genomic models based on the alignment of a high-density barley gene map with the rice and sorghum physical maps, has enabled an informed prioritization of 'known function' genes as candidates for both QTLs and induced mutant genes. PMID:20298243

Druka, Arnis; Franckowiak, Jerome; Lundqvist, Udda; Bonar, Nicola; Alexander, Jill; Guzy-Wrobelska, Justyna; Ramsay, Luke; Druka, Ilze; Grant, Iain; Macaulay, Malcolm; Vendramin, Vera; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Radovic, Slobodanka; Houston, Kelly; Harrap, David; Cardle, Linda; Marshall, David; Morgante, Michele; Stein, Nils; Waugh, Robbie



Accumulation of Transcripts Abundance after Barley Inoculation with Cochliobolus sativus.  


Spot blotch caused by the hemibiotrophic pathogen Cochliobolus sativus has been the major yield-reducing factor for barley production during the last decade. Monitoring transcriptional reorganization triggered in response to this fungus is an essential first step for the functional analysis of genes involved in the process. To characterize the defense responses initiated by barley resistant and susceptible cultivars, a survey of transcript abundance at early time points of C. sativus inoculation was conducted. A notable number of transcripts exhibiting significant differential accumulations in the resistant and susceptible cultivars were detected compared to the non-inoculated controls. At the p-value of 0.0001, transcripts were divided into three general categories; defense, regulatory and unknown function, and the resistant cultivar had the greatest number of common transcripts at different time points. Quantities of differentially accumulated gene transcripts in both cultivars were identified at 24 h post infection, the approximate time when the pathogen changes trophic lifestyles. The unique and common accumulated transcripts might be of considerable interest for enhancing effective resistance to C. sativus. PMID:25774113

Arabi, Mohammad Imad Eddin; Al-Daoude, Antonious; Shoaib, Amina; Jawhar, Mohammad



Infection of barley protoplasts with rice hoja blanca tenuivirus. Brief report.  


A barley protoplast system has been established that supports replication of Rice hoja blanca tenuivirus (RHBV). Following polyethylene glycol-mediated RHBV inoculation of barley protoplasts, newly synthesized viral RNAs and proteins could be detected. Time course analyses revealed de novo synthesis of genome length viral RNA4, as well as subgenomic-sized RNA4 molecules of both polarities. Two proteins, N and NS4, encoded by viral complementary RNA3 and viral RNA4 respectively, were detected by Western immunoblot analysis. The barley protoplast system thus constitutes a promising tool for in vivo studies of the sequential steps involved in the multiplication cycle of RHBV. PMID:10603179

Nguyen, M; Kormelink, R; Goldbach, R; Haenni, A L



A cDNA-based comparison of dehydration-induced proteins (dehydrins) in barley and corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several cDNAs related to an ABA-induced cDNA from barley aleurone were isolated from barley and corn seedlings that were undergoing dehydration. Four different barley polypeptides with sizes of 22.6, 16.2, 14.4 and 14.2 kDa and a single corn polypeptide with a size of 17.0 kDa were predicted from the nucleotide sequences of the cDNAs. These dehydration-induced proteins (dehydrins) are very

Timothy J. Close; Alexander A. Kortt; Peter M. Chandler



Structural Basis for Specificity of Propeptide-Enzyme Interaction in Barley C1A Cysteine Peptidases  

PubMed Central

C1A cysteine peptidases are synthesized as inactive proenzymes. Activation takes place by proteolysis cleaving off the inhibitory propeptide. The inhibitory capacity of propeptides from barley cathepsin L and B-like peptidases towards commercial and barley cathepsins has been characterized. Differences in selectivity have been found for propeptides from L-cathepsins against their cognate and non cognate enzymes. Besides, the propeptide from barley cathepsin B was not able to inhibit bovine cathepsin B. Modelling of their three-dimensional structures suggests that most propeptide inhibitory properties can be explained from the interaction between the propeptide and the mature cathepsin structures. Their potential use as biotechnological tools is discussed. PMID:22615948

Cambra, Inés; Hernández, David; Diaz, Isabel; Martinez, Manuel



[Ancient clinical application of massage therapy on navel].  


To further explore the clinical effect of massage therapy on navel,the related ancient literatures were arranged and analyzed,and several methods in ancient clinical were introduced, including stroking navel, rubbing navel, pushing navel, tapping navel and puffing navel. In addition, the theoretical basis of massage therapy on navel were discussed. The results revealed ancient literatures offered abundant theoretical basis to modern clinical practice, and there were evidences of treating gastroenteric and gynecological diseases with this therapy. Comprehensively, through the study of ancient literatures and modern research, therapy of massage on navel is believed to be promising and will gain popularity in the future. PMID:25233671

Yang, Xing-Yue; Ma, Yu-Xiao; Tian, Si-Sheng; Gao, Shu-Zhong



Expression of Nudix hydrolase genes in barley under UV irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seed storage and cultivation should be necessary to self-supply foods when astronauts would stay and investigate during long-term space travel and habitation in the bases on the Moon and Mars. Thought the sunlight is the most importance to plants, both as the ultimate energy source and as an environmental signal regulating growth and development, UV presenting the sunlight can damage many aspects of plant processes at the physiological and DNA level. Especially UV-C, which is eliminated by the stratospheric ozone layer, is suspected to be extremely harmful and give a deadly injury to plants in space. However, the defense mechanism against UV-C irradiation damage in plant cells has not been clear. In this study, we investigated the expression of Nudix hydrolases, which defense plants from biotic / abiotic stress, in barley under UV irradiation. The genes encoding the amino acid sequences, which show homology to those of 28 kinds of Nudix hydrolases in Arabidopsis thaliana, were identified in the barley full-length cDNA library. BLAST analysis showed 14 kinds of barley genes (HvNUDX1-14), which encode the Nudix motif sequence. A phylogenetic tree showed that HvNUDX1, HvNUDX7, HvNUDX9 and HvNUDX11 belonged to the ADP-ribose pyrophosphohydrolase, ADP-sugar pyrophosphohydrolase, NAD(P)H pyrophosphohydrolase and FAD pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, respectively,?HvNUDX3, HvNUDX6, and HvNUDX8 belonged to the Ap _{n}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX5 and HvNUDX14 belonged to the coenzyme A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX12 and HvNUDX13 belonged to the Ap _{4}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies. Induction of HvNUDX genes by UV-A (340nm), UV-B (312nm), and UV-C (260nm) were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that HvNUDX4 was induced by UV-A and UV-B, HvNUDX6 was induced by UV-B and UV-C, and HvNUDX7 and HvNUDX14 were induced by UV-C, significantly. Our results suggest that the response of HvNUDXs to UV irradiation is different by UV wavelength, and UV-C induced 4 genes of HvNUDX.

Tanaka, Sayuri; Sugimoto, Manabu; Kihara, Makoto


Sensitivity of barley varieties to weather in Finland.  


Global climate change is predicted to shift seasonal temperature and precipitation patterns. An increasing frequency of extreme weather events such as heat waves and prolonged droughts is predicted, but there are high levels of uncertainty about the nature of local changes. Crop adaptation will be important in reducing potential damage to agriculture. Crop diversity may enhance resilience to climate variability and changes that are difficult to predict. Therefore, there has to be sufficient diversity within the set of available cultivars in response to weather parameters critical for yield formation. To determine the scale of such 'weather response diversity' within barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), an important crop in northern conditions, the yield responses of a wide range of modern and historical varieties were analysed according to a well-defined set of critical agro-meteorological variables. The Finnish long-term dataset of MTT Official Variety Trials was used together with historical weather records of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The foci of the analysis were firstly to describe the general response of barley to different weather conditions and secondly to reveal the diversity among varieties in the sensitivity to each weather variable. It was established that barley yields were frequently reduced by drought or excessive rain early in the season, by high temperatures at around heading, and by accelerated temperature sum accumulation rates during periods 2 weeks before heading and between heading and yellow ripeness. Low temperatures early in the season increased yields, but frost during the first 4 weeks after sowing had no effect. After canopy establishment, higher precipitation on average resulted in higher yields. In a cultivar-specific analysis, it was found that there were differences in responses to all but three of the studied climatic variables: waterlogging and drought early in the season and temperature sum accumulation rate before heading. The results suggest that low temperatures early in the season, delayed sowing, rain 3-7 weeks after sowing, a temperature change 3-4 weeks after sowing, a high temperature sum accumulation rate from heading to yellow ripeness and high temperatures (?25°C) at around heading could mostly be addressed by exploiting the traits found in the range of varieties included in the present study. However, new technology and novel genetic material are needed to enable crops to withstand periods of excessive rain or drought early in the season and to enhance performance under increased temperature sum accumulation rates prior to heading. PMID:22505777

Hakala, K; Jauhiainen, L; Himanen, S J; Rötter, R; Salo, T; Kahiluoto, H




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Screening for Fusarium head blight (FHB) involves inoculating developing barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) spikes with Fusarium graminearum Schwabe [teleomorph Gibberella zeae (Schwein.)] followed by visual observation of disease progression, and analysis for the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol. Disease symptoms...


7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...8 to 11/4 quarts of barley; or (c) Has a musty, sour, or commercially objectionable foreign odor (except smut or garlic odor); or (d) Is heating or otherwise of distinctly low quality. 1 Includes heat-damaged...



Unlocking the Barley Genome by Chromosomal and Comparative Genomics[W][OA  

PubMed Central

We used a novel approach that incorporated chromosome sorting, next-generation sequencing, array hybridization, and systematic exploitation of conserved synteny with model grasses to assign ~86% of the estimated ~32,000 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genes to individual chromosome arms. Using a series of bioinformatically constructed genome zippers that integrate gene indices of rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and Brachypodium distachyon in a conserved synteny model, we were able to assemble 21,766 barley genes in a putative linear order. We show that the barley (H) genome displays a mosaic of structural similarity to hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) A, B, and D subgenomes and that orthologous genes in different grasses exhibit signatures of positive selection in different lineages. We present an ordered, information-rich scaffold of the barley genome that provides a valuable and robust framework for the development of novel strategies in cereal breeding. PMID:21467582

Mayer, Klaus F.X.; Martis, Mihaela; Hedley, Pete E.; Šimková, Hana; Liu, Hui; Morris, Jenny A.; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Taudien, Stefan; Roessner, Stephan; Gundlach, Heidrun; Kubaláková, Marie; Suchánková, Pavla; Murat, Florent; Felder, Marius; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Graner, Andreas; Salse, Jerome; Endo, Takashi; Sakai, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Itoh, Takeshi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Platzer, Matthias; Matsumoto, Takashi; Scholz, Uwe; Doležel, Jaroslav; Waugh, Robbie; Stein, Nils




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We studied the possibility of a teleomorph associated with the genotypically diverse barley septoria speckled leaf blotch (SSLB) pathogen, Septoria passerinii. A teleomorph in the genus Mycosphaerella had been predicted previously based on phylogenetic analyses. Isolates with opposite mating types...


Xylitol Production by Genetically Engineered Trichoderma reesei Strains Using Barley Straw  

E-print Network

Xylitol Production by Genetically Engineered Trichoderma reesei Strains Using Barley Straw in high demand by industries. Trichoderma reesei, a prolific industrial cellulase and hemicellulase-mail: #12;Keywords Agricultural residues . Trichoderma reesei . Xylitol production

Qin, Wensheng



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley winterhardiness consists of the regulatory input traits of photoperiod (day length) sensitivity and vernalization response and the physical trait of low temperature tolerance. Photoperiod and vernalization are adaptive and economically significant traits and photoperiod regulates expression o...


Assessing the maximum contribution from ancient populations.  


Ancestral relationships between populations separated by time represent an often neglected dimension in population genetics, a field which historically has focused on analysis of spatially distributed samples from the same point in time. Models are usually straightforward when two time-separated populations are assumed to be completely isolated from all other populations. However, this is usually an unrealistically stringent assumption when there is gene flow with other populations. Here, we investigate continuity in the presence of gene flow from unknown populations. This setup allows a more nuanced treatment of questions regarding population continuity in terms of "level of contribution" from a particular ancient population to a more recent population. We propose a statistical framework which makes use of a biallelic marker sampled at two different points in time to assess population contribution, and present two different interpretations of the concept. We apply the approach to published data from a prehistoric human population in Scandinavia (Malmström H, Gilbert MTP, Thomas MG, Brandström M, Storå J, Molnar P, Andersen PK, Bendixen C, Holmlund G, Götherström A, et al. 2009. Ancient DNA reveals lack of continuity between Neolithic hunter-gatherers and contemporary Scandinavians. Curr Biol. 19:1758-1762) and Pleistocene woolly mammoth (Barnes I, Shapiro B, Lister A, Kuznetsova T, Sher A, Guthrie D, Thomas MG. 2007. Genetic structure and extinction of the woolly mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius. Curr Biol. 17:1072-1075; Debruyne R, Chu G, King CE, Bos K, Kuch M, Schwarz C, Szpak P, Gröcke DR, Matheus P, Zazula G, et al. 2008. Out of America: ancient DNA evidence for a new world origin of late quaternary woolly mammoths. Curr Biol. 18:1320-1326). PMID:24497031

Sjödin, Per; Skoglund, Pontus; Jakobsson, Mattias



Visualising Ancient Maps as Cultural Heritage: A Relational Database of the Spanish Ancient Cartography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of the historical evolution of the territories and landscapes has been seldom based upon the study of old cartographic documents; they have been always set in a second place after texts and writings. Trying to bridge this gap, we have designed and implemented a relational database of the ancient maps and charts that are already preserved in the

Pilar Chias; Tomas Abad



China: A Simulation of Ancient Chung Kuo, the World's Most Ancient Civilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This simulation allows students to participate in the "ways" of ancient Chinese history and culture. The unit is organized into five major phases or "li's." Students may spend about one week on activities in each "li" which focuses on a major aspect of Chinese history, culture, or geography. In each "li" students participate in activities that…

Sargent, Marcia; Baral, Wanda


The Evil Eye--an ancient superstition.  


This paper describes and discusses the ancient superstition of the Evil Eye. The author describes his own personal childhood introduction to the subject of the Evil Eye which years later instigated his scholarly inquiry. The history of this very geographically widespread folk belief is elaborated upon, along with common manifestations as they appear in a number of different countries and cultures. Some of the methods used to thwart the negative effects of the Evil Eye are enumerated. Relevant psychodynamics and common expressions of the Evil Eye superstition are elucidated upon. PMID:21523505

Berger, Allan S



The Ancient Maya Landscape from Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Peten, once inhabited by a population of several million before the collapse of the ancient Maya in the 10th and 11th centuries, is being repopulated toward its former demographic peak. Environmental dynamics, however, impose severe constraints to further development. Current practices in subsistence, commercial agriculture, and cattle raising are causing rapid deforestation resulting in the destruction of environmental and archeological resources. The use of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology is a cost-effective methodology for addressing issues in Maya archeology as well as monitoring the environmental impacts being experienced by the current population.

Sever, T.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)



Basaltic Volcanism and Ancient Planetary Crusts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this project is to decipher the origin of rocks which form the ancient lunar crust. Our goal is to better understand how the moon evolved chemically and, more generally, the processes involved in the chemical fractionation of terrestrial planetoids. This research has implications for other planetary bodies besides the Moon, especially smaller planetoids which evolved early in the history of the solar system and are now thermally stable. The three main areas focused on in our work (lunar mare basalts, KREEP basalts, and plutonic rocks of the lunar highlands) provide complementary information on the lunar interior and the processes that formed it.

Shervais, John W.



Physical and sensory characterization and consumer preference of corn and barley-fed beef  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steaks from corn-fed and barley-fed beef were characterized by a trained panel, which rated corn-fed beef higher (p<0.05) for tenderness attributes and overall flavor intensity. Canadian consumers preferred (p<0.01) cooked and raw steaks from barley-fed beef, while Mexican consumers showed no preference (p>0.05) for either type of finished beef. Japanese consumers showed a preference (p<0.05) for the appearance of raw

W. V. Wismer; E. K. Okine; A. Stein; M. R. Seibel; L. A. Goonewardene



Physiological effects and transport of 24-epibrassinolide in heat-stressed barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study of the metabolic response (dark respiration intensity, photosystem II efficiency, metabolic activity)\\u000a and the yield of barley treated with 24-epibrassinolide and subjected to high-temperature stress. Transport of exogenously\\u000a applied 24-epibrassinolide in barley and changes in the profile of brassinosteroids that may occur in tissues after 24-epibrassinolide\\u000a application were also studied. The water solution of 24-epibrassinolide

Anna Janeczko; Jana Okleš?ková; Ewa Pociecha; Janusz Ko?cielniak; Magdalena Mirek



Developmental and organ-specific expression of an ABA and stress-induced protein in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

An mRNA species, HVA1, has been shown to be rapidly induced by abscisic acid (ABA) in barley aleurone layers (Hong, Uknes and Ho, Plant Mol Biol 11: 495–506, 1988). In the current work we have investigated the expression of HVA1 in other organs of barley plants. In developing seeds, HVA1 mRNA is not detected in starchy endosperm cells, yet it

Bimei Hong; Rivka Barg; Tuan-hua David Ho



Signal Transduction in Barley Aleurone Protoplasts 1s Calcium Dependent and lndependent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gibberellic acid (GA) increases Ca2+ and calmodulin (CaM) levels in barley aleurone cells, and abscisic acid (ABA) an- tagonizes the GA effect. These alterations in cytoplasmic Ca2+ and CaM have been suggested to be central regulators of the secretory response of the barley aleurone. Using microinjection of caged Ca2+, Ca2+ chelators, and CaM, we mim- icked or blocked these hormonally

Simon Gilroy



Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-nine different lines of the Doubled-Haploid F2 winter barley population W766 ('Angora' x 'W704\\/137') were genetically fingerprinted using AFLP, microsatellite, morphological and resistance markers. A preliminary map consisting of seven linkage groups is presented. The map contains a highly distorted region on the long arm of chromosome 3H reflecting preselection of the genotypes for resistance against barley mild mosaic virus.




Characterization of barley starches of waxy, normal, and high amylose varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four varieties of barley starches, W.B. Merlin, glacier, high amylose glacier, and high amylose hull-less glacier, were isolated from barley seeds. Apparent and absolute amylose contents, molecular size distributions of amylose and amylopectin, amylopectin branch-chain-length distributions, and Naegeli dextrin structures of the starches were analyzed. W.B. Merlin amylopectin had the longest detectable chain length of DP 67, whereas glacier, high

Y. Song; J. Jane



Complex interspecific hybridization in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) and the possible occurrence of apomixis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several complex hybrids were produced from the combination [(Hordeum lechleri, 6x xH. procerum, 6 x) × H. vulgare, 2 x]. Crosses with six diploid barley lines resulted in triple hybrids, most of which had a full complement of barley chromosomes (no. 1–7), but were mixoploid with respect to alien chromosomes (19–22). In one combination, chromosome no. 7 was duplicated. Meiosis

R. von Bothmer; M. Bengtsson; J. Flink; I. Linde-Laursen



A cDNA clone for protein Z, a major barley endosperm albumin  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 18 residue amino terminal sequence of the barley endosperm protein Z polypeptide is presented. In vitro translation of\\u000a barley endosperm mRNA and subsequent immunoaffinity isolation using protein Z antibodies identified two major protein Z precursor\\u000a polypeptides of M.W.44,000 and 46,000 among the translation products. Partial nucleotide sequence analysis identified a cDNA\\u000a clone to encode the amino terminal portion of

Søren K. Rasmussen; H. Esteban Hopp; Anders Brandt; IB Svendsen; Jørn Hejgaard



Microbiological and technological characterization of sourdoughs destined for bread-making with barley flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was the microbiological and technological characterization of laboratory- made sourdoughs for use in barley-flour-based bread-making. A defined multi-strain starter culture consisting of selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts from wheat sourdoughs was inoculated into three flour–water mixtures, composed of: (i) 100% wheat flour (ii) 50% wheat flour and 50% hull-less barley flour (composite

Emanuele Zannini; Cristiana Garofalo; Lucia Aquilanti; Sara Santarelli; Gloria Silvestri; Francesca Clementi



Improvement of Salt Tolerance Mechanisms of Barley Cultivated Under Salt Stress Using Azospirillum brasilense  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work was performed to study the improvement of the salt tolerance of two barley cultivars (Giza 123 and Giza 2000)\\u000a which are known for their different tolerance to salt stress by using selected PGPR strain. The present study aimed to assess\\u000a to what extent plant growth promoting rhizobacteria improve the salt tolerance to two barley cultivars (Giza 123

M. N. A. Omar; M. E. H. Osman; W. A. Kasim; I. A. Abd El-Daim


Firming of Bread Crumb with Cross-Linked Waxy Barley Starch Substituted for Wheat Starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 69(3):321-325 White pan bread was baked from flour that had been fractionated a higher enthalpy of melting than that of control bread crumb, except and reconstituted using cross-linked waxy barley starch (5.9% amylose at 6 hr after baking. Furthermore, a 50% gel of cross-linked waxy barley content) in place of prime wheat starch (28.3% amylose content). starch in




Potassium and sodium transporters of Pseudomonas aeruginosa regulate virulence to barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the role of three uncharacterized cation transporters of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 as virulence factors for barley: PA1207, PA5021, and PA2647. PAO1 displayed reduced barley virulence with inactivated\\u000a PA1207, PA5021, and PA2647 as well as with one known Na+\\/H+ antiporter, PA1820. Using the Escherichia coli LB2003 mutant lacking three K+ uptake systems, the expression of the PA5021 gene repressed

Akihiro Ueda; Thomas K. Wood



Artificial seeds in barley: encapsulation of microspore-derived embryos.  


An in vitro culture system has been developed for barley (Hordeum vulgare), which yields high frequencies of high quality microspore-derived embryos without an intervening callus phase. The embryos are very similar to zygotic embryos with regard to their morphology and germination capacity. These embryos were encapsulated in sodium alginate to produce individual beads containing one embryo each. In accordance with the literature, these beads are denoted "artificial seeds". The artificial seeds germinated well and with a root system superior to that of non-encapsulated embryos. The artificial seeds also maintained their germination capacity for at least 6 months, whereas non-encapsulated embryos did not survive more than 2 weeks in storage. Artificial seeds, thus, probably provide a simple and universal delivery system of in vitro plantlets to greenhouse or field. PMID:24232898

Datta, S K; Potrykus, I



NASA crop calendars: Wheat, barley, oats, rye, sorghum, soybeans, corn  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crop calenders used to determine when Earth Resources Technology Satellite ERTS data would provide the most accurate wheat acreage information and to minimize the amount of ground verified information needed are presented. Since barley, oats, and rye are considered 'confusion crops, i.e., hard to differentiate from wheat in ERTS imagery, specific dates are estimated for these crops in the following stages of development: (1) seed-bed operation, (2) planting or seeding, (3) intermediate growth, (4) dormancy, (5) development of crop to full ground cover, (6) heading or tasseling, and flowering, (7) harvesting, and (8) posting-harvest operations. Dormancy dates are included for fall-snow crops. A synopsis is given of each states' growing conditions, special cropping practices, and other characteristics which are helpful in identifying crops from ERTS imagery.

Stuckey, M. R.; Anderson, E. N.



Biomechanics of Wheat/Barley Straw and Corn Stover  

SciTech Connect

The lack of understanding of the mechanical characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks is a limiting factor in economically collecting and processing crop residues, primarily wheat and barley stems and corn stover. Several testing methods, including compression, tension, and bend have been investigated to increase our understanding of the biomechanical behavior of cellulosic feedstocks. Biomechanical data from these tests can provide required input to numerical models and help advance harvesting, handling, and processing techniques. In addition, integrating the models with the complete data set from this study can identify potential tools for manipulating the biomechanical properties of plant varieties in such a manner as to optimize their physical characteristics to produce higher value biomass and more energy efficient harvesting practices.

Christopher T. Wright; Peter A. Pryfogle; Nathan A. Stevens; Eric D. Steffler; J. Richard Hess; Thomas H. Ulrich



Effects of barley ?-glucan-enriched flour fractions on the glycaemic index of bread.  


The aim of this research was to evaluate ?-glucan-enriched flours, obtained from barleys with either normal or waxy starch, for their effects on the glycaemic index (GI) and the quality of bread. Rheological results confirmed that when barley flour was included in the dough the overall quality of bread slightly worsened. However, positive consequences on glycaemia were obtained with the normal starch barley: the GI of all-wheat bread (82.8 ± 7.2) was significantly reduced (57.2 ± 7.9) when 40% of wheat flour was substituted with ?-glucan-enriched barley flour (6.0% ± 0.1 ?-glucan in the final flour blend). In contrast, this positive effect was significantly reduced (GI: 70.1 ± 9.1) when 40% of wheat flour was substituted with the ?-glucan-enriched flour of a waxy barley (CDC Alamo; 6.6 ± 0.2 ?-glucan in the final flour blend), suggesting that the ability of ?-glucans to lower the GI was affected by the barley starch-type. PMID:21707450

Finocchiaro, Franca; Ferrari, Barbara; Gianinetti, Alberto; Scazzina, Francesca; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Caramanico, Rosita; Salati, Claudia; Shirvanian, Vigen; Stanca, Antonio Michele



Morphological, genetic and molecular characteristics of barley root hair mutants.  


Root hairs are tubular outgrowths of specialized epidermal cells called trichoblasts. They affect anchoring plants in soil, the uptake of water and nutrients and are the sites of the interaction between plants and microorganisms. Nineteen root hair mutants of barley representing different stages of root hair development were subjected to detailed morphological and genetic analyses. Each mutant was monogenic and recessive. An allelism test revealed that nine loci were responsible for the mutated root hair phenotypes in the collection and 1-4 mutated allelic forms were identified at each locus. Genetic relationships between the genes responsible for different stages of root hair formation were established. The linkage groups of four loci rhl1, rhp1, rhi1 and rhs1, which had previously been mapped on chromosomes 7H, 1H, 6H and 5H, respectively, were enriched with new markers that flank the genes at a distance of 0.16 cM to 4.6 cM. The chromosomal position of three new genes - two that are responsible for the development of short root hairs (rhs2 and rhs3) and the gene that controls an irregular root hair pattern (rhi2) - were mapped on chromosomes 6H, 2H and 1H, respectively. A comparative analysis of the agrobotanical parameters between some mutants and their respective parental lines showed that mutations in genes responsible for root hair development had no effect on the agrobotanical performance of plants that were grown under controlled conditions. The presented mutant collection is a valuable tool for further identification of genes controlling root hair development in barley. PMID:24899566

Chmielewska, Beata; Janiak, Agnieszka; Karcz, Jagna; Guzy-Wrobelska, Justyna; Forster, Brian P; Nawrot, Malgorzata; Rusek, Anna; Smyda, Paulina; Kedziorski, Piotr; Maluszynski, Miroslaw; Szarejko, Iwona



The barley Frost resistance-H2 locus.  


Frost resistance-H2 (Fr-H2) is a major QTL affecting freezing tolerance in barley, yet its molecular basis is still not clearly understood. To gain a better insight into the structural characterization of the locus, a high-resolution linkage map developed from the Nure × Tremois cross was initially implemented to map 13 loci which divided the 0.602 cM total genetic distance into ten recombination segments. A PCR-based screening was then applied to identify positive bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from two genomic libraries of the reference genotype Morex. Twenty-six overlapping BACs from the integrated physical-genetic map were 454 sequenced. Reads assembled in contigs were subsequently ordered, aligned and manually curated in 42 scaffolds. In a total of 1.47 Mbp, 58 protein-coding sequences were identified, 33 of which classified according to similarity with sequences in public databases. As three complete barley C-repeat Binding Factors (HvCBF) genes were newly identified, the locus contained13 full-length HvCBFs, four Related to AP2 Triticeae (RAPT) genes, and at least five CBF pseudogenes. The final overall assembly of Fr-H2 includes more than 90 % of target region: all genes were identified along the locus, and a general survey of Repetitive Elements obtained. We believe that this gold-standard sequence for the Morex Fr-H2 will be a useful genomic tool for structural and evolutionary comparisons with Fr-H2 in winter-hardy cultivars along with Fr-2 of other Triticeae crops. PMID:24442711

Pasquariello, Marianna; Barabaschi, Delfina; Himmelbach, Axel; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Stein, Nils; Gandolfi, Francesco; Tenedini, Elena; Bernardis, Isabella; Tagliafico, Enrico; Pecchioni, Nicola; Francia, Enrico



Transformation and expression of a stilbene synthase gene of Vitis vinifera L. in barley and wheat for increased fungal resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformation of barley and wheat via particle bombardment with a gene derived from Vitis vinifera?L. (Vst1 gene) resulted in the expression of the foreign phytoalexin, resveratrol, in the transformed plants. Transgenic barley plants\\u000a were regenerated from microspores and transgenic wheat plants from immature embryos were both selected on Basta. Stable integration\\u000a of the gene in the genomes of transgenic barley

G. Leckband; H. Lörz



78 FR 26682 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Hall of Ancient Egypt”  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Exhibition Determinations: ``Hall of Ancient Egypt'' AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION...pertaining to the exhibition ``Hall of Ancient Egypt.'' The referenced notice is corrected...included in the exhibition ``Hall of Ancient Egypt,'' imported from abroad for...



Ancient-pathogen genomics: coming of age?  


The potentially debilitating zoonotic disease brucellosis is thought to have been a scourge of mankind throughout history. New work by Kay et al. [mBio 5(4):e01337-14, 2014] adds to evidence for this by exploiting the huge advances in next-generation sequencing technology and applying shotgun metagenomics to a calcified nodule obtained from a 14th-century skeleton from Sardinia. While not the first DNA-based confirmation of Brucella in medieval DNA samples, Kay et al.'s study goes much further than previous reports based on single gene fragments in that it allows a full-genome reconstruction and thus facilitates meaningful comparative analysis of relationships with extant Brucella strains. These analyses confirm the close relationship of the genome to contemporary isolates from the western Mediterranean, illustrating the continuity of this lineage in the region over centuries. The study, along with recent studies characterizing other ancient-pathogen genomes, confirms that shotgun metagenomics offers us a powerful tool to fully characterize pathogens from ancient samples. Such studies promise to revolutionize our understanding of the nature of infectious disease in these materials and of the wider picture of the emergence, evolution, and spread of bacterial pathogens over history. PMID:25182326

Whatmore, Adrian M



Mitochondrial Phylogenomics of Modern and Ancient Equids  

PubMed Central

The genus Equus is richly represented in the fossil record, yet our understanding of taxonomic relationships within this genus remains limited. To estimate the phylogenetic relationships among modern horses, zebras, asses and donkeys, we generated the first data set including complete mitochondrial sequences from all seven extant lineages within the genus Equus. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic inference confirms that zebras are monophyletic within the genus, and the Plains and Grevy’s zebras form a well-supported monophyletic group. Using ancient DNA techniques, we further characterize the complete mitochondrial genomes of three extinct equid lineages (the New World stilt-legged horses, NWSLH; the subgenus Sussemionus; and the Quagga, Equus quagga quagga). Comparisons with extant taxa confirm the NWSLH as being part of the caballines, and the Quagga and Plains zebras as being conspecific. However, the evolutionary relationships among the non-caballine lineages, including the now-extinct subgenus Sussemionus, remain unresolved, most likely due to extremely rapid radiation within this group. The closest living outgroups (rhinos and tapirs) were found to be too phylogenetically distant to calibrate reliable molecular clocks. Additional mitochondrial genome sequence data, including radiocarbon dated ancient equids, will be required before revisiting the exact timing of the lineage radiation leading up to modern equids, which for now were found to have possibly shared a common ancestor as far as up to 4 Million years ago (Mya). PMID:23437078

Vilstrup, Julia T.; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Stiller, Mathias; Ginolhac, Aurelien; Raghavan, Maanasa; Nielsen, Sandra C. A.; Weinstock, Jacobo; Froese, Duane; Vasiliev, Sergei K.; Ovodov, Nikolai D.; Clary, Joel; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Cooper, Alan; Shapiro, Beth; Orlando, Ludovic



Ancient-Pathogen Genomics: Coming of Age?  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The potentially debilitating zoonotic disease brucellosis is thought to have been a scourge of mankind throughout history. New work by Kay et al. [mBio 5(4):e01337-14, 2014] adds to evidence for this by exploiting the huge advances in next-generation sequencing technology and applying shotgun metagenomics to a calcified nodule obtained from a 14th-century skeleton from Sardinia. While not the first DNA-based confirmation of Brucella in medieval DNA samples, Kay et al.’s study goes much further than previous reports based on single gene fragments in that it allows a full-genome reconstruction and thus facilitates meaningful comparative analysis of relationships with extant Brucella strains. These analyses confirm the close relationship of the genome to contemporary isolates from the western Mediterranean, illustrating the continuity of this lineage in the region over centuries. The study, along with recent studies characterizing other ancient-pathogen genomes, confirms that shotgun metagenomics offers us a powerful tool to fully characterize pathogens from ancient samples. Such studies promise to revolutionize our understanding of the nature of infectious disease in these materials and of the wider picture of the emergence, evolution, and spread of bacterial pathogens over history. PMID:25182326



Sample Return from Ancient Hydrothermal Springs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hydrothermal spring deposits on Mars would make excellent candidates for sample return. Molecular phylogeny suggests that that life on Earth may have arisen in hydrothermal settings [1-3], and on Mars, such settings not only would have supplied energy-rich waters in which martian life may have evolved [4-7] but also would have provided warm, liquid water to martian life forms as the climate became colder and drier [8]. Since silica, sulfates, and clays associated with hydrothermal settings are known to preserve geochemical and morphological remains of ancient terrestrial life [9-11], such settings on Mars might similarly preserve evidence of martian life. Finally, because formation of hydrothermal springs includes surface and subsurface processes, martian spring deposits would offer the potential to assess astrobiological potential and hydrological history in a variety of settings, including surface mineralized terraces, associated stream deposits, and subsurface environments where organic remains may have been well protected from oxidation. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data [12-14]. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel, and based on these new data, we have interpreted several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra as ancient hydrothermal springs [15, 16].

Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.




EPA Science Inventory

Ancient DNA analysis is becoming widespread. These studies use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify minute quantities of heavily damaged template. Unusual steps are taken to achieve the sensitivity necessary to detect ancient DNA, including high-cycle PCR amplification targ...


Ancient human genome sequence of an extinct Palaeo-Eskimo  

E-print Network

ARTICLES Ancient human genome sequence of an extinct Palaeo-Eskimo Morten Rasmussen1,2 *, Yingrui the genome sequence of an ancient human. Obtained from ,4,000-year-old permafrost-preserved hair, the genome, independent of that giving rise to the modern Native Americans and Inuit. Recent advances in DNA sequencing

Nielsen, Rasmus


Animal DNA in PCR reagents plagues ancient DNA research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular archaeology brings the tools of molecular biology to bear on fundamental questions in archaeology, anthropology, evolution, and ecology. Ancient DNA research is becoming widespread as evolutionary biologists and archaeologists discover the power of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify DNA from ancient plant and animal remains. However, the extraordinary susceptibility of PCR to contamination by extraneous DNA is

Jennifer A. Leonard; Orin Shanks; Michael Hofreiter; Eva Kreuz; Larry Hodges; Walt Ream; Robert K. Wayne; Robert C. Fleischer



An Ancient Inca Tax and Metallurgy in Peru  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The discovery of ancient Inca tax rulers and other metallurgical objects in Peru show that the ancient civilizations of the country smelted metals. The analysis shows that the smelters in Peru switched from the production of copper to silver after a tax was imposed on them by the Inca rulers.

Journal of Chemical Education, 2007



WILLIAMS COLLEGE MUSEUM OF ART Mysteries of the Ancient World  

E-print Network

WILLIAMS COLLEGE MUSEUM OF ART Mysteries of the Ancient World Grades 6-12 encounterart #12 experience with your classroom lessons. Tour Overview Artifacts can tell us about life in the ancient world Unknown (Assyrian, 1000­500 BCE) Winged Guardian Spirit, from the Palace of Ashurnasirpal II at Nimrud

Aalberts, Daniel P.


Networks, Territories, and the Cartography of Ancient States  

Microsoft Academic Search

With broad lines and dark shading, the cartographic depictions of ancient states and empires convey the impression of comprehensive political entities having firm boundaries and uniform territorial control. These depictions oversimplify the complexities of early state growth, as well as overstating the capacity of central governments to control large territories. Archaeological and textual evidence suggests that ancient states are better

Monica L. Smith


464 The Ancient Horsetail  

E-print Network The Ancient Horsetail We often get phone calls and questions about of a group of plants that were as thick as forests and had relatives as big as trees that flourished during of ancient Romans eating its tender young shoots for medicinal purposes; however, the Romans also thought


Testing for Ancient Admixture between Closely Related Populations  

E-print Network

Testing for Ancient Admixture between Closely Related Populations Eric Y. Durand,*,1 Nick Patterson-day populations. In this paper, we present a test for ancient admixture that exploits the asymmetry in the frequencies of the two nonconcordant gene trees in a three-population tree. This test was first applied

Reich, David


Ancient olive DNA in pits: preservation, amplification and sequence analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The olive tree (Olea europaea) was domesticated by vegetative propagation of selected wild individuals with superior fruit. Later, new cultivars were established repeatedly from feral trees or from crosses between wild, feral, and domesticated trees. Thus the genetic background of many contemporary domesticated lines is a mixture of ancient cultivars and local wild trees. Ancient DNA may illuminate the complicated

Rivka Elbaum; Cathy Melamed-Bessudo; Elisabetta Boaretto; Ehud Galili; Simcha Lev-Yadun; Avraham A. Levy; Steve Weiner



Notions of "Rhetoric as Epistemic" in Ancient Greece.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The notion that rhetoric (and to a lesser extent, argument) is epistemic is an increasingly popular one today, although it can be traced to ancient Greece. The notion holds that rhetoric, or the art of persuasion, creates and shapes knowledge. Two ancient authors--Aristophanes and Plato--provide evidence that others had notions of rhetoric as…

Benoit, William L.


Evaluation of triticale dried distillers grains with solubles as a substitute for barley grain and barley silage in feedlot finishing diets.  


The objective of this study was to assess the value of triticale dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) as a replacement for barley silage in addition to a portion of the dry-rolled barley (DRB) in a grain-based feedlot finishing diet. The trial used 160 crossbred yearling steers: 144 noncannulated (478 +/- 84 kg) in a complete randomized design, and 16 ruminally cannulated (494 +/- 50 kg) in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design. The noncannulated steers were assigned to 8 standard pens (10 per pen) and 8 pens equipped with the GrowSafe system (GrowSafe Systems Ltd., Airdrie, Alberta, Canada; 8 per pen). The cannulated steers were placed (2 per pen) in the 8 GrowSafe pens and moved between pens at 28-d intervals. Each of 4 experimental diets was fed in 2 standard and 2 GrowSafe pens. The diets contained (DM basis) 1) 85% DRB and 10% barley silage (CON); 2) 65% DRB, 20% triticale DDGS, and 10% barley silage (D-10S), 3) 65% DRB, 25% triticale DDGS, and 5% barley silage, and 4) 65% DRB, 30% triticale DDGS, and no barley silage. Supplement (5% of dietary DM) was included in all diets. Ruminal pH was measured over four 7-d periods using indwelling electrodes. Replacing barley silage with triticale DDGS linearly decreased mean ruminal pH (P = 0.006), linearly increased duration (P = 0.006 and P = 0.01) and area under the curve (P = 0.02 and P = 0.05) below pH 5.5 and 5.2, and linearly increased the frequency of subacute (P = 0.005) and acute (P = 0.05) bouts of ruminal acidosis. Variation in mean ruminal pH decreased (P = 0.008) in steers fed D-10S compared with CON. Similarly, variation in DMI was less for steers fed triticale DDGS compared with CON. Steers fed D-10S tended to have greater DMI (P = 0.08) but similar ADG and G:F compared with CON steers. Replacing barley silage with triticale DDGS tended to linearly decrease DMI (P = 0.10) and increase (P = 0.06) G:F. Compared with CON, steers fed D-10S tended to have greater backfat thickness (P = 0.10) and decreased dressing percentage (P = 0.06), ribeye area (P = 0.10), and meat yield (P = 0.06). Severity and number of abscessed livers was greater (P = 0.006) in steers fed D-10S compared with those fed CON. Although mean ruminal pH decreased as barley silage was replaced with triticale DDGS, the trend for improved growth suggests that reduced ruminal pH did not affect animal performance. Triticale DDGS can be substituted for barley silage in finishing diets in addition to a portion of barley grain without affecting growth performance or carcass quality, but it is recommended that an antimicrobial be included in the diet to reduce liver abscesses. PMID:20495119

Wierenga, K T; McAllister, T A; Gibb, D J; Chaves, A V; Okine, E K; Beauchemin, K A; Oba, M



Legacy of the Ancient World: An Educational Guide. Understanding Ancient Culture through Art at the Tampa Museum of Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the many contributions made by Ancient Greeks and Romans to contemporary life, are those which influence art, architecture, literature, philosophy, mathematics and science, theater, athletics, religion, and the founding of democracy. The Tampa Museum of Art's classical collection offers a unique opportunity to learn about Ancient Greeks and…

Whitelaw, R. Lynn


The ancient shorelines of Lanai, Hawaii, revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three ancient shorelines (the Mahana, Kaluakapo and Manele) have been described at elevations of 365, 190 and 170 m in the Kaluakapo Crater, Lanai, Hawaii [Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 237 (1978) 1]. Stearns' original observation of a fossil-bearing outcrop at 326 m was interpreted as an ancient shoreline. Subsequently, Moore and Moore (1984, 1988) [Science 226 (1984) 1312; Geol. Soc. Am., Spec. Pap. 229 (1988) 101] argued that Stearns' fossil evidence represented the highest inundation of tsunami waves associated with the collapse of the flanks of the Hawaiian Islands chain (the Giant Wave Hypothesis, GWH). Subsequently, Stearns' fossil-bearing swale site has never been observed. Geological field studies of Kaluakapo Crater were conducted to clarify the nature of the highest coral-bearing outcrops preserved on Lanai. These field studies found no support for a shoreline at 326 m. However, the field studies did document a shingle terrace with numerous coral clasts at 190-m elevation. We find in situ fossil-bearing marine deposits at 170-m elevation within Kaluakapo Crater. Furthermore, we observe: the undisturbed nature of marine deposits at 190 m, the preservation of fine-grained materials at 170 m, the absence of in situ deposits with a biological component between 200 and 365 m, the dearth of rounded boulders (lacking weathering rinds) between 200 and 365 m, and the lack of post-depositional burial of the terrace deposit (despite loose debris being present on the high ground surrounding the 190-m terrace). These observations lead us to believe that erosion by the hypothesized giant waves did not take place. Our observations are inconsistent with the "Giant Wave" tsunami inundation of the Kaluakapo Crater area. Thus, we concur with Stearns (1938, 1978) [Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 49 (1938) 615; Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 237 (1978) 1], Jones (1993) [Jones, A.T., 1993. Elevated fossil coral deposits in the Hawaiian Islands: a measure of island uplift in the Quaternary. PhD Dissertation, Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii, 1-274] and Grigg and Jones (1997) [Mar. Geol. 141 (1997) 11.] that the coral-bearing deposits on Lanai represent ancient shorelines and reflect a history of uplift of the island associated with lithospheric deformation of the sea floor around the Hawaiian hot spot.

Keating, Barbara H.; Helsley, Charles E.



Sources of uncertainty in nitrous oxide emissions from winter barley biofuel feedstock life cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Winter barley is an attractive feedstock for first generation biofuel production in the US Mid-Atlantic region that can serve East Coast transportation fuel markets. Recently designated advanced fuel standing by US EPA, the influence of barley grown as a winter crop on N2O emissions is uncertain because of high spatial and temporal variability. Our objective is to examine the sensitivity of direct and indirect N2O emissions to different management and environmental factors within a 20 year winter barley rotation in two Mid-Atlantic counties (Lenoir, North Carolina, and Queen Anne's, Maryland) using first order uncertainty methods. Specifically, we conducted simulations using the DayCent biogeochemical model, where winter barley was introduced in a two-year rotation following corn and preceding soybean, and grown in four-year cycles that alternate with winter wheat and fallow periods. We tested different model input parameters and analyzed the level of uncertainty each contributes to both direct and indirect N2O emissions with the introduction of barley into the crop rotation. The input values for pH, precipitation, temperature, soil texture, and fertilizer quantity applied were altered from base values and outputs for rotations with and without winter barley were compared by calculating partial derivatives for each parameter to estimate the relative change in N2O emitted. Fertilizer, followed by soil texture, introduces the greatest uncertainty in N2O emissions, with the remaining parameters contributing to lesser, but still significant uncertainty. Therefore, as barley is introduced onto a farm for biofuel production, it is most important to carefully control the fertilizer additions, and to monitor the soil texture class characteristics.

Speers, C. M.; Gurian, P. L.; Adler, P. R.; Del Grosso, S.; Spatari, S.



Distribution, functional impact, and origin mechanisms of copy number variation in the barley genome  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing evidence for the prevalence of copy number variation (CNV) and its role in phenotypic variation in many eukaryotic species. Here we use array comparative genomic hybridization to explore the extent of this type of structural variation in domesticated barley cultivars and wild barleys. Results A collection of 14 barley genotypes including eight cultivars and six wild barleys were used for comparative genomic hybridization. CNV affects 14.9% of all the sequences that were assessed. Higher levels of CNV diversity are present in the wild accessions relative to cultivated barley. CNVs are enriched near the ends of all chromosomes except 4H, which exhibits the lowest frequency of CNVs. CNV affects 9.5% of the coding sequences represented on the array and the genes affected by CNV are enriched for sequences annotated as disease-resistance proteins and protein kinases. Sequence-based comparisons of CNV between cultivars Barke and Morex provided evidence that DNA repair mechanisms of double-strand breaks via single-stranded annealing and synthesis-dependent strand annealing play an important role in the origin of CNV in barley. Conclusions We present the first catalog of CNVs in a diploid Triticeae species, which opens the door for future genome diversity research in a tribe that comprises the economically important cereal species wheat, barley, and rye. Our findings constitute a valuable resource for the identification of CNV affecting genes of agronomic importance. We also identify potential mechanisms that can generate variation in copy number in plant genomes. PMID:23758725



Ancient Forests and the Tree-Ring Reconstruction of Past Climate (Ancient Forests and Dendroclimatology)  

SciTech Connect

The original presettlement forests of North America have been dramatically altered, but thousands of unmolested ancient forests survive on remote or noncommercial terrain, including dry-site eastern hardwoods such as chestnut oak and post oak, the pinyon-juniper woodlands of the semiarid West, oak woodlands of California and in northeast Mexico, and the boreal forests of Canada and Alaska. Long tree-ring chronologies derived from these ancient forest remnants provide irreplaceable archives of environmental variability which are crucial for evaluating present and future change. Temperature sensitive tree -ring chronologies from cold treeline environments place 20th century warming into long historical perspective, and moisture sensitive tree-ring chronologies provide analogs to the decadal moisture regimes of the 20th century. These tree-ring data suggests that the 16th century megadrought was the most severe-sustained drought to impact North America in 1500 years, and had huge environmental and social impacts at the dawn of European settlement.

Stahle, David (Tree-Ring Laboratory, University of Arkansas) [Tree-Ring Laboratory, University of Arkansas



Ancient Forests and the Tree-Ring Reconstruction of Past Climate (Ancient Forests and Dendroclimatology)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The original presettlement forests of North America have been dramatically altered, but thousands of unmolested ancient forests survive on remote or noncommercial terrain, including dry-site eastern hardwoods such as chestnut oak and post oak, the pinyon-juniper woodlands of the semiarid West, oak woodlands of California and in northeast Mexico, and the boreal forests of Canada and Alaska. Long tree-ring chronologies




[The ancient Alexandria school of medicine].  


A famous medical school was established in old Alexandria during the third century BC. Although mainly Greek in essence, and following the Hippocratic teachings, it was heavily tainted by the medical practices of ancient Egypt. Anatomy was particularly advanced due to the possibility of dissecting the human body. The most important Alexandrian physicians were Herophilus and Erasistratus. Many graduates of this medical school traveled and practiced throughout the Mediterranean basin. Galen, the famous Roman physician studied in Alexandria before practicing in Rome. His teachings and writings survived well into the sixteenth century and formed the basis of more modern medical practices during the renaissance. These writings were conserved partly by Christian monks and partly by Arab and Jewish scholars of the middle ages. The medical school of Alexandria was still active until late in the 3rd century AD. However, it slipped slowly into oblivion after the fire of 389 AD, which also devastated its famous library. PMID:11875862

Sallam, H N



Ancient androdioecy in the freshwater crustacean Eulimnadia  

PubMed Central

Among the variety of reproductive mechanisms exhibited by living systems, one permutation—androdioecy (mixtures of males and hermaphrodites)—is distinguished by its rarity. Models of mating system evolution predict that androdioecy should be a brief stage between hermaphroditism and dioecy (separate males and females), or vice versa. Herein we report evidence of widespread and ancient androdioecy in crustaceans in the genus Eulimnadia, based on observations of over 33?000 shrimp from 36 locations from every continent except Antarctica. Using phylogenetic, biogeographical and palaeontological evidence, we infer that androdioecy in Eulimnadia has persisted for 24–180 million years and has been maintained through multiple speciation events. These results suggest that androdioecy is a highly successful aspect of the life history of these freshwater crustaceans, and has persisted for orders of magnitude longer than predicted by current models of this rare breeding system. PMID:16608693

Weeks, Stephen C; Sanderson, Thomas F; Reed, Sadie K; Zofkova, Magdalena; Knott, Brenton; Balaraman, Usha; Pereira, Guido; Senyo, Diana M; Hoeh, Walter R



Ancient Maya Astronomical Tables from Xultun, Guatemala  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maya astronomical tables are recognized in bark-paper books from the Late Postclassic period (1300 to 1521 C.E.), but Classic period (200 to 900 C.E.) precursors have not been found. In 2011, a small painted room was excavated at the extensive ancient Maya ruins of Xultun, Guatemala, dating to the early 9th century C.E. The walls and ceiling of the room are painted with several human figures. Two walls also display a large number of delicate black, red, and incised hieroglyphs. Many of these hieroglyphs are calendrical in nature and relate astronomical computations, including at least two tables concerning the movement of the Moon, and perhaps Mars and Venus. These apparently represent early astronomical tables and may shed light on the later books.

Saturno, William A.; Stuart, David; Aveni, Anthony F.; Rossi, Franco



Possible test of ancient dense Martian atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have completed preliminary calculations of the minimum sizes of bolides that would penetrate various hypothetical Martian atmospheres with surface pressures ranging from 6 to 1000 mbar for projectiles of various strengths. The calculations are based on a computer program. These numbers are used to estimate the diameter corresponding to the turndown in the crater diameter distribution due to the loss of these bodies, analogous to the dramatic turndown at larger sized already discovered on Venus due to this effect. We conclude that for an atmosphere greater than a few hundred millibars, a unique downward displacement in the diameter distribution would develop in the crater diameter distribution at D approximately = 0.5-4 km, due to loss of all but Fe bolides. Careful search for this displacement globally, as outlined here, would allow us to place upper limits on the pressure of the atmosphere contemporaneous with the oldest surfaces, and possibly to get direct confirmation of dense ancient atmospheres.

Hartmann, W. K.; Engel, S.



Egypt: Secrets of an Ancient World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While ancient Egyptian civilization has captured the public interest and imagination in recent decades, this well-designed site from the National Geographic Society places its focus on the pyramids created several millennia ago. In the site's most compelling feature, titled Explore the Pyramids, visitors can scroll across the different pyramids, revealing their interior organization and a number of facts about their construction and so on. A brief timeline also gives some information about each of the different Egyptian dynasties. Educators will find much to enjoy here, as the site provides different lesson plans for students, complete with critical questions for discussion and lesson objectives. Finally, there is an online journal written by National Geographic reporter Nancy Gupton that documents her own personal experiences traveling around the pyramids of Egypt.



cent PPC. From the age of 28 days, these diets were progressively replaced by 2nd age diets containing 19 per cent crude protein: barley, soya-bean, herring meal in group i and barley,  

E-print Network

containing 19 per cent crude protein: barley, soya-bean, herring meal in group i and barley, soya-bean, PPC. The control group (A) was fed with a diet containing bar- ley, maize, soya-bean, milk, herring; in the diet

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Is atherosclerosis fundamental to human aging? Lessons from ancient mummies.  


Case reports from Johan Czermak, Marc Ruffer, and others a century or more ago demonstrated ancient Egyptians had atherosclerosis three millennia ago. The Horus study team extended their findings, demonstrating that atherosclerosis was prevalent among 76 ancient Egyptian mummies and among 61 mummies from each of the ancient cultures of Peru, the American Southwest, and the Aleutian Islands. These findings challenge the assumption that atherosclerosis is a modern disease caused by present day risk factors. An extensive autopsy of an ancient Egyptian teenage male weaver named Nakht found that he was infected with four parasites: Schistosoma haematobium, Taenia species, Trichinella spiralis, and Plasmodium falciparum. Modern day patients with chronic inflammatory disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and human immunodeficiency virus experience premature atherosclerosis. Could the burden of chronic inflammatory disease have been a risk factor for atherosclerosis in these ancient cultures? The prevalence of atherosclerosis in four diverse ancient cultures is consistent with atherosclerosis being fundamental to aging. The impact of risk factors in modern times, and potentially in ancient times, suggests a strong gene-environmental interplay: human genes provide a vulnerability to atherosclerosis, the environment determines when and if atherosclerosis becomes manifest clinically. PMID:24582386

Clarke, Emily M; Thompson, Randall C; Allam, Adel H; Wann, L Samuel; Lombardi, Guido P; Sutherland, M Linda; Sutherland, James D; Cox, Samantha L; Soliman, Muhammad Al-Tohamy; Abd el-Maksoud, Gomaa; Badr, Ibrahem; Miyamoto, Michael I; Frohlich, Bruno; Nur el-din, Abdel-Halim; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Narula, Jagat; Zink, Albert R; Finch, Caleb E; Michalik, David E; Thomas, Gregory S




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infestations of Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diruaphis noxia (Mordvilko), reduce grain yield and quality of barley, and have induced producers in some areas to cease growing barley. No resistant barley cultivars that are adapted to North America exist. Resistance from STARS 9301B was transferred into ...


Differentially expressed genes between drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive barley genotypes in response to drought stress during the reproductive stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought tolerance is a key trait for increasing and stabilizing barley productivity in dry areas worldwide. Identification of the genes responsible for drought tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) will facilitate understanding of the molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance, and also facilitate the genetic improvement of barley through marker-assisted selection or gene transformation. To monitor the changes in gene expression

Peiguo Guo; Michael Baum; Stefania Grando; Salvatore Ceccarelli; Guihua Bai; Ronghua Li; Maria von Korff; Rajeev K. Varshney; Andreas Graner; Jan Valkoun



Enzymatic fractionation of SAA-pretreated barley straw for production of fuel ethanol and astaxanthin as a value-added co-product  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley straw was used to demonstrate a process for production of ethanol and astaxanthin as a value-added co-product. Barley straw was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) using the previously determined optimum conditions. The pretreated barley straw was first hydrolyzed with Accellerase®...


Fermentation of Barley by Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Examination of Barley as a Feedstock for Bioethanol Production and Value-Added Products ?  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine the ethanol yield potential of three barley varieties (Xena, Bold, and Fibar) in comparison to two benchmarks, corn and wheat. Very high gravity (VHG; 30% solids) fermentations using both conventional and Stargen 001 enzymes for starch hydrolysis were carried out as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The grains and their corresponding dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS) were also analyzed for nutritional and value-added characteristics. A VHG traditional fermentation approach utilizing jet-cooking fermentation revealed that both dehulled Bold and Xena barley produced ethanol concentrations higher than that produced by wheat (12.3, 12.2, and 11.9%, respectively) but lower than that produced by corn (13.8%). VHG-modified Stargen-based fermentation of dehulled Bold barley demonstrated comparable performance (14.3% ethanol) relative to that of corn (14.5%) and wheat (13.3%). Several important components were found to survive fermentation and were concentrated in DDGS. The highest yield of phenolics was detected in the DDGS (modified Stargen 001, 20% solids) of Xena (14.6 mg of gallic acid/g) and Bold (15.0 mg of gallic acid/g) when the hull was not removed before fermentation. The highest concentration of sterols in DDGS from barley was found in Xena (3.9 mg/g) when the hull was included. The DDGS recovered from corn had the highest concentration of fatty acids (72.6 and 77.5 mg/g). The DDGS recovered from VHG jet-cooking fermentations of Fibar, dehulled Bold, and corn demonstrated similar levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Corn DDGS was highest in crude fat but was lowest in crude protein and in vitro energy digestibility. Wheat DDGS was highest in crude protein content, similar to previous studies. The barley DDGS was the highest in in vitro energy digestibility. PMID:19114516

Gibreel, Amera; Sandercock, James R.; Lan, Jingui; Goonewardene, Laksiri A.; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; Curtis, Jonathan M.; Bressler, David C.



Free ?-dicarbonyl compounds in coffee, barley coffee and soy sauce and effects of in vitro digestion.  


?-Dicarbonyl (?-DC) compounds were characterised in roasted (coffee, barley coffee) and in fermented (soy sauce) food matrices. Glyoxal (GO), methylglyoxal (MGO), diacetyl (DA) and 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) were found in all samples, and hydroxypyruvaldehyde and 5-hydroxypentane-2,3-dione in barley and soy. Cis and trans 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE) isomers and 4-glucosyl-5,6-dihydroxy-2-oxohexanal (4-G,3-DG) were found only in barley, and 3,4-DGE only in soy sauce with molasses. GO, MGO, and DA were quantified. Findings indicate that i) ?-DC profiles depend on the food matrix and any technological treatments applied; ii) ?-DC quantitation by HPLC requires matrix-specific, validated methods; iii) GO and MGO were the most abundant ?-DCs; and iv) barley coffee was the matrix richest in ?-DCs both qualitatively and quantitatively. In vitro simulated digestion reduced (coffee) or strongly increased (barley, soy sauce) free ?-DC content. These findings suggest that ?-DC bioavailability could actually depend not on food content but rather on reactions occurring during digestion. PMID:24996332

Papetti, Adele; Mascherpa, Dora; Gazzani, Gabriella



Nitrate transport is independent of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases in barley seedlings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has NADH-specific and NAD(P)H-bispecific nitrate reductase isozymes. Four isogenic lines with different nitrate reductase isozyme combinations were used to determine the role of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases on nitrate transport and assimilation in barley seedlings. Both nitrate reductase isozymes were induced by nitrate and were required for maximum nitrate assimilation in barley seedlings. Genotypes lacking the NADH isozyme (Az12) or the NAD(P)H isozyme (Az70) assimilated 65 or 85%, respectively, as much nitrate as the wild type. Nitrate assimilation by genotype (Az12;Az70) which is deficient in both nitrate reductases, was only 13% of the wild type indicating that the NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductase isozymes are responsible for most of the nitrate reduction in barley seedlings. For all genotypes, nitrate assimilation rates in the dark were about 55% of the rates in light. Hypotheses that nitrate reductase has direct or indirect roles in nitrate uptake were not supported by this study. Induction of nitrate transporters and the kinetics of net nitrate uptake were the same for all four genotypes indicating that neither nitrate reductase isozyme has a direct role in nitrate uptake in barley seedlings.

Warner, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.



Barley whole exome capture: a tool for genomic research in the genus Hordeum and beyond  

PubMed Central

Advanced resources for genome-assisted research in barley (Hordeum vulgare) including a whole-genome shotgun assembly and an integrated physical map have recently become available. These have made possible studies that aim to assess genetic diversity or to isolate single genes by whole-genome resequencing and in silico variant detection. However such an approach remains expensive given the 5 Gb size of the barley genome. Targeted sequencing of the mRNA-coding exome reduces barley genomic complexity more than 50-fold, thus dramatically reducing this heavy sequencing and analysis load. We have developed and employed an in-solution hybridization-based sequence capture platform to selectively enrich for a 61.6 megabase coding sequence target that includes predicted genes from the genome assembly of the cultivar Morex as well as publicly available full-length cDNAs and de novo assembled RNA-Seq consensus sequence contigs. The platform provides a highly specific capture with substantial and reproducible enrichment of targeted exons, both for cultivated barley and related species. We show that this exome capture platform provides a clear path towards a broader and deeper understanding of the natural variation residing in the mRNA-coding part of the barley genome and will thus constitute a valuable resource for applications such as mapping-by-sequencing and genetic diversity analyzes. PMID:23889683

Mascher, Martin; Richmond, Todd A; Gerhardt, Daniel J; Himmelbach, Axel; Clissold, Leah; Sampath, Dharanya; Ayling, Sarah; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Pfeifer, Matthias; D'Ascenzo, Mark; Akhunov, Eduard D; Hedley, Pete E; Gonzales, Ana M; Morrell, Peter L; Kilian, Benjamin; Blattner, Frank R; Scholz, Uwe; Mayer, Klaus FX; Flavell, Andrew J; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Waugh, Robbie; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A; Stein, Nils



A high-density transcript linkage map of barley derived from a single population.  


A high-resolution transcript linkage map of barley was created using a single doubled haploid (DH) mapping population, only 3'-end expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and only PCR-based assays. Cultivar 'Haruna Nijo' and an ancestral wild-form accession 'H602' were used as EST donors and crossing parents of the mapping population. Of the 10,366 primer sets developed from a non-redundant set of 3'EST sequences, 7700 sets generated useful amplicons and 3975 (52%) showed polymorphisms between the mapping parents. Of these, 2890 (28% of the total) were mapped by single nucleotide polymorphisms (1717), cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (933) and INDELs (240). The present work involves an estimated 9% of the genes of barley. Of the mapped ESTs, 2689 (93%) are formatted in the Affymetrix Barley 1 GeneChip and full-length cDNA sequences are available for 1039 (36%). Mapped ESTs show highest similarity with sequences in the wheat gene index (93%) and moderate similarity with rice (50%). Comparison of mapped EST positions and the rice pseudomolecule indicated collinear regions between two species; these are particularly conserved for the entire barley chromosome 3H and rice chromosome 1. These mapped genes, together with a systematically developed set of genetic resources, will make it easier to directly clone genes showing simple inheritance and to determine the genetic basis of complex traits. The information will contribute to the development of a framework for the physical mapping of barley, which is necessary for genome sequencing. PMID:19455180

Sato, K; Nankaku, N; Takeda, K



Genetic Diversity and QTL Mapping of Thermostability of Limit Dextrinase in Barley.  


Limit dextrinase (LD) is an essential amylolytic enzyme for the complete degradation of starch, and it is closely associated with malt quality. A survey of 51 cultivated barley and 40 Tibetan wild barley genotypes showed a wide genetic diversity of LD activity and LD thermostability. Compared with cultivated barley, Tibetan wild barley showed lower LD activity and higher LD thermostability. A doubled haploid population composed of 496 DArT and 28 microsatellite markers was used for mapping Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs). Parental line Yerong showed low LD activity and high LD thermostability, but Franklin exhibited high LD activity and low LD thermostability. Three QTLs associated with thermostable LD were identified. The major QTL is close to the LD gene on chromosome 7H. The two minor QTLs colocalized with previously reported QTLs determining malt-extract and diastatic power on chromosomes 1H and 2H, respectively. These QTLs may be useful for a better understanding of the genetic control of LD activity and LD thermostability in barley. PMID:25816850

Wang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Xuelei; Cai, Shengguan; Ye, Lingzhen; Zhou, Meixue; Chen, Zhonghua; Zhang, Guoping; Dai, Fei



Boron Stress Responsive MicroRNAs and Their Targets in Barley  

PubMed Central

Boron stress is an environmental factor affecting plant development and production. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to be involved in several plant processes such as growth regulation and stress responses. In this study, miRNAs associated with boron stress were identified and characterized in barley. miRNA profiles were also comparatively analyzed between root and leave samples. A total of 31 known and 3 new miRNAs were identified in barley; 25 of them were found to respond to boron treatment. Several miRNAs were expressed in a tissue specific manner; for example, miR156d, miR171a, miR397, and miR444a were only detected in leaves. Additionally, a total of 934 barley transcripts were found to be specifically targeted and degraded by miRNAs. In silico analysis of miRNA target genes demonstrated that many miRNA targets are conserved transcription factors such as Squamosa promoter-binding protein, Auxin response factor (ARF), and the MYB transcription factor family. A majority of these targets were responsible for plant growth and response to environmental changes. We also propose that some of the miRNAs in barley such as miRNA408 might play critical roles against boron exposure. In conclusion, barley may use several pathways and cellular processes targeted by miRNAs to cope with boron stress. PMID:23555702

Ozhuner, Esma; Eldem, Vahap; Ipek, Arif; Okay, Sezer; Sakcali, Serdal; Zhang, Baohong; Boke, Hatice; Unver, Turgay



Effect of ?-glucan-rich barley flour fraction on rheology and quality of frozen yeasted dough.  


Research has shown that prolonged frozen storage of bread dough reduces the quality of the end product. In this study, the effect of air-classified barley flour fraction rich in ?-glucan (approximately 25%) on rheology and quality of frozen yeasted bread dough was investigated. Wheat flour (W) was replaced by air-classified barley flour fraction (B) at 10% without or with 1.4% vital gluten to produce ?-glucan enriched barley dough (WB) or barley dough plus gluten (WB + G). Dough products were stored at -18 ºC for 8 wk and their rheological properties were investigated weekly. During frozen storage dough extensibility increased, while elastic and viscous moduli decreased. Differential scanning calorimeter and nuclear magnetic resonance data indicated that WB and WB + G dough products contained approximately 10% less freezable water and 9% more bound water compared to the control dough (W). ?-Glucan enriched dough also exhibited less changes in gluten network as shown by SEM photographs. The addition of air-classified barley flour fraction at 10% in frozen dough reduced deterioration effects caused by frozen storage via minimizing water redistribution and maintaining rheological properties of frozen dough. PMID:25403947

Hamed, Abdelmagid; Ragaee, Sanaa; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M



Aluminium tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.): physiological mechanisms, genetics and screening methods*  

PubMed Central

Aluminium (Al) toxicity is one of the major limiting factors for barley production on acid soils. It inhibits root cell division and elongation, thus reducing water and nutrient uptake, consequently resulting in poor plant growth and yield. Plants tolerate Al either through external resistance mechanisms, by which Al is excluded from plant tissues or internal tolerance mechanisms, conferring the ability of plants to tolerate Al ion in the plant symplasm where Al that has permeated the plasmalemma is sequestered or converted into an innocuous form. Barley is considered to be most sensitive to Al toxicity among cereal species. Al tolerance in barley has been assessed by several methods, such as nutrient solution culture, soil bioassay and field screening. Genetic and molecular mapping research has shown that Al tolerance in barley is controlled by a single locus which is located on chromosome 4H. Molecular markers linked with Al tolerance loci have been identified and validated in a range of diverse populations. This paper reviews the (1) screening methods for evaluating Al tolerance, (2) genetics and (3) mechanisms underlying Al tolerance in barley. PMID:16972319

Wang, Jun-ping; Raman, Harsh; Zhang, Guo-ping; Mendham, Neville; Zhou, Mei-xue



Transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally regulated microRNAs in heat stress response in barley.  


Heat stress is one of the major abiotic factors that can induce severe plant damage, leading to a decrease in crop plant productivity. Despite barley being a cereal of great economic importance, few data are available concerning its thermotolerance mechanisms. In this work microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in heat stress response in barley were investigated. The level of selected barley mature miRNAs was examined by hybridization. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to monitor the changes in the expression profiles of primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) precursors, as well as novel and conserved target genes during heat stress. The miRNA-mediated cleavage sites in the target transcripts were confirmed by degradome analysis and the 5' RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) approach. Four barley miRNAs (miR160a, 166a, 167h, and 5175a) were found which are heat stress up-regulated at the level of both mature miRNAs and precursor pri-miRNAs. Moreover, the splicing of introns hosting miR160a and miR5175a is also heat induced. The results demonstrate transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of heat-responsive miRNAs in barley. The observed induction of miRNA expression is correlated with the down-regulation of the expression level of their experimentally identified new and conservative target genes. PMID:25183744

Kruszka, Katarzyna; Pacak, Andrzej; Swida-Barteczka, Aleksandra; Nuc, Przemyslaw; Alaba, Sylwia; Wroblewska, Zuzanna; Karlowski, Wojciech; Jarmolowski, Artur; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia



Transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally regulated microRNAs in heat stress response in barley  

PubMed Central

Heat stress is one of the major abiotic factors that can induce severe plant damage, leading to a decrease in crop plant productivity. Despite barley being a cereal of great economic importance, few data are available concerning its thermotolerance mechanisms. In this work microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in heat stress response in barley were investigated. The level of selected barley mature miRNAs was examined by hybridization. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to monitor the changes in the expression profiles of primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) precursors, as well as novel and conserved target genes during heat stress. The miRNA-mediated cleavage sites in the target transcripts were confirmed by degradome analysis and the 5’ RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) approach. Four barley miRNAs (miR160a, 166a, 167h, and 5175a) were found which are heat stress up-regulated at the level of both mature miRNAs and precursor pri-miRNAs. Moreover, the splicing of introns hosting miR160a and miR5175a is also heat induced. The results demonstrate transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of heat-responsive miRNAs in barley. The observed induction of miRNA expression is correlated with the down-regulation of the expression level of their experimentally identified new and conservative target genes. PMID:25183744

Kruszka, Katarzyna; Pacak, Andrzej; Swida-Barteczka, Aleksandra; Nuc, Przemyslaw; Alaba, Sylwia; Wroblewska, Zuzanna; Karlowski, Wojciech; Jarmolowski, Artur; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia