Sample records for ancient nubian barley

  1. Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. malting and brewing industries are America’s largest consumers of barley, purchasing more than one-half of the U.S. barley grain crop. More than 70% of the hectares seeded to barley are seeded to cultivars recommended by the American Malting Barley Association (AMBA). The malting and brewi...

  2. Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter is part of a series reviewing advances in transgenic crop plants. The chapter covers advances in barley transformation. Conventional and biotechnological approaches to barley improvement are discussed. Experiments conducted around the world to improve barley food, feed and malting ...

  3. Barley Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an ancient grain that has was domesticated for use as a food. Currently only about 2% is used for food, about two thirds is used for animal feed and one third for malting. Because the oil content of most barley cultivars is low (<2%), obtaining oil from whole barley gra...

  4. The Nubian Swell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurmond, Allison K.; Stern, Robert J.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Nielsen, Kent C.; Abdeen, Mamdouh M.; Hinz, Emily

    2004-06-01

    We use the name Nubian Swell to refer to a complex, east-west trending structural high in southern Egypt and northern Sudan. This 500 km wide zone of uplifted Neoproterozoic crystalline basement and Paleozoic sediments and parallel troughs extend westward for more than 800 km from the flanks of the Red Sea Hills. The Nile in this region is called the Cataract Nile and is in a youthful stage, particularly in northern Sudan where it is incised in the Neoproterozoic crystalline basement. The northern Cataract Nile flows through the rapids of the Batn el Hajar or 'Belly of Stones' region, characterized by structurally controlled 90° turns, frequent bifurcation and disruption by several cataracts, and near-absence of floodplains. Orbital imaging radar has advanced our understanding of the Nubian Swell, through the discovery and mapping of paleochannels and faults that indicate tectonic uplift during Cenozoic time. Earthquakes in southern Egypt during the early 1980s provide evidence that portions of the Nubian Swell are still tectonically active, with recent seismic activity concentrated where E-W trending structures intersect N-S trending structures of the Aswan corridor. We conclude that the Nubian Swell is an important tectonic feature of North Africa, with episodic but continuing uplift.

  5. Drought stress variability in ancient Near Eastern agricultural systems evidenced by ?13C in barley grain.

    PubMed

    Riehl, Simone; Pustovoytov, Konstantin E; Weippert, Heike; Klett, Stefan; Hole, Frank

    2014-08-26

    The collapse and resilience of political systems in the ancient Near East and their relationship with agricultural development have been of wide interest in archaeology and anthropology. Despite attempts to link the archaeological evidence to local paleoclimate data, the precise role of environmental conditions in ancient agricultural production remains poorly understood. Recently, stable isotope analysis has been used for reconstructing site-specific ancient growing conditions for crop species in semiarid and arid landscapes. To open the discussion of the role of regional diversity in past agricultural production as a factor in societal development, we present 1.037 new stable carbon isotope measurements from 33 archaeological sites and modern fields in the geographic area of the Fertile Crescent, spanning the Aceramic Neolithic [10,000 calibrated years (cal) B.C.] to the later Iron Age (500 cal B.C.), alongside modern data from 13 locations. Our data show that drought stress was an issue in many agricultural settlements in the ancient Near East, particularly in correlation with the major Holocene climatic fluctuations, but its regional impact was diverse and influenced by geographic factors. Although cereals growing in the coastal areas of the northern Levant were relatively unaffected by Holocene climatic fluctuations, farmers of regions further inland had to apply irrigation to cope with increased water stress. However, inland agricultural strategies showed a high degree of variability. Our findings suggest that regional differences in climatic effects led to diversified strategies in ancient subsistence and economy even within spatially limited cultural units. PMID:25114225

  6. Drought stress variability in ancient Near Eastern agricultural systems evidenced by ?13C in barley grain

    PubMed Central

    Riehl, Simone; Pustovoytov, Konstantin E.; Weippert, Heike; Klett, Stefan; Hole, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The collapse and resilience of political systems in the ancient Near East and their relationship with agricultural development have been of wide interest in archaeology and anthropology. Despite attempts to link the archaeological evidence to local paleoclimate data, the precise role of environmental conditions in ancient agricultural production remains poorly understood. Recently, stable isotope analysis has been used for reconstructing site-specific ancient growing conditions for crop species in semiarid and arid landscapes. To open the discussion of the role of regional diversity in past agricultural production as a factor in societal development, we present 1.037 new stable carbon isotope measurements from 33 archaeological sites and modern fields in the geographic area of the Fertile Crescent, spanning the Aceramic Neolithic [10,000 calibrated years (cal) B.C.] to the later Iron Age (500 cal B.C.), alongside modern data from 13 locations. Our data show that drought stress was an issue in many agricultural settlements in the ancient Near East, particularly in correlation with the major Holocene climatic fluctuations, but its regional impact was diverse and influenced by geographic factors. Although cereals growing in the coastal areas of the northern Levant were relatively unaffected by Holocene climatic fluctuations, farmers of regions further inland had to apply irrigation to cope with increased water stress. However, inland agricultural strategies showed a high degree of variability. Our findings suggest that regional differences in climatic effects led to diversified strategies in ancient subsistence and economy even within spatially limited cultural units. PMID:25114225

  7. A complete ancient RNA genome: identification, reconstruction and evolutionary history of archaeological Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus.

    PubMed

    Smith, Oliver; Clapham, Alan; Rose, Pam; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Allaby, Robin G

    2014-01-01

    The origins of many plant diseases appear to be recent and associated with the rise of domestication, the spread of agriculture or recent global movements of crops. Distinguishing between these possibilities is problematic because of the difficulty of determining rates of molecular evolution over short time frames. Heterochronous approaches using recent and historical samples show that plant viruses exhibit highly variable and often rapid rates of molecular evolution. The accuracy of estimated evolution rates and age of origin can be greatly improved with the inclusion of older molecular data from archaeological material. Here we present the first reconstruction of an archaeological RNA genome, which is of Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus (BSMV) isolated from barley grain ~750 years of age. Phylogenetic analysis of BSMV that includes this genome indicates the divergence of BSMV and its closest relative prior to this time, most likely around 2000 years ago. However, exclusion of the archaeological data results in an apparently much more recent origin of the virus that postdates even the archaeological sample. We conclude that this viral lineage originated in the Near East or North Africa, and spread to North America and East Asia with their hosts along historical trade routes. PMID:24499968

  8. A complete ancient RNA genome: identification, reconstruction and evolutionary history of archaeological Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Oliver; Clapham, Alan; Rose, Pam; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Allaby, Robin G.

    2014-01-01

    The origins of many plant diseases appear to be recent and associated with the rise of domestication, the spread of agriculture or recent global movements of crops. Distinguishing between these possibilities is problematic because of the difficulty of determining rates of molecular evolution over short time frames. Heterochronous approaches using recent and historical samples show that plant viruses exhibit highly variable and often rapid rates of molecular evolution. The accuracy of estimated evolution rates and age of origin can be greatly improved with the inclusion of older molecular data from archaeological material. Here we present the first reconstruction of an archaeological RNA genome, which is of Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus (BSMV) isolated from barley grain ~750 years of age. Phylogenetic analysis of BSMV that includes this genome indicates the divergence of BSMV and its closest relative prior to this time, most likely around 2000 years ago. However, exclusion of the archaeological data results in an apparently much more recent origin of the virus that postdates even the archaeological sample. We conclude that this viral lineage originated in the Near East or North Africa, and spread to North America and East Asia with their hosts along historical trade routes. PMID:24499968

  9. Analysis of intraspecies diversity in wheat and barley genomes identifies breakpoints of ancient haplotypes and provides insight into the structure of diploid and hexaploid triticeae gene pools.

    PubMed

    Wicker, Thomas; Krattinger, Simon G; Lagudah, Evans S; Komatsuda, Takao; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Matsumoto, Takashi; Cloutier, Sylvie; Reiser, Laurenz; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Sato, Kazuhiro; Perovic, Dragan; Stein, Nils; Keller, Beat

    2009-01-01

    A large number of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) varieties have evolved in agricultural ecosystems since domestication. Because of the large, repetitive genomes of these Triticeae crops, sequence information is limited and molecular differences between modern varieties are poorly understood. To study intraspecies genomic diversity, we compared large genomic sequences at the Lr34 locus of the wheat varieties Chinese Spring, Renan, and Glenlea, and diploid wheat Aegilops tauschii. Additionally, we compared the barley loci Vrs1 and Rym4 of the varieties Morex, Cebada Capa, and Haruna Nijo. Molecular dating showed that the wheat D genome haplotypes diverged only a few thousand years ago, while some barley and Ae. tauschii haplotypes diverged more than 500,000 years ago. This suggests gene flow from wild barley relatives after domestication, whereas this was rare or absent in the D genome of hexaploid wheat. In some segments, the compared haplotypes were very similar to each other, but for two varieties each at the Rym4 and Lr34 loci, sequence conservation showed a breakpoint that separates a highly conserved from a less conserved segment. We interpret this as recombination breakpoints of two ancient haplotypes, indicating that the Triticeae genomes are a heterogeneous and variable mosaic of haplotype fragments. Analysis of insertions and deletions showed that large events caused by transposable element insertions, illegitimate recombination, or unequal crossing over were relatively rare. Most insertions and deletions were small and caused by template slippage in short homopolymers of only a few base pairs in size. Such frequent polymorphisms could be exploited for future molecular marker development. PMID:19011002

  10. Studying ancient crop provenance: implications from ?(13)C and ?(15)N values of charred barley in a Middle Bronze Age silo at Ebla(NW Syria).

    PubMed

    Fiorentino, Girolamo; Caracuta, Valentina; Casiello, Grazia; Longobardi, Francesco; Sacco, Antonio

    2012-02-15

    The discovery of a storeroom full of barley and other cereals (L.9512) in the proto-historic site of Ebla has provided a unique opportunity to study the centralized storage system of the early city-state from a different perspective. Epigraphic evidence available within the site reveals a complex system of taxation which included gathering grain tributes from satellite sites and redistributing semi-finished products such as flour. In this paper, we intend to explore the possibilities of a combined approach to studying the storage system, based on estimated barley grain volumes and ?(13)C-?(15)N analyses. This approach is used to distinguish between grain from different harvesting sites and to identify any grain cultivated using special agricultural practices (e.g. manuring or irrigation). The basic assumption for this kind of analysis is that the growth-site conditions, natural or anthropogenic, of harvested cereals are reflected in their grain size and ?(13)C-?(15)N values. Since the remains found in the storeroom were charred, the first task was to evaluate the effect of carbonization on the ?(13)C-?(15)N and the size of the grains. Thus, the effect of charring was tested on modern samples of Syrian barley landraces. Once it had been ascertained that fresh grains reduced to charred remains retain their original biometric and isotopic traits, the ancient material was examined. Thirteen groups were identified, each characterized by a specific average volume and specific carbon and nitrogen values. The analysis revealed that what had first appeared to be a homogeneous concentration of grain was in fact an assemblage of barley harvested from different sites. PMID:22223320

  11. Illuminating the Nubian 'Dark Age': a bioarchaeological analysis of dental non-metric traits during the Napatan Period.

    PubMed

    Schrader, S; Buzon, M; Irish, J

    2014-08-01

    The origins of one of the most powerful sociopolitical entities of the Nile Valley, the Napatan State (850-650BCE), are debated. Some scholars have suggested local development of this influential Nubian State, while others propose foreign involvement. This study uses a bioarchaeological approach to examine the biological affinity of these Ancient Nubians. The focal site of this research, Tombos, is one of few non-central Napatan Period sites that have been excavated and can, therefore, shed light on the broader Napatan populace. Dental non-metric trait frequencies were examined in the Tombos sample as well as in 12 comparative samples to elucidate the biological affinities of these populations. Analyses indicate that Tombos dental non-metric trait frequencies were not significantly different from the majority of Egyptian and Nubian samples examined here. Therefore, we propose that gene flow, encouraged by long-term coexistence and intermarriage in Nubia, created an Egyptian/Nubian transcultural environment. These findings suggest the Napatan population at Tombos included descendants of Egyptians and Nubians. The Napatan Tombos sample was found to significantly differ from the latter Kushite and Meroitic samples; however, these samples are so temporally removed from the Napatan Period, we suspect subsequent episodes of population movement may have contributed to this variation. PMID:24951408

  12. Analysis of Intraspecies Diversity in Wheat and Barley Genomes Identifies Breakpoints of Ancient Haplotypes and Provides Insight into the Structure of Diploid and Hexaploid Triticeae Gene Pools1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Wicker, Thomas; Krattinger, Simon G.; Lagudah, Evans S.; Komatsuda, Takao; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Matsumoto, Takashi; Cloutier, Sylvie; Reiser, Laurenz; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Sato, Kazuhiro; Perovic, Dragan; Stein, Nils; Keller, Beat

    2009-01-01

    A large number of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) varieties have evolved in agricultural ecosystems since domestication. Because of the large, repetitive genomes of these Triticeae crops, sequence information is limited and molecular differences between modern varieties are poorly understood. To study intraspecies genomic diversity, we compared large genomic sequences at the Lr34 locus of the wheat varieties Chinese Spring, Renan, and Glenlea, and diploid wheat Aegilops tauschii. Additionally, we compared the barley loci Vrs1 and Rym4 of the varieties Morex, Cebada Capa, and Haruna Nijo. Molecular dating showed that the wheat D genome haplotypes diverged only a few thousand years ago, while some barley and Ae. tauschii haplotypes diverged more than 500,000 years ago. This suggests gene flow from wild barley relatives after domestication, whereas this was rare or absent in the D genome of hexaploid wheat. In some segments, the compared haplotypes were very similar to each other, but for two varieties each at the Rym4 and Lr34 loci, sequence conservation showed a breakpoint that separates a highly conserved from a less conserved segment. We interpret this as recombination breakpoints of two ancient haplotypes, indicating that the Triticeae genomes are a heterogeneous and variable mosaic of haplotype fragments. Analysis of insertions and deletions showed that large events caused by transposable element insertions, illegitimate recombination, or unequal crossing over were relatively rare. Most insertions and deletions were small and caused by template slippage in short homopolymers of only a few base pairs in size. Such frequent polymorphisms could be exploited for future molecular marker development. PMID:19011002

  13. Barley and oats: underutilized nutrition sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley and oats are two unique ancient crops. Their grains contain beta-glucan in substantial amounts, which can lower cholesterol levels and reduce glycemic response. Yet, food uses of barley and oats are rather limited due to lack of palatability of whole grain food or functionality of milled flou...

  14. Analysis of Intraspecies Diversity in Wheat and Barley Genomes Identifies Breakpoints of Ancient Haplotypes and Provides Insight into the Structure of Diploid and Hexaploid Triticeae Gene Pools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Wicker; Simon G. Krattinger; Evans S. Lagudah; Takao Komatsuda; Mohammad Pourkheirandish; Takashi Matsumoto; Sylvie Cloutier; Laurenz Reiser; Hiroyuki Kanamori; Kazuhiro Sato; Dragan Perovic; Nils Stein; Beat Keller

    2009-01-01

    A large number of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) varieties have evolved in agricultural ecosystems since domestication. Because of the large, repetitive genomes of these Triticeae crops, sequence information is limited and molecular differences between modern varieties are poorly understood. To study intraspecies genomic diversity, we compared large genomic sequences at the Lr34 locus of the wheat varieties

  15. Cordova Barley.

    E-print Network

    Atkins, I. M.

    1953-01-01

    Cordova Barley Figure 1. Winter (left) and Cordova barley growinc in field plot trials at Denton. 1952. in cooperation with the UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIGEST This bulletin reports the development and characteristics of Cordova..., a superior new barley variety for the Rolling Plains and Central Texas. Cordova was developed in the cooperative small grain improvement program of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station and the Division of Cereal Crops and Diseases, Bureau...

  16. The Nubian Aquifer in Southwest Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, C. A.; Werwer, A.; El-Baz, F.; El-Shazly, M.; Fritch, T.; Kusky, T.

    2007-02-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, and topographic and groundwater data are used to understand heterogeneities of the Nubian Aquifer between 20 24.5°N and 25 32°E in southwest Egypt. New fluvial and structural interpretations emphasize that the desert landscape was produced by fluvial action, including newly mapped alluvial fans. In central locations, braided channels are spatially aligned with a NE structural trend, suggesting preferential water flow paths that are consistent with the local direction of groundwater flow. The alluvial fans and structurally enclosed channels coincide with gentle slopes and optimal recharge conditions (1 5%) derived from the new Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) slope map, indicating that these areas have high groundwater potential. The SAR interpretations are correlated with anomalies observed in groundwater data from 383 wells. Results suggest a relationship between the spatial organization of fluvial and structural features and the occurrence of low-salinity groundwater. Low-salinity water exists adjacent to the alluvial fans and in SW reaches of the structurally enclosed channels. Wells in the vicinity of structures contain low-salinity water, emphasizing that knowledge of structural features is essential to understand groundwater flow paths. The new approach is cost effective and noninvasive and can be applied throughout the eastern Sahara to assist in resource management decisions and support the much needed agricultural expansion.

  17. Ancient Rome

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Murray

    2007-11-02

    The purpose of this internet project is to help students learn more about nine aspects of ancient Rome. These nine aspects will be of the student's own choosing. I have listed three websites that contain large amounts of information about Ancient Rome. Fill in the three handouts I give you, using information of your choice from the three websites. This is what the three handouts look like: Mr. Donn's Ancient History Click on Mr. Donn s Ancient History, then click on Rome. Scroll ...

  18. Malting Barley Characteristics

    E-print Network

    Malting Barley Characteristics for Craft Brewers Executive Summary The brewing industry is evolving rapidly, and the barley malt supply chain should likewise evolve rapidly to meet the very different needs as a potential impediment to growing their brands. To produce all-malt beer brands, craft brewers seek barley

  19. Arabian-Nubian Shield: incomplete vision and opened questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mahmoud; Garni, Saad Al; Hussaini, Adeeb Al; Alnahdi, Mubarak; Shammari, Abdullah Al; Abu-Alam, Tamer

    2015-04-01

    The Arabian-Nubian Shield is a juvenile crust formed during the Pan-African Orozgeny due the closure of the Mozambican ocean as a result of East- and West-Gondwanaland collision. The shield records part of Earth's history of about 300 Myr. The formation of the shield is close related to the activity of the major pre-Mesozoic shear zone on the Earth - the Najd Fault System. The Najd Fault System exhumed several metamorphic complexes in different setting; some of them were exhumed in extension setting as metamorphic core complexes, others were exhumed in compressional setting or in oblique compression setting as strike-slip complexes. The metamorphic complexes represent middle crustal level rocks (25 - 50 km depth) exhumed to a shallower level (of about 14 km depth). At the depth of 14 km the shield was intruded by syn-tectonic granitic suites known as older granites. These metamorphic complexes have an acidic composition in contrast to the average basic composition of the shield. Detrital-zircon geochronological data from Nubian sandstone indicate that the metamorphic complexes exhumed completely to the Earth's surface by the end of the Pan-African orogeny. There are some open questions still need to be addressed to complete our vision of the shield. Some of these questions are: What are the protoliths of the metamorohic complexes? These protoliths are juvenile rocks formed during the Pan-African orogeny and have acidic composition but no information available about the origin, the tectonic setting or the formation mechanism of these rocks. What is the relation between the exhumation of the metamorphic complexes to a crustal level of about 14 km and the intrusion of the syn-tectonic granites to the same crustal level. How did the metamorphic complexes exhumed to the Earth's surface by the end of the Pan-African orogeny?

  20. Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  1. Barley Production in Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Atkins, I. M.; Gardenhire, J. H.; Porter, K. B.

    1958-01-01

    killing of barley leaves or reduction ir stands. Late spring freezes may damage tll crop after jointing or heading starts. Barley is well adapted to this area, excer for the hazards of temperature just mentioned and the crop fits well into farming...IN COOPERATION WITH THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUMMARY Barley is a relatively minor. crop in Texas, but it has a dual value to growers as a grain crop and as winter pasture for livestock. The use of barley as a winter pasture crop...

  2. Registration of 'Rasmusson' Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rasmusson’ (Reg. No. CV-345, PI 658495) is a spring, six-rowed, malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) released by the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station in January 2008. It was named after Donald Rasmusson, who worked as a barley breeder at the University of Minnesota from 1958 to 2000. Rasmuss...

  3. Barley tortillas and barley flours in corn tortillas 

    E-print Network

    Mitre-Dieste, Carlos Marcelo

    2001-01-01

    of storage/warming conditions and barley substitution (%) on moisture content of DMF tortillas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 18 Effect ofbarley substitution (%) on color of tortillas . . . . . . 63 vu1 FIGURE 19 Effects of SB 94912 (waxy) barley flour... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Effects of SB 94912 (waxy) barley flour substitution ('zo) over time on extensibility of tortillas stored at 4'C. . . . . . . . . . 22 Effect of barley variety on moisture content of fresh, 4'C and reheated tortillas, containing 20'zo barley...

  4. Ancient Civilizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This subject guide includes Web sites and other resources on ancient civilizations with age levels and appropriate subject disciplines specified. Also includes CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, professional resources, and a sample student assignment. (LRW)

  5. Ancient Astronomers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Myers

    2010-06-04

    Conduct research on how different ancient peoples used astronomy. Please answer the questions under each ancient people in your journals. Try to include illustrations to help your understanding. Utah State Core: Standard 1 - Students will gain an understanding of early civilizations and their contributions to the foundations of human culture. Objective 2 - Assess the impact of geography on the locations of early civilizations. Barley Production in Texas.

    E-print Network

    Dunkle, P. B. (Paul Burtch); Atkins, Irvin Milburn

    1941-01-01

    LIBRARY, A & M COLLEGE, TEXAS AG,RICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A, B. CONNER, DIRECTOR College Station, Texas 1 BULLETIN NO. 605 SEPTEMBER 1941 1 BARLEY PRODUCTION IN TEXAS I. M. ATKINS and P. B. DUNKLE Division of Agronomy in coomration... Mildew 3 3 Summary _------- 33 BARLEY PRODUCTION IN TEXAS I. M. Atkins, Associate Agronomist, U.S.D.A., and P. B. DunkIe, Superintendent, Substation No. 6, Denton (Division of Agronomy, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, anil Bureau of Plant...

  6. Barley Production in Texas.

    E-print Network

    Atkins, I. M.; Gardenshire, J. H.; McDaniel, M. E.; Porter, K. B.

    1969-01-01

    - Z - TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY - Z - -- TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION - - - 5 -- - H. 0. Kunkel, Acting Director, College Station, Texas Sumniary Barley is grown in Texas on a less extensive scale than wheat or oats, but it has unique... characteristics as a feed and winter pasture crop. The acreage is widely distributed, but the majority is grown in North ant1 Northwest Texas. All barley grown for grain is used for livestock feed, but large acreages are

  7. Patterns of long-bone fracture in two nubian cementeries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Burrell; M. C. Maas; D. P. Van Gerven

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of traumatic fractures can provide valuable information concerning the affects of sociopolitical factors upon\\u000a the health of prehistoric populations. However, such information can only be acquired by implementing a quantitative demographic\\u000a approach. The present research applies such a method to longbone fractures in two medieval Christian populations excavated\\u000a from ancient Nubia. Long-bones of two hundred and eighteen individuals

  8. Nutritional ecology of dimorphic herbivores: digestion and passage rates in Nubian ibex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Gross; Philip U. Alkon; Montague W. Demment

    1996-01-01

    We compared forage digestion and passage rates among three groups of Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana) — mature males, non-lactating females, and lactating females — to test hypotheses relating intraspecific digestive ability to body mass and reproduction costs. We hypothesized that large males (60 kg) would exhibit longer forage retention times and more complete digestion of fermentable cell walls than

  9. Patch use, apprehension, and vigilance behavior of Nubian Ibex under perceived risk of predation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valeria Hochman; Burt P. Kotler

    2006-01-01

    Foraging theory predicts that animals will sacrifice feeding effort in order to reduce predation risk. Once a forager chooses a habitat, it must decide how to allocate its foraging effort. Nubian Ibex are diurnal, social, cliff-dwelling herbivores. Many of their characteristics seem to have evolved as responses to predation risk. In order to assess the effects that perceived risk of

  10. Portulaca oleracea (purslane): nutritive composition and clinico-pathological effects on Nubian goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Obied; E. N. Mohamoud; O. S. A. Mohamed

    2003-01-01

    Feeding trials of Portulaca oleracea were conducted in two groups of Nubian goats that received the plant at daily doses of 5g\\/kg BW and ad libitum, respectively. Consumption caused weakness of the fore and hind limbs with inability to stand, greenish watery diarrhoea and polyuria. Hepatonephropathy and enteritis accompanied by alterations in some blood and serum constituents were also observed.

  11. Ancient genomics

    PubMed Central

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten E.; Ávila-Arcos, María C.; Barnett, Ross; Campos, Paula F.; Cappellini, Enrico; Ermini, Luca; Fernández, Ruth; da Fonseca, Rute; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Hansen, Anders J.; Jónsson, Hákon; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Margaryan, Ashot; Martin, Michael D.; Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Raghavan, Maanasa; Rasmussen, Morten; Velasco, Marcela Sandoval; Schroeder, Hannes; Schubert, Mikkel; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Wales, Nathan; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a revolution in ancient DNA (aDNA) research. Although the field's focus was previously limited to mitochondrial DNA and a few nuclear markers, whole genome sequences from the deep past can now be retrieved. This breakthrough is tightly connected to the massive sequence throughput of next generation sequencing platforms and the ability to target short and degraded DNA molecules. Many ancient specimens previously unsuitable for DNA analyses because of extensive degradation can now successfully be used as source materials. Additionally, the analytical power obtained by increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans, archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when testing specific hypotheses related to the past. PMID:25487338

  12. RECENT ADVANCES IN BARLEY TRANSFORMATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley, an important member of the cereals, has been successfully transformed through various methods such as particle bombardment, Agrobacterium-tumefaciens, DNA uptake, and electroporation. Initially, the transformation in barley concentrated on developing protocols using marker genes such as gus,...

  13. Ancient Greece

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    Presented with a physical relief map of Greece and its many islands, visitors to the homepage of this site will then be treated to a range of material objects, ranging from masks, urns, and stone tablets. All of these items are part of the British Museumâ??s vast holdings of materials from ancient Greece, and brought together, they constitute the online website titled â??Ancient Greeceâ?. Previous online collections have presented material from other civilizations, and this assemblage is divided into traditional sections that include geography, time, war, and Athens. While many of the sections follow traditional online collection conventions, there are a number of splendid Flash-enabled features that present a day in the life of the city of Athens, and of course, Platoâ??s immortal cave.

  14. The Nubian Complex of Dhofar, Oman: An African Middle Stone Age Industry in Southern Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Jeffrey I.; Usik, Vitaly I.; Marks, Anthony E.; Hilbert, Yamandu H.; Galletti, Christopher S.; Parton, Ash; Geiling, Jean Marie; ?erný, Viktor; Morley, Mike W.; Roberts, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the numerous studies proposing early human population expansions from Africa into Arabia during the Late Pleistocene, no archaeological sites have yet been discovered in Arabia that resemble a specific African industry, which would indicate demographic exchange across the Red Sea. Here we report the discovery of a buried site and more than 100 new surface scatters in the Dhofar region of Oman belonging to a regionally-specific African lithic industry - the late Nubian Complex - known previously only from the northeast and Horn of Africa during Marine Isotope Stage 5, ?128,000 to 74,000 years ago. Two optically stimulated luminescence age estimates from the open-air site of Aybut Al Auwal in Oman place the Arabian Nubian Complex at ?106,000 years ago, providing archaeological evidence for the presence of a distinct northeast African Middle Stone Age technocomplex in southern Arabia sometime in the first half of Marine Isotope Stage 5. PMID:22140561

  15. Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian shield of Northeastern Sudan using thematic mapper imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Bechtel is nearing completion of a one-year program that uses digitally enhanced LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data to compile the first comprehensive regional tectonic map of the Proterozoic Nubian Shield exposed in the northern Red Sea Hills of northeastern Sudan. The status of significant objectives of this study are given. Pertinent published and unpublished geologic literature and maps of the northern Red Sea Hills to establish the geologic framework of the region were reviewed. Thematic mapper imagery for optimal base-map enhancements was processed. Photo mosaics of enhanced images to serve as base maps for compilation of geologic information were completed. Interpretation of TM imagery to define and delineate structural and lithogologic provinces was completed. Geologic information (petrologic, and radiometric data) was compiled from the literature review onto base-map overlays. Evaluation of the tectonic evolution of the Nubian Shield based on the image interpretation and the compiled tectonic maps is continuing.

  16. Ancient Egypt

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Drawing on its superb collection of materials from archaeological excavations, the British Museum presents this extensive learning resource on Ancient Egypt. The site features texts, images, and interactive elements detailing Egyptian daily life, mythology, timekeeping, geography, architecture, governance, business, writing, and rituals of death. The material is clearly and simply written so that the site would be useful for primary school students, but it is informative and substantial enough to be of interest to college students and curious adults as well. Thoroughly hyperlinked and replete with images that can be enlarged for detailed perusal, the site goes beyond the typical teaser Websites so often posted by lesser museums.

  17. Ancient Rome

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Martin

    2008-11-17

    The following sources are intended to further our study of Ancient Rome. The Roman civilization spanned many hundreds of years, so many of these sources are designed to not only give us interesting details about Rome, but also to give us a framework for our study. Assignment: Timelines The links below include helpful timelines. Open and preview both websites, then decide which one you like better. Use the timeline to write down at least three events that are interesting to you. At least one of them should be from the time of the Roman Republic ...

  18. REGISTRATION OF 'HERALD' BARLEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Herald' (Reg. No. xxx, P.I. 642403 ) is a low-phytate six-rowed spring feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar developed cooperatively and released in 2006 by the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. It is the first released...

  19. Mushroom Barley Soup Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Mushroom Barley Soup Ingredients: 1 tablespoon oil 1 onion 2 celery stalks 2 carrots 2 cups of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Run under water to remove any dirt. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side on the cutting board. Slice across the onion, from one side to the other

  1. Registration of Endeavor Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Endeavor’ (Reg. No. ______PI 654824); a two-rowed winter malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed and submitted for release in 2007 by the Agricultural Research Service-USDA, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Endeavor is a selection...

  2. Garden Barley Soup Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    salt 1 zucchini 1 tomato 1 green pepper Directions 1. In a Dutch oven or stock pot, combine tomato the tomato together. Turn ¼ and slice again to dice. 4. Slice green pepper in half and remove stem and seeds heat. 6. Cover; simmer 15-20 minutes or until vegetables and barley are tender. Equipment: Stock pot

  3. Registration of ‘Lenetah’ barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Lenetah’ (reg. No. , PI ) two-rowed spring feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed by the Agricultural Research Service, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the Idaho Agricultural Experimental Station and released in December 2007. It was released due to its superior yield and test we...

  4. Palynology and Stratigraphy of the Nubian Sandstone in Libya and Comparison with Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekbali, Ali; Hlal, Osama

    2013-04-01

    The so-called "Nubian Sandstone" outcrops along a wide area from Algeria to the Red Sea, forming two regressive phases. The lower phase is represented in Egypt by the Basal Clastic Unit, the Desert Rose Unit, the Abu Ballas Formation and the Matruh Shale. In Libya it is represented by the Mesak Sandstone, Sarir Sandstone, Cabao Sandstone and Kiklah Formation. In both countries, these successions are covered by a carbonate sequence, resulting from the Tethyan transgression during the Cenomanian. In Egypt however, the upper regressive phase is represented by the Taref Sandstone which was deposited during a brief period of active progradation, following the Tethyan incursion. This is not observed in Libya. Comparison of palynological studies in Libya with those documented by several authors in Egypt reveals that the "Nubian" facies in Libya were deposited before equivalent facies in Egypt. The Basal Clastic Unit, dated as Hautrauvian-Barremian, may be equivalent, at least to a part of the Neocomian Cabao Sandstone in NW Libya. Jarmah Member of the Mesak Formation in Libya was dated as Berriasian on the basis of Pilosisporites and Trilobosporites. This makes it older than any "Nubian" unit in Egypt. The Matruh Shale was assigned to the Aptian on the basis of Tricolpites, and the Abu Balls Formation 34 as Aptian-Albian on the basis of Tricolpites and Rousisporites radiatus. Whereas, there is no equivalent to the Aptian in NW Libya, the Aptian-Albian of Egypt is similar to Zone 1 of the Kiklah Formation and As Sarir Sandstone, which were dated as early Albian on the basis of Afropollis spp., and Perotriletes pannuceus, an Albian element not recorded in Egypt. The Plant Beds in southwestern Egypt were dated as Cenomanian on the basis of advanced angiosperm pollen. In Libya, equivalent bodies were considered Vraconian, representing the uppermost Albian, because it lacks Cenomanian pollen (e.g. Tricolpites mutabilis). Comparison of local sea-level changes with global sea-level curves is used to reconstruct paleogeography. Integration of palynology with geological data and tectonic implications indicates that, despite similarity in paleogeographic processes of the Nubian Sandstone, geological and structural settings remain different. The "Nubian Sandstone" provides a typical succession that can be studied in the light of sequence stratigraphy.

  5. Ancient Bedforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    18 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows groupings of large ripple-like windblown bedforms on the floor of a large crater (larger than the image shown here) in Sinus Sabaeus, south of Schiaparelli Basin. These ripple-like features are much larger than typical wind ripples on Earth, but smaller than typical sand dunes on either planet. Like most of the other ripple-like bedforms in Sinus Sabaeus, they are probably ancient and no longer mobile. Dark streaks on the substrate between the bedforms were formed by passing dust devils. This image is located near 13.0oS, 343.7oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  6. How ancient are ancient asexuals?

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Koen; Rossetti, Giampaolo; Horne, David J

    2003-01-01

    Ancient asexual animal groups, such as bdelloid rotifers and darwinuloid ostracods, are excellent model organisms to study the effects of long-term asexuality. However, the absolute length of time that these groups have been fully asexual is mostly ignored. In the case of the darwinuloid ostracods, the fossil record shows that sexual reproduction disappeared almost completely after the end of Permian mass extinction (ca. 245 Myr ago), although several putative records of males from the Mesozoic obscure the exact time-frame of obligate asexuality in darwinuloids. Here, we re-examine the Mesozoic darwinuloid records, with regard to the reproductive mode of the assemblages. Three criteria to distinguish males in fossil populations (lack of brood pouch, position of muscle scars and size dimorphism) are used here to test for the presence of males in darwinuloid assemblages. A large, well-preserved assemblage of Darwinula leguminella (Forbes 1885) from the latest Jurassic (ca. 145 Myr ago) of England is found to be markedly variable in size and shape, but nevertheless turns out to be an all female assemblage. The exceptional preservation of the material also allows the re-assignment of this species to the extant darwinuloid genus Alicenula. All other putative dimorphic darwinuloid records from the Mesozoic are re-examined using the same criteria. The hypothesis that these assemblages represent bisexual populations is rejected for all post-Triassic (ca. 208 Myr ago) records. PMID:12713746

  7. Invigorated barley in diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashok K. Tiwari

    With over 41 million diabetics, India has become diabetes-capital of the world. The country is also a leader in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity, with hypertension to join the list soon. Historical evidences suggest that the ancient Indian physicians were able to stabilize dia- betes, obesity and related metabolic syndrome effectively through recommendations, which are not different from

  8. New interpretation of the so-called Nubian strata in northeast Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Klitzsch, E.H.; Squyres, C.H.

    1988-08-01

    Stratigraphical interpretation of the so-called Nubian Sandstone of Egypt and northern Sudan have led to new ideas on the structural and paleogeographical development of northeast Africa. The strata formerly comprised under the term Nubian Sandstone include sediments from Cambrian to Paleocene age. Based on field work and paleontological investigations during the last 10 years, these strata can be subdivided into three major cycles, each characterizing a certain structural situation of northeast Africa. The first or Paleozoic cycle comprises strata of Cambrian to Early Carboniferous age. These strata were deposited during a period of generally northern dip of northeast Africa; continental sediments transported northward interfinger with marine strata resulting from southward transgressions. Sediments of the second cycle were deposited during and after Gondwana and northern continents collided, which caused updoming of large areas of Egypt and bordering areas to the west and east. As a result, most of Egypt became subject to erosion; transgressions remained near the present northern edge of the continent, and purely continental deposition took place in northern Sudan and bordering areas in Chad and Libya. The resulting strata are similar to the Karroo of East Africa. Strata of the third cycle were deposited after Pangea began to disintegrate. Northeast Africa now had a generally northern dip again, and consequently deposition was controlled - as during the first cycle - by northward drainage and southward transgressions. This last cycle began during Late Jurassic time.

  9. Mixed fluvial systems of Messak Sandstone, a deposit of Nubian lithofacies, southwestern Libya

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, J.C.

    1987-05-01

    The Messak Sandstone is a coarse to pebbly, tabular cross-bedded, Lower Cretaceous deposit of the widespread Nubian lithofacies. It was deposited at the northern edge of the Murzuq basin in southwestern Libya. Although the sedimentary record is predominantly one of braided fluvial systems, a common subfacies within the formation is interpreted to record the passage of straight-crested sand waves across laterally migrating point bars in sinuous rivers, similar to the pattern documented by Singh and Kumar on the modern Ganga and Yamuna Rivers. Because the sand waves were larger on the lower parts of the point bars, lateral migration created diagnostic thinning-upward, unidirectional cosets of tabular cross-beds as well as fining-upward, grain-size trends. Common, thick, interbedded claystones, deposited in associated paludal and lacustrine environments, and high variance in cross-bed dispersion patterns also suggest the local presence of sinuous fluvial systems within the overall braided regime. The Messak Sandstone contains some of the features that led Harms et al to propose an unconventional low-sinuosity fluvial environment for the Nubian lithofacies in Egypt, and the continuously high water levels of this model may explain channel-scale clay drapes and overturned cross-beds in the Messak. However, most of the Messak characteristics are incompatible with the low-sinuosity model, suggesting instead that the fluvial channels in the Murzuq basin alternated between braided and high-sinuosity patterns.

  10. Phanerozoic tectonothermal history of the ArabianNubian shield in the Eastern Desert of Egypt: evidence from fission track

    E-print Network

    Fritz, Harald

    Phanerozoic tectonothermal history of the Arabian­Nubian shield in the Eastern Desert of Egypt were performed in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. The results provide insights into the processes driving reserved. Keywords: Phanerozoic; Fission track thermochronology; Palaeostress; Arabian­Nubien shield; Egypt

  11. Barley Transformation Using Biolistic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Smedley, Mark A.

    Microprojectile bombardment or biolistic techniques have been widely used for cereal transformation. These methods rely on the acceleration of gold particles, coated with plasmid DNA, into plant cells as a method of directly introducing the DNA. The first report of the generation of fertile, transgenic barley plants used biolistic techniques. However, more recently Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been adopted as the method of choice for most cereals including barley. Biolistic procedures are still important for some barley transformation applications and also provide transient test systems for the rapid checking of constructs. This chapter describes methods for the transformation of barley using biolistic procedures and also highlights the use of the technology in transient assays.

  12. Barley variety identification using SSRs.

    PubMed

    Southworth, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    There is a current and developing need for rapid and accurate methods of barley varietal identification which go beyond traditional morphological analysis. Methods using DNA analysis have the capacity to fulfil this role with microsatellites being the current marker of choice. The majority of barley cultivars on the National List can be differentiated using 6 SSRs and bulk samples, using the methods described here. PMID:19301765

  13. Orientation of late Precambrian sutures in the Arabian-Nubian shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Robert J.; Nielsen, Kent C.; Best, Eric; Sultan, Mohamed; Arvidson, Raymond E.

    1990-01-01

    Recent tectonic models have resulted in conflicting descriptions of how the late Precambrian sutures of the Arabian-Nubian shield extend into northeast Africa. The Hamisana shear zone in northeastern Sudan is critical to this discussion because it truncates and disrupts two sutures, the Allaqi-Heiani and the Onib-Sol Hamed. Analysis of field structural data, Thematic Mapper imagery, and Rb-Sr and U-Pb geochronology suggests that the Allaqi-Heiani suture is the western extension of the Onib-Sol Hamed suture and that both make up the exposed parts of a far-traveled, polydeformed ophiolitic nappe complex. Subsequent deformation localized in the Hamisana shear zone disrupted this nappe and displaced the suture between 660 and 550 Ma during regional deformation associated with the Najd fault system. These results indicate that at least one suture extends westward into the interior of northern Africa.

  14. Distribution of oceanic and continental leads in the Arabian-Nubian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacey, J.S.; Stoeser, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    New common lead data for feldspar, whole-rock, and galena samples from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, together with data from previous work, can be divided into two main groups. Group I leads have oceanic (mantle) characteristics, whereas group II leads have incorporated a continental-crustal component of at least early Proterozoic age. The group I leads are found in rocks from the Red Sea Hills of Egypt and the western and southern parts of the Arabian Shield. Group II leads are found in rocks from the northeastern and eastern parts of the Arabian Shield, as well as from the southeastern Shield near Najran. They are also found in rocks to the south in Yemen, to the east in Oman, and to the west at Aswan, Egypt. This distribution of data suggests that the Arabian-Nubian Shield has an oceanic core flanked by rocks that have developed, at least in part, from older continental material. Two mechanisms are suggested by which this older lead component could have been incorporated into the late Proterozoic rocks, and each may have operated in different parts of the Shield. The older lead component either was derived directly from an underlying early Proterozoic basement or was incorporated from subducted pelagic sediments or sediments derived from an adjacent continent. New U-Pb zircon data indicate the presence of an early Proterozoic basement southeast of Jabal Dahul in the eastern Arabian Shield. These data, together with 2,000-Ma-old zircons from the Al Amar fault zone, verify the implication of the common lead data that at least a part of the eastern Arabian Shield has an older continental basement. Because continental margins are particularly favorable locations for development of ore deposits, these findings may have important economic implications, particularly for tin, tungsten, and molybdenum exploration. ?? 1983 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Ancient World Mapping Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Located at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the Ancient World Mapping Center is funded by the UNC College of Arts and Sciences and the American Philological Association. The Center is primarily designed to promote the usage of cartography and geographic information science within the field of ancient studies. The Center's main web page begins with a host of recent news events related to ongoing research dealing with the ancient world from various fields, including geography, archaeology, and history. Equally helpful is the New Sites and Finds area, which gathers together new and useful sites dedicated to investigating various aspects of the ancient world. Of course there is also the map room area where visitors can download any one of a number of detailed maps (many of which have been created by the staff at the Center) of the ancient world. Some of these maps include those of Byzantine Constantinople, Ptolemaic Egypt, and several of ancient Greece.

  16. Hulless winter barley for ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hulless barley is viable feedstock alternative to corn for ethanol production in areas where small grains are produced. The first barley-based ethanol plant in the US is currently under construction by Osage BioEnergy LLC in Hopewell, VA. New hulless winter barley varieties developed by Virginia T...

  17. Olympics: Ancient vs. Modern

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Schaefer

    2008-09-13

    Objective: Students will compare the Ancient Olympics invented by the Greeks to a Modern Olympic games Materials: Computer with internet connection Paper and writing Utensil OR open blank Word Document Procedures: 1. On your paper or in your Word Document, create two columns and label one Ancient Greeks and the other Modern Olympics 2. Use a minimum of 2 of the following links to find information to compare the Ancient Olympics to the ...

  18. A Nubian Complex Site from Central Arabia: Implications for Levallois Taxonomy and Human Dispersals during the Upper Pleistocene

    PubMed Central

    Crassard, Rémy; Hilbert, Yamandú Hieronymus

    2013-01-01

    Archaeological survey undertaken in central Saudi Arabia has revealed 29 surface sites attributed to the Arabian Middle Paleolithic based on the presence of Levallois blank production methods. Technological analyses on cores retrieved from Al-Kharj 22 have revealed specific reduction modalities used to produce flakes with predetermined shapes. The identified modalities, which are anchored within the greater Levallois concept of core convexity preparation and exploitation, correspond with those utilized during the Middle Stone Age Nubian Complex of northeast Africa and southern Arabia. The discovery of Nubian technology at the Al-Kharj 22 site represents the first appearance of this blank production method in central Arabia. Here we demonstrate how a rigorous use of technological and taxonomic analysis may enable intra-regional comparisons across the Arabian Peninsula. The discovery of Al-Kharj 22 increases the complexity of the Arabian Middle Paleolithic archaeological record and suggests new dynamics of population movements between the southern and central regions of the Peninsula. This study also addresses the dichotomy within Nubian core typology (Types 1 and 2), which was originally defined for African assemblages. PMID:23894434

  19. A Nubian complex site from central Arabia: implications for Levallois taxonomy and human dispersals during the upper Pleistocene.

    PubMed

    Crassard, Rémy; Hilbert, Yamandú Hieronymus

    2013-01-01

    Archaeological survey undertaken in central Saudi Arabia has revealed 29 surface sites attributed to the Arabian Middle Paleolithic based on the presence of Levallois blank production methods. Technological analyses on cores retrieved from Al-Kharj 22 have revealed specific reduction modalities used to produce flakes with predetermined shapes. The identified modalities, which are anchored within the greater Levallois concept of core convexity preparation and exploitation, correspond with those utilized during the Middle Stone Age Nubian Complex of northeast Africa and southern Arabia. The discovery of Nubian technology at the Al-Kharj 22 site represents the first appearance of this blank production method in central Arabia. Here we demonstrate how a rigorous use of technological and taxonomic analysis may enable intra-regional comparisons across the Arabian Peninsula. The discovery of Al-Kharj 22 increases the complexity of the Arabian Middle Paleolithic archaeological record and suggests new dynamics of population movements between the southern and central regions of the Peninsula. This study also addresses the dichotomy within Nubian core typology (Types 1 and 2), which was originally defined for African assemblages. PMID:23894434

  20. Ancient Egyptian Architecture

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Myers

    2011-10-06

    Time to learn about Temples, Pyramids, and Obelisks in Ancient Egypt! Please use the links below to help you find the answers to the questions on your worksheets. Ancient Egypt (click on the pyramids and temples links) Architecture(use this link to answer questions in the Temples section) Obelisks pyramids ...

  1. Pan-African shear zone-hosted gold mineralization in the Arabian-Nubian shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Alam, Tamer; Grosch, Eugene; Abd El Monsef, Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    A new tectonic model of the exhumation mechanism of the Arabian-Nubian Shield will be presented at the EGU2013 by Abu-Alam and Stüwe (2013). According to this new tectonic model, the shear zones of the Arabian-Nubian Shield can be classified into two types; deep-seated and relatively shallow shear zones. The deep-seated shear zones are accompanied with deep sub-horizontal crustal channel flows which are response to the exhumation of the metamorphic complexes from the peak condition depth to a shallower crustal level (ductile-brittle transition). An example of these deep-seated shear zones is the Najd Fault System - the largest shear zone on the Earth. At the ductile-brittle transition crustal level, the deep-seated shear zones were overprinted by a greenschist facies condition or the ?2 and ?3 of the principle stresses may be flipped with each other. This flipping can produce other conjugate shallow shear zones in a greenschist facies conditions. The Egyptian gold deposits can be classified into three main types (Botros, 2004), These are stratabound deposits, non-stratabound deposits and placer gold deposits. The non-stratabound deposits are the most common (ex: Sukari, Wadi Allaqi, Abu Marawat, Atalla, El-Sid and Atud gold mines). They are found in form of vein type mineralization or as disseminated mineralization hosted in volcanics and volcaniclastic rocks (volcanogenic massive sulphides). Spatial and temporal relationships between gold veins and structures in the Arabian-Nubian Shield suggest a genetic relationship between mineralization and major tectonic events. At Sukari, Wadi Allaqi and Abu Marawat areas, the gold is hosted in quartz veins parallel to a deep-seated NW-SE to NNW-SSE shear zones. For Atud, El-Sid and Atalla area, the gold is hosted in NE-SW veins parallel to a shallow shear zone but at the conjugate point with a deep-seated NW-SE shear zone. According to the new tectonic model, we propose the following model for gold formation (non-stratabound). They were deposited from hydrothermal solutions which were produced in a deeper crustal level due to metamorphic or magmatic processes or combination between both. These solutions transfer through the deep-seated shear zones which cutting the all rock unites of the shield. The hydrothermal solutions can leach the gold out from a source rock (e.g. ophiolitic or gabbroic rocks). Once the solutions enter the ductile-brittle transition crustal level, the quartz veins and the hosted gold begin to precipitate parallel to the regional foliation of the deep-seated shear zones. Abu-Alam T.S. and Stüwe K. (2013) Sub-horizontal channel flow: an exhumation mechanism during the Gondwana collision. EGU2013-9778 Botros N. (2004) A new classification of the gold deposits of Egypt, Ore Geology Reviews 25, 1 -37

  2. Isozymes in wheat-barley hybrid derivative lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Powling; A. K. M. R. Islam; K. W. Shepherd

    1981-01-01

    Zymogram analysis was used to identify the barley chromosomes that carry the structural genes for particular isozymes. Wheat, barley, and wheatbarley hybrid derivative lines (which contained identified barley chromosomes) were tested by gel electrophoresis for isozymes of particular enzymes. It was found that barley chromosome 4 carries structural genes for acid phosphatase and ß amylase isozymes, barley chromosome 5 carries

  3. HEALTH EFFECTS OF BARLEY CONSUMPTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease remains the major health problem in the US. Consumption of soluble fiber, like that in oats, has been recognized as beneficial in decreasing blood cholesterol levels and other cardiovascular risk factors. Barley has high amounts of soluble fiber but is not extensively consumed...

  4. Experience Ancient Egypt Uncover the secrets of the ancient world...

    E-print Network

    Travis, Adrian

    Experience Ancient Egypt Uncover the secrets of the ancient world... A day event for Children in Care in school years 7 - 9 Discover the secrets of Ancient Egypt at this FREE taster day. Explore the incredible Ancient Egypt Gallery at the Fitzwilliam Museum and create some Egyptian artwork. Plus enjoy

  5. Ancient Egypt: the Mythology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Website, "dedicated to supplying information about the religious beliefs of ancient Egypt," offers internally linked essays and descriptions from scholarly sources detailing the relationship between the land and ancient beliefs; glossaries with healthy descriptions of the deities and symbols; and eighteen prominent mythological stories of Ancient Egypt. An annotated list of about a dozen other pertinent sites is also posted. A simple search engine is provided and can be accessed by going to the incongruously titled "Egypt" page, which offers users an opportunity to search the site, sign the guestbook, or email the author -- a college instructor -- questions about Egyptian mythology, but which offers no additional information on Egypt itself.

  6. 7 CFR 801.3 - Tolerances for barley pearlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Tolerances for barley pearlers. 801.3 Section 801.3 Agriculture...INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.3 Tolerances for barley pearlers. The maintenance tolerances for barley pearlers used in performing official...

  7. 7 CFR 801.3 - Tolerances for barley pearlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Tolerances for barley pearlers. 801.3 Section 801.3 Agriculture...INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.3 Tolerances for barley pearlers. The maintenance tolerances for barley pearlers used in performing official...

  8. 7 CFR 801.3 - Tolerances for barley pearlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Tolerances for barley pearlers. 801.3 Section 801.3 Agriculture...INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.3 Tolerances for barley pearlers. The maintenance tolerances for barley pearlers used in performing official...

  9. 7 CFR 801.3 - Tolerances for barley pearlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Tolerances for barley pearlers. 801.3 Section 801.3 Agriculture...INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.3 Tolerances for barley pearlers. The maintenance tolerances for barley pearlers used in performing official...

  10. 7 CFR 801.3 - Tolerances for barley pearlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Tolerances for barley pearlers. 801.3 Section 801.3 Agriculture...INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.3 Tolerances for barley pearlers. The maintenance tolerances for barley pearlers used in performing official...

  11. Retroperitoneal giant ancient schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Khandakar, Binny; Dey, Soumit; Chandra Paul, Prabir; Medda, Sriparna; Bhattacharya, Aparna; Datta, Saikat

    2014-12-01

    Ancient schwannoma is a rare variant of benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor, often morphologically mimicking malignancy. Retroperitoneum is an uncommon location. We describe one case of giant retroperitoneal ancient schwannoma. Literature concerning this variant is also reviewed. A 65 year old male presented with altered bowel habits. Imaging findings revealed a large heterogeneous mass in the retroperitoneum. The patient was treated with complete excision. Grossly, the tumor was predominantly solid with focal cystic degeneration. Histological examination showed an encapsulated spindle cell tumor with nuclear palisading, very focal nuclear atypia and widespread foam cell infiltration - findings consistent with ancient schwannoma. A diagnosis of ancient schwannoma can be considered for a solid-cystic encapsulated mass in the retroperitoneum. Malignant transformation is very rare. Local recurrence is uncommon following complete excision. The authors have nothing to disclose. PMID:25481325

  12. Interactive Ancient Mediterranean Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Interactive Ancient Mediterranean (IAM) Project is an online atlas of the ancient Mediterranean world designed to support the instruction of the classics, ancient history, archaeology, and related disciplines. Currently, IAM's Map Room has an index of over 50 maps of ten regions of the Mediterranean basin and northern Europe available for downloading and printing. Most maps are high-resolution .pdf files and the remainder are large, high-quality JPEG files. Users may also search the atlas by keyword, place name, cultural object, or ancient author. IAM is an ongoing joint effort of the American Philological Association's Classical Atlas Project and the departments of Classics and History at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

  13. Ancient Egyptian Astronomical Calander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Patrice; Lodhi, M. A. K.

    2001-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss how certain astronomical concepts are related to the ancient Egyptian culture and their daily life. One of them is different ways of creating their calendar systems. The ancient Egyptian calendar seems to have quite a bit of its origin in astronomy and its development over the course of history. There is an important role played by events, as determined in the heavens, in developing their calendar system. Along with astronomical observations by the ancient people of Egypt, there were several outside cultures that helped develop their calendar system and Egyptian idea of how life was created on this planet, most notably the inclusion of the star Sirius in the constellation of Canis Major. We give a brief discussion of these influences. For the ancient Egyptians, the cycle of life and death is a concept that ties in with a calendar system used to determine daily events.

  14. Ancient ships of Japan 

    E-print Network

    Miyashita, Hiroaki

    2006-10-30

    Ancient ships of Japan, which are little known outside of Japan, are presented based on the studies of past researchers, as well as a comprehensive analysis of archaeological remains. The process of development from logboats ...

  15. Stable barley chromosomes without centromeric repeats

    PubMed Central

    Nasuda, S.; Hudakova, S.; Schubert, I.; Houben, A.; Endo, T. R.

    2005-01-01

    The satellite sequences (AGGGAG)n and Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons are known to localize at the barley centromeres. Using a gametocidal system, which induces chromosomal mutations in barley chromosomes added to common wheat, we obtained an isochromosome for the short arm of barley chromosome 7H (7HS) that lacked the barley-specific satellite sequence (AGGGAG)n. Two telocentric derivatives of the isochromosome arose in the progeny: 7HS* with and 7HS** without the pericentromeric C-band. FISH analysis demonstrated that both telosomes lacked not only the barley-specific centromeric (AGGGAG)n repeats and retroelements but also any of the known wheat centromeric tandem repeats, including the 192-bp, 250-bp, and TaiI sequences. Although they lacked these centromeric repeats, 7HS* and 7HS** both showed normal mitotic and meiotic transmission. Translocation of barley centromeric repeats to a wheat chromosome 4A did not generate a dicentric chromosome. Indirect immunostaining revealed that all tested centromere-specific proteins (rice CENH3, maize CENP-C, and putative barley homologues of the yeast kinetochore proteins CBF5 and SKP1) and histone H3 phosphorylated at serines 10 and 28 localized at the centromeric region of 7HS*. We conclude that the barley centromeric repeats are neither sufficient nor obligatory to assemble kinetochores, and we discuss the possible formation of a novel centromere in a barley chromosome. PMID:15998740

  16. Wheat and Barley Genome Sequencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kellye Eversole; Andreas Graner; Nils Stein

    A high quality reference genome sequence is a prerequisite resource for accessing any gene, driving genomics-based approaches\\u000a to systems biology, and for efficient exploitation of natural and induced genetic diversity of an organism. Wheat and barley\\u000a possess genomes of a size that was long presumed to be not amenable for whole genome sequencing. So far, only limited genomic\\u000a sequencing of

  17. Metamorphic petrology unraveling secrets of the Arabian-Nubian Shield evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Alam, Tamer

    2015-04-01

    The formation of orogens is a complex process often involving multiple stages of compression and extension. Arabian-Nubian Shield is a juvenile crust formed during the Pan-African orogen and the collision between East- and West-Gondwana. The formation mechanism was complicated and includes rifting of an old continent (Rodinia) and formation of oceanic crust followed by initiation of subduction, arc-arc collision, arcs-Sahara Metacraton collision and finally escape tectonic, formation of the largest pre-Mesozoic shear zone on the Earth - the Najd Fault System. In such complicated setting, the metamorphic petrology can be used as an effective tool to study the evolution of the shield and it can give valuable information about the thermal structural of the lithosphere during this stage of the evolution of the Earth. Baladiyah complex in the northern part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield will be used here as a case study to unraveling the tectonic evolution of the shield using metamorphic petrology. Field evidence from the Baladiyah complex shows several erosional unconformities separate different high grade metasedimentary rocks within the complex. This indicates that the tectonic evolution involved several cycles of exhumation and burial. Mineral equilibria approach and thermodynamic modeling are used to place constraints on the formation conditions of each of these cycles. It is shown that the complex is characterised by three regional metamorphic events followed by a fourth event of contact metamorphism due to the intrusion of post-tectonic granites. The first metamorphic event experienced peak metamorphism around 705 - 715 °C and 5.2 - 5.6 kbar and subsequent isothermal decompression to the Earth's surface. The second metamorphic events attained peak conditions of 635 - 670 oC and 4.2 - 5 kbar followed by exhumation, erosion and depositional of molasse sediments. The rocks were buried for a third time and metamorphosed to greenschist facies metamorphic condition (330 ± 30 oC and 3.6 - 4.6 kbar) under the load of molasse sediments. Post-tectonic granites were intruded at depth of 12 km during the final Pan-African exhumation causing the fourth metamorphic event (700 ± 25 oC). Correlation of this metamorphic evolution with the deformation history shows that the first and the second metamorphic events occurred in a compression regime (D1 and D2), interpreted to be related to the collision between East- and West-Gondwana. While the third deformation phase began as compression regime causing the third metamorphic event, and then turned into oblique transpressive regime which led to form escape tectonics and development of a large scale strike-slip shear zone "the Najd Fault System". This tectonic evolution accompanied several cycles of exhumation and burial indicates multistage crustal flexure during Gondwana Collision.

  18. STATUS OF RWA-RESISTANT BARLEY GERMPLASM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), is a devastating pest on barley in the western U.S. First identified in the US in 1986 it spread throughout the intermountain regions of the western US and into Canada by 1988. All currently grown barley cultivars were highly susceptible to R...

  19. Descriptions of Barley Genetic Stocks For 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Barley Genetics Stocks Database provides information on hundreds of morphological markers. We recently characterized and mapped 27 brachytic (brh) semidwarf mutants in barley. The brachytic lines were evaluated for ten phenotypic traits: height, awn, peduncle, rachis internode length, leaf lengt...

  20. Fuel Ethanol Production from Barley Straw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley straw used in this study contained 34.1±0.6% cellulose, 22.6±0.4% hemicelluloses, and 13.3±0.2% lignin (moisture, 6.5±0.0%). Several pretreatments (dilute acid, lime, and alkaline peroxide) and enzymatic saccharification procedures were evaluated for the conversion of barley straw to monomer...

  1. 2010 Barley Performance in Central Montana By Dave Wichman

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    2010 Barley Performance in Central Montana By Dave Wichman The 2010 spring barley yields and test development lines topped the Moccasin barley trial, Goldeneye was the high yielding cultivar at both with the MSU-MAES barley breeder Dr. Tom Blake and assistant breeder, Stan Bates. Funding was provided

  2. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley varieties not...

  3. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley varieties not...

  4. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley varieties not...

  5. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley varieties not...

  6. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley varieties not...

  7. Ancient Chinese constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junjun

    2011-06-01

    China, a country with a long history and a specific culture, has also a long and specific astronomy. Ancient Chinese astronomers observed the stars, named and distributed them into constellations in a very specific way, which is quite different from the current one. Around the Zodiac, stars are divided into four big regions corresponding with the four orientations, and each is related to a totem, either the Azure Dragon, the Vermilion Bird, the White Tiger or the Murky Warrior. We present a general pattern of the ancient Chinese constellations, including the four totems, their stars and their names.

  8. Mapping Ancient Coastlines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, students use a graph to find sea level at various times in the past, then draw the ancient coastlines onto a bathymetric map by following the depth contours. They should develop an understanding of how to interpret a graph to discern changes in sea level, and an understanding that ancient coastlines parallel the contour lines on a bathymetric map. A materials list, directions, background information, and a printable worksheet are provided. National content standards and links to additional information are also included.

  9. Geography of Ancient Egypt

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Myers

    2010-09-30

    This activity focuses on the importance of geographic features and the abundance of natural resources that helped ancient Egypt become the world's first superpower. Students will learn about the geography and resources available to the ancient Egyptians. Read each question below carefully. Using the following maps: modern political map geographical features map natural resources map archaeological sites map And the following features on the Egypt's Golden Empire website: natural resources farming Answer each question below using as much detail as possible. What countries border modern-day Egypt? (modern political map) Name the major bodies of water that surround an are a part of Egypt. (modern political map) What ...

  10. Effect of Feed Restriction and Realimentation with Monensin Supplementation on Placental Structure and Ultrastructure in Anglo-Nubian Goats

    PubMed Central

    Cristofolini, A. L.; Turiello, M. P.; Sanchis, E. G.; Cufré, G.; Merkis, C. I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feed restriction followed by a realimentation with monensin supplementation on morphological, ultrastructural, and apoptotic characteristics in the term placenta of Anglo-Nubian does. Treatments were a control group (C = 5), a group fed at 0.70 of that consumed by controls (R = 7), and the same as R with monensin (M = 7). After parturition, 27 placentas were gathered, C: 7, M: 10, and R: 10. No differences were detected between treatments in relation to morphological and ultrastructural analysis. The greatest values of binucleate cells were detected in placentas from R, and it could be due to the need to compensate and satisfy nutritional differences of restriction. We detected the highest apoptotic index in R as a consequence of nutritional treatment. We describe for the first time the structural and ultrastructural morphology and remodeling by apoptosis of Anglo-Nubian placenta at term of goats subjected to nutritional restriction during peripubertal period and the use of monensin as a growth promoter. PMID:23762584

  11. New isotopic evidence for the origin of groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer in the Negev, Israel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vengosh, A.; Hening, S.; Ganor, J.; Mayer, B.; Weyhenmeyer, C.E.; Bullen, T.D.; Paytan, A.

    2007-01-01

    The geochemistry and isotopic composition (H, O, S, Osulfate, C, Sr) of groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone (Kurnub Group) aquifer in the Negev, Israel, were investigated in an attempt to reconstruct the origin of the water and solutes, evaluate modes of water-rock interactions, and determine mean residence times of the water. The results indicate multiple recharge events into the Nubian sandstone aquifer characterized by distinctive isotope signatures and deuterium excess values. In the northeastern Negev, groundwater was identified with deuterium excess values of ???16???, which suggests local recharge via unconfined areas of the aquifer in the Negev anticline systems. The ??18OH2O and ??2H values (-6.5??? and -35.4???) of this groundwater are higher than those of groundwater in the Sinai Peninsula and southern Arava valley (-7.5??? and -48.3???) that likewise have lower deuterium excess values of ???10???. Based on the geochemical differences between groundwater in the unconfined and confined zones of the aquifer, a conceptual geochemical model for the evolution of the groundwater in the Nubian sandstone aquifer has been reconstructed. The isotopic composition of shallow groundwater from the unconfined zone indicates that during recharge oxidation of pyrite to SO4 (??34SSO4 ???-13???; ??18OSO4 ???+7.7???) and dissolution of CaCO3 (87Sr/86Sr ???0.70787; ??13CDIC = -3.7???) occur. In the confined zone of the aquifer, bacterial SO4 reduction removes a significant part of dissolved SO42 -, thereby modifying its isotopic composition (??34SSO4 ???-2???; ??18OSO4 ???+8.5???) and liberating dissolved inorganic C that contains little or no radiocarbon (14C-free) with low ??13CDIC values (<-12???). In addition to local recharge, the Sr and S isotopic data revealed contribution of external groundwater sources to the Nubian Sandstone aquifer, resulting in further modifications of the groundwater chemical and isotopic signatures. In the northeastern Negev, it is shown that SO4-rich groundwater from the underlying Jurassic aquifer contributes significantly to the salt budget of the Nubian Sandstone aquifer. The unique chemical and isotopic composition of the Jurassic groundwater (??34SSO4 ??? +14???; ??18OSO4 ??? 14???; 87Sr/86Sr ???0.70764) is interpreted as reflecting dissolution of Late Triassic marine gypsum deposits. In the southern Arava Valley the authors postulate that SO4-rich groundwater with distinctively high Br/Cl (3 ?? 10-3) low 87Sr/86Sr (0.70734), and high ??34SSO4 values (+15???) is derived from mixing with underlying brines from the Paleozoic units. The radiocarbon measurements reveal low 14C activities (0.2-5.8 pmc) in both the northeastern Negev and southern Arava Valley. Taking into account dissolution of carbonate rocks and bacterial SO4 reduction in the unconfined area, estimated mean residence times of groundwater in the confined zone in the northeastern Negev are on the order of 21-38 ka, which suggests recharge predominantly during the last glacial period. The 14C signal in groundwater from the southern Arava Valley is equally low but due to evidence for mixing with external water sources the residence time estimates are questionable. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.

    1990-02-21

    Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

  13. Crustal evolution and metamorphism in east-central Eritrea, south-east Arabian-Nubian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, U. B.; Ghebreab, W.; Teklay, M.

    2006-01-01

    The crust of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) was formed in oceanic settings in the Mozambique Ocean during the Neoproterozoic (c. 0.9-0.6 Ga). Convergence started to coalesce island arcs, closed the ocean, and continental collision followed (

  14. Quantifying Modern Recharge to the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System: Inferences from GRACE and Land Surface Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, A.; Sultan, M.; Ahmed, M.; Yan, E.

    2014-12-01

    The Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS) is shared by Egypt, Libya, Chad and Sudanand is one of the largest (area: ~ 2 × 106 km2) groundwater systems in the world. Despite its importance to the population of these countries, major hydrological parameters such as modern recharge and extraction rates remain poorly investigated given: (1) the large extent of the NSAS, (2) the absence of comprehensive monitoring networks, (3) the general inaccessibility of many of the NSAS regions, (4) difficulties in collecting background information, largely included in unpublished governmental reports, and (5) limited local funding to support the construction of monitoring networks and/or collection of field and background datasets. Data from monthly Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity solutions were processed (Gaussian smoothed: 100 km; rescaled) and used to quantify the modern recharge to the NSAS during the period from January 2003 to December 2012. To isolate the groundwater component in GRACE data, the soil moisture and river channel storages were removed using the outputs from the most recent Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5). GRACE-derived recharge calculations were performed over the southern NSAS outcrops (area: 835 × 103 km2) in Sudan and Chad that receive average annual precipitation of 65 km3 (77.5 mm). GRACE-derived recharge rates were estimated at 2.79 ± 0.98 km3/yr (3.34 ± 1.17 mm/yr). If we take into account the total annual extraction rates (~ 0.4 km3; CEDARE, 2002) from Chad and Sudan the average annual recharge rate for the NSAS could reach up to ~ 3.20 ± 1.18 km3/yr (3.84 ± 1.42 mm/yr). Our recharge rates estimates are similar to those calculated using (1) groundwater flow modelling in the Central Sudan Rift Basins (4-8 mm/yr; Abdalla, 2008), (2) WaterGAP global scale groundwater recharge model (< 5 mm/yr, Döll and Fiedler, 2008), and (3) chloride tracer in Sudan (3.05 mm/yr; Edmunds et al. 1988). Given the available global coverage of the temporal GRACE solutions for the past twelve years and plans are underway for the deployment of a GRACE follow-On and GRACE-II missions, we suggest that within the next few years, GRACE will probably become the most practical, informative, and cost-effective tool for monitoring the recharge of large aquifers across the globe.

  15. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  16. Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadecki, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

  17. Ancient Mesoamerican Civilizations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Callahan, Kevin L.

    Provided by Kevin L. Callahan, an anthropology graduate student at the University of Minnesota, this site consists of short, referenced essays, organized by civilization (Maya, Mixtec, Zapotec, and Aztec), on Mesoamerican writing systems, governments, and religions. Users can also read essays on the Mayan calendar, "How the Sky Works," and on Maya and Zapotec political structures. These essays, along with a selective, eclectic list of Mesoamerican Internet resources, and a brief bibliography, form a good introduction to the topic of ancient Mesoamerican civilizations.

  18. Ancient Chinese Astronomical Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Jennifer Robin

    2004-05-01

    I am interested in the astronomical advances of the Ancient Chinese in measuring the solar day. Their development of gnomon & ruler, sundial, and water clock apparatuses enabled Chinese astronomers to measure the annual solar orbit and solar day more precisely than their contemporaries. I have built one of each of these devices to use in collecting data from Olympia, Washington. I will measure the solar day in the Pacific Northwest following the methodology of the ancient Chinese. I will compare with my data, the available historical Chinese astronomical records and current records from the United States Naval Observatory Master Clock. I seek to understand how ancient Chinese investigations into solar patterns enabled them to make accurate predictions about the movement of the celestial sphere and planets, and to develop analytic tests of their theories. Mayall, R. Newton; Sundials: their construction and use. Dover Publications 2000 North, John; The Norton History of Astronomy and Cosmology W.W. Norton& Co. 1995 Zhentao Xu, David W. Pankenier, Yaotiao Jiang; East Asian archaeoastronomy : historical records of astronomical observations of China, Japan and Korea Published on behalf of the Earth Space Institute by Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, c2000

  19. FEEDING VAI,U! OF BARLEY IN DIETS OF PIGLETS WEANED AT 21 DAYS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SUMMARY FEEDING VAI,U! OF BARLEY IN DIETS OF PIGLETS WEANED AT 21 DAYS Barley is well accepted the frequency of diarrhoea. The aim of the present study was to compare the feeding value of 3 types of barley (naked barley, malted barley, normal barley) in the early weaning diets (21 days) of 60 piglets reared

  20. Barley microsatellites: allele variation and mapping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Becker; M. Heun

    1995-01-01

    Microsatellites have developed into a powerful tool for mapping mammalian genomes and first reports about their use in plants have been published. A database search of 228 barley sequences from GenBank and EMBL was made to determine which simple sequence repeat (SSR) motif prevails in barley. Nearly all types of SSRs were found. The (A)n and (T)n SSRs occurred more

  1. Construction of an RFLP map of barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Graner; A. Jahoor; J. Schondelmaier; H. Siedler; K. Pillen; G. Fischbeck; G. Wenzel; R. G. Herrmann

    1991-01-01

    In order to construct an RFLP map of barley, two populations were analyzed using 251 genomic and cDNA markers: one population comprised 71 F1 antherderived double haploid (DH) individuals of an intraspecific cross (IGRI x FRANKA), and the other 135 individuals of an interspecific F2\\/F3 progeny (VADA x H. spontaneum). The distribution of nonrepetitive clones over the seven barley chromosomes

  2. Barley yield increases with undersown Lepidium campestre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnulf Merker; Dennis Eriksson; Nils-Ove Bertholdsson

    2010-01-01

    The potential new oil crop Lepidium campestre (field cress) was undersown with long and short row distances in spring barley in three-year trials with eight replications. Plots with no undersowing were used as controls. The purpose was to assess the effect on barley-grain yield of the oil crop and its seed-yield potential. In the plots without undersowing, with long and

  3. IMMOBILIZATION OF CAPTIVE NUBIAN IBEX (CAPRA NUBIANA) WITH BUTORPHANOL-MIDAZOLAM-MEDETOMIDINE OR BUTORPHANOL-AZAPERONE-MEDETOMIDINE AND ATIPAMEZOLE REVERSAL.

    PubMed

    Lapid, Roi; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael

    2015-06-01

    Seventeen captive Nubian ibex ( Capra nubiana ) were immobilized for transportation and/or hoof trimming, deworming, and vaccinations. Of these, 11 were immobilized with a combination of butorphanol (0.13 ± 0.03 mg/kg), midazolam (0.13 ± 0.03 mg/kg), and medetomidine (0.13 ± 0.03 mg/kg) (BMM), and 6 were immobilized with a combination of butorphanol (0.11 ± 0.03 mg/kg), azaperone (0.22 ± 0.06 mg/kg), and medetomidine (0.11 ± 0.03 mg/kg) (BAM) by intramuscular injection. Induction and recovery times were recorded. Heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were measured. The quality of induction, immobilization, and recovery were scored (scale 1-5; 1 = poor, 5 = excellent). Mean induction time was significantly shorter in the BMM group versus the BAM group (8.8 ± 2.7 and 20.1 ± 7.8 min, respectively). Median induction score and median immobilization score were significantly higher (i.e., better) in the BMM group than the BAM group (5 versus 2.5 and 4 versus 3, respectively). The mean and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in the BMM group at the 25-min time point. Atipamezole was administered at the end of procedures, and all ibex recovered smoothly. Mean recovery time was significantly longer in the BMM group versus the BAM group (9.5 ± 4.3 and 3.3 ± 2.2, respectively). In conclusion, at the doses used, the combination of BMM was superior to BAM for short-term immobilization in captive Nubian ibex. PMID:26056882

  4. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say that there were many reasons to suicide someone in antiquity. Very important factor was to avoid captivity and the consequent overcrowding of indignity, especially for politicians and military leaders. Also intention in these circumstances was to avoid torture and the disgrace of rape. Strong grief is another reason, as in case of death of family members. The erotic disappointment had place in ancient suicides, which concerned both men and women, while there were also suicide for financial reasons. Especially for the elderly, the despair of the anility in conjunction with physical illness and cachexia, were important factors for these people to decide thee suicidal. Finally, the methods of suicide fitted their epoch, but bear resemblance to those of the modern time. Poisoning was very common to both men and women but equally popular in both sexes was also the hanging. It was not unusual to fall from a high in order to reach the death, while stabbing a sword in the body for self killing was widespread in men and soldiers. PMID:25367664

  5. Tracheostomy in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-08-01

    It has often been reported that the ancient Egyptians performed tracheostomies. An analysis of this claim demonstrates it to be founded on only two depictions from the Protodynastic period (thirty-first century bc). These depictions are difficult to reconcile with tracheostomy from an anatomical point of view and can more easily be explained as human sacrifices. Considering that Egyptian surgery included only minor procedures even at its zenith during later dynastic periods, it is difficult to imagine that they would have developed such an advanced procedure at such an early date. PMID:25077413

  6. Learning About Ancient Greece

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Woodruff

    2010-05-26

    Each one of these websites will teach you about different aspects of Greek culture, influence, and mythology. Spend some time at each site playing the games and learning the information. This site has tons of fun and useful information about the what the Olympics were like in Greece.Explore the First Olympics. This site is devoted to the heroes, gods and monsters of Greek mythology.Gods and Heros This site lists all of the Greek Gods and gives a brief description of each.Index of the Gods These sites tell what life in ancient ...

  7. [Sexuality in Ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Androutsos, G; Marketos, S

    1994-10-01

    The present article explores the sexuality in ancient Egypt. In particular in this article are presented the ways of concubinage (marriage, concubinage, adultery), the incest, loves of the pharaohs and of the common people, the freedom of choice in garments, the status of the hetairas and of the whores, the sexual perversions (male and female homosexuality, necrophilia, sodomism, bestiality, rape, masturbation, exhibitionism), the operations of the genitals (circumcision, excision, castration) and finally the level of knowledge in gynaecology, fertility, contraception and obstetrics that even today demands our admiration. PMID:7858632

  8. Urology in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sakti

    2007-01-01

    The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland. PMID:19675749

  9. Ancient concrete works

    E-print Network

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    It is commonly believed that the ancient Romans were the first to create and use concrete. This is not true, as we can easily learn from the Latin literature itself. For sure, Romans were able to prepare high-quality hydraulic cements, comparable with the modern Portland cements. In this paper, we will see that the use of concrete is quite older, ranging back to the Homeric times. For instance, it was used for the floors of some courts and galleries of the Mycenaean palace at Tiryns

  10. Accounting and accountability in ancient civilizations: Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salvador Carmona; Mahmoud Ezzamel

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze and critique the growing literature on record-keeping practices in Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt with a particular focus on processes of ancient accountability, and provide a research agenda for future work. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Analyzes the contributions of accounting historians in this area as well as the research conducted by Assyriologists and

  11. Barley ( Hordeum vulgare )-induced growth inhibition of algae: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daire Ó hUallacháin; Owen Fenton

    2010-01-01

    Many field and laboratory studies have attempted to explain the inhibitory effect of rotting barley on algae. Early field\\u000a studies lacked controls and replication and results depended on visual observations. Such studies offer information on barley\\u000a bale field construction and application rates. In the laboratory, discrepancies in the barley variety used, algal species\\u000a tested, barley liquor preparation and phenol extraction

  12. Stephen R. Barley School of Engineering 787 Mayfield Avenue

    E-print Network

    Prinz, Friedrich B.

    VITA Stephen R. Barley School of Engineering 787 Mayfield Avenue Management Science and Engineering and Innovation, University College London #12;Barley 2 2007-08 Visiting Professor Said Business School, Oxford Leonardi, P. M., D. E. Bailey and S. R. Barley. (Forthcoming) "The Lure of the Virtual." Organization

  13. 7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407.10 Agriculture...REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Barley for the 2000 and succeeding crop years...

  14. Cultural Practices for Producing Dryland Malt Barley: Planting Rate

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Cultural Practices for Producing Dryland Malt Barley: Planting Rate Grant D. Jackson Western Triangle Ag Research Center, Conrad, MT Introduction Production of malting barley is expected to increase in non-traditional barley producing areas of north central Montana due to the expected increase

  15. 7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407.10 Agriculture...REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Barley for the 2000 and succeeding crop years...

  16. 2009 Central Montana Barley Variety Performance Evaluation By Dave Wichman

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    2009 Central Montana Barley Variety Performance Evaluation By Dave Wichman Dry conditions in May was one of the driest in a hundred years at Moccasin. Continuous crop barley grain yields were near long/a. For many central Montana barley producers, 2009 will be remembered as a year with outstanding test weights

  17. Cultural Practices for Producing Dryland Malt Barley: Sulfur Fertilizer Rate

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Cultural Practices for Producing Dryland Malt Barley: Sulfur Fertilizer Rate Grant D. Jackson Western Triangle Ag Research Center, Conrad, MT Introduction Production of malting barley is expected to increase in non-traditional barley production areas of north central Montana due to the expected increase

  18. 7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407.10 Agriculture...REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Barley for the 2000 and succeeding crop years...

  19. N release from livestock waste compost pellets in barley fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Yan; Katsumi Yamamoto; Ken-ichi Yakushido

    2001-01-01

    N release patterns from dairy cattle, swine, and poultry waste compost pellets were studied using the buried glass filter paper method in barley fields. Field experiments with barley were also carried out to study the relationship between N release from pellets and N absorption by barley. Results showed that about 28, 36, 44% and of N were released from 3

  20. Dual aphid resistance in hulless winter barley for ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hulless barley is viable feedstock alternative to corn for ethanol production in areas where small grains are produced. The first barley-based ethanol plant in the US is currently under construction by Osage BioEnergy LLC in Hopewell, VA. New hulless winter barley varieties developed by Virginia T...

  1. Ancient celtic horns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Murray

    2002-11-01

    There is considerable evidence from iconographic and documentary sources that musical lip-reed instruments were important in the early celtic communities of Scotland and Ireland. In recent years several studies have been undertaken with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the musical nature of these ancient horns, and of their place in the life and culture of the time. A valuable source of tangible evidence is to be found in the archaeological remains deposited across Scotland and the whole of Ireland. A project is now under way, under the auspices of the Kilmartin House Trust and the general direction of John Purser, which has brought together an international team of musicians, craftsmen, archaeologists, musicologists and physicists with the aim of analyzing ancient musical artifacts, reconstructing some of the original instruments, and analyzing the sounds they produce. This paper describes acoustical studies carried out on a number of recent reconstructions of wooden and bronze instruments, and discusses the role of acoustics in this type of investigation. [Work supported by Sciart and EPSRC.

  2. The Ancients' Appliance of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Philip; Sword, Frances

    2004-01-01

    An innovative collaboration between the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge and the University of Cambridge Faculty of Education encourages new questions to be asked of ancient objects. In the museum galleries children work directly from ancient Egyptian objects through activities designed to encourage questioning that unpicks the technologies of the…

  3. Comparison of hull-less barley, barley, or corn for lactating cows: effects on extent of digestion and milk production.

    PubMed

    Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A; Koenig, K M; Rode, L M

    1997-10-01

    Six lactating, cannulated Holstein cows were used in a double 3 x 3 Latin square design to compare the effects of hull-less barley with barley and corn on ruminal fermentation, rate of passage, flow of nutrients to the duodenum, and milk production. Diets consisted of 60% concentrate, 30% barley silage, and 10% alfalfa hay (dry matter basis). Concentrates contained steam-rolled grains: hull-less barley, barley, or corn. Dry matter intake was unaffected by grain source, but starch intake tended to be greatest when hull-less barley or corn was fed. The barley diet was more degradable in the rumen than was the hull-less barley or corn diet, and, therefore, flow of microbial organic matter to the duodenum was greatest for cows fed the barley diet. Flow of microbial N to the duodenum was greater (50 g/d) for cows fed the barley diet than for cows fed the other diets, and the flow of ruminally undegradable N was greater (43 and 28 g/d) for cows fed the hull-less barley and corn diets, respectively, than for cows fed the barley diet. As a result, flow of nonammonia N to the duodenum was unaffected by grain source. Total tract apparent digestibility was highest for cows fed the barley and corn diets. Despite its low digestibility, cows fed the hull-less barley diet produced a similar amount of milk as did cows fed the barley and corn diets. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of processing hull-less barley on its utilization by dairy cows. PMID:9361219

  4. Rice-barley synteny and its application to saturation mapping of the barley Rpg1 region.

    PubMed Central

    Kilian, A; Kudrna, D A; Kleinhofs, A; Yano, M; Kurata, N; Steffenson, B; Sasaki, T

    1995-01-01

    In order to facilitate the map-based cloning of the barley stem rust resistance gene Rpg1, we have demonstrated a high degree of synteny at a micro level between the telomeric region of barley chromosome 1P and rice chromosome 6. We have also developed and applied a simple and efficient method for selecting useful probes from large insert genomic YAC and cosmid clones. The gene order within the most terminal 6.5 cM of barley chromosome 1P was compared with the most terminal 2.7 cM of rice chromosome 6. Nine rice probes, previously mapped in rice or isolated from YAC or cosmid clones from this region, were mapped in barley. All, except one, were in synteny with the rice gene order. The exception, probe Y617R, was duplicated in barley. One copy was located on a different chromosome and the other in a non-syntenic position on barley chromosome 1P. The barley probes from this region could not be mapped to rice, but two of them were inferred to be in a syntenic location based on their position on a rice YAC. This work demonstrates the utility of applying the results of genetic and physical mapping of the small genome cereal rice to map-based cloning of interesting genes from large genome relatives. PMID:7651834

  5. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    PubMed

    Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade. PMID:25299580

  6. Barley germplasm conservation and resources. Chapter 7 in barley: improvement, production, and uses. Blackwell Publishing, ED.S.E. Ullrich

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The history and current status of barley germplasm preservation activities is presented on a global scale and specifically for the United States. Total of barley germplasm holdings at 47 major barley collections (those with more than 500 accessions) worldwide is approximately 402,000 accessions. I...

  7. The effects of barley bran flour and barley oil on hypercholesterolemic men and women 

    E-print Network

    Robinson, Michael Clayton

    1992-01-01

    in both total and LDL-cholesterol. This effect was attributed solely to the soluble 5-glucan fraction because these results were reversed when beta-glucanase was introduced into the diet. Additionally, the cultivar with the rela- tively lower soluble... is the carbohydrate component better known as starch. The starch in barley is 74-78% amylopectin and 22-26% amylose (28-29). There are other barley cultivars that contain 0- 50% amylose in the starch portion. Barley also contains significant amounts of B-glucans...

  8. Reanimation of Ancient Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Russell Vreeland

    2009-01-09

    Recent highly publicized experiments conducted on salt crystals taken from the Permian Salado Formation in Southeastern New Mexico have shown that some ancient crystals contain viable microorganisms trapped within fluid inclusions. Stringent geological and microbiological selection criteria were used to select crystals and conduct all sampling. This talk will focus on how each of these lines of data support the conclusion that such isolated bacteria are as old as the rock in which they are trapped. In this case, the isolated microbes are salt tolerant bacilli that grow best in media containing 8% NaCl, and respond to concentrated brines by forming spores. One of the organisms is phylogenetically related to several bacilli, but does have several unique characteristics. This talk will trace the interdisciplinary data and procedures supporting these discoveries, and describe the various isolated bacteria.

  9. AncientFaces

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    There are countless genealogy resources online, but this site is unique. AncientFaces is a photo exchange, a database of photos submitted by users that enables people tracing their family trees to place faces with names. At present, the site contains over 5,000 photos. These may be searched by keyword, name, date, or location. They can also be browsed alphabetically by surname. There are several special collections here as well, including military photos. Photos are presented as thumbnails with a brief description, location, family, and a link to the email address and homepage (if available) of the person who submitted the photo. A great resource for making family connections or just browsing old photos.

  10. Epilepsy in ancient India.

    PubMed

    Manyam, B V

    1992-01-01

    The ancient Indian medical system, Ayurveda, meaning science of life, is the oldest system of medicine in the world. Epilepsy is defined as Apasmara: apa, meaning negation or loss of; smara, meaning recollection or consciousness. Aura was recognized and was called Apasmara Poorva Roopa. A large number of symptoms indicative of aura were listed. Worthy of mention are subjective sensation of sounds, sensation of darkness, feeling of delusion, and dream-like state. An actual attack of Apasmara includes falling down; shaking of the hands, legs, and body; rolling up of the eyes; grinding of the teeth; and foaming at the mouth. Four major types of epilepsy based on the disturbance of doshas (humors) that govern the physiological and physiochemical activities of the body are mentioned. Apasmara is considered a dangerous disease that is chronic and difficult to treat. Several causes are mentioned. Treatment included correcting the etiological factors and dietary regimen and avoiding dangerous places that may result in injuries. PMID:1592022

  11. Ancient Chinese Sundials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Kehui

    Timekeeping was essential in the agricultural society of ancient China. The use of sundials for timekeeping was associated with the use of the gnomon, which had its origin in remote antiquity. This chapter studies three sundials (guiyi ??) from the Qin and Han dynasties, the shorter shadow plane sundial (duanying ping yi ????) invented by Yuan Chong in the Sui Dynasty, and the sundial chart (guiyingtu ???) invented by Zeng Minxing in the Southern Song dynasty. This chapter also introduces Guo Shoujing's hemispherical sundial (yang yi ??). A circular stone sundial discovered at the Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an is also mentioned. It is dated from the Sui and Tang dynasties. A brief survey of sundials from the Qing dynasty shows various types of sundials.

  12. Study of fluorescence quenching of Barley ?-amylase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkialakshmi, S.; Shanthi, B.; Bhuvanapriya, T.

    2012-05-01

    The fluorescence quenching of Barley ?-amylase by acrylamide and succinimide has been studied in water using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The steady-state fluorescence quenching technique has been performed in three different pHs (i.e., 6, 7 and 8) of water. Ground state and excited state binding constants (Kg &Ke) have been calculated. From the calculated binding constants (Kg &Ke) the free energy changes for the ground (?Gg) and excited (?Ge) states have been calculated and are presented in tables. UV and FTIR spectra have also been recorded to prove the binding of Barley ?-amylase with acrylamide and succinimide.

  13. Barley Transformation Using Agrobacterium-Mediated Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Bartlett, Joanne G.; Alves, Silvia C.; Perry, Matthew; Smedley, Mark A.; Leyland, Nicola; Snape, John W.

    Methods for the transformation of barley using Agrobacterium-mediated techniques have been available for the past 10 years. Agrobacterium offers a number of advantages over biolistic-mediated techniques in terms of efficiency and the quality of the transformed plants produced. This chapter describes a simple system for the transformation of barley based on the infection of immature embryos with Agrobacterium tumefaciens followed by the selection of transgenic tissue on media containing the antibiotic hygromycin. The method can lead to the production of large numbers of fertile, independent transgenic lines. It is therefore ideal for studies of gene function in a cereal crop system.

  14. Genetics of barley hooded suppression.

    PubMed Central

    Roig, Cristina; Pozzi, Carlo; Santi, Luca; Müller, Judith; Wang, Yamei; Stile, Maria Rosaria; Rossini, Laura; Stanca, Michele; Salamini, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    The molecular basis of the barley dominant Hooded (K) mutant is a duplication of 305 bp in intron IV of the homeobox gene Bkn3. A chemical mutagenesis screen was carried out to identify genetical factors that participate in Bkn3 intron-mediated gene regulation. Plants from recurrently mutagenized KK seeds were examined for the suppression of the hooded awn phenotype induced by the K allele and, in total, 41 suK (suppressor of K) recessive mutants were identified. Complementation tests established the existence of five suK loci, and alleles suKB-4, suKC-33, suKD-25, suKE-74, and suKF-76 were studied in detail. All K-suppressed mutants showed a short-awn phenotype. The suK loci have been mapped by bulked segregant analysis nested in a standard mapping procedure based on AFLP markers. K suppressor loci suKB, B, E, and F all map in a short interval of chromosome 7H, while the locus suKD is assigned to chromosome 5H. A complementation test between the four suK mutants mapping on chromosome 7H and the short-awn mutant lks2, located nearby, excluded the allelism between suK loci and lks2. The last experiment made clear that the short-awn phenotype of suK mutants is due to a specific dominant function of the K allele, a function that is independent from the control on hood formation. The suK loci are discussed as candidate participants in the regulation of Bkn3 expression. PMID:15166167

  15. Senenmut: An Ancient Egyptian Astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakovic, B.

    2008-10-01

    The celestial phenomena have always been a source of wonder and interest to people, even as long ago as the ancient Egyptians. While the ancient Egyptians did not know all the things about astronomy that we do now, they had a good understanding of some celestial phenomena. The achievements in astronomy of ancient Egyptians are relatively well known, but we know very little about the people who made these achievements. The goal of this paper is to bring some light on the life of Senenmut, the chief architect and astronomer during the reign of Queen Hatshepsut.

  16. Barley stripe mosaic virus in the Western Australian barley germplasm collection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Shivas; P. M. Williamson; R. A. C. Jones

    1989-01-01

    Barley stripe mosaic virus was detected using enzymelinked immunosorbent assay in the Western Australian barley germplasm\\u000a collection in accessions originally introduced from Mexico, New Zealand and USA. The virus was also intercepted in one accession\\u000a introduced from Japan into post-entry quarantine in the Australian Capital Territory. The extent to which the virus occurs\\u000a in Australian cereal germplasm collections and in

  17. Implications of Nubian-Like Core Reduction Systems in Southern Africa for the Identification of Early Modern Human Dispersals

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Lithic technologies have been used to trace dispersals of early human populations within and beyond Africa. Convergence in lithic systems has the potential to confound such interpretations, implying connections between unrelated groups. Due to their reductive nature, stone artefacts are unusually prone to this chance appearance of similar forms in unrelated populations. Here we present data from the South African Middle Stone Age sites Uitpanskraal 7 and Mertenhof suggesting that Nubian core reduction systems associated with Late Pleistocene populations in North Africa and potentially with early human migrations out of Africa in MIS 5 also occur in southern Africa during early MIS 3 and with no clear connection to the North African occurrence. The timing and spatial distribution of their appearance in southern and northern Africa implies technological convergence, rather than diffusion or dispersal. While lithic technologies can be a critical guide to human population flux, their utility in tracing early human dispersals at large spatial and temporal scales with stone artefact types remains questionable. PMID:26125972

  18. Setting up an ancient DNA laboratory.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Tara L

    2012-01-01

    Entering into the world of ancient DNA research is nontrivial. Because the DNA in most ancient specimens is degraded to some extent, the potential for contamination of ancient samples and DNA extracts with modern DNA is considerable. To minimize the risk associated with working with ancient DNA, experimental protocols specific to handling ancient specimens have been introduced. Here, I outline the challenges associated with working with ancient DNA and describe guidelines for setting up a new ancient DNA laboratory. I also discuss steps that can be taken at the sample collection and preparation stage to minimize the potential for contamination with exogenous sources of DNA. PMID:22237515

  19. Layout of Ancient Maya Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aylesworth, Grant R.

    Although there is little doubt that the ancient Maya of Mesoamerica laid their cities out based, in part, on astronomical considerations, the proliferation of "cosmograms" in contemporary scholarly discourse has complicated matters for the acceptance of rigorous archaeoastronomical research.

  20. Ancient Astronomy in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemenko, Tatyana G.; Vavilova, Iryna B.

    2007-08-01

    Astronomical culture and research have long-standing traditions in Ukraine. The first signs of astronomical knowledge were found in archaeological excavations and records. The most ancient find (dated as 15,000 B.C.) is a mammoth tusk with a fretwork image of a table of lunar phases found in the Poltava region. The so-called Trypillya culture (dated 4,000 - 3,000 B.C) had numerous examples of ornaments at the howls, distaffs, wheels and other everyday articles with symbolic images of zodiac constellations, and vessel-calendars indicating the vernal/autumnal equinoxes and the motion of the Sun. Some of such unique exhibits stored at the National Museum of History of Ukraine will be described in details in this paper. For example, the vessel calendar dating by IV century of our era (from village Romashki, Kyiv region). This image was interpreted by B. Rybakov as an agricultural calendar from May to August (time of harvesting). Most of exhibits of Museum were founded by archaeologist Vikenty Khvoyko and presented by him to Museum in 1905. Description and pictures of vessels and cups from Chernyahiv, Trypillya IV century B.C. with the Solar signs and tusk of the mammoth from Kyrilovska parking with notches interpreted as a calendar as well as tree-storied pictures of vessel from Trypillya interpreted as a “vertical cross section of the world” in dynamics will be also given. Another unique historical record relates to the times of the powerful state of the Kievan Rus' (X- XIII centuries), when astronomical observations were conducted mainly in cloisters. For example, the authors of the Lavrentievska chronicle describe the solar eclipses of the years 1064, 1091, and 1115 A.D. and the lunar eclipses of 1161 A.D. At that times some natural cataclysms have been connected with eclipses that, for example, was described in “The Word about Igor's shelf” by Nestor Letopisec. Thus, facts discussed in paper pointed out once more that astronomy is one of the most ancient science, accompanying all history of humanity, which has arisen from the practical demands of people.

  1. Registration of ‘Muir’ spring feed barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Muir’ (Reg. No. CV-357, PI 674172) is a two-row, spring, hulled feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar developed and evaluated as 07WA-601.6, and released in 2013 by Washington State University (WSU). Muir was derived from the cross ‘Baronesse’/‘Bob’ and selected through singleseed descent from ...

  2. 2008 FHB Analysis of Transgenic Barley Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic lines have been developed with the goal of reducing FHB and DON in barley. Replicated field trials for FHB reaction of 48 Conlon transgenic lines were conducted in 2008 in Langdon, ND and Rosemount, MN. The Langdon trials consisted of three replicates in hill plots in an inoculated misted...

  3. HUMAN HEALTH BENEFITS FROM CONSUMPTION OF BARLEY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley contains high amounts of soluble fiber but is not consumed as extensively as oats. Oat soluble fiber has been shown to lower blood lipids and glycemic parameters. Three studies found that hypercholesterolemic subjects had significantly lower total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations after cons...

  4. Registration of ‘Merem’ spring malting barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Merem’ is a two-rowed spring malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed by the USDA-ARS, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Merem has been tested in USDA-ARS, and all other cooperative trials as “02Ab17271”. ‘02Ab17271’ is a selection fro...

  5. Pasang Temba 1, Barley and Nawa

    E-print Network

    Loomis, Molly

    Pasang Temba explains the traditional system under which barley was planted in the Khumbu.These recordings were made on a trek in the spring of 2011 up to Mount Everest Base Camp. The recordings span a wide variety of topics from making and drinking...

  6. Registration of 'Eve' winter hulless barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Eve’ (Reg. No. CV- PI 659067 ), a six-row winter hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed and tested as VA01H-68 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in May 2007. Eve was derived from the cross SC860974 / VA94-42-13. Eve is widely adapted and provides producers with ...

  7. EFFECTS OF DEOXYNIVALENOL ON BARLEY LEAF PIGMENTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a first step in characterizing the role deoxynivalenol (DON) plays in pathogenesis of Fusarium graminearum in leaf and head tissues, we treated detached barley leaf tissues with DON and examined them daily for signs of injury or other alterations. As shown here, DON had pronounced and unexpected ...

  8. Studies on nitrite reductase in barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. F. Bourne; B. J. Miflin

    1973-01-01

    Nitrite reductase from barley seedlings was purified 50–60 fold by ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel filtration. No differences were established in the characteristics of nitrite reductases isolated in this way from either leaf or root tissues. The root enzyme accepted electrons from reduced methyl viologen, ferredoxin, or an unidentified endogenous cofactor. Enzyme activity in both tissues was markedly increased by

  9. Ancient schwannoma of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Anjali S; Anjum, Shaziya; Kokandakar, Hemant R; Bindu, Rajan S; Awargaonkar, Amarnath

    2014-05-01

    The ancient schwannoma is a rare variant of a neurilemoma with a course typical of a slow-growing benign neoplasm. Histologically, it can be confused with a malignant mesenchymal tumor because of increased cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, and hyperchromatism. Despite the degree of nuclear atypia, mitotic figures are absent. We describe the clinical and histopathologic features of an ancient schwannoma of the orbit. A need for early removal of such tumors is recommended to prevent complications. PMID:25136229

  10. Ancient schwannoma of the orbit

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Anjali S.; Anjum, Shaziya; Kokandakar, Hemant R.; Bindu, Rajan S.; Awargaonkar, Amarnath

    2014-01-01

    The ancient schwannoma is a rare variant of a neurilemoma with a course typical of a slow-growing benign neoplasm. Histologically, it can be confused with a malignant mesenchymal tumor because of increased cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, and hyperchromatism. Despite the degree of nuclear atypia, mitotic figures are absent. We describe the clinical and histopathologic features of an ancient schwannoma of the orbit. A need for early removal of such tumors is recommended to prevent complications. PMID:25136229

  11. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage...

  12. 7 CFR 407.10 - Area risk protection insurance for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for barley. 407.10 Section 407.10 Agriculture Regulations...REGULATIONS § 407.10 Area risk protection insurance for barley. The barley crop insurance provisions for Area Risk...

  13. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206 Section 810.206 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application...206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  14. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206 Section 810.206 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application...206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  15. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206 Section 810.206 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application...206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  16. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage...

  17. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage...

  18. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage...

  19. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage...

  20. Effect of particle size on rate and extent of degradation of alfalfa hay, barley straw and ammonia-treated barley straw

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of particle size on rate and extent of degradation of alfalfa hay, barley straw and ammonia-treated barley straw U San Vicente A de Vega C Castrillo JA Guada Departamento de Producción Animal y Ciencia de experiment alfalfa hay (A, 57.4 % DOM), barley straw (S, 40.2 % DOM) and ammonia-treated barley straw (TS, 51

  1. Ancient lakes on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldspiel, J. M.; Squyres, S. W.

    1989-01-01

    The valley systems in Mars' ancient cratered terrain provide strong evidence for a warmer and wetter climate very early in planetary history. The valley systems in some instances debouch into closed depressions that could have acted as local ponding basins for the flow. A survey of the Martian equatorial region shows that numerous local depressions at the confluence of valley systems exist. These depressions (approximately 100 km) typically are characterized by many valleys flowing into them and few or none flowing out. If ponding did take place, these basin would have contained lakes for some period during Mars' early warmer epoch. Although the collection basins are numerous, location of ones that have not suffered significant subsequent geologic modification is difficult. Some morphologic features suggest that volcanic lavas may have filled them subsequent to any early fluvial activity. Two detailed maps of valley systems and local ponding basins in USGC 1:2,000,000 subquadrangles were completed and a third is in progress. The completed regions are in Mare Tyrrhenum (MC-22 SW) and Margarifter Sinus (MC-19 SE), and the region in progress is in Iapygia (MC-21 NW). On the maps, the valley systems and interpreted margins of ponding basins are indicated. The depressions are of interest for two reasons. First, the depressions were surely the sites in which the materials eroded from the valleys were deposited. Such sediments could preserve important information about the physical conditions at the time of deposition. Second, the sediments could preserve evidence of water-atmosphere interactions during the early period of the Martian climate. Atmospheric carbon dioxide would dissolve in water, and solid carbonate minerals would tend to precipitate out to form carbonate sedimentary deposits. Formation of carbonates in this manner might account for some of the CO2 lost from the early more dense atmosphere.

  2. Milk yield and composition of crossbred Sahelian × Anglo-Nubian goats in the semi-intensive system in Mali during the preweaning period.

    PubMed

    Sanogo, Souleymane; Shaker, Mohamed Momani; Nantoumé, Hamidou; Salem, Abdel-Fattah Z M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate milk yield and its composition during the preweaning period for Sahelian goats (SG) and Anglo-Nubian (AN) crossbred depending on some factors. The experiments were conducted from January to December 2008 for 44 suckled and hand-milked does, randomized, and divided into two equal groups: SG (n = 22) and F(1) Anglo-Nubian × Sahelian goats (1/2AN; n = 22). The does and their offsprings were kept in a pen where they stayed indoors for 45 days before they were allowed outdoors when the weather was suitable. Each category received supplemental feeds depending on the season (rainy season, dry cold season, and dry hot season). The average daily milk yield was recorded weekly from parturition to 100 days of age. Individual milk samples were taken for chemical analysis in connection with the yield measurements twice per month from the fourth week of lactation throughout the different seasons (rainy, cold dry, and hot dry). The daily milk yield differed between breed types (P = 0.001) during the preweaning, while the effect of kids' sex on daily milk production was not significant. Litter size affected milk yield up to day 60 (P = 0.032) where does with twins producing more milk than those with single kid. However, at day 100, both groups had similar (P = 0.001) milk production. Total milk yield at weaning increased by 103 % in 1/2AN over SG. The highest concentration of total solids of milk was (12.76 %) recorded in the hot dry season. The results of this study indicate that crossbreeding native Sahelian goats with high potential Anglo-Nubian buck improved milk production and its composition. PMID:22791216

  3. Tectonostratigraphy and depositional history of the Neoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary sequences in Kid area, southeastern Sinai, Egypt: Implications for intra-arc to foreland basin in the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalaf, E. A.; Obeid, M. A.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a stratigraphic and sedimentary study of Neoproterozoic successions of the South Sinai, at the northernmost segment of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), including the Kid complex. This complex is composed predominantly of thick volcano-sedimentary successions representing different depositional and tectonic environments, followed by four deformational phases including folding and brittle faults (D1-D4). The whole Kid area is divisible from north to south into the lower, middle, and upper rock sequences. The higher metamorphic grade and extensive deformational styles of the lower sequence distinguishes them from the middle and upper sequences. Principal lithofacies in the lower sequence include thrust-imbricated tectonic slice of metasediments and metavolcanics, whereas the middle and upper sequences are made up of clastic sediments, intermediate-felsic lavas, volcaniclastics, and dike swarms. Two distinct Paleo- depositional environments are observed: deep-marine and alluvial fan regime. The former occurred mainly during the lower sequence, whereas the latter developed during the other two sequences. These alternations of depositional conditions in the volcano-sedimentary deposits suggest that the Kid area may have formed under a transitional climate regime fluctuating gradually from warm and dry to warm and humid conditions. Geochemical and petrographical data, in conjunction with field relationships, suggest that the investigated volcano-sedimentary rocks were built from detritus derived from a wide range of sources, ranging from Paleoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic continental crust. Deposition within the ancient Kid basin reflects a complete basin cycle from rifting and passive margin development, to intra-arc and foreland basin development and, finally, basin closure. The early phase of basin evolution is similar to various basins in the Taupo volcanics, whereas the later phases are similar to the Cordilleran-type foreland basin. The progressive change in lithofacies from marine intra-arc basin to continental molasses foreland basin and from compression to extension setting respectively, imply that the source area became peneplained, where the Kid basin became stabilized as sedimentation progressed following uplift. The scenario proposed of the study area supports the role of volcanic and tectonic events in architecting the facies and stratigraphic development.

  4. PlantGeneticsandBreeding The European barley powdery mildew virulence survey

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PlantGeneticsandBreeding The European barley powdery mildew virulence survey and disease nurseryVII.Themaximumpercentageofleafareainfectedbypowderymildewoftestedbarleygenotypesatallsitesin1998and1999. 19981999 BarleyKnown

  5. Characteristics of cloned repeated DNA sequences in the barley genome

    SciTech Connect

    Anan'ev, E.V.; Bochkanov, S.S.; Ryzhik, M.V.; Sonina, N.V.; Chernyshev, A.I.; Shchipkova, N.I.; Yakovleva, E.Yu.

    1986-12-01

    A partial clone library of barley DNA fragments based on plasmid pBR325 was created. The cloned EcoRI-fragments of chromosomal DNA are from 2 to 14 kbp in length. More than 95% of the barley DNA inserts comprise repeated sequences of different complexity and copy number. Certain of these DNA sequences are from families comprising at least 1% of the barley genome. A significant proportion of the clones hybridize with numerous sets of restriction fragments of genome DNA and they are dispersed throughout the barley chromosomes.

  6. Reconstructing ancient genomes and epigenomes.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Ludovic; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-07-01

    Research involving ancient DNA (aDNA) has experienced a true technological revolution in recent years through advances in the recovery of aDNA and, particularly, through applications of high-throughput sequencing. Formerly restricted to the analysis of only limited amounts of genetic information, aDNA studies have now progressed to whole-genome sequencing for an increasing number of ancient individuals and extinct species, as well as to epigenomic characterization. Such advances have enabled the sequencing of specimens of up to 1 million years old, which, owing to their extensive DNA damage and contamination, were previously not amenable to genetic analyses. In this Review, we discuss these varied technical challenges and solutions for sequencing ancient genomes and epigenomes. PMID:26055157

  7. Ancient schwannoma of the hand.

    PubMed

    Vlychou, Marianna; Dailiana, Zoe H

    2011-12-01

    Ancient schwannoma is a schwannoma subtype, characterized by extensive degeneration and diffuse hypocellular areas. These changes are believed to occur because it takes a long time for ancient schwannomas to develop. Schwannomas with these degenerative changes can be misdiagnosed as sarcomas or other soft-tissue neoplasms. We present a case of a slowly enlarging ancient schwannoma of the thenar area in a 67-year-old woman. The differential diagnosis included atypical soft tissue sarcomas and tumors of neural origin. The combination of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging findings provided features that narrowed the differential diagnosis, and histology confirmed the presence of an encapsulated schwannoma with extensive myxomatous degeneration and multiple vessel thrombosis. The clinical, radiological, and histological features and the diagnostic approach of this rare entity are described. PMID:21975101

  8. Neonatal medicine in ancient art.

    PubMed

    Yurdakök, Murat

    2010-01-01

    There are a limited number of artistic objects from ancient times with particular importance in neonatal medicine. The best examples are figurines from ancient Egypt of Isis nursing Horus, showing the importance of breastfeeding. The earliest images of the human fetus were made by the Olmecs in Mexico around 1200- 400 BCE. One of the earliest representations of congenital anomalies is a figurine of diencephalic twins thought to be the goddess of Anatolia, dated to around 6500 BCE. In addition to these figurines, three sets of twins in the ancient world have medical importance, and Renaissance artists often used them as a subject for their paintings: "direct suckling animals" (Romulus and Remus), "heteropaternal superfecundation" (mother: Leda, fathers: Zeus, the king of the Olympian gods, and Leda's husband, Tyndareus), and "twin-to-twin transfusion" in monozygotic twins (Jacob and Esau). PMID:20560265

  9. Ancient "Observatories" - A Relevant Concept?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    It is quite common, when reading popular books on astronomy, to see a place referred to as "the oldest observatory in the world". In addition, numerous books on archaeoastronomy, of various levels of quality, frequently refer to the existence of "prehistoric" or "ancient" observatories when describing or citing monuments that were certainly not built with the primary purpose of observing the skies. Internet sources are also guilty of this practice. In this chapter, the different meanings of the word observatory will be analyzed, looking at how their significances can be easily confused or even interchanged. The proclaimed "ancient observatories" are a typical result of this situation. Finally, the relevance of the concept of the ancient observatory will be evaluated.

  10. Characterisation of the malting barley transcriptome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica F White; Toni Pacey-Miller; Allison C Crawford; Peter C Bundock; Giovanni M Cordeiro; Robert J Henry

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of large-scale gene expression technologies such as serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) has provided the tools to significantly increase the amount of genetic data available. To characterise the transcriptional profile of grain during the malting process, eight LongSAGE libraries from Barley var. Tallon were constructed. One library was constructed from mature un-steeped seed and seven libraries were

  11. The genetic analysis of barley storage proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P R Shewry; Audrey J Faulks; R A Pickering; I T Jones; R A Finch; B J Miflin

    1980-01-01

    Hordein polypeptide patterns in barley seeds are known to be controlled by structural genes at 2 loci, Hor-1 and Hor-2, on chromosome 5. Two-dimensional and high resolution one-dimensional electrophoretic analyses of seeds of F2 and doubled haploid progenies of four intervarietal crosses gave no evidence of recombination within these loci. Genetic analysis of the progenies showed that Hor-1 is 0·161

  12. The Potential of Hull-less Barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Bhatty

    1999-01-01

    Cereal Chem. 76(5):589-599 Hull-less barley (HB) has been investigated in many countries for use in feed, food, and industry since the publication of the last review in 1986. Literature published since 1990 on various aspects of HB u tiliza- tion, other than in monogastric feeds, has been reviewed. Several HB cultivars containing low or high ?-glucan, low or high extract

  13. Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunwell, Jim M.

    Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.

  14. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    PubMed Central

    Zawoznik, Myriam S.; Vázquez, Susana C.; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M.; Groppa, María D.

    2014-01-01

    Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR. PMID:25242949

  15. Proteomic response of barley leaves to salinity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdolrahman Rasoulnia; Mohammad Reza Bihamta; Seyed Ali Peyghambari; Houshang Alizadeh; Afrasyab Rahnama

    Drought and salinity stresses are adverse environmental factors that affect crop growth and yield. Proteomic analysis offers\\u000a a new approach to identify a broad spectrum of genes that are expressed in living system. We applied this technique to investigate\\u000a protein changes that were induced by salinity in barley genotypes (Hordeum vulgare L.), Afzal, as a salt-tolerant genotype and L-527, as

  16. The Ancient City of Petra

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This fun Web article is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they learn about the ancient city of Petra. The article begins with an overview of this city, which was located along the ancient trade routes between Arabia, Egypt, and the Mediterranean Sea. Kids then have the chance to take a walk through Petra's ruins. This clickable illustration has 11 places for them to explore. The article concludes with an extensive information section on the history of the city.

  17. Night Blindness and Ancient Remedy

    PubMed Central

    Al Binali, H.A. Hajar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A. PMID:25774260

  18. Navigation in the ancient Eastern Mediterranean 

    E-print Network

    Davis, Danny Lee

    2001-01-01

    Studies on ancient navigation have traditionally derived their information from ancient geographers and the authors of various periploi ("sailings around"), a type of coast-pilot written in and after the fifth century B.C. ...

  19. Grain protein content variation and its association analysis in barley

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Grain protein content (GPC) is an important quality determinant for barley used as malt, feed as well as food. It is controlled by a complex genetic system. GPC differs greatly among barley genotypes and is also variable across different environments. It is imperative to understand the genetic control of barley GPC and identify the genotypes with less variation under the different environments. Results In this study, 59 cultivated and 99 Tibetan wild barley genotypes were used for a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a multi-platform candidate gene-based association analysis, in order to identify the molecular markers associated with GPC. Tibetan wild barley had higher GPC than cultivated barley. The significant correlation between GPC and diastatic power (DP), and malt extract confirmed the importance of GPC in determining malt quality. Diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers associated with barley GPC were detected by GWAS. In addition, GWAS revealed two HvNAM genes as the candidate genes controlling GPC. No association was detected between HvNAM1 polymorphism and GPC, while a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (798, P?barley. Conclusions The GWAS and candidate gene based-association study may be effectively used to determine the genetic variation of GPC in barley. The DArT markers and the polymorphism of HvNAM genes identified in this study are useful in developing high quality barley cultivars in the future. HvNAM genes could play a role in controlling barley GPC. PMID:23452582

  20. Evidence of three new members of malignant catarrhal fever virus group in Muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (Oryx gazella)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, H.; Gailbreath, K.; Bender, L.C.; West, K.; Keller, J.; Crawford, T.B.

    2003-01-01

    Six members of the malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) virus group of ruminant rhadinoviruses have been identified to date. Four of these viruses are clearly associated with clinical disease: alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) carried by wildebeest (Connochaetes spp.); ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), ubiquitous in domestic sheep; caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2), endemic in domestic goats; and the virus of unknown origin found causing classic MCF in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; MCFV-WTD). Using serology and polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers targeting a portion of the herpesviral DNA polymerase gene, evidence of three previously unrecognized rhadinoviruses in the MCF virus group was found in muskox (Ovibos moschatus), Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana), and gemsbok (South African oryx, Oryx gazella), respectively. Based on sequence alignment, the viral sequence in the muskox is most closely related to MCFV-WTD (81.5% sequence identity) and that in the Nubian ibex is closest to CpHV-2 (89.3% identity). The viral sequence in the gemsbok is most closely related to AlHV-1 (85.1% identity). No evidence of disease association with these viruses has been found. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2003.

  1. Ancient and Modern Coins Unit Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Mint (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    Ancient times comes to life when a student can hold in his/her hand or read about an artifact, such as a coin of the Greek or Roman era. Students are familiar with coins, and this commonality helps them understand the similarities and differences between their lives and times in ancient Greece or Rome. Many symbols on the ancient coins can be…

  2. Fall 2013 BOSTONIA ancient Greece is alive

    E-print Network

    Spence, Harlan Ernest

    Fall 2013 BOSTONIA ancient Greece is alive and well and living conspicuously, for those who pay. And while the University has a sizable community of scholars who focus on ancient Greece from several Professor is David Roochnik, a CAS professor and chair of philosophy. "Ancient Greece is a living world

  3. The chronology of ancient Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Kitchen

    1991-01-01

    The chronology of ancient Egypt can only be recovered (and then, inexactly) by combining several approaches. These include the sequences of kings and reigns, grouped into dynasties and larger periods. Original documents and interstate synchronisms (plus genealogical data) permit considerable control. To some extent, if their ambiguities can be overcome, lunar and ‘Sothic’ dates from astronomy can help. Other science?based

  4. Myotonic Dystrophy in Ancient Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giacomo Cattaino; Laura Vicario

    1999-01-01

    Amenhotep IV, better known as Akhenaton, the heretical pharaoh, was a king of the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. Statues and reliefs of him show an unhealthy man whose body has abnormal features. By studying the pictures of Akhenaton (the mummy has not yet been found), we conclude that he may have been affected by myotonic dystrophy (MD). Moreover, the

  5. ANCIENT MYSTERIES OF THE AMERICAS

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    , 2013 MIAMI · GRAND CAYMAN · COZUMEL · BELIZE CITY SANTO TOMAS · ROATAN · PUERTO LIMON · PANAMA CANAL SAVINGS PER STATEROOM JANUARY 16 ­ FEBRUARY 3, 2014 SPONSORED BY: #12;V1 Altun Ha, Belize INDULGEYOURSELF marine life. Stroll through the ruins of an ancient Mayan site in Belize, marvel at Mayan artifacts

  6. Discovering the Ancient Temperate Rainforest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Anne

    1997-01-01

    Two activities for grades 3 through 8 explore species adaptation and forestry issues in the North American rainforests. In one activity, students create imaginary species of plants or animals that are adapted for life in an ancient temperate rainforest. In the second activity, students role play groups affected by plans to log an area of the…

  7. Retroflex Endings in Ancient Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Mantaro J.

    1973-01-01

    Reconstruction of Ancient Chinese retroflex endings (syllable-final consonants) based on internal phonological evidence in Modern Chinese. Paper read at the December 1972 meeting of the Kukeo Hakhoe (The National Language Association of Korea); research supported by the Social Science Research Council, Committee for Korean Studies. (RS)

  8. Tawa hallae - Dinosaur Ancient History

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    When paleontologists unearthed the ancient dinosaur Tawa hallae, they knew it was different--and remarkably well preserved. What they did not know is that the animal has an intriguing lineage, one that answers questions about the earliest evolution of dinosaurs.

  9. Adult Reading of Ancient Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casler, Frederick H.

    Traditionally, students of ancient languages have been taught to translate rather than read. The four most popular current approaches to language instruction--the grammar-translation method, the direct-reading or inductive approach, the audiolingual method, and the structural approach--all have inherent deficiencies that are magnified when applied…

  10. Ergonomic design in ancient Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Marmaras; George Poulakakis; Vasilis Papakostopoulos

    1999-01-01

    Although the science of ergonomics did not actually emerge until the 20th century, there is evidence to suggest that ergonomic principles were in fact known and adhered to 25 centuries ago. The study reported here is a first attempt to research the ergonomics concerns of ancient Greeks, on both a conceptual and a practical level. On the former we present

  11. Watchers of the Ancient Skies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Ben

    1998-01-01

    Describes Lakota belief systems connected with the stars and how those beliefs directed Lakota existence, movements during the year, and ceremonies. Discusses winter camps, associated cultural practices such as storytelling, ancient wisdom, the concept of mirroring (constellations and corresponding land forms on earth), and the Black Hills annual…

  12. The ancient art of memory.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Allan

    2013-12-01

    Revision of Freud's theory requires a new way of seeking dream meaning. With the idea of elaborative encoding, Sue Llewellyn has provided a method of dream interpretation that takes into account both modern sleep science and the ancient art of memory. Her synthesis is elegant and compelling. But is her hypothesis testable? PMID:24304762

  13. Ancient DNA: Prospects and limitations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela S. Soltis; Douglas E. Soltis

    1993-01-01

    Ancient DNAs hold tremendous potential for studies of phylogeny, biogeography, and molecular evolution. In this paper we review published reports of DNA extracted from preserved plant and animal tissues. These preserved materials range in age from a 120 year old museum specimen of the extinct marsupial wolf to Oligocene-Miocene (25-30 million year old) termites and stingless bees preserved in amber.

  14. Beginning the Modern Regime of Subduction Tectonics in Neoproterozoic time: Inferences from Ophiolites of the Arabian-Nubian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, R.

    2003-04-01

    It is now clear that the motive force for plate tectonics is provided by the sinking of dense lithosphere in subduction zones. Correspondingly, the modern tectonic regime is more aptly called ``subduction tectonics" than plate tectonics, which only describes the way Earth's thermal boundary layer adjusts to subduction. The absence of subduction tectonics on Mars and Venus implies that special circumstances are required for subduction to occur on a silicate planet. This begs the question: When did Earth's oceanic lithosphere cool sufficiently for subduction to began? This must be inferred from indirect lines of evidence; the focus here is on the temporal distribution of ophiolites. Well-preserved ophiolites with ``supra-subduction zone" (SSZ) affinities are increasingly regarded as forming when subduction initiates as a result of lithospheric collapse (± a nudge to get it started), and the formation of ophiolitic lithosphere in evolving forearcs favors their emplacement and preservation. The question now is what percentage of ophiolites with ``supra-subduction zone" (SSZ) chemical signatures formed in forearcs during subduction initiation events? Most of the large, well-preserved ophiolites (e.g., Oman, Cyprus, California, Newfoundland) may have this origin. If so, the distribution in space and time of such ophiolites can be used to identify ``subduction initiation" events, which are important events in the evolution of plate tectonics. Such events first occurred at the end of the Archean (˜2.5Ga) and again in the Paleoproterozoic (˜1.8 Ga), but ophiolites become uncommon after this. Well-preserved ophiolites become abundant in Neoproterozoic time, at about 800±50 Ma. Ophiolites of this age are common and well-preserved in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) of Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Saudi Arabia. ANS ophiolites mostly contain spinels with high Cr#, indicating SSZ affinities. Limited trace element data on pillowed lavas supports this interpretation. Boninites are unusual melts of harzburgite that result from asthenospheric upwelling interactng with slab-derived water. This environment is only common during subduction initiation events. Boninites associated with ophiolites have been reported from Egypt, Ethiopia and Eritrea, but most of the geochemical studies of ANS ophiolitic basalts are based on studies that are a decade or more old. The abundance of ANS ophiolites implies an episode of subduction initiation occurred in Neoproterozoic time.

  15. Is the Arabian Nubian Shield with Westward Subduction Polarity? Clues from Prograding Metamorphism in Mantle Peridotites, Eastern Desert of Egypt.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamal El Dien, H. M.; Abu El-Ela, A. S.; Hamdy, M.; Hassan, A.

    2014-12-01

    Neoproterozoic arc mantle beneath the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS) in the Eastern Desert (ED) of Egypt exhumed due to intra-oceanic upthrusting are represented mainly by exposed ophiolitic peridotites serpentinized to different degree. Metamorphism is related to the Pan-African collision and the subduction of oceanic lithosphere. However, polarity of the Pan-African intra-oceanic subduction is still questionable. We here trace the variation of the degree of serpentinization and regional metamorphism of six serpentinite masses, widely distributed in the ED (from the east to the west: W (Wadi). Alam, W. Igla, W. Mubarak, G. El-Maiyit, W. Um El Saneyat and W. Atalla). This is based on their mineralogy, textures and mineral chemistry. Much difference in the degree of serpentinization is obvious among these rocks. They are mainly partly serpentinized containing primary olivine and orthopyroxene at W. Alam and W. Igla, while they are completely serpentinized in the other localities. With the increased degree of metamorphism, textures were transformed from the pseudomorphic to the non-pseudomorphic. The most common retrograde assemblage is composed of lizardite _ chrysotile_ brucite_ magnetite. The serpentine prograde textures can be viewed as a continuum from retrograde lizardite pseudomorphic textures, to very fine-grained transitional texture of lizardite and chrysotile, to chrysotile antigorite interlocking texture and finally to antigorite interpenetrating texture. These textures appear to represent successive stages in a recrystallization event. In late subduction-related metamorphism and early collisional emplacement stage, mylonitic-antigorite serpentinites formed and antigorite became the major phase in G. El-Maiyit, Um El-Saneyat andW. Atalla. Compositional zoning in spinel grains in all serpentinites reflect variation in the degree of alteration. The biggest variation of spinel compositions are among serpentinites from Um El-Saneyat and W. Atalla. The alteration zones were formed in a temperature < 400 °C to 550 °C corresponding to the low green-schist to the lower amphibolite facies. So, we propose that this is concordant with a westward polarity of the subducting oceanic lithosphere, associating the intra-oceanic arc ophiolite during the closure of the Mozambique ocean.

  16. An efficient method for flanking sequence isolation in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An adapter ligation method was developed to determine native barley (Hordeum vulgare) sequences flanking Ds insertions and barley ESTs. This method is simple and efficient, with the majority of queries returning valid sequence information. This report describes the protocol in detail, quantifies its...

  17. Low Phytic Acid Barley Responses to Phosphorus Rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low phytic acid (LPA) barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars partition phosphorus in seed tissue differently than conventional barley cultivars through a reduction in seed phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexkisphosphate) coupled with an increase in inorganic phosphorus. The response of the LPA...

  18. A Simple Sequence Repeat-Based Linkage Map of Barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Ramsay; M. Macaulay; K. MacLean; L. Cardle; J. Fuller; K. J. Edwards; S. Tuvesson; M. Morgante; A. Massari; E. Maestri; N. Marmiroli; T. Sjakste; M. Ganal; W. Powell; R. Waugh

    A total of 568 new simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based markers for barley have been developed from a combination of database sequences and small insert genomic libraries enriched for a range of short simple sequence repeats. Analysis of the SSRs on 16 barley cultivars revealed variable levels of informativeness but no obvious correlation was found with SSR repeat length, motif type,

  19. Pasting and rheological properties of chia composites containing barley flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chia containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) was composited with barley flour having high ß-glucan content. Both omega-3 PUFAs and ß-glucan are well known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing coronary heart disease. Barley flour was dry blended with ground chia ...

  20. TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSE TO GIBBERELLIN AND ABSCISIC ACID IN BARLEY ALEURONE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    De-embryonated cereal aleurone has been established as a model system to study GA and ABA responses, and their interaction. Using Barley 1 GeneChip, we examined mRNA accumulation of over 22,000 genes in de-embryonated barley aleurone treated with GA and ABA. We observed that 1328 genes had more than...

  1. Genetic diversity in barley landraces from Syria and Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ceccarelli; S. Grando; J. A. G. Leur

    1987-01-01

    Single-head progenies derived from barley landraces collected along the Fertile Crescent in Syria and Jordan were evaluated for agronomic, morphological, and quality traits in a typical barley growing area in Northern Syria. A large diversity was observed both between and within collection sites, and in most cases the variation was useful for breeding purposes. Single plant progenies were identified with

  2. BARLEY PROTEIN ISOLATE: THERMAL, FUNCTIONAL, RHEOLOGICAL AND SURFACE PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley protein isolate (BPI) was prepared using hexane-defatted commercial barley flour. BPI was extracted in 0.05 N NaOH in a 10:1 ratio solvent:flour. The BPI was precipitated by adjusting the pH to 4.5 and freeze-dried. The thermal properties of the BPI were determined by Modulated Differentia...

  3. BARLEY DISEASES, GENETICS, AND GENOTYPING: FOR A FEW DOLLARS MORE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A brief overview of the barley-related research programs within the Cereal Crops Research Unit will be presented, followed by a brief overview of plans and progress in establishing an ARS Genotyping Laboratory. Topics covered will include research on virus diseases of barley, particularly research ...

  4. On the Origin and Domestication History of Barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Badr; K. Muller; R. Schafer-Pregl; H. El Rabey; S. Effgen; H. H. Ibrahim; C. Pozzi; W. Rohde; F. Salamini

    Remains of barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains found at archaeological sites in the Fertile Crescent indicate that about 10,000 years ago the crop was domesticated there from its wild relative Hordeum spontaneum.The domestication history of barley is revisited based on the assumptions that DNA markers effectively measure genetic distances and that wild populations are genetically different and they have not undergone

  5. ELISA ANALYSIS FOR FUSARIUM IN BARLEY: APPLICATION IN FIELD NURSERIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we described a system of quantifying Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in barley by ELISA. ELISA had lower variability (lower CV's) than visual scoring or deoxynivalenol (DON) analyses. Thus we tested ELISA, DON, and visual assessment of FHB in 1) selections from a barley doubled-haploid mappi...

  6. TRANSFORMATION TO PRODUCE BARLEY RESISTANT TO FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum destroys barley and wheat crops by causing scab disease (Fusarium head blight, FHB). Spores infect seed spike tissues, leading to production of mycotoxins. There are no known barleys with biochemical resistance to Fusarium, although some have various levels ...

  7. Introduction Modern winter barley cultivars are capable of yields in

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    that are susceptible to lodging and disease with resulting decreased yields and increased input costs. The potential are one to two weeks earlier than for winter wheat, and thus fall N uptake can be greater for win- ter barley than for winter wheat. Excessive fall barley growth can occur and result in freeze injury to stems

  8. Estimating aquifier parameters from analysis of forced fluctuations in well level: An example from the Nubian formation near Aswan, Egypt 1. Hydrogeological background and large-scale permeability estimates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith Evans; John Beavan; David Simpson

    1991-01-01

    This is the first of three papers concerning the extraction of aquifer parameters through the application of time series analysis to water level data from boreholes. The analysis is performed on data from six wells located in the Nubian desert near the shores of Lake Nasser, Egypt. These wells are ideally suited to this study since they are remote from

  9. Evaluación de características productivas en cabritos Boer × local, Nubia × local y locales en el trópico seco de Guerrero, México Evaluation of productive traits in Boer × local, Nubian × local and local kids in the dry tropic of Guerrero, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mayra I. Merlos-Brito; Rubén D. Martínez-Rojero; Ángel A. Mastache-Lagunas; Jaime Gallegos-Sánchez

    By means of the GLM procedure of the SAS statistical package, the effects of the genetic groups (GG) Boer ? local (BL), Nubian ? local (NL) and local ? local (LL) kids, sex of kid (SK), type of birth (TB), age of dam (AD), season (SB) and year (YB) of birth, as well as genotype ? environment interactions on birth

  10. Transposable element junctions in marker development and genomic characterization of barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley is a model plant in genomic studies of Triticeae species. A complete barley genome sequence will facilitate not only barley breeding programs, but also those for related species. However, the large genome size and high repetitive sequence content complicate the barley genome assembly. The ma...

  11. WHEAT AND BARLEY New Jersey producers have expressed concern over the lack

    E-print Network

    Goodman, Robert M.

    WHEAT AND BARLEY New Jersey producers have expressed concern over the lack of Revenue coverage for wheat and barley. Both have had Yield coverage available, but producers wanted to protect their revenue Coverage for wheat and barley! The prices for barley will be based on a percentage of the Chicago Board

  12. RESULTS OF THE 2004-05 UNIFORM WINTER BARLEY YIELD NURSERY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the Uniform Winter Barley Yield Trial (UWBYT) is to evaluate winter-habit (fall-sown) barley advanced lines for adaptation to those areas in the United States where winter barley is grown commercially. The entries in the 2004-05 UWBYT were submitted by public barley breeding programs...

  13. Using barley genomics to develop Fusarium head blight resistant wheat and barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a major problem for wheat and barley growers. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins (e.g., deoxynivalenol or DON) that increases fungal virulence and reduces grain quality and yield. Previous work in Arabidopsis sh...

  14. The International Barley Sequencing Consortium — At the Threshold of Efficient Access to the Barley Genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequencing the genome of barley, an agriculturally and industrially important cereal crop and a useful diploid model for bread wheat, has become a realistic undertaking. Important steps have been initiated to improve genomics tools, build and anchor a physical map, develop a high-density genetic ma...

  15. THE COMPOSITION OF FUNCTIONAL LIPIDS IN HULLED AND HULLESS BARLEY, IN FRACTIONS OBTAINED BY SCARIFICATION AND IN BARLEY OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two cultivars of hulled barley (Thoroughbred and Nomini) and two cultivars of hulless barley (Doyce and Merlin), were scarified to abrade the outer layers of hull and/or pericarp. The resulting fine fractions were evaluated as potential sources of functional lipids (phytosterols, tocopherols and toc...

  16. Bread quality by substituting normal and waxy hull-less barley ( Hordeum Vulgare L.) flours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Induck Choi; Mi-Ja Lee; Jae-Sung Choi; Jong-Nae Hyun; Ki-Hoon Park; Kee-Jong Kim

    2011-01-01

    Substitution of regular and waxy hull-less barley flour was evaluated in pan breads prepared from the blends of barley cvs.\\u000a Saessal (SSWB) and Saechalssal (SCWB) with wheat flour. Effect of barley type and barley flour level (10, 20, and 30%) was\\u000a investigated on compositions, dough development, and bread qualities. Compared to 100% wheat flour, increasing barley flour\\u000a increased ash from

  17. The British Museum: Ancient India

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Ancient India Web site from the British Museum is designed especially for middle schoolers and teachers, but all ages will enjoy exploring. There are six chapters: Buddha, Geography, Hinduism, Indus Valley, Time, and Writing; each with divisions entitled Story, Explore, and Challenge. Story in the Buddha chapter is the life of the Buddha; Explore under Hinduism features trading card-sized images of 16 Hindu gods and short descriptions; and the Geography Challenge is to plan a pilgrimage to see holy sites of the Buddha's life, traveling on foot. Other fun sections include the Writing section challenge, where students decipher ancient Indian writing, and the interactive timelines in the Time chapter. Throughout the site, clicking linked words in the text pops open a glossary with definitions of difficult terms.

  18. Psychiatric thoughts in ancient India.

    PubMed

    Abhyankar, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry. PMID:25838724

  19. The ancient lunar core dynamo.

    PubMed

    Runcorn, S K

    1978-02-17

    Lunar paleomagnetism provides evidence for the existence of an ancient lunar magnetic field generated in an iron core. Paleointensity experiments give a surface field of 1.3 gauss, 4.0 x 10(9) years ago, subsequently decreasing exponentially. Thermodynamic arguments give a minimum value of the heat source in the core at that time: known sources, radioactive and other, are quantitatively implausible, and it is suggested that superheavy elements were present in the early moon. PMID:17836293

  20. Ancient schwannoma of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Pecorella, I; Toth, J; Lukats, O

    2012-08-01

    Schwannoma, also referred to as neurilemmoma or peripheral neurinoma, is an unusual orbital benign tumour that may pose diagnostic challenges. Awareness of the clinical features that may be associated with the tumour and prompt surgical excision with histopathologic examination enable correct diagnosis. The authors describe a progressively increasing inferolateral orbital mass in a 32-year-old patient that was demonstrated to be an orbital ancient schwannoma. PMID:23316621

  1. Ancient Architects of the Mississippi

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A feature of the US National Park Service (see the March 8, 1996 Scout Report), this site provides information about the American civilizations that resided in the lower Mississippi Delta from 500 to 1700. The highly advanced agrarian civilizations, collectively known as the Mississippians, erected massive earthworks, which formed the architectural and ceremonial foundations of their communities. This Website contains images, photos, maps, and essays offering historical, anthropological, and archaeological insight into the cultures of the ancient moundbuilding societies.

  2. Dinosaurs: Ancient Fossils, New Discoveries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site, created to complement the Museum's Dinosaurs: Ancient Fossils, New Discoveries exhibit, offers a virtual visit to the Museum, complete with text, photos, video clips, audio interviews, and more and includes much of the information which was in the original exhibit which is now closed. The site includes information on the bio-mechanics of dinosaurs and the reasons behind some of their strange appearances.

  3. Cloning and characterization of root-specific barley lectin

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, D.R.; Raikhel, N.V. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Cereal lectins are a class of biochemically and antigenically related proteins localized in a tissue-specific manner in embryos and adult plants. To study the specificity of lectin expression, a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) embryo cDNa library was constructed and a clone (BLc3) for barley lectin was isolated. BLc3 is 972 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 212 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 26 amino acid residues followed by a 186 amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide has 95% sequence identity to the antigenically indistinguishable wheat germ agglutinin isolectin-B (WGA-B) suggesting that BLc3 encodes barley lectin. Further evidence that BLc3 encodes barley lectin was obtained by immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translation products of BLc3 RNA transcripts and barley embryo poly(A{sup +}) RNA. In situ hybridizations with BLc3 showed that barley lectin gene expression is confined to the outermost cell layers of both embryonic and adult root tips. On Northern blots, BLc3 hybridizes to a 1.0 kilobyte mRNA in poly(A{sup +}) RNA from both embryos and root tips. We suggest, on the basis of immunoblot experiments, that barley lectin is synthesized as a glycosylated precursor and processed by removal of a portion of the carboxyl terminus including the single N-linked glycosylation site.

  4. Orthopedic surgery in ancient Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Background — Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. The modern literature is, however, sometimes rather too enthusiastic regarding the procedures that are attributed an Egyptian origin. I briefly present and analyze the claims regarding orthopedic surgery in Egypt, what was actually done by the Egyptians, and what may have been incorrectly ascribed to them. Methods — I reviewed the original sources and also the modern literature regarding surgery in ancient Egypt, concentrating especially on orthopedic surgery. Results — As is well known, both literary sources and the archaeological/osteological material bear witness to treatment of various fractures. The Egyptian painting, often claimed to depict the reduction of a dislocated shoulder according to Kocher’s method, is, however, open to interpretation. Therapeutic amputations are never depicted or mentioned in the literary sources, while the specimens suggested to demonstrate such amputations are not convincing. Interpretation — The ancient Egyptians certainly treated fractures of various kinds, and with varying degrees of success. Concerning the reductions of dislocated joints and therapeutic amputations, there is no clear evidence for the existence of such procedures. It would, however, be surprising if dislocations were not treated, even though they have not left traces in the surviving sources. Concerning amputations, the general level of Egyptian surgery makes it unlikely that limb amputations were done, even if they may possibly have been performed under extraordinary circumstances. PMID:25140982

  5. Thermodynamic modelling of Sol Hamed serpentinite, South Eastern Desert of Egypt: Implication for fluid interaction in the Arabian-Nubian Shield ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Alam, Tamer S.; Hamdy, Mohamed M.

    2014-11-01

    The Arabian-Nubian Shield is the largest tract of juvenile continental crust of the Neoproterozoic. This juvenile crust is composed of intra-oceanic island arc/back arc basin complexes and micro-continents welded together along sutures as the Mozambique Ocean was closed. Some of these sutures are marked by ophiolite decorated linear belts. The Sol Hamed ophiolite (808 ± 14 Ma) in southeastern Egypt at the Allaqi-Heiani-Onib-Sol Hamed-Yanbu arc-arc suture represents an uncommon example of rocks that might be less deformed than other ophiolites in the Arabian-Nubian Shield. In order to understand fluid-rock interactions before and during arc-arc collision, petrological, mineral chemistry, whole-rock chemistry and thermodynamic studies were applied to the Sol Hamed serpentinized ophiolitic mantle fragment. These studies reveal that the protolith had a harzburgite composition that probably originated as forearc mantle in the subducted oceanic slab. We propose that these rocks interacted with Ti-rich melts (boninite) in suprasubduction zone, which latter formed the Sol Hamed cumulates. Spinel's Cr# associated with the whole rock V-MgO composition suggest that the harzburgites are highly refractory residues after partial melting up to 29%. The melt extraction mostly occurred under reducing conditions, similar to peridotites recovered from the subducted lithosphere. Protolith alteration resulted from two stages of fluid-rock interaction. The first stage occurred as a result of infiltration of concentrated CO2-rich fluid released from carbonate-bearing sediments and altered basalt at the subduction zone. The alteration occurred during isobaric cooling at a pressure of 1 kbar. The fluid composition during the isobaric cooling was buffered by the metamorphic reactions. The second stage of fluid-rock interactions took place through prograde metamorphism. The increase in pressure during this stage occurred as a result of thrusting within the oceanic crust. In this process the forearc crust was loaded by roughly 20-30 km of overthrust rocks.

  6. Occurrence of type A, B and D trichothecenes in barley and barley products from the Bavarian market.

    PubMed

    Barthel, Jörg; Gottschalk, Christoph; Rapp, Martin; Berger, Matthias; Bauer, Johann; Meyer, Karsten

    2012-05-01

    Fifty-nine samples of barley and barley products were analysed for 18 trichothecene mycotoxins by a sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method (detection limits 0.062-0.70 ?g/kg) after sample extract clean-up on MycoSep®-226 columns. The samples were collected in 2009 from barley processing facilities (mills and malt houses) and at wholesale and retail stage from the Bavarian market. The predominant toxins were T-2 toxin (T-2), HT-2 toxin (HT-2) and deoxynivalenol (DON). For all samples, the mean levels of T-2 and HT-2 were 3.0 ?g/kg and 6.8 ?g/kg with rates of contamination of 63% and 71%, respectively. The maximum values were 40 ?g/kg for T-2 and 47 ?g/kg for HT-2. The rate of contamination with DON was high (95%) with a low mean level of 23 ?g/kg. The DON levels ranged between 3.4 to 420 ?g/kg. For T-2 tetraol, a mean level of 9.2 ?g/kg and a maximum level of 51 ?g/kg with a rate of contamination of 71% were determined. NIV was detected in 69% of the samples with a mean level of 11 ?g/kg and a maximum level of 72 ?g/kg. Other type A and B trichothecenes were detected only in traces. Type D trichothecenes, fusarenon-X, verrucarol and 4,15-diacetylverrucarol were not detected in any sample. Winter barley and malting barley were the most contaminated groups of all samples in this study. In malting barley, the highest levels of contamination with type A trichothecenes were found. In contrast, winter barley showed the highest contamination with type B trichothecenes. The lowest mycotoxin concentrations were found in de-hulled and naked barley and in pearl barley. PMID:23606047

  7. Exploring Ancient World Cultures: An Introduction to Ancient World Cultures on the World-Wide Web

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Exploring Ancient World Cultures, provided by University of Evansville, "is an introductory, on-line, college-level 'textbook' of ancient world cultures, constructed around a series of cultural pages consisting of: The Ancient Near East, Ancient India, Ancient Egypt, Ancient China, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Early Islam, and Medieval Europe." Each home page may contain essays by subject specialists, an anthology of readings from the period, a chronology, bibliographic resources, hypertext links to related sites, and computer graded quizzes. Interested users can also navigate the site by topic across cultures. A highlight of the site is the ability it gives the user to view the entire chronology, or to click on a year and culture and then another culture, in order to compare cross-cultural developments at the same time period. The site is a work in progress that promises maps and images in the near future.

  8. Genome duplications (polyploidy) / ancientGenome duplications (polyploidy) / ancient genome duplications (genome duplications (paleopolyploidypaleopolyploidy))

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Genome duplications (polyploidy) / ancientGenome duplications (polyploidy) / ancient genome duplications (genome duplications (paleopolyploidypaleopolyploidy)) Mechanism? e.g. a diploid cell undergoes;Paramecium genome duplicationsParamecium genome duplications #12;Comparison of two scaffolds originating from

  9. Genome duplications (polyploidy) / ancientGenome duplications (polyploidy) / ancient genome duplications (genome duplications (paleopolyploidypaleopolyploidy))

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Genome duplications (polyploidy) / ancientGenome duplications (polyploidy) / ancient genome duplications (genome duplications (paleopolyploidypaleopolyploidy)) e.g. a diploid cell undergoes failed genome duplicationsParamecium genome duplications #12;Comparison of two scaffolds originating from a

  10. Genomic methylation patterns in archaeological barley show de-methylation as a time-dependent diagenetic process.

    PubMed

    Smith, Oliver; Clapham, Alan J; Rose, Pam; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Allaby, Robin G

    2014-01-01

    Genomic methylation is variable under biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. In particular, viral infection is thought to significantly increase genomic methylation with particularly high activity around transposable elements. Here we present the genomic methylation profiles of grains of archaeological barley (Hordeum vulgare) from several strata from a site in southern Egypt, from the Napatan to the Islamic periods (800 BCE - 1812 CE). One sample tested positive for viral infection and exhibits an unusually high degree of genomic methylation compared to the rest. A decreasing trend in global methylation levels according to deposition date shows in-situ de-methylation of 5-methylcytosine, which can be described as a diagenetic process. This is most likely a deamination mediated de-methylation process and is expected to lead to 5?mC > T base modifications in addition to the C > U modifications due to cytosine deamination, so represents a time-dependent process of DNA diagenesis in ancient DNA. PMID:24993353

  11. Marker-based selection for the ym4 BaMMV-resistance gene in barley using RAPDs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    between resistant (ym4) and susceptible commercial barley cultivars. Hordeum vulgare = barley / barley résistantes (ym4) et sensibles. Hordeum vulgare = orge / virus de la mosaïque modérée de l'orge (Ba

  12. Recent developments in the genetic engineering of barley

    SciTech Connect

    Mannonen, L.; Kauppinen, V.; Enari, T.M. (VTT Biotechnology and Food Research, Espoo (Finland))

    1994-01-01

    Cereals are the most important group of plants for human nutrition and animal feed. Partially due to the commercial value of crop plants, there has been an ever-increasing interest in using modern biotechnological methods for the improvement of the characteristics of cereals during the past decade. The rapid progress in molecular biology, plant cell culture techniques, and gene transfer technology has resulted in successful transformations of all the major cereals--maize, rice, wheat, and barley. This brings the biotechnological methods closer to the routine also in barley breeding. In this article, the current status of barley genetic engineering, including the patent situation, is reviewed. The needs aims, and possible applications of genetic engineering in barley breeding are discussed. 179 refs.

  13. "Upper Peninsula malting barley variety trial" Jim Islieb, Christian Kapp

    E-print Network

    : Growth in the microbrewery sector and specialty beers is driving interest in smaller scale, local malting by artisan brewers. Barley acreage is experiencing a decline nationally and larger scale malting companies

  14. Original article Screening barley germplasm for resistance to a new

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    .) Hordeum vulgare / barley yellow mosaic virus / resistance gene / germplasm / RFLP marker Résumé.) Hordeum vulgare / virus de la mosaïque jaune de l'orge / gène de résistance / germoplasme / marqueurs RFLP

  15. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and not more than 25 percent of other grains for which standards have been established under the United...

  16. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and not more than 25 percent of other grains for which standards have been established under the United...

  17. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and not more than 25 percent of other grains for which standards have been established under the United...

  18. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and not more than 25 percent of other grains for which standards have been established under the United...

  19. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and not more than 25 percent of other grains for which standards have been established under the United...

  20. Chemiosmotic Principles of Solute Transport in Barley Roots

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anthony D. M. Glass (University of British Columbia; )

    1984-06-11

    This exercise will demonstrate to students the fluxes of certain inorganic ions in the roots of barley plants. It will familiarize them with the chemiosmotic principles that are involved in ATP synthesis and give them an understanding of solute transport .

  1. Barley ?-amylase\\/subtilisin inhibitor. I. Isolation and characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Mundy; IB Svendsen; Jørn Hejgaard

    1983-01-01

    A protein inhibitor of endogenous ?-amylase 2 has been isolated from germinated barley by glycogen precipitation followed\\u000a by cation-exchange chromatography. Preliminary kinetic analysis showed a mixed type mechanism of inhibition with an apparent\\u000a Ki of 4×10?8M. The inhibitor formed well-defined complexes with barley malt ?-amylase 2 and co-purified with the ?-amylase by cycloheptaamylose\\u000a affinity chromatography of glycogen precipitates. The inhibitor

  2. Rgysa bzang Tibetan Village: The Origin of Barley (A Story)

    E-print Network

    G.yung, 'brug

    2008-01-01

    (include description/relationship if appropriate) Title of track Rgysa bzang Tibetan Village: The Origin of Barley (A Story) Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) G.yung ‘brung a naitve of Rgyas rdzong Village... , tells The Origin of Barley, a story. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual) Story Name of recorder (if different from collector) G.yung ‘brug Date of recording unknown Place of recording Rgysa bzang (Jizong), Kha mdo (Shuizi) Township, Rong...

  3. Subcellular volumes and metabolite concentrations in barley leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heike Winter; David G. Robinson; Hans Walter Heldt

    1993-01-01

    Metabolite concentrations in subcellular compartments from mature barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Apex) leaves after 9 h of illumination and 5 h of darkness were determined by nonaqueous fractionation and by the stereological evaluation of cellular and subcellular volumes from light and electron micrographs. Twenty one-day-old primary leaves of barley with a total leaf volume of 902 µL per mg

  4. Biochemical mutant in barley renders chemical stabilization of beer superfluous

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. von Wettstein; Barbro Jende-Strid; B. Ahrenst-Larsen; J. A. Sørensen

    1977-01-01

    The recessive mutantant-13 isolated from Foma barley after a mutagen treatment with ethyl methanesulfonate is shown to be blocked in the formation\\u000a of anthocyanins, catechins and proanthocyanidins (=anthocyanogens). The mutant has been propagated, malted on a pilot scale\\u000a and the malt used for pilot brews of beer. Foma barley has been malted and brewed for comparison. Malt, wort and beer

  5. PATHOTYPES OF COCHLIOBOLUS SATIVUS (SPOT BLOTCH) ON BARLEY IN SYRIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. I. E. Arabi; M. Jawhar

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY In order to study the Syrian pathotype diversity of Cochliobolus sativus, the causal agent of barley spot blotch disease, a survey was conducted using 31 isolates and 13 barley genotypes. Four pathotypes (pt 1-4) were identified based on the lesion form and infection re- sponse of the genotypes with mean disease rating from 1.76 to 7.46. Pt 1 exhibited

  6. A recurrent selection programme for grain yield in winter barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Delogu; C. Lorenzoni; A. Marocco; P. Martiniello; M. Odoardi; A. M. Stanca

    1988-01-01

    The effect of a recurrent selection procedure was evaluated in a winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) population. Cycle zero (C0) was initiated by crossing six high yielding winter barley cultivars with the short straw cv ‘Onice’. The F1's were crossed according to a diallel scheme without reciprocals. A total of 750 S0 plants were derived and evaluated; 329 S0 plants

  7. Serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase mutant of barley

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, R.; Murray, A.; Joy, K.; Lea, P.

    1987-08-01

    A photorespiratory mutant of barley (LaPr 85/84), deficient in both of the major peaks of serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity detected in the wild type, also lacks serine:pyruvate and asparagine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activities. Genetic analysis of the mutation demonstrated that these three activities are all carried on the same enzyme. The mutant, when placed in air, accumulated a large pool of serine, showed the expected rate (50%) of ammonia release during photorespiration but produced CO/sub 2/ at twice the wild type rate when it was fed (/sup 14/C) glyoxylate. Compared with the wild type, LaPr 85/84 exhibited abnormal transient changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence when the CO/sub 2/ concentration of the air was altered, indicating that the rates of the fluorescence quenching mechanisms were affected in vivo by the lack of this enzyme.

  8. Zeatin-binding proteins in barley leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, G.A.; Kulaeva, O.N.; Taryan, V.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Highly labelled tritium-zeatin was used in the work to clarify for the first time a protein factor that is present in cytokinin-sensitive vegetative organs of plants (barley leaves) and which possesses the properties of a cytokinin receptor. Aliquots of tritium-zeatin were mixed with a solution of protein and incubated for several hours in buffer. Following incubation, protein was precipitated by ammonium sulfate at 90% of saturation, and radioactivity of the precipitate was checked in a dioxane scintillator with an efficiency of about 35%. It is shown that the characteristics of interaction of the clarified specific protein sites with cytokinins in regard to a number of criteria correspond to the characteristics expected of receptors of these phytohormones.

  9. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) transformation using immature embryos.

    PubMed

    Marthe, Cornelia; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Goetz

    2015-01-01

    Barley is a major crop species, and also has become a genetic model for the small grain temperate cereals. A draft barley genome sequence has recently been completed, opening many opportunities for candidate gene isolation and functionality testing. Thanks to the development of customizable endonucleases, also site-directed genome modification recently became feasible for higher plants, which marks the beginning of a new era of genetic engineering. The development of improved binary vectors and hypervirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains has raised the efficiency of genetic transformation in barley to a level where the technique has become relatively routine. The transformation method described here involves immature barley embryos cocultivated with Agrobacterium after removal of their embryo axis. Critical adjustments to the protocol have included the supplementation of the cocultivation medium with the polyphenolic signaling compound acetosyringone at comparatively high concentration and the use of cysteine to reduce the extent of cellular oxidation upon agroinfection. In addition, the use of liquid, rather than solid, cocultivation medium promotes the throughput of the method. The protocol has delivered well over 10,000 transgenic barley plants over the past 10 years. Routine transformation efficiency, calculated on the basis of the recovery of independent transgenics per 100 explants, has reached about 25 % in cultivar (cv.) "Golden Promise". The protocol has proven effective for more than 20 barley cultivars, although some adjustments to the culture conditions have had to be made in some cases. The transformation efficiency of cv. "Golden Promise" remains higher than that of any other cultivar tested. PMID:25300832

  10. Selenium-containing peroxidases of germinating barley.

    PubMed

    Huang, K; Lauridsen, E; Clausen, J

    1994-01-01

    Germinating barley grown on an artificial medium was exposed to 75Se-selenite for 8 d. Then the leaves were homogenized and proteins were separated by means of Sephadex G-150 filtration, followed by DEAE-Sepharose chromatography. Each fraction collected was assayed for total protein, radioactivity, and peroxidase activity. In barley leaves, three protein peaks (peaks no. I, II, and III) with peroxidase activity could be separated by Sephadex G 150 filtration. Each fraction was then further separated on DEAE-Sepharose chromatography. Thus, peaks I and II were resolved by DEAE-Sepharose into one major and two minor peaks of radioactivity. However, only the major peak showed peroxidase activity. Peak III was resolved from the gel filtration on the DEAE-sepharose into one major and four minor peaks of radioactivity. The major and three of the minor radioactivity peaks contained peroxidase activity. The protein fractions were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular weights of separated proteins were estimated by means of molecular markers, and 75Se radioactivity was evaluated by autoradiography. Thus, gel filtration peak I contained four bands with mol wts of 128, 116, 100, and 89 kDa. Of these, the 89 kDa protein contained selenium. Peak II contained three protein bands with mol wts 79.4, 59.6, and 59.9. The 59.6 band was a selenoprotein. Peak III contained four protein bands (and some very weak bands). The four major bands had mol wts of 38.6, 31.6, 30.2, and 29.2 kDa. The last mentioned band was a selenoprotein. PMID:7888282

  11. [Biological evolution and ancient DNA].

    PubMed

    Debruyne, Régis; Barriel, Véronique

    2006-05-01

    Twenty years after the advent of ancient DNA studies, this discipline seems to have reached the maturity formerly lacking to the fulfilment of its objectives. In its early development paleogenetics, as it is now acknowledged, had to cope with very limited data due to the technical limitations of molecular biology. It led to phylogenetic assumptions often limited in their scope and sometimes non-focused or even spurious results that cast the reluctance of the scientific community. This time seems now over and huge amounts of sequences have become available which overcome the former limitations and bridge the gap between paleogenetics, genomics and population biology. The recent studies over the charismatic woolly mammoth (independent sequencing of the whole mitochondrial genome and of millions of base pairs of the nuclear genome) exemplify the growing accuracy of ancient DNA studies thanks to new molecular approaches. From the earliest publications up to now, the number of mammoth nucleotides was multiplied by 100,000. Likewise, populational approaches of ice-age taxa provide new historical scenarios about the diversification and extinction of the Pleistocene megafauna on the one hand, and about the processes of domestication of animal and vegetal species by Man on the other. They also shed light on the differential structure of molecular diversity between short-term populational research (below 2 My) and long-term (over 2 My) phylogenetic approaches. All those results confirm the growing importance of paleogenetics among the evolutionary biology disciplines. PMID:16687118

  12. The Origins and Ancient History of Wine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Presented by the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, The Origins and Ancient History of Wine explores the roots of viniculture and its effects on the ancient civilizations of the Near East and Egypt. The site also explains how archaeological chemistry has improved methods for investigating organic artifacts, providing new means for studying technological and biocultural development of early peoples.

  13. Ancient Music Recovery for Digital Libraries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    João Rogério Caldas Pinto; Pedro Vieira; Mário Ramalho; M. Mengucci; Pedro Pina; Fernando Muge

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a description and current state of the “ROMA” (Reconhecimento Óptico de Música Antiga or Ancient Music Optical Recognition) Project that consists on building an application, for the recognition and restoration\\u000a specialised in ancient music manuscripts (from XVI to XVIII century). This project, beyond the inventory of the Biblioteca Geral da Universidade de

  14. The ancient shorelines of Lanai, Hawaii, revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara H. Keating; Charles E. Helsley

    2002-01-01

    Three ancient shorelines (the Mahana, Kaluakapo and Manele) have been described at elevations of 365, 190 and 170 m in the Kaluakapo Crater, Lanai, Hawaii [Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 237 (1978) 1]. Stearns' original observation of a fossil-bearing outcrop at 326 m was interpreted as an ancient shoreline. Subsequently, Moore and Moore (1984, 1988) [Science 226 (1984) 1312; Geol.

  15. Fossils: An Ancient Sea in Indiana

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-10-21

    In this interactive activity from the Children's Museum of Indianapolis, Indiana, examine a piece of the ancient Borden Sea in what is now central Indiana. Explore the types of fossils found there and the clues they offer to ancient life on Earth.

  16. Geologically ancient DNA: fact or artefact?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin B. Hebsgaard; Matthew J. Phillips; Eske Willerslev

    2005-01-01

    Studies continue to report ancient DNA sequences and viable microbial cells that are many millions of years old. In this paper we evaluate some of the most extravagant claims of geologically ancient DNA. We conclude that although exciting, the reports suffer from inadequate experimental setup and insufficient authentication of results. Consequently, it remains doubtful whether amplifiable DNA sequences and viable

  17. INLAND WANDERINGS OF THE ANCIENT MURRELET

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EDWARD A. MUNYER

    HE Ancient Murrelet (Synthliboramphus antiquus) has been reported from widely scattered areas of the United States and Canada. In an attempt to understand a recent record of this Pacific alcid in Illinois, I made an intensive search of the literature but found no generally inclusive dis- cussion of these wanderings. This paper, therefore, reviews the inland distribution of Ancient Murrelets

  18. Late Cryogenian–Ediacaran history of the Arabian–Nubian Shield: A review of depositional, plutonic, structural, and tectonic events in the closing stages of the northern East African Orogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Johnson; A. Andresen; A. S. Collins; A. R. Fowler; H. Fritz; W. Ghebreab; T. Kusky; R. J. Stern

    2011-01-01

    During the late Cryogenian–Ediacaran (650–542Ma), the Arabian–Nubian Shield (ANS) underwent final assembly and accretion to the Saharan Metacraton concurrent with the assembly of eastern and western Gondwana. At the end of the Precambrian it lay at one end of the East African Orogen, with its northern margin (present coordinates) forming a low-relief stable shelf facing an open ocean; to the

  19. Electronic Tools and Ancient Near Eastern Archives

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A number of interesting digital projects have recently been sponsored by the National Science Foundation, and the Electronic Tools and Ancient Near Eastern Archives (ETANA) is one such project. With the support and primary documents of a number of important institutions, such as the Society of Biblical Literature and Case Western Reserve University, the mission of ETANA is to "develop and maintain a comprehensive Internet site for the student of the ancient Near East." While the project is still in development, the site's creators have added numerous helpful resources so far to the archive, including the ETANA Core Texts. In this section, visitors can view digitized texts related to scholarship on the ancient Near East, such as James Breasted's monumental work, "Ancient Records of Egypt", along with 171 other key documents. Visitors will also want to take a look at ABZU, which is another database collection that contains items relevant to the study of the ancient Near East that are available online.

  20. Photoperiod and Temperature Interactions Regulate Low-Temperature-Induced Gene Expression in Barley1

    E-print Network

    Sarhan, Fathey

    Photoperiod and Temperature Interactions Regulate Low-Temperature-Induced Gene Expression in Barley is also developmentally regulated by PP response. The LT-tolerant, highly short-day (SD)-sensitive barley

  1. Regulation and mechanism of potassium release from barley roots: an in planta 42

    E-print Network

    Britto, Dev T.

    Phytologist (2010) 188: 1028­1038 doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03436.x Key words: barley (Hordeum vulgare from roots of intact barley (Hordeum vulgare), in the context of recent discoveries in the molecular

  2. K analysis of sodium-induced potassium efflux in barley: mechanism and relevance to salt tolerance

    E-print Network

    Britto, Dev T.

    -8137.2009.03169.x Key words: barley (Hordeum vulgare), efflux, ion channels, membrane integrity, potassium transport- tional K+ -flux analysis at the root plasma membrane of intact barley (Hordeum vulgare), in response

  3. Molecular Characterization of Barley 3H Semi-Dwarf Genes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haobing; Chen, Guangdeng; Yan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The barley chromosome 3H accommodates many semi-dwarfing genes. To characterize these genes, the two-rowed semi-dwarf Chinese barley landrace ‘TX9425’ was crossed with the Australian barley variety ‘Franklin’ to generate a doubled haploid (DH) population, and major QTLs controlling plant height have been identified in our previous study. The major QTL derived from ‘TX9425’ was targeted to investigate the allelism of the semi-dwarf gene uzu in barley. Twelve sets of near-isogenic lines and a large NILF2 fine mapping population segregating only for the dwarfing gene from ‘TX9425’ were developed. The semi-dwarfing gene in ‘TX9425’ was located within a 2.8 cM region close to the centromere on chromosome 3H by fine mapping. Molecular cloning and sequence analyses showed that the ‘TX9425’-derived allele contained a single nucleotide substitution from A to G at position 2612 of the HvBRI1 gene. This was apparently the same mutation as that reported in six-rowed uzu barley. Markers co-segregating with the QTL were developed from the sequence of the HvBRI1 gene and were validated in the ‘TX9425’/‘Franklin’ DH population. The other major dwarfing QTL derived from the Franklin variety was distally located on chromosome 3HL and co-segregated with the sdw1 diagnostic marker hv20ox2. A third dwarfing gene, expressed only in winter-sown trials, was identified and located on chromosome 3HS. The effects and interactions of these dwarfing genes under different growing conditions are discussed. These results improve our understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling semi-dwarf stature in barley and provide diagnostic markers for the selection of semi-dwarfness in barley breeding programs. PMID:25826380

  4. Identification of wheat-barley addition lines with N-banding of chromosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. M. R. Islam

    1980-01-01

    The seven chromosomes of barley (Hordeum vulgare) have been identified individually by their distinctive N-banding pattern. Furthermore all of the barley chromosome N-banding patterns were found to be recognizably different from those exhibited by wheat chromosomes, making it possible to identify individual barley chromosomes when present in a wheat background. N-banding has therefore been used to identify the individual barley

  5. Sacred psychiatry in ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Tzeferakos, Georgios; Douzenis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    From the ancient times, there are three basic approaches for the interpretation of the different psychic phenomena: the organic, the psychological, and the sacred approach. The sacred approach forms the primordial foundation for any psychopathological development, innate to the prelogical human mind. Until the second millennium B.C., the Great Mother ruled the Universe and shamans cured the different mental disorders. But, around 1500 B.C., the predominance of the Hellenic civilization over the Pelasgic brought great changes in the theological and psychopathological fields. The Hellenes eliminated the cult of the Great Mother and worshiped Dias, a male deity, the father of gods and humans. With the Father's help and divinatory powers, the warrior-hero made diagnoses and found the right therapies for mental illness; in this way, sacerdotal psychiatry was born. PMID:24725988

  6. Sacred psychiatry in ancient Greece

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    From the ancient times, there are three basic approaches for the interpretation of the different psychic phenomena: the organic, the psychological, and the sacred approach. The sacred approach forms the primordial foundation for any psychopathological development, innate to the prelogical human mind. Until the second millennium B.C., the Great Mother ruled the Universe and shamans cured the different mental disorders. But, around 1500 B.C., the predominance of the Hellenic civilization over the Pelasgic brought great changes in the theological and psychopathological fields. The Hellenes eliminated the cult of the Great Mother and worshiped Dias, a male deity, the father of gods and humans. With the Father's help and divinatory powers, the warrior-hero made diagnoses and found the right therapies for mental illness; in this way, sacerdotal psychiatry was born. PMID:24725988

  7. Ancient Near East.net

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The ancient Near East has been the birthplace of some of civilization's most important advances, among them written language, the impulse to urbanism, and crop cultivation. Created and maintained by Paul James Cowie (a doctoral student at Australia's Macquarie University), the site is a fine resource for both scholars and the general public. Scholars will want to make sure and take a look at the conference diary section, which lists upcoming conferences and various calls for papers and other submissions. The announcements section is of additional interest, as it gives advance notice regarding related activities, including international symposia. For the general public, a host of sections (such as museums and galleries) offer comprehensive listings of Web-based resources ranging from Egyptology links to those dealing with cuneiform. The Web site also contains a listing of links to museums that specialize in the antiquities and archaeology of the Near East located around the world.

  8. Ergonomic design in ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Marmaras, N; Poulakakis, G; Papakostopoulos, V

    1999-08-01

    Although the science of ergonomics did not actually emerge until the 20th century, there is evidence to suggest that ergonomic principles were in fact known and adhered to 25 centuries ago. The study reported here is a first attempt to research the ergonomics concerns of ancient Greeks, on both a conceptual and a practical level. On the former we present a collection of literature references to the concepts of usability and human-centred design. On the latter, examples of ergonomic design from a variety of fields are analysed. The fields explored here include the design of everyday utensils, the sculpture and manipulation of marble as a building material and the design of theatres. Though hardly exhaustive, these examples serve to demonstrate that the ergonomics principles, in content if not in name, actually emerged a lot earlier than is traditionally thought. PMID:10416849

  9. Ancient aqueous sedimentation on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldspiel, Jules M.; Squyres, Steven W.

    1991-01-01

    Viking orbiter images are presently used to calculate approximate volumes for the inflow valleys of the ancient cratered terrain of Mars; a sediment-transport model is then used to conservatively estimate the amount of water required for the removal of this volume of debris from the valleys. The results obtained for four basins with well-developed inflow networks indicate basin sediment thicknesses of the order of tens to hundreds of meters. The calculations further suggest that the quantity of water required to transport the sediment is greater than that which could be produced by a single discharge of the associated aquifer, unless the material of the Martian highlands was very fine-grained and noncohesive to depths of hundreds of meters.

  10. GPR prospection in ancient Ephesos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hruska, Jiri; Fuchs, Gerald

    1999-03-01

    Urban area of ancient Ephesos (present Turkey) is too large to be fully excavated, so geophysical prospection and mapping can help with the investigation. Georadar is one of the most effective tools for it. Two different tasks solved by georadar are presented. The first problem was the interconnection between the city and the temple of Artemis. By historical records, it was made by two sacred procession roads, which had character of Graeco-Roman stoa, i.e., a roofed road. Only small parts of these roads were discovered in ruins or excavated. Some hundreds of metres from total length of a few kilometres became known, but the questions above were not solved. Then, the area was prospected by georadar. Series of GPR lines were scanned gradually from the last known points and evaluated right on the spot. As a result, a plan of georadar indications could be drawn. These indications created two lines tracing unknown parts of both roads joining together and then continuing till the entry of the temple. The results were confirmed by two boreholes. The second task was mapping of Hellenistic level of Tetragonos agora. At present, it is under the Roman level, and is visible only in some excavation pits. About a half the square was covered by detailed georadar survey. Numerous anomalies indicated presence of underground objects. Compared with the results of excavations, they were interpreted as ancient remains in several levels. Then plans of these indications were compiled for separated levels. Hellenistic buildings remains were mapped, forming an older agora, smaller and slightly different by its shape from the Roman building plan. Besides it, uncovered parts of Roman ruins were detected, as well as some remains of Classic and Archaic settlement levels. Some traces of even older human presence were found under them. Georadar results will serve as a guideline for future excavations.

  11. MOLECULAR MAPPING OF A RECESSIVE BARLEY GENE FOR RESISTANCE TO STRIPE RUST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei, is one of the most important barley (Hordeum vulgare) diseases in the south central and western United States of America. The disease is best controlled using resistant cultivars. Barley genotype Grannenlose Zweizeilige (GZ) has a rec...

  12. Comparison of wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) and barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Comparison of wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) and barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV): 2, we made a comparison of the closely related barley yellow mosaic bymovirus (BaYMV) and wheat spindle. Leaves of BaYMV-infected winter barley and WSSMV-infected wheat typically showed similar symptoms

  13. MSU University News New wheat, barley and specialty crop varieties okayed for pipeline

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    MSU University News New wheat, barley and specialty crop varieties okayed for pipeline February 03, 2004 Several new wheat, barley and specialty crop varieties were approved during the January meeting new research lines of wheat, barley and specialty crops, approving some for release

  14. 7 CFR 810.205 - Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley. 810.205 Section 810.205 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application...grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  15. Fertilizer Facts: September 1992, Number 2 Nitrogen Utilization by Malting Barley Under Varying Moisture Regimes

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Fertilizer Facts: September 1992, Number 2 Nitrogen Utilization by Malting Barley Under Varying barley under irrigated conditions based on preplant soil tests. Four irrigation treatments were. 'Klages' malting barley was seeded on 24 May 1991 and irrigation treatments commenced on 10 June 1991

  16. 7 CFR 810.205 - Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley. 810.205 Section 810.205 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application...grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  17. Slow vacuolar channels from barley mesophyll cells are regulated by 14-3-3 proteins

    E-print Network

    Schönknecht, Gerald

    Slow vacuolar channels from barley mesophyll cells are regulated by 14-3-3 proteins Paul W.J. van rights reserved. Key words: 14-3-3 protein; Barley mesophyll; Patch-clamp; Plant vacuole; Slow activating vacuolar Ca2 decreases single channel cur- rent in barley mesophyll vacuoles [7]. In Fava bean guard cell

  18. REGULAR PAPER Photosynthetic responses of sun-and shade-grown barley leaves

    E-print Network

    Govindjee

    REGULAR PAPER Photosynthetic responses of sun- and shade-grown barley leaves to high light at Springerlink.com Abstract In this study, we have compared photosynthetic performance of barley leaves (Hordeum the shade and the sun barley leaves had similar Chl a/b and Chl/carotenoid ratios. The fluorescence

  19. RAPID COMMUNICATION Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus RNA Requires a Cap-Independent Translation Sequence

    E-print Network

    Miller, W. Allen

    RAPID COMMUNICATION Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus RNA Requires a Cap-Independent Translation Sequence that facilitates cap-independent translation is located near the 3 end of barley yellow dwarf luteovirus RNA. Here. Thus barley yellow dwarf virus differs from related viruses by having neither a genome-linked protein

  20. Request for Support for Registration of HB379 Crop: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Request for Support for Registration of HB379 Crop: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Type: 2-Row Hulless-phytate barley that has demonstrated good physical grain quality with average agronomic performance. If supported, HB379 would be the first commercially available low-phytate barley variety. HB379 is the result

  1. 2007 Barley variety performance at Denton and Moccasin By Dave Wichman

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    2007 Barley variety performance at Denton and Moccasin By Dave Wichman The 2007 central Montana through August quickly changed the yield potential of spring crops. The yield potential of later barley of winter wheat in central Montana. In some cases, late seeded barley can produce nice plump kernels

  2. Request for Support for Registration of SR425 Crop: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Request for Support for Registration of SR425 Crop: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Type: Spring, Six, scald and DON. Description: SR425 is a promising six-rowed malt barley that has performed well-Row Barley registration trials. Eastern Black Soils Western Black Soils Grey Wooded Soils Brown Soils Overall

  3. Fertilizer Facts: December 2000, Number 24 Nitrogen Fertilization of Dryland Malt Barley for Yield and Quality

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Fertilizer Facts: December 2000, Number 24 Nitrogen Fertilization of Dryland Malt Barley for Yield of fertilizer programs necessary for production of high quality malt barley. Quality, or the ability schemes for malt barley. Generally, kernel plumpness (plump) and protein content are the dominant quality

  4. 7 CFR 810.205 - Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley. 810.205 Section 810.205 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application...grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  5. The Quantum Mixed-Spin Heme State of Barley Peroxidase: A Paradigm for Class III Peroxidases

    E-print Network

    Shelnutt, John A.

    The Quantum Mixed-Spin Heme State of Barley Peroxidase: A Paradigm for Class III Peroxidases Barry and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the ferric form of barley grain peroxidase (BP 1) at various pH values, the QS species remains in all cases the dominant heme spin species. Barley peroxidase appears

  6. MONTANA WHEAT AND BARLEY REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS PROPOSAL SUBMISSION AND INSTRUCTIONS

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    MONTANA WHEAT AND BARLEY REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS PROPOSAL SUBMISSION AND INSTRUCTIONS NECESSARY and the MONTANA WHEAT AND BARLEY COMMITTEE (include MSU Extension Service if appropriate) I. TITLE: II. TIME HAS FUNDED THIS PROJECT: #12;PROPOSAL TO MONTANA WHEAT AND BARLEY COMMITTEE FROM MONTANA STATE

  7. Ammoniation of barley straw : effect on anatomical and physicochemical characteristics of the cell walls

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Ammoniation of barley straw : effect on anatomical and physicochemical characteristics of the cell was to investigate changes in chemical and structural features of the cell walls in barley straw (Hordium vulgare L capacity and swollen volume were also examined. Changes in chemical composition of barley straw following

  8. K analysis of sodium-induced potassium efflux in barley: mechanism and relevance to salt tolerance

    E-print Network

    Britto, Dev T.

    42 K analysis of sodium-induced potassium efflux in barley: mechanism and relevance to salt.1469-8137.2009.03169.x Key words: barley (Hordeum vulgare), efflux, ion channels, membrane integrity unidirec- tional K+ -flux analysis at the root plasma membrane of intact barley (Hordeum vulgare

  9. Request for Support for Registration of SR424 Crop: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Request for Support for Registration of SR424 Crop: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Type: Spring, Six-rowed malting barley that has performed well agronomically in both the 2007 and 2008 Western Cooperative Six-Row Barley registration trials. It has out yielded the malting checks in both years, has good malting quality

  10. Phenotypic selection and regulation of reproduction in different environments in wild barley

    E-print Network

    Volis, Sergei

    Phenotypic selection and regulation of reproduction in different environments in wild barley S-off; trait correlations Abstract Plasticity of the phenotypic architecture of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum results demonstrate that not only is the character architecture in wild barley plastic and sensitive

  11. weekly intervals, for five weeks, the hay was progressively replaced by barley,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    weekly intervals, for five weeks, the hay was progressively replaced by barley, such that the final diet contained 24% hay, 66% barley and 10% soyabean meal. Total anaerobic, amylolytic and lactate 16S rRNA-targeting probes. Results obtained with diets containing 0 and 66% barley are presented here

  12. 7 CFR 810.205 - Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley. 810.205 Section 810.205 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application...grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  13. Request for Support for Registration of HB402 Crop: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Request for Support for Registration of HB402 Crop: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Type: Spring, Two in the Western Hulless Barley Cooperative Registration trial, and testing at the Crop Development Centre as SM Hulless Barley Cooperative Registration trials. Black Soil Zone Black & Grey Zone Brown Soil Zone Combined

  14. Original article Use of whole barley with a protein supplement to fatten

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Use of whole barley with a protein supplement to fatten lambs under different received a commercial fattening concentrate. The other two groups received whole barley with a protein (due to a lower proportion of stomach and digestive content) than those fed barley. The fat colour

  15. Allozyme Variation in Turkmenian Populations of Wild Barley, Hordeum spontaneum Koch.

    E-print Network

    Volis, Sergei

    Allozyme Variation in Turkmenian Populations of Wild Barley, Hordeum spontaneum Koch. SERGEI VOLIS variation in 720 individuals representing 36 populations of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, from Central variation found in wild barley in the Middle East is less pronounced in populations from Central Asia where

  16. Capacity and Plasticity of Potassium Channels and High-Affinity Transporters in Roots of Barley

    E-print Network

    Britto, Dev T.

    Capacity and Plasticity of Potassium Channels and High-Affinity Transporters in Roots of Barley of potassium (K+ ) transporters in high- and low-affinity K+ uptake was examined in roots of intact barley, electrophysiology, pharmacology, and mutant analysis. Comparisons were made between results from barley and five

  17. 7 CFR 810.205 - Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley. 810.205 Section 810.205 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application...grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  18. Development of simple sequence repeat DNA markers and their integration into a barley linkage map

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z.-W. Liu; R. M. Biyashev; M. A. Saghai Maroof

    1996-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs), or microsatellites, are a new class of PCR-based DNA markers for genetic mapping. The objectives of the present study were to develop SSR markers for barley and to integrate them into an existing barley linkage map. DNA sequences containing SSRs were isolated from a barley genomic library and from public databases. It is estimated that the

  19. Request for Support for Registration of SR420 Crop: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Request for Support for Registration of SR420 Crop: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Type: Spring, Six resistance to the malting checks. Description: SR420 is a white aleurone six-rowed malting barley. It has out;Table 1a. Grain yield (kg/ha) for SR420 and checks from 2006 Western Cooperative Six-Row Barley

  20. 76 FR 61287 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Barley

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ...Comment on the United States Standards for Barley AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and...United States (U.S.) Standards for Barley under the United States Grain Standards...parties to comment on whether the current barley standards and grading practices need...

  1. 14-3-3 adaptor proteins are intermediates in ABA signal transduction during barley seed germination

    E-print Network

    Quatrano, Ralph S.

    14-3-3 adaptor proteins are intermediates in ABA signal transduction during barley seed germination that abscisic acid (ABA) affects both expression and protein levels of five 14-3-3 isoforms in embryonic barley under the control of ABA, but that they control ABA action as well. Keywords: 14-3-3, barley, ABA

  2. Genes for resistance in barley to Finnish isolates of Rhynchosporium secalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Robinson; H. Lindqvist; M. Jalli

    1995-01-01

    Twenty Finnish isolates of Rhynchosporium secalis (Oud.) J.J. Davis, the causal agent of scald, were taken from infected barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants and inoculated on to seedlings of a differential series of barley containing a range of major genes for resistance to the fungus, as well as on to six Nordic 6-row spring barleys and three winter ryes (Secale

  3. CARBOHYDRATE DIGESTION IN HUMANS FROM A B-GLUCAN-ENRICHED BARLEY IS REDUCED

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obese and diabetic patients may benefit from foodstuffs that are poorly absorbed and/or digested at a slower rate. Prowashonupana (PW) is a cultivar of barley, whose grains are enriched in beta-glucans, and thus may be less digestible than standard barley (barley cultivar (BZ) 594.35.e). To test thi...

  4. Expression Analysis of Ethylene Biosynthesis and Receptor Genes From Barley Embryo and Tissue Culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethylene affects regeneration of green plants from barley tissue culture. With the availability of the HarvEST barley database and barley GeneChip, genome-wide expression studies have focused on differential development between Morex and Golden Promise at various stages of plant growth. The data f...

  5. Phosphorus characterization in feces from broiler chicks fed low-phytate barley diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low phytic acid grains in poultry diets can reduce P concentrations in feces, but the influence on feces P composition is relatively unknown. We analyzed feces from poultry fed one of four barley based diets. The barley varieties used to generate the diets consisted of wild-type barley (Copeland, ...

  6. The associations between Vrs1 alleles and grain quality traits in spring barley Hordeum vulgare L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley head row type is a major trait affecting end use quality. Six rowed forms emerged due to mutations in the Vrs1 gene in two rowed barleys. Whether barley is two (Vrs1) or six rowed (vrs1) directly affects a wide range of morphological traits related to seed yield and grain quality. Vrs1 has be...

  7. Genetic and environmental analysis of NIR feed quality predictions on genotypes of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glen Fox; M. Gabriela Borgognone; Peter Flinn; David Poulsen

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the use of NIR feed quality equations, developed from a multi-cereal calibration set, including barley, on barley breeding lines and commercial cultivars. The resultant predictions were then analysed to ascertain genetic and or environmental affects. The calibrations were developed by a third party, using a NIRSystems 6500 (master) instrument. The barley spectra we used were also from

  8. Transcript Differences Associated With Non-Acclimated Freezing Tolerance in Two Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley periodically suffers from late spring freezes in area throughout the world, with significant losses to yield. To better understand the response of barley to spring freezes, we examined the response of Dicktoo and Keunal barley varieties in their jointing stage to non-acclimated freezing (NAF...

  9. Assessment of the degree and the type of restriction fragment length polymorphism in barley ( Hordeum vulgare )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Graner; H. Siedler; A. Jahoor; R. G. Herrmann; G. Wenzel

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine the extent of polymorphism in barley (Hordeum vulgare), DNA from 48 varieties was analyzed with 23 genomic, single-copy probes, distributed across all seven chromosomes. Upon hybridization to wheat-barley addition lines, the probes showed different degrees of homology compared to the wheat genome. Polymorphisms were detected in the barley genome at a frequency of 43% after digestion

  10. Effects of barley straw ( Hordeum vulgare ) on freshwater and brackish phytoplankton and cyanobacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily F. Brownlee; Stella G. Sellner; Kevin G. Sellner

    2003-01-01

    A short-term laboratory study was conductedto investigate the effect of barley strawin controlling several common phytoplanktonand cyanobacterial species. Following aone-month incubation of barley straw incoarsely filtered fresh Potomac River andbrackish Patuxent River waters, the growthof six autotrophic taxa was followed inculture. Barley straw slurry reduced theyield of three taxa (Ankistrodesmusfalcatus, Chlorella capsulata, Isochrysis sp.) in comparison withcultures not receiving the

  11. Differential Susceptibilities of Wheat and Barley to Diphenyl Ether Herbicide Oxyfluorfen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung Sup Choi; Hee Jae Lee; In Taek Hwang; Jong Yeong Pyon; Kwang Yun Cho

    1999-01-01

    Wheat is known to be relatively tolerant to diphenyl ether herbicides. Growth and physiological responses of wheat to diphenyl ether herbicide oxyfluorfen were examined in comparison with those of oxyfluorfensusceptible barley. Compared to barley, wheat was significantly less susceptible to the herbicide with preemergence and postemergence treatments. The differential susceptibilities of wheat and barley to the herbicide were more apparent

  12. Comparative genomic analysis and expression of the APETALA2-like genes from barley, wheat, and barley-wheat amphiploids

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Martín, Antonio; Barro, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Background The APETALA2-like genes form a large multi-gene family of transcription factors which play an important role during the plant life cycle, being key regulators of many developmental processes. Many studies in Arabidopsis have revealed that the APETALA2 (AP2) gene is implicated in the establishment of floral meristem and floral organ identity as well as temporal and spatial regulation of flower homeotic gene expression. Results In this work, we have cloned and characterised the AP2-like gene from accessions of Hordeum chilense and Hordeum vulgare, wild and domesticated barley, respectively, and compared with other AP2 homoeologous genes, including the Q gene in wheat. The Hordeum AP2-like genes contain two plant-specific DNA binding motifs called AP2 domains, as does the Q gene of wheat. We confirm that the H. chilense AP2-like gene is located on chromosome 5Hch. Patterns of expression of the AP2-like genes were examined in floral organs and other tissues in barley, wheat and in tritordeum amphiploids (barley × wheat hybrids). In tritordeum amphiploids, the level of transcription of the barley AP2-like gene was lower than in its barley parental and the chromosome substitutions 1D/1Hch and 2D/2Hch were seen to modify AP2 gene expression levels. Conclusion The results are of interest in order to understand the role of the AP2-like gene in the spike morphology of barley and wheat, and to understand the regulation of this gene in the amphiploids obtained from barley-wheat crossing. This information may have application in cereal breeding programs to up- or down-regulate the expression of AP2-like genes in order to modify spike characteristics and to obtain free-threshing plants. PMID:19480686

  13. Physicochemical Properties of ?-Glucan from Acid Hydrolyzed Barley.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Jang, Gwi Yeong; Hwang, In Guk; Kim, Hyun Young; Woo, Koan Sik; Kim, Kee Jong; Lee, Mi Ja; Kim, Tae Jip; Lee, Junsoo; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2015-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate changes in the content and purity, as well as physical characteristics of ?-glucan extracted from acid hydrolyzed whole grain barleys. Waxy and non-waxy barleys (Hordeum vulgare) were hydrolyzed with different concentrations of HCl (0.1~0.5 N) for 1 h. As the HCl concentration increased, the contents of total and soluble ?-glucan from acid hydrolyzed barley decreased. However the ratio of soluble/total ?-glucan content and purities of ?-glucan significantly increased. The ratio of ?-(1?4)/?-(1?3) linkages, molecular weight, and viscosity of soluble ?-glucan of raw barleys were 2.28~2.52, 6.0~7.0×10(5) g/mol, and 12.8~32.8 centipoise (cP). Those of isolated soluble ?-glucan were significantly decreased to 2.05~2.15, 6.6~7.8×10(3) g/mol, and 3.6~4.2 cP, respectively, with increasing acid concentration. The re-solubility of raw barley ?-glucan was about 50%, but increased to 97% with increasing acid concentration. Acid hydrolysis was shown to be an effective method to produce ?-glucan with high ratio of soluble ?-glucan content, purity, water solubility, and low viscosity. PMID:26175998

  14. Physicochemical Properties of ?-Glucan from Acid Hydrolyzed Barley

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Jang, Gwi Yeong; Hwang, In Guk; Kim, Hyun Young; Woo, Koan Sik; Kim, Kee Jong; Lee, Mi Ja; Kim, Tae Jip; Lee, Junsoo; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate changes in the content and purity, as well as physical characteristics of ?-glucan extracted from acid hydrolyzed whole grain barleys. Waxy and non-waxy barleys (Hordeum vulgare) were hydrolyzed with different concentrations of HCl (0.1~0.5 N) for 1 h. As the HCl concentration increased, the contents of total and soluble ?-glucan from acid hydrolyzed barley decreased. However the ratio of soluble/total ?-glucan content and purities of ?-glucan significantly increased. The ratio of ?-(1?4)/?-(1?3) linkages, molecular weight, and viscosity of soluble ?-glucan of raw barleys were 2.28~2.52, 6.0~7.0×105 g/mol, and 12.8~32.8 centipoise (cP). Those of isolated soluble ?-glucan were significantly decreased to 2.05~2.15, 6.6~7.8×103 g/mol, and 3.6~4.2 cP, respectively, with increasing acid concentration. The re-solubility of raw barley ?-glucan was about 50%, but increased to 97% with increasing acid concentration. Acid hydrolysis was shown to be an effective method to produce ?-glucan with high ratio of soluble ?-glucan content, purity, water solubility, and low viscosity. PMID:26175998

  15. Palladium exposure of barley: uptake and effects.

    PubMed

    Battke, F; Leopold, K; Maier, M; Schmidhalter, U; Schuster, M

    2008-03-01

    Motor vehicles are now equipped with exhaust gas catalytic converters containing rare metals, such as palladium (Pd), platinum and rhodium, as catalytic active materials, leading to significantly increased emission of these metals. Compared with platinum and rhodium, low concentrations of Pd have been shown to have more serious effects on cells and organisms. In the present study, uptake of Pd by barley and behaviour of Pd nanoparticles in nutrient solutions used to grow plants were observed in order to develop a model of Pd exposure of plant systems. Pd determination was performed using a selective separation and pre-concentration procedure, which was further developed for this study, and coupled to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The results show that uptake of Pd depends on Pd particle diameter. Compared to other toxic metals, like mercury, Pd causes stress effects in leaves at lower concentrations in nutrient solutions. Furthermore, Pd particles are dissolved at different rates, depending on size, in the nutrient solution during plant growth. PMID:18304202

  16. Abstract Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the most important large-genome cereals with extensive ge-

    E-print Network

    Gill, Kulvinder

    Abstract Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the most important large-genome cereals with extensive ge- netic resources available in the public sector. Studies of genome organization in barley have not be annotated. Keywords Barley · Genomic sequence · Gene density · Repeated sequences Introduction Barley

  17. Aspects of Applied Biology 92, 2009 The 2nd European Ramularia Workshop A new disease and challenge in barley production

    E-print Network

    Brown, James

    and challenge in barley production The effect of genetic variation in barley on responses to Ramularia collo.brown@bbsrc.ac.uk Summary The effect of mlo resistance to powdery mildew on the responses of barley seedlings to Ramularia, barley, mlo, oxidative stress. Introduction mlo resistance to powdery mildew appears to affect

  18. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modelin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-01-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world’s largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  19. Thematic mapper research in the Earth sciences: Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield of northeastern Sudan/southeastern Egypt using thematic mapper imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield using the Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery is progressing well and shows great promise. The TM tapes for the six LANDSAT 5 scenes covering the northern portion of the Red Sea hills were received, and preliminary maps and interpretations were made for most of the area. It is apparent that faulting and shearing associated with the major suture zones such as the Sol Hamed are clearly visible and that considerable detail can be seen. An entire quadrant of scene 173,45 was examined in detail using all seven bands, and every band combination was evaluated to best display the geology. A comparison was done with color ratio combinations and color combinations of the eigen vector bands to verify if band combinations of 7-red, 4-green, and 2-blue were indeed superior. There is no single optimum enhancement which provides the greatest detail for every image and no single combination of spectral bands for all cases, although bands 7, 4, and 2 do provide the best overall display. The color combination of the eigen vector bands proved useful in distinguishing fine detailed features.

  20. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-03-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world's largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  1. Analysis of groundwater flow in arid areas with limited hydrogeological data using the Grey Model: a case study of the Nubian Sandstone, Kharga Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmod, Wael Elham; Watanabe, Kunio; Zahr-Eldeen, Ashraf A.

    2013-08-01

    Management of groundwater resources can be enhanced by using numerical models to improve development strategies. However, the lack of basic data often limits the implementation of these models. The Kharga Oasis in the western desert of Egypt is an arid area that mainly depends on groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS), for which the hydrogeological data needed for groundwater simulation are lacking, thereby introducing a problem for model calibration and validation. The Grey Model (GM) was adopted to analyze groundwater flow. This model combines a finite element method (FEM) with a linear regression model to try to obtain the best-fit piezometric-level trends compared to observations. The GM simulation results clearly show that the future water table in the northeastern part of the study area will face a severe drawdown compared with that in the southwestern part and that the hydraulic head difference between these parts will reach 140 m by 2060. Given the uncertainty and limitation of available data, the GM produced more realistic results compared with those obtained from a FEM alone. The GM could be applied to other cases with similar data limitations.

  2. Influence of barley varieties on wort quality and performance.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Signe; Damgaard, Jacob; Petersen, Mikael A; Jespersen, Birthe M; Andersen, Mogens L; Lund, Marianne N

    2013-02-27

    Wort from the barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare) Pallas, Fero, and Archer grown on the same location were investigated for their influence on oxidative stability and volatile profile during wort processing. Barley varieties had a small influence on radical formation, thiol-removing capacity, and volatile profile. Wort boiling with and without hops had a large influence on these same parameters. Potentially antioxidative thiols were oxidized in sweet wort, but reduction of thiols using tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine hydrochloride revealed that Archer wort had a significantly larger content of total thiols than Pallas and Fero. Oxidized thiols resulted in gel proteins and longer filtration time for Archer wort. Our study shows that wort processing to a large extent will eliminate variations in volatile profile and thiol levels in wort which otherwise might arise from different barley varieties. PMID:23368523

  3. The formulation of a nutraceutical bread mix using sorghum, barley, and flaxseed

    E-print Network

    Rudiger, Crystal Renee'

    2003-01-01

    are concentrated in the bran &acfions (Tlahn et al 1984) making it easy to incorporate them into a food product. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) flour, like oats, is a source of soluble fiber. The National Barley Foods Council reports that waxy hull-less barley... of Soluble Fiber Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is a member of the Triticeae group of cereals, which includes wheat, rye and triticale. It is a covered caryopsis grain mainly used in animal feeding or production of malt. For human consumption purposes, barley...

  4. press.princeton.edu Ancient World

    E-print Network

    Landweber, Laura

    color illus. 149 halftones. 12 line illus. Cl: 978-0-691-14638-6 $39.95 For sale only in the U/Scholarly Book in Classics and Ancient History, Association of American Publishers Portrait of a Priestess Women

  5. Retroperitoneal ancient schwannoma involving the renal hilum.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Brooke; Goodrich, Sarah; Sundaram, Chandru P

    2009-12-01

    Schwannomas, a soft-tissue tumor of a Schwann cell, involving the kidney are rare, with few cases available in the literature. Herein, we report a case of a rare variant, an ancient schwannoma of the renal hilum. PMID:20003677

  6. Cults of Artemis in Ancient Greece

    E-print Network

    Rangos, Spyridon

    1996-02-27

    places of mainland Greece (at Sparta, Athens and Patras) upon which to focus my attention. In the aetiological legends of their foundations the Spartan and Athenian cults share a common origin (located by ancient writers in the distant Black Sea...

  7. Introducing Textual Criticisn to Ancient History Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehorne, J. E. G.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment made to illustrate to Ancient History students the value of textual criticism and the problems involved in transmitting a text through the centuries by means of imperfectly copied and preserved manuscripts. (CHK)

  8. Ancient Magnetic Reversals: Clues to the Geodynamo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Kenneth A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the question posed by some that the earth's magnetic field may reverse. States that rocks magnetized by ancient fields may offer clues to the underlying reversal mechanism in the earth's core. (TW)

  9. Bilateral simultaneous ancient schwannomas of the orbit.

    PubMed

    Sales-Sanz, Marco; Sanz-Lopez, Andrea; Romero, Jose Antonio Canto

    2007-01-01

    An unusual case of purely cystic bilateral ancient schwannomas of the orbit is reported. Complete ophthalmologic examination and CT was performed. Diagnosis was established by excisional biopsy of both tumors, including clinicopathologic study. Histologic examination showed a bilateral purely cystic ancient schwannoma. This case underlines the importance of considering neural tumors, including schwannomas, in the differential diagnosis of both cystic and bilateral orbital tumors. As far as we know, no other case has been previously reported. PMID:17237700

  10. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from barley to beer

    SciTech Connect

    Proehl, G.; Mueller, H.; Voigt, G. [Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleibheim (Germany)] [and others

    1997-01-01

    Beer has been brewed from barley contaminated with {sup 137}Cs as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The {sup 137}Cs activity has been measured in all intermediate steps and in the by-products of the production process. About 35 % of the {sup 137}Cs in barley were recovered in beer. Processing factors defined as the concentration ratio of processed and raw products were determined to be 0.61, 3.3, 0.1 and 0.11 for malt, malt germs, spent grains and beer, respectively. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Mapping-by-sequencing accelerates forward genetics in barley

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mapping-by-sequencing has emerged as a powerful technique for genetic mapping in several plant and animal species. As this resequencing-based method requires a reference genome, its application to complex plant genomes with incomplete and fragmented sequence resources remains challenging. We perform exome sequencing of phenotypic bulks of a mapping population of barley segregating for a mutant phenotype that increases the rate of leaf initiation. Read depth analysis identifies a candidate gene, which is confirmed by the analysis of independent mutant alleles. Our method illustrates how the genomic resources of barley together with exome resequencing can underpin mapping-by-sequencing. PMID:24917130

  12. Ancient technology in contemporary surgery.

    PubMed

    Buck, B A

    1982-03-01

    Archaeologists have shown that ancient man developed the ability to produce cutting blades of an extreme degree of sharpness from volcanic glass. The finest of these prismatic blades were produced in Mesoamerica about 2,500 years ago. The technique of production of these blades was rediscovered 12 years ago by Dr. Don Crabtree, who suggested possible uses for the blades in modern surgery. Blades produced by Dr. Crabtree have been used in experimental microsurgery with excellent results. Animal experiments have shown the tensile strength of obsidian produced wounds to be equal to or greater than that of wounds produced by steel scalpels after 14 days of healing. We have been able to demonstrate neither flaking of glass blades into the wounds nor any foreign body reaction in healed wounds. Skin incisions in human patients have likewise healed well without complications. The prismatic glass blade is infinitely sharper than a honed steel edge, and these blades can be produced in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. It is therefore suggested that this type of blade may find an appropriate use in special areas of modern surgery. PMID:7046256

  13. Ancient wolf lineages in India.

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Dinesh K; Maldonado, Jesus E; Jhala, Yadrendradev V; Fleischer, Robert C

    2004-01-01

    All previously obtained wolf (Canis lupus) and dog (Canis familiaris) mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequences fall within an intertwined and shallow clade (the 'wolf-dog' clade). We sequenced mtDNA of recent and historical samples from 45 wolves from throughout lowland peninsular India and 23 wolves from the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau and compared these sequences with all available wolf and dog sequences. All 45 lowland Indian wolves have one of four closely related haplotypes that form a well-supported, divergent sister lineage to the wolf-dog clade. This unique lineage may have been independent for more than 400,000 years. Although seven Himalayan wolves from western and central Kashmir fall within the widespread wolf-dog clade, one from Ladakh in eastern Kashmir, nine from Himachal Pradesh, four from Nepal and two from Tibet form a very different basal clade. This lineage contains five related haplotypes that probably diverged from other canids more than 800,000 years ago, but we find no evidence of current barriers to admixture. Thus, the Indian subcontinent has three divergent, ancient and apparently parapatric mtDNA lineages within the morphologically delineated wolf. No haplotypes of either novel lineage are found within a sample of 37 Indian (or other) dogs. Thus, we find no evidence that these two taxa played a part in the domestication of canids. PMID:15101402

  14. Rethinking the Ancient Sulfur Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fike, David A.; Bradley, Alexander S.; Rose, Catherine V.

    2015-05-01

    The sulfur biogeochemical cycle integrates the metabolic activity of multiple microbial pathways (e.g., sulfate reduction, disproportionation, and sulfide oxidation) along with abiotic reactions and geological processes that cycle sulfur through various reservoirs. The sulfur cycle impacts the global carbon cycle and climate primarily through the remineralization of organic carbon. Over geological timescales, cycling of sulfur is closely tied to the redox state of Earth's exosphere through the burial of oxidized (sulfate) and reduced (sulfide) sulfur species in marine sediments. Biological sulfur cycling is associated with isotopic fractionations that can be used to trace the fluxes through various metabolic pathways. The resulting isotopic data provide insights into sulfur cycling in both modern and ancient environments via isotopic signatures in sedimentary sulfate and sulfide phases. Here, we review the deep-time δ34S record of marine sulfates and sulfides in light of recent advances in understanding how isotopic signatures are generated by microbial activity, how these signatures are encoded in marine sediments, and how they may be altered following deposition. The resulting picture shows a sulfur cycle intimately coupled to ambient carbon cycling, where sulfur isotopic records preserved in sedimentary rocks are critically dependent on sedimentological and geochemical conditions (e.g., iron availability) during deposition.

  15. USDA Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades PreK-1: S-1

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    USDA ­ Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades PreK-1: S-1 Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow (do the motions while singing) Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Can you or I or anyone know How oats, peas, beans and barley grow

  16. USDA Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades 2-5: S-1

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    USDA ­ Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades 2-5: S-1 Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow (do the motions while singing) Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Can you or I or anyone know How oats, peas, beans and barley grow

  17. History through Art and Architecture: Ancient Greek Architecture [and] Ancient Greek Sculpture. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ann

    This document consists of two teaching manuals designed to accompany a commercially-available "multicultural, interdisciplinary video program," consisting of four still videotape programs (72 minutes, 226 frames), one teaching poster, and these two manuals. "Teacher's Manual: Ancient Greek Architecture" covers: "Ancient Greek Architecture 1,"…

  18. Re-inventing ancient human DNA.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Michael; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Hofreiter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For a long time, the analysis of ancient human DNA represented one of the most controversial disciplines in an already controversial field of research. Scepticism in this field was only matched by the long-lasting controversy over the authenticity of ancient pathogen DNA. This ambiguous view on ancient human DNA had a dichotomous root. On the one hand, the interest in ancient human DNA is great because such studies touch on the history and evolution of our own species. On the other hand, because these studies are dealing with samples from our own species, results are easily compromised by contamination of the experiments with modern human DNA, which is ubiquitous in the environment. Consequently, some of the most disputed studies published - apart maybe from early reports on million year old dinosaur or amber DNA - reported DNA analyses from human subfossil remains. However, the development of so-called next- or second-generation sequencing (SGS) in 2005 and the technological advances associated with it have generated new confidence in the genetic study of ancient human remains. The ability to sequence shorter DNA fragments than with PCR amplification coupled to traditional Sanger sequencing, along with very high sequencing throughput have both reduced the risk of sequencing modern contamination and provided tools to evaluate the authenticity of DNA sequence data. The field is now rapidly developing, providing unprecedented insights into the evolution of our own species and past human population dynamics as well as the evolution and history of human pathogens and epidemics. Here, we review how recent technological improvements have rapidly transformed ancient human DNA research from a highly controversial subject to a central component of modern anthropological research. We also discuss potential future directions of ancient human DNA research. PMID:25937886

  19. Burns treatment in ancient times.

    PubMed

    Pe?anac, Marija; Janji?, Zlata; Komarcevi?, Aleksandar; Paji?, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Miskovi?, Sanja Skeledzija

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques. PMID:23888738

  20. MAPPING GENES FOR RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID RESISTANCE IN BARLEY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), is one of the most serious pests of grain crops. Russian wheat aphid infestations reduce grain yield and malting quality of barley. Since it was first identified in Texas in 1986, RWA has caused more than $1 billion in losses in the Western Uni...

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF BARLEY TISSUE-UBIQUITOUS B-AMYLASE2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are two barley b-amylases genes, encoding important starch degrading enzymes. The endosperm-specific b-amylase (Bmy1), the more abundant isozyme in cereal seeds, has been thoroughly characterized. The lesser abundant b-amylase2 (Bmy2), has not been biochemically characterized from any cereal s...

  2. Registration of 'Clearwater' Low-Phytate Hulless Spring Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Clearwater' is a spring two-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed by the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Clearwater was selected and released based on competitive agronomic performance in combination with low-phyta...

  3. Membranes in the miotic apparatus of barley cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER K. HEPLER

    1980-01-01

    Membranes in the mitotic apparatus have been investigated ultrastructurallyin dividing cellsof barley (Hordeum vulgare).After osmium tetroxide-potassium ferricyanide or ferrocyanide postfixation (OsFeCN) of material that had been fixed in glutaraldehyde in the presence of Ca\\

  4. Resolution of Dual Mechanisms of Potassium Absorption by Barley Roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emanuel Epstein; D. W. Rains; O. E. Elzam

    1963-01-01

    The relationship between the rates of absorption of K and Rb by barley ; roots and the concentration of these ions in the external solution, over the ; range 0.002 to 50 mM, is predictable on the assumption that two carrier sites ; bind and transport the ions. One of these operates at half-maximal velocity at a ; concentration of

  5. Genetic variation in natural populations of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. D. Brown; E. Nevo; D. Zohary; O. Dagan

    1978-01-01

    In order to evaluate the potential genetic resources of the wild relatives of crop plants, allozyme variation at 28 loci was determined for 28 Israel populations of Hordeum spontaneum, the progenitor of cultivated barley. Etectrophoretic properties of these loci and their variants are described. The enzyme loci exhibited a great range of polymorphism, from one to fifteen alleles per locus

  6. Sequence and expression of ferredoxin mRNA in barley

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinski, R.; Funder, P.M.; Ling, V. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))

    1990-05-01

    We have isolated and structurally characterized a full-length cDNA clone encoding ferredoxin from a {lambda}gt10 cDNA library prepared from barley leaf mRNA. The ferredoxin clone (pBFD-1) was fused head-to-head with a partial-length cDNA clone encoding calmodulin, and was fortuitously isolated by screening the library with a calmodulin-specific oligonucleotide probe. The mRNA sequence from which pBFD-1 was derived is expressed exclusively in the leaf tissues of 7-d old barley seedlings. Barley pre-ferredoxin has a predicted size of 15.3 kDal, of which 4.6 kDal are accounted for by the transit peptide. The polypeptide encoded by pBFD-1 is identical to wheat ferredoxin, and shares slightly more amino acid sequence similarity with spinach ferredoxin I than with ferredoxin II. Ferredoxin mRNA levels are rapidly increased 10-fold by white light in etiolated barley leaves.

  7. Combined mapping of AFLP and RFLP markers in barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jörg Becker; Pieter Vos; Martin Kuiper; Francesco Salamini; Manfred Heun

    1995-01-01

    AFLP marker technology allows efficient DNA fingerprinting and the analysis of large numbers of polymorphic restriction fragments on polyacrylamide gels. Using the doubled haploids from the F1 of the cross Proctor × Nudinka, 118 AFLP markers were mapped onto a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) RFLP map, also including five microsatellite and four protein marker loci. The AFLP markers mapped to

  8. Serine proteinases from barley malt may degrade beta-amylase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley seed proteinases are critically important to seed germination and malting in that they generate amino acids from seed N reserves, supporting embryo growth during germination and yeast fermentation during brewing. However, relatively little is known regarding the endogenous protein substrate ...

  9. Decline of pesticide residues from barley to malt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Navarro; G. Pérez; G. Navarro; N. Vela

    2007-01-01

    The fate of dinitroaniline herbicides (pendimethalin and trifluralin), organophosphous insecticides (fenitrothion and malathion), and pyrimidine (nuarimol) and triazole (myclobutanil and propiconazole) fungicides from barley to malt was determined. Several samples for residue analysis were taken after each stage of malting (steeping, germination and kilning). Pesticide residue analysis was carried out by GC\\/ITMS in selected ion monitoring mode. Pesticides decline along

  10. Genetical Genomic Dissection of Stem Rust Infection in Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To identify breeding and biochemical targets that will mitigate a stem rust epidemic currently threatening barley and wheat crops worldwide, we have performed QTL and eQTL mapping experiments to connect genetic loci that confer stem rust resistance with gene expression networks that are responsive t...

  11. Initial proteome analysis of mature barley seeds and malt.

    PubMed

    Østergaard, Ole; Melchior, Sabrina; Roepstorff, Peter; Svensson, Birte

    2002-06-01

    Several barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars are used in the production of malt for brewing. The malt quality depends on the cultivar, its growth and storage conditions, and the industrial process. To enhance studies on malt quality, we embarked on a proteome analysis approach for barley seeds and malt. The proteome analysis includes two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics for identification of selected proteins. This project initially focused on proteins in major spots in the neutral isoelectric point range (pI 4-7) including selected spots that differ between four barley cultivars. The excellent malting barley cultivar Barke was used as reference. Cultivar differences in the 2-D gel spot patterns are observed both at the seed and the malt level. In seed extracts one of the proteins causing variations has been identified as an alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor. In malt extracts multiple forms of the alpha-amylase isozyme 2 have been identified in varying cultivar characteristic spot patterns. The present identification of proteins in major spots from 2-D gels includes 27 different proteins from 42 spots from mature seed extract, while only three specific proteins were identified by analysing 13 different spots from the corresponding malt extract. It is suggested that post-translational processing causes the same protein to occur in different spots. PMID:12112856

  12. The B-hordein prolamin family of barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spectrum of B-hordein prolamins and genes in the single barley cultivar Barke is described from an in silico analysis of 1452 B-hordein ESTs and available genomic DNA. Eleven unique B-hordein proteins are derived from EST contigs. Ten contigs encode apparent full-length B-hordeins and the ele...

  13. Screening for Bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains both through its role as an efficient vector of the PAV strain of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by actual feeding damage to winter and spring small grains by aviruliferous BCOAs. Barl...

  14. Screening for bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains both through its role as an efficient vector of the PAV strain of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by actual feeding damage to winter and spring small grains by aviruliferous BCOAs. Barl...

  15. Random amplified polymorphic DNA and pedigree relationships in spring barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Tinker; M. G. Fortin; D. E. Mather

    1993-01-01

    We investigated random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in 27 inbred barley lines with varying amounts of common ancestry and in 20 doubled-haploid (DH) lines from a biparental cross. Of 33 arbitrary 10 base primers that were tested, 19 distinguished a total of 31 polymorphisms. All polymorphisms were scored as dominant genetic markers except for 1, where Southern analysis indicated the

  16. BARLEY PROMOTERS FOR ORGANS SUSCEPTIBLE TO FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB, or scab) is a fungal disease that causes significant seed yield and quality losses in barley and wheat worldwide. The fungus lowers yield and deposits toxic levels of mycotoxins. The pericarp and lemma/palea (hull) are readily infected by Fusarium graminearum. The restrict...

  17. Utilization of sorghum brans and barley flour in bread 

    E-print Network

    Gordon, Leigh Ann

    2001-01-01

    -25% of the wheat flour in the bread formula. The brans and barley flour were analyzed for dietary fiber, phenols, tannins, anthocyanins, and ORAC values. Effects of substitutions on bread qualities were evaluated and optimum levels of use were determined. All...

  18. BARLEY CONSUMPTION LOWERS CHOLESTEROL IN MEN AND OVERWEIGHT WOMEN.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heart disease continues to be the number one cause of death in the United States despite numerous plans to reduce its prevalence. Increasing soluble fiber from oats or psyllium has been reported to be effective in lowering cholesterol. Barley contains as much soluble fiber as oats, but it is not co...

  19. Bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains both through its role as an efficient vector of the PAV strain of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by actual feeding damage to winter and spring small grains by aviruliferous BCOAs. Barl...

  20. Systemic stem infection by Fusarium species in barley and wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Xi; T. K. Turkington; M. H. Chen

    2008-01-01

    Fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium species, is an important disease of cereals in western Canada. There are conflicting results in the literature regarding the infection pathway leading to disease development. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential for systemic infection in barley (Hordeum vulgare) by artificially inoculating F. graminearum and F. pseudograminearum into the growth medium in

  1. Biotic stresses in barley: Insect problems and solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter is an overview of the 5 major insects of barley, Russian wheat aphid, greenbug, bird cherry-oat aphid, Hessian fly, and cereal leaf beetle, with emphasis on research reported in the last 20 years. History, distribution, plant damage, yield losses, host plant resistance, biological...

  2. RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID RESISTANT BARLEY-CULTIVAR AND GERMPLASM RELEASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RWA continues to be a devastating pest of barley in the high and dry areas of the Western U.S.A. Screening of the entire National Small Grains Collection in Aberdeen, Idaho, by the USDA-ARS in Stillwater, Oklahoma, identified 115 accessions with some level of resistance ranging from 2 to 6 on Webst...

  3. EYTHYLENE INFLUENCES GREEN PLANT REGENERATION FROM BARLEY CALLUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plant hormone ethylene is involved in numerous plant processes including in vitro growth and regeneration. Manipulating ethylene in vitro may be useful for increasing plant regeneration from cultured cells. As part of ongoing efforts to improve plant regeneration from barley (Hordeum vulgare L...

  4. Advanced backcross QTL analysis in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Pillen; A. Zacharias; J. Léon

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on the first advanced backcross-QTL (quantitative trait locus) project which utilizes spring barley as a model. A BC 2F 2 population was derived from the initial cross Apex ( Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare, hereafter abbreviated with Hv) × ISR101-23 ( H. v. ssp. spontaneum, hereafter abbreviated with Hsp). Altogether 136 BC 2F 2 individuals were genotyped with

  5. Chromium uptake and transport in barley seedlings ( Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Skeffington; P. R. Shewry; P. J. Peterson

    1976-01-01

    Potassium chromate is more toxic to the growth of barley in solution culture than chromic chloride, though apparent uptake of the latter is much faster. Inhibitor studies indicate that CrO42- uptake is “active” whereas Cr3+ uptake is passive, demonstrating that the two forms do not share a common uptake mechanism. Studies on the form of Cr inside root cells show

  6. Genetical analysis of microspore derived plants of barley ( Hordeum vulgare )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Powell; E. M. Borrino; M. J. Allison; D. W. Griffiths; M. J. C. Asher; J. M. Dunwell

    1986-01-01

    From an F1 hybrid between the two barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars ‘Golden Promise’ and ‘Mazurka’ a series of doubled haploid (DH) lines were generated both from microspores by anther culture and from immature zygotic embryos after hybridization withH. bulbosum. The DH lines from both sources were used to monitor the segregation of the five major genes, rachilla hair length,

  7. Registration of ‘Transit’ High ß-glucan Spring Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transit’ (Reg. No. ______PI ); a two-rowed spring high ß-glucan barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed and submitted for release in 2009 by the Agricultural Research Service-USDA, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Transit is a sel...

  8. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  9. Modification patterns in germinating barley—malting II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricky O’Brien; Nev Fowkes

    2005-01-01

    Modification refers to breaking down of cell walls and the conversion of starch-to-sugars in the endosperm of grains by the action of enzymes released from the aleurone layer and possibly the scutellum during germination. Experimentalists have observed two completely different modification patterns in germinating barley. Based on an enzyme reaction, strongly nonlinear diffusion model developed in Part I of this

  10. EFFECT OF DEOXYNIVALENOL ON DETACHED BARLEY LEAF SEGMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From histological observations of diseased tissues, we postulate that deoxynivalenol (DON) contributes to the necrotrophic phase of Fusarium head blight development. As a first step toward understanding effects of DON, we are using uninfected barley leaf segments to assess cytological and physiologi...

  11. Screening for bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains both through its role as an efficient vector of the PAV strain of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by actual feeding damage to winter and spring small grains by aviruliferous BCOAs. Barl...

  12. A comparison of barley malt osmolyte concentrations and standard malt quality measurements as indicators of barley malt amylolytic enzyme activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt osmolyte concentrations (OC) would correlate better with malt a-amylase, ß-amylase, and limit dextrinase activities than do the standard malt quality measurements (malt extract [ME], diastatic power [DP], ASBC a-amylase activity, solub...

  13. iTAG Barley: A 9-12 curriculum to explore inheritance of traits and genes using Oregon Wolfe barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Segregating plants from the Informative & Spectacular Subset (ISS) of the Oregon Wolfe doubled haploid barley (OWB) population are easily grown on a lighted window bench in the classroom. These lines originate from a wide cross and have exceptionally diverse and dramatic phenotypes, making this an i...

  14. Ancient Mesopotamia: This History, Our History

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago houses a world-renowned collection of artifacts from ancient Syria, Israel, Persia, Anatolia, Egypt, Nubia, and Mesopotamia. On this website, visitors can explore some of these artifacts up close while also learning more about the history of this important region. Visitors should first visit "Life in Mesopotamia" to learn more about the cultural importance of the area. Then, they can click on the "Learning Collection", here, visitors can zoom-in on artifacts selected by teachers in order to learn what these artifacts can tell us about ancient Mesopotamia. After browsing the learning collection, visitors should not miss the "Interactives." Here they can view additional artifacts as well as view video clips on various topics including a virtual archaeological dig and how these ancient artifacts are cared for and preserved. In addition, teaching materials are also provided and K-12 teachers can earn graduate credit from an online course also offered here.

  15. PIXE ANALYSIS ON AN ANCIENT SCROLL SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Shutthanandan, V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Iuliano, Edward M.; Seales, William B.

    2008-12-01

    For years, scientists have developed several new techniques to read texts of Herculaneum scrolls without destroying them. Recently, the use of a custom built high-resolution CT scanner was proposed to scan and then virtually unroll the scrolls for reading. Identification of any unique chemical signatures in the ancient ink would allow better calibration of the CT scanner to improve the chances of resolving the ink from the burned papyrus background. To support this effort, we carried out one pilot study to see whether the composition of the ink can be obtained from an ancient scroll sample using PIXE technique. PIXE data were collected and analyzed in two different regions of the ancient scroll sample (ink and blank regions). This preliminary work shows that elemental distributions from the ink used in this scroll mainly contained Al, Fe and Ti as well as minor trace amounts of Cr, Cu and Zn.

  16. Current therapies and the ancient East.

    PubMed

    MacHovec, F J

    1984-01-01

    Current therapies, their theories and techniques ebb and flow in popularity, but there is a residue of basic principles and practices which remain. Much of this useful residue has been present in ancient Eastern religions and philosophies. This article compares the content of several current theories of individual, group, and family therapies to seed ideas in ancient Taoist, Zen, Confucian, yoga, and Buddhist source materials. Gestalt, existential, psychoanalytic, transactional analysis, cognitive-behavioral and family therapy concepts are traced to these ancient precursors. Illustrative examples are presented such as satori (flash of insight), koans (insight riddles), parables, yanas (exercises), rituals, and written teachings. The article concludes with the Four Noble Truths and the 8-fold path of Buddhism, given 2500 years ago but very timely to contemporary problems of life adjustment and a useful guide to counseling and therapy. PMID:6711713

  17. Ancient neurilemmoma: A rare oral tumor.

    PubMed

    Muruganandhan, J; Prasad, T Srinivasa; Selvakumar, T; Kumar, S Nalin

    2013-09-01

    Neurilemmomas are benign tumors of neural origin composed of Schwann cell proliferation in characteristic patterns. Ancient neurilemmomas are usually longstanding growths that exhibit degenerative features that could be mistaken for malignancy. They are extremely rare in the oral cavity and present in older individuals of long duration. The authors report a case of ancient neurilemmoma in a young patient with short duration of growth. This unique case presented with remarkable histopathological features with respect to vascularity and atypia associated with degenerative change. It is essential to not mistake these features as malignant transformation so as to avoid radical procedures. PMID:24574671

  18. Ancient neurilemmoma: A rare oral tumor

    PubMed Central

    Muruganandhan, J; Prasad, T Srinivasa; Selvakumar, T; Kumar, S Nalin

    2013-01-01

    Neurilemmomas are benign tumors of neural origin composed of Schwann cell proliferation in characteristic patterns. Ancient neurilemmomas are usually longstanding growths that exhibit degenerative features that could be mistaken for malignancy. They are extremely rare in the oral cavity and present in older individuals of long duration. The authors report a case of ancient neurilemmoma in a young patient with short duration of growth. This unique case presented with remarkable histopathological features with respect to vascularity and atypia associated with degenerative change. It is essential to not mistake these features as malignant transformation so as to avoid radical procedures. PMID:24574671

  19. Intrathoracic ancient neurilemoma mimicking mesenchymal thoracic tumor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Hung; Hsu, Yung-Hsiang; Chang, Huai-Ren

    2013-11-01

    Ancient neurilemoma is a rare variant of neurilemoma and can grow into a large tumor, which results in several symptoms. It is often misdiagnosed to be malignant neoplasm because of its histological features of nuclear atypia. The authors reported an 87-year-old woman presenting with progressive dyspnea and chronic cough for more than 1 year. Computed tomography of the chest showed a huge heterogeneous, paravertebral mass with focal calcification, arising from intervertebral foramen. The tumor was successfully resected by thoracotomy and pathology disclosed ancient neurilemoma. PMID:23694925

  20. Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yanben; Qiao, Qiyuan

    2009-11-01

    Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astronomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors regarded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Consequently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

  1. Influence of ? ?glucanase on feeding value of barley for poultry and moisture content of excreta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Gohl; S. Aldén; K. Elwinger; S. Thomke

    1978-01-01

    1. The cause of the sticky droppings and poor performance that can occur when barley is fed to poultry was investigated.2. The problems could be overcome by water?treatment of the barley or by addition of ??glucanase.3. The problems appear to be caused by a viscous factor, which is hydrolysed by ??glucanase. Water?treatment allows hydrolysis by enzymes in the barley.4. Heat?treatment

  2. Isolation and Cationization of Barley Starches at Laboratory and Pilot Scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Vasanthan; R. S. Bhatty; R. T. Tyler; P. Chang

    1997-01-01

    Cereal Chem. 74(1):25-28 Prime barley starches were isolated in the laboratory by a conventional extraction procedure from regular (Condor), waxy (SB89528), and high amylose (Glacier) barleys; cationized; and evaluated as wet-end additives in papermaking. The cationized barley starches showed functionality (contribution to paper strength) comparable that of to a commercial grade cationic corn starch. The laboratory evaluation was followed by

  3. Ribosomal DNA Spacer-Length Polymorphisms in Barley: Mendelian Inheritance, Chromosomal Location, and Population Dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Saghai-Maroof; K. M. Soliman; R. A. Jorgensen; R. W. Allard

    1984-01-01

    Spacer-length (sl) variation in ribosomal RNA gene clusters (rDNA) was surveyed in 502 individual barley plants, including samples from 50 accessions of cultivated barley, 25 accessions of its wild ancestor, and five generations of composite cross II (CCII), an experimental population of barley. In total, 17 rDNA sl phenotypes, made up of 15 different rDNA sl variants, were observed. The

  4. Re-discovering ancient wheat varieties as functional foods

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    With the gluten-free food market worth almost $1.6 bn in 2011, there is every reason for renewed interest in ancient grains. This resurgent interest is expressed in re-discovering ancient varieties as functional foods. In particular, people affected by celiac disease have to avoid all gluten in their diet and several ancient grains may offer an important alternative.

  5. The Ancient Kemetic Roots of Library and Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zulu, Itibari M.

    This paper argues that the ancient people of Kemet (Egypt), "the black land," built and operated the first major libraries and institutions of higher education in the world. Topics of discussion include the Ancient Egyptians as an African people; a chronology of Ancient Kemet; literature in Kemet; a history of Egyptian Librarianship; the…

  6. 27 CFR 9.227 - Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...in this section is “Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley”. For purposes...of this chapter, “Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley” is a term...The 12 United States Geological Survey (USGS) 1:24,000 scale...determine the boundary of the Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley...

  7. 27 CFR 9.227 - Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...in this section is “Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley”. For purposes...of this chapter, “Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley” is a term...The 12 United States Geological Survey (USGS) 1:24,000 scale...determine the boundary of the Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley...

  8. The Ancient African Civilization of Kush.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollet, David; Mollet, Joyce

    1998-01-01

    Argues that early African civilizations should be taught to ameliorate the problem of many African-American students first encountering related peoples in discussions of colonialism and slavery. Observes that the absence of materials for middle grade teachers reinforces this tendency. Promotes the authors' teaching packs on the ancient African…

  9. Communication Arts in the Ancient World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havelock, Eric A., Ed.; Hershbell, Jackson P., Ed.

    Intended for both classicists and nonclassicists, this volume explores the beginnings of literacy in ancient Greece and Rome and examines the effects of written communication on these cultures. The nine articles, written by classical scholars and educators in the field of communication, discuss the following: the superiority of the alphabet over…

  10. Ancient Lake Cahuilla High Water Mark

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Lake Cahuilla was an ancient freshwater lake in the Salton Trough of southern California. It covered parts of the Coachella, Imperial and Mexicali valleys and was formed when the Colorado River overflowed its banks or was diverted northwest by its own sediments, which temporarily blocked the flo...

  11. Technologies Old and New: Teaching Ancient Navigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spalding, Simon

    1995-01-01

    One educator presents maritime history to students using technologies available to ancient seafarers. Techniques include dead reckoning, the sandglass, the magnetic compass, celestial navigation, and various navigation techniques of precontact Polynesia that depended upon oral transmission of knowledge. The paper notes differences between…

  12. Ancient whole grain gluten-free flatbreads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA food guide recommends that at least ½ of all the grains eaten should be whole grains. The FDA allows food Health Claim labels for food containing 51% whole gains and 11 g of dietary fiber. This is the only report demonstrating innovative ancient whole grain gluten-free (no yeast or chemical...

  13. Ancient schwannoma of vagus nerve mimicking hamartoma.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Susmita; Biswas, Debabani; Misra, Swapnendu; Dutta, Shantanu; Sen, Annoy

    2014-01-01

    Schwannomas arising from vagus nerve sheath are rare mediastinal neurogenic tumours. Schwannomas usually arise from left hemithorax. Unlike a hamartoma, radiologically, calcification is rarely seen in schwannomas. We present the rare case of an ancient schwannoma arising from vagus nerve sheath from the right hemithorax presenting with gross calcification. PMID:25823116

  14. Consuming Bodies: Cultural Fantasies of Ancient Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LYNN MESKELL

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the legacy of ancient Egypt in popular culture, from the 19th century onwards - through the theme of consumption. A range of media is covered including literature, film and performance. I argue that Egypt has been a constant mirror for contemporary culture in terms of the body, sexuality and the Orient. In the West, Egyptian bodies have

  15. The Challenges of Qualitatively Coding Ancient Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slingerland, Edward; Chudek, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    We respond to several important and valid concerns about our study ("The Prevalence of Folk Dualism in Early China," "Cognitive Science" 35: 997-1007) by Klein and Klein, defending our interpretation of our data. We also argue that, despite the undeniable challenges involved in qualitatively coding texts from ancient cultures, the standard tools…

  16. Tapping Ancient Roots: Plaited Paper Baskets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Jane

    2011-01-01

    With ancient roots, basket making has been practiced since the earliest civilizations, and according to textile experts, probably pre-dates pottery. This is partly conjecture since few baskets remain. It is through evidence found in clay impressions that the earliest baskets reveal themselves. Basically, basketry construction is like flat weaving.…

  17. Where Virtual Reality Meets Ancient History

    E-print Network

    Grether, Gregory

    Where Virtual Reality Meets Ancient History Beginning in June, the San Diego Museum of Natural, including a virtual model developed by UCLA scholars that reveals the community that produced some Museum is a virtual recreation designed by UCLA scholars of Qumran, the community believed

  18. Can ancient forests help slow climate warming?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS; )

    2006-11-30

    The trees in the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, which is in China's Guangdong Province are really old. As in 400 years old! Chinese scientists have now discovered that this ancient forest soaks up carbon from the atmosphere much faster than they expected.

  19. NIMI TANTRA (Opthalmology of Ancient India)

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, C.K.

    1984-01-01

    The art of opthalmology was well developed in ancient India and was known as Nimi Tantra. In this paper the author presents the main features of Nimi Tantra an authoritative treatises written by Nimi, a prominent opthalmologist of his time. PMID:22557403

  20. Watermarking ancient documents based on wavelet packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maatouk, Med Neji; Jedidi, Ola; Essoukri Ben Amara, Najoua

    2009-01-01

    The ancient documents present an important part of our individual and collective memory. In addition to their preservation, the digitization of these documents may offer users a great number of services like remote look-up and browsing rare documents. However, the documents, digitally formed, are likely to be modified or pirated. Therefore, we need to develop techniques of protecting images stemming from ancient documents. Watermarking figures to be one of the promising solutions. Nevertheless, the performance of watermarking procedure depends on being neither too robust nor too invisible. Thus, choosing the insertion field or mode as well as the carrier points of the signature is decisive. We propose in this work a method of watermarking images stemming from ancient documents based on wavelet packet decomposition. The insertion is carried out into the maximum amplitude ratio being in the best base of decomposition, which is determined beforehand according to a criterion on entropy. This work is part of a project of digitizing ancient documents in cooperation with the National Library of Tunis (BNT).

  1. Ancient Health Skeletal Indicators of Agricultural

    E-print Network

    Pechenkina, Ekaterina

    Ancient Health Skeletal Indicators of Agricultural and Economic Intensification Edited by Mark of Florida is the scholarly publishing agency for the State University System of Florida, comprising Florida on the frequencies of pertinent skeletal markers detected on the remains of individuals from collections excavated

  2. Precursors of Vocational Psychology in Ancient Civilizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumont, Frank; Carson, Andrew D.

    1995-01-01

    Examines philosophical theories produced by two ancient civilizations (Eastern Mediterranean and Chinese) for applications to an applied psychology of work. Includes analysis of Egyptians, Semites, and Greeks, with a special emphasis on Plato. Suggests that many basic elements of vocational psychology were present during the first millennium B.C.…

  3. Authenticating DNA Extracted From Ancient Skeletal Remains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. M. Hedges

    1995-01-01

    The survival of DNA, the most informative biological molecule, for periods of at least several thousand years in bone was demonstrated more than four years ago. However, difficulties with authenticating ancient DNA have made diagenetic studies problematic. It is therefore essential that these problems be overcome before the question of DNA survival can be addressed. Here we describe our work

  4. Ancient Israel in Western Civ Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargill, Jack

    2001-01-01

    The author frequently teaches introductory courses in what was once generally called "Western Civilization" and has often been called upon to referee all or parts of the manuscripts of new editions of "Western Civ" textbooks. Through his own reading, he has become aware that much current scholarship on ancient Israel and Judah is inclined to…

  5. The Rape of Europa in ancient literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bridget T Reeves

    2004-01-01

    This thesis considers how ancient authors narrate the story of Europa's rape in such a way as to “place their own mark” on the myth. In chapter one, I explore aspects of the Europa myth that often do not appear in the larger extant works such as Europa's function in religion, the archaeological representations of her rape, and the rationalisation

  6. Constructing an alternative wheat karyotype using barley genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Icsó, Diána; Molnár-Láng, Márta; Linc, Gabriella

    2015-02-01

    The established karyotype was generated by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using total barley genomic DNA as labelled probe on mitotic metaphase bread wheat chromosomes. GISH produced specific banding signals on 16 of the 21 chromosome pairs. The following chromosomes showed distinctive banding patterns: 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 1D, 2D, 7D and all of the B chromosomes. The remaining chromosomes showed either faint bands or no hybridization signals at all. The in situ hybridization patterns corresponded to the GAA-satellite sequence, which is similar to the N-banding pattern in wheat. In situ hybridization by labelling total barley genomic DNA made it possible to identify most of the bread wheat chromosomes. The present paper describes a GISH-banding method for hexaploid wheat chromosomes. It is a valuable alternative method for fast chromosome selection without using FISH repetitive DNA clones. PMID:25027628

  7. Aluminum chloride and membrane potentials of barley root cells

    SciTech Connect

    Etherton, B.; Shane, M.

    1986-04-01

    Aluminum chloride at pH 4 hyperpolarizes the membrane potentials of barley root epidermal cells. The authors tested to see whether this hyperpolarization could be caused by an aluminum induced alteration of the permeability of the membrane to potassium or sodium ions by measuring the effect of .04 mM aluminum ions (the Ca/sup + +/ conc. was 0.1 mM) on the membrane potential changes induced by changing the potassium or sodium concentrations in the medium bathing the roots. Aluminum ions did not change the magnitude of potassium or sodium induced changes in membrane potentials but significantly altered the rates of potassium and sodium induced changes of the potential. The results indicate that aluminum ions did not change sodium or potassium ion permeabilities of barley root cells.

  8. Ochratoxin A in stored U.S. barley and wheat.

    PubMed

    Kuruc, Julie A; Schwarz, Paul; Wolf-Hall, Charlene

    2015-03-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin of significant health concern that is present in a variety of cereal grains and other foods around the world. Although OTA contamination can occur prior to harvest, it is largely considered a storage issue that can be controlled through the implementation of proper storage practices. Barley, durum, and hard red spring wheat samples that had been stored for various lengths of time were collected (n = 262) over a period of 2 years by multiple commercial grain companies located in the northwestern and northern Great Plains regions of the United States. Samples were analyzed for OTA concentration using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. OTA was detected in 12.2% of the samples, and of those samples, 81.3% had been stored for ?6 months. One sample of barley and four samples of wheat exceeded 5 ng/g of OTA. PMID:25719887

  9. Regulation of Nitrate Reductase in Excised Barley Roots 1

    PubMed Central

    Smith, F. W.; Thompson, John F.

    1971-01-01

    When excised barley roots (Hordeum distichum L.) are appropriately pretreated, the level of nitrate reductase in the roots increases upon exposure to nitrate. Relatively low levels of nitrate (10 ?m) gave maximum induction of nitrate reductase. This increase was inhibited by inhibitors of protein and RNA synthesis, indicating that de novo protein synthesis is probably involved. Induction of nitrate reductase by nitrate is partially prevented by the inclusion of ammonium, an eventual product of nitrate reduction, in the incubation medium. Under the experimental conditions used, ammonium did not inhibit the uptake of nitrate by excised barley roots. It is concluded, therefore, that ammonium, or a product of ammonium metabolism, has a direct effect on the synthesis of nitrate reductase in this tissue. PMID:16657766

  10. Experimental Approaches to Understanding Ancient Ecosystems Flammability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcher, C. M.

    2012-04-01

    Fire is a natural process integral to the order and function of our planet. It produces unique products that interact with its carbon and nutrient balance. Fires are a significant source of atmospheric carbon dioxide and assist in the regulation of the oxygen content of our atmosphere. Natural fires have occurred on our planet for ~420 million years, where even the first tiny land plants were capable of being ignited and carrying a fire. Evidence for such fires comes from the record of fossil charcoal found, often abundantly, in ancient sediments. Fossil charcoal provides an exceptional means to record not only probable variations in ancient fire activity but also information about ancient plants, not least owing to its three-dimensional preservation of plant anatomy. However, fossil charcoal like all fossils is subject to taphonomic biases which mean that it is hard to decipher exactly what an abundance of charcoal means in the context of fire histories, ancient fire dynamics and ecosystems flammability. Fires require 3 basic ingredients; these are an ignition source, fuel to burn and a source of oxygen. We can therefore consider how variations in the past concentration of atmospheric oxygen and how the evolution of different plant groups and the types of fuel that they provide have influenced fire activity throughout geological time. By going back to basics we can design experiments that assess the fundamental behaviour of fire and the flammability of different fuels. Here I will present some experimental approaches that cross-cut a variety of disciplines within the fire sciences which aim to enhance our understanding of the interplay between fuel variations and past atmospheric composition on broad trends in ancient fire activity.

  11. Effective groundwater modeling of the data-poor Nubian Aquifer System (Chad, Egypt, Libya, Sudan) - use of parsimony and 81Kr-based groundwater ages (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, C. I.; Soliman, S. M.; Aggarwal, P. K.

    2013-12-01

    Important information for management of large aquifer systems can be obtained via a parsimonious approach to groundwater modeling, in part, employing isotope-interpreted groundwater ages. ';Parsimonious' modeling implies active avoidance of overly-complex representations when constructing models. This approach is essential for evaluation of aquifer systems that lack informative hydrogeologic databases. Even in the most remote aquifers, despite lack of typical data, groundwater ages can be interpreted from isotope samples at only a few downstream locations. These samples incorporate hydrogeologic information from the entire upstream groundwater flowpath; thus, interpreted ages are among the most-effective information sources for groundwater model development. This approach is applied to the world's largest non-renewable aquifer, the transboundary Nubian Aquifer System (NAS) of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan. In the NAS countries, water availability is a critical problem and NAS can reliably serve as a water supply for an extended future period. However, there are national concerns about transboundary impacts of water use by neighbors. These concerns include excessive depletion of shared groundwater by individual countries and the spread of water-table drawdown across borders, where neighboring country near-border shallow wells and oases may dry. Development of a parsimonious groundwater flow model, based on limited available NAS hydrogeologic data and on 81Kr groundwater ages below oases in Egypt, is a key step in providing a technical basis for international discussion concerning management of this non-renewable water resource. Simply-structured model analyses, undertaken as part of an IAEA/UNDP/GEF project, show that although the main transboundary issue is indeed drawdown crossing national boundaries, given the large scale of NAS and its plausible ranges of aquifer parameter values, the magnitude of transboundary drawdown will likely be small and may not be a matter of practical significance. Rather, modeling shows that the greatest impacts of pumping are to be expected on the local scale, entailing excessive local drawdown and possible disappearance of oases where these are co-located with pumping centers.

  12. Generation of Large Numbers of lndependently Transformed Fertile Barley Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuechun Wan; Peggy C. Lemaux

    1994-01-01

    A rapid, efficient, and reproducible system to generate large numbers of independently transformed, self-fertile, transgenic bar- ley (Hordeum vurgare 1.) plants is described. lmmature zygotic embryos, young callus, and microspore-derived embryos were bombarded with a plasmid containing bar and uidA either alone or in combination with another plasmid containing a barley yellow dwarf virus coat protein (BYDVcp) gene. A total

  13. Homology of AFLP products in three mapping populations of barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Waugh; N. Bonar; E. Baird; B. Thomas; A. Graner; P. Hayes; W. Powell

    1997-01-01

    Segregation of 850 polymorphic AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) fragments was followed in three different doubled\\u000a haploid (DH) barley populations, Dicktoo?×?Morex (DM), Igri?×?Franka (IF) and Blenheim?×?E224\\/3 (BE), which had previously\\u000a been used to construct linkage maps using other molecular markers. The final maps consisted of 310, 655 and 474 markers, of\\u000a which 234, 194 and 376, respectively, were AFLPs. A

  14. Comparison of Gibberellins in Normal and Slender Barley Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Croker, Stephen J.; Hedden, Peter; Lenton, John R.; Stoddart, John L.

    1990-01-01

    Gibberellins A1, A3, A8, A19, A20, and A29 were identified by full scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in leaf sheath segments of 7-day-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Golden Promise) seedlings grown at 20°C under long days. In a segregating population of barley, cv Herta (Cb 3014), containing the recessive slender allele, (sln 1) the concentration of GA1 and GA3 was reduced by 10-fold and 6-fold, respectively, in rapidly growing homozygous slender, compared with normal, leaf sheath segments. However, the concentration of the C20 precursor, GA19, was nearly 2-fold greater in slender than in normal seedlings. There was little difference in the ABA content of sheath segments between the two genotypes. The gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor, paclobutrazol, reduced the final sheath length of normal segregants (50% inhibition at 15 micromolar) but had no effect on the growth of slender seedlings at concentrations below 100 micromolar. There was a 15-fold and 4-fold reduction in GA1 and GA3, respectively, in sheath segments of 8-day-old normal seedlings following application of 10 micromolar paclobutrazol. The same treatment also reduced the already low concentrations of these gibberellins in slender segregants. The results show that the pool sizes of gibberellins A1 and A3 are small in slender barley and that leaf sheath extension in this genotype appears to be gibberellin-independent. The relationship between gibberellin status and tissue growth-rate in slender barley is contrasted with other gibberellin nonresponsive, but dwarf, mutants of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and maize (Zea mays). PMID:16667686

  15. Ethylene influences green plant regeneration from barley callus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ajay K. Jha; Lynn S. Dahleen; Jeffrey C. Suttle

    2007-01-01

    The plant hormone ethylene is involved in numerous plant processes including in vitro growth and regeneration. Manipulating\\u000a ethylene in vitro may be useful for increasing plant regeneration from cultured cells. As part of ongoing efforts to improve\\u000a plant regeneration from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), we investigated ethylene emanation using our improved system and investigated methods of manipulating ethylene to increase

  16. Farmer participation in barley breeding in Syria, Morocco and Tunisia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ceccarelli; S. Grando; E. Bailey; A. Amri; M. El-Felah; F. Nassif; S. Rezgui; A. Yahyaoui

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes experiments on farmer participation in plant breeding conducted in three countries (Morocco, Syria and\\u000a Tunisia) on barley, which is the predominant annual rainfed crop in the most marginal areas of these countries. Trials with\\u000a different types and number of breeding material were planted both on research stations and in farmers' fields. Selection was\\u000a done by professional breeders

  17. Physiological effects of sublethal atrazine on barley chloroplast thylakoid membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winston Raul Torre; Kent Oliver Burkey

    1992-01-01

    This study was conducted to more clearly define the physiological effects of PS II herbicides on chloroplast thylakoid membrane activity and composition. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Boone) was grown in hydroponic culture at 20°C in a growth chamber with a light intensity of 500 µmole photons m-2 s-1. Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine), a Photosystem II herbicide, was supplied continuously via the

  18. RNA complementary to ?-amylase mRNA in barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Rogers

    1988-01-01

    Two experimental approaches demonstrate that different types of RNA complementary to a-amylase mRNA are present in barley. S1 nuclease assays identify an RNA that is complementary to essentially the full length of both the type A and type B a-amylase mRNAs. Complementarity, however, is imperfect: the S1 nuclease-resistant products can only be identified if they are electrophoresed as RNA-DNA hybrids.

  19. Production of a recombinant industrial protein using barley cell cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ritala; E. H. Wahlström; H. Holkeri; A. Hafren; K. Mäkeläinen; J. Baez; K. Mäkinen; A. M. Nuutila

    2008-01-01

    The use of recombinant DNA-based protein production using genetically modified plants could provide a reproducible, consistent quality, safe, animal-component free, origin-traceable, and cost-effective source for industrial proteins required in large amounts (1000s of metric tons) and at low cost (below US$100\\/Kg). The aim of this work was to demonstrate the feasibility of using barley suspension cell culture to support timely

  20. Molecular analysis of barley mutants deficient in chloroplast glutamine synthetase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline Freeman; Antonio J. Marquez; Roger M. Wallsgrove; Ritva Saarelainen; Brian G. Forde

    1990-01-01

    A barley leaf cDNA library has been screened with two oligonucleotide probes designed to hybridize to conserved sequences in glutamine synthetase (GS) genes from higher plants. Two GS cDNA clones were identified as hybridizing strongly to one or both probes. The larger clone (pcHvGS6) contained a 1.6 kb insert which was shown by primer extension analysis to be an almost

  1. Ethylene production and peroxidase activity in aphid-infested barley.

    PubMed

    Argandoña, V H; Chaman, M; Cardemil, L; Muñoz, O; Zúñiga, G E; Corcuera, L J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether ethylene is involved in the oxidative and defensive responses of barley to the aphids Schizaphis graminum (biotype C) and Rhopalophum padi. The effect of aphid infestation on ethylene production was measured in two barley cultivars (Frontera and Aramir) that differ in their susceptibility to aphids. Ethylene evolution was higher in plants infested for 16 hr than in plants infested for 4 hr in both cultivars. Under aphid infestation, the production of ethylene was higher in cv. Frontera than in Aramir, the more aphid susceptible cultivar. Ethylene production also increases with the degree of infestation. Maximum ethylene evolution was detected after 16 hr when plants were infested with 10 or more aphids. Comparing the two species of aphids, Schizaphis graminum induced more ethylene evolution than Rhopalosiphum padi. Infestation with S. graminum increased hydrogen peroxide content and total soluble peroxidase activity in cv. Frontera, with a maximum level of H2O2 observed after 20 min of infestation and the maximum in soluble peroxidase activity after 30 min of infestation. When noninfested barley seedlings from cv. Frontera were exposed to ethylene, an increase in hydrogen peroxide and in total peroxidase activity was detected at levels similar to those of infested plants from cv. Frontera. When noninfested plants were treated with 40 ppm of ethylene, the maximum levels of H2O2 and soluble peroxidase activity were at 10 and 40 min, respectively. Ethylene also increased the activity of both cell-wall-bound peroxidases types (ionically and covalently bound), comparable with infestation. These results suggest that ethylene is involved in the oxidative responses of barley plants induced by infestation. PMID:11382067

  2. Inhibitory Activity by Barley Coffee Components Towards Streptococcus Mutans Biofilm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Stauder; Adele Papetti; Maria Daglia; Luigi Vezzulli; Gabriella Gazzani; Pietro E. Varaldo; Carla Pruzzo

    2010-01-01

    It was shown that barley coffee (BC) interferes with Streptococcus mutans adsorption to hydroxyapatite. After BC component fractionation by dialysis and gel filtration chromatography (GFC), it was\\u000a found that the low molecular mass (<1,000 Da) fraction (LMM fraction) containing polyphenols, zinc and fluoride ions and,\\u000a above all, a high molecular mass (HMM > 1,000 kDa) melanoidin fraction display strong anti-adhesive properties towards S. mutans.

  3. Somaclonal variation in the progeny of transgenic barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bregitzer; S. E. Halbert; P. G. Lemaux

    1998-01-01

    Somaclonal variation (SCV) in transgenic plants may slow the incorporation of introduced genes into commercially competitive\\u000a cultivars. Somaclonal variation in transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was assessed in one experiment by comparing the agronomic characteristics of 44 segregating transgenic lines in the T2 generation to their non-transformed parent (‘Golden Promise’). A second experiment examined the agronomic characteristics\\u000a of seven transgenic-derived,

  4. Salinity-induced calcium deficiencies in wheat and barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Ehret; R. E. Redmann; B. L. Harvey; A. Cipywnyk

    1990-01-01

    Salinity-calcium interactions, which have been shown to be important in plants grown in dryland saline soils of the Canadian prairies, were studied in two species differing in salt tolerance. In solution culture, wheat showed a greater reduction in growth and a higher incidence of foliar Ca deficiency symptoms than barley when grown under MgSO4 or Na2SO4 plus MgSO4 salt stress.

  5. A Swarm of Ancient Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-12-01

    We know of about 150 of the rich collections of old stars called globular clusters that orbit our galaxy, the Milky Way. This sharp new image of Messier 107, captured by the Wide Field Imager on the 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, displays the structure of one such globular cluster in exquisite detail. Studying these stellar swarms has revealed much about the history of our galaxy and how stars evolve. The globular cluster Messier 107, also known as NGC 6171, is a compact and ancient family of stars that lies about 21 000 light-years away. Messier 107 is a bustling metropolis: thousands of stars in globular clusters like this one are concentrated into a space that is only about twenty times the distance between our Sun and its nearest stellar neighbour, Alpha Centauri, across. A significant number of these stars have already evolved into red giants, one of the last stages of a star's life, and have a yellowish colour in this image. Globular clusters are among the oldest objects in the Universe. And since the stars within a globular cluster formed from the same cloud of interstellar matter at roughly the same time - typically over 10 billion years ago - they are all low-mass stars, as lightweights burn their hydrogen fuel supply much more slowly than stellar behemoths. Globular clusters formed during the earliest stages in the formation of their host galaxies and therefore studying these objects can give significant insights into how galaxies, and their component stars, evolve. Messier 107 has undergone intensive observations, being one of the 160 stellar fields that was selected for the Pre-FLAMES Survey - a preliminary survey conducted between 1999 and 2002 using the 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, to find suitable stars for follow-up observations with the VLT's spectroscopic instrument FLAMES [1]. Using FLAMES, it is possible to observe up to 130 targets at the same time, making it particularly well suited to the spectroscopic study of densely populated stellar fields, such as globular clusters. M107 is not visible to the naked eye, but, with an apparent magnitude of about eight, it can easily be observed from a dark site with binoculars or a small telescope. The globular cluster is about 13 arcminutes across, which corresponds to about 80 light-years at its distance, and it is found in the constellation of Ophiuchus, north of the pincers of Scorpius. Roughly half of the Milky Way's known globular clusters are actually found in the constellations of Sagittarius, Scorpius and Ophiuchus, in the general direction of the centre of the Milky Way. This is because they are all in elongated orbits around the central region and are on average most likely to be seen in this direction. Messier 107 was discovered by Pierre Méchain in April 1782 and it was added to the list of seven Additional Messier Objects that were originally not included in the final version of Messier's catalogue, which was published the previous year. On 12 May 1793, it was independently rediscovered by William Herschel, who was able to resolve this globular cluster into stars for the first time. But it was not until 1947 that this globular cluster finally took its place in Messier's catalogue as M107, making it the most recent star cluster to be added to this famous list. This image is composed from exposures taken through the blue, green and near-infrared filters by the Wide Field Camera (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. Notes [1] Fibre Large Array Multi-Element Spectrograph More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based obs

  6. Characterization of a barley Rubisco activase gene promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, J.A.; Rundle, S.J.; Zielinski, R. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Barley Rubisco Activase (Rca) is a nuclear encoded chloroplast enzyme that activates Rubisco to catalytic competence. Rca mRNA accumulation in barley is light-regulated; the 5{prime}-flanking region of a highly expressed barley Rca gene (HvRca-1) contains several sequence motifs similar to those found in the promoter of other light-regulated, nuclear genes. We have characterized the cis-acting regulatory regions of HvRca-1 by deletion analysis of the 5{prime} flanking region of a cloned gene. These constructs have been assayed in vitro by gel mobility shift assays, as well as by DNA footprinting. Putative regulatory sequences detected in vitro have also been tested in vivo by constructing chimeric genes consisting of deletion mutant promoters fused to a promoterless {beta}-glucuronidase reporter gene. Comparison of results obtained from complimentary parallel in vitro and in vivo assays of identical promoter deletions have provided information on cis-acting regulatory regions of HvRca-1.

  7. Structure and molecular characterization of barley nudix hydrolase genes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Sayuri; Kihara, Makoto; Sugimoto, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Putative nudix hydrolase (NUDX) genes, which encode amino acid sequences showing homology with those of Arabidopsis NUDXs and conserve nudix motif, were identified from barley. The 14 deduced barley NUDXs (HvNUDX1-14) were classified into established subfamilies, except for 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate (8-oxo-dGTP) pyrophosphohydrolase and mRNA decapping enzyme subfamilies, and three substrate-unknown subfamilies. Drought and UV-C stresses, respectively, up-regulated 7 and 4 HvNUDX genes, but some homologs of Arabidopsis NUDXs showed different responses to abiotic stress. HvNUDX12 gene, belonging to diadenosine tetraphosphates (Ap?A) pyrophosphohydrolase subfamily gene and up-regulated by UV-C, was expressed in Escherichia coli cells. The recombinant protein showed 8-oxo-dGTP, Ap?A, and guanosine-3',5'-tetraphosphate (ppGpp) pyrophosphohydrolase activities, and the suppression of the lacZ amber mutation in a mutT-deficient E. coli cells caused by the incorporation of 8-oxo-GTP into mRNA was prevented to a significant degree. These results suggest that barley NUDXs have unique constitution and response of NUDX to abiotic stress. PMID:25379607

  8. Freezing of barley studied by infrared video thermography.

    PubMed

    Pearce, R S; Fuller, M P

    2001-01-01

    Freezing of barley (Hordeum vulgare), Hordeum murinum, and Holcus lanatus was studied using infrared video thermography. In the field, ice could enter H. lanatus leaves through hydathodes. In laboratory tests with barley, initially 0.4% of the leaf water froze, spreading in alternate strips of high and low freezing intensity longitudinally at 1 to 4 cm s(-1), and simultaneously spreading laterally at 0.3 cm s(-1). Similar results were obtained in the field with H. lanatus. A distinct second, more intense, freezing event spread slowly from the margins of the leaves toward the midrib. Organs of uprooted barley tested in the laboratory froze in this order: nucleated leaf, roots, older leaves, younger leaves, and secondary tillers. When ice spread from one leaf to the rest of the plant the crown delayed spread to the roots and other leaves. There was a longer delay above than below -2 degrees C, helping to protect the crown from freezing during mild frosts. Initial spread of freezing was not damaging. However, the initial spread is a prerequisite for the second freezing event, which can cause damage. The route of the initial spread of ice may be extracellular, drawing water from more gel-like parts of the cell wall. PMID:11154332

  9. Structure, morphology and functionality of acetylated and oxidised barley starches.

    PubMed

    El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Bartz, Josiane; Radunz, Marjana; Carreño, Neftali Lenin Villarreal; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Acetylation and oxidation are chemical modifications which alter the properties of starch. The degree of modification of acetylated and oxidized starches is dependent on the catalyst and active chlorine concentrations, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetylation and oxidation on the structural, morphological, physical-chemical, thermal and pasting properties of barley starch. Barley starches were acetylated at different catalyst levels (11%, 17%, and 23% of NaOH solution) and oxidized at different sodium hypochlorite concentrations (1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% of active chlorine). Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractograms, thermal, morphological, and pasting properties, swelling power and solubility of starches were evaluated. The degree of substitution (DS) of the acetylated starches increased with the rise in catalyst concentration. The percentage of carbonyl (CO) and carboxyl (COOH) groups in oxidized starches also increased with the rise of active chlorine level. The presence of hydrophobic acetyl groups, carbonyl and carboxyl groups caused a partial disorganization and depolymerization of starch granules. The structural, morphological and functional changes in acetylated and oxidized starches varied according to reaction conditions. Acetylation makes barley starch more hydrophobic by the insertion of acetyl groups. Also the oxidation promotes low retrogradation and viscosity. All these characteristics are important for biodegradable film production. PMID:25172707

  10. Arabinogalactan proteins are involved in root hair development in barley

    PubMed Central

    Marzec, Marek; Szarejko, Iwona; Melzer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are involved in a range of plant processes, including cell differentiation and expansion. Here, barley root hair mutants and their wild-type parent cultivars were used, as a model system, to reveal the role of AGPs in root hair development. The treatment of roots with different concentrations of ?GlcY (a reagent which binds to all classes of AGPs) inhibited or totally suppressed the development of root hairs in all of the cultivars. Three groups of AGP (recognized by the monoclonal antibodies LM2, LM14, and MAC207) were diversely localized in trichoblasts and atrichoblasts of root hair-producing plants. The relevant epitopes were present in wild-type trichoblast cell walls and cytoplasm, whereas in wild-type atrichoblasts and in all epidermal cells of a root hairless mutant, they were only present in the cytoplasm. In all of cultivars the higher expression of LM2, LM14, and MAC207 was observed in trichoblasts at an early stage of development. Additionally, the LM2 epitope was detected on the surface of primordia and root hair tubes in plants able to generate root hairs. The major conclusion was that the AGPs recognized by LM2, LM14, and MAC207 are involved in the differentiation of barley root epidermal cells, thereby implying a requirement for these AGPs for root hair development in barley. PMID:25465033

  11. Lysine Biosynthesis in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Birger Lindberg

    1974-01-01

    Lysine biosynthesis in seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Emir) was studied by direct injection of the following precursors into the endosperm of the seedlings: acetate-1-14C; acetate-2-14C; pyruvate-1-14C; pyruvate-2-14C; pyruvate-3-14C; alanine-1-14C; aspartic acid-1-14C; aspartic acid-2-14C; aspartic acid-3-14C; aspartic acid-4-14C; ?-aminoadipic acid-1-14C; and ?, ?-diaminopimelic acid-1-(7)-14C. The distribution of activity in the individual carbon atoms of lysine in the different biosynthetic experiments was determined by chemical degradation. The incorporation percentages and labeling patterns obtained are in agreement with the occurrence of the diaminopimelic acid pathway. The results do not fit the incorporation percentages and labeling patterns expected if the ?-aminoadipic acid pathway was operating. However, the results show that barley seedlings are able to convert a small part of the ?-aminoadipic acid administered directly to lysine. The labeling pattern of lysine was found to be symmetrical around carbon 4. This indicates that the biosynthetic pathway proceeds via a symmetrical intermediate like ll-?, ?-diaminopimelic acid, or includes compounds as 2, 3-dihydrodipicolinic acid or ?1-piperideine-2, 6-dicarboxylic acid which probably isomerise with concomitant lack of asymmetry in the labeling. The percentages of incorporation show that both the mesoand ll-forms of ?, ?-diaminopimelic acid are metabolically convertible to lysine in seedlings of barley. PMID:16658942

  12. Arabinogalactan proteins are involved in root hair development in barley.

    PubMed

    Marzec, Marek; Szarejko, Iwona; Melzer, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are involved in a range of plant processes, including cell differentiation and expansion. Here, barley root hair mutants and their wild-type parent cultivars were used, as a model system, to reveal the role of AGPs in root hair development. The treatment of roots with different concentrations of ?GlcY (a reagent which binds to all classes of AGPs) inhibited or totally suppressed the development of root hairs in all of the cultivars. Three groups of AGP (recognized by the monoclonal antibodies LM2, LM14, and MAC207) were diversely localized in trichoblasts and atrichoblasts of root hair-producing plants. The relevant epitopes were present in wild-type trichoblast cell walls and cytoplasm, whereas in wild-type atrichoblasts and in all epidermal cells of a root hairless mutant, they were only present in the cytoplasm. In all of cultivars the higher expression of LM2, LM14, and MAC207 was observed in trichoblasts at an early stage of development. Additionally, the LM2 epitope was detected on the surface of primordia and root hair tubes in plants able to generate root hairs. The major conclusion was that the AGPs recognized by LM2, LM14, and MAC207 are involved in the differentiation of barley root epidermal cells, thereby implying a requirement for these AGPs for root hair development in barley. PMID:25465033

  13. The 3 -Terminal Structure Required for Replication of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus RNA Contains an Embedded 3 End

    E-print Network

    Miller, W. Allen

    The 3 -Terminal Structure Required for Replication of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus RNA Contains and secondary structures required for replication of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) RNA in oat protoplasts

  14. Ectoparasitic growth of Magnaporthe on barley triggers expression of the putative barley wax biosynthesis gene CYP96B22 which is involved in penetration resistance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Head blast caused by the fungal plant pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae is an upcoming threat for wheat and barley cultivation. We investigated the nonhost response of barley to an isolate of the Magnaporthe species complex which is pathogenic on Pennisetum spp. as a potential source for novel resistance traits. Results Array experiments identified a barley gene encoding a putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase whose transcripts accumulate to a higher concentration in the nonhost as compared to the host interaction. The gene clusters within the CYP96 clade of the P450 plant gene family and is designated as CYP96B22. Expression of CYP96B22 was triggered during the ectoparasitic growth of the pathogen on the outside of the leaf. Usage of a fungicidal treatment and a Magnaporthe mutant confirmed that penetration was not necessary for this early activation of CYP96B22. Transcriptional silencing of CYP96B22 using Barley stripe mosaic virus led to a decrease in penetration resistance of barley plants to Magnaporthe host and nonhost isolates. This phenotype seems to be specific for the barley-Magnaporthe interaction, since penetration of the adapted barley powdery mildew fungus was not altered in similarly treated plants. Conclusion Taken together our results suggest a cross-talk between barley and Magnaporthe isolates across the plant surface. Since members of the plant CYP96 family are known to be involved in synthesis of epicuticular waxes, these substances or their derivatives might act as signal components. We propose a functional overlap of CYP96B22 in the execution of penetration resistance during basal and nonhost resistance of barley against different Magnaporthe species. PMID:24423145

  15. The wheat Lr34 gene provides resistance against multiple fungal pathogens in barley.

    PubMed

    Risk, Joanna M; Selter, Liselotte L; Chauhan, Harsh; Krattinger, Simon G; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Goetz; Viccars, Libby A; Richardson, Terese M; Buesing, Gabriele; Troller, Anna; Lagudah, Evans S; Keller, Beat

    2013-09-01

    The Lr34 gene encodes an ABC transporter and has provided wheat with durable, broad-spectrum resistance against multiple fungal pathogens for over 100 years. Because barley does not have an Lr34 ortholog, we expressed Lr34 in barley to investigate its potential as a broad-spectrum resistance resource in another grass species. We found that introduction of the genomic Lr34 sequence confers resistance against barley leaf rust and barley powdery mildew, two pathogens specific for barley but not virulent on wheat. In addition, the barley lines showed enhanced resistance against wheat stem rust. Transformation with the Lr34 cDNA or the genomic susceptible Lr34 allele did not result in increased resistance. Unlike wheat, where Lr34-conferred resistance is associated with adult plants, the genomic Lr34 transgenic barley lines exhibited multipathogen resistance in seedlings. These transgenic barley lines also developed leaf tip necrosis (LTN) in young seedlings, which correlated with an up-regulation of senescence marker genes and several pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. In wheat, transcriptional expression of Lr34 is highest in adult plants and correlates with increased resistance and LTN affecting the last emerging leaf. The severe phenotype of transgenic Lr34 barley resulted in reduced plant growth and total grain weight. These results demonstrate that Lr34 provides enhanced multipathogen resistance early in barley plant development and implies the conservation of the substrate and mechanism of the LR34 transporter and its molecular action between wheat and barley. With controlled gene expression, the use of Lr34 may be valuable for many cereal breeding programmes, particularly given its proven durability. PMID:23711079

  16. Barley grain with adhering hulls is controlled by an ERF family transcription factor gene regulating a lipid biosynthesis pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shin Taketa; Satoko Amano; Yasuhiro Tsujino; Tomohiko Sato; Daisuke Saisho; Katsuyuki Kakeda; Mika Nomura; Toshisada Suzuki; Takashi Matsumoto; Kazuhiro Sato; Hiroyuki Kanamori; Shinji Kawasaki; Kazuyoshi Takeda

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to other cereals, typical barley cultivars have caryopses with adhering hulls at maturity, known as covered (hulled) barley. However, a few barley cultivars are a free-threshing variant called naked (hulless) barley. The covered\\/naked caryopsis is controlled by a single locus (nud) on chromosome arm 7HL. On the basis of positional cloning, we concluded that an ethylene response factor

  17. Validation of rice blast resistance genes in barley using a QTL mapping population and near-isolines.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are prior reports of Pyricularia grisea – the causal agent of blast of rice – causing disease in barley. In order to determine the specificity of this resistance in barley, we extended our previous mapping efforts to include blast isolates from barley and rice grown in Thailand and we assesse...

  18. Grazing of barley stubble by sheep in Syria: effect of stocking rate, supplement type and level on apparent

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Grazing of barley stubble by sheep in Syria: effect of stocking rate, supplement type and level) of barley or wheat crop is the main feed for sheep and goats in the Middle East. The stubble is practically of supplement feeding. There were three experiments (summers 1991, 1992, 1993). Areas of barley (Hordeum vulgare

  19. Studies of the effects of toxic preparations of Helminthosporium sativum P.K. and B. on barley

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Studies of the effects of toxic preparations of Helminthosporium sativum P.K. and B. on barley Gembloux (Belgique) SUMMARY Callus, Culture Selection, Barley, Wheat, Helminthosporium sativum, Culture inhibits the calli growth of wheat and barley, the root formation of calli and the embryo-survival of wheat

  20. Crystal Structure of a 16 kDa Double-headed Bowman-Birk Trypsin Inhibitor from Barley Seeds at

    E-print Network

    Suh, Se Won

    Crystal Structure of a 16 kDa Double-headed Bowman- Birk Trypsin Inhibitor from Barley Seeds at 1 The Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitor from barley seeds (BBBI) consists of 125 amino acid residues with two trypsin inhibitor; BBBI, barley Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitor; BBI, Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor; BPT

  1. Basic and applied aspects of the genetic analysis of the ym4 virus resistance locus in barley

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Basic and applied aspects of the genetic analysis of the ym4 virus resistance locus in barley E Genetics, D-85461 Grünbach, Germany (Received 15 May 1995; accepted 4 July 1995) Summary — The barley mosaic virus complex has become one of the major pathogens of cultivated winter barley in central Europe

  2. Comparison of different types of barley with variable crude fibre contents in growing-finishing pig diets

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Comparison of different types of barley with variable crude fibre contents in growing-finishing pig pens to compare several types of barley with variable contents of crude fibre components under the same conditions of protein and energy supply. A total of 7 batches of barley were compared in both trials

  3. Subgenomic RNA as a riboregulator: negative regulation of RNA replication by Barley yellow dwarf virus subgenomic RNA 2

    E-print Network

    Miller, W. Allen

    Subgenomic RNA as a riboregulator: negative regulation of RNA replication by Barley yellow dwarf June 2004 Available online 6 August 2004 Abstract Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) generates three 3V RNAs. D 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: sgRNA; Barley yellow dwarf virus; BTE

  4. Necrotrophic effector-triggered susceptibility (NETS) underlies the barley-Pyrenophora teres f. teres interaction specific to chromosome 6H

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley net form net blotch, caused by Pyrenophora teres f. teres, is a destructive foliar disease in barley-growing regions worldwide. Our overall understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of the barley- P. teres f. teres interaction is limited. Intercellular wash fluids (IWF) from infected...

  5. Removal and isolation of germ-rich fractions from hull-less barley using a fitzpatrick comminuting mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A process was developed to produce a germ-enriched fraction from hull-less barley using a Fitzpatrick Comminuting Mill followed by sieving. Hulled and hull-less barleys contain 1.5-2.5% oil and, like wheat kernels which contain wheat germ oil, much of the oil in barley kernels is in the germ fracti...

  6. A Comparison of Barley Malt Amylolytic Enzyme Activities and Malt Sugar Concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt alpha-amylase activity would correlate better with malt sugar concentrations than the activities of beta-amylase, or limit dextrinase. Seeds of four two-row and four six-row North American elite barley cultivars were steeped and germi...

  7. Minimizing Risk by Maximizing Production Through Barley as a Rotational Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A CD was produced that contained the presentations of the speakers, plus supplemental material. This was an effort at showing growers the benefits of rotating with barley, and educating growers in barley breeding, weeds, diseases, economics and government support programs. It was sponsored by the ...

  8. Trends in comparative genetics and their potential impacts on wheat and barley research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Laurie; Katrien M. Devos

    2002-01-01

    We review some general points about comparative mapping, the evolution of gene families and recent advances in the understanding of angiosperm phylogeny. These are considered in relation to studies of large-genome cereals, particularly barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum), with reference to methods of gene isolation. The relative merits of direct map-based cloning in barley and wheat, utilization of

  9. A Comparison of Barley Malt Amylolytic Enzyme Activities and Malt Sugar Concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt alpha-amylase activity would correlate better with malt sugar concentrations than the activities of beta-amylase, or limit dextrinase. Seeds of four two-row and four six-row North American elite barley cultivars were steeped and germin...

  10. Greenhouse screening for bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains through its role as a vector of the PAV strain of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by feeding damage to winter and spring small grains. Barley accessions have been reported to have BCOA ...

  11. The 1980 US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment. Volume 2: Addenda

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizzell, R. M.; Prior, H. L.; Payne, R. W.; Disler, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Three study areas supporting the U.S./Canada Wheat and Barley Exploratory Experiment are discussed including an evaluation of the experiment shakedown test analyst labeling results, an evaluation of the crop proportion estimate procedure 1A component, and the evaluation of spring wheat and barley crop calendar models for the 1979 crop year.

  12. Comparative study of direct and indirect evaluations of frost tolerance in barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. T. Prášil; P. Prášilová; P. Ma?ík

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare different field, laboratory and physiological methods for the evaluation of frost tolerance in barley; as well as to show both the possibilities and limitations of these individual methods and approaches. The tolerances of 39 barley cultivars and breeding lines were evaluated by four direct methods (based on the exposure of plants to

  13. VIABILITY AND BAR EXPRESSION ARE NEGATIVELY CORRELATED IN OREGON WOLFE BARLEY DOMINANT HYBRIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The expression level of the selectable marker bar, which encodes phosphinothricin acetyl transferase (PAT), was negatively correlated with the viability of barley hybrids between 20 Golden Promise-derived transgenic lines (Ds-bar lines) and a specialized marker stock, Oregon Wolfe Barley Dominant (O...

  14. Bioethanol production from barley hull using SAA (soaking in aqueous ammonia) pretreatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tae Hyun Kim; Frank Taylor; Kevin B. Hicks

    2008-01-01

    Barley hull, a lignocellulosic biomass, was pretreated using aqueous ammonia, to be converted into ethanol. Barley hull was soaked in 15 and 30 wt.% aqueous ammonia at 30, 60, and 75°C for between 12h and 11 weeks. This pretreatment method has been known as “soaking in aqueous ammonia” (SAA). Among the tested conditions, the best pretreatment conditions observed were 75°C,

  15. Impacts of Crop Production Factors on Common Root Rot of Barley in Eastern Saskatchewan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Fernandez; R. P. Zentner; R. M. DePauw; D. Gehl; F. C. Stevenson

    2007-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has been spreading on the Cana- dian Prairies for the last decade. Fusarium spp. causing FHB can also cause crown and root rot of cereal crops. It is therefore of interest to determine the impact of agronomic practices on fungal populations associated with root rot of barley. From 1999 to 2001,

  16. Relative efficacy of organic manures in spring barley ( Hordeum vulgare L. ) production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ofosu-Anim J; Leitch M

    The effect of organic sources of nutrients on the growth of spring barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) was studied in a pot experiment in a heated glasshouse at the University of Wales, Aberyswyth from November 2006 to March 2007. Spring barley seeds were sown in 120 pots containing a mixture of peat and 180g dry weight of poultry manure, cowdung,

  17. FIGHTING FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT OF BARLEY WITH MEMBERS OF THE THIONIN GENE FAMILY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum destroys barley and wheat crops in the U.S. and elsewhere by causing scab (Fusarium head blight) and depositing mycotoxins such as DON. These make the harvest unsuitable for food, feed or malting. There are no known barleys with biochemical resistance to Fusa...

  18. Beta-amylase degradation by serine endoproteinases from green barley malt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteolytic degradation of barley proteins is examined in green malt from Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Harrington. Zymographic analysis of the Harrington green malt extracts using commercial preparations of barley beta-amylase incorporated as a proteolytic substrate in 2-D SDS gels shows at least three di...

  19. Barley and Oat beta-Glucan content measured by Calcofluor fluorescence in a microplate assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beta-glucans, linear glucan polymers of mixed linkage, are important constituents of cereal cell walls. They have important health benefits in the human diet, but also can negatively affect the use of barley grain as an animal feed. High beta-glucans in barley malt can also cause problems in brewi...

  20. MILLING ALTERNATIVES OF BARLEY TO PRODUCE ETHANOL AND VALUE-ADDED FRACTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New varieties are being developed to widen the applications of barley to nontraditional food and non-food value-added applications, such as ethanol production. The objective of this study was to fractionate a new hulless barley variety, Doyce, to produce starch rich fractions using two methods: (a) ...

  1. Fractionation of barley into value-added ingredients enriched with protein, beta-glucan or starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley contains several valuable nutrients, including protein, beta-glucan (BG) and starch. Each has additional value when concentrated. Among reported studies on barley fractionation (dry or wet), most focused enriching one or two components in term of concentrations in resulting fractions but negl...

  2. Transcriptional regulatory programs underlying barley germination and regulatory functions of Gibberellin and abscisic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley germination is a complex and multi-stage biological process important to plant development, plant evolution, and agricultural production. It is accompanied with concerted expression of many genes and biological pathways. Transcriptomic analysis of barley grains/seedlings representing six well...

  3. Greenhouse evaluation of transgenic barley expressing gastrodianin for resistance to Fusarium head blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2010 field screening nursery, with 88 barley plots was located at UMore Park, Rosemount MN. Trial entries (n=18) and an the untransformed 2-row control Conlon (susceptible) were submitted by USDA-ARS, RRVARC Fargo. Barley lines with known reactions to Fusarium head blight (FHB) were also incl...

  4. Registration of nineteen spring six-rowed barley germplasm lines resistant to Russian wheat aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is a new and devastating pest of barley in the western US. No resistance was found in US cultivars whether two-row, six-row, malt, feed, spring or winter. A screening of the entire collection of barley accessions in the National Small Grains Collection by the USDA-ARS in ...

  5. Comparison of barley seed proteomic profiles associated with fusarium head blight reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Zantinge; K. Kumar; K. Xi; M. Johns; A. Murray; T. Jones; J. H. Helm; P. Juskiw

    2010-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) incited primarily by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a destructive disease that affects the quality and yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain. At present, there is a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in barley resistance against infection by and the spread of F. graminearum. The objective of the current study was to identify proteins

  6. Mapped Ds \\/T-DNA launch pads for functional genomics in barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiehan Zhao; Margaret Palotta; Peter Langridge; Manoj Prasad; Andreas Graner; Paul Schulze-Lefert; Thomas Koprek

    2006-01-01

    Summary A system for targeted gene tagging and local saturation mutagenesis based on maize transposable elements (Ac\\/Ds) was developed in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). We generated large numbers of transgenic barley lines carrying a single copy of the non-autonomous maize Ds element at defined positions in the genome. Independent Ds lines were either generated by activating Ds elements in existing

  7. TRANSFORMATION AND EXPRESSION OF AN ALTERED ANTIFUNGAL PROTEIN HORDOTHIONIN GENE IN TRANSGENIC BARLEY AND OAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alpha-hordothionin is produced in developing barley endosperms and has antimicrobial activity against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. We cloned an alpha-hordothionin gene (Hth1) from a cDNA library derived from developing barley endosperms, ligated the nearly full length hordothionin...

  8. Greenhouse screening for bird cherry-oat aphid resistance to barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains through its role as a vector of the PAV strain of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by feeding damage to winter and spring small grains. Barley accessions have been reported to have BCOA ...

  9. Regeneration of Fertile Barley Plants from Mechanically lsolated Protoplasts of the Fertilized Egg Cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Preben B. Holm; Peter Mouritzen; Diana Negri; Finn L. OIsen; Catherine Roue

    1994-01-01

    A simple procedure is described for the mechanical isolation of protoplasts of unfertilized and fertilized barley egg cells from dissected ovules. Viable protoplasts were isolated from m75% of the dissected ovules. Unfertilized protoplasts did not divide, whereas almost all fertilized protoplasts developed into microcalli. These degenerated when grown in medium only. When cocultivated with barley microspores undergoing microspore embryogenesis, the

  10. Hormonal regulation of gene expression in the “slender” mutant of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter M. Chandler

    1988-01-01

    The “slender” mutant of barley resembles a normal barley plant treated with high doses of gibberellic acid (GA3). Expression of GA3-regulated and abscisic acid (ABA)-regulated mRNAs was studied in the endosperm and roots of mutant and wild-type (WT) plants.

  11. Original article Agronomic comparison of two sets of SSD barley lines

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . (© Inra/Elsevier, Paris.) Hordeum vulgare / barley yellow mosaic virus / ym4 resistance gene Résumé défavorables peuvent être aussi sélectionnés. (© Inra/Elsevier, Paris). Hordeum vulgare / virus de la of the disease plant breeders have bred for resistant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties. Friedt et al. [4

  12. Role of Phenolic Acids in Expression of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Autotoxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of phenolic acids in autotoxicity of four barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties was investigated using radicle growth bioassays and analytical techniques. Total phenolic content of barley plant components varied within and between varieties during the 1999-2002 growing seasons. Inhibition o...

  13. Worldwide patterns of genetic variation among four esterase loci in Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Kahler; R. W. Allard

    1981-01-01

    Electrophoretic assays of 1506 accessions of domestic (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wild (H. spontaneum Koch.) barley, maintained in the USDA World Barley Collection, led to the following conclusions: (1) worldwide the four esterase loci, Est 1, Est 2, Est 3, and Est 4, have a minimum of 7, 12, 6, and 7 alleles, respectively; (2) little or no genetic differentation

  14. RFLP analysis of resistance to the barley yellow mosaic virus complex

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    undescribed ones, have been identified in cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare). They vary in their specificity and 3 loci, respectively. genetics / Hordeum vulgare = barley / BaYMV / BaMMV / disease resistance'orge cultivée (Hordeum vulgare L). Ces gènes diffèrent pour leur spécificité envers chacun des membres du

  15. Improved plant regeneration from shed microspore culture in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. igri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ziauddin; E. Simion; K. J. Kasha

    1990-01-01

    This report describes rapid regeneration of green plants from microspores of the barley cultivar Igri. Use of 0.3 M mannitol during maceration and isolation was essential for response from mechanically isolated microspores of barley cv. Igri grown under our conditions. A shed microspore culture system proved to be simple and gave a fast response; plants were obtained as early as

  16. Biothanol production from barley hull using SAA (Soaking in aqueous ammonia) pretreatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley hull, a type of lignocellulosic biomass, was pretreated using aqueous ammonia to improve its enzymatic saccharification. Barley hull was soaked in 15-30 wt.% aqueous ammonia (SAA method) at 30-75'C for 1 day-11 weeks using a batch reactor. Under these conditions, SAA (soaking in aqueous ammon...

  17. Near-Infrared analysis of ground barley for use as a feedstock for fuel ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently there has been growing interest in using barley as a feedstock for fuel ethanol in the United States. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy for determining the compositional quality properties of barley and to compare the prediction accuracy ...

  18. The effects of barley straw ( Hordeum vulgare) on the growth of freshwater algae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Ferrier; B. R. Butler; D. E. Terlizzi; R. V. Lacouture

    2005-01-01

    Bioassays were conducted to determine the efficacy of barley straw liquor in controlling algal growth of 12 freshwater species of algae representing three divisions. Barley straw liquor inhibited the growth of three nuisance algae common in freshwater: Synura petersenii, Dinobyron sp., and Microcystis aeruginosa. However, Selenastrum capricornutum, Spirogyra sp., Oscillatoria lutea var. contorta, and Navicula sp. had significantly increased growth

  19. Limited Effects of Barley Straw on Algae and Zooplankton in a Midwestern Pond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph D. Boylan; Joseph E. Morris

    2003-01-01

    Researchers in the United Kingdom have reported that barley straw can be used to control a variety of planktonic algae, as well as the filamentous alga Cladophora spp. This method appears to be cost-effective, user-friendly, and environmentally sound. If these results could be obtained in the United States, using barley straw would be a good alternative to using copper sulfate.

  20. Newcomb's Data on Ancient Eclipses Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protitch-Benishek, V.; Protitch, M. B.

    Relying on the Greek text related to Babylonian-Hellenic observations of lunar eclipses in Ptolemy's "Almagest" (Halma M., 1813) and by analysing some Arabian notes about solar and lunar eclipses - for which S.Newcomb found considerable deviations from the adopted theory - a re-analysis of his results and conclusions is herewith undertaken. The results of ancient data revision are based on Newcomb's alternative presumption that these discrepancies are caused by one or more unknown long-term inequalities in the motion of the Moon. A quantitative analysis of ancient eclipse observations unambiguously indicates that they definitely are not to be rejected, provided, of course, that they are interpreted in proper way.

  1. Should Dinosaurs be "Cloned" from Ancient DNA?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Constance Soja

    These are the teaching notes for a case study in which students use cooperative learning and role-playing to explore the scientific, technical, environmental, and ethical issues related to the possibility of cloning dinosaurs from ancient DNA. The case was designed to enhance the learning environment in an introductory class through cooperative problem-solving and to promote active participation in learning by using library and web resources to do research on a controversial topic in science and ethics. As the students pursue this case, they will apply knowledge explored in readings, lectures, and in-class discussions about dinosaurs, gain a general understanding of the revolutionary techniques used to discover and retrieve ancient DNA and to produce a clone, and improve communication and collaboration skills by working cooperatively in small groups and arguing a position in an authoritative fashion.

  2. Lead in ancient Rome's city waters.

    PubMed

    Delile, Hugo; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Goiran, Jean-Philippe; Keay, Simon; Albarède, Francis

    2014-05-01

    It is now universally accepted that utilization of lead for domestic purposes and water distribution presents a major health hazard. The ancient Roman world was unaware of these risks. How far the gigantic network of lead pipes used in ancient Rome compromised public health in the city is unknown. Lead isotopes in sediments from the harbor of Imperial Rome register the presence of a strong anthropogenic component during the beginning of the Common Era and the Early Middle Ages. They demonstrate that the lead pipes of the water distribution system increased Pb contents in drinking water of the capital city by up to two orders of magnitude over the natural background. The Pb isotope record shows that the discontinuities in the pollution of the Tiber by lead are intimately entwined with the major issues affecting Late Antique Rome and its water distribution system. PMID:24753588

  3. [Traumatology due to ancient lead missile projectiles].

    PubMed

    Moog, Ferdinand Peter

    2002-01-01

    The lead missiles of slingers in antiquity, known as glans or molybdis, are widely considered to have been very dangerous projectiles of the ancient armies. Ballistic investigations and results of experimental archaeology seem to confirm this. However, the findings of medical history concerning these missiles disagree with this view. In ancient medical texts these missiles are only mentioned sporadically, as in Celsus or Paul of Aigina, and wounds caused by them are merely discussed incidentally. There is so far no evidence at all on them in palaeopathology. It is undisputed however that in individual cases these missiles were able to cause serious injuries, especially when they hit unprotected parts of the body. Accordingly, their main effect seems to have consisted in the intimidation of the enemy. PMID:12522915

  4. Mechanisms of Radium Mobilization for Radium-Rich Groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone and Carbonate Aquifers in the Negev, Israel: Implications for Fossil Groundwater Resources in the Middle East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengosh, A.; Peri, N.; Haquin, G.; Paytan, A.; Pankratov, I.; Elhanani, S.; Karpas, Z.

    2007-05-01

    The radium isotope quartet (226-Ra, 228-Ra, 224-Ra, 223-Ra), radon, and uranium (238-U, 234-U) isotopes were investigated in brackish to saline groundwater from the Nubian sandstone and Lower Cretaceous carbonate aquifers in the Negev, Israel. Our data show that Ra activity in both aquifers are high and far exceeds international drinking water threshold levels. The 228-Ra/226-Ra and 224-Ra/223-Ra ratios in the groundwater from the two aquifers are closely associated with the measured of 232-Th/226-Ra and predicted 224-Ra/223-Ra ratios in the respective aquifers rocks. This indicating that Ra in the Nubian sandstone is derived from interactions with rocks hosting nuclides from both Th- and U-decay series, whereas the carbonate aquifer contributes nuclides exclusively from the U-decay series. In the sandstone aquifer we found that Ra activity is strongly correlated with temperature. The high 224-Ra/228-Ra, d223Ra (defined as 223-Ra/226-Ra/0.046) (>1) and 234-U/238-U (3.3) ratios in the Nubian groundwater suggest that Ra is primarily derived from recoil process on the aquifer solids. We quantified the Ra recoil and retention by normalizing the 224-Ra to 222-Rn activities in the water, taking into account the 232-Th/226-ra ratios in the aquifer rocks. Given that a large fraction of Ra is in the form of RaSO4 species (a range of 0.15 to 0.5) and the correlation of RaSO4 species with Ba content we propose that Ra recoil is retained by co-precipitation onto secondary barite mineral and/or exchange with surface coating. In the carbonate aquifer we show that Ra activity is strongly correlate with both salinity and dissolved oxygen content. Groundwater with high 226-Ra activity has typically low d223Ra ratios and 222-Rn/226-Ra ratios, which suggests that Ra mobilization is controlled by desorption from surface coating that is enhanced under conditions of high salinity and reduced groundwater. Our findings indicate that under stagnant groundwater conditions, Ra can be mobilized from aquifer rocks with common Ra activities, without significant Ra removal (e.g., adsorption). The lack of significant Ra sinks is due to combination of factors including reducing conditions, lack of available adsorption sites, high temperature (that inhibit both barite saturation and adsorption), and groundwater chemistry (e.g., formation of RaSO4 species). These findings could have implications for possible high Ra anomalies in many other similar groundwater basins in the Middle East.

  5. [Presacral schwannoma with degenerated areas ("ancient schwannoma")].

    PubMed

    Netsch, C; Oberhagemann, K; Bach, T; Feyerabend, B; Gross, A J

    2010-10-01

    A presacral, degenerative schwannoma ("ancient schwannoma") is a rare entity. The clinical signs are nonspecific, and a reliable preoperative diagnosis is difficult. Tumor heterogeneity with calcifications may be seen in degenerated schwannomas on MRI or CT but not necessarily. First-line treatment is complete surgical excision. We present the case of a 44-year-old male who required surgery for a presacral mass. Histopathological examination revealed the diagnosis of a schwannoma with degenerated areas. PMID:20694717

  6. Maecenas: Images of Ancient Greece and Rome

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    Maintained by Classics Professor Leo Curran of the University at Buffalo, this collection of images could be a useful resource for courses in the Classics, Ancient History, or Archaeology. The collection currently contains many high-quality photos from France and Italy, with separate sections for Sicily and Rome. The images are offered free for any non-commercial purpose, and the site is periodically updated with new photos.

  7. DOC Cycling in Ancient Tropical Lake Matano

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Crowe; S. Katsev; C. Magen; S. Nomosatryo; G. D. Haffner; A. Mucci; B. Sundby; D. A. Fowle

    2006-01-01

    With a Secchi depth of <= 27m, tropical, ancient (1-4Ma) Lake Matano has surface waters as clear as many ultra-oligotrophic lakes such as Great Bear Lake (secchi depth 590m deep, one of the largest and deepest anoxic freshwater basins in the world. These sub-anoxic conditions have developed in response to thermal stratification that caused oxygen demand to exceed oxygen supply.

  8. Ancient Chinese Observations and Modern Cometary Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeomans, D. K.

    1995-01-01

    Ancient astronomical observations, primarily by Chinese, represent the only data source for discerning the long-term behavior of comets. These sky watchers produced astrological forecasts for their emperors. The comets Halley, Swift-Tuttle, and Tempel-Tuttle have been observed for 2000 years. Records of the Leonid meteor showers, starting from A.D.902, are used to guide predictions for the 1998-1999 reoccurrence.

  9. Geomorphic evidence for ancient seas on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Schneeberger, Dale M.; Pieri, David C.; Saunders, R. Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Geomorphic evidence is presented for ancient seas on Mars. Several features, similar to terrestrial lacustrine and coastal features, were identified along the northern plains periphery from Viking images. The nature of these features argues for formation in a predominantly liquid, shallow body of standing water. Such a shallow sea would require either relatively rapid development of shoreline morphologies or a warmer than present climate at the time of outflow channel formation.

  10. Isolation and characterization of a barley mutant with abscisic-acid-insensitive stomata.

    PubMed

    Raskin, I; Ladyman, J A

    1988-01-01

    A barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mutant ("cool") with leaf transpiration unaffected by the application of 1 mM abscisic acid (ABA) was isolated from the population of M2 seedlings using thermography (electronic visualization, and quantitation of the temperature profiles on the surface of the leaves). Stomata of the mutant plants were insensitive to exogenously applied ABA, darkness, and such desiccation treatments as leaf excision and drought stress. The evaporative cooling of the leaves of the "cool" barley was always higher than that of the wild-type barley, even without ABA application, indicating that the diffusive resistance of the mutant leaves to water loss was always lower. Guard-cell morphology and stomatal density as well as ABA level and metabolism were seemingly unaltered in the mutant plants. In addition, gibberellin-induced ?-amylase secretion and precocious embryo germination in the mutant barley was inhibited by ABA to the same extent as in the wild-type barley. PMID:24226182

  11. Ancient subduction zone in Sakhalin Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodnikov, A. G.; Sergeyeva, N. A.; Zabarinskaya, L. P.

    2013-07-01

    The northern part of Sakhalin Island is an area of recent intensive tectonic movements and hydrothermal processes, as well as a place of accumulation of useful minerals. The deep structure of the lithosphere beneath the region of the Neftegorsk earthquake of May 27, 1995 in North Sakhalin, which killed residents and caused significant destruction, is examined in this paper. Our geodynamic model shows that North Sakhalin consists of the North Sakhalin Basin, Deryugin Basin and an ophiolite complex located between them. The Deryugin Basin was formed in place of an ancient deep trench after subducting the Okhotsk Sea Plate under Sakhalin in the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene. The North Sakhalin Basin was formed on the side of the back-arc basin at that time. The ophiolite complex is fixed in the position of ancient subduction zone that was active in the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene. Approximately in the Miocene, the subduction of the Okhotsk lithosphere apparently ceased. The remains of the subduction zone in the form of an ophiolite complex have been identified from geological and geophysical data. On the surface, the subduction zone is manifested as deep faults stretched along Sakhalin. It is probable that the Neftegorsk earthquake was a result of activation of this ancient subduction zone.

  12. Evidence of Ancient Rifts Beneath Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, K.; Velasco, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    Continental rifts are defined as geological features where Earth's lithosphere is pulled away by surface expansion of the Earth. Their physiographic features include linear rift valleys associated with active volcanism. Many rifts fail to split a continent and ancient rifts that failed to split can be found by using seismic waves to image these ancient structures. Using seismic data collected by EarthScope USArray stations in Texas, we calculate teleseismic receiver functions and utilized surface wave dispersion curves to simultaneously invert for the velocity structure beneath each seismic station. With the calculated receiver functions, we generate maps to show preliminary 3-D crust/upper mantle boundary structure, the velocity ratio of P and S waves, and the S-wave velocity structure. We expect to characterize the ancient rift zones that exist in Texas and compare these results with the Rio Grande Rift in New Mexico. The goal for this comparison is to determine whether Rio Grande rift is still active or doomed to be another failed rift.

  13. Assessment of Genetic Diversity among Barley Cultivars and Breeding Lines Adapted to the US Pacific Northwest, and Its Implications in Breeding Barley for Imidazolinone-Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Mejías, Jaime H.; Gemini, Richa; Brew-Appiah, Rhoda A. T.; Wen, Nuan; Osorio, Claudia; Ankrah, Nii; Murphy, Kevin M.; von Wettstein, Diter

    2014-01-01

    Extensive application of imidazolinone (IMI) herbicides had a significant impact on barley productivity contributing to a continuous decline in its acreage over the last two decades. A possible solution to this problem is to transfer IMI-resistance from a recently characterized mutation in the ‘Bob’ barley AHAS (acetohydroxy acid synthase) gene to other food, feed and malting barley cultivars. We focused our efforts on transferring IMI-resistance to barley varieties adapted to the US Pacific Northwest (PNW), since it comprises ?23% (335,000 ha) of the US agricultural land under barley production. To effectively breed for IMI-resistance, we studied the genetic diversity among 13 two-rowed spring barley cultivars/breeding-lines from the PNW using 61 microsatellite markers, and selected six barley genotypes that showed medium to high genetic dissimilarity with the ‘Bob’ AHAS mutant. The six selected genotypes were used to make 29–53 crosses with the AHAS mutant and a range of 358–471 F1 seeds were obtained. To make informed selection for the recovery of the recipient parent genome, the genetic location of the AHAS gene was determined and its genetic nature assessed. Large F2 populations ranging in size from 2158–2846 individuals were evaluated for herbicide resistance and seedling vigor. Based on the results, F3 lines from the six most vigorous F2 genotypes per cross combination were evaluated for their genetic background. A range of 20%–90% recovery of the recipient parent genome for the carrier chromosome was observed. An effort was made to determine the critical dose of herbicide to distinguish between heterozygotes and homozygotes for the mutant allele. Results suggested that the mutant can survive up to the 10× field recommended dose of herbicide, and the 8× and 10× herbicide doses can distinguish between the two AHAS mutant genotypes. Finally, implications of this research in sustaining barley productivity in the PNW are discussed. PMID:24967712

  14. Westward prograding metamorphism in mantle peridotites from the Eastern Desert of Egypt: clues to the subduction polarity of the Arabian Nubian Shield intra-oceanic arc ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam Abu El-Ela, Abdel; Hamdy, Mohamed; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hassan, Adel; Gamal El Dien, Hamed

    2013-04-01

    Neoproterozoic arc mantle beneath the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS) in the Eastern Desert (ED) of Egypt exhumed due to intra-oceanic upthrusting are represented mainly by exposed ophiolitic peridotites serpentinized to different degree. Metamorphism is related to the Pan-African collision and the subduction of oceanic lithosphere. However, polarity of the Pan-African intra-oceanic subduction is still questionable. We here trace the variation of the degree of serpentinization and regional metamorphism of six serpentinite masses, widely distributed in the ED (from the east to the west: W (Wadi). Alam, W. Igla, W. Mubarak, G. El-Maiyit, W. Um El Saneyat and W. Atalla). This is based on their mineralogy, textures and mineral chemistry. The studied rocks have harzburgite composition and they all formed in oceanic mantle wedge in the fore-arc setting, except those from W. Atalla that formed in MOR-arc transition setting. Much difference in the degree of serpentinization is obvious among these rocks. They are mainly partly serpentinized containing primary olivine and orthopyroxene at W. Alam and W. Igla, while they are completely serpentinized in the other localities. With the increased degree of metamorphism, textures were transformed from the pseudomorphic to the non-pseudomorphic. The most common retrograde assemblage is composed of lizardite ± chrysotile± brucite± magnetite. The serpentine prograde textures can be viewed as a continuum from retrograde lizardite pseudomorphic textures, to very fine-grained transitional texture of lizardite and chrysotile, to chrysotile-antigorite interlocking texture and finally to antigorite interpenetrating texture. These textures appear to represent successive stages in a recrystallization event. In late subduction-related metamorphism and early collisional emplacement stage, mylonitic-antigorite serpentinites formed and antigorite became the major phase in G. El-Maiyit, Um El-Saneyat and W. Atalla. The polygonal units of the hourglass texture and the penetrative fabric of the serrate veins in all serpentinized peridotites indicate that fracturing of these rocks was developed in a dynamic regime. The late emplacement of veins of brucite, carbonates and oxides were most probably formed during the final stage of exhumation and under a stress regime in the brittle-ductile transition. As the grade of metamorphism increases Fe released from olivine and orthopyroxene and Cr released from chromite are accommodating in antigorite-rich serpentinites. Serpentine in veins also tends to have less substitutions, which is consistent with the fact that Al, Cr and Ni are relatively immobile during alteration and therefore remain in their original microstructural site. Compositional zoning in spinel grains in all serpentinites reflect variation in the degree of alteration. The biggest variation of spinel compositions are among serpentinites from Um El-Saneyat and W. Atalla. With increasing the degree of alteration, size of the aluminian chromite core decreases while width of the intermediate Fe3+-rich aluminian chromite to ferrian-chromite zone and the outer Cr-magnetite to magnetite zones increase. The alteration zones were formed in a temperature < 400 ° C to 550 ° C corresponding to the low green-schist to the lower amphibolite facies. We propose that this is concordant with a westward polarity of the subducting oceanic lithosphere, associating the intra-oceanic arc ophiolite during the closure of the Mozambique ocean.

  15. The Atrium: For Devotees of Ancient Greece and Rome

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With the large number of quality ancient world sites already existing it is difficult for a new one to make room for itself. The Atrium accomplishes this by focusing on resources that connect the present and the past. Teachers can make good use of several features at this site. The Commentarium is a frequently updated journal that provides links to online news stories involving the ancient world. The Ancient World on Television offers a weekly guide to programs that depict the ancient world. The Rostra is a collection of RealAudio programs that discuss this era as well as the latest from Nuntii Latini, Radio Finland's news broadcast in Latin. Other features include This Day in Ancient History and the Bibliotheca, a collection of ancient world Internet resources currently under development.

  16. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Bishaw

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticum<\\/span>spp<\\/span>., Barley,Hordeum<\\/span>vulgare<\\/span> L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality, Genetic Diversity, Ethiopia, Syria<\\/o:p><\\/ins><\\/span><\\/span>

    barley genomics for quite a while, the whole genome sequence was released in 2012 by the International Barley Genome Sequencing Consortium (IBSC). Moreover, more than 30,000 barley full-length cDNAs (FLcDNAs) are now available in the public domain. Here we present the Barley Gene Expression Database (bex-db: http://barleyflc.dna.affrc.go.jp/bexdb/index.html) as a repository of transcriptome data including the sequences and the expression profiles of barley genes resulting from microarray analysis. In addition to FLcDNA sequences, bex-db also contains partial sequences of more than 309,000 novel expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Users can browse the data via keyword, sequence homology and expression profile search options. A genome browser was also developed to display the chromosomal locations of barley FLcDNAs and wheat (Triticum aestivum) transcripts as well as Aegilops tauschii gene models on the IBSC genome sequence for future comparative analysis of orthologs among Triticeae species. The bex-db should provide a useful resource for further genomics studies and development of genome-based tools to enhance the progress of the genetic improvement of cereal crops. PMID:24399916