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1

Ancient DNA from Nubian and Somali wild ass provides insights into donkey ancestry and domestication.  

PubMed

Genetic data from extant donkeys (Equus asinus) have revealed two distinct mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, suggestive of two separate domestication events in northeast Africa about 5000 years ago. Without distinct phylogeographic structure in domestic donkey haplogroups and with little information on the genetic makeup of the ancestral African wild ass, however, it has been difficult to identify wild ancestors and geographical origins for the domestic mitochondrial clades. Our analysis of ancient archaeological and historic museum samples provides the first genetic information on the historic Nubian wild ass (Equus africanus africanus), Somali wild ass (Equus africanus somaliensis) and ancient donkey. The results demonstrate that the Nubian wild ass was an ancestor of the first donkey haplogroup. In contrast, the Somali wild ass has considerable mitochondrial divergence from the Nubian wild ass and domestic donkeys. These findings resolve the long-standing issue of the role of the Nubian wild ass in the domestication of the donkey, but raise new questions regarding the second ancestor for the donkey. Our results illustrate the complexity of animal domestication, and have conservation implications for critically endangered Nubian and Somali wild ass. PMID:20667880

Kimura, Birgitta; Marshall, Fiona B; Chen, Shanyuan; Rosenbom, Sónia; Moehlman, Patricia D; Tuross, Noreen; Sabin, Richard C; Peters, Joris; Barich, Barbara; Yohannes, Hagos; Kebede, Fanuel; Teclai, Redae; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Mulligan, Connie J

2011-01-01

2

Strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) variability in the Nile Valley: identifying residential mobility during ancient Egyptian and Nubian sociopolitical changes in the New Kingdom and Napatan periods.  

PubMed

As a successful technique for identifying residential mobility in other areas, this study investigates the feasibility of using 87Sr/86Sr analysis to track the movements of the ancient peoples of Egypt and Nubia in the Nile Valley, who interacted via trade, warfare, and political occupations over millennia. Dental enamel from faunal remains is used to examine variability in strontium sources in seven regional sites; human enamel samples are analyzed from eight Nile Valley sites in order to trace human movements. The faunal samples show a wide range of 87Sr/86Sr values demonstrating that some animals were raised in a variety of locales. The results of the human samples reveal overlap in 87Sr/86Sr values between Egyptian and Nubian sites; however, Egyptian 87Sr/86Sr values (mean/median [0.70777], sd [0.00027]) are statistically higher than the Nubian 87Sr/86Sr values (mean [0.70762], median [0.70757], sd [0.00036], suggesting that it is possible to identify if immigrant Egyptians were present at Nubian sites. Samples examined from the site of Tombos provide important information regarding the sociopolitical activities during the New Kingdom and Napatan periods. Based on a newly established local 87Sr/86Sr range, human values, and bioarchaeological evidence, this study confirms the preliminary idea that immigrants, likely from Egypt, were present during the Egyptian New Kingdom occupation of Nubia. In the subsequent Napatan period when Nubia ruled Egypt as the 25th Dynasty, 87Sr/86Sr values are statistically different from the New Kingdom component and indicate that only locals were present at Tombos during this developmental time. PMID:23440634

Buzon, Michele R; Simonetti, Antonio

2013-05-01

3

The Nubian Swell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the name Nubian Swell to refer to a complex, east-west trending structural high in southern Egypt and northern Sudan. This 500 km wide zone of uplifted Neoproterozoic crystalline basement and Paleozoic sediments and parallel troughs extend westward for more than 800 km from the flanks of the Red Sea Hills. The Nile in this region is called the Cataract Nile and is in a youthful stage, particularly in northern Sudan where it is incised in the Neoproterozoic crystalline basement. The northern Cataract Nile flows through the rapids of the Batn el Hajar or 'Belly of Stones' region, characterized by structurally controlled 90° turns, frequent bifurcation and disruption by several cataracts, and near-absence of floodplains. Orbital imaging radar has advanced our understanding of the Nubian Swell, through the discovery and mapping of paleochannels and faults that indicate tectonic uplift during Cenozoic time. Earthquakes in southern Egypt during the early 1980s provide evidence that portions of the Nubian Swell are still tectonically active, with recent seismic activity concentrated where E-W trending structures intersect N-S trending structures of the Aswan corridor. We conclude that the Nubian Swell is an important tectonic feature of North Africa, with episodic but continuing uplift.

Thurmond, Allison K.; Stern, Robert J.; Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Nielsen, Kent C.; Abdeen, Mamdouh M.; Hinz, Emily

2004-06-01

4

Drought stress variability in ancient Near Eastern agricultural systems evidenced by ?13C in barley grain  

PubMed Central

The collapse and resilience of political systems in the ancient Near East and their relationship with agricultural development have been of wide interest in archaeology and anthropology. Despite attempts to link the archaeological evidence to local paleoclimate data, the precise role of environmental conditions in ancient agricultural production remains poorly understood. Recently, stable isotope analysis has been used for reconstructing site-specific ancient growing conditions for crop species in semiarid and arid landscapes. To open the discussion of the role of regional diversity in past agricultural production as a factor in societal development, we present 1.037 new stable carbon isotope measurements from 33 archaeological sites and modern fields in the geographic area of the Fertile Crescent, spanning the Aceramic Neolithic [10,000 calibrated years (cal) B.C.] to the later Iron Age (500 cal B.C.), alongside modern data from 13 locations. Our data show that drought stress was an issue in many agricultural settlements in the ancient Near East, particularly in correlation with the major Holocene climatic fluctuations, but its regional impact was diverse and influenced by geographic factors. Although cereals growing in the coastal areas of the northern Levant were relatively unaffected by Holocene climatic fluctuations, farmers of regions further inland had to apply irrigation to cope with increased water stress. However, inland agricultural strategies showed a high degree of variability. Our findings suggest that regional differences in climatic effects led to diversified strategies in ancient subsistence and economy even within spatially limited cultural units. PMID:25114225

Riehl, Simone; Pustovoytov, Konstantin E.; Weippert, Heike; Klett, Stefan; Hole, Frank

2014-01-01

5

A complete ancient RNA genome: identification, reconstruction and evolutionary history of archaeological Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus.  

PubMed

The origins of many plant diseases appear to be recent and associated with the rise of domestication, the spread of agriculture or recent global movements of crops. Distinguishing between these possibilities is problematic because of the difficulty of determining rates of molecular evolution over short time frames. Heterochronous approaches using recent and historical samples show that plant viruses exhibit highly variable and often rapid rates of molecular evolution. The accuracy of estimated evolution rates and age of origin can be greatly improved with the inclusion of older molecular data from archaeological material. Here we present the first reconstruction of an archaeological RNA genome, which is of Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus (BSMV) isolated from barley grain ~750 years of age. Phylogenetic analysis of BSMV that includes this genome indicates the divergence of BSMV and its closest relative prior to this time, most likely around 2000 years ago. However, exclusion of the archaeological data results in an apparently much more recent origin of the virus that postdates even the archaeological sample. We conclude that this viral lineage originated in the Near East or North Africa, and spread to North America and East Asia with their hosts along historical trade routes. PMID:24499968

Smith, Oliver; Clapham, Alan; Rose, Pam; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Allaby, Robin G

2014-01-01

6

Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.  

PubMed

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming. PMID:24084493

Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

2014-01-01

7

Gynecomastia and mammary gland adenocarcinoma in a Nubian buck.  

PubMed Central

A 6-year-old Nubian buck was presented for bilateral mammary gland enlargement. Gynecomastia and mastitis were diagnosed, and bilateral mastectomy was performed. Histological examination showed mammary adenocarcinoma, active lactation, hyperplasia, and abscessation. Karyotyping showed a normal male. Clinical, therapeutic, etiologic, and epidemiologic aspects of gynecomastia and mammary gland adenocarcinoma are discussed. Images Figure 1. PMID:10495911

Wooldridge, A A; Gill, M S; Lemarchand, T; Eilts, B; Taylor, H W; Otterson, T

1999-01-01

8

Reproductive doe traits of the Nubian (Zaraibi) goats in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nubian does from the hot arid climate of upper Egypt were evaluated for productive and reproductive traits under Nile Delta (lower Egypt) conditions. The mean values for age at first kidding, abortion rate, and mortality rate were 691 days, 1.4 and 26.8%, respectively. Corresponding values for litter size at birth and weaning were 2.9 and 2.3 kids, respectively, and for

I. F. M Marai; E. I Abou-Fandoud; A. H Daader; A. A Abu-Ella

2002-01-01

9

Ancient Rome  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this internet project is to help students learn more about nine aspects of ancient Rome. These nine aspects will be of the student's own choosing. I have listed three websites that contain large amounts of information about Ancient Rome. Fill in the three handouts I give you, using information of your choice from the three websites. This is what the three handouts look like: Mr. Donn's Ancient History Click on Mr. Donn s Ancient History, then click on Rome. Scroll ...

Murray, Mrs.

2007-11-02

10

Barley Production in Texas.  

E-print Network

for livestock. On the high plains area barley may be either fall or spring seeded. Fall seeding of IVintex or Tennessee winter types may be winter killed some seasons, but, if they survive, a~re more productive than spring seeded barley. In seasons of ample... Tennessee Winter as a group name includes many strains of barley which are grown in the winter barley area of the United States. In Texas, winter barley has been grown under the names of Tennessee Winter and Texas Winter for many years. The strains cannot...

Dunkle, P. B. (Paul Burtch); Atkins, Irvin Milburn

1941-01-01

11

Barley Seed Son  

E-print Network

, selling fruit, raising and selling pigs, selling produce from greenhouses, driving tractors, and so on. Most families own cows for milk. ?????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??... (Video) Barley Seed Son ‘Barley Seed Son’ was told by Rgyal mtshan in A mdo Tibetan. Rta rgyugs, a subdivision of Rka phug Administrative Village, is a farming village located in Khams ra Town, Gcan tsa County Town, Rma lho Tibetan...

Rdo rje don 'grub

2011-01-01

12

Breed and experience effect on the sexual behaviors of Damascus and Egyptian-Nubian goat bucks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the sexual behaviors of bucks from two pure breeds of goats, Damascus and Egyptian-Nubian (Zaraibi), and assesses their relationships with the pregnancy and kidding rates of their inseminated does. Twenty-three bucks (12 Damascus and 11 Egyptian-Nubian bucks) were used in this study. These bucks were either in their first season of service (N =12, with an average

R. A. Darwish; H. D. H. Mahboub

2011-01-01

13

Ancient Astronomers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Conduct research on how different ancient peoples used astronomy. Please answer the questions under each ancient people in your journals. Try to include illustrations to help your understanding. Utah State Core: Standard 1 - Students will gain an understanding of early civilizations and their contributions to the foundations of human culture. Objective 2 - Assess the impact of geography on the locations of early civilizations.

Myers, Mr.

2010-06-04

14

Ancient DNA  

PubMed Central

In the past two decades, ancient DNA research has progressed from the retrieval of small fragments of mitochondrial DNA from a few late Holocene specimens, to large-scale studies of ancient populations, phenotypically important nuclear loci, and even whole mitochondrial genome sequences of extinct species. However, the field is still regularly marred by erroneous reports, which underestimate the extent of contamination within laboratories and samples themselves. An improved understanding of these processes and the effects of damage on ancient DNA templates has started to provide a more robust basis for research. Recent methodological advances have included the characterization of Pleistocene mammal populations and discoveries of DNA preserved in ancient sediments. Increasingly, ancient genetic information is providing a unique means to test assumptions used in evolutionary and population genetics studies to reconstruct the past. Initial results have revealed surprisingly complex population histories, and indicate that modern phylogeographic studies may give misleading impressions about even the recent evolutionary past. With the advent and uptake of appropriate methodologies, ancient DNA is now positioned to become a powerful tool in biological research and is also evolving new and unexpected uses, such as in the search for extinct or extant life in the deep biosphere and on other planets. PMID:15875564

Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

2004-01-01

15

Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin trihydrate in Desert sheep and Nubian goats.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin were studied in five Desert sheep and five Nubian goats after intravenous (i.v.) or intramuscular (i.m.) administration of a single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight. Following i.v. injection, the plasma concentration-versus-time data were best described by a two-compartment open model. The kinetic variables were similar in both species except for the volume of the central compartment (Vc), which was larger in sheep (p<0.05). Following i.m. injection, except for the longer half-life time of absorption in goats (p<0.05), there were no significant differences in other pharmacokinetic parameters between sheep and goats. The route of amoxicillin administration had no significant effect on the terminal elimination half-life in either species. The bioavailability of the drug (F) after i.m. administration was high (> 0.90) in both species. These results indicate that the pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin did not differ between sheep and goats; furthermore, because of the high availability and short half-life of absorption, the i.m. route gives similar results to the i.v. route. Therefore, identical intramuscular and intravenous dose regimens should be applicable to both species. PMID:10672967

Elsheikh, H A; Taha, A A; Khalafalla, A E; Osman, I A; Wasfi, I A

1999-12-01

16

Ancient China  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This excellent interactive site, produced by the British Museum, contains a wealth of information about ancient China. Explorers can follow any of five links that cover major sections of the website, including Crafts and Artisans, Geography, and Tombs and Ancestors. Each section contains historical information in the topical area and Story, Explore and Challenge links. The Challenge links are especially useful for classroom activities.

17

New isotopic evidence for the origin of groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer in the Negev, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geochemistry and isotopic composition (H, O, S, Osulfate, C, Sr) of groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone (Kurnub Group) aquifer in the Negev, Israel, were investigated in an attempt to reconstruct the origin of the water and solutes, evaluate modes of water–rock interactions, and determine mean residence times of the water. The results indicate multiple recharge events into the Nubian

Avner Vengosh; Sharona Hening; Jiwchar Ganor; Bernhard Mayer; Constanze E. Weyhenmeyer; Thomas D. Bullen; Adina Paytan

2007-01-01

18

Sutures and shear zones in the Arabian-Nubian Shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deformational belts in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) are divided into: (1) those associated with sutures, both arc-arc and arc-continental; and (2) post-accretionary structures which include north trending shortening zones and northwest trending strike-slip faults. The arc-arc sutures manifest collision between arc terranes at -800-700 Ma. They are orientated east to northeast in the northern part of the ANS and north to north-northeast in the south. North or south verging ophiolitic nappes are associated with the east to northeast trending sutures. These nappes were steepened by upright folds associated with the final stages of collision between terranes. East or west verging ophiolitic nappes are associated with the north to north-northeast trending sutures. These were deformed by upright folds and strike-slip faults related to oblique collision between terranes and/or post-accretionary deformations. The arc-continental sutures define the eastern and western boundaries of the ANS and are marked by north trending deformational belts which accompanied collision of the ANS with east and west Gondwana at -750-650 Ma. The post-accretionary structures were developed between -650-550 Ma due to continued shortening of the ANS. This produced north trending shortening zones which offset the east to northeast trending sutures in the northern part of the ANS but were superimposed as co-axial deformation on the north to north-northeast trending sutures in the south. The shortening deformation culminated with the development of northwest trending strike-slip faults and shear zones.

Abdelsalam, M. G.; Stern, R. J.

1996-10-01

19

Patch use, apprehension, and vigilance behavior of Nubian Ibex under perceived risk of predation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraging theory predicts that animals will sacrifice feeding effort in order to reduce predation risk. Once a forager chooses a habitat, it must decide how to allocate its foraging effort. Nubian Ibex are diurnal, social, cliff-dwelling herbivores. Many of their characteristics seem to have evolved as responses to predation risk. In order to assess the effects that perceived risk of

Valeria Hochman; Burt P. Kotler

2006-01-01

20

Ancient Egypt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Drawing on its superb collection of materials from archaeological excavations, the British Museum presents this extensive learning resource on Ancient Egypt. The site features texts, images, and interactive elements detailing Egyptian daily life, mythology, timekeeping, geography, architecture, governance, business, writing, and rituals of death. The material is clearly and simply written so that the site would be useful for primary school students, but it is informative and substantial enough to be of interest to college students and curious adults as well. Thoroughly hyperlinked and replete with images that can be enlarged for detailed perusal, the site goes beyond the typical teaser Websites so often posted by lesser museums.

21

Ancient Valley  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-491, 22 September 2003

Auqakuh Vallis is an ancient valley system that might have once been a conduit for liquid water flowing north, across northeastern Arabia Terra, toward the Nilosyrtis region. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a portion of the Auqakuh Vallis system. The valley was cut into layered bedrock. It was once much deeper than today, but much of the surrounding materials have been eroded away. Windblown sediments now cover the floor of the valley, a reflection of the parched conditions of the modern martian environment. This picture is located near 29.1oN, 299.6oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

2003-01-01

22

Germinated Barley Foodstuff Feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A germinated barley foodstuff (GBF) contained glutamine-rich protein and the hemicellulose-rich fiber was made from brewer’s spent grain by physical isolation (milling and sieving). Both in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that the fiber fraction of GBF supports maintenance of epithelial cell populations, facilitates epithelial repair, and suppresses epithelial nuclear factor ?B-DNA binding activity through generating increased short-chain fatty

Osamu Kanauchi; Toshihiko Iwanaga; Keiichi Mitsuyama

2001-01-01

23

Barley Genomics: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Barley (Hordeum vulgare), first domesticated in the Near East, is a well-studied crop in terms of genetics, genomics, and breeding and qualifies as a model plant for Triticeae research. Recent advances made in barley genomics mainly include the following: (i) rapid accumulation of EST sequence data, (ii) growing number of studies on transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome, (iii) new modeling techniques, (iv) availability of genome-wide knockout collections as well as efficient transformation techniques, and (v) the recently started genome sequencing effort. These developments pave the way for a comprehensive functional analysis and understanding of gene expression networks linked to agronomically important traits. Here, we selectively review important technological developments in barley genomics and related fields and discuss the relevance for understanding genotype-phenotype relationships by using approaches such as genetical genomics and association studies. High-throughput genotyping platforms that have recently become available will allow the construction of high-density genetic maps that will further promote marker-assisted selection as well as physical map construction. Systems biology approaches will further enhance our knowledge and largely increase our abilities to design refined breeding strategies on the basis of detailed molecular physiological knowledge. PMID:18382615

Sreenivasulu, Nese; Graner, Andreas; Wobus, Ulrich

2008-01-01

24

Ancient Mediterranean Certificate  

E-print Network

Program encompasses the study of the cultures and societies of ancient Greece and Rome. The certificateAncient Mediterranean Studies Certificate About Us The Ancient Mediterranean Studies Certificate The certificate in Ancient Mediterranean Studies requires completion of a minimum of 24 credits distributed

Saldin, Dilano

25

Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian shield of Northeastern Sudan using thematic mapper imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bechtel is nearing completion of a one-year program that uses digitally enhanced LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) data to compile the first comprehensive regional tectonic map of the Proterozoic Nubian Shield exposed in the northern Red Sea Hills of northeastern Sudan. The status of significant objectives of this study are given. Pertinent published and unpublished geologic literature and maps of the northern Red Sea Hills to establish the geologic framework of the region were reviewed. Thematic mapper imagery for optimal base-map enhancements was processed. Photo mosaics of enhanced images to serve as base maps for compilation of geologic information were completed. Interpretation of TM imagery to define and delineate structural and lithogologic provinces was completed. Geologic information (petrologic, and radiometric data) was compiled from the literature review onto base-map overlays. Evaluation of the tectonic evolution of the Nubian Shield based on the image interpretation and the compiled tectonic maps is continuing.

1986-01-01

26

The Nubian Complex of Dhofar, Oman: An African Middle Stone Age Industry in Southern Arabia  

PubMed Central

Despite the numerous studies proposing early human population expansions from Africa into Arabia during the Late Pleistocene, no archaeological sites have yet been discovered in Arabia that resemble a specific African industry, which would indicate demographic exchange across the Red Sea. Here we report the discovery of a buried site and more than 100 new surface scatters in the Dhofar region of Oman belonging to a regionally-specific African lithic industry - the late Nubian Complex - known previously only from the northeast and Horn of Africa during Marine Isotope Stage 5, ?128,000 to 74,000 years ago. Two optically stimulated luminescence age estimates from the open-air site of Aybut Al Auwal in Oman place the Arabian Nubian Complex at ?106,000 years ago, providing archaeological evidence for the presence of a distinct northeast African Middle Stone Age technocomplex in southern Arabia sometime in the first half of Marine Isotope Stage 5. PMID:22140561

Rose, Jeffrey I.; Usik, Vitaly I.; Marks, Anthony E.; Hilbert, Yamandu H.; Galletti, Christopher S.; Parton, Ash; Geiling, Jean Marie; Cerny, Viktor; Morley, Mike W.; Roberts, Richard G.

2011-01-01

27

The Butana Region of Central Sudan: Sahara Craton or Arabian-Nubian Shield?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Butana region lies 250 km south east of Khartoum and is one of the few exposures of Proterozoic basement in Central Sudan. The area is characterized by a flat surface and isolated basement exposures. Various authors have allocated the region to part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield or to part of the reworked Sahara Craton. Although the area is indeed located in the rough region of this transition, little information exists on the details of the basement geology in Butana. Field work indicates that the geology of the study area is similar to the other parts of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The area consists of low-grade metavolcanic rocks (arc assemblage), pre- and syn-tectonic granitic intrusions. In particular the presence of serpentinites, ophiolitic metagabbro and high-grade metamorphic rocks may identify it as part of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The main metamorphic foliation trend in the low-grade rocks is northeast-southwest with steep foliation plains and sub-horizontal lineation. In the high-grade rocks, at least three deformation phases were observed in the field. D1 associates with northeast-southwest foliation planes and D2 associates with high temperature folding mechanism which gave the high-grade rocks domal pattern. While D3 is a faulting phase with brittle features. The peak metamorphism most probably occurred after the D2 as indicated by the migmatic features. Geochronological work is in progress in order to identify uniquely if the region should be allocated to the Arabian-Nubian Shield or the Sahara Craton.

Abu-Alam, T.; Stüwe, K.

2012-04-01

28

Developmental cysts in the upper neck of AngloNubian goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five young Anglo-Nubian goats were found to have developed a fluid-filled cyst in the upper neck. In each case the cyst was unilateral and after excision was found to be lined in most sites by non-ciliated, pseudostratified columnar epithelium, containing goblet cells. This epithelium closely resembled that of normal parotid salivary gland ducts. The lesions did not recur in any

PJ Brown; VM Lucke

1989-01-01

29

Barley Production in Texas.  

E-print Network

is nrK greatlqdifferent from that of oats or wheat, it pow 1. Perrvton m14. Denton ! I l 2. Etter n 3. Bushland l 4. Wellington l 5. Plainview . 6. Lubbock n 7. Chillicothe n 8. Iowa Park n 9. Spur 010. Abilene e15. Sherman D16. Overton n... their nearest county agricultural agent for moreh tails. Fertilizer recommendations are found In Evta sion Service Fact Sheets. VARIETIES I Most barley varieties of commercial im?ortm in Texas are the common, six-row head type. Om exception is Tokak, a...

Atkins, I. M.; Gardenshire, J. H.; McDaniel, M. E.; Porter, K. B.

1969-01-01

30

How ancient are ancient asexuals?  

PubMed Central

Ancient asexual animal groups, such as bdelloid rotifers and darwinuloid ostracods, are excellent model organisms to study the effects of long-term asexuality. However, the absolute length of time that these groups have been fully asexual is mostly ignored. In the case of the darwinuloid ostracods, the fossil record shows that sexual reproduction disappeared almost completely after the end of Permian mass extinction (ca. 245 Myr ago), although several putative records of males from the Mesozoic obscure the exact time-frame of obligate asexuality in darwinuloids. Here, we re-examine the Mesozoic darwinuloid records, with regard to the reproductive mode of the assemblages. Three criteria to distinguish males in fossil populations (lack of brood pouch, position of muscle scars and size dimorphism) are used here to test for the presence of males in darwinuloid assemblages. A large, well-preserved assemblage of Darwinula leguminella (Forbes 1885) from the latest Jurassic (ca. 145 Myr ago) of England is found to be markedly variable in size and shape, but nevertheless turns out to be an all female assemblage. The exceptional preservation of the material also allows the re-assignment of this species to the extant darwinuloid genus Alicenula. All other putative dimorphic darwinuloid records from the Mesozoic are re-examined using the same criteria. The hypothesis that these assemblages represent bisexual populations is rejected for all post-Triassic (ca. 208 Myr ago) records. PMID:12713746

Martens, Koen; Rossetti, Giampaolo; Horne, David J

2003-01-01

31

Barley tortillas and barley flours in corn tortillas  

E-print Network

-glucan content increased water absorption of the flours and moisture content of tortillas. Increased moisture gave softer and more extensible barley tortillas. Reheated and fresh tortillas had similar extensibilities. Reheated tortillas had less moisture...

Mitre-Dieste, Carlos Marcelo

2012-06-07

32

Apps for Ancient Civilizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

Thompson, Stephanie

2011-01-01

33

Barley ?-glucan in poultry diets.  

PubMed

There has been an increased interest in the use of immunomodulators as substitutes for antibiotics in food animal production. Beta-glucans from yeast and fungi may be ideal substitutes because of their positive effects on the avian immune system without adversely affecting poultry performance. Barley ?-glucans, however, have not shown this potential due to the adverse effects dietary inclusion of barley has on poultry performance. PMID:25332996

Jacob, Jacqueline P; Pescatore, Anthony J

2014-02-01

34

Barley ?-glucan in poultry diets  

PubMed Central

There has been an increased interest in the use of immunomodulators as substitutes for antibiotics in food animal production. Beta-glucans from yeast and fungi may be ideal substitutes because of their positive effects on the avian immune system without adversely affecting poultry performance. Barley ?-glucans, however, have not shown this potential due to the adverse effects dietary inclusion of barley has on poultry performance. PMID:25332996

Pescatore, Anthony J.

2014-01-01

35

Albinism in barley androgenesis.  

PubMed

Androgenesis is highly useful for plant breeding, significantly reducing breeding cycle times, as well as in a wide range of biological research. However, for widespread use this process must be efficient. Despite several decades of research on the phenomenon of androgenesis, many processes involved are obscure and there is much to be understood about androgenesis. One of the problems inherent in androgenesis, and reducing its efficiency, is albinism. This article reviews albinism in barley anthers and microspores in vitro cultures. Of special interest is the fate of plastids throughout androgenesis, which is important at several levels, including the genes responsible for driving the green-to-albino ratios. We also summarize the external factors that reduce the incidence of albino plants that are regenerated via androgenesis. PMID:24326697

Makowska, Katarzyna; Oleszczuk, Sylwia

2014-03-01

36

New constraints on Red Sea rifting from correlations of Arabian and Nubian Neoproterozoic outcrops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New constraints on the mechanics of Red Sea opening were obtained by correlating Neoproterozoic outcrops of the Arabian and Nubian Shields along two thirds of the Red Sea coastlines. Using a mosaic of 23 Landsat thematic mapper scenes (5×105 km²) together with field, geochemical, and geochronological data, we identified and mapped lithologic units, mobile belts, and terranes within the Arabian and Nubian Shields. Features best align if Arabia is rotated by 6.7° around a pole at latitude 34.6°N, longitude 18.1°E. Implications of our reconstruction include (1) the amount of continental crust underlying the Red Sea is small because the restored Red Sea coasts are typically juxtaposed, (2) only a single pole is needed, implying that the Arabian and Nubian Shields were rigid plates during Red Sea rifting, (3) coastlines reorient to align with preexisting structures, suggesting the rift propagated in part along pre-existing zones of weakness, (4) large sinistral displacements of up to 350 km along the Red Sea are not supported, (5) the pole is inconsistent with the Pliocene-Pleistocene motion along the Dead Sea transform (pole: 32.8°N, 22.6°E +/- 0.5° [Joffe and Garfunkel, 1987]), indicating that more than one phase of motion is required to account for the Red Sea opening. However, our pole is similar to that for the total motion along the Dead Sea transform (pole: 32.7°N, 19.8°E +/- 2° [Joffe and Garfunkel, 1987]), suggesting that the motion between Arabia and Nubia was parallel to the total motion along the Dead Sea transform.

Sultan, M.; Becker, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Shore, P.; Stern, R. J.; El Alfy, Z.; Attia, R. I.

1993-12-01

37

Pan-African (late Precambrian) tectonic terrains and the reconstruction of the Arabian-Nubian Shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recognition of Precambrian ophiolite suites and their dismembered remnants in association with intraoceanic island-arc volcanic and plutonic terrains across much of the Arabian-Nubian Shield of eastern Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Yemen, western Saudi Arabia, and Sinai has been used by many authors to support the hypothesis of crustal accretion during late Proterozoic time (˜950-550 Ma). Reassembly of the various fragments provides a mosaic of Proterozoic microplates in a regular pattern in which at least five oceanic terrains, bounded by the remains of ophiolite belts, lie between remobilized continental plates to east and west.

Vail, John R.

1985-12-01

38

Comparison of black, purple, and yellow barleys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many barley landraces are purple-or black-seeded, but the chemical composition of these purple-and black- seeded barley is rarely examined. Therefore, studies were conducted to determine if the chemical composition of purple and black barleys differs from that of yellow barleys. Four sets of genetic materials were used for these studies: 96 doubled-haploid (DH) lines, 10 near-isogenic lines, 40 landraces, and

Thin Meiw Choo; Bernard Vigier; Keh Ming Ho; Salvatore Ceccarelli; Stefania Grando; Jerome D. Franckowiak

2005-01-01

39

Combining Ability of Waterlogging Tolerance in Barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waterlogging tolerance is one of the major objectives in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) breeding programs. To make the selection more efficient, an understanding of the genetic behavior of waterlogging tolerance in barley is needed. For this purpose, a 6 by 6 half diallel analysis was conducted in barley from crosses of three waterlog- ging tolerant Chinese cultivars and three susceptible

M. X. Zhou; H. B. Li; N. J. Mendham

2007-01-01

40

Isozymes in wheat-barley hybrid derivative lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zymogram analysis was used to identify the barley chromosomes that carry the structural genes for particular isozymes. Wheat, barley, and wheatbarley hybrid derivative lines (which contained identified barley chromosomes) were tested by gel electrophoresis for isozymes of particular enzymes. It was found that barley chromosome 4 carries structural genes for acid phosphatase and ß amylase isozymes, barley chromosome 5 carries

A. Powling; A. K. M. R. Islam; K. W. Shepherd

1981-01-01

41

Ancient Egyptian Architecture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Time to learn about Temples, Pyramids, and Obelisks in Ancient Egypt! Please use the links below to help you find the answers to the questions on your worksheets. Ancient Egypt (click on the pyramids and temples links) Architecture(use this link to answer questions in the Temples section) Obelisks pyramids ...

Myers, Mr.

2011-10-06

42

Contesting Ancient Mediterranean Sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay sketches the ways in which ancient sport history has come of age in the last century or so, and suggests selectively some timely themes in the study of ancient Mediterranean sport. It begins with two observations about this area of study: first the extent and the limits of the legacy of Greek and Roman sport in the world

Thomas Scanlon

2009-01-01

43

Studying Ancient History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defends the value and relevance of the study of ancient history and classics in history curricula. The unique homogeneity of the classical period contributes to its instructional manageability. A year-long, secondary-level course on fifth-century Greece and Rome is described to illustrate effective approaches to teaching ancient history. (AM)

Barrow, Robin

1982-01-01

44

Ancient Astronomy in Armenia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most important discovery, which enriched our knowledge of ancient astronomy in Armenia, was the complex of platforms for astronomical observations on the Small Hill of Metzamor, which may be called an ancient “observatory”. Investigations on that Hill show that the ancient inhabitants of the Armenian Highlands have left us not only pictures of celestial bodies, but a very ancient complex of platforms for observing the sky. Among the ancient monuments in Armenia there is a megalithic monument, probably, being connected with astronomy. 250km South-East of Yerevan there is a structure Zorats Kar (Karahunge) dating back to II millennium B.C. Vertical megaliths many of which are more than two meters high form stone rings resembling ancient stone monuments - henges in Great Britain and Brittany. Medieval observations of comets and novas by data in ancient Armenian manuscripts are found. In the collection of ancient Armenian manuscripts (Matenadaran) in Yerevan there are many manuscripts with information about observations of astronomical events as: solar and lunar eclipses, comets and novas, bolides and meteorites etc. in medieval Armenia.

Parsamian, Elma S.

2007-08-01

45

Orientation of late Precambrian sutures in the Arabian-Nubian shield  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent tectonic models have resulted in conflicting descriptions of how the late Precambrian sutures of the Arabian-Nubian shield extend into northeast Africa. The Hamisana shear zone in northeastern Sudan is critical to this discussion because it truncates and disrupts two sutures, the Allaqi-Heiani and the Onib-Sol Hamed. Analysis of field structural data, Thematic Mapper imagery, and Rb-Sr and U-Pb geochronology suggests that the Allaqi-Heiani suture is the western extension of the Onib-Sol Hamed suture and that both make up the exposed parts of a far-traveled, polydeformed ophiolitic nappe complex. Subsequent deformation localized in the Hamisana shear zone disrupted this nappe and displaced the suture between 660 and 550 Ma during regional deformation associated with the Najd fault system. These results indicate that at least one suture extends westward into the interior of northern Africa.

Stern, Robert J.; Nielsen, Kent C.; Best, Eric; Sultan, Mohamed; Arvidson, Raymond E.

1990-01-01

46

Taenia multiceps brain cyst removal in two wild Nubian ibex (Capra nubianas).  

PubMed

Two wild adult Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana) were captured and admitted to the Hebrew University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with various neurologic signs, including alerted mentation, head tilt, and pathologic nystagmus. The lesion in the central nervous system was localized to the forebrain in one ibex and to the cerebellum of the other. Both ibex's were diagnosed with brain cyst using computed tomography (CT). Craniectomy was performed to remove the cysts, and both animals returned to their natural environment after a rehabilitation period. Parasitologic examination revealed cysts of Taenia multiceps coenurus. This is the first report to describe the neurologic signs, CT findings, surgical procedure, and follow-up postsurgery information in wild Capra nubiana. PMID:24712185

Merbl, Yael; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Chai, Orit; Chamisha, Yael; Anglister, Nili; King, Roni; Horowitz, Igal; Aizenberg, Zahi; Shamir, Merav H

2014-03-01

47

Distribution of oceanic and continental leads in the Arabian-Nubian Shield  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New common lead data for feldspar, whole-rock, and galena samples from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, together with data from previous work, can be divided into two main groups. Group I leads have oceanic (mantle) characteristics, whereas group II leads have incorporated a continental-crustal component of at least early Proterozoic age. The group I leads are found in rocks from the Red Sea Hills of Egypt and the western and southern parts of the Arabian Shield. Group II leads are found in rocks from the northeastern and eastern parts of the Arabian Shield, as well as from the southeastern Shield near Najran. They are also found in rocks to the south in Yemen, to the east in Oman, and to the west at Aswan, Egypt. This distribution of data suggests that the Arabian-Nubian Shield has an oceanic core flanked by rocks that have developed, at least in part, from older continental material. Two mechanisms are suggested by which this older lead component could have been incorporated into the late Proterozoic rocks, and each may have operated in different parts of the Shield. The older lead component either was derived directly from an underlying early Proterozoic basement or was incorporated from subducted pelagic sediments or sediments derived from an adjacent continent. New U-Pb zircon data indicate the presence of an early Proterozoic basement southeast of Jabal Dahul in the eastern Arabian Shield. These data, together with 2,000-Ma-old zircons from the Al Amar fault zone, verify the implication of the common lead data that at least a part of the eastern Arabian Shield has an older continental basement. Because continental margins are particularly favorable locations for development of ore deposits, these findings may have important economic implications, particularly for tin, tungsten, and molybdenum exploration. ?? 1983 Springer-Verlag.

Stacey, J. S.; Stoeser, D. B.

1983-01-01

48

Comparative expression analysis of dehydrins between two barley varieties, wild barley and Tibetan hulless barley associated with different stress resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought, salinity and cold are the major environmental factors impacting on survival and productivity of Tibetan hulless barley\\u000a in Tibetan Plateau of China. Tibetan hulless barley cultivar, Tibetan Heiqingke No. 1, has developed a strong tolerance and\\u000a adaptation to stresses in relation to the wild barley. The differences of dehydrin gene transcription and translation between\\u000a Tibetan Heiqingke No. 1 and

Jun-Bo DuShu; Shu Yuan; Yang-Er Chen; Xin Sun; Zhong-Wei Zhang; Fei Xu; Ming Yuan; Jing Shang; Hong-Hui Lin

2011-01-01

49

A Phylogenetic Analysis Based on Nucleotide Sequence of a Marker Linked to the Brittle Rachis Locus Indicates a Diphyletic Origin of Barley  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) cultivation started between 9500 and 8400 years ago, and was a major part of ancient agriculture in the Near East. The brittle rachis is a critical trait in the domestication process. Methods A DNA sequence closely linked to the brittle rachis complex was amplified and resequenced in a collection of cultivated barleys, wild barleys (H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum) and weedy brittle rachis varieties (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare var. agriocrithon). The sequence was used to construct a phylogenetic tree. Key Results The phylogeny separated the W- (btr1-carrying) from the E- (btr2-carrying) cultivars. The wild barleys had a high sequence diversity and were distributed throughout the W- and E-clades. Some of the Tibetan var. agriocrithon lines were closely related to the E-type and others to the W-type cultivated barleys, but an Israeli var. agriocrithon line has a complex origin. Conclusions The results are consistent with a diphyletic origin of barley. The W- and E-type cultivars are assumed to have evolved from previously diverged wild barley via independent mutations at Btr1 and Btr2. PMID:17638711

Azhaguvel, Perumal; Komatsuda, Takao

2007-01-01

50

Ancient ships of Japan  

E-print Network

Ancient ships of Japan, which are little known outside of Japan, are presented based on the studies of past researchers, as well as a comprehensive analysis of archaeological remains. The process of development from logboats to extended logboats...

Miyashita, Hiroaki

2006-10-30

51

Interactive Ancient Mediterranean Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Interactive Ancient Mediterranean (IAM) Project is an online atlas of the ancient Mediterranean world designed to support the instruction of the classics, ancient history, archaeology, and related disciplines. Currently, IAM's Map Room has an index of over 50 maps of ten regions of the Mediterranean basin and northern Europe available for downloading and printing. Most maps are high-resolution .pdf files and the remainder are large, high-quality JPEG files. Users may also search the atlas by keyword, place name, cultural object, or ancient author. IAM is an ongoing joint effort of the American Philological Association's Classical Atlas Project and the departments of Classics and History at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

52

Endocrinology in ancient Sparta.  

PubMed

This article attempts to analyze the crucial link between the plant Agnus castus and human health, particularly hormonal status, with special reference to the needs of the society of ancient Sparta. The ancient Spartans used Agnus both as a cure for infertility and as a remedy to treat battle wounds. These special properties were recognized by the sanctuary of Asclepios Agnita, which was located in Sparta, as well as by medical practitioners in Sparta during the classical, Hellenistic and Roman ages. PMID:17324922

Tsoulogiannis, Ioannis N; Spandidos, Demetrios A

2007-01-01

53

MONGOLIAN ANCIENT MONUMENTS CD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract (EN) The “Mongolian Ancient Monuments”,CD-ROM contains a brief guide to 130 stationary historical and cultural monuments,with explanations,and music,accompaniment.,The monuments include rock paintings, deer monuments, stone statues and inscriptions. The CD- ROM is an interactive multimedia,product containing more than 400 photos and videos. It was created using Macromedia Director 8.0, Flash 5.0, Adobe Premiere 6.0, Photo shop 7.0.applications. Keywords: Ancient

Natsagbadam Myatraaz; Gantumur Bold; Narantuya Dalkhaa

54

Transglycosylation by barley ?-amylase 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transglycosylation activity of barley ?-amylase 1 (AMY1) and active site AMY1 subsite mutant enzymes was investigated. We report here the transferase ability of the V47A, V47F, V47D and S48Y single mutants and V47K\\/S48G and V47G\\/S48D double mutant AMY1 enzymes in which the replaced amino acids play important role in substrate binding at subsites at ?3 through ?5. Although mutation

János A. Mótyán; Erika Fazekas; Haruhide Mori; Birte Svensson; Péter Bagossi; Lili Kandra; Gyöngyi Gyémánt

2011-01-01

55

A Nubian Complex Site from Central Arabia: Implications for Levallois Taxonomy and Human Dispersals during the Upper Pleistocene  

PubMed Central

Archaeological survey undertaken in central Saudi Arabia has revealed 29 surface sites attributed to the Arabian Middle Paleolithic based on the presence of Levallois blank production methods. Technological analyses on cores retrieved from Al-Kharj 22 have revealed specific reduction modalities used to produce flakes with predetermined shapes. The identified modalities, which are anchored within the greater Levallois concept of core convexity preparation and exploitation, correspond with those utilized during the Middle Stone Age Nubian Complex of northeast Africa and southern Arabia. The discovery of Nubian technology at the Al-Kharj 22 site represents the first appearance of this blank production method in central Arabia. Here we demonstrate how a rigorous use of technological and taxonomic analysis may enable intra-regional comparisons across the Arabian Peninsula. The discovery of Al-Kharj 22 increases the complexity of the Arabian Middle Paleolithic archaeological record and suggests new dynamics of population movements between the southern and central regions of the Peninsula. This study also addresses the dichotomy within Nubian core typology (Types 1 and 2), which was originally defined for African assemblages. PMID:23894434

Crassard, Remy; Hilbert, Yamandu Hieronymus

2013-01-01

56

Developmental Expression of Amylases During Barley Malting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amylase activity and qualitative changes in amylase isoenzymes as a function of barley seedling age were investigated in 10 Brazilian barley cultivars. All cultivars showed few isoenzymes in early germination. An increase in general activity ensued in the following days when new isoenzymes were detected and those already observed since early germination had their activity increased. All cultivars disclosed increase

J. E. Georg-Kraemer; E. C. Mundstock; S. Cavalli-Molina

2001-01-01

57

RAPD Analysis of Genetic Variation in Barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation between wild barley lines (Hordeum murinum, Hordeum bulbosum and Hordeum vulgare spontaneum) orig- inated from Turkey were investigated comparatively at the molecular level with the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Leaf DNAs extracted from different barley lines were amplified with randomly chosen primers in a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Rates of polymorphisms between the 23 lines were

Gülruh ALBAYRAK; Nermin GÖZÜKIRMIZI

1999-01-01

58

Nitrogen metabolism and kidney function in the Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana).  

PubMed

The nitrogen economy of the Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana), a ruminant that inhabits harsh deserts, was studied in the laboratory when fed three diets of different quality. Even on the low quality roughage (wheat straw) the ibex was found capable of balancing its nitrogen economy. On feeds low in protein, recycling of urea played a major role in helping the ibex maintaining a balanced nitrogen metabolism. When on wheat straw, the ibex recycled 71.6% of the urea synthesized in its liver. When on feeds lower in protein, blood urea concentration dropped (from 11.4 mM when on alfalfa hay to 3.2 mM when on wheat straw). GFR that amounted to 44.28 ml/min when on alfalfa hay decreased to 28.97 ml/min when on wheat straw. Reabsorption of urea amounted to 48% of the urea filtered when on alfalfa hay and increased to 78.8% on wheat straw. PMID:2864193

Choshniak, I; Arnon, H

1985-01-01

59

7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.  

...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley varieties not...

2014-01-01

60

7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley varieties not...

2013-01-01

61

7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley varieties not...

2012-01-01

62

Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.  

PubMed

Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities. PMID:16380966

Kozma, Chahira

2006-02-15

63

Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone  

SciTech Connect

Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

Jones, R.L.

1990-02-21

64

Geography of Ancient Egypt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity focuses on the importance of geographic features and the abundance of natural resources that helped ancient Egypt become the world's first superpower. Students will learn about the geography and resources available to the ancient Egyptians. Read each question below carefully. Using the following maps: modern political map geographical features map natural resources map archaeological sites map And the following features on the Egypt's Golden Empire website: natural resources farming Answer each question below using as much detail as possible. What countries border modern-day Egypt? (modern political map) Name the major bodies of water that surround an are a part of Egypt. (modern political map) What ...

Myers, Mr.

2010-09-30

65

[Psychiatry in ancient Mexico].  

PubMed

Using studies on prehispanic and early post-conquest documents of Ancient Mexico--such as the Badianus Manuscript, also known as Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis, and Brother Bernardino de Sahagún's famous work History of the Things of the New Spain, a description of some existing medical and psychiatric problems, and treatments Ancient Aztecs resorted to, is presented. The structure of the Aztec family, their problems with the excessive ingestion of alcoholic beverages, and the punishments native authorities had implemented in order to check alcoholism up are also described. PMID:1341125

Calderón Narváez, G

1992-12-01

66

Ancient Chinese constellations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China, a country with a long history and a specific culture, has also a long and specific astronomy. Ancient Chinese astronomers observed the stars, named and distributed them into constellations in a very specific way, which is quite different from the current one. Around the Zodiac, stars are divided into four big regions corresponding with the four orientations, and each is related to a totem, either the Azure Dragon, the Vermilion Bird, the White Tiger or the Murky Warrior. We present a general pattern of the ancient Chinese constellations, including the four totems, their stars and their names.

Xu, Junjun

2011-06-01

67

Anthropology 310 ANCIENT CITIES  

E-print Network

Anthropology 310 ANCIENT CITIES Dr. Daphne Gallagher Office: 253 Condon Hall Email: daphne Location: 207 Chapman Course Description: Cities are common throughout the world today, with most people living in these dynamic social environments. However, cities are a relatively new phenomenon in human

68

Neurology in ancient faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDClinical paleoneurology is almost non-existent, but recognition of neurological diseases in ancient people might be possible by scrutinising portraits apparently representing people as they appeared in life.METHODSAbout 200 mummy portraits painted in colour at the beginning of the first millennium were examined. Thirty two skulls excavated at Hawara in the Fayum (northern Egypt), where most of the portraits were found

O Appenzeller; J M Stevens; R Kruszynski; S Walker

2001-01-01

69

Ancient deforestation revisited.  

PubMed

The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work. PMID:20669043

Hughes, J Donald

2011-01-01

70

Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

Gadecki, Victoria L.

2010-01-01

71

Protein Composition of a High-Protein Barley Flour and Barley Grain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hot air-dried, proteinaceous by-product from a barley starch pilot plant was compared with the raw material of the process, 10% dehulled barley grain. The by-product, high-protein barley flour, has been used for feeding pigs, cows, and sheep. The proportions of four protein fractions, isolated according to their solubility, and the nonprotein nitrogen content were evaluated. The polypeptide distribution of

R. LINKO; A. LAPVETELAINEN; P. LAAKSO

72

Nd–Sr–Hf–O isotope provinciality in the northernmost Arabian–Nubian Shield: implications for crustal evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-isotope study including whole-rock Nd–Sr, single zircon Hf, and SIMS ?18O analyses of zircons sheds light on magma sources in the northernmost Arabian–Nubian Shield (ANS) during ~820–570 Ma. Reconnaissance\\u000a initial Nd and Sr isotope data for the older rocks (~820–740 Ma) reaffirms previous estimates that early crustal evolution\\u000a in this part of the shield involved some crustal contamination by pre-ANS material. Prominent

Y. Be’eri-Shlevin; Y. Katzir; J. Blichert-Toft; I. C. Kleinhanns; M. J. Whitehouse

2010-01-01

73

Construction of an RFLP map of barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to construct an RFLP map of barley, two populations were analyzed using 251 genomic and cDNA markers: one population comprised 71 F1 antherderived double haploid (DH) individuals of an intraspecific cross (IGRI x FRANKA), and the other 135 individuals of an interspecific F2\\/F3 progeny (VADA x H. spontaneum). The distribution of nonrepetitive clones over the seven barley chromosomes

A. Graner; A. Jahoor; J. Schondelmaier; H. Siedler; K. Pillen; G. Fischbeck; G. Wenzel; R. G. Herrmann

1991-01-01

74

Germanium accumulation and toxicity in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of germanium (Ge) by barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. ‘Arivat') grown at various Ge and pH levels was investigated because Ge is an industrially important metal and bioaccumulation of Ge is a potentially useful means of concentrating this trace metal. Six?day?old barley seedlings were grown in perlite and nutrient solution adjusted to a pH of 4.5, 6.0, or 7.5

Stephen J. Halperin; Adam Barzilay; Matthew Carson; Cory Roberts; Jonathan Lynch; Sridhar Komarneni

1995-01-01

75

Characterization of relic DNA from barley genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-molecular-weight “relic” DNA fraction can be electrophoretically separated from the bulk of barley DNA digested with different restriction enzymes. We have cloned and analyzed a population of relic DNA fragments. The majority of AluI-relic DNA clones contained barley simple sequence satellite DNA and other families of repetitive DNA. One of these families, designated HvRT, has been analyzed in detail. This

D. A. Belostotsky; E. V. Ananiev

1990-01-01

76

Didaskalia: Ancient Theater Today  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The term Didaskalia is taken from the inscriptions used to record the outcomes of drama and music festivals in ancient Athens, and as such, serves as the name of this rather intriguing website. On the site, visitors will find the group's academic journal, a number of study resources, and an interactive discussion area known (appropriately) as the Agora. The archives of the journal stretch all the way back to 1994, but full-text articles don't appear in the archives until 1995. Some of the articles offered here include "Ancient Drama in Performance" and "Classics and Its Position in Future Cultural Politics". If they so desire, visitors may also elect to sign up to receive email updates about future issues of the journal and such.

77

Ancient Flood Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan the teacher will share some ancient flood stories with the class and have them view pictures and discuss the evidence that has been found in the Black Sea. Current theory says that during the Ice Age, the Black Sea was an isolated freshwater lake surrounded by farmland that eventually flooded. Students will practice their creative writing by composing stories about what it might have been like immediately before and during the flood.

78

Longevity Ancient and Modern  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article examines illustrations from ancient and modern societies to consider the connections between power, social elites\\u000a and knowledge of techniques to promote longevity. In pre-modern societies, knowledge of practices and substances to promote\\u000a longevity were cultivated by elites such as the Chinese imperial court. In modern societies, new technologies—cryonics, cloning,\\u000a stem-cell applications and nanotechnology—will offer exclusive and expensive methods

Bryan S. Turner

2009-01-01

79

Ancient Mesoamerican Civilizations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by Kevin L. Callahan, an anthropology graduate student at the University of Minnesota, this site consists of short, referenced essays, organized by civilization (Maya, Mixtec, Zapotec, and Aztec), on Mesoamerican writing systems, governments, and religions. Users can also read essays on the Mayan calendar, "How the Sky Works," and on Maya and Zapotec political structures. These essays, along with a selective, eclectic list of Mesoamerican Internet resources, and a brief bibliography, form a good introduction to the topic of ancient Mesoamerican civilizations.

Callahan, Kevin L.

1997-01-01

80

A comparison of leaf thionin sequences of barley cultivars and wild barley species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf thionins of several barley cultivars and wild barley species were analysed. We found large differences in the numbers of leaf thionin genes in different Hordeum species. While, for instance, cultivars of Hordeum vulgare (Section Hordeum) contain more than 50 copies of thionin genes per haploid genome, the numbers are much lower in Hordeum species belonging to the sections Critesion

Susanna Bunge; Jörn Wolters; Klaus Apel

1992-01-01

81

Suicide in ancient Greece.  

PubMed

The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say that there were many reasons to suicide someone in antiquity. Very important factor was to avoid captivity and the consequent overcrowding of indignity, especially for politicians and military leaders. Also intention in these circumstances was to avoid torture and the disgrace of rape. Strong grief is another reason, as in case of death of family members. The erotic disappointment had place in ancient suicides, which concerned both men and women, while there were also suicide for financial reasons. Especially for the elderly, the despair of the anility in conjunction with physical illness and cachexia, were important factors for these people to decide thee suicidal. Finally, the methods of suicide fitted their epoch, but bear resemblance to those of the modern time. Poisoning was very common to both men and women but equally popular in both sexes was also the hanging. It was not unusual to fall from a high in order to reach the death, while stabbing a sword in the body for self killing was widespread in men and soldiers. PMID:25367664

Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

2014-01-01

82

'Tocol-omic' diversity in wild barley, short communication.  

PubMed

Hordeum spontaneum, wild barley, is the direct progenitor of domestic barley, Hordeum vulgare, an economically important ingredient of animal feed, beer, soy sauce, and more recently, of nutraceuticals. Domestic barley has also been used in the past as a medicine. Barley is a rich source of tocotrienols, with ?-tocotrienol being the most prevalent. Wild barley seeds were harvested from ecogeographically diverse areas across the Fertile Crescent, and the tocopherol (?-?) and tocotrienol (?-?) contents were determined. Diversity differences in individual and total 'tocol' values were significant between and within specific countries, and were significantly correlated with temperature. Wild barley may be used in the future to improve functional qualities of domestic barley. 'Tocolome' and 'tocolomics' are proposed to encompass all tocols and potentially synergy-enhancing 'entourage' compounds that may occur in tocols' 'metabolomic neighborhoods', aiding the standardized manufacture of complex barley derivatives for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical functions. PMID:22162170

Shen, Yu; Lebold, Katie; Lansky, Ephraim Philip; Traber, Maret G; Nevo, Eviatar

2011-12-01

83

A Study of Hydrogeological Conditions of the Nubian Sandstone Aguifer in the Area between Abu Simbel and Toschka, Western Desert, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Study of Hydrogeological Conditions of the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer in the Area between Abu Simbel and Toschka, Western Desert, Egypt. By K. A. Dahab*, A. M. Ebraheem**, and E. El Sayed*** *Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Menofia University, Shibin El Kom, Egypt. ** Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt. *** Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Minia

K. A. Dahab; A. M. Ebraheem; E. A. El Sayed

2001-01-01

84

Barley ( Hordeum vulgare )-induced growth inhibition of algae: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many field and laboratory studies have attempted to explain the inhibitory effect of rotting barley on algae. Early field\\u000a studies lacked controls and replication and results depended on visual observations. Such studies offer information on barley\\u000a bale field construction and application rates. In the laboratory, discrepancies in the barley variety used, algal species\\u000a tested, barley liquor preparation and phenol extraction

Daire Ó hUallacháin; Owen Fenton

2010-01-01

85

Subcritical Water Extraction of Barley to Produce a Functional Drink  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of various temperatures between 150 and 280 C during subcritical water extraction of barley to make a barley tea-like extract, a popular summer beverage in Japan. Each barley extract was analyzed for sensory properties, antioxida- tive activity, and the amount of residual matter, which revealed 205 C to be the best extraction parameter. 5- Hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde was

Aditya KULKARNI; Tadashi YOKOTA; Shin’ichi SUZUKI; Hideo ETOH

2008-01-01

86

2009 Central Montana Barley Variety Performance Evaluation By Dave Wichman  

E-print Network

2009 Central Montana Barley Variety Performance Evaluation By Dave Wichman Dry conditions in May was one of the driest in a hundred years at Moccasin. Continuous crop barley grain yields were near long/a. For many central Montana barley producers, 2009 will be remembered as a year with outstanding test weights

Maxwell, Bruce D.

87

Comparison of hull-less barley, barley, or corn for lactating cows: effects on extent of digestion and milk production.  

PubMed

Six lactating, cannulated Holstein cows were used in a double 3 x 3 Latin square design to compare the effects of hull-less barley with barley and corn on ruminal fermentation, rate of passage, flow of nutrients to the duodenum, and milk production. Diets consisted of 60% concentrate, 30% barley silage, and 10% alfalfa hay (dry matter basis). Concentrates contained steam-rolled grains: hull-less barley, barley, or corn. Dry matter intake was unaffected by grain source, but starch intake tended to be greatest when hull-less barley or corn was fed. The barley diet was more degradable in the rumen than was the hull-less barley or corn diet, and, therefore, flow of microbial organic matter to the duodenum was greatest for cows fed the barley diet. Flow of microbial N to the duodenum was greater (50 g/d) for cows fed the barley diet than for cows fed the other diets, and the flow of ruminally undegradable N was greater (43 and 28 g/d) for cows fed the hull-less barley and corn diets, respectively, than for cows fed the barley diet. As a result, flow of nonammonia N to the duodenum was unaffected by grain source. Total tract apparent digestibility was highest for cows fed the barley and corn diets. Despite its low digestibility, cows fed the hull-less barley diet produced a similar amount of milk as did cows fed the barley and corn diets. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of processing hull-less barley on its utilization by dairy cows. PMID:9361219

Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A; Koenig, K M; Rode, L M

1997-10-01

88

The geology of the northern tip of the Arabian-Nubian Shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, a detailed (1:50,000) geological map of the Elat area, southern Israel was published. Attached to this map is a stratigraphic table of the Neoproterozoic metamorphic-magmatic complex of the study area. The Neoproterozoic basement in the Elat area encapsulates the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS) geologic evolution. Uranium-Lead and Lead-Lead zircon ages, included in previous studies and referred to in this paper, reveal that these rocks were formed during more than 300 million years of Neoproterozoic time. The major process controlling the formation of the ANS as part of the East African Orogen is the closure of the Mozambique Ocean. The first orogenic phase in the Elat area, represented by the metamorphic rocks, includes the development of an island arc, erosion of the islands and deposition, and metamorphism. This event took place between ?950 Ma and 780-790 Ma. Elat Schist, the oldest metamorphic rock in the area, was deformed and then intruded by quartz dioritic and granitic plutons that were later deformed and metamorphosed. The amphibolite metamorphic rock facies indicate metamorphic conditions of up to 650 °C and between 4 and 5 kbar. The peak of the metamorphic event was most probably before 750 Ma. A gradual change from compressional to extensional stress regime is evidenced by emplacement andesitic magnesium-rich dykes dated to 705 Ma that were later metamorphosed to schistose dykes at a greenschist metamorphic facies. The second orogenic phase (terrane amalgamation, main shaping of crust) was associated with the emplacement of large volumes (>50% of area) of calc-alkaline intrusions in a post-collision setting. These very last stages of metamorphism and deformation are characterized by intrusion of ?630 Ma granitoids exhibiting some foliation. Pluton emplacement continued also after the end of deformation. Exhumation and transition to an extensional regime is recorded by the intrusion of shallow alkaline granites in ?608 Ma which were accompanied in ?609 Ma by rhyolite, andesite and composite dykes. The last magmatic event in the Elat area is represented by the volcano-conglomeratic series comprising rhyolites, basalts, andesites, hypabyssal intrusions of monzonite and syenite and conglomerates. The conglomerates, dated to about 590 Ma, are the products of a major erosion phase in which about 12,000 m of the section were removed. These conglomerates were intruded by 585 Ma rhyolite, andesite and composite dykes. The Neoproterozoic basement is truncated by a peneplain whose age, post 532 Ma, is constrained by the age of the youngest eroded dolerite dykes. This Early Cambrian peneplain was associated with erosion of 2000 m of the section and by chemical weathering. Three major breaks in Neoproterozoic magmatic activity are recognized: the first, occurred in Cryogenian time, lasted ?60 million years after the amphibolite facies metamorphism and before emplacement of the calc alkaline plutons, separating the first and the second orogenic phases; the second break between the orogenic and the extensional phases occurred in early Ediacaran time, encompassed ?20 million years between the emplacement of the calc-alkaline and alkaline plutonic rocks and rhyolite, andesite and the composite dykes; and the third, ?50 Ma break, occurred between the emplacement of the last felsic intrusions at ?585 Ma and intrusion of the dolerite dykes in 532 Ma, before the Early Cambrian peneplain developed. The great lateral extension of the Cambrian to Eocene sedimentary rocks and their slow facies and thickness changes suggest a stable flat platform area at the northern tip of the ANS. Early Cambrian sedimentation began with fluviatile subarkoses of the Amudei Shlomo Formation. It was overlain by an Early to Middle Cambrian transgressive-regressive lagoonal cycle of dolostones, sandstones, and siltstones of the Timna Formation. Then Middle Cambrian subarkoses and siltstones of the Shehoret Formation and the quartz arenite of the Netafim Formation were deposited in a coastal, intertidal environment representing

Beyth, M.; Eyal, Y.; Garfunkel, Z.

2014-11-01

89

Communication Media in Ancient Cultures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in early means of communication and in the uses and kinds of media that existed in ancient cultures is starting to grow among communication scholars. Conversation analysis of these cultures is obviously impossible, so that the emphasis must rest with material cultural artifacts. Many ancient cultures used non-verbal codes for dyadic…

Jabusch, David M.

90

Palliative health care: ancient wisdom.  

PubMed

An ancient story from Bhagavata Purana may be relevant to the psychology and spirituality of palliative care in modern medicine. This article brings an ancient Indian story that people still use during the grieving process. Symbolism of the old story is explained in a modern perspective. PMID:22811211

Mehta, Jay

2013-08-01

91

History Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern, Scottish  

E-print Network

104 History­ Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern, Scottish and Middle East Studies MA (Single Honours Degree) History BA (International Honours Degree) History See page 13 (See also Ancient History page 52, and History ­ Mediaeval History page 106 History ­ Middle East Studies page 108 History ­ Modern History page

Brierley, Andrew

92

History Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern, Scottish  

E-print Network

112 History­ Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern, Scottish and Middle East Studies Degree options MA (Single Honours Degree) History BA (International Honours Degree) History (See page 51) (See also Ancient History page 62 History ­ Mediaeval History page 114 History ­ Middle East Studies page 116 History ­ Modern

Brierley, Andrew

93

Tamil merchant in ancient mesopotamia.  

PubMed

Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade. PMID:25299580

Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

2014-01-01

94

Tamil Merchant in Ancient Mesopotamia  

PubMed Central

Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade. PMID:25299580

Palanichamy, Malliya gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

2014-01-01

95

The making of a sandstone colossus: Tectonically and climatically induced flushing of 'Nubian' sands in the Early Paleozoic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Massive 'Nubian' sandstones of Cambro-Ordovician age drape most of the Arabian and northern African tectonic plates and preserve a sensitive record of how continental margins evolve under greenhouse conditions. These strata also contain important aquifers, petroleum reservoirs, and archaeological monuments such as Petra, and they were formed by a geologically sudden and long-lasting influx of >500,000 km3 of predominantly quartz sand. The cause and timing of this continent-scale sedimentation event were so far unknown. Here we constrain the depositional history of these strata and hypothesize that poleward migration of the Gondwanan supercontinent out of the horse latitudes caused a five-fold increase in sedimentation rates and buildup of one of the largest epicratonic sand wedges in earth history. Geohistorical sedimentation and subsidence modeling of these sandstones is presented, based on sedimentologic, biostratigraphic, basement paleotopographic, facies, and tectonic dip analyses of a well-preserved paleoslope-axial transect of 542-462 million-year-old strata in Jordan. This region experienced a ~25 m/Ma increase in sedimentation rate over ~30 Ma, concomitant with near-equilibrium plate subsidence response. Sedimentary rocks in the studied sequences exhibit coeval compositional variations that suggest a change in sedimentation style from immature to ultramature clastics. Our results are internally consistent with movement of a continent from an arid subtropical high toward a wet subpolar low, which would have caused widespread flushing of hypermature sands sourced from the interior of the African-Nubian Shield toward the continent margin.

Luthi, Stefan M.; Hagadorn, James W.; Donselaar, Marinus E.

2013-04-01

96

AncientFaces  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are countless genealogy resources online, but this site is unique. AncientFaces is a photo exchange, a database of photos submitted by users that enables people tracing their family trees to place faces with names. At present, the site contains over 5,000 photos. These may be searched by keyword, name, date, or location. They can also be browsed alphabetically by surname. There are several special collections here as well, including military photos. Photos are presented as thumbnails with a brief description, location, family, and a link to the email address and homepage (if available) of the person who submitted the photo. A great resource for making family connections or just browsing old photos.

2001-01-01

97

Reanimation of Ancient Bacteria  

SciTech Connect

Recent highly publicized experiments conducted on salt crystals taken from the Permian Salado Formation in Southeastern New Mexico have shown that some ancient crystals contain viable microorganisms trapped within fluid inclusions. Stringent geological and microbiological selection criteria were used to select crystals and conduct all sampling. This talk will focus on how each of these lines of data support the conclusion that such isolated bacteria are as old as the rock in which they are trapped. In this case, the isolated microbes are salt tolerant bacilli that grow best in media containing 8% NaCl, and respond to concentrated brines by forming spores. One of the organisms is phylogenetically related to several bacilli, but does have several unique characteristics. This talk will trace the interdisciplinary data and procedures supporting these discoveries, and describe the various isolated bacteria.

Russell Vreeland

2009-01-09

98

Biology of barley shoot fly Delia flavibasis Stein (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) on resistant and susceptible barley cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biology of barley shoot fly Delia flavibasis was studied using resistant (Dinsho and Harbu) and susceptible (Holker) barley cultivars at Sinana Agricultural Research\\u000a Center, Ethiopia. A higher number of eggs was laid on Holker (17 eggs\\/female) than on Dinsho (11 eggs\\/female) or Harbu (12\\u000a eggs\\/female). However, there were no differences between cultivars in preoviposition and total reproductive periods. The

Muluken Goftishu; Tadele Tefera; Emana Getu

2009-01-01

99

Nuclear fusion in cultured microspores of barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion of the generative and vegetative nuclei physically separated by a wall has been observed in cultured microspores of barley. The generative cell appears to play an active role in fusion as it elongates toward the vegetative nucleus, becomes detached from the microspore wall, and finally completely encloses the vegetative nucleus. The generative cell wall disappears before nuclear fusion takes

Feng-Ming Lee; Chi-Chang Chen

1987-01-01

100

Association mapping of partitioning loci in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Association mapping, initially developed in human disease genetics, is now being applied to plant species. The model species Arabidopsis provided some of the first examples of association mapping in plants, identifying previously cloned flowering time genes, despite high population sub-structure. More recently, association genetics has been applied to barley, where breeding activity has resulted in a high degree of

James Cockram; Jon White; Fiona J Leigh; Vincent J Lea; Elena Chiapparino; David A Laurie; Ian J Mackay; Wayne Powell; Donal M O'Sullivan

2008-01-01

101

Pasang Temba 1, Barley and Nawa  

E-print Network

Pasang Temba explains the traditional system under which barley was planted in the Khumbu.These recordings were made on a trek in the spring of 2011 up to Mount Everest Base Camp. The recordings span a wide variety of topics from making and drinking...

Loomis, Molly

102

?-amylase Variation in Wild Barley Accessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymorphisms of ?-amylase among 19 species (27 taxa, 337 accessions) of wild barley, including Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum (174 accessions), H. bulbosum (33), H. murinum (81), H. marinum (28), H. brachyantherum (4), H. jubatum (2), H. chilense (2) and H. roshevitzii (2) were studied using both isoelectric focusing (IEF) and thermostability analysis. Wide genetic variations were found. In general, the

Wensheng Zhang; Takafumi Kaneko; Kazuyoshi Takeda

2004-01-01

103

Work Classification in Ancient Times.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The divisions of labor and the classifications of work in ancient times are described, and an early four-part classification based on the "Bhagavad Gita" is compared with that of the present "Dictionary of Occupational Titles." (Author)

Hopke, William

1979-01-01

104

Ancient schwannoma of the orbit.  

PubMed

The ancient schwannoma is a rare variant of a neurilemoma with a course typical of a slow-growing benign neoplasm. Histologically, it can be confused with a malignant mesenchymal tumor because of increased cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, and hyperchromatism. Despite the degree of nuclear atypia, mitotic figures are absent. We describe the clinical and histopathologic features of an ancient schwannoma of the orbit. A need for early removal of such tumors is recommended to prevent complications. PMID:25136229

Kulkarni, Anjali S; Anjum, Shaziya; Kokandakar, Hemant R; Bindu, Rajan S; Awargaonkar, Amarnath

2014-05-01

105

Ancient schwannoma of the orbit  

PubMed Central

The ancient schwannoma is a rare variant of a neurilemoma with a course typical of a slow-growing benign neoplasm. Histologically, it can be confused with a malignant mesenchymal tumor because of increased cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism, and hyperchromatism. Despite the degree of nuclear atypia, mitotic figures are absent. We describe the clinical and histopathologic features of an ancient schwannoma of the orbit. A need for early removal of such tumors is recommended to prevent complications. PMID:25136229

Kulkarni, Anjali S.; Anjum, Shaziya; Kokandakar, Hemant R.; Bindu, Rajan S.; Awargaonkar, Amarnath

2014-01-01

106

Ancient Writings Revealed!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sometime in the 3rd century BCE, the noted scholar and scientist Archimedes composed a series of diagrams and passages of text on a manuscript that was subsequently written over in the Middle Ages by a monk. Long thought to be lost forever, the document was given new life in 1906 when a Danish professor identified this item. Eventually the document found its way to The Walters Art Museum in Baltimore, and it now appears that scientists and researchers will be able to uncover Archimedesâ original writings. This delightful saga will unfold courtesy of this website, created by the Exploratorium Museum in San Francisco. Working in tandem with researchers at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, they will use an intense X-Ray to reveal the original letters and diagrams. Visitors will be able to watch all of this happen in real time on a webcast (or take a look on the archived webcast after the event is over), and learn about the original document, and how researchers read such ancient texts.

2006-01-01

107

Ancient biomolecules in Quaternary palaeoecology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last few years have seen an enormous proliferation of ancient biomolecules research, especially in the field of ancient DNA. Ancient DNA studies have been transformed by the advent of next generation sequencing, with the first Pleistocene sample being analysed in 2005, and several complete and draft genomes that have been compiled from ancient DNA to date. At the same time, although less conspicuous, research on ancient proteins has also seen advances, with the time limit for research on ancient biomolecules now extending to over 1 million years. Here we review which effects these developments have on research in Quaternary science. We identify several lines of research that have the potential to profit substantially from these recent developments in ancient biomolecules research. First, the identification of taxa can be made using ancient biomolecules, and in the case of ancient DNA, specimens can even be assigned to specific populations within a species. Second, increasingly large DNA data sets from Pleistocene animals allow the elucidation of ever more precise pictures of the population dynamic processes whereby organisms respond to climate and environmental change. With the accompanying better understanding of process in the Quaternary, past ecologies can also more realistically be interpreted from proxy data sets. The dominant message from this research so far is that the Quaternary saw a great deal more dynamism in populations than had been forecast by conventional palaeoecology. This suggests that reconstructions of past environmental conditions need to be done with caution. Third, ancient DNA can also now be obtained directly from sediments to elucidate the presence of both plant and animal species in an area even in the absence of identifiable fossils, be it macro- or micro-fossils. Finally, the analysis of proteins enables the identification of bone remains to genus and sometimes species level far beyond the survival time of DNA, at least in temperate regions, illustrating that precise data is now forthcoming from seemingly unlikely sources. Together, these approaches allow the study of environmental dynamics throughout a substantial part, and perhaps even the entire Quaternary (the last 2.6 million years).

Hofreiter, Michael; Collins, Matthew; Stewart, John R.

2012-02-01

108

Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy.  

PubMed

Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L.) is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0); below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken), consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment. PMID:22958810

Nikkhah, Akbar

2012-01-01

109

Barley doubled-haploid production by uniparental chromosome elimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uniparental elimination of chromosomes, which occurs in interspecific crosses between Hordeum vulgare (cultivated barley) and H. bulbosum (bulbous barley grass), is a process which can be used to produce doubled-haploid barley plants in breeding programs. We\\u000a review the procedure of haploid production and the mechanism underlying selective elimination of one of the genomes during\\u000a the early development of species hybrid embryos.

Andreas Houben; Maryam Sanei; Richard Pickering

2011-01-01

110

Transcriptome profiling reveals mosaic genomic origins of modern cultivated barley.  

PubMed

The domestication of cultivated barley has been used as a model system for studying the origins and early spread of agrarian culture. Our previous results indicated that the Tibetan Plateau and its vicinity is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley. Here we reveal multiple origins of domesticated barley using transcriptome profiling of cultivated and wild-barley genotypes. Approximately 48-Gb of clean transcript sequences in 12 Hordeum spontaneum and 9 Hordeum vulgare accessions were generated. We reported 12,530 de novo assembled transcripts in all of the 21 samples. Population structure analysis showed that Tibetan hulless barley (qingke) might have existed in the early stage of domestication. Based on the large number of unique genomic regions showing the similarity between cultivated and wild-barley groups, we propose that the genomic origin of modern cultivated barley is derived from wild-barley genotypes in the Fertile Crescent (mainly in chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 3H) and Tibet (mainly in chromosomes 4H, 5H, 6H, and 7H). This study indicates that the domestication of barley may have occurred over time in geographically distinct regions. PMID:25197090

Dai, Fei; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Zefeng; Jin, Gulei; Wu, Dezhi; Cai, Shengguan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Feibo; Nevo, Eviatar; Zhang, Guoping

2014-09-16

111

Transcriptome profiling reveals mosaic genomic origins of modern cultivated barley  

PubMed Central

The domestication of cultivated barley has been used as a model system for studying the origins and early spread of agrarian culture. Our previous results indicated that the Tibetan Plateau and its vicinity is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley. Here we reveal multiple origins of domesticated barley using transcriptome profiling of cultivated and wild-barley genotypes. Approximately 48-Gb of clean transcript sequences in 12 Hordeum spontaneum and 9 Hordeum vulgare accessions were generated. We reported 12,530 de novo assembled transcripts in all of the 21 samples. Population structure analysis showed that Tibetan hulless barley (qingke) might have existed in the early stage of domestication. Based on the large number of unique genomic regions showing the similarity between cultivated and wild-barley groups, we propose that the genomic origin of modern cultivated barley is derived from wild-barley genotypes in the Fertile Crescent (mainly in chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 3H) and Tibet (mainly in chromosomes 4H, 5H, 6H, and 7H). This study indicates that the domestication of barley may have occurred over time in geographically distinct regions. PMID:25197090

Dai, Fei; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Zefeng; Jin, Gulei; Wu, Dezhi; Cai, Shengguan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Feibo; Nevo, Eviatar; Zhang, Guoping

2014-01-01

112

Lysine Catabolism in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

PubMed Central

Lysine catabolism in seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Emir) was studied by direct injection of the following tracers into the endosperm of the seedlings: aspartic acid-3-14C, 2-aminoadipic acid-1-14C, saccharopine-14C, 2,6-diaminopimelic acid-1-(7)-14C, and lysine-1-14C. Labeled saccharopine was formed only after the administration of either labeled 2,6-diaminopimelic acid or labeled lysine to the seedlings. The metabolic fate of the other tracers administered also supported a catabolic lysine pathway via saccharopine, and apparently proceeding by a reversal of some of the biosynthetic steps of the 2-aminoadipic acid pathway known from lysine biosynthesis in most fungi. Pipecolic acid seems not to be on the main pathway of l-lysine catabolism in barley seedlings. PMID:16659552

M?ller, Birger Lindberg

1976-01-01

113

Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds.  

PubMed

Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR. PMID:25242949

Zawoznik, Myriam S; Vázquez, Susana C; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M; Groppa, María D

2014-01-01

114

Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds  

PubMed Central

Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR. PMID:25242949

Zawoznik, Myriam S.; Vazquez, Susana C.; Diaz Herrera, Silvana M.; Groppa, Maria D.

2014-01-01

115

Characteristics of amino acid uptake in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants have the ability to take up organic nitrogen (N) but this has not been thoroughly studied in agricultural plants. A\\u000a critical question is whether agricultural plants can acquire amino acids in a soil ecosystem. The aim of this study was to\\u000a characterize amino acid uptake capacity in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) from a mixture of amino acids at concentrations

Sandra Jämtgård; Torgny Näsholm; Kerstin Huss-Danell

2008-01-01

116

Biology of barley shoot fly Delia flavibasis Stein (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) on resistant and susceptible barley cultivars  

PubMed Central

The biology of barley shoot fly Delia flavibasis was studied using resistant (Dinsho and Harbu) and susceptible (Holker) barley cultivars at Sinana Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia. A higher number of eggs was laid on Holker (17 eggs/female) than on Dinsho (11 eggs/female) or Harbu (12 eggs/female). However, there were no differences between cultivars in preoviposition and total reproductive periods. The shortest time required to complete larval, pupal and total developmental stages from egg to adult emergence occurred when the insect was reared on the cultivar Holker. Pupal weight, adult emergence and adult longevity did not differ between cultivars. The female to male sex ratio was 1:1. This study enabled us to understand the duration of each of the life stages of D.flavibasis, which will undoubtedly aid researchers and growers to design a sustainable management strategy against barley shoot fly. PMID:21151718

Goftishu, Muluken; Getu, Emana

2008-01-01

117

Neonatal medicine in ancient art.  

PubMed

There are a limited number of artistic objects from ancient times with particular importance in neonatal medicine. The best examples are figurines from ancient Egypt of Isis nursing Horus, showing the importance of breastfeeding. The earliest images of the human fetus were made by the Olmecs in Mexico around 1200- 400 BCE. One of the earliest representations of congenital anomalies is a figurine of diencephalic twins thought to be the goddess of Anatolia, dated to around 6500 BCE. In addition to these figurines, three sets of twins in the ancient world have medical importance, and Renaissance artists often used them as a subject for their paintings: "direct suckling animals" (Romulus and Remus), "heteropaternal superfecundation" (mother: Leda, fathers: Zeus, the king of the Olympian gods, and Leda's husband, Tyndareus), and "twin-to-twin transfusion" in monozygotic twins (Jacob and Esau). PMID:20560265

Yurdakök, Murat

2010-01-01

118

Wild and cultivated barleys show similar affinities for mineral nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of net ammonium influx were very similar among several cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and several accessions of the wild taxa H.v. spontaneum and H. jubatum. For net nitrate influx, variation was greater among accessions than among species; accessions from warmer climates had faster rates than those from colder climates. These data indicate that domestication of barley has

Arnold J. Bloom

1985-01-01

119

Utilization of sorghum brans and barley flour in bread  

E-print Network

White, brown, and black sorghum brans, wheat bran, and a waxy barley flour were each substituted for 0-30% of wheat flour in a bread formula. Each of the brans were then combined with the barley flour and substituted for a total of 20...

Gordon, Leigh Ann

2012-06-07

120

Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Cadmium Toxicity in Barley Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in plant disease resistance and hypersensitive cell death but is also implicated in hardening responses to abiotic stressors. Cadmium (Cd) exposure increased the free SA contents of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots by a factor of about 2. Cultivation of dry barley caryopses presoaked in SA-containing solution for onl y6ho rsingle transient addition of

Ashraf Metwally; Iris Finkemeier; Manfred Georgi; Karl-Josef Dietz

2003-01-01

121

Microgeographic edaphic differentiation in hordein polymorphisms of wild barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity in the storage protein hordein encoded by two loci, Hor1 and Hor2, was analyzed electrophoretically in seeds from 123 individual plants of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, the progenitor of cultivated barley. The test was conducted in two topographically different 100 meter transects in Israel, each equally divided into basalt and terra rossa soil types. Altogether 15 Hor1 and

E. Nevo; A. Beiles; N. Storch; H. Doll; B. Andersen

1983-01-01

122

Freezing of Barley Studied by Infrared Video Thermography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freezing of barley (Hordeum vulgare), Hordeum murinum, and Holcus lanatus was studied using infrared video thermography. In the field, ice could enter H. lanatus leaves through hydathodes. In laboratory tests with barley, initially 0.4% of the leaf water froze, spreading in alternate strips of high and low freezing intensity longitudinally at 1 to 4 cm s21, and simultaneously spreading laterally

Roger S. Pearce; Michael P. Fuller

2001-01-01

123

Recommended Readings on the Ancient Near East  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Research Archives of the Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago has posted an updated version of its 1996 printed Guide to Introductory Readings on the Peoples and Cultures of the Ancient Near East. Resources are grouped under three general headings: Ancient Egypt, Ancient Nubia, and Ancient Mesopotamia; each contains a list of general reference works. Sub-topics include mummification, religion, art, hieroglyphics, architecture, law and government, and books for students and young readers.

124

Dream Interpretation in Ancient Civilizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dream interpretation was regarded by ancient peoples in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and Rome as an art requiring intelligence and, sometimes, divine inspiration. It became a motif in literature. It was treated as a science by philosophers and physicians. Dreams were thought to come either as clear messages, or as symbols requiring interpretation. In a method called incubation, the dreamer could

J. Donald Hughes

2000-01-01

125

The Echoes of Ancient Humans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several artifacts found at the Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, or Daughters of Jacob Bridge, archaeological site in Israel provide a picture of ancient human ancestors that is different from the once accepted by most scholars. The discoveries by Israeli archaeologist Naama Goren-Inbar suggest that humans developed language and other key abilities far…

Watzman, Haim

2006-01-01

126

Ancient medicine--a review.  

PubMed

Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples. PMID:18812066

Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozenci?, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetkovi?, Jasna; Mustajbegovi?, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Muci?-Puci?, Branka; Nerali?-Meniga, Inja

2008-01-01

127

Ancient Machu Picchu Drainage Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drainage infrastructure constructed by the Inca at ancient Machu Picchu represents a signif- icant public works achievement. The difficult site constraints associated with the nearly 2,000 mm per year of rainfall, steep slopes, landslides, and inaccessibility posed drainage challenges that were met successfully by the Inca. The technical analysis of the Inca drainage works demonstrates that the drainage criteria

Kenneth R. Wright; Alfredo Valencia; William L. Lorah

1999-01-01

128

Winning--An Ancient Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like so many areas of human endeavor, the roots of our athletic heritage are etched in ancient Greek history. The Greeks placed an enormous importance on winning in athletics--so much so that no recognition was given to second place. To be taught to win is no sin. (MT)

Thompson, James G.

1985-01-01

129

Lake Biwa as a topical ancient lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present knowledge concerning the Japanese ancient Lake Biwa is briefly summarized, and extant and potential threats to its well-being are documented. From this example of Lake Biwa, strengths and weaknesses in our knowledge of other ancient lakes and the problems that they face were identified. Several areas of concern were evident.Knowledge of the geological history of ancient lakes is uneven,

A. Rossiter

2000-01-01

130

Ancient and Modern Coins Unit Plans.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ancient times comes to life when a student can hold in his/her hand or read about an artifact, such as a coin of the Greek or Roman era. Students are familiar with coins, and this commonality helps them understand the similarities and differences between their lives and times in ancient Greece or Rome. Many symbols on the ancient coins can be…

United States Mint (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

131

press.princeton.edu Ancient World  

E-print Network

press.princeton.edu Ancient World 2013 #12;Forthcoming How to Run a Country An Ancient Guide J. Ornstein, coauthor of It's Even Worse Than It Looks Marcus Cicero, Rome's greatest statesman Book Review Editor's Choice How to Win an Election An Ancient Guide for Modern Politicians Quintus

Landweber, Laura

132

Recharge flux to the Nubian Sandstone aquifer and its impact on the present development in southwest Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southwestern part of Egypt (East El Oweinat) is an arid area with no surface water and only one resource of useable groundwater in the well-known Nubian Sandstone aquifer. This resource has been heavily exploited since 1990, which has led to a continuous decline in the potentiometric surface of this aquifer. The groundwater recharge in the concerned area depends exclusively on the subsurface inflow across the Egyptian/Sudanese borders. A FEFLOW, finite element groundwater model, has been used to investigate the length of the recharge window and to predict the hydrodynamic impacts of different groundwater extractions on the potentiometry of this aquifer. A complete database of the hydrogeological and drilling information of about 600 water wells drilled in the period 1985-2010 was evaluated and used for the model parameter input as well as for its simulation. The results of steady-state simulation indicate that the length of the southwest flux boundary is about 170 km with angle flow direction about 52°NW with a groundwater flow rate about 0.018 m/day. A calibrated regional numerical model with refined grid on the pumping centres, hydraulic properties and flux boundary in the southwest is used to simulate the impacts of the present and planned groundwater extraction on the potentiometry of the aquifer. The results show a real danger of increasing the water depth to uneconomic lifting depth. Through implementation of 135 pumping wells in time 2002-2008, the lowering of water table ranges from 1 to 1.5 m in the reclamation areas. On the other hand, the distribution of 1600 proposed wells with distance between every two adjacent wells not less than 2700 m indicates that the lowering of water table ranges from 5 m away of the reclamation areas to 15 m in the reclamation areas in time period of 27 years (2008-2035). This result seems to be the better for the present irrigation project in East El Oweinat area.

Masoud, M. H.; Schneider, M.; El Osta, M. M.

2013-09-01

133

New ophiolite occurrences in Sudan and constraint on the western boundary of the Nubian Shield: Petrographical and geochemical evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Important mafic-ultramafic masses have been located for the first time in the intersection area between the Keraf Shear Zone and the Nakasib Suture Zone of the Nubian Shield. The masses, comprising most of the members of the ophiolite suite, are Sotrebab and Qurun complexes east of the Nile, and Fadllab complex west of the Nile. The new mafic-ultramafic masses are located on the same trend of the ophiolitic masses decorating the Nakasib Suture. A typical complete ophiolite sequence has not been observed in these complexes, nevertheless, the mafic-ultramafic rocks comprise basal unit of serpentinite and talc chlorite schists overlain by a thick cumulate facies of peridotites, pyroxenites and layered gabbros overlain by basaltic pillow lavas with dolerite dykes and screens of massive gabbros. Associated with pillow lavas are thin layers of carbonates and chert. The best section of cumulate mafic-ultramafic units has been observed in Jebel Qurun and El Fadlab complexes, comprising peridotites, pyroxenites and layered gabbros. Dolerite dykes and screens of massive gabbros have been observed with basaltic pillow lava sections in Wadi Dar Tawaiy. The basal ultramafic units of the complexes have been fully or partly retrograded to chlorite magnetite schist and talc to talc-carbonate rocks (listowenites), especially in the Jebel Qurun and Sotrebab complexes. Petrographically, the gabbros (layered and massive) and the basaltic pillow lavas show mineral assemblages of epidote amphibolite facies. The mafic members from the three complexes show a clear tholeiitic trend and oceanic floor affinity. The pillow lavas plot in the field of oceanic floor basalt, namely in the back arc field. Primitive mantle normalized spider diagram of the pillow lavas reveals a closer correspondence to Enrich-Mid-Oceanic Ridge Basalt (E-MORB) type, which is confirmed by the flat chondrite normalized Rare Earth Elements (REE) pattern. Field, petrographical and geochemical evidence supports ophiolitic origin of the three complexes. The newly discovered ophiolitic complexes mark the western continuation of the Nakasib Suture Zone.

Ali, E. A.; Abdel Rahman, E. M.

2011-01-01

134

Antioxidant vitamins in barley green biomass.  

PubMed

Two malting hulled varieties (Sebastian, Malz) and one nonmalting hull-less variety (AF Lucius) were used to assess vitamins C and E in the green biomass of young plants of spring barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) in three stages of growth and development (BBCH 29, 31, 32-33). The samples from sampling I (BBCH 29) had statistically significantly higher vitamin C content and vitamin E activity compared to sampling I (BBCH 31). The highest average vitamin content was determined in the malting variety Sebastian (vitamin C, 520 mg 100 g(-1) DM; vitamin E, 73.06 mg kg(-1) DM) compared to the varieties Malz (501 mg 100 g(-1) DM; 61.84 mg kg(-1) DM) and AF Lucius (508 mg 100 g(-1) DM; 67.81 mg 100 g(-1) DM). The locality Krome?r?i?z? (Czech Republic, CR), with vitamin C and E contents of 524 mg 100 g(-1) DM and 68.74 mg kg(-1) DM, respectively, proved to be more suitable for growing green biomass compared to the locality Z?abc?ice (CR) (content of vitamins C and E, 477 mg 100 g(-1) DM and 66.39 mg kg(-1) DM, respectively). During the research period (2005-2007), it was determined that the green mass of young plants of spring barley was a significant source of vitamins C and E in the growth stage BBCH 29; in later samplings (BBCH 32-33) the vitamin levels dropped (by as much as 48%). These vitamins are important antioxidants for human health. Therefore, "green barley" can be recommended for the preparation of natural dietary supplements and is preferred to synthetic vitamin preparations. PMID:20973533

Brezinová Belcredi, Natálie; Ehrenbergerová, Jaroslava; Fiedlerová, Vlasta; B?láková, Sylvie; Vaculová, Katerina

2010-11-24

135

Systemic signalling in barley through action potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using apoplastic voltage- and ion selective microprobes, in barley leaves action potentials (APs) have been measured, which\\u000a propagate acropetally as well as basipetally from leaf to leaf or from root to leaf following the application of mild salt\\u000a stress (e.g. 30–50 mM KCl or NH4Cl) or amino acids (e.g. 1 mM glutamic acid or 5 mM GABA). Voltage changes were biphasic, followed an

Hubert H. Felle; Matthias R. Zimmermann

2007-01-01

136

Inducers of Glycinebetaine Synthesis in Barley1  

PubMed Central

Glycinebetaine is an osmoprotectant accumulated by barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants in response to high levels of NaCl, drought, and cold stress. Using barley seedlings in hydroponic culture, we characterized additional inducers of glycinebetaine accumulation. These included other inorganic salts (KCl, MgCl2, LiCl, and Na2SO4), oxidants (H2O2 and cumene hydroperoxide), and organic compounds (abscisic acid, polymixin B, n-butanol, salicylic acid, and aspirin). Stress symptoms brought on by high NaCl and other inducers, and not necessarily correlated with glycinebetaine accumulation, include wilting, loss of chlorophyll, and increase in thiobarbituric acid reacting substances. For NaCl, Ca2+ ions at 10 to 20 mm decrease these stress symptoms without diminishing, or even increasing, glycinebetaine induction. Abscisic acid induces glycinebetaine accumulation without causing any of the stress symptoms. NaCl, KCl, and H2O2 (but not other inducers) induce glycinebetaine at concentrations below those needed for the other stress symptoms. Mg2+ at 10 to 20 mm induces both stress symptoms and glycinebetaine, but only at low (0.2 mm) Ca2+. Although illumination is needed for optimal induction, a significant increase in the leaf glycinebetaine level is found in complete darkness, also. PMID:11743126

Jagendorf, Andre T.; Takabe, Tetsuko

2001-01-01

137

Barley ?-glucans extraction and partial characterization.  

PubMed

Barley is rarely used in the food industry, even though it is a main source of ?-glucans, which have important health benefits and a technological role in food. This work evaluated the humid extraction of barley ?-glucans and partially characterized them. The extraction was studied using surface response methodology with both temperature and pH as variables. The extracted ?-glucans were characterized by chemical and rheological analysis, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The effect on extraction of linear and quadratic terms of pH and temperature corresponding to the regression model was significant, and we obtained a maximum concentration of 53.4% at pH 7.56 and temperature 45.5°C, with protein and mainly starch contamination. The extracted ?-glucans presented a higher apparent viscosity than the commercial ones, the behavior of the commercial and extracted samples can be described as Newtonian and pseudoplastic, respectively. The results of infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were characteristic of commercial ?-glucans, indicating that this method is efficient for extracting ?-glucans. PMID:24518319

Limberger-Bayer, Valéria M; de Francisco, Alicia; Chan, Aline; Oro, Tatiana; Ogliari, Paulo J; Barreto, Pedro L M

2014-07-01

138

Ancient DNA extraction from plants.  

PubMed

A variety of protocols for DNA extraction from archaeological and paleobotanical plant specimens have been proposed. This is not surprising given the range of taxa and tissue types that may be preserved and the variety of conditions in which that preservation may take place. Commercially available DNA extraction kits can be used to recover ancient plant DNA, but modifications to standard approaches are often necessary to improve yield. In this chapter, I describe two protocols for extracting DNA from small amounts of ancient plant tissue. The CTAB protocol, which I recommend for use with single seeds, utilizes an incubation period in extraction buffer and subsequent chloroform extraction followed by DNA purification and suspension. The PTB protocol, which I recommend for use with gourd rind and similar tissues, utilizes an overnight incubation of pulverized tissue in extraction buffer, removal of the tissue by centrifugation, and DNA extraction from the buffer using commercial plant DNA extraction kits. PMID:22237524

Kistler, Logan

2012-01-01

139

Medicine among the ancient Maya.  

PubMed

Medicine among the ancient Mayas was a blend of religion and science. It was practiced by priests who inherited their position and received extensive education. The Mayas sutured wounds with human hair, reduced fractures, and used casts. They were skillful dental surgeons and made prostheses from jade and turquoise and filled teeth with iron pyrite. Three clinical diseases, pinta, leishmaniasis, and yellow fever, and several psychiatric syndromes were described. PMID:781854

Garcia-Kutzbach, A

1976-07-01

140

Ancient Celestial Spheres from Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present several ancient celestial spheres from the 8th century B.C. found throughout Greece, mainly in Thessaly, at the temple of Itonia Athena, but also in Olympia and other places. These celestial spheres have an axis, equator and several meridians and they have several markings with the symbol of stars (today's symbol for the Sun) $\\odot$. Such instruments could have been used to measure the time, the latitude of a location, or the coordinates of stars.

Dimitrakoudis, S.; Papaspyrou, P.; Petoussis, V.; Moussas, X.

2006-08-01

141

Ancient schwannoma of the orbit.  

PubMed

Schwannoma, also referred to as neurilemmoma or peripheral neurinoma, is an unusual orbital benign tumour that may pose diagnostic challenges. Awareness of the clinical features that may be associated with the tumour and prompt surgical excision with histopathologic examination enable correct diagnosis. The authors describe a progressively increasing inferolateral orbital mass in a 32-year-old patient that was demonstrated to be an orbital ancient schwannoma. PMID:23316621

Pecorella, I; Toth, J; Lukats, O

2012-08-01

142

Subcritical water extraction of barley to produce a functional drink.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of various temperatures between 150 and 280 degrees C during subcritical water extraction of barley to make a barley tea-like extract, a popular summer beverage in Japan. Each barley extract was analyzed for sensory properties, antioxidative activity, and the amount of residual matter, which revealed 205 degrees C to be the best extraction parameter. 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde was found to be the major antioxidative component in the 205 degrees C extract, along with the formation of several important amino acids. PMID:18175903

Kulkarni, Aditya; Yokota, Tadashi; Suzuki, Shin'ichi; Etoh, Hideo

2008-01-01

143

Occurrence of type A, B and D trichothecenes in barley and barley products from the Bavarian market.  

PubMed

Fifty-nine samples of barley and barley products were analysed for 18 trichothecene mycotoxins by a sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method (detection limits 0.062-0.70 ?g/kg) after sample extract clean-up on MycoSep®-226 columns. The samples were collected in 2009 from barley processing facilities (mills and malt houses) and at wholesale and retail stage from the Bavarian market. The predominant toxins were T-2 toxin (T-2), HT-2 toxin (HT-2) and deoxynivalenol (DON). For all samples, the mean levels of T-2 and HT-2 were 3.0 ?g/kg and 6.8 ?g/kg with rates of contamination of 63% and 71%, respectively. The maximum values were 40 ?g/kg for T-2 and 47 ?g/kg for HT-2. The rate of contamination with DON was high (95%) with a low mean level of 23 ?g/kg. The DON levels ranged between 3.4 to 420 ?g/kg. For T-2 tetraol, a mean level of 9.2 ?g/kg and a maximum level of 51 ?g/kg with a rate of contamination of 71% were determined. NIV was detected in 69% of the samples with a mean level of 11 ?g/kg and a maximum level of 72 ?g/kg. Other type A and B trichothecenes were detected only in traces. Type D trichothecenes, fusarenon-X, verrucarol and 4,15-diacetylverrucarol were not detected in any sample. Winter barley and malting barley were the most contaminated groups of all samples in this study. In malting barley, the highest levels of contamination with type A trichothecenes were found. In contrast, winter barley showed the highest contamination with type B trichothecenes. The lowest mycotoxin concentrations were found in de-hulled and naked barley and in pearl barley. PMID:23606047

Barthel, Jörg; Gottschalk, Christoph; Rapp, Martin; Berger, Matthias; Bauer, Johann; Meyer, Karsten

2012-05-01

144

An investigation into the ancient abortion laws: comparing ancient Persia with ancient Greece and Rome.  

PubMed

Since the dawn of medicine, medical rights and ethics have always been one of mankind's concerns. In any civilisation, attention paid to medical laws and ethics depends on the progress of human values and the advancement of medical science. The history of various civilisations teaches that each had its own views on medical ethics, but most had something in common. Ancient civilisations such as Greece, Rome, or Assyria did not consider the foetus to be alive and therefore to have human rights. In contrast, ancient Persians valued the foetus as a living person equal to others. Accordingly, they brought laws against abortion, even in cases of sexual abuse. Furthermore, abortion was considered to be a murder and punishments were meted out to the mother, father, and the person performing it. PMID:24304111

Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Zargaran, Arman; Vatanpour, Azadeh; Abedini, Ehsan; Adhami, Siamak

2013-01-01

145

Differences in phytase activity and phytic acid content between cultivated and Tibetan annual wild barleys.  

PubMed

The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in China is considered to be one of the original centers of cultivated barley. At present, little is known about the phytase activity (Phy) or phytic acid content (PA) in grains of Tibetan annual wild barley. Phy and PA were determined in grains of 135 wild and 72 cultivated barleys. Phy ranged from 171.3 to 1299.2 U kg(-1) and from 219.9 to 998.2 U kg(-1) for wild and cultivated barleys, respectively. PA and protein contents were much higher in wild barley than in cultivated barley. Tibetan annual wild barley showed a larger genetic diversity in phytase activity and phytic acid and protein contents and is of value for barley breeding. There is no significant correlation between phytase activity and phytic acid or protein content in barley grains, indicating that endogenous phytase activity had little effect on the accumulation of phytic acid. PMID:21047062

Dai, Fei; Qiu, Long; Xu, Yang; Cai, Shengguan; Qiu, Boyin; Zhang, Guoping

2010-11-24

146

Greening etiolated barley plants under clinorotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants are capable to react to change of a gravitational field and have sensitive and selective mechanisms, allowing to be guided in a field of gravitation of the Earth. It is known, that changes of gravitational conditions (hyper- or hypogravity) influence metabolic processes in alive organisms. One of the important problems of space biology is studying influence of microgravity on development of the photosynthetic apparatus. Damaging action of weightlessness on photosynthetic processes in plants was shown in a lot of space experiments. However, results of these experiments are inconsistent and do not allow to conclude how varied conditions of weight influence photosynthesis and in particular biosynthesis of chlorophyll. The aim of the communication is an analysis of clinorotation effects on the pigment accumulation and photochemical characteristics of the photosynthetic apparatus during its formation at greening of barley seedlings. Barley plants were grown on a slow horizontal clinostat (2 rpm) and in vertical control at room temperature for 7-8 days (6 days in the dark and 1 or 2 day on white light, ˜ 90 ? Mm-2s-1). Protochlorophyllide (Pchld) and carotenoid (? -carotene, lutein, neoxantin, violaxantin) content in dark grown plants, as well as photosynthetic pigment content after 24 and 48h of greening was determined by TLC. It was found that the content of ? -carotene, lutein and neoxantin in clinorotated etiolated plants was on 9-25% higher compared to control. Pchld and violaxantin level was less on 9-11% in clinorotated etiolated plants. The content of Chl a, b and carotenoids in control after 24h greening of barley seedlings exceeded on 10-20% their level in clinorotated variant. After 48h greening the total level of pigments doubled and the difference in the pigment content between control and clinorotated leaves averaged 0-12%, i.e. distinction in pigment content between control and clinorotated variants smoothed out in the greening process. No difference in Chl a/b ratio between variants was observed. A process of photosynthetic apparatus formation was controlled by chlorophyll fluorescence. It was shown that after 24 to 48 hour greening maximal quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) was increased in result of maturation of pigment apparatus. Proportion of open PSII (qP) was higher in control plants, especially when intensity of actinic light exceeded growth intensity. Chlorophyll fluorescence nonphotochemical quenching coefficient (qN) was higher in control plants in comparison with clinorotated ones on a different level of actinic light. Thus clinorotation influences formation of photosynthetic machinery through slowing down pigment biosynthesis and affecting photochemical characteristics.

Syvash, O. O.; Dovbysh, E. P.; Zolotareva, E. K.

147

Recent developments in the genetic engineering of barley  

SciTech Connect

Cereals are the most important group of plants for human nutrition and animal feed. Partially due to the commercial value of crop plants, there has been an ever-increasing interest in using modern biotechnological methods for the improvement of the characteristics of cereals during the past decade. The rapid progress in molecular biology, plant cell culture techniques, and gene transfer technology has resulted in successful transformations of all the major cereals--maize, rice, wheat, and barley. This brings the biotechnological methods closer to the routine also in barley breeding. In this article, the current status of barley genetic engineering, including the patent situation, is reviewed. The needs aims, and possible applications of genetic engineering in barley breeding are discussed. 179 refs.

Mannonen, L.; Kauppinen, V.; Enari, T.M. (VTT Biotechnology and Food Research, Espoo (Finland))

1994-01-01

148

Genomic methylation patterns in archaeological barley show de-methylation as a time-dependent diagenetic process.  

PubMed

Genomic methylation is variable under biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. In particular, viral infection is thought to significantly increase genomic methylation with particularly high activity around transposable elements. Here we present the genomic methylation profiles of grains of archaeological barley (Hordeum vulgare) from several strata from a site in southern Egypt, from the Napatan to the Islamic periods (800 BCE - 1812 CE). One sample tested positive for viral infection and exhibits an unusually high degree of genomic methylation compared to the rest. A decreasing trend in global methylation levels according to deposition date shows in-situ de-methylation of 5-methylcytosine, which can be described as a diagenetic process. This is most likely a deamination mediated de-methylation process and is expected to lead to 5?mC > T base modifications in addition to the C > U modifications due to cytosine deamination, so represents a time-dependent process of DNA diagenesis in ancient DNA. PMID:24993353

Smith, Oliver; Clapham, Alan J; Rose, Pam; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Allaby, Robin G

2014-01-01

149

Genome duplications (polyploidy) / ancientGenome duplications (polyploidy) / ancient genome duplications (genome duplications (paleopolyploidypaleopolyploidy))  

E-print Network

Genome duplications (polyploidy) / ancientGenome duplications (polyploidy) / ancient genome duplications (genome duplications (paleopolyploidypaleopolyploidy)) e.g. a diploid cell undergoes failed genome duplicationsParamecium genome duplications #12;Comparison of two scaffolds originating from a

Utrecht, Universiteit

150

Genome duplications (polyploidy) / ancientGenome duplications (polyploidy) / ancient genome duplications (genome duplications (paleopolyploidypaleopolyploidy))  

E-print Network

Genome duplications (polyploidy) / ancientGenome duplications (polyploidy) / ancient genome duplications (genome duplications (paleopolyploidypaleopolyploidy)) Mechanism? e.g. a diploid cell undergoes;Paramecium genome duplicationsParamecium genome duplications #12;Comparison of two scaffolds originating from

Utrecht, Universiteit

151

Exploring Ancient World Cultures: An Introduction to Ancient World Cultures on the World-Wide Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exploring Ancient World Cultures, provided by University of Evansville, "is an introductory, on-line, college-level 'textbook' of ancient world cultures, constructed around a series of cultural pages consisting of: The Ancient Near East, Ancient India, Ancient Egypt, Ancient China, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Early Islam, and Medieval Europe." Each home page may contain essays by subject specialists, an anthology of readings from the period, a chronology, bibliographic resources, hypertext links to related sites, and computer graded quizzes. Interested users can also navigate the site by topic across cultures. A highlight of the site is the ability it gives the user to view the entire chronology, or to click on a year and culture and then another culture, in order to compare cross-cultural developments at the same time period. The site is a work in progress that promises maps and images in the near future.

1996-01-01

152

Conceptions of Intelligence in Ancient Chinese Philosophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ancient Chinese philosophical conceptions of intelligence differ markedly from those in the ancient Western tradition, and also from contemporary Western conceptions. Understanding these ancient Chinese conceptions of intelligence may help us better understand how a very important culture—Chinese culture—influences people’s thinking and behavior, and may also help us broaden, deepen, as well as re-examine our own conceptions of intelligence. This

Shih-ying Yang; Robert J. Sternberg

1997-01-01

153

Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling barley flour pasting properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pasting properties are important characteristics of barley starch from a processing standpoint. A shorter time to peak viscosity\\u000a and lower pasting temperature are favorable to both malting and food processing. This study was conducted to identify quantitative\\u000a trait loci (QTLs) determining pasting properties of barley flour using a doubled haploid population of 177 lines from the\\u000a cross between six-rowed Yerong

Junmei Wang; Jianming Yang; David McNeil; Meixue Zhou

2010-01-01

154

Analysis of durable resistance to stem rust in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-1940's, barley cultivars grown in the northern Great Plains of the USA and Canada have been resistant to stem rust caused byPuccinia graminis f. sp.tritici. This durable resistance is largely conferred by a single gene,Rpg1, derived from a single plant selection of the cultivar Wisconsin 37 and an unimproved Swiss cultivar. At the seedling stage, barley genotypes withRpg1

Brian J. Steffenson

1992-01-01

155

Adaptation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to harsh Mediterranean environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the low-rainfall environments of the Middle East, genetic progress in grain yield through direct selection is slow. This study was conducted to identify a combination of traits or plant ideotype in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) conducive to adaptation to terminal drought-stressed low-rainfall Mediterranean environments. Thirty-six two-rowed barley entries, ranging from local landraces and breeding lines to European cultivars, were

E. J. Oosterom; E. Acevedo

1992-01-01

156

Barley ?-amylase\\/subtilisin inhibitor. I. Isolation and characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protein inhibitor of endogenous ?-amylase 2 has been isolated from germinated barley by glycogen precipitation followed\\u000a by cation-exchange chromatography. Preliminary kinetic analysis showed a mixed type mechanism of inhibition with an apparent\\u000a Ki of 4×10?8M. The inhibitor formed well-defined complexes with barley malt ?-amylase 2 and co-purified with the ?-amylase by cycloheptaamylose\\u000a affinity chromatography of glycogen precipitates. The inhibitor

John Mundy; IB Svendsen; Jørn Hejgaard

1983-01-01

157

Triple hybridization with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).  

PubMed

A crossing programme for trispecific hybridization including cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as the third parent was carried out. The primary hybrids comprised 11 interspecific combinations, each of which had either H. jubatum or H. lechleri as one of the parents. The second parent represented species closely or distantly related to H. jubatum and H. lechleri. In trispecific crosses with diploid barley, the seed set was 5.7%. Crosses with tetraploid barley were highly unsuccessful (0.2% seed set). Three lines of diploid barley were used in the crosses, i.e. 'Gull', 'Golden Promise' and 'Vada'. Generally, cv 'Gull' had high crossability in crosses with related species in the primary hybrid. It is suggested that 'Gull' has a genetic factor for crossability not present in cv 'Vada' and cv 'Golden Promise'. One accession of H. brachyantherum used in the primary hybrid had a very high crossability (seed set 54.7%) in combination with cv 'Vada' but no viable offspring was produced. In all, two trispecific hybrids were raised, viz. (H. lechleri x H. brevisubulatum) x 'Gull' (2n=7-30) and (H. jubatum x H. lechleri) x 'Gull' (2n=20-22). The first combination invariably had a full complement of seven barley chromosomes plus an additional chromosome no. 7, but a varying number of chromosomes (19-22) of the wild-species hybrid. The second combination had a full set of barley chromosomes. The meiotic pairing was low in both combinations. PMID:24226012

von Bothmer, R; Claesson, L; Flink, J; Linde-Laursen, I

1989-12-01

158

Allele-Dependent Barley Grain ?-Amylase Activity1  

PubMed Central

The wild ancestor of cultivated barley, Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) A. & Gr. (H. spontaneum), is a source of wide genetic diversity, including traits that are important for malting quality. A high ?-amylase trait was previously identified in H. spontaneum strains from Israel, and transferred into the backcross progeny of a cross with the domesticated barley cv Adorra. We have used Southern-blot analysis and ?-amy1 gene characterization to demonstrate that the high ?-amylase trait in the backcross line is co-inherited with the ?-amy1 gene from the H. spontaneum parent. We have analyzed the ?-amy1 gene organization in various domesticated and wild-type barley strains and identified three distinct ?-amy1 alleles. Two of these ?-amy1 alleles were present in modern barley, one of which was specifically found in good malting barley cultivars. The third allele, linked with high grain ?-amylase activity, was found only in a H. spontaneum strain from the Judean foothills in Israel. The sequences of three isolated ?-amy1 alleles are compared. The involvement of specific intron III sequences, in particular a 126-bp palindromic insertion, in the allele-dependent expression of ?-amylase activity in barley grain is proposed. PMID:9625721

Erkkila, Maria J.; Leah, Robert; Ahokas, Hannu; Cameron-Mills, Verena

1998-01-01

159

Purification of malted-barley endo-beta-D-glucanases by ion-exchange chromatography: some properties of an endo-barley-beta-D-glucanase.  

PubMed

Two endo-beta-D-glucanases which act, respectively, on (1 leads to 3)-beta-D-glucans and barley beta-D-glucan have been isolated from malted barley, and purified by ion-exchange chromatography. The latter enzyme is highly specific for barley beta-D-glucan, and has no action on either (1 leads to 3)- or (1 leads to 4)-beta-D-glucans. It will also act on dyed barley-beta-D-glucan. Certain group-specific reagents inhibit the endo-barley-beta-D-glucanase and the endo-(1 leads to 3)-beta-D-glucanase to similar extents. PMID:947540

Manners, D J; Wilson, G

1976-06-01

160

Quantifying 3D post-accretionary tectonic strain in the Arabian-Nubian Shield: Superimposition of the Oko Shear Zone on the Nakasib Suture, Red Sea Hills, Sudan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deformed conglomeratic clasts exposed along the Neoproterozoic Nakasib Suture and the Oko Shear Zone are used to calculate three-dimensional (3D) tectonic strain associated with the latter to quantify strain associated with post-accretionary deformational belts in the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The Nakasib Suture is a NE-trending fold and thrust belt that is sinistrally offset (˜10 km) by the cross-cutting NNW- to NW-trending strike-slip faults of the Oko Shear Zone. The Nakasib Suture was formed as a result of collision between the Haya terrane and the Gebeit terrane at ˜750 Ma ago. The Oko Shear Zone was subsequently formed as a result of an E-W directed shortening of the Arabian-Nubian Shield due to collision between East and West Gondwana at ˜670-610 Ma ago. This analysis indicates the following: (1) The Nakasib Suture is dominated by flattening strain with the flattening plane of the associated strain ellipsoid oriented at 21°/77°SE. This flattening deformation is interpreted to be associated with nappe emplacement from north to south. (2) Some regions along the Nakasib Suture are characterized by constriction strain that might be due to refolding of the early nappes about NE-trending axes. (3) The Oko Shear Zone is characterized by constriction strain, with the XY plane of the strain ellipsoid oriented at 171°/68°E. The strain ellipsoid associated with the Oko Shear Zone manifests superimposition of E-W shortening on the NE-trending fold and thrust belt associated with the Nakasib Suture. (4) The tectonic strain of the Oko Shear Zone, superimposed over the structures of the Nakasib Suture, is characterized by a strain ellipsoid whose flattening plane is oriented at 21°/49°W. The strain ellipsoid of the tectonic strain has a major axis with a quadratic elongation of 3.6 and an orientation of 357°/25°, an intermediate axis with a quadratic elongation of 1.2 and an orientation of 231°/30°, and a minor axis with a quadratic elongation of 0.25 and an orientation of 115°/18°. This suggests that the post-accretionary deformation of the Arabian-Nubian Shield was superimposed as a NW-SE directed shortening that created early N-S shortening zones and late NW-trending sinistral strike-slip faults.

Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.

2010-03-01

161

Late Precambrian (740 Ma) charnockite, enderbite, and granite from Jebel Moya, Sudan: A link between the Mozambique Belt and the Arabian-Nubian Shield  

SciTech Connect

New Rb-Sr and whole rock and U-Pb zircon data are reported for deep-seated igneous rocks from Jebel Moya in east-central Sudan. This exposure is important because it may link the high-grade metamorphic and deep-seated igneous rocks of the Mozambique Belt with the greenschist-facies and ophiolitic assemblages of the Arabian-Nubian Shield, both of Pan-African (ca. 900-550 Ma) age. The rocks of Jebel Moya consist of pink granite, green charnockite, and dark enderbite. A twelve-point Rb-Sr whole rock isochron for all three lithologies yields an age of 730 {plus minus} 31 Ma and an initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr of 0.7031 {plus minus} 1. Nearly concordant zircon ages for granite, charnockite, and enderbite are 744 {plus minus} 2,742 {plus minus} 2, and 739 {plus minus} 2 Ma, respectively. Initial {epsilon}-Nd for these rocks are indistinguishable at 3.0 {plus minus} 0.4. The data suggest that the charnockite, enderbite, and granite are all part of a deep-seated igneous complex. The initial isotopic compositions of Sr and Nd indicate that Jebel Moya melts were derived from a mantle source that experienced significantly less time-integrated depletion of LRE and LIL elements than the source of Arabian-Nubian Shield melts. The ages for Jebel Moya deep-seated igneous rocks are in accord with data from elsewhere in the Mozambique Belt indicating that peak metamorphism occurred about 700-750 Ma. The northward extension of the Mozambique Belt to the Arabian-Nubian Shield defines a single east Pan-African orogen. The principal difference between the northern and southern sectors of this orogen may be the greater degree of thickening and subsequent erosion experienced in the south during the late Precambrian, perhaps a result of continental collision between East (Australia-India) and West Gondwanaland (S. America-Africa) about 750 Ma.

Stern, R.J. (Univ. of Texas, Richardson (United States)); Dawoud, A.S. (Univ. of Khartoum (Sudan))

1991-09-01

162

Tibet is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley  

PubMed Central

The Near East Fertile Crescent is well recognized as a primary center of barley origin, diversity, and domestication. A large number of wild barleys have been collected from the Tibetan Plateau, which is characterized by an extreme environment. We used genome-wide diversity array technology markers to analyze the genotypic division between wild barley from the Near East and Tibet. Our results confirmed the existence of Tibetan wild barley and suggested that the split between the wild barleys in the Near East and those in Tibet occurred around 2.76 million years ago (Mya). To test the concept of polyphyletic domestication of barley, we characterized a set of worldwide cultivated barley. Some Chinese hulless and six-rowed barleys showed a close relationship with Tibetan wild barley but showed no common ancestor with other cultivated barley. Our data support the concept of polyphyletic domestication of cultivated barley and indicate that the Tibetan Plateau and its vicinity is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley. The current results may be highly significant in exploring the elite germplasm for barley breeding, especially against cold and drought stresses. PMID:23033493

Dai, Fei; Nevo, Eviatar; Wu, Dezhi; Comadran, Jordi; Zhou, Meixue; Qiu, Long; Chen, Zhonghua; Beiles, Avigdor; Chen, Guoxiong; Zhang, Guoping

2012-01-01

163

Crustal evolution and recycling in a juvenile continent: Oxygen isotope ratio of zircon in the northern Arabian Nubian Shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crustal recycling patterns during the evolution of the Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) were defined using the oxygen isotope ratio of zircon [ ?18O(Zrn)]. Evidence for early (~ 870-740 Ma) crustal recycling in the northernmost ANS (southern Israel and Sinai, Egypt) is given by laser fluorination analysis of bulk zircon separates, which yield higher than mantle ?18O(Zrn) values of several island arc complex (IAC) orthogneisses (6.9 to 8.2‰) and also from the average ?18O(Zrn) value of 6.4‰ determined for detrital zircons (~ 870-780 Ma) from the Elat-schist; the latter representing the oldest known rock sources in the region. These results indicate prolonged availability of surface-derived rocks for burial or subduction, melting, and assimilation at the very early stages of island arc formation in the ANS. Other IAC intrusions of ~ 800 Ma show mantle-like ?18O(Zrn) values, implying that not all magmas involved supracrustal contribution. Much younger (650-625 Ma) deformed syn-collisional calc-alkaline (CA1) intrusions are characterized by ?18O(Zrn) values of 5.0 to 7.9‰ indicating continued recycling of the felsic crust. The main sample set of this study comprises rocks from the mostly granitic, post-collisional calc-alkaline (CA2: ~ 635-590 Ma) and alkaline (AL: ~ 608-580 Ma) magmatic suites. Despite having distinct geochemical characteristics and petrogenetic paths and spans of magmatic activity, the two suites are indistinguishable by their average ?18O(Zrn) values of 5.7 and 5.8‰ pointing to the dominance of mantle-like ?18O sources in their formation. Nonetheless, grouping the two suites together reveals geographical zoning in ?18O(Zrn) where a large southeastern region of ?18O(Zrn) = 4.5 to 5.9‰ is separated from a northwestern belt with ?18O(Zrn) = 6 to 8‰ by a '6‰ line'. It is thus suggested that all CA2 and AL magmas of the northernmost ANS were derived from mantle-like ?18O reservoirs in the mafic lower-crust and the lithospheric-mantle, respectively. However, while in the northwestern belt these magmas intruded a thick crustal section and assimilated ~ 15-35%, high- ?18O IAC+CA1 material, magmas in the southeastern region intruded a thinner crust and little or no contamination occurred. The proposed NW-SE variance in crustal thickness during the late Neoproterozoic fits well with the geometry of the fan shaped rifting model proposed by Stern [Stern, R.J., 1985. The Najd Fault System, Saudi Arabia and Egypt: a late Precambrian rift related transform system. Tectonics 4, 497-511.] for this region. Deep parts of the lithosphere were beginning to rift at ~ 630 Ma, allowing the asthenospheric mantle to rise and transfer heat to the lithosphere. This resulted in vast melting of the mafic lower-crust to produce the batholithic CA2 magmas. Later (~ 610 Ma) percolation of lithospheric-mantle melts (possibly along deep seated lithospheric-scale faults) introduced AL magmas to shallow levels of the crust. Intrusion of CA2 and AL mantle-like ?18O parent magmas into the thinned southeastern crust did not involve assimilation of older crust whereas similar intrusion into the thicker northwestern crust resulted in mild assimilation of high- ?18O pre-635 Ma crust. An important implication from our results is that petrogenesis of some high- ?18O AL magmas of the northernmost ANS involved assimilation of supracrustal material. Felsic intrusions of the AL suite were previously described as A-type granites derived solely from mantle melts with no crustal components. Our results contribute to the "A-type petrogenesis debate" by showing that their formation can involve recycling of crustal material.

Be'eri-Shlevin, Yaron; Katzir, Yaron; Valley, John W.

2009-02-01

164

The Origins and Ancient History of Wine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, The Origins and Ancient History of Wine explores the roots of viniculture and its effects on the ancient civilizations of the Near East and Egypt. The site also explains how archaeological chemistry has improved methods for investigating organic artifacts, providing new means for studying technological and biocultural development of early peoples.

1998-01-01

165

Magnetite biomineralization and ancient life on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain chemical and mineral features of the Martian meteorite ALH84001 were reported in 1996 to be probable evidence of ancient life on Mars. In spite of new observations and interpretations, the question of ancient life on Mars remains unresolved. Putative biogenic, nanometer magnetite has now become a leading focus in the debate.

Richard B Frankel; Peter R Buseck

2000-01-01

166

INLAND WANDERINGS OF THE ANCIENT MURRELET  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE Ancient Murrelet (Synthliboramphus antiquus) has been reported from widely scattered areas of the United States and Canada. In an attempt to understand a recent record of this Pacific alcid in Illinois, I made an intensive search of the literature but found no generally inclusive dis- cussion of these wanderings. This paper, therefore, reviews the inland distribution of Ancient Murrelets

EDWARD A. MUNYER

167

press.princeton.edu Ancient History 83  

E-print Network

-soul dualism in ancient Greece. Brooke Holmes demonstrates that as the body (sôma) became a sub- ject of symptoms that people began to perceive the physical body with the senses and the mind. Once attributed of the Physical Body in Ancient Greece Brooke Holmes The Symptom and the Subject takes an in-depth look at how

Landweber, Laura

168

Ancient Music Recovery for Digital Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present a description and current state of the “ROMA” (Reconhecimento Óptico de Música Antiga or Ancient Music Optical Recognition) Project that consists on building an application, for the recognition and restoration\\u000a specialised in ancient music manuscripts (from XVI to XVIII century). This project, beyond the inventory of the Biblioteca Geral da Universidade de

João Rogério Caldas Pinto; Pedro Vieira; Mário Ramalho; M. Mengucci; Pedro Pina; Fernando Muge

2000-01-01

169

An ancient suicide ritual and its repercussions.  

E-print Network

Hunter Times An ancient suicide ritual and its repercussions. Hollywood tidbits and moviereviews and Seppuku An Ancient suicide ritual and its repercussions By Akemi Umino What image comes up in your mind suicide. Seppuku has a meaning of sincerity and even little children committed Sep- puku following

Qiu, Weigang

170

MEDIEVAL DISTORTIONS: THE PROJECTIONS OF ANCIENT MAPS  

E-print Network

MEDIEVAL DISTORTIONS: THE PROJECTIONS OF ANCIENT MAPS W.R TOBLER University of Michigan, Ann Arbor ABSTRACT. Estimates of the map projection employed for an ancient map is a prerequisite for a variety for the Hereford map and illustrated the agreement of a portolan chart with an oblique Mercator projection

Tobler, Waldo

171

Sports, nationalism and peace in ancient Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 100 years ago, Baron Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympic movement, declared that the Olympic games should promote “international understanding, brotherhood and peace.” Was this a modern concept, a dream of Coubertin, or did it resurrect the ideals of the ancient Olympics?On the one hand, the ancient Olympic games certainly promoted in Greece a sense

Nigel Crowther

1999-01-01

172

Thermodynamic modelling of Sol Hamed serpentinite, South Eastern Desert of Egypt: Implication for fluid interaction in the Arabian-Nubian Shield ophiolites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arabian-Nubian Shield is the largest tract of juvenile continental crust of the Neoproterozoic. This juvenile crust is composed of intra-oceanic island arc/back arc basin complexes and micro-continents welded together along sutures as the Mozambique Ocean was closed. Some of these sutures are marked by ophiolite decorated linear belts. The Sol Hamed ophiolite (808 ± 14 Ma) in southeastern Egypt at the Allaqi-Heiani-Onib-Sol Hamed-Yanbu arc-arc suture represents an uncommon example of rocks that might be less deformed than other ophiolites in the Arabian-Nubian Shield. In order to understand fluid-rock interactions before and during arc-arc collision, petrological, mineral chemistry, whole-rock chemistry and thermodynamic studies were applied to the Sol Hamed serpentinized ophiolitic mantle fragment. These studies reveal that the protolith had a harzburgite composition that probably originated as forearc mantle in the subducted oceanic slab. We propose that these rocks interacted with Ti-rich melts (boninite) in suprasubduction zone, which latter formed the Sol Hamed cumulates. Spinel's Cr# associated with the whole rock V-MgO composition suggest that the harzburgites are highly refractory residues after partial melting up to 29%. The melt extraction mostly occurred under reducing conditions, similar to peridotites recovered from the subducted lithosphere. Protolith alteration resulted from two stages of fluid-rock interaction. The first stage occurred as a result of infiltration of concentrated CO2-rich fluid released from carbonate-bearing sediments and altered basalt at the subduction zone. The alteration occurred during isobaric cooling at a pressure of 1 kbar. The fluid composition during the isobaric cooling was buffered by the metamorphic reactions. The second stage of fluid-rock interactions took place through prograde metamorphism. The increase in pressure during this stage occurred as a result of thrusting within the oceanic crust. In this process the forearc crust was loaded by roughly 20-30 km of overthrust rocks.

Abu-Alam, Tamer S.; Hamdy, Mohamed M.

2014-11-01

173

Identification of wheat-barley addition lines with N-banding of chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seven chromosomes of barley (Hordeum vulgare) have been identified individually by their distinctive N-banding pattern. Furthermore all of the barley chromosome N-banding patterns were found to be recognizably different from those exhibited by wheat chromosomes, making it possible to identify individual barley chromosomes when present in a wheat background. N-banding has therefore been used to identify the individual barley

A. K. M. R. Islam

1980-01-01

174

Comparative genomic analysis and expression of the APETALA2-like genes from barley, wheat, and barley-wheat amphiploids  

PubMed Central

Background The APETALA2-like genes form a large multi-gene family of transcription factors which play an important role during the plant life cycle, being key regulators of many developmental processes. Many studies in Arabidopsis have revealed that the APETALA2 (AP2) gene is implicated in the establishment of floral meristem and floral organ identity as well as temporal and spatial regulation of flower homeotic gene expression. Results In this work, we have cloned and characterised the AP2-like gene from accessions of Hordeum chilense and Hordeum vulgare, wild and domesticated barley, respectively, and compared with other AP2 homoeologous genes, including the Q gene in wheat. The Hordeum AP2-like genes contain two plant-specific DNA binding motifs called AP2 domains, as does the Q gene of wheat. We confirm that the H. chilense AP2-like gene is located on chromosome 5Hch. Patterns of expression of the AP2-like genes were examined in floral organs and other tissues in barley, wheat and in tritordeum amphiploids (barley × wheat hybrids). In tritordeum amphiploids, the level of transcription of the barley AP2-like gene was lower than in its barley parental and the chromosome substitutions 1D/1Hch and 2D/2Hch were seen to modify AP2 gene expression levels. Conclusion The results are of interest in order to understand the role of the AP2-like gene in the spike morphology of barley and wheat, and to understand the regulation of this gene in the amphiploids obtained from barley-wheat crossing. This information may have application in cereal breeding programs to up- or down-regulate the expression of AP2-like genes in order to modify spike characteristics and to obtain free-threshing plants. PMID:19480686

Gil-Humanes, Javier; Piston, Fernando; Martin, Antonio; Barro, Francisco

2009-01-01

175

Archimedes: Accelerator Reveals Ancient Text  

SciTech Connect

Archimedes (287-212 BC), who is famous for shouting 'Eureka' (I found it) is considered one of the most brilliant thinkers of all times. The 10th-century parchment document known as the 'Archimedes Palimpsest' is the unique source for two of the great Greek's treatises. Some of the writings, hidden under gold forgeries, have recently been revealed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC. An intense x-ray beam produced in a particle accelerator causes the iron in original ink, which has been partly erased and covered, to send out a fluorescence glow. A detector records the signal and a digital image showing the ancient writings is produced. Please join us in this fascinating journey of a 1,000-year-old parchment from its origin in the Mediterranean city of Constantinople to a particle accelerator in Menlo Park.

Bergmann, Uwe

2004-02-24

176

Ancient Near East.net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The ancient Near East has been the birthplace of some of civilization's most important advances, among them written language, the impulse to urbanism, and crop cultivation. Created and maintained by Paul James Cowie (a doctoral student at Australia's Macquarie University), the site is a fine resource for both scholars and the general public. Scholars will want to make sure and take a look at the conference diary section, which lists upcoming conferences and various calls for papers and other submissions. The announcements section is of additional interest, as it gives advance notice regarding related activities, including international symposia. For the general public, a host of sections (such as museums and galleries) offer comprehensive listings of Web-based resources ranging from Egyptology links to those dealing with cuneiform. The Web site also contains a listing of links to museums that specialize in the antiquities and archaeology of the Near East located around the world.

2000-01-01

177

Sacred psychiatry in ancient Greece  

PubMed Central

From the ancient times, there are three basic approaches for the interpretation of the different psychic phenomena: the organic, the psychological, and the sacred approach. The sacred approach forms the primordial foundation for any psychopathological development, innate to the prelogical human mind. Until the second millennium B.C., the Great Mother ruled the Universe and shamans cured the different mental disorders. But, around 1500 B.C., the predominance of the Hellenic civilization over the Pelasgic brought great changes in the theological and psychopathological fields. The Hellenes eliminated the cult of the Great Mother and worshiped Dias, a male deity, the father of gods and humans. With the Father's help and divinatory powers, the warrior-hero made diagnoses and found the right therapies for mental illness; in this way, sacerdotal psychiatry was born. PMID:24725988

2014-01-01

178

Row Configuration and Nitrogen Application for Barley/Pea Intercropping Chengci Chen1  

E-print Network

planted adjacent to four rows of pea (4x4); 2) two rows of barley planted adjacent to two rows of pea (2x2Row Configuration and Nitrogen Application for Barley/Pea Intercropping Chengci Chen1 , Malvern) fertilizer N on forage yield, protein content, and LER of barley/pea intercropping systems. Methods A 3-yr

Maxwell, Bruce D.

179

Genes for resistance in barley to Finnish isolates of Rhynchosporium secalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty Finnish isolates of Rhynchosporium secalis (Oud.) J.J. Davis, the causal agent of scald, were taken from infected barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants and inoculated on to seedlings of a differential series of barley containing a range of major genes for resistance to the fungus, as well as on to six Nordic 6-row spring barleys and three winter ryes (Secale

J. Robinson; H. Lindqvist; M. Jalli

1995-01-01

180

of the exposed germ, which may reduce germination and emergence. Yields of current hulless barley lines  

E-print Network

of the exposed germ, which may reduce germination and emergence. Yields of current hulless barley barley until it is nearly mature. The glumes begin to separate from the seed when it is almost mature and become to- tally separated when the grain is combined. The grain of hulless barley looks more like wheat

Liskiewicz, Maciej

181

High capacity of plant regeneration from callus of interspecific hybrids with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Callus was induced from hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and ten species of wild barley (Hordeum L.) as well as from one backcross line ((H. lechleri x H. vulgare) x H. vulgare). Successful callus induction and regeneration of plants were achieved from explants of young spikes on the barley medium J 25–8. The capacity for plant

R. B. Jørgensen; C. J. Jensen; B. Andersen; R. Bothmer

1986-01-01

182

Tissue culture increases meiotic pairing of regenerants for barley x Canada wild rye hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada wild rye (CWR; Elymus canadensis L.) expresses traits such as barley yel- low dwarf virus resistance, winter hardiness, and drought resistance. Hybrids be- tween CWR and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) are sterile, precluding transfer of these traits into barley. Callus cultures were initiated from these hybrids to promote chro- mosome recombination and possibly restore fertility. The objectives of this

L. S. Dahleen

1999-01-01

183

Assessment of the degree and the type of restriction fragment length polymorphism in barley ( Hordeum vulgare )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the extent of polymorphism in barley (Hordeum vulgare), DNA from 48 varieties was analyzed with 23 genomic, single-copy probes, distributed across all seven chromosomes. Upon hybridization to wheat-barley addition lines, the probes showed different degrees of homology compared to the wheat genome. Polymorphisms were detected in the barley genome at a frequency of 43% after digestion

A. Graner; H. Siedler; A. Jahoor; R. G. Herrmann; G. Wenzel

1990-01-01

184

Use of Fusarium graminearum transformed with gfp to follow infection patterns in barley and Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum attacks the seed spikes of barley and wheat, causing sterility, reduced seed weight and accumulation of mycotoxins. To explore infection patterns in barley and in the Arabidopsis model system, the green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) was used to transform F. graminearum. Inoculation of intact barley spikes resulted in rapid colonization of the brush hairs (ovary

Ronald W Skadsen; Thomas M Hohn

2004-01-01

185

Seasonal variations in salinity of soils supporting different levels of barley grass (Hordeum murinum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of soil salinity taken throughout the year from barley grass sites and nearby areas showed that salinity levels tend to be high in soils where barley grass occurs and that sahmty vanes conSIderably dunng the year, reaching particular high levels In the late summer on barley grass sites.It is suggested that this high sahmty senously affects the survival of

A. I. Popay; P. Sanders

1982-01-01

186

GPR prospection in ancient Ephesos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban area of ancient Ephesos (present Turkey) is too large to be fully excavated, so geophysical prospection and mapping can help with the investigation. Georadar is one of the most effective tools for it. Two different tasks solved by georadar are presented. The first problem was the interconnection between the city and the temple of Artemis. By historical records, it was made by two sacred procession roads, which had character of Graeco-Roman stoa, i.e., a roofed road. Only small parts of these roads were discovered in ruins or excavated. Some hundreds of metres from total length of a few kilometres became known, but the questions above were not solved. Then, the area was prospected by georadar. Series of GPR lines were scanned gradually from the last known points and evaluated right on the spot. As a result, a plan of georadar indications could be drawn. These indications created two lines tracing unknown parts of both roads joining together and then continuing till the entry of the temple. The results were confirmed by two boreholes. The second task was mapping of Hellenistic level of Tetragonos agora. At present, it is under the Roman level, and is visible only in some excavation pits. About a half the square was covered by detailed georadar survey. Numerous anomalies indicated presence of underground objects. Compared with the results of excavations, they were interpreted as ancient remains in several levels. Then plans of these indications were compiled for separated levels. Hellenistic buildings remains were mapped, forming an older agora, smaller and slightly different by its shape from the Roman building plan. Besides it, uncovered parts of Roman ruins were detected, as well as some remains of Classic and Archaic settlement levels. Some traces of even older human presence were found under them. Georadar results will serve as a guideline for future excavations.

Hruska, Jiri; Fuchs, Gerald

1999-03-01

187

Thermodormancy and ABA metabolism in barley grains  

PubMed Central

Incubation of barley primary dormant grains at 30°C, a temperature at which they cannot germinate results in a reinforcement of their sensitivity to temperature, and in particular in a loss of their ability to germinate at 15–20°C.1 Incubation of the grains at 30°C in the presence of GA3 (1 mM) or of isolated embryos prevents this induction of secondary dormancy. In such a condition, embryo ABA content was lower than that measured in embryos of seeds incubated at 30°C on water. Expression of genes involved in ABA metabolism (HvABA8?OH1, HvNCED1 and HvNCED2) was studied in isolated embryos incubated on water and in the presence of GA3 (1 mM). Expression of HvABA8?OH1, HvNCED1 and HvNCED2 was discussed in relation with ABA content and germination ability at 30°C. PMID:19721750

Benech-Arnold, Roberto L; Farrant, Jill M; Corbineau, Francoise

2009-01-01

188

Proteomic response of barley leaves to salinity.  

PubMed

Drought and salinity stresses are adverse environmental factors that affect crop growth and yield. Proteomic analysis offers a new approach to identify a broad spectrum of genes that are expressed in living system. We applied this technique to investigate protein changes that were induced by salinity in barley genotypes (Hordeum vulgare L.), Afzal, as a salt-tolerant genotype and L-527, as a salt-sensitive genotype. The seeds of two genotypes were sown in pot under controlled condition of greenhouse, using a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Salt stress was imposed at seedling stage and leaves were collected from control and salt-stressed plant. The Na(+) and K(+) concentrations in leaves changed significantly in response to short-term stress. About 850 spots were reproducibly detected and analyzed on 2-DE gels. Of these, 117 proteins showed significant change under salinity condition in at least one of the genotypes. Mass spectrometry analysis using MALDI-TOF/TOF led to the identification some proteins involved in several salt responsive mechanisms which may increase plant adaptation to salt stress including higher constitutive expression level and upregulation of antioxidant, upregulation of protein involved in signal transduction, protein biosynthesis, ATP generation and photosynthesis. These findings may enhance our understanding of plant molecular response to salinity. PMID:21181273

Rasoulnia, Abdolrahman; Bihamta, Mohammad Reza; Peyghambari, Seyed Ali; Alizadeh, Houshang; Rahnama, Afrasyab

2011-11-01

189

The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from barley to beer  

SciTech Connect

Beer has been brewed from barley contaminated with {sup 137}Cs as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The {sup 137}Cs activity has been measured in all intermediate steps and in the by-products of the production process. About 35 % of the {sup 137}Cs in barley were recovered in beer. Processing factors defined as the concentration ratio of processed and raw products were determined to be 0.61, 3.3, 0.1 and 0.11 for malt, malt germs, spent grains and beer, respectively. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

Proehl, G.; Mueller, H.; Voigt, G. [Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleibheim (Germany)] [and others

1997-01-01

190

The effects of barley bran flour on colonic physiology  

E-print Network

THE EFFECTS OF BARLEY BRAN FLOUR ON COLONIC PHYSIOLOGY A Thesis JANET LOUISE MORIN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990... Major Subject: Nutrition THE EFFECTS OF BARLEY BRAN FLOUR ON COLONIC PHYSIOLOGY A Thesis by JANET LOUISE MORIN Approved as to style and content by: OM A l I M/ Joanne R. Lupton (Chair of Committee) Karen S. Kubena (Member) John D. Williams...

Morin, Janet Louise

2012-06-07

191

An Artefactual Approach to Ancient Arithmetic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes work with elementary school students which combines a documentary approach to humanizing mathematics education together with two other artifactual approaches: students' own construction of objects and documents imitating those studied and using ancient calculating devices in modern reconstruction. (MM)

Percival, Irene

2001-01-01

192

Ancient Dry Spells Offer Clues About Drought  

NASA Video Gallery

New research indicates that the ancient Mesoamerican civilizations of the Mayans and Aztecs amplified droughts in the Yucatán and southern Mexico by clearing rainforests to make room for pastures ...

193

Ancient Magnetic Reversals: Clues to the Geodynamo.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the question posed by some that the earth's magnetic field may reverse. States that rocks magnetized by ancient fields may offer clues to the underlying reversal mechanism in the earth's core. (TW)

Hoffman, Kenneth A.

1988-01-01

194

Cognitive aspects of ancient Maya eclipse theory.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with determining the nature of eclipse phenomena as it was perceived by the ancient Maya. It approaches the problem by considering the linguistic information pertaining to eclipses and by exploring the traditional beliefs associated with the occurrence of eclipses among the postconquest Maya. These data yield a model of a native eclipse theory which is compatible with hieroglyphic and iconographic materials pertaining to the ancient Maya.

Closs, M. P.

195

Ancient history of flatfish research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Owing to both their special appearance and behavior flatfish have attracted the special attention of people since ages. The first records of humans having been in touch with flatfish date back to the Stone Age about 15,000 years B.C. Detailed descriptions were already given in the classical antiquity and were taken up 1400 years later in the Renaissance by the first ichthyologists, encyclopédists, and also by practical men. This was more than 200 years before a number of common flatfish species were given their scientific names by Linnaeus in 1758. Besides morphology, remarkable and sometimes amusing naturalistic observations and figures are bequeathed. Ancient history of flatfish research is still a wide and open array. Examples are presented how the yield of information and interpretation from these times increases with interdisciplinary cooperation including archeologists, zoologists, ichthyologists, historians, art historians, fisheries and fishery biologist. The timeline of this contribution ends with the start of modern fishery research at the end of the 19th century in the course of the rapidly increasing exploitation of fish stocks.

Berghahn, Rüdiger; Bennema, Floris Pieter

2013-01-01

196

The question of uniqueness of ancient bacteria.  

PubMed

Microorganisms are associated with a variety of ancient geological materials. However, conclusive proof that these organisms are as old as the geological material and not more recent introductions has generally been lacking. Over the years, numerous reports of the isolation of ancient bacteria from geological materials have appeared. Most of these have suffered from the fact that the protocol for the surface sterilization of the sample was either poorly defined, inadequate or rarely included data to validate the overall effectiveness of the sterilization protocol. With proper sterility validation and isolation protocol, a legitimate claim for the isolation of an ancient microbe can be made. Biochemical, physiological, or morphological data indicate that these ancient microbes are not significantly different from modern isolates. As the role (decomposition) of modern and ancient microbes has not changed over time, it is probably unreasonable to expect these organisms to be vastly different. A discussion on the reasons for the homogeneity of ancient and modern microbes is presented. PMID:11938469

Vreeland, R H; Rosenzweig, W D

2002-01-01

197

USDA Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades 2-5: S-1  

E-print Network

USDA ­ Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades 2-5: S-1 Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow (do the motions while singing) Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Can you or I or anyone know How oats, peas, beans and barley grow

Mathis, Wayne N.

198

USDA Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades PreK-1: S-1  

E-print Network

USDA ­ Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades PreK-1: S-1 Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow (do the motions while singing) Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Can you or I or anyone know How oats, peas, beans and barley grow

Mathis, Wayne N.

199

BIOLOGICAL PROTECTION OF SPRING BARLEY AGAINST FUNGAL DISEASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We used biopreparations Supresivit (based on Trichoderma harzianum), Ibefungin (based on Bacillus subtilis) or Polyversum (based on Pythium oligandrum) applied as the mixture with mineral fertilizer (ammonium sulphate) before sowing of spring barley, seed-treatment or the spraying of the crop. There was ascertained a higher yield (about 3-5 %) after the treatment with biopreparations and the occurrence of the

Josef HÝSEK; Milan VACH; Jana BRO OVÁ

200

Senescence, nutrient remobilization, and yield in wheat and barley.  

PubMed

Cereals including wheat and barley are of primary importance to ensure food security for the 21st century. A combination of lab- and field-based approaches has led to a considerably improved understanding of the importance of organ and particularly of whole-plant (monocarpic) senescence for wheat and barley yield and quality. A delicate balance between senescence timing, grain nutrient content, nutrient-use efficiency, and yield needs to be considered to (further) improve cereal varieties for a given environment and end use. The recent characterization of the Gpc-1 (NAM-1) genes in wheat and barley demonstrates the interdependence of these traits. Lines or varieties with functional Gpc-1 genes demonstrate earlier senescence and enhanced grain protein and micronutrient content but, depending on the environment, somewhat reduced yields. A major effort is needed to dissect regulatory networks centred on additional wheat and barley transcription factors and signalling pathways influencing the senescence process. Similarly, while important molecular details of nutrient (particularly nitrogen) remobilization from senescing organs to developing grains have been identified, important knowledge gaps remain. The genes coding for the major proteases involved in senescence-associated plastidial protein degradation are largely unknown. Membrane transport proteins involved in the different transport steps occurring between senescing organ (such as leaf mesophyll) cells and protein bodies in the endosperm of developing grains remain to be identified or further characterized. Existing data suggest that an improved understanding of all these steps will reveal additional, important targets for continued cereal improvement. PMID:24470467

Distelfeld, Assaf; Avni, Raz; Fischer, Andreas M

2014-07-01

201

A survey of barley yellow dwarf virus in Australia 1963  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) in cereal crops in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania was carried out between 18 September and 4 October 1963.BYDV was identified by symptolllli in the field and confirmed in New Zealand by transmission tests with Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) fed on the leaf and stem samples of cereals and grasses collected

Harvey C. Smith

1964-01-01

202

Interaction between isolates of barley yellow dwarf virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Some isolates of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) differing in vector transmission characteristics and in host plant reactions were studied in single and mixed inoculations in glass-house trials.2. The symptoms obtained depended on the isolate of BYDV, and the interval between the protective and test inoculation and the variety of host plant.3. Two of the isolates showed complete protection

Harvey C. Smith

1963-01-01

203

The isolation of endoplasmic reticulum from barley aleurone layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques for the isolation and purification of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from aleurone layers of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) were assessed. Neither differential centrifugation nor density gradient centrifugation of a homogenate separate the ER or other organelles of this tissue from the lipidcontaining spherosomes. Isopycnic sucrose gradient centrifugation of organelles first purified by molecular sieve chromatography on Sepharose 4B, however, results

Russell L. Jones

1980-01-01

204

Introduction Modern winter barley cultivars are capable of yields in  

E-print Network

in Fig. 1. A crop that is planted on time for a particular location germinates, emerges, and tillers-available N at seed- ing is necessary to promote root growth and moderate tiller- ing of winter barley prior are one to two weeks earlier than for winter wheat, and thus fall N uptake can be greater for win- ter

Liskiewicz, Maciej

205

Triple hybridization with cultivated barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crossing programme for trispecific hybridization including cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as the third parent was carried out. The primary hybrids comprised 11 interspecific combinations, each of which had either H. jubatum or H. lechleri as one of the parents. The second parent represented species closely or distantly related to H. jubatum and H. lechleri. In trispecific crosses with

R. von Bothmer; L. Claesson; J. Flink; I. Linde-Laursen

1989-01-01

206

Extension Bulletin GMI-035 New July 2014 Malting Barley Production  

E-print Network

for thousands of years for feed, food and production of beer. Its ability to thrive in adverse conditions makes we eat to the beer we drink, barley, produced for malt, is being revisited as a potential crop to become beer is put through a process called malting, which essentially germinates and then dries

207

Fertile transgenic barley by particle bombardment of immature embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic, fertile barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) from the Finnish elite cultivar Kymppi was obtained by particle bombardment of immature embryos. Immature embryos were bombarded to the embryonic axis side and grown to plants without selection. Neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) activity was screened in small plantlets. One out of a total of 227 plants expressed the transferred nptII gene. This plant

Anneli Ritala; Kristian Aspegren; Ulrika Kurtén; Marjatta Salmenkallio-Marttila; Leena Mannonen; Riitta Hannus; Veli Kauppinen; Teemu H. Teeri; Tor-Magnus Enari

1994-01-01

208

Parallel expression profiling of barley–stem rust interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant barley stem rust resistance gene Rpg1 confers resistance to many but not all pathotypes of the stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt). Transformation of Rpg1 into susceptible cultivar Golden Promise rendered the transgenic plants resistant to Pgt pathotype MCC but not to Pgt pathotype QCC. Our objective was to identify genes that are induced\\/repressed during

Ling Zhang; Claudia Castell-Miller; Stephanie Dahl; Brian Steffenson; Andris Kleinhofs

2008-01-01

209

Effects of water deficits on evapotranspiration from barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

A barley crop grown under an automatic rainout shelter was subjected to varying timings and durations of water stress to develop a range of timings and severities of drought. Considerable variation in water use among treatments was induced. The control treatment was irrigated each week to replace the previous week's evapotranspiration (Ea). Other treatments had irrigation withdrawn for varying periods

P. D. Jamieson; G. S. Francis; D. R. Wilson; R. J. Martin

1995-01-01

210

Calmodulin mRNA in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) 1  

PubMed Central

Calmodulin is encoded by a 650-nucleotide mRNA in higher plants. This messenger was identified in barley and pea by a combination of in vitro translation and blot hybridization experiments using anti-sense RNA produced from an eel calmodulin cDNA probe. In all plant tissues tested, calmodulin mRNA represents between 0.01 and 0.1% of the total translatable mRNA population. Calmodulin mRNA levels are three- to fourfold higher in the meristematic zone of the first leaf of barley. At all other stages of leaf cell differentiation, calmodulin mRNA levels are nearly identical. During light-induced development in barley leaves, the relative proportion of translatable calmodulin mRNA declines about twofold. Cytoplasmic mRNAs that may encode calmodulin-like proteins were also detected. The levels of several of these putative Ca2+-binding protein mRNAs are modulated during the course of light-induced barley leaf cell development. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16665547

Zielinski, Raymond E.

1987-01-01

211

Androgenesis in anther culture of Lithuanian spring barley cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of anther culture was used for the production of doubled hap- loids in Lithuanian spring barley cultivars. Two methods, (i) regeneration from callus (Szarjeko's method) and (ii) direct regeneration from embryoids (Caredda's method) were applied to determine the androgenic potential accor- ding to the green regenerant yield and other morphogenetic factors. Green double haploid regenerants were obtained in

R. Asakavi

212

A simple sequence repeat-based linkage map of barley.  

PubMed Central

A total of 568 new simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based markers for barley have been developed from a combination of database sequences and small insert genomic libraries enriched for a range of short simple sequence repeats. Analysis of the SSRs on 16 barley cultivars revealed variable levels of informativeness but no obvious correlation was found with SSR repeat length, motif type, or map position. Of the 568 SSRs developed, 242 were genetically mapped, 216 with 37 previously published SSRs in a single doubled-haploid population derived from the F(1) of an interspecific cross between the cultivar Lina and Hordeum spontaneum Canada Park and 26 SSRs in two other mapping populations. A total of 27 SSRs amplified multiple loci. Centromeric clustering of markers was observed in the main mapping population; however, the clustering severity was reduced in intraspecific crosses, supporting the notion that the observed marker distribution was largely a genetical effect. The mapped SSRs provide a framework for rapidly assigning chromosomal designations and polarity in future mapping programs in barley and a convenient alternative to RFLP for aligning information derived from different populations. A list of the 242 primer pairs that amplify mapped SSRs from total barley genomic DNA is presented. PMID:11102390

Ramsay, L; Macaulay, M; degli Ivanissevich, S; MacLean, K; Cardle, L; Fuller, J; Edwards, K J; Tuvesson, S; Morgante, M; Massari, A; Maestri, E; Marmiroli, N; Sjakste, T; Ganal, M; Powell, W; Waugh, R

2000-01-01

213

Regional Subdivision in Wild Barley Allozyme Variation: Adaptive or Neutral?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the adaptive importance of allozyme variation in wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum). The test involved a nested sampling design with four population groups, each representing a different environment, and a comparison of observed allozyme variation with that expected under the assumption that allozymes are not neutral. Measurements of plant fitness in indigenous and alien environments in reciprocal introductions of

S. Volis; I. SHULGINA; D. WARD; S. MENDLINGER

2003-01-01

214

"Upper Peninsula malting barley variety trial" Jim Islieb, Christian Kapp  

E-print Network

recommendation, weeds controlled with herbicide, and sprayed according to fungicide label instructions at heading to control fusarium and other fungal diseases. #12;3 MEAN 50.03 48.4 CV (%) 16.5 1.5 LSD0.05 ns ns Figure 5 in nitrogen fertility and use of fungicides to improve barley grain quality for malting are underway

215

Burns treatment in ancient times.  

PubMed

Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques. PMID:23888738

Pe?anac, Marija; Janji?, Zlata; Komarcevi?, Aleksandar; Paji?, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Miskovi?, Sanja Skeledzija

2013-01-01

216

Ancient Greek with Thrasymachus: A Web Site for Learning Ancient Greek.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a project that was begun as an attempt by two teachers of Ancient Greek to provide supplementary materials to accompany "Thrasymachus," a first-year textbook for learning ancient Greek. Provides a brief history and description of the project, the format of each chapter, a chronology for completion of materials for each chapter in the…

Barker, Alison

2001-01-01

217

Identification of ancient remains through genomic sequencing  

PubMed Central

Studies of ancient DNA have been hindered by the preciousness of remains, the small quantities of undamaged DNA accessible, and the limitations associated with conventional PCR amplification. In these studies, we developed and applied a genomewide adapter-mediated emulsion PCR amplification protocol for ancient mammalian samples estimated to be between 45,000 and 69,000 yr old. Using 454 Life Sciences (Roche) and Illumina sequencing (formerly Solexa sequencing) technologies, we examined over 100 megabases of DNA from amplified extracts, revealing unbiased sequence coverage with substantial amounts of nonredundant nuclear sequences from the sample sources and negligible levels of human contamination. We consistently recorded over 500-fold increases, such that nanogram quantities of starting material could be amplified to microgram quantities. Application of our protocol to a 50,000-yr-old uncharacterized bone sample that was unsuccessful in mitochondrial PCR provided sufficient nuclear sequences for comparison with extant mammals and subsequent phylogenetic classification of the remains. The combined use of emulsion PCR amplification and high-throughput sequencing allows for the generation of large quantities of DNA sequence data from ancient remains. Using such techniques, even small amounts of ancient remains with low levels of endogenous DNA preservation may yield substantial quantities of nuclear DNA, enabling novel applications of ancient DNA genomics to the investigation of extinct phyla. PMID:18426903

Blow, Matthew J.; Zhang, Tao; Woyke, Tanja; Speller, Camilla F.; Krivoshapkin, Andrei; Yang, Dongya Y.; Derevianko, Anatoly; Rubin, Edward M.

2008-01-01

218

Thematic mapper research in the Earth sciences: Tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield of northeastern Sudan/southeastern Egypt using thematic mapper imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The tectonic evaluation of the Nubian Shield using the Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery is progressing well and shows great promise. The TM tapes for the six LANDSAT 5 scenes covering the northern portion of the Red Sea hills were received, and preliminary maps and interpretations were made for most of the area. It is apparent that faulting and shearing associated with the major suture zones such as the Sol Hamed are clearly visible and that considerable detail can be seen. An entire quadrant of scene 173,45 was examined in detail using all seven bands, and every band combination was evaluated to best display the geology. A comparison was done with color ratio combinations and color combinations of the eigen vector bands to verify if band combinations of 7-red, 4-green, and 2-blue were indeed superior. There is no single optimum enhancement which provides the greatest detail for every image and no single combination of spectral bands for all cases, although bands 7, 4, and 2 do provide the best overall display. The color combination of the eigen vector bands proved useful in distinguishing fine detailed features.

1986-01-01

219

The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world's largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

2014-03-01

220

Carbonate-orthopyroxenite lenses from the Neoproterozoic Gerf ophiolite, South Eastern Desert, Egypt: The first record in the Arabian Nubian Shield ophiolites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonate-orthopyroxenites (classic sagvandites) are reported in the Gerf ophiolite, South Eastern Desert, Egypt: the first finding from the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS) ophiolites. They form massive lenses at the southern tip of the Gerf ophiolite, along the contact between the Shinai granite and Gerf serpentinized peridotites. The lenses show structural concordance with the neighboring country rocks and the granite contact. They consist mainly of metamorphic orthopyroxene + magnesite, among other metamorphic, relict primary and retrograde secondary minerals. Based only on chemistry, two types of carbonate-orthopyroxenites can be recognized, Types I (higher-Mg) and II (lower-Mg and higher-Fe). Field constraints, petrography and mineral chemistry indicate a metamorphic origin for the Gerf carbonate-orthopyroxenites. The euhedral form of relict primary chromian spinels combined with their high Cr#/low-TiO 2 character, and absence of clinopyroxene suggest that the protolith for the Gerf carbonate-orthopyroxenites is a highly depleted mantle peridotite derived from a sub-arc setting. Contact metamorphism accompanied by CO 2-metasomatism resulted in formation of the Gerf carbonate-orthopyroxenites during intrusion of the Shinai granite. The source of CO 2-rich fluids is most likely the neighboring impure carbonate layers. Correlation of the carbonate-orthopyroxenite mineral assemblages with experimental data for the system MgO-SiO 2-H 2O-CO 2 suggests metamorphic/metasomatic conditions of 520-560 °C, Pfluid = 2 kbar and extremely high X values (0.87-1).

Gahlan, Hisham A.; Arai, Shoji

2009-01-01

221

Analysis of groundwater flow in arid areas with limited hydrogeological data using the Grey Model: a case study of the Nubian Sandstone, Kharga Oasis, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Management of groundwater resources can be enhanced by using numerical models to improve development strategies. However, the lack of basic data often limits the implementation of these models. The Kharga Oasis in the western desert of Egypt is an arid area that mainly depends on groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS), for which the hydrogeological data needed for groundwater simulation are lacking, thereby introducing a problem for model calibration and validation. The Grey Model (GM) was adopted to analyze groundwater flow. This model combines a finite element method (FEM) with a linear regression model to try to obtain the best-fit piezometric-level trends compared to observations. The GM simulation results clearly show that the future water table in the northeastern part of the study area will face a severe drawdown compared with that in the southwestern part and that the hydraulic head difference between these parts will reach 140 m by 2060. Given the uncertainty and limitation of available data, the GM produced more realistic results compared with those obtained from a FEM alone. The GM could be applied to other cases with similar data limitations.

Mahmod, Wael Elham; Watanabe, Kunio; Zahr-Eldeen, Ashraf A.

2013-08-01

222

The Ancient Martian Climate System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Today Mars is a cold, dry, desert planet. The atmosphere is thin and liquid water is not stable. But there is evidence that very early in its history it was warmer and wetter. Since Mariner 9 first detected fluvial features on its ancient terrains researchers have been trying to understand what climatic conditions could have permitted liquid water to flow on the surface. Though the evidence is compelling, the problem is not yet solved. The main issue is coping with the faint young sun. During the period when warmer conditions prevailed 3.5-3.8 Gy the sun's luminosity was approximately 25% less than it is today. How can we explain the presence of liquid water on the surface of Mars under such conditions? A similar problem exists for Earth, which would have frozen over under a faint sun even though the evidence suggests otherwise. Attempts to solve the "Faint Young Sun Paradox" rely on greenhouse warming from an atmosphere with a different mass and composition than we see today. This is true for both Mars and Earth. However, it is not a straightforward solution. Any greenhouse theory must (a) produce the warming and rainfall needed, (b) have a plausible source for the gases required, (c) be sustainable, and (d) explain how the atmosphere evolved to its present state. These are challenging requirements and judging from the literature they have yet to be met. In this talk I will review the large and growing body of work on the early Mars climate system. I will take a holistic approach that involves many disciplines since our goal is to present an integrated view that touches on each of the requirements listed in the preceding paragraph. I will begin with the observational evidence, which comes from the geology, mineralogy, and isotopic data. Each of the data sets presents a consistent picture of a warmer and wetter past with a thicker atmosphere. How much warmer and wetter and how much thicker is a matter of debate, but conditions then were certainly different than what they are today. I will then discuss the origin and evolution of the early atmosphere from accretion and core formation to the end of the late heavy bombardment, including estimates of the volatile inventory, outgassing history, and potential escape mechanisms. This sets the stage for a comprehensive look at the climate system of early Mars and the attempts to solve the faint young sun problem. I will review the basic physics involved and then step through the different ideas highlighting their strengths and weaknesses. I will then conclude with a summary and a discussion of potentially promising avenues of future research

Haberle, Robert M.

2014-01-01

223

Ancient Mesopotamia: This History, Our History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago houses a world-renowned collection of artifacts from ancient Syria, Israel, Persia, Anatolia, Egypt, Nubia, and Mesopotamia. On this website, visitors can explore some of these artifacts up close while also learning more about the history of this important region. Visitors should first visit "Life in Mesopotamia" to learn more about the cultural importance of the area. Then, they can click on the "Learning Collection", here, visitors can zoom-in on artifacts selected by teachers in order to learn what these artifacts can tell us about ancient Mesopotamia. After browsing the learning collection, visitors should not miss the "Interactives." Here they can view additional artifacts as well as view video clips on various topics including a virtual archaeological dig and how these ancient artifacts are cared for and preserved. In addition, teaching materials are also provided and K-12 teachers can earn graduate credit from an online course also offered here.

224

Current therapies and the ancient East.  

PubMed

Current therapies, their theories and techniques ebb and flow in popularity, but there is a residue of basic principles and practices which remain. Much of this useful residue has been present in ancient Eastern religions and philosophies. This article compares the content of several current theories of individual, group, and family therapies to seed ideas in ancient Taoist, Zen, Confucian, yoga, and Buddhist source materials. Gestalt, existential, psychoanalytic, transactional analysis, cognitive-behavioral and family therapy concepts are traced to these ancient precursors. Illustrative examples are presented such as satori (flash of insight), koans (insight riddles), parables, yanas (exercises), rituals, and written teachings. The article concludes with the Four Noble Truths and the 8-fold path of Buddhism, given 2500 years ago but very timely to contemporary problems of life adjustment and a useful guide to counseling and therapy. PMID:6711713

MacHovec, F J

1984-01-01

225

The ancient lunar crust, Apollo 17 region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 17 highland collection is dominated by fragment-laden melt rocks, generally thought to represent impact melt from the Serenitatis basin-forming impact. Fortunately for our understanding of the lunar crust, the melt rocks contain unmelted clasts of preexisting rocks. Similar ancient rocks are also found in the regolith; most are probably clasts eroded out of melt rocks. The ancient rocks can be divided into groups by age, composition, and history. Oldest are plutonic igneous rocks, representing the magmatic components of the ancient crust. The younger are granulitic breccias, which are thoroughly recrystallized rocks of diverse parentages. The youngest are KREEPy basalts and felsites, products of relatively evolved magmas. Some characteristics of each group are given.

James, O. B.

1992-01-01

226

Ancient and Modern Hydrology: The Common Ground  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The archeological site of Tzipori (near Nazareth) in Israel contains a beautiful ancient mosaic that depicts the Nile in an allegoric manner. One of the striking details is a Nilometer, a graded pillar that was used in order to measure the Nile level. These data were used by ancient hydrologists in order to predict the Nile regime during the coming season. In turn, these assessments provided the Pharaoh administration with the basis for taxation of the peasant population. These historical findings render Hydrology as one of the oldest technical professions. Furthermore, a few features of ancient hydrology characterize the modern one also: it is a quantitative discipline, it has an applied nature, it makes prediction under uncertainty and it is intertwined with economical and social considerations. The presentation is focused on these analogies and mainly with the need to cope with uncertainty, with emphasis on the novel and distinctive features of stochastic modeling of subsurface flow and transport.

Dagan, G.

2005-12-01

227

Molecular analysis of ancient microbial infections.  

PubMed

The detection of ancient microbial DNA offers a new approach for the study of infectious diseases, their occurrence, frequency and host-pathogen interaction in historic times and populations. Moreover, data obtained from skeletal and mummified tissue may represent an important completion of contemporary phylogenetic analyses of pathogens. In the last few years, a variety of bacterial, protozoal and viral infections have been detected in ancient tissue samples by amplification and characterization of specific DNA fragments. This holds particularly true for the identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, which seems to be more robust than other microbes due to its waxy, hydrophobic and lipid-rich cell wall. These observations provided useful information about the occurrence, but also the frequency of tuberculosis in former populations. Moreover, these studies suggest new evolutionary models and indicate the route of transmission between human and animals. Until now, other pathogens, such as Mycobacterium leprae, Yersinia pestis, Plasmodium falciparum and others, have occasionally been identified - mostly in single case studies or small sample sizes - as well, although much less information is available on these pathogens in ancient settings. The main reason therefore seems to be the degradation and modification of ancient DNA by progressive oxidative damage. Furthermore, the constant risk of contamination by recent DNA forces to take time and cost effective measures and renders the analysis of ancient microbes difficult. Nevertheless, the study of microbial ancient DNA significantly contributes to the understanding of transmission and spread of infectious diseases, and potentially to the evolution and phylogenetic pathways of pathogens. PMID:12167530

Zink, Albert R; Reischl, Udo; Wolf, Hans; Nerlich, Andreas G

2002-08-01

228

Ribosomal DNA Spacer-Length Polymorphisms in Barley: Mendelian Inheritance, Chromosomal Location, and Population Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spacer-length (sl) variation in ribosomal RNA gene clusters (rDNA) was surveyed in 502 individual barley plants, including samples from 50 accessions of cultivated barley, 25 accessions of its wild ancestor, and five generations of composite cross II (CCII), an experimental population of barley. In total, 17 rDNA sl phenotypes, made up of 15 different rDNA sl variants, were observed. The

M. A. Saghai-Maroof; K. M. Soliman; R. A. Jorgensen; R. W. Allard

1984-01-01

229

Comparison of Water Absorption Patterns in Two Barley Cultivars, Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 75(6):792-795 Two barley cultivars, Excel and Prisma (six-row and two-row types, respectively), were obtained from the 1993 harvest at Crookston, MN. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to follow water imbibition in single, large seeds of Excel and Prisma barley. A comparison of mois- ture distribution on longitudinal sections of Prisma and Excel barley during early hours of

E. McEntyre; R. Ruan; R. G. Fulcher

1998-01-01

230

Quantitative resistance to barley leaf stripe ( Pyrenophora graminea ) is dominated by one major locus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major gene underlying quantitative resistance of barley against Pyrenophora graminea, a seedborne pathogen causing leaf stripe, was mapped with molecular markers in a barley doubled haploid (DH) population derived from the cross Proctor x Nudinka. This quantitative trait locus (QTL) accounts for r\\u000a2= 58.5% and was mapped on barley chromosome 1, tightly linked to the naked gene. A

N. Pecchioni; P. Faccioli; H. Toubia-Rahme; G. Valè; V. Terzi

1996-01-01

231

Morphological, Thermal, Pasting, and Rheological Properties of Barley Starch and Their Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native barley starch, as well as its blends with corn, wheat, and rice starch at different ratios of 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 were examined in terms of morphology, thermal, pasting, rheological, and retrogradation properties. Amylose content varied between 10.9–41.4% in rice, corn, wheat, and barley while it ranged from 18.02–38.40% in blends of barley starch with rice, corn, and wheat. A

Mahesh Gupta; Amarinder Singh Bawa; Anil Dutt Semwal

2009-01-01

232

Genetic and geographic variation of bulbous barley ( Hordeum bulbosum L.) assessed by RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic relationships among 21 barley accessions (17 of bulbous barley H. bulbosum L. and 4 of cultivated barley (H. vulgare L.) collected from different part of Turkey were investigated using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Eleven informative\\u000a primers amplified 111 markers of which 98 (89.8%) were polymorphic. A dendogram was constructed using the UPGMA method based\\u000a on the RAPD markers.

A. Okumus; F. Uzun

2007-01-01

233

Design of a Short Cartoon Film for Chinese Ancient Story  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cartoon animation has already become the mainstream of propagating culture in the network at present. China has abundant ancient civilization, how to keep and propagate ancient civilization by cartoon animation has very important realistic meaning, \\

Zhen Liu

2007-01-01

234

Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astronomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors regarded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Consequently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

Han, Yanben; Qiao, Qiyuan

2009-11-01

235

Molecular marker analysis of hypoploid regenerants from cultures of barley x Canada wild rye.  

PubMed

Canada wild rye (CWR, Elymus canadensis L., 2n = 4x = 28) is a potential source of genes for disease resistance and environmental tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L., 2n = 2x = 14). Tissue cultures were initiated from immature inflorescences of CWR x 'Betzes' barley hybrids to promote CWR introgression into barley through possible tissue culture induced chromosome breakage and exchange. Among the plants regenerated, some were missing one (2n = 20) or part of one (2n = 20 + telo) chromosome. The objective of this study was to identify the missing chromosome or chromosome arm in these regenerants through the analysis of molecular (RFLP) markers that previously had been mapped in barley. Forty-six hypoploid regenerants that traced to 30 separate explants obtained from 10 interspecific hybrid plants were evaluated. DNA was digested with the restriction enzyme HindIII, Southern blotted, and probed with 39 genomic and cDNA barley clones that identified sequences polymorphic between barley and CWR. Eight of these probes identified band loss patterns that separated the regenerants into two groups. One group, all with barley cytoplasm, were missing a CWR chromosome homoeologous to barley chromosome 3; a second group, all with CWR cytoplasm, were missing a CWR chromosome homoelogous to barley chromosome 7. These results indicated that chromosome elimination in culture was not random. The two cytoplasm groups were further differentiated by probes that identified band shifts. These band shifts were caused by differences in DNA methylation. Key words : Hordeum vulgare, aneuploidy, Elymus canadensis, tissue culture. PMID:18469900

Dahleen, L S

1996-04-01

236

Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat  

PubMed Central

Background Gene silencing vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) are used extensively in cereals to study gene function, but nearly all studies have been limited to genes expressed in leaves of barley and wheat. However since many important aspects of plant biology are based on root-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species) have created a need for tools to study gene function in these species. Results Here we demonstrate the successful BSMV-mediated virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) of three different genes in barley roots, i.e. the barley homologues of the IPS1, PHR1, and PHO2 genes known to participate in Pi uptake and reallocation in Arabidopsis. Attempts to silence two other genes, the Pi transporter gene HvPht1;1 and the endo-?-1,4-glucanase gene HvCel1, in barley roots were unsuccessful, probably due to instability of the plant gene inserts in the viral vector. In B. distachyon leaves, significant silencing of the PHYTOENE DESATURASE (BdPDS) gene was obtained as shown by photobleaching as well as quantitative RT-PCR analysis. On the other hand, only very limited silencing of the oat AsPDS gene was observed in both hexaploid (A. sativa) and diploid (A. strigosa) oat. Finally, two modifications of the BSMV vector are presented, allowing ligation-free cloning of DNA fragments into the BSMV-? component. Conclusions Our results show that BSMV can be used as a vector for gene silencing in barley roots and in B. distachyon leaves and possibly roots, opening up possibilities for using VIGS to study cereal root biology and to exploit the wealth of genome information in the new cereal model plant B. distachyon. On the other hand, the silencing induced by BSMV in oat seemed too weak to be of practical use. The new BSMV vectors modified for ligation-free cloning will allow rapid insertion of plant gene fragments for future experiments. PMID:21118486

2010-01-01

237

Low GI Food with Barley in Space Foods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The construction of the life-support system to perform space, moon base, Mars emigration is demanded. The space foods will play a very important role of life support on this occasion. Particularly, in environment of the microgravity, our metabolism becomes less than the face of the Earth. The management of the blood sugar level is very important. We need to eat the meal which will be rise in blood sugar level slowly. The barley which includes much water-soluble dietary fibers is helpful to make low GI space food. After eating 30% barley with unpolished rice, blood sugar level was rise slowly. The cooking process is very important to our body in thinking about digestion and absorption. Soft foods, long-heated foods and grind-foods are easy to digest. After eating these-foods, our blood sugar level will rise, easily. We introduce the space foods with 30% wheat that the blood sugar level is hard to rising.

Katayama, Naomi; Sugimoto, Manabu; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kihara, Makoto; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force

238

Salinity-induced calcium deficiencies in wheat and barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity-calcium interactions, which have been shown to be important in plants grown in dryland saline soils of the Canadian prairies, were studied in two species differing in salt tolerance. In solution culture, wheat showed a greater reduction in growth and a higher incidence of foliar Ca deficiency symptoms than barley when grown under MgSO4 or Na2SO4 plus MgSO4 salt stress.

D. L. Ehret; R. E. Redmann; B. L. Harvey; A. Cipywnyk

1990-01-01

239

Genetic diversity in Ethiopian barley in relation to altitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

A representative sample of the Ethiopian barley collection, maintained at the Ethiopian Plant Genetic Resources Centre (PGRC\\/E), was studied for its phenotypic diversity for some agronomic characters, i.e. kernel row number, spike density, spikelets per spike, caryopsis type, kernel colour, thousand grain weight, days to maturity and plant height. The diversity was estimated by using the Shannon-Weaver diversity index (H')

J. M. M. Engels

1994-01-01

240

Control of barley yellow dwarf virus in cereals  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) is the most important disease affecting cereal crops in New Zealand.2. Losses from BYDV in the total wheat crop have been up to 25 per cent in recent years.3. Effective control of BYDV in autumn- and early winter-sown wheat in New Zealand has been achieved by 1 application of a good systemic organo-phosphate spray

Harvey C. Smith

1963-01-01

241

Association mapping of spot blotch resistance in wild barley  

PubMed Central

Spot blotch, caused by Cochliobolus sativus, is an important foliar disease of barley. The disease has been controlled for over 40 years through the deployment of cultivars with durable resistance derived from the line NDB112. Pathotypes of C. sativus with virulence for the NDB112 resistance have been detected in Canada; thus, many commercial cultivars are vulnerable to spot blotch epidemics. To increase the diversity of spot blotch resistance in cultivated barley, we evaluated 318 diverse wild barley accessions comprising the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) for reaction to C. sativus at the seedling stage and utilized an association mapping (AM) approach to identify and map resistance loci. A high frequency of resistance was found in the WBDC as 95% (302/318) of the accessions exhibited low infection responses. The WBDC was genotyped with 558 Diversity Array Technology (DArT®) and 2,878 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and subjected to structure analysis before running the AM procedure. Thirteen QTL for spot blotch resistance were identified with DArT and SNP markers. These QTL were found on chromosomes 1H, 2H, 3H, 5H, and 7H and explained from 2.3 to 3.9% of the phenotypic variance. Nearly half of the identified QTL mapped to chromosome bins where spot blotch resistance loci were previously reported, offering some validation for the AM approach. The other QTL mapped to unique genomic regions and may represent new spot blotch resistance loci. This study demonstrates that AM is an effective technique for identifying and mapping QTL for disease resistance in a wild crop progenitor. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11032-010-9402-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20694035

Roy, Joy K.; Smith, Kevin P.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.; Chao, Shiaoman; Close, Timothy J.

2010-01-01

242

A high-throughput DNA extraction method for barley seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-destructive, quick DNA extraction method for barley seed is described. The method is simple and consists of drilling\\u000a out a sample from the seed, adding sodium hydroxide, heating in a microwave oven and neutralizing with Tris-HCl. The seed\\u000a DNA extract can be used directly for PCR with extra cycles added to the PCR programme compared to PCR programmes used

Rebecka von Post; Lars von Post; Christophe Dayteg; Marie Nilsson; Brian P. Forster; Stine Tuvesson

2003-01-01

243

Inhibitory Activity by Barley Coffee Components Towards Streptococcus Mutans Biofilm  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was shown that barley coffee (BC) interferes with Streptococcus mutans adsorption to hydroxyapatite. After BC component fractionation by dialysis and gel filtration chromatography (GFC), it was\\u000a found that the low molecular mass (<1,000 Da) fraction (LMM fraction) containing polyphenols, zinc and fluoride ions and,\\u000a above all, a high molecular mass (HMM > 1,000 kDa) melanoidin fraction display strong anti-adhesive properties towards S. mutans.

Monica Stauder; Adele Papetti; Maria Daglia; Luigi Vezzulli; Gabriella Gazzani; Pietro E. Varaldo; Carla Pruzzo

2010-01-01

244

Calcium and proton transport in membrane vesicles from barley roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ca{sup 2+} uptake by membrane fractions from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv CM72) roots was characterized. Uptake of ⁴⁵Ca{sup 2+} was measured in membrane vesicles obtained from continuous and discontinuous sucrose gradients. A single, large peak of Ca{sup 2+} uptake coincided with the peak of proton transport by the tonoplast H{sup +}-ATPase. Depending on the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in

F. M. DuPont; J. J. Windle; D. S. Bush; R. L. Jones

1990-01-01

245

Brassinosteroid enhances resistance to fusarium diseases of barley.  

PubMed

Fusarium pathogens are among the most damaging pathogens of cereals. These pathogens have the ability to attack the roots, seedlings, and flowering heads of barley and wheat plants with disease, resulting in yield loss and head blight disease and also resulting in the contamination of grain with mycotoxins harmful to human and animal health. There is increasing evidence that brassinosteroid (BR) hormones play an important role in plant defense against both biotic and abiotic stress agents and this study set out to determine if and how BR might affect Fusarium diseases of barley. Application of the epibrassinolide (epiBL) to heads of 'Lux' barley reduced the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium culmorum by 86% and reduced the FHB-associated loss in grain weight by 33%. Growth of plants in soil amended with epiBL resulted in a 28 and 35% reduction in Fusarium seedling blight (FSB) symptoms on the Lux and 'Akashinriki' barley, respectively. Microarray analysis was used to determine whether growth in epiBL-amended soil changed the transcriptional profile in stem base tissue during the early stages of FSB development. At 24 and 48 h post F. culmorum inoculation, there were 146 epiBL-responsive transcripts, the majority being from the 48-h time point (n = 118). Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis validated the results for eight transcripts, including five defense genes. The results of gene expression studies show that chromatin remodeling, hormonal signaling, photosynthesis, and pathogenesis-related genes are activated in plants as a result of growth in epiBL. PMID:23777406

Ali, Shahin S; Kumar, G B Sunil; Khan, Mojibur; Doohan, Fiona M

2013-12-01

246

Composition, Microstructure, Water Imbibition, and Thermal Properties of Abraded Barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 75(5):677-685 Barley, nonwaxy hull (cvs. Crystal and Meltan) and waxy hull-less (cvs. Merlin and Waxbar), was abraded at 10, 20, and 40% of kernel weight on a laboratory scale and commercially abraded at two levels: fine and coarse. In 40% abraded kernels of Crystal, protein, ash, and free lipids contents decreased by 1.6, 1.4, and 1.4%, respectively, and

A. Klamczynski; B.-K. Baik; Z. Czuchajowska

1998-01-01

247

Primary structure of A B1 hordein gene from barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 873 base pair coding region of a Hor-2 gene of barley and the adjacent 550 base pair upstream and 413 base pair downstream\\u000a regions were sequenced. The gene is devoid of introns and encodes a 271 amino acid long B1 hordein polypeptide containing\\u000a a putative 19 amino acid signal peptide. The remaining part of the coding sequence can be

Anders Brandt; Alain Montembault; Verena Cameron-Mills; Søren K. Rasmussen

1985-01-01

248

Barley mutants with defects in photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide fixation by leaf pieces from 12 different chloroplast mutants and wild type barley has been analysed. In the\\u000a light leaf pieces from wild type seedlings fixed14CO2 at a rate of approximately 80 ?moles per gram fresh weight per hour, or 40 ?moles per mg chlorophyll per hour. Fixation of14CO2 in darkness occurred at one to four per cent

Bodil Carlsen

1977-01-01

249

Stabilization of emulsions and foams using barley ?-glucan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley ?-glucan (BBG) is receiving increasing attention as a food hydrocolloid. Stability of foams and emulsions was assessed using whey protein concentrate (WPC) as an emulsifier and foaming agent, and BBG gum extracted at pilot plant or laboratory scale as a stabilizer. WPC had a significant lowering effect (P?0.05) on surface tension of water and water–oil interfacial tension, while the

Zvonko Burkus; Feral Temelli

2000-01-01

250

Plant regeneration from protoplasts of wild barley ( Hordeum murinum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have produced a large number of plants regenerated from protoplasts originally isolated from embryo-derived cell suspensions of wild barley, Hordeum murinum L.. Suspensions initially allowed protoplast isolation and culture 5.5 to 9 months from the date of callus initiation. Colony formation efficiencies ranged from 1.5 to 3.0 % and from 0.1 to 1.4 % for protoplast cultures with and

Xiao-Hui Wang; Horst Lörz

1994-01-01

251

Structural and functional characterization of a winter malting barley.  

PubMed

The development of winter malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties is emerging as a worldwide priority due to the numerous advantages of these varieties over spring types. However, the complexity of both malting quality and winter hardiness phenotypes makes simultaneous improvement a challenge. To obtain an understanding of the relationship between loci controlling winter hardiness and malt quality and to assess the potential for breeding winter malting barley varieties, we structurally and functionally characterized the six-row accession "88Ab536", a cold-tolerant line with superior malting quality characteristics that derives from the cross of NE76129/Morex//Morex. We used 4,596 SNPs to construct the haplotype structure of 88Ab536 on which malting quality and winter hardiness loci reported in the literature were aligned. The genomic regions determining malting quality and winter hardiness traits have been defined in this founder germplasm, which will assist breeders in targeting regions for marker-assisted selection. The Barley1 GeneChip array was used to functionally characterize 88Ab536 during malting. Its gene expression profile was similar to that of the archetypical malting variety Morex, which is consistent with their similar malting quality characteristics. The characterization of 88Ab536 has increased our understanding of the genetic relationships of malting quality and winter hardiness, and will provide a genetic foundation for further development of more cold-tolerant varieties that have malt quality characteristics that meet or exceed current benchmarks. PMID:19960335

Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Cistué, L; Xiong, Y; Bilgic, H; Budde, A D; Schmitt, M R; Smith, K P; Hayes, P M; Muehlbauer, G J

2010-03-01

252

Structure, morphology and functionality of acetylated and oxidised barley starches.  

PubMed

Acetylation and oxidation are chemical modifications which alter the properties of starch. The degree of modification of acetylated and oxidized starches is dependent on the catalyst and active chlorine concentrations, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetylation and oxidation on the structural, morphological, physical-chemical, thermal and pasting properties of barley starch. Barley starches were acetylated at different catalyst levels (11%, 17%, and 23% of NaOH solution) and oxidized at different sodium hypochlorite concentrations (1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% of active chlorine). Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractograms, thermal, morphological, and pasting properties, swelling power and solubility of starches were evaluated. The degree of substitution (DS) of the acetylated starches increased with the rise in catalyst concentration. The percentage of carbonyl (CO) and carboxyl (COOH) groups in oxidized starches also increased with the rise of active chlorine level. The presence of hydrophobic acetyl groups, carbonyl and carboxyl groups caused a partial disorganization and depolymerization of starch granules. The structural, morphological and functional changes in acetylated and oxidized starches varied according to reaction conditions. Acetylation makes barley starch more hydrophobic by the insertion of acetyl groups. Also the oxidation promotes low retrogradation and viscosity. All these characteristics are important for biodegradable film production. PMID:25172707

El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Bartz, Josiane; Radunz, Marjana; Carreño, Neftali Lenin Villarreal; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

2015-02-01

253

Freezing of barley studied by infrared video thermography.  

PubMed

Freezing of barley (Hordeum vulgare), Hordeum murinum, and Holcus lanatus was studied using infrared video thermography. In the field, ice could enter H. lanatus leaves through hydathodes. In laboratory tests with barley, initially 0.4% of the leaf water froze, spreading in alternate strips of high and low freezing intensity longitudinally at 1 to 4 cm s(-1), and simultaneously spreading laterally at 0.3 cm s(-1). Similar results were obtained in the field with H. lanatus. A distinct second, more intense, freezing event spread slowly from the margins of the leaves toward the midrib. Organs of uprooted barley tested in the laboratory froze in this order: nucleated leaf, roots, older leaves, younger leaves, and secondary tillers. When ice spread from one leaf to the rest of the plant the crown delayed spread to the roots and other leaves. There was a longer delay above than below -2 degrees C, helping to protect the crown from freezing during mild frosts. Initial spread of freezing was not damaging. However, the initial spread is a prerequisite for the second freezing event, which can cause damage. The route of the initial spread of ice may be extracellular, drawing water from more gel-like parts of the cell wall. PMID:11154332

Pearce, R S; Fuller, M P

2001-01-01

254

Freezing of Barley Studied by Infrared Video Thermography1  

PubMed Central

Freezing of barley (Hordeum vulgare), Hordeum murinum, and Holcus lanatus was studied using infrared video thermography. In the field, ice could enter H. lanatus leaves through hydathodes. In laboratory tests with barley, initially 0.4% of the leaf water froze, spreading in alternate strips of high and low freezing intensity longitudinally at 1 to 4 cm s?1, and simultaneously spreading laterally at 0.3 cm s?1. Similar results were obtained in the field with H. lanatus. A distinct second, more intense, freezing event spread slowly from the margins of the leaves toward the midrib. Organs of uprooted barley tested in the laboratory froze in this order: nucleated leaf, roots, older leaves, younger leaves, and secondary tillers. When ice spread from one leaf to the rest of the plant the crown delayed spread to the roots and other leaves. There was a longer delay above than below ?2°C, helping to protect the crown from freezing during mild frosts. Initial spread of freezing was not damaging. However, the initial spread is a prerequisite for the second freezing event, which can cause damage. The route of the initial spread of ice may be extracellular, drawing water from more gel-like parts of the cell wall. PMID:11154332

Pearce, Roger S.; Fuller, Michael P.

2001-01-01

255

86 Ancient Mediterranean Civilizations 87 Core Courses  

E-print Network

visit the AMC website at http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~amc. Ancient Mediterranean Civilizations The SchoolIntosh Susan Keech McIntosh Donald Ray Morrison Harvey E. Yunis Associate Professors Hilary S. Mackie Carol E opportunities for archaeological fieldwork and study abroad. Rice is a sponsor of the American School

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

256

Persuasion in Ancient Greece and Rome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extract: Many of the central issues connected with verbal persuasion were being examined in great detail by the Greeks and Romans over two thousand years ago. Indeed, rhetoric — a topic they defined as ‘the art of persuasion’ — constituted the main focus of the ancient educational system. After the age of 15 or 16, students would spend virtually all

Jon Hall

2007-01-01

257

Integrated geophysical studies at ancient Itanos (Greece)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of an integrated geophysical survey at the archaeological site of Itanos (Crete) are presented and discussed. At Hellenistic Itanos, which is located near the seashore, the buried ruins are partially under the saline water table. The purpose of this geophysical survey was to map buried relics of buildings, streets and walls of ancient Itanos. In particular, the usefulness

A. Vafidis; N. Economou; Y. Ganiatsos; M. Manakou; G. Poulioudis; G. Sourlas; E. Vrontaki; A. Sarris; M. Guy; Th. Kalpaxis

2005-01-01

258

ROME REBORN - VIRTUALIZING THE ANCIENT IMPERIAL ROME  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1997 to 2007 an international effort involving research groups both in US and Italy, developed a virtual model of ancient Rome, as it appeared in 320 AD. The primary purpose of the project was to visually present theories and hypotheses about how the capital of the Roman Empire appeared at the peak of its development. The model is therefore

Gabriele Guidi; Bernard Frischer; Ignazio Lucenti

259

The Ancient stellar population of Leo A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goal of our proposal is the characterisation of the oldest stellar populations in Leo A using the properties of ancient RR Lyrae variable stars as tracers. Well known and long established correlations exist between the periods and luminosities of RR Lyrae variable stars and their ages and metallicities. Combining our Gemini study of the properties of RR Lyrae

Abhijit Saha; Giuliana Fiorentino; Eline Tolstoy; Andrew Cole

2010-01-01

260

PopulatingAncientPompeiiwithCrowdsofVirtualRomans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pompeii was a Roman city, destroyed and completely buried during an eruption of the volcano Mount Vesuvius. We have revived its past by creating a 3D model of its previous appearance and populated it with crowds of Virtual Romans. In this paper, we detail the process, based on archaeological data, to simulate ancient Pompeii life in real time. In a

Simon Haegler; Barbara Yersin; Pascal Mueller; Daniel Thalmann; Luc Van Gool

261

Poetry therapy in ancient Greek literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ancient Greek literature demonstrates definite precursors to poetry therapy. Examples of treatment of wounds in the Iliad emphasize the value of soothing words and stories, as well as that of soothing drugs. Plato, Aristotle, and the Greek tragedians depict emotional catharsis, and the therapeutic role of verbal persuasion. On many occasions, Homer calls on the Muses or Goddess’ for help,

Stephen Rojcewicz

2004-01-01

262

Tapping Ancient Roots: Plaited Paper Baskets  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With ancient roots, basket making has been practiced since the earliest civilizations, and according to textile experts, probably pre-dates pottery. This is partly conjecture since few baskets remain. It is through evidence found in clay impressions that the earliest baskets reveal themselves. Basically, basketry construction is like flat weaving.…

Patrick, Jane

2011-01-01

263

Archaeology Informs Our Understanding of Ancient Texts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizes the importance and utility of archaeology for understanding ancient texts and revealing how they illuminate biblical meaning and history. Presents guidelines showing classroom teachers how to incorporate archaeological knowledge into their lessons. Describes current Middle Eastern excavation sites, using Jerusalem as a case study.…

Mull, Kenneth V.

1990-01-01

264

“Ancient” protocols for the crime scene?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide a short overview on some current issues in the fields of forensic genetics and ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis. We discuss about the existence of the possible points of contact between the two disciplines, in terms of open problems and the inherent approach to their solution. We mainly focus on the problem of results authentication, its theoretical and technical

C Capelli; F Tschentscher; V. L Pascali

2003-01-01

265

The Ancient African Civilization of Kush.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that early African civilizations should be taught to ameliorate the problem of many African-American students first encountering related peoples in discussions of colonialism and slavery. Observes that the absence of materials for middle grade teachers reinforces this tendency. Promotes the authors' teaching packs on the ancient African…

Mollet, David; Mollet, Joyce

1998-01-01

266

Sport and medicine in ancient Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sport and medicine in ancient Greece were the result of a widespread tradition of liberty, which was at the heart of one of the most brilliant civilizations in history. Whereas war encouraged the development of surgical knowledge springing out of medical experience on the battlefield, peace promoted the burgeoning of sport as an integral part of Greek upbringing, allowing the

Thierry Appelboom; Christine Rouffin; Eric Fierens

1988-01-01

267

Precursors of Vocational Psychology in Ancient Civilizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines philosophical theories produced by two ancient civilizations (Eastern Mediterranean and Chinese) for applications to an applied psychology of work. Includes analysis of Egyptians, Semites, and Greeks, with a special emphasis on Plato. Suggests that many basic elements of vocational psychology were present during the first millennium B.C.…

Dumont, Frank; Carson, Andrew D.

1995-01-01

268

Myths and Gods of Ancient Mexico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended to help Americans of Mexican descent understand their rich cultural heritage, this portfolio contains 12 full-color drawings of the myths and gods of the Olmecs and Toltecs of Ancient Mexico. These original drawings are by Vincent P. Rascon. Information captions in English and Spanish are given for each drawing which is printed on heavy…

Rascon, Vincent P.

269

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL INDIA  

E-print Network

EDUCATION IN ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL INDIA Indian education system can be traced to Vedic peri- od a cosmopolitan character. Students came from far off places to study various arts and sciences and medicine high priority to train surveyors for government works. The first Survey School on the Indian soil

Srinivasan, N.

270

The Study of Women in Ancient Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents ideas for teaching about the roles of women in ancient Greek and Roman societies for undergraduate history and sociology classes. The discussion covers the roots of misogyny in Western culture, parallels between mythologies and sociocultural patterns, and the legal status of women in antiquity. (AM)

Moscovich, M. James

1982-01-01

271

Mechanisms in Ancient Philosophy of Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay considers the place of mechanisms in ancient theories of science. It might seem therefore to promise a meager discussion, since the importance of mechanisms in contemporary scientific explanation is the product of a revolution in scientific thinking connected with the late Renaissance and its mechanization of nature. Indeed the conception of astronomy as devoted merely to saving the

Aryeh Kosman

2004-01-01

272

Women of Ancient Greece: Participating in Sport?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on evidence obtained from Greek literature and artifacts, this paper examines the extent to which women in ancient Greece participated in physical activity, sports, and games. Homer's "Odyssey" describes women playing ball and driving chariots; vases dating back to 700-675 B.C. portray women driving light chariots in a procession; a girl…

Mills, Brett D.

273

27 CFR 9.227 - Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley. 9.227 Section...Viticultural Areas § 9.227 Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley. (a) Name. The...described in this section is “Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley”. For purposes of...

2014-04-01

274

27 CFR 9.227 - Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley. 9.227 Section...Viticultural Areas § 9.227 Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley. (a) Name. The...described in this section is “Ancient Lakes of Columbia Valley”. For purposes of...

2013-04-01

275

WILLIAMS COLLEGE MUSEUM OF ART Mysteries of the Ancient World  

E-print Network

ancient objects from the Near East, Egypt, Greece, Rome, India, and Mesoamerica. Through close observationWILLIAMS COLLEGE MUSEUM OF ART Mysteries of the Ancient World Grades 6-12 encounterart #12 experience with your classroom lessons. Tour Overview Artifacts can tell us about life in the ancient world

Aalberts, Daniel P.

276

Ancient building simulation platform based on virtual geography environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protection of ancient building is a hot topic. Recently, so many techniques have been applied to this field. However, the best method to protect them is to present the treasure to more people. Virtual geography environment (VGE) is to visualize and analyze the phenomena on our earth, including ancient building. This paper illustrates a brand-new approach of managing ancient buildings

Ke Shengnan; Gong Jun

2010-01-01

277

A Swarm of Ancient Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We know of about 150 of the rich collections of old stars called globular clusters that orbit our galaxy, the Milky Way. This sharp new image of Messier 107, captured by the Wide Field Imager on the 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, displays the structure of one such globular cluster in exquisite detail. Studying these stellar swarms has revealed much about the history of our galaxy and how stars evolve. The globular cluster Messier 107, also known as NGC 6171, is a compact and ancient family of stars that lies about 21 000 light-years away. Messier 107 is a bustling metropolis: thousands of stars in globular clusters like this one are concentrated into a space that is only about twenty times the distance between our Sun and its nearest stellar neighbour, Alpha Centauri, across. A significant number of these stars have already evolved into red giants, one of the last stages of a star's life, and have a yellowish colour in this image. Globular clusters are among the oldest objects in the Universe. And since the stars within a globular cluster formed from the same cloud of interstellar matter at roughly the same time - typically over 10 billion years ago - they are all low-mass stars, as lightweights burn their hydrogen fuel supply much more slowly than stellar behemoths. Globular clusters formed during the earliest stages in the formation of their host galaxies and therefore studying these objects can give significant insights into how galaxies, and their component stars, evolve. Messier 107 has undergone intensive observations, being one of the 160 stellar fields that was selected for the Pre-FLAMES Survey - a preliminary survey conducted between 1999 and 2002 using the 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, to find suitable stars for follow-up observations with the VLT's spectroscopic instrument FLAMES [1]. Using FLAMES, it is possible to observe up to 130 targets at the same time, making it particularly well suited to the spectroscopic study of densely populated stellar fields, such as globular clusters. M107 is not visible to the naked eye, but, with an apparent magnitude of about eight, it can easily be observed from a dark site with binoculars or a small telescope. The globular cluster is about 13 arcminutes across, which corresponds to about 80 light-years at its distance, and it is found in the constellation of Ophiuchus, north of the pincers of Scorpius. Roughly half of the Milky Way's known globular clusters are actually found in the constellations of Sagittarius, Scorpius and Ophiuchus, in the general direction of the centre of the Milky Way. This is because they are all in elongated orbits around the central region and are on average most likely to be seen in this direction. Messier 107 was discovered by Pierre Méchain in April 1782 and it was added to the list of seven Additional Messier Objects that were originally not included in the final version of Messier's catalogue, which was published the previous year. On 12 May 1793, it was independently rediscovered by William Herschel, who was able to resolve this globular cluster into stars for the first time. But it was not until 1947 that this globular cluster finally took its place in Messier's catalogue as M107, making it the most recent star cluster to be added to this famous list. This image is composed from exposures taken through the blue, green and near-infrared filters by the Wide Field Camera (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. Notes [1] Fibre Large Array Multi-Element Spectrograph More information ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based obs

2010-12-01

278

Ectoparasitic growth of Magnaporthe on barley triggers expression of the putative barley wax biosynthesis gene CYP96B22 which is involved in penetration resistance  

PubMed Central

Background Head blast caused by the fungal plant pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae is an upcoming threat for wheat and barley cultivation. We investigated the nonhost response of barley to an isolate of the Magnaporthe species complex which is pathogenic on Pennisetum spp. as a potential source for novel resistance traits. Results Array experiments identified a barley gene encoding a putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase whose transcripts accumulate to a higher concentration in the nonhost as compared to the host interaction. The gene clusters within the CYP96 clade of the P450 plant gene family and is designated as CYP96B22. Expression of CYP96B22 was triggered during the ectoparasitic growth of the pathogen on the outside of the leaf. Usage of a fungicidal treatment and a Magnaporthe mutant confirmed that penetration was not necessary for this early activation of CYP96B22. Transcriptional silencing of CYP96B22 using Barley stripe mosaic virus led to a decrease in penetration resistance of barley plants to Magnaporthe host and nonhost isolates. This phenotype seems to be specific for the barley-Magnaporthe interaction, since penetration of the adapted barley powdery mildew fungus was not altered in similarly treated plants. Conclusion Taken together our results suggest a cross-talk between barley and Magnaporthe isolates across the plant surface. Since members of the plant CYP96 family are known to be involved in synthesis of epicuticular waxes, these substances or their derivatives might act as signal components. We propose a functional overlap of CYP96B22 in the execution of penetration resistance during basal and nonhost resistance of barley against different Magnaporthe species. PMID:24423145

2014-01-01

279

Genetic diversity among ancient Nordic populations.  

PubMed

Using established criteria for work with fossil DNA we have analysed mitochondrial DNA from 92 individuals from 18 locations in Denmark ranging in time from the Mesolithic to the Medieval Age. Unequivocal assignment of mtDNA haplotypes was possible for 56 of the ancient individuals; however, the success rate varied substantially between sites; the highest rates were obtained with untouched, freshly excavated material, whereas heavy handling, archeological preservation and storage for many years influenced the ability to obtain authentic endogenic DNA. While the nucleotide diversity at two locations was similar to that among extant Danes, the diversity at four sites was considerably higher. This supports previous observations for ancient Britons. The overall occurrence of haplogroups did not deviate from extant Scandinavians, however, haplogroup I was significantly more frequent among the ancient Danes (average 13%) than among extant Danes and Scandinavians (approximately 2.5%) as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture) that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP) was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least for Southern Scandinavia, our findings do not support a possible replacement of a haplogroup U dominated hunter-gatherer population by a more haplogroup diverse Neolithic Culture. PMID:20689597

Melchior, Linea; Lynnerup, Niels; Siegismund, Hans R; Kivisild, Toomas; Dissing, Jørgen

2010-01-01

280

Experimental Approaches to Understanding Ancient Ecosystems Flammability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire is a natural process integral to the order and function of our planet. It produces unique products that interact with its carbon and nutrient balance. Fires are a significant source of atmospheric carbon dioxide and assist in the regulation of the oxygen content of our atmosphere. Natural fires have occurred on our planet for ~420 million years, where even the first tiny land plants were capable of being ignited and carrying a fire. Evidence for such fires comes from the record of fossil charcoal found, often abundantly, in ancient sediments. Fossil charcoal provides an exceptional means to record not only probable variations in ancient fire activity but also information about ancient plants, not least owing to its three-dimensional preservation of plant anatomy. However, fossil charcoal like all fossils is subject to taphonomic biases which mean that it is hard to decipher exactly what an abundance of charcoal means in the context of fire histories, ancient fire dynamics and ecosystems flammability. Fires require 3 basic ingredients; these are an ignition source, fuel to burn and a source of oxygen. We can therefore consider how variations in the past concentration of atmospheric oxygen and how the evolution of different plant groups and the types of fuel that they provide have influenced fire activity throughout geological time. By going back to basics we can design experiments that assess the fundamental behaviour of fire and the flammability of different fuels. Here I will present some experimental approaches that cross-cut a variety of disciplines within the fire sciences which aim to enhance our understanding of the interplay between fuel variations and past atmospheric composition on broad trends in ancient fire activity.

Belcher, C. M.

2012-04-01

281

Reconsidering domestication of legumes versus cereals in the ancient near east.  

PubMed

In this paper, we discuss, from both biological and cultural perspectives, the ancient human-plant liaison that gave rise to Near Eastern agriculture. We explain the biological aspects of Near Eastern plant domestication by a comparative analysis of legume vs. cereal crop evolution. This comparison is illustrated by the natural distribution, ecological affinity, physiology, population structure, floral biology, growth habit, plant stature, seed dispersal mode, and seed dormancy of both wild and domesticated plants of these crop groups. We discuss the differences between Near Eastern legumes and cereals with regard to each of the above aspects, and we highlight the relevance of these differences with regard to Neolithic decision-making, adoption for farming, and subsequent evolution under domestication. We reached the following conclusions: (1) Near Eastern legumes underwent different evolutionary trajectories under domestication as compared with their companion cereals, despite apparent similarities between selection under domestication of both crop groups. (2) Careful comparison of pea, lentil, and chickpea shows that each of the Near Eastern legume crops has a unique evolutionary history in its own right, and this also holds true for the cereal crops. (3) The evolutionary history of each of the Near Eastern crops, prior to as well as after domestication, is well-reflected in its adaptation profile in present-day cropping systems, which determines each crop's relative economic importance in different world regions (e.g., chickpea is a major pulse in the Indian subcontinent, and pea is a more important crop in temperate regions, while barley has the widest adaptation, extending from high-latitude temperate regions to semi-arid Mediterranean systems). (4) Ancient choice-making as reflected in the founder crops repertoire, involved nutritional considerations that may have outweighed grain yield per area and/or time unit criteria. PMID:19326787

Abbo, Shahal; Saranga, Yehoshua; Peleg, Zvi; Kerem, Zohar; Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Gopher, Avi

2009-03-01

282

Late Neoproterozoic rise and fall of the northern Arabian-Nubian shield: The role of lithospheric mantle delamination and subsequent thermal subsidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Review of the Late Neoproterozoic history of the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) reveals that rapid and extensive erosional denudation, widespread late-orogenic calc-alkaline and alkaline igneous activity and intramontane basin formation affected this terrane at 630-590 Ma. Core-complex extension is also recorded at this time interval. To account for this coupling it is suggested that the mantle lithosphere was removed/delaminated from below the northern ANS subsequent to significant crust-mantle thickening in the course of the Late Neoproterozoic orogeny. Because the physical properties of the delamination process are not clear, we use it as a conceptual term accounting for the replacement of mantle lithosphere by an asthenosphere. Removal and replacement of the thickened lithospheric mantle roots potentially caused uplift of the northern ANS to elevations of more than 3 km, thus triggering exceptionally-rapid erosional unroofing of a ca. 10 km thick rock carapace, and some lateral extension. Delamination and erosional decompression potentially caused partial melting of ANS residual upper mantle and lower crust to produce the widespread post-orogenic magmas. We emphasize that removal of the lithospheric mantle also played a key role in lowering ANS topography to sea level. Our data show that lowering ANS down to sea level was significantly accelerated by post-delamination cooling and thermal subsidence. Unlike erosional denudation which is followed by isostatic uplift, thermal contraction causes net surface lowering. We show that thermal subsidence plays a critical role in lowering mountain belts, particularly in the latest stages, when the topography reaches a threshold of ˜ 1.0 km and erosion rates greatly decrease. Post-delamination thermal subsidence can cause 1.3 km of net surface lowering within 100 m.y. regardless of the state of relief and elevation. Therefore, orogenic belts that experienced removal or delamination of their mantle lithosphere (hot orogens) would rapidly rise, but would relatively rapidly fall too.

Avigad, Dov; Gvirtzman, Zohar

2009-11-01

283

Late Neoproterozoic rise and fall of the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield: The role of lithospheric mantle delamination and subsequent thermal subsidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Review of the Late Neoproterozoic history of the northern Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) reveals that rapid and extensive erosional denudation, widespread late-orogenic calc-alkaline and alkaline igneous activity and intramontane basin formation affected this terrane at 630-590 Ma. To account for this coupling it is suggested, that the mantle lithosphere was removed /delaminated from below the northern ANS subsequently to significant crust-mantle thickening in the course of Late Neoproterozoic orogeny. Because the physical properties of the delamination process are not clear, we use it as a conceptual term accounting for the replacement of mantle lithosphere by an asthenosphere. Removal of the thickened lithospheric mantle roots potentially caused instantaneous uplift of the northern ANS to elevations of more than 3 km, thus triggering exceptionally-rapid erosional unroofing and lateral extension. Delamination and erosional decompression potentially caused partial melting of ANS upper mantle and lower crust to produce the widespread post-orogenic magmas. In the present work we emphasis that removal of the lithospheric mantle also played a key role in lowering ANS topography to sea level. Our data show that lowering ANS down to sea level was significantly accelerated by post-delamination cooling and thermal subsidence. Unlike erosional denudation which is followed by isostatic uplift, thermal contraction causes net surface lowering. We show that thermal subsidence plays a critical role in lowering mountain belts, particularly in the latest stages of down wear, when the topography reaches a threshold of ~1.0 km and erosion slows down. Then, surface lowering by thermal subsidence is 5 folds faster (more efficient) than erosion. Post-delamination thermal subsidence can cause 1.3 km of net surface lowering within 100 m.y. regardless of the state of relief and elevation. Therefore, orogenic belts that experienced removal or delamination of their mantle lithosphere (hot orogens) would rapidly rise, but would relatively (!) rapidly fall too.

Avigad, D.; Gvirtzman, Z.

2009-04-01

284

The Neoproterozoic layered mafic-ultramafic intrusion of Gabal Imleih, south Sinai, Egypt: Implications of post-collisional magmatism in the north Arabian-Nubian Shield  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Imleih layered mafic-ultramafic body is a Neoproterozoic intrusion covering about 45 km 2 in southern Sinai. The field relations as well as the fine grained chilled margins indicate that the layered intrusion is younger than the surrounding calc-alkaline syn-tectonic granodiorite and Iqna Shar ,a volcanics and older than the post-tectonic Iqna granite. There is a general consensus that there are no ophiolitic rocks younger than the syn-tectonic granitoids in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS), which supports the non-ophiolitic origin of the Imleih layered intrusion. The studied layered intrusion is tilted to the north, with lower layers (peridotite and pyroxenite) exposed to the south and upper layers (cumulus gabbro and anorthosite) exposed to the north. Imleih rocks are cumulates, dominated by cumulus gabbro with subsequent amounts of peridotite, pyroxenite and anorthosite. Pegmatitic gabbro is locally observed. These rocks are unmetamorphosed. In the peridotite, the Fo content of olivine ranges from 0.81 to 0.83. Clinopyroxenes of the studied rocks range in composition from diopside to augite and have subalkaline affinities. Plagioclase in the cumulus gabbro is mostly bytownite (An 73-82). Two types of spinel are observed, chromite and pleonaste. Chromite has Cr# (Cr/(Cr + Al) of 0.60-0.81 whereas pleonaste have Cr# lower than 0.02. The present study revealed that the mafic-ultramafic complex of Gabal Imleih fractionated from a single batch of high Al-basaltic magma and evolved by fractional crystallization at the base of a Neoproterozoic magma chamber. Olivine and chromite were the first crystallized phases followed by pyroxene and plagioclase. Amphibole appears at nearly the same time as plagioclase. The Imleih mafic-ultramafic body was emplaced post-tectonically in a transitional phase between the calc-alkaline and alkaline magmatism.

Azer, M. K.; El-Gharbawy, R. I.

2011-06-01

285

Molecular phylogeography of domesticated barley traces expansion of agriculture in the Old World.  

PubMed

Barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) was first cultivated 10,500 years ago in the Fertile Crescent and is one of the founder crops of Eurasian agriculture. Phylogeographic analysis of five nuclear loci and morphological assessment of two traits in >250 domesticated barley accessions reveal that landraces found in South and East Asia are genetically distinct from those in Europe and North Africa. A Bayesian population structure assessment method indicates that barley accessions are subdivided into six clusters and that barley landraces from 10 different geographical regions of Eurasia and North Africa show distinct patterns of distribution across these clusters. Using haplotype frequency data, it appears that the Europe/North Africa landraces are most similar to the Near East population (F ST = 0.15) as well as to wild barley (F ST = 0.11) and are strongly differentiated from all other Asian populations (F ST = 0.34-0.74). A neighbor-joining analysis using these F ST estimates also supports a division between European, North African, and Near East barley types from more easterly Asian accessions. There is also differentiation in the presence of a naked caryopsis and spikelet row number between eastern and western barley accessions. The data support the differential migration of barley from two domestication events that led to the origin of barley--one in the Fertile Crescent and another farther east, possibly at the eastern edge of the Iranian Plateau--with European and North African barley largely originating from the former and much of Asian barley arising from the latter. This suggests that cultural diffusion or independent innovation is responsible for the expansion of agriculture to areas of South and East Asia during the Neolithic revolution. PMID:17947416

Saisho, Daisuke; Purugganan, Michael D

2007-11-01

286

Chromosomal Location of Genes Encoding Barley (1-->3, 1-->4)-beta-Glucan 4-Glucanohydrolases.  

PubMed

Preparations of DNA from wheat (Triticum aestivum, cv Chinese Spring), barley (Hordeum vulgare, cv Betzes) and six euplasmic wheat-barley addition lines were digested to completion with restriction endonucleases and the products probed by Southern blot analysis using a cDNA-encoding barley (1-->3, 1-->4)-beta-glucanase isoenzyme II. It is shown that one of the barley (1-->3, 1-->4)-beta-glucanase genes is located on chromosome 1. PMID:16666137

Loi, L; Ahluwalia, B; Fincher, G B

1988-06-01

287

Protective role of exogenous nitric oxide against oxidative-stress induced by salt stress in barley ( Hordeum vulgare)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To probe into the potential of relieving the oxidative damage of salt stress, we investigated the protective role of nitric oxide on barley under salt stress. Salt stress resulted in increased ion leakage, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in barley leaves. Simultaneous treatments of barley leaves with 50?M sodium nitroprusside, a nitric oxide donor, alleviated the damage of salt stress,

Qiao-Yun Li; Hong-Bin Niu; Jun Yin; Meng-Ben Wang; Hong-Bo Shao; De-Zhi Deng; Xiao-Xia Chen; Jiang-Ping Ren; Yong-Chun Li

2008-01-01

288

Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Aluminum Tolerance in Cultivated and Tibetan Wild Barley  

PubMed Central

Tibetan wild barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. spontaneum), originated and grown in harsh enviroment in Tibet, is well-known for its rich germpalsm with high tolerance to abiotic stresses. However, the genetic variation and genes involved in Al tolerance are not totally known for the wild barley. In this study, a genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) was performed by using four root parameters related with Al tolerance and 469 DArT markers on 7 chromosomes within or across 110 Tibetan wild accessions and 56 cultivated cultivars. Population structure and cluster analysis revealed that a wide genetic diversity was present in Tibetan wild barley. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed more rapidly in Tibetan wild barley (9.30 cM) than cultivated barley (11.52 cM), indicating that GWAS may provide higher resolution in the Tibetan group. Two novel Tibetan group-specific loci, bpb-9458 and bpb-8524 were identified, which were associated with relative longest root growth (RLRG), located at 2H and 7H on barely genome, and could explain 12.9% and 9.7% of the phenotypic variation, respectively. Moreover, a common locus bpb-6949, localized 0.8 cM away from a candidate gene HvMATE, was detected in both wild and cultivated barleys, and showed significant association with total root growth (TRG). The present study highlights that Tibetan wild barley could provide elite germplasm novel genes for barley Al-tolerant improvement. PMID:23922796

Cai, Shengguan; Wu, Dezhi; Jabeen, Zahra; Huang, Yuqing; Huang, Yechang; Zhang, Guoping

2013-01-01

289

Impacts of Crop Production Factors on Common Root Rot of Barley in Eastern Saskatchewan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has been spreading on the Cana- dian Prairies for the last decade. Fusarium spp. causing FHB can also cause crown and root rot of cereal crops. It is therefore of interest to determine the impact of agronomic practices on fungal populations associated with root rot of barley. From 1999 to 2001,

M. R. Fernandez; R. P. Zentner; R. M. DePauw; D. Gehl; F. C. Stevenson

2007-01-01

290

Anaerobic carbohydrate metabolism in wheat and barley, two anoxia-intolerant cereal seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereals such as barley and wheat are unable to ger- minate under anoxic conditions. Data are presented on the utilization of the soluble sugars present in the dry seed of wheat and barley kept under strict anoxia, together with the status of the enzymes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates . The amount of glucose, fructose, and sucrose decreases during

Pierdomenico Perata; Lorenzo Guglielminetti; Amedeo Alpi

1996-01-01

291

Quantifying relationships between rooting traits and water uptake under drought in Mediterranean barley and durum wheat.  

PubMed

In Mediterranean regions drought is the major factor limiting spring barley and durum wheat grain yields. This study aimed to compare spring barley and durum wheat root and shoot responses to drought and quantify relationships between root traits and water uptake under terminal drought. One spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Rum) and two durum wheat Mediterranean cultivars (Triticum turgidum L. var durum cvs Hourani and Karim) were examined in soil-column experiments under well watered and drought conditions. Root system architecture traits, water uptake, and plant growth were measured. Barley aerial biomass and grain yields were higher than for durum wheat cultivars in well watered conditions. Drought decreased grain yield more for barley (47%) than durum wheat (30%, Hourani). Root-to-shoot dry matter ratio increased for durum wheat under drought but not for barley, and root weight increased for wheat in response to drought but decreased for barley. The critical root length density (RLD) and root volume density (RVD) for 90% available water capture for wheat were similar to (cv. Hourani) or lower than (cv. Karim) for barley depending on wheat cultivar. For both species, RVD accounted for a slightly higher proportion of phenotypic variation in water uptake under drought than RLD. PMID:24112696

Carvalho, Pedro; Azam-Ali, Sayed; Foulkes, M John

2014-05-01

292

Genetic Diversity in the Batini Barley Landrace from Oman: II. Response to Salinity Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few native plant species other than barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) are currently available as animal Understanding the diversity for salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum feed. Introduced forage species not fully adapted to vulgare L.) landraces will facilitate their use in genetic improvement. Our objectives were to screen a collection of 2308 accessions in seven the climatic and edaphic conditions in

A. A. Jaradat; M. Shahid; A. Al-Maskri

293

Morphological and anatomical modifications in winter barley culm after late plant growth regulator treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major factors limiting yield production in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has been its poor straw strength. Consequently, a greater stiffness of the upper part of the culm was desirable. So, a late application of plant growth regulator could be interesting for weak-strawed barley cultivars. The objective of these experiments was to investigate the effect of a late

Patricia Sanvicente; Sviatoslav Lazarevitch; André Blouet; Armand Guckert

1999-01-01

294

Cytokinin enhancement of the light induction of nitrate reductase transcript levels in etiolated barley leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the molecular mechanism of cytokinin regulation of nitrate reductase (NR) activity, the influence of benzyladenine (BA) on the level of NR transcript was studied in etiolated barley leaves using a barley NR cDNA as a probe. Northern blot analyses of the levels of NR poly (A)+ RNA indicate that the amount present is proportional to the concentration of

Jia-ling Lu; John R. Ertl; Chong-maw Chen

1990-01-01

295

Capacity and Plasticity of Potassium Channels and High-Affinity Transporters in Roots of Barley  

E-print Network

Capacity and Plasticity of Potassium Channels and High-Affinity Transporters in Roots of Barley of potassium (K+ ) transporters in high- and low-affinity K+ uptake was examined in roots of intact barley genotypes of Arabidopsis, including single and double knockout mutants for the high-affinity transporter, At

Britto, Dev T.

296

2007 Barley variety performance at Denton and Moccasin By Dave Wichman  

E-print Network

with good test weights because of it lower yield potential. The 2007 no-till continuous crop nursery;Table 1 2007 Moccasin spring barley variety performance under a no-till continuous crop system. Exp2007 Barley variety performance at Denton and Moccasin By Dave Wichman The 2007 central Montana

Maxwell, Bruce D.

297

Regeneration of Fertile Barley Plants from Mechanically lsolated Protoplasts of the Fertilized Egg Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple procedure is described for the mechanical isolation of protoplasts of unfertilized and fertilized barley egg cells from dissected ovules. Viable protoplasts were isolated from m75% of the dissected ovules. Unfertilized protoplasts did not divide, whereas almost all fertilized protoplasts developed into microcalli. These degenerated when grown in medium only. When cocultivated with barley microspores undergoing microspore embryogenesis, the

Preben B. Holm; Peter Mouritzen; Diana Negri; Finn L. OIsen; Catherine Roue

1994-01-01

298

INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF SALINITY AND PHOSPHORUS NUTRITION ON PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF TWO BARLEY SPECIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity is one of the most important agricultural problems in Iran. The effect of different levels of salinity and phosphorus on shoot length, root and shoot fresh and dry weight, nutrient elements (sodium (Na), potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and chloride (Cl), proline and soluble sugar contents of barley were investigated. Two cultivars of barley, Hordeum murinum (wild resistant germplasm) and

N. A. Khosh Kholgh Sima; S. Tale Ahmad; R. A. Alitabar; Arezoo Mottaghi; Mohammad Pessarakli

2012-01-01

299

Efficacy of imidacloprid for control of cereal leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in barley.  

PubMed

The toxicity of imidacloprid to the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.), was measured under laboratory and field conditions. Insect mortality and plant damage were determined from artificial and natural infestations of O. melanopus applied to various growth stages of barley. All rates of imidacloprid formulated and applied as a seed treatment caused >90% mortality to cereal leaf beetle larvae when barley was infested with eggs at the 4-leaf stage, but were ineffective when barley was infested with eggs at the early tillering or flag-leaf stages of barley. This window of susceptibility influenced results obtained in field trials where peak larval emergence did not occur until the early tillering stage of barley. The resulting mortality in plants from treated seeds never exceeded 40% in the field. Foliar imidacloprid, however, caused >90% mortality in the field, and may be another option in the management of the cereal leaf beetle. PMID:14658509

Tharp, C; Blodgett, S L; Johnson, G D

2000-02-01

300

Putative ancient microorganisms from amber nuggets.  

PubMed

Evolutionary microbiology studies based on the isolation of ancient DNA and/or microbial samples are scarce due to the difficulty of finding well preserved biological specimens. However, amber is a fossil resin with natural preserving properties for microbial cells and DNA. The visualization by transmission electron microscopy of different microorganism-like specimens found in amber nuggets from both the Miocene and the Cretaceous periods was accompanied by studies of ancient DNA obtained from the nuggets. After the design of specific primers based on the present sequences of both genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the ancestral AGP2 sequence from the Miocene, as well as the 18S rRNA from the Cretaceous, were amplified. PMID:17661290

Veiga-Crespo, Patricia; Blasco, Lucía; Poza, Margarita; Villa, Tomás G

2007-06-01

301

Lead in ancient Rome's city waters  

PubMed Central

It is now universally accepted that utilization of lead for domestic purposes and water distribution presents a major health hazard. The ancient Roman world was unaware of these risks. How far the gigantic network of lead pipes used in ancient Rome compromised public health in the city is unknown. Lead isotopes in sediments from the harbor of Imperial Rome register the presence of a strong anthropogenic component during the beginning of the Common Era and the Early Middle Ages. They demonstrate that the lead pipes of the water distribution system increased Pb contents in drinking water of the capital city by up to two orders of magnitude over the natural background. The Pb isotope record shows that the discontinuities in the pollution of the Tiber by lead are intimately entwined with the major issues affecting Late Antique Rome and its water distribution system. PMID:24753588

Delile, Hugo; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Goiran, Jean-Philippe; Keay, Simon; Albarede, Francis

2014-01-01

302

Should Dinosaurs be "Cloned" from Ancient DNA?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are the teaching notes for a case study in which students use cooperative learning and role-playing to explore the scientific, technical, environmental, and ethical issues related to the possibility of cloning dinosaurs from ancient DNA. The case was designed to enhance the learning environment in an introductory class through cooperative problem-solving and to promote active participation in learning by using library and web resources to do research on a controversial topic in science and ethics. As the students pursue this case, they will apply knowledge explored in readings, lectures, and in-class discussions about dinosaurs, gain a general understanding of the revolutionary techniques used to discover and retrieve ancient DNA and to produce a clone, and improve communication and collaboration skills by working cooperatively in small groups and arguing a position in an authoritative fashion.

Soja, Constance; Huerta, Deborah

303

An ancient Greek pain remedy for athletes.  

PubMed

While Hippocratic writings make no reference to the actual Olympics, there is frequent mention of diet, exercise, and the treatment of injuries sustained by the athletic participants. Indeed, Galen in his Composition of Medicines gives details of a remedy prescribed for the relief of pains and swellings, which was reserved for use by the winners of Olympic events, the so-called "Fuscum Olympionico inscriptum"--(ointment) entitled "dark Olympic victor's." In a time when the Olympic games have recently returned to their homeland, we examine the potential efficacy of this ancient remedy in terms of pain relief, the novelty of transdermal pain management, and the ability of ancient physicians to attend to the sports-related needs of highly tuned athletes. PMID:17147600

Bartels, Else M; Swaddling, Judith; Harrison, Adrian P

2006-09-01

304

Lipids of aquatic sediments, recent and ancient  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is now an essential tool in the analysis of the complex mixtures of lipids (geolipids) encountered in aquatic sediments, both 'recent' (less than 1 million years old) and ancient. The application of MS, and particularly GC-MS, has been instrumental in the rapid development of organic geochemistry and environmental organic chemistry in recent years. The techniques used have resulted in the identification of numerous compounds of a variety of types in sediments. Most attention has been concentrated on molecules of limited size, mainly below 500 molecular mass, and of limited functionality, for examples, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and alcohols. Examples from recent studies (at Bristol) of contemporary, 'recent' and ancient sediments are presented and discussed.

Eglinton, G.; Hajibrahim, S. K.; Maxwell, J. R.; Quirke, J. M. E.; Shaw, G. J.; Volkman, J. K.; Wardroper, A. M. K.

1979-01-01

305

AMS radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese sutras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese sutras whose historical ages were known paleographically were measured by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Calibrated radiocarbon ages of five samples were consistent with the corresponding historical ages; the "old wood effect" is negligible for ancient Japanese sutras. Japanese paper has been made from fresh branches grown within a few years and the interval from trimming off the branches to writing sutra on the paper is within one year. The good agreement between the calibrated radiocarbon ages and the historical ages is supported by such characteristics of Japanese paper. It is indicated in this study that Japanese sutra is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating in the historic period because of little gap by "old wood effect".

Oda, Hirotaka; Yoshizawa, Yasukazu; Nakamura, Toshio; Fujita, Keiko

2000-10-01

306

DOC Cycling in Ancient Tropical Lake Matano  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a Secchi depth of <= 27m, tropical, ancient (1-4Ma) Lake Matano has surface waters as clear as many ultra-oligotrophic lakes such as Great Bear Lake (secchi depth 590m deep, one of the largest and deepest anoxic freshwater basins in the world. These sub-anoxic conditions have developed in response to thermal stratification that caused oxygen demand to exceed oxygen supply.

S. A. Crowe; S. Katsev; C. Magen; S. Nomosatryo; G. D. Haffner; A. Mucci; B. Sundby; D. A. Fowle

2006-01-01

307

Allelopathy in Chinese Ancient and Modern Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 2000 years, allelopathy has been widely reported in ancient Chinese literature with a focus on Xiang Sheng Xiang\\u000a Ke, which is the beneficial and inhibitory interference between plants. Fan Sheng Zhi Shu (first century BC) is the earliest\\u000a Chinese agricultural book available to describe plant allelopathy. This chapter reviews many records about allelopathy and\\u000a its application in

Ren Sen Zeng

308

Unknown ancient Greek ophthalmological instruments and equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discoveries of some ancient medical instruments and equipment found in the Hellenic world have been published in magazines\\u000a of general interest and in a rare Greek medical journal, yet none caught the attention of ophthalmologists. Among these instruments\\u000a are two forms of the famous ‘Kenteterion’, dating from the Hellenistic period, used for the couching of cataract. These were\\u000a found on

John Lascaratos; Spyros Marketos

1997-01-01

309

Ancient Chinese Apiculture Constantine W. Lau  

E-print Network

···················································· Ancient Chinese Apiculture Constantine W. Lau Constantine obtained his MSc from UCSD with his work on honey bee communication. He then started his teaching

Nieh, James

310

Ancient Chinese Observations and Modern Cometary Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ancient astronomical observations, primarily by Chinese, represent the only data source for discerning the long-term behavior of comets. These sky watchers produced astrological forecasts for their emperors. The comets Halley, Swift-Tuttle, and Tempel-Tuttle have been observed for 2000 years. Records of the Leonid meteor showers, starting from A.D.902, are used to guide predictions for the 1998-1999 reoccurrence.

Yeomans, D. K.

1995-01-01

311

Geophysics: ancient air, ozone, and faults.  

PubMed

Researchers who gathered in San Francisco in December at the annual fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union heard the usual variety of talks treating everything from Earth's core to the tenuous wisps of solar particles far beyond Pluto. Earthquakes, the local California variety in particular, figured prominently, as did the currently popular subjects of ancient air trapped in amber and the deepening Antarctic ozone hole. PMID:17732975

Kerr, R A

1988-01-01

312

Water Technology in the Ancient American Societies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Many ancient civilizations in the Americas developed water technologies during the same times that water technology was advancing\\u000a in other parts of the world. This chapter will address water technologies of societies of the pre-Columbian empires in the\\u000a southwestern United States, Mesoamerica, and the Inca in South America. These locations are shown in Fig. 9.1. In the southwestern\\u000a U.S. we

Larry W. Mays; Yuri Gorokhovich

313

An Investigation of the Ancient Star Catalog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various tests are applied to Claudius Ptolemy's long-suspect claim that he himself observed the more than 1000 objects in the Ancient Star Catalog. An obvious consequence of observing under the influence of Ptolemy's large equinox-position error is found not to exist in the Catalog. The true observer's latitude, rough epoch, and probable identity are discovered. Hitherto-lost details of his fundamental

D. Rawlins

1982-01-01

314

An Investigation of the Ancient Star Catalog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various tests are applied to Claudius Ptolemy's long-suspect claim that he himself observed the more than 1000 objects in the Ancient Star Catalog. An obvious consequence of observing under the influence of Ptolemy's large equinox-position error is found not to exist in the Catalog. The true observer's latitude, rough epoch, and probable identity are discovered. Hitherto-lost details of his fundamental work are reconstructed, including the earliest known accurate observation of the obliquity (135 B.C.).

Rawlins, D.

1982-04-01

315

Extinct Plutonium Geochemistry of Ancient Hadean Zircons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance of 244Pu in the early solar system has important implications for r-process nucleosynthesis and models of noble gas transport within the Earth's mantle. Our recent discovery(1) of xenon isotopes from the in-situ decay of 244Pu in ancient Jack Hills zircons promises to provide a new time-sensitive window on the first 500 Ma of Earth history. We have extended

G. Turner; J. Gilmour; S. Crowther; A. Busfield; S. Mojzsis; M. Harrison

2005-01-01

316

Islands and streams: clusters and gene flow in wild barley populations from the Levant.  

PubMed

The domestication of plants frequently results in a high level of genetic differentiation between domesticated plants and their wild progenitors. This process is counteracted by gene flow between wild and domesticated plants because they are usually able to inter-mate and to exchange genes. We investigated the extent of gene flow between wild barley Hordeum spontaneum and cultivated barley Hordeum vulgare, and its effect on population structure in wild barley by analysing a collection of 896 wild barley accessions (Barley1K) from Israel and all available Israeli H. vulgare accessions from the Israeli gene bank. We compared the performance of simple sequence repeats (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) marker data genotyped over a core collection in estimating population parameters. Estimates of gene flow rates with SSR markers indicated a high level of introgression from cultivated barley into wild barley. After removing accessions from the wild barley sample that were recently admixed with cultivated barley, the inference of population structure improved significantly. Both SSR and SNP markers showed that the genetic population structure of wild barley in Israel corresponds to the three major ecogeographic regions: the coast, the Mediterranean north and the deserts in the Jordan valley and the South. Gene flow rates were estimated to be higher from north to south than in the opposite direction. As has been observed in other crop species, there is a significant exchange of alleles between the wild species and domesticated varieties that needs to be accounted for in the population genetic analysis of domestication. PMID:22256891

Hübner, Sariel; Günther, Torsten; Flavell, Andrew; Fridman, Eyal; Graner, Andreas; Korol, Abraham; Schmid, Karl J

2012-03-01

317

Ancient Greek psychotherapy for contemporary nurses.  

PubMed

Ancient Greek physicians as well as philosophers were fully cognizant of a human being's psychological function and used their particular art to influence individual or social behavior in accordance with their pursuit. This art or technique favorably compares with several of the methods currently called supportive psychotherapy. This psychotherapy was the first form of care for people with mental health problems. Nurses who base their practice on ancient Greek psychotherapy see the patient as a whole, a person who creates meaning in life. Applying the philosophical principles of ancient Greeks helps nurses understand the behavior of people with mental health problems and recognize and facilitate adaptive satisfaction of these psychological needs. In addition, psychiatric nurses are able to help distressed individuals understand their fears and anxieties, so they are freed from the causes of their symptoms that led them to seek therapy in the first place. Consequently, this understanding can make psychiatric nurses' work a living experience and add meaning to their work. PMID:12174513

Kourkouta, Lambrini

2002-08-01

318

Ancient subduction zone in Sakhalin Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northern part of Sakhalin Island is an area of recent intensive tectonic movements and hydrothermal processes, as well as a place of accumulation of useful minerals. The deep structure of the lithosphere beneath the region of the Neftegorsk earthquake of May 27, 1995 in North Sakhalin, which killed residents and caused significant destruction, is examined in this paper. Our geodynamic model shows that North Sakhalin consists of the North Sakhalin Basin, Deryugin Basin and an ophiolite complex located between them. The Deryugin Basin was formed in place of an ancient deep trench after subducting the Okhotsk Sea Plate under Sakhalin in the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene. The North Sakhalin Basin was formed on the side of the back-arc basin at that time. The ophiolite complex is fixed in the position of ancient subduction zone that was active in the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene. Approximately in the Miocene, the subduction of the Okhotsk lithosphere apparently ceased. The remains of the subduction zone in the form of an ophiolite complex have been identified from geological and geophysical data. On the surface, the subduction zone is manifested as deep faults stretched along Sakhalin. It is probable that the Neftegorsk earthquake was a result of activation of this ancient subduction zone.

Rodnikov, A. G.; Sergeyeva, N. A.; Zabarinskaya, L. P.

2013-07-01

319

The chickpea, summer cropping, and a new model for pulse domestication in the ancient near east.  

PubMed

The widely accepted models describing the emergence of domesticated grain crops from their wild type ancestors are mostly based upon selection (conscious or unconscious) of major features related either to seed dispersal (nonbrittle ear, indehiscent pod) or free germination (nondormant seeds, soft seed coat). Based on the breeding systems (self-pollination) and dominance relations between the allelomorphs of seed dispersal mode and seed dormancy, it was postulated that establishment of the domesticated forms and replacement of the wild ancestral populations occurred in the Near East within a relatively short time. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), however, appears as an exception among all other "founder crops" of Old World agriculture because of its ancient conversion into a summer crop. The chickpea is also exceptional because its major domestication trait appears to be vernalization insensitivity rather than pod indehiscence or free germination. Moreover, the genetic basis of vernalization response in wild chickpea (Cicer reticulatum Ladiz.) is polygenic, suggesting that a long domestication process was imperative due to the elusive phenotype of vernalization nonresponsiveness. There is also a gap in chickpea remains in the archaeological record between the Late Prepottery Neolithic and the Early Bronze Age. Contrary to the common view that Levantine summer cropping was introduced relatively late (Early Bronze Age), we argue for an earlier (Neolithic) Levantine origin of summer cropping because chickpea, when grown as a common winter crop, was vulnerable to the devastating pathogen Didymella rabiei, the causal agent of Ascochyta blight. The ancient (Neolithic) conversion of chickpea into a summer crop required seasonal differentiation of agronomic operation from the early phases of the Neolithic revolution. This topic is difficult to deal with, as direct data on seasonality in prehistoric Old World field crop husbandry are practically nonexistent. Consequently, this issue was hardly dealt with in the literature. Information on the seasonality of ancient (Neolithic, Chalcolithic, and Early Bronze Age, calibrated 11,500 to 4,500 years before present) Near Eastern agriculture may improve our understanding of the proficiency of early farmers. This in turn may provide a better insight into Neolithic agrotechniques and scheduling. It is difficult to fully understand chickpea domestication without a Neolithic seasonal differentiation of agronomic practice because the rapid establishment of the successful Near Eastern crop package which included wheats, barley, pea, lentil, vetches, and flax, would have preempted the later domestication of this rare wild legume. PMID:14737827

Abbo, Shahal; Shtienberg, Dan; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Gopher, Avi

2003-12-01

320

Elevated Phosphorus Impedes Manganese Acquisition by Barley Plants  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of manganese (Mn) deficiency in cereal crops has increased in recent years. This coincides with increasing phosphorus (P) status of many soils due to application of high levels of animal manure and P-fertilizers. In order to test the hypothesis that elevated P my lead to Mn deficiency we have here conducted a series of hydroponics and soil experiments examining how the P supply affects the Mn nutrition of barley. Evidence for a direct negative interaction between P and Mn during root uptake was obtained by on-line inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Addition of a pulse of KH2PO4 rapidly and significantly reduced root Mn uptake, while a similar concentration of KCl had no effect. Addition of a P pulse to the same nutrient solution without plants did not affect the concentration of Mn, revealing that no precipitation of Mn–P species was occurring. Barley plants growing at a high P supply in hydroponics with continuous replenishment of Mn2+ had up to 50% lower Mn concentration in the youngest leaves than P limited plants. This P-induced depression of foliar Mn accelerated the development of Mn deficiency as evidenced by a marked change in the fluorescence induction kinetics of chlorophyll a. Also plants growing in soil exhibited lower leaf Mn concentrations in response to elevated P. In contrast, leaf concentrations of Fe, Cu, and N increased with the P supply, supporting that the negative effect of P on Mn acquisition was specific rather than due to a general dilution effect. It is concluded that elevated P supply directly interferes with Mn uptake in barley roots and that this negative interaction can induce Mn deficiency in the shoot. This finding has major implications in commercial plant production where many soils have high P levels. PMID:22639592

Pedas, Pai; Husted, S?ren; Skytte, Kristian; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod

2011-01-01

321

New Starch Phenotypes Produced by TILLING in Barley.  

PubMed

Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1?3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant for nutritional value or industrial applications. Here, the Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) approach was applied on the barley TILLMore TILLING population to identify 29 new alleles in five genes related to starch metabolism known to be expressed in the endosperm during grain filling: BMY1 (Beta-amylase 1), GBSSI (Granule Bound Starch Synthase I), LDA1 (Limit Dextrinase 1), SSI (Starch Synthase I), SSIIa (Starch Synthase IIa). Reserve starch of nine M3 mutant lines carrying missense or nonsense mutations was analysed for granule size, crystallinity and amylose/amylopectin content. Seven mutant lines presented starches with different features in respect to the wild-type: (i) a mutant line with a missense mutation in GBSSI showed a 4-fold reduced amylose/amylopectin ratio; (ii) a missense mutations in SSI resulted in 2-fold increase in A:B granule ratio; (iii) a nonsense mutation in SSIIa was associated with shrunken seeds with a 2-fold increased amylose/amylopectin ratio and different type of crystal packing in the granule; (iv) the remaining four missense mutations suggested a role of LDA1 in granule initiation, and of SSIIa in determining the size of A-granules. We demonstrate the feasibility of the TILLING approach to identify new alleles in genes related to starch metabolism in barley. Based on their novel physicochemical properties, some of the identified new mutations may have nutritional and/or industrial applications. PMID:25271438

Sparla, Francesca; Falini, Giuseppe; Botticella, Ermelinda; Pirone, Claudia; Talamè, Valentina; Bovina, Riccardo; Salvi, Silvio; Tuberosa, Roberto; Sestili, Francesco; Trost, Paolo

2014-01-01

322

New Starch Phenotypes Produced by TILLING in Barley  

PubMed Central

Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1?3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant for nutritional value or industrial applications. Here, the Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) approach was applied on the barley TILLMore TILLING population to identify 29 new alleles in five genes related to starch metabolism known to be expressed in the endosperm during grain filling: BMY1 (Beta-amylase 1), GBSSI (Granule Bound Starch Synthase I), LDA1 (Limit Dextrinase 1), SSI (Starch Synthase I), SSIIa (Starch Synthase IIa). Reserve starch of nine M3 mutant lines carrying missense or nonsense mutations was analysed for granule size, crystallinity and amylose/amylopectin content. Seven mutant lines presented starches with different features in respect to the wild-type: (i) a mutant line with a missense mutation in GBSSI showed a 4-fold reduced amylose/amylopectin ratio; (ii) a missense mutations in SSI resulted in 2-fold increase in A:B granule ratio; (iii) a nonsense mutation in SSIIa was associated with shrunken seeds with a 2-fold increased amylose/amylopectin ratio and different type of crystal packing in the granule; (iv) the remaining four missense mutations suggested a role of LDA1 in granule initiation, and of SSIIa in determining the size of A-granules. We demonstrate the feasibility of the TILLING approach to identify new alleles in genes related to starch metabolism in barley. Based on their novel physicochemical properties, some of the identified new mutations may have nutritional and/or industrial applications. PMID:25271438

Sparla, Francesca; Falini, Giuseppe; Botticella, Ermelinda; Pirone, Claudia; Talame, Valentina; Bovina, Riccardo; Salvi, Silvio; Tuberosa, Roberto; Sestili, Francesco; Trost, Paolo

2014-01-01

323

Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with barley net blotch resistance.  

PubMed

Net blotch of barley, caused by Pyrenophora teres Drechs., is an important foliar disease worldwide. Deployment of resistant cultivars is the most economic and eco-friendly control method. This report describes mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with net blotch resistance in a doubled-haploid (DH) barley population using diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers. One hundred and fifty DH lines from the cross CDC Dolly (susceptible)/TR251 (resistant) were screened as seedlings in controlled environments with net-form net blotch (NFNB) isolates WRS858 and WRS1607 and spot-form net blotch (SFNB) isolate WRS857. The population was also screened at the adult-plant stage for NFNB resistance in the field in 2005 and 2006. A high-density genetic linkage map of 90 DH lines was constructed using 457 DArT and 11 SSR markers. A major NFNB seedling resistance QTL, designated QRpt6, was mapped to chromosome 6H for isolates WRS858 and WRS1607. QRpt6 was associated with adult-plant resistance in the 2005 and 2006 field trials. Additional QTL for NFNB seedling resistance to the more virulent isolate WRS858 were identified on chromosomes 2H, 4H, and 5H. A seedling resistance QTL (QRpts4) for the SFNB isolate WRS857 was detected on chromosome 4H as was a significant QTL (QRpt7) on chromosome 7H. Three QTL (QRpt6, QRpts4, QRpt7) were associated with resistance to both net blotch forms and lines with one or more of these demonstrated improved resistance. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers tightly linked to QRpt6 and QRpts4 were identified and validated in an unrelated barley population. The major 6H QTL, QRpt6, may provide adequate NFNB field resistance in western Canada and could be routinely selected for using molecular markers in a practical breeding program. PMID:18071668

Grewal, T S; Rossnagel, B G; Pozniak, C J; Scoles, G J

2008-02-01

324

Polyphase deformation history and strain analyses of the post-amalgamation depositional basins in the Arabian-Nubian Shield: Evidence from Fatima, Ablah and Hammamat Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-amalgamation depositional basins <650 Ma (PADBs), dominated by volcano-sedimentary assemblages, unconformably overlying Neoproterozoic juvenile (mantle-derived) arcs, represent one of the main collage in the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS). In this work, three distinguished PADBs; namely Fatima, Ablah and Hammamat PADBs, are the subject matter of detailed field investigations and quantitative strain analysis in an attempt to highlight the polyphase deformation history of these PADBs and to discern whether the ANS's PADBs were deformed at the same time or not. The Fatima PADB is studied in its type locality along the northwestern flank of Wadi Fatima; between Jabal Abu Ghurrah and Jabal Daf, in Jeddah tectonic terrane. The Ablah PADB is examined around Wadi Yiba, further south of its type locality near Jabal Ablah in Al-Aqiq Quadrangle, in Asir tectonic terrane. The Hammamat PADB is investigated in Wadi Umm Gheig, Wadi Allaqi and Wadi Hodein in the Egyptian Eastern Desert tectonic terrane. It is supposed that the Fatima is a basin controlled by dextral transcurrent shearing occurred along the NE-oriented Wadi Fatima Shear Zone and the Ablah is a strike-slip pull-apart basin, and both basins were believed to be deposited during and soon after the Nabitah Orogeny (680-640 Ma) that marked suturing of the Afif terrane with the oceanic ANS terranes to the west. They were affected by at least three Neoproterozoic deformation phases and show geometric and kinematic relationships between folding and thrusting. The Hammamat PADB is a fault-bounded basin affected by a NW-SE- to NNW-SSE-oriented shortening phase just after the deposition of the molasse sediments, proved by NW- to NNW-verging folds and SE- to SSE-dipping thrusts that were refolded and thrusted in the same direction. The shortening phase in the Hammamat was followed by a transpressional wrenching phase related to the Najd Shear System, which resulted in the formation of NW-SE sinistral-slip faults associated with positive flower structures that comprise NE-verging folds and SW-dipping thrusts. Strain results in the three studied PADBs are nearly consistent, indicating that they are correlated and underwent the same history of deformation. The ANOVA test indicates that there is no significant difference for the Vector mean and ISYM for the three PADBs. There is only a significant difference for the Harmonic mean (P-value < 0.05). A Post Hoc test (Shefee) shows that the difference exists between the Allaqi and the Umm Gheig's deformed polymictic conglomeratic pebbles of the Hammamat PADB.

Hamimi, Zakaria; El-Fakharani, Abdelhamid; Abdeen, Mamdouh M.

2014-11-01

325

Effective groundwater modeling of the data-poor Nubian Aquifer System (Chad, Egypt, Libya, Sudan) - use of parsimony and 81Kr-based groundwater ages (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Important information for management of large aquifer systems can be obtained via a parsimonious approach to groundwater modeling, in part, employing isotope-interpreted groundwater ages. ';Parsimonious' modeling implies active avoidance of overly-complex representations when constructing models. This approach is essential for evaluation of aquifer systems that lack informative hydrogeologic databases. Even in the most remote aquifers, despite lack of typical data, groundwater ages can be interpreted from isotope samples at only a few downstream locations. These samples incorporate hydrogeologic information from the entire upstream groundwater flowpath; thus, interpreted ages are among the most-effective information sources for groundwater model development. This approach is applied to the world's largest non-renewable aquifer, the transboundary Nubian Aquifer System (NAS) of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan. In the NAS countries, water availability is a critical problem and NAS can reliably serve as a water supply for an extended future period. However, there are national concerns about transboundary impacts of water use by neighbors. These concerns include excessive depletion of shared groundwater by individual countries and the spread of water-table drawdown across borders, where neighboring country near-border shallow wells and oases may dry. Development of a parsimonious groundwater flow model, based on limited available NAS hydrogeologic data and on 81Kr groundwater ages below oases in Egypt, is a key step in providing a technical basis for international discussion concerning management of this non-renewable water resource. Simply-structured model analyses, undertaken as part of an IAEA/UNDP/GEF project, show that although the main transboundary issue is indeed drawdown crossing national boundaries, given the large scale of NAS and its plausible ranges of aquifer parameter values, the magnitude of transboundary drawdown will likely be small and may not be a matter of practical significance. Rather, modeling shows that the greatest impacts of pumping are to be expected on the local scale, entailing excessive local drawdown and possible disappearance of oases where these are co-located with pumping centers.

Voss, C. I.; Soliman, S. M.; Aggarwal, P. K.

2013-12-01

326

Interrelations between coeval mafic and A-type silicic magmas from composite dykes in a bimodal suite of southern Israel, northernmost Arabian Nubian Shield: Geochemical and isotope constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Neoproterozoic bimodal dyke suites are abundant in the Arabian-Nubian Shield. In southern Israel this suite includes dominant alkaline quartz porphyry dykes, rare mafic dykes, and numerous composite dykes with felsic interiors and mafic margins. The quartz porphyry chemically corresponds to A-type granite. Composite dykes with either abrupt or gradational contacts between the felsic and mafic rocks bear field, petrographic and chemical evidence for coexistence and mixing of basaltic and rhyolitic magmas. Mixing and formation of hybrid intermediate magmas commenced at depth and continued during emplacement of the dykes. Oxygen isotope ratios of alkali feldspar in quartz porphyry (13 to 15‰) and of plagioclase in trachydolerite (10-11‰) are much higher than their initial magmatic ratios predicted by equilibrium with unaltered quartz (8 to 9‰) and clinopyroxene (5.8‰). The elevation of ?18O in alkali feldspar and plagioclase, and extensive turbidization and sericitization call for post-magmatic low-temperature (? 100 °C) water-rock interaction. Hydrous alteration of alkali feldspar, the major carrier of Rb and Sr in the quartz-porphyry, also accounts for the highly variable and unusually high I(Sr) of 0.71253 to 0.73648. The initial 143Nd/ 144Nd ratios, expressed by ?Nd( T) values, are probably unaltered and show small variation in mafic and felsic rocks within a narrow range from + 1.4 to + 3.3. The Nd isotope signature suggests either a common mantle source for the mafic and silicic magmas or a juvenile crustal source for the felsic rocks (metamorphic rocks from the Elat area). However, oxygen isotope ratios of zircon in quartz porphyry [ ?18O(Zrn) = 6.5 to 7.2‰] reveal significant crustal contribution to the rhyolite magma, suggesting that mafic and A-type silicic magmas are not co-genetic, although coeval. Comparison of 18O/ 16O ratios in zircon allows to distinguish two groups of A-type granites in the region: those with mantle-derived source, ?18O(Zrn) ranging from 5.5 to 5.8‰ (Timna and Katharina granitoids) and those with major contribution of the modified juvenile crustal component, ?18O(Zrn) varying from 6.5 to 7.2‰ (Elat quartz porphyry dykes and the Yehoshafat alkaline granite). This suggests that A-type silicic magmas in the northern ANS originated by alternative processes almost coevally.

Katzir, Y.; Litvinovsky, B. A.; Jahn, B. M.; Eyal, M.; Zanvilevich, A. N.; Valley, J. W.; Vapnik, Ye.; Beeri, Y.; Spicuzza, M. J.

2007-09-01

327

Fermentation characteristics and ruminal ciliate protozoal populations in cattle fed medium- or high-concentrate barley-based diets.  

PubMed

Fermentation characteristics were measured and numbers and distribution by genera of ciliate protozoa were determined in ruminal fluid samples collected from 10 ruminally cannulated steers during the first 30 d of their being fed barley-based diets containing 62% (Medium Barley) or 95% (High Barley) barley grain (DM basis). Ruminal samples were collected at 5-d intervals over the 30-d periods beginning after adaptation (i.e., at the first full feeding of each diet). Ruminal pH and ammonia concentrations were lower (P < 0.001) with the High Barley than with the Medium Barley diet. Concentrations of total VFA and propionate and amylase activity of ruminal fluid were higher (P < 0.001) on High Barley than on Medium Barley. Total protozoal numbers in ruminal fluid were 42% lower (P < 0.05) on High Barley (470 x 10(3)/mL) than on Medium Barley (804 x 10(3)/mL). On Medium and High Barley diets, respectively, Entodinium spp. made up 89 and 91% of the ciliate protozoal populations. With the Medium Barley diet, relative proportions of Dasytricha, Ophryoscolex, Ostracodinium, Diplodinium, and Metadinium spp. in the total ciliate population were 4.5, 0.4, 0.5, 0.7, and 0.3%, respectively. When the High Barley diet was fed, these genera were not detected. In a subsequent survey, ruminal samples were collected from 200 finishing cattle at slaughter. Average protozoal population was 328 x 10(3)/mL, and Entodinium spp. constituted 97% of the total. These data demonstrate that a large population of Entodinium spp. can persist in the rumen of cattle fed high barley grain-based finishing diets. PMID:11219463

Hristov, A N; Ivan, M; Rode, L M; McAllister, T A

2001-02-01

328

The distribution of transgene insertion sites in barley determined by physical and genetic mapping.  

PubMed Central

The exact site of transgene insertion into a plant host genome is one feature of the genetic transformation process that cannot, at present, be controlled and is often poorly understood. The site of transgene insertion may have implications for transgene stability and for potential unintended effects of the transgene on plant metabolism. To increase our understanding of transgene insertion sites in barley, a detailed analysis of transgene integration in independently derived transgenic barley lines was carried out. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to physically map 23 transgene integration sites from 19 independent barley lines. Genetic mapping further confirmed the location of the transgenes in 11 of these lines. Transgene integration sites were present only on five of the seven barley chromosomes. The pattern of transgene integration appeared to be nonrandom and there was evidence of clustering of independent transgene insertion events within the barley genome. In addition, barley genomic regions flanking the transgene insertion site were isolated for seven independent lines. The data from the transgene flanking regions indicated that transgene insertions were preferentially located in gene-rich areas of the genome. These results are discussed in relation to the structure of the barley genome. PMID:15280249

Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Travella, Silvia; Bilham, Lorelei J; Harwood, Wendy A; Snape, John W

2004-01-01

329

Rapid LC-MS-based metabolomics method to study the Fusarium infection of barley.  

PubMed

Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry was applied to evaluate the potential of nontarget metabolomic fingerprinting in order to distinguish Fusarium-infected and control barley samples. First, the sample extraction and instrumental conditions were optimized to obtain the broadest possible representation of polar/medium-polar compounds occurring in extracts obtained from barley grain samples. Next, metabolomic fingerprints of extracts obtained from nine barley varieties were acquired under ESI conditions in both positive and negative mode. Each variety of barley was tested in two variants: artificially infected by Fusarium culmorum at the beginning of heading and a control group (no infection). In addition, the dynamics of barley infection development was monitored using this approach. The experimental data were statistically evaluated by principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis, and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. The differentiation of barley in response to F. culmorum infection was feasible using this metabolomics-based method. Analysis in positive mode provided a higher number of molecular features as compared to that performed under negative mode setting. However, the analysis in negative mode permitted the detection of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside considered as resistance-indicator metabolites in barley. PMID:24515453

Cajka, Tomas; Vaclavikova, Marta; Dzuman, Zbynek; Vaclavik, Lukas; Ovesna, Jaroslava; Hajslova, Jana

2014-04-01

330

Effects of barley chromosome addition to wheat on behavior and development of Locusta migratoria nymphs  

PubMed Central

Locusta migratoria feeds on various Poaceae plants but barley. Barley genes related to feeding deterrence may be useful for developing novel resistant crops. We investigated the effects of barley cultivar Betzes, wheat cultivar Chinese Spring (CS), and six barley chromosome disomic addition lines of wheat (2H–7H) on locomotor activity, feeding behavior, survival and development of L. migratoria nymphs. Locomotor activity was similar in nymphs kept with wheat and 2H–7H in an actograph, whereas it was generally high in those kept with barely. No-choice and choice feeding tests suggested that barley genes related to inhibition of feeding by L. migratoria are located on barley chromosomes 5H and 6H and those related to the palatability of plants on chromosomes 2H, 5H and 6H. Rearing experiments suggested the presence of barley genes negatively affecting the survival and growth of locust nymphs on chromosomes 5H and 2H, respectively, and the effects are phase-dependent. PMID:23999457

Suematsu, Shunji; Harano, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Seiji; Kawaura, Kanako; Ogihara, Yasunari; Watari, Yasuhiko; Saito, Osamu; Tokuda, Makoto

2013-01-01

331

Translocation of Carbon in Powdery Mildewed Barley 1  

PubMed Central

This paper compares translocation in healthy and powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei, race CR3) infected barley (Hordeum vulgare, variety Manchuria). The sink-like properties of the powdery mildew infection were used to determine what effect imposing a sink in the midst of normal source tissue (mature primary leaf) had on the translocation process. The pattern of translocation was determined by monitoring the movement of 14C which was photosynthetically incorporated from 14C either by the primary or second leaf. In the healthy primary leaf of barley, 14C fixed in the tip section of the blade was preferentially translocated to the root, whereas 14C fixed in the basal section was primarily translocated to the shoot. When a sporulating powdery mildew infection was present in the mid-section of the primary leaf, 14C fixed in that section or in the acropetal healthy tip section readily accumulated in the infection area. Labeled carbon fixed in the healthy basal section was translocated into the other parts of the plant with only a small fraction moving acropetally into the infected mid-section. The 14C fixed by the second leaf was translocated to the root and younger shoot with very little entering the primary leaf. The presence of the mildew infection did not alter this pattern. PMID:16657616

Edwards, H. H.

1971-01-01

332

Dynamics of Nuclear DNA Quantities during Zygote Development in Barley.  

PubMed Central

Quantities of DNA were estimated in the nuclei of mechanically isolated egg and zygote protoplasts in two cultivars of barley using 4[prime],6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining and microfluorometry. Unlike many previous studies on DNA amounts within the sex cells of flowering plants, we obtained consistent and unambiguous results indicating that the egg and sperm nuclei are at the 1C DNA level (basic haploid amount) at the time of karyogamy. Karyogamy was initiated within 60 min postpollination, and the male chromatin became completely integrated into the egg nucleus within 6 to 7 hr postpollination (hpp). Zygotic nuclear DNA levels began to increase at ~9 to 12 hpp in cultivar Alexis and at 12 to 15 hpp in cultivar Igri. The 4C DNA complement was reached in most zygotes by 22 to 26 hpp in cultivar Alexis and by 23 to 29 hpp in cultivar Igri. These data are fundamental to a better understanding of fertilization and zygote maturation in flowering plants. They are also relevant to studies in which the timing of zygotic DNA replication is of interest, such as ongoing investigations on genetic transformations in barley using the microinjection technique. PMID:12242375

Mogensen, H. L.; Holm, P. B.

1995-01-01

333

Parallel expression profiling of barley-stem rust interactions.  

PubMed

The dominant barley stem rust resistance gene Rpg1 confers resistance to many but not all pathotypes of the stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt). Transformation of Rpg1 into susceptible cultivar Golden Promise rendered the transgenic plants resistant to Pgt pathotype MCC but not to Pgt pathotype QCC. Our objective was to identify genes that are induced/repressed during the early stages of pathogen infection to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and role of Rpg1 in defense. A messenger ribonucleic acid expression analysis using the 22K Barley1 GeneChip was conducted in all pair-wise combinations of two isolines (cv. Golden Promise and Rpg1 transgenic line G02-448F-3R) and two Pgt pathotypes (MCC and QCC) across six time points. Analysis showed that a total of 34 probe sets exhibited expression pattern differences between Golden Promise (susceptible) and G02-448F-3R (resistant) infected with Pgt-MCC. A total of 14 probe sets exhibited expression pattern differences between Pgt-MCC (avirulent) and Pgt-QCC (virulent) inoculated onto G02-448F-3R. These differentially expressed genes were activated during the early infection process, before the hypersensitive response or fungal growth inhibition occurred. Our analysis provides a list of candidate signaling components, which can be analyzed for function in Rpg1-mediated disease resistance. PMID:18196301

Zhang, Ling; Castell-Miller, Claudia; Dahl, Stephanie; Steffenson, Brian; Kleinhofs, Andris

2008-08-01

334

Ancient History See also Classics page 68, Classical Studies page 66,  

E-print Network

History Ancient History in St Andrews comprises the study of ancient Greece and Rome, and of neighbouring52 Ancient History See also Classics page 68, Classical Studies page 66, Greek page 102, Latin page 118, Modern Languages page 132 MA (Single Honours Degrees) Ancient History Ancient History

Brierley, Andrew

335

Assessing the maximum contribution from ancient populations.  

PubMed

Ancestral relationships between populations separated by time represent an often neglected dimension in population genetics, a field which historically has focused on analysis of spatially distributed samples from the same point in time. Models are usually straightforward when two time-separated populations are assumed to be completely isolated from all other populations. However, this is usually an unrealistically stringent assumption when there is gene flow with other populations. Here, we investigate continuity in the presence of gene flow from unknown populations. This setup allows a more nuanced treatment of questions regarding population continuity in terms of "level of contribution" from a particular ancient population to a more recent population. We propose a statistical framework which makes use of a biallelic marker sampled at two different points in time to assess population contribution, and present two different interpretations of the concept. We apply the approach to published data from a prehistoric human population in Scandinavia (Malmström H, Gilbert MTP, Thomas MG, Brandström M, Storå J, Molnar P, Andersen PK, Bendixen C, Holmlund G, Götherström A, et al. 2009. Ancient DNA reveals lack of continuity between Neolithic hunter-gatherers and contemporary Scandinavians. Curr Biol. 19:1758-1762) and Pleistocene woolly mammoth (Barnes I, Shapiro B, Lister A, Kuznetsova T, Sher A, Guthrie D, Thomas MG. 2007. Genetic structure and extinction of the woolly mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius. Curr Biol. 17:1072-1075; Debruyne R, Chu G, King CE, Bos K, Kuch M, Schwarz C, Szpak P, Gröcke DR, Matheus P, Zazula G, et al. 2008. Out of America: ancient DNA evidence for a new world origin of late quaternary woolly mammoths. Curr Biol. 18:1320-1326). PMID:24497031

Sjödin, Per; Skoglund, Pontus; Jakobsson, Mattias

2014-05-01

336

[Genetic control of virulence of Pyrenophora teres drechs, the causative agent of net blotch in barley].  

PubMed

The genetic control of virulence was studied in four isolates of the fungus Pyrenophora teres f. teres, originating from various geographic regions in experiments with nine barley accessions, possessing known resistance genes. Experiments were performed with the ascospore progeny of two crosses. The results of segregation for virulence in the progeny of direct crosses were confirmed by analysis of backcrosses and sib crosses. One to four genes for avirulence toward various barley genotypes were found in the isolates under study. It is suggested that dominant suppressor genes are involved in the genetic control of avirulence toward four barley genotypes. PMID:16396454

Mironenko, N V; Afanasenko, O S; Filatova, O A; Kopahnke, D

2005-12-01

337

A cDNA-based comparison of dehydration-induced proteins (dehydrins) in barley and corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several cDNAs related to an ABA-induced cDNA from barley aleurone were isolated from barley and corn seedlings that were undergoing dehydration. Four different barley polypeptides with sizes of 22.6, 16.2, 14.4 and 14.2 kDa and a single corn polypeptide with a size of 17.0 kDa were predicted from the nucleotide sequences of the cDNAs. These dehydration-induced proteins (dehydrins) are very

Timothy J. Close; Alexander A. Kortt; Peter M. Chandler

1989-01-01

338

Modern and ancient alluvial fan deposits  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the structure and depositional processes of alluvial fans (river outwash deposits) has a special interest for those involved with the exploration of petroleum and many minerals. This collection of facsimile reprints of significant and classical research papers sheds new light on the subject. This reference covers the stratigraphy, sedimentology, and depositional processes of modern and ancient alluvial fans. Geographical areas considered include Arctic Canada, the American Southwest, Australia, Wyoming, Norway, and Spain. It includes a state-of-the-art introduction by the editor along with commentaries on all the papers included, a master author citation index and a subject index, and a chronological listing of early studies of alluvial fans.

Nilsen, T.H.

1985-01-01

339

The Astronomical Orientation of Ancient Greek Temples  

PubMed Central

Despite its appearing to be a simple question to answer, there has been no consensus as to whether or not the alignments of ancient Greek temples reflect astronomical intentions. Here I present the results of a survey of archaic and classical Greek temples in Sicily and compare them with temples in Greece. Using a binomial test I show strong evidence that there is a preference for solar orientations. I then speculate that differences in alignment patterns between Sicily and Greece reflect differing pressures in the expression of ethnic identity. PMID:19936239

Salt, Alun M.

2009-01-01

340

Modern and ancient submarine fans - reply.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A reply to Nilsen's comment (see previous 2 abstracts) on his original paper, which constitutes a critical review of Nilsen's and the author's earlier ideas in the light of new information which has emerged in the interim. Key issues addressed are: 1) clarification of the suprafan concept for modern fans; 2) problems that result from use of morphologic terms in describing ancient systems 3) application of the 'original' Multi-Ricci Lucchi model to modern fans; 4) requirements for more than two models; 5) potential petroleum reservoirs on lower fans; and 6) specific goals for future work.-after Author

Normark, W.T.

1980-01-01

341

On Borders: From Ancient to Postmodern Times  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article deals with the evolution of the concept of borders between human groups and with its slow evolution from the initial no men's land zones to the ideal single-dimension linear borders. In ancient times the first borders were natural, such as mountain ranges or large rivers until, with the development of Geodesy, astronomical borders based on meridians and parallels became a favourite natural base. Actually, Modern States adopted these to fix limits in unknown conquered territories. The postmodern thought led give more importance to cultural borders until, in the most recent times, is becoming rather impossible to fix borders in the virtual cyberspace.

Bellezza, G.

2013-11-01

342

China: A Simulation of Ancient Chung Kuo, the World's Most Ancient Civilization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This simulation allows students to participate in the "ways" of ancient Chinese history and culture. The unit is organized into five major phases or "li's." Students may spend about one week on activities in each "li" which focuses on a major aspect of Chinese history, culture, or geography. In each "li" students participate in activities that…

Sargent, Marcia; Baral, Wanda

343

Visualising Ancient Maps as Cultural Heritage: A Relational Database of the Spanish Ancient Cartography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of the historical evolution of the territories and landscapes has been seldom based upon the study of old cartographic documents; they have been always set in a second place after texts and writings. Trying to bridge this gap, we have designed and implemented a relational database of the ancient maps and charts that are already preserved in the

Pilar Chias; Tomas Abad

2008-01-01

344

Effect of low-phytate barley or phytase supplementation to a barley-soybean meal diet on phosphorus retention and excretion by grower pigs.  

PubMed

Two studies were conducted to determine the effect of diets containing low-phytate barley or supplemented with phytase on P balance and excretion in grower pigs. In Exp. 1, eight 32-kg barrows were assigned to a repeated, 4 x 4 Latin square design and fed 4 diets that contained 96% barley: normal-phytate hulled barley (HB), low-phytate hulled barley (LPHB), normal-phytate hull-less barley (HLB), and low-phytate hull-less barley (LPHLB). The barley cultivars contained 0.16, 0.05, 0.24, and 0.03% phytate, respectively. Inorganic P (iP) was added to the HB and HLB diets to meet the 1998 National Research Council recommendation of available P (aP, 0.23%), whereas LPHB and LPHLB contained sufficient aP. The diets were fed at 2.5 times the maintenance requirement for ME. The apparent total tract digestibilities (ATTD) of P did not differ between the hulled and hull-less barley diets, but P retention (%) and excretion were greater in pigs fed the hull-less barley diets (P < 0.05). The ATTD of P was greater and P excretion was 35% lower in pigs fed the low-phytate compared with the normal-phytate diets (P < 0.001). The amount of P retained (g/d) was greater (P < 0.001) in pigs fed low-phytate barley, reflecting an ATTD of P of 65 and 49% for low-phytate and normal-phytate barley, respectively (P < 0.001). In Exp. 2, eight 21-kg barrows were assigned to a repeated, 4 x 4 Latin square design and fed 4 diets based on barley and soybean meal (SBM): HB-SBM, HB-SBM + iP, HB-SBM + phytase, and LPHB-SBM. The HB-SBM and HB-SBM + phytase diets were deficient in aP, whereas the HB-SBM + iP and LPHB-SBM diets had adequate aP. The feeding regimen was similar to that of Exp. 1. Adding iP to the HB-SBM diet did not affect the ATTD but increased the amount of P retained (g/d) and excreted (P < 0.001). The ATTD and amount of P retained (g/d) did not differ among pigs fed the HB-SBM + iP, HB-SBM + phytase, and LPHB-SBM diets. However, pigs fed the HB-SBM + phytase and LPHB-SBM diets excreted 32 and 29% less P, respectively, than pigs fed the HB-SBM + iP diet (P < 0.05), confirming that low-phytate barley is as effective as supplemental phytase in improving P digestibility and utilization and decreasing P excretion in grower pigs. PMID:17591717

Htoo, J K; Sauer, W C; Yáñez, J L; Cervantes, M; Zhang, Y; Helm, J H; Zijlstra, R T

2007-11-01

345

Mechanisms of Radium Mobilization for Radium-Rich Groundwater from the Nubian Sandstone and Carbonate Aquifers in the Negev, Israel: Implications for Fossil Groundwater Resources in the Middle East  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radium isotope quartet (226-Ra, 228-Ra, 224-Ra, 223-Ra), radon, and uranium (238-U, 234-U) isotopes were investigated in brackish to saline groundwater from the Nubian sandstone and Lower Cretaceous carbonate aquifers in the Negev, Israel. Our data show that Ra activity in both aquifers are high and far exceeds international drinking water threshold levels. The 228-Ra/226-Ra and 224-Ra/223-Ra ratios in the groundwater from the two aquifers are closely associated with the measured of 232-Th/226-Ra and predicted 224-Ra/223-Ra ratios in the respective aquifers rocks. This indicating that Ra in the Nubian sandstone is derived from interactions with rocks hosting nuclides from both Th- and U-decay series, whereas the carbonate aquifer contributes nuclides exclusively from the U-decay series. In the sandstone aquifer we found that Ra activity is strongly correlated with temperature. The high 224-Ra/228-Ra, d223Ra (defined as 223-Ra/226-Ra/0.046) (>1) and 234-U/238-U (3.3) ratios in the Nubian groundwater suggest that Ra is primarily derived from recoil process on the aquifer solids. We quantified the Ra recoil and retention by normalizing the 224-Ra to 222-Rn activities in the water, taking into account the 232-Th/226-ra ratios in the aquifer rocks. Given that a large fraction of Ra is in the form of RaSO4 species (a range of 0.15 to 0.5) and the correlation of RaSO4 species with Ba content we propose that Ra recoil is retained by co-precipitation onto secondary barite mineral and/or exchange with surface coating. In the carbonate aquifer we show that Ra activity is strongly correlate with both salinity and dissolved oxygen content. Groundwater with high 226-Ra activity has typically low d223Ra ratios and 222-Rn/226-Ra ratios, which suggests that Ra mobilization is controlled by desorption from surface coating that is enhanced under conditions of high salinity and reduced groundwater. Our findings indicate that under stagnant groundwater conditions, Ra can be mobilized from aquifer rocks with common Ra activities, without significant Ra removal (e.g., adsorption). The lack of significant Ra sinks is due to combination of factors including reducing conditions, lack of available adsorption sites, high temperature (that inhibit both barite saturation and adsorption), and groundwater chemistry (e.g., formation of RaSO4 species). These findings could have implications for possible high Ra anomalies in many other similar groundwater basins in the Middle East.

Vengosh, A.; Peri, N.; Haquin, G.; Paytan, A.; Pankratov, I.; Elhanani, S.; Karpas, Z.

2007-05-01

346

Mitochondrial phylogenomics of modern and ancient equids.  

PubMed

The genus Equus is richly represented in the fossil record, yet our understanding of taxonomic relationships within this genus remains limited. To estimate the phylogenetic relationships among modern horses, zebras, asses and donkeys, we generated the first data set including complete mitochondrial sequences from all seven extant lineages within the genus Equus. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic inference confirms that zebras are monophyletic within the genus, and the Plains and Grevy's zebras form a well-supported monophyletic group. Using ancient DNA techniques, we further characterize the complete mitochondrial genomes of three extinct equid lineages (the New World stilt-legged horses, NWSLH; the subgenus Sussemionus; and the Quagga, Equus quagga quagga). Comparisons with extant taxa confirm the NWSLH as being part of the caballines, and the Quagga and Plains zebras as being conspecific. However, the evolutionary relationships among the non-caballine lineages, including the now-extinct subgenus Sussemionus, remain unresolved, most likely due to extremely rapid radiation within this group. The closest living outgroups (rhinos and tapirs) were found to be too phylogenetically distant to calibrate reliable molecular clocks. Additional mitochondrial genome sequence data, including radiocarbon dated ancient equids, will be required before revisiting the exact timing of the lineage radiation leading up to modern equids, which for now were found to have possibly shared a common ancestor as far as up to 4 Million years ago (Mya). PMID:23437078

Vilstrup, Julia T; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Stiller, Mathias; Ginolhac, Aurelien; Raghavan, Maanasa; Nielsen, Sandra C A; Weinstock, Jacobo; Froese, Duane; Vasiliev, Sergei K; Ovodov, Nikolai D; Clary, Joel; Helgen, Kristofer M; Fleischer, Robert C; Cooper, Alan; Shapiro, Beth; Orlando, Ludovic

2013-01-01

347

Mitochondrial Phylogenomics of Modern and Ancient Equids  

PubMed Central

The genus Equus is richly represented in the fossil record, yet our understanding of taxonomic relationships within this genus remains limited. To estimate the phylogenetic relationships among modern horses, zebras, asses and donkeys, we generated the first data set including complete mitochondrial sequences from all seven extant lineages within the genus Equus. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic inference confirms that zebras are monophyletic within the genus, and the Plains and Grevy’s zebras form a well-supported monophyletic group. Using ancient DNA techniques, we further characterize the complete mitochondrial genomes of three extinct equid lineages (the New World stilt-legged horses, NWSLH; the subgenus Sussemionus; and the Quagga, Equus quagga quagga). Comparisons with extant taxa confirm the NWSLH as being part of the caballines, and the Quagga and Plains zebras as being conspecific. However, the evolutionary relationships among the non-caballine lineages, including the now-extinct subgenus Sussemionus, remain unresolved, most likely due to extremely rapid radiation within this group. The closest living outgroups (rhinos and tapirs) were found to be too phylogenetically distant to calibrate reliable molecular clocks. Additional mitochondrial genome sequence data, including radiocarbon dated ancient equids, will be required before revisiting the exact timing of the lineage radiation leading up to modern equids, which for now were found to have possibly shared a common ancestor as far as up to 4 Million years ago (Mya). PMID:23437078

Vilstrup, Julia T.; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Stiller, Mathias; Ginolhac, Aurelien; Raghavan, Maanasa; Nielsen, Sandra C. A.; Weinstock, Jacobo; Froese, Duane; Vasiliev, Sergei K.; Ovodov, Nikolai D.; Clary, Joel; Helgen, Kristofer M.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Cooper, Alan; Shapiro, Beth; Orlando, Ludovic

2013-01-01

348

Ancient-Pathogen Genomics: Coming of Age?  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The potentially debilitating zoonotic disease brucellosis is thought to have been a scourge of mankind throughout history. New work by Kay et al. [mBio 5(4):e01337-14, 2014] adds to evidence for this by exploiting the huge advances in next-generation sequencing technology and applying shotgun metagenomics to a calcified nodule obtained from a 14th-century skeleton from Sardinia. While not the first DNA-based confirmation of Brucella in medieval DNA samples, Kay et al.’s study goes much further than previous reports based on single gene fragments in that it allows a full-genome reconstruction and thus facilitates meaningful comparative analysis of relationships with extant Brucella strains. These analyses confirm the close relationship of the genome to contemporary isolates from the western Mediterranean, illustrating the continuity of this lineage in the region over centuries. The study, along with recent studies characterizing other ancient-pathogen genomes, confirms that shotgun metagenomics offers us a powerful tool to fully characterize pathogens from ancient samples. Such studies promise to revolutionize our understanding of the nature of infectious disease in these materials and of the wider picture of the emergence, evolution, and spread of bacterial pathogens over history. PMID:25182326

2014-01-01

349

Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair  

PubMed Central

Recent claims of cultivable ancient bacteria within sealed environments highlight our limited understanding of the mechanisms behind long-term cell survival. It remains unclear how dormancy, a favored explanation for extended cellular persistence, can cope with spontaneous genomic decay over geological timescales. There has been no direct evidence in ancient microbes for the most likely mechanism, active DNA repair, or for the metabolic activity necessary to sustain it. In this paper, we couple PCR and enzymatic treatment of DNA with direct respiration measurements to investigate long-term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability. PMID:17728401

Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B.; Christensen, Torben R.; Mastepanov, Mikhail; Nielsen, Rasmus; Munch, Kasper; Brand, Tina; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Zuber, Maria T.; Bunce, Michael; R?nn, Regin; Gilichinsky, David; Froese, Duane; Willerslev, Eske

2007-01-01

350

Expression of Nudix hydrolase genes in barley under UV irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seed storage and cultivation should be necessary to self-supply foods when astronauts would stay and investigate during long-term space travel and habitation in the bases on the Moon and Mars. Thought the sunlight is the most importance to plants, both as the ultimate energy source and as an environmental signal regulating growth and development, UV presenting the sunlight can damage many aspects of plant processes at the physiological and DNA level. Especially UV-C, which is eliminated by the stratospheric ozone layer, is suspected to be extremely harmful and give a deadly injury to plants in space. However, the defense mechanism against UV-C irradiation damage in plant cells has not been clear. In this study, we investigated the expression of Nudix hydrolases, which defense plants from biotic / abiotic stress, in barley under UV irradiation. The genes encoding the amino acid sequences, which show homology to those of 28 kinds of Nudix hydrolases in Arabidopsis thaliana, were identified in the barley full-length cDNA library. BLAST analysis showed 14 kinds of barley genes (HvNUDX1-14), which encode the Nudix motif sequence. A phylogenetic tree showed that HvNUDX1, HvNUDX7, HvNUDX9 and HvNUDX11 belonged to the ADP-ribose pyrophosphohydrolase, ADP-sugar pyrophosphohydrolase, NAD(P)H pyrophosphohydrolase and FAD pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, respectively,?HvNUDX3, HvNUDX6, and HvNUDX8 belonged to the Ap _{n}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX5 and HvNUDX14 belonged to the coenzyme A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX12 and HvNUDX13 belonged to the Ap _{4}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies. Induction of HvNUDX genes by UV-A (340nm), UV-B (312nm), and UV-C (260nm) were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that HvNUDX4 was induced by UV-A and UV-B, HvNUDX6 was induced by UV-B and UV-C, and HvNUDX7 and HvNUDX14 were induced by UV-C, significantly. Our results suggest that the response of HvNUDXs to UV irradiation is different by UV wavelength, and UV-C induced 4 genes of HvNUDX.

Tanaka, Sayuri; Sugimoto, Manabu; Kihara, Makoto

351

Sensitivity of barley varieties to weather in Finland  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Global climate change is predicted to shift seasonal temperature and precipitation patterns. An increasing frequency of extreme weather events such as heat waves and prolonged droughts is predicted, but there are high levels of uncertainty about the nature of local changes. Crop adaptation will be important in reducing potential damage to agriculture. Crop diversity may enhance resilience to climate variability and changes that are difficult to predict. Therefore, there has to be sufficient diversity within the set of available cultivars in response to weather parameters critical for yield formation. To determine the scale of such ‘weather response diversity’ within barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), an important crop in northern conditions, the yield responses of a wide range of modern and historical varieties were analysed according to a well-defined set of critical agro-meteorological variables. The Finnish long-term dataset of MTT Official Variety Trials was used together with historical weather records of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The foci of the analysis were firstly to describe the general response of barley to different weather conditions and secondly to reveal the diversity among varieties in the sensitivity to each weather variable. It was established that barley yields were frequently reduced by drought or excessive rain early in the season, by high temperatures at around heading, and by accelerated temperature sum accumulation rates during periods 2 weeks before heading and between heading and yellow ripeness. Low temperatures early in the season increased yields, but frost during the first 4 weeks after sowing had no effect. After canopy establishment, higher precipitation on average resulted in higher yields. In a cultivar-specific analysis, it was found that there were differences in responses to all but three of the studied climatic variables: waterlogging and drought early in the season and temperature sum accumulation rate before heading. The results suggest that low temperatures early in the season, delayed sowing, rain 3–7 weeks after sowing, a temperature change 3–4 weeks after sowing, a high temperature sum accumulation rate from heading to yellow ripeness and high temperatures (?25°C) at around heading could mostly be addressed by exploiting the traits found in the range of varieties included in the present study. However, new technology and novel genetic material are needed to enable crops to withstand periods of excessive rain or drought early in the season and to enhance performance under increased temperature sum accumulation rates prior to heading. PMID:22505777

HAKALA, K.; JAUHIAINEN, L.; HIMANEN, S. J.; ROTTER, R.; SALO, T.; KAHILUOTO, H.

2012-01-01

352

78 FR 26682 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Hall of Ancient Egypt”  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Hall of Ancient Egypt'' AGENCY...State pertaining to the exhibition ``Hall of Ancient Egypt.'' The...objects to be included in the exhibition ``Hall of Ancient Egypt,''...

2013-05-07

353

7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... to 11/4 quarts of barley; or (c) Has a musty, sour, or commercially objectionable foreign odor (except smut or garlic odor); or (d) Is heating or otherwise of distinctly low quality. 1 Includes heat-damaged kernels....

2013-01-01

354

7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.  

... to 11/4 quarts of barley; or (c) Has a musty, sour, or commercially objectionable foreign odor (except smut or garlic odor); or (d) Is heating or otherwise of distinctly low quality. 1 Includes heat-damaged kernels....

2014-01-01

355

Xylitol Production by Genetically Engineered Trichoderma reesei Strains Using Barley Straw  

E-print Network

Xylitol Production by Genetically Engineered Trichoderma reesei Strains Using Barley Straw. The xylitol production by T. reesei can be enhanced by genetic engineering of blocking further xylitol and Microbiology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria e

Qin, Wensheng

356

Proteinaceous Metabolites from Pyrenophora teres Contribute to Symptom Development of Barley Net Blotch.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Pyrenophora teres, the causal agent of net blotch of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), induces a combination of necrosis and extensive chlorosis in susceptible barley cultivars. Cell-free filtrates from both net and spot forms of P. teres; P. teres f. sp. teres, and P. teres f. sp. maculata were found to contain phytotoxic low molecular weight compounds (LMWCs) and proteinaceous metabolites which appear to be responsible for different components of the symptoms induced by the two forms of the pathogen in a susceptible cultivar of barley (cv. Sloop). Proteins induced only brown necrotic spots or lesions similar to those induced by the pathogens 72 h after inoculation. In contrast, LMWCs induced general chlorosis seen 240 h after inoculation but not the localized necrosis. Neither hydrolyzed or heat- or protease-treated proteinaceous metabolites induced the symptoms. This is the first report of the involvement of proteins produced by P. teres in symptom development during net blotch disease of barley. PMID:18943630

Sarpeleh, Abolfazl; Wallwork, Hugh; Catcheside, David E A; Tate, Max E; Able, Amanda J

2007-08-01

357

The effects of barley straw (Hordeum vulgare) on the growth of freshwater algae.  

PubMed

Bioassays were conducted to determine the efficacy of barley straw liquor in controlling algal growth of 12 freshwater species of algae representing three divisions. Barley straw liquor inhibited the growth of three nuisance algae common in freshwater: Synura petersenii, Dinobyron sp., and Microcystis aeruginosa. However, Selenastrum capricornutum, Spirogyra sp., Oscillatoria lutea var. contorta, and Navicula sp. had significantly increased growth in the presence of straw liquor. The growth of the remainder, Ulothrix fimbriata, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Chlorella vulgaris, Anabaena flos-aquae, and Synedra sp. showed no significant difference from controls. In a related field study, we treated four of six ponds with barley straw and monitored their chlorophyll a levels for one growing season. While phytoplankton populations in all ponds decreased in midsummer, the phytoplankton biomass in treated ponds did not differ significantly from that of control ponds, suggesting that the application of barley straw had no effect on algal growth in these systems. PMID:16051085

Ferrier, M D; Butler, B R; Terlizzi, D E; Lacouture, R V

2005-11-01

358

Unlocking the Barley Genome by Chromosomal and Comparative Genomics[W][OA  

PubMed Central

We used a novel approach that incorporated chromosome sorting, next-generation sequencing, array hybridization, and systematic exploitation of conserved synteny with model grasses to assign ~86% of the estimated ~32,000 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genes to individual chromosome arms. Using a series of bioinformatically constructed genome zippers that integrate gene indices of rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and Brachypodium distachyon in a conserved synteny model, we were able to assemble 21,766 barley genes in a putative linear order. We show that the barley (H) genome displays a mosaic of structural similarity to hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) A, B, and D subgenomes and that orthologous genes in different grasses exhibit signatures of positive selection in different lineages. We present an ordered, information-rich scaffold of the barley genome that provides a valuable and robust framework for the development of novel strategies in cereal breeding. PMID:21467582

Mayer, Klaus F.X.; Martis, Mihaela; Hedley, Pete E.; Simkova, Hana; Liu, Hui; Morris, Jenny A.; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Taudien, Stefan; Roessner, Stephan; Gundlach, Heidrun; Kubalakova, Marie; Suchankova, Pavla; Murat, Florent; Felder, Marius; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Graner, Andreas; Salse, Jerome; Endo, Takashi; Sakai, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Itoh, Takeshi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Platzer, Matthias; Matsumoto, Takashi; Scholz, Uwe; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Waugh, Robbie; Stein, Nils

2011-01-01

359

Effect of phytase supplementation on phosphorus digestibility in low-phytate barley fed to finishing pigs.  

PubMed

Forty crossbred barrows (Camborough 15 Line female x Canabred sire) weighing an average of 79.6 +/- 8.0 kg were used in a factorial design experiment (5 barleys x 2 enzyme levels) conducted to determine the effects of phytase supplementation on nutrient digestibility in low-phytate barleys fed to finishing pigs. The pigs were assigned to one of 10 dietary treatments comprised of a normal 2-rowed, hulled variety of barley (CDC Fleet, 0.26% phytate) or 2 low-phytate hulled genotypes designated as LP422 (0.14% phytate) and LP635 (0.09% phytate). A normal, hulless barley (CDC Dawn, 0.26% phytate) and a hulless genotype designated as LP422H (0.14% phytate) were also included. All barleys were fed with and without phytase (Natuphos 5000 FTU/kg). The diets fed contained 98% barley, 0.5% vitamin premix, 0.5% trace mineral premix, 0.5% NaCl and 0.5% chromic oxide but no supplemental phosphorus. The marked feed was provided for a 7-day acclimatization period, followed by a 3-day faecal collection. In the absence of phytase, phosphorus digestibility increased substantially (P < 0.05) as the level of phytate in the barley declined. For the hulled varieties, phosphorus digestibility increased from 12.9% for the normal barley (0.26% phytate) to 35.3 and 39.8% for the two low-phytate genotypes (0.14 and 0.09% phytate respectively). For the hulless varieties, phosphorus digestibility increased from 9.2% for the normal barley (0.26% phytate) to 34.7% for the hulless variety with 54% of the normal level of phytate (0.14% phytate). In contrast, when phytase was added to the diet, there was little difference in phosphorus digestibility between pigs fed normal barley and those fed the low-phytate genotypes (significant barley x enzyme interaction, P = 0.01). For the hulled varieties, phosphorus digestibility was 50.1% for the barley with the normal level of phytate (0.26% phytate) compared with 51.1 and 52.4% for the varieties with 54 and 35% of the normal level of phytate (0.14 and 0.09% phytate respectively). For the hulless varieties, phosphorus digestibility increased from 47.1% for the normal barley (0.26% phytate) to 54.4% for the hulless variety with 54% of the normal level of phytate (0.14% phytate). In conclusion, both supplementation with phytase and selection for low-phytate genotypes of barley were successful in increasing the digestibility of phosphorus for pigs. Unfortunately, the effects did not appear to be additive. Whether or not swine producers will choose low-phytate barley or supplementation with phytase as a means to improve phosphorus utilization, will likely depend on the yield potential of low-phytate barley and the additional costs associated with supplementation with phytase. PMID:15085965

Thacker, P A; Rossnagel, B G; Raboy, V

2004-02-01

360

7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... to 11/4 quarts of barley; or (c) Has a musty, sour, or commercially objectionable foreign odor (except smut or garlic odor); or (d) Is heating or otherwise of distinctly low quality. 1 Includes heat-damaged kernels....

2012-01-01

361

7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... to 11/4 quarts of barley; or (c) Has a musty, sour, or commercially objectionable foreign odor (except smut or garlic odor); or (d) Is heating or otherwise of distinctly low quality. 1 Includes heat-damaged kernels....

2010-01-01

362

7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... to 11/4 quarts of barley; or (c) Has a musty, sour, or commercially objectionable foreign odor (except smut or garlic odor); or (d) Is heating or otherwise of distinctly low quality. 1 Includes heat-damaged kernels....

2011-01-01

363

Ancient Greek and Chinese Patterns of Definition: A Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study contributes to the understanding of the difference between Western and Chinese thought by comparing the cultural patterns of definition in ancient Greece and China, two cultures that have, in many ways, come to define the West and East. Current studies of the classical period of these two ancient cultures have focused on what the Greek and Chinese sages

Xiaosui Xiao

2008-01-01

364

Visualising alterity: scalar views of predation from ancient Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

This visual essay explores material expressions of otherness, or alterity, in the ancient Andes. It first provides a discussion about key points about alterity, especially different kinds of alterity seen ethnographically. It then turns to different strands of archaeological evidence focused on an alterity centred on ancient conflict and predation. The available record informs at different scales, but manifests a

George F. Lau

2012-01-01

365

The liberating power of entrepreneurship in ancient Athens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objectives in this paper are threefold. First, we identify the nature of entrepreneurial climate in ancient Athens. Drawing on the analyses of Athenian writers we argue that, although philosophers, politicians, and generals enjoyed greater civil and social status relative to those pursuing wealth-creating activities, ancient Athenians were not negative to efforts at making “moderate” profits that were used also

George C. Bitros; Anastassios D. Karayiannis

2004-01-01

366

Notions of "Rhetoric as Epistemic" in Ancient Greece.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The notion that rhetoric (and to a lesser extent, argument) is epistemic is an increasingly popular one today, although it can be traced to ancient Greece. The notion holds that rhetoric, or the art of persuasion, creates and shapes knowledge. Two ancient authors--Aristophanes and Plato--provide evidence that others had notions of rhetoric as…

Benoit, William L.

367

Logical and illogical exegeses of hydrometeorological phenomena in ancient Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological applications aiming at the exploitation of the natural sources appear in all ancient civilizations. The unique phenomenon in the ancient Greek civilization is that technological needs triggered physical explanations of natural phenomena, thus enabling the foundation of philosophy and science. Among these, the study of hydrometeorological phenomena had a major role. This study begins with the Ionian philosophers in

D. Koutsoyiannis; N. Mamassis; A. Tegos

2007-01-01

368

Atmospheric CO2 concentrations during ancient greenhouse climates were similar  

E-print Network

Atmospheric CO2 concentrations during ancient greenhouse climates were similar to those predicted atmospheric CO2 concentrations (½CO2atm) during Earth's ancient greenhouse episodes is essential for accurately predicting the response of future climate to elevated CO2 levels. Empirical estimates of ½CO2atm

Ahmad, Sajjad

369

Evolution of Management Thought in the Ancient Times.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that although systematic management thought is a distinctly modern development, the writings of ancient scholars and records of ancient rulers infer that they understood the rudiments of management principles and concepts. To support this thesis, the author reviews the evidence of management practices and concepts in various…

Sharma, C. L.

370

ORPHEUS: A Virtual Learning Environment of Ancient Greek Music  

E-print Network

Music. Furthermore, it is difficult for researchers with a profound musical education in Western MusicORPHEUS: A Virtual Learning Environment of Ancient Greek Music Dionysios Politis*, Dimitrios the auspices of the SEEArchWeb2 project. ORPHEUS is an interactive presentation of Ancient Greek Musical

Kouroupetroglou, Georgios

371

Ancient Medicine/Medicina Antiqua (AM/MA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is dedicated to the study of ancient medicine. Medicina Antiqua, is a collaborative project sponsored by The Episcopal Academy and maintained by Dr. Lee T. Pearcy. Users will find modest, but selective collections of bibliographies, hypertexts, and links related to the study of ancient medicine. The site also posts recent news and announcements in the field.

1998-01-01

372

ANIMAL DNA IN PCR REAGENTS PLAGUES ANCIENT DNA RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

Ancient DNA analysis is becoming widespread. These studies use polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify minute quantities of heavily damaged template. Unusual steps are taken to achieve the sensitivity necessary to detect ancient DNA, including high-cycle PCR amplification targ...

373

Ancient and Medieval History Year One Year Two Year Three  

E-print Network

Teaching) Research Methods (Dissertation Preparation) (Autumn and Spring) (20 credits) Individual class-hour summer exams (Small Group Teaching) Ancient History/Classics/ Archaeology Introductory Survey module and Cultures which means that you can draw on a vast range of expertise in: · Ancient History and Archaeology

Miall, Chris

374

Design a Book: A Quest in Ancient Egypt  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a classroom project that combines creative writing, basic book design, and social studies content. During this project, the authors' seventh grade students research a variety of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites while reviewing course material from a unit of study on ancient Egypt, practice project management skills…

Cooper, David

2005-01-01

375

How to Teach Ancient History: A Multicultural Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes ways in which K-12 educators can gain additional knowledge for teaching ancient history without distorting or misinterpreting the cultural aspects of the events. It also discusses the use of ancient history, particularly Asian and African history, as a means of teaching democracy and social justice. (GLR)

Yurco, Frank J.

1994-01-01

376

PIXE Analysis of Pre-Hispanic Items from Ancient America  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a review of applications of Particle Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (PIXE) for analysis of ancient artifacts and materials from various ancient civilizations from different American cultural regions is presented. Obsidians, pottery, metallic items (gold and bronze), teeth, pigments, stucco and decorations of pottery are the most studied materials using PIXE. Artifacts and materials from museums and archaeological

J. L. Ruvalcada Sil

377

Ancient Roles of Non-coding RNAs in Eukaryotic Evolution  

E-print Network

also characterized Class I RNAs which seems to be specific to social amoebae. In addition, we haveAncient Roles of Non-coding RNAs in Eukaryotic Evolution Contributions from Social Amoebae. Avesson) #12;Ancient Roles of Non-coding RNAs in Eukaryotes. Contributions from Social Amoebae and Other

378

Animal DNA in PCR reagents plagues ancient DNA research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular archaeology brings the tools of molecular biology to bear on fundamental questions in archaeology, anthropology, evolution, and ecology. Ancient DNA research is becoming widespread as evolutionary biologists and archaeologists discover the power of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify DNA from ancient plant and animal remains. However, the extraordinary susceptibility of PCR to contamination by extraneous DNA is

Jennifer A. Leonard; Orin Shanks; Michael Hofreiter; Eva Kreuz; Larry Hodges; Walt Ream; Robert K. Wayne; Robert C. Fleischer

2007-01-01

379

Hellenism and Jewish nationalism: ambivalence and its ancient roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay sketches the ambivalent relationship of Hebraism and Hellenism from ancient times to the foundation of modern Israel. It analyses classical Greek influence on the Jewish Enlightenment (the Haskalah) and modern Jewish nationalism, particularly as reflected in Hebrew literature. Greece's successful struggle for independence from Ottoman Turkey in the 1820s showed the early Zionists that an ancient nation could

Athena S. Leoussi; David Aberbach

2002-01-01

380

A MATHEMATICA NOTEBOOK ABOUT ANCIENT GREEK MUSIC AND MATHEMATICS  

E-print Network

they judged the most musical and the wisest Apollos among the gods and Orpheus among the semi gods56 -µ-µ A MATHEMATICA NOTEBOOK ABOUT ANCIENT GREEK MUSIC AND MATHEMATICS Luigi Borzacchini-temperament, linked to the idea of real number. We give an outline of a Mathematica notebook about ancient Greek Music

Spagnolo, Filippo

381

The salmonid MHC class I: more ancient loci uncovered  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unprecedented level of sequence diversity has been maintained in the salmonid major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I UBA gene, with between lineage AA sequence identities as low as 34%. The derivation of deep allelic lineages may have occurred through interlocus exon shuffling or convergence of ancient loci with the UBA locus, but until recently, no such ancient loci were

Kristina M. Miller; Shaorong Li; Tobi J. Ming; Karia H. Kaukinen; Angela D. Schulze

2006-01-01

382

Criticisms of Segal's Interpretation of the Ancient Greek Pentathlon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the ancient Greek pentathlon as it was conducted during the Olympic games. The pentathlon was comprised of five sub-exercises: (1) the jump; (2) the discus throw; (3) the javelin throw; (4) the stade run; and (5) wrestling. Using scholarship in the fields of archaeology, ancient poetry and legends, and pictorial evidence such…

Barney, Robert Knight

383

Mineralization of ancient carbon in the subsurface of riparian forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial activity in saturated, subsurface sediments in riparian forests may be supported by recent photosynthate or ancient (>500 ybp) soil organic carbon (SOC) in buried horizons. Metabolism of ancient SOC may be particularly important in riparian zones, considered denitrification hot spots, because denitrification in the riparian subsurface is often C-limited, because buried horizons intersect deep flow paths, and because low

Noel P. Gurwick; Daniel M. McCorkle; Peter M. Groffman; Arthur J. Gold; D. Q. Kellogg; Peter Seitz-Rundlett

2008-01-01

384

Cadmium-induced microsomal membrane-bound peroxidases mediated hydrogen peroxide production in barley roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of cadmium on microsomal membrane-bound peroxidases and their involvement in hydrogen peroxide production was studied\\u000a in barley roots. One anionic and two cationic peroxidases were detected, which were strongly activated by Cd treatment. Positive\\u000a correlation was found between root growth inhibition and increased peroxidase, NADH oxidase activity and H2O2 generation in root microsomal membrane fraction of Cd-treated barley

Ladislav Tamás; Jana Huttová; Igor Mistrík; Marta Ollé

2006-01-01

385

Fine mapping and syntenic integration of the semi-dwarfing gene sdw3 of barley.  

PubMed

The barley mutant allele sdw3 confers a gibberellin-insensitive, semi-dwarf phenotype with potential for breeding of new semi-dwarfed barley cultivars. Towards map-based cloning, sdw3 was delimited by high-resolution genetic mapping to a 0.04 cM interval in a "cold spot" of recombination of the proximal region of the short arm of barley chromosome 2H. Extensive synteny between the barley Sdw3 locus (Hvu_sdw3) and the orthologous regions (Osa_sdw3, Sbi_sdw3, Bsy_sdw3) of three other grass species (Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolor, Brachypodium sylvaticum) allowed for efficient synteny-based marker saturation in the target interval. Comparative sequence analysis revealed colinearity for 23 out of the 38, 35, and 29 genes identified in Brachypodium, rice, and Sorghum, respectively. Markers co-segregating with Hvu_sdw3 were generated from two of these genes. Initial attempts at chromosome walking in barley were performed with seven orthologous gene probes which were delimiting physical distances of 223, 123, and 127 kb in Brachypodium, rice, and Sorghum, respectively. Six non-overlapping small bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone contigs (cumulative length of 670 kb) were obtained, which indicated a considerably larger physical size of Hvu_sdw3. Low-pass sequencing of selected BAC clones from these barley contigs exhibited a substantially lower gene frequency per physical distance and the presence of additional non-colinear genes. Four candidate genes for sdw3 were identified within barley BAC sequences that either co-segregated with the gene sdw3 or were located adjacent to these co-segregating genes. Identification of genic sequences in the sdw3 context provides tools for marker-assisted selection. Eventual identification of the actual gene will contribute new information for a basic understanding of the mechanisms underlying growth regulation in barley. PMID:20464438

Vu, Giang T H; Wicker, Thomas; Buchmann, Jan P; Chandler, Peter M; Matsumoto, Takashi; Graner, Andreas; Stein, Nils

2010-11-01

386

Genetic and environmental variation in the diastatic power of australian barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in the diastatic power of Australian barley, and the relationships between diastatic power and the starch-degrading enzymes contributing to diastatic power, were investigated in 11 cultivars of barley grown at six diverse locations in Australia. Diastatic power varied with genotype and location, with the levels ranging from 3·1 to 16·5 U\\/kg. For alpha-amylase activity, levels across cultivar and location

A. M. Arends; G. P. Fox; R. J. Henry; R. J. Marschke; M. H. Symons

1995-01-01

387

Starch Pasting Properties and Amylose Content from 17 Waxy Barley Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 83(4):354-357 Starch pasting properties and amylose content from 17 waxy barley lines (waxy gene originating from indigenous lines and an artificial mutant) were analyzed using rapid viscosity analysis (Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA)). Amylose contents varied from 0% (Shikoku-hadaka 97) to 9.5% (Shikoku-hadaka 96) compared with 30% for normal barley. Eight parameters were obtained from RVA profiles of these

T. Yanagisawa; E. Domon; M. Fujita; C. Kiribuchi-Otobe; T. Takayama

2006-01-01

388

A role for ethylene in barley plants responding to soil water shortage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of water shortage and ethylene (ethephon) application on ear fertility and tillering of barley plants were compared.\\u000a In both cases, highest sensitivity was observed during jointing and pre-anthesis (Feekes 7–9). The ear initial with the surrounding\\u000a tissue was identified as the site of ethylene action. Treating this region of barley plants with AVG before wilting partly\\u000a prevented drought

C. Bergner; C. Teichmann

1993-01-01

389

Biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins in barley: Genetic control of the conversion of dihydroquercetin to catechin and procyanidins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of dihydroquercetin to catechin and procyanidin was studied in maturing wild type barley (Hordeum vulgare L.,\\u000a cv. Nordal) seeds and proanthocyanidin free mutants blocked in four different genes,ant 13, ant 17, ant 18 andant 19. In the wild type barley grown under controlled conditions, maximal rate of synthesis of catechin, procyanidin B3 and procyanidin\\u000a C2 occurred 8–16 days

Klaus Nyegaard Kristiansen

1984-01-01

390

Effects of germinated barley foodstuff on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Germinated barley foodstuff (GBF), derived from the aleurone and scutellum fractions of germinated barley, is rich in glutamine\\u000a and low-lignified hemicellulose, and increases mucosal protein, RNA, and DNA content in the intestine when fed to normal rats.\\u000a The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding GBF or germinated gramineous seeds on experimental ulcerative\\u000a colitis. Sprague-Dawley

Osamu Kanauchi; Tomohiko Nakamura; Kazue Agata; Keiichi Mitsuyama; Toshihiko Iwanaga

1998-01-01

391

Expression of stress/defense-related genes in barley grown under space environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants are exposed to the extreme environment in space, especially space radiation is suspected to induce oxidative stress by generating high-energy free radicals and microgravity would enhance the effect of space radiation, however, current understandings of plant growth and responses on this synergistic effect of radiation and microgravity is limited to a few experiments. In this study, expression of stress/defense-related genes in barley grown under space environment was analyzed by RT-PCR and DNA microarray experiments to understand plant responses and adaptation to space environment and to develop the space stress-tolerant plants. The seeds of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Haruna nijo, kept in the international space station (ISS) over 4 months, were germinated after 3 days of irrigation in LADA plant growth chamber onboard Russian segment of ISS and the final germination ratio was over 90 %. The height of plants was about 50 to 60 cm and flag leaf has been opened after 26 days of irrigation under 24 hr lighting, showing the similar growth to ground-grown barley. Expression levels of stress/defense-related genes in space-grown barley were compared to those in ground-grown barley by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. In 17 stress/defense-related genes that are up-regulated by oxidative stress or other abiotic stress, only catalase, pathogenesis-related protein 13, chalcone synthase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes were increased in space-grown barley. DNA microarrya analysis with the GeneChip Barley Genome Array showed the similar expression profiles of the stress/defense-related genes to those by RT-PCR experiment, suggesting that the barley germinated and grown in LADA onboard ISS is not damaged by space environment, especially oxidative stress induced by space radiation and microgravity.

Sugimoto, Manabu; Shagimardanova, Elena; Gusev, Oleg; Bingham, Gail; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir

392

Developmental and organ-specific expression of an ABA and stress-induced protein in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

An mRNA species, HVA1, has been shown to be rapidly induced by abscisic acid (ABA) in barley aleurone layers (Hong, Uknes and Ho, Plant Mol Biol 11: 495–506, 1988). In the current work we have investigated the expression of HVA1 in other organs of barley plants. In developing seeds, HVA1 mRNA is not detected in starchy endosperm cells, yet it

Bimei Hong; Rivka Barg; Tuan-hua David Ho

1992-01-01

393

Response of barley and pea crops to supplementary UV-B radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Four cultivars of winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and two cultivars of combining pea (Pisum sativum L.) were grown in the field in the UK (52? N) and irradiated under banks of UV-B lamps in 1994}95 (barley) and 1996 (pea). Supplementary UV-B radiation was applied to treated plots as a proportional addition to the UV-B dose received under a

J. STEPHEN; R. WOODFIN; J. E. CORLETT; N. D. PAUL; H. G. JONES; P. G. AYRES

1999-01-01

394

Detection of seed dormancy QTL in multiple mapping populations derived from crosses involving novel barley germplasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed dormancy is one of the most important traits in germination process to control malting and pre-harvest sprouting in barley\\u000a (Hordeum vulgare L.). EST based linkage maps were constructed on seven recombinant inbred (RI) and one doubled haploid (DH) populations derived\\u000a from crosses including eleven cultivated and one wild barley strains showing the wide range of seed dormancy levels. Seed

Kiyosumi Hori; Kazuhiro Sato; Kazuyoshi Takeda

2007-01-01

395

QTLs for chlorophyll and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in barley under post-flowering drought  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought is one of the major factors limiting barley yields in many developing countries worldwide. The identification of molecular\\u000a markers linked to genes controlling drought tolerance in barley is one way to improve breeding efficiency. In this study,\\u000a we analyzed the quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence in 194 recombinant\\u000a inbred lines (RILs) developed from the

Peiguo Guo; Michael Baum; Rajeev K. Varshney; Andreas Graner; Stefania Grando; Salvatore Ceccarelli

2008-01-01

396

cDNA cloning, characterization and expression of an endosperm-specific barley peroxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A barley peroxidase (BP 1) of pI ca. 8.5 and Mr 37000 has been purified from mature barley grains. Using antibodies towards peroxidase BP 1, a cDNA clone (pcR7) was isolated from a cDNA expression library. The nucleotide sequence of pcR7 gave a derived amino acid sequence identical to the 158 C-terminal amino acid residues of mature BP 1. The

Søren K. Rasmussen; Karen G. Welinder; Jørn Hejgaard

1991-01-01

397

Physiological effects and transport of 24-epibrassinolide in heat-stressed barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study of the metabolic response (dark respiration intensity, photosystem II efficiency, metabolic activity)\\u000a and the yield of barley treated with 24-epibrassinolide and subjected to high-temperature stress. Transport of exogenously\\u000a applied 24-epibrassinolide in barley and changes in the profile of brassinosteroids that may occur in tissues after 24-epibrassinolide\\u000a application were also studied. The water solution of 24-epibrassinolide

Anna Janeczko; Jana Okleš?ková; Ewa Pociecha; Janusz Ko?cielniak; Magdalena Mirek

2011-01-01

398

Genetic diversity among elite Bulgarian barley varieties evaluated by RFLP and RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation among five elite winter barley cultivars (H. vulgare L.) currently grown in Bulgaria was assessed at the molecular level using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)\\u000a and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The present study sampled RFLPs in four well characterized multigene\\u000a families in barley: the seed storage protein loci; the 18S, 5.8S and 26S ribosomal DNA loci;

Elena Todorovska; Adelina Trifonova; Atanas Atanassov

2003-01-01

399

Tissue Culture Response from Seedling Explants of Commercial Barley Cultivars Grown in Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only a few studies have been conducted in which regenerability of barley has been examined. In the current study, 17 barley genotypes (nine two-row malting type: Aster, Emon, Ruen, Jubiley, PV101, Körten, Krassi 2, Perun and Igri, and eight six-row feed types: Karnobat, Hemus, Jerun, Veslets, Aheloi 2, Diana, Panagon, and Izrgev) were evaluated for tissue-culture response from seedlings during

Nabil Abumhadi; Kunka Kamenarova; Georgi Dimov; Elena Todorovska; Adelina Trifonova; Kostadin Gecheff; Atanas Atanassov

2006-01-01

400

Effect of 2,4-D precultivation on regeneration capacity of cultivated barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A reliable protocol for regeneration of barley from seedling explants including leaf bases with the complete apical meristem has been developed. Callus induction and shoot regeneration was only achieved when 28 days-old-seedlings were grown in the presence of high concentrations of 2,4-D. The Bulgarian barley variety Ruen commercially important for brewery industry was used as a model. The regeneration response

Z. Vitanova; V. Vitanov; A. Trifonova; D. Savova; A. Atanassov

1995-01-01

401

Effect of nickel deficiency on soluble anion, amino acid, and nitrogen levels in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. ‘Onda’) plants were grown in nutrient solutions supplied either 0 (no Ni added), 0.6, or 1.0 ?M NiSO4. Plants supplied 0 ?M Ni developed Ni deficiency symptoms; Ni deficiency resulted in the disruption of nitrogen metabolism, and affected the concentration\\u000a of malate and various inorganic anions in roots, shoots, and grain of barley.\\u000a \\u000a The concentrations

Patrick H. Brown; Ross M. Welch; James T. Madison

1990-01-01

402

Transformation of recalcitrant barley cultivars through improvement of regenerability and decreased albinism  

Microsoft Academic Search

During selection for transformed tissue, in vitro-cultured barley material rapidly loses regenerability or gives rise to albino plants, and this has caused difficulty in developing successful transformation technologies for important North American barley cultivars. Callus from three spring cultivars, Golden Promise (GP), Galena (GL), and Harrington (HT), was initiated from immature scutellar tissue and grown on callus-induction medium containing 2.5

Myeong-Je Cho; Wen Jiang; Peggy G. Lemaux

1998-01-01

403

Genetic variation of Bmy1 alleles in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) investigated by CAPS analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme ?-amylase is one of the most important hydrolytic enzymes in the grain of malting barley and is encoded by the\\u000a gene Bmy1. To learn more about its structure and function, a total of 657 barley accessions including 541 Hordeum\\u000a vulgare ssp. vulgare (HV), and 116 H.\\u000a vulgare ssp. spontaneum (HS) were selected for the cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence

Wen Sheng Zhang; Xia Li; Jian Bing Liu

2007-01-01

404

Dialect-I, species-specific repeated DNA sequence from barley, Hordeum vulgare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dialect-1, species-specific repetitive DNA sequence of barley Hordeum vulgare, was cloned and analysed by Southern blot and in situ hybridization. Dialect-1 is dispersed through all barley chromosomes with copy number 5,000 per genome. Two DNA fragments related to Dialect-1 were revealed in ? phage library, subcloned and mapped. All three clones are structurally heterogenous and it is suggested that the

N. V. Sonina; A. A. Lushnikova; A. P. Tihonov; E. V. Ananiev

1989-01-01

405

Genomic diversity of germinating scutellum specific gene P23k in barley and wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

P23k is a 23 kDa protein involved in sugar translocation in the scutellum of germinating barley seeds. The present study was carried\\u000a out to provide the genomic characterization for P23k gene in terms of copy number, chromosome mapping, genetic mapping and expression analysis in germinating sculletum in two\\u000a major Triticeae crops, barley and wheat, and their relatives. Southern blotting showed that

Hiro Kouzaki; Shin-ichiro Kidou; Hideho Miura; Kiyoaki Kato

2009-01-01

406

Biomechanics of Wheat/Barley Straw and Corn Stover  

SciTech Connect

The lack of understanding of the mechanical characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks is a limiting factor in economically collecting and processing crop residues, primarily wheat and barley stems and corn stover. Several testing methods, including compression, tension, and bend have been investigated to increase our understanding of the biomechanical behavior of cellulosic feedstocks. Biomechanical data from these tests can provide required input to numerical models and help advance harvesting, handling, and processing techniques. In addition, integrating the models with the complete data set from this study can identify potential tools for manipulating the biomechanical properties of plant varieties in such a manner as to optimize their physical characteristics to produce higher value biomass and more energy efficient harvesting practices.

Christopher T. Wright; Peter A. Pryfogle; Nathan A. Stevens; Eric D. Steffler; J. Richard Hess; Thomas H. Ulrich

2005-03-01

407

Selection screen for novel photorespiratory mutants of barley  

SciTech Connect

Selfed seed from a catalase mutant of barley (RPr 79/4) was treated with the mutagen N-nitroso-N-methyl urea, which is known to induce mutations in both chloroplast and nuclear genomes. Treated seed was grown to maturity at 0.8% CO/sub 2/, until the second leaf emerged, then plants were transferred to air under high light intensity for 5 days. Those plants which did not show the characteristic phenotype of the catalase mutant, silvering of the leaves, were selected and maintained in high CO/sub 2/. These should include plants with mutations upstream catalase (i.e. non-producers of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/); for example, those affecting glycollate oxidase, phosphoglycollate phosphatase and RuBP oxygenase, in addition to catalase revertants. Preliminary experiments showed a high (7%) frequency of pigment mutations and one plant was selected for further study.

Hall, N.P.; Kendall, A.C.; Turner, J.C.; Wallsgrove R.M.; Keys, A.J.

1987-04-01

408

Epigenetic chromatin modifications in barley after mutagenic treatment.  

PubMed

In addition to their normal developmental processes, plants have evolved complex genetic and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms to cope with various environmental stresses. It has been shown that both DNA methylation and histone modifications are involved in DNA damage response to various types of stresses. In this study, we focused on the involvement of two mutagenic agents, chemical (maleic acid hydrazide; MH) and physical (gamma rays), on the global epigenetic modifications of chromatin in barley. Our results indicate that both mutagens strongly influence the level of histone methylation and acetylation. Moreover, we found that gamma irradiation, in contrast to MH, has a more robust influence on the DNA methylation level. This is the first study that brings together mutagenic treatment along with its impact at the level of epigenetic modifications examined using the immunohistochemical method. PMID:24939040

Braszewska-Zalewska, Agnieszka; Tylikowska, Marta; Kwasniewska, Jolanta; Szymanowska-Pulka, Joanna

2014-11-01

409

Alkylguanidines as Inhibitors of K+ Transport in Isolated Barley Roots  

PubMed Central

It has been shown that plants can accumulate K+ through an energy-dependent process. The effect of alkylguanidines, in particular octylguanidine on the uptake of 86Rb+ by excised barley roots (Hordeum vulgare var. Apizaco LV-72), has been studied. 86Rb+ was used as tracer of K+. The uptake of 86Rb+ which is linear with time and shows saturation kinetics is inhibited by octylguanidine. Half-maximal inhibition of 86Rb+ uptake is attained at 50 ?M octylguanidine. Octylguanidine induces a decrease in the Vmax of the process and increases the Km of the system for Rb+. When the effects of various alkylguanidines were studied, the following order of effectiveness was encountered; octylguanidine = hexilguanidine > butylguanidine > ethylguanidine > guanidine. This suggests that guanidines inhibit Rb+ uptake by interacting through its positively charged guanidinium group with a Rb+ carrier while the alkyl chain interacts with the hydrophobic milieu of the membrane. PMID:16659325

Lepe, Beatriz Gomez; Avila, Epifanio Jimenez

1975-01-01

410

Alkylguanidines as inhibitors of k transport in isolated barley roots.  

PubMed

It has been shown that plants can accumulate K(+) through an energy-dependent process. The effect of alkylguanidines, in particular octylguanidine on the uptake of (86)Rb(+) by excised barley roots (Hordeum vulgare var. Apizaco LV-72), has been studied. (86)Rb(+) was used as tracer of K(+). The uptake of (86)Rb(+) which is linear with time and shows saturation kinetics is inhibited by octylguanidine. Half-maximal inhibition of (86)Rb(+) uptake is attained at 50 muM octylguanidine. Octylguanidine induces a decrease in the V(max) of the process and increases the Km of the system for Rb(+). When the effects of various alkylguanidines were studied, the following order of effectiveness was encountered; octylguanidine = hexilguanidine > butylguanidine > ethylguanidine > guanidine. This suggests that guanidines inhibit Rb(+) uptake by interacting through its positively charged guanidinium group with a Rb(+) carrier while the alkyl chain interacts with the hydrophobic milieu of the membrane. PMID:16659325

Lepe, B G; Avila, E J

1975-10-01

411

Sequence and organization of barley yellow dwarf virus genomic RNA.  

PubMed Central

The nucleotide sequence of the genomic RNA of barley yellow dwarf virus, PAV serotype was determined, except for the 5'-terminal base, and its genome organization deduced. The 5,677 nucleotide genome contains five large open reading frames (ORFs). The genes for the coat protein (1) and the putative viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase were identified. The latter shows a striking degree of similarity to that of carnation mottle virus (CarMV). By comparison with corona- and retrovirus RNAs, it is proposed that a translational frameshift is involved in expression of the polymerase. An ORF encoding an Mr 49,797 protein (50K ORF) may be translated by in-frame readthrough of the coat protein stop codon. The coat protein, an overlapping 17K ORF, and a 3'6.7K ORF are likely to be expressed via subgenomic mRNAs. PMID:3399386

Miller, W A; Waterhouse, P M; Gerlach, W L

1988-01-01

412

Plant regeneration from protoplasts of wild barley (Hordeum murinum L.).  

PubMed

We have produced a large number of plants regenerated from protoplasts originally isolated from embryo-derived cell suspensions of wild barley, Hordeum murinum L.. Suspensions initially allowed protoplast isolation and culture 5.5 to 9 months from the date of callus initiation. Colony formation efficiencies ranged from 1.5 to 3.0 % and from 0.1 to 1.4 % for protoplast cultures with and without nurse cells, respectively. Both nurse and non-nurse techniques allowed efficient embryogenesis and plant regeneration. More than 400 shoots/plantlets have been obtained from 6 independent experiments. Over 150 plants have been transferred to the greenhouse. Protoplasts isolated from the youngest suspensions (5.5 months old) gave rise to the largest number of plants. Protoplasts isolated from suspensions as old as 15 months were also regenerable. PMID:24193639

Wang, X H; Lörz, H

1994-01-01

413

The interaction between lactose level and enzyme supplementation and form of barley processing on performance, digestibility and faecal volatile fatty acid concentration of weanling pigs fed barley-based diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2×3 factorial arrangement was used to investigate the interaction between lactose level (170g\\/kg versus 275g\\/kg), enzyme supplementation (with or without endo-1,3 (4)-?-glucanase) and toasting (raw barley versus toasted barley) in barley-based diets (250g\\/kg) on piglet performance and diet digestibility postweaning. One hundred and forty-four weaned piglets (24 days old, 6.5kg live weight) were blocked on the basis of live

M. B. Lynch; J. J. Callan; J. V. O’Doherty

2008-01-01

414

The role of alpha-glucosidase in germinating barley grains.  

PubMed

The importance of ?-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementary chemical-genetic and reverse-genetic approaches. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of a recombinant form of an ?-glucosidase previously discovered in barley endosperm (ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE97 [HvAGL97]), and applied four of them to germinating grains. All four decreased the Glc-to-maltose ratio in the endosperm 10 d after imbibition, implying inhibition of maltase activity. Three of the four inhibitors also reduced starch degradation and seedling growth, but the fourth did not affect these parameters. Inhibition of starch degradation was apparently not due to inhibition of amylases. Inhibition of seedling growth was primarily a direct effect of the inhibitors on roots and coleoptiles rather than an indirect effect of the inhibition of endosperm metabolism. It may reflect inhibition of glycoprotein-processing glucosidases in these organs. In transgenic seedlings carrying an RNA interference silencing cassette for HvAgl97, ?-glucosidase activity was reduced by up to 50%. There was a large decrease in the Glc-to-maltose ratio in these lines but no effect on starch degradation or seedling growth. Our results suggest that the ?-glucosidase HvAGL97 is the major endosperm enzyme catalyzing the conversion of maltose to Glc but is not required for starch degradation. However, the effects of three glucosidase inhibitors on starch degradation in the endosperm indicate the existence of unidentified glucosidase(s) required for this process. PMID:21098673

Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Naested, Henrik; Smedley, Mark; Otero, Sofía; Fahy, Brendan; Thorpe, Frazer; Nash, Robert J; Harwood, Wendy; Svensson, Birte; Denyer, Kay; Field, Robert A; Smith, Alison M

2011-02-01

415

Morphological, genetic and molecular characteristics of barley root hair mutants.  

PubMed

Root hairs are tubular outgrowths of specialized epidermal cells called trichoblasts. They affect anchoring plants in soil, the uptake of water and nutrients and are the sites of the interaction between plants and microorganisms. Nineteen root hair mutants of barley representing different stages of root hair development were subjected to detailed morphological and genetic analyses. Each mutant was monogenic and recessive. An allelism test revealed that nine loci were responsible for the mutated root hair phenotypes in the collection and 1-4 mutated allelic forms were identified at each locus. Genetic relationships between the genes responsible for different stages of root hair formation were established. The linkage groups of four loci rhl1, rhp1, rhi1 and rhs1, which had previously been mapped on chromosomes 7H, 1H, 6H and 5H, respectively, were enriched with new markers that flank the genes at a distance of 0.16 cM to 4.6 cM. The chromosomal position of three new genes - two that are responsible for the development of short root hairs (rhs2 and rhs3) and the gene that controls an irregular root hair pattern (rhi2) - were mapped on chromosomes 6H, 2H and 1H, respectively. A comparative analysis of the agrobotanical parameters between some mutants and their respective parental lines showed that mutations in genes responsible for root hair development had no effect on the agrobotanical performance of plants that were grown under controlled conditions. The presented mutant collection is a valuable tool for further identification of genes controlling root hair development in barley. PMID:24899566

Chmielewska, Beata; Janiak, Agnieszka; Karcz, Jagna; Guzy-Wrobelska, Justyna; Forster, Brian P; Nawrot, Malgorzata; Rusek, Anna; Smyda, Paulina; Kedziorski, Piotr; Maluszynski, Miroslaw; Szarejko, Iwona

2014-11-01

416

Combinatorial Pooling Enables Selective Sequencing of the Barley Gene Space  

PubMed Central

For the vast majority of species – including many economically or ecologically important organisms, progress in biological research is hampered due to the lack of a reference genome sequence. Despite recent advances in sequencing technologies, several factors still limit the availability of such a critical resource. At the same time, many research groups and international consortia have already produced BAC libraries and physical maps and now are in a position to proceed with the development of whole-genome sequences organized around a physical map anchored to a genetic map. We propose a BAC-by-BAC sequencing protocol that combines combinatorial pooling design and second-generation sequencing technology to efficiently approach denovo selective genome sequencing. We show that combinatorial pooling is a cost-effective and practical alternative to exhaustive DNA barcoding when preparing sequencing libraries for hundreds or thousands of DNA samples, such as in this case gene-bearing minimum-tiling-path BAC clones. The novelty of the protocol hinges on the computational ability to efficiently compare hundred millions of short reads and assign them to the correct BAC clones (deconvolution) so that the assembly can be carried out clone-by-clone. Experimental results on simulated data for the rice genome show that the deconvolution is very accurate, and the resulting BAC assemblies have high quality. Results on real data for a gene-rich subset of the barley genome confirm that the deconvolution is accurate and the BAC assemblies have good quality. While our method cannot provide the level of completeness that one would achieve with a comprehensive whole-genome sequencing project, we show that it is quite successful in reconstructing the gene sequences within BACs. In the case of plants such as barley, this level of sequence knowledge is sufficient to support critical end-point objectives such as map-based cloning and marker-assisted breeding. PMID:23592960

Lonardi, Stefano; Duma, Denisa; Alpert, Matthew; Cordero, Francesca; Beccuti, Marco; Bhat, Prasanna R.; Wu, Yonghui; Ciardo, Gianfranco; Alsaihati, Burair; Ma, Yaqin; Wanamaker, Steve; Resnik, Josh; Bozdag, Serdar; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Close, Timothy J.

2013-01-01

417

Combinatorial pooling enables selective sequencing of the barley gene space.  

PubMed

For the vast majority of species - including many economically or ecologically important organisms, progress in biological research is hampered due to the lack of a reference genome sequence. Despite recent advances in sequencing technologies, several factors still limit the availability of such a critical resource. At the same time, many research groups and international consortia have already produced BAC libraries and physical maps and now are in a position to proceed with the development of whole-genome sequences organized around a physical map anchored to a genetic map. We propose a BAC-by-BAC sequencing protocol that combines combinatorial pooling design and second-generation sequencing technology to efficiently approach denovo selective genome sequencing. We show that combinatorial pooling is a cost-effective and practical alternative to exhaustive DNA barcoding when preparing sequencing libraries for hundreds or thousands of DNA samples, such as in this case gene-bearing minimum-tiling-path BAC clones. The novelty of the protocol hinges on the computational ability to efficiently compare hundred millions of short reads and assign them to the correct BAC clones (deconvolution) so that the assembly can be carried out clone-by-clone. Experimental results on simulated data for the rice genome show that the deconvolution is very accurate, and the resulting BAC assemblies have high quality. Results on real data for a gene-rich subset of the barley genome confirm that the deconvolution is accurate and the BAC assemblies have good quality. While our method cannot provide the level of completeness that one would achieve with a comprehensive whole-genome sequencing project, we show that it is quite successful in reconstructing the gene sequences within BACs. In the case of plants such as barley, this level of sequence knowledge is sufficient to support critical end-point objectives such as map-based cloning and marker-assisted breeding. PMID:23592960

Lonardi, Stefano; Duma, Denisa; Alpert, Matthew; Cordero, Francesca; Beccuti, Marco; Bhat, Prasanna R; Wu, Yonghui; Ciardo, Gianfranco; Alsaihati, Burair; Ma, Yaqin; Wanamaker, Steve; Resnik, Josh; Bozdag, Serdar; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Close, Timothy J

2013-04-01

418

Comparative mapping of quantitative trait loci associated with waterlogging tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Resistance to soil waterlogging stress is an important plant breeding objective in high rainfall or poorly drained areas across many countries in the world. The present study was conducted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with waterlogging tolerance (e.g. leaf chlorosis, plant survival and biomass reduction) in barley and compare the QTLs identified across two seasons and in two different populations using a composite map constructed with SSRs, RFLP and Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers. Results Twenty QTLs for waterlogging tolerance related traits were found in the two barley double haploid (DH) populations. Several of these QTLs were validated through replication of experiments across seasons or by co-location across populations. Some of these QTLs affected multiple waterlogging tolerance related traits, for example, QTL Qwt4-1 contributed not only to reducing barley leaf chlorosis, but also increasing plant biomass under waterlogging stress, whereas other QTLs controlled both leaf chlorosis and plant survival. Conclusion Improving waterlogging tolerance in barley is still at an early stage compared with other traits. QTLs identified in this study have made it possible to use marker assisted selection (MAS) in combination with traditional field selection to significantly enhance barley breeding for waterlogging tolerance. There may be some degree of homoeologous relationship between QTLs controlling barley waterlogging tolerance and that in other crops as discussed in this study. PMID:18752688

Li, Haobing; Vaillancourt, Rene; Mendham, Neville; Zhou, Meixue

2008-01-01

419

Information about Macedonian medicine in ancient Greece.  

PubMed

Ancient Greek Macedonians were highly interested in the improvement of their physical and psychological health. At first, they worshiped the mythical god Asclepius and his daughter Hygieia. In at least 24 places in northern Greece, in Halkidiki, Thessaloniki, Kozani, Kavala, Thassos, Serres and other places, archaelogical findings were related to Asclepius. Macedonian kings were also interested in the development of medicine, for the sake of their fellow citizens and their soldiers. Characteristic examples are the close relations of Hippocrates with king Perdikas (5(th) century B.C.) and of Nicomachus (Aristotle's father being a physician) with king Amintas. Alexander the Great had as his personal physician, the famous physician Philippos of Acarnania. An incident between Alexander and Philippos of Acarnania shows the respect of Macedonian kings to their doctors: Alexander became ill after a bath in the frozen river Cydnus (near ancient Tarsus). At this time he received a letter from his general Parmenion for not to trust his physician. Alexander gave this letter to Philippos to read it and while Philippos was reading it and was rather frightened, he saw Alexander drinking the medicine he had given him. We may note that Alexander the Great as a student of Aristotle had a general education about medicine. Archaeological findings revealed two funerary monuments of physicians: a doctor from Thasos, who practiced in Pella as a public physician during the 3rd quarter of the 4(th) century B.C. and a physician named Alexander, who lived in the 1rst half of the 5(th) century A.D. The tomb of a third physician, probably a surgeon, excavated in Pydna, near mount Olympus (3(rd) century BC)also indicates the importance of physicians in Macedonia. Archaeological findings, like surgical knives, from the Hellinistic and Roman periods, found in the city of Veria, also showed the respect of Ancient Greeks to medicine and to their physicians. An example is the skeleton of a young woman with an anterior cranial hole found in Veria. This trauma was attributed to a delicate surgical operation, perhaps performed to alleviate endocranial pressure. PMID:22087463

Giannouli, Vaitsa; Syrmos, Nikolaos

2011-01-01

420

Legacy of the Ancient World: An Educational Guide. Understanding Ancient Culture through Art at the Tampa Museum of Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the many contributions made by Ancient Greeks and Romans to contemporary life, are those which influence art, architecture, literature, philosophy, mathematics and science, theater, athletics, religion, and the founding of democracy. The Tampa Museum of Art's classical collection offers a unique opportunity to learn about Ancient Greeks and…

Whitelaw, R. Lynn

421

Studies in Continuity and Change: A Comparative Study of the Mother Goddess in Ancient India and Ancient Egypt.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Visiting the Temple of Kali in Calcutta, India, one understands the importance of an Afro-centric methodology in describing the complex nature of the Mother Goddess in ancient India. Discoveries of ancient female figurines indicate an early Indian concept of the female role in the creation of civilization and culture and of the notion of the…

Hardiman, W. J.

422

Pathotypes and NIP1 gene sequences of Finnish Rhynchosporium secalis isolates from barley, couch grass and rye  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhynchosporium secalis (Oud.) J.J. Davis, causal agent of scald of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), was isolated from barley, couch grass (Elymus repens L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.). Isolates were used to inoculate seedlings of a differential barley series containing several sources of major gene resistance\\u000a to the disease. The series included Atlas46, (resistance gene Rrs1) and the isogenic line

N. J. Kilby; J. Robinson

2001-01-01

423

Ancient Near East and the Mediterranean World  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the University of Chicago Library and funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities, this online project contains numerous primary materials related to the study of the ancient Near East and covers topics ranging from archaeology; art history; language; law; and the religions of Sumer, Babylonia, Assyria, Egypt, Nubia, and Persia. Currently, the project includes full-text editions of 33 seminal works in the field, including works on Greek athletics and the exploration of Palestine during the first decade of the 20th century. For those seeking to read them in their language of origin, several of the texts are also available in the original French and German. This site will be of great interest to persons hoping to look through primary research texts, but find themselves unable to make a trip to the University of Chicago Library.

424

Possible test of ancient dense Martian atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have completed preliminary calculations of the minimum sizes of bolides that would penetrate various hypothetical Martian atmospheres with surface pressures ranging from 6 to 1000 mbar for projectiles of various strengths. The calculations are based on a computer program. These numbers are used to estimate the diameter corresponding to the turndown in the crater diameter distribution due to the loss of these bodies, analogous to the dramatic turndown at larger sized already discovered on Venus due to this effect. We conclude that for an atmosphere greater than a few hundred millibars, a unique downward displacement in the diameter distribution would develop in the crater diameter distribution at D approximately = 0.5-4 km, due to loss of all but Fe bolides. Careful search for this displacement globally, as outlined here, would allow us to place upper limits on the pressure of the atmosphere contemporaneous with the oldest surfaces, and possibly to get direct confirmation of dense ancient atmospheres.

Hartmann, W. K.; Engel, S.

1993-01-01

425

Unknown ancient Greek ophthalmological instruments and equipment.  

PubMed

Discoveries of some ancient medical instruments and equipment found in the Hellenic world have been published in magazines of general interest and in a rare Greek medical journal, yet none caught the attention of ophthalmologists. Among these instruments are two forms of the famous 'Kenteterion', dating from the Hellenistic period, used for the couching of cataract. These were found on the island of Milos in the last century. Two magnifying lenses of the Archaic period from the recent Cretan excavations gave us the opportunity to discuss the problem of their medical use. The two drop-bottles from the excavations on Cyprus and at Tanagra, which are also described, seem to be of medical, and possible ophthalmological, use. PMID:9657298

Lascaratos, J; Marketos, S

1997-01-01

426

Solar particle fluxes and the ancient sun  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The implications of the statistical data on solar flare particle fluxes, for the present and the ancient sun, considering modern data from the past two solar cycles, C-14 data from the past 7000 years, and Al-26 and Mn-53 data in lunar samples for the last 10-million years are reviewed. All of these records suggest that there is a maximum proton fluence (greater than 10 MeV) from a solar flare on the order of 10 to the 10th p/sq cm, above which the size-frequency distribution steepens sharply. From this it is extremely unlikely that energetic particles from solar flares could have contributed to extinction catastrophes in the fossil record.

Lingenfelter, R. E.; Hudson, H. S.

1980-01-01

427

Ancient androdioecy in the freshwater crustacean Eulimnadia  

PubMed Central

Among the variety of reproductive mechanisms exhibited by living systems, one permutation—androdioecy (mixtures of males and hermaphrodites)—is distinguished by its rarity. Models of mating system evolution predict that androdioecy should be a brief stage between hermaphroditism and dioecy (separate males and females), or vice versa. Herein we report evidence of widespread and ancient androdioecy in crustaceans in the genus Eulimnadia, based on observations of over 33?000 shrimp from 36 locations from every continent except Antarctica. Using phylogenetic, biogeographical and palaeontological evidence, we infer that androdioecy in Eulimnadia has persisted for 24–180 million years and has been maintained through multiple speciation events. These results suggest that androdioecy is a highly successful aspect of the life history of these freshwater crustaceans, and has persisted for orders of magnitude longer than predicted by current models of this rare breeding system. PMID:16608693

Weeks, Stephen C; Sanderson, Thomas F; Reed, Sadie K; Zofkova, Magdalena; Knott, Brenton; Balaraman, Usha; Pereira, Guido; Senyo, Diana M; Hoeh, Walter R

2005-01-01

428

Recognition of dementia in ancient China.  

PubMed

A search of previous records in the literatures was done to summarize the opinions for dementia in ancient China. The earliest description of dementia was traced in the Yellow emperor's internal classic, a book written 2000 years ago. Hua Tuo (AD 140-208) in Han Dynasty first denominated "dementia" in the book, Hua Tuo Shen Yi Mi Zhuan. The pathogenesis of dementia could be generalized as the insufficiency of Qi, a flowing energy; the stagnation of phlegm, a harmful liquid substance in the body; and the blood stasis, which were also regarded as therapeutic targets. Therefore, we can conclude that dementia has been recognized and investigated in traditional Chinese medicine, which is definitely before the industrial civilization era. PMID:22835605

Liu, Jia; Wang, Lu-Ning; Tian, Jin-Zhou

2012-12-01

429

NOVA: Ancient Creatures of the Deep  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PBS offers this companion Web site to Ancient Creatures of the Deep, a recent NOVA documentary about the coelacanth, a fascinating living fossil. Numerous educational activities are provided, covering a range of grade levels. Students can discover how coelacanth anatomy is like that of no other animal alive (grades 3-12), learn about eight other living fossil fishes (grades 3-12), or "relive the excitement" of the coelacanth's 1938 discovery by reading letters between the discoverer Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer and the expert she consulted (grades 6-12). The Web site also includes a 10-question quiz for 9-12th graders (with detailed explanations of the answers), and a printable activity sheet that has students compare and classify the coelacanth in relation to a moray eel and a bull shark (grades 3-8).

2003-01-01

430

Laser cleaning experimental investigations on ancient coins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser cleaning tests were performed on ancient (Roman and Byzantine) coins, which belong to the collection of the Numismatic Museum of Athens, Greece. Coins with various types of surface corrosion were studied, using Q-switched Nd:YAG, CO2 and Er:YAG lasers and a range of laser pulsing parameters on dry and wet surfaces. A section of each object was cleaned mechanically, by the conservators of the museum in order to show the results of this method. It was discovered that the results of laser cleaning was influenced by the type of corrosion of the surface of the coins. X-ray fluorescence was applied as analytical technique. The results show that XRF could provide detail information about the surface chemical nature of the treated objects, as well as about their past and present state and it leaded to recommendations for restoration with the appropriate laser cleaning conditions.

Drakaki, E.; Evgenidou, D.; Kantarelou, V.; Karydas, A. G.; Katsikosta, N.; Kontou, E.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Vlachou-Mogire, C.

2008-12-01

431

Creating cometary models using ancient Chinese data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For more than two millennia, Chinese court astronomers maintained a rather comprehensive record of cometary sightings. Owing to the significance of comets as portents for the reigning emperor, early sky watchers from China (as well as their counterparts from Korea and Japan) carefully noted each cometary apparition for the purpose of astrological predictions. The dates and corresponding celestial locations and motions were usually recorded and in some cases, the colors, coma sizes, and tail lengths were also noted. These ancient observations represent the only source of information available for modeling the long-term behavior of periodic comets. For comets Halley and Swift-Tuttle, Chinese records have been identified as far back as 240 B.C. and 69 B.C. respectively and these data have been used to define their long-term motions. As a result, heliocentric and geocentric distances for each Chinese sighting of these two comets can be computed and estimates can be made for each comet's intrinsic brightness at various observed returns. Although the earliest identified apparition of comet Tempel-Tuttle is A.D. 1366, the associated Leonid meteor showers were noted back to at least A.D. 902. The Leonid meteor stream is young in the sense that outstanding meteor displays occur only near the time of the parent comet's perihelion passages. The ancient Chinese records of the Leonid meteor showers and storms have been used to map the particle distribution around the parent comet and this information was used to guide predictions for the 1998-1999 Leonid meteor showers.

Yeomans, D. K.

432

Metropolitan Museum of Art: Earth Materials and Ancient Cultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students in a learning community that includes classics and geology complete labs involving rocks and minerals. The class meets at the Metropolitan Museum of Art on a weekend; in groups, the students document and describe the earth materials displayed in art halls of ancient cultures. The following week reformed groups meet in class to compare and contrast their museum-based findings and explore the geological concepts that underlie the use of materials by ancient cultures (jigsaw assignment). It is assumed that students have some prior knowledge of the ancient cultures being studied at the museum through a paired course, assigned reading, or introductory lecture.

Powell, Wayne

433

Some notes on medical liability in ancient times.  

PubMed

Already in ancient times did medical liability occupy mankind. Various civilizations did give their own interpretation on the subject and proposed solutions. Original writings are rare and articles concerning ancient medical liability equally are hard to find. The only relatively trustworthy sources are of legal nature and find their origin in Greek philosophy and Roman Law. At a later stage, Arabic philosophers gave a renewed view on the statements of these previous civilizations and added their own way of thinking. All these influences still reflect in our modern western way of medical acting. Some of these ancient customs concerning medical liability will be discussed in this article. PMID:20690537

Somville, F J M P; Broos, P L O; Van Hee, R

2010-01-01

434

Genetic structure and linkage disequilibrium in landrace populations of barley in Sardinia.  

PubMed

Multilocus digenic linkage disequilibria (LD) and their population structure were investigated in eleven landrace populations of barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare L.) in Sardinia, using 134 dominant simple-sequence amplified polymorphism markers. The analysis of molecular variance for these markers indicated that the populations were partially differentiated (F(ST) = 0.18), and clustered into three geographic areas. Consistent with this population pattern, STRUCTURE analysis allocated individuals from a bulk of all populations into four genetic groups, and these groups also showed geographic patterns. In agreement with other molecular studies in barley, the general level of LD was low (13% of locus pairs, with P < 0.01) in the bulk of 337 lines, and decayed steeply with map distance between markers. The partitioning of multilocus associations into various components indicated that genetic drift and founder effects played a major role in determining the overall genetic makeup of the diversity in these landrace populations, but that epistatic homogenising or diversifying selection was also present. Notably, the variance of the disequilibrium component was relatively high, which implies caution in the pooling of barley lines for association studies. Finally, we compared the analyses of multilocus structure in barley landrace populations with parallel analyses in both composite crosses of barley on the one hand and in natural populations of wild barley on the other. Neither of these serves as suitable mimics of landraces in barley, which require their own study. Overall, the results suggest that these populations can be exploited for LD mapping if population structure is controlled. PMID:22411093

Rodriguez, Monica; Rau, Domenico; O'Sullivan, Donal; Brown, Anthony H D; Papa, Roberto; Attene, Giovanna

2012-06-01

435

Sources of uncertainty in nitrous oxide emissions from winter barley biofuel feedstock life cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Winter barley is an attractive feedstock for first generation biofuel production in the US Mid-Atlantic region that can serve East Coast transportation fuel markets. Recently designated advanced fuel standing by US EPA, the influence of barley grown as a winter crop on N2O emissions is uncertain because of high spatial and temporal variability. Our objective is to examine the sensitivity of direct and indirect N2O emissions to different management and environmental factors within a 20 year winter barley rotation in two Mid-Atlantic counties (Lenoir, North Carolina, and Queen Anne's, Maryland) using first order uncertainty methods. Specifically, we conducted simulations using the DayCent biogeochemical model, where winter barley was introduced in a two-year rotation following corn and preceding soybean, and grown in four-year cycles that alternate with winter wheat and fallow periods. We tested different model input parameters and analyzed the level of uncertainty each contributes to both direct and indirect N2O emissions with the introduction of barley into the crop rotation. The input values for pH, precipitation, temperature, soil texture, and fertilizer quantity applied were altered from base values and outputs for rotations with and without winter barley were compared by calculating partial derivatives for each parameter to estimate the relative change in N2O emitted. Fertilizer, followed by soil texture, introduces the greatest uncertainty in N2O emissions, with the remaining parameters contributing to lesser, but still significant uncertainty. Therefore, as barley is introduced onto a farm for biofuel production, it is most important to carefully control the fertilizer additions, and to monitor the soil texture class characteristics.

Speers, C. M.; Gurian, P. L.; Adler, P. R.; Del Grosso, S.; Spatari, S.

2013-12-01

436

Distribution, functional impact, and origin mechanisms of copy number variation in the barley genome  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing evidence for the prevalence of copy number variation (CNV) and its role in phenotypic variation in many eukaryotic species. Here we use array comparative genomic hybridization to explore the extent of this type of structural variation in domesticated barley cultivars and wild barleys. Results A collection of 14 barley genotypes including eight cultivars and six wild barleys were used for comparative genomic hybridization. CNV affects 14.9% of all the sequences that were assessed. Higher levels of CNV diversity are present in the wild accessions relative to cultivated barley. CNVs are enriched near the ends of all chromosomes except 4H, which exhibits the lowest frequency of CNVs. CNV affects 9.5% of the coding sequences represented on the array and the genes affected by CNV are enriched for sequences annotated as disease-resistance proteins and protein kinases. Sequence-based comparisons of CNV between cultivars Barke and Morex provided evidence that DNA repair mechanisms of double-strand breaks via single-stranded annealing and synthesis-dependent strand annealing play an important role in the origin of CNV in barley. Conclusions We present the first catalog of CNVs in a diploid Triticeae species, which opens the door for future genome diversity research in a tribe that comprises the economically important cereal species wheat, barley, and rye. Our findings constitute a valuable resource for the identification of CNV affecting genes of agronomic importance. We also identify potential mechanisms that can generate variation in copy number in plant genomes. PMID:23758725

2013-01-01

437

Nutrient retention and growth performance of chicks given low-phytate conventional or hull-less barleys.  

PubMed

1. The experimental barley samples included 4 hulled and one hull-less low-phytate barley cultivars and two commercial barley varieties as controls. 2. The diets were provided in meal form, with the experimental barley samples constituting the cereal source. Two additional treatments were added for each of the control varieties in which intermediate and recommended levels of phosphorus were provided. 3. A completely randomised design was used with 5 replicates of 5 chicks per treatment. The chicks were grown from 2 to 14 d of age with excreta collected over the subsequent 3 d. 4. Although total phosphorus levels were similar for all barley samples, there were large differences in their phytate content, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 13.8 g/kg. M2 955 hulled barley exhibited the lowest phytate and the highest phosphorus solubility. 5. There was a negative linear relationship between grain phytate and weight gain and with bone ash. The low-phytate hulled barleys M2 955 and the low-phytate hull-less barley (lpa1-1H) gave better feed conversion (8%) than controls. The hull-less low-phytate barley gave significantly higher total phosphorus (18%) and soluble phosphorus retention (23%) than the hull-less control. The low-phytate samples tended to give lower excreta phosphorus levels (total and soluble), but the effect was significant only for the hull-less samples. Amino acid retention was significantly higher for the low-phytate hull-less barley than the control (4%). 6. Overall, the results suggest that using low-phytate barley can result in similar growth while using less supplemental phosphorus, reducing waste phosphorus by more than 50%. PMID:18568757

Salarmoini, M; Campbell, G L; Rossnagel, B G; Raboy, V

2008-05-01

438

Gn?monik? Techn?: The Dialer's Art and its Meaning for the Ancient World  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gn?monik? Techn?, the art of gnomonics, was a recognized branch of applied mathematics in Greek antiquity. The variety of ancient sundials that survive show us that ancient dialers were prolific and inventive. This paper places ancient gnomonics in scientific and cultural perspective and offers an overview of ancient dial types.

Evans, James

2005-01-01

439

Ancient History See also Classical Studies page 76, Classics page 78,  

E-print Network

the study of ancient Greece and Rome, and of neighbouring peoples such as the Persians and Carthaginians62 Ancient History See also Classical Studies page 76, Classics page 78, Greek page 110, Latin page 126, Modern Languages page 140 Degree options MA (Single Honours Degrees) Ancient History Ancient

Brierley, Andrew

440

Addressing the Future in Ancient and Modern Times.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the similarities between ancient prophecy and modern futures prediction. The article suggests that the perceived degree of certainty in predictions of the future affects the patterns of emotional and rational responses in those receiving them. (AM)

Roshwald, Mordecai

1982-01-01

441

Sexual Peculiarities of the Ancient Greeks and Romans  

E-print Network

This study looks at ancient Greek and Roman sexual practices from the point of view of their (implied) differences from modern western practices. There are eight major themes: sex and status, the ubiquity of sex, the body, ...

Younger, John G.

2011-01-01

442

Sources and Resources for Teaching about Ancient Greece  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article identifies print, non-print, and human sources and resources useful to elementary and secondary teachers of ancient Greek history. A rationale for teaching Greek history is also included. (Author/RM)

Spiridakis, John N.; Mantzanas, Theophilos

1977-01-01

443

[Restore of the ancient "moxibustion the pulse" method].  

PubMed

The manipulation of ancient "moxibustion the pulse" method are replicated and discussed through literature review. It turned out that the old year moxa was the best material for moxibustion in ancient times because of its mild heat power and uninjurious to the skin or blood and vessels; it was believed by the ancient people that the ideal fire to light moxa which could play the curative effect best was "sunfire" (lighted through the bronze concave mirror focussing) while the prohibited were "eight kinds of wood fire"; the moxibustion area were the convergence of the pulse on limb ends. The way to determine the time and amount of moxibustion were various, but in general the moxa amount was larger; still after moxibustion, proper exercise and diet were recommended, the nursing methods of the moxibustion sore were recorded. In ancient times, moxibustion was not only a treatment method but also an unique culture carrier to reflect the faith and worship. PMID:23713326

Wu, Qi-Fei; Bai, Xing-Hua

2013-03-01

444

Style-Based Retrieval for Ancient Syriac Manuscripts Emma Dalton  

E-print Network

Style-Based Retrieval for Ancient Syriac Manuscripts Emma Dalton Education Dept. Simon Fraser University Burnaby, BC, Canada emma.b.dalton@gmail.com Nicholas R. Howe Computer Science Dept. Smith College

Howe, Nicholas

445

Deep sequencing of RNA from ancient maize kernels.  

PubMed

The characterization of biomolecules from ancient samples can shed otherwise unobtainable insights into the past. Despite the fundamental role of transcriptomal change in evolution, the potential of ancient RNA remains unexploited - perhaps due to dogma associated with the fragility of RNA. We hypothesize that seeds offer a plausible refuge for long-term RNA survival, due to the fundamental role of RNA during seed germination. Using RNA-Seq on cDNA synthesized from nucleic acid extracts, we validate this hypothesis through demonstration of partial transcriptomal recovery from two sources of ancient maize kernels. The results suggest that ancient seed transcriptomics may offer a powerful new tool with which to study plant domestication. PMID:23326310

Fordyce, Sarah L; Ávila-Arcos, Maria C; Rasmussen, Morten; Cappellini, Enrico; Romero-Navarro, J Alberto; Wales, Nathan; Alquezar-Planas, David E; Penfield, Steven; Brown, Terence A; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe; Montiel, Rafael; Jørgensen, Tina; Odegaard, Nancy; Jacobs, Michael; Arriaza, Bernardo; Higham, Thomas F G; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, M Thomas P

2013-01-01

446

Deep Sequencing of RNA from Ancient Maize Kernels  

PubMed Central

The characterization of biomolecules from ancient samples can shed otherwise unobtainable insights into the past. Despite the fundamental role of transcriptomal change in evolution, the potential of ancient RNA remains unexploited – perhaps due to dogma associated with the fragility of RNA. We hypothesize that seeds offer a plausible refuge for long-term RNA survival, due to the fundamental role of RNA during seed germination. Using RNA-Seq on cDNA synthesized from nucleic acid extracts, we validate this hypothesis through demonstration of partial transcriptomal recovery from two sources of ancient maize kernels. The results suggest that ancient seed transcriptomics may offer a powerful new tool with which to study plant domestication. PMID:23326310

Rasmussen, Morten; Cappellini, Enrico; Romero-Navarro, J. Alberto; Wales, Nathan; Alquezar-Planas, David E.; Penfield, Steven; Brown, Terence A.; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe; Montiel, Rafael; Jørgensen, Tina; Odegaard, Nancy; Jacobs, Michael; Arriaza, Bernardo; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

2013-01-01

447

Ancient Land Routes On The Paximadhi Peninsula, Karystos, Euboea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent regional surface surveys have placed more focus on rural investigations, but the means of transport and communication within those rural surroundings has not always received adequate attention. The Southern Euboea Exploration Project has undertaken a new phase of research in the Karystos area with the goal of developing a methodology that allows for a more detailed record of the pre-modern land routes. On the Paximadhi peninsula it was possible to identify numerous fragments of suspected ancient routes dating to the Classical and Hellenistic periods. In the majority of cases these fragments were closely associated with adjacent datable ancient sites. By taking into consideration the evidence recorded during the survey it was sometimes possible to propose the extension of these ancient segments and to theorize the directions, lengths, and purposes of ancient networks.

Keller, D.; Hom, E.

448

Transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally regulated microRNAs in heat stress response in barley  

PubMed Central

Heat stress is one of the major abiotic factors that can induce severe plant damage, leading to a decrease in crop plant productivity. Despite barley being a cereal of great economic importance, few data are available concerning its thermotolerance mechanisms. In this work microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in heat stress response in barley were investigated. The level of selected barley mature miRNAs was examined by hybridization. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to monitor the changes in the expression profiles of primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) precursors, as well as novel and conserved target genes during heat stress. The miRNA-mediated cleavage sites in the target transcripts were confirmed by degradome analysis and the 5’ RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) approach. Four barley miRNAs (miR160a, 166a, 167h, and 5175a) were found which are heat stress up-regulated at the level of both mature miRNAs and precursor pri-miRNAs. Moreover, the splicing of introns hosting miR160a and miR5175a is also heat induced. The results demonstrate transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of heat-responsive miRNAs in barley. The observed induction of miRNA expression is correlated with the down-regulation of the expression level of their experimentally identified new and conservative target genes. PMID:25183744

Kruszka, Katarzyna; Pacak, Andrzej; Swida-Barteczka, Aleksandra; Nuc, Przemyslaw; Alaba, Sylwia; Wroblewska, Zuzanna; Karlowski, Wojciech; Jarmolowski, Artur; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia

2014-01-01

449

Free ?-dicarbonyl compounds in coffee, barley coffee and soy sauce and effects of in vitro digestion.  

PubMed

?-Dicarbonyl (?-DC) compounds were characterised in roasted (coffee, barley coffee) and in fermented (soy sauce) food matrices. Glyoxal (GO), methylglyoxal (MGO), diacetyl (DA) and 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) were found in all samples, and hydroxypyruvaldehyde and 5-hydroxypentane-2,3-dione in barley and soy. Cis and trans 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene (3,4-DGE) isomers and 4-glucosyl-5,6-dihydroxy-2-oxohexanal (4-G,3-DG) were found only in barley, and 3,4-DGE only in soy sauce with molasses. GO, MGO, and DA were quantified. Findings indicate that i) ?-DC profiles depend on the food matrix and any technological treatments applied; ii) ?-DC quantitation by HPLC requires matrix-specific, validated methods; iii) GO and MGO were the most abundant ?-DCs; and iv) barley coffee was the matrix richest in ?-DCs both qualitatively and quantitatively. In vitro simulated digestion reduced (coffee) or strongly increased (barley, soy sauce) free ?-DC content. These findings suggest that ?-DC bioavailability could actually depend not on food content but rather on reactions occurring during digestion. PMID:24996332

Papetti, Adele; Mascherpa, Dora; Gazzani, Gabriella

2014-12-01

450

Effects of the semi-dwarfing sdw1/denso gene in barley.  

PubMed

Recent advances in cereal genomics have made it possible to analyse the architecture of cereal genomes and their expressed components, leading to an increase in our knowledge of those genes that are associated with the key agronomical traits. Presently, use of a dwarfing gene in breeding process is crucial for the development of modern cultivars. In barley, more than 30 types of dwarfs or semi-dwarfs have been hitherto described. However, only a few of them have been successfully used in barley breeding programs. Both breeding and molecular mapping experiments were undertaken to enhance and evaluate the performance of semi-dwarf barley lines. The semi-dwarfing cultivars had improved lodging resistance and a higher harvest index. There have been a lot of investigations that have contributed new information to our basic understanding of the mechanisms underlying growth regulations in barley. This paper reviews semi-dwarfing genes in barley in general and special attention is paid to mapping of the sdw1/denso locus, changes in protein abundance and associations of the semi-dwarfness with gibberellins. PMID:23975516

Kuczy?ska, Anetta; Surma, Maria; Adamski, Tadeusz; Miko?ajczak, Krzysztof; Krystkowiak, Karolina; Ogrodowicz, Piotr

2013-11-01

451

Adaptive climatic molecular evolution in wild barley at the Isa defense locus  

PubMed Central

Wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) represents a significant genetic resource for crop improvement in barley (Hordeum vulgare) and for the study of the evolution and domestication of plant populations. The Isa gene from barley has a putative role in plant defense. This gene encodes a bifunctional ?-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor that inhibits the bacterial serine protease subtilisin, fungal xylanase, and the plant's own ?-amylase. The inhibition of plant ?-amylases suggests this protein may also be important for grain quality from a human perspective. We identified 16 SNPs in the coding region of the Isa locus of 178 wild barley accessions from eight climatically divergent sites across Israel. The pattern of SNPs suggested a large number of recombination events within this gene, indicating that the low-outcrossing rate of wild barley is not a barrier to recombinant haplotypes becoming established in the population. Seven amino acid substitutions were present in the coding region. Genetic diversity for each population was calculated by using Nei's diversity index, and a Spearman rank correlation was carried out to test the association between gene diversity and 16 ecogeographical factors. Highly significant correlations were found between diversity at the Isa locus and key water variables, evaporation, rainfall, humidity, and latitude. The pattern of association suggests selective sweeps in the wetter climates, with resulting low diversity and weaker selection or diversifying selection in the dryer climates resulting in much higher diversity. PMID:17301230

Cronin, James K.; Bundock, Peter C.; Henry, Robert J.; Nevo, Eviatar

2007-01-01

452

Integration of ?-glucan fibre rich fractions from barley and mushrooms to form healthy extruded snacks.  

PubMed

?-glucan is a commonly researched plant cell wall component that when incorporated into food products has been associated with cholesterol and glycaemic response reductions. This study focusses on ?-glucan rich fractions from barley and mushroom used in the production of extruded ready to eat snacks. Inclusion of barley ?-glucan rich fractions and mushroom ?-glucan fractions at 10 % levels increased the total dietary fibre content of extrudates compared to the control (P?barley and mushroom fraction (P?barley and mushroom ?-glucan rich fractions manipulated the starch digestibility profile and hence rate of glucose release during digestion compared to the control sample. This in turn resulted in a significant (P?barley ?-glucan rich fractions and between 17 and 25 % for mushroom ?-glucan rich fractions. We conclude that the inclusion of these fractions could be utilised by the food industry to manipulate the glycaemic response of extruded snack products. PMID:23232921

Brennan, Margaret A; Derbyshire, Emma; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Brennan, Charles S

2013-03-01

453

Nitrate transport is independent of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases in barley seedlings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has NADH-specific and NAD(P)H-bispecific nitrate reductase isozymes. Four isogenic lines with different nitrate reductase isozyme combinations were used to determine the role of NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductases on nitrate transport and assimilation in barley seedlings. Both nitrate reductase isozymes were induced by nitrate and were required for maximum nitrate assimilation in barley seedlings. Genotypes lacking the NADH isozyme (Az12) or the NAD(P)H isozyme (Az70) assimilated 65 or 85%, respectively, as much nitrate as the wild type. Nitrate assimilation by genotype (Az12;Az70) which is deficient in both nitrate reductases, was only 13% of the wild type indicating that the NADH and NAD(P)H nitrate reductase isozymes are responsible for most of the nitrate reduction in barley seedlings. For all genotypes, nitrate assimilation rates in the dark were about 55% of the rates in light. Hypotheses that nitrate reductase has direct or indirect roles in nitrate uptake were not supported by this study. Induction of nitrate transporters and the kinetics of net nitrate uptake were the same for all four genotypes indicating that neither nitrate reductase isozyme has a direct role in nitrate uptake in barley seedlings.

Warner, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

1989-01-01

454

Boron stress responsive microRNAs and their targets in barley.  

PubMed

Boron stress is an environmental factor affecting plant development and production. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to be involved in several plant processes such as growth regulation and stress responses. In this study, miRNAs associated with boron stress were identified and characterized in barley. miRNA profiles were also comparatively analyzed between root and leave samples. A total of 31 known and 3 new miRNAs were identified in barley; 25 of them were found to respond to boron treatment. Several miRNAs were expressed in a tissue specific manner; for example, miR156d, miR171a, miR397, and miR444a were only detected in leaves. Additionally, a total of 934 barley transcripts were found to be specifically targeted and degraded by miRNAs. In silico analysis of miRNA target genes demonstrated that many miRNA targets are conserved transcription factors such as Squamosa promoter-binding protein, Auxin response factor (ARF), and the MYB transcription factor family. A majority of these targets were responsible for plant growth and response to environmental changes. We also propose that some of the miRNAs in barley such as miRNA408 might play critical roles against boron exposure. In conclusion, barley may use several pathways and cellular processes targeted by miRNAs to cope with boron stress. PMID:23555702

Ozhuner, Esma; Eldem, Vahap; Ipek, Arif; Okay, Sezer; Sakcali, Serdal; Zhang, Baohong; Boke, Hatice; Unver, Turgay

2013-01-01

455

Peopling the past: New perspectives on the ancient Maya  

PubMed Central

The new direction in Maya archaeology is toward achieving a greater understanding of people and their roles and their relations in the past. To answer emerging humanistic questions about ancient people's lives Mayanists are increasingly making use of new and existing scientific methods from archaeology and other disciplines. Maya archaeology is bridging the divide between the humanities and sciences to answer questions about ancient people previously considered beyond the realm of archaeological knowledge. PMID:11136245

Robin, Cynthia

2001-01-01

456

A new approach for ancient inscriptions' writer identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach is introduced here for identifying the writer of an ancient inscription, via of methods of pattern recognition, image processing and mathematics. Identifying the writer of an ancient inscription is of fundamental importance for Archaeometry and History,since,it is,so far, the only objective method for dating its content. The introduced method consists in a)pairwise matching of all realizations of

Panayiotis Rousopoulos; Michail Panagopoulos; Constantin Papaodysseus; Fivi Panopoulou; Dimitris Arabadjis; Stephen Tracy; Fotios Giannopoulos; Solomon Zannos

2011-01-01

457

Thermal analytical investigation of ancient mortars from gothic churches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of thermal analysis in studying ancient mortars in English cathedrals is explained. Thermal analysis can be used to\\u000a investigate both mortar and stone in dated structures. Analysis of ancient mortars show that though recarbonated, they remain\\u000a soft, yielding to structural deformations. The use of hard (cement mortar) in modern renovation can result in micro-cracking\\u000a in the stone and

J. Adams; D. Dollimore; D. L. Griffiths

1993-01-01

458

PRAAD: Preprocessing and Analysis Tool for Arabic Ancient Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the new system PRAAD for preprocessing and analysis of Arabic historical documents. It is composed of two important parts: pre-processing and analysis of ancient documents. After digitization, the color or greyscale ancient documents images are distorted by the presence of strong background artefacts such as scan optical blur and noise, show-through and bleed-through effects and spots. In

Wafa Boussellaa; Abderrazak Zahour; Bruno Taconet; Adel Alimi; Abdellatif Benabdelhafid

2007-01-01

459

Ancient human genome sequence of an extinct Palaeo-Eskimo  

E-print Network

diversity and composition directly. To access such data, ancient genomic sequencing is needed. Presently no genome from an ancient human has been published, the closest being two data sets representing a few megabases (Mb) ofDNA froma singleNeanderthal9..., Denmark. 8Departments of Integrative Biology and Statistics, UC-Berkeley, 4098 VLSB, Berkeley, California 94720, USA. 9Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, Dyson Perrins Building, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY, UK. 10Department...

Rasmussen, Morten; Li, Yingrui; Lindgreen, Stinus; Pedersen, Jakob Skou; Albrechtsen, Anders; Moltke, Ida; Metspalu, Mait; Metspalu, Ene; Kivisild, Toomas; Gupta, Ramneek; Bertalan, Marcelo; Nielsen, Kasper; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Wang, Yong; Raghavan, Maanasa; Campos, Paula F.; Kamp, Hanne Munkholm; Wilson, Andrew S.; Gledhill, Andrew; Tridico, Silvana; Bunce, Michael; Lorenzen, Eline D.; Binladen, Jonas; Guo, Xiaosen; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Xiuqing; Zhang, Hao; Li, Zhuo; Chen, Minfeng; Orlando, Ludovic; Kristiansen, Karsten; Bak, Mads; Tommerup, Niels; Bendixen, Christian; Pierre, Tracey L.; Gronnow, Bjarne; Meldgaard, Morten; Andreasen, Claus; Fedorova, Sardana A.; Osipova, Ludmila P.; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Nielsen, Finn C.; Crawford, Michael H.; Brunak, Soren; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Villems, Richard; Nielsen, Rasmus; Krogh, Anders; Wang, Jun; Willerslev, Eske

2010-02-11

460

Mineralization of ancient carbon in the subsurface of riparian forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

and 14C dating of dissolved inorganic carbon revealed that ancient SOC mineralization was common, and that it constituted 31-100% of C mineralization 2.6 m deep at one site, at rates sufficient to influence landscape N budgets. Our data failed to reveal consistent spatial patterns of microbially available ancient C. Although mineralized C age increased with depth at one alluvial site,

Noel P. Gurwick; Daniel M. McCorkle; Peter M. Groffman; Arthur J. Gold; D. Q. Kellogg; Peter Seitz-Rundlett

2008-01-01

461

The Art of Ancient Greek Theater  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Getty Museum provides this glimpse of Greek theater by utilizing both images and audio. Text at the website informs us that "Colorful characters, elaborate costumes, stage sets, music, and above all masks" were characteristic of Greek drama. Examples of images available to view on the site include sculpture and relief depicting actors. Many of these images feature actors wearing masks, such as Statue of an Actor as Papposilenos, dating from A.D. 100-199. In Greek myth, Papposilenos is the father of the band of satyrs that raised Dionysos. There are also over a dozen vessels to view; these vessels were used for various purposes including cooling wine, storage jars, and mixing vessels. The vessels are painted with scenes from the theater, and several are accompanied by audio of curators explaining the iconography. One of the featured items in the collection is a papyrus fragment from 175-200 A.D. with a few lines from a play by Sophocles. The exhibition closes with a reading, in ancient Greek, of an excerpt from this play, entitled The Trackers; a scene in which satyrs also appear, hearing music played on the then-newly invented lyre.

462

Revisiting Terminalia arjuna - An Ancient Cardiovascular Drug.  

PubMed

Terminalia arjuna, commonly known as arjuna, belongs to the family of Combretaceae. Its bark decoction is being used in the Indian subcontinent for anginal pain, hypertension, congestive heart failure, and dyslipidemia, based on the observations of ancient physicians for centuries. The utility of arjuna in various cardiovascular diseases needs to be studied further. Therefore, the present review is an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature summarizing the experimental and clinical studies pertinent to arjuna in cardiovascular disorders, which were particularly performed during the last decade. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and clinical studies of arjuna were retrieved through the use of PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases. Most of the studies, both experimental and clinical, have suggested that the crude drug possesses anti-ischemic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antiatherogenic activities. Its useful phytoconstituents are: Triterpenoids, ?-sitosterol, flavonoids, and glycosides. Triterpenoids and flavonoids are considered to be responsible for its beneficial antioxidant cardiovascular properties. The drug has shown promising effect on ischemic cardiomyopathy. So far, no serious side effects have been reported with arjuna therapy. However, its long-term safety still remains to be elucidated. Though it has been found quite useful in angina pectoris, mild hypertension, and dyslipidemia, its exact role in primary/secondary coronary prevention is yet to be explored. PMID:25379463

Dwivedi, Shridhar; Chopra, Deepti

2014-10-01

463

Astronomy and its role in ancient Mesoamerica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The observation of the sky had an important rôle among the Maya, Aztecs and other prehispanic peoples of Mesoamerica. Their familiarity with the regularities of the apparent motion of the Sun, the Moon and bright planets is attested in a large amount of astronomical data contained in codices and monumental hieroglyphic inscriptions, as well as in their sophisticated calendrical system. On the other hand, the study of architectural alignments has disclosed that civic and ceremonial buildings were largely oriented on astronomical grounds, mostly to sunrises and sunsets on certain dates, allowing the use of observational calendars that facilitated a proper scheduling of agricultural and the associated ritual activities in the yearly cycle. Both accurate knowledge and other astronomically-derived concepts reveal that the significance attributed to certain celestial events by the ancient Mesoamericans can be explained in terms of the relationship of these phenomena with specific environmental and cultural facts, such as seasonal climatic changes and subsistence strategies. It was particularly due to its practical utility that astronomy, intertwined with religious ideas and practices, had such an important place in the worldview and, consequently, in the cosmologically substantiated political ideology of Mesoamerican societies

Šprajc, Ivan

2011-06-01

464

Ancient Refuge in the Holy Land  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Once again, the good people at NOVA have created an eye-opening website to complement another interesting and compelling program in the long-running series. This website presents a host of materials about a recent archaeological exploration into a cave in the Judean desert designed to explore the last refuge of the legendary Jewish patriot Shimon Bar-Kokhba, who led a revolt against the Romans in the ye