Science.gov

Sample records for ancient peruvian burial

  1. Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Cyclospora in ancient Peruvians.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Ynes R; Bonavia, Duccio

    2003-06-01

    Twenty-two coprolites of human origin, collected from excavations along the north-central coast of Peru, were examined using fluorescent microscopy for the presence of fecal parasites, with emphasis on Cryptosporidium sp., Giardia sp., and Cyclospora sp. Three samples were positive. One coprolite dated between ca. 2,375 and 1,525 BC contained Giardia sp. cysts. This coprolite corresponded to the Peruvian preceramic period. Another positive coprolite ca. AD 770-830 corresponded to Epoch 3 of the Middle Horizon and contained Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts. The third positive coprolite (corresponding to the Middle Horizon. ca. AD 500-900) contained Giardia sp. cysts. This report demonstrates that Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. were present in Peruvian coastal populations for at least 4,300 and 1,100 BP. PMID:12880276

  2. Characteristics and speculations on the uses of Strombus trumpets found at the ancient Peruvian center Chavin de Huantar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rick, John; Lubman, David

    2002-11-01

    A cache of 20 Strombus shell trumpets was excavated in 2001 from an underground gallery at Chavin de Huantar, the type site of the Peruvian Early Horizon period (ca. 1200 to 400 B.C.). Strombus shell usage stretches from antiquity to present day Peru, with the trumpet function showing remarkable continuity. Soon after their discovery, a dozen of the ancient shells were played to an enthusiastic audience at Lima's National Museum of Archaeology, Anthropology and History. Evidence suggests that Strombus trumpets are, and were, used as ritual instruments for the legitimization of political and religious power. Those uses may have developed from earlier practical uses for ritual and communication. This paper describes measured acoustical properties of a Strombus horn. Strombus blasts are rich in overtones. Source strengths as high as 111 dBA @ 1 M were observed. These high source levels support speculation that shell trumpets could have been used for signaling over great distances. The trumpets can produce strong combination tones, which, accompanied by likely ingestion of local hallucinogenic substances, the use of reflected light, and other sound manipulation, suggests that early leaders in Chavin were using a range of methods to help establish early religious and political authority.

  3. News from the west: ancient DNA from a French megalithic burial chamber.

    PubMed

    Deguilloux, Marie-France; Soler, Ludovic; Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Scarre, Chris; Joussaume, Roger; Laporte, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Recent paleogenetic studies have confirmed that the spread of the Neolithic across Europe was neither genetically nor geographically uniform. To extend existing knowledge of the mitochondrial European Neolithic gene pool, we examined six samples of human skeletal material from a French megalithic long mound (c.4200 cal BC). We retrieved HVR-I sequences from three individuals and demonstrated that in the Neolithic period the mtDNA haplogroup N1a, previously only known in central Europe, was as widely distributed as western France. Alternative scenarios are discussed in seeking to explain this result, including Mesolithic ancestry, Neolithic demic diffusion, and long-distance matrimonial exchanges. In light of the limited Neolithic ancient DNA (aDNA) data currently available, we observe that all three scenarios appear equally consistent with paleogenetic and archaeological data. In consequence, we advocate caution in interpreting aDNA in the context of the Neolithic transition in Europe. Nevertheless, our results strengthen conclusions demonstrating genetic discontinuity between modern and ancient Europeans whether through migration, demographic or selection processes, or social practices. PMID:20717990

  4. Ancient coins: cluster analysis applied to find a correlation between corrosion process and burial soil characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although it is well known that any material degrades faster when exposed to an aggressive environment as well as that "aggressive" cannot be univocally defined as depending also on the chemical-physical characteristics of material, few researches on the identification of the most significant parameters influencing the corrosion of metallic object are available. A series of ancient coins, coming from the archaeological excavation of Palazzo Valentini (Rome) were collected together with soils, both near and far from them, and then analysed using different analytical techniques looking for a correlation between the corrosion products covering the coins and the chemical-physical soil characteristics. The content of soluble salts in the water-bearing stratum and surfacing in the archaeological site, was also measured. The obtained results stress the influence of alkaline soils on formation of patina. Cerussite, probably due to the circulation of water in layers rich in marble and plaster fragments, was the main corrosion product identified by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Copper, lead and vanadium were found in soil surrounding coins. By measuring conductivity, pH and soluble salts content of the washing solutions from both coins and soils, we could easily separate coins coming from different stratigraphic units of the site. Data were treated by cluster and multivariate analysis, revealing a correlation between part of the coins and the nearby soil samples. PMID:22594444

  5. Ancient DNA reveals kinship burial patterns of a pre-Columbian Andean community

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A detailed genetic study of the pre-Columbian population inhabiting the Tompullo 2 archaeological site (department Arequipa, Peru) was undertaken to resolve the kin relationships between individuals buried in six different chullpas. Kin relationships were an important factor shaping the social organization in the pre-Columbian Andean communities, centering on the ayllu, a group of relatives that shared a common land and responsibilities. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether this Andean model of a social organization had an influence on mortuary practices, in particular to determine whether chullpas served as family graves. Results The remains of forty-one individuals were analyzed with both uniparental (mtDNA, Y–chromosome) and biparental (autosomal microsatellites) markers. Reproducible HVRI sequences, autosomal and Y chromosomal STR profiles were obtained for 24, 16 and 11 individuals, respectively. Mitochondrial DNA diversity was comparable to that of ancient and contemporary Andean populations. The Tompullo 2 population exhibited the closest relationship with the modern population from the same region. A kinship analysis revealed complex pattern of relations within and between the graves. However mean relatedness coefficients regarding the pairs of individuals buried in the same grave were significantly higher than those regarding pairs buried in different graves. The Y chromosome profiles of 11 males suggest that only members of one male line were buried in the same grave. Conclusions Genetic investigation of the population that inhabited Tompullo 2 site shows continuity between pre-Columbian and modern Native Amerindian populations inhabiting the Arequipa region. This suggests that no major demographic processes have influenced the mitochondrial DNA diversity of these populations during the past five hundred years. The kinship analysis involving uni- and biparental markers suggests that the community that inhabited the Tompullo 2 site

  6. Ancient DNA reveals selection acting on genes associated with hypoxia response in pre-Columbian Peruvian Highlanders in the last 8500 years

    PubMed Central

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Georges, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological evidence shows that humans began living in the high altitude Andes approximately 12,000 years ago. Andean highlanders are known to have developed the most complex societies of pre-Columbian South America despite challenges to their health and reproductive success resulting from chronic exposure to hypoxia. While the physiological adaptations to this environmental stressor are well studied in contemporary Andean highlanders, the molecular evolutionary processes associated with such adaptations remain unclear. We aim to better understand how humans managed to demographically establish in this harsh environment by addressing a central question: did exposure to hypoxia drive adaptation via natural selection within Andean populations or did an existing phenotype –characterized by reduced susceptibility to hypoxic stress–enable human settlement of the Andes? We genotyped three variable loci within the NOS3 and EGLN1 genes previously associated with adaptation to high altitude in 150 ancient human DNA samples from Peruvian high altitude and coastal low altitude sites in a time frame between ~8500–560 BP. We compare the data of 109 successful samples to forward simulations of genetic drift with natural selection and find that selection, rather than drift, explains the gradual frequency changes observed in the highland populations for two of the three SNPs. PMID:26996763

  7. Ancient DNA reveals selection acting on genes associated with hypoxia response in pre-Columbian Peruvian Highlanders in the last 8500 years.

    PubMed

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Georges, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological evidence shows that humans began living in the high altitude Andes approximately 12,000 years ago. Andean highlanders are known to have developed the most complex societies of pre-Columbian South America despite challenges to their health and reproductive success resulting from chronic exposure to hypoxia. While the physiological adaptations to this environmental stressor are well studied in contemporary Andean highlanders, the molecular evolutionary processes associated with such adaptations remain unclear. We aim to better understand how humans managed to demographically establish in this harsh environment by addressing a central question: did exposure to hypoxia drive adaptation via natural selection within Andean populations or did an existing phenotype -characterized by reduced susceptibility to hypoxic stress-enable human settlement of the Andes? We genotyped three variable loci within the NOS3 and EGLN1 genes previously associated with adaptation to high altitude in 150 ancient human DNA samples from Peruvian high altitude and coastal low altitude sites in a time frame between ~8500-560 BP. We compare the data of 109 successful samples to forward simulations of genetic drift with natural selection and find that selection, rather than drift, explains the gradual frequency changes observed in the highland populations for two of the three SNPs. PMID:26996763

  8. Comparison of the Distributions of Bromine, Lead and Zinc in Tooth and Bone from an Ancient Peruvian Burial site by X-ray Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Martin,R.; Naftel, S.; Nelson, A.; Sapp, W.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron micro X-ray fluorescence was used to study the distribution of selected trace elements (Zn, Pb, and Br) in tooth and bone samples obtained from an individual from a pre-Columbian archaeological site (Cabur) located on the north coast of Peru. The results show that Zn, Pb, and Br are present in both the teeth and bone samples and that the Zn and Pb seem to be confined to similar regions (cementum and periostium), while Br shows a novel distribution with enrichment close to the Haversian canals and (or) in regions that appear to be Ca deficient.

  9. Ancient Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  10. Lead in ancient human bones and its relevance to historical developments of social problems with lead.

    PubMed

    Patterson, C C; Shirahata, H; Ericson, J E

    1987-03-01

    Concentrations of metabolic lead in buried ancient bones are obscured by replacement of calcium in apatite by excessive amounts of soil moisture Pb. Concentrations of metabolic barium in bones are affected in a similar way. Added soil Pb and Ba, expressed as log(Pb/Ca) versus log(Ba/Ca) among various bones at a given burial site, are positively covariant, with about 5-fold more soil Pb added for each unit of added soil Ba. The typical natural metabolic Ba/Ca ratio in contemporary people can be measured unambiguously because it as unaffected by industrial pollution. It applies to ancient people because it has not changed historically. The intercept of the covariance curve for buried bones of a given ancient population at the known metabolic Ba/Ca ratio indexes the corresponding metabolic Pb/Ca ratio in bones of that population. Lead levels which prevailed in Romans appear to have been similar to those in contemporary people, which are approximately 1000-fold above natural levels in humans determined by this method in ancient Peruvians. This indicates that studies of natural biochemical reactions in cells free of industrial Pb should be made, because most present biochemical knowledge is founded on data obtained from systems polluted with Pb 1000 to 100000-fold above natural levels. The 5000 year history of smelting Pb by humans indicates that a system of education fostered by genetically common lower brain center functions operated on hundreds of successive generations in a context of cultural changes invoked by feedback from developments in engineering technologies to give rise to the difference between present typical and prehistoric natural levels of Pb in humans. Archaeological and anthropological studies of early developments in writing, music and metallurgy by ancient Peruvians and Persian peoples should be combined with PET-scan studies of their descendants to discover if, as preliminary archaeological data suggest, the two ancient populations differed on a

  11. Peruvian villages go solar

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, J.

    1999-12-01

    Students and faculty from an American University work with indigenous Peruvians to electrify their village and improve their quality of life. The remote village of Malvas in the Andes seems typical of many in Peru. The 500 Inca descendants have no electricity, no running water, one telephone and mud adobe houses. At a 10,000-foot (3,048 m) altitude, residents survive through subsistence farming. And this project might sound like a typical solar system installation--a system is donated, consultants install it, no one owns it and if something goes wrong, no one fixes it. The equipment ultimately helps no one and few learn from the experience. But two aspects of this project make it unique - the unusual level of communal sharing in the town and the design and installation of the solar system by students.

  12. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities. PMID:16380966

  13. Organic carbon production, mineralization and preservation on the Peruvian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, A. W.; Sommer, S.; Lomnitz, U.; Montes, I.; Treude, T.; Gier, J.; Hensen, C.; Dengler, M.; Stolpovsky, K.; Bryant, L. D.; Wallmann, K.

    2014-09-01

    Carbon cycling in Peruvian margin sediments (11° S and 12° S) was examined at 16 stations from 74 m on the inner shelf down to 1024 m water depth by means of in situ flux measurements, sedimentary geochemistry and modeling. Bottom water oxygen was below detection limit down to ca. 400 m and increased to 53 μM at the deepest station. Sediment accumulation rates and benthic dissolved inorganic carbon fluxes decreased rapidly with water depth. Particulate organic carbon (POC) content was lowest on the inner shelf and at the deep oxygenated stations (< 5%) and highest between 200 and 400 m in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ, 15-20%). The organic carbon burial efficiency (CBE) was unexpectedly low on the inner shelf (< 20%) when compared to a global database, for reasons which may be linked to the frequent ventilation of the shelf by oceanographic anomalies. CBE at the deeper oxygenated sites was much higher than expected (max. 81%). Elsewhere, CBEs were mostly above the range expected for sediments underlying normal oxic bottom waters, with an average of 51 and 58% for the 11° S and 12° S transects, respectively. Organic carbon rain rates calculated from the benthic fluxes alluded to a very efficient mineralization of organic matter in the water column, with a Martin curve exponent typical of normal oxic waters (0.88 ± 0.09). Yet, mean POC burial rates were 2-5 times higher than the global average for continental margins. The observations at the Peruvian margin suggest that a lack of oxygen does not affect the degradation of organic matter in the water column but promotes the preservation of organic matter in marine sediments.

  14. Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Gaughan , T.F.

    1999-02-26

    Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.

  15. 78 FR 76574 - Burial Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... rewrite in plain language its regulations that govern entitlement to monetary burial benefits, which... published in the Federal Register on April 8, 2008 (73 FR 19,021), VA proposed to reorganize and rewrite in plain language provisions applicable to burial benefits. This proposed rule would build upon...

  16. Indien Personhood III: Water Burial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jay

    2005-01-01

    Water burial is a way to return a body to its key primal element. It revives and transforms both the soul and the person. Sometimes water burial leads to a new life floating in a womb. Sometimes it disperses to provide a moist and nutrient-rich medium for a vast variety of other lives, making a contribution to the much larger whole. In this…

  17. Benthic phosphorus cycling in the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomnitz, U.; Sommer, S.; Dale, A. W.; Löscher, C. R.; Noffke, A.; Wallmann, K.; Hensen, C.

    2015-10-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) that impinge on continental margins favor the release of phosphorus (P) from the sediments to the water column, enhancing primary productivity and the maintenance or expansion of low-oxygen waters. A comprehensive field program in the Peruvian OMZ was undertaken to identify the sources of benthic P, including the analysis of particles from the water column, surface sediments and pore fluids as well as in situ benthic flux measurements. A major fraction of solid phase P was bound as particulate inorganic P (PIP) both in the water column and in sediments. Sedimentary PIP increased with depth in the sediment at the expense of particulate organic P (POP). The ratio of particulate organic carbon (POC) to POP exceeded the Redfield Ratio both in the water column (202 ± 29) and in surface sediments (303 ± 77). However, the POC to total particulate P (TPP = POP + PIP) ratio was close to Redfield in the water column (103 ± 9) and in sediment samples (102 ± 15) taken from the core of the OMZ. This observation suggests that the burial efficiencies of POC and TPP are similar under the low oxygen conditions prevailing in the Peruvian OMZ. Benthic fluxes of dissolved P were extremely high (up to 1.04 ± 0.31 mmol m-2 d-1) and exceeded the fluxes resulting from the degradation of particulate organic matter raining to the seabed. Most of the excess P may have been released by bacterial mats that had stored P during previous periods when bottom waters were less reducing. At one station located at the lower rim of the OMZ, dissolved P was taken up by the sediments indicating recent phosphorite formation.

  18. Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  19. Ancient Civilizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This subject guide includes Web sites and other resources on ancient civilizations with age levels and appropriate subject disciplines specified. Also includes CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, professional resources, and a sample student assignment. (LRW)

  20. Ancient DNA

    PubMed Central

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In the past two decades, ancient DNA research has progressed from the retrieval of small fragments of mitochondrial DNA from a few late Holocene specimens, to large-scale studies of ancient populations, phenotypically important nuclear loci, and even whole mitochondrial genome sequences of extinct species. However, the field is still regularly marred by erroneous reports, which underestimate the extent of contamination within laboratories and samples themselves. An improved understanding of these processes and the effects of damage on ancient DNA templates has started to provide a more robust basis for research. Recent methodological advances have included the characterization of Pleistocene mammal populations and discoveries of DNA preserved in ancient sediments. Increasingly, ancient genetic information is providing a unique means to test assumptions used in evolutionary and population genetics studies to reconstruct the past. Initial results have revealed surprisingly complex population histories, and indicate that modern phylogeographic studies may give misleading impressions about even the recent evolutionary past. With the advent and uptake of appropriate methodologies, ancient DNA is now positioned to become a powerful tool in biological research and is also evolving new and unexpected uses, such as in the search for extinct or extant life in the deep biosphere and on other planets. PMID:15875564

  1. The first meeting of Peruvian women physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loayza, María Luisa Cerón

    2015-12-01

    The First Meeting of Peruvian Women Physicists helped bring together women physicists from different universities, especially from regions in the interior of Peru. Our initial statistical analysis about women entering and completing their undergraduate and graduate studies in Peruvian universities showed a low participation of women in study programs in physics. This situation motivated us to discuss this and propose solutions. In this First Meeting it was possible to broaden our vision of the problems that are common to women in the context of our social reality. We feel we have the strength and will continue working to improve this situation for the benefit of future generations.

  2. Ancient genomics

    PubMed Central

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten E.; Ávila-Arcos, María C.; Barnett, Ross; Campos, Paula F.; Cappellini, Enrico; Ermini, Luca; Fernández, Ruth; da Fonseca, Rute; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Hansen, Anders J.; Jónsson, Hákon; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Margaryan, Ashot; Martin, Michael D.; Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Raghavan, Maanasa; Rasmussen, Morten; Velasco, Marcela Sandoval; Schroeder, Hannes; Schubert, Mikkel; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Wales, Nathan; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a revolution in ancient DNA (aDNA) research. Although the field's focus was previously limited to mitochondrial DNA and a few nuclear markers, whole genome sequences from the deep past can now be retrieved. This breakthrough is tightly connected to the massive sequence throughput of next generation sequencing platforms and the ability to target short and degraded DNA molecules. Many ancient specimens previously unsuitable for DNA analyses because of extensive degradation can now successfully be used as source materials. Additionally, the analytical power obtained by increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans, archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when testing specific hypotheses related to the past. PMID:25487338

  3. U-Th Burial Dates on Ostrich Eggshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, W. D.; Fylstra, N. D.; Tryon, C. A.; Faith, J. T.; Peppe, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Obtaining precise and accurate dates at archaeological sites beyond the range of radiocarbon dating is challenging but essential for understanding human origins. Eggshells of ratites (large flightless birds including ostrich, emu and others) are common in many archaeological sequences in Africa, Australia and elsewhere. Ancient eggshells are geochemically suitable for the U-Th technique (1), which has about ten times the range of radiocarbon dating (>500 rather than 50 ka), making eggshells attractive dating targets. Moreover, C and N isotopic studies of eggshell provide insights into paleovegetation and paleoprecipitation central to assessing past human-environment interactions (2,3). But until now, U-Th dates on ratite eggshell have not accounted for the secondary origin of essentially all of their U. We report a novel approach to U-Th dating of eggshell that explicitly accounts for secondary U uptake that begins with burial. Using ostrich eggshell (OES) from Pleistocene-Holocene east African sites, we have measured U and 232Th concentration profiles across OES by laser ablation ICP-MS. U commonly peaks at 10s to 100s of ppb and varies 10-fold or more across the ~2 mm thickness of OES, with gradients modulated by the layered structure of the eggshell. Common Th is high near the shell surfaces, but low in the middle "pallisade" layer of OES, making it optimal for U-Th dating. We determine U-Th ages along the U concentration gradient by solution ICP-MS analyses of two or more fractions of the pallisade layer. We then estimate OES burial dates using a simple model for diffusive uptake of uranium. Comparing such "U-Th burial dates" with radiocarbon dates for OES calcite from the same shells, we find good agreement in 7 out of 9 cases, consistent with rapid burial and confirming the accuracy of the approach. The remaining 2 eggshells have anomalous patterns of apparent ages that reveal they are unsuitable for U-Th dating, thereby providing reliability criteria innate

  4. Contact dermatitis due to Alstroemeria (Peruvian lily).

    PubMed

    Apted, J H

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of hand dermatitis due to contact with the plant Alstroemeria (Peruvian Lily) are recorded. This plant has been increasingly used for making floral decorations during the last decade. As it is available throughout the year in Victoria more cases are likely to be discovered in the community. PMID:2151361

  5. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ning

    2008-01-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market. PMID:18173850

  6. Benthic phosphorus cycling in the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomnitz, Ulrike; Sommer, Stefan; Dale, Andrew W.; Löscher, Carolin R.; Noffke, Anna; Wallmann, Klaus; Hensen, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) that impinge on continental margins favor the release of phosphorus (P) from the sediments to the water column, enhancing primary productivity and the maintenance or expansion of low-oxygen waters. A comprehensive field program in the Peruvian OMZ was undertaken to identify the sources of benthic P at six stations, including the analysis of particles from the water column, surface sediments, and pore fluids, as well as in situ benthic flux measurements. A major fraction of solid-phase P was bound as particulate inorganic P (PIP) both in the water column and in sediments. Sedimentary PIP increased with depth in the sediment at the expense of particulate organic P (POP). The ratio of particulate organic carbon (POC) to POP exceeded the Redfield ratio both in the water column (202 ± 29) and in surface sediments (303 ± 77). However, the POC to total particulate P (TPP = POP + PIP) ratio was close to Redfield in the water column (103 ± 9) and in sediment samples (102 ± 15). This suggests that the relative burial efficiencies of POC and TPP are similar under low-oxygen conditions and that the sediments underlying the anoxic waters on the Peru margin are not depleted in P compared to Redfield. Benthic fluxes of dissolved P were extremely high (up to 1.04 ± 0.31 mmol m-2 d-1), however, showing that a lack of oxygen promotes the intensified release of dissolved P from sediments, whilst preserving the POC / TPP burial ratio. Benthic dissolved P fluxes were always higher than the TPP rain rate to the seabed, which is proposed to be caused by transient P release by bacterial mats that had stored P during previous periods when bottom waters were less reducing. At one station located at the lower rim of the OMZ, dissolved P was taken up by the sediments, indicating ongoing phosphorite formation. This is further supported by decreasing porewater phosphate concentrations with sediment depth, whereas solid-phase P concentrations were comparatively

  7. 38 CFR 3.1703 - Claims for burial benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... benefits. 3.1703 Section 3.1703 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: General § 3.1703 Claims for burial benefits. Pt. 3, Subpt. B, Nt... after the burial of the veteran. There are no other time limitations to file claims for burial...

  8. 38 CFR 3.1610 - Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies. 3.1610 Section 3.1610 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... unclaimed bodies. The statutory burial allowance and permissible transportation charges as provided in §§ 3... from the officers having jurisdiction over burials in national cemeteries; or (b) Where the body of...

  9. 38 CFR 3.1610 - Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies. 3.1610 Section 3.1610 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... unclaimed bodies. The statutory burial allowance and permissible transportation charges as provided in §§ 3... from the officers having jurisdiction over burials in national cemeteries; or (b) Where the body of...

  10. 38 CFR 3.1610 - Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies. 3.1610 Section 3.1610 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... unclaimed bodies. The statutory burial allowance and permissible transportation charges as provided in §§ 3... from the officers having jurisdiction over burials in national cemeteries; or (b) Where the body of...

  11. 38 CFR 3.1610 - Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies. 3.1610 Section 3.1610 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... unclaimed bodies. The statutory burial allowance and permissible transportation charges as provided in §§ 3... from the officers having jurisdiction over burials in national cemeteries; or (b) Where the body of...

  12. 38 CFR 3.1610 - Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies. 3.1610 Section 3.1610 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... unclaimed bodies. The statutory burial allowance and permissible transportation charges as provided in §§ 3... from the officers having jurisdiction over burials in national cemeteries; or (b) Where the body of...

  13. The presence of nuclear families in prehistoric collective burials revisited: the bronze age burial of Montanissell Cave (Spain) in the light of aDNA.

    PubMed

    Simón, Marc; Jordana, Xavier; Armentano, Nuria; Santos, Cristina; Díaz, Nancy; Solórzano, Eduvigis; López, Joan B; González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2011-11-01

    Ancient populations have commonly been thought to have lived in small groups where extreme endogamy was the norm. To contribute to this debate, a genetic analysis has been carried out on a collective burial with eight primary inhumations from Montanissell Cave in the Catalan pre-Pyrenees. Radiocarbon dating clearly placed the burial in the Bronze Age, around 3200 BP. The composition of the group-two adults (one male, one female), one young woman, and five children from both sexes-seemed to represent the structure of a typical nuclear family. The genetic evidence proves this assumption to be wrong. In fact, at least five out of the eight mitochondrial haplotypes were different, denying the possibility of a common maternal ancestor for all of them. Nevertheless, 50% of the inhumations shared haplogroup J, so the possibility of a maternal relationship cannot be ruled out. Actually, combining different analyses performed using ancient and living populations, the probability of having four related J individuals in Montanissell Cave would range from 0.9884 to 0.9999. Owing to the particularities of this singular collective burial (small number of bodies placed altogether in a hidden cave, the evidence of non-simultaneous interments, close dating and unusual grave goods), we suggest that it might represent a small group with a patrilocal mating system. PMID:21959902

  14. Molybdenum isotope signatures from the Yangtze block continental margin and its indication to organic burial rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.; Zhou, H. B.; Huang, J. H.

    2007-12-01

    The paper presents the molybdenum isotope data, along with the trace element content, to investigate the geochemical behavior of authigenic Mo during long-term burial in sediments in continental margin settings of the Yangtze block, as well as their indication to the burial of original organic carbon. The burial rate of original organic carbon were estimated on the basis of the amount of sedimentary sulfur (TS content), whilst the carbon loss by aerobic degradation was estimated according to calculated Mn contents. On these points, the original organic carbon flux was calculated, exhibiting a large range of variation (2.54-15.82 mmol/m2/day). The strong correlation between sedimentary Mo isotope values and organic carbon burial rates previously proposed on the basis of the investigations on modern ocean sediments was also used here to estimate the organic carbon burial rate. The data gained through this model showed that organic carbon burial rates have large variations, ranging from 0.43- 2.87mmol/m2/day. Although the two sets of data gained through different geochemical records in the Yangtze block show a deviation of one order of magnitude, they do display a strong correlation. It is thus tempting to speculate that the Mo isotope signature of sediments may serve as a tracer for the accumulation rate of original organic carbon in the continental margin sediments. Keywords: Molybdenum isotopes; organic carbon burial rate; ancient continental margin setting ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank Professor Xie Shucheng for his constructive review comments. This research is co-supported by the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (grants IRT0441), the SinoPec project (grant no. G0800-06-ZS-319) and the National Nature Science Foundation of China (grants 40673020).

  15. Paleomagnetic dating of burial diagenesis in Mississippian carbonates, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumstein, Angela M.; Elmore, R. Douglas; Engel, Michael H.; Elliot, Crawford; Basu, Ankan

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this study is to test models for the origin of widespread secondary magnetizations in the Mississippian Deseret Limestone. The Delle Phosphatic Member of the Deseret Limestone is a source rock for hydrocarbons, and modeling studies indicate that it entered the oil window in the Early Cretaceous during the Sevier orogeny. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic results from the Deseret Limestone and the stratigraphically equivalent Chainman Shale in central and western Utah indicate that the units contain two ancient magnetizations residing in magnetite. Burial temperatures are too low for the magnetizations to be thermoviscous in origin, and they are interpreted to be chemical remanent magnetizations (CRMs). Fold tests from western Utah indicate the presence of a prefolding Triassic to Jurassic CRM. Geochemical (87Sr/86Sr, δ13C, and δ18O) and petrographic analyses suggest that externally derived fluids did not alter these rocks. This CRM was acquired at the beginning of the oil window and is interpreted to be the result of burial diagenesis of organic matter. A second younger CRM in western central Utah is apparently postfolding and is probably Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary in age. On the basis of the thermal modeling, the timing overlaps with the oil window. These results are consistent with a connection between organic matter maturation and remagnetization. Modeling of the smectite-to-illite transformation in the Deseret Limestone suggests a mean age prior to acquisition of both CRMs, although the range for illitization overlaps with the Triassic to Jurassic CRM. The results of this study support the hypothesis that pervasive CRMs can be related to burial diagenetic processes. In addition, paleomagnetism can be used to determine the timing of such processes, which can benefit hydrocarbon exploration efforts.

  16. Shallow land burial technology: Humid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, E. C.; Yeh, G. T.

    Trench lining and grouting, are being demonstrated and evaluated experimental trenches containing compacted low-level waste. Two finite-element hydrologic models were developed to model water movement and solute transport at a waste disposal site. Though the economic analysis of the two trench treatments favored Hypalon lining, results of field experiments examining waste hydrologic isolation favored the cement-bentonite grout treatment. Data from water pump-out and water pump-in tests suggest that the original goal of constructing watertight liners in three experimental trenches was not achieved. Trench-cover subsidence measured over two of the three lined trenches did not occur over any of the three grouted or three control (untreated) trenches. Results indicate that the cement-bentonite treatment provides a degree of waste isolation not afforded by the lined and control trenches and should be considered for use at shallow land burial (SLB) sites with water-related problems.

  17. Ancient Bedforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    18 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows groupings of large ripple-like windblown bedforms on the floor of a large crater (larger than the image shown here) in Sinus Sabaeus, south of Schiaparelli Basin. These ripple-like features are much larger than typical wind ripples on Earth, but smaller than typical sand dunes on either planet. Like most of the other ripple-like bedforms in Sinus Sabaeus, they are probably ancient and no longer mobile. Dark streaks on the substrate between the bedforms were formed by passing dust devils. This image is located near 13.0oS, 343.7oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  18. View southwest toward Eldred Avenue from within Friend's Burial Ground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest toward Eldred Avenue from within Friend's Burial Ground, Benjamin Carr Farm in distance through the trees - Friends' Burial Ground, Eldred & Beacon Avenues, Jamestown, Newport County, RI

  19. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, Vicki J; Hutchison, Zoë L; Last, Kim S

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fraction and depth. Six macroinvertebrates commonly found in sediment rich environments were selected for their commercial and/or conservation importance. Assessments revealed that the brittle star (Ophiura ophiura), the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis) and the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis) were all highly intolerant to burial whilst the green urchin (Psammichinus miliaris) and the anemone (Sagartiogeton laceratus), showed intermediate and low intolerance respectively, to burial. The least intolerant, with very high survival was the Ross worm (Sabellaria spinulosa). With the exception of C. intestinalis, increasing duration and depth of burial with finer sediment fractions resulted in increased mortality for all species assessed. For C. intestinalis depth of burial and sediment fraction were found to be inconsequential since there was complete mortality of all specimens buried for more than one day. When burial emergence was assessed O. ophiura emerged most frequently, followed by P. miliaris. The former emerged most frequently from the medium and fine sediments whereas P. miliaris emerged more frequently from coarse sediment. Both A. opercularis and S. laceratus showed similar emergence responses over time, with A. opercularis emerging more frequently under coarse sediments. The frequency of emergence of S. laceratus increased with progressively finer sediment and C. intestinalis did not emerge from burial irrespective of sediment fraction or depth. Finally, and perhaps

  20. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Hendrick, Vicki J.; Hutchison, Zoë L.; Last, Kim S.

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fraction and depth. Six macroinvertebrates commonly found in sediment rich environments were selected for their commercial and/or conservation importance. Assessments revealed that the brittle star (Ophiura ophiura), the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis) and the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis) were all highly intolerant to burial whilst the green urchin (Psammichinus miliaris) and the anemone (Sagartiogeton laceratus), showed intermediate and low intolerance respectively, to burial. The least intolerant, with very high survival was the Ross worm (Sabellaria spinulosa). With the exception of C. intestinalis, increasing duration and depth of burial with finer sediment fractions resulted in increased mortality for all species assessed. For C. intestinalis depth of burial and sediment fraction were found to be inconsequential since there was complete mortality of all specimens buried for more than one day. When burial emergence was assessed O. ophiura emerged most frequently, followed by P. miliaris. The former emerged most frequently from the medium and fine sediments whereas P. miliaris emerged more frequently from coarse sediment. Both A. opercularis and S. laceratus showed similar emergence responses over time, with A. opercularis emerging more frequently under coarse sediments. The frequency of emergence of S. laceratus increased with progressively finer sediment and C. intestinalis did not emerge from burial irrespective of sediment fraction or depth. Finally, and perhaps

  1. Peruvian Rural School Construction System. SERP 71: Sierra Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cangiano, Miguel

    Based on cooperative action of the government and local communities, the Peruvian Rural School System (SERP 71) evolved from the necessity to reconstruct Peruvian schools of the Sierra region after the earthquake of 1970, and from Peru's new educational reform law (1970) which called for an active-dynamic pupil attitude, continuous updating of…

  2. Buried Alive: Microbes from Ancient Halite.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Salla T; Ravantti, Janne J; Oksanen, Hanna M; Bamford, Dennis H

    2016-02-01

    Halite is one of the most extreme environments to support life. From the drought of the Atacama Desert to salt deposits up to Permian in age and 2000 meters in burial depth, live microbes have been found. Because halite is geologically stable and impermeable to ground water, the microbes allegedly have a syndepositional origin, making them the oldest organisms known to live on Earth. Recently, our understanding of the microbial diversity inside halite has broadened, and the first genome sequences of ancient halite-buried microbes are now available. The secrets behind prolonged survival in salt are also starting to be revealed. PMID:26796472

  3. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  4. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-2 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    W. S. Thompson

    2006-12-28

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-2 Burial Ground, also referred to as Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2; Burial Ground No. 2; 318-2; and Dry Waste Burial Site No. 2. This waste site was used primarily for the disposal of contaminated equipment, materials and laboratory waste from the 300 Area Facilities.

  5. Dental health and disease in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Forshaw, R J

    2009-04-25

    In ancient Egypt the exceptionally dry climate together with the unique burial customs has resulted in the survival of large numbers of well-preserved skeletal and mummified remains. Examinations of these remains together with an analysis of the surviving documentary, archaeological and ethnographic evidence has enabled a detailed picture of the dental health of these ancient people to be revealed, perhaps more so than for any other civilisation in antiquity. In this, the first of two articles, the dental pathological conditions that afflicted the ancient Egyptians is considered. The commonest finding is that of tooth wear, which was often so excessive that it resulted in pulpal exposure. Multiple abscesses were frequently seen, but caries was not a significant problem. Overall the findings indicate that the various pathological conditions and non-pathological abnormalities of teeth evident in dentitions in the twenty-first century were also manifest in ancient Egypt, although the incidences of these conditions varies considerably between the civilisations. PMID:19396207

  6. Hysterical paralysis and premature burial: a medieval Persian case, fear and fascination in the West, and modern practice.

    PubMed

    Agutter, Paul S; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Rashidi, Mohammad Reza; Khalili, Majid; Hosseini, Seyed Fazel; Ghabili, Kamyar; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Loukas, Marios

    2013-04-01

    Premature burial (taphophobia) is an ancient fear, but it became especially common in 18th and 19th century Europe and may have a modern-day counterpart. Examination of a well-documented case from medieval Persia reveals the importance of funeral practices in the risk of actual premature burial and sheds light on the question of why taphophobia became so prevalent in Europe during the early industrial revolution period. The medieval Persian case was attributed to hysterical paralysis (conversion). We discuss the relationship between hysterical paralysis and premature burial more generally and show that although understanding of conversion syndrome remains incomplete, modern knowledge and practices have limited the risk of any similar tragedy today. PMID:23472788

  7. Coastal Fog, South Peruvian Coast at Pisco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Coastal fog commonly drapes the Peruvian coast. This image captures complex interactions between land, sea, and atmosphere along the southern Peruvian coast. When Shuttle astronauts took the image in February of 2002, the layers of coastal fog and stratus were being progressively scoured away by brisk south to southeast winds. Remnants of the cloud deck banked against the larger, obstructing headlands like Peninsula Paracas and Isla Sangayan, giving the prominent 'white comma' effect. Southerlies also produced ripples of internal gravity waves in the clouds offshore where warm, dry air aloft interacts with a thinning layer of cool, moist air near the sea surface on the outer edge of the remaining cloud bank. South of Peninsula Baracas, the small headlands channeled the clouds into streaks-local horizontal vortices caused by the headlands provided enough lift to give points of origin of the clouds in some bays. Besides the shelter of the peninsula, the Bahia de Pisco appears to be cloud-free due to a dry, offshore flow down the valley of the Rio Ica. The STS-109 crew took image STS109-730-80 in February 2002. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  8. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  9. Rethinking the Ancient Sulfur Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fike, David A.; Bradley, Alexander S.; Rose, Catherine V.

    2015-05-01

    The sulfur biogeochemical cycle integrates the metabolic activity of multiple microbial pathways (e.g., sulfate reduction, disproportionation, and sulfide oxidation) along with abiotic reactions and geological processes that cycle sulfur through various reservoirs. The sulfur cycle impacts the global carbon cycle and climate primarily through the remineralization of organic carbon. Over geological timescales, cycling of sulfur is closely tied to the redox state of Earth's exosphere through the burial of oxidized (sulfate) and reduced (sulfide) sulfur species in marine sediments. Biological sulfur cycling is associated with isotopic fractionations that can be used to trace the fluxes through various metabolic pathways. The resulting isotopic data provide insights into sulfur cycling in both modern and ancient environments via isotopic signatures in sedimentary sulfate and sulfide phases. Here, we review the deep-time δ34S record of marine sulfates and sulfides in light of recent advances in understanding how isotopic signatures are generated by microbial activity, how these signatures are encoded in marine sediments, and how they may be altered following deposition. The resulting picture shows a sulfur cycle intimately coupled to ambient carbon cycling, where sulfur isotopic records preserved in sedimentary rocks are critically dependent on sedimentological and geochemical conditions (e.g., iron availability) during deposition.

  10. 20 CFR 416.1231 - Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... parental deeming situations. If an individual is an eligible child, the burial funds (up to $1,500) that... separation; i.e., a circumstance beyond an individual's control which makes conversion/separation...

  11. Rickettsial Disease in the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Kocher, Claudine; Morrison, Amy C; Leguia, Mariana; Loyola, Steev; Castillo, Roger M; Galvez, Hugo A; Astete, Helvio; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Ampuero, Julia S; Bausch, Daniel G; Halsey, Eric S; Cespedes, Manuel; Zevallos, Karine; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L

    2016-07-01

    Using a large, passive, clinic-based surveillance program in Iquitos, Peru, we characterized the prevalence of rickettsial infections among undifferentiated febrile cases and obtained evidence of pathogen transmission in potential domestic reservoir contacts and their ectoparasites. Blood specimens from humans and animals were assayed for spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) and typhus group rickettsiae (TGR) by ELISA and/or PCR; ectoparasites were screened by PCR. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between patient history, demographic characteristics of participants and symptoms, clinical findings and outcome of rickettsial infection. Of the 2,054 enrolled participants, almost 2% showed evidence of seroconversion or a 4-fold rise in antibody titers specific for rickettsiae between acute and convalescent blood samples. Of 190 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and 60 ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) tested, 185 (97.4%) and 3 (5%), respectively, were positive for Rickettsia spp. Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis was identified in 100% and 33% of the fleas and ticks tested, respectively. Collectively, our serologic data indicates that human pathogenic SFGR are present in the Peruvian Amazon and pose a significant risk of infection to individuals exposed to wild, domestic and peri-domestic animals and their ectoparasites. PMID:27416029

  12. Rickettsial Disease in the Peruvian Amazon Basin

    PubMed Central

    Kocher, Claudine; Morrison, Amy C.; Leguia, Mariana; Loyola, Steev; Castillo, Roger M.; Galvez, Hugo A.; Astete, Helvio; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Ampuero, Julia S.; Bausch, Daniel G.; Halsey, Eric S.; Cespedes, Manuel; Zevallos, Karine; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L.

    2016-01-01

    Using a large, passive, clinic-based surveillance program in Iquitos, Peru, we characterized the prevalence of rickettsial infections among undifferentiated febrile cases and obtained evidence of pathogen transmission in potential domestic reservoir contacts and their ectoparasites. Blood specimens from humans and animals were assayed for spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) and typhus group rickettsiae (TGR) by ELISA and/or PCR; ectoparasites were screened by PCR. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between patient history, demographic characteristics of participants and symptoms, clinical findings and outcome of rickettsial infection. Of the 2,054 enrolled participants, almost 2% showed evidence of seroconversion or a 4-fold rise in antibody titers specific for rickettsiae between acute and convalescent blood samples. Of 190 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and 60 ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) tested, 185 (97.4%) and 3 (5%), respectively, were positive for Rickettsia spp. Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis was identified in 100% and 33% of the fleas and ticks tested, respectively. Collectively, our serologic data indicates that human pathogenic SFGR are present in the Peruvian Amazon and pose a significant risk of infection to individuals exposed to wild, domestic and peri-domestic animals and their ectoparasites. PMID:27416029

  13. Burial at Srebrenica: linking place and trauma.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Craig Evan

    2003-02-01

    Five years after the massacre at Srebrenica in Bosnia-Herzegovina, survivors were faced with the decision: where did they want their loved ones buried? This report explores the reasons for their choice in qualitative interviews with 37 survivors of the massacre and 22 key informants performed over the summer 2000. Survivors wanted the loved ones buried at Potocari, a site just outside of Srebrenica, because it represented the site of ultimate horror, was connected to their sense of home, and underscored the various power relationships. The data points to the importance of place for health. Trauma, as it occurs in particular locations, breaks the sense of attachment to a particular place. Restoring the physical and social environment through burial and memorials mitigates the consequences of the trauma. The burial at Potocari provides a window into the mourning, politics, and recovery after mass violence. PMID:12560012

  14. A model for microbial phosphorus cycling in bioturbated marine sediments: Significance for phosphorus burial in the early Paleozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Andrew W.; Boyle, Richard A.; Lenton, Timothy M.; Ingall, Ellery D.; Wallmann, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    A diagenetic model is used to simulate the diagenesis and burial of particulate organic carbon (Corg) and phosphorus (P) in marine sediments underlying anoxic versus oxic bottom waters. The latter are physically mixed by animals moving through the surface sediment (bioturbation) and ventilated by burrowing, tube-dwelling organisms (bioirrigation). The model is constrained using an empirical database including burial ratios of Corg with respect to organic P (Corg:Porg) and total reactive P (Corg:Preac), burial efficiencies of Corg and Porg, and inorganic carbon-to-phosphorus regeneration ratios. If Porg is preferentially mineralized relative to Corg during aerobic respiration, as many previous studies suggest, then the simulated Porg pool is found to be completely depleted. A modified model that incorporates the redox-dependent microbial synthesis of polyphosphates and Porg (termed the microbial P pump) allows preferential mineralization of the bulk Porg pool relative to Corg during both aerobic and anaerobic respiration and is consistent with the database. Results with this model show that P burial is strongly enhanced in sediments hosting fauna. Animals mix highly labile Porg away from the aerobic sediment layers where mineralization rates are highest, thereby mitigating diffusive PO43- fluxes to the bottom water. They also expand the redox niche where microbial P uptake occurs. The model was applied to a hypothetical shelf setting in the early Paleozoic; a time of the first radiation of benthic fauna. Results show that even shallow bioturbation at that time may have had a significant impact on P burial. Our model provides support for a recent study that proposed that faunal radiation in ocean sediments led to enhanced P burial and, possibly, a stabilization of atmospheric O2 levels. The results also help to explain Corg:Porg ratios in the geological record and the persistence of Porg in ancient marine sediments.

  15. Soil temperature calculation for burial site analysis.

    PubMed

    Prangnell, Jonathan; McGowan, Glenys

    2009-10-30

    The effect of air and water temperature upon the decomposition of human remains and upon biological activity has been extensively studied. However, less attention has been devoted to the temperature of the soil surrounding burials, despite its potential influence upon chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of human remains, drugs and toxins, as well as upon microbial and insect activity. A soil temperature calculation equation usually employed in civil engineering was used to calculate soil temperature at various depths in a cemetery located in Brisbane, Australia, in order to explain the extensive degradation of human remains and funerary objects observed at exhumation. The results showed that for the 160 years of the site's history, ground temperature at burial level had been sufficiently high for biological activity and chemical degradation reactions to continue right up until the time of exhumation. The equation used has potential in the analysis of both cemetery and clandestine burials, since it allows ground temperature to be calculated from ambient air temperature figures, for a variety of depths, soil types and vegetation conditions. PMID:19656646

  16. Ancient Astronomy in Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsamian, Elma S.

    2007-08-01

    The most important discovery, which enriched our knowledge of ancient astronomy in Armenia, was the complex of platforms for astronomical observations on the Small Hill of Metzamor, which may be called an ancient “observatory”. Investigations on that Hill show that the ancient inhabitants of the Armenian Highlands have left us not only pictures of celestial bodies, but a very ancient complex of platforms for observing the sky. Among the ancient monuments in Armenia there is a megalithic monument, probably, being connected with astronomy. 250km South-East of Yerevan there is a structure Zorats Kar (Karahunge) dating back to II millennium B.C. Vertical megaliths many of which are more than two meters high form stone rings resembling ancient stone monuments - henges in Great Britain and Brittany. Medieval observations of comets and novas by data in ancient Armenian manuscripts are found. In the collection of ancient Armenian manuscripts (Matenadaran) in Yerevan there are many manuscripts with information about observations of astronomical events as: solar and lunar eclipses, comets and novas, bolides and meteorites etc. in medieval Armenia.

  17. Studying Ancient History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Defends the value and relevance of the study of ancient history and classics in history curricula. The unique homogeneity of the classical period contributes to its instructional manageability. A year-long, secondary-level course on fifth-century Greece and Rome is described to illustrate effective approaches to teaching ancient history. (AM)

  18. Sexual education / AIDS prevention. Peruvian schools.

    PubMed

    Caceres, C F

    1993-01-01

    An evaluation of AIDS prevention and sex education program during a 3-month period in 190 in Peruvian schools (7 controls and 7 with the program) found that the intervention, based on behavioral change models, influenced knowledge and attitudes. Knowledge of sexuality and AIDS was greater among study participants than among controls. Attitudes toward erotophobia, condoms, contraception, and people with AIDS were also different among participants. Intentions to adopt prevention-oriented behaviors were also greater among study participants. A follow-up of 250 students was conducted in order to assess actual behavior change; analysis is pending. The curriculum is easy to implement and low-cost. The intervention and evaluation were developed by researchers and planners at the Cayetano Heredia University in Lima. The curriculum emphasized empowerment, self-esteem, information, attitude change, skill development, and a supportive environment. The 14-hour program covered the following topics: 1) puberty and adolescence, 2) sexual anatomy and physiology and human sexual responses, 3) conception and pregnancy (delivery, breast feeding, and unwanted pregnancy), 4) planned parenthood and contraceptive technologies including abortion, 5) sex and gender (social and cultural aspects and sexual orientation), 6) AIDS/STDs and condom skills, and 7) personal decision making about sexual issues (assertive communication skills and self-determination). Two hours of instruction were provided for each of the 7 units. Support materials included teacher and student training manuals, charts, a sample contraceptive kit, and condoms. Teaching techniques ranged from role playing and brainstorming to collaborative study with friends, family, and community heath institutions. Teachers received special training prior to the intervention. PMID:12286360

  19. Education, work and earnings of Peruvian women.

    PubMed

    King, E M

    1996-01-01

    This study describes trends in educational attainment among women in Peru, and examines the determinants of educational attainment, labor force participation and employment, and earnings. Data were obtained from the Peruvian Living Standards Survey among a sample of 5644 women aged 20-59 years. Findings indicate that parents' educational variables had a positive and statistically significant relationship with the educational attainment of their daughters. The impact declined over time from older to younger cohorts. School reforms improved women's access to education. Education became more universal and compulsory over time. Daughters of mothers with white collar occupations had higher levels of schooling than farmers' daughters. The effects of fathers' education was larger. There was a wider gap between farmers and nonfarmers. Textbooks, teachers, and number of grades offered were the only primary school inputs that showed any clear cohort trend in their effect on years of schooling. As primary schools became more available, textbooks had a greater impact on school attainment. The impact of textbooks was larger for women than for men. The number of grades offered had a large positive effect which increased across cohorts from older to younger. Findings suggest weak effects of school reforms on women's likelihood of participating in the paid or unpaid labor force. Years of schooling had a very small and negative effect on total labor force participation. Woman's paid employment was influenced by age, education and training, household characteristics, and family's unearned income. Educational attainment had a small positive effect on participation in paid employment for younger women and no effect for older women. The average rate of return in paid employment to primary education was about 12%. Primary education had the highest rate of return. The return to job tenure was higher for younger women. PMID:12348507

  20. Direction and timing of uplift propagation in the Peruvian Andes deduced from molecular phylogenetics of highland biotaxa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Damien; Sempere, Thierry; Plantard, Olivier

    2008-07-01

    Physical paleoaltimetric methods are increasingly used to estimate the amount and timing of surface uplift in orogens. Because the rise of mountains creates new ecosystems and triggers evolutionary changes, biological data may also be used to assess the development and timing of regional surface uplift. Here we apply this idea to the Peruvian Andes through a molecular phylogeographic and phylochronologic analysis of Globodera pallida, a potato parasite nematode that requires cool temperatures and thus thrives above 2.0-2.5 km in these tropical highlands. The Peruvian populations of this species exhibit a clear evolutionary pattern with deeper, more ancient lineages occurring in Andean southern Peru and shallower, younger lineages occurring progressively northwards. Genetically diverging G. pallida populations thus progressively colonized highland areas as these were expanding northwards, demonstrating that altitude in the Peruvian Andes was acquired longitudinally from south to north, i.e. in the direction of decreasing orogenic volume. This phylogeographic structure is recognized in other, independent highland biotaxa, and point to the Central Andean Orocline (CAO) as the region where high altitudes first emerged. Moreover, molecular clocks relative to Andean taxa, including the potato-tomato group, consistently estimate that altitudes high enough to induce biotic radiation were first acquired in the Early Miocene. After calibration by geological and biological tie-points and intervals, the phylogeny of G. pallida is used as a molecular clock, which estimates that the 2.0-2.5 km threshold elevation range was reached in the Early Miocene in southernmost Peru, in the Middle and Late Miocene in the Abancay segment (NW southern Peru), and from the latest Miocene in central and northern Peru. Although uncertainties attached to phylochronologic ages are significantly larger than those derived from geochronological methods, these results are fairly consistent with coeval

  1. [Skeleton or mummy: practices and structures for secondary burial in southern Italy in modern and contemporary age].

    PubMed

    Fornaciari, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The ancient concepts of death as duration and the practices of secondary burial,first analysed by Robert Hertz, still survive in many areas of southern Italy. According to these beliefs death was perceived not as a sudden event, but as a long-lasting process, during which the deceased person had to go through a transitory phase, passing from one state of existence to another. Recent archeological research documents the persistence of secondary burial rites in Southern Italy during the Modern Age. A survey conducted in the province of Messina in Eastern Sicily has identified two surviving architectural structures appointed for the treatment of the bodies: the 'sitting colatoio' aimed at favoring the skeletonisation and the 'horizontal colatoio' used to obtain mummification by dehydration. Both these structures controlled the corpse's decay and transformed the body in a stable and durable simulacra of the dead. PMID:25807706

  2. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Andersen, S R

    1997-06-01

    Based on a study of mummies, skeletons, burial rites, medical instruments, medicaments, literature and objets d'art from Ancient Egypt before the Hellenistic Period, the understanding of the eye, its diseases and their treatment at that time is described. Magic spells, religious rites and medical treatments, especially with eye ointments, were probably used often complementary to one another. We must be very cautious about our conclusions in regard to the effectiveness of the treatments. Eye diseases have been depicted only exceptionally in Egyptian art, except for blindness and 'symbolic blindness'. PMID:9253993

  3. Ancient Egyptian herbal wines

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Mirzoian, Armen; Hall, Gretchen R.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery jars from the beginning of advanced ancient Egyptian culture, ca. 3150 B.C., and continuing for millennia have revealed that a range of natural products—specifically, herbs and tree resins—were dispensed by grape wine. These findings provide chemical evidence for ancient Egyptian organic medicinal remedies, previously only ambiguously documented in medical papyri dating back to ca. 1850 B.C. They illustrate how humans around the world, probably for millions of years, have exploited their natural environments for effective plant remedies, whose active compounds have recently begun to be isolated by modern analytical techniques. PMID:19365069

  4. Ancient Egyptian herbal wines.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Patrick E; Mirzoian, Armen; Hall, Gretchen R

    2009-05-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery jars from the beginning of advanced ancient Egyptian culture, ca. 3150 B.C., and continuing for millennia have revealed that a range of natural products--specifically, herbs and tree resins--were dispensed by grape wine. These findings provide chemical evidence for ancient Egyptian organic medicinal remedies, previously only ambiguously documented in medical papyri dating back to ca. 1850 B.C. They illustrate how humans around the world, probably for millions of years, have exploited their natural environments for effective plant remedies, whose active compounds have recently begun to be isolated by modern analytical techniques. PMID:19365069

  5. Social Stratification, Power, and Educational Organization: The Peruvian Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    This report of a field study, conducted from 1966 to 1968, discusses the functional relationships between the class structure of Peruvian society and the structure and content of the country's educational system. Four educational subsystems are closely tied to each of the four main social groups: Blancos (upper class, comprising 0.1% of the total…

  6. Layout as Political Expression: Visual Literacy and the Peruvian Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhurst, Kevin G.

    Newspaper layout and design studies ignore politics, and most studies of newspaper politics ignore visual design. News layout is generally thought to be a set of neutral, efficient practices. This study suggests that the political position of Peruvian newspapers parallels their visual presentation of terrorism. The liberal "La Republica" covered…

  7. Moral Education and Post-War Societies: The Peruvian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisancho, Susana; Reategui, Felix

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the unique challenges and needs of moral and citizenship education in post-war Peruvian society. It assumes the explanation of the roots, the facts and the enduring negative consequences of violence as described in the final report of the Comision de la Verdad y Reconciliacion (CVR) [Truth and Reconciliation Commission]…

  8. Pesticide burial grounds in Poland: a review.

    PubMed

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Manecki, Piotr

    2011-10-01

    Obsolete pesticides were stored in Poland from the middle sixties until the late eighties of the 20th century mostly in underground disposal sites, called "pesticide burial grounds" or "pesticide tombs". The total amount of pesticide waste and packaging materials disposed of in these landfills exceeded 20000 Mg. Typically, the content of a pesticide tomb was dominated by organochlorine pesticides (comprising 10-100% of the total waste volume) with DDT as the prevailing compound. Other pesticide types, such as phosphoroorganic, carbamate insecticides, dinitrophenols, phenoxyacids, and inorganic compounds were stored in smaller quantities, usually not exceeding 10-20% of the total waste volume. With the growing awareness of the threats that these landfills posed to the environment, the first inventory for the whole country was made in 1993 and remediation was initiated in 1999. The total amount of waste, which had to be removed from the known pesticide tombs (hazardous substances, contaminated soils, construction materials etc.) was about 100000 Mg. According to the National Waste Management Plan, the reclamation of pesticide tombs was assumed to have been finished by the end of 2010, however, this goal has not been achieved. The aim of this review is to present a historical perspective of pesticide burial grounds in Poland with an emphasis on their creation, function, inventory, and remediation. Based on unpublished reports, and other published materials of limited availability written in Polish, this review may serve as a source of information for representatives of other countries, where remediation of pesticide burial grounds is still in progress. The experience gained over a ten-year period, when restoration of pesticide tombs was implemented in Poland, reveals that there are many obstacles to this action arising not only from technical, but also from economic and social issues. PMID:21531026

  9. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    E. J. Farris and H. M. Sulloway

    2008-01-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground on the Hanford Site. This burial ground is a combination of two locations formerly called Minor Construction Burial Ground No. 2 and Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2. This waste site received radioactive equipment and other miscellaneous waste from 105-F Reactor operations, including dummy elements and irradiated process tubing; gun barrel tips, steel sleeves, and metal chips removed from the reactor; filter boxes containing reactor graphite chips; and miscellaneous construction solid waste.

  10. Ancient dirt DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willerslev, E.

    2007-12-01

    In the past two decades, ancient DNA research has progressed from the retrieval of small fragments of mitochondrial DNA from a few late Holocene specimens, to large-scale studies of ancient populations, phenotypically important nuclear loci, and even whole genomic studies of extinct species. However, the field is still regularly marred by erroneous reports, which underestimate the extent of contamination within laboratories and samples themselves. An improved understanding of these processes and the effects of damage on ancient DNA templates has started to provide a more robust basis for research. Recent methodological advances have included the discoveries of DNA preserved in ancient sediments, coprolites, and fossil ice (Ancient Dirt DNA). These findings promise to make possible the reconstructions of entire ecosystems through time and allow for studies of past population genetics in cases where fossils are rare. The advantages and pitfalls connected to the Ancient Dirt DNA approach will be discussed as will recently obtained data relating to Greenland environmental history, long-term bacterial survival and the first human migration into the Americas.

  11. Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds. Environmental Information Document

    SciTech Connect

    Jaegge, W.J.; Kolb, N.L.; Looney, B.B.; Marine, I.W.; Towler, O.A.; Cook, J.R.

    1987-03-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations. The closure options considered for the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical and/or radioactive constituents are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated.

  12. Relative Burial Depths of Nakhlites: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikouchi, T.; Miyamoto, M.; Koizumi, E.; Makishima, J.; McKay, G.

    2006-01-01

    Nakhlites are augite-rich cumulate rocks with variable amounts of olivine and groundmass plus minor Fe, Ti oxides [e.g., 1]. Our previous studies revealed that nakhlites showed correlated petrography and mineralogy that could be explained by different locations (burial depths) in a common cooling cumulate pile [e.g., 2]. We so far analyzed six of the seven currently known nakhlites, Nakhla (Nak), Governador Valadares (GV), Lafayette (Laf), NWA817, Y000593 (Y) and MIL03346 (MIL) [e.g., 2,3] and calculated cooling rates of four nakhlites (Nak, GV, Laf, and NWA817) by using chemical zoning of olivine [e.g., 4]. In this abstract, we complete our examination of petrographic and mineralogical variation of all currently known nakhlites by adding petrology and mineralogy of NWA998. We also report results of cooling calculations for Y, MIL and NWA998. Then, we update our model of the nakhlite igneous body in terms of relative burial depth of each sample.

  13. Cyclic 100-ka (glacial-interglacial) migration of subseafloor redox zonation on the Peruvian shelf

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Sergio; Meister, Patrick; Liu, Bo; Prieto-Mollar, Xavier; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Khalili, Arzhang; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2013-01-01

    The coupling of subseafloor microbial life to oceanographic and atmospheric conditions is poorly understood. We examined diagenetic imprints and lipid biomarkers of past subseafloor microbial activity to evaluate its response to glacial-interglacial cycles in a sedimentary section drilled on the Peruvian shelf (Ocean Drilling Program Leg 201, Site 1229). Multiple and distinct layers of diagenetic barite and dolomite, i.e., minerals that typically form at the sulfate−methane transition (SMT), occur at much shallower burial depth than the present SMT around 30 meters below seafloor. These shallow layers co-occur with peaks of 13C-depleted archaeol, a molecular fossil of anaerobic methane-oxidizing Archaea. Present-day, non-steady state distributions of dissolved sulfate also suggest that the SMT is highly sensitive to variations in organic carbon flux to the surface shelf sediments that may lead to shoaling of the SMT. Reaction-transport modeling substantiates our hypothesis that shallow SMTs occur in response to cyclic sediment deposition with a high organic carbon flux during interglacials and a low organic carbon flux during glacial stages. Long diffusion distances expectedly dampen the response of deeply buried microbial communities to changes in sediment deposition and other oceanographic drivers over relatively short geological time scales, e.g., glacial-interglacial periods. However, our study demonstrates how dynamically sediment biogeochemistry of the Peru Margin has responded to glacial-interglacial change and how these changes are now preserved in the geological record. Such changes in subsurface biogeochemical zonation need to be taken into account to assess the role of the subseafloor biosphere in global element and redox cycling. PMID:24145422

  14. Pre-Columbian population dynamics in coastal southern Peru: A diachronic investigation of mtDNA patterns in the Palpa region by ancient DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Reindel, Markus; Cagigao, Elsa Tomasto; Hummel, Susanne; Herrmann, Bernd

    2010-02-01

    Alternative models have been proposed to explain the formation and decline of the south Peruvian Nasca culture, ranging from migration or invasion to autochthonous development and ecological crisis. To reveal to what extent population dynamic processes accounted for cultural development in the Nasca mainland, or were influenced by them, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA of 218 individuals, originating from chronologically successive archaeological sites in the Palpa region, the Paracas Peninsula, and the Andean highlands in southern Peru. The sampling strategy allowed a diachronic analysis in a time frame from approximately 800 BC to 800 AD. Mitochondrial coding region polymorphisms were successfully analyzed and replicated for 130 individuals and control region sequences (np 16021-16408) for 104 individuals to determine Native American mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and haplotypes. The results were compared with ancient and contemporary Peruvian populations to reveal genetic relations of the archaeological samples. Frequency data and statistics show clear proximity of the Nasca populations to the populations of the preceding Paracas culture from Palpa and the Peninsula, and suggest, along with archaeological data, that the Nasca culture developed autochthonously in the Rio Grande drainage. Furthermore, the influence of changes in socioeconomic complexity in the Palpa area on the genetic diversity of the local population could be observed. In all, a strong genetic affinity between pre-Columbian coastal populations from southern Peru could be determined, together with a significant differentiation from ancient highland and all present-day Peruvian reference populations, best shown in the differential distribution of mitochondrial haplogroups. PMID:19639639

  15. Urban Stream Burial Increases Watershed-Scale Nitrate Export.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Jake J; Golden, Heather E; Knightes, Christopher D; Mayer, Paul M; Kaushal, Sujay S; Pennino, Michael J; Arango, Clay P; Balz, David A; Elonen, Colleen M; Fritz, Ken M; Hill, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that reduces nutrient loading to downstream ecosystems. Here we synthesize studies that investigated the effects of urban stream burial on N-uptake in two metropolitan areas and use simulation modeling to scale our measurements to the broader watershed scale. We report that nitrate travels on average 18 times farther downstream in buried than in open streams before being removed from the water column, indicating that burial substantially reduces N uptake in streams. Simulation modeling suggests that as burial expands throughout a river network, N uptake rates increase in the remaining open reaches which somewhat offsets reduced N uptake in buried reaches. This is particularly true at low levels of stream burial. At higher levels of stream burial, however, open reaches become rare and cumulative N uptake across all open reaches in the watershed rapidly declines. As a result, watershed-scale N export increases slowly at low levels of stream burial, after which increases in export become more pronounced. Stream burial in the lower, more urbanized portions of the watershed had a greater effect on N export than an equivalent amount of stream burial in the upper watershed. We suggest that stream daylighting (i.e., uncovering buried streams) can increase watershed-scale N retention. PMID:26186731

  16. URBAN STREAM BURIAL INCREASES WATERSHED-SCALE NITRATE EXPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial reduces the capacity of streams to remove nitrate (NO3-) from the water column by in...

  17. 40 CFR 229.1 - Burial at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burial at sea. 229.1 Section 229.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING GENERAL PERMITS § 229.1 Burial at sea. (a) All persons subject to title I of the Act are hereby granted a general permit...

  18. 40 CFR 229.1 - Burial at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Burial at sea. 229.1 Section 229.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING GENERAL PERMITS § 229.1 Burial at sea. (a) All persons subject to title I of the Act are hereby granted a general permit to transport human remains from the...

  19. Fire hazards analysis for solid waste burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-09-28

    This document comprises the fire hazards analysis for the solid waste burial grounds, including TRU trenches, low-level burial grounds, radioactive mixed waste trenches, etc. It analyzes fire potential, and fire damage potential for these facilities. Fire scenarios may be utilized in future safety analysis work, or for increasing the understanding of where hazards may exist in the present operation.

  20. Long-length contaminated equipment burial containers fabrication process procedures

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, W.A., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-11

    These special process procedures cover the detailed step-by-step procedures required by the supplier who will manufacture the Long-Length Contaminated Equipment (LLCE) Burial Container design. Also included are detailed step-by-step procedures required by the disposal process for completion of the LLCE Burial Containers at Hanford.

  1. Urban Stream Burial Increases Watershed-Scale Nitrate Export

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Jake J.; Golden, Heather E.; Knightes, Christopher D.; Mayer, Paul M.; Kaushal, Sujay S.; Pennino, Michael J.; Arango, Clay P.; Balz, David A.; Elonen, Colleen M.; Fritz, Ken M.; Hill, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that reduces nutrient loading to downstream ecosystems. Here we synthesize studies that investigated the effects of urban stream burial on N-uptake in two metropolitan areas and use simulation modeling to scale our measurements to the broader watershed scale. We report that nitrate travels on average 18 times farther downstream in buried than in open streams before being removed from the water column, indicating that burial substantially reduces N uptake in streams. Simulation modeling suggests that as burial expands throughout a river network, N uptake rates increase in the remaining open reaches which somewhat offsets reduced N uptake in buried reaches. This is particularly true at low levels of stream burial. At higher levels of stream burial, however, open reaches become rare and cumulative N uptake across all open reaches in the watershed rapidly declines. As a result, watershed-scale N export increases slowly at low levels of stream burial, after which increases in export become more pronounced. Stream burial in the lower, more urbanized portions of the watershed had a greater effect on N export than an equivalent amount of stream burial in the upper watershed. We suggest that stream daylighting (i.e., uncovering buried streams) can increase watershed-scale N retention. PMID:26186731

  2. Hypercapnia increases core temperature cooling rate during snow burial.

    PubMed

    Grissom, Colin K; Radwin, Martin I; Scholand, Mary Beth; Harmston, Chris H; Muetterties, Mark C; Bywater, Tim J

    2004-04-01

    Previous retrospective studies report a core body temperature cooling rate of 3 degrees C/h during avalanche burial. Hypercapnia occurs during avalanche burial secondary to rebreathing expired air, and the effect of hypercapnia on hypothermia during avalanche burial is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the core temperature cooling rate during snow burial under normocapnic and hypercapnic conditions. We measured rectal core body temperature (T(re)) in 12 subjects buried in compacted snow dressed in a lightweight clothing insulation system during two different study burials. In one burial, subjects breathed with a device (AvaLung 2, Black Diamond Equipment) that resulted in hypercapnia over 30-60 min. In a control burial, subjects were buried under identical conditions with a modified breathing device that maintained normocapnia. Mean snow temperature was -2.5 +/- 2.0 degrees C. Burial time was 49 +/- 14 min in the hypercapnic study and 60 min in the normocapnic study (P = 0.02). Rate of decrease in T(re) was greater with hypercapnia (1.2 degrees C/h by multiple regression analysis, 95% confidence limits of 1.1-1.3 degrees C/h) than with normocapnia (0.7 degrees C/h, 95% confidence limit of 0.6-0.8 degrees C/h). In the hypercapnic study, the fraction of inspired carbon dioxide increased from 1.4 +/- 1.0 to 7.0 +/- 1.4%, minute ventilation increased from 15 +/- 7 to 40 +/- 12 l/min, and oxygen saturation decreased from 97 +/- 1 to 90 +/- 6% (P < 0.01). During the normocapnic study, these parameters remained unchanged. In this study, T(re) cooling rate during snow burial was less than previously reported and was increased by hypercapnia. This may have important implications for prehospital treatment of avalanche burial victims. PMID:14660514

  3. Land-use allocation protects the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Paulo J C; Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David E; Almeyda, Angélica; Galván-Gildemeister, Ricardo; Keene, Sam; Raybin, Rebecca F; Smith, Richard C

    2007-08-31

    Disturbance and deforestation have profound ecological and socioeconomic effects on tropical forests, but their diffuse patterns are difficult to detect and quantify at regional scales. We expanded the Carnegie forest damage detection system to show that, between 1999 and 2005, disturbance and deforestation rates throughout the Peruvian Amazon averaged 632 square kilometers per year and 645 square kilometers per year, respectively. However, only 1 to 2% occurred within natural protected areas, indigenous territories contained only 11% of the forest disturbances and 9% of the deforestation, and recent forest concessions effectively protected against clear-cutting. Although the region shows recent increases in disturbance and deforestation rates and leakage into forests surrounding concession areas, land-use policy and remoteness are serving to protect the Peruvian Amazon. PMID:17690260

  4. Bioactive Compounds from Plants Used in Peruvian Traditional Medicine.

    PubMed

    Lock, Olga; Perez, Eleucy; Villar, Martha; Flores, Diana; Rojas, Rosario

    2016-03-01

    It is estimated that there are as many as 1400 plant species currently used in traditional Peruvian medicine; however, only a few have undergone scientific investigation. In this paper, we make a review of the botanical, chemical, pharmacological and clinical propierties of the most investigated Peruvian medicinal plants. The plant species selected for this review are: Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon), Croton lechleri (sangre de grado), Uncaria tomentosa/U. guianensis (uña de gato), Lepidium meyenii (maca), Physalis peruviana (aguaymanto), Minthostachys mollis (muña), Notholaena nivea (cuti-cuti), Maytenus macrocarpa (chuchuhuasi), Dracontium loretense (jergon sacha), Gentianella nitida (hercampuri), Plukenetia volubilis (sacha inchi) and Zea mays (maiz morado). For each of these plants, information about their traditional uses and current commercialization is also included. PMID:27169179

  5. [Psychiatry in ancient Mexico].

    PubMed

    Calderón Narváez, G

    1992-12-01

    Using studies on prehispanic and early post-conquest documents of Ancient Mexico--such as the Badianus Manuscript, also known as Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis, and Brother Bernardino de Sahagún's famous work History of the Things of the New Spain, a description of some existing medical and psychiatric problems, and treatments Ancient Aztecs resorted to, is presented. The structure of the Aztec family, their problems with the excessive ingestion of alcoholic beverages, and the punishments native authorities had implemented in order to check alcoholism up are also described. PMID:1341125

  6. Ancient Chinese constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junjun

    2011-06-01

    China, a country with a long history and a specific culture, has also a long and specific astronomy. Ancient Chinese astronomers observed the stars, named and distributed them into constellations in a very specific way, which is quite different from the current one. Around the Zodiac, stars are divided into four big regions corresponding with the four orientations, and each is related to a totem, either the Azure Dragon, the Vermilion Bird, the White Tiger or the Murky Warrior. We present a general pattern of the ancient Chinese constellations, including the four totems, their stars and their names.

  7. Clinical research training of Peruvian neurologists: a baseline assessment

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Chumbes, Gian Carlos; Montano-Torres, Silvia Margarita; Díaz-Vásquez, Alberto; Zunt, Joseph Raymond

    2010-01-01

    In Peru, despite a strong clinical research infrastructure in Lima, and Masters degree programs in epidemiology at three universities, few neurologists participate in clinical research. It was our objective to identify perceived needs and opportunities for increasing clinical research capacity and training opportunities for Peruvian neurologists. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional survey of Peruvian neurologists in Lima and Arequipa, Peru. Forty-eight neurologists completed written surveys and oral interviews. All neurologists reported interest in clinical research, but noted that lack of time and financial resources limited their ability to participate. Although most neurologists had received some training in epidemiology and research design as medical students or residents, the majority felt these topics were not adequately covered. Neurologists in Arequipa noted international funding for clinical research was uncommon outside the capital city of Lima. We concluded that clinical research is important to Peruvian neurologists. The three main barriers to increased participation in clinical research identified by neurologists were insufficient training in clinical research methodology, meager funding opportunities, and lack of dedicated time to participate in clinical research. Distance learning holds promise as a method for providing additional training in clinical research methodology, especially for neurologists who may have difficulty traveling to larger cities for additional training. PMID:21577342

  8. A likely case of scurvy in a rural Early Classic Maya burial from Actun Uayazba Kab, Belize.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Gabriel

    2014-11-01

    A Maya burial of a late adolescent (Burial 98-3) found in the rockshelter entrance of Actun Uayazba Kab (AUK), Belize, displays a combination of lesions that is consistent with scurvy. Signs include large, active lesions on the posterior surfaces of maxilla; relatively mild porotic hyperostosis along the midline of the skull on the parietals and occipital; cribra orbitalia; potential pinprick lesions on the greater wings of sphenoid and temporal; reactive lesions on the palate, temporal lines of frontal and parietals, and external and internal surfaces of zygomatics; small lesions on the popliteal surfaces of both femora; and periodontal disease. Identification of scurvy at AUK potentially informs the analysis of other primary burials and scattered bone found there and at other nearby sites, which often reveal evidence of nonspecific lesions that are usually attributed to anemia and infection, but that are also consistent with scurvy. The social and ecological context of this Protoclassic (0-AD 300) individual, who lived in a rural agricultural community with no evidence of complex social hierarchy, contrasts with typical discussions of disease among the Maya, which tend to focus on the degrading effects of overcrowding and resource deficiencies. While scurvy has been largely overlooked in the Maya area, this study supports earlier arguments for its presence that were based largely on clinical and ethnographic analogies and suggests the need to incorporate scurvy into broader synergistic models of ancient health. PMID:25105478

  9. Evaluation method of leachate leaking from carcass burial site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Kim, H.; Lee, M.; Lee, K.; Kim, S.; Kim, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T.; Han, J.

    2012-12-01

    More than 150,000 cattle carcasses and 3,140,000 pig carcasses were buried all over the nation in Korea because of 2010 outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD). Various disposal Techniques such as incineration, composting, rendering, and burial have been developed and applied to effectively dispose an animal carcass. Since a large number of carcasses should be disposed for a short-term period to prevent the spread of FMD virus, most of the carcasses were disposed by mass burial technique. However, a long-term management and monitoring of leachate discharges are required because mass burial can cause soil and groundwater contamination. In this study, we used key parameters related to major components of leachate such as NH4-N, NO3-N, Cl-, E.coli and electrical conductivity as potential leachate contamination indicator to determine leachate leakage from the site. We monitored 300 monitoring wells in both burial site and the monitoring well 5m away from burial sites to identify leachate leaking from burial site. Average concentration of NH3-N in 300 monitoring wells, both burial site and the well 5m away from burial sites, were 2,593 mg/L and 733 mg/L, respectively. 24% out of 300 monitoring wells showed higher than 10 mg/L NH4-N, 100 mg/L Cl- and than 800 μS/cm electrical conductivity. From this study, we set up 4 steps guidelines to evaluate leachate leakage like; step 1 : High potential step of leachate leakage, step 2 : Middle potential step of leachate leakage, step 3 : Low potential step of leachate leakage, step 4 : No leachate leakage. On the basis of this result, we moved 34 leachate leaking burial sites to other places safely and it is necessary to monitor continuously the monitoring wells for environmental protection and human health.

  10. Beijing Ancient Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yunli

    The Beijing Ancient Observatory is now the only complete example of an observatory from the seventeenth century in the world. It is a monument to the prosperity of astronomy in traditional China. Its instruments are emblems of the encounter and amalgamation of Chinese and European Science in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

  11. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major course…

  12. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  13. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  14. Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadecki, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

  15. Ancient deforestation revisited.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J Donald

    2011-01-01

    The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work. PMID:20669043

  16. Identification and Tracing Groundwater Contamination by Livestock Burial Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, K.; Ha, K.; Park, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, K.

    2011-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) or hoof-and-mouth disease is a severe plague for animal farming that affects cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Since it is highly infectious and can be easily proliferated by infected animals, contaminated equipments, vehicles, clothing, people, and predators. It is widely known that the virus responsible for FMD is a picornavirus, the prototypic member of the genus Aphthovirus. A serious outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease, leading to the stamping out of 3.53 millions of pigs and cattle and the construction of 4,538 burial sites until 15th March, 2011. The build-up of carcass burial should inevitably produce leachate by the decomposition of buried livestock affecting the surround environment such as air, soil, groundwater, and surface water. The most important issues which are currently raised by scientists are groundwater contamination by leachate from the livestock burial sites. This study examined the current status of FMD outbreak occurred in 2010-2011 and the issues of groundwater contamination by leachate from livestock burial sites. The hydrogeochemical, geophysical, and hydrogeological studies were executed to identify and trace groundwater contamination by leachate from livestock burial sites. Generally livestock mortality leachate contains high concentrations of NH3-N, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, K+, Na+, P along with relative lesser amounts of iron, calcium, and magnesium. The groundwater chemical data around four burial sites showed high NH3-N, HCO3-, and K+ suggesting the leachate leakage from burial sites. This is also proved by resistivity monitoring survey and tracer tests. The simulation results of leachate dispersion showed the persistent detrimental impacts for groundwater environment for a long time (~50 years). It is need to remove the leachate of burial sites to prevent the dispersion of leachate from livestock burial to groundwater and to monitor the groundwater quality. The most important

  17. Interculturality for Afro-Peruvians: Towards a Racially Inclusive Education in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdiviezo, Laura Alicia

    2006-01-01

    Intercultural education policy and programs in Peru emerged as a response to the right of education for marginalised indigenous populations. Under the influence of international dialogue regarding education for all, Peruvian policy has recently proposed interculturality as a guiding principle of education for all Peruvians. In this context,…

  18. Criticality assessment of TRU burial ground culverts

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    1990-09-26

    An effort to assess the criticality risks of {sup 239}Pu in TRU Burial Ground Culverts has been underway for several years. The concern arose from discrepancies in two types of monitors that have been used to assay the {sup 239}Pu waste prior to storage in 55-gallon drums that are placed in the culverts. One type is the solid waste monitor (SWM), which is based on gamma-ray measurements; the other is the neutron coincidence monitor, which is based on neutron measurements. The NCC was put into routine service after 1985 and has generally yielded higher 239 Pu assays than the SWM. Culverts with pre-1986 waste only had SWM assays of {sup 239}Pu; thus, it was questioned whether their actual {sup 239}Pu loadings could be high enough to pose criticality concerns. Studies to characterize the culvert criticality potential have included appraisal of NCC vs SWM, neutron measurements atop the culverts, gamma-ray measurements atop the culverts, and probabilistic risk analyses. Overall, these studies have implied that the culverts are critically safe; however, their results have not been examined collectively. The present report uses the collective information of the preceding studies to arrive at a more complete assessment of the culvert criticality aspects. A conservative k{sub eff} is estimated for an individual suspicious culvert and a PRA is evaluated for its {open_quotes}worst{close_quotes} drum. These two pieces of information form the basis of the appraisal, but other evidence is also included as support.

  19. Depth of burial experiments at Balapan

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, L.A.; Myers, S.C.

    1997-11-01

    We report of a series of experiments designed to discriminate underground explosion sources at various depths by means of their seismic signatures at regional distances. This series was a joint effort of the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), and the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan (NNC). The series consisted of three 25-ton explosions, at depths of 55 m, 300 m, and 50 m. In addition, a 5-ton checkout explosion was fired at a depth of 630 m, and small-scale explosions at each site were carried out so that the empirical Green`s functions could be derived. Broadband and short-period seismic data were recorded at an eight-station network within Kazakhstan, at nominal ranges varying from 100-1500 km, and with good azimuthal coverage for regional phases. In addition, seismic measurements were made at former NRDC sites (BAY and KKL), infrasound recordings were made at the cross array at Kurchatov, and close-in seismic measurements were also made at ranges from ground zero to 20 km. Although the main objective of this series was to study depth-of- burial (DOB) effects on the excitation of regional phases such as LG and RG, and to determine whether peaks in the coda spectral shape correlate well with DOB, a secondary objective was to help calibrate the site of the Kazakhstan seismic network, especially the primary IMS station at MAKanchi, and the auxiliary IMS stations at KURchatov and AKTyubinsk.

  20. SECTION D, WITH FLAT GROUP BURIAL MARKER AT RIGHT FOREGROUND. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECTION D, WITH FLAT GROUP BURIAL MARKER AT RIGHT FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  1. Organic carbon burial efficiency in a large tropical hydroelectric reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, Raquel; Sobek, Sebastian; Kosten, Sarian; Cole, Jonathan; Cardoso, Simone; Roland, Fábio

    2014-05-01

    Because hydroelectric reservoirs receive relatively high inputs of sediments when compared to lakes and oceans, these systems are important sites for organic carbon (OC) accumulation. Nevertheless, the actual magnitude of carbon accumulating in reservoirs is poorly known due to a lack of whole-system studies of carbon burial. Hydroelectric reservoirs are also particularly heterogeneous systems in terms of organic carbon sources and sedimentation rates. Such heterogeneity leads to strong variations on carbon fluxes, even though the effect on OC burial has not yet been discussed. The aim of this paper was to determine the OC burial rate and efficiency in a large tropical reservoir and evaluate the importance of spatial heterogeneity affecting OC burial. Burial rates were determined through a novel approach which combines sediment sample analyses and a seismic survey. Our results confirm the major effect of sedimentation heterogeneity on OC burial efficiency which varied from 9 to 89% in the reservoir. In addition to the river-dam gradient of sedimentation, our data reinforce the importance of basin morphometry in determining the patterns of sediment deposition and carbon accumulation. No carbon accumulation occurred along the margins of the reservoir and irregular bottom morphology leaded to irregular carbon deposition. An integrative analysis, including the reservoir's heterogeneity, indicated that the whole system accumulates 42.2 g C m-2 yr-1 and that roughly 67% of the total OC load to the sediments is actually buried. The data also suggest that the sediment of the reservoir is mainly composed of terrestrial OC and that the heterogeneity in OC sources plays a minor role determining OC burial efficiency, which was strongly determined by sediment accumulation rate. Finally, our results in combination with literature data suggest that the high sedimentation rates cause hydroelectric reservoirs to accumulate carbon more efficiently than lakes, regardless of

  2. 25 CFR 20.326 - Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? 20.326... cover transportation costs? Transportation costs directly associated with burials are normally a part of the established burial rate. If a provider adds an additional transportation charge to the burial...

  3. A simple and efficient method for PCR amplifiable DNA extraction from ancient bones

    PubMed Central

    Kalmár, Tibor; Bachrati, Csanád Z.; Marcsik, Antónia; Raskó, István

    2000-01-01

    A simple and effective modified ethanol precipitation-based protocol is described for the preparation of DNA from ancient human bones. This method is fast and requires neither hazardous chemicals nor special devices. After the powdering and incubating of the bone samples Dextran Blue was added as a carrier for removing the PCR inhibitors with selective ethanol precipitation. This method could eliminate the time-consuming separate decalcification step, dialysis, application of centrifugation-driven microconcentrators and the second consecutive PCR amplification. The efficiency of this procedure was demonstrated on ten 500–1200-year-old human bones from four different Hungarian burial sites. A mitochondrial specific primer pair was used to obtain sequence information from the purified ancient DNA. The PCR amplification, after our DNA extraction protocol, was successful from each of the 10 bone samples investigated. The results demonstrate that extraction of DNA from ancient bone samples with this new approach increases the success rate of PCR amplification. PMID:10871390

  4. Ancient human microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J.; Lewis, Cecil M.

    2015-01-01

    Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and therefore, we lack a foundation for characterizing this change. High-throughput sequencing has opened up new opportunities in the field of paleomicrobiology, allowing us to investigate the evolution of the complex microbial ecologies that inhabit our bodies. By focusing on recent coprolite and dental calculus research, we explore how emerging research on ancient human microbiomes is changing the way we think about ancient disease and how archaeological studies can contribute to a medical understanding of health and nutrition today. PMID:25559298

  5. Ancient Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-469, 31 August 2003

    The terraced area in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image is an outcropping of ancient, sedimentary rock. It occurs in a crater in western Arabia Terra near 10.8oN, 4.5oW. Sedimentary rocks provide a record of past environments on Mars. Field work will likely be required to begin to get a good understanding of the nature of the record these rocks contain. Their generally uniform thickness and repeated character suggests that deposition of fine sediment in this crater was episodic, if not cyclic. These rocks might be indicators of an ancient lake, or they might have been deposited from grains settling out of an earlier, thicker, martian atmosphere. This image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated from the lower left.

  6. High rates of organic carbon burial in fjord sediments globally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Richard W.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Allison, Mead; Savage, Candida; Galy, Valier

    2015-06-01

    The deposition and long-term burial of organic carbon in marine sediments has played a key role in controlling atmospheric O2 and CO2 concentrations over the past 500 million years. Marine carbon burial represents the dominant natural mechanism of long-term organic carbon sequestration. Fjords--deep, glacially carved estuaries at high latitudes--have been hypothesized to be hotspots of organic carbon burial, because they receive high rates of organic material fluxes from the watershed. Here we compile organic carbon concentrations from 573 fjord surface sediment samples and 124 sediment cores from nearly all fjord systems globally. We use sediment organic carbon content and sediment delivery rates to calculate rates of organic carbon burial in fjord systems across the globe. We estimate that about 18 Mt of organic carbon are buried in fjord sediments each year, equivalent to 11% of annual marine carbon burial globally. Per unit area, fjord organic carbon burial rates are one hundred times as large as the global ocean average, and fjord sediments contain twice as much organic carbon as biogenous sediments underlying the upwelling regions of the ocean. We conclude that fjords may play an important role in climate regulation on glacial-interglacial timescales.

  7. Tritium in the burial ground of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hyder, M.L.

    1993-06-01

    This memorandum reviews the available information on tritium-contaminated material discarded to burial grounds. Tritium was the first isotope studied because it represents the most immediate concern with regard to release to the environment. Substantial amounts of tritium are known to be present in the ground water underneath the area, and outcropping of this ground water in springs and seeps has been observed. The response to this release of tritium from the burial ground is a current concern. The amount of tritium emplaced in the burial ground facilities is very uncertain, however, some general conclusions can be made. In particular, most of the tritium buried is associated with spent equipment and other waste, rather than spent melts. Correspondingly, most of the tritium in the ground water seems to be associated with burials of this type, rather than the spent melts. Maps are presented showing the location of burials of tritiated waste by type, and the location of the largest individual burials according to COBRA records.

  8. Source of silicate and carbonate cements during deep burial diagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, P.K.

    1986-05-01

    Detrital silicate minerals and silicate cements (formed during shallow burial) of siliciclastic sandstones commonly dissolve during deep burial diagenesis. Quartz, feldspars, mica, and garnet among detrital silicate minerals, and quartz and kaolinite among authigenic silicate minerals show extensive dissolution features during deep burial diagenesis of siliciclastic sandstones of the Gondwana Supergroup, India. No dissolution features were observed in zircon, tourmalene, and rutile among detrital minerals or in chlorite and smectite among early formed authigenic minerals. Dissolution enriched the pore fluids in silica, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, and aluminum. Authigenic cements formed during this stage are illite, quartz, feldspar, iron oxide, and carbonates of calcium, magnesium, and iron. Mass-balance calculations show that the source of all silicate cements formed during deep burial diagenesis was internally derived from the dissolution of both detrital and early formed authigenic cements. However, a considerable gap exists between the amounts of cations (calcium, magnesium, and iron) derived internally and the respective amounts of these cations needed to form the various carbonate cements at this stage. Therefore, an outside source for these cations is needed to explain the formation of carbonate cements. A large mass transfer of cations from outside the sediment source seems remote since ground-water movement, which probably carried cement from an external source, is extremely restricted at great burial depths. Therefore, carbonate cements may have been major constituents during shallow burial diagenesis in Gondwana sandstones. Subsequently, these early formed carbonates were completely dissolved and remobilized as late-stage carbonate cement.

  9. Mummification in the Ancient and New World.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the Ancient and New World there was a custom to preserve the corpse in a natural and artificial way. Since Paleolithic man believed in an afterlife and even in Mesoamerica and the Andes cultures, care and ceremony were practiced to the burial of the dead in an ancestral cult. Mortuary rituals were developed in Pre-dynastic Egypt (4500-3100 BC) but apparently they had begun before in America, c. 5000 BC. Mummies served for assisting the soul to survive and for preventing the dead from frightening the livings. Incas arrived at a point of perfection in these practices after other Andean cultures but we should not forget their older predecessors, the Chinchorro culture on the arid coast of the Atacama Desert. Different steps in the technique can be distinguished in both worlds: natural desiccation covered by animal skins, methods to protect the body skin and flesh removal, replacement with clay; black, red or mud-coated corpses, evisceration, body cavity treatment, cleansing and anointing the interior, brain removal, mummified bodies, corpses covered with natron, before being washed and bandaged or wrapped. It will be necessary to carefully check dates, techniques and periods in the two zones to establish exactly the evolution of the methods applied. PMID:25811691

  10. Ancient Chinese Astronomical Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Jennifer Robin

    2004-05-01

    I am interested in the astronomical advances of the Ancient Chinese in measuring the solar day. Their development of gnomon & ruler, sundial, and water clock apparatuses enabled Chinese astronomers to measure the annual solar orbit and solar day more precisely than their contemporaries. I have built one of each of these devices to use in collecting data from Olympia, Washington. I will measure the solar day in the Pacific Northwest following the methodology of the ancient Chinese. I will compare with my data, the available historical Chinese astronomical records and current records from the United States Naval Observatory Master Clock. I seek to understand how ancient Chinese investigations into solar patterns enabled them to make accurate predictions about the movement of the celestial sphere and planets, and to develop analytic tests of their theories. Mayall, R. Newton; Sundials: their construction and use. Dover Publications 2000 North, John; The Norton History of Astronomy and Cosmology W.W. Norton& Co. 1995 Zhentao Xu, David W. Pankenier, Yaotiao Jiang; East Asian archaeoastronomy : historical records of astronomical observations of China, Japan and Korea Published on behalf of the Earth Space Institute by Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, c2000

  11. Immune response to measles vaccine in Peruvian children.

    PubMed Central

    Bautista-López, N. L.; Vaisberg, A.; Kanashiro, R.; Hernández, H.; Ward, B. J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immune response in Peruvian children following measles vaccination. METHODS: Fifty-five Peruvian children received Schwarz measles vaccine (about 10(3) plaque forming units) at about 9 months of age. Blood samples were taken before vaccination, then twice after vaccination: one sample at between 1 and 4 weeks after vaccination and the final sample 3 months post vaccination for evaluation of immune cell phenotype and lymphoproliferative responses to measles and non-measles antigens. Measles-specific antibodies were measured by plaque reduction neutralization. FINDINGS: The humoral response developed rapidly after vaccination; only 4 of the 55 children (7%) had plaque reduction neutralization titres <200 mlU/ml 3 months after vaccination. However, only 8 out of 35 children tested (23%) had lymphoproliferative responses to measles antigens 3-4 weeks after vaccination. Children with poor lymphoproliferative responses to measles antigens had readily detectable lymphoproliferative responses to other antigens. Flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed diffuse immune system activation at the time of vaccination in most children. The capacity to mount a lymphoproliferative response to measles antigens was associated with expression of CD45RO on CD4+ T-cells. CONCLUSION: The 55 Peruvian children had excellent antibody responses after measles vaccination, but only 23% (8 out of 35) generated detectable lymphoproliferative responses to measles antigens (compared with 55-67% in children in the industrialized world). This difference may contribute to the less than uniform success of measles vaccination programmes in the developing world. PMID:11731811

  12. Seasonality in marine ecosystems: Peruvian seabirds, anchovy, and oceanographic conditions.

    PubMed

    Passuni, Giannina; Barbraud, Christophe; Chaigneau, Alexis; Demarcq, Hervé; Ledesma, Jesus; Bertrand, Arnaud; Castillo, Ramiro; Perea, Angel; Mori, Julio; Viblanc, Vincent A; Torres-MaitaA, Jose; Bertrand, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In fluctuating environments, matching breeding timing to periods of high resource availability is crucial for the fitness of many vertebrate species, and may have major consequences on population health. Yet, our understanding of the proximate environmental cues driving seasonal breeding is limited. This is particularly the case in marine ecosystems, where key environmental factors and prey abundance and availability are seldom quantified. The Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS) is a highly productive, low-latitude ecosystem of moderate seasonality. In this ecosystem, three tropical seabird species (the Guanay Cormorant Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, the Peruvian Booby Sula variegata, and the Peruvian Pelican Pelecanus thagus) live in sympatry and prey almost exclusively on anchovy, Engraulis ringens. From January 2003 to December 2012, we monitored 31 breeding sites along the Peruvian coast to investigate the breeding cycle of these species. We tested for relationships between breeding timing, oceanographic conditions, and prey availability using occupancy models. We found that all three seabird species exhibited seasonal breeding patterns, with marked interspecific differences. Whereas breeding mainly started during the austral winter/early spring and ended in summer/early fall, this pattern was stronger in boobies and pelicans than in cormorants. Breeding onset mainly occurred when upwelling was intense but ecosystem productivity was below its annual maxima, and when anchovy were less available and in poor physiological condition. Conversely, the abundance and availability of anchovy improved during chick rearing and peaked around the time of fledging. These results suggest that breeding timing is adjusted so that fledging may occur under optimal environmental conditions, rather than being constrained by nutritional requirements during egg laying. Adjusting breeding time so that fledglings meet optimal conditions at independence is unique compared with other

  13. Why did ancient people have atherosclerosis?: from autopsies to computed tomography to potential causes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Gregory S; Wann, L Samuel; Allam, Adel H; Thompson, Randall C; Michalik, David E; Sutherland, M Linda; Sutherland, James D; Lombardi, Guido P; Watson, Lucia; Cox, Samantha L; Valladolid, Clide M; Abd El-Maksoud, Gomaa; Al-Tohamy Soliman, Muhammad; Badr, Ibrahem; el-Halim Nur el-Din, Abd; Clarke, Emily M; Thomas, Ian G; Miyamoto, Michael I; Kaplan, Hillard S; Frohlich, Bruno; Narula, Jagat; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Zink, Albert; Finch, Caleb E

    2014-06-01

    Computed tomographic findings of atherosclerosis in the ancient cultures of Egypt, Peru, the American Southwest and the Aleutian Islands challenge our understanding of the fundamental causes of atherosclerosis. Could these findings be true? Is so, what traditional risk factors might be present in these cultures that could explain this apparent paradox? The recent computed tomographic findings are consistent with multiple autopsy studies dating as far back as 1852 that demonstrate calcific atherosclerosis in ancient Egyptians and Peruvians. A nontraditional cause of atherosclerosis that could explain this burden of atherosclerosis is the microbial and parasitic inflammatory burden likely to be present in ancient cultures inherently lacking modern hygiene and antimicrobials. Patients with chronic systemic inflammatory diseases of today, including systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and human immunodeficiency virus infection, experience premature atherosclerosis and coronary events. Might the chronic inflammatory load of ancient times secondary to infection have resulted in atherosclerosis? Smoke inhalation from the use of open fires for daily cooking and illumination represents another potential cause. Undiscovered risk factors could also have been present, potential causes that technologically cannot currently be measured in our serum or other tissue. A synthesis of these findings suggests that a gene-environmental interplay is causal for atherosclerosis. That is, humans have an inherent genetic susceptibility to atherosclerosis, whereas the speed and severity of its development are secondary to known and potentially unknown environmental factors. PMID:25667093

  14. Multiple Palaeoproterozoic carbon burial episodes and excursions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. P.; Prave, A. R.; Condon, D. J.; Lepland, A.; Fallick, A. E.; Romashkin, A. E.; Medvedev, P. V.; Rychanchik, D. V.

    2015-08-01

    Organic-rich rocks (averaging 2-5% total organic carbon) and positive carbonate-carbon isotope excursions (δ13C > + 5 ‰ and locally much higher, i.e. the Lomagundi-Jatuli Event) are hallmark features of Palaeoproterozoic successions and are assumed to archive a global event of unique environmental conditions following the c. 2.3 Ga Great Oxidation Event. Here we combine new and published geochronology that shows that the main Palaeoproterozoic carbon burial episodes (CBEs) preserved in Russia, Gabon and Australia were temporally discrete depositional events between c. 2.10 and 1.85 Ga. In northwest Russia we can also show that timing of the termination of the Lomagundi-Jatuli Event may have differed by up to 50 Ma between localities, and that Ni mineralisation occurred at c. 1920 Ma. Further, CBEs have traits in common with Mesozoic Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs); both are exceptionally organic-rich relative to encasing strata, associated with contemporaneous igneous activity and marked by organic carbon isotope profiles that exhibit a stepped decrease followed by a stabilisation period and recovery. Although CBE strata are thicker and of greater duration than OAEs (100 s of metres versus metres, ∼106 years versus ∼105 years), their shared characteristics hint at a commonality of cause(s) and feedbacks. This suggests that CBEs represent processes that can be either basin-specific or global in nature and a combination of circumstances that are not unique to the Palaeoproterozoic. Our findings urge circumspection and re-consideration of models that assume CBEs are a Deep Time singularity.

  15. Demographic and social differentiation among northern Peruvian peasants.

    PubMed

    Deere, C D; Janvry, A

    1981-01-01

    "In this paper, [the authors] apply the concepts of demographic and social differentiation to the analysis of inequality among rural households in the northern Peruvian department of Cajamarca. While [they] demonstrate that social rather than demographic differentation is the more important process in this area, [they] illustrate the complementarity of Chayanov's methodological analysis of the family life cycle with a Marxist class-theoretical framework. Both enrich the study of patterns in the agricultural sector of household labor use, family structure and composition, and income inequality." PMID:12311854

  16. The Peruvian Continental Margin: Results from wide angle seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbenhoeft, A.; Bialas, J.; Kopp, H.; Kukowski, N.; Huebscher, C.

    2003-04-01

    Within the scope of the GEOPECO (Geophysical Experiments at the Peruvian Continental Margin) project, seismic investigations along the Pacific margin of Peru were carried out using ocean bottom hydrophones (OBH) and seismometers (OBS) recording marine airgun shots. The structure and the P- wave velocity of the oblique subducting Nazca and overriding South-American Plates from 8°S to 15°S were determined by forward modeling and tomographic inversion of the wide-angle seismic data combined with the analysis of reflection seismic data. The region south of 12°S has been influenced by the southward migration of the aseismic Nazca Ridge the past 11 Ma. The oceanic Nazca Plate is divided by Mendana Fracture Zone (MFZ) which marks a transition zone of a different crustal age of approximately 28 Ma in the north to 38 Ma in the south at the Peruvian trench. North of MFZ the oceanic crust is influenced by Trujillo Trough trending N15E and the surrounding extensional stresses leading to a crustal thinning as can be seen in the northernmost refraction seismic model. The oceanic crust south of MFZ is overall homogeneous with a thin pelagic sedimentary layer and normal oceanic crustal layers. The P-wave velocity of the mantle is overall 7.9-8.1km/s. The Peruvian Continental Margin is characterized by the continental slope and several basins, Trujillo and Yaquina basin, Lima basin and Pisco basin, which are partly affected by the southward migration of the subducting Nazca Ridge. This caused uplift and subsidence along the margin leading to erosional tectonic features. The basins and continental basement could be mapped with forward modeling and tomographic inversion as well as the continental backstop on each profile. An accretionary prism is set up with a width of 20 to 30 km and 4 to 5 km thickness which does not further increase in size as revealed by the profiles recorded further north of Nazca Ridge. This and a taper of 14- 17 degrees at the collision zone indicates that

  17. Outsourcing care: how Peruvian migrants meet transnational family obligations.

    PubMed

    Leinaweaver, Jessaca B

    2010-01-01

    Migration from Peru has increased dramatically over the past decade, but the social and relational repercussions of these transnational movements have not yet been fully explored. Examination of the way migrants manage their responsibilities to dependent kin in Peru reveals that child fostering makes it possible for adults to migrate in search of better work opportunities by ensuring care for their children and company for their older relatives. For Peruvians engaging in labor migration, child fostering tempers some of the challenges of continuing to participate in established social networks from a distance. PMID:20824951

  18. The ancient shorelines of Lanai, Hawaii, revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, Barbara H.; Helsley, Charles E.

    2002-06-01

    Three ancient shorelines (the Mahana, Kaluakapo and Manele) have been described at elevations of 365, 190 and 170 m in the Kaluakapo Crater, Lanai, Hawaii [Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 237 (1978) 1]. Stearns' original observation of a fossil-bearing outcrop at 326 m was interpreted as an ancient shoreline. Subsequently, Moore and Moore (1984, 1988) [Science 226 (1984) 1312; Geol. Soc. Am., Spec. Pap. 229 (1988) 101] argued that Stearns' fossil evidence represented the highest inundation of tsunami waves associated with the collapse of the flanks of the Hawaiian Islands chain (the Giant Wave Hypothesis, GWH). Subsequently, Stearns' fossil-bearing swale site has never been observed. Geological field studies of Kaluakapo Crater were conducted to clarify the nature of the highest coral-bearing outcrops preserved on Lanai. These field studies found no support for a shoreline at 326 m. However, the field studies did document a shingle terrace with numerous coral clasts at 190-m elevation. We find in situ fossil-bearing marine deposits at 170-m elevation within Kaluakapo Crater. Furthermore, we observe: the undisturbed nature of marine deposits at 190 m, the preservation of fine-grained materials at 170 m, the absence of in situ deposits with a biological component between 200 and 365 m, the dearth of rounded boulders (lacking weathering rinds) between 200 and 365 m, and the lack of post-depositional burial of the terrace deposit (despite loose debris being present on the high ground surrounding the 190-m terrace). These observations lead us to believe that erosion by the hypothesized giant waves did not take place. Our observations are inconsistent with the "Giant Wave" tsunami inundation of the Kaluakapo Crater area. Thus, we concur with Stearns (1938, 1978) [Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 49 (1938) 615; Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 237 (1978) 1], Jones (1993) [Jones, A.T., 1993. Elevated fossil coral deposits in the Hawaiian Islands: a measure of island uplift in the Quaternary

  19. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  20. Genomes of Helicobacter pylori from native Peruvians suggest admixture of ancestral and modern lineages and reveal a western type cag-pathogenicity island

    PubMed Central

    Devi, S Manjulata; Ahmed, Irshad; Khan, Aleem A; Rahman, Syed Asad; Alvi, Ayesha; Sechi, Leonardo A; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2006-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is presumed to be co-evolved with its human host and is a highly diverse gastric pathogen at genetic levels. Ancient origins of H. pylori in the New World are still debatable. It is not clear how different waves of human migrations in South America contributed to the evolution of strain diversity of H. pylori. The objective of our 'phylogeographic' study was to gain fresh insights into these issues through mapping genetic origins of H. pylori of native Peruvians (of Amerindian ancestry) and their genomic comparison with isolates from Spain, and Japan. Results For this purpose, we attempted to dissect genetic identity of strains by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of the 7 housekeeping genes (atpA, efp, ureI, ppa, mutY, trpC, yphC) and the sequence analyses of the babB adhesin and oipA genes. The whole cag pathogenicity-island (cagPAI) from these strains was analyzed using PCR and the geographic type of cagA phosphorylation motif EPIYA was determined by gene sequencing. We observed that while European genotype (hp-Europe) predominates in native Peruvian strains, approximately 20% of these strains represent a sub-population with an Amerindian ancestry (hsp-Amerind). All of these strains however, irrespective of their ancestral affiliation harbored a complete, 'western' type cagPAI and the motifs surrounding it. This indicates a possible acquisition of cagPAI by the hsp-Amerind strains from the European strains, during decades of co-colonization. Conclusion Our observations suggest presence of ancestral H. pylori (hsp-Amerind) in Peruvian Amerindians which possibly managed to survive and compete against the Spanish strains that arrived to the New World about 500 years ago. We suggest that this might have happened after native Peruvian H. pylori strains acquired cagPAI sequences, either by new acquisition in cag-negative strains or by recombination in cag positive

  1. Dental Patterns in Peruvians: A Panoramic Radiography Study.

    PubMed

    Perez, Ivan E

    2015-12-01

    The dental pattern is defined as the combination of distinct codes assigned to describe specific tooth conditions including virgin, missing, and restored teeth that comprise the complete dentition or from discrete groups of teeth. This pattern can be then compared to the dentition of individual/s in an attempt to determine positive identification. The aims of the present investigation were to study and determine the diversity of dental patterns in Peruvian citizens based on a sample of panoramic radiographs. Digital panoramic radiographs of 900 adult Peruvian patients (450 female and 450 male) were evaluated to determine the dental patterns. The most frequent dental patterns found in the complete dentition, maxillae, upper-anterior and lower-anterior sextants were all-virgin-teeth (0.3%), all-extracted teeth (1.9%), all-virgin teeth (1%) and all-virgin-teeth (34.2% and 72.3%) respectively. The diversity was calculated by the use of the Simpson's diversity index, the resulting values for the full-dentition, maxilla and mandible were over the 99.8% value and were similar to those previously reported in the scientific literature. This study demonstrates the positive benefit of dental patterns in the process of identification. Additionally a combination of codes is proposed that could prove useful in cases where a better radiographic description is required. PMID:26851634

  2. Gnomons in Ancient China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Geng

    Gnomon shadow measurement was one of the most fundamental astronomical observations in ancient China. It was crucial for calendar making, which constituted an important aspect of imperial governance. A painted stick discovered from a prehistoric (2300 BC) astronomical site of Taosi (see Chap. 201, "Taosi Observatory", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_215") is the oldest gnomon known of China. From second century BC onward, gnomon shadow measurements have been essential part of calendrical practice. Various historical measurements are discussed in this chapter.

  3. [Sexuality in Ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Androutsos, G; Marketos, S

    1994-10-01

    The present article explores the sexuality in ancient Egypt. In particular in this article are presented the ways of concubinage (marriage, concubinage, adultery), the incest, loves of the pharaohs and of the common people, the freedom of choice in garments, the status of the hetairas and of the whores, the sexual perversions (male and female homosexuality, necrophilia, sodomism, bestiality, rape, masturbation, exhibitionism), the operations of the genitals (circumcision, excision, castration) and finally the level of knowledge in gynaecology, fertility, contraception and obstetrics that even today demands our admiration. PMID:7858632

  4. Urology in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sakti

    2007-01-01

    The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland. PMID:19675749

  5. Ancient human DNA.

    PubMed

    Kirsanow, Karola; Burger, Joachim

    2012-01-20

    The contribution of palaeogenetic data to the study of various aspects of hominin biology and evolution has been significant, and has the potential to increase substantially with the widespread implementation of next generation sequencing techniques. Here we discuss the present state-of-the-art of ancient human DNA analysis and the characteristics of hominin aDNA that make sequence validation particularly complex. A brief overview of the development of anthropological palaeogenetic analysis is given to illustrate the technical challenges motivating recent technological advancements. PMID:22169595

  6. Ancient celtic horns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Murray

    2002-11-01

    There is considerable evidence from iconographic and documentary sources that musical lip-reed instruments were important in the early celtic communities of Scotland and Ireland. In recent years several studies have been undertaken with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the musical nature of these ancient horns, and of their place in the life and culture of the time. A valuable source of tangible evidence is to be found in the archaeological remains deposited across Scotland and the whole of Ireland. A project is now under way, under the auspices of the Kilmartin House Trust and the general direction of John Purser, which has brought together an international team of musicians, craftsmen, archaeologists, musicologists and physicists with the aim of analyzing ancient musical artifacts, reconstructing some of the original instruments, and analyzing the sounds they produce. This paper describes acoustical studies carried out on a number of recent reconstructions of wooden and bronze instruments, and discusses the role of acoustics in this type of investigation. [Work supported by Sciart and EPSRC.

  7. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  8. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  9. Controls on biogenic silica burial in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Zanna; Kohfeld, Karen E.; Matsumoto, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the controls on opal export in the Southern Ocean can inform both the prediction of how the leakage of silicic acid from the Southern Ocean responds to climate and the interpretation of paleo-proxies. We have compiled a database of 185 230Thorium-normalized opal burial rates and 493 opal concentration measurements in Southern Ocean sediments and matched these with environmental climatologies. By subdividing the Southern Ocean on the basis of oceanographic regions and interpolating the opal burial rates, we estimate a total biogenic Si burial south of 40°S of 2.3 ± 1.0 Tmol Si yr-1. In both the seasonally ice-covered and permanently ice-free regions we can explain 73% of opal burial variability from surface ocean properties. Where sea ice is present for at least part of the year, the length of the ice-free season determines the upper limit of opal burial in the underlying sediments. In the ice-free regions of the Southern Ocean, the supply of silicic acid through winter mixing is the most important factor. Our results do not support a strong role of iron in controlling opal burial. We do however find that satellite-derived net primary production increases with increasing (modeled) dust delivery. These findings support the decoupling between carbon and opal fluxes in the Southern Ocean. When corrected for opal dissolution, the observed opal fluxes are in reasonable agreement with fluxes simulated using an ocean biogeochemical model. However, the results suggest current preservation algorithms for opal could be improved by incorporating the composition of particle flux, not only its magnitude.

  10. A European Mitochondrial Haplotype Identified in Ancient Phoenician Remains from Carthage, North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; Gosling, Anna L.; Boocock, James; Kardailsky, Olga; Kurumilian, Yara; Roudesli-Chebbi, Sihem; Badre, Leila; Morel, Jean-Paul; Sebaï, Leïla Ladjimi; Zalloua, Pierre A.

    2016-01-01

    While Phoenician culture and trade networks had a significant impact on Western civilizations, we know little about the Phoenicians themselves. In 1994, a Punic burial crypt was discovered on Byrsa Hill, near the entry to the National Museum of Carthage in Tunisia. Inside this crypt were the remains of a young man along with a range of burial goods, all dating to the late 6th century BCE. Here we describe the complete mitochondrial genome recovered from the Young Man of Byrsa and identify that he carried a rare European haplogroup, likely linking his maternal ancestry to Phoenician influenced locations somewhere on the North Mediterranean coast, the islands of the Mediterranean or the Iberian Peninsula. This result not only provides the first direct ancient DNA evidence of a Phoenician individual but the earliest evidence of a European mitochondrial haplogroup, U5b2c1, in North Africa. PMID:27224451

  11. A European Mitochondrial Haplotype Identified in Ancient Phoenician Remains from Carthage, North Africa.

    PubMed

    Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; Gosling, Anna L; Boocock, James; Kardailsky, Olga; Kurumilian, Yara; Roudesli-Chebbi, Sihem; Badre, Leila; Morel, Jean-Paul; Sebaï, Leïla Ladjimi; Zalloua, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    While Phoenician culture and trade networks had a significant impact on Western civilizations, we know little about the Phoenicians themselves. In 1994, a Punic burial crypt was discovered on Byrsa Hill, near the entry to the National Museum of Carthage in Tunisia. Inside this crypt were the remains of a young man along with a range of burial goods, all dating to the late 6th century BCE. Here we describe the complete mitochondrial genome recovered from the Young Man of Byrsa and identify that he carried a rare European haplogroup, likely linking his maternal ancestry to Phoenician influenced locations somewhere on the North Mediterranean coast, the islands of the Mediterranean or the Iberian Peninsula. This result not only provides the first direct ancient DNA evidence of a Phoenician individual but the earliest evidence of a European mitochondrial haplogroup, U5b2c1, in North Africa. PMID:27224451

  12. The Genetic History of Peruvian Quechua-Lamistas and Chankas: Uniparental DNA Patterns among Autochthonous Amazonian and Andean Populations.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, José R; Lacerda, Daniela R; Acosta, Oscar; Jota, Marilza S; Robles-Ruiz, Paulo; Salazar-Granara, Alberto; Vieira, Pedro Paulo R; Paz-Y-Miño, César; Fujita, Ricardo; Santos, Fabricio R

    2016-03-01

    This study focuses on the genetic history of the Quechua-Lamistas, inhabitants of the Lamas Province in the San Martin Department, Peru, who speak their own distinct variety of the Quechua family of languages. It has been suggested that different pre-Columbian ethnic groups from the Peruvian Amazonia, like the Motilones or "shaven heads", assimilated the Quechua language and then formed the current native population of Lamas. However, many Quechua-Lamistas claim to be direct descendants of the Chankas, a famous pre-Columbian indigenous group that escaped from Inca rule in the Andes. To investigate the Quechua-Lamistas and Chankas' ancestries, we compared uniparental genetic profiles (17 STRs of Q-M3 Y-chromosome and mtDNA complete control region haplotypes) among autochthonous Amazonian and Andean populations from Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador. The phylogeographic and population genetic analyses indicate a fairly heterogeneous ancestry for the Quechua-Lamistas, while they are closely related to their neighbours who speak Amazonian languages, presenting no direct relationships with populations from the region where the ancient Chankas lived. On the other hand, the genetic profiles of self-identified Chanka descendants living in Andahuaylas (located in the Apurimac Department, Peru, in the Central Andes) were closely related to those living in Huancavelica and the assumed Chanka Confederation area before the Inca expansion. PMID:26879156

  13. Communication Media in Ancient Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabusch, David M.

    Interest in early means of communication and in the uses and kinds of media that existed in ancient cultures is starting to grow among communication scholars. Conversation analysis of these cultures is obviously impossible, so that the emphasis must rest with material cultural artifacts. Many ancient cultures used non-verbal codes for dyadic…

  14. Language, Culture, and Power: Intercultural Bilingual Education among the Urarina of Peruvian Amazonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Bartholomew

    1999-01-01

    The Peruvian national indigenous federation established a bilingual, intercultural teachers' training program to counter stereotypes of indigenous people portrayed in the authoritarian, monolingual Spanish national curriculum, and to enhance language preservation, ethnic mobilization, and cultural survival. A complementary transitional bilingual…

  15. Alternatives to the burial of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J. Mark

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The approach for management of LLRW in different countries has evolved differently due to many factors such as culture and public sentiment, systems of government, public policy, and geography. There are also various methods to disposition LLRW including but not limited to: - Long term statutes and unconditional or conditional release of material, - Direct Burial, - Treatment (Processing) {yields} Burial, - Treatment {yields} Unconditional Release, - Recycle for Unconditional Release or Reuse Within Any Industry, - Controlled Recycle within Nuclear Industry. (author)

  16. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    PubMed

    Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade. PMID:25299580

  17. Tamil Merchant in Ancient Mesopotamia

    PubMed Central

    Palanichamy, Malliya gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade. PMID:25299580

  18. Characterization of Ancient Tripitaka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Y. X.; Geng, L.; Gong, D. C.

    2015-08-01

    Tripitaka is the world's most comprehensive version of Buddhist sutra. There are limited numbers of Tripitaka currently preserved, most of them present various patterns of degradation. As little is known about the materials and crafts used in Tripitaka, it appeared necessary to identify them, and to further define adapted conservation treatment. In this work, a study concerning the paper source and dyestuff of the Tripitaka from approximate 16th century was carried out using fiber analysis and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The results proved that the papers were mainly made from hemp or bark of mulberry tree, and indigo was used for colorizing the paper. At the end, we provide with suggestions for protecting and restoring the ancient Tripitaka.

  19. Ancient Chinese Sundials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Kehui

    Timekeeping was essential in the agricultural society of ancient China. The use of sundials for timekeeping was associated with the use of the gnomon, which had its origin in remote antiquity. This chapter studies three sundials (guiyi 晷仪) from the Qin and Han dynasties, the shorter shadow plane sundial (duanying ping yi 短影平仪) invented by Yuan Chong in the Sui Dynasty, and the sundial chart (guiyingtu 晷影图) invented by Zeng Minxing in the Southern Song dynasty. This chapter also introduces Guo Shoujing's hemispherical sundial (yang yi 仰仪). A circular stone sundial discovered at the Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an is also mentioned. It is dated from the Sui and Tang dynasties. A brief survey of sundials from the Qing dynasty shows various types of sundials.

  20. [Blood lead in the inhabitants of 4 Peruvian localities].

    PubMed

    Ramírez, A V; Paucar, J C; Medina, J M

    1997-05-01

    During 1994 and 1995, a cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the concentrations of lead in the blood of inhabitants of four Peruvian cities (Lima, Huancayo, La Oroya, and Yaupi) with different population densities and degrees of industrial development. In a random sample of 180 men and 180 women without occupational exposure to lead, blood lead levels were measured by the atomic absorption method with a Perkin Elmer 603 spectrophotometer without a graphite oven. The results revealed blood lead concentrations of 269 +/- 63 micrograms per liter (micrograms/L) in Lima, 224 +/- 47 micrograms/L in Huancayo; 348 +/- 40 micrograms/L in La Oroya, and 140 +/- 27 micrograms/L in Yaupi. It was concluded that blood lead levels in the inhabitants of these cities were related to the degree of industrialization and the population density of each locality. PMID:9377649

  1. Paleoindian settlement of the high-altitude Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Rademaker, Kurt; Hodgins, Gregory; Moore, Katherine; Zarrillo, Sonia; Miller, Christopher; Bromley, Gordon R M; Leach, Peter; Reid, David A; Álvarez, Willy Yépez; Sandweiss, Daniel H

    2014-10-24

    Study of human adaptation to extreme environments is important for understanding our cultural and genetic capacity for survival. The Pucuncho Basin in the southern Peruvian Andes contains the highest-altitude Pleistocene archaeological sites yet identified in the world, about 900 meters above confidently dated contemporary sites. The Pucuncho workshop site [4355 meters above sea level (masl)] includes two fishtail projectile points, which date to about 12.8 to 11.5 thousand years ago (ka). Cuncaicha rock shelter (4480 masl) has a robust, well-preserved, and well-dated occupation sequence spanning the past 12.4 thousand years (ky), with 21 dates older than 11.5 ka. Our results demonstrate that despite cold temperatures and low-oxygen conditions, hunter-gatherers colonized extreme high-altitude Andean environments in the Terminal Pleistocene, within about 2 ky of the initial entry of humans to South America. PMID:25342802

  2. The Peruvian diaspora: portrait of a migratory process.

    PubMed

    Durand, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1980s and especially the 1990s, Peru has become a nation of emigrants. Emigration has become massive over the past two decades, and the Peruvian populations of the United States, Japan, and Spain have tripled in less than a decade. A survey of households in five localities, three urban and two rural, in and around Lima helps to reveal the special character of this emigration. It tends to involve older and better-educated individuals than are typical of international migration and to target a wider variety of destinations. Moreover, it is a multiclass phenomenon. The economic, political, and social crisis brought about by a change in the economic model, two decades of terrorism, and a succession of failed democratic administrations has affected the society as a whole, and international migration seems to operate as an escape valve. PMID:20824948

  3. Compositional characterization of native Peruvian chili peppers (Capsicum spp.).

    PubMed

    Meckelmann, Sven W; Riegel, Dieter W; van Zonneveld, Maarten J; Ríos, Llermé; Peña, Karla; Ugas, Roberto; Quinonez, Lourdes; Mueller-Seitz, Erika; Petz, Michael

    2013-03-13

    The national Capsicum germplasm bank of Peru at INIA holds a unique collection of more than 700 Capsicum accessions, including many landraces. These conserved accessions have never been thoroughly characterized or evaluated. Another smaller collection exists at UNALM, and CIDRA provided taxonomically characterized fruits from the Amazon region of Ucayali. Of these collections, 147 accessions have been selected to represent the biodiversity of Peruvian Capsicum annuum , Capsicum baccatum , Capsicum chinense , and Capsicum frutescens by morphological traits as well as by agronomic characteristics and regional origin. All fruits from the selected accessions have been oven-dried and ground in Peru and analyzed in Germany. Results are reported for each accession by total capsaicinoids and capsaicinoid pattern, total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, specific flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, apigenin), fat content, vitamin C, surface color, and extractable color. A wide variability in phytochemical composition and concentration levels was found. PMID:23410113

  4. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  5. Logging concessions enable illegal logging crisis in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N; Sky, Melissa A Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms. PMID:24743552

  6. [Cytotoxicity induced by Peruvian snake venom on fibroblasts of mice].

    PubMed

    Goñi, M; Vaisberg, A; Zavaleta, A

    1992-04-01

    The cytotoxic effect of venoms from six crotalinae Peruvian snakes (Bothrops atrox; B. brazili; B. pictus; B. barnetti; Lachesis m. muta y Crotalus durissus terrificus) was studied in an in vitro system of BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts grown in Dulbecco modified minimal essential medium at 37 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2-95% air. The viability of the cells was evaluated 24 hours after the treatment with the different venoms, using the method of exclusion of trypan blue. The six venoms produced cytotoxic effects at 24 hours on the 3T3 fibroblasts. The venom from B. atrox was the most potent (DE50 = 162 ng/ml) and that from B. barnetti the least (DE50 = 7182 ng/ml). PMID:1297169

  7. Education and the community in the Peruvian educational reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malpica, Carlos

    1980-09-01

    The reform of Peruvian education initiated in 1972 was based on new concepts, postulated new policies and proposed to convert the old school system into a new educational system in accordance with the revolutionary process begun in 1968. The principles of permanent education, education in the community and the educating community inspired an ambitious educational model on a national scale, to organise community education nuclei (NECs) of a local dimension, in which a dynamic social education of a participatory and self-managerial character could be created. This process of nuclearisation, which has historical antecedents going back to the social, economic and political organisation of the Incan Empire, and was revived in the twentieth century by the creation of the famous Warisata School in Bolivia, has now undergone nine years of valuable experience in Peru, attempting to develop an efficient alternative to the old school model which originated before the Christian era. The community/education dialectic has suffered a profound change in Peru in the last ten years and the experience, whether of obstacles and limitations, appears to be valuable and irreversible. The non-statist, non-bureaucratic, non-party and non-private solution that was pursued by the Peruvian Revolution in the field of education is very attractive and could interest other countries of the region which, during the last 30 years have applied the nuclearisation model, as well as other countries in Latin America or other regions who have recently either initiated or considered it. This article presents the experience, relates it to its historical antecedents, gives some information on evaluation studies in progress and traces some perspectives or projections for educational nuclearisation.

  8. Developmental Effects Determine Submaximal Arterial Oxygen Saturation in Peruvian Quechua

    PubMed Central

    León-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera-Chira, María; Elías, Gianpietro; Brutsaert, Tom D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Kiyamu, Melisa, Fabiola León-Velarde, María Rivera-Chira, Gianpietro Elías, and Tom D. Brutsaert. Developmental effects determine submaximal arterial oxygen saturation in Peruvian Quechua. High Alt Med Biol 16, 138–146, 2015.—Andean high altitude natives show higher arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) during exercise in hypoxia, compared to acclimatized sojourners. In order to evaluate the effects of life-long exposure to high altitude on Sao2, we studied two groups of well-matched, self-identified Peruvian Quechua natives who differed in their developmental exposure to hypoxia before and after a 2-month training period. Male and female volunteers (18–35 years) were recruited in Lima, Peru (150 m). The two groups were: a) Individuals who were born and raised at sea-level (BSL, n=34) and b) Individuals who were born and raised at high altitude (BHA, n=32), but who migrated to sea-level as adults (>16 years old). Exercise testing was conducted using a submaximal exercise protocol in normobaric hypoxia in Lima (BP=750 mmHg, Fio2=0.12), in order to measure Sao2 (%), ventilation (VE L/min) and oxygen consumption (Vo2, L/min). Repeated-measures ANOVA, controlling for VE/VO2 (L/min) and sex during the submaximal protocol showed that BHA maintained higher Sao2 (%) compared to BSL at all workloads before (p=0.005) and after training (p=0.017). As expected, both groups showed a decrease in Sao2 (%) (p<0.001), as workload increased. Resting Sao2 levels were not found to be different between groups. The results suggest that developmental exposure to altitude contributes to the maintenance of higher Sao2 levels during submaximal exercise at hypoxia. PMID:25977978

  9. Developmental Effects Determine Submaximal Arterial Oxygen Saturation in Peruvian Quechua.

    PubMed

    Kiyamu, Melisa; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera-Chira, María; Elías, Gianpietro; Brutsaert, Tom D

    2015-06-01

    Kiyamu, Melisa, Fabiola León-Velarde, María Rivera-Chira, Gianpietro Elías, and Tom D. Brutsaert. Developmental effects determine submaximal arterial oxygen saturation in Peruvian Quechua. High Alt Med Biol 16, 138-146, 2015.--Andean high altitude natives show higher arterial oxygen saturation (Sao(2)) during exercise in hypoxia, compared to acclimatized sojourners. In order to evaluate the effects of life-long exposure to high altitude on Sao(2), we studied two groups of well-matched, self-identified Peruvian Quechua natives who differed in their developmental exposure to hypoxia before and after a 2-month training period. Male and female volunteers (18-35 years) were recruited in Lima, Peru (150 m). The two groups were: a) Individuals who were born and raised at sea-level (BSL, n=34) and b) Individuals who were born and raised at high altitude (BHA, n=32), but who migrated to sea-level as adults (>16 years old). Exercise testing was conducted using a submaximal exercise protocol in normobaric hypoxia in Lima (BP=750 mmHg, Fio(2)=0.12), in order to measure Sao(2) (%), ventilation (VE L/min) and oxygen consumption (Vo(2), L/min). Repeated-measures ANOVA, controlling for VE/VO(2) (L/min) and sex during the submaximal protocol showed that BHA maintained higher Sao(2) (%) compared to BSL at all workloads before (p=0.005) and after training (p=0.017). As expected, both groups showed a decrease in Sao(2) (%) (p<0.001), as workload increased. Resting Sao(2) levels were not found to be different between groups. The results suggest that developmental exposure to altitude contributes to the maintenance of higher Sao(2) levels during submaximal exercise at hypoxia. PMID:25977978

  10. Antileishmanial, antitrypanosomal, and cytotoxic screening of ethnopharmacologically selected Peruvian plants.

    PubMed

    González-Coloma, Azucena; Reina, Matías; Sáenz, Claudia; Lacret, Rodney; Ruiz-Mesia, Lastenia; Arán, Vicente J; Sanz, Jesús; Martínez-Díaz, Rafael A

    2012-04-01

    Extracts (34) from eight plant species of the Peruvian Amazonia currently used in traditional Peruvian medicine, mostly as antileishmanial remedies and also as painkiller, antiseptic, antipyretic, anti-inflamatory, antiflu, astringent, diuretic, antipoison, anticancerous, antiparasitic, insecticidal, or healing agents, have been tested for their antileishmanial, antitrypanosomal, and cytotoxic activity. Plant species were selected based on interviews conducted with residents of rural areas. The different plant parts were dried, powdered, and extracted by maceration with different solvents (hexane, chloroform, and 70% ethanol-water). These extracts were tested on promastigote forms of Leishmania infantum strain PB75, epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi strain Y, and the mammalian CHO cell line. Parasite viability and nonspecific cytotoxicity were analyzed by a modified MTT colorimetric assay method. The isolation and identification of pure compounds from selected extracts were performed by column chromatography, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS; mixtures), spectroscopic techniques [MS, infrared (IR), ultraviolet (UV)], and mono and two-dimensional (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR; COSY, HSQC, NOESY) experiments. Chondodendron tomentosum bark and Cedrela odorata were the most active extracts against Leishmania, while C. odorata and Aristoloquia pilosa were the most active against Trypanosoma, followed by Tabebuia serratifolia, Tradescantia zebrina, and Zamia ulei. Six compounds and two mixtures were isolated from Z. ulei [cycasin (1)], T. serratifolia {mixtures 1-2, and naphthoquinones 2-acetyl-4H,9H-naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione (2) and 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)-4H,9H-naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione (3)}, and C. tomentosum [chondrocurine (4); (S,S')-12-O-methyl(+)-curine (5); and cycleanine (6)]. Four compounds and the two mixtures exhibited significant activity. PMID:21922239

  11. Emerging genetic patterns of the European Neolithic: perspectives from a late Neolithic Bell Beaker burial site in Germany.

    PubMed

    Lee, Esther J; Makarewicz, Cheryl; Renneberg, Rebecca; Harder, Melanie; Krause-Kyora, Ben; Müller, Stephanie; Ostritz, Sven; Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Schreiber, Stefan; Müller, Johannes; von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Nebel, Almut

    2012-08-01

    The transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture in Europe is associated with demographic changes that may have shifted the human gene pool of the region as a result of an influx of Neolithic farmers from the Near East. However, the genetic composition of populations after the earliest Neolithic, when a diverse mosaic of societies that had been fully engaged in agriculture for some time appeared in central Europe, is poorly known. At this period during the Late Neolithic (ca. 2,800-2,000 BC), regionally distinctive burial patterns associated with two different cultural groups emerge, Bell Beaker and Corded Ware, and may reflect differences in how these societies were organized. Ancient DNA analyses of human remains from the Late Neolithic Bell Beaker site of Kromsdorf, Germany showed distinct mitochondrial haplotypes for six individuals, which were classified under the haplogroups I1, K1, T1, U2, U5, and W5, and two males were identified as belonging to the Y haplogroup R1b. In contrast to other Late Neolithic societies in Europe emphasizing maintenance of biological relatedness in mortuary contexts, the diversity of maternal haplotypes evident at Kromsdorf suggests that burial practices of Bell Beaker communities operated outside of social norms based on shared maternal lineages. Furthermore, our data, along with those from previous studies, indicate that modern U5-lineages may have received little, if any, contribution from the Mesolithic or Neolithic mitochondrial gene pool. PMID:22552938

  12. Identification of kinship and occupant status in Mongolian noble burials of the Yuan Dynasty through a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yinqiu; Song, Li; Wei, Dong; Pang, Yuhong; Wang, Ning; Ning, Chao; Li, Chunmei; Feng, Binxiao; Tang, Wentao; Li, Hongjie; Ren, Yashan; Zhang, Chunchang; Huang, Yanyi; Hu, Yaowu; Zhou, Hui

    2015-01-19

    The Yuan Dynasty (AD 1271-1368) was the first dynasty in Chinese history where a minority ethnic group (Mongols) ruled. Few cemeteries containing Mongolian nobles have been found owing to their tradition of keeping burial grounds secret and their lack of historical records. Archaeological excavations at the Shuzhuanglou site in the Hebei province of China led to the discovery of 13 skeletons in six separate tombs. The style of the artefacts and burials indicate the cemetery occupants were Mongol nobles. However, the origin, relationships and status of the chief occupant (M1m) are unclear. To shed light on the identity of the principal occupant and resolve the kin relationships between individuals, a multidisciplinary approach was adopted, combining archaeological information, stable isotope data and molecular genetic data. Analysis of autosomal, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA show that some of the occupants were related. The available evidence strongly suggests that the principal occupant may have been the Mongol noble Korguz. Our study demonstrates the power of a multidisciplinary approach in elucidating information about the inhabitants of ancient historical sites. PMID:25487330

  13. Identification of kinship and occupant status in Mongolian noble burials of the Yuan Dynasty through a multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yinqiu; Song, Li; Wei, Dong; Pang, Yuhong; Wang, Ning; Ning, Chao; Li, Chunmei; Feng, Binxiao; Tang, Wentao; Li, Hongjie; Ren, Yashan; Zhang, Chunchang; Huang, Yanyi; Hu, Yaowu; Zhou, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The Yuan Dynasty (AD 1271–1368) was the first dynasty in Chinese history where a minority ethnic group (Mongols) ruled. Few cemeteries containing Mongolian nobles have been found owing to their tradition of keeping burial grounds secret and their lack of historical records. Archaeological excavations at the Shuzhuanglou site in the Hebei province of China led to the discovery of 13 skeletons in six separate tombs. The style of the artefacts and burials indicate the cemetery occupants were Mongol nobles. However, the origin, relationships and status of the chief occupant (M1m) are unclear. To shed light on the identity of the principal occupant and resolve the kin relationships between individuals, a multidisciplinary approach was adopted, combining archaeological information, stable isotope data and molecular genetic data. Analysis of autosomal, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA show that some of the occupants were related. The available evidence strongly suggests that the principal occupant may have been the Mongol noble Korguz. Our study demonstrates the power of a multidisciplinary approach in elucidating information about the inhabitants of ancient historical sites. PMID:25487330

  14. Large increases in carbon burial in northern lakes during the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, Adam J; Anderson, N John; Prairie, Yves T; Engstrom, Daniel R; del Giorgio, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Northern forests are important ecosystems for carbon (C) cycling and lakes within them process and bury large amounts of organic-C. Current burial estimates are poorly constrained and may discount other shifts in organic-C burial driven by global change. Here we analyse a suite of northern lakes to determine trends in organic-C burial throughout the Anthropocene. We found burial rates increased significantly over the last century and are up to five times greater than previous estimates. Despite a correlation with temperature, warming alone did not explain the increase in burial, suggesting the importance of other drivers including atmospherically deposited reactive nitrogen. Upscaling mean lake burial rates for each time period to global northern forests yields up to 4.5 Pg C accumulated in the last 100 years--20% of the total burial over the Holocene. Our results indicate that lakes will become increasingly important for C burial under future global change scenarios. PMID:26607672

  15. Large increases in carbon burial in northern lakes during the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heathcote, Adam J.; Anderson, N. John; Prairie, Yves T.; Engstrom, Daniel R.; Del Giorgio, Paul A.

    2015-11-01

    Northern forests are important ecosystems for carbon (C) cycling and lakes within them process and bury large amounts of organic-C. Current burial estimates are poorly constrained and may discount other shifts in organic-C burial driven by global change. Here we analyse a suite of northern lakes to determine trends in organic-C burial throughout the Anthropocene. We found burial rates increased significantly over the last century and are up to five times greater than previous estimates. Despite a correlation with temperature, warming alone did not explain the increase in burial, suggesting the importance of other drivers including atmospherically deposited reactive nitrogen. Upscaling mean lake burial rates for each time period to global northern forests yields up to 4.5 Pg C accumulated in the last 100 years--20% of the total burial over the Holocene. Our results indicate that lakes will become increasingly important for C burial under future global change scenarios.

  16. Large increases in carbon burial in northern lakes during the Anthropocene

    PubMed Central

    Heathcote, Adam J.; Anderson, N. John; Prairie, Yves T.; Engstrom, Daniel R.; del Giorgio, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Northern forests are important ecosystems for carbon (C) cycling and lakes within them process and bury large amounts of organic-C. Current burial estimates are poorly constrained and may discount other shifts in organic-C burial driven by global change. Here we analyse a suite of northern lakes to determine trends in organic-C burial throughout the Anthropocene. We found burial rates increased significantly over the last century and are up to five times greater than previous estimates. Despite a correlation with temperature, warming alone did not explain the increase in burial, suggesting the importance of other drivers including atmospherically deposited reactive nitrogen. Upscaling mean lake burial rates for each time period to global northern forests yields up to 4.5 Pg C accumulated in the last 100 years—20% of the total burial over the Holocene. Our results indicate that lakes will become increasingly important for C burial under future global change scenarios. PMID:26607672

  17. 38 CFR 3.1704 - Burial allowance based on service-connected death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... under § 3.1709, Transportation expenses for burial in a national cemetery; and (2) VA may pay the plot or interment allowance for burial in a State veterans cemetery under § 3.1707(a), Plot or...

  18. Lead in Ancient Peru: the Curamba Smelter and Lead Sling Bullets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, William E.; Parodi, Luisa Vetter; Farfán, Armando V.; Dykstra, David

    2012-11-01

    Since the 16th century, the Inca site of Curamba, in southern Peru, has been interpreted as a metallurgical center for processing silver ore. Yet, aside from the many shallow pits, interpreted as hornos for smelting silver, there was no physical evidence for the use of huayras or tocochimbos, which were the structures traditionally used for precontact silver smelting in the ancient Andes. Geochemical analyses (inductively coupled plasma) of scoria excavated from the hornos at Curamba indicate low Ag (<0.3 ppm to 0.4 ppm), Au (<2 ppm), and Cu (18 ppm to 31 ppm) contents, whereas Pb (155 ppm to 234 ppm) and Zn (125 ppm to 259 ppm) contents were high. This suggests that nonargentiferous galena (PbS) was smelted to obtain lead. A lead-zinc signature is also indicated by the presence of As, Ba, Fe, Mn, and V, yet no ore minerals such as PbS or sphalerite [(Zn,Fe)S] have been found at the site. Several precontact lead artifacts from ancient Peru have been described as bars ( lingotes) or weights ( pesos). However, alternatively, these artifacts might be more accurately described as: (a) biconic to ovoid (30 mm to 60 mm, 30 g to 40 g) or (b) spherical (35 mm, 80 g to 160 g); therefore, in composition, dimensions, form, and weight, these ancient Peruvian lead artifacts from the north coast are strikingly similar to ancient Roman and Celtic lead sling ammunition from first-century BC battle sites, and are herein interpreted to have served a similar function in ancient Andean warfare.

  19. Organic carbon burial efficiency in a large tropical hydroelectric reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, R.; Kosten, S.; Sobek, S.; Cardoso, S. J.; Figueiredo-Barros, M. P.; Estrada, C. H. D.; Roland, F.

    2015-11-01

    Hydroelectric reservoirs bury significant amounts of organic carbon (OC) in their sediments. Many reservoirs are characterized by high sedimentation rates, low oxygen concentrations in bottom water, and a high share of terrestrially derived OC, and all of these factors have been linked to a high efficiency of OC burial. However, investigations of OC burial efficiency (OCBE, i.e. the ratio between OC buried and deposited) in reservoirs is limited to a few studies, none of which include spatially resolved analyses. In this study we determined the spatial variation in OCBE in a large tropical reservoir and related it to sediment characteristics. Our results show that the sediment accumulation rate explains up to 92 % of the spatial variability in OCBE, outweighing the effect of other variables, such as OC source and oxygen exposure time. OCBE at the pelagic sites varied from 48 to 86 % (mean 67 %) and decreased towards the dam. At the margins, OCBE was lower (9 to 17 %) due to the low sediment accumulation in shallow areas. Our data show that the variability in OCBE both along the rivers-dam and the margin-pelagic axes must be considered in whole-reservoir assessments. Combining these results with a spatially resolved assessment of sediment accumulation and OC burial in the studied reservoir, we estimated a whole-basin OC burial efficiency of 57 %. Being the first whole-basin assessment of OCBE in a reservoir, these results suggest that reservoirs may bury OC more efficiently than natural lakes.

  20. 40 CFR 229.1 - Burial at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burial at sea. 229.1 Section 229.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING GENERAL PERMITS § 229.1... materials which are readily de-com-pos-a-ble in the marine environment may be disposed of under the...

  1. Organic carbon burial efficiency in a subtropical hydroelectric reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, Raquel; Kosten, Sarian; Sobek, Sebastian; Jaqueline Cardoso, Simone; Figueiredo-Barros, Marcos Paulo; Henrique Duque Estrada, Carlos; Roland, Fábio

    2016-06-01

    Hydroelectric reservoirs bury significant amounts of organic carbon (OC) in their sediments. Many reservoirs are characterized by high sedimentation rates, low oxygen concentrations in bottom water and a high share of terrestrially derived OC, and all of these factors have been linked to a high efficiency of OC burial. However, investigations of OC burial efficiency (OCBE, i.e., the ratio between buried and deposited OC) in reservoirs are limited to a few studies, none of which include spatially resolved analyses. In this study we determined the spatial variation in OCBE in a large subtropical reservoir and related it to sediment characteristics. Our results show that the sediment accumulation rate explains up to 92 % of the spatial variability in OCBE, outweighing the effect of other variables, such as OC source and oxygen exposure time. OCBE at the pelagic sites varied from 48 to 86 % (mean 67 %) and decreased towards the dam. At the margins, OCBE was lower (9-17 %) due to the low sediment accumulation in shallow areas. Our data show that the variability in OCBE both along the rivers-dam and the margin-pelagic axes must be considered in whole-reservoir assessments. Combining these results with a spatially resolved assessment of sediment accumulation and OC burial in the studied reservoir, we estimated a spatially resolved mean OC burial efficiency of 57 %. Being the first assessment of OCBE with such a high spatial resolution in a reservoir, these results suggest that reservoirs may bury OC more efficiently than natural lakes.

  2. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    H. M. Sulloway

    2008-10-02

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground located in the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit of the 100-F Area on the Hanford Site. The trenches received waste from the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm, including animal manure, animal carcasses, laboratory waste, plastic, cardboard, metal, and concrete debris as well as a railroad tank car.

  3. Astronomy in the Ancient Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonia, Irakli; Jijelava, Badri

    This chapter discusses the role of recurrent heavenly phenomena in the formation of ancient cultural traditions. Artifacts bearing witness to astronomical and calendrical practices in the ancient Caucasus are described and we analyze the significance of the "boats of the sun" petroglyphs at Gobustan in Azerbaijan, the solar station at Abuli in Georgia, and the "sky dial" at Carahunge in Armenia. Similarities and differences between the ancient cultures of the region are discussed. Finally, we present the results of the latest field research and new facts and hypotheses.

  4. Burying Dogs in Ancient Cis-Baikal, Siberia: Temporal Trends and Relationships with Human Diet and Subsistence Practices

    PubMed Central

    Losey, Robert J.; Garvie-Lok, Sandra; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Katzenberg, M. Anne; Germonpré, Mietje; Nomokonova, Tatiana; Sablin, Mikhail V.; Goriunova, Olga I.; Berdnikova, Natalia E.; Savel’ev, Nikolai A.

    2013-01-01

    The first objective of this study is to examine temporal patterns in ancient dog burials in the Lake Baikal region of Eastern Siberia. The second objective is to determine if the practice of dog burial here can be correlated with patterns in human subsistence practices, in particular a reliance on terrestrial mammals. Direct radiocarbon dating of a suite of the region’s dog remains indicates that these animals were given burial only during periods in which human burials were common. Dog burials of any kind were most common during the Early Neolithic (∼7–8000 B.P.), and rare during all other time periods. Further, only foraging groups seem to have buried canids in this region, as pastoralist habitation sites and cemeteries generally lack dog interments, with the exception of sacrificed animals. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data indicate that dogs were only buried where and when human diets were relatively rich in aquatic foods, which here most likely included river and lake fish and Baikal seal (Phoca sibirica). Generally, human and dog diets appear to have been similar across the study subregions, and this is important for interpreting their radiocarbon dates, and comparing them to those obtained on the region’s human remains, both of which likely carry a freshwater old carbon bias. Slight offsets were observed in the isotope values of dogs and humans in our samples, particularly where both have diets rich in aquatic fauna. This may result from dietary differences between people and their dogs, perhaps due to consuming fish of different sizes, or even different tissues from the same aquatic fauna. This paper also provides a first glimpse of the DNA of ancient canids in Northeast Asia. PMID:23696851

  5. Molecular genetic analysis of 400-year-old human remains found in two Yakut burial sites.

    PubMed

    Ricaut, François-Xavier; Kolodesnikov, Sergei; Keyser-Tracqui, Christine; Alekseev, Anatoly Nikoyevich; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2006-01-01

    The excavation of five frozen graves at the Sytygane Syhe and Istekh-Myrane burial sites (dated at 400 years old) in central Yakutia revealed five human skeletons belonging to the Yakut population. To investigate the origin and evolution of the Yakut population as well as the kinship system between individuals buried in these two sites, DNA was extracted from bone samples and analyzed by autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) and by sequencing hypervariable region I (HV1) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. The results showed a diversity of sepulchral organizations linked probably to the social or genetic background of the subjects. Comparison of STR profiles, mitochondrial haplotypes, and haplogroups with data from Eurasian populations indicated affinities with Asian populations and suggested a relative specificity and continuity of part of the Yakut mitochondrial gene pool during the last five centuries. Moreover, our results did not support a Central Asian (with the exception of maternal lineage of West Eurasian origin) or Siberian origin of the maternal lineages of these ancient Yakut subjects, implying an ethnogenesis of the Yakut population probably more complex than previously proposed. PMID:16229028

  6. Widespread mixing and burial of Earth's Hadean crust by asteroid impacts.

    PubMed

    Marchi, S; Bottke, W F; Elkins-Tanton, L T; Bierhaus, M; Wuennemann, K; Morbidelli, A; Kring, D A

    2014-07-31

    The history of the Hadean Earth (∼4.0-4.5 billion years ago) is poorly understood because few known rocks are older than ∼3.8 billion years old. The main constraints from this era come from ancient submillimetre zircon grains. Some of these zircons date back to ∼4.4 billion years ago when the Moon, and presumably the Earth, was being pummelled by an enormous flux of extraterrestrial bodies. The magnitude and exact timing of these early terrestrial impacts, and their effects on crustal growth and evolution, are unknown. Here we provide a new bombardment model of the Hadean Earth that has been calibrated using existing lunar and terrestrial data. We find that the surface of the Hadean Earth was widely reprocessed by impacts through mixing and burial by impact-generated melt. This model may explain the age distribution of Hadean zircons and the absence of early terrestrial rocks. Existing oceans would have repeatedly boiled away into steam atmospheres as a result of large collisions as late as about 4 billion years ago. PMID:25079556

  7. 76 FR 61148 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for United States Flag for Burial Purposes) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for United States Flag for Burial Purposes) Activity... comments on the information needed to determine eligibility for issuance of a burial flag for a deceased... information technology. Title: Application for United States Flag for Burial Purposes, VA Form 21-2008....

  8. 38 CFR 3.1600 - Payment of burial expenses of deceased veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Payment of burial expenses of deceased veterans. 3.1600 Section 3.1600 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1600 Payment of burial expenses of deceased veterans....

  9. Ancient Astronomy in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemenko, Tatyana G.; Vavilova, Iryna B.

    2007-08-01

    Astronomical culture and research have long-standing traditions in Ukraine. The first signs of astronomical knowledge were found in archaeological excavations and records. The most ancient find (dated as 15,000 B.C.) is a mammoth tusk with a fretwork image of a table of lunar phases found in the Poltava region. The so-called Trypillya culture (dated 4,000 - 3,000 B.C) had numerous examples of ornaments at the howls, distaffs, wheels and other everyday articles with symbolic images of zodiac constellations, and vessel-calendars indicating the vernal/autumnal equinoxes and the motion of the Sun. Some of such unique exhibits stored at the National Museum of History of Ukraine will be described in details in this paper. For example, the vessel calendar dating by IV century of our era (from village Romashki, Kyiv region). This image was interpreted by B. Rybakov as an agricultural calendar from May to August (time of harvesting). Most of exhibits of Museum were founded by archaeologist Vikenty Khvoyko and presented by him to Museum in 1905. Description and pictures of vessels and cups from Chernyahiv, Trypillya IV century B.C. with the Solar signs and tusk of the mammoth from Kyrilovska parking with notches interpreted as a calendar as well as tree-storied pictures of vessel from Trypillya interpreted as a “vertical cross section of the world” in dynamics will be also given. Another unique historical record relates to the times of the powerful state of the Kievan Rus' (X- XIII centuries), when astronomical observations were conducted mainly in cloisters. For example, the authors of the Lavrentievska chronicle describe the solar eclipses of the years 1064, 1091, and 1115 A.D. and the lunar eclipses of 1161 A.D. At that times some natural cataclysms have been connected with eclipses that, for example, was described in “The Word about Igor's shelf” by Nestor Letopisec. Thus, facts discussed in paper pointed out once more that astronomy is one of the most ancient

  10. [Ancient Egyptian Odontology].

    PubMed

    Berghult, B

    1999-01-01

    In ancient Egypt during the reign of Pharaoh Djoser, circa 2650 BC, the Step Pyramid was constructed by Imhotep. He was later worshiped as the God of Medicine. One of his contemporaries was the powerful writer Hesy who is reproduced on a panel showing a rebus of a swallow, a tusk and an arrow. He is therefore looked upon as being the first depicted odontologist. The art of writing begun in Egypt in about 3100 BC and the medical texts we know from different papyri were copied with hieratic signs around 1900-1100 BC. One of the most famous is the Papyrus Ebers. It was purchased by professor Ebers on a research travel to Luxor in 1873. Two years later a beautiful facsimile in color was published and the best translation came in 1958 in German. The text includes 870 remedies and some of them are related to teeth and oral troubles like pain in the mouth, gingivitis, periodontitis and cavities in the teeth. The most common oral pain was probably pulpitis caused by extreme attrition due to the high consumption of bread contaminated with soil and/or quern minerals. Another text is the Papyrus Edwin Smith with four surgical cases of dental interest. The "toothworms" that were presumed to bring about decayed teeth have not been identified in the medical texts. It was not until 1889 W.D. Miller presented a scientific explanation that cavities were caused by bacteria. In spite of extensive research only a few evidence of prosthetic and invasive treatments have been found and these dental artifacts have probably been made post mortem. Some of the 150 identified doctors were associated with treatments of disorders of the mouth. The stele of Seneb from Sa'is during the 26th dynasty of Psamtik, 664-525 BC, shows a young man who probably was a dental healer well known to Pharaoh and his court. Clement of Alexandria mentions circa 200 AD that the written knowledge of the old Egyptians was gathered in 42 collections of papyri. Number 37-42 contained the medical writings. The

  11. Finding ancient parasite larvae in a sample from a male living in late 17th century Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, D H; Chai, J Y; Park, E A; Lee, W; Lee, H; Lee, J S; Choi, Y M; Koh, B J; Park, J B; Oh, C S; Bok, G D; Kim, W L; Lee, E; Lee, E J; Seo, M

    2009-06-01

    Parasitological examination of samples from tombs of the Korean Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) could be helpful to researchers in understanding parasitic infection prevalence in pre-industrial Korean society. Whereas most of our previous parasitological studies revealed the presence of ancient parasite eggs in coprolites of Korean mummies, a sample from a man living in late 17th century Korea proved to be relatively unique in possessing what appeared to be several species of parasite larvae. The larvae identified included Strongyloides stercoralis and Trichostrongylus spp., along with eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Paragonimus westermani. Since ancient parasite larvae retain enough morphology to make proper species identification possible, even after long burial times, the examination of parasite larvae within ancient samples will be conducted more carefully in our future work. PMID:19071966

  12. Ancient Astronomical Monuments of Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.

    2010-07-01

    In this work, four ancient monuments of astronomical significance found in Athens and still kept in the same city in good condition are presented. The first one is the conical sundial on the southern slope of the Acropolis. The second one is the Tower of the Winds and its vertical sundials in the Roman Forum of Athens, a small octagonal marble tower with sundials on all 8 of its sides, plus a water-clock inside the tower. The third monument-instrument is the ancient clepsydra of Athens, one of the findings from the Ancient Agora of Athens, a unique water-clock dated from 400 B.C. Finally, the fourth one is the carved ancient Athenian calendar over the main entrance of the small Byzantine temple of the 8th Century, St. Eleftherios, located to the south of the temple of the Annunciation of Virgin Mary, the modern Cathedral of the city of Athens.

  13. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonia, I.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  14. Hunting for Ancient Rocky Shores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Markes E.

    1988-01-01

    Promotes the study of ancient rocky shores by showing how they can be recognized and what directions future research may follow. A bibliography of previous research articles, arranged by geologic period, is provided in the appendix to this paper. (CW)

  15. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum): (I) Phytochemical and Genetic Differences in Three Maca Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Henry O; Mscisz, Alina; Mrozikiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Baraniak, Marek; Mielcarek, Sebastian; Kedzia, Bogdan; Piatkowska, Ewa; Jólkowska, Justyna; Pisulewski, Pawel

    2015-09-01

    Glucosinolates were previously reported as physiologically-important constituents present in Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon) and linked to various therapeutic functions of differently-colored Peruvian Maca hypocotyls. In two separate Trials, three colours of Maca hypocotyls "Black", "Red" and "Yellow" (termed "Maca phenotypes"), were selected from mixed crops of Peruvian Maca for laboratory studies as fresh and after being dried. Individual Maca phenotypes were cultivated in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes at 4,200m a.s.l. (Junin and Ninacaca). Glucosinolate levels, chromatographic HPLC profiles and DNA variability in the investigated Maca phenotypes are presented. Genotypic profiles were determined by the ISSR-PCR and RAPD techniques. Compared to the Black and Red phenotypes, the Yellow phenotype contained much lower Glucosinolate levels measured against Glucotropaeolin and m-methoxy-glucotropaeolin standards, and exhibited different RAPD and ISSR-PCR reactions. The Red Maca phenotype showed the highest concentrations of Glucosinolates as compared to the Black and Yellow Maca. It appears that the traditional system used by natives of the Peruvian Andean highlands in preparing Maca as a vegetable dish (boiling dried Maca after soaking in water), to supplement their daily meals, is as effective as laboratory methods - for extracting Glucosinolates, which are considered to be one of the key bioactive constituents responsible for therapeutic functions of Peruvian Maca phenotypes. It is reasonable to assume that the HPLC and DNA techniques combined, or separately, may assist in determining ID and "Fingerprints" identifying individual Peruvian Maca phenotypes, hence confirming the authenticity of marketable Maca products. The above assumptions warrant further laboratory testing. PMID:26508907

  16. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum): (I) Phytochemical and Genetic Differences in Three Maca Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, Henry O.; Mscisz, Alina; Mrozikiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Baraniak, Marek; Mielcarek, Sebastian; Kedzia, Bogdan; Piatkowska, Ewa; Jólkowska, Justyna; Pisulewski, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates were previously reported as physiologically-important constituents present in Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon) and linked to various therapeutic functions of differently-colored Peruvian Maca hypocotyls. In two separate Trials, three colours of Maca hypocotyls “Black”, “Red” and “Yellow” (termed “Maca phenotypes”), were selected from mixed crops of Peruvian Maca for laboratory studies as fresh and after being dried. Individual Maca phenotypes were cultivated in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes at 4,200m a.s.l. (Junin and Ninacaca). Glucosinolate levels, chromatographic HPLC profiles and DNA variability in the investigated Maca phenotypes are presented. Genotypic profiles were determined by the ISSR-PCR and RAPD techniques. Compared to the Black and Red phenotypes, the Yellow phenotype contained much lower Glucosinolate levels measured against Glucotropaeolin and m-methoxy-glucotropaeolin standards, and exhibited different RAPD and ISSR-PCR reactions. The Red Maca phenotype showed the highest concentrations of Glucosinolates as compared to the Black and Yellow Maca. It appears that the traditional system used by natives of the Peruvian Andean highlands in preparing Maca as a vegetable dish (boiling dried Maca after soaking in water), to supplement their daily meals, is as effective as laboratory methods - for extracting Glucosinolates, which are considered to be one of the key bioactive constituents responsible for therapeutic functions of Peruvian Maca phenotypes. It is reasonable to assume that the HPLC and DNA techniques combined, or separately, may assist in determining ID and “Fingerprints” identifying individual Peruvian Maca phenotypes, hence confirming the authenticity of marketable Maca products. The above assumptions warrant further laboratory testing. PMID:26508907

  17. Ancient lakes on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldspiel, J. M.; Squyres, S. W.

    1989-01-01

    The valley systems in Mars' ancient cratered terrain provide strong evidence for a warmer and wetter climate very early in planetary history. The valley systems in some instances debouch into closed depressions that could have acted as local ponding basins for the flow. A survey of the Martian equatorial region shows that numerous local depressions at the confluence of valley systems exist. These depressions (approximately 100 km) typically are characterized by many valleys flowing into them and few or none flowing out. If ponding did take place, these basin would have contained lakes for some period during Mars' early warmer epoch. Although the collection basins are numerous, location of ones that have not suffered significant subsequent geologic modification is difficult. Some morphologic features suggest that volcanic lavas may have filled them subsequent to any early fluvial activity. Two detailed maps of valley systems and local ponding basins in USGC 1:2,000,000 subquadrangles were completed and a third is in progress. The completed regions are in Mare Tyrrhenum (MC-22 SW) and Margarifter Sinus (MC-19 SE), and the region in progress is in Iapygia (MC-21 NW). On the maps, the valley systems and interpreted margins of ponding basins are indicated. The depressions are of interest for two reasons. First, the depressions were surely the sites in which the materials eroded from the valleys were deposited. Such sediments could preserve important information about the physical conditions at the time of deposition. Second, the sediments could preserve evidence of water-atmosphere interactions during the early period of the Martian climate. Atmospheric carbon dioxide would dissolve in water, and solid carbonate minerals would tend to precipitate out to form carbonate sedimentary deposits. Formation of carbonates in this manner might account for some of the CO2 lost from the early more dense atmosphere.

  18. Molecular characterization of an earliest cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) collection from Peruvian Amazon using microsatllite DNA markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is indigenous to the Amazon region of South America. The Peruvian Amazon harbors a large number of diverse cacao populations. Since the 1930s, several numbers of populations have been collected from the Peruvian Amazon and maintained as ex situ germplasm repositories in ...

  19. Two contemporaneous mitogenomes from terminal Pleistocene burials in eastern Beringia

    PubMed Central

    Tackney, Justin C.; Potter, Ben A.; Raff, Jennifer; Powers, Michael; Watkins, W. Scott; Warner, Derek; Reuther, Joshua D.; Irish, Joel D.; O’Rourke, Dennis H.

    2015-01-01

    Pleistocene residential sites with multiple contemporaneous human burials are extremely rare in the Americas. We report mitochondrial genomic variation in the first multiple mitochondrial genomes from a single prehistoric population: two infant burials (USR1 and USR2) from a common interment at the Upward Sun River Site in central Alaska dating to ∼11,500 cal B.P. Using a targeted capture method and next-generation sequencing, we determined that the USR1 infant possessed variants that define mitochondrial lineage C1b, whereas the USR2 genome falls at the root of lineage B2, allowing us to refine younger coalescence age estimates for these two clades. C1b and B2 are rare to absent in modern populations of northern North America. Documentation of these lineages at this location in the Late Pleistocene provides evidence for the extent of mitochondrial diversity in early Beringian populations, which supports the expectations of the Beringian Standstill Model. PMID:26504230

  20. Evaluation of local structure alphabets based on residue burial.

    PubMed

    Karchin, Rachel; Cline, Melissa; Karplus, Kevin

    2004-05-15

    Residue burial, which describes a protein residue's exposure to solvent and neighboring atoms, is key to protein structure prediction, modeling, and analysis. We assessed 21 alphabets representing residue burial, according to their predictability from amino acid sequence, conservation in structural alignments, and utility in one fold-recognition scenario. This follows upon our previous work in assessing nine representations of backbone geometry.1 The alphabet found to be most effective overall has seven states and is based on a count of C(beta) atoms within a 14 A-radius sphere centered at the C(beta) of a residue of interest. When incorporated into a hidden Markov model (HMM), this alphabet gave us a 38% performance boost in fold recognition and 23% in alignment quality. PMID:15103615

  1. Preliminary report on a glass burial experiment in granite

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.E.; Zhu, B.F.; Robinson, R.S.; Wicks, G.G.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary results of a two-year burial experiment in granite are discussed. Three compositions of simulated alkali borosilicate waste glasses were placed in boreholes approximately 350 meters deep. The glass sample configurations include mini-cans (stainless steel rings into which glass has been cast) and pineapple slices (thin sections from cylindrical blocks). Assemblies of these glass samples were prepared by stacking them together with granite, compacted bentonite and metal rings to provide several types of interfaces that are expected to occur in the repository. The assemblies were maintained at either ambient mine temperature (8 to 10/sup 0/C) or 90/sup 0/C. The glasses were analyzed before burial and after one month storage at 90/sup 0/C. The most extensive surface degradation occurred on the glasses interfaced with bentonite. In general, very little attack was observed on glass surfaces in contact with the other materials. The limited field and laboratory data are compared.

  2. Solid Waste Burial Grounds/Central Waste Complex hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-09-30

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for Solid Waste Burial Grounds/Central Waste Complex on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is documented.

  3. Enhanced Site Characterization of the 618-4 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Christopher J.; Last, George V.; Chien, Yi-Ju

    2001-09-25

    This report describes the results obtained from deployment of the Enhanced Site Characterization System (ESCS) at the Hanford Site's 618-4 Burial Ground. The objective of this deployment was to use advanced geostatistical methods to integrate and interpret geophysical and ground truth data, to map the physical types of waste materials present in unexcavated portions of the burial ground. One issue of particularly interest was the number of drums (containing depleted uranium metal shavings or uranium-oxide powder) remaining in the burial ground and still requiring removal.Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (ART), a neural network classification method, was used to cluster the study area into 3 classes based on their geophysical signatures. Multivariate statistical analyses and discriminant function analysis (DFA) indicated that the drum area as well as a second area (the SW anomaly) had similar geophysical signatures that were different from the rest of the burial ground. Further analysis of the drum area suggested that as many as 770 drums to 850 drums may remain in that area. Similarities between the geophysical signatures of the drum area and the SW anomaly suggested that excavation of the SW anomaly area also proceed with caution.Deployment of the ESCS technology was successful in integrating multiple geophysical variables and grouping these observations into clusters that are relevant for planning further excavation of the buried ground. However, the success of the technology could not be fully evaluated because reliable ground truth data were not available to enable calibration of the different geophysical signatures against actual waste types.

  4. Plant Sensitivity to Burial and Coastal Foredune Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, E. B.; Moore, L. J.; deVries, E.; Jass, T. L.; Duran Vinent, O.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal dunes arise from a feedback between plant growth and aeolian sediment transport. Dune plants are uniquely adapted to the harsh coastal environment, and are able to tolerate high temperature, drought, salt spray, and burial by sand. Accurate modeling of coastal dunes relies on understanding how coastal plants respond to these stresses, and how the dune building feedback is modified as a result. We use two years of data from an experimental planting on Hog Island, VA, USA to parameterize a logistic growth model that explicitly includes the effects of plant burial on three species of common dune plants on the US East Coast: Spartina patens, Ammophila breviligulata, and Uniola paniculata. We couple this new plant growth model to the Coastal Dune Model of Durán and Moore (2013). Using this enhanced model we explore the consequences of plant sensitivity to burial on coastal dune growth. These results will add to the growing literature on coupled vegetation and sand transport models, specifically the modeling of coastal dunes.

  5. Undulation frequency affects burial performance in living and model flatfishes.

    PubMed

    McKee, Amberle; MacDonald, Ian; Farina, Stacy C; Summers, Adam P

    2016-04-01

    Flatfishes bury themselves under a thin layer of sand to hide from predators or to ambush prey. We investigated the role of undulation frequency of the body in burial in five species of flatfishes (Isopsetta isolepis, Lepidopsetta bilineata, Hippoglossoides elassodon, Parophrys vetulus, and Psettichthys melanostictus). High-speed videos show that undulations begin cranially and pass caudally while burying, as in forward swimming in many other fishes. The flatfishes also flick the posterior edge of their dorsal and anal fins during burial, which may increase the total surface area covered by substrate. We built a simple physical model - a flexible, oval silicone plate with a motorized, variable-speed actuator - to isolate the effect of undulation frequency on burial. In both the model and actuated dead flatfish, increased undulation frequency resulted in an increase in the area of sand coverage. Complete coverage required an undulation frequency of no more than 10Hz for our models, and that was also sufficient for live flatfishes. The model shows that undulation is sufficient to bury the animal, but live flatfishes showed a superior ability to bury, which we attribute to the action of the median fins. PMID:26763759

  6. Self-burial mechanics of hygroscopically responsive awns.

    PubMed

    Jung, Wonjong; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young

    2014-12-01

    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the mechanics of self-burial of some plant seeds whose morphologies respond to environmental changes in humidity. The seeds of Erodium and Pelargonium have hygroscopically responsive awns that play a critical role in their self-burial into soil. The awn, coiled in a dry state, uncoils to stretch linearly under highly humid condition because of a tilted arrangement of cellulose microfibrils in one of the layers of the awn's bilayered structure. By measuring the mechanical characteristics of the awns of Pelargonium carnosum, we find that the extensional force of the awn can be aptly modeled by the theory of elasticity for a coiled spring. We further show that although the resistance to the seed-head penetrating relatively coarse soils without spinning is large enough to block the digging seed, the rotation of the seed greatly reduces the soil's resistance down to a level the awn can easily overcome. Our mechanical analysis reveals that the self-burial of the seed is a sophisticated outcome of the helically coiled configuration of the awn. PMID:24760793

  7. Self-burial mechanics of hygroscopically active awns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Wonjong; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young

    2013-11-01

    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the mechanics of self-burial of some plant seeds whose morphologies respond to humidity change of the surroundings. The seeds of Pelargonium species have hygroscopically active awns that play a critical role in the dispersal from the parent plant and burial in soil. While the awn uncoils to a linear shape in a highly humid condition, it recoils to a helical shape when dry. The rotation is driven by the structure of the cell walls that are comprised of cellulose microfibers aligned in a tilted helix. During uncoiling of the awn, the revolving tail generates thrust to burrow into soil, so that the seed is self-buried. We present the direct observation of the self-burial of the seed with the thrust into a soft substrate being measured at the same time. The elastica theory allows us to rationalize this botanical digging mechanics using the structural deformations of the hygroexpansive tissues. This work was supported by the Sogang University Research Grant of 2013 (201310009.01) and the National Research Foundation of Korea (grant no. 2012-008023).

  8. Ground resistance influences lizard burial in dry and wet sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Sarah; Kuckuk, Robyn; Goldman, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Many terrestrial animals move within soil in which water content can vary, and little is known about how water content affects locomotor performance. To investigate the effect of water content on burial, we created controlled dry and wet substrates. We used 0.3 mm glass particles and varied water content W, the mass of water to mass of dry loosely packed sand. Drag force on a submerged 1.6 cm diameter rod increased by a factor of 4 as W increased from 0 to 0.03, after which force increases were small. Drag force in wet media periodically fluctuated with time and corresponded with surface fracturing. We characterized how W affected burial performance and strategy of a generalist burrower, the ocellated skink lizard (Chalcides ocellatus). High speed x-ray imaging was used to measure head, body and limb kinematics in substrates with W= 0 and W= 0.03. In both states during burial the body was maintained in a curved posture and the animal moved using a start-stop motion. During movement, the head oscillated and the forelimb on the convex side of the body was used to push the animal forward. Both speed and angular excursion of the head oscillation decreased in the W= 0.03 state. The differences in locomotion were attributed to the changing resistance force within the media.

  9. Model Results For The 23 June, 2001 Peruvian Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, V.; Borrero, J.; Koshimura, S.; Ortiz, M.

    Tsunami generated by the June 23, 2001 Peruvian earthquake devastated Peru- vian coast near the epicenter and was recorded throughout Pacific by coastal tide-gages. This widespread impact motivated modeling efforts to produce re- alistic tsunami simulation of this event. Preliminary results were produced by the TIME center using two resident numerical models, TUNAMI-2 and MOST. Both models were used to produce preliminary simulation shortly after the earthquake, and first results were posted on the Internet a day after the event (http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tsunami/peru_pmel.html). These numerical results aimed to quantify the magnitude of the tsunami and, to certain extend, to guide the post- tsunami survey. The first simulations have been revised using new data about the seis- mic source and the results of the post-tsunami survey by the International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST). We use the ITST measurements in heavily damaged Camana area to constrain our inundation model. Measured water-level data along the topo- graphic transects is used to constrain the inundation model. Preliminary numerical analysis of tsunami inundation will be presented.

  10. Preliminary Simulation Results of the 23 June, 2001 Peruvian Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, V. V.; Koshimura, S.; Ortiz, M.; Borrero, J.

    2001-12-01

    The tsunami generated by the June 23, 2001 Peruvian earthquake devastated a 50--km section of coast near the earthquake epicenter and was recorded on tide-gages throughout the Pacific. The coastal town of Camana sustained the most damage with tsunami waves penetrating up to 1--km inland and runup exceeding 5--m. The extreme local effects and widespread impact motivated modeling efforts to produce a realistic tsunami simulation of this event. Preliminary results were produced by the TIME center using two resident numerical models, TUNAMI--2 and MOST. Both models were used to produce preliminary simulations shortly after the earthquake, and first results were posted on the Internet a day after the event (http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tsunami/peru_pmel.html). These numerical results aimed to quantify the magnitude of the tsunami and, to certain extent, to guide the post-tsunami survey. The first simulations have been revised using new data about the seismic source and the results of the post-tsunami survey. Measured inundation distances, flow depths, and runup along topographic transects are used to constrain the inundation model. Preliminary numerical analysis of tsunami inundation will be presented.

  11. [Outbreak of paratyphoid fever among Peruvian naval personnel].

    PubMed

    Pazzaglia, G; Wignall, F S; Batchelor, R; Alexander, W; Vargas Alfaro, L; Zavaleta, A

    1992-05-01

    A retrospective epidemiological study was conducted in connection with an outbreak of paratyphoid fever at a Peruvian naval installation in Callao. The study sought to determine the magnitude of the outbreak, the source of infection, the attack rates, the persistence of bacilli excretion, and the clinical picture of the disease. The source of Salmonella paratyphi B infection had been a meal of chicken and rice served to around 400 members of the naval police. Over a period of three weeks, 21 persons were hospitalized and 52 received outpatient treatment at the naval hospital. In addition, through a questionnaire it was revealed that 86 unreported cases of diarrhea related to the outbreak had occurred. The most common clinical manifestations were fever, headache, weakness, anorexia, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. The general attack rate was 39.8%. In a follow-up survey carried out 37 days after exposure, fecal cultures indicated that 8.5% of the persons affected continued to excrete the microorganism. The high rates of attack and transmission of S. paratyphi B in this outbreak point up the considerable pathogenicity and virulence of some strains of the microorganism and their impact on public health. It is suggested that preventive measures be taken at naval and other similar installations, including the education of workers who handle and prepare food, in order to ensure proper hygiene. PMID:1610504

  12. Epidemiology of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in a Peruvian Village

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, F.; Garcia, H. H.; Gilman, R. H.; Gonzales, A. E.; Castro, M.; Tsang, V. C. W.; Pilcher, J. B.; Vasquez, L. E.; Lescano, M.; Carcamo, C.; Madico, G.; Miranda, E.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of cysticercosis in a rural area where the disease is endemic, the authors studied the seroepidemiology of human and porcine cysticercosis in a Peruvian jungle community (Maceda, Peru) in 1988 using an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. Of the 371 sampled inhabitants, 30 (8%) were seropositive, most of whom were asymptomatic. After niclosamide therapy, four Taenia species worms were identified in the seropositive group, compared with one in the control group (p = 0.06). Pigs were frequently infected: 44 of 133 (33%) were found positive for Taenia by tongue examination and 57 of 133 (43%) were positive by EITB. In 69% of the sampled households that had pigs, there was at least one seropositive pig. The number of pigs diagnosed positive by the tongue examination was significantly greater in households that had latrines than in those that did not. Cysticercosis is a common but usually asymptomatic infection that affects both humans and pigs in the high jungle areas of Peru. PMID:1585900

  13. Subsistence economy of el paraiso, an early peruvian site.

    PubMed

    Quilter, J; E, B O; Pearsall, D M; Sandweiss, D H; Jones, J G; Wing, E S

    1991-01-18

    Studies of food remains from the Preceramic monumental site of E1 Paraíso, Peru (1800 to 1500 B.C.), have shed new light on a debate regarding the relative importance of seafood versus terrestrial resources and the role of cultigens in subsistence economies during the early development of Peruvian civilization. Fish was the primary animal food at the site whereas plant foods consisted of a mixture of cultivated resources (squashes, beans, peppers, and jicama) with an additional reliance on fruits (guava, lucuma, and pacae). Wild plants, especially the roots of sedges and cat-tail, also may have accounted for a substantial part of the diet. Cotton was a chief crop, used in making fishing tackle and the textiles that served as clothing and items of high value and status. As an example of the beginnings of civilization, El Paraíso is a case in which impressive architecture was built on a relatively simple subsistence economy and energy was expended in the production of resources useful in local and regional exchange systems. PMID:17733284

  14. Reproduction and population levels of Peruvian Guano Birds, 1980 to 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovar, H.; GuilléN, V.; Cabrera, D.

    1987-12-01

    The three species of guano birds, guanay cormorant (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii), Peruvian booby (Sula variegate), and Peruvian pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis thagus), depend mainly on the Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens) for sustenance. A naturally occurring limitation on the population size of these birds is the oceanographic phenomenon known as "El Niño". The industrialization of the anchovy fishery during the 1960s and 1970s has also affected seabird populations: The annual extraction of huge volumes offish has decreased the availability of food for the guano birds, causing large population fluctuations and considerable changes in the relative abundance of the birds. Because of its great intensity and duration, the 1982-1983 El Niño caused high avian mortality, depressing populations to levels from which they have not yet recovered.

  15. Multibeam observations of mine burial near Clearwater, FL, including comparisons to predictions of wave-induced burial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfson, M.L.; Naar, D.F.; Howd, P.A.; Locker, S.D.; Donahue, B.T.; Friedrichs, Carl T.; Trembanis, A.C.; Richardson, M.D.; Wever, T.F.

    2007-01-01

    A Kongsberg Simrad EM 3000 multibeam sonar (Kongsberg Simrad, Kongsberg, Norway) was used to conduct a set of six repeat high-resolution bathymetric surveys west of Indian Rocks Beach (IRB), just to the south of Clearwater, FL, between January and March 2003, to observe in situ scour and burial of instrumented inert mines and mine-like cylinders. Three closely located study sites were chosen: two fine-sand sites, a shallow one located in ??? 13 m of water depth and a deep site located in ???14 m of water depth; and a coarse-sand site in ???13 m. Results from these surveys indicate that mines deployed in fine sand are nearly buried within two months of deployment (i.e., they sunk 74.5% or more below the ambient seafloor depth). Mines deployed in coarse sand showed a lesser amount of scour, burying until they present roughly the same hydrodynamic roughness as the surrounding rippled bedforms. These data were also used to test the validity of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS, Gloucester Point, VA) 2-D burial model. The model worked well in areas of fine sand, sufficiently predicting burial over the course of the experiment. In the area of coarse sand, the model greatly overpredicted the amount of burial. This is believed to be due to the presence of rippled bedforms around the mines, which affect local bottom morphodynamics and are not accounted for in the model, an issue currently being addressed by the modelers. This paper focuses specifically on two instrumented mines: an acoustic mine located in fine sand and an optical instrumented mine located in coarse sand. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  16. Neonatal medicine in ancient art.

    PubMed

    Yurdakök, Murat

    2010-01-01

    There are a limited number of artistic objects from ancient times with particular importance in neonatal medicine. The best examples are figurines from ancient Egypt of Isis nursing Horus, showing the importance of breastfeeding. The earliest images of the human fetus were made by the Olmecs in Mexico around 1200- 400 BCE. One of the earliest representations of congenital anomalies is a figurine of diencephalic twins thought to be the goddess of Anatolia, dated to around 6500 BCE. In addition to these figurines, three sets of twins in the ancient world have medical importance, and Renaissance artists often used them as a subject for their paintings: "direct suckling animals" (Romulus and Remus), "heteropaternal superfecundation" (mother: Leda, fathers: Zeus, the king of the Olympian gods, and Leda's husband, Tyndareus), and "twin-to-twin transfusion" in monozygotic twins (Jacob and Esau). PMID:20560265

  17. Ancient "Observatories" - A Relevant Concept?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    It is quite common, when reading popular books on astronomy, to see a place referred to as "the oldest observatory in the world". In addition, numerous books on archaeoastronomy, of various levels of quality, frequently refer to the existence of "prehistoric" or "ancient" observatories when describing or citing monuments that were certainly not built with the primary purpose of observing the skies. Internet sources are also guilty of this practice. In this chapter, the different meanings of the word observatory will be analyzed, looking at how their significances can be easily confused or even interchanged. The proclaimed "ancient observatories" are a typical result of this situation. Finally, the relevance of the concept of the ancient observatory will be evaluated.

  18. Understanding Malaria: Fighting an Ancient Scourge

    MedlinePlus

    ... is derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. The Spanish learned about quinine from Peruvian Indians in the 1600s. Export of quinine to Europe, and later the United States, was a lucrative business until World War II cut off access to the world ...

  19. Burial Duration and Frequency Influences Resilience of Differing Propagule Types in a Subtidal Seagrass, Posidonia australis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Sedimentation that leads to periodic, and often prolonged, burial events is becoming more common on the world’s coastlines as human populations expand and create urbanised marine environments. Different seagrass species react differently to sediment burial but many species in the southern hemisphere are yet to be examined. How seagrasses react to burial has restoration implications. There is a need to critically assess seagrass transplant propagule responses to periodic (pulse) and prolonged (press) burial events before selecting the most appropriate species, transplant propagule, and transplant site. In my study, mesocosm experiments, coupled with field measurements were used to assess how sexual (seedlings) and vegetative (sprigs) propagules of Posidonia australis responded to pulse and press burial events. Seedlings were highly susceptible to burial (both pulse and press), with no survival at the end of the experimental period. In contrast, rhizome growth in vegetative propagules was stimulated by pulse burial, although press burial events resulted in mortality. The implication for Posidonia australis restoration efforts in areas where burial is periodic, was that vegetative propagules are optimal transplant units, in comparison to seedlings. Press burial however, renders a transplant site sub-optimal for both seedling and sprig transplants. PMID:27526020

  20. Demographic knowledge and nation-building: the Peruvian census of 1940.

    PubMed

    López, Raúl Necochea

    2010-09-01

    The demographers who organized the 1940 census of Peru portrayed the increasingly mixed-race Peruvian population as indicative of the breaking down of cultural barriers to the emergence of a robust Peruvian identity, a process that, they claimed, would lead to greater national development. This paper analyzes the ways in which demographers constructed cultural heterogeneity as a potential national asset. This reveals how scientific knowledge of miscegenation affected the formation of a nationalist project in the second half of the twentieth century, and also how demographers' ideological commitments to socialism shaped scientific practice. PMID:21466143

  1. Description of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Peruvian Amazon Basin

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Roberto; Lopez, Victor; Cardenas, Roldan; Requena, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    A new species of sand fly, which we describe as Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., was collected in the northern Peruvian Amazon Basin. In this region of Peru, cutaneous leishmaniasis is transmitted primarily by anthropophilic sand flies; however, zoophilic sand flies of the subgenus Trichophoromyia may also be incriminated in disease transmission. Detection of Leishmania spp. in Lutzomyia auraensis Mangabeira captured in the southern Peruvian Amazon indicates the potential of this and other zoophilic sand flies for human disease transmission, particularly in areas undergoing urban development. Herein, we describe Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., and report new records of sand flies in Peru. PMID:26335468

  2. Description of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Roberto; Lopez, Victor; Cardenas, Roldan; Requena, Edwin

    2015-07-01

    A new species of sand fly, which we describe as Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., was collected in the northern Peruvian Amazon Basin. In this region of Peru, cutaneous leishmaniasis is transmitted primarily by anthropophilic sand flies; however, zoophilic sand flies of the subgenus Trichophoromyia may also be incriminated in disease transmission. Detection of Leishmania spp. in Lutzomyia auraensis Mangabeira captured in the southern Peruvian Amazon indicates the potential of this and other zoophilic sand flies for human disease transmission, particularly in areas undergoing urban development. Herein, we describe Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., and report new records of sand flies in Peru. PMID:26335468

  3. Night Blindness and Ancient Remedy

    PubMed Central

    Al Binali, H.A. Hajar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A. PMID:25774260

  4. Night blindness and ancient remedy.

    PubMed

    Al Binali, H A Hajar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A. PMID:25774260

  5. Interdisciplinary investigation on ancient Ephedra twigs from Gumugou Cemetery (3800 B.P.) in Xinjiang region, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mingsi; Yang, Yimin; Wang, Binghua; Wang, Changsui

    2013-07-01

    In the dry northern temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, the genus Ephedra comprises a series of native shrub species with a cumulative application history reaching back well over 2,000 years for the treatment of asthma, cold, fever, as well as many respiratory system diseases, especially in China. There are ethnological and philological evidences of Ephedra worship and utilization in many Eurasia Steppe cultures. However, no scientifically verifiable, ancient physical proof has yet been provided for any species in this genus. This study reports the palaeobotanical finding of Ephedra twigs discovered from burials of the Gumugou archaeological site, and ancient community graveyard, dated around 3800 BP, in Lop Nor region of northwestern China. The macro-remains were first examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and then by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for traits of residual biomarkers under the reference of modern Ephedra samples. The GC-MS result of chemical analysis presents the existence of Ephedra-featured compounds, several of which, including benzaldehyde, tetramethyl-pyrazine, and phenmetrazine, are found in the chromatograph of both the ancient and modern sample. These results confirm that the discovered plant remains are Ephedra twigs. Although there is no direct archaeological evidence for the indication of medicinal use of this Ephedra, the unified burial deposit in which the Ephedra was discovered is a strong indication of the religious and medicinal awareness of the human inhabitants of Gumugou towards this plant. PMID:23564427

  6. Acupuncture: From Ancient Practice to Modern Science

    MedlinePlus

    ... Section CAM Acupuncture From Ancient Practice to Modern Science Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... of Progress / Acupuncture From Ancient Practice to Modern Science / Low Back Pain and CAM / Time to Talk / ...

  7. A developmental analysis of generic nouns in Southern Peruvian Quechua

    PubMed Central

    Mannheim, Bruce; Gelman, Susan A.; Escalante, Carmen; Huayhua, Margarita; Puma, Rosalía

    2010-01-01

    Generic noun phrases (e.g., “Cats like to drink milk”) are a primary means by which adults express generalizations to children, yet they pose a challenging induction puzzle for learners. Although prior research has established that English speakers understand and produce generic noun phrases by preschool age, little is known regarding the cross-cultural generality of generic acquisition. Southern Peruvian Quechua provides a valuable comparison because, unlike English, it is a highly inflected language in which generics are marked by the absence rather than the presence of any linguistic markers. Moreover, Quechua is spoken in a cultural context that differs markedly from the highly educated, middle-class contexts within which earlier research on generics was conducted. We presented participants from 5 age groups (3-6, 7-9, 10-12, 14-35, and 36-90 years of age) with two tasks that examined the ability to distinguish generic from non-generic utterances. In Study 1, even the youngest children understood generics as applying broadly to a category (like “all”) and distinct from indefinite reference (“some”). However, there was a developmental lag before children understood that generics, unlike “all”, can include exceptions. Study 2 revealed that generic interpretations are more frequent for utterances that (a) lack specifying markers and (b) are animate. Altogether, generic interpretations are found among the youngest participants, and may be a default mode of quantification. These data demonstrate the cross-cultural importance of generic information in linguistic expression. PMID:21779154

  8. Land Use Change Driven by Gold Mining; Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, J. J.; Carter, C. E.; domec, J.; Delgado, C. I.

    2011-12-01

    Many factors such as poverty, ineffective institutions and environmental regulations may prevent developing countries from managing how natural resources are extracted to meet a strong market demand. Extraction for some resources has reached such proportions that evidence is measurable from space. We present recent evidence of the global demand for a single commodity and the ecosystem destruction resulting from commodity extraction, recorded by satellites for one of the most biodiverse areas of the world. We find that since 2003, recent mining deforestation in Madre de Dios, Peru is increasing nonlinearly alongside a constant annual rate of increase in international gold price (~18%/yr). We detect that the new pattern of mining deforestation (1915 ha/year, 2006-2009) is outpacing that of nearby settlement deforestation. We show that gold price is linked with exponential increases in Peruvian national mercury imports over time (R2 = 0.93, p = 0.04, 2003- 2009). Given the past rates of increase we predict that mercury imports may more than double for 2011 (~500 t/year). Virtually all of Peru's mercury imports are used in artisanal gold mining. Much of the mining increase is unregulated/ artisanal in nature, lacking environmental impact analysis or miner education. As a result, large quantities of mercury are being released into the atmosphere, sediments and waterways. Other developing countries endowed with gold deposits are likely experiencing similar environmental destruction in response to recent record high gold prices. The increasing availability of satellite imagery ought to evoke further studies linking economic variables with land use and cover changes on the ground.

  9. Climate change and potato cropping in the Peruvian Altiplano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanabria, J.; Lhomme, J. P.

    2013-05-01

    The potential impacts of climate change on potatoes cropping in the Peruvian highlands (Altiplano) is assessed using climate projections for 2071-2100, obtained from the HadRM3P regional atmospheric model of the Hadley Centre. The atmospheric model is run under two different special report on emission scenarios: high CO2 concentration (A2) and moderate CO2 concentration (B2) for four locations situated in the surroundings of Lake Titicaca. The two main varieties of potato cultivated in the area are studied: the Andean potato ( Solanum tuberosum) and the bitter potato ( Solanum juzepczukii). A simple process-oriented model is used to quantify the climatic impacts on crops cycles and yields by combining the effects of temperature on phenology, of radiation and CO2 on maximum yield and of water balance on yield deficit. In future climates, air temperature systematically increases, precipitation tends to increase at the beginning of the rainy season and slightly decreases during the rest of the season. The direct effects of these climatic changes are earlier planting dates, less planting failures and shorter crop cycles in all the four locations and for both scenarios. Consequently, the harvesting dates occur systematically earlier: roughly in January for the Andean potato instead of March in the current situation and in February for the bitter potato instead of April. Overall, yield deficits will be higher under climate change than in the current climate. There will be a strong negative impact on yields for S. tuberosum (stronger under A2 scenario than under B2); the impact on S. juzepczukii yields, however, appears to be relatively mixed and not so negative.

  10. Skeletal concentrations of lead, cadmium, zinc, and silver in ancient North American Pecos Indians

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, J.E. ); Smith, D.R.; Flegal, A.R. )

    1991-06-01

    Bone samples of 14 prehistoric North American Pecos Indians from circa 1400 A.D. were analyzed for lead, cadmium, zinc, and silver by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to establish the baseline levels of these elements in an ancient North American population. Measurements of outer and inner bone fractions indicate the former were contaminated postmortem for lead, zinc, and cadmium. The contamination-adjusted average level of lead (expressed as the ratio fo atomic lead to atomic calcium) in bones of the Indians was 8.4 {plus minus} 4.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}7}, which was similar to ratios in bones of ancient Peruvians (0.9 to 7.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}7}) and significantly lower than ratios in bones of modern adults in England and the United States (210 to 350 {times} 10{sup {minus}7}). Cadmium concentrations in Pecos Indian bones are also approximately 50-fold lower than those of contemporary humans. These data support earlier findings that most previously reported natural concentrations of lead in human tissues are erroneously high and indicate that natural concentrations of cadmium are also between one and two orders of magnitude lower than contemporary concentrations.

  11. Experimental assessment of critical anthropogenic sediment burial in eelgrass Zostera marina.

    PubMed

    Munkes, Britta; Schubert, Philipp R; Karez, Rolf; Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2015-11-15

    Seagrass meadows, one of the world's most important and productive coastal habitats, are threatened by a range of anthropogenic actions. Burial of seagrass plants due to coastal activities is one important anthropogenic pressure leading to the decline of local populations. In our study, we assessed the response of eelgrass Zostera marina to sediment burial from physiological, morphological, and population parameters. In a full factorial field experiment, burial level (5-20cm) and burial duration (4-16weeks) were manipulated. Negative effects were visible even at the lowest burial level (5cm) and shortest duration (4weeks), with increasing effects over time and burial level. Buried seagrasses showed higher shoot mortality, delayed growth and flowering and lower carbohydrate storage. The observed effects will likely have an impact on next year's survival of buried plants. Our results have implications for the management of this important coastal plant. PMID:26388446

  12. Drinking habits in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, Ottilingam; Raghavan, D. Vijaya; Murthy, A. G. Tejus

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of one or other form of intoxicating substances has been present throughout the history of the world. This article traces such use in the Indian subcontinent, both in North and South India. References to the use of intoxicants are to be found in the Vedas, the Great Epics, and the ancient Tamil literature. PMID:26985113

  13. Retroflex Endings in Ancient Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Mantaro J.

    1973-01-01

    Reconstruction of Ancient Chinese retroflex endings (syllable-final consonants) based on internal phonological evidence in Modern Chinese. Paper read at the December 1972 meeting of the Kukeo Hakhoe (The National Language Association of Korea); research supported by the Social Science Research Council, Committee for Korean Studies. (RS)

  14. Ancient India: The Asiatic Ethiopians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Carolyn McPherson

    This curriculum unit was developed by a participant in the 1993 Fulbright-Hays Program "India: Continuity and Change." The unit attempts to place India in the "picture frame" of the ancient world as a part of a whole, not as a separate entity. Reading materials enable students to draw broader general conclusions based on the facts presented. The…

  15. Drinking habits in ancient India.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, Ottilingam; Raghavan, D Vijaya; Murthy, A G Tejus

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of one or other form of intoxicating substances has been present throughout the history of the world. This article traces such use in the Indian subcontinent, both in North and South India. References to the use of intoxicants are to be found in the Vedas, the Great Epics, and the ancient Tamil literature. PMID:26985113

  16. Ancient medicine--a review.

    PubMed

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozencić, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Mucić-Pucić, Branka; Neralić-Meniga, Inja

    2008-01-01

    Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples. PMID:18812066

  17. Discovering the Ancient Temperate Rainforest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Anne

    1997-01-01

    Two activities for grades 3 through 8 explore species adaptation and forestry issues in the North American rainforests. In one activity, students create imaginary species of plants or animals that are adapted for life in an ancient temperate rainforest. In the second activity, students role play groups affected by plans to log an area of the…

  18. The ancient art of memory.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Allan

    2013-12-01

    Revision of Freud's theory requires a new way of seeking dream meaning. With the idea of elaborative encoding, Sue Llewellyn has provided a method of dream interpretation that takes into account both modern sleep science and the ancient art of memory. Her synthesis is elegant and compelling. But is her hypothesis testable? PMID:24304762

  19. Development and Applications of Thallium isotopes: a new proxy tracking the extent of manganese oxide burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, J. D.; Nielsen, S.; Ostrander, C.; Peterson, L. C.; Anbar, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Thallium (Tl) isotopes are a new and potential powerful paleoredox proxy with the possibility to track bottom water oxygen conditions based on the burial flux of manganese oxides. Thallium has a residence time of ~20 thousand years, which is long enough to render modern oxic seawater conservative with respect to concentration and isotopes. The isotopic signature of Tl in the global ocean is driven mainly by two outputs (1) adsorption onto manganese oxides and (2) low temperature oceanic crust alteration. Importantly, the isotopic inputs of Tl are all nearly the same value; thus, the isotopic composition and flux of the outputs almost exclusively set the seawater signature. For relatively short term redox events it is reasonable to assume that the dominant isotope fractionation process is associated with manganese oxide precipitation because low temperature alteration is controlled by long-term average ocean crust production rates. We present a broad range of modern samples that span several open ocean profiles combined with water column and sediment profiles from the permanently anoxic basins of the Black Sea and Cariaco Basins. The open ocean shows no variation in depth profiles that encompass most of the major water masses in the Atlantic and Southern Oceans. The anoxic basins, however, reveal Tl isotope signatures closer to their inputs, which is likely due to basinal restriction. The authigenic fraction of organic-rich sediments from the Black Sea and Cariaco Basin capture the Tl isotope value of the overlying water column, which shows that Tl isotopes could be applied as a faithful deep time redox proxy. For the first time, we will present new data showing that Tl isotopes is tracking bottom water ocean oxygenation. We are applying this isotope system to ancient samples, testing the spatial and temporal variability of ocean oxygenation coinciding with major biogeochemical events.

  20. Burial history influence on the generation of some Italian oils

    SciTech Connect

    Mattavelli, L.; Novelli, L. )

    1990-05-01

    Many Italian oils were sourced by Triassic source rock; evidence of this exists in the Po Plain. In the Adriatic Sea, and offshore southern Sicily. Bulk and geochemical characteristics of these oils are quite dissimilar: heavy oils as well as gasolines were discovered. Such differences are partly attributable to the organic matter type and to environmental conditions, but the role of the source rock's burial histories is fundamental in determining oil characteristics. The different burial histories in these two areas definitely account for these differences. In the Po Plain, the Raethian Argilliti di Riva di Solto Formation, source rock of condensates of the Malossa area, started to generate very early as a consequence of the noticeable Rhaetian-Liassic subsidence. The generation of oil continued for a long geological time, but probably hydrocarbons were lost for the lack of traps. Only condensates, generated by the further Pliocene-Quaternary burial, were accumulated in the Neogene traps. In the western part of the Po Plain, Gaggiano and Villafortuna oils (34 and 40{degree} API), sourced by the Ladinian Meride Formation, were generated only during the sizeable Neogene-Quaternary subsidence. The high heating rate in this case probably enhanced expulsion efficiency, allowing secondary migration toward shallower depths and, consequently, preventing hydrocarbons from secondary cracking. Offshore in southern Sicily (Gela field), the recent subsidence (Pliocene-Pleistocene) is responsible for Triassic source rock maturation. In this case the shallower depth reached by the source rock and, consequently, the lower temperatures at which maturity occurred are partly responsible for the generation of heavy oils, even if other factors such as early expulsion due to tectonics and organic matter type probably play a more important role.

  1. Biomass burial and storage to reduce atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, N.

    2012-04-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a theoretical carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC/y, but probably 1-3 GtC/y can be realized in practice. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other environmental concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from forest industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be 14/tCO2 (50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The low cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is possible because the technique uses the natural process of photosynthesis to remove carbon from the atmosphere. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe, and can be stopped at any time, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  2. Ancient and Modern Coins Unit Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Mint (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    Ancient times comes to life when a student can hold in his/her hand or read about an artifact, such as a coin of the Greek or Roman era. Students are familiar with coins, and this commonality helps them understand the similarities and differences between their lives and times in ancient Greece or Rome. Many symbols on the ancient coins can be…

  3. Precipitation data for Burial Grounds 5 and 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, 1976-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, D A; Beatty, J S; Benjamin, P M; Tranum, W M

    1982-01-01

    As part of a hydrogeologic investigation, precipitation data were collected at two stations, one each in Burial Grounds 5 and 6 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee. Daily, monthly, and annual values are reported herein for the period from January 1976 through December 1980. During this period, annual values ranged from about 25% above to about 25% below the calculated mean of 51.96 inches at Burial Ground 5 and 49.60 inches at Burial Ground 6.

  4. Geologic setting of the low-level burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, K.A.; Jaeger, G.K.; Slate, J.L.; Swett, K.J.; Mercer, R.B.

    1994-10-13

    This report describes the regional and site specific geology of the Hanford Sites low-level burial grounds in the 200 East and West Areas. The report incorporates data from boreholes across the entire 200 Areas, integrating the geology of this area into a single framework. Geologic cross-sections, isopach maps, and structure contour maps of all major geological units from the top of the Columbia River Basalt Group to the surface are included. The physical properties and characteristics of the major suprabasalt sedimentary units also are discussed.

  5. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during and after closure

  6. Burial Level Change Defines a High Energetic Relevance for Protein Binding Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenhua; He, Ying; Wong, Limsoon; Li, Jinyan

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interfaces defined through atomic contact or solvent accessibility change are widely adopted in structural biology studies. But, these definitions cannot precisely capture energetically important regions at protein interfaces. The burial depth of an atom in a protein is related to the atom's energy. This work investigates how closely the change in burial level of an atom/residue upon complexation is related to the binding. Burial level change is different from burial level itself. An atom deeply buried in a monomer with a high burial level may not change its burial level after an interaction and it may have little burial level change. We hypothesize that an interface is a region of residues all undergoing burial level changes after interaction. By this definition, an interface can be decomposed into an onion-like structure according to the burial level change extent. We found that our defined interfaces cover energetically important residues more precisely, and that the binding free energy of an interface is distributed progressively from the outermost layer to the core. These observations are used to predict binding hot spots. Our approach's F-measure performance on a benchmark dataset of alanine mutagenesis residues is much superior or similar to those by complicated energy modeling or machine learning approaches. PMID:26357227

  7. Fe deficiency but not anemia up-regulates Fe absorption in breast-fed Peruvian infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about homeostatic regulation of iron (Fe) absorption in infants. Using stable isotopes, we evaluated healthy breast-fed Peruvian infants to determine if they can compensate for their poor Fe status by increasing Fe absorption (abs). Two groups were recruited; Group 1 (G1) consisted...

  8. Bilingual Education and Language Use among the Shipibo of the Peruvian Amazon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tacelosky, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Investigates how language choice for education contributes to changes in the way a society views and uses language in the context of the Peruvian Amazon. Oral surveys were administered to Shipibo people in 13 communities along the Ucayali River of eastern Peru where a transition type bilingual education program was introduced several decades ago.…

  9. Icon and Idea: A Symbolic Reading of Pictures in a Peruvian Indian Chronicle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adorno, Rolena

    1979-01-01

    An examination and categorization of over 400 full-page drawings in the 1615 "Nueva coronica y bien gobierno" of Felipe Guaman Poma de Alaya, which details life in the Peruvian Viceroyalty. Explains the function of the illustrations in the text and that of five "signifying attributes" of spatial configuration. (SB)

  10. Molecular characterization of Peruvian Citrus tristeza virus isolates based on 3’UTR sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus in Peru was decimated by quick decline and stem pitting strains of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). Commercial citrus production in Peru is being restored by use of CTV cross-protection. To characterize the predominant CTV strains involved, Peruvian CTV isolates from “protected” and “non-protecti...

  11. Ascaridole as a pharmacologically active principle of "Paico," a medicinal Peruvian plant.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, E; Umeyama, K; Saito, Y; Yamazaki, M; Satake, M

    1993-07-01

    "Paico," Chenopodium ambrosioides L., is a traditional Peruvian medicine which is considered to be nervine, antirheumatic, anthelmintic, etc. An attempt was made to isolate the component having sedative and/or analgesic properties from "Paico" and "Aritasou" (the Japanese name for C. ambrosioides). Ascaridole was identified as the active principle in both materials. PMID:8374999

  12. A Peculiar Mutation Spectrum Emerging from Young Peruvian Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Marchio, Agnès; Bertani, Stéphane; Rojas Rojas, Teresa; Doimi, Franco; Terris, Benoît; Deharo, Eric; Dejean, Anne; Ruiz, Eloy; Pineau, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma usually afflicts individuals in their later years following longstanding liver disease. In Peru, hepatocellular carcinoma exists in a unique clinical presentation, which affects patients around age 25 with a normal, healthy liver. In order to deepen our understanding of the molecular processes ongoing in Peruvian liver tumors, mutation spectrum analysis was carried out on hepatocellular carcinomas from 80 Peruvian patients. Sequencing analysis focused on nine genes typically altered during liver carcinogenesis, i.e. ARID2, AXIN1, BRAF, CTNNB1, NFE2L2, H/K/N-RAS, and TP53. We also assessed the transcription level of factors involved in the control of the alpha-fetoprotein expression and the Hippo signaling pathway that controls contact inhibition in metazoans. The mutation spectrum of Peruvian patients was unique with a major class of alterations represented by Insertions/Deletions. There were no changes at hepatocellular carcinoma-associated mutation hotspots in more than half of the specimens analyzed. Furthermore, our findings support the theory of a consistent collapse in the Hippo axis, as well as an expression of the stemness factor NANOG in high alpha-fetoprotein-expressing hepatocellular carcinomas. These results confirm the specificity of Peruvian hepatocellular carcinoma at the molecular genetic level. The present study emphasizes the necessity to widen cancer research to include historically neglected patients from South America, and more broadly the Global South, where cancer genetics and tumor presentation are divergent from canonical neoplasms. PMID:25502816

  13. Two new nor-triterpene glycosides from peruvian "Uña de Gato" (Uncaria tomentosa).

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Mariko; Hashimoto, Ken-Ichiro; Yokoya, Masashi; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Sandoval, Manuel; Aimi, Norio

    2003-02-01

    Two new 27-nor-triterpene glycosides, tomentosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from Peruvian "Uña de Gato" (cat's claw, plant of origin: Uncaria tomentosa), a traditional herbal medicine in Peru. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical interconversions. This is the first report of naturally occurring pyroquinovic acid glycosides. PMID:12608878

  14. Micromorphology of two prehistoric ritual burials from Yemen, and considerations on methodological aspects of sampling the burial matrix - work in progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usai, Maria-Raimonda; Brothwell, Don; Buckley, Stephen; Ai-Thour, Kalid; Canti, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Introduction In the central area of Yemen, two burial sites placed high in the crevices of vertical cliff face of Cretaceous sandstone (Tawilah Group) provided evidence of human remains and yielded burial soils. Radiocarbon dating indicated c.2500-2900 years BP for the burials. In other local comparable sites the deep horizontal crevices yielded Bronze Age human remains, in exceptional state of preservation Questions: What was the nature of the burial matrix? Are other human influences superimposed on the soils derived from it? Is it simply decomposed crevice rock, scraped together at the time of burial, or the result of a more complex burial practice? Such questions are also relevant to a variety of other burials of different periods and world regions. Methods Seven matrix samples from Cliff Burials (A) Talan (Layers 4,10,12,14,18,20 and 22, from top to bottom) and (B) Shiban Kawkaban (Layer 1 and 9) were analysed with micromorphology, supplemented by SEM microprobe, X-ray diffraction, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results Cliff Burial Site Talan. The presence of cholesterol was confirmed in the lower sample. The second layer contained darker earth with fibrous plant material. A hard calcareous upper capping contrasted with the other levels of matrix, and it displayed a highly birefingent material with a significant component of uric acid. The other levels had variable organic content and plant inclusions, and possibly pollen. In Layer 10, aromatic acids indicative of balsam and sugar markers suggested plant gum. Cholesterol was the major sterol in Layers 10 and 22, but whilst in Layer 10 its oxidation products were present and cholestanol was abundant as normally in soils, it was only a minor component of Layer 22 where, rather, a significant amount of coprostanol indicated faecal input, and cholesterol oxidation products were absent. Cliff Burial Site Shiban Kawkaban. Although no stratification was visible to the naked eye, variation was observed at a

  15. A burial cave in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    West, Dixie; Lefèvre, Christine; Corbett, Debra; Crockford, Susan

    2003-01-01

    During the 1998 field season, the Western Aleutians Archaeological and Paleobiological Project (WAAPP) team located a cave in the Near Islands, Alaska. Near the entrance of the cave, the team identified work areas and sleeping/sitting areas surrounded by cultural debris and animal bones. Human burials were found in the cave interior. In 2000, with permission from The Aleut Corporation, archaeologists revisited the site. Current research suggests three distinct occupations or uses for this cave. Aleuts buried their dead in shallow graves at the rear of the cave circa 1,200 to 800 years ago. Aleuts used the front of the cave as a temporary hunting camp as early as 390 years ago. Finally, Japanese and American military debris and graffiti reveal that the cave was visited during and after World War II. Russian trappers may have also taken shelter there 150 to 200 years ago. This is the first report of Aleut cave burials west of the Delarof Islands in the central Aleutians. PMID:21755641

  16. The Application of GPR in Florida for Detecting Forensic Burials

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Koppenjan; J. J. Schultz; S. Ono; H. Lee

    2003-01-01

    A study was performed at the University of Florida to measure ground penetrating radar(GPR) performance for detecting forensic burials. In controlled scenarios, 24 burials were constructed with pig cadavers. Two soils were utilized to represent two of the most common soil orders in Florida: an Entisol and an Ultisol. Graves were monitored on a monthly basis for time periods up to 21 months with grid data acquired with pulsed and swept-frequency GPR systems incorporating several different frequency antennas. A small subset of the graves was excavated to assess decomposition and relate to the GPR images during the test. The grave anomalies in the GPR depth profiles became less distinctive over time due to body decomposition and settling of the disturbed soil (backfill) as it compacted. Soil type was a major factor. Grave anomalies became more difficult to recognize over time for deep targets that were within clay. Forensic targets that were in sandy soil were recognized for the duration of this study. Time elapsed imagery will be presented to elucidate the changes, or lack thereof, of grave anomalies over the duration of this study. Further analysis was performed using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) reconstruction of images in 2-D and 3-D.

  17. Burial dolomitization of Lower Cambrian platform margin, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Barnaby, R.J.; Read, J.F.

    1989-03-01

    Shady Dolomite platform carbonates (Lower Cambrian) record several episodes of dolomite replacement and cementation during deep burial. Rare relict nonluminescent dolomite cores (zone 1) were replaced and overgrown by dark orange-red cathodoluminescent (CL) dolomite (zone 2A), the dominant replacement phase. Zone 2A dolomite was corroded, fractured, brecciated, and overgrown by Mississippi-Valley-type or lead-zinc minerals. Dark orange-red CL saddle dolomite (zone 2B) precipitated after mineralization and was fractured, corroded, and overgrown by bright orange-red CL saddle dolomite (zone 3). Cementation by later dark orange-red CL saddle dolomite (zone 4) was followed by quartz, calcite, and dedolomite. Only late-stage dolomite (zones 3 and 4) and calcite cement have elevated /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr values (0.7103-0.7111) relative to marine carbonate and earlier dolomites (0.7090-0.7097), recording influx of radiogenic strontium-enriched fluids during late Paleozoic thrusting. Although the replacement dolomites are buried, it is unclear whether they replaced limestone or an unstable near-surface precursor dolomite. If a precursor dolomite were present, it was completely overprinted during burial diagenesis, preserving no trace of its initial composition.

  18. Genetic research at a fivefold children's burial from medieval Berlin.

    PubMed

    Rothe, Jessica; Melisch, Claudia; Powers, Natasha; Geppert, Maria; Zander, Judith; Purps, Josephine; Spors, Birgit; Nagy, Marion

    2015-03-01

    Berlin originated from the two twin cities Berlin and Cölln, which both were founded at the beginning of the 13th century. However the real date of their foundation as well as the origin of the first settlers is still unknown. On the Berlin site the historic city center is still visible in the Nikolaiviertel, but the medieval origin of Cölln disappeared almost completely. In 2007 a large scale excavation, which comprised an area of about 1700m(2) of the historical center of the St. Peters church, recovers the remains of Cölln's first citizens and span a period of 500 years of medieval population. Here we present the first genetic analysis of a fivefold children's burial from excavations in Berlin. The genetic data unveiled next to ancestry and eye color data also the kinship and the gender of the five individuals. Together with the archeological context the new gained information help to shed more light on the possible reasons for this burial. PMID:25466970

  19. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  20. Population Genetics of Plasmodium vivax in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Ratto, Christopher; Gamboa, Dionicia; Soto-Calle, Veronica E.; Van den Eede, Peter; Torres, Eliana; Sánchez-Martínez, Luis; Contreras-Mancilla, Juan; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Rodriguez Ferrucci, Hugo; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Erhart, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Background Characterizing the parasite dynamics and population structure provides useful information to understand the dynamic of transmission and to better target control interventions. Despite considerable efforts for its control, vivax malaria remains a major health problem in Peru. In this study, we have explored the population genetics of Plasmodium vivax isolates from Iquitos, the main city in the Peruvian Amazon, and 25 neighbouring peri-urban as well as rural villages along the Iquitos-Nauta Road. Methodology/ Results From April to December 2008, 292 P. vivax isolates were collected and successfully genotyped using 14 neutral microsatellites. Analysis of the molecular data revealed a similar proportion of monoclonal and polyclonal infections in urban areas, while in rural areas monoclonal infections were predominant (p = 0.002). Multiplicity of infection was higher in urban (MOI = 1.5–2) compared to rural areas (MOI = 1) (p = 0.003). The level of genetic diversity was similar in all areas (He = 0.66–0.76, p = 0.32) though genetic differentiation between areas was substantial (PHIPT = 0.17, p<0.0001). Principal coordinate analysis showed a marked differentiation between parasites from urban and rural areas. Linkage disequilibrium was detected in all the areas (IAs = 0.08–0.49, for all p<0.0001). Gene flow among the areas was stablished through Bayesian analysis of migration models. Recent bottleneck events were detected in 4 areas and a recent parasite expansion in one of the isolated areas. In total, 87 unique haplotypes grouped in 2 or 3 genetic clusters described a sub-structured parasite population. Conclusion/Significance Our study shows a sub-structured parasite population with clonal propagation, with most of its components recently affected by bottleneck events. Iquitos city is the main source of parasite spreading for all the peripheral study areas. The routes of transmission and gene flow and the reduction of the parasite population described

  1. Benthic nitrogen cycling traversing the capitalize peruvian oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlen, L.; Dale, A. W.; Sommer, S.; Mosch, T.; Hensen, C.; Noffke, A.; Scholz, F.; Wallmann, K.

    2011-10-01

    Benthic nitrogen (N) cycling was investigated at six stations along a transect traversing the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) at 11°S. An extensive dataset including porewater concentration profiles and in situ benthic fluxes of nitrate (NO 3-), nitrite (NO 2-) and ammonium (NH 4+) was used to constrain a 1-D reaction-transport model designed to simulate and interpret the measured data at each station. Simulated rates of nitrification, denitrification, anammox and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) by filamentous large sulfur bacteria (e.g. Beggiatoa and Thioploca) were highly variable throughout the OMZ yet clear trends were discernible. On the shelf and upper slope (80-260 m water depth) where extensive areas of bacterial mats were present, DNRA dominated total N turnover (⩽2.9 mmol N m -2 d -1) and accounted for ⩾65% of NO 3- + NO 2- uptake by the sediments from the bottom water. Nonetheless, these sediments did not represent a major sink for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN = NO 3- + NO 2- + NH 4+) since DNRA reduces NO 3- and, potentially NO 2-, to NH 4+. Consequently, the shelf and upper slope sediments were recycling sites for DIN due to relatively low rates of denitrification and high rates of ammonium release from DNRA and ammonification of organic matter. This finding contrasts with the current opinion that sediments underlying OMZs are a strong sink for DIN. Only at greater water depths (300-1000 m) did the sediments become a net sink for DIN. Here, denitrification was the major process (⩽2 mmol N m -2 d -1) and removed 55-73% of NO 3- and NO 2- taken up by the sediments, with DNRA and anammox accounting for the remaining fraction. Anammox was of minor importance on the shelf and upper slope yet contributed up to 62% to total N 2 production at the 1000 m station. The results indicate that the partitioning of oxidized N (NO 3-, NO 2-) into DNRA or denitrification is a key factor determining the role of marine sediments as DIN

  2. Sources and fate of amino sugars in coastal Peruvian sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niggemann, Jutta; Schubert, Carsten J.

    2006-05-01

    Amino sugars are involved in the marine carbon and nitrogen cycles and comprise a geochemically significant fraction of marine organic material (OM). However, information on abundance and distribution of these compounds in marine sediments is scarce. Three sediment cores (<50 cm) from the coastal region off Peru were investigated for concentrations of glucosamine (GlcN), galactosamine (GalN), mannosamine (ManN), and muramic acid (Mur). The sum of the four amino sugars accounted for 1.0-2.4% of organic carbon and 1.9-3.8% of nitrogen in the sediments. At the shallowest (102 m) and the deepest site (1278 m), carbon-normalized concentrations decreased down-core, suggesting preferential degradation of amino sugars compared to bulk sedimentary OM. At the site from the center of the oxygen minimum zone (238 m), amino sugar concentrations were high throughout the core, pointing to enhanced preservation of amino sugars under anoxic conditions. GlcN (44-56 mol%) and GalN (33-42 mol%) were the dominant amino sugars in all investigated samples, while ManN (6-14 mol%) and Mur (1-4 mol%) were significantly less abundant. Mur was predominantly associated with cell wall remains rather than with living bacteria, since bacterial abundances estimated based on Mur concentrations were up to 500 times higher than cell counts reported for sediments from this area. GlcN/GalN-ratios (1.1-1.7) indicated that chitin, a polymer of GlcN, was not a major contributor to the amino sugar pool of the investigated sediments. Furthermore, GlcN/Mur-ratios (13-68) are inconsistent with a predominant contribution of intact peptidoglycan, which exhibits a 1:1-ratio. The present study includes a compilation of previously published information on distribution and abundance of amino sugars in the marine environment. Both concentrations and ratios observed in the Peruvian sediments fall in the range of values reported for OM in water column and sediments from different oceanic regions and water depths

  3. Dynamics of Carbon Burial in the Coastal Oceans through the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider-Mor, A.; Bowen, G. J.

    2008-12-01

    Climatic recovery from the Paleocene-Eocene boundary thermal maximum (PETM) involved the rapid burial of thousands of petagrams of carbon, a significant fraction of which may have been sequestered in marginal marine sediments. This burial flux may have been modulated by changes in climate, biology, sea level, and sediment flux, but the primary pathways and controls on excess carbon burial have remained speculative to this point. Using the global PETM carbon isotope excursion and C/N ratios as tracer of organic carbon source, we investigated preservation of organic carbon through the PETM as particulate organic carbon (POC) and mineral-bound carbon (MBC) at three coastal ocean sites (Tawanui, New Zealand; IODP leg 302, Arctic Ocean; and Wilson Lake, NJ, USA). We show that an increase in total organic carbon burial during the PETM is dominated by burial of young (<10,000 year old), land-derived POC, but that elevated POC burial was limited to sites with high sedimentation rates through the event (ca. 5 cm/kyr). In contrast, MBC sources were more variable, both among sites and through the PETM, and although there was no conclusive evidence for reburial of kerogen-derived MBC at the study sites the carbon isotope data suggest that a fraction of the MBC at each site may have had a long (>10,000 years) residence time prior to burial. MBC dominated the organic burial flux only at the low sedimentation-rate site (Tawanui), but also contributed significantly to changes in total burial at the Arctic site where bottom water anoxia or suboxia has been inferred during the PETM. Our results demonstrate that changes in total carbon burial rates in marginal marine sediments were determined by decoupled responses of the POC and MBC burial pathways that varied substantially among locations, and that the strongest feedbacks on PETM climate involved changes in the transfer of sediment and particulate organic carbon from the continents to the coastal oceans.

  4. Dating Pliocene lacustrine sediments in the central Jordan Valley, Israel — Implications for cosmogenic burial dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, M.; Matmon, A.; Fink, D.; Ron, H.; Niedermann, S.

    2011-05-01

    Cosmogenic burial dating of sediments is usually used at sites with relatively simple or known exposure-burial histories, such as in caves. In an attempt to extend the applicability of the method to other common geological settings (i.e. the dating of late Neogene sedimentary formations), where much less is known about the exposure-burial history, we apply the cosmogenic burial method on Pliocene-early Pleistocene (1.5-4.5 Ma) lacustrine sediments in the central Jordan Valley, Israel. 26Al, 10Be, and 21Ne concentrations in quartz were obtained from a 170 m tectonically-tilted section. Assuming fast burial and no post-burial production we obtained burial ages which range between 3.5 and 5.3 Ma. Integrating simple geological reasoning and the cosmogenic nuclide data, post burial production is found to be insignificant. We also found that the samples contain two distinct populations of grains (chert and quartz) from two different sources which experienced different pre-burial exposure histories. The cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in the samples are in accordance with those expected for the mixing of two sources, and the burial ages computed for both end members agree. Theoretical calculations of two-source mixing show that initial 26Al/10Be ratios are depressed relative to the expected surface ratios and may result in burial ages overestimated by as much as 500 ka. Using ages derived from cosmogenic nuclides, independent age constraints, and magnetostratigraphy we correlate the bottom of the section to the Cochiti Normal magnetic subchron (4.19-4.30 Ma) within the Reverse Gilbert chron, and the top of the section to the Reverse subchron at the top of the Gilbert chron (3.60-4.19 Ma).

  5. Ancient DNA and human history

    PubMed Central

    Slatkin, Montgomery; Racimo, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    We review studies of genomic data obtained by sequencing hominin fossils with particular emphasis on the unique information that ancient DNA (aDNA) can provide about the demographic history of humans and our closest relatives. We concentrate on nuclear genomic sequences that have been published in the past few years. In many cases, particularly in the Arctic, the Americas, and Europe, aDNA has revealed historical demographic patterns in a way that could not be resolved by analyzing present-day genomes alone. Ancient DNA from archaic hominins has revealed a rich history of admixture between early modern humans, Neanderthals, and Denisovans, and has allowed us to disentangle complex selective processes. Information from aDNA studies is nowhere near saturation, and we believe that future aDNA sequences will continue to change our understanding of hominin history. PMID:27274045

  6. Molecular analysis of ancient caries

    PubMed Central

    Simón, Marc; Montiel, Rafael; Smerling, Andrea; Solórzano, Eduvigis; Díaz, Nancy; Álvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A.; Jiménez-Marín, Andrea R.; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2014-01-01

    An 84 base pair sequence of the Streptococcus mutans virulence factor, known as dextranase, has been obtained from 10 individuals from the Bronze Age to the Modern Era in Europe and from before and after the colonization in America. Modern samples show four polymorphic sites that have not been found in the ancient samples studied so far. The nucleotide and haplotype diversity of this region have increased over time, which could be reflecting the footprint of a population expansion. While this segment has apparently evolved according to neutral evolution, we have been able to detect one site that is under positive selection pressure both in present and past populations. This study is a first step to study the evolution of this microorganism, analysed using direct evidence obtained from ancient remains. PMID:25056622

  7. Ancient DNA and human history.

    PubMed

    Slatkin, Montgomery; Racimo, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    We review studies of genomic data obtained by sequencing hominin fossils with particular emphasis on the unique information that ancient DNA (aDNA) can provide about the demographic history of humans and our closest relatives. We concentrate on nuclear genomic sequences that have been published in the past few years. In many cases, particularly in the Arctic, the Americas, and Europe, aDNA has revealed historical demographic patterns in a way that could not be resolved by analyzing present-day genomes alone. Ancient DNA from archaic hominins has revealed a rich history of admixture between early modern humans, Neanderthals, and Denisovans, and has allowed us to disentangle complex selective processes. Information from aDNA studies is nowhere near saturation, and we believe that future aDNA sequences will continue to change our understanding of hominin history. PMID:27274045

  8. Ancient Celestial Spheres from Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrakoudis, S.; Papaspyrou, P.; Petoussis, V.; Moussas, X.

    2006-08-01

    We present several ancient celestial spheres from the 8th century B.C. found throughout Greece, mainly in Thessaly, at the temple of Itonia Athena, but also in Olympia and other places. These celestial spheres have an axis, equator and several meridians and they have several markings with the symbol of stars (today's symbol for the Sun) $\\odot$. Such instruments could have been used to measure the time, the latitude of a location, or the coordinates of stars.

  9. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India*

    PubMed Central

    Abhyankar, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry. PMID:25838724

  10. Ancient medicine: the patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Geller, Mark J

    2004-01-01

    A number of previously unpublished therapeutic recipes from cuneiform tablets in Berlin (Pergamon Museum) and London (British Museum) list symptoms describing urinary tract disfunction. In addition to presenting extracts from this material, the present article discusses the roles of physician as apothecary or exorcist in ancient texts from Babylonia. This involves technical medical knowledge vs. "bed-side manner", taking into account the psychological effects of drug therapy and diagnosis. PMID:15372427

  11. Nanoscience of an ancient pigment.

    PubMed

    Johnson-McDaniel, Darrah; Barrett, Christopher A; Sharafi, Asma; Salguero, Tina T

    2013-02-01

    We describe monolayer nanosheets of calcium copper tetrasilicate, CaCuSi(4)O(10), which have strong near-IR luminescence and are amenable to solution processing methods. The facile exfoliation of bulk CaCuSi(4)O(10) into nanosheets is especially surprising in view of the long history of this material as the colored component of Egyptian blue, a well-known pigment from ancient times. PMID:23215240

  12. The ancient lunar core dynamo.

    PubMed

    Runcorn, S K

    1978-02-17

    Lunar paleomagnetism provides evidence for the existence of an ancient lunar magnetic field generated in an iron core. Paleointensity experiments give a surface field of 1.3 gauss, 4.0 x 10(9) years ago, subsequently decreasing exponentially. Thermodynamic arguments give a minimum value of the heat source in the core at that time: known sources, radioactive and other, are quantitatively implausible, and it is suggested that superheavy elements were present in the early moon. PMID:17836293

  13. Orthopedic surgery in ancient Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Background — Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. The modern literature is, however, sometimes rather too enthusiastic regarding the procedures that are attributed an Egyptian origin. I briefly present and analyze the claims regarding orthopedic surgery in Egypt, what was actually done by the Egyptians, and what may have been incorrectly ascribed to them. Methods — I reviewed the original sources and also the modern literature regarding surgery in ancient Egypt, concentrating especially on orthopedic surgery. Results — As is well known, both literary sources and the archaeological/osteological material bear witness to treatment of various fractures. The Egyptian painting, often claimed to depict the reduction of a dislocated shoulder according to Kocher’s method, is, however, open to interpretation. Therapeutic amputations are never depicted or mentioned in the literary sources, while the specimens suggested to demonstrate such amputations are not convincing. Interpretation — The ancient Egyptians certainly treated fractures of various kinds, and with varying degrees of success. Concerning the reductions of dislocated joints and therapeutic amputations, there is no clear evidence for the existence of such procedures. It would, however, be surprising if dislocations were not treated, even though they have not left traces in the surviving sources. Concerning amputations, the general level of Egyptian surgery makes it unlikely that limb amputations were done, even if they may possibly have been performed under extraordinary circumstances. PMID:25140982

  14. Trading forests for yields in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Holly

    2012-03-01

    Our knowledge of how agriculture expands, and the types of land it replaces, is remarkably limited across the tropics. Most remote-sensing studies focus on the net gains and losses in forests and agricultural land rather than the land-use transition pathways (Gibbs et al 2010). Only a handful of studies identify land sources for new croplands or plantations, and then only for farming systems aggregated together (e.g., Koh and Wilcove 2008, Morton et al 2006, Gibbs et al 2010). Gutiérrez-Vélez et al (2011), however, have taken a leap forward by tracking the different expansion pathways for smallholder and industrial oil palm plantations. Using a combination of Landsat, MODIS and field surveys, they investigate whether higher yields in new agricultural lands spare forests in the Peruvian Amazon and in a smaller focus area in the Ucayali region. Across the Peruvian Amazon, they show that between 2000 and 2010, new high-yield oil palm plantations replaced forests 72% of the time and accounted for 1.3% of total deforestation, with most expansion occurring after 2006. Gutiérrez-Vélez et al went further in the Ucayali region and compared land sources for new high-yield and low-yield plantations. Expansion of higher-yield agricultural lands should logically reduce the total area needed for production, thus potentially sparing forests. In the Ucayali focus area, expansion of high-yield oil palm did convert less total land area but more forest was cleared than with low-yield expansion. Smaller-scale plantations tended to expand into already cleared areas while industrial-scale plantations traded their greater yields for forests, leading to higher land-clearing carbon emissions per production unit (Gibbs et al 2008). Gutiérrez-Vélez et al show that higher yields may require less land for production but more forest may be lost in the process, and they emphasize the need for stronger incentives for land sparing. The potential land-saving nature of these high

  15. 618-10 Burial Ground Trench Remediation and 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Ground Nonintrusive Characterization of Vertical Pipe Units Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, J. W.

    2012-06-28

    A “lessons learned” is a noteworthy practice or innovative approach that is captured and shared to promote repeat application, or an adverse work practice/experience that is captured and shared to avoid reoccurrence. This document provides the lessons learned identified by the 618-10 Burial Ground trench remediation and the 618-10 and 618-11 Burial Ground nonintrusive characterization of the vertical pipe units (VPUs).

  16. 38 CFR 3.1603 - Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... certain unclaimed bodies. 3.1603 Section 3.1603 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1603 Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies. If the body of a deceased veteran is unclaimed, there being no relatives or friends to claim the...

  17. 38 CFR 3.1603 - Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... certain unclaimed bodies. 3.1603 Section 3.1603 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1603 Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies. If the body of a deceased veteran is unclaimed, there being no relatives or friends to claim the...

  18. 38 CFR 3.1603 - Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... certain unclaimed bodies. 3.1603 Section 3.1603 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1603 Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies. If the body of a deceased veteran is unclaimed, there being no relatives or friends to claim the...

  19. 38 CFR 3.1603 - Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... certain unclaimed bodies. 3.1603 Section 3.1603 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1603 Authority for burial of certain unclaimed bodies. If the body of a deceased veteran is unclaimed, there being no relatives or friends to claim the...

  20. Burial affects the biogeochemistry of headwater streams in a midwestern US metropolitan area - slides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in stream networks is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of headwater streams in urban basins. Urban stream burial has only recently been recognized by ecologists as a regional environmental impact and little resea...

  1. Burial affects the biogeochemistry of headwater streams in a midwestern US metropolitan area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in stream networks is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of headwater streams in urban basins. Urban stream burial has only recently been recognized by ecologists and little research has addressed the extent to whi...

  2. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Appel and J. M. Capron

    2007-07-25

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-C Reactor and received process tubes, aluminum fuel spacers, control rods, reactor hardware, spent nuclear fuel and soft wastes.

  3. 78 FR 40738 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Double H Pesticide Burial Site

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Double H Pesticide Burial Site AGENCY... incurred for the Double H Pesticide Burial Site in Grandview, Yakima County, Washington. Under this proposed settlement, the settling parties are Double H, L.P.; James T. Hansen; Linda L. Hansen; George...

  4. 32 CFR 553.17 - Persons ineligible for burial in an Army national cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Persons ineligible for burial in an Army national cemetery. 553.17 Section 553.17 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.17 Persons ineligible for burial in an Army national cemetery....

  5. Effects of Urban Stream Burial on Organic Matter Dynamics and Reach Scale Nitrate Retention

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial suppresses the capacity of streams to retain nitrate (NO3-) by eliminating primar...

  6. Analysis of Ancient DNA in Microbial Ecology.

    PubMed

    Gorgé, Olivier; Bennett, E Andrew; Massilani, Diyendo; Daligault, Julien; Pruvost, Melanie; Geigl, Eva-Maria; Grange, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The development of next-generation sequencing has led to a breakthrough in the analysis of ancient genomes, and the subsequent genomic analyses of the skeletal remains of ancient humans have revolutionized the knowledge of the evolution of our species, including the discovery of a new hominin, and demonstrated admixtures with more distantly related archaic populations such as Neandertals and Denisovans. Moreover, it has also yielded novel insights into the evolution of ancient pathogens. The analysis of ancient microbial genomes allows the study of their recent evolution, presently over the last several millennia. These spectacular results have been attained despite the degradation of DNA after the death of the host, which results in very short DNA molecules that become increasingly damaged, only low quantities of which remain. The low quantity of ancient DNA molecules renders their analysis difficult and prone to contamination with modern DNA molecules, in particular via contamination from the reagents used in DNA purification and downstream analysis steps. Finally, the rare ancient molecules are diluted in environmental DNA originating from the soil microorganisms that colonize bones and teeth. Thus, ancient skeletal remains can share DNA profiles with environmental samples and identifying ancient microbial genomes among the more recent, presently poorly characterized, environmental microbiome is particularly challenging. Here, we describe the methods developed and/or in use in our laboratory to produce reliable and reproducible paleogenomic results from ancient skeletal remains that can be used to identify the presence of ancient microbiota. PMID:26791510

  7. Evidence supporting an intentional Neandertal burial at La Chapelle-aux-Saints

    PubMed Central

    Rendu, William; Beauval, Cédric; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Bayle, Priscilla; Balzeau, Antoine; Bismuth, Thierry; Bourguignon, Laurence; Delfour, Géraldine; Faivre, Jean-Philippe; Lacrampe-Cuyaubère, François; Tavormina, Carlotta; Todisco, Dominique; Turq, Alain; Maureille, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The bouffia Bonneval at La Chapelle-aux-Saints is well known for the discovery of the first secure Neandertal burial in the early 20th century. However, the intentionality of the burial remains an issue of some debate. Here, we present the results of a 12-y fieldwork project, along with a taphonomic analysis of the human remains, designed to assess the funerary context of the La Chapelle-aux-Saints Neandertal. We have established the anthropogenic nature of the burial pit and underlined the taphonomic evidence of a rapid burial of the body. These multiple lines of evidence support the hypothesis of an intentional burial. Finally, the discovery of skeletal elements belonging to the original La Chapelle aux Saints 1 individual, two additional young individuals, and a second adult in the bouffia Bonneval highlights a more complex site-formation history than previously proposed. PMID:24344286

  8. Distribution of maximum burial temperatures across northern Appalachian Basin and implications for Carboniferous sedimentation patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsson, M.J.

    1986-05-01

    Clay-mineral diagenesis and apatite fission-track age data indicate that the maximum burial temperatures to which the Middle Devonian Tioga metabentonite was exposed rise abruptly from low values in western New York State to higher values in the east. The highest temperatures, which approach 175/sup 0/C, were reached just west of Syracuse. Neither the pattern nor the magnitude of burial temperatures can be explained solely by burial of the metabentonite beneath Upper Devonian sediments. Although spatial variations in the geothermal gradient could have produced the observed pattern of burial temperatures, it is more likely that Carboniferous sediments, no longer preserved in the area, were responsible for the indicated burial. The inferred presence of thick Carboniferous sequences in western New York State suggests that the Allegheny orogeny had a stronger influence on sedimentation in the northern Appalachian Basin than has been previously recognized. 25 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Stress-induced chemical waves in sediment burial diagenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifeng; Budd, David A

    2012-01-01

    Lateral metre-scale periodic variations in porosity and composition are found in many dolomite strata. Such variations may embed important information about dolomite formation and transformation. Here we show that these variations could be fossilized chemical waves emerging from stress-mediated mineral-water interaction during sediment burial diagenesis. Under the overlying loading, crystals in higher porosity domains are subjected to a higher effective stress, causing pressure solution. The dissolved species diffuse to and precipitate in neighbouring lower porosity domains, further reducing the porosity. This positive feedback leads to lateral porosity and compositional patterning in dolomite. The pattern geometry depends on fluid flow regimes. In a diffusion-dominated case, the low- and high-porosity domains alternate spatially with no directional preference, while, in the presence of an advective flow, this alternation occurs only along the flow direction, propagating like a chemical wave. Our work provides a new perspective for interpreting diagenetic signatures in sedimentary rocks. PMID:22353716

  10. Determination of post-burial interval using entomology: A review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajinder; Sharma, Sahil; Sharma, Arun

    2016-08-01

    Insects and other arthropods are used in different matters pertinent to the criminal justice system as they play very important role in the decomposition of cadavers. They are used as evidence in a criminal investigation to determine post mortem interval (PMI). Various researches and review articles are available on forensic entomology to determine PMI in the terrestrial environment but very less work has been reported in context to buried bodies. Burring the carcass, is one of the methods used by criminals to conceal the crime. So, to drive the attention of researchers toward this growing field and to help various investigating agencies, the present paper reviews the studies done on determination of post-burial interval (PBI), its importance and future prospective. PMID:27235895

  11. 77 FR 58591 - Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning Waste Disposal Costs at Low-Level...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Burial Facilities AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft NUREG; request for comment... document entitled: NUREG-1307 Revision 15, ``Report on Waste Burial Charges: Changes in Decommissioning... a document is referenced. The NUREG-1307, Revision 15 is available electronically under...

  12. Effects of urban stream burial on nitrogen uptake and ecosystem metabolism: implications for watershed nitrogen and carbon fluxes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urbanization has resulted in extensive burial and channelization of headwater streams, yet little is known about impacts on stream ecosystem functions critical for reducing downstream nitrogen pollution. To characterize the biogeochemical impact of stream burial, we measured NO3...

  13. Investigation and simulation on fate and transport of leachate from a livestock mortality burial site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, J.-W.; Lee, S.; Kaown, D.; Lee, K.-K.

    2012-04-01

    Leachate released from livestock mortality burial during decomposition of carcasses can be a threat to groundwater quality. Monitoring study of groundwater quality in the vicinity of livestock burial reported that a caution is needed to prevent contamination of both groundwater and soil, especially in case of mortality burial (Glanville, 2000; Ritter and Chirnside, 1995). The average concentration of ammonium-N and chloride is reported to be 12,600 mg/l and 2,600 mg/l respectively, which is 2-4 times higher than leachate from earthen manure storages and landfills (Pratt, 2009). To assess the potential threat of burial leachate to groundwater quality, simulation of leachate transport is performed based on a hydrogeologic model of an actual mortality burial site. At the burial site of this study located at a hill slope, two mortality pits have been constructed along the slope to bury swine during the outbreak of nationwide foot and mouth disease(FMD) in 2011. Though the pits were partially lined with impermeable material, potential threat of leachate leakage is still in concern. Electrical resistivity survey has been performed several times at the burial site and abnormal resistivity zones have been detected which are supposed as leachate leakage from the burial. Subsurface model including unsaturated zone is built since the leakage is supposed to occur mainly in lateral of the burial pits which is in unsaturated zone. When examining leachate transport, main focus is given to a nitrogenous compound and colloidal character of FMD virus. Nitrifying of denitrifying characters of nitrogenous compound and transport of colloidal particles are affected mainly by soil water content in unsaturated zone. Thus, the fate and transport of burial leachate affected by seasonal variation in recharge pattern is investigated.

  14. Burial trench dynamic compaction demonstration at a humid site

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    This task has the objective of determining the degree of consolidation which can be achieved by dynamic compaction of a closed burial trench within a cohesive soil formation. A seven-year-old burial trench in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was selected for this demonstration. This 251 m/sup 3/ trench contained about 80 Ci of mixed radionuclides, mostly /sup 90/Sr, in 25 m/sup 3/ of waste consisting of contaminated equipment, dry solids, and demolition debris. Prior to compaction, a total trench void space of 79 m/sup 3/ was measured by pumping the trench full of water with corrections for seepage. Additional pre-compaction characterization included trench cap bulk density (1.68 kg/L), trench cap permeability (3 x 10/sup -7/ m/s), and subsurface waste/backfill hydraulic conductivity (>0.01 m/s). Compaction was achieved by repeatedly dropping a 4-ton steel-reinforced concrete cylinder from heights of 4 to 8 m using the whipline of a 70-ton crane. The average trench ground surface was depressed 0.79 m, with some sections over 2 m, yielding a surveyed volumetric depression which totaled to 64% of the measured trench void space. Trench cap (0 to 60 cm) bulk density and permeability were not affected by compaction indicating that the consolidation was largely subsurface. Neither surface nor airborne radioactive contamination were observed during repeated monitoring during the demonstration. Dynamic compaction was shown to be an excellent and inexpensive (i.e., about $20/m/sup 2/) method to collapse trench void space, thereby hastening subsidence and stabilizing the land surface. 15 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. CHALLENGES WITH RETRIEVING TRANSURANIC WASTE FROM THE HANFORD BURIAL GROUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    SWAN, R.J.; LAKES, M.E.

    2007-08-06

    The U.S. DOE's Hanford Reservation produced plutonium and other nuclear materials for the nation's defense starting in World War II. The defense mission generated wastes that were either retrievably stored (i.e. retrievably stored waste) and/or disposed of in burial grounds. Challenges have emerged from retrieving suspect TRU waste including adequacy of records, radiological concerns, container integrity, industrial hygiene and safety issues, the lack of processing/treatment facilities, and the integration of regulatory requirements. All retrievably stored waste is managed as mixed waste and assumed to be TRU waste, unless documented otherwise. Mixed waste is defined as radioactive waste that contains hazardous constituents. The Atomic Energy Act governs waste with radionuclides, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) governs waste with hazardous constituents. Waste may also be governed by the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), and a portion may be managed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). In 1970, TRU waste was required to be placed in 20-year retrievable storage and segregated from other Waste. Prior to that date, segregation did not occur. Because of the changing definition of TRU over the years, and the limitations of early assay equipment, all retrievably stored waste in the burial grounds is managed as suspect TRU. Experience has shown that some of this waste will be characterized as low-level (non-TRU) waste after assay. The majority of the retrieved waste is not amenable to sampling due to waste type and/or radiological issues. Key to waste retrieval and disposition are characterization, historical investigation and research, knowledge of past handling and packaging, as well as a broad understanding and application of the regulations.

  16. 38 CFR 1.10 - Eligibility for and disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes. 1.10 Section 1.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS The United States Flag for Burial Purposes § 1.10 Eligibility for and disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes. (a) Eligibility...

  17. 38 CFR 1.10 - Eligibility for and disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes. 1.10 Section 1.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS The United States Flag for Burial Purposes § 1.10 Eligibility for and disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes. (a) Eligibility...

  18. 38 CFR 1.10 - Eligibility for and disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes. 1.10 Section 1.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS The United States Flag for Burial Purposes § 1.10 Eligibility for and disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes. (a) Eligibility...

  19. 38 CFR 1.10 - Eligibility for and disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes. 1.10 Section 1.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS The United States Flag for Burial Purposes § 1.10 Eligibility for and disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes. (a) Eligibility...

  20. 31 CFR 538.535 - Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. 538.535 Section 538.535 Money and Finance... Policy § 538.535 Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. (a) The importation into the United States of human remains for burial, cremation, or...

  1. 31 CFR 538.535 - Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. 538.535 Section 538.535 Money and Finance... Policy § 538.535 Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. (a) The importation into the United States of human remains for burial, cremation, or...

  2. 31 CFR 538.535 - Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. 538.535 Section 538.535 Money and Finance... Policy § 538.535 Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. (a) The importation into the United States of human remains for burial, cremation, or...

  3. Ancient Chinese Astronomy - An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yunli

    Documentary and archaeological evidence testifies the early origin and continuous development of ancient Chinese astronomy to meet both the ideological and practical needs of a society largely based on agriculture. There was a long period when the beginning of the year, month, and season was determined by direct observation of celestial phenomena, including their alignments with respect to the local skyline. As the need for more exact study arose, new instruments for more exact observation were invented and the system of calendrical astronomy became entirely mathematized.

  4. High Prevalence of Clustered Tuberculosis Cases in Peruvian Migrants in Florence, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Tortoli, Enrico; Borroni, Emanuele; Bartalesi, Filippo; Strohmeyer, Marianne; Baretti, Simonetta; Simonetti, Maria Tullia; Liendo, Carola; Santini, Maria Grazia; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a leading cause of morbidity for Peruvian migrants in Florence, Italy, where they account for about 20% of yearly diagnosed cases. A retrospective study on cases notified in Peruvian residents in Florence in the period 2001-2010 was carried out and available Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were genotyped (MIRU-VNTR-24 and Spoligotyping). One hundred thirty eight cases were retrieved. Genotyping performed in 87 strains revealed that 39 (44.8%) belonged to 12 clusters. Assuming that in each cluster the transmission of tuberculosis from the index case took place in Florence, a large proportion of cases could be preventable by improving early diagnosis of contagious cases and contact tracing. PMID:25568758

  5. Partial in vitro analysis of toxic and antigenic activities of eleven Peruvian pitviper snake venoms.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Duarte, C; Lopes-Peixoto, J; Fonseca-de-Souza, B R; Stransky, S; Oliveira, D; Schneider, F S; Lopes-de-Souza, L; Bonilla, C; Silva, W; Tintaya, B; Yarleque, A; Chávez-Olórtegui, C

    2015-12-15

    This work used eleven Peruvian snake venoms (Bothrops andianus, Bothrops atrox, Bothrops barnetti, Bothrops castelnaudi, Bothriopsis chloromelas, Bothrocophias microphthalmus, Bothrops neuwiedi, Bothriopsis oligolepis, Bothriopsis peruviana, Bothrops pictus and Bothriopsis taeniata) to perform in vitro experimentation and determine its main characteristics. Hyaluronidase (HYAL), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), snake venom metalloproteinase (SVMP), snake venom serine protease (SVSP) and L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) activities; toxicity by cell viability assays using MGSO3, VERO and HeLa cell lineages; and crossed immunoreactivity with Peruvian (PAV) and Brazilian (BAV) antibothropic polyvalent antivenoms, through ELISA and Western Blotting assays, were determined. Results show that the activities tested in this study were not similar amongst the venoms and each species present their own peculiarities, highlighting the diversity within Bothrops complex. All venoms were capable of reducing cell viability of all tested lineages. It was also demonstrated the crossed recognition of all tested venoms by both antivenoms. PMID:26365916

  6. Kinship Paths To and From the New Europe: A Unified Analysis of Peruvian Adoption and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Leinaweaver, Jessaca B.

    2013-01-01

    This article compares migrants and adoptees of Peruvian origin residing in Europe by focusing on their respective movements out of and return to the sending country of Peru. First, it analyzes family-based reunifications by drawing on a framework from studies of adoption and kinship. Juxtaposing the experiences of adoptees with those of migrants reveals how migration, too, may be steeped in concerns about kin ties. Next, it analyzes returns of adult adoptees using a template modeled on migrant returns, focusing on the centrality of the notion of contribution. The article shows how migrants and adoptees contest the constraints of European nation-state definitions of kinship intended to limit migration. It is based on recent research with Peruvian migrants and adoptees in Spain, as well as longer-term research in Peru on migration and adoption. PMID:24443664

  7. Kinship Paths To and From the New Europe: A Unified Analysis of Peruvian Adoption and Migration.

    PubMed

    Leinaweaver, Jessaca B

    2011-11-01

    This article compares migrants and adoptees of Peruvian origin residing in Europe by focusing on their respective movements out of and return to the sending country of Peru. First, it analyzes family-based reunifications by drawing on a framework from studies of adoption and kinship. Juxtaposing the experiences of adoptees with those of migrants reveals how migration, too, may be steeped in concerns about kin ties. Next, it analyzes returns of adult adoptees using a template modeled on migrant returns, focusing on the centrality of the notion of contribution. The article shows how migrants and adoptees contest the constraints of European nation-state definitions of kinship intended to limit migration. It is based on recent research with Peruvian migrants and adoptees in Spain, as well as longer-term research in Peru on migration and adoption. PMID:24443664

  8. Fasciola hepatica Infection in an Indigenous Community of the Peruvian Jungle.

    PubMed

    Cabada, Miguel M; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Lopez, Martha; Caravedo, María Alejandra; Arque, Eulogia; White, Arthur Clinton

    2016-06-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a zoonotic infection with a worldwide distribution. Autochthonous cases have not been reported in the Amazon region of Peru. Operculated eggs resembling F. hepatica were identified in the stools of five out of 215 subjects in a remote indigenous community of the Peruvian jungle. Polymerase chain reaction targeting Fasciola hepatica cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene and sequencing of the products confirmed Fasciola infection. PMID:26976892

  9. Subduction processes along the Peruvian Margin revealed by wide angle seismic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbenhoeft, A.; Bialas, J.; Kopp, H.; Kukowski, N.

    2002-12-01

    Within the scope of the GEOPECO (Geophysical Experiments at the Peruvian Continental Margin) project, seismic investigations along the Pacific margin of Peru were carried out using ocean bottom hydrophones (OBH) and seismometers (OBS) recording marine airgun shots. The structure and the P-wave velocity of the oblique subducting Nazca and overriding South-American Plates from 8 °S to 15 °S were determined by forward modeling and tomographic inversion of the wide-angle seismic data combined with the analysis of reflection seismic data. The oceanic Nazca Plate is divided by Mendana Fracture Zone (MFZ) which marks a transition zone of a different crustal age of approximately 28 Ma in the north to 38 Ma in the south at the Peruvian trench. North of MFZ the oceanic crust is influenced by Trujillo Trough trending N15E and the surrounding extensional stresses leading to a crustal thinning as can be seen in the northernmost refraction seismic model. The oceanic crust south of MFZ is overall homogeneous with a thin pelagic sedimentary layer and normal oceanic crustal layers. The P-wave velocity of the mantle is overall 7.9-8.1 km/s. The Peruvian Continental Margin is characterized by the continental slope and several basins, Trujillo and Yaquina basin, Lima basin and Pisco basin, which are partly affected by the southward migration of the subducting Nazca Ridge. This caused uplift and subsidence along the margin leading to erosional tectonic features. The basins and continental basement could be mapped with forward modeling and tomographic inversion as well as the continental backstop on each profile. An accretionary prism is set up with a width of 20 to 30 km and 4 to 5 km thickness which does not further increase in size as revealed by the profiles recorded further north of Nazca Ridge. This and a taper of 14 ° -17 ° at the collision zone indicates that current subduction along the Peruvian Margin is non-accreting.

  10. Size increment of jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas mature females in Peruvian waters, 1989-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argüelles, Juan; Tafur, Ricardo; Taipe, Anatolio; Villegas, Piero; Keyl, Friedeman; Dominguez, Noel; Salazar, Martín

    2008-10-01

    Changes in population structure of the jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas in Peruvian waters were studied based on size-at-maturity from 1989 to 2004. From 1989 to 1999, mature squid belonging to the medium-sized group prevailed, but from 2001 on, mature squids were larger. This change is not related to the changes in sea surface temperature and we hypothesized that it was caused by the population increase of mesopelagic fishes as prey.

  11. Patterns of GPS tracks suggest nocturnal foraging by incubating Peruvian pelicans (Pelecanus thagus).

    PubMed

    Zavalaga, Carlos B; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Becciu, Paolo; Yoda, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Most seabirds are diurnal foragers, but some species may also feed at night. In Peruvian pelicans (Pelecanus thagus), the evidence for nocturnal foraging is sparse and anecdotal. We used GPS-dataloggers on five incubating Peruvian pelicans from Isla Lobos de Tierra, Perú, to examine their nocturnality, foraging movements and activities patterns at sea. All instrumented pelicans undertook nocturnal trips during a 5-7 day tracking period. Eighty-seven percent of these trips (n = 13) were strictly nocturnal, whereas the remaining occurred during the day and night. Most birds departed from the island after sunset and returned a few hours after sunrise. Birds traveled south of the island for single-day trips at a maximum range of 82.8 km. Overall, 22% of the tracking period was spent at sea, whereas the remaining time was spent on the island. In the intermediate section of the trip (between inbound and outbound commutes), birds spent 77% of the trip time in floating bouts interspersed by short flying bouts, the former being on average three times longer than the latter. Taken together, the high sinuosity of the bird's tracks during floating bouts, the exclusively nocturnal trips of most individuals, and the fact that all birds returned to the island within a few hours after sunrise suggest that pelicans were actively feeding at night. The nocturnal foraging strategy of Peruvian pelicans may reduce food competition with the sympatric and strictly diurnal Guanay cormorants (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii), Peruvian boobies (Sula variegata) and Blue-footed boobies (S. nebouxii), which were present on the island in large numbers. Likewise, plankton bioluminescence might be used by pelicans as indirect cues to locate anchovies during their upward migration at night. The foraging success of pelicans at night may be enhanced by seizing prey close to the sea surface using a sit-and-wait strategy. PMID:21647444

  12. Patterns of GPS Tracks Suggest Nocturnal Foraging by Incubating Peruvian Pelicans (Pelecanus thagus)

    PubMed Central

    Zavalaga, Carlos B.; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Becciu, Paolo; Yoda, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Most seabirds are diurnal foragers, but some species may also feed at night. In Peruvian pelicans (Pelecanus thagus), the evidence for nocturnal foraging is sparse and anecdotal. We used GPS-dataloggers on five incubating Peruvian pelicans from Isla Lobos de Tierra, Perú, to examine their nocturnality, foraging movements and activities patterns at sea. All instrumented pelicans undertook nocturnal trips during a 5–7 day tracking period. Eighty-seven percent of these trips (n = 13) were strictly nocturnal, whereas the remaining occurred during the day and night. Most birds departed from the island after sunset and returned a few hours after sunrise. Birds traveled south of the island for single-day trips at a maximum range of 82.8 km. Overall, 22% of the tracking period was spent at sea, whereas the remaining time was spent on the island. In the intermediate section of the trip (between inbound and outbound commutes), birds spent 77% of the trip time in floating bouts interspersed by short flying bouts, the former being on average three times longer than the latter. Taken together, the high sinuosity of the bird's tracks during floating bouts, the exclusively nocturnal trips of most individuals, and the fact that all birds returned to the island within a few hours after sunrise suggest that pelicans were actively feeding at night. The nocturnal foraging strategy of Peruvian pelicans may reduce food competition with the sympatric and strictly diurnal Guanay cormorants (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii), Peruvian boobies (Sula variegata) and Blue-footed boobies (S. nebouxii), which were present on the island in large numbers. Likewise, plankton bioluminescence might be used by pelicans as indirect cues to locate anchovies during their upward migration at night. The foraging success of pelicans at night may be enhanced by seizing prey close to the sea surface using a sit-and-wait strategy. PMID:21647444

  13. Geology and hydrology of radioactive solid-waste burial grounds at the Hanford Reservation, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaSala, Albert Mario; Doty, Gene C.

    1976-01-01

    The geology and hydrology of radioactive solid waste burial grounds at the Hanford Reservation were investigated, using existing data, by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the waste management plan of the Richland Operations Office of the Energy Research and Development Administration. The purpose of the investigation was to assist the operations office in characterizing the burial sites as to present environmental safety and as to their suitability for long-term storage (several thousand to tens of thousands of years) of radioactive sol id wastes. The burial ground sites fall into two classifications: (1) those on the low stream terraces adjacent to the Columbia River, mainly in the 100 Areas and 300 Area, and (2) those lying on the high terraces south of Gable Mountain in the 200 Areas. Evaluation of the suitability of the burial grounds for long-term storage was made almost entirely on hydrologic, geologic, and topographic criteria. Of greatest concern was the possibility that radionuclides might be leached from the buried wastes by infiltrating water and carried downward to the water table. The climate is semi-arid and the average annual precipitation is 6.4 inches at the Hanford Meteorological Station. However, the precipitation is seasonally distributed with about 50 percent occurring during the months of November, December, January, and February when evapotranspiration is negligible and conditions for infiltration are most favorable. None of the burial grounds are instrumented with monitoring devices that could be used to determine if radionuclides derived from them are reaching the water table. Burial grounds on the low stream terraces are mainly underlain by permeable materials and the water table lies at relatively shallow depths. Radionuclides conceivably could be leached from these burial grounds by percolating soil water, and radionuclides might reach the Columbia River in a relatively short time. These sites could also be inundated by erosion

  14. Organic Carbon Burial in Lakes and Reservoirs of the Conterminous United States.

    PubMed

    Clow, David W; Stackpoole, Sarah M; Verdin, Kristine L; Butman, David E; Zhu, Zhiliang; Krabbenhoft, David P; Striegl, Robert G

    2015-07-01

    Organic carbon (OC) burial in lacustrine sediments represents an important sink in the global carbon cycle; however, large-scale OC burial rates are poorly constrained, primarily because of the sparseness of available data sets. Here we present an analysis of OC burial rates in water bodies of the conterminous U.S. (CONUS) that takes advantage of recently developed national-scale data sets on reservoir sedimentation rates, sediment OC concentrations, lake OC burial rates, and water body distributions. We relate these data to basin characteristics and land use in a geostatistical analysis to develop an empirical model of OC burial in water bodies of the CONUS. Our results indicate that CONUS water bodies sequester 20.8 (95% CI: 9.4-65.8) Tg C yr(-1), and spatial patterns in OC burial are strongly influenced by water body type, size, and abundance; land use; and soil and vegetation characteristics in surrounding areas. Carbon burial is greatest in the central and southeastern regions of the CONUS, where cultivation and an abundance of small water bodies enhance accumulation of sediment and OC in aquatic environments. PMID:26061185

  15. Land-use change, not climate, controls organic carbon burial in lakes

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, N. J.; Dietz, R. D.; Engstrom, D. R.

    2013-01-01

    Lakes are a central component of the carbon cycle, both mineralizing terrestrially derived organic matter and storing substantial amounts of organic carbon (OC) in their sediments. However, the rates and controls on OC burial by lakes remain uncertain, as do the possible effects of future global change processes. To address these issues, we derived OC burial rates in 210Pb-dated sediment cores from 116 small Minnesota lakes that cover major climate and land-use gradients. Rates for individual lakes presently range from 7 to 127 g C m–2 yr–1 and have increased by up to a factor of 8 since Euro-American settlement (mean increase: 2.8×). Mean pre-disturbance OC burial rates were similar (14–22 g C m–2 yr–1) across all land-cover categories (prairie, mixed deciduous and boreal forest), indicating minimal effect of the regional temperature gradient (approx. 4°C) on background carbon burial. The relationship between modern OC burial rates and temperature was also not significant after removal of the effect of total phosphorus. Contemporary burial rates were strongly correlated with lake-water nutrients and the extent of agricultural land cover in the catchment. Increased OC burial, documented even in relatively undisturbed boreal lake ecosystems, indicates a possible role for atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Our results suggest that globally, future land-cover change, intensification of agriculture and associated nutrient loading together with atmospheric N-deposition will enhance OC sequestration by lakes. PMID:23966637

  16. Substance use and sexual risk behaviors among Peruvian MSM social media users.

    PubMed

    Young, Sean D; Nianogo, Roch A; Chiu, ChingChe J; Menacho, Lucho; Galea, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    Peru is experiencing a concentrated HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). Substance use (alcohol and drug use) has been found to be associated with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. A recent surge in the number of social media users in Peru has enabled these technologies to be potential tools for reaching HIV at-risk individuals. This study sought to assess the relationship between substance use and sexual risk behaviors among Peruvian MSM who use social media. A total of 556 Peruvian MSM Facebook users (ages 18-59) were recruited to complete a 92-item survey on demographics, sexual risk behaviors, and substance use. We performed a logistic regression of various sexual risk behaviors (e.g., unprotected sex, casual sex) on substance abuse, including alcohol, adjusting for potential covariates. Drinking more than five alcoholic drinks a day in the past three months was associated with an increased odds of having unprotected sex (vaginal and anal) (aOR: 1.52; 95% CL: 1.01, 2.28), casual sex (1.75; 1.17, 2.62), and sex with unknown persons (1.82; 1.23, 2.71). Drug use was not significantly associated with sexual risk behaviors. Among Peruvian MSM social media users, findings suggest that alcohol use was associated with increased HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. PMID:26324405

  17. Nitrogen fixation in sediments along a depth transect through the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gier, Jessica; Sommer, Stefan; Löscher, Carolin R.; Dale, Andrew W.; Schmitz, Ruth A.; Treude, Tina

    2016-07-01

    The potential coupling of nitrogen (N2) fixation and sulfate reduction (SR) was explored in sediments of the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Sediment samples were retrieved by a multiple corer at six stations along a depth transect (70-1025 m water depth) at 12° S, covering anoxic and hypoxic bottom water conditions. Benthic N2 fixation, determined by the acetylene reduction assay, was detected at all sites, with highest rates between 70 and 253 m and lower rates at greater depth. SR rates decreased with increasing water depth. N2 fixation and SR overlapped in sediments, suggesting a potential coupling of both processes. However, a weak positive correlation of their activity distribution was detected by principle component analysis. A potential link between N2 fixation and sulfate-reducing bacteria was indicated by the molecular analysis of nifH genes. Detected nifH sequences clustered with the sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfonema limicola at the 253 m station. However, nifH sequences of other stations clustered with uncultured organisms, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes (Clostridia) rather than with known sulfate reducers. The principle component analysis revealed that benthic N2 fixation in the Peruvian OMZ is controlled by organic matter (positive) and free sulfide (negative). No correlation was found between N2 fixation and ammonium concentrations (even at levels > 2022 µM). N2 fixation rates in the Peruvian OMZ sediments were in the same range as those measured in other organic-rich sediments.

  18. Tracing the genomic ancestry of Peruvians reveals a major legacy of pre-Columbian ancestors.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Jose R; Salazar-Granara, Alberto; Acosta, Oscar; Castillo-Herrera, Wilder; Fujita, Ricardo; Pena, Sergio D J; Santos, Fabricio R

    2013-09-01

    In order to investigate the underlying genetic structure and genomic ancestry proportions of Peruvian subpopulations, we analyzed 551 human samples of 25 localities from the Andean, Amazonian, and Coastal regions of Peru with a set of 40 ancestry informative insertion-deletion polymorphisms. Using genotypes of reference populations from different continents for comparison, our analysis indicated that populations from all 25 Peruvian locations had predominantly Amerindian genetic ancestry. Among populations from the Titicaca Lake islands of Taquile, Amantani, Anapia, and Uros, and the Yanque locality from the southern Peruvian Andes, there was no significant proportion of non-autochthonous genomes, indicating that their genetic background is effectively derived from the first settlers of South America. However, the Andean populations from San Marcos, Cajamarca, Characato and Chogo, and coastal populations from Lambayeque and Lima displayed a low but significant European ancestry proportion. Furthermore, Amazonian localities of Pucallpa, Lamas, Chachapoyas, and Andean localities of Ayacucho and Huancayo displayed intermediate levels of non-autochthonous ancestry, mostly from Europe. These results are in close agreement with the documented history of post-Columbian immigrations in Peru and with several reports suggesting a larger effective size of indigenous inhabitants during the formation of the current country's population. PMID:23863748

  19. [Evaluation of peruvian money test in screening of cognitive impairment among older adults].

    PubMed

    Oscanoa, Teodoro J; Cieza, Edwin; Parodi, José F; Paredes, Napoleón

    2016-03-01

    Objectives To evaluate the Peruvian adaptation of the money test (Eurotest) for identifying cognitive impairment among >60-year-old adults. Materials and methods This is a phase I study of diagnostic test, with a convenience sampling and calculation of the test´s sensitivity and specificity, based on a pretest prevalence of 50%. The criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV) and Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) were used for the operational definition of patients with cognitive impairment. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to identify the optimal cut-off value. Results The study evaluated 42 cases and 42 controls; there was no significant difference between age (77.88 ± 6.01 years vs. 6.49 76.14 ± years) and years of education (13.69 ± 3.70 years vs. 8.17 ± 4.71 years). The Peruvian version of the Eurotest has a sensitivity of 90.5% and specificity of 83.3% with cut-off value of 24. Conclusions The Peruvian adapted version of the Eurotest, called prueba de la moneda peruana could be useful in screening for cognitive impairment among older adults. PMID:27384624

  20. Homogeneous temperature and precipitation series for a Peruvian High Andes regions from 1965 to 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acuña, D.; Serpa Lopez, B.; Silvestre, E.; Konzelmann, Th.; Rohrer, M.; Schwarb, M.; Salzmann, N.

    2010-09-01

    As a basis of a joint Swiss-Peruvian effort focused on water resources, food security and disaster preparedness (Peruvian Climate Adaptation Project, PACC) clean and homogenized meteorological datasets have been elaborated for the Cusco and Apurimac Regions in the Central Andes. Operational and historical data series of more than 100 stations of the Peruvian Meteorological and Hydrological Service (SENAMHI) were available as a data base. Additionally, meteorological data provided by the National Climatic Data Centre (NCDC) or the Meteorological Aerodrome Records (METAR), have been considered. In contrast to many European countries, where most conventional sensors have been replaced by automated sensors during the last decades, instrumentation of climatological stations remained unchanged in Peru. Station records and station history of the Cusco-Apurimac-region are partially fragmentary or lost, mainly because of armed conflicts, particularly in the 1980ies. Moreover, many stations do observe precipitation as only variable. As a consequence, it was only possible so far to elaborate four complete homogenized air temperature series (Curahuasi 2763m a.s.l., Granja Kcayra-Cusco 3219m, Sicuani, 3574m and La Angostura, 4150m) since 1965. For precipitation a larger number of stations was available for elaboration, which is important because of the small scaled characteristics of the mostly convective type precipitation events in these regions. Based on these homogenized series, linear and gaussian low pass filtered trends have been calculated for all series of precipitation and air temperature records.

  1. Isochron-burial dating of glacially-driven sediments: first results from the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akçar, Naki; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Alfimov, Vasily; Claude, Anne; Reber, Regina; Christl, Marcus; Vockenhuber, Christof; Schlunegger, Fritz; Dehnert, Andreas; Rahn, Meinert; Schlüchter, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The recently introduced method of isochron-burial dating, employs the fact that the samples from a well-defined single bed in a deposit would have the same post-burial but different pre-burial histories. The analysis of cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al in such samples enables the modeling of the post-burial component and the determination of the 26Al/10Be at the time of burial. The isochron-burial age can then be calculated from the initial and the measured ratios. In this study, we focus on the isochron-burial dating of the oldest Quaternary deposits of the Alpine Foreland. These are called Swiss Deckenschotter (cover gravels) as they build mesa-type hill tops on the Mesozoic or Cenozoic bedrock of the Swiss Alpine forelands. Deckenschotter consists of glaciofluvial gravel layers intercalated with glacial and/or overbank deposits. Although previously morphostratigraphically correlated with Günz and Mindel glaciations of Penck and Brückner, the Swiss Deckenschotter is likely much older, and their chronostratigraphy is not well constrained. In order to reconstruct the chronology of these deposits, we collected more than 30 clasts of different lithology, shape and size from a single stratigraphic horizon in an abandoned gravel pit in Siglistorf (canton Zurich). We processed 19 clasts for cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al. Four samples did not yield successful 26Al measurements and two were unsuccessful for 10Be. Most of the samples have low nuclide concentrations, i.e. <20000 10Be at/g and <150000 26Al at/g. Finally, using the 26Al/10Be ratio of the samples we calculated an isochron-burial age of around 1.5 Ma. Our results from this study indicate that glaciofluvial sediments can well be time-calibrated with isochron-burial dating despite the low cosmogenic nuclide concentrations.

  2. [Ancient history of Indian pharmacy].

    PubMed

    Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko

    2010-01-01

    The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ramāyana and Mahābhārata and in the Atharvaveda. Suśruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahmā-->Daksa-->Prajāpati-->Aśivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Suśruta-samhitā, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Suśruta Both Caraka and Suśruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism. PMID:21032887

  3. Survival of the fittest: phosphorus burial in the sulfidic deep Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraal, Peter; Dijkstra, Nikki; Behrends, Thilo; Slomp, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    The Black Sea is characterized by permanently anoxic and sulfidic deep waters. Studies of the mechanisms of P burial in such a setting can be used to improve our understanding of P cycling in modern coastal systems undergoing eutrophication and ancient oceans during periods of anoxia in Earth's past. Here, we present phosphorus and iron (Fe) pools as determined in surface sediments along a transect from oxic shallow waters to sulfidic deep waters in the northwestern Black Sea, using a combination of bulk chemical analyses and micro-scale X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (μXAS). We show that under oxic bottom water conditions, ferric iron oxides (Fe(III)ox) in surficial sediment efficiently scavenge dissolved phosphate from pore waters. Under these conditions, Fe(III)ox-bound P constitutes the main P pool at the sediment surface, but rapidly declines with depth in the sediment due to anoxic diagenesis. The transition from shallow (oxic) to deep (sulfidic) waters along the depth transect is reflected in a slight increase in the fraction of organic P. We also show evidence for authigenic calcium phosphate formation under sulfidic conditions at relatively low dissolved PO4 concentrations. Furthermore, we provide spectroscopic evidence for the presence of Fe(II)-Mn(II)-Mg-P minerals in sediments of the sulfidic deep basin. We hypothesize that these minerals are formed as a result of input of Fe(III)ox-P from shallower waters and subsequent transformation in either the water column or sediment. This finding suggests an unexpected strength of Fe-P shuttling from the shelf to the deep basin. While the presence of Fe-P species in such a highly sulfidic environment is remarkable, further analysis suggests that this P pool may not be quantitatively significant. In fact, our results indicate that some of the P that is interpreted as Fe-bound P based on chemical extraction may in fact be Ca-associated PO4 consisting of a combination of fish debris

  4. General description of the hydrology and burial trenches at the low-level radioactive waste burial facility near Barnwell, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, B.B.

    1984-01-01

    The Barnwell low-level radioactive solid waste burial site is located in Barnwell County, South Carolina, 5 miles west of the city of Barnwell. Approximately 1,050 feet of stratified gravel, sand, silt, clay, and limestone, ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene, underlie the burial site. Ground water within the study area occurs under water table, semi-confined, and artesian conditions. Overland flow and most precipitation that recharges the ground-water system at the burial site is discharged to Marys Branch Creek. This creek originates as a spring about 3,000 feet south of the burial site and flows to the southwest into lower Three Runs. Lower Three Runs discharges into the Savannah River. Waste shipments to the site were reduced from 200,000 cubic feet per month for the period 1971 to 1979 to 100,000 cubic feet per month by October 1981. The wastes consist of both nonfuel cycle and nuclear fuel-cycle wastes. The standard trench dimensions at the burial site are 100 feet wide by 1,000 feet long and 22 feet deep. Trench bottoms are a minimum of 5 feet above the water table. Seven soil mapping units occur at the waste disposal facility. The three major soil types are all well drained and cover approximately 84 percent of the study area. (USGS)

  5. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  6. Hydrogeological influences on radionuclide migration from the major radioactive waste burial sites at Chernobyl (A review)

    SciTech Connect

    Dgepo, S.P.; Skalsky, A.S.; Bugai, D.A.; Marchuk, V.V.; Waters, R.D.

    1994-03-01

    This paper summarizes the recent hydrogeological investigations of several research organizations on waste confinement at the major radioactive waste (RW) burial sites immediately adjacent to the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (Ch. NPP). Hydrogeological conditions and radiologic ground-water contamination levels are described. Ongoing ground-water monitoring practices are evaluated. The chemical and physical characteristics of the radionuclides within the burial sites are considered. Ground water and radionuclide transport modeling studies related to problems of the RW disposal sites are also reviewed. Current concerns on future impacts of the RW burial sites on the hydrological environment and water resources of the Ch.NPP area are discussed.

  7. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  8. Investigation of ancient DNA from Western Siberia and the Sargat culture.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Casey C; Kaestle, Frederika A

    2010-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA from 14 archaeological samples at the Ural State University in Yekaterinburg, Russia, was extracted to test the feasibility of ancient DNA work on their collection. These samples come from a number of sites that fall into two groupings. Seven samples are from three sites, dating to the 8th-12th century AD, that belong to a northern group of what are thought to be Ugrians, who lived along the Ural Mountains in northwestern Siberia. The remaining seven samples are from two sites that belong to a southern group representing the Sargat culture, dating between roughly the 5th century BC and the 5th century AD, from southwestern Siberia near the Ural Mountains and the present-day Kazakhstan border. The samples are derived from several burial types, including kurgan burials. They also represent a number of different skeletal elements and a range of observed preservation. The northern sites repeatedly failed to amplify after multiple extraction and amplification attempts, but the samples from the southern sites were successfully extracted and amplified. The sequences obtained from the southern sites support the hypothesis that the Sargat culture was a potential zone of intermixture between native Ugrian and/or Siberian populations and steppe peoples from the south, possibly early Iranian or Indo-Iranian, which has been previously suggested by archaeological analysis. PMID:20649397

  9. Magnetite biomineralization and ancient life on Mars.

    PubMed

    Frankel, R B; Buseck, P R

    2000-04-01

    Certain chemical and mineral features of the Martian meteorite ALH84001 were reported in 1996 to be probable evidence of ancient life on Mars. In spite of new observations and interpretations, the question of ancient life on Mars remains unresolved. Putative biogenic, nanometer magnetite has now become a leading focus in the debate. PMID:10742183

  10. Women--Sex Objects in Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutimer, Brian T. P.

    Although it has been said that the women in Ancient Egypt enjoyed a reasonable state of social and professional equality with men, this paper presents an alternate theory--that women were second-class citizens whose physical prowess was secondary to their role as sex objects. It appears that men and women in Ancient Egypt often participated in the…

  11. Attitudes Toward Deviant Sex in Ancient Mesopotamia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullough, Vern L.

    1971-01-01

    The article concludes that the whole question of sexual life in ancient Mesopotamia is difficult to reconstruct and fraught with many uncertainties. Nevertheless, it seems certain that the ancient Mesopotamians had fewer prohibitions against sex than our own civilization, and regarded as acceptable many practices which later societies condemned.…

  12. Effect of soil erosion on the long-term stability of FUSRAP near-surface waste-burial sites

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Decontamination of FUSRAP sites could result in the generation of large volumes (in excess of 400,000 m/sup 3/) of low-activity radioactive wastes (primarily contaminated soil and building materials) requiring subsequent disposal. It is likely that near-surface burial will be seriously considered as an option for disposal of these materials. A number of factors - including soil erosion - could adversely affect the long-term stability of a near-surface waste-burial site. The majority of FUSRAP sites are located in the humid eastern United States, where the principal cause of erosion is the action of water. This report examines the effect of soil erosion by water on burial-site stability based on analysis of four hypothetical near-surface burial sites. The Universal Soil Loss Equation was employed to estimate average annual soil loss from burial sites and the 1000-year effects of soil loss on the soil barrier (burial trench cap) placed over low-activity wastes. Results suggest that the land use of the burial site and the slope gradient of the burial trench cap significantly affect the rate of soil erosion. The development of measures limiting the potential land use of a burial site (e.g., mixing large rocks into the burial trench cap) may be required to preserve the integrity of a burial trench for long periods of time.

  13. A Protein Solvation Model Based on Residue Burial.

    PubMed

    Ceres, Nicoletta; Pasi, Marco; Lavery, Richard

    2012-06-12

    The influence of solvent on the individual amino acids of a protein depends not simply on their surface exposure but rather on the degree of their burial within the structure. This property can be related to a simple geometrical measure termed circular variance. Circular variance depends on the spatial distribution of neighboring residues and varies from zero to one as a residue becomes buried. Its only adjustable parameter is a cutoff distance for selecting neighbors. Here, we show that circular variance can be used to build a fast and effective model of protein solvation energies. For this, we combine a coarse-grain protein representation with statistical potentials derived by Boltzmann inversion of circular variance probability distributions for different classes of pseudoatom within a large protein structure database. The method is shown to work well for distinguishing native protein structures from decoy structures generated in a variety of ways. It can also be used to detect specific residues in unfavorable solvent environments. Compared to surface accessibility, circular variance calculations are faster, less sensitive to small conformational changes, and able to account for the longer-range interactions that characterize the electrostatic component of solvent effects. The resulting solvation energies can be used alone or as part of a more general coarse-grain protein model. PMID:26593844

  14. Carbon cycling and burial in New Zealand's fjords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinojosa, Jessica L.; Moy, Christopher M.; Stirling, Claudine H.; Wilson, Gary S.; Eglinton, Timothy I.

    2014-10-01

    carbon cycling in continental margin settings is critical for constraining the global carbon cycle. Here we apply a multiproxy geochemical approach to evaluate regional carbon cycle dynamics in six New Zealand fjords. Using carbon and nitrogen concentrations and isotopes, lipid biomarkers, and redox-sensitive element concentrations, we show that the New Zealand fjords have carbon-rich surface sediments in basins that promote long-term storage (i.e., semirestricted basins with sediment accumulation rates of up to 4 mm yr-1). Using δ13C distributions to develop a mixing model, we find that organic carbon in fjord sediments is well-mixed from marine and terrestrial sources in down-fjord gradients. This is driven by high regional precipitation rates of >6 m yr-1, which promote carbon accumulation in fjord basins through terrestrial runoff. In addition, we have identified at least two euxinic subbasins, based on uranium, molybdenum, iron, and cadmium enrichment, that contain >7% organic carbon. Because the strength and position of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds control precipitation and fjord circulation, carbon delivery and storage in the region are intimately linked to westerly wind variability. We estimate that the fjord region (759 km2) may be exporting up to 1.4 × 107 kgC yr-1, outpacing other types of continental margins in rates of carbon burial by up to 3 orders of magnitude.

  15. Osteology of a slave burial population from Barbados, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Corruccini, R S; Handler, J S; Mutaw, R J; Lange, F W

    1982-12-01

    A unique seventeenth-nineteenth century slave cemetery population from Newton plantation, Barbados, allows examination of craniodental characters in relation to ethnohistorical data. Age-at-death estimates suggest life expectancy at birth of 29 years and low infant mortality; historical demography, however, suggests life expectancy of 20 years and very high infant mortality. Tooth decay, bilateral tooth loss, periodontal disease, root hypercementosis, and severe enamel hypoplasia are high in frequency. The teeth yield evidence of such cultural practices as pipe-smoking and incisor mutilation. Several skeletal features reflect periodic near-starvation. Directional and fluctuating dental asymmetry, relative tooth size, and hypoplasia distribution suggest slaves experienced considerable weaning trauma; metabolic stress at this time exceeded that of prenatal and immediate postnatal periods. Odontometrics and dental and cranial nonmetric traits indicate that modern Blacks are intermediate between the ancestral slaves and modern Whites but more similar to the latter, suggesting effects of environmental covariance exceed those of genetic admixture. Nonmetric trait distributions show nonrandom patterns according to area of burial in the cemetery, a possible result of family segregation. PMID:6762099

  16. The Dispersion and Burial of Well-Mixed Gravels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haschenburger, J. K.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last two decades, results from numerous tracing experiments have shed light on grain kinematics in gravel-bed channels, including the distance of grain displacement and the depth of vertical mixing. However, most of these studies report results for relatively short temporal and spatial scales, when the behavior of tagged gravels may not reflect the overall streambed dynamics. The purpose of this talk is to highlight the grain kinematics of well-mixed gravels. Field observations come from a tracing experiment operated for nearly 20 years in Carnation Creek, which is located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. The small gravel-bed river with pool-riffle-bar morphology and large woody debris experiences an average of 15 ± 5 floods per year, which facilitates frequent streambed activity and relatively high bed material transport rates typically under partial sediment transport conditions. The magnetically tagged gravels, which range in size from 16 to 180 mm, have been recovered more than 10 times over the study period. Evaluation of the spatial distribution of tagged gravels over time documents the complex evolution of streamwise dispersion. Once tracers are well mixed vertically, the displacement of mobile gravels is only partly influenced by the tracer starting position in the bed morphology and its depth of burial before a given flooding period.

  17. Ancient DNA Analysis Suggests Negligible Impact of the Wari Empire Expansion in Peru's Central Coast during the Middle Horizon.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Guido; Barreto Romero, María Inés; Flores Espinoza, Isabel; Cooper, Alan; Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Llamas, Bastien; Haak, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of ancient human DNA from South America allows the exploration of pre-Columbian population history through time and to directly test hypotheses about cultural and demographic evolution. The Middle Horizon (650-1100 AD) represents a major transitional period in the Central Andes, which is associated with the development and expansion of ancient Andean empires such as Wari and Tiwanaku. These empires facilitated a series of interregional interactions and socio-political changes, which likely played an important role in shaping the region's demographic and cultural profiles. We analyzed individuals from three successive pre-Columbian cultures present at the Huaca Pucllana archaeological site in Lima, Peru: Lima (Early Intermediate Period, 500-700 AD), Wari (Middle Horizon, 800-1000 AD) and Ychsma (Late Intermediate Period, 1000-1450 AD). We sequenced 34 complete mitochondrial genomes to investigate the potential genetic impact of the Wari Empire in the Central Coast of Peru. The results indicate that genetic diversity shifted only slightly through time, ruling out a complete population discontinuity or replacement driven by the Wari imperialist hegemony, at least in the region around present-day Lima. However, we caution that the very subtle genetic contribution of Wari imperialism at the particular Huaca Pucllana archaeological site might not be representative for the entire Wari territory in the Peruvian Central Coast. PMID:27248693

  18. Centile curves and reference values for height, body mass, body mass index and waist circumference of Peruvian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Freitas, Duarte; Pan, Huiqi; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC) growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4-17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls) aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers. PMID:25761169

  19. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Freitas, Duarte; Pan, Huiqi; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC) growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls) aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers. PMID:25761169

  20. Adventitious Root Production and Plastic Resource Allocation to Biomass Determine Burial Tolerance in Woody Plants from Central Canadian Coastal Dunes

    PubMed Central

    DECH, JEFFERY P.; MAUN, M. ANWAR

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Burial is a recurrent stress imposed upon plants of coastal dunes. Woody plants are buried on open coastal dunes and in forested areas behind active blowouts; however, little is known about the burial responses and adaptive traits of these species. The objectives of this study were: (a) to determine the growth and morphological responses to burial in sand of seven woody plant species native to central Canadian coastal dunes; and (b) to identify traits that determine burial tolerance in these species. • Methods Field experiments were conducted to determine the responses of each species to burial. Saplings were exposed to burial treatments of 0, 10, 25, 50 and 75 % of their height. Burial responses were evaluated based on regressions of total biomass, height, adventitious root production and percentage allocation to shoot, root and adventitious root biomass on percentage burial. • Key Results Pinus strobus and Picea glauca lacked burial tolerance. In response to the burial gradient, these species showed a strong linear decline in total biomass, minimal adventitious root production that peaked at moderate levels (25–50 % burial) and no change in allocation to shoots vs. roots. The tolerant species Juniperus virginiana, Thuja occidentalis and Picea mariana showed a quadratic response to burial, with little change in biomass up to 50 % burial, but a large decline at 75 %. These species produced abundant adventitious roots up to 50 % burial, but did not alter allocation patterns over the range of burial levels. Populus balsamifera and Salix cordata were stimulated by burial. These species showed linear increases in biomass with increasing burial, produced copious adventitious roots across the gradient and showed a clear shift in allocation to vertical shoot growth and adventitious root production at the expense of the original roots under high burial conditions. • Conclusions Adventitious root production and plastic resource

  1. Some Key Issues in Intercultural Bilingual Education Teacher Training Programmes--as Seen from a Teacher Training Programme in the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trapnell, Lucy A.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a critical reflection of the author's 14-year experience in the Teacher Training Program for Intercultural Bilingual Education in the Peruvian Amazon Basin, developed by a national Peruvian indigenous confederation and the Loreto state teacher training college. Focuses on ethical, political, and pedagogical challenges that intercultural…

  2. Mycobacterium leprae genomes from a British medieval leprosy hospital: towards understanding an ancient epidemic

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Leprosy has afflicted humankind throughout history leaving evidence in both early texts and the archaeological record. In Britain, leprosy was widespread throughout the Middle Ages until its gradual and unexplained decline between the 14th and 16th centuries. The nature of this ancient endemic leprosy and its relationship to modern strains is only partly understood. Modern leprosy strains are currently divided into 5 phylogenetic groups, types 0 to 4, each with strong geographical links. Until recently, European strains, both ancient and modern, were thought to be exclusively type 3 strains. However, evidence for type 2 strains, a group normally associated with Central Asia and the Middle East, has recently been found in archaeological samples in Scandinavia and from two skeletons from the medieval leprosy hospital (or leprosarium) of St Mary Magdalen, near Winchester, England. Results Here we report the genotypic analysis and whole genome sequencing of two further ancient M. leprae genomes extracted from the remains of two individuals, Sk14 and Sk27, that were excavated from 10th-12th century burials at the leprosarium of St Mary Magdalen. DNA was extracted from the surfaces of bones showing osteological signs of leprosy. Known M. leprae polymorphisms were PCR amplified and Sanger sequenced, while draft genomes were generated by enriching for M. leprae DNA, and Illumina sequencing. SNP-typing and phylogenetic analysis of the draft genomes placed both of these ancient strains in the conserved type 2 group, with very few novel SNPs compared to other ancient or modern strains. Conclusions The genomes of the two newly sequenced M. leprae strains group firmly with other type 2F strains. Moreover, the M. leprae strain most closely related to one of the strains, Sk14, in the worldwide phylogeny is a contemporaneous ancient St Magdalen skeleton, vividly illustrating the epidemic and clonal nature of leprosy at this site. The prevalence of these type 2 strains

  3. Miscellaneous information regarding operation and inventory of 618-11 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, C.R.

    1993-06-01

    This report is a compilation of inventories and radiation surveys taken for the 618-11 Burial Ground at Hanford. This report deals with waste management activities at the facility during the early to mid-1960s.

  4. 38 CFR 3.1706 - Burial allowance for a veteran who died while hospitalized by VA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... within a State, or to the border limits of the United States. (2) VA may pay the plot or interment allowance for burial in a veterans cemetery under § 3.1707, Plot or interment allowance. (Authority: 38...

  5. 38 CFR - § 3.1705 Burial allowance based on non-service-connected death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... claim for, or award of, pension; and (2) VA may pay the plot or interment allowance for burial in a State veterans cemetery under § 3.1707(a), Plot or interment allowance. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 2302,...

  6. 32 CFR 553.16 - Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.16 Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery. The Board of Commissioners of the US Soldiers'...

  7. 32 CFR 553.16 - Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES ARMY NATIONAL CEMETERIES § 553.16 Persons eligible for burial in Soldiers' Home National Cemetery. The Board of Commissioners of the US Soldiers'...

  8. 76 FR 31683 - Proposed Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Evaluation) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ...: National Cemetery Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Cemetery Administration (NCA), Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), is announcing an opportunity for public... claimant's eligibility for burial at a National Cemetery. DATES: Written comments and recommendations...

  9. Sacred psychiatry in ancient Greece

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    From the ancient times, there are three basic approaches for the interpretation of the different psychic phenomena: the organic, the psychological, and the sacred approach. The sacred approach forms the primordial foundation for any psychopathological development, innate to the prelogical human mind. Until the second millennium B.C., the Great Mother ruled the Universe and shamans cured the different mental disorders. But, around 1500 B.C., the predominance of the Hellenic civilization over the Pelasgic brought great changes in the theological and psychopathological fields. The Hellenes eliminated the cult of the Great Mother and worshiped Dias, a male deity, the father of gods and humans. With the Father's help and divinatory powers, the warrior-hero made diagnoses and found the right therapies for mental illness; in this way, sacerdotal psychiatry was born. PMID:24725988

  10. Ancient aqueous sedimentation on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldspiel, Jules M.; Squyres, Steven W.

    1991-01-01

    Viking orbiter images are presently used to calculate approximate volumes for the inflow valleys of the ancient cratered terrain of Mars; a sediment-transport model is then used to conservatively estimate the amount of water required for the removal of this volume of debris from the valleys. The results obtained for four basins with well-developed inflow networks indicate basin sediment thicknesses of the order of tens to hundreds of meters. The calculations further suggest that the quantity of water required to transport the sediment is greater than that which could be produced by a single discharge of the associated aquifer, unless the material of the Martian highlands was very fine-grained and noncohesive to depths of hundreds of meters.

  11. Archimedes: Accelerator Reveals Ancient Text

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, Uwe

    2004-02-24

    Archimedes (287-212 BC), who is famous for shouting 'Eureka' (I found it) is considered one of the most brilliant thinkers of all times. The 10th-century parchment document known as the 'Archimedes Palimpsest' is the unique source for two of the great Greek's treatises. Some of the writings, hidden under gold forgeries, have recently been revealed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC. An intense x-ray beam produced in a particle accelerator causes the iron in original ink, which has been partly erased and covered, to send out a fluorescence glow. A detector records the signal and a digital image showing the ancient writings is produced. Please join us in this fascinating journey of a 1,000-year-old parchment from its origin in the Mediterranean city of Constantinople to a particle accelerator in Menlo Park.

  12. Ancient legacy of cranial surgery.

    PubMed

    Ghannaee Arani, Mohammad; Fakharian, Esmaeil; Sarbandi, Fahimeh

    2012-01-01

    Cranial injury, as it is known today, is not a new concern of modern medicine. On stepping on the earth, the man was in reality encountered with various types of injuries, particularly those of a cranial nature. Leading a life, whether wild or civilized, has always been associated with injuries for human race from the very beginning of birth. Therefore, managing cases of this type has gradually forced him to establish and fix strategies and approaches to handle the dilemma. This study is thus focused on tracing the first documented traumatized cranial cases ever reported, ranging from those trials attributed to our ancient predecessors to the identical examples in the present time. PMID:24396747

  13. Ancient aqueous sedimentation on Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Goldspiel, J.M.; Squyres, S.W. )

    1991-02-01

    Viking orbiter images are presently used to calculate approximate volumes for the inflow valleys of the ancient cratered terrain of Mars; a sediment-transport model is then used to conservatively estimate the amount of water required for the removal of this volume of debris from the valleys. The results obtained for four basins with well-developed inflow networks indicate basin sediment thicknesses of the order of tens to hundreds of meters. The calculations further suggest that the quantity of water required to transport the sediment is greater than that which could be produced by a single discharge of the associated aquifer, unless the material of the Martian highlands was very fine-grained and noncohesive to depths of hundreds of meters. 48 refs.

  14. HIV thrives in ancient traditions.

    PubMed

    Shreedhar, J

    1995-01-01

    Participation in ancient traditions is facilitating the current spread of HIV through India. For most of the year, Koovagam is a typical Indian village. Each April on the night of the full moon, however, the Chittirai-Pournami festival is held in Koovagam, a celebration in homage to Aravan during which up to 2000 pilgrims from across the country engage in thousands of acts of unprotected sexual intercourse. Aravan is a man depicted in a Hindu tale who asked to experience sexual bliss before being sacrificed to the gods. To fulfill this last wish, the god Krishna is said to have assumed the form of a beautiful woman and had sexual intercourse with Aravan. Many of the festival participants are hijras, eunuchs and transsexuals who sell sex for a living. Hijras may be accompanied by men who serve as their sex partners and bodyguards. Surveys suggest that one-third of the 10,000 hijras in New Delhi may be infected with HIV. Other participants are known as dangas, men who are either married or single and appear to lead strictly heterosexual lives throughout the year except during the Chittirai-Pournami festival when they dress as women and sell sex to other men attending the festival. The panthis comprise another group of participants and tend to be either single or married men who attend the festival to have sex with the hijras and dangas for fees up to ten rupees, approximately US$0.50, per sexual encounter. Prostitution within the devadasi sect and the sale of young, virgin girls in the state of Andhra Pradesh to the highest male bidders are other examples of how ancient traditions are facilitating the current spread of HIV in India. PMID:12319989

  15. Improving burial practices and cemetery management during an Ebola virus disease epidemic - Sierra Leone, 2014.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Carrie F; Kidd, Sarah; Sillah, Ansumana R M; Davis, Edward; Mermin, Jonathan; Kilmarx, Peter H

    2015-01-16

    As of January 3, 2015, Ebola virus disease (Ebola) has killed more than 2,500 persons in Sierra Leone since the epidemic began there in May 2014. Ebola virus is transmitted principally by direct physical contact with an infected person or their body fluids during the later stages of illness or after death. Contact with the bodies and fluids of persons who have died of Ebola is especially common in West Africa, where family and community members often touch and wash the body of the deceased in preparation for funerals. These cultural practices have been a route of Ebola transmission. In September 2014, CDC, in collaboration with the Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation (MOH), assessed burial practices, cemetery management, and adherence to practices recommended to reduce the risk for Ebola virus transmission. The assessment was conducted by directly observing burials and cemetery operations in three high-incidence districts. In addition, a community assessment was conducted to assess the acceptability to the population of safe, nontraditional burial practices and cemetery management intended to reduce the risk for Ebola virus transmission. This report summarizes the results of these assessments, which found that 1) there were not enough burial teams to manage the number of reported deaths, 2) Ebola surveillance, swab collection, and burial team responses to a dead body alert were not coordinated, 3) systematic procedures for testing and reporting of Ebola laboratory results for dead bodies were lacking, 4) cemetery space and management were inadequate, and 5) safe burial practices, as initially implemented, were not well accepted by communities. These findings were used to inform the development of a national standard operating procedure (SOP) for safe, dignified medical burials, released on October 1. A second, national-level, assessment was conducted during October 10-15 to assess burial team practices and training and resource needs for SOP

  16. 3D GPR Modeling and Imaging of Burials: Mueschke Historic Cemetery, Houston, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul Aziz, A.; Stewart, R.; Green, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    3D ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys consisting of 6 grids were conducted from October 2013 until April 2014 to delineate burials at the historic Mueschke Cemetery in Houston, Texas. The surveys were primarily to assist historians and archeologists from the Mueschke Cemetery Association and Lone Star College in locating some 13 postulated unmarked burials. Antenna with three frequencies were used: 100 MHz, 250 MHz and 1000 MHz. Most surveys were conducted with the 250 MHz Sensors and Software NOGGIN System which has a maximum penetration of about 3 m. Three methods were used to estimate the soil velocity for time-to-depth conversion: Common mid-point (CMP) surveys, time-to-known depth matching, and hyperbola fitting. All three methods gave an average velocity of 0.06 m/ns in the upper 2 m of the soil. The time-to-known depth method was accomplished by digging a trench (1.5 m deep by 1.5 m wide by 3 m long) about 10 m from the cemetery entrance using a back-hoe. Rebar was hammered horizontally into the trench wall at 0.25 m increments from depths of 1.5 m to 0.25 m. The excavation also allowed us to observe soil strata which transitions from loam, to silty clay to mostly clay with increasing depth. We used finite-difference, time-domain computer modeling to synthesize the response of two types of burials: vaulted or concrete enclosed (post-1940) and non-vaulted or casket only (pre-1940). Modeling results indicate that vaulted burials have a flattened apex signature while non-vaulted burials have signatures that are more hyperbolic. The data were processed using gain, dewow, background removal, filtering, and migration. Survey data over known burials show distinct diffractions and a rectangular shape-correspondent to the computer modeling results. Burials before 1940 have weaker diffractions which complicates their detection. Tree roots, clay patches, and rocks can also present anomalies that must be carefully investigated. Nonetheless, several strong burial

  17. Electrical Resistivity Monitoring for Leachate Distribution at Two Foot-and-Mouth- Disease (FMD) Burial Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Kaown, D.; Lee, K.; Leem, K.; Ko, K.

    2011-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to provide the basic information on leachate distribution with time changes through the electrical resistivity monitoring for a certain period of time in the Foot-and-Mouth-Disease (FMD) burial facilities which is needed to prevent further soil and groundwater contamination and to build an effective plan for stabilization of the burial site. In this study, dipole-dipoles surveys were carried out around two FMD burial sites in Iceon-si, Gyeonggi-do. The FMD burial facility installed at Daewall-myeon is consists of one block but, at Yul-myeon, it is divided into 2 blocks named A and B blocks. Dipole-Dipole surveys with 8 lines at Yul-myeon and 3 lines at Daewall-myeon were carried out. The observed leachate distribution along survey lines was not clearly evident as time passes at Daewall-myeon site, but, at Yul-myeon site, the leachate distribution around the survey lines showed a decrease of resistivity around the burial facility. At and around A and B blocks of Yul-myeon site, interpretations of the survey data show low resistivity zones below 10 Ωm from a depth 3 m to 10 m and such low resistivity zones of the A block are thicker than the B block by about 5~10 m. From the geochemical data and resistivity survey at two FMD burial sites, it is inferred that the groundwater within a 50-meter radius around burial facilities of the Yul-myeon site are contaminated by leachate. The general resistivity distribution around the burial site is seemed affected by the leachate with high electrical conductivity. The detail distribution patterns can be explained by local distributions of soil and weathered rocks and associated leachate flow. This subject is supported by Brain Korea 21 and Korea Ministry of Environment as 'The GAIA Project (173-092-009)'.

  18. Trend in groundwater quality near FMD burials in agricultural region, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jeong-Won; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2015-04-01

    After the nation-wide outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in winter of 2010-2011, thousands of mass burial site had been built all over the country in Korea. Though the burial pits were partially lined with impermeable material, potential threat of leachate leakage was still in concern. In worry of leachate release from those livestock burials during decomposition of carcasses, groundwater samples from wells near the burials were collected and analyzed in between 2011 and 2013. Among the sample locations, 250 wells with monitoring priorities were chosen and had been watched continuously through the years. For trend analysis of groundwater quality, relations between land use types, distances to burial and nitrate concentrations are studied. Types of land use within 300 m radius of each well were investigated. Nitrate concentrations show proportional relations to the area of agricultural activity and inversely proportional to the area of forest. The proportionality decreased with both agricultural and forest area since 2011. When seasonal variation is concerned, slightly stronger proportionality is shown in dry season for both agricultural and forested area. For a qualitative analysis of the trend, non-parametric Kendall test is applied. Especially, regional Kendall test is implemented to find out spatial feature of nitrate concentration. Nitrate concentrations show slow but statistically significant deceasing trend for every well. When the wells are group according to their distances from the nearest burial pit, decreasing trend of nitrate concentration is shown in all groups. However, there was no consistency in significant factor among the groups. Considering the above mentioned results, the groundwater wells near the burials seem to be influence more from agricultural activities near the wells than from the burial leachate. The slow but significant decreasing trend in nitrate concentration is supposed as the result of an increasing governmental interest in

  19. Cover integrity in shallow land burial of low-level wastes: hydrology and erosion

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, L.J.; Nyhan, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    Applications of a state-of-the-art technology for simulating hydrologic processes and erosion affecting cover integrity at shallow land waste burial sites are described. A nonpoint source pollution model developed for agricultural systems has been adapted for application to waste burial sites in semiarid and arid regions. Applications include designs for field experiments, evaluation of slope length and steepness, evaluation of various soil types, and evaluation of vegetative cover influencing erosion rates and the water balance within the soil profile.

  20. 133. ARAII SL1 burial ground. Shows gravel path from ARAII ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    133. ARA-II SL-1 burial ground. Shows gravel path from ARA-II compound to the burial ground, detail of security fence and entry gate, and sign "Danger radiation hazard." F. C. Torkelson Company 842-area-101-1. Date: October 1961. Ineel index code no. 059-0101-00-851-150723. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Skeletal concentrations of lead, cadmium, zinc, and silver in ancient North American Pecos Indians.

    PubMed Central

    Ericson, J E; Smith, D R; Flegal, A R

    1991-01-01

    Bone samples of 14 prehistoric North American Pecos Indians from circa 1400 A.D. were analyzed for lead, cadmium, zinc, and silver by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to establish the baseline levels of these elements in an ancient North American population. Measurements of outer and inner bone fractions indicate the former were contaminated postmortem for lead, zinc, and cadmium. The contamination-adjusted average (mean +/- SD) level of lead (expressed as the ratio of atomic lead to atomic calcium) in bones of the Indians was 8.4 +/- 4.4 x 10(-7)), which was similar to ratios in bones of ancient Peruvians (0.9 to 7.7 x 10(-7)) and significantly lower than ratios in bones of modern adults in England and the United States (210 to 350 x 10(-7]. The adjusted average concentrations (microgram per gram dry weight) of biologic cadmium, silver, and zinc in the Pecos Indian bones were 0.032 +/- 0.013, 0.094 +/- 0.044, and 130 +/- 66, as compared to concentrations of 1.8, 0.01 to 0.44, and 75 to 170 in the bones of modern people, respectively. Therefore, cadmium concentrations in Pecos Indian bones are also approximately 50-fold lower than those of contemporary humans. These data support earlier findings that most previously reported natural concentrations of lead in human tissues are erroneously high and indicate that natural concentrations of cadmium are also between one and two orders of magnitude lower than contemporary concentrations. PMID:1773793

  2. Hydrology of the Melton Valley radioactive-waste burial grounds at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webster, D.A.; Bradley, Michael W.

    1988-01-01

    Burial grounds 4, 5, and 6 of the Melton Valley Radioactive-waste Burial Grounds, Oak Ridge, TN, were used sequentially from 1951 to the present for the disposal of solid, low level radioactive waste by burial in shallow trenches and auger holes. Abundant rainfall, a generally thin unsaturated zone, geologic media of inherently low permeability, and the operational practices employed have contributed to partial saturation of the buried waste, leaching of radionuclides, and transport of dissolved matter from the burial areas. Two primary methods of movement of wastes from these sites are transport in groundwater, and the overflow of fluid in trenches and subsequent flow across land surface. Whiteoak Creek and its tributaries receive all overland flow from trench spillage, surface runoff from each site, and discharge of groundwater from the regolith of each site. Potentiometric data, locally, indicate that this drainage system also receives groundwater discharges from the bedrock of burial ground 5. By projection of the bedrock flow patterns characteristic of this site to other areas of Melton Valley, it is inferred that discharges from the bedrock underlying burial grounds 4 and 6 also is to the Whiteoak Creek drainage system. The differences in potentiometric heads and a comparatively thin saturated zone in bedrock do not favor the development of deep flow through bedrock from one river system to another. (USGS)

  3. Burial diagenesis of upper Mississippian Greenbrier limestone in central Appalachian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Carney, C.

    1987-09-01

    As carbonate sediments undergo progressive burial under conditions of increasing temperature and pressure, they go through a variety of changes. Burial diagenesis includes processes such as mechanical and chemical compaction, mineralogic change, cementation, dolomitization, and various types of neomorphic fabric change. Identifying the products of burial diagenesis may be useful in predicting porosity and reservoir quality in the subsurface. The Upper Mississippian Greenbrier Limestone and equivalents are exposed throughout the central Appalachians. Important textural and mineralogical changes have been recognized in these shallow shelf limestones, which indicate burial to different depths. Variations in trace- and minor-element concentrations occur with increasing diagenesis. Textural alterations include increased matrix (micrite) crystal size and increased twinning of echinoderm fragments. The Greenbrier Limestone can be divided into three diagenetic provinces. Zone 1, located on the extreme western side of the basin, is characterized by little evidence of compaction, mineralogic variation, or textural change. In this area, the limestones were never buried to any great depth. Zone 3, on the eastern side of the basin, is characterized by significant mechanical and chemical compaction, and mineralogic and textural change. Limestones of this diagenetic province have been subjected to relatively high paleotemperatures during deep burial. Zone 2 is of intermediate burial depth and diagenesis and is present between zones 1 and 3.

  4. Peruvian Trench to Andean Thrust Front: Evidence for Coupling of the Peruvian Flat Slab to the Over-Riding South American Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, B.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Scire, A. C.; Wagner, L. S.; Long, M. D.; Tavera, H.

    2014-12-01

    In central Peru the combination of an unusually shallow Wadati-Benioff zone and lack of arc volcanism are indicators of flat slab subduction and are associated with both the ongoing subduction of the Nazca Ridge and the prior subduction of the Inca Plateau. Data from the PULSE experiment has allowed us to better constrain the geometry of the southern half of the Peruvian flat slab through analysis of teleseismic receiver functions, Pn and Sn phases from regional intermediate (>100 km depth) and deep (>500 km depth) earthquakes at the margins of the flat slab region, and teleseismic tomgraphy. We observe a low velocity anomaly below the subducted portion of the Nazca Ridge in the teleseismic S-wave tomography. Utilizing both Pn and Sn phases from regional intermediate and deep earthquakes at the margins of the flat slab, we have found significant travel time delays for propagation paths passing through this anomaly, confirming the presence of this low velocity anomaly under the flat slab. This anomaly likely contributes to the buoyancy of this segment of the flat slab, increasing the coupling with the upper plate. Both the teleseismic tomographic and our receiver function results indicate that the southern segment of the Peruvian flat slab extends locally more than 100 km further inboard than previous estimates. As the shallow portion of the slab inboard of the subducting Nazca Ridge is largely aseismic, these new results help to better constrain the geometry of the Peruvian flat slab as it re-subducts back into the mantle. Between 10°S and 16°S the subducted oceanic crust along the inboard projection of the Nazca Ridge lies at a depth of 60 km to 70 km while subducted crust immediately north and south of the ridge projection lies at depths of 80 km to 90 km suggesting the slab is sinking north and south of the ridge. The unusually shallow depth of the slab along the ridge's projection may indicate that the subducted Nazca Plate is coupled to the South American

  5. Nonlinear geochemical dynamics and petrography: Burial dolomitization (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, E.

    2010-12-01

    Many geochemical self-patterned structures exist in nature [1]: pisolitic, liesegang, orbicular, and agate bandings [2]; igneous and metamorphic bandings [3]; displacive dolomitic and serpentine “zebra” veins [4]; sets of stylolites [5]; oscillatory zoning in single crystals [6]. Large-scale examples: weathering profiles [7], banded iron formations [8], burial dolomitization [9], karst sinkholes [7]; etc. All involve disequilibrium and feedback, the two necessary conditions for self-patterning, but each case is unique. A good model should incorporate force(s), feedbacks, reactions, and boundary and initial conditions that are likely to apply to the genesis of the phenomenon under study. Problems: to confuse mass balances for local mineral reactions; whether the mineral pattern is made at a moving reaction front (as in agates [2]) or throughout the system at once (as in stylolitization [5] and zebra veins [4]). Self-consistent scaling of variables and linear instability analysis may tell us for what ranges of dynamic parameter values the system oscillates. A model may seem to work well - yet this does not prove that the initial choices of forcing, feedback and reactions were correct. Model predictions should be tested against petrographic and field evidence not used in constructing the model in the first place [2]. Recent models of dolomitization [10] and weathering are inconsistent with field and petrographic evidence. (P. K. Weyl, the first geochemical modeler: “We are not interested in what [a rock] is now but in how it became that way … Instead of looking at a rock and asking for an explanation of its past …”, J. Geophys. Res. 1959, p. 2001). A new dynamic model of dolomitization [9] correctly predicts a multitude of petrographic and other properties of burial dolostones. According to the model, the self-accelerating dolomite-for-calcite replacement forces a seamless rheological transition from replacive to displacive dolomite growth which predicts

  6. Use of controlled release herbicides in waste burial sites

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.

    1981-07-01

    Controlled-release formulations of herbicides have been applied to the soil in the manner traditional for herbicides: on the surface or mixed into the top few inches of soil. The controlled-release formulation allows another option that we propose to use: to place herbicides, contained in controlled-release formulations, in a layer at least a foot below the surface of the soil, in order to prevent root penetration below that level. Ideally, the herbicide will prevent root tip cell division but will not translocate within the plant, thus assuring that the plant will survive, preserving the ground cover. Trifluralin is one of the herbicides which does not translocate and was chosen for use in this study. A number of applications for this technology are possible; particularly in waste management. In the present studies, we used two different forms of polymeric carrier/delivery (PCD) systems to investigate the controlled release of herbicides. In the initial study, a sheet was made of homogeneous mixtures of an individual polymer and trifluralin. We made several of these sheets, using a different polymer each time (with trifluralin) to compare release rates from the various polymers. We also fabricated cylindrical pellets in two sizes from mixtures of Profax/sup a/ PS-1600 polypropylene and trifluralin, formulated to determine the interaction of PCD systems with soil. Also developed is a trifluralin-releasing device with a theoretical effective lifetime approaching 100 years. The system was designed specifically to protect the asphalt layer or clay/aggregate barriers on uranium mill tailings piles. PCD devices composed of pellets could also be implanted over burial sites for radioactive and/or toxic materials, preventing translocation of those materials to plant shoots, and thence into the biosphere.

  7. Dating floodplain sediments using tree-ring response to burial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, J.M.; Vincent, K.R.; Shafroth, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Floodplain sediments can be dated precisely based on the change in anatomy of tree rings upon burial. When a stem of tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima) or sandbar willow (Salix exigua) is buried, subsequent annual rings in the buried section resemble the rings of roots: rings become narrower, vessels within the rings become larger, and transitions between rings become less distinct. We combined observations of these changes with tree-ring counts to determine the year of deposition of sedimentary beds exposed in a 150-m-long trench across the floodplain of the Rio Puerco, a rapidly filling arroyo in New Mexico. This method reliably dated most beds thicker than about 30 cm to within a year of deposition. Floodplain aggradation rates varied dramatically through time and space. Sediment deposition was mostly limited to brief overbank flows occurring every few years. The most rapid deposition occurred on channel-margin levees, which migrated laterally during channel narrowing. At the decadal timescale, the cross-section-average sediment deposition rate was steady, but there was a shift in the spatial pattern of deposition in the 1980s. From 1936 to 1986, sediment deposition occurred by channel narrowing, with little change in elevation of the thalweg. After 1986 sediment deposition occurred by vertical aggradation. From 1936 to 2000 about 27 per cent of the arroyo cross-section filled with sediment. The rate of filling from 1962 to 2000 was 0-8 vertical m/decade or 85 m2/decade. Published in 2005 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Vegetation uptake from burial ground alpha waste trenches

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Tuckfield, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    This study was conducted as part of an evaluation of the potential radiological consequences of reinhabiting the SRS burial ground. The objective was to determine the uptake of buried, low-level, transuranic waste from unlined earthen trenches by forest vegetation. Two tree plots were established in 1979. One plot was put over a trench containing alpha waste and the other in an area without trenches. When the tree seedlings were sampled during 1979 and 1980, and analysized for {sup 239}Pu and {sup 238}Pu, there was only a small difference in radionuclude concentration between trees planted over the trench and those planted on the control plot because of the limited root intrusion into the trench by the seedlings. However, when trees were sample in 1986, 1987, and 1988 and analyzed for {sup 241}Am, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 237}Np activity, the average activity of all of these isotopes was significantly higher over the trenches than in the control plot. These measurements indicate that tree roots will extract transuranic isotopes from buried, low-level waste. The amount of radioisotopes moved from the trenches to the surface is small and the level in the trees is low enough that dose from exposure will be small. The long term effects of transport of radioisotopes from the trenches to the surface soil was evaluated by estimating the accumulation in the surface soil. Transuranic activity in selected food crops was calculated using the soil activity and the literature derived concentration factors. In all cases, the activity of the transuranic isotopes in the edible portion of the plants was quite low. The activity in the leaf tissue was much higher than in the seed. However, it should be noted that in only one case was the activity higher than the naturally occurring activity of {sup 40}K in the pine foliage.

  9. Lipid biomarkers for bacterial ecosystems: studies of cultured organisms, hydrothermal environments and ancient sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summons, R. E.; Jahnke, L. L.; Simoneit, B. R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper forms part of our long-term goal of using molecular structure and carbon isotopic signals preserved as hydrocarbons in ancient sediments to improve understanding of the early evolution of Earth's surface environment. We are particularly concerned with biomarkers which are informative about aerobiosis. Here, we combine bacterial biochemistry with the organic geochemistry of contemporary and ancient hydrothermal ecosystems to construct models for the nature, behaviour and preservation potential of primitive microbial communities. We use a combined molecular and isotopic approach to characterize lipids produced by cultured bacteria and test a variety of culture conditions which affect their biosynthesis. This information is then compared with lipid mixtures isolated from contemporary hot springs and evaluated for the kinds of chemical change that would accompany burial and incorporation into the sedimentary record. In this study we have shown that growth temperature does not appear to alter isotopic fractionation within the lipid classes produced by a methanotropic bacterium. We also found that cultured cyanobacteria biosynthesize diagnostic methylalkanes and dimethylalkanes with the latter only made when growing under low pCO2. In an examination of a microbial mat sample from Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park (USA), we could readily identify chemical structures with 13C contents which were diagnostic for the phototrophic organisms such as cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus. We could not, however, find molecular evidence for operation of a methane cycle in the particular mat samples we studied.

  10. Modelling multiple threats to water security in the Peruvian Amazon using the WaterWorld policy support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Soesbergen, A. J. J.; Mulligan, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the application of WaterWorld (www.policysupport.org/waterworld) to the Peruvian Amazon, an area that is increasingly under pressure from deforestation and water pollution as a result of population growth, rural-to-urban migration and oil and gas extraction, potentially impacting both water quantity and water quality. By applying single and combined plausible scenarios of climate change, deforestation around existing and planned roads, population growth and rural-urban migration, mining and oil and gas exploitation, we explore the potential combined impacts of these multiple changes on water resources in the Peruvian Amazon.

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in a Cohort of Peruvian Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Sánchez, Sixto E.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: We sought to evaluate the construct validity and factor structure of the Spanish-language version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) among pregnant Peruvian women. Methods: A cohort of 642 women were interviewed at ≤ 16 weeks of gestation. During interview, we ascertained information about lifestyles, demographics, sleep characteristics, and mood symptoms. Stress induced sleep disturbance, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms were evaluated using the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) assessment scales, respectively. Consistency indices, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, correlations, and logistic regressions were used. Results: Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated a three-factor solution: sleep quality, sleep efficiency, and sleep medication. We observed significantly positive correlations of the PSQI with the FIRST (0.42), the PHQ-9 (0.49), and the GAD-7 (0.46). Poor sleepers (PSQI global score > 5) had significantly increased odds of experiencing stress-induced sleep disturbance (odds ratio, OR = 3.57; 95% CI: 2.40, 5.31), depression (OR = 5.48; 95% CI: 3.58, 8.37), and generalized anxiety disorder (OR = 4.57; 95% CI: 3.08, 6.76). Conclusions: The Spanish-language version of the PSQI instrument was found to have good construct validity among pregnant Peruvian women. Consistent with some other studies, the PSQI was found to have a three-factor structure. Further assessment and validation studies are needed to determine whether the three, factor-specific scoring of the PSQI is favored over the PSQI global score in diverse populations. Citation: Zhong QY, Gelaye B, Sánchez SE, Williams MA. Psychometric properties of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in a cohort of Peruvian pregnant women. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(8):869–877. PMID:25845902

  12. New species and geographical records of dactylogyrids (Monogenea) of catfish (Siluriformes) from the Peruvian Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Scholz, Tomáš; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Kuchta, Roman

    2012-06-01

    Three new species of gill monogeneans (Dactylogyridae: Ancyrocephalinae) are described from siluriform catfish from Iquitos, Peru: Demidospermus mortenthaleri n. sp. from Brachyplatystoma juruense (Boulenger), Demidospermus brevicirrus n. sp. from Pimelodus sp., and Aphanoblastella aurorae n. sp. from Goeldiella eques (Müller & Troschel). Demidospermus mortenthaleri is characterized by a male copulatory organ (MCO) with a small loop at its middle portion; 2 types of hooks, of which pairs 5 and 6 are longer than the remaining hooks; a proximal subunit round and highly depressed thumb; and a sclerotized vagina with a round pad at the vaginal aperture. Demidospermus brevicirrus is distinguished from other congeners by the presence of a short, straight, and robust MCO and boot-shaped accessory piece with a hooked projection directed posteriorly. Aphanoblastella aurorae is the only species of the genus that possesses an arrow-shaped sclerotized vagina and a medial process on the dorsal bar. Another 6 dactylogyrids described previously are recorded for the first time from the Peruvian Amazonia: Cosmetocleithrum bulbocirrus Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; Vancleaveus fungulus Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; V. janauacaensis Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; V. platyrhynchi Kritsky, Thatcher and Boeger, 1986 ; Unilatus unilatus Mizelle and Kritsky, 1967 ; and U. brittani Mizelle, Kritsky and Crane, 1968 . Based on observations of specimens collected in the Peruvian Amazonia, new morphological data for these species are provided. Comparison of new specimens of U. unilatus and U. brittani with those of Unilatus brevispinus Suriano, 1985 and Unilatus longispinus Suriano, 1985 , both originally described from Brazil, has shown that they are conspecific. Therefore, the latter species were synonymized with U. unilatus and U. brittani , respectively. In addition, 56 undescribed monogeneans found in catfish from the Peruvian Amazonia, some of them probably belonging

  13. Time-temperature-burial significance of Devonian anthracite implies former great (approx. 6. 5 km) depth of burial of Catskill Mountains, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, G.M.; Sanders, J.E.

    1982-02-01

    Specimens of coalified plant debris in Tully-correlative strata of the Gilboa Formation (uppermost Middle Devonian) within the eastern Catskill Mountains of New York State have been converted to anthracite having a vitrinite reflectance of 2.5%. This implies a level of organic metamorphism (LOM) of 16. The specimens are about 350 m.y. old; if 200 m.y. is taken as the duration of the time of exposure to the maximum geothermal temperature, then the LOM of 16 and other thermal indicators imply a maximum temperature of 190/sup 0/C. Using a geothermal gradient of 26/sup 0/C.km/sup -1/ (17/sup 0/F.1,000 ft/sup -1/), a former depth of burial of 6.5 km is implied. Such former deep burial is not usually inferred for the Catskills, but it is consistent with the idea that the thick (about 6.4 km or 21,000 ft) Carboniferous strata of northeastern Pennsylvania formerly extended northeast far enough to bury the Catskills. The lack of metamorphism of the Paleozoic strata lying about 4.5 km beneath the Tully-correlative rocks and exposed in the adjacent Hudson Valley places low limits on the former geothermal gradient; this supports the concept of great depth of former burial of the Catskills. For example, 6.5 km of former burial and a geothermal gradient of 26/sup 0/C.km/sup -1/ imply a temperature of 307/sup 0/C for the base of the Paleozoic. By contrast, only 1 km of former burial requires a geothermal gradient of 170/sup 0/C.km/sup -1/, which would have subjected the base of the Paleozoic to a temperature of 955/sup 0/GAMMA, which is far higher than the 600 to 650/sup 0/C recently inferred for the Acadian-age metamorphism of the Taconic allochthon in southwestern Massachusetts and adjoining areas.

  14. Vascular medicine and surgery in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Barr, Justin

    2014-07-01

    Lauded alike by ancient civilizations and modern society, pharaonic Egyptian medicine remains an object of fascination today. This article discusses its surprisingly sophisticated understanding of a cardiovascular system. The term "cardiovascular system," however, carries assumptions and meanings to a modern audience, especially readers of this journal, which simply do not apply when considering ancient conceptions of the heart and vessels. For lack of better language, this article will use "cardiovascular" and similar terms while recognizing the anachronistic inaccuracy. After briefly summarizing ancient Egyptian medicine generally, it will review the anatomy, pathology, and treatment of the vasculature. The practice of mummification in ancient Egypt provides a unique opportunity for paleopathology, and the conclusion will explore evidence of arterial disease from a modern scientific perspective. PMID:24970660

  15. Ancient Dry Spells Offer Clues About Drought

    NASA Video Gallery

    New research indicates that the ancient Mesoamerican civilizations of the Mayans and Aztecs amplified droughts in the Yucatán and southern Mexico by clearing rainforests to make room for pastures ...

  16. Ancient Magnetic Reversals: Clues to the Geodynamo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Kenneth A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the question posed by some that the earth's magnetic field may reverse. States that rocks magnetized by ancient fields may offer clues to the underlying reversal mechanism in the earth's core. (TW)

  17. Introducing Textual Criticisn to Ancient History Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehorne, J. E. G.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment made to illustrate to Ancient History students the value of textual criticism and the problems involved in transmitting a text through the centuries by means of imperfectly copied and preserved manuscripts. (CHK)

  18. [Recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in health personnel of the Peruvian Institute of Social Security].

    PubMed

    Zumaeta, E; Figueroa, R; Ferrándiz, J; González Griego, A; Ramírez Albajés, V

    1995-01-01

    The immune response to cuban recombinant Hepatitis B vaccine was studied (sero conversion, sero protection, hyper response and geometric median) in 211 health workers from different general hospitals of Peruvian Social Security, along the coast of Perú. Vaccine was given by deltoid intramuscular injection at 0-1-2 months interval. Quantification of Anti HBS was done according to Organon Tecknica Methodology. Sero protection was obtained in 97% of people studied just at days of the first injection. Women less than 40 years old showed better immunogenic response. This Hepatitis B Vaccine program is recommended due to its symmetry, short time course and high immune protection obtained. PMID:7662916

  19. Cryptococcus gattii meningoencephalitis in an HIV-negative patient from the Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Ericson L; Valqui, Willi; Vilchez, Luis; Evangelista, Lourdes; Crispin, Sarita; Tello, Mercedes; Navincopa, Marcos; Béjar, Vilma; Gonzáles, José; Ortega-Loayza, Alex G

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of an immunocompetent Peruvian patient from the Andes with a one-month history of meningoencephalitis. Cryptococcus gattii was identified from a cerebrospinal fluid culture through assimilation of D-proline and D-tryptophan as the single nitrogen source. Initially, the patient received intravenous antifungal therapy with amphotericin B. The patient was discharged 29 days after hospitalization and continued with oral fluconazole treatment for ten weeks. During this period, the patient showed clinical improvement with slight right-side residual weakness. Through this case report, we confirm the existence of this microorganism as an infectious agent in Peru. PMID:20802955

  20. Histopathological Study of a Mummified Eye and Optic Nerve from a Strangled Peruvian Mummy.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Jordi; Cases-Mérida, Sandra; Tortosa, Montserrat; Marzal, Berta; Fernández, Arabel; Gálvez, Cesar; Franco, Regulo; Fernández, Pedro Luis

    2015-01-01

    We present the histopathological findings of a naturally mummified eye from the Peruvian Lambayeque culture (900-1,200 AD), in which rehydration, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy allowed a detailed analysis of several eye tissues including the eyelids, sclera, and optic nerve, the latter showing evidence of hemorrhage likely related to the documented strangulation as the cause of death. We conclude that histopathological analysis of rehydrated mummified tissues can provide valuable information from fragile eye structures including the optic nerve, and these findings can be useful from a forensic point of view. PMID:26160151

  1. Integrated Assessment of Climate Variability and Change in the Tropical Peruvian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos, P.

    2004-12-01

    Considering that the intensity and frequency of recurrent extreme events associated with flooding, droughts and freezes observed in the tropical Peruvian Andes could change with future global warming, an effort has begun to: (1) investigate the causes of such extreme events using correlation and principal component analysis; (2) generate future climate scenarios using statistical and dynamical downscaling; (3) integrate with the studies of vulnerability and adaptation strategies in the region. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of this effort, which is part of the national plan to strengthen the capacity to manage the impacts of climate change.

  2. Native dialect influences second-language vowel perception: Peruvian versus Iberian Spanish learners of Dutch.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Paola; Williams, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Peruvian Spanish (PS) and Iberian Spanish (IS) learners were tested on their ability to categorically discriminate and identify Dutch vowels. It was predicted that the acoustic differences between the vowel productions of the two dialects, which compare differently to Dutch vowels, would manifest in differential L2 perception for listeners of these two dialects. The results show that although PS learners had higher general L2 proficiency, IS learners were more accurate at discriminating all five contrasts and at identifying six of the L2 Dutch vowels. These findings confirm that acoustic differences in native vowel production lead to differential L2 vowel perception. PMID:22559460

  3. Social and economic causes of deforestation in the Peruvian Amazon basin: Natives and colonists. Working paper

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, E.B.

    1991-03-01

    The people in the Peruvian Amazon directly engaged in agriculture are the leading cause of deforestation; and can be divided into two groups, colonists and indigenous groups. The factors affecting the rate at which each group causes deforestation differ. The paper explores these differences in Peru's Upper Huallaga Valley (the principal coca producing region in the world), focusing on the interrelationships between land availability, land tenure laws, and market forces on one hand, and agricultural intensification and deforestation on the other. The study concludes that the technological decisions of the two groups are guided by diverse sets of socioeconomic factors.

  4. Deep-burial diagenesis in carbonates. Final report, January 16, 1984-March 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, G.M.

    1985-03-01

    The objectives were to gain an understanding of what makes or breaks porosity in carbonate rocks as a result of deep-burial, to develop criteria for deep-burial diagenesis in carbonate rocks, and to apply these criteria for interpretation of carbonate rocks now at shallow depth. Compaction tests reveal that ooid samples show substantial reductions of bulk-volume and porosity when squeezed at temperatures and pressures comparable to overburden of 3.5 to 6.5 km. Particle breakage and deformed particle contacts developed that are comparable to those reported from oolites from the rock record. Reproducibility of pressure solution by compaction supports the conclusion that initial pore-volume reduction through mechanical grain adjustments and ultimate pressure solution are major processes in the diagenetic evolution of limestone. In the deep Analdarko Basin of Oklahoma and Texas, the Hunton Group carbonate rocks of Upper Ordovician to Lower Devonian show that dolostones alone provide porosity. Studies reveal that corrected measurement of bulk densities yield improved estimates of true porosity and water saturation. The mechanism of burial dolomitization was suggested to be the underlying marine Sylvan Shale which provided necessary Mg+2 and Fe+2 during smectite-to-illite transition. Also detailed studies of core samples and thin sections from the Lower Ordovician Ellenberger carbonate rocks in the Permian Basin demonstrated that carbonate rocks below 10,000 ft are exclusively dolostone showing some evidence of deep-burial dolomitization. Lower Ordovician carbonate strata in undeformed belts of the northern Appalachian Basin yield depth of burial and paleotemperature data implying a former depth of burial which has not been usually inferred for this area. Fluid-inclusion suggests burial depth of several kilometers. 41 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. The effect of burial depth on removal of seeds of Phytolacca americana.

    SciTech Connect

    Orrock, John, L.: Damschen, Ellen, I.

    2007-04-01

    Abstract - Although burial is known to have important effects on seed predation in a variety of habitats, the role of burial depth in affecting the removal of seeds in early successional systems is poorly known. Phytolacca American (pokeweed) is a model species to examine the role of burial depth in affecting seed removal because it is common in early-successional habitats, studies suggest that seed removal is indicative of seed predation, and seed predation is related to the recruitment of mature plants. To determine how burial depth affects P. americana seed removal, 20 seeds of P. americana were buried at depths of 0, 1, or 3 cm in early-successional habitats at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina for over 6 weeks. The frequency with which seeds were encountered (as measured by the removal of at least one seed) and the proportion of seeds removed was significantly greater when seeds were on the soil surface (0 cm depth) compared to seeds that were buried 1 cm or 3 cm; there was no difference in encounter or removal between seeds at 1 cm or 3 cm. Our findings suggest that burial may have important consequences for P. americana population dynamics, because seed survival depends upon whether or not the seed is buried, and relatively shallow burial can yield large increases in seed survival. Because seed limitation is known to be an important determinant of plant community composition in early successional systems, our work suggests that burial may play an unappreciated role in the dynamics of these communities by reducing predator-mediated seed limitation.

  6. Field demonstration of in situ grouting of radioactive solid waste burial trenches with polyacrylamide. [Polyacrylamide

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.; Fontaine, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Demonstrations of in situ grouting with polyacrylamide were carried out on two undisturbed burial trenches and one dynamically compacted burial trench in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The injection of polyacrylamide was achieved quite facilely for the two undisturbed burial trenches which were filled with grout, at typical pumping rates of 95 L/min, in several batches injected over several days. The compacted burial trench, however, failed to accept grout at more than 1.9 L/min even when pressure was applied. Thus, it appears that burial trenches, stabilized by dynamic compaction, have a permeability too low to be considered groutable. The water table beneath the burial trenches did not respond to grout injections indicating a lack of hydrologic connection between fluid grout and the water table which would have been observed if the grout failed to set. Because grout set times were adjusted to less than 60 min, the lack of hydrologic connection was not surprising. Postgrouting penetration testing revealed that the stability of the burial trenches was increased from 26% to 79% that measured in the undisturbed soil surrounding the trenches. In situ permeation tests on the grouted trenches indicated a significant reduction in hydraulic conductivity of the trench contents from a mean of 2.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} to 1.85 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} cm/s. Preliminary observations indicated that grouting with polyacrylamide is an excellent method for both improved stability and hydrologic isolation of radioactive waste and its incidental hazardous constituents.

  7. Ancient history of flatfish research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berghahn, Rüdiger; Bennema, Floris Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Owing to both their special appearance and behavior flatfish have attracted the special attention of people since ages. The first records of humans having been in touch with flatfish date back to the Stone Age about 15,000 years B.C. Detailed descriptions were already given in the classical antiquity and were taken up 1400 years later in the Renaissance by the first ichthyologists, encyclopédists, and also by practical men. This was more than 200 years before a number of common flatfish species were given their scientific names by Linnaeus in 1758. Besides morphology, remarkable and sometimes amusing naturalistic observations and figures are bequeathed. Ancient history of flatfish research is still a wide and open array. Examples are presented how the yield of information and interpretation from these times increases with interdisciplinary cooperation including archeologists, zoologists, ichthyologists, historians, art historians, fisheries and fishery biologist. The timeline of this contribution ends with the start of modern fishery research at the end of the 19th century in the course of the rapidly increasing exploitation of fish stocks.

  8. Ancient technology in contemporary surgery.

    PubMed

    Buck, B A

    1982-03-01

    Archaeologists have shown that ancient man developed the ability to produce cutting blades of an extreme degree of sharpness from volcanic glass. The finest of these prismatic blades were produced in Mesoamerica about 2,500 years ago. The technique of production of these blades was rediscovered 12 years ago by Dr. Don Crabtree, who suggested possible uses for the blades in modern surgery. Blades produced by Dr. Crabtree have been used in experimental microsurgery with excellent results. Animal experiments have shown the tensile strength of obsidian produced wounds to be equal to or greater than that of wounds produced by steel scalpels after 14 days of healing. We have been able to demonstrate neither flaking of glass blades into the wounds nor any foreign body reaction in healed wounds. Skin incisions in human patients have likewise healed well without complications. The prismatic glass blade is infinitely sharper than a honed steel edge, and these blades can be produced in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. It is therefore suggested that this type of blade may find an appropriate use in special areas of modern surgery. PMID:7046256

  9. Ancient and modern environmental DNA.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Ermini, Luca; Sarkissian, Clio Der; Haile, James; Hellstrom, Micaela; Spens, Johan; Thomsen, Philip Francis; Bohmann, Kristine; Cappellini, Enrico; Schnell, Ida Bærholm; Wales, Nathan A; Carøe, Christian; Campos, Paula F; Schmidt, Astrid M Z; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Hansen, Anders J; Orlando, Ludovic; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-01-19

    DNA obtained from environmental samples such as sediments, ice or water (environmental DNA, eDNA), represents an important source of information on past and present biodiversity. It has revealed an ancient forest in Greenland, extended by several thousand years the survival dates for mainland woolly mammoth in Alaska, and pushed back the dates for spruce survival in Scandinavian ice-free refugia during the last glaciation. More recently, eDNA was used to uncover the past 50 000 years of vegetation history in the Arctic, revealing massive vegetation turnover at the Pleistocene/Holocene transition, with implications for the extinction of megafauna. Furthermore, eDNA can reflect the biodiversity of extant flora and fauna, both qualitatively and quantitatively, allowing detection of rare species. As such, trace studies of plant and vertebrate DNA in the environment have revolutionized our knowledge of biogeography. However, the approach remains marred by biases related to DNA behaviour in environmental settings, incomplete reference databases and false positive results due to contamination. We provide a review of the field. PMID:25487334

  10. Ancient Admixture in Human History

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Luo, Yontao; Mallick, Swapan; Rohland, Nadin; Zhan, Yiping; Genschoreck, Teri; Webster, Teresa; Reich, David

    2012-01-01

    Population mixture is an important process in biology. We present a suite of methods for learning about population mixtures, implemented in a software package called ADMIXTOOLS, that support formal tests for whether mixture occurred and make it possible to infer proportions and dates of mixture. We also describe the development of a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array consisting of 629,433 sites with clearly documented ascertainment that was specifically designed for population genetic analyses and that we genotyped in 934 individuals from 53 diverse populations. To illustrate the methods, we give a number of examples that provide new insights about the history of human admixture. The most striking finding is a clear signal of admixture into northern Europe, with one ancestral population related to present-day Basques and Sardinians and the other related to present-day populations of northeast Asia and the Americas. This likely reflects a history of admixture between Neolithic migrants and the indigenous Mesolithic population of Europe, consistent with recent analyses of ancient bones from Sweden and the sequencing of the genome of the Tyrolean “Iceman.” PMID:22960212

  11. Ancient and modern environmental DNA

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Ermini, Luca; Sarkissian, Clio Der; Haile, James; Hellstrom, Micaela; Spens, Johan; Thomsen, Philip Francis; Bohmann, Kristine; Cappellini, Enrico; Schnell, Ida Bærholm; Wales, Nathan A.; Carøe, Christian; Campos, Paula F.; Schmidt, Astrid M. Z.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Hansen, Anders J.; Orlando, Ludovic; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-01-01

    DNA obtained from environmental samples such as sediments, ice or water (environmental DNA, eDNA), represents an important source of information on past and present biodiversity. It has revealed an ancient forest in Greenland, extended by several thousand years the survival dates for mainland woolly mammoth in Alaska, and pushed back the dates for spruce survival in Scandinavian ice-free refugia during the last glaciation. More recently, eDNA was used to uncover the past 50 000 years of vegetation history in the Arctic, revealing massive vegetation turnover at the Pleistocene/Holocene transition, with implications for the extinction of megafauna. Furthermore, eDNA can reflect the biodiversity of extant flora and fauna, both qualitatively and quantitatively, allowing detection of rare species. As such, trace studies of plant and vertebrate DNA in the environment have revolutionized our knowledge of biogeography. However, the approach remains marred by biases related to DNA behaviour in environmental settings, incomplete reference databases and false positive results due to contamination. We provide a review of the field. PMID:25487334

  12. [Metallurgic drugs in ancient Japan].

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, S

    2001-01-01

    Advancements in metallurgic and pharmaceutical chemistry in ancient Japan were made by people like Mangan-Shonin, who combined elements from Shinto, Buddhism, and Taoism to take advantage of technologies brought by Chinese and Korean immigrants. The Shonin himself, though it may be considered a wild speculation, could well be such an immigrant. Along with the immigrants, the Shonin established government-subsidized temples (Jingu-ji, Jogaku-ji) throughout the country under sponsorship by the Imperial Court for the purpose of raising funds through private donations. Research and educational activities conducted in these temples ultimately resulted in a well-established body of chemical engineers who could excavate chemical substances as well as alter their natures. According to a list of regional products (Sasaki,19) 1972) up to the 14th century, these chemical substances and their derivative products included iron from the Hitachi region, cast metal from Shimotsuke, swords from Sagami, face powder (lead carbonate) from Ise, mercury, and gold. PMID:11776993

  13. Ancient origin of mast cells.

    PubMed

    Wong, G William; Zhuo, Lisheng; Kimata, Koji; Lam, Bing K; Satoh, Nori; Stevens, Richard L

    2014-08-22

    The sentinel roles of mammalian mast cells (MCs) in varied infections raised the question of their evolutionary origin. We discovered that the test cells in the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis morphologically and histochemically resembled cutaneous human MCs. Like the latter, C. intestinalis test cells stored histamine and varied heparin·serine protease complexes in their granules. Moreover, they exocytosed these preformed mediators when exposed to compound 48/80. In support of the histamine data, a C. intestinalis-derived cDNA was isolated that resembled that which encodes histidine decarboxylase in human MCs. Like heparin-expressing mammalian MCs, activated test cells produced prostaglandin D2 and contained cDNAs that encode a protein that resembles the synthase needed for its biosynthesis in human MCs. The accumulated morphological, histochemical, biochemical, and molecular biology data suggest that the test cells in C. intestinalis are the counterparts of mammalian MCs that reside in varied connective tissues. The accumulated data point to an ancient origin of MCs that predates the emergence of the chordates >500million years ago, well before the development of adaptive immunity. The remarkable conservation of MCs throughout evolution is consistent with their importance in innate immunity. PMID:25094046

  14. Alternative medicine in ancient and medieval history.

    PubMed

    Prioreschi, P

    2000-10-01

    The author, in an attempt to clarify whether the rise of alternative medicine is a phenomenon characteristic of our time or whether it existed in the past as well, has identified at least three alternative medicines, which developed in ancient Rome, ancient India and in the medieval Islamic world. The circumstances leading to the development of alternative medicine in the past and in our time are discussed and compared. PMID:11000060

  15. Evaluation of Elevated Tritium Levels in Groundwater Downgradient from the 618-11 Burial Ground Phase I Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Dresel, P.E.; Smith, R.M.; Williams, B.A.; Thompson, C.J.; Evans, J.C.; Hulstrom, L.C.

    2000-05-01

    This report describes the results of the preliminary investigation of elevated tritium in groundwater discovered near the 618-11 burial ground, located in the eastern part of the Hanford Site. Tritium in one well downgradient of the burial ground was detected at levels up to 8,140,000 pCi/L. The 618-11 burial ground received a variety of radioactive waste from the 300 Area between 1962 and 1967. The burial ground covers 3.5 hectare (8.6 acre) and contains trenches, large diameter caissons, and vertical pipe storage units. The burial ground was stabilized with a native sediment covering. The Energy Northwest reactor complex was constructed immediately east of the burial ground.

  16. Using Ancient Samples in Projection Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Melinda A.; Slatkin, Montgomery

    2015-01-01

    Projection analysis is a tool that extracts information from the joint allele frequency spectrum to better understand the relationship between two populations. In projection analysis, a test genome is compared to a set of genomes from a reference population. The projection’s shape depends on the historical relationship of the test genome’s population to the reference population. Here, we explore in greater depth the effects on the projection when ancient samples are included in the analysis. First, we conduct a series of simulations in which the ancient sample is directly ancestral to a present-day population (one-population model), or the ancient sample is ancestral to a sister population that diverged before the time of sampling (two-population model). We find that there are characteristic differences between the projections for the one-population and two-population models, which indicate that the projection can be used to determine whether a test genome is directly ancestral to a present-day population or not. Second, we compute projections for several published ancient genomes. We compare two Neanderthals and three ancient human genomes to European, Han Chinese and Yoruba reference panels. We use a previously constructed demographic model and insert these five ancient genomes to assess how well the observed projections are recovered. PMID:26546309

  17. Using Ancient Samples in Projection Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Melinda A; Slatkin, Montgomery

    2016-01-01

    Projection analysis is a tool that extracts information from the joint allele frequency spectrum to better understand the relationship between two populations. In projection analysis, a test genome is compared to a set of genomes from a reference population. The projection's shape depends on the historical relationship of the test genome's population to the reference population. Here, we explore in greater depth the effects on the projection when ancient samples are included in the analysis. First, we conduct a series of simulations in which the ancient sample is directly ancestral to a present-day population (one-population model), or the ancient sample is ancestral to a sister population that diverged before the time of sampling (two-population model). We find that there are characteristic differences between the projections for the one-population and two-population models, which indicate that the projection can be used to determine whether a test genome is directly ancestral to a present-day population or not. Second, we compute projections for several published ancient genomes. We compare two Neanderthals and three ancient human genomes to European, Han Chinese and Yoruba reference panels. We use a previously constructed demographic model and insert these five ancient genomes to assess how well the observed projections are recovered. PMID:26546309

  18. Transnasal excerebration surgery in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Fanous, Andrew A; Couldwell, William T

    2012-04-01

    Ancient Egyptians were pioneers in many fields, including medicine and surgery. Our modern knowledge of anatomy, pathology, and surgical techniques stems from discoveries and observations made by Egyptian physicians and embalmers. In the realm of neurosurgery, ancient Egyptians were the first to elucidate cerebral and cranial anatomy, the first to describe evidence for the role of the spinal cord in the transmission of information from the brain to the extremities, and the first to invent surgical techniques such as trepanning and stitching. In addition, the transnasal approach to skull base and intracranial structures was first devised by Egyptian embalmers to excerebrate the cranial vault during mummification. In this historical vignette, the authors examine paleoradiological and other evidence from ancient Egyptian skulls and mummies of all periods, from the Old Kingdom to Greco-Roman Egypt, to shed light on the development of transnasal surgery in this ancient civilization. The authors confirm earlier observations concerning the laterality of this technique, suggesting that ancient Egyptian excerebration techniques penetrated the skull base mostly on the left side. They also suggest that the original technique used to access the skull base in ancient Egypt was a transethmoidal one, which later evolved to follow a transsphenoidal route similar to the one used today to gain access to pituitary lesions. PMID:22224784

  19. CT of a Ptolemaic period mummy from the ancient Egyptian City of Akhmim.

    PubMed

    Chan, Steve S; Elias, Jonathan P; Hysell, Mark E; Hallowell, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Mummies associated with the ancient city of Akhmim in Egypt provide an important portal for radiologic research concerning the ancient Egyptian population. As part of an ongoing investigation, a mummy of Akhmimic derivation owned by the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, was scanned with a 16-detector row computed tomographic scanner. The resultant images helped confirm that the mummy was that of a female in her late teens. Although the deliberate omission of hieroglyphic texts on the painted coffin rendered the deceased individual anonymous, it is noteworthy that great care had been taken in preparing the corpse for burial. The mummy represents conscientious work by the embalmers, work that is broadly consistent with methods used during the early Ptolemaic period for well-to-do persons. Features of bodily decomposition, including the rotary dissociation of the C1 and C2 vertebral bodies and a missing right patella, point to neglect of the body prior to its recovery and mummification. The fact that the body was well prepared but thinly wrapped and interred in an uninscribed coffin further suggests that the deceased was not of the community that eventually performed the mummification. This evidence is not inconsistent with a scenario involving the body's postmortem immersion in water. Although it cannot be determined with certainty whether the deceased was a drowning victim, it appears that the treatment of the body followed protocols developed in connection with an ancient Egyptian tradition that persons dying in, or retrieved from, the Nile River were embalmed with special care. PMID:19001656

  20. Genetic characterization and assessment of authenticity of ancient Korean skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwan Young; Yoo, Ji-Eun; Park, Myung Jin; Kim, Chong-Youl; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2008-06-01

    To study the maternal lineage history of Korea, we extracted DNA from the skeletal remains of 35 museum samples (some dating back to the Paleolithic Age) excavated from 11 local burial sites scattered throughout southern Korea. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences (HV1, HV2, and HV3) were successfully determined for 11 samples with no sharing of the control region polymorphisms with individuals involved in the laboratory analyses. Each of the 11 mtDNAs was assigned to the appropriate East Asian mtDNA haplogroup according to the haplogroup-specific control region mutation motif and diagnostic coding region single nucleotide polymorphism. The successful mtDNA haplogroup determination for each ancient Korean mtDNA and the confirmation of the absence of abnormal mutations based on the haplogroup-directed database comparisons indicates that there is no mosaic structure from cross-contamination or sample mix-up or other errors in our mtDNA sequences. The presence of haplogroups B, D, and G in the prehistoric age is consistent with the hypothesis that the early Korean population has a common origin in the northern regions of the Altai Mountains and Lake Baikal of southeastern Siberia. In addition, the modern Korean population, which possesses lineages from both southern and northern haplogroups, suggests additional gene flow from southern Asian haplogroups in recent times, but many more ancient samples need to be analyzed to directly tell whether there was regional continuity or replacement of early lineages by other lineages in ancient Korea. PMID:19130795

  1. Buried Alive: The Behavioural Response of the Mussels, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis to Sudden Burial by Sediment.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, Zoë L; Hendrick, Vicki J; Burrows, Michael T; Wilson, Ben; Last, Kim S

    2016-01-01

    Sedimentation in the sea occurs through natural processes, such as wave and tidal action, which can be exacerbated during storms and floods. Changes in terrestrial land use, marine aggregate extraction, dredging, drilling and mining are known to result in substantial sediment deposition. Research suggests that deposition will also occur due to the modern development of marine renewable energy. The response to individual burial under three depths of sediment, three sediment fractions and five burial durations was investigated in two mussel species, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis in specialist mesocosms. Both mussel species showed substantial mortality, which increased with duration of burial and burial by finer sediment fractions. M. modiolus was better able to survive short periods of burial than M. edulis, but at longer durations mortality was more pronounced. No mortality was observed in M. modiolus in burial durations of eight days or less but by 16 days of burial, over 50% cumulative mortality occurred. Under variable temperature regimes, M. edulis mortality increased from 20% at 8°C to over 60% at 14.5 and 20°C. Only M. edulis was able to emerge from burial, facilitated by increased byssus production, laid mostly on vertical surfaces but also on sediment particles. Emergence was higher from coarse sediment and shallow burials. Byssus production in M. edulis was not related to the condition index of the mussels. Results suggest that even marginal burial would result in mortality and be more pronounced in warm summer periods. Our results suggest that in the event of burial, adult M. modiolus would not be able to emerge from burial unless local hydrodynamics assist, whereas a small proportion of M. edulis may regain contact with the sediment water interface. The physiological stress resulting in mortality, contribution of local hydrodynamics to survival and other ecological pressures such as mussels existing in aggregations, are discussed. PMID:26982582

  2. Buried Alive: The Behavioural Response of the Mussels, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis to Sudden Burial by Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Hutchison, Zoë L.; Hendrick, Vicki J.; Burrows, Michael T.; Wilson, Ben; Last, Kim S.

    2016-01-01

    Sedimentation in the sea occurs through natural processes, such as wave and tidal action, which can be exacerbated during storms and floods. Changes in terrestrial land use, marine aggregate extraction, dredging, drilling and mining are known to result in substantial sediment deposition. Research suggests that deposition will also occur due to the modern development of marine renewable energy. The response to individual burial under three depths of sediment, three sediment fractions and five burial durations was investigated in two mussel species, Modiolus modiolus and Mytilus edulis in specialist mesocosms. Both mussel species showed substantial mortality, which increased with duration of burial and burial by finer sediment fractions. M. modiolus was better able to survive short periods of burial than M. edulis, but at longer durations mortality was more pronounced. No mortality was observed in M. modiolus in burial durations of eight days or less but by 16 days of burial, over 50% cumulative mortality occurred. Under variable temperature regimes, M. edulis mortality increased from 20% at 8°C to over 60% at 14.5 and 20°C. Only M. edulis was able to emerge from burial, facilitated by increased byssus production, laid mostly on vertical surfaces but also on sediment particles. Emergence was higher from coarse sediment and shallow burials. Byssus production in M. edulis was not related to the condition index of the mussels. Results suggest that even marginal burial would result in mortality and be more pronounced in warm summer periods. Our results suggest that in the event of burial, adult M. modiolus would not be able to emerge from burial unless local hydrodynamics assist, whereas a small proportion of M. edulis may regain contact with the sediment water interface. The physiological stress resulting in mortality, contribution of local hydrodynamics to survival and other ecological pressures such as mussels existing in aggregations, are discussed. PMID:26982582

  3. Awn length variation and its effect on dispersal unit burial of Trachypogon spicatus (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Erica E; Baruch, Zdravko

    2014-03-01

    Trachypogon spicatus, formerly known as Trachypogon plumosus, is a dominant grass in some savannas of Northern South America. Its dispersal unit, like many other species of the Andropogoneae tribe, bears a hygroscopic awn which facilitates its establishment in favorable microsites. Some authors have previously proposed that there is a positive correlation between awn length and dispersal unit burial, and that this relationship increases the probability of seed survival in the event of a fire, since soil acts as insulator. In this study we experimentally tested this relationship for T. spicatus. A total of 192 diaspores were placed in randomized blocks, in aluminum trays filled with soil under greenhouse conditions. Diaspores were sprayed with water daily for a month to guarantee awn movement; on the last day of the experiment, they were sprayed with red aerosol paint to determine burial depth. The effects of awn length, presence of caryopses, and presence of a pivot for the passive segment of the awn on diaspore burial were evaluated. Germination viability was tested using a tetrazolium salt test for 35 caryopses. No significant differences in diaspore burial were observed between diaspores with and without caryopses (F(2,126) = 0.034, p=0.853). A positive correlation between awn length and diaspore burial was observed only if the passive awn lacked a pivot (r(66)=0.394, p<0.05). Diaspores whose awns had a pivot point achieved significantly deeper burial distances than their counterparts (F(2,126)=7.063, p=0.005). Viability test found that 0% of caryopses tested were able to germinate; this is possibly due to the time difference between sampling and testing. We considered the presence or absence of caryopsis as an important factor, since previous studies have not yet considered it and the high production of sterile diaspores in grasses. These results suggest that the physical mechanism behind T. spicatus diaspore burial is awn torque. This would explain why our

  4. Measurement of Helium-3/Helium-4 Ratios in Soil Gas at the 618-11 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Khris B.; Dresel, P Evan; Evans, John C.

    2001-10-31

    Seventy soil gas-sampling points were installed around the perimeter of the 618-11 Burial Ground, approximately 400 feet downgradient of well 699-13-3A, and in four transects downgradient of the burial ground to a maximum distance of 3,100 feet. Soil gas samples were collected and analyzed for helium-3/helium-4 ratios from these 70 points. Helium-3/helium-4 ratios determined from the soil gas sampling points showed significant enrichments, relative to ambient air helium-3 concentrations. The highest concentrations were located along the northern perimeter of the burial ground. Helium-3/helium-4 ratios (normalized to the abundances in ambient air) ranged from 1.0 to 62 around the burial ground. The helium-3/helium-4 ratios from the 4 transect downgradient of the burial ground ranged from 0.988 to 1.68. The helium-3/helium-4 ratios from around the burial ground suggest there is a vadose zone source of tritium along the north side of the burial ground. This vadose zone source is likely the source of tritium in the groundwater. The helium-3/helium-4 ratios also suggest the groundwater plume is traveling east-northeast from the burial ground and the highest groundwater tritium value may be to the north of well 699-13-3A. Finally, there appears to be no immediately upgradient sources of tritium impacting the burial ground since all the upgradient helium-3/helium-4 ratios are approximately 1.0.

  5. Controlled preparation of wet granular media reveals limits to lizard burial ability.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Sarah S; Kuckuk, Robyn; Goldman, Daniel I

    2015-07-01

    Many animals move within ground composed of granular media (GM); the resistive properties of such substrates can depend on water content and compaction, but little is known about how such parameters affect locomotion or the physics of drag and penetration. Using apparatus to control compaction of GM, our recent studies of movement in dry GM have revealed locomotion strategies of specialized dry-sand-swimming reptiles. However, these animals represent a small fraction of the diversity and presumed burial strategies of fossorial reptilian fauna. Here we develop a system to create states of wet GM of varying moisture content and compaction in quantities sufficient to study the burial and subsurface locomotion of the Ocellated skink (C. ocellatus), a generalist lizard. X-ray imaging revealed that in wet and dry GM the lizard slowly buried (≈30 s) propagating a wave from head to tail, while moving in a start-stop motion. During forward movement, the head oscillated, and the forelimb on the convex side of the body propelled the animal. Although body kinematics and 'slip' were similar in both substrates, the burial depth was smaller in wet GM. Penetration and drag force experiments on smooth cylinders revealed that wet GM was ≈4× more resistive than dry GM. In total, our measurements indicate that while the rheology of the dry and wet GM differ substantially, the lizard's burial motor pattern is conserved across substrates, while its burial depth is largely constrained by environmental resistance. PMID:26109565

  6. Controlled preparation of wet granular media reveals limits to lizard burial ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Sarah S.; Kuckuk, Robyn; Goldman, Daniel I.

    2015-07-01

    Many animals move within ground composed of granular media (GM); the resistive properties of such substrates can depend on water content and compaction, but little is known about how such parameters affect locomotion or the physics of drag and penetration. Using apparatus to control compaction of GM, our recent studies of movement in dry GM have revealed locomotion strategies of specialized dry-sand-swimming reptiles. However, these animals represent a small fraction of the diversity and presumed burial strategies of fossorial reptilian fauna. Here we develop a system to create states of wet GM of varying moisture content and compaction in quantities sufficient to study the burial and subsurface locomotion of the Ocellated skink (C. ocellatus), a generalist lizard. X-ray imaging revealed that in wet and dry GM the lizard slowly buried (≈ 30 s) propagating a wave from head to tail, while moving in a start-stop motion. During forward movement, the head oscillated, and the forelimb on the convex side of the body propelled the animal. Although body kinematics and ‘slip’ were similar in both substrates, the burial depth was smaller in wet GM. Penetration and drag force experiments on smooth cylinders revealed that wet GM was ≈ 4× more resistive than dry GM. In total, our measurements indicate that while the rheology of the dry and wet GM differ substantially, the lizard's burial motor pattern is conserved across substrates, while its burial depth is largely constrained by environmental resistance.

  7. Late Quaternary strata and carbon burial records in the Yellow River delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guangming; Ye, Siyuan; Li, Guangxue; Ding, Xigui; Yuan, Hongming

    2015-06-01

    Sediment carbon sequestration plays an essential role in mitigating atmospheric CO2 increases and the subsequently global greenhouse effect. To clarify the late Quaternary strata and carbon burial records in Yellow River delta (YRD), detailed analysis of benthic foraminifera, total carbon (TC), organic carbon (Corg), sedimentary characteristics and moisture contents of sediments, was performed on core ZK3, 30.3 m in length and obtained from YRD in 2007. Eight depositional units (designated U1-U8 in ascending order) were identified. A comprehensive analysis method of historical geography and sedimentary geology was used to determine the precise depositional ages of the modern Yellow River delta (MYRD), from which pre-MYRD ages were deduced. The results indicates that the maximum burial rates of TC, inorganic carbon (IC) and Corg occurred in the delta front (U5), and the minimum in the shallow sea (U3). Remarkable high sedimentation rates in the MYRD are responsible for burial efficiency of carbon, with an average rate of Corg burial reaching 2087±251 g (m2 yr)-1, and that of IC reaching 13741±808 g (m2 yr)-1, which are much higher than those of other regions with high contents of Corg. Therefore, YRD has a significant burial efficiency for carbon sequestration.

  8. Porosity formation in deep-burial environment: overview, with examples, from Permian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzullo, S.J.; Harris, P.M.

    1989-03-01

    Porosity formation accompanying deep burial is ubiquitous and widespread in the Permian basin, particularly but not exclusively in offshore platform and resedimented basinal carbonates of Pennsylvanian and Permian age. Hydrocarbon reservoirs in such platform carbonate examples locally contain evidence of subaerial exposure and meteoric diagenesis. Commonly, much of the porosity formed during exposure is ultimately reduced by compaction and cementation during early burial. By contrast, no evidence of meteoric diagenesis is observed in associated basinal carbonates, although compaction and cementation accompanying progressive burial are readily evident. In both cases, however, such early diagenesis is overprinted by late burial dissolution, sometimes coincident with hydrocarbon emplacement, creating rocks of high porosity. The formation of porosity by cement dissolution may exhume occluded pores or enhance relict pores that formed in the eogenetic zone, the result being a preponderance of interparticle and moldic pores and residual cements that mimic vadose and phreatic products. In other cases, nonfabric selective dissolution, locally associated with fractures or stylolites, creates vuggy porosity which may resemble that formed during eodiagenesis. Multiple phases of deep-burial dissolution and partial cementation or replacement (by calcite or dolomite) are indicated for many of these diagenetic systems and result in a complex suite of different pore types.

  9. Burns treatment in ancient times.

    PubMed

    Pećanac, Marija; Janjić, Zlata; Komarcević, Aleksandar; Pajić, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Misković, Sanja Skeledzija

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques. PMID:23888738

  10. Lateral Variations of Fission-Track Cooling Ages along the Southern Peruvian Coast Reveal Coast-Parallel Extension during the Eocene and Oligocene.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noury, M.; Bernet, M.; Jaillard, E.; Sempere, T.

    2014-12-01

    Proterozoic metamorphic rocks largely crop out between ~14 and ~17°S along the coast of southern Peru. Previous thermochronological studies in this belt focused on the Late Neogene cooling history and yielded Late Paleozoic to mid-Cretaceous zircon U-Th/He and fission-track ages, and Late Cretaceous to Early Paleocene apatite fission-track ages. Our study aims at extending the fission-track database in the ~300 km-long, high-grade metamorphic Atico-Mollendo Block (AMB; 15.8-17.1°S), in order to understand the lateral variations of thermochronologic ages along the Pacific coast of southern Peru. We present new apatite and zircon fission-track ages from the AMB and interpret them along with the previously published dates from this block and its surrounding areas. The apatite fission-track data show a longitudinal variation pattern with two localized shifts from younger (60 Ma) to older (~90 Ma) dates, corresponding to the northwestern and southeastern borders of the AMB. These shifts coincide in the field with two major normal fault zones that strike perpendicular to the coast and bound the AMB, and had been understated until now. Given the offsetted ages, the faults were active after 60 Ma, and tilted the AMB down to the NW. This interpretation is consistent with the fact that the metamorphic grade of the basement increases towards the SE, and with the deposition between ~55 and 30 Ma of forearc continental deposits (Lower Moquegua Group) that exhibit numerous synsedimentary extensional features. The zircon fission-track age pattern is more complicated but can be interpreted either as (i) reflecting a partial reset of the whole area due to burial during the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, or (ii) as the reactivation of an important Carboniferous detachment fault during the ~100-80 Ma interval. We suggest that this coast-parallel Eocene-Oligocene extension accommodated the counterclockwise block rotation of the southern Peruvian forearc that accompanied the

  11. A phytosociological analysis and synopsis of the dry woodlands and succulent vegetation of the Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Galán-DE-Mera, Antonio; Sánchez-Vega, Isidoro; Linares-Perea, Eliana; Campos, José; Montoya, Juan; Vicente-Orellana, José A

    2016-01-01

    A phytosociological approach to dry forest and cactus communities on the occidental slopes of the Peruvian Andes is presented in base of 164 plots carried out following the Braun-Blanquet method. From them, 52 have been made recently, and the other 112 were taken from the literature. After a multivariate analysis, using a hierarchical clustering and a detendred correspondence analysis, the Acacio-Prosopidetea class (dry forest and cactus communities, developed on soils with some edaphic humidity or precipitations derived from El Niño Current), the Opuntietea sphaericae class (cactus communities of central and southern Peru, on few stabilized rocky or sandy soils) and the Carico-Caesalpinietea class (dry forests of the Peruvian coastal desert, influenced by the maritime humidity of the cold Humboldt Current), are differentiated. Within the Acacio-Prosopidetea class, two alliances are commented: the Bursero-Prosopidion pallidae (with two new associations Loxopterygio huasanginis-Neoraimondietum arequipensis and Crotono ruiziani-Acacietum macracanthae), and the new alliance Baccharido-Jacarandion acutifoliae (with the new associations Armatocereo balsasensis-Cercidietum praecocis and Diplopterydo leiocarpae-Acacietum macracanthae). For the Opuntietea sphaericae class, the association Haageocereo versicoloris-Armatocereetum proceri (Espostoo-Neoraimondion) is described on the basis of plots from hyperarid localities of central Peru. Finally, a typological classification of the studied plant communities is given. PMID:27142545

  12. Connections between Equatorial Pacific and Peruvian current system in a high-resolution numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, I.; Colas, F.; Capet, X.; Penven, P.; Pasapera, J.; Tam, J.; Schneider, W.

    2007-05-01

    Historically patterns of the ocean currents in the eastern south tropical Pacific have been deduced from eulerian current measurements or geostrophic flow estimates that lack spatial/temporal resolution to provide a reliable description of true Lagrangian pathways. As a result, limited information exists regarding the connections between equatorial currents and the Peruvian current system. Making use of the Lagrangian submodel developed for ROMS model outputs, we investigate these connections under climatological conditions. Our results show that the model reproduces the two main branches of the eastward zonal flow that are of interest to us. The first branch is the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) located between 1°N and 1°S. The second one is the South Extension of EUC (SEEUC) located between 3 - 4°S. Farther south, another current, called the Southern Subsurface Countercurrent (SSSCC), is also identified and located between 7 and 8°S above 250 m depth. Most importantly, the Lagrangian trajectories suggest that the subsurface poleward currents off Peru (Peru-Chile Undercurrent) are fed not only by the SEEUC but also by the SSSCC, and to a weaker extent by the EUC. With the help of another type of Lagrangian experiments, origins of the upwelled water off the Peruvian shelf are shown to be of direct equatorial sources and of off-shore subsurface recirculation.

  13. Diatoms from the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon: the Genera Encyonema, Encyonopsis and Gomphonema (Cymbellales: Bacillariophyceae).

    PubMed

    Vouilloud, Amelia A; Sala, Silvia E; Avellaneda, Marcela Núñez; Duque, Santiago R

    2010-03-01

    The diatom flora of the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon is far less studied than the flora of the Brazilian sector of the basin. Here we present results related to the genera Encyonema, Encyonopsis and Gomphonema. Plankton and periphyton samples were collected in lotic and lentic waterbodies from the Amazonian-Andean region, the Amazon River, Japurá River and Porvenir River basins during 1993, 1994, 2001 and 2003. At each sampling station pH, temperature, water transparency and conductivity were registered. Samples were analyzed with phase contrast microscope (LM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Ten taxa are new records for the area; Encyonema for the Peruvian and Colombian Amazon and Encyonopsis for the Colombian Sector. Encyonema neogracile var. tenuipunctatum, E. vulgare, Encyonopsis frequentis, Gomphonema augur var. sphaerophorum and G. contraturris are recorded for the first time in Colombia; Encyonema venezolanum and G. neoapiculatum in Colombia and Peru and the latter also for Amazonia. E. angustecapitatum was mentioned in Colombia before at a pond located at 3000 m asl. We describe a new species from Porvenir River, Amazonas, Colombia: Encyonema amazonianum. PMID:20411706

  14. Developing integrated approaches to climate change adaptation in rural communities of the Peruvian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggel, Christian

    2010-05-01

    Over centuries, Andean communities have developed strategies to cope with climate variability and extremes, such as cold waves or droughts, which can have severe impacts on their welfare. Nevertheless, the rural population, living at altitudes of 3000 to 4000 m asl or even higher, remains highly vulnerable to external stresses, partly because of the extreme living conditions, partly as a consequence of high poverty. Moreover, recent studies indicate that climatic extreme events have increased in frequency in the past years. A Peruvian-Swiss Climate Change Adaptation Programme in Peru (PACC) is currently undertaking strong efforts to understand the links between climatic conditions and local livelihood assets. The goal is to propose viable strategies for adaptation in collaboration with the local population and governments. The program considers three main areas of action, i.e. (i) water resource management; (ii) disaster risk reduction; and (iii) food security. The scientific studies carried out within the programme follow a highly transdisciplinary approach, spanning the whole range from natural and social sciences. Moreover, the scientific Peruvian-Swiss collaboration is closely connected to people and institutions operating at the implementation and political level. In this contribution we report on first results of thematic studies, address critical questions, and outline the potential of integrative research for climate change adaptation in mountain regions in the context of a developing country.

  15. Cross cultural adaptation and validation of the Early Childhood Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) in Peruvian preschoolers.

    PubMed

    López Ramos, Roxana P; García Rupaya, Carmen R; Villena-Sarmiento, Rita; Bordoni, Noemí E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to perform semantic adjustment and evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Early Childhood Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) in Spanish on a sample of the Peruvian population. The study was conducted on a sample of 128 children aged 3-5 years, who attended a public school (Hualmay District, Huaura Province, Lima, Peru) in 2011. The ECOHIS questionnaire, developed to measure the impact of oral conditions and/or experiences of dental treatment on oral health-related quality of life in children under 5 years old and their parents or other family members was adapted cross-culturally and subjected to psychometric tests: validity (in terms of construct and discriminant) and reliability (in terms of internal consistency and stability). The cultural adaptation addressed ECOHIS semantic equivalence (Bordoni et al., 2012) and showed that 80-100% of respondents understood the questions. Construct validity was r = .557 (p < .05) between the scores of the Spanish version of ECOHIS and dental caries experience (dmft). Statistically significant differences (p < .001) were found for ECOHIS values between groups with and without tooth decay. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha (.948) and stability by intra-class correlation (.992). The Peruvian version of ECOHIS demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability, enabling assessment of the impact of oral health problems in children under 5 years old. PMID:24303728

  16. Evaluation of antihyperglycemia and antihypertension potential of native Peruvian fruits using in vitro models.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Marcia Da Silva; Ranilla, Lena Galvez; Apostolidis, Emmanouil; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Genovese, Maria Inés; Shetty, Kalidas

    2009-04-01

    Local food diversity and traditional crops are essential for cost-effective management of the global epidemic of type 2 diabetes and associated complications of hypertension. Water and 12% ethanol extracts of native Peruvian fruits such as Lucuma (Pouteria lucuma), Pacae (Inga feuille), Papayita arequipeña (Carica pubescens), Capuli (Prunus capuli), Aguaymanto (Physalis peruviana), and Algarrobo (Prosopis pallida) were evaluated for total phenolics, antioxidant activity based on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, and functionality such as in vitro inhibition of alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase, and angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) relevant for potential management of hyperglycemia and hypertension linked to type 2 diabetes. The total phenolic content ranged from 3.2 (Aguaymanto) to 11.4 (Lucuma fruit) mg/g of sample dry weight. A significant positive correlation was found between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity for the ethanolic extracts. No phenolic compound was detected in Lucuma (fruit and powder) and Pacae. Aqueous extracts from Lucuma and Algarrobo had the highest alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Papayita arequipeña and Algarrobo had significant ACE inhibitory activities reflecting antihypertensive potential. These in vitro results point to the excellent potential of Peruvian fruits for food-based strategies for complementing effective antidiabetes and antihypertension solutions based on further animal and clinical studies. PMID:19459727

  17. Bender-gradual scoring system: performance of Brazilian and Peruvian children.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Acácia Aparecida Angeli; Noronha, Ana Paula Porto; Rueda, Fabián Javier Marín; Segovia, José Livia

    2014-06-01

    This is a transcultural study of a sample of Peruvian and Brazilian children using the Bender-Gradual Scoring System (B-SPG), which considers shape distortion as the only aspect to be analyzed, assuming that perceptual-motor maturity is independent of cultural context. The study verified that the scoring system has psychometric qualities such that it may be applied in another country. The sample consisted of 231 children, ages 6 to 10 yr., 108 from different districts of the province Lima in Peru, and 123 children from three states in Brazil. During test application, the figures were projected to children in groups. Scoring the protocols for errors was conducted by psychologists experienced in interpreting and correcting the Bender-SPG, who rigorously followed instructions in Portuguese and Spanish. The results obtained with Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analysis indicated that Figures 1 and 4 presented DIF, one favoring Brazilian children and the other Peruvian children. Thus, it was concluded that the overall scores did not favor either population and the Bender-SPG could be used to evaluate perceptual-motor maturity in both countries. PMID:25068753

  18. Boundaries of the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone shaped by coherent mesoscale dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettencourt, João H.; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio; Montes, Ivonne; Sudre, Joël; Dewitte, Boris; Paulmier, Aurélien; Garçon, Véronique

    2015-12-01

    Dissolved oxygen in sea water affects marine habitats and biogeochemical cycles. Oceanic zones with oxygen deficits represent 7% of the volume and 8% of the area of the oceans, and are thought to be expanding. One of the most pronounced lies in the region off Peru, where mesoscale activity in the form of fronts and eddies is strong. Here, we study the dynamics of the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone in a Lagrangian framework, using a coupled physical-biogeochemical numerical model and finite-size Lyapunov exponent fields, to evaluate the role of mesoscale activity. We find that, at depths between 380 and 600 m, mesoscale structures have two distinct roles. First, their mean positions and paths delimit and maintain the oxygen minimum zone boundaries. Second, their high-frequency fluctuations inject oxygen across the oxygen minimum zone boundaries and eddy fluxes are one order of magnitude higher than mean oxygen fluxes. We conclude that these eddy fluxes contribute to the ventilation of the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone.

  19. Mesozoic arc magmatism along the southern Peruvian margin during Gondwana breakup and dispersal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boekhout, Flora; Spikings, Richard; Sempere, Thierry; Chiaradia, Massimo; Ulianov, Alexey; Schaltegger, Urs

    2012-08-01

    A high-resolution U-Pb zircon geochronological study of plutonic units along the south Peruvian margin between 17° and 18°S allows the integration of the geochemical, geodynamic and tectonic evolution of this part of the Andean margin. This study focuses on the composite Jurassic-early Cretaceous Ilo Batholith that was emplaced along the southern Peruvian coast during two episodes of intrusive magmatism; a first period between 173 and 152 Ma (with a peak in magmatic activity between roughly 168 and 162 Ma) and a second period between 110 and 106 Ma. Emplacement of the Jurassic part of the composite Ilo Batholith shortly post-dated the accumulation of the volcanosedimentary succession it intruded (Chocolate formation), which allows to estimate a subsidence rate for this unit of ~ 3.5 km/Ma. The emplacement of the main peak of Jurassic plutonism of the Ilo Batholith was also closely coeval with widespread and repeated slumping (during deposition of the Cachíos Formation) in the back-arc region, suggesting a common causal link between these phenomena, which is discussed in the context of an observed 100 km trenchward arc migration at ~ 175 Ma, and the relation with extensional tectonics that prevailed along the Central Andean margin during Pangaea break-up.

  20. Seismic anisotropy and mantle flow beneath the Peruvian flat slab region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, C. M.; Long, M. D.; Beck, S. L.; Wagner, L. S.

    2011-12-01

    Our understanding of the formation, evolution, and dynamics of flat slab subduction remains incomplete. The Peruvian flat slab segment extending from 3°S to 15°S represents a region with great potential to address flat slab dynamics. It is the largest present-day region of flat-slab subduction and arguably the best modern analog to the Farallon flat slab presumably associated with the Laramide orogeny in the western US. The role of mantle flow in the flat slab subduction system can be investigated via the study of seismic anisotropy. We conduct an in depth shear wave splitting analysis at the long running GSN seismic station NNA overlying the flat slab using a variety of event sources. The results demonstrate a clear frequency dependence of the splitting parameters in addition to variation with backazimuth, both an indication of complex anisotropy. Modeling of two anisotropic layers is used in comparison with splitting measurements to assess the possible contribution from different parts of the subduction zone. In addition, we present preliminary shear wave splitting results from stations of the PULSE (PerU Lithosphere and Slab Experiment) array, a temporary deployment of 40 broadband stations that provides lateral coverage of the flat slab system. PULSE stations will be deployed through 2013 and we expect this data set to yield powerful insights into the mantle dynamics of the Peruvian flat slab region.

  1. Necessity of the Ridge for the Flat Slab Subduction: Insights from the Peruvian Flat Slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezevic Antonijevic, S.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Long, M. D.; Zandt, G.; Tavera, H.

    2014-12-01

    Flattening of the subducting plate has been linked to the formation of various geological features, including basement-cored uplifts, the cessation of arc volcanism, ignimbrite flare-ups, and the formation of high plateaus and ore deposits [Humphreys et al., 2003; Gutscher et al., 2000; Rosenbaum et al., 2005]. However, the mechanism responsible for the slab flattening is still poorly understood. Here we focus on the Peruvian flat slab, where the Nazca plate starts to bend at ~80 km depth and travels horizontally for several hundred kilometers, at which point steep subduction resumes. Based on a 1500 km long volcanic gap and intermediate depth seismicity patterns, the Peruvian flat slab appears to have the greatest along-strike extent and, therefore, has been suggested as a modern analogue to the putative flat slab during the Laramide orogeny in the western United States (~80-55 Ma). Combining 3D shear wave velocity structure and Rayleigh wave phase anisotropy between ~10° and 18° S, we find that the subducting Nazca plate is not uniformly flat along the entire region, but fails to the north of the subducting Nazca Ridge. Our results show that, in combination with trench retreat, rapid overriding plate motion, and/or presence of a thick cratonic root, the subduction of buoyant overthickened oceanic crust, such as the Nazca Ridge, is necessary for the formation and sustainability of flat slabs. This finding has important implications for the formation of flat slabs both past and present.

  2. Life cycle assessment based evaluation of regional impacts from agricultural production at the Peruvian coast.

    PubMed

    Bartl, Karin; Verones, Francesca; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2012-09-18

    Crop and technology choices in agriculture, which largely define the impact of agricultural production on the environment, should be considered in agricultural development planning. A life cycle assessment of the dominant crops produced in a Peruvian coastal valley was realized, in order to establish regionalized life cycle inventories for Peruvian products and to provide the basis for a regional evaluation of the impacts of eutrophication, acidification, human toxicity, and biodiversity loss due to water use. Five scenarios for the year 2020 characterized by different crop combinations and irrigation systems were considered as development options. The results of the regional assessment showed that a business-as-usual scenario, extrapolating current trends of crop cultivation, would lead to an increase in nitrate leaching with eutrophying effects. On the other hand, scenarios of increased application of drip irrigation and of mandarin area expansion would lead to a decrease in nitrate leaching. In all scenarios the human toxicity potential would decrease slightly, while an increase in irrigation water use would benefit the biodiversity of a nearby groundwater-fed wetland. Comparisons with results from other studies confirmed the importance of regionalized life cycle inventories. The results can be used as decision support for local farmers and authorities. PMID:22894858

  3. Ancient dna from pleistocene fossils: Preservation, recovery, and utility of ancient genetic information for quaternary research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong

    Until recently, recovery and analysis of genetic information encoded in ancient DNA sequences from Pleistocene fossils were impossible. Recent advances in molecular biology offered technical tools to obtain ancient DNA sequences from well-preserved Quaternary fossils and opened the possibilities to directly study genetic changes in fossil species to address various biological and paleontological questions. Ancient DNA studies involving Pleistocene fossil material and ancient DNA degradation and preservation in Quaternary deposits are reviewed. The molecular technology applied to isolate, amplify, and sequence ancient DNA is also presented. Authentication of ancient DNA sequences and technical problems associated with modern and ancient DNA contamination are discussed. As illustrated in recent studies on ancient DNA from proboscideans, it is apparent that fossil DNA sequence data can shed light on many aspects of Quaternary research such as systematics and phylogeny. conservation biology, evolutionary theory, molecular taphonomy, and forensic sciences. Improvement of molecular techniques and a better understanding of DNA degradation during fossilization are likely to build on current strengths and to overcome existing problems, making fossil DNA data a unique source of information for Quaternary scientists.

  4. History through Art and Architecture: Ancient Greek Architecture [and] Ancient Greek Sculpture. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ann

    This document consists of two teaching manuals designed to accompany a commercially-available "multicultural, interdisciplinary video program," consisting of four still videotape programs (72 minutes, 226 frames), one teaching poster, and these two manuals. "Teacher's Manual: Ancient Greek Architecture" covers: "Ancient Greek Architecture 1,"…

  5. Peruvian Education at a Crossroads: Challenges and Opportunities for the 21st Century. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Kin Bing

    Peruvian education achieved notable successes in the late 20th century, with primary education reaching almost all children and secondary institutions enrolling about 80 percent of 12- to 16-year-olds. Public expenditure on education increased steadily in the 1990s but was still significantly less than the Latin American average. This report…

  6. An Ancestral Language to Speak with the "Other": Closing down Ideological Spaces of a Language Policy in the Peruvian Andes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavala, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Using a multilayered, ethnographic and critical approach to language policy and planning, this article examines a language policy favoring Quechua in Apurímac in the Southern Peruvian Andes, which is being imagined as an integrated community unified by the local language. This study presents a case in which top-down policies open up ideological…

  7. Development of Teleological Explanations in Peruvian Quechua-Speaking and U.S. English-Speaking Preschoolers and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez Tapia, Ingrid; Gelman, Susan A.; Hollander, Michelle A.; Manczak, Erika M.; Mannheim, Bruce; Escalante, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Teleological reasoning involves the assumption that entities exist for a purpose (giraffes have long necks for reaching leaves). This study examines how teleological reasoning relates to cultural context, by studying teleological reasoning in 61 Quechua-speaking Peruvian preschoolers (M[subscript age] = 5.3 years) and adults in an indigenous…

  8. The Quechua Manta Pouch: A Caretaking Practice for Buffering the Peruvian Infant against the Multiple Stressors of High Altitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tronick, E. Z.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the caretaking practices employed by the Peruvian Quechua mountain people, who swaddle infants in cloths and blankets (known as a manta pouch) to protect them from the harsh and frigid environment. The practices of 14 mother-infants pairs are examined in detail, and the benefits and drawbacks of the manta pouch are examined. (MDM)

  9. New oleanan-type triterpene and cincholic acid glycosides from Peruvian "Uña de Gato" (Uncaria tomentosa).

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Mariko; Hashimoto, Ken-Ichiro; Sandoval, Manuel; Aimi, Norio; Takayama, Hiromitsu

    2004-10-01

    A new oleanan-type triterpene and three new cincholic acid glycosides were isolated from Peruvian "Una de Gato" (Cat's claw, plant of origin: Uncaria tomentosa), a traditional herbal medicine in Peru. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis. PMID:15467250

  10. Re-inventing ancient human DNA.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Michael; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Hofreiter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For a long time, the analysis of ancient human DNA represented one of the most controversial disciplines in an already controversial field of research. Scepticism in this field was only matched by the long-lasting controversy over the authenticity of ancient pathogen DNA. This ambiguous view on ancient human DNA had a dichotomous root. On the one hand, the interest in ancient human DNA is great because such studies touch on the history and evolution of our own species. On the other hand, because these studies are dealing with samples from our own species, results are easily compromised by contamination of the experiments with modern human DNA, which is ubiquitous in the environment. Consequently, some of the most disputed studies published - apart maybe from early reports on million year old dinosaur or amber DNA - reported DNA analyses from human subfossil remains. However, the development of so-called next- or second-generation sequencing (SGS) in 2005 and the technological advances associated with it have generated new confidence in the genetic study of ancient human remains. The ability to sequence shorter DNA fragments than with PCR amplification coupled to traditional Sanger sequencing, along with very high sequencing throughput have both reduced the risk of sequencing modern contamination and provided tools to evaluate the authenticity of DNA sequence data. The field is now rapidly developing, providing unprecedented insights into the evolution of our own species and past human population dynamics as well as the evolution and history of human pathogens and epidemics. Here, we review how recent technological improvements have rapidly transformed ancient human DNA research from a highly controversial subject to a central component of modern anthropological research. We also discuss potential future directions of ancient human DNA research. PMID:25937886

  11. New interpretation of the ancient constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dementev, M. S.

    New method of study of the ancient constellations and mythes is discussed. It is based on the comparison of two maps - the sky and the Earth. The Stellar map is built in an equatorial system of coordinates, the geografic map - in the Mercator's projection and of the same scale. The former map is put on the laster one. The constellation of Pleiades (seven daughter of Atlant) is placed on the meridian of Atlant (Western coast of Africa). If the Stellar map is constructed for a epoch J-3000 (3000 years up to B.C.) then we could found the following. The constellations Andromeda (the daughter of the Ethiopian tsar), Cetus, Perseus and Cassiopeia (mother of Andromeda) are projected on the centre, south and west of Ancient Ethiopia and Mediterranean Sea, respectively. That is all the constellations fall to the places, where events described in mythes occured. A constellation Cepheus (Arabian name is "Burning") covers the Caucasus. Possibly, before a epoch J-1000 this group of stars was connected with Prometheus. It is known Prometheus was chained to the Caucasian rock because of stealing of a fire. Ancient Chineses divided the sky in other way. They called "The Heavenly Town" the area of sky consisting of stars in Herculis, Aquilae and Ophiuchi. Parts of the mentioned constellation were called as a provinces in Ancient China. If the Heavenly Town locate near the Ancient China then the Greek constellations (Andromeda, Perseus and Cetus) will appear over Africa. Three important conclusions follow from this: (i) the geography of the Earth is reflected on the sky; (ii) the ancient astronomers were investigating a connection between the sky and Earth; (iii) the ancient peoples exchanged by the information about a construction of the world.

  12. Global pulses of organic carbon burial in deep-sea sediments during glacial maxima.

    PubMed

    Cartapanis, Olivier; Bianchi, Daniele; Jaccard, Samuel L; Galbraith, Eric D

    2016-01-01

    The burial of organic carbon in marine sediments removes carbon dioxide from the ocean-atmosphere pool, provides energy to the deep biosphere, and on geological timescales drives the oxygenation of the atmosphere. Here we quantify natural variations in the burial of organic carbon in deep-sea sediments over the last glacial cycle. Using a new data compilation of hundreds of sediment cores, we show that the accumulation rate of organic carbon in the deep sea was consistently higher (50%) during glacial maxima than during interglacials. The spatial pattern and temporal progression of the changes suggest that enhanced nutrient supply to parts of the surface ocean contributed to the glacial burial pulses, with likely additional contributions from more efficient transfer of organic matter to the deep sea and better preservation of organic matter due to reduced oxygen exposure. These results demonstrate a pronounced climate sensitivity for this global carbon cycle sink. PMID:26923945

  13. Global pulses of organic carbon burial in deep-sea sediments during glacial maxima

    PubMed Central

    Cartapanis, Olivier; Bianchi, Daniele; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Galbraith, Eric D.

    2016-01-01

    The burial of organic carbon in marine sediments removes carbon dioxide from the ocean–atmosphere pool, provides energy to the deep biosphere, and on geological timescales drives the oxygenation of the atmosphere. Here we quantify natural variations in the burial of organic carbon in deep-sea sediments over the last glacial cycle. Using a new data compilation of hundreds of sediment cores, we show that the accumulation rate of organic carbon in the deep sea was consistently higher (50%) during glacial maxima than during interglacials. The spatial pattern and temporal progression of the changes suggest that enhanced nutrient supply to parts of the surface ocean contributed to the glacial burial pulses, with likely additional contributions from more efficient transfer of organic matter to the deep sea and better preservation of organic matter due to reduced oxygen exposure. These results demonstrate a pronounced climate sensitivity for this global carbon cycle sink. PMID:26923945

  14. Effects of sediment burial on grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes,1844), eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Amy E.; Chapman, Duane C.; Deters, Joseph E.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Hayer, Cari-Ann

    2015-01-01

    It is thought that grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) eggs must remain suspended in the water column in order to hatch successfully. Using sand, the effects of varying sediment levels on grass carp eggs were tested at different developmental states and temperatures. Survival was high (15–35%, depending on temperature and trial) in the unburied treatment where eggs rested on a sand bed but were not covered by sediment. Survival was lower in the partial burial (5–10%) and very low (0–4%) in the full burial treatment. In all treatments, delayed hatching (organisms remaining in membranes past the stage of hatching competence) was noted. Deformities such as missing heads and pericardial edema occurred at high rates in the partial and full burials. Eggs that come in contact with the benthos and are resuspended in the water column should be considered in embryonic drift models.

  15. Social workers' final act of service: respectful burial arrangements for indigent, unclaimed, and unidentified people.

    PubMed

    Castex, Graciela M

    2007-10-01

    Social workers have long been involved in identifying resources and making final arrangements for clients who die without an estate or have no heirs, who may be institutionalized or unknown to the community, or whose body may be unclaimed for burial. Absent quick intervention, these individuals are often at risk for an anonymous potter's field burial, sometimes in coffins stacked eight deep, with no respectful ceremony of interment. This article provides an overview of societal responses to the need for a final disposition of all people; discusses demographic and social trends that, if realized, may result in a significant increase in indigent burials; and provides information on social work interventions and the identification of resources available for a respectful and dignified final disposition for a client. PMID:18232243

  16. Diachronous burial and exhumation of a single tectonic unit during collision orogenesis (Sulitjelma, central Scandinavian Caledonides)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, Alan P.; Burton, Kevin W.; Westhead, R. Keith

    1994-11-01

    The Sulitjelma fold nappe represents part of a Caledonian marginal basin obducted during the closure of the Iapetus Ocean and collision between Laurentia and Baltica. Metamorphic pressure-temperature (P-T) paths indicate that various parts of the Sulitjelma fold nappe followed characteristic clockwise P-T paths involving prograde burial followed by prograde exhumation and then near-isothermal exhumation prior to cooling. Geochronological results indicate that foreland rocks followed this general P-T path before more hinterlandward rocks, such that foreland rocks underwent exhumation while hinterlandward rocks were still being buried. This is consistent with the fold nappe passing through a collisional orogen; burial and ultimately prograde metamorphism were terminated sequentially by exhumation as a given part of the fold nappe came into contact with the lower plate, basement ramp (Baltica) and was driven upward. Burial, heating, exhumation, and cooling were thus diachronous within a single tectonic unit.

  17. Global pulses of organic carbon burial in deep-sea sediments during glacial maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartapanis, Olivier; Bianchi, Daniele; Jaccard, Samuel L.; Galbraith, Eric D.

    2016-02-01

    The burial of organic carbon in marine sediments removes carbon dioxide from the ocean-atmosphere pool, provides energy to the deep biosphere, and on geological timescales drives the oxygenation of the atmosphere. Here we quantify natural variations in the burial of organic carbon in deep-sea sediments over the last glacial cycle. Using a new data compilation of hundreds of sediment cores, we show that the accumulation rate of organic carbon in the deep sea was consistently higher (50%) during glacial maxima than during interglacials. The spatial pattern and temporal progression of the changes suggest that enhanced nutrient supply to parts of the surface ocean contributed to the glacial burial pulses, with likely additional contributions from more efficient transfer of organic matter to the deep sea and better preservation of organic matter due to reduced oxygen exposure. These results demonstrate a pronounced climate sensitivity for this global carbon cycle sink.

  18. Germination and emergence of annual species and burial depth: Implications for restoration ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limón, Ángeles; Peco, Begoña

    2016-02-01

    Due to the high content of viable seeds, topsoil is usually spread on ground left bare during railway and motorway construction to facilitate the regeneration of vegetation cover. However, during handling of the topsoil, seeds are often buried deeply and they cannot germinate or the seedlings cannot emerge from depth. This study experimentally explores the predictive value of seed mass for seed germination, mortality and seedling emergence at different burial depths for 13 common annual species in semiarid Mediterranean environments. We separate the effect of burial depth on germination and emergence by means of two experiments. In the germination experiment, five replicates of 20 seeds for each species were buried at depths ranging from 0 to 4 cm under greenhouse conditions. Germinated and empty or rotten seeds were counted after 8 weeks. In the emergence experiment, five replicates of four newly-germinated seeds per species were buried at the same depths under controlled conditions and emergence was recorded after 3 weeks. The effect of burial depth on percentage of germination and seedling emergence was dependent on seed size. Although all species showed a decrease in germination with burial depth, this decrease was greater for small-than large-seeded species. Percentage of emergence was positively related to seed mass but negatively related to burial depth. Seed mortality was higher for small-than large-seeded species, but there was no general effect of burial depth on this variable. Thus, the current practice of spreading 30 cm deep layers of topsoil in post-construction restoration projects is unadvisable. In this restoration scenario, thinner layers of topsoil should be used to achieve the maximum potential of the topsoil for germination and seedling establishment.

  19. New Hydroxyproline Radiocarbon Dates from Sungir, Russia, Confirm Early Mid Upper Palaeolithic Burials in Eurasia

    PubMed Central

    Nalawade-Chavan, Shweta; McCullagh, James; Hedges, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Sungir (Russia) is a key Mid-Upper Palaeolithic site in Eurasia, containing several spectacular burials that disclose early evidence for complex burial rites in the form of a range of grave goods deposited along with the dead. Dating has been particularly challenging, with multiple radiocarbon dates ranging from 19,160±270 to 28,800±240 BP for burials that are believed to be closely similar in age. There are disparities in the radiocarbon dates of human bones, faunal remains and charcoal found on the floor of burials [1], [2], [3]. Our approach has been to develop compound-specific methods using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to separate single amino acids, such as hydroxyproline, and thereby avoid the known human contamination on the bones themselves. Previously, we applied this technique to obtain radiocarbon dates of ∼30,000 BP for Sungir 2, Sungir 3 and a mammoth bone from the occupation levels of the site [4]. The single amino acid radiocarbon dates were in good agreement with each other compared to all the dates previously reported, supporting their reliability. Here we report new hydroxyproline dates for two more human burials from the same site, Sungir 1 and Sungir 4. All five hydroxyproline dates reported are statistically indistinguishable and support an identical age for the group. The results suggest that compound-specific radiocarbon analysis should be considered seriously as the method of choice when precious archaeological remains are to be dated because they give a demonstrably contaminant-free radiocarbon age. The new ages are, together with the previously dated ‘Red Lady of Paviland’ human in the British Isles, the earliest for Mid Upper Palaeolithic burial behaviour in Eurasia, and point to the precocious appearance of this form of rite in Europe Russia. PMID:24416120

  20. Phosphorus burial in the ocean over glacial-interglacial time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamburini, F.; Föllmi, K. B.

    2008-12-01

    The role of nutrients and their impact on primary productivity and the fluctuations in atmospheric CO2 over glacial-interglacial periods are intensely debated. One of the cornerstones is the role of phosphorus (P; in the form of phosphate). Suggestions as to the importance of P evolved from an earlier proposal that P actively participated in changing productivity rates and therefore climate change, to the most recent one that changes in the glacial ocean inventory of phosphorus were small and not influential if compared to other macronutrients, such as nitrogen. Using new data coming from a selection of ODP sites, we illustrate oceanic P sedimentary phases distribution and reactive P burial fluxes, and we show how P burial fluxes changed over the last glacial-interglacial period. Concentrations of reactive P are generally lower during glacial times, while mass accumulation rates (MAR) show higher variability. On a global scale, glacial burial fluxes of reactive P are lower than those during interglacial periods by 7-10%, because lack of burial of reactive P on the glacial reduced shelf was apparently not compensated by burial in other regions of the ocean. Using the calculated changes in P burial, we try to infer their possible impact on the phosphate inventory in the world oceans. Using a simple mathematical approach, we find that these changes alone could have increased the phosphate inventory of glacial ocean waters by 20-40% compared to interglacial stages. Variations in the C/P reactive ratios and in the P sedimentary phases distribution at the investigated sites seem to indicate that at the onset of interglacial stages, shallower sites experienced an increase in reactive P concentrations. This seems to point to P-richer waters at glacial terminations, supporting the shelf-nutrient hypothesis and giving phosphorus a role as a potential player in climate change.

  1. Phosphorus burial in the ocean over glacial-interglacial time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamburini, F.; Föllmi, K. B.

    2009-04-01

    The role of nutrients, such as phosphorus (P), and their impact on primary productivity and the fluctuations in atmospheric CO2 over glacial-interglacial periods are intensely debated. Suggestions as to the importance of P evolved from an earlier proposal that P actively participated in changing productivity rates and therefore climate change, to most recent ones that changes in the glacial ocean inventory of phosphorus were important but not influential if compared to other macronutrients, such as nitrate. Using new data coming from a selection of ODP sites, we analyzed the distribution of oceanic P sedimentary phases and calculate reactive P burial fluxes, and we show how P burial fluxes changed over the last glacial-interglacial period at these sites. Concentrations of reactive P are generally lower during glacial times, while mass accumulation rates (MAR) of reactive P show higher variability. If we extrapolate for the analyzed sites, we may assume that in general glacial burial fluxes of reactive P are lower than those during interglacial periods by about 8%, because the lack of burial of reactive P on the glacial shelf reduced in size, was apparently not compensated by burial in other regions of the ocean. Using the calculated changes in P burial, we evaluate their possible impact on the phosphate inventory in the world oceans. Using a simple mathematical approach, we find that these changes alone could have increased the phosphate inventory of glacial ocean waters by 17-40% compared to interglacial stages. Variations in the distribution of sedimentary P phases at the investigated sites seem to indicate that at the onset of interglacial stages, shallower sites experienced an increase in reactive P concentrations, which seems to point to P-richer waters at glacial terminations. All these findings would support the Shelf-Nutrient Hypothesis, which assumes that during glacial low stands nutrients are transferred from shallow sites to deep sea with possible

  2. Diagnosis and management of retroperitoneal ancient schwannomas

    PubMed Central

    Choudry, Haroon A; Nikfarjam, Mehrdad; Liang, John J; Kimchi, Eric T; Conter, Robert; Gusani, Niraj J; Staveley-O'Carroll, Kevin F

    2009-01-01

    Background Ancient schwannomas are degenerate peripheral nerve sheath tumors that very rarely occur in the retroperitoneum. They generally reach large proportions before producing symptoms due to mass effect. We describe three cases of retroperitoneal ancient schwannomas and discuss the diagnosis and management of these tumors. Case presentations Three female patients with retroperitoneal ancient schwannomas were reviewed. One patient presented with several weeks of upper abdominal pain and lower chest discomfort, whereas back pain and leg pain with associated weakness were predominant symptoms in the remaining two. Abdominal imaging findings demonstrated heterogeneous masses in the retroperitoneum with demarcated margins, concerning for malignancy. The patients successfully had radical excision of their tumors. Histological examination showed encapsulated tumors that displayed alternating areas of dense cellularity and areas of myxoid matrix consistent with a diagnosis of ancient schwannoma. Conclusion A diagnosis of ancient schwannoma should be entertained for any heterogeneous, well encapsulated mass in the retroperitoneum. In these cases less radical surgical resection should be considered as malignant transformation of these tumors is extremely rare and recurrence is uncommon following excision. PMID:19187535

  3. The Ancient Martian Climate System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haberle, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Today Mars is a cold, dry, desert planet. The atmosphere is thin and liquid water is not stable. But there is evidence that very early in its history it was warmer and wetter. Since Mariner 9 first detected fluvial features on its ancient terrains researchers have been trying to understand what climatic conditions could have permitted liquid water to flow on the surface. Though the evidence is compelling, the problem is not yet solved. The main issue is coping with the faint young sun. During the period when warmer conditions prevailed 3.5-3.8 Gy the sun's luminosity was approximately 25% less than it is today. How can we explain the presence of liquid water on the surface of Mars under such conditions? A similar problem exists for Earth, which would have frozen over under a faint sun even though the evidence suggests otherwise. Attempts to solve the "Faint Young Sun Paradox" rely on greenhouse warming from an atmosphere with a different mass and composition than we see today. This is true for both Mars and Earth. However, it is not a straightforward solution. Any greenhouse theory must (a) produce the warming and rainfall needed, (b) have a plausible source for the gases required, (c) be sustainable, and (d) explain how the atmosphere evolved to its present state. These are challenging requirements and judging from the literature they have yet to be met. In this talk I will review the large and growing body of work on the early Mars climate system. I will take a holistic approach that involves many disciplines since our goal is to present an integrated view that touches on each of the requirements listed in the preceding paragraph. I will begin with the observational evidence, which comes from the geology, mineralogy, and isotopic data. Each of the data sets presents a consistent picture of a warmer and wetter past with a thicker atmosphere. How much warmer and wetter and how much thicker is a matter of debate, but conditions then were certainly different than

  4. Detection of Marked and Unmarked Burial Sites in Louisiana Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M.; Nunn, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    Ground penetrating radar has been used in both north and south Louisiana, to locate marked and unmarked graves. Burials in Oak Ridge, Louisiana, which is in the northern part of the state, were in a church cemetery. Dates of burial ranged from the late 1800s to the present. The survey was conducted to determine the location of empty plots within the cemetery that could be used for future burials and to locate any unmarked burials. Burials in St. Gabriel, Louisiana, which is in the southern portion of the state, consisted of three marked graves on private property. Date of burials occurred in the 1970s. This survey was performed to confirm that the headstones were correctly placed over the bodies. A large surface depression was observed near the presumed location of the graves. Information regarding the exact location of the bodies was not known and one or more bodies were possibly buried in the area beneath the observed large surface depression. A Sensors and Software SmartCart bistatic ground penetrating radar unit equipped with 200-megahertz antennas with 0.5 meters of separation was used at both locations. Penetration was to a sufficient depth in order to determine locations of the burials at both sites. Longer wavelength antennas were available but not used because the 200-megahertz antennas adequately characterized the near subsurface. Sediments in the Oak Ridge site consisted of silty loams and a comparatively deeper depth of penetration was achieved. Sediment in the St. Gabriel site consisted of clays with less depth of penetration than in the Oak Ridge site. Previous studies by others in Baton Rouge, Louisiana just to the north of St. Gabriel have had poor results due to limited depth of penetration except in areas where the soil is covered by concrete or asphalt and thus remains dry year round. Both grave sites were surveyed while the soil was dry in order to ensure maximum depth of penetration. Data interpretation was completed on site during each survey

  5. Sampling and Analysis Instruction for Borehole Sampling at 118-B-1 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    W. S. Thompson

    2007-04-02

    The Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) Field Remediation Project has removed all of the disposed materials and contaminated soil from the 118-B-1 Burial Ground with the exception of tritium-contaminated soil that is believed to extend from the bottom of the present excavation to groundwater and is believed to contribute to tritium contamination observed at down-gradient monitoring Well 199-B8-6. This sampling and analysis instruction (SAI) provides the requirements for sample collection and laboratory analysis for characterization of the vertical distribution of tritium contamination in the vadose zone soil below the 118-B-1 Burial Ground remedial action excavation.

  6. The Sulfur Isotope Composition of the Pyrite Burial Flux in the Modern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchyn, A. V.; Antler, G.; Byrne, D. J.; Sun, X.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction followed by sulfide mineral burial, typically as pyrite, represents the largest removal pathway for sulfur from the exogenic sulfur reservoir. During microbial sulfate reduction, sulfur isotopes are partitioned such that the lighter 32S isotope is preferentially reduced; the magnitude of this partitioning has a large range (0 to 72‰), and therefore the average sulfur isotope composition of the global pyrite burial flux remains enigmatic. Recent work has mapped the global spatial distribution of microbial sulfate reduction rates in the modern ocean, which allows conclusions to be drawn concerning the conditions and controls on where sulfate respiration occurs (Bowles et al., 2014). The local rate of sulfate reduction in a particular sediment column can be calculated by the change in sulfate concentrations in pore fluids below the surface, which yields the net flux of sulfate into marine sediments. A flux of sulfate into the sediment is assumed to be due to diffusion along a concentration gradient set up by the consumption of sulfate at depth. We have calculated the deep-sea rates of microbial sulfate reduction using over 700 drilling sites and arrive at a similar estimate of the global modern rate of sulfate respiration. Rates of sulfate reduction are not, however, the same as the rates of pyrite burial, which is likely limited to the uppermost sediments where reactive iron may be available, or in the most nearshore environments where the terrestrial supply of iron is high and rates of sulfate reduction are orders of magnitude higher than those in the deep-sea. Sulfur isotope fractionation during microbial sulfate reduction is a function of several environmental factors, including the rate of sulfate reduction. We use a new compilation of the link between sulfate reduction rate and sulfur isotope fractionation with a model of pyrite burial in a range of modern marine sediments to derive an estimate of the global pyrite burial flux and

  7. Tillage energy savings from zone burial of shredded and whole cotton stalks

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, L.; Chesson, J.; Thacker, G.; Penner, V.

    1996-04-01

    Two prototypes of a stalk burial implement were tested for energy requirements at the University of California, Shafter Research Station. Both versions of the implement are designed to bury the cotton stalks in a concentrated Zone and reform the bed in the same location. To plow under shredded stalks, both versions of the implement required less energy than a conventional tillage systems typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Both stalk burial implements were also used to plow under whole cotton stalks. This offers additional energy savings by eliminating the stalk shredding operation.

  8. The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yu; Zwahlen, François; Wang, Yanxin

    2011-08-01

    The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology are summarized and interpreted, along with records of some related matters, like groundwater exploration and utilization, karst springs, water circulation, water conservation and saline-land transformation, mine drainage, and environmental hydrogeology. The report focuses only on the earliest recorded notes, mostly up until the Han Dynasty (206 BC - AD 25). Besides the references cited, the discussion in this report is based mainly on archaeological material, the preserved written classic literature, and some assumptions and/or conclusions that have been handed down in legends to later ages. Although most material relates to ancient China, the lessons learned may have practical significance worldwide. Compared to other contemporary parts of the world, ancient China, without doubt, took the lead in the field of groundwater hydrology. The great achievements and experience of the Chinese ancestors should provide motivation and inspiration for hydrogeologists to carry out their scientific research and exploration passionately and actively.

  9. Palaeoparasitology - Human Parasites in Ancient Material.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Adauto; Reinhard, Karl; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Parasite finds in ancient material launched a new field of science: palaeoparasitology. Ever since the pioneering studies, parasites were identified in archaeological and palaeontological remains, some preserved for millions of years by fossilization. However, the palaeoparasitological record consists mainly of parasites found specifically in human archaeological material, preserved in ancient occupation sites, from prehistory until closer to 2015. The results include some helminth intestinal parasites still commonly found in 2015, such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, besides others such as Amoebidae and Giardia intestinalis, as well as viruses, bacteria, fungi and arthropods. These parasites as a whole provide important data on health, diet, climate and living conditions among ancient populations. This chapter describes the principal findings and their importance for knowledge on the origin and dispersal of infectious diseases. PMID:26597072

  10. Did the ancient egyptians discover Algol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S.; Porceddu, S.; Lyytinen, J.; Kajatkari, P.; Markkanen, T.; Toivari-Viitala, J.

    2013-02-01

    Fabritius discovered the first variable star, Mira, in 1596. Holwarda determined the 11 months period of Mira in 1638. Montanari discovered the next variable star, Algol, in 1669. Its period, 2.867 days, was determined by Goodricke (178). Algol was associated with demon-like creatures, "Gorgon" in ancient Greek and "ghoul" in ancient Arab mythology. This indicates that its variability was discovered much before 1669 (Wilk 1996), but this mythological evidence is ambiguous (Davis 1975). For thousands of years, the Ancient Egyptian Scribes (AES) observed stars for timekeeping in a region, where there are nearly 300 clear nights a year. We discovered a significant periodicity of 2.850 days in their calendar for lucky and unlucky days dated to 1224 BC, "the Cairo Calendar". Several astrophysical and astronomical tests supported our conclusion that this was the period of Algol three millennia ago. The "ghoulish habits" of Algol could explain this 0.017 days period increase (Battersby 2012).

  11. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    PubMed

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality. PMID:26135766

  12. Current therapies and the ancient East.

    PubMed

    MacHovec, F J

    1984-01-01

    Current therapies, their theories and techniques ebb and flow in popularity, but there is a residue of basic principles and practices which remain. Much of this useful residue has been present in ancient Eastern religions and philosophies. This article compares the content of several current theories of individual, group, and family therapies to seed ideas in ancient Taoist, Zen, Confucian, yoga, and Buddhist source materials. Gestalt, existential, psychoanalytic, transactional analysis, cognitive-behavioral and family therapy concepts are traced to these ancient precursors. Illustrative examples are presented such as satori (flash of insight), koans (insight riddles), parables, yanas (exercises), rituals, and written teachings. The article concludes with the Four Noble Truths and the 8-fold path of Buddhism, given 2500 years ago but very timely to contemporary problems of life adjustment and a useful guide to counseling and therapy. PMID:6711713

  13. The practice of dentistry in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Forshaw, R J

    2009-05-01

    This paper addresses the questions of whether a dental profession existed in ancient Egypt and if it did then considers whether these practitioners were operative dental surgeons as we know them today or whether they were pharmacists. Evidence from hieroglyphic inscriptions, from the dentitions of the surviving mummified and skeletal remains, and from ancient documents and artefacts are examined. The conclusion would suggest that operative dental treatment if it did exist at all was extremely limited. The dental treatment that appears to have been provided was mainly restricted to pharmaceutical preparations that were either applied to the gingival and mucosal tissues or used as mouthwashes, and these at best may only have provided some short term relief. It seems apparent that many ancient Egyptians suffered from widespread and painful dental disease, which the available treatments can have done relatively little to alleviate. PMID:19424250

  14. Ancient and Modern Hydrology: The Common Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagan, G.

    2005-12-01

    The archeological site of Tzipori (near Nazareth) in Israel contains a beautiful ancient mosaic that depicts the Nile in an allegoric manner. One of the striking details is a Nilometer, a graded pillar that was used in order to measure the Nile level. These data were used by ancient hydrologists in order to predict the Nile regime during the coming season. In turn, these assessments provided the Pharaoh administration with the basis for taxation of the peasant population. These historical findings render Hydrology as one of the oldest technical professions. Furthermore, a few features of ancient hydrology characterize the modern one also: it is a quantitative discipline, it has an applied nature, it makes prediction under uncertainty and it is intertwined with economical and social considerations. The presentation is focused on these analogies and mainly with the need to cope with uncertainty, with emphasis on the novel and distinctive features of stochastic modeling of subsurface flow and transport.

  15. The ancient lunar crust, Apollo 17 region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, O. B.

    1992-01-01

    The Apollo 17 highland collection is dominated by fragment-laden melt rocks, generally thought to represent impact melt from the Serenitatis basin-forming impact. Fortunately for our understanding of the lunar crust, the melt rocks contain unmelted clasts of preexisting rocks. Similar ancient rocks are also found in the regolith; most are probably clasts eroded out of melt rocks. The ancient rocks can be divided into groups by age, composition, and history. Oldest are plutonic igneous rocks, representing the magmatic components of the ancient crust. The younger are granulitic breccias, which are thoroughly recrystallized rocks of diverse parentages. The youngest are KREEPy basalts and felsites, products of relatively evolved magmas. Some characteristics of each group are given.

  16. Stabilization of ancient organic matter in deep buried paleosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin-Spiotta, E.; Chaopricha, N. T.; Mueller, C.; Diefendorf, A. F.; Plante, A. F.; Grandy, S.; Mason, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Buried soils representing ancient surface horizons can contain large organic carbon reservoirs that may interact with the atmosphere if exposed by erosion, road construction, or strip mining. Paleosols in long-term depositional sites provide a unique opportunity for studying the importance of different mechanisms on the persistence of organic matter (OM) over millennial time-scales. We report on the chemistry and bioavailability of OM stored in the Brady soil, a deeply buried (7 m) paleosol in loess deposits of southwestern Nebraska, USA. The Brady Soil developed 9,000-13,500 years ago during a time of warming and drying. The Brady soil represents a dark brown horizon enriched in C relative to loess immediately above and below. Spanning much of the central Great Plains, this buried soil contains large C stocks due to the thickness of its A horizon (0.5 to 1 m) and wide geographic extent. Our research provides a unique perspective on long-term OM stabilization in deep soils using multiple analytical approaches. Soils were collected from the Brady soil A horizon (at 7 m depth) and modern surface A horizons (0-15 cm) at two sites for comparison. Soils were separated by density fractionation using 1.85 g ml-1 sodium polytungstate into: free particulate organic matter (fPOM) and aggregate-occluded (oPOM) of two size classes (large: >20 μm, and small: < 20 μm). The remaining dense fraction was separated into sand, silt, and clay size fractions. The distribution and age of C among density and particle-size fractions differed between surface and Brady soils. We isolated the source of the characteristic dark coloring of the Brady soil to the oPOM-small fraction, which also contained 20% of the total organic C pool in the Brady soil. The oPOM-small fraction and the bulk soil in the middle of the Brady A horizon had 14C ages of 10,500-12,400 cal yr BP, within the time that the soil was actively forming at the land surface. Surface soils showed modern ages. Lipid analyses of

  17. The burial of headwater streams in drainage pipes reduces in-stream nitrate retention: results from two US metropolitan areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urbanization causes stream degradation in various ways, but perhaps the most extreme example is the burial of streams in underground storm drains to facilitate above ground development or to promote the rapid conveyance of stormwater. Stream burial is extensive in urban basins (...

  18. The burial of headwater streams in drainage pipes reduces in-stream nitrate retention: results from two US metropolitan areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) retention in stream networks is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of headwater streams in urban watersheds. Stream burial occurs when segments of a channel are encased in drainage pipe and buried beneath the land surface to...

  19. 76 FR 77327 - Allowance for Private Purchase of an Outer Burial Receptacle in Lieu of a Government-Furnished...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... AFFAIRS Allowance for Private Purchase of an Outer Burial Receptacle in Lieu of a Government-Furnished.... SUMMARY: Public Law 104-275 was enacted on October 9, 1996. It allows the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to provide a monetary allowance towards the private purchase of an outer burial receptacle...

  20. 78 FR 76712 - Allowance for Private Purchase of an Outer Burial Receptacle in Lieu of a Government-Furnished...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... AFFAIRS Allowance for Private Purchase of an Outer Burial Receptacle in Lieu of a Government-Furnished.... SUMMARY: Public Law 104-275 was enacted on October 9, 1996. It allows the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to provide a monetary allowance towards the private purchase of an outer burial receptacle...

  1. 77 FR 74743 - Allowance for Private Purchase of an Outer Burial Receptacle in Lieu of a Government-Furnished...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... AFFAIRS Allowance for Private Purchase of an Outer Burial Receptacle in Lieu of a Government-Furnished.... SUMMARY: Public Law 104-275 was enacted on October 9, 1996. It allows ] the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to provide a monetary allowance towards the private purchase of an outer burial receptacle...

  2. 75 FR 67454 - Allowance for Private Purchase of an Outer Burial Receptacle in Lieu of a Government-Furnished...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... AFFAIRS Allowance for Private Purchase of an Outer Burial Receptacle in Lieu of a Government-Furnished.... SUMMARY: Public Law 104-275 was enacted on October 9, 1996. It allows the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to provide a monetary allowance towards the private purchase of an outer burial receptacle...

  3. 20 CFR 10.412 - Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and transportation of the remains?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will OWCP pay the costs of burial and transportation of the remains? 10.412 Section 10.412 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS... the costs of burial and transportation of the remains? In a case accepted for death benefits,...

  4. 31 CFR 560.542 - Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remains for burial, cremation, or interment authorized. 560.542 Section 560.542 Money and Finance... Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.542 Importation and exportation of human remains for burial, cremation..., cremation, or interment, as well as of coffins or other receptacles containing such human remains, from...

  5. 38 CFR 3.1707 - Plot or interment allowances for burial in a State veterans cemetery or other cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Plot or interment...: Allowances & Expenses Paid by Va A08se3. § 3.1707 Plot or interment allowances for burial in a State veterans... met. (b) Plot or interment allowance for burial in a State veterans cemetery. VA will pay the plot...

  6. 38 CFR 1.10 - Eligibility for and disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligibility for and disposition of the United States flag for burial purposes. 1.10 Section 1.10 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS The United States Flag for Burial Purposes § 1.10 Eligibility for and disposition of...

  7. Biogeochemical characterization of a lithified paleosol: Implications for the interpretation of ancient Critical Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordt, Lee C.; Hallmark, Charles T.; Driese, Steven G.; Dworkin, Steven I.; Atchley, Stacy C.

    2012-06-01

    Modern soils are characterized by an array of physical, chemical, mineralogical, and biological laboratory analyses of samples taken from horizons of pedogenic profiles. In contrast, fossil soils (paleosols) are typically characterized from assays of whole-rock molecular oxides because of sample lithification where element sources are unconstrained. Here we for the first time subject a lithified paleosol to an array of modern soil analytical techniques and new pedotransfer functions, providing a glimpse into the colloidal world of an ancient Critical Zone as an analog to research conducted on a network of modern Critical Zones. This methodology provides a framework for decoding a previously unknown archive of terrestrial biogeochemical information at multiple temporal and spatial scales. Application to a paleosol within an early Paleocene Critical Zone reveals that many biogeochemical properties have been preserved since burial that are similar to modern clay-rich, Vertisols. The measured and calculated physical properties of this paleosol include clay content and mineralogy, bulk density and water retention, available water capacity, and coefficient of linear extensibility (shrink-swell potential). The chemical properties include cation exchange capacity, exchangeable cations, base saturation, and exchangeable sodium percentage. The solution properties electrical conductivity and pH seem reasonable, but are interpreted with less confidence because of their greater vulnerability to alteration from fluid flow. New pedotransfer functions to reconstruct pre-burial organic carbon and nitrogen contents provide invaluable information of organically-derived nutrient content. The sum of the measured properties of the early Paleocene paleosol in context of reconstructed regional environmental conditions indicate the presence of a mid-successional hardwood forest in a humid climate with high water holding capacity, high nutrient retention, and rapid flux of elements through

  8. Peruvian sediments as recorders of an evolving hiatus for the last 22 thousand years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdem, Zeynep; Schönfeld, Joachim; Glock, Nicolaas; Dengler, Marcus; Mosch, Thomas; Sommer, Stefan; Elger, Judith; Eisenhauer, Anton

    2016-04-01

    The Peruvian continental margin is characterized by the presence of one of the strongest and most distinct Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs) in today's oceans. Therefore, it has long been in the focus of oceanographic and geological investigations. Observations indicate that OMZs are expanding in relation with currently changing climate. To advance understanding of the temporal evolution of OMZs and climate change, complete paleoceanographic and palaeoclimatological reconstructions are needed. However, the development of paleoenvironmental scenarios for the period since the Last Glacial Maximum at this region was hampered by a ubiquitous hiatus and short-term interruptions of the stratigraphical record. In the present study, we combined the stratigraphical information from 31 sediment cores from the Peruvian margin located between 3 and 18°S and water depths of 90 to 1300 m within and below today's OMZ, in order to determine the extent of the hiatus and assess the responsible mechanisms. A widespread unconformity and related erosional features, omission surfaces and phosphorites, were observed in sediment cores from the area south of 7°S, depicting a prograding feature on the continental slope from south to north during the deglaciation. Combining recent oceanographic and sedimentological observations, it is inferred that, tide-topography interaction and resulting non-linear internal waves (NLIWs) shape the slope by erosion, carry sediments upslope or downslope and leave widespread phosphoritic lag sediments, while the Peru Chile Undercurrent (PCUC) transports the resuspended sediments southward causing non-deposition. This exceptional sedimentary regime makes the Peruvian margin a modern analogue for such environments. Overall, our compilation of downcore records showed that enhanced bottom currents due to tide-topography interaction were progressively evolving and affected a wider area with the onset of the last deglaciation. Elevated tidal amplitudes and variability

  9. Three-Dimensional Gravity and Magnetic Modelling Along the Peruvian Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, A.; Sabetian, R.

    2015-12-01

    The gravity and magnetic models are constructed for three areas along the Peruvian margin between 7.25°S and 16.75°S and are based on the all available wide-angle seismic velocity models. The gravity and magnetic models image nearly the whole margin which has been only partly resolved with geophysical methods up to now. The continental margin is characterized by positive free-air anomalies of varying amplitudes, indicating that the margin has been shaped by the subduction of different features on the Nazca Plate. In the Yaquina Area (7.25°S to 11°S) gravity anomalies caused by the Trujillo Trough and the Mendaña Fracture Zone are successfully modelled with remarkable undulations in the layer geometry of the oceanic crust. Along the continental margin, especially in the Lima Area (10.50°S to 14.40°S), strong undulations of the lower continental crust influence the upper sedimentary layers and support the development of basins along the Peruvian margin. The theory stating that the Peruvian margin is uplifted by the subducting Nazca Ridge is supported by gravity modelling. Consequently the buoyant Nazca Ridge is, at least partly, responsible for the extended region of flat subduction. The thickened and slightly asymmetrical crust of the Nazca Ridge is envisaged in gravity modelling. In the Nazca Ridge Area (14.25°S to 16.75°S) no accretionary prism is modelled. We conclude that the ridge is eroding the continental margin; furthermore the subduction of eroded sediments is probable. Gravity modelling suggests that the Nazca Ridge has fractured the continental margin. North of the ridge, in the Lima Area, a rather uniform accretionary complex is observed. This indicates that, after the margin was eroded by the southwards moving Nazca Ridge, the prism rapidly reached its stable size. In the Yaquina Area an accretionary prism is modelled in the whole research area but local variations of its location and structure indicate the former erosive influence on the

  10. [A phytosociological interpretation of vegetation from sandy hills of the Peruvian desert].

    PubMed

    Galán de Mera, Antonio; Linares Perea, Eliana; Campos de la Cruz, José; Vicente Orellana, José Alfredo

    2011-06-01

    The vegetation of the sandy hills ("lomas") constitutes the main originality of the Peruvian and Chilean desert with a high number of endemics that shapes the vicarious associations. In this work, a phytosociological view of sandy environments of the Peruvian coastal desert is presented. According to the Braun-Blanquet method, we have made up 32 phytosociological inventories and added 138 ones from others authors. In each inventory, we have analyzed its floristic composition and ecological parameters, as altitude, soil and geomorphology. All releves were synthesized in a table to deduce the different associations, higher phytosociological units, and the distribu tion of its flora along the Peruvian coast and the Andean Cordillera. Using the Shannon-Wiener diversity index, the diversity of this flora is discussed making a comparison with historical data about the use of the territory with livestock during pre-Inca and Inca cultures, and Spanish invasion. As a result, two associations from Southern Peru -Nolanetum scaposo-spathulatae and Palauetum camanensis-weberbaueri-, two alliances -Nolanion humifusae from central Peru, and Nolanion spathulatae from the Southern Peru- and a new order -Tetragonio crystallinae-Plantaginetalia limensis- are described. In Nolanetum scaposo-spathulatae, Dictyophragnus englerianus, Leptoglossis lomana, Nolana scaposa, N. spathulata, Palaua velutina and Tetragonia vestita are the main characteristics, while in Palauetum camanensis-weberbaueri association N. scaposa and P. velutina are replaced by Palaua camanensis and P. weberbaueri. Nolanion humifusae alliance integrates species as Geranium limae, Hymenocallis amancaes, Nolana humifusa, N. latipes, Palaua rhombifolia or Villanova oppositifolia. Likewise, Cistanthe weberbaueri, Cryptantha parviflora, Hoffmannseggia miranda, Lupinus mollendoensis, Nolana confinis, N. pallidula, N. scaposa, N. spathulata, Palaua camanensis, P. velutina, P. weberbaueri, Tetragonia vestita and

  11. Wind Disturbance Produced Changes in Tree Species Assemblage in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rifai, S. W.; Chambers, J. Q.; Negron Juarez, R. I.; Ramirez, F.; Tello, R.; Alegria Muñoz, W.

    2010-12-01

    Wind disturbance has been a frequently overlooked abiotic cause of mass tree mortality in the Amazon basin. In the Peruvian Amazon these wind disturbances are produced by meteorological events such as convective systems. Downbursts for example produce short term descendent wind speeds that can be in excess of 30 m s-1. These are capable of producing tree blowdowns which have been reported to be as large as 33 km2 in the Amazon basin. We used the chronosequence of Landsat Satellite imagery to find and locate where these blowdowns have occurred in the Loreto region of the Peruvian Amazon. Spectral Mixture Analysis was used to estimate the proportion landcover of green vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV), soil and shade in each pixel. The change in NPV was calculated by subtracting the NPV signal in the Landsat image prior to the blowdown occurrence, from the image following the disturbance. Our prior research has established a linear relationship between tree mortality and change in NPV. It is hypothesized that these mass tree mortality events result in changes in the tree species assemblage of affected forests. Here we present preliminary tree species assemblage data from two sites in the Peruvian Amazon near Iquitos, Peru. The site (ALP) at the Allpahuayo Mishana reserve (3.945 S, 73.455 W) is 30 km south of Iquitos, Peru, and hosts the remnants of a 50 ha blowdown that occurred in either 1992 or 1993. Another site (NAPO) on the Napo river about 60 km north of Iquitos, is the location of an approximately 300 ha blowdown that occurred in 1998. At each site, a 3000 m x 10 m transect encompassing non disturbed and disturbed areas was installed, and trees greater than 10 cm diameter at breast height were measured for diameter, height and were identified to the species. Stem density of trees with diameter at breast height > 10 cm, and tree height appear to be similar both inside and outside the blowdown affected areas of the forests at both sites. At the ALP

  12. Time-temperature-burial significance of Devonian anthracite implies former great (˜6.5 km) depth of burial of Catskill Mountains, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Gerald M.; Sanders, John E.

    1982-02-01

    Specimens of coalified plant debris in Tully-correlative strata of the Gilboa Formation (uppermost Middle Devonian) within the eastern Cat-skill Mountains of New York State have been converted to anthracite having a vitrinite reflectance of 2.5%. This implies a level of organic metamorphism (LOM) of 16. A similar degree of thermal activity is implied by the black color (Staplin kerogen-alteration index of 4) of the associated (possibly recycled) carbonized kerogen, a conodont-alteration index of 4, and authigenic chlorite and local sericite fillings of the former interparticle pores of interbedded sandstones. The specimens are about 350 m.y. old; if 200 m.y. is taken as the duration of the time of exposure to the maximum geothermal temperature, then the LOM of 16 and other thermal indicators imply a maximum temperature of 190 °C. Using a geothermal gradient of 26 °C · km-1 (17 °F · 1,000 ft-1), a former depth of burial of 6.5 km is implied. Such former deep burial is not usually inferred for the Catskills, but it is consistent with the idea that the thick (about 6.4 km or 21,000 ft) Carboniferous strata of northeastern Pennsylvania formerly extended northeast far enough to bury the Catskills. The lack of metamorphism of the Paleozoic strata lying about 4.5 km beneath the Tully-correlative rocks and exposed in the adjacent Hudson Valley places low limits on the former geothermal gradient; this supports the concept of great depth of former burial of the Catskills. For example, 6.5 km of former burial and a geothermal gradient of 26 °C · km-1 imply a temperature of 307 °C for the base of the Paleozoic. By contrast, only 1 km of former burial requires a geothermal gradient of 170 °C · km-1, which would have subjected the base of the Paleozoic to a temperature of 955 °C, which is far higher than the 600 to 650 °C recently inferred for the Acadian-age metamorphism of the Taconic allochthon in southwestern Massachusetts and adjoining areas.

  13. CT: a new nondestructive method for visualizing and characterizing ancient Roman glass fragments in situ in blocks of soil.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Roel J; Poulus, Martin; Kottman, Jaap; de Groot, Tessa; Huisman, Dirk J; Stoker, Jaap

    2006-01-01

    A rare, complete ancient Roman burial site was discovered near the Dutch village of Bocholtz. In addition to many preserved grave offerings, there were countless fragments of deteriorated glass objects still buried in the ground. This glass was in very poor condition, however, and there was no possibility of excavating it directly. Instead, archeologists working at the site decided to dig up blocks of soil containing the glass fragments. High-resolution spiral computed tomography (CT) with multiplanar reformation, shaded-surface-display rendering, and volume rendering was used to obtain detailed information about the position, number, and form of the deteriorated glass fragments. CT-guided removal of the soil made it possible to restore some of the objects excavated from the blocks. In five of the 14 excavated objects, a correct Isings classification could be made based on the CT findings. In addition, CT was very important for the reconstruction of the layout of the burial chamber, the compilation of a list of grave contents, and the positioning of these contents within the chamber. PMID:17102054

  14. Incorporation of Trace Elements in Ancient and Modern Human Bone: An X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Cruz-Jimenez, G.; Price, T. D.

    2001-12-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) affords the opportunity to probe the atomic environment of trace elements in human bone. We are using XAS to investigate the mode(s) of incorporation of Sr, Zn, Pb, and Ba in both modern and ancient (and thus possibly altered) human and animal bone. Because burial and diagenesis may add trace elements to bone, we performed XAS analysis on samples of pristine contemporary and ancient, buried human and animal bone. We assume that deposition of these elements during burial occurs by processes distinct from those in vivo, and this will be reflected in their atomic environments. Archaeologists measure strontium in human and animal bone as a guide to diet. Carnivores show lower Sr/Ca ratios than their herbivore prey due to discrimination against Sr relative to Ca up the food chain. In an initial sample suite no difference was observed between modern and buried bone. Analysis of additional buried samples, using a more sensitive detector, revealed significant differences in the distance to the second and third neighbors of the Sr in some of the buried samples. Distances to the first neighbor, oxygen, were similar in all samples. Zinc is also used in paleo-diet studies. Initial x-ray absorption spectroscopy of a limited suite of bones did not reveal any differences between modern and buried samples. This may reflect the limited number of samples examined or the low levels of Zn in typical aqueous solutions in soils. Signals from barium and lead were too low to record useful XAS spectra. Additional samples will be studied for Zn, Ba, and Pb. We conducted our XAS experiments on beam lines 4-1 and 4-3 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Data were collected in the fluorescence mode, using a Lytle detector and appropriate filter, and a solid state, 13-element Ge-detector.

  15. Identification of leachate from livestock mortality burial using electrical resistivity and small-loop EM survey: case history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sung-Ho; Cho, In-Ky; Choi, Kwang-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Leachate from livestock mortality burial is harmful to the soil and groundwater environment and adequate assessment approaches are necessary to manage burial sites. Among the methods used to detect leachate, geophysical surveys, including electrical resistivity and electromagnetic (EM) techniques, are used in many engineering approaches to environmental problems, such as identifying contaminant plumes and evaluating hydrogeological conditions. Electrical resistivity, with a small-loop EM survey, was used in this study as a reconnaissance technique to identify the burial shape and distribution of leachate from livestock mortality burial in five small separate zones. We conducted a multi-frequency small-loop EM survey using lattice nets and acquired apparent conductivity values along several parallel and perpendicular lines over a burial site. We also compared geophysical results to the geochemical analysis of samples from both a leachate collection well and a downstream observation well within the study area. Depth slices of apparent conductivities at each frequency (obtained from the small-loop EM survey data) clearly identified the subsurface structure of the burial shape and the extent of leachate transport. Low-resistivity zones, identified from two-dimensional (2D) electrical resistivity imaging results, were matched to the five burial zones (within a depth of 5 m), as well as high electrical conductivity of the leachate obtained from leachate collection wells, and depth slices of the apparent conductivity distribution obtained from the small-loop EM survey. A three-dimensional (3D) inversion of resistivity data provided a detailed 3D structure of the overall burial site and leachate pathways. Moreover, these zones were widely spread over the burial site, indicating that leachate potentially extended through damaged regions of the composite liner to a depth of 10 m along the downstream groundwater flow. Both the small-loop EM method and the electrical

  16. WINTER FLOUNDER PSUEDOPLEURONECTES AMERICANUS HATCHING SUCCESS AS A FUNCTION OF BURIAL DEPTH IN THE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous experiments have shown that viable hatch of winter flounder eggs is reduced when the eggs are buried by as little as one half of one egg diameter (approximately 0.5 mm of sediment). This sensitivity to burial has resulted in seasonal banning of dredging in several north...

  17. Climate change decouples oceanic primary and export productivity and organic carbon burial

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Cristina; Kucera, Michal; Mix, Alan C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding responses of oceanic primary productivity, carbon export, and burial to climate change is essential for model-based projection of biological feedbacks in a high-CO2 world. Here we compare estimates of productivity based on the composition of fossil diatom floras with organic carbon burial off Oregon in the Northeast Pacific across a large climatic transition at the last glacial termination. Although estimated primary productivity was highest during the Last Glacial Maximum, carbon burial was lowest, reflecting reduced preservation linked to low sedimentation rates. A diatom size index further points to a glacial decrease (and deglacial increase) in the fraction of fixed carbon that was exported, inferred to reflect expansion, and contraction, of subpolar ecosystems that today favor smaller plankton. Thus, in contrast to models that link remineralization of carbon to temperature, in the Northeast Pacific, we find dominant ecosystem and sea floor control such that intervals of warming climate had more efficient carbon export and higher carbon burial despite falling primary productivity. PMID:25453073

  18. Climate change decouples oceanic primary and export productivity and organic carbon burial.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Cristina; Kucera, Michal; Mix, Alan C

    2015-01-13

    Understanding responses of oceanic primary productivity, carbon export, and burial to climate change is essential for model-based projection of biological feedbacks in a high-CO2 world. Here we compare estimates of productivity based on the composition of fossil diatom floras with organic carbon burial off Oregon in the Northeast Pacific across a large climatic transition at the last glacial termination. Although estimated primary productivity was highest during the Last Glacial Maximum, carbon burial was lowest, reflecting reduced preservation linked to low sedimentation rates. A diatom size index further points to a glacial decrease (and deglacial increase) in the fraction of fixed carbon that was exported, inferred to reflect expansion, and contraction, of subpolar ecosystems that today favor smaller plankton. Thus, in contrast to models that link remineralization of carbon to temperature, in the Northeast Pacific, we find dominant ecosystem and sea floor control such that intervals of warming climate had more efficient carbon export and higher carbon burial despite falling primary productivity. PMID:25453073

  19. 77 FR 35755 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Burial Benefits) Activities Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for Burial Benefits) Activities Under OMB Review AGENCY... abstracted below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and comment. The PRA submission... Benefits (Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 23), VA Form 21-530. OMB Control Number: 2900-0003. Type of...

  20. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    M. L. Proctor

    2006-06-13

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-B-6, 108-B Solid Waste Burial Ground. The 118-B-6 site consisted of 2 concrete pipes buried vertically in the ground and capped by a concrete pad with steel lids. The site was used for the disposal of wastes from the "metal line" of the P-10 Tritium Separation Project.

  1. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) Old Burial Ground (OBG) source control technology and inventory study

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.P.; Rehder, T.E.; Kanzleiter, J.P.

    1996-10-02

    This report has been developed to support information needs for wastes buried in the Burial Ground Complex. Information discussed is presented in a total of four individual attachments. The general focus of this report is to collect information on estimated source inventories, leaching studies, source control technologies, and to provide information on modeling parameters and associated data deficiencies.

  2. Geologic Descriptions for the Solid-Waste Low Level Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.

    2007-09-23

    This document provides the stratigraphic framework and six hydrogeologic cross sections and interpretations for the solid-waste Low Level Burial Grounds on the Hanford Site. Four of the new cross sections are located in the 200 West Area while the other two are located within the 200 East Area. The cross sections display sediments of the vadose zone and uppermost unconfined aquifer.

  3. Social Workers' Final Act of Service: Respectful Burial Arrangements for Indigent, Unclaimed, and Unidentified People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castex, Graciela M.

    2007-01-01

    Social workers have long been involved in identifying resources and making final arrangements for clients who die without an estate or have no heirs, who may be institutionalized or unknown to the community, or whose body may be unclaimed for burial. Absent quick intervention, these individuals are often at risk for an anonymous potter's field…

  4. Passive Neutron Non-Destructive Assay for Remediation of Radiological Waste at Hanford Burial Grounds- 13189

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, A.; Pitts, M.; Ludowise, J.D.; Valentinelli, P.; Grando, C.J.; Haggard, D.L.

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford burial grounds contains a broad spectrum of low activity radioactive wastes, transuranic (TRU) wastes, and hazardous wastes including fission products, byproduct material (thorium and uranium), plutonium and laboratory chemicals. A passive neutron non-destructive assay technique has been developed for characterization of shielded concreted drums exhumed from the burial grounds. This method facilitates the separation of low activity radiological waste containers from TRU waste containers exhumed from the burial grounds. Two identical total neutron counting systems have been deployed, each consisting of He-3 detectors surrounded by a polyethylene moderator. The counts are processed through a statistical filter that removes outliers in order to suppress cosmic spallation events and electronic noise. Upon completion of processing, a 'GO / NO GO' signal is provided to the operator based on a threshold level equivalent to 0.5 grams of weapons grade plutonium in the container being evaluated. This approach allows instantaneous decisions to be made on how to proceed with the waste. The counting systems have been set up using initial on-site measurements (neutron emitting standards loaded into surrogate waste containers) combined with Monte Carlo modeling techniques. The benefit of this approach is to allow the systems to extend their measurement ranges, in terms of applicable matrix types and container sizes, with minimal interruption to the operations at the burial grounds. (authors)

  5. Preliminary fire hazard analysis for the PUTDR and TRU trenches in the Solid Waste Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Gaschott, L.J.

    1995-06-16

    This document represents the Preliminary Fire Hazards Analysis for the Pilot Unvented TRU Drum Retrieval effort and for the Transuranic drum trenches in the low level burial grounds. The FHA was developed in accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A to address major hazards inherent in the facility.

  6. 32 CFR 553.15 - Persons eligible for burial in Arlington National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... individual concerned was disabled or died from a disease or injury incurred or aggravated in line of duty... collusion. (2) An unmarried adult child may be interred in the same grave in which the parent has been or... a group burial may be interred in the same cemetery but not in the same grave. (i) The...

  7. 32 CFR 553.15 - Persons eligible for burial in Arlington National Cemetery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... individual concerned was disabled or died from a disease or injury incurred or aggravated in line of duty... collusion. (2) An unmarried adult child may be interred in the same grave in which the parent has been or... a group burial may be interred in the same cemetery but not in the same grave. (i) The...

  8. 618-10 Burial Ground VPU Nonintrusive Characterization Process and Data Collection Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    S. Khabir

    2010-12-21

    This report presents the nonintrusive characterization measurement results for the 618-10 Burial Ground and provides a general assessment of the estimated dose, isotopic concentrations, and bounding transuranic radionuclide inventories for the 618-10 vertical pipe units and trenches, based on interpretation of data from a system of in situ radiological multi-detector probes.

  9. Palmer amaranth seed mortality in response to burial depth and time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate resistant Palmer amaranth infests millions of arable acres in the SE US. One proposed method of reducing population numbers is to bury surface seeds deeply, below their optimal emergence zone. The objective of this study was to determine how burial longevity and depth impact Palmer amaran...

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of an Oceanobacillus sp. Strain Isolated from Soil in a Burial Crypt

    PubMed Central

    Arizaga, Ylenia; Bikandi, Joseba; Garaizar, Javier; Ganau, Giulia; Paglietti, Bianca; Deligios, Massimo; Rubino, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    We present the draft genome of an Oceanobacillus sp. strain isolated from spores found in soil samples from a burial crypt of the Cathedral of Sant'Antonio Abate in Castelsardo, Italy. The data obtained indicated the closest relation of the strain with Oceanobacillus caeni. PMID:27469952

  11. 38 CFR 3.1702 - Persons who may receive burial benefits; priority of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... VA may grant additional burial benefits, including the plot or interment allowance, reimbursement for... an agency or political subdivision of a State, files under § 3.1707, Plot or interment allowance for... for the plot or interment allowance (except for claims filed by a State or an agency or...

  12. Hydrogeologic investigation of the Maxey Flats radioactive waste burial site, Fleming County, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zehner, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    Burial trenches at the Maxey Flats radioactive waste burial site cover an area of about 20 acres, and are located on a plateau, about 300 to 400 feet above surrounding valleys. All waste is buried in the Nancy Member of the Borden Formation, and most is in the weathered shale (regolith) part of this member. Recharge to the rocks is probably by infiltration of rainfall through regolith at the top of the hill. At least two water tables are present: near the base of the regolith, at a depth of about 25 feet and; in the Ohio Shale, at a depth of about 300 feet. About 95 percent of ground-water discharge to streams is from colluvium on hillsides and valley alluvium. The remaining 5 percent is discharge from bedrock, of which about 0.5 percent is from rocks underlying the burial area. Waste radionuclides in the subsurface, other than tritium, were observed only in the regolith of the Nancy Member. Only tritium was observed with certainty in deeper rocks and in the adjacent valley alluvium. Other waste radionuclides were in streamwater and stream sediment, and may have been transported with overland runoff from the surface of the burial site. (USGS)

  13. Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yanben; Qiao, Qiyuan

    2009-11-01

    Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astronomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors regarded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Consequently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

  14. Structural Factors That Increase HIV/STI Vulnerability Among Indigenous People in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Orellana, E. Roberto; Alva, Isaac E.; Cárcamo, Cesar P.; García, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    We examined structural factors—social, political, economic, and environmental—that increase vulnerability to HIV among indigenous people in the Peruvian Amazon. Indigenous adults belonging to 12 different ethnic groups were purposively recruited in four Amazonian river ports and 16 indigenous villages. Qualitative data revealed a complex set of structural factors that give rise to environments of risk where health is constantly challenged. Ferryboats that cross Amazonian rivers are settings where unprotected sex—including transactional sex between passengers and boat crew and commercial sex work—often take place. Population mobility and mixing also occurs in settings like the river docks, mining sites, and other resource extraction camps, where heavy drinking and unprotected sex work are common. Multilevel, combination prevention strategies that integrate empirically based interventions with indigenous knowledge are urgently needed, not only to reduce vulnerability to HIV transmission, but also to eliminate the structural determinants of indigenous people’s health. PMID:23925407

  15. Paleoseismicity and neotectonics of the Cordillera Blanca fault zone, Northern Peruvian Andes.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, D.P.

    1988-01-01

    The Cordillera Blanca fault zone is a major W dipping normal fault that bounds the W side of a 120- 170-km wide zone of active extension along the crest of the N Peruvian Andes. The fault is approximately 210 km long and exhibits continuous geomorphic evidence of repeated late Pleistocene and Holocene displacements but has not been the source of historical or teleseismically recorded earthquakes. Trenching and mapping of fault scarps provide new information on earthquake recurrence, slip rate, timing of the most recent events and Andean neotectonics. At Quebrada Queroccocha, 55 km from valley fill lacustrine and fluvial deposits are displaced 7.5-8 m. Scarp profiles, tectonic terraces, and trench exposures indicate 5 to 7 scarp-forming earthquakes of 2-3 m per event during the past 11 000-14 000 yrs at this location.-from Author

  16. Traditional use of the Andean flicker (Colaptes rupicola) as a galactagogue in the Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Froemming, Steve

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the use of the dried meat and feathers of the Andean Flicker (Colaptes rupicola) to increase the milk supply of nursing women and domestic animals in the Andes. The treatment is of preColumbian origin, but continues to be used in some areas, including the village in the southern Peruvian highlands where I do ethnographic research. I explore the factors giving rise to and sustaining the practice, relate it to other galactagogues used in the Andes and to the use of birds in ethnomedical and ethnoveterinary treatments in general, and situate it within the general tendency in the Andes and elsewhere to replicate human relations in the treatment of valuable livestock. The bird's use as a galactagogue appears to be motivated by both metaphorical associations and its perceived efficacy, and conceptually blends human and animal healthcare domains. PMID:16677398

  17. Climate change in Peruvian newspapers: The role of foreign voices in a context of vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Bruno; Meisner, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Media coverage of climate change has been an area of continued research during the last years, mostly with a focus on developed countries. This study attempts to contribute to this body of work by analyzing the coverage in a developing country. The study presents a content analysis of newspaper coverage of climate change in Peru through the study of frames, geographical focus, and climate change strategies (mitigation/adaptation). Additionally, the role of foreign voices is assessed by comparing the coverage by Peruvian reporters with the coverage by wire services, and by determining the types of sources present in the articles. Results show a prevalence of an effects frame, followed by a politics frame. Also, the study found a significant amount of stories originating from wire services. In general, coverage prioritizes mitigation strategies and policies while providing limited attention to adaptation, which can be insufficient for a highly vulnerable country. PMID:23833108

  18. Preferences for intervention among Peruvian women in intimate partner violence relationships.

    PubMed

    Cripe, Swee May; Espinoza, Damarys; Rondon, Marta B; Jimenez, Maria Luisa; Sanchez, Elena; Ojeda, Nely; Sanchez, Sixto; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    We sought to identify what abused Peruvian women want or need as intervention strategies. We conducted five focus groups with 30 women with prior or current experience with intimate partner violence. Participants noted that abused women need compassionate support, professional counseling, and informational and practical (e.g., work skills training, employment, shelter, financial support) interventions. We propose a 2-tiered intervention strategy that includes community support groups and individual professional counseling. This strategy is intended to offer broad coverage, meeting the needs of large groups of women who experience abuse, whereas providing specialized counseling for those requiring intensive support. Respect for each woman's autonomy in the decision-making process is a priority. Interventions targeted toward women and men should address structural factors that contribute to violence against women. PMID:25741931

  19. Accelerating to Zero: Strategies to Eliminate Malaria in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Quispe, Antonio M.; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Hugo; Clendenes, Martin; Cabezas, Cesar; Leon, Luis M.; Chuquiyauri, Raul; Moreno, Marta; Kaslow, David C.; Grogl, Max; Herrera, Sócrates; Magill, Alan J.; Kosek, Margaret; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Lescano, Andres G.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    In February 2014, the Malaria Elimination Working Group, in partnership with the Peruvian Ministry of Health (MoH), hosted its first international conference on malaria elimination in Iquitos, Peru. The 2-day meeting gathered 85 malaria experts, including 18 international panelists, 23 stakeholders from different malaria-endemic regions of Peru, and 11 MoH authorities. The main outcome was consensus that implementing a malaria elimination project in the Amazon region is achievable, but would require: 1) a comprehensive strategic plan, 2) the altering of current programmatic guidelines from control toward elimination by including symptomatic as well as asymptomatic individuals for antimalarial therapy and transmission-blocking interventions, and 3) the prioritization of community-based active case detection with proper rapid diagnostic tests to interrupt transmission. Elimination efforts must involve key stakeholders and experts at every level of government and include integrated research activities to evaluate, implement, and tailor sustainable interventions appropriate to the region.

  20. Preferences for Intervention Among Peruvian Women in Intimate Partner Violence Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Cripe, Swee May; Espinoza, Damarys; Rondon, Marta B.; Jimenez, Maria Luisa; Sanchez, Elena; Ojeda, Nely; Sanchez, Sixto; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    We sought to identify what abused Peruvian women want or need as intervention strategies. We conducted five focus groups with thirty women with prior or current experience with intimate partner violence. Participants noted that abused women need compassionate support, professional counseling, informational and practical (e.g., work skills training, employment, shelter, financial support) interventions. We propose a two-tiered intervention strategy that includes community support groups and individual professional counseling. This strategy is intended to offer broad coverage, meeting the needs of large groups of women who experience abuse, while providing specialized counseling for those requiring intensive support. Respect for each woman’s autonomy in the decision-making process is a priority. Interventions targeted towards women and men should address structural factors that contribute to violence against women. PMID:25741931

  1. Geographic distribution and possible taxonomic distinction of Callicebus torquatus populations (Pitheciidae: Primates) in Peruvian Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Rolando; Terrones, Wagner; Cornejo, Fanny; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2008-12-01

    Population densities of yellow-handed titi monkey (Callicebus torquatus) were estimated using transect census methods. Densities were 2.8 individuals/km(2 )in the upper Rio Itaya basin and 2.5 individuals/km(2) in the lower Rio Algodón basin. Group size varied from two to five individuals, with an average of 2.9 individuals per group at the Rio Itaya. Groups were generally composed of two adults, probably the reproductive pair, with progeny from one to three previous birth seasons. Although the Rio Itaya population is phenotypically identical to populations from the rivers Nanay and Tigre, it differs from population on the rivers Napo and Putumayo. This suggests the existence of two disjunct populations of C. torquatus in Peruvian Amazonia whose taxonomic status warrants further examination. PMID:18767122

  2. Subduction Processes Along The Peruvian Margin From Wide Angle Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broser, A.; Bialas, J.; Hampel, A.; Kukowski, N.

    Seismic wide angle data were acquired during RV SONNE cruise SO146 within the GEOPECO project (Geophysical Experiments at the Peruvian Continental Margin - investigations of tectonics, mechanics, gas hydrates and fluid transport) along the Pe- ruvian continental margin. The oceanic Nazca Plate, which is approximately 28 to 38 million years new at the Peruvian trench, is subducting under the South American Plate. The Peruvian Conti- nental Margin has been influenced over the last 8 million years by collision with the Nazca Ridge, a 400 km long and 50 km wide basement high. Collision migrated pro- gressively from north to south, is presently in the area of 15S and has influenced the area to the north in several ways. Forward modeling and tomography of these high quality seismic refraction data was performed to characterize the structure and the velocities of the different stages of the evolution of the margin after collision with the Nazca Ridge. Coincident reflection seismic profiles were used to constrain the structure and thickness of the upper layers. The resulting crustal cross sections reveal a rough surface and a thin sediment layer of the subducting oceanic Nazca Plate. The crust thickens beneath the Nazca Ridge. Its thickness also varies north and south of Mendana Fracture Zone (MFZ), which separates younger (~25 Ma old) from older (~35 Ma old) oceanic crust at about 11S. There is no accretionary wedge where Nazca Ridge currently subducts. 3 Ma after the ridge has passed, a new accretionary prism is already set up with a width of 20 to 30 km and 4 to 5 km thickness which does not further increase in size as revealed by the profiles recorded further north of Nazca Ridge. This indicates that current subduction along the Peruvian Margin is non- accreting. The slope angle of the accretionary prism increases south of MFZ, whereas the profile north of MFZ shows a smaller slope angle. As the subducting Nazca Plate dips at about 6 on all profiles north of Nazca

  3. [Coinfection of dengue and leptospirosis in a girl from the peruvian amazon].

    PubMed

    Núñez-Garbín, Alexandra; Espinoza-Figueroa, Jossué; Sihuincha-Maldonado, Moisés; Suarez-Ognio, Luis

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 10 year old girl, born and raised in the city of Iquitos in Peru who presented with headache, fever, chills, musculoskeletal pain, mild epigastric pain, epistaxis and hematemesis. On physical examination, the patient was afebrile and in good general condition. Serological tests confirmed infection of dengue and leptospirosis. The patient received intravenous hydration with sodium chloride 0.9% and penicillin G sodium, achieving a favorable clinical course such that she was discharged a few days after admission to the hospital. Although these diseases are common in the Peruvian Amazon, the simultaneous presence of both in the pediatric population is little documented; therefore, a good clinical history and laboratory tests are important for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26102122

  4. Nine genera of Eucnemidae (Coleoptera) new to Peru, with a key to Peruvian genera

    PubMed Central

    Muona, Jyrki; Linna, Ari; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thirteen genera of Eucnemidae containing forty species were collected from the Iquitos region in Peru. Nine of the genera are new to the country: Rhagomicrus Fleutiaux, 1902, Adelorhagus Horn, 1890, Adelothyreus Chevrolat, 1867, Microrhagus Dejean, 1833, Dyscharachthis Blackburn, 1900, Heterotaxis Bonvouloir, 1871, Spinifornax Fleutiaux, 1926, Serrifornax Fleutiaux, 1926 and Maelodrus Fleutiaux, 1928. The previous eucnemid record from Peru contained eleven species in ten genera. Only one of the forty species caught, Entomophthalmus americanus Bonvouloir, was previously known and described from the country. Dyscharachthis, Maelodrus and Adelorhagus are recorded from South America for the first time. Many of the collected species seem to favor white-sand forest as their habitat. Possible reasons for this are discussed. A list of eucnemids from Peru is included, containing taxa already recorded from the country and also taxa that are likely to occur there. A key to the Peruvian genera is included. PMID:25834475

  5. A modern-day shamanistic healer in the Peruvian Amazon: pharmacopoeia and trance.

    PubMed

    Dobkin de Rios, M

    1989-01-01

    The functions and successes of shamanistic healers are addressed in the context of psychoneuroimmunology, which allows a description of how therapeutic success is achieved via the symbolic manipulation of biological processes. These perspectives reinforce the continued importance of traditional shamanistic healers in the contemporary world. This is illustrated by the activities of a Peruvian healer who utilizes both psychoactive plant substances and a syncretic combination of modern and traditional symbolic therapies. The reliance on a wide range of psychoactive plants, including both psychoactive substances and nonhallucinogenic plants, is shown to be empirically effective in the treatment of disease. This demonstrates the pragmatic and adaptive approaches of these traditional healers and their positive functions in treating a variety of illnesses in today's world. PMID:2723893

  6. A Peruvian family with a high burden of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Carolina; Verdonck, Kristien; Tipismana, Martín; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is frequent in Peru; an estimated 1-2% of the Peruvian population carry this retrovirus. HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic disabling disease that affects about 1% of the carriers of HTLV-1. It is not yet known why some HTLV-1-infected people develop HAM/TSP while others do not. In this case report, we present a family with an unusually high burden of HAM/TSP: 5 (the 2 parents and 3 of their children) of 7 HTLV-1 carriers developed the same disease. We describe the clinical presentation and discuss the clustering of disease against the current knowledge of the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP. Families such as this may hold the key to discovering which factors trigger the development of HAM/TSP. PMID:26392440

  7. The microeconomics of sexual exploitation of girls and young women in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Mujica, Jaris

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the sexual exploitation of girls and young women as an increasing phenomenon within the extractive industries of wood, oil, minerals and gas in Peruvian Amazonia. The analysis focuses on the city of Pucallpa and the northern part of the Ucayali River and aims to identify the social and economic dynamics underpinning the commercial sexual exploitation of female children and teenagers around the main river port. The study describes the local operating mechanisms of bars and restaurants in the port, the demand for and perceptions of the sexual exploitation of children and teenagers, and the economic logic that it entails. Using a discourse analytic approach, it is argued that this is a business whose profitability is tied to the trade in alcoholic beverages and foods and which responds to a set of family connections and networks. PMID:23713475

  8. Traditional use of the Andean flicker (Colaptes rupicola) as a galactagogue in the Peruvian Andes

    PubMed Central

    Froemming, Steve

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the use of the dried meat and feathers of the Andean Flicker (Colaptes rupicola) to increase the milk supply of nursing women and domestic animals in the Andes. The treatment is of preColumbian origin, but continues to be used in some areas, including the village in the southern Peruvian highlands where I do ethnographic research. I explore the factors giving rise to and sustaining the practice, relate it to other galactagogues used in the Andes and to the use of birds in ethnomedical and ethnoveterinary treatments in general, and situate it within the general tendency in the Andes and elsewhere to replicate human relations in the treatment of valuable livestock. The bird's use as a galactagogue appears to be motivated by both metaphorical associations and its perceived efficacy, and conceptually blends human and animal healthcare domains. PMID:16677398

  9. Peruvian Red Uakaris (Cacajao calvus ucayalii) Are Not Flooded-Forest Specialists

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Rolando

    2010-01-01

    In the literature, particularly in primatological books, the Peruvian red uakari (Cacajao calvus ucayalii) is generally considered as a species that is specialized on living in flooded forest, despite existing evidence to the contrary. Here we review all available information on habitats where Cacajao calvus ucayalii have been observed. Most sightings are from terra firme, including palm swamps, or from mixed habitats, including terra firme and flooded forest. Therefore, we conclude that the species is not a flooded-forest specialist, but is flexible in its habitat requirements and generally uses terra firme forests or a mixture of habitats. Proper recognition of habitat requirements is important for understanding the ecoethological adaptations of a species and for appropriate conservation measures. PMID:20949117

  10. [Toxicity and neutralization of venoms from Peruvian snakes of the genera Bothrops and Lachesis (Serpentes: Viperidae)].

    PubMed

    Incio Ruiz, R; Incio Ruiz, L; Martínez-Vargas, A Z; Salas Arruz, M; Gutiérrez, J M

    1993-12-01

    The lethal potencies (Median Lethal Dose) of the venoms of Peruvian snakes (Bothrops atrox, Bothrops barnetti, Bothrops pictus and Lachesis muta muta) were determined in mice by using intravenous and intraperitoneal routes of injection. In addition, the neutralizing ability of three antivenoms (bothropic polyvalent, bothropic bivalent and lachetic) was studied by preincubation-type experiments. B. pictus venom had the highest lethality by the intraperitoneal route whereas B. atrox venom had the highest lethality when tested by the intravenous route. The three antivenoms were effective in neutralizing lethality of the homologous venoms. Bivalent antivenom was more effective than polyvalent antivenom in the neutralization of B. pictus venom. On the basis of these findings, the use of bivalent bothropic antivenom is recommended in the Pacific coastal regions of Perú, whereas polyvalent bothropic antivenom is recommended in the oriental jungle regions of the country. PMID:7701074

  11. [HIV in indigenous pregnant women: a challenge for peruvian public health].

    PubMed

    Portocarrero, Julio

    2015-01-01

    This narrative review addresses the issue of indigenous pregnant women with HIV, recounting the main findings on the issue at the international level and then reviewing the status of research in Peru. Research at the international level on indigenous pregnant women focuses on the health of the unborn and the prevention of vertical transmission. There is little information about their conceptions of the disease, care practices and prevention of vertical transmission, and their perceptions of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) and the role of traditional medicine in the care of their health condition. At the national level only one bibliographic reference was found. There is evidence for the need of an urgent medical anthropological focus to investigate and deal with cases of HIV in pregnant women and women of reproductive age in indigenous communities in the Peruvian Amazon. PMID:26580939

  12. The pyramids of Greece: Ancient meridian observatories?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijević, Milan S.; Katsiotis, Marco

    Pyramids, "Dragon Houses" ("Drakospita") and megalithic structures in general create always a special interest. We postulate that, as happens with the Drakospita of Euboea, the pyramid-like structures of Argolis (Eastern Peloponnese) were constructed by the Dryops. It is known that, in addition to Euboea and some Cyclades islands, this prehellenic people had also settled in Argolis, where they founded the city of Asine. We also propose that the pyramids of Argolis and in particular the pyramid of Hellinikon village were very likely, besides being a burial monument or guard house, might be served also for astronomical observations.

  13. Exploring Ancient Skies: An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, David H.; Milone, Eugene F.

    Exploring Ancient Skies uses modern science to examine ancient astronomy throughout the World, that is, to use the methods of archaeology and insights of modern astronomy explore how astronomy was practiced before the invention of the telescope. It thus reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World, particularly Mesoamerica, putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts.

  14. Distribution of Short-Term and Lifetime Predicted Risks of Cardiovascular Diseases in Peruvian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Quispe, Renato; Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Burroughs Peña, Melissa S; Poterico, Julio A; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Huffman, Mark D; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Background Short-term risk assessment tools for prediction of cardiovascular disease events are widely recommended in clinical practice and are used largely for single time-point estimations; however, persons with low predicted short-term risk may have higher risks across longer time horizons. Methods and Results We estimated short-term and lifetime cardiovascular disease risk in a pooled population from 2 studies of Peruvian populations. Short-term risk was estimated using the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease Pooled Cohort Risk Equations. Lifetime risk was evaluated using the algorithm derived from the Framingham Heart Study cohort. Using previously published thresholds, participants were classified into 3 categories: low short-term and low lifetime risk, low short-term and high lifetime risk, and high short-term predicted risk. We also compared the distribution of these risk profiles across educational level, wealth index, and place of residence. We included 2844 participants (50% men, mean age 55.9 years [SD 10.2 years]) in the analysis. Approximately 1 of every 3 participants (34% [95% CI 33 to 36]) had a high short-term estimated cardiovascular disease risk. Among those with a low short-term predicted risk, more than half (54% [95% CI 52 to 56]) had a high lifetime predicted risk. Short-term and lifetime predicted risks were higher for participants with lower versus higher wealth indexes and educational levels and for those living in urban versus rural areas (P<0.01). These results were consistent by sex. Conclusions These findings highlight potential shortcomings of using short-term risk tools for primary prevention strategies because a substantial proportion of Peruvian adults were classified as low short-term risk but high lifetime risk. Vulnerable adults, such as those from low socioeconomic status and those living in urban areas, may need greater attention regarding cardiovascular preventive strategies. PMID:26254303

  15. Agreement Between Cardiovascular Disease Risk Scores in Resource-Limited Settings: Evidence from 5 Peruvian Sites

    PubMed Central

    Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Quispe, Renato; Peralta, Frank; Poterico, Julio A.; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Burroughs, Melissa; Pillay, Timesh; Gilman, Robert H.; Checkley, William; Malaga, Germán; Smeeth, Liam; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear how well currently available risk scores predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in low-income and middle-income countries. We aim to compare the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Pooled Cohort risk equations (ACC/AHA model) with 6 other CVD risk tools to assess the concordance of predicted CVD risk in a random sample from 5 geographically diverse Peruvian populations. We used data from 2 Peruvian, age and sex-matched, population-based studies across 5 geographical sites. The ACC/AHA model were compared with 6 other CVD risk prediction tools: laboratory Framingham risk score for CVD, non-laboratory Framingham risk score for CVD, Reynolds risk score, systematic coronary risk evaluation, World Health Organization risk charts, and the Lancet chronic diseases risk charts. Main outcome was in agreement with predicted CVD risk using Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient. Two thousand one hundred and eighty-three subjects, mean age 54.3 (SD ± 5.6) years, were included in the analysis. Overall, we found poor agreement between different scores when compared with ACC/AHA model. When each of the risk scores was used with cut-offs specified in guidelines, ACC/AHA model depicted the highest proportion of people at high CVD risk predicted at 10 years, with a prevalence of 29.0% (95% confidence interval, 26.9–31.0%), whereas prevalence with World Health Organization risk charts was 0.6% (95% confidence interval, 0.2–8.6%). In conclusion, poor concordance between current CVD risk scores demonstrates the uncertainty of choosing any of them for public health and clinical interventions in Latin American populations. There is a need to improve the evidence base of risk scores for CVD in low-income and middle-income countries. PMID:26102017

  16. Genotypic and Phenotypic Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Peruvian Children ▿

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, F. P.; Ochoa, T. J.; Maves, R. C.; Bernal, M.; Medina, A. M.; Meza, R.; Barletta, F.; Mercado, E.; Ecker, L.; Gil, A. I.; Hall, E. R.; Huicho, L.; Lanata, C. F.

    2010-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of childhood diarrhea. The present study sought to determine the prevalence and distribution of toxin types, colonization factors (CFs), and antimicrobial susceptibility of ETEC strains isolated from Peruvian children. We analyzed ETEC strains isolated from Peruvian children between 2 and 24 months of age in a passive surveillance study. Five E. coli colonies per patient were studied by multiplex real-time PCR to identify ETEC virulence factors. ETEC-associated toxins were confirmed using a GM1-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Confirmed strains were tested for CFs by dot blot assay using 21 monoclonal antibodies. We analyzed 1,129 samples from children with diarrhea and 744 control children and found ETEC in 5.3% and 4.3%, respectively. ETEC was more frequently isolated from children >12 months of age than from children <12 months of age (P < 0.001). Fifty-two percent of ETEC isolates from children with diarrhea and 72% of isolates from controls were heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) positive and heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) negative; 25% and 19%, respectively, were LT negative and ST positive; and 23% and 9%, respectively, were LT positive and ST positive. CFs were identified in 64% of diarrheal samples and 37% of control samples (P < 0.05). The most common CFs were CS6 (14% and 7%, respectively), CS12 (12% and 4%, respectively), and CS1 (9% and 4%, respectively). ST-producing ETEC strains caused more severe diarrhea than non-ST-producing ETEC strains. The strains were most frequently resistant to ampicillin (71%) and co-trimoxazole (61%). ETEC was thus found to be more prevalent in older infants. LT was the most common toxin type; 64% of strains had an identified CF. These data are relevant in estimating the burden of disease due to ETEC and the potential coverage of children in Peru by investigational vaccines. PMID:20631096

  17. Peruvian foothills, a key for future exploration in a frontier area

    SciTech Connect

    Villien, A.; Telles, A. Jr.

    1995-08-01

    Within the 1700 km Peruvian foothills, several units can be identified with different types of thrust belt geometry reflecting pre-Andean sedimentary history and structural framework. In the northern part, the Santiago area shows several {open_quote}en echelon{close_quotes} fault bounded folds separated from the main sub-Andean Maranon basin by an elongated thrusted arch. Locally, limited Late Tertiary inversion has preserved halokinetic structures initiated from Late Mesozoic to Early Tertiary. In the central part, the Huallaga area appears controlled by an inherited framework including NW-SE and ENE-WSW paleozoic trends. Furthermore Lower Mesozoic evaporates and associated deposits have acted as preferential decollement levels giving large hanging wall anticlines and several thrust slices at the leading edge. In the southern part, the Ene-Camisea-Madre de Dios area shows a major WNW-ESE trend intersected by NE-SW Paleozoic arches present in the Ucayali and Madre de Dios basins. Thrust belt geometry differs from basement involved structures to typical ramp-flat geometry with transverse features acting as transfer zones. Structure analysis reveals piggyback and overstep sequences of thrusting, and besides the classical late Miocene phase, a Plio-Pleistocene neotectonic event caused major uplift in the southern Peruvian foothills. Petroleum systems include several source rocks and reservoirs; nevertheless, parameters such as recent structural inversion may affect reservoir quality in the North. To the South, with Devonian, Carboniferous and Permian source rocks, some of them showing adequate maturity level for oil generation, precise knowledge of migration events and influence of recent uplift on frozen kitchens are key factors for exploration.

  18. Crustal structure of the Peruvian continental margin from wide-angle seismic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbenhöft, A.; Bialas, J.; Kopp, H.; Kukowski, N.; Hübscher, C.

    2004-11-01

    Active seismic investigations along the Pacific margin off Peru were carried out using ocean bottom hydrophones and seismometers. The structure and the P-wave velocities of the obliquely subducting oceanic Nazca Plate and overriding South American Plate from 8°S to 15°S were determined by modelling the wide-angle seismic data combined with the analysis of reflection seismic data. Three detailed cross-sections of the subduction zone of the Peruvian margin and one strike-line across the Lima Basin are presented here. The oceanic crust of the Nazca Plate, with a thin pelagic sediment cover, ranging from 0-200 m, has an average thickness of 6.4 km. At 8°S it thins to 4 km in the area of Trujillo Trough, a graben-like structure. Across the margin, the plate boundary can be traced to 25 km depth. As inferred from the velocity models, a frontal prism exists adjacent to the trench axis and is associated with the steep lower slope. Terrigeneous sediments are proposed to be transported downslope due to gravitational forces and comprise the frontal prism, characterized by low seismic P-wave velocities. The lower slope material accretes against a backstop structure, which is defined by higher seismic P-wave velocities, 3.5-6.0 km s-1. The large variations in surface slope along one transect may reflect basal removal of upper plate material, thus steepening the slope surface. Subduction processes along the Peruvian margin are dominated by tectonic erosion indicated by the large margin taper, the shape and bending of the subducting slab, laterally varying slope angles and the material properties of the overriding continental plate. The erosional mechanisms, frontal and basal erosion, result in the steepening of the slope and consequent slope failure.

  19. Agreement Between Cardiovascular Disease Risk Scores in Resource-Limited Settings: Evidence from 5 Peruvian Sites.

    PubMed

    Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Quispe, Renato; Peralta, Frank; Poterico, Julio A; Valle, Giancarlo A; Burroughs, Melissa; Pillay, Timesh; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Malaga, Germán; Smeeth, Liam; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-06-01

    It is unclear how well currently available risk scores predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in low-income and middle-income countries. We aim to compare the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Pooled Cohort risk equations (ACC/AHA model) with 6 other CVD risk tools to assess the concordance of predicted CVD risk in a random sample from 5 geographically diverse Peruvian populations. We used data from 2 Peruvian, age and sex-matched, population-based studies across 5 geographical sites. The ACC/AHA model were compared with 6 other CVD risk prediction tools: laboratory Framingham risk score for CVD, non-laboratory Framingham risk score for CVD, Reynolds risk score, systematic coronary risk evaluation, World Health Organization risk charts, and the Lancet chronic diseases risk charts. Main outcome was in agreement with predicted CVD risk using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. Two thousand one hundred and eighty-three subjects, mean age 54.3 (SD ± 5.6) years, were included in the analysis. Overall, we found poor agreement between different scores when compared with ACC/AHA model. When each of the risk scores was used with cut-offs specified in guidelines, ACC/AHA model depicted the highest proportion of people at high CVD risk predicted at 10 years, with a prevalence of 29.0% (95% confidence interval, 26.9-31.0%), whereas prevalence with World Health Organization risk charts was 0.6% (95% confidence interval, 0.2-8.6%). In conclusion, poor concordance between current CVD risk scores demonstrates the uncertainty of choosing any of them for public health and clinical interventions in Latin American populations. There is a need to improve the evidence base of risk scores for CVD in low-income and middle-income countries. PMID:26102017

  20. Insight on the Peruvian Amazon River: A Planform Metric Characterization of its Morphodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, A. M. P.; Ortals, C.; Frias, C. E.; Abad, J. D.; Vizcarra, J.

    2014-12-01

    Starting in Peru, the Amazon River flows through Colombia and Brazil; additionally, tributaries from Bolivia, Venezuela, and Ecuador contribute to the massive river and its unique geomorphic features. Accordingly, the Amazon Basin has become an important aspect of South America; it is an area of extraordinary biodiversity, rich resources, and unique cultures. However, due to the sheer magnitude and exceptionality of the Amazon River, research regarding the morphodynamic processes that shape and define the river has been difficult. Consequently, current research has not completely understood the planform dynamics of some portions of this river that present a main channel and secondary channels known as "anabranching structures". The purpose of this research was to gain an understanding of the geomorphology of the upper Amazon, the Peruvian section, by obtaining migration rates and planform metrics, including channel count, length, width, and sinuosity, as well as island count, area, and shape. With this data, the morphodynamics of the Peruvian Amazon, especially the relationship between the main channel and its secondary channels in each "anabranching structure" along the river, could be analyzed according to correlations found between various metrics. This analysis was carried out for 5-year time spans over a period of 25 years. Preliminary results showed that the average migration rate versus channel bend radius envelope peak is lower for the secondary channels than for the main channel. However, the maximum migration rate was not always found in the main channel; for several structures, the most dynamic channels were the secondary ones. This implies a certain periodicity to the river's migratory patterns that could be related to the valley boundaries, the local channel sinuosity or geological formations in the study area.