Science.gov

Sample records for ancient peruvian burial

  1. Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Cyclospora in ancient Peruvians.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Ynes R; Bonavia, Duccio

    2003-06-01

    Twenty-two coprolites of human origin, collected from excavations along the north-central coast of Peru, were examined using fluorescent microscopy for the presence of fecal parasites, with emphasis on Cryptosporidium sp., Giardia sp., and Cyclospora sp. Three samples were positive. One coprolite dated between ca. 2,375 and 1,525 BC contained Giardia sp. cysts. This coprolite corresponded to the Peruvian preceramic period. Another positive coprolite ca. AD 770-830 corresponded to Epoch 3 of the Middle Horizon and contained Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts. The third positive coprolite (corresponding to the Middle Horizon. ca. AD 500-900) contained Giardia sp. cysts. This report demonstrates that Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. were present in Peruvian coastal populations for at least 4,300 and 1,100 BP. PMID:12880276

  2. Characteristics and speculations on the uses of Strombus trumpets found at the ancient Peruvian center Chavin de Huantar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rick, John; Lubman, David

    2002-11-01

    A cache of 20 Strombus shell trumpets was excavated in 2001 from an underground gallery at Chavin de Huantar, the type site of the Peruvian Early Horizon period (ca. 1200 to 400 B.C.). Strombus shell usage stretches from antiquity to present day Peru, with the trumpet function showing remarkable continuity. Soon after their discovery, a dozen of the ancient shells were played to an enthusiastic audience at Lima's National Museum of Archaeology, Anthropology and History. Evidence suggests that Strombus trumpets are, and were, used as ritual instruments for the legitimization of political and religious power. Those uses may have developed from earlier practical uses for ritual and communication. This paper describes measured acoustical properties of a Strombus horn. Strombus blasts are rich in overtones. Source strengths as high as 111 dBA @ 1 M were observed. These high source levels support speculation that shell trumpets could have been used for signaling over great distances. The trumpets can produce strong combination tones, which, accompanied by likely ingestion of local hallucinogenic substances, the use of reflected light, and other sound manipulation, suggests that early leaders in Chavin were using a range of methods to help establish early religious and political authority.

  3. News from the west: ancient DNA from a French megalithic burial chamber.

    PubMed

    Deguilloux, Marie-France; Soler, Ludovic; Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Scarre, Chris; Joussaume, Roger; Laporte, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Recent paleogenetic studies have confirmed that the spread of the Neolithic across Europe was neither genetically nor geographically uniform. To extend existing knowledge of the mitochondrial European Neolithic gene pool, we examined six samples of human skeletal material from a French megalithic long mound (c.4200 cal BC). We retrieved HVR-I sequences from three individuals and demonstrated that in the Neolithic period the mtDNA haplogroup N1a, previously only known in central Europe, was as widely distributed as western France. Alternative scenarios are discussed in seeking to explain this result, including Mesolithic ancestry, Neolithic demic diffusion, and long-distance matrimonial exchanges. In light of the limited Neolithic ancient DNA (aDNA) data currently available, we observe that all three scenarios appear equally consistent with paleogenetic and archaeological data. In consequence, we advocate caution in interpreting aDNA in the context of the Neolithic transition in Europe. Nevertheless, our results strengthen conclusions demonstrating genetic discontinuity between modern and ancient Europeans whether through migration, demographic or selection processes, or social practices. PMID:20717990

  4. Ancient coins: cluster analysis applied to find a correlation between corrosion process and burial soil characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although it is well known that any material degrades faster when exposed to an aggressive environment as well as that "aggressive" cannot be univocally defined as depending also on the chemical-physical characteristics of material, few researches on the identification of the most significant parameters influencing the corrosion of metallic object are available. A series of ancient coins, coming from the archaeological excavation of Palazzo Valentini (Rome) were collected together with soils, both near and far from them, and then analysed using different analytical techniques looking for a correlation between the corrosion products covering the coins and the chemical-physical soil characteristics. The content of soluble salts in the water-bearing stratum and surfacing in the archaeological site, was also measured. The obtained results stress the influence of alkaline soils on formation of patina. Cerussite, probably due to the circulation of water in layers rich in marble and plaster fragments, was the main corrosion product identified by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Copper, lead and vanadium were found in soil surrounding coins. By measuring conductivity, pH and soluble salts content of the washing solutions from both coins and soils, we could easily separate coins coming from different stratigraphic units of the site. Data were treated by cluster and multivariate analysis, revealing a correlation between part of the coins and the nearby soil samples. PMID:22594444

  5. Ancient DNA reveals kinship burial patterns of a pre-Columbian Andean community

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A detailed genetic study of the pre-Columbian population inhabiting the Tompullo 2 archaeological site (department Arequipa, Peru) was undertaken to resolve the kin relationships between individuals buried in six different chullpas. Kin relationships were an important factor shaping the social organization in the pre-Columbian Andean communities, centering on the ayllu, a group of relatives that shared a common land and responsibilities. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether this Andean model of a social organization had an influence on mortuary practices, in particular to determine whether chullpas served as family graves. Results The remains of forty-one individuals were analyzed with both uniparental (mtDNA, Y–chromosome) and biparental (autosomal microsatellites) markers. Reproducible HVRI sequences, autosomal and Y chromosomal STR profiles were obtained for 24, 16 and 11 individuals, respectively. Mitochondrial DNA diversity was comparable to that of ancient and contemporary Andean populations. The Tompullo 2 population exhibited the closest relationship with the modern population from the same region. A kinship analysis revealed complex pattern of relations within and between the graves. However mean relatedness coefficients regarding the pairs of individuals buried in the same grave were significantly higher than those regarding pairs buried in different graves. The Y chromosome profiles of 11 males suggest that only members of one male line were buried in the same grave. Conclusions Genetic investigation of the population that inhabited Tompullo 2 site shows continuity between pre-Columbian and modern Native Amerindian populations inhabiting the Arequipa region. This suggests that no major demographic processes have influenced the mitochondrial DNA diversity of these populations during the past five hundred years. The kinship analysis involving uni- and biparental markers suggests that the community that inhabited the Tompullo 2 site

  6. Ancient DNA reveals selection acting on genes associated with hypoxia response in pre-Columbian Peruvian Highlanders in the last 8500 years

    PubMed Central

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Georges, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological evidence shows that humans began living in the high altitude Andes approximately 12,000 years ago. Andean highlanders are known to have developed the most complex societies of pre-Columbian South America despite challenges to their health and reproductive success resulting from chronic exposure to hypoxia. While the physiological adaptations to this environmental stressor are well studied in contemporary Andean highlanders, the molecular evolutionary processes associated with such adaptations remain unclear. We aim to better understand how humans managed to demographically establish in this harsh environment by addressing a central question: did exposure to hypoxia drive adaptation via natural selection within Andean populations or did an existing phenotype –characterized by reduced susceptibility to hypoxic stress–enable human settlement of the Andes? We genotyped three variable loci within the NOS3 and EGLN1 genes previously associated with adaptation to high altitude in 150 ancient human DNA samples from Peruvian high altitude and coastal low altitude sites in a time frame between ~8500–560 BP. We compare the data of 109 successful samples to forward simulations of genetic drift with natural selection and find that selection, rather than drift, explains the gradual frequency changes observed in the highland populations for two of the three SNPs. PMID:26996763

  7. Ancient DNA reveals selection acting on genes associated with hypoxia response in pre-Columbian Peruvian Highlanders in the last 8500 years.

    PubMed

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Georges, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological evidence shows that humans began living in the high altitude Andes approximately 12,000 years ago. Andean highlanders are known to have developed the most complex societies of pre-Columbian South America despite challenges to their health and reproductive success resulting from chronic exposure to hypoxia. While the physiological adaptations to this environmental stressor are well studied in contemporary Andean highlanders, the molecular evolutionary processes associated with such adaptations remain unclear. We aim to better understand how humans managed to demographically establish in this harsh environment by addressing a central question: did exposure to hypoxia drive adaptation via natural selection within Andean populations or did an existing phenotype -characterized by reduced susceptibility to hypoxic stress-enable human settlement of the Andes? We genotyped three variable loci within the NOS3 and EGLN1 genes previously associated with adaptation to high altitude in 150 ancient human DNA samples from Peruvian high altitude and coastal low altitude sites in a time frame between ~8500-560 BP. We compare the data of 109 successful samples to forward simulations of genetic drift with natural selection and find that selection, rather than drift, explains the gradual frequency changes observed in the highland populations for two of the three SNPs. PMID:26996763

  8. Comparison of the Distributions of Bromine, Lead and Zinc in Tooth and Bone from an Ancient Peruvian Burial site by X-ray Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Martin,R.; Naftel, S.; Nelson, A.; Sapp, W.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron micro X-ray fluorescence was used to study the distribution of selected trace elements (Zn, Pb, and Br) in tooth and bone samples obtained from an individual from a pre-Columbian archaeological site (Cabur) located on the north coast of Peru. The results show that Zn, Pb, and Br are present in both the teeth and bone samples and that the Zn and Pb seem to be confined to similar regions (cementum and periostium), while Br shows a novel distribution with enrichment close to the Haversian canals and (or) in regions that appear to be Ca deficient.

  9. Ancient Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  10. Lead in ancient human bones and its relevance to historical developments of social problems with lead.

    PubMed

    Patterson, C C; Shirahata, H; Ericson, J E

    1987-03-01

    Concentrations of metabolic lead in buried ancient bones are obscured by replacement of calcium in apatite by excessive amounts of soil moisture Pb. Concentrations of metabolic barium in bones are affected in a similar way. Added soil Pb and Ba, expressed as log(Pb/Ca) versus log(Ba/Ca) among various bones at a given burial site, are positively covariant, with about 5-fold more soil Pb added for each unit of added soil Ba. The typical natural metabolic Ba/Ca ratio in contemporary people can be measured unambiguously because it as unaffected by industrial pollution. It applies to ancient people because it has not changed historically. The intercept of the covariance curve for buried bones of a given ancient population at the known metabolic Ba/Ca ratio indexes the corresponding metabolic Pb/Ca ratio in bones of that population. Lead levels which prevailed in Romans appear to have been similar to those in contemporary people, which are approximately 1000-fold above natural levels in humans determined by this method in ancient Peruvians. This indicates that studies of natural biochemical reactions in cells free of industrial Pb should be made, because most present biochemical knowledge is founded on data obtained from systems polluted with Pb 1000 to 100000-fold above natural levels. The 5000 year history of smelting Pb by humans indicates that a system of education fostered by genetically common lower brain center functions operated on hundreds of successive generations in a context of cultural changes invoked by feedback from developments in engineering technologies to give rise to the difference between present typical and prehistoric natural levels of Pb in humans. Archaeological and anthropological studies of early developments in writing, music and metallurgy by ancient Peruvians and Persian peoples should be combined with PET-scan studies of their descendants to discover if, as preliminary archaeological data suggest, the two ancient populations differed on a

  11. Peruvian villages go solar

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, J.

    1999-12-01

    Students and faculty from an American University work with indigenous Peruvians to electrify their village and improve their quality of life. The remote village of Malvas in the Andes seems typical of many in Peru. The 500 Inca descendants have no electricity, no running water, one telephone and mud adobe houses. At a 10,000-foot (3,048 m) altitude, residents survive through subsistence farming. And this project might sound like a typical solar system installation--a system is donated, consultants install it, no one owns it and if something goes wrong, no one fixes it. The equipment ultimately helps no one and few learn from the experience. But two aspects of this project make it unique - the unusual level of communal sharing in the town and the design and installation of the solar system by students.

  12. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities. PMID:16380966

  13. Organic carbon production, mineralization and preservation on the Peruvian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, A. W.; Sommer, S.; Lomnitz, U.; Montes, I.; Treude, T.; Gier, J.; Hensen, C.; Dengler, M.; Stolpovsky, K.; Bryant, L. D.; Wallmann, K.

    2014-09-01

    Carbon cycling in Peruvian margin sediments (11° S and 12° S) was examined at 16 stations from 74 m on the inner shelf down to 1024 m water depth by means of in situ flux measurements, sedimentary geochemistry and modeling. Bottom water oxygen was below detection limit down to ca. 400 m and increased to 53 μM at the deepest station. Sediment accumulation rates and benthic dissolved inorganic carbon fluxes decreased rapidly with water depth. Particulate organic carbon (POC) content was lowest on the inner shelf and at the deep oxygenated stations (< 5%) and highest between 200 and 400 m in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ, 15-20%). The organic carbon burial efficiency (CBE) was unexpectedly low on the inner shelf (< 20%) when compared to a global database, for reasons which may be linked to the frequent ventilation of the shelf by oceanographic anomalies. CBE at the deeper oxygenated sites was much higher than expected (max. 81%). Elsewhere, CBEs were mostly above the range expected for sediments underlying normal oxic bottom waters, with an average of 51 and 58% for the 11° S and 12° S transects, respectively. Organic carbon rain rates calculated from the benthic fluxes alluded to a very efficient mineralization of organic matter in the water column, with a Martin curve exponent typical of normal oxic waters (0.88 ± 0.09). Yet, mean POC burial rates were 2-5 times higher than the global average for continental margins. The observations at the Peruvian margin suggest that a lack of oxygen does not affect the degradation of organic matter in the water column but promotes the preservation of organic matter in marine sediments.

  14. Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Gaughan , T.F.

    1999-02-26

    Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.

  15. 78 FR 76574 - Burial Benefits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... rewrite in plain language its regulations that govern entitlement to monetary burial benefits, which... published in the Federal Register on April 8, 2008 (73 FR 19,021), VA proposed to reorganize and rewrite in plain language provisions applicable to burial benefits. This proposed rule would build upon...

  16. Indien Personhood III: Water Burial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jay

    2005-01-01

    Water burial is a way to return a body to its key primal element. It revives and transforms both the soul and the person. Sometimes water burial leads to a new life floating in a womb. Sometimes it disperses to provide a moist and nutrient-rich medium for a vast variety of other lives, making a contribution to the much larger whole. In this…

  17. Benthic phosphorus cycling in the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomnitz, U.; Sommer, S.; Dale, A. W.; Löscher, C. R.; Noffke, A.; Wallmann, K.; Hensen, C.

    2015-10-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) that impinge on continental margins favor the release of phosphorus (P) from the sediments to the water column, enhancing primary productivity and the maintenance or expansion of low-oxygen waters. A comprehensive field program in the Peruvian OMZ was undertaken to identify the sources of benthic P, including the analysis of particles from the water column, surface sediments and pore fluids as well as in situ benthic flux measurements. A major fraction of solid phase P was bound as particulate inorganic P (PIP) both in the water column and in sediments. Sedimentary PIP increased with depth in the sediment at the expense of particulate organic P (POP). The ratio of particulate organic carbon (POC) to POP exceeded the Redfield Ratio both in the water column (202 ± 29) and in surface sediments (303 ± 77). However, the POC to total particulate P (TPP = POP + PIP) ratio was close to Redfield in the water column (103 ± 9) and in sediment samples (102 ± 15) taken from the core of the OMZ. This observation suggests that the burial efficiencies of POC and TPP are similar under the low oxygen conditions prevailing in the Peruvian OMZ. Benthic fluxes of dissolved P were extremely high (up to 1.04 ± 0.31 mmol m-2 d-1) and exceeded the fluxes resulting from the degradation of particulate organic matter raining to the seabed. Most of the excess P may have been released by bacterial mats that had stored P during previous periods when bottom waters were less reducing. At one station located at the lower rim of the OMZ, dissolved P was taken up by the sediments indicating recent phosphorite formation.

  18. Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  19. Ancient Civilizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This subject guide includes Web sites and other resources on ancient civilizations with age levels and appropriate subject disciplines specified. Also includes CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, professional resources, and a sample student assignment. (LRW)

  20. Ancient DNA

    PubMed Central

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In the past two decades, ancient DNA research has progressed from the retrieval of small fragments of mitochondrial DNA from a few late Holocene specimens, to large-scale studies of ancient populations, phenotypically important nuclear loci, and even whole mitochondrial genome sequences of extinct species. However, the field is still regularly marred by erroneous reports, which underestimate the extent of contamination within laboratories and samples themselves. An improved understanding of these processes and the effects of damage on ancient DNA templates has started to provide a more robust basis for research. Recent methodological advances have included the characterization of Pleistocene mammal populations and discoveries of DNA preserved in ancient sediments. Increasingly, ancient genetic information is providing a unique means to test assumptions used in evolutionary and population genetics studies to reconstruct the past. Initial results have revealed surprisingly complex population histories, and indicate that modern phylogeographic studies may give misleading impressions about even the recent evolutionary past. With the advent and uptake of appropriate methodologies, ancient DNA is now positioned to become a powerful tool in biological research and is also evolving new and unexpected uses, such as in the search for extinct or extant life in the deep biosphere and on other planets. PMID:15875564

  1. The first meeting of Peruvian women physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loayza, María Luisa Cerón

    2015-12-01

    The First Meeting of Peruvian Women Physicists helped bring together women physicists from different universities, especially from regions in the interior of Peru. Our initial statistical analysis about women entering and completing their undergraduate and graduate studies in Peruvian universities showed a low participation of women in study programs in physics. This situation motivated us to discuss this and propose solutions. In this First Meeting it was possible to broaden our vision of the problems that are common to women in the context of our social reality. We feel we have the strength and will continue working to improve this situation for the benefit of future generations.

  2. Ancient genomics

    PubMed Central

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten E.; Ávila-Arcos, María C.; Barnett, Ross; Campos, Paula F.; Cappellini, Enrico; Ermini, Luca; Fernández, Ruth; da Fonseca, Rute; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Hansen, Anders J.; Jónsson, Hákon; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Margaryan, Ashot; Martin, Michael D.; Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Raghavan, Maanasa; Rasmussen, Morten; Velasco, Marcela Sandoval; Schroeder, Hannes; Schubert, Mikkel; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Wales, Nathan; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a revolution in ancient DNA (aDNA) research. Although the field's focus was previously limited to mitochondrial DNA and a few nuclear markers, whole genome sequences from the deep past can now be retrieved. This breakthrough is tightly connected to the massive sequence throughput of next generation sequencing platforms and the ability to target short and degraded DNA molecules. Many ancient specimens previously unsuitable for DNA analyses because of extensive degradation can now successfully be used as source materials. Additionally, the analytical power obtained by increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans, archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when testing specific hypotheses related to the past. PMID:25487338

  3. U-Th Burial Dates on Ostrich Eggshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, W. D.; Fylstra, N. D.; Tryon, C. A.; Faith, J. T.; Peppe, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Obtaining precise and accurate dates at archaeological sites beyond the range of radiocarbon dating is challenging but essential for understanding human origins. Eggshells of ratites (large flightless birds including ostrich, emu and others) are common in many archaeological sequences in Africa, Australia and elsewhere. Ancient eggshells are geochemically suitable for the U-Th technique (1), which has about ten times the range of radiocarbon dating (>500 rather than 50 ka), making eggshells attractive dating targets. Moreover, C and N isotopic studies of eggshell provide insights into paleovegetation and paleoprecipitation central to assessing past human-environment interactions (2,3). But until now, U-Th dates on ratite eggshell have not accounted for the secondary origin of essentially all of their U. We report a novel approach to U-Th dating of eggshell that explicitly accounts for secondary U uptake that begins with burial. Using ostrich eggshell (OES) from Pleistocene-Holocene east African sites, we have measured U and 232Th concentration profiles across OES by laser ablation ICP-MS. U commonly peaks at 10s to 100s of ppb and varies 10-fold or more across the ~2 mm thickness of OES, with gradients modulated by the layered structure of the eggshell. Common Th is high near the shell surfaces, but low in the middle "pallisade" layer of OES, making it optimal for U-Th dating. We determine U-Th ages along the U concentration gradient by solution ICP-MS analyses of two or more fractions of the pallisade layer. We then estimate OES burial dates using a simple model for diffusive uptake of uranium. Comparing such "U-Th burial dates" with radiocarbon dates for OES calcite from the same shells, we find good agreement in 7 out of 9 cases, consistent with rapid burial and confirming the accuracy of the approach. The remaining 2 eggshells have anomalous patterns of apparent ages that reveal they are unsuitable for U-Th dating, thereby providing reliability criteria innate

  4. Contact dermatitis due to Alstroemeria (Peruvian lily).

    PubMed

    Apted, J H

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of hand dermatitis due to contact with the plant Alstroemeria (Peruvian Lily) are recorded. This plant has been increasingly used for making floral decorations during the last decade. As it is available throughout the year in Victoria more cases are likely to be discovered in the community. PMID:2151361

  5. Carbon sequestration via wood burial

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ning

    2008-01-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a sustainable long-term carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC y-1, and currently about 65 GtC is on the world's forest floors in the form of coarse woody debris suitable for burial. The potential is largest in tropical forests (4.2 GtC y-1), followed by temperate (3.7 GtC y-1) and boreal forests (2.1 GtC y-1). Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from North American logging industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be $14/tCO2($50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is low because CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by the natural process of photosynthesis at little cost. The technique is low tech, distributed, easy to monitor, safe, and reversible, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market. PMID:18173850

  6. Benthic phosphorus cycling in the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomnitz, Ulrike; Sommer, Stefan; Dale, Andrew W.; Löscher, Carolin R.; Noffke, Anna; Wallmann, Klaus; Hensen, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) that impinge on continental margins favor the release of phosphorus (P) from the sediments to the water column, enhancing primary productivity and the maintenance or expansion of low-oxygen waters. A comprehensive field program in the Peruvian OMZ was undertaken to identify the sources of benthic P at six stations, including the analysis of particles from the water column, surface sediments, and pore fluids, as well as in situ benthic flux measurements. A major fraction of solid-phase P was bound as particulate inorganic P (PIP) both in the water column and in sediments. Sedimentary PIP increased with depth in the sediment at the expense of particulate organic P (POP). The ratio of particulate organic carbon (POC) to POP exceeded the Redfield ratio both in the water column (202 ± 29) and in surface sediments (303 ± 77). However, the POC to total particulate P (TPP = POP + PIP) ratio was close to Redfield in the water column (103 ± 9) and in sediment samples (102 ± 15). This suggests that the relative burial efficiencies of POC and TPP are similar under low-oxygen conditions and that the sediments underlying the anoxic waters on the Peru margin are not depleted in P compared to Redfield. Benthic fluxes of dissolved P were extremely high (up to 1.04 ± 0.31 mmol m-2 d-1), however, showing that a lack of oxygen promotes the intensified release of dissolved P from sediments, whilst preserving the POC / TPP burial ratio. Benthic dissolved P fluxes were always higher than the TPP rain rate to the seabed, which is proposed to be caused by transient P release by bacterial mats that had stored P during previous periods when bottom waters were less reducing. At one station located at the lower rim of the OMZ, dissolved P was taken up by the sediments, indicating ongoing phosphorite formation. This is further supported by decreasing porewater phosphate concentrations with sediment depth, whereas solid-phase P concentrations were comparatively

  7. 38 CFR 3.1703 - Claims for burial benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... benefits. 3.1703 Section 3.1703 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: General § 3.1703 Claims for burial benefits. Pt. 3, Subpt. B, Nt... after the burial of the veteran. There are no other time limitations to file claims for burial...

  8. 38 CFR 3.1610 - Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies. 3.1610 Section 3.1610 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... unclaimed bodies. The statutory burial allowance and permissible transportation charges as provided in §§ 3... from the officers having jurisdiction over burials in national cemeteries; or (b) Where the body of...

  9. 38 CFR 3.1610 - Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies. 3.1610 Section 3.1610 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... unclaimed bodies. The statutory burial allowance and permissible transportation charges as provided in §§ 3... from the officers having jurisdiction over burials in national cemeteries; or (b) Where the body of...

  10. 38 CFR 3.1610 - Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies. 3.1610 Section 3.1610 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... unclaimed bodies. The statutory burial allowance and permissible transportation charges as provided in §§ 3... from the officers having jurisdiction over burials in national cemeteries; or (b) Where the body of...

  11. 38 CFR 3.1610 - Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies. 3.1610 Section 3.1610 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... unclaimed bodies. The statutory burial allowance and permissible transportation charges as provided in §§ 3... from the officers having jurisdiction over burials in national cemeteries; or (b) Where the body of...

  12. 38 CFR 3.1610 - Burial in national cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cemeteries; burial of unclaimed bodies. 3.1610 Section 3.1610 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... unclaimed bodies. The statutory burial allowance and permissible transportation charges as provided in §§ 3... from the officers having jurisdiction over burials in national cemeteries; or (b) Where the body of...

  13. The presence of nuclear families in prehistoric collective burials revisited: the bronze age burial of Montanissell Cave (Spain) in the light of aDNA.

    PubMed

    Simón, Marc; Jordana, Xavier; Armentano, Nuria; Santos, Cristina; Díaz, Nancy; Solórzano, Eduvigis; López, Joan B; González-Ruiz, Mercedes; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2011-11-01

    Ancient populations have commonly been thought to have lived in small groups where extreme endogamy was the norm. To contribute to this debate, a genetic analysis has been carried out on a collective burial with eight primary inhumations from Montanissell Cave in the Catalan pre-Pyrenees. Radiocarbon dating clearly placed the burial in the Bronze Age, around 3200 BP. The composition of the group-two adults (one male, one female), one young woman, and five children from both sexes-seemed to represent the structure of a typical nuclear family. The genetic evidence proves this assumption to be wrong. In fact, at least five out of the eight mitochondrial haplotypes were different, denying the possibility of a common maternal ancestor for all of them. Nevertheless, 50% of the inhumations shared haplogroup J, so the possibility of a maternal relationship cannot be ruled out. Actually, combining different analyses performed using ancient and living populations, the probability of having four related J individuals in Montanissell Cave would range from 0.9884 to 0.9999. Owing to the particularities of this singular collective burial (small number of bodies placed altogether in a hidden cave, the evidence of non-simultaneous interments, close dating and unusual grave goods), we suggest that it might represent a small group with a patrilocal mating system. PMID:21959902

  14. Molybdenum isotope signatures from the Yangtze block continental margin and its indication to organic burial rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.; Zhou, H. B.; Huang, J. H.

    2007-12-01

    The paper presents the molybdenum isotope data, along with the trace element content, to investigate the geochemical behavior of authigenic Mo during long-term burial in sediments in continental margin settings of the Yangtze block, as well as their indication to the burial of original organic carbon. The burial rate of original organic carbon were estimated on the basis of the amount of sedimentary sulfur (TS content), whilst the carbon loss by aerobic degradation was estimated according to calculated Mn contents. On these points, the original organic carbon flux was calculated, exhibiting a large range of variation (2.54-15.82 mmol/m2/day). The strong correlation between sedimentary Mo isotope values and organic carbon burial rates previously proposed on the basis of the investigations on modern ocean sediments was also used here to estimate the organic carbon burial rate. The data gained through this model showed that organic carbon burial rates have large variations, ranging from 0.43- 2.87mmol/m2/day. Although the two sets of data gained through different geochemical records in the Yangtze block show a deviation of one order of magnitude, they do display a strong correlation. It is thus tempting to speculate that the Mo isotope signature of sediments may serve as a tracer for the accumulation rate of original organic carbon in the continental margin sediments. Keywords: Molybdenum isotopes; organic carbon burial rate; ancient continental margin setting ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank Professor Xie Shucheng for his constructive review comments. This research is co-supported by the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (grants IRT0441), the SinoPec project (grant no. G0800-06-ZS-319) and the National Nature Science Foundation of China (grants 40673020).

  15. Paleomagnetic dating of burial diagenesis in Mississippian carbonates, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumstein, Angela M.; Elmore, R. Douglas; Engel, Michael H.; Elliot, Crawford; Basu, Ankan

    2004-04-01

    The objective of this study is to test models for the origin of widespread secondary magnetizations in the Mississippian Deseret Limestone. The Delle Phosphatic Member of the Deseret Limestone is a source rock for hydrocarbons, and modeling studies indicate that it entered the oil window in the Early Cretaceous during the Sevier orogeny. Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic results from the Deseret Limestone and the stratigraphically equivalent Chainman Shale in central and western Utah indicate that the units contain two ancient magnetizations residing in magnetite. Burial temperatures are too low for the magnetizations to be thermoviscous in origin, and they are interpreted to be chemical remanent magnetizations (CRMs). Fold tests from western Utah indicate the presence of a prefolding Triassic to Jurassic CRM. Geochemical (87Sr/86Sr, δ13C, and δ18O) and petrographic analyses suggest that externally derived fluids did not alter these rocks. This CRM was acquired at the beginning of the oil window and is interpreted to be the result of burial diagenesis of organic matter. A second younger CRM in western central Utah is apparently postfolding and is probably Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary in age. On the basis of the thermal modeling, the timing overlaps with the oil window. These results are consistent with a connection between organic matter maturation and remagnetization. Modeling of the smectite-to-illite transformation in the Deseret Limestone suggests a mean age prior to acquisition of both CRMs, although the range for illitization overlaps with the Triassic to Jurassic CRM. The results of this study support the hypothesis that pervasive CRMs can be related to burial diagenetic processes. In addition, paleomagnetism can be used to determine the timing of such processes, which can benefit hydrocarbon exploration efforts.

  16. Shallow land burial technology: Humid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, E. C.; Yeh, G. T.

    Trench lining and grouting, are being demonstrated and evaluated experimental trenches containing compacted low-level waste. Two finite-element hydrologic models were developed to model water movement and solute transport at a waste disposal site. Though the economic analysis of the two trench treatments favored Hypalon lining, results of field experiments examining waste hydrologic isolation favored the cement-bentonite grout treatment. Data from water pump-out and water pump-in tests suggest that the original goal of constructing watertight liners in three experimental trenches was not achieved. Trench-cover subsidence measured over two of the three lined trenches did not occur over any of the three grouted or three control (untreated) trenches. Results indicate that the cement-bentonite treatment provides a degree of waste isolation not afforded by the lined and control trenches and should be considered for use at shallow land burial (SLB) sites with water-related problems.

  17. Ancient Bedforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    18 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows groupings of large ripple-like windblown bedforms on the floor of a large crater (larger than the image shown here) in Sinus Sabaeus, south of Schiaparelli Basin. These ripple-like features are much larger than typical wind ripples on Earth, but smaller than typical sand dunes on either planet. Like most of the other ripple-like bedforms in Sinus Sabaeus, they are probably ancient and no longer mobile. Dark streaks on the substrate between the bedforms were formed by passing dust devils. This image is located near 13.0oS, 343.7oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  18. View southwest toward Eldred Avenue from within Friend's Burial Ground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest toward Eldred Avenue from within Friend's Burial Ground, Benjamin Carr Farm in distance through the trees - Friends' Burial Ground, Eldred & Beacon Avenues, Jamestown, Newport County, RI

  19. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, Vicki J; Hutchison, Zoë L; Last, Kim S

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fraction and depth. Six macroinvertebrates commonly found in sediment rich environments were selected for their commercial and/or conservation importance. Assessments revealed that the brittle star (Ophiura ophiura), the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis) and the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis) were all highly intolerant to burial whilst the green urchin (Psammichinus miliaris) and the anemone (Sagartiogeton laceratus), showed intermediate and low intolerance respectively, to burial. The least intolerant, with very high survival was the Ross worm (Sabellaria spinulosa). With the exception of C. intestinalis, increasing duration and depth of burial with finer sediment fractions resulted in increased mortality for all species assessed. For C. intestinalis depth of burial and sediment fraction were found to be inconsequential since there was complete mortality of all specimens buried for more than one day. When burial emergence was assessed O. ophiura emerged most frequently, followed by P. miliaris. The former emerged most frequently from the medium and fine sediments whereas P. miliaris emerged more frequently from coarse sediment. Both A. opercularis and S. laceratus showed similar emergence responses over time, with A. opercularis emerging more frequently under coarse sediments. The frequency of emergence of S. laceratus increased with progressively finer sediment and C. intestinalis did not emerge from burial irrespective of sediment fraction or depth. Finally, and perhaps

  20. Sediment Burial Intolerance of Marine Macroinvertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Hendrick, Vicki J.; Hutchison, Zoë L.; Last, Kim S.

    2016-01-01

    The marine environment contains suspended particulate matter which originates from natural and anthropogenic sources. Settlement of this material can leave benthic organisms susceptible to smothering, especially if burial is sudden i.e. following storms or activities such as dredging. Their survival will depend on their tolerance to, and their ability to escape from burial. Here we present data from a multi-factorial experiment measuring burial responses incorporating duration, sediment fraction and depth. Six macroinvertebrates commonly found in sediment rich environments were selected for their commercial and/or conservation importance. Assessments revealed that the brittle star (Ophiura ophiura), the queen scallop (Aequipecten opercularis) and the sea squirt (Ciona intestinalis) were all highly intolerant to burial whilst the green urchin (Psammichinus miliaris) and the anemone (Sagartiogeton laceratus), showed intermediate and low intolerance respectively, to burial. The least intolerant, with very high survival was the Ross worm (Sabellaria spinulosa). With the exception of C. intestinalis, increasing duration and depth of burial with finer sediment fractions resulted in increased mortality for all species assessed. For C. intestinalis depth of burial and sediment fraction were found to be inconsequential since there was complete mortality of all specimens buried for more than one day. When burial emergence was assessed O. ophiura emerged most frequently, followed by P. miliaris. The former emerged most frequently from the medium and fine sediments whereas P. miliaris emerged more frequently from coarse sediment. Both A. opercularis and S. laceratus showed similar emergence responses over time, with A. opercularis emerging more frequently under coarse sediments. The frequency of emergence of S. laceratus increased with progressively finer sediment and C. intestinalis did not emerge from burial irrespective of sediment fraction or depth. Finally, and perhaps

  1. Peruvian Rural School Construction System. SERP 71: Sierra Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cangiano, Miguel

    Based on cooperative action of the government and local communities, the Peruvian Rural School System (SERP 71) evolved from the necessity to reconstruct Peruvian schools of the Sierra region after the earthquake of 1970, and from Peru's new educational reform law (1970) which called for an active-dynamic pupil attitude, continuous updating of…

  2. Buried Alive: Microbes from Ancient Halite.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Salla T; Ravantti, Janne J; Oksanen, Hanna M; Bamford, Dennis H

    2016-02-01

    Halite is one of the most extreme environments to support life. From the drought of the Atacama Desert to salt deposits up to Permian in age and 2000 meters in burial depth, live microbes have been found. Because halite is geologically stable and impermeable to ground water, the microbes allegedly have a syndepositional origin, making them the oldest organisms known to live on Earth. Recently, our understanding of the microbial diversity inside halite has broadened, and the first genome sequences of ancient halite-buried microbes are now available. The secrets behind prolonged survival in salt are also starting to be revealed. PMID:26796472

  3. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  4. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-2 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    W. S. Thompson

    2006-12-28

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-2 Burial Ground, also referred to as Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2; Burial Ground No. 2; 318-2; and Dry Waste Burial Site No. 2. This waste site was used primarily for the disposal of contaminated equipment, materials and laboratory waste from the 300 Area Facilities.

  5. Dental health and disease in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Forshaw, R J

    2009-04-25

    In ancient Egypt the exceptionally dry climate together with the unique burial customs has resulted in the survival of large numbers of well-preserved skeletal and mummified remains. Examinations of these remains together with an analysis of the surviving documentary, archaeological and ethnographic evidence has enabled a detailed picture of the dental health of these ancient people to be revealed, perhaps more so than for any other civilisation in antiquity. In this, the first of two articles, the dental pathological conditions that afflicted the ancient Egyptians is considered. The commonest finding is that of tooth wear, which was often so excessive that it resulted in pulpal exposure. Multiple abscesses were frequently seen, but caries was not a significant problem. Overall the findings indicate that the various pathological conditions and non-pathological abnormalities of teeth evident in dentitions in the twenty-first century were also manifest in ancient Egypt, although the incidences of these conditions varies considerably between the civilisations. PMID:19396207

  6. Hysterical paralysis and premature burial: a medieval Persian case, fear and fascination in the West, and modern practice.

    PubMed

    Agutter, Paul S; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Rashidi, Mohammad Reza; Khalili, Majid; Hosseini, Seyed Fazel; Ghabili, Kamyar; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Loukas, Marios

    2013-04-01

    Premature burial (taphophobia) is an ancient fear, but it became especially common in 18th and 19th century Europe and may have a modern-day counterpart. Examination of a well-documented case from medieval Persia reveals the importance of funeral practices in the risk of actual premature burial and sheds light on the question of why taphophobia became so prevalent in Europe during the early industrial revolution period. The medieval Persian case was attributed to hysterical paralysis (conversion). We discuss the relationship between hysterical paralysis and premature burial more generally and show that although understanding of conversion syndrome remains incomplete, modern knowledge and practices have limited the risk of any similar tragedy today. PMID:23472788

  7. Coastal Fog, South Peruvian Coast at Pisco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Coastal fog commonly drapes the Peruvian coast. This image captures complex interactions between land, sea, and atmosphere along the southern Peruvian coast. When Shuttle astronauts took the image in February of 2002, the layers of coastal fog and stratus were being progressively scoured away by brisk south to southeast winds. Remnants of the cloud deck banked against the larger, obstructing headlands like Peninsula Paracas and Isla Sangayan, giving the prominent 'white comma' effect. Southerlies also produced ripples of internal gravity waves in the clouds offshore where warm, dry air aloft interacts with a thinning layer of cool, moist air near the sea surface on the outer edge of the remaining cloud bank. South of Peninsula Baracas, the small headlands channeled the clouds into streaks-local horizontal vortices caused by the headlands provided enough lift to give points of origin of the clouds in some bays. Besides the shelter of the peninsula, the Bahia de Pisco appears to be cloud-free due to a dry, offshore flow down the valley of the Rio Ica. The STS-109 crew took image STS109-730-80 in February 2002. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  8. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  9. Rethinking the Ancient Sulfur Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fike, David A.; Bradley, Alexander S.; Rose, Catherine V.

    2015-05-01

    The sulfur biogeochemical cycle integrates the metabolic activity of multiple microbial pathways (e.g., sulfate reduction, disproportionation, and sulfide oxidation) along with abiotic reactions and geological processes that cycle sulfur through various reservoirs. The sulfur cycle impacts the global carbon cycle and climate primarily through the remineralization of organic carbon. Over geological timescales, cycling of sulfur is closely tied to the redox state of Earth's exosphere through the burial of oxidized (sulfate) and reduced (sulfide) sulfur species in marine sediments. Biological sulfur cycling is associated with isotopic fractionations that can be used to trace the fluxes through various metabolic pathways. The resulting isotopic data provide insights into sulfur cycling in both modern and ancient environments via isotopic signatures in sedimentary sulfate and sulfide phases. Here, we review the deep-time δ34S record of marine sulfates and sulfides in light of recent advances in understanding how isotopic signatures are generated by microbial activity, how these signatures are encoded in marine sediments, and how they may be altered following deposition. The resulting picture shows a sulfur cycle intimately coupled to ambient carbon cycling, where sulfur isotopic records preserved in sedimentary rocks are critically dependent on sedimentological and geochemical conditions (e.g., iron availability) during deposition.

  10. 20 CFR 416.1231 - Burial spaces and certain funds set aside for burial expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... parental deeming situations. If an individual is an eligible child, the burial funds (up to $1,500) that... separation; i.e., a circumstance beyond an individual's control which makes conversion/separation...

  11. Rickettsial Disease in the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Kocher, Claudine; Morrison, Amy C; Leguia, Mariana; Loyola, Steev; Castillo, Roger M; Galvez, Hugo A; Astete, Helvio; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Ampuero, Julia S; Bausch, Daniel G; Halsey, Eric S; Cespedes, Manuel; Zevallos, Karine; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L

    2016-07-01

    Using a large, passive, clinic-based surveillance program in Iquitos, Peru, we characterized the prevalence of rickettsial infections among undifferentiated febrile cases and obtained evidence of pathogen transmission in potential domestic reservoir contacts and their ectoparasites. Blood specimens from humans and animals were assayed for spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) and typhus group rickettsiae (TGR) by ELISA and/or PCR; ectoparasites were screened by PCR. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between patient history, demographic characteristics of participants and symptoms, clinical findings and outcome of rickettsial infection. Of the 2,054 enrolled participants, almost 2% showed evidence of seroconversion or a 4-fold rise in antibody titers specific for rickettsiae between acute and convalescent blood samples. Of 190 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and 60 ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) tested, 185 (97.4%) and 3 (5%), respectively, were positive for Rickettsia spp. Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis was identified in 100% and 33% of the fleas and ticks tested, respectively. Collectively, our serologic data indicates that human pathogenic SFGR are present in the Peruvian Amazon and pose a significant risk of infection to individuals exposed to wild, domestic and peri-domestic animals and their ectoparasites. PMID:27416029

  12. Rickettsial Disease in the Peruvian Amazon Basin

    PubMed Central

    Kocher, Claudine; Morrison, Amy C.; Leguia, Mariana; Loyola, Steev; Castillo, Roger M.; Galvez, Hugo A.; Astete, Helvio; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen; Ampuero, Julia S.; Bausch, Daniel G.; Halsey, Eric S.; Cespedes, Manuel; Zevallos, Karine; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L.

    2016-01-01

    Using a large, passive, clinic-based surveillance program in Iquitos, Peru, we characterized the prevalence of rickettsial infections among undifferentiated febrile cases and obtained evidence of pathogen transmission in potential domestic reservoir contacts and their ectoparasites. Blood specimens from humans and animals were assayed for spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) and typhus group rickettsiae (TGR) by ELISA and/or PCR; ectoparasites were screened by PCR. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between patient history, demographic characteristics of participants and symptoms, clinical findings and outcome of rickettsial infection. Of the 2,054 enrolled participants, almost 2% showed evidence of seroconversion or a 4-fold rise in antibody titers specific for rickettsiae between acute and convalescent blood samples. Of 190 fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) and 60 ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) tested, 185 (97.4%) and 3 (5%), respectively, were positive for Rickettsia spp. Candidatus Rickettsia asemboensis was identified in 100% and 33% of the fleas and ticks tested, respectively. Collectively, our serologic data indicates that human pathogenic SFGR are present in the Peruvian Amazon and pose a significant risk of infection to individuals exposed to wild, domestic and peri-domestic animals and their ectoparasites. PMID:27416029

  13. Burial at Srebrenica: linking place and trauma.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Craig Evan

    2003-02-01

    Five years after the massacre at Srebrenica in Bosnia-Herzegovina, survivors were faced with the decision: where did they want their loved ones buried? This report explores the reasons for their choice in qualitative interviews with 37 survivors of the massacre and 22 key informants performed over the summer 2000. Survivors wanted the loved ones buried at Potocari, a site just outside of Srebrenica, because it represented the site of ultimate horror, was connected to their sense of home, and underscored the various power relationships. The data points to the importance of place for health. Trauma, as it occurs in particular locations, breaks the sense of attachment to a particular place. Restoring the physical and social environment through burial and memorials mitigates the consequences of the trauma. The burial at Potocari provides a window into the mourning, politics, and recovery after mass violence. PMID:12560012

  14. A model for microbial phosphorus cycling in bioturbated marine sediments: Significance for phosphorus burial in the early Paleozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Andrew W.; Boyle, Richard A.; Lenton, Timothy M.; Ingall, Ellery D.; Wallmann, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    A diagenetic model is used to simulate the diagenesis and burial of particulate organic carbon (Corg) and phosphorus (P) in marine sediments underlying anoxic versus oxic bottom waters. The latter are physically mixed by animals moving through the surface sediment (bioturbation) and ventilated by burrowing, tube-dwelling organisms (bioirrigation). The model is constrained using an empirical database including burial ratios of Corg with respect to organic P (Corg:Porg) and total reactive P (Corg:Preac), burial efficiencies of Corg and Porg, and inorganic carbon-to-phosphorus regeneration ratios. If Porg is preferentially mineralized relative to Corg during aerobic respiration, as many previous studies suggest, then the simulated Porg pool is found to be completely depleted. A modified model that incorporates the redox-dependent microbial synthesis of polyphosphates and Porg (termed the microbial P pump) allows preferential mineralization of the bulk Porg pool relative to Corg during both aerobic and anaerobic respiration and is consistent with the database. Results with this model show that P burial is strongly enhanced in sediments hosting fauna. Animals mix highly labile Porg away from the aerobic sediment layers where mineralization rates are highest, thereby mitigating diffusive PO43- fluxes to the bottom water. They also expand the redox niche where microbial P uptake occurs. The model was applied to a hypothetical shelf setting in the early Paleozoic; a time of the first radiation of benthic fauna. Results show that even shallow bioturbation at that time may have had a significant impact on P burial. Our model provides support for a recent study that proposed that faunal radiation in ocean sediments led to enhanced P burial and, possibly, a stabilization of atmospheric O2 levels. The results also help to explain Corg:Porg ratios in the geological record and the persistence of Porg in ancient marine sediments.

  15. Soil temperature calculation for burial site analysis.

    PubMed

    Prangnell, Jonathan; McGowan, Glenys

    2009-10-30

    The effect of air and water temperature upon the decomposition of human remains and upon biological activity has been extensively studied. However, less attention has been devoted to the temperature of the soil surrounding burials, despite its potential influence upon chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of human remains, drugs and toxins, as well as upon microbial and insect activity. A soil temperature calculation equation usually employed in civil engineering was used to calculate soil temperature at various depths in a cemetery located in Brisbane, Australia, in order to explain the extensive degradation of human remains and funerary objects observed at exhumation. The results showed that for the 160 years of the site's history, ground temperature at burial level had been sufficiently high for biological activity and chemical degradation reactions to continue right up until the time of exhumation. The equation used has potential in the analysis of both cemetery and clandestine burials, since it allows ground temperature to be calculated from ambient air temperature figures, for a variety of depths, soil types and vegetation conditions. PMID:19656646

  16. Ancient Astronomy in Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsamian, Elma S.

    2007-08-01

    The most important discovery, which enriched our knowledge of ancient astronomy in Armenia, was the complex of platforms for astronomical observations on the Small Hill of Metzamor, which may be called an ancient “observatory”. Investigations on that Hill show that the ancient inhabitants of the Armenian Highlands have left us not only pictures of celestial bodies, but a very ancient complex of platforms for observing the sky. Among the ancient monuments in Armenia there is a megalithic monument, probably, being connected with astronomy. 250km South-East of Yerevan there is a structure Zorats Kar (Karahunge) dating back to II millennium B.C. Vertical megaliths many of which are more than two meters high form stone rings resembling ancient stone monuments - henges in Great Britain and Brittany. Medieval observations of comets and novas by data in ancient Armenian manuscripts are found. In the collection of ancient Armenian manuscripts (Matenadaran) in Yerevan there are many manuscripts with information about observations of astronomical events as: solar and lunar eclipses, comets and novas, bolides and meteorites etc. in medieval Armenia.

  17. Studying Ancient History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Defends the value and relevance of the study of ancient history and classics in history curricula. The unique homogeneity of the classical period contributes to its instructional manageability. A year-long, secondary-level course on fifth-century Greece and Rome is described to illustrate effective approaches to teaching ancient history. (AM)

  18. Sexual education / AIDS prevention. Peruvian schools.

    PubMed

    Caceres, C F

    1993-01-01

    An evaluation of AIDS prevention and sex education program during a 3-month period in 190 in Peruvian schools (7 controls and 7 with the program) found that the intervention, based on behavioral change models, influenced knowledge and attitudes. Knowledge of sexuality and AIDS was greater among study participants than among controls. Attitudes toward erotophobia, condoms, contraception, and people with AIDS were also different among participants. Intentions to adopt prevention-oriented behaviors were also greater among study participants. A follow-up of 250 students was conducted in order to assess actual behavior change; analysis is pending. The curriculum is easy to implement and low-cost. The intervention and evaluation were developed by researchers and planners at the Cayetano Heredia University in Lima. The curriculum emphasized empowerment, self-esteem, information, attitude change, skill development, and a supportive environment. The 14-hour program covered the following topics: 1) puberty and adolescence, 2) sexual anatomy and physiology and human sexual responses, 3) conception and pregnancy (delivery, breast feeding, and unwanted pregnancy), 4) planned parenthood and contraceptive technologies including abortion, 5) sex and gender (social and cultural aspects and sexual orientation), 6) AIDS/STDs and condom skills, and 7) personal decision making about sexual issues (assertive communication skills and self-determination). Two hours of instruction were provided for each of the 7 units. Support materials included teacher and student training manuals, charts, a sample contraceptive kit, and condoms. Teaching techniques ranged from role playing and brainstorming to collaborative study with friends, family, and community heath institutions. Teachers received special training prior to the intervention. PMID:12286360

  19. Education, work and earnings of Peruvian women.

    PubMed

    King, E M

    1996-01-01

    This study describes trends in educational attainment among women in Peru, and examines the determinants of educational attainment, labor force participation and employment, and earnings. Data were obtained from the Peruvian Living Standards Survey among a sample of 5644 women aged 20-59 years. Findings indicate that parents' educational variables had a positive and statistically significant relationship with the educational attainment of their daughters. The impact declined over time from older to younger cohorts. School reforms improved women's access to education. Education became more universal and compulsory over time. Daughters of mothers with white collar occupations had higher levels of schooling than farmers' daughters. The effects of fathers' education was larger. There was a wider gap between farmers and nonfarmers. Textbooks, teachers, and number of grades offered were the only primary school inputs that showed any clear cohort trend in their effect on years of schooling. As primary schools became more available, textbooks had a greater impact on school attainment. The impact of textbooks was larger for women than for men. The number of grades offered had a large positive effect which increased across cohorts from older to younger. Findings suggest weak effects of school reforms on women's likelihood of participating in the paid or unpaid labor force. Years of schooling had a very small and negative effect on total labor force participation. Woman's paid employment was influenced by age, education and training, household characteristics, and family's unearned income. Educational attainment had a small positive effect on participation in paid employment for younger women and no effect for older women. The average rate of return in paid employment to primary education was about 12%. Primary education had the highest rate of return. The return to job tenure was higher for younger women. PMID:12348507

  20. Direction and timing of uplift propagation in the Peruvian Andes deduced from molecular phylogenetics of highland biotaxa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Damien; Sempere, Thierry; Plantard, Olivier

    2008-07-01

    Physical paleoaltimetric methods are increasingly used to estimate the amount and timing of surface uplift in orogens. Because the rise of mountains creates new ecosystems and triggers evolutionary changes, biological data may also be used to assess the development and timing of regional surface uplift. Here we apply this idea to the Peruvian Andes through a molecular phylogeographic and phylochronologic analysis of Globodera pallida, a potato parasite nematode that requires cool temperatures and thus thrives above 2.0-2.5 km in these tropical highlands. The Peruvian populations of this species exhibit a clear evolutionary pattern with deeper, more ancient lineages occurring in Andean southern Peru and shallower, younger lineages occurring progressively northwards. Genetically diverging G. pallida populations thus progressively colonized highland areas as these were expanding northwards, demonstrating that altitude in the Peruvian Andes was acquired longitudinally from south to north, i.e. in the direction of decreasing orogenic volume. This phylogeographic structure is recognized in other, independent highland biotaxa, and point to the Central Andean Orocline (CAO) as the region where high altitudes first emerged. Moreover, molecular clocks relative to Andean taxa, including the potato-tomato group, consistently estimate that altitudes high enough to induce biotic radiation were first acquired in the Early Miocene. After calibration by geological and biological tie-points and intervals, the phylogeny of G. pallida is used as a molecular clock, which estimates that the 2.0-2.5 km threshold elevation range was reached in the Early Miocene in southernmost Peru, in the Middle and Late Miocene in the Abancay segment (NW southern Peru), and from the latest Miocene in central and northern Peru. Although uncertainties attached to phylochronologic ages are significantly larger than those derived from geochronological methods, these results are fairly consistent with coeval

  1. [Skeleton or mummy: practices and structures for secondary burial in southern Italy in modern and contemporary age].

    PubMed

    Fornaciari, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The ancient concepts of death as duration and the practices of secondary burial,first analysed by Robert Hertz, still survive in many areas of southern Italy. According to these beliefs death was perceived not as a sudden event, but as a long-lasting process, during which the deceased person had to go through a transitory phase, passing from one state of existence to another. Recent archeological research documents the persistence of secondary burial rites in Southern Italy during the Modern Age. A survey conducted in the province of Messina in Eastern Sicily has identified two surviving architectural structures appointed for the treatment of the bodies: the 'sitting colatoio' aimed at favoring the skeletonisation and the 'horizontal colatoio' used to obtain mummification by dehydration. Both these structures controlled the corpse's decay and transformed the body in a stable and durable simulacra of the dead. PMID:25807706

  2. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Andersen, S R

    1997-06-01

    Based on a study of mummies, skeletons, burial rites, medical instruments, medicaments, literature and objets d'art from Ancient Egypt before the Hellenistic Period, the understanding of the eye, its diseases and their treatment at that time is described. Magic spells, religious rites and medical treatments, especially with eye ointments, were probably used often complementary to one another. We must be very cautious about our conclusions in regard to the effectiveness of the treatments. Eye diseases have been depicted only exceptionally in Egyptian art, except for blindness and 'symbolic blindness'. PMID:9253993

  3. Ancient Egyptian herbal wines

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Mirzoian, Armen; Hall, Gretchen R.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery jars from the beginning of advanced ancient Egyptian culture, ca. 3150 B.C., and continuing for millennia have revealed that a range of natural products—specifically, herbs and tree resins—were dispensed by grape wine. These findings provide chemical evidence for ancient Egyptian organic medicinal remedies, previously only ambiguously documented in medical papyri dating back to ca. 1850 B.C. They illustrate how humans around the world, probably for millions of years, have exploited their natural environments for effective plant remedies, whose active compounds have recently begun to be isolated by modern analytical techniques. PMID:19365069

  4. Ancient Egyptian herbal wines.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Patrick E; Mirzoian, Armen; Hall, Gretchen R

    2009-05-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery jars from the beginning of advanced ancient Egyptian culture, ca. 3150 B.C., and continuing for millennia have revealed that a range of natural products--specifically, herbs and tree resins--were dispensed by grape wine. These findings provide chemical evidence for ancient Egyptian organic medicinal remedies, previously only ambiguously documented in medical papyri dating back to ca. 1850 B.C. They illustrate how humans around the world, probably for millions of years, have exploited their natural environments for effective plant remedies, whose active compounds have recently begun to be isolated by modern analytical techniques. PMID:19365069

  5. Moral Education and Post-War Societies: The Peruvian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisancho, Susana; Reategui, Felix

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the unique challenges and needs of moral and citizenship education in post-war Peruvian society. It assumes the explanation of the roots, the facts and the enduring negative consequences of violence as described in the final report of the Comision de la Verdad y Reconciliacion (CVR) [Truth and Reconciliation Commission]…

  6. Layout as Political Expression: Visual Literacy and the Peruvian Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhurst, Kevin G.

    Newspaper layout and design studies ignore politics, and most studies of newspaper politics ignore visual design. News layout is generally thought to be a set of neutral, efficient practices. This study suggests that the political position of Peruvian newspapers parallels their visual presentation of terrorism. The liberal "La Republica" covered…

  7. Social Stratification, Power, and Educational Organization: The Peruvian Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    This report of a field study, conducted from 1966 to 1968, discusses the functional relationships between the class structure of Peruvian society and the structure and content of the country's educational system. Four educational subsystems are closely tied to each of the four main social groups: Blancos (upper class, comprising 0.1% of the total…

  8. Pesticide burial grounds in Poland: a review.

    PubMed

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Manecki, Piotr

    2011-10-01

    Obsolete pesticides were stored in Poland from the middle sixties until the late eighties of the 20th century mostly in underground disposal sites, called "pesticide burial grounds" or "pesticide tombs". The total amount of pesticide waste and packaging materials disposed of in these landfills exceeded 20000 Mg. Typically, the content of a pesticide tomb was dominated by organochlorine pesticides (comprising 10-100% of the total waste volume) with DDT as the prevailing compound. Other pesticide types, such as phosphoroorganic, carbamate insecticides, dinitrophenols, phenoxyacids, and inorganic compounds were stored in smaller quantities, usually not exceeding 10-20% of the total waste volume. With the growing awareness of the threats that these landfills posed to the environment, the first inventory for the whole country was made in 1993 and remediation was initiated in 1999. The total amount of waste, which had to be removed from the known pesticide tombs (hazardous substances, contaminated soils, construction materials etc.) was about 100000 Mg. According to the National Waste Management Plan, the reclamation of pesticide tombs was assumed to have been finished by the end of 2010, however, this goal has not been achieved. The aim of this review is to present a historical perspective of pesticide burial grounds in Poland with an emphasis on their creation, function, inventory, and remediation. Based on unpublished reports, and other published materials of limited availability written in Polish, this review may serve as a source of information for representatives of other countries, where remediation of pesticide burial grounds is still in progress. The experience gained over a ten-year period, when restoration of pesticide tombs was implemented in Poland, reveals that there are many obstacles to this action arising not only from technical, but also from economic and social issues. PMID:21531026

  9. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    E. J. Farris and H. M. Sulloway

    2008-01-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground on the Hanford Site. This burial ground is a combination of two locations formerly called Minor Construction Burial Ground No. 2 and Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2. This waste site received radioactive equipment and other miscellaneous waste from 105-F Reactor operations, including dummy elements and irradiated process tubing; gun barrel tips, steel sleeves, and metal chips removed from the reactor; filter boxes containing reactor graphite chips; and miscellaneous construction solid waste.

  10. Ancient dirt DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willerslev, E.

    2007-12-01

    In the past two decades, ancient DNA research has progressed from the retrieval of small fragments of mitochondrial DNA from a few late Holocene specimens, to large-scale studies of ancient populations, phenotypically important nuclear loci, and even whole genomic studies of extinct species. However, the field is still regularly marred by erroneous reports, which underestimate the extent of contamination within laboratories and samples themselves. An improved understanding of these processes and the effects of damage on ancient DNA templates has started to provide a more robust basis for research. Recent methodological advances have included the discoveries of DNA preserved in ancient sediments, coprolites, and fossil ice (Ancient Dirt DNA). These findings promise to make possible the reconstructions of entire ecosystems through time and allow for studies of past population genetics in cases where fossils are rare. The advantages and pitfalls connected to the Ancient Dirt DNA approach will be discussed as will recently obtained data relating to Greenland environmental history, long-term bacterial survival and the first human migration into the Americas.

  11. Relative Burial Depths of Nakhlites: An Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikouchi, T.; Miyamoto, M.; Koizumi, E.; Makishima, J.; McKay, G.

    2006-01-01

    Nakhlites are augite-rich cumulate rocks with variable amounts of olivine and groundmass plus minor Fe, Ti oxides [e.g., 1]. Our previous studies revealed that nakhlites showed correlated petrography and mineralogy that could be explained by different locations (burial depths) in a common cooling cumulate pile [e.g., 2]. We so far analyzed six of the seven currently known nakhlites, Nakhla (Nak), Governador Valadares (GV), Lafayette (Laf), NWA817, Y000593 (Y) and MIL03346 (MIL) [e.g., 2,3] and calculated cooling rates of four nakhlites (Nak, GV, Laf, and NWA817) by using chemical zoning of olivine [e.g., 4]. In this abstract, we complete our examination of petrographic and mineralogical variation of all currently known nakhlites by adding petrology and mineralogy of NWA998. We also report results of cooling calculations for Y, MIL and NWA998. Then, we update our model of the nakhlite igneous body in terms of relative burial depth of each sample.

  12. Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds. Environmental Information Document

    SciTech Connect

    Jaegge, W.J.; Kolb, N.L.; Looney, B.B.; Marine, I.W.; Towler, O.A.; Cook, J.R.

    1987-03-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations. The closure options considered for the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical and/or radioactive constituents are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated.

  13. Pre-Columbian population dynamics in coastal southern Peru: A diachronic investigation of mtDNA patterns in the Palpa region by ancient DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Reindel, Markus; Cagigao, Elsa Tomasto; Hummel, Susanne; Herrmann, Bernd

    2010-02-01

    Alternative models have been proposed to explain the formation and decline of the south Peruvian Nasca culture, ranging from migration or invasion to autochthonous development and ecological crisis. To reveal to what extent population dynamic processes accounted for cultural development in the Nasca mainland, or were influenced by them, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA of 218 individuals, originating from chronologically successive archaeological sites in the Palpa region, the Paracas Peninsula, and the Andean highlands in southern Peru. The sampling strategy allowed a diachronic analysis in a time frame from approximately 800 BC to 800 AD. Mitochondrial coding region polymorphisms were successfully analyzed and replicated for 130 individuals and control region sequences (np 16021-16408) for 104 individuals to determine Native American mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and haplotypes. The results were compared with ancient and contemporary Peruvian populations to reveal genetic relations of the archaeological samples. Frequency data and statistics show clear proximity of the Nasca populations to the populations of the preceding Paracas culture from Palpa and the Peninsula, and suggest, along with archaeological data, that the Nasca culture developed autochthonously in the Rio Grande drainage. Furthermore, the influence of changes in socioeconomic complexity in the Palpa area on the genetic diversity of the local population could be observed. In all, a strong genetic affinity between pre-Columbian coastal populations from southern Peru could be determined, together with a significant differentiation from ancient highland and all present-day Peruvian reference populations, best shown in the differential distribution of mitochondrial haplogroups. PMID:19639639

  14. Cyclic 100-ka (glacial-interglacial) migration of subseafloor redox zonation on the Peruvian shelf

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Sergio; Meister, Patrick; Liu, Bo; Prieto-Mollar, Xavier; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Khalili, Arzhang; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    2013-01-01

    The coupling of subseafloor microbial life to oceanographic and atmospheric conditions is poorly understood. We examined diagenetic imprints and lipid biomarkers of past subseafloor microbial activity to evaluate its response to glacial-interglacial cycles in a sedimentary section drilled on the Peruvian shelf (Ocean Drilling Program Leg 201, Site 1229). Multiple and distinct layers of diagenetic barite and dolomite, i.e., minerals that typically form at the sulfate−methane transition (SMT), occur at much shallower burial depth than the present SMT around 30 meters below seafloor. These shallow layers co-occur with peaks of 13C-depleted archaeol, a molecular fossil of anaerobic methane-oxidizing Archaea. Present-day, non-steady state distributions of dissolved sulfate also suggest that the SMT is highly sensitive to variations in organic carbon flux to the surface shelf sediments that may lead to shoaling of the SMT. Reaction-transport modeling substantiates our hypothesis that shallow SMTs occur in response to cyclic sediment deposition with a high organic carbon flux during interglacials and a low organic carbon flux during glacial stages. Long diffusion distances expectedly dampen the response of deeply buried microbial communities to changes in sediment deposition and other oceanographic drivers over relatively short geological time scales, e.g., glacial-interglacial periods. However, our study demonstrates how dynamically sediment biogeochemistry of the Peru Margin has responded to glacial-interglacial change and how these changes are now preserved in the geological record. Such changes in subsurface biogeochemical zonation need to be taken into account to assess the role of the subseafloor biosphere in global element and redox cycling. PMID:24145422

  15. Urban Stream Burial Increases Watershed-Scale Nitrate Export

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Jake J.; Golden, Heather E.; Knightes, Christopher D.; Mayer, Paul M.; Kaushal, Sujay S.; Pennino, Michael J.; Arango, Clay P.; Balz, David A.; Elonen, Colleen M.; Fritz, Ken M.; Hill, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that reduces nutrient loading to downstream ecosystems. Here we synthesize studies that investigated the effects of urban stream burial on N-uptake in two metropolitan areas and use simulation modeling to scale our measurements to the broader watershed scale. We report that nitrate travels on average 18 times farther downstream in buried than in open streams before being removed from the water column, indicating that burial substantially reduces N uptake in streams. Simulation modeling suggests that as burial expands throughout a river network, N uptake rates increase in the remaining open reaches which somewhat offsets reduced N uptake in buried reaches. This is particularly true at low levels of stream burial. At higher levels of stream burial, however, open reaches become rare and cumulative N uptake across all open reaches in the watershed rapidly declines. As a result, watershed-scale N export increases slowly at low levels of stream burial, after which increases in export become more pronounced. Stream burial in the lower, more urbanized portions of the watershed had a greater effect on N export than an equivalent amount of stream burial in the upper watershed. We suggest that stream daylighting (i.e., uncovering buried streams) can increase watershed-scale N retention. PMID:26186731

  16. 40 CFR 229.1 - Burial at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Burial at sea. 229.1 Section 229.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING GENERAL PERMITS § 229.1 Burial at sea. (a) All persons subject to title I of the Act are hereby granted a general permit...

  17. Urban Stream Burial Increases Watershed-Scale Nitrate Export.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Jake J; Golden, Heather E; Knightes, Christopher D; Mayer, Paul M; Kaushal, Sujay S; Pennino, Michael J; Arango, Clay P; Balz, David A; Elonen, Colleen M; Fritz, Ken M; Hill, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that reduces nutrient loading to downstream ecosystems. Here we synthesize studies that investigated the effects of urban stream burial on N-uptake in two metropolitan areas and use simulation modeling to scale our measurements to the broader watershed scale. We report that nitrate travels on average 18 times farther downstream in buried than in open streams before being removed from the water column, indicating that burial substantially reduces N uptake in streams. Simulation modeling suggests that as burial expands throughout a river network, N uptake rates increase in the remaining open reaches which somewhat offsets reduced N uptake in buried reaches. This is particularly true at low levels of stream burial. At higher levels of stream burial, however, open reaches become rare and cumulative N uptake across all open reaches in the watershed rapidly declines. As a result, watershed-scale N export increases slowly at low levels of stream burial, after which increases in export become more pronounced. Stream burial in the lower, more urbanized portions of the watershed had a greater effect on N export than an equivalent amount of stream burial in the upper watershed. We suggest that stream daylighting (i.e., uncovering buried streams) can increase watershed-scale N retention. PMID:26186731

  18. URBAN STREAM BURIAL INCREASES WATERSHED-SCALE NITRATE EXPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen (N) uptake in streams is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of streams in stormwater pipes in urban watersheds. We predicted that stream burial reduces the capacity of streams to remove nitrate (NO3-) from the water column by in...

  19. 40 CFR 229.1 - Burial at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Burial at sea. 229.1 Section 229.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING GENERAL PERMITS § 229.1 Burial at sea. (a) All persons subject to title I of the Act are hereby granted a general permit to transport human remains from the...

  20. Fire hazards analysis for solid waste burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-09-28

    This document comprises the fire hazards analysis for the solid waste burial grounds, including TRU trenches, low-level burial grounds, radioactive mixed waste trenches, etc. It analyzes fire potential, and fire damage potential for these facilities. Fire scenarios may be utilized in future safety analysis work, or for increasing the understanding of where hazards may exist in the present operation.

  1. Long-length contaminated equipment burial containers fabrication process procedures

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, W.A., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-11

    These special process procedures cover the detailed step-by-step procedures required by the supplier who will manufacture the Long-Length Contaminated Equipment (LLCE) Burial Container design. Also included are detailed step-by-step procedures required by the disposal process for completion of the LLCE Burial Containers at Hanford.

  2. Hypercapnia increases core temperature cooling rate during snow burial.

    PubMed

    Grissom, Colin K; Radwin, Martin I; Scholand, Mary Beth; Harmston, Chris H; Muetterties, Mark C; Bywater, Tim J

    2004-04-01

    Previous retrospective studies report a core body temperature cooling rate of 3 degrees C/h during avalanche burial. Hypercapnia occurs during avalanche burial secondary to rebreathing expired air, and the effect of hypercapnia on hypothermia during avalanche burial is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the core temperature cooling rate during snow burial under normocapnic and hypercapnic conditions. We measured rectal core body temperature (T(re)) in 12 subjects buried in compacted snow dressed in a lightweight clothing insulation system during two different study burials. In one burial, subjects breathed with a device (AvaLung 2, Black Diamond Equipment) that resulted in hypercapnia over 30-60 min. In a control burial, subjects were buried under identical conditions with a modified breathing device that maintained normocapnia. Mean snow temperature was -2.5 +/- 2.0 degrees C. Burial time was 49 +/- 14 min in the hypercapnic study and 60 min in the normocapnic study (P = 0.02). Rate of decrease in T(re) was greater with hypercapnia (1.2 degrees C/h by multiple regression analysis, 95% confidence limits of 1.1-1.3 degrees C/h) than with normocapnia (0.7 degrees C/h, 95% confidence limit of 0.6-0.8 degrees C/h). In the hypercapnic study, the fraction of inspired carbon dioxide increased from 1.4 +/- 1.0 to 7.0 +/- 1.4%, minute ventilation increased from 15 +/- 7 to 40 +/- 12 l/min, and oxygen saturation decreased from 97 +/- 1 to 90 +/- 6% (P < 0.01). During the normocapnic study, these parameters remained unchanged. In this study, T(re) cooling rate during snow burial was less than previously reported and was increased by hypercapnia. This may have important implications for prehospital treatment of avalanche burial victims. PMID:14660514

  3. Land-use allocation protects the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Paulo J C; Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David E; Almeyda, Angélica; Galván-Gildemeister, Ricardo; Keene, Sam; Raybin, Rebecca F; Smith, Richard C

    2007-08-31

    Disturbance and deforestation have profound ecological and socioeconomic effects on tropical forests, but their diffuse patterns are difficult to detect and quantify at regional scales. We expanded the Carnegie forest damage detection system to show that, between 1999 and 2005, disturbance and deforestation rates throughout the Peruvian Amazon averaged 632 square kilometers per year and 645 square kilometers per year, respectively. However, only 1 to 2% occurred within natural protected areas, indigenous territories contained only 11% of the forest disturbances and 9% of the deforestation, and recent forest concessions effectively protected against clear-cutting. Although the region shows recent increases in disturbance and deforestation rates and leakage into forests surrounding concession areas, land-use policy and remoteness are serving to protect the Peruvian Amazon. PMID:17690260

  4. Bioactive Compounds from Plants Used in Peruvian Traditional Medicine.

    PubMed

    Lock, Olga; Perez, Eleucy; Villar, Martha; Flores, Diana; Rojas, Rosario

    2016-03-01

    It is estimated that there are as many as 1400 plant species currently used in traditional Peruvian medicine; however, only a few have undergone scientific investigation. In this paper, we make a review of the botanical, chemical, pharmacological and clinical propierties of the most investigated Peruvian medicinal plants. The plant species selected for this review are: Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon), Croton lechleri (sangre de grado), Uncaria tomentosa/U. guianensis (uña de gato), Lepidium meyenii (maca), Physalis peruviana (aguaymanto), Minthostachys mollis (muña), Notholaena nivea (cuti-cuti), Maytenus macrocarpa (chuchuhuasi), Dracontium loretense (jergon sacha), Gentianella nitida (hercampuri), Plukenetia volubilis (sacha inchi) and Zea mays (maiz morado). For each of these plants, information about their traditional uses and current commercialization is also included. PMID:27169179

  5. [Psychiatry in ancient Mexico].

    PubMed

    Calderón Narváez, G

    1992-12-01

    Using studies on prehispanic and early post-conquest documents of Ancient Mexico--such as the Badianus Manuscript, also known as Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis, and Brother Bernardino de Sahagún's famous work History of the Things of the New Spain, a description of some existing medical and psychiatric problems, and treatments Ancient Aztecs resorted to, is presented. The structure of the Aztec family, their problems with the excessive ingestion of alcoholic beverages, and the punishments native authorities had implemented in order to check alcoholism up are also described. PMID:1341125

  6. Ancient Chinese constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junjun

    2011-06-01

    China, a country with a long history and a specific culture, has also a long and specific astronomy. Ancient Chinese astronomers observed the stars, named and distributed them into constellations in a very specific way, which is quite different from the current one. Around the Zodiac, stars are divided into four big regions corresponding with the four orientations, and each is related to a totem, either the Azure Dragon, the Vermilion Bird, the White Tiger or the Murky Warrior. We present a general pattern of the ancient Chinese constellations, including the four totems, their stars and their names.

  7. Clinical research training of Peruvian neurologists: a baseline assessment

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Chumbes, Gian Carlos; Montano-Torres, Silvia Margarita; Díaz-Vásquez, Alberto; Zunt, Joseph Raymond

    2010-01-01

    In Peru, despite a strong clinical research infrastructure in Lima, and Masters degree programs in epidemiology at three universities, few neurologists participate in clinical research. It was our objective to identify perceived needs and opportunities for increasing clinical research capacity and training opportunities for Peruvian neurologists. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional survey of Peruvian neurologists in Lima and Arequipa, Peru. Forty-eight neurologists completed written surveys and oral interviews. All neurologists reported interest in clinical research, but noted that lack of time and financial resources limited their ability to participate. Although most neurologists had received some training in epidemiology and research design as medical students or residents, the majority felt these topics were not adequately covered. Neurologists in Arequipa noted international funding for clinical research was uncommon outside the capital city of Lima. We concluded that clinical research is important to Peruvian neurologists. The three main barriers to increased participation in clinical research identified by neurologists were insufficient training in clinical research methodology, meager funding opportunities, and lack of dedicated time to participate in clinical research. Distance learning holds promise as a method for providing additional training in clinical research methodology, especially for neurologists who may have difficulty traveling to larger cities for additional training. PMID:21577342

  8. A likely case of scurvy in a rural Early Classic Maya burial from Actun Uayazba Kab, Belize.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Gabriel

    2014-11-01

    A Maya burial of a late adolescent (Burial 98-3) found in the rockshelter entrance of Actun Uayazba Kab (AUK), Belize, displays a combination of lesions that is consistent with scurvy. Signs include large, active lesions on the posterior surfaces of maxilla; relatively mild porotic hyperostosis along the midline of the skull on the parietals and occipital; cribra orbitalia; potential pinprick lesions on the greater wings of sphenoid and temporal; reactive lesions on the palate, temporal lines of frontal and parietals, and external and internal surfaces of zygomatics; small lesions on the popliteal surfaces of both femora; and periodontal disease. Identification of scurvy at AUK potentially informs the analysis of other primary burials and scattered bone found there and at other nearby sites, which often reveal evidence of nonspecific lesions that are usually attributed to anemia and infection, but that are also consistent with scurvy. The social and ecological context of this Protoclassic (0-AD 300) individual, who lived in a rural agricultural community with no evidence of complex social hierarchy, contrasts with typical discussions of disease among the Maya, which tend to focus on the degrading effects of overcrowding and resource deficiencies. While scurvy has been largely overlooked in the Maya area, this study supports earlier arguments for its presence that were based largely on clinical and ethnographic analogies and suggests the need to incorporate scurvy into broader synergistic models of ancient health. PMID:25105478

  9. Ancient deforestation revisited.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J Donald

    2011-01-01

    The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work. PMID:20669043

  10. Beijing Ancient Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yunli

    The Beijing Ancient Observatory is now the only complete example of an observatory from the seventeenth century in the world. It is a monument to the prosperity of astronomy in traditional China. Its instruments are emblems of the encounter and amalgamation of Chinese and European Science in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

  11. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major course…

  12. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  13. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  14. Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadecki, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

  15. Evaluation method of leachate leaking from carcass burial site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Kim, H.; Lee, M.; Lee, K.; Kim, S.; Kim, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, T.; Han, J.

    2012-12-01

    More than 150,000 cattle carcasses and 3,140,000 pig carcasses were buried all over the nation in Korea because of 2010 outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD). Various disposal Techniques such as incineration, composting, rendering, and burial have been developed and applied to effectively dispose an animal carcass. Since a large number of carcasses should be disposed for a short-term period to prevent the spread of FMD virus, most of the carcasses were disposed by mass burial technique. However, a long-term management and monitoring of leachate discharges are required because mass burial can cause soil and groundwater contamination. In this study, we used key parameters related to major components of leachate such as NH4-N, NO3-N, Cl-, E.coli and electrical conductivity as potential leachate contamination indicator to determine leachate leakage from the site. We monitored 300 monitoring wells in both burial site and the monitoring well 5m away from burial sites to identify leachate leaking from burial site. Average concentration of NH3-N in 300 monitoring wells, both burial site and the well 5m away from burial sites, were 2,593 mg/L and 733 mg/L, respectively. 24% out of 300 monitoring wells showed higher than 10 mg/L NH4-N, 100 mg/L Cl- and than 800 μS/cm electrical conductivity. From this study, we set up 4 steps guidelines to evaluate leachate leakage like; step 1 : High potential step of leachate leakage, step 2 : Middle potential step of leachate leakage, step 3 : Low potential step of leachate leakage, step 4 : No leachate leakage. On the basis of this result, we moved 34 leachate leaking burial sites to other places safely and it is necessary to monitor continuously the monitoring wells for environmental protection and human health.

  16. Identification and Tracing Groundwater Contamination by Livestock Burial Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, K.; Ha, K.; Park, S.; Kim, Y.; Lee, K.

    2011-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) or hoof-and-mouth disease is a severe plague for animal farming that affects cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Since it is highly infectious and can be easily proliferated by infected animals, contaminated equipments, vehicles, clothing, people, and predators. It is widely known that the virus responsible for FMD is a picornavirus, the prototypic member of the genus Aphthovirus. A serious outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease, leading to the stamping out of 3.53 millions of pigs and cattle and the construction of 4,538 burial sites until 15th March, 2011. The build-up of carcass burial should inevitably produce leachate by the decomposition of buried livestock affecting the surround environment such as air, soil, groundwater, and surface water. The most important issues which are currently raised by scientists are groundwater contamination by leachate from the livestock burial sites. This study examined the current status of FMD outbreak occurred in 2010-2011 and the issues of groundwater contamination by leachate from livestock burial sites. The hydrogeochemical, geophysical, and hydrogeological studies were executed to identify and trace groundwater contamination by leachate from livestock burial sites. Generally livestock mortality leachate contains high concentrations of NH3-N, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, K+, Na+, P along with relative lesser amounts of iron, calcium, and magnesium. The groundwater chemical data around four burial sites showed high NH3-N, HCO3-, and K+ suggesting the leachate leakage from burial sites. This is also proved by resistivity monitoring survey and tracer tests. The simulation results of leachate dispersion showed the persistent detrimental impacts for groundwater environment for a long time (~50 years). It is need to remove the leachate of burial sites to prevent the dispersion of leachate from livestock burial to groundwater and to monitor the groundwater quality. The most important

  17. Interculturality for Afro-Peruvians: Towards a Racially Inclusive Education in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdiviezo, Laura Alicia

    2006-01-01

    Intercultural education policy and programs in Peru emerged as a response to the right of education for marginalised indigenous populations. Under the influence of international dialogue regarding education for all, Peruvian policy has recently proposed interculturality as a guiding principle of education for all Peruvians. In this context,…

  18. Depth of burial experiments at Balapan

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, L.A.; Myers, S.C.

    1997-11-01

    We report of a series of experiments designed to discriminate underground explosion sources at various depths by means of their seismic signatures at regional distances. This series was a joint effort of the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), and the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan (NNC). The series consisted of three 25-ton explosions, at depths of 55 m, 300 m, and 50 m. In addition, a 5-ton checkout explosion was fired at a depth of 630 m, and small-scale explosions at each site were carried out so that the empirical Green`s functions could be derived. Broadband and short-period seismic data were recorded at an eight-station network within Kazakhstan, at nominal ranges varying from 100-1500 km, and with good azimuthal coverage for regional phases. In addition, seismic measurements were made at former NRDC sites (BAY and KKL), infrasound recordings were made at the cross array at Kurchatov, and close-in seismic measurements were also made at ranges from ground zero to 20 km. Although the main objective of this series was to study depth-of- burial (DOB) effects on the excitation of regional phases such as LG and RG, and to determine whether peaks in the coda spectral shape correlate well with DOB, a secondary objective was to help calibrate the site of the Kazakhstan seismic network, especially the primary IMS station at MAKanchi, and the auxiliary IMS stations at KURchatov and AKTyubinsk.

  19. Criticality assessment of TRU burial ground culverts

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.

    1990-09-26

    An effort to assess the criticality risks of {sup 239}Pu in TRU Burial Ground Culverts has been underway for several years. The concern arose from discrepancies in two types of monitors that have been used to assay the {sup 239}Pu waste prior to storage in 55-gallon drums that are placed in the culverts. One type is the solid waste monitor (SWM), which is based on gamma-ray measurements; the other is the neutron coincidence monitor, which is based on neutron measurements. The NCC was put into routine service after 1985 and has generally yielded higher 239 Pu assays than the SWM. Culverts with pre-1986 waste only had SWM assays of {sup 239}Pu; thus, it was questioned whether their actual {sup 239}Pu loadings could be high enough to pose criticality concerns. Studies to characterize the culvert criticality potential have included appraisal of NCC vs SWM, neutron measurements atop the culverts, gamma-ray measurements atop the culverts, and probabilistic risk analyses. Overall, these studies have implied that the culverts are critically safe; however, their results have not been examined collectively. The present report uses the collective information of the preceding studies to arrive at a more complete assessment of the culvert criticality aspects. A conservative k{sub eff} is estimated for an individual suspicious culvert and a PRA is evaluated for its {open_quotes}worst{close_quotes} drum. These two pieces of information form the basis of the appraisal, but other evidence is also included as support.

  20. SECTION D, WITH FLAT GROUP BURIAL MARKER AT RIGHT FOREGROUND. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECTION D, WITH FLAT GROUP BURIAL MARKER AT RIGHT FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  1. Organic carbon burial efficiency in a large tropical hydroelectric reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, Raquel; Sobek, Sebastian; Kosten, Sarian; Cole, Jonathan; Cardoso, Simone; Roland, Fábio

    2014-05-01

    Because hydroelectric reservoirs receive relatively high inputs of sediments when compared to lakes and oceans, these systems are important sites for organic carbon (OC) accumulation. Nevertheless, the actual magnitude of carbon accumulating in reservoirs is poorly known due to a lack of whole-system studies of carbon burial. Hydroelectric reservoirs are also particularly heterogeneous systems in terms of organic carbon sources and sedimentation rates. Such heterogeneity leads to strong variations on carbon fluxes, even though the effect on OC burial has not yet been discussed. The aim of this paper was to determine the OC burial rate and efficiency in a large tropical reservoir and evaluate the importance of spatial heterogeneity affecting OC burial. Burial rates were determined through a novel approach which combines sediment sample analyses and a seismic survey. Our results confirm the major effect of sedimentation heterogeneity on OC burial efficiency which varied from 9 to 89% in the reservoir. In addition to the river-dam gradient of sedimentation, our data reinforce the importance of basin morphometry in determining the patterns of sediment deposition and carbon accumulation. No carbon accumulation occurred along the margins of the reservoir and irregular bottom morphology leaded to irregular carbon deposition. An integrative analysis, including the reservoir's heterogeneity, indicated that the whole system accumulates 42.2 g C m-2 yr-1 and that roughly 67% of the total OC load to the sediments is actually buried. The data also suggest that the sediment of the reservoir is mainly composed of terrestrial OC and that the heterogeneity in OC sources plays a minor role determining OC burial efficiency, which was strongly determined by sediment accumulation rate. Finally, our results in combination with literature data suggest that the high sedimentation rates cause hydroelectric reservoirs to accumulate carbon more efficiently than lakes, regardless of

  2. 25 CFR 20.326 - Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does Burial Assistance cover transportation costs? 20.326... cover transportation costs? Transportation costs directly associated with burials are normally a part of the established burial rate. If a provider adds an additional transportation charge to the burial...

  3. A simple and efficient method for PCR amplifiable DNA extraction from ancient bones

    PubMed Central

    Kalmár, Tibor; Bachrati, Csanád Z.; Marcsik, Antónia; Raskó, István

    2000-01-01

    A simple and effective modified ethanol precipitation-based protocol is described for the preparation of DNA from ancient human bones. This method is fast and requires neither hazardous chemicals nor special devices. After the powdering and incubating of the bone samples Dextran Blue was added as a carrier for removing the PCR inhibitors with selective ethanol precipitation. This method could eliminate the time-consuming separate decalcification step, dialysis, application of centrifugation-driven microconcentrators and the second consecutive PCR amplification. The efficiency of this procedure was demonstrated on ten 500–1200-year-old human bones from four different Hungarian burial sites. A mitochondrial specific primer pair was used to obtain sequence information from the purified ancient DNA. The PCR amplification, after our DNA extraction protocol, was successful from each of the 10 bone samples investigated. The results demonstrate that extraction of DNA from ancient bone samples with this new approach increases the success rate of PCR amplification. PMID:10871390

  4. Ancient human microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J.; Lewis, Cecil M.

    2015-01-01

    Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and therefore, we lack a foundation for characterizing this change. High-throughput sequencing has opened up new opportunities in the field of paleomicrobiology, allowing us to investigate the evolution of the complex microbial ecologies that inhabit our bodies. By focusing on recent coprolite and dental calculus research, we explore how emerging research on ancient human microbiomes is changing the way we think about ancient disease and how archaeological studies can contribute to a medical understanding of health and nutrition today. PMID:25559298

  5. Ancient Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-469, 31 August 2003

    The terraced area in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image is an outcropping of ancient, sedimentary rock. It occurs in a crater in western Arabia Terra near 10.8oN, 4.5oW. Sedimentary rocks provide a record of past environments on Mars. Field work will likely be required to begin to get a good understanding of the nature of the record these rocks contain. Their generally uniform thickness and repeated character suggests that deposition of fine sediment in this crater was episodic, if not cyclic. These rocks might be indicators of an ancient lake, or they might have been deposited from grains settling out of an earlier, thicker, martian atmosphere. This image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated from the lower left.

  6. High rates of organic carbon burial in fjord sediments globally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Richard W.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Allison, Mead; Savage, Candida; Galy, Valier

    2015-06-01

    The deposition and long-term burial of organic carbon in marine sediments has played a key role in controlling atmospheric O2 and CO2 concentrations over the past 500 million years. Marine carbon burial represents the dominant natural mechanism of long-term organic carbon sequestration. Fjords--deep, glacially carved estuaries at high latitudes--have been hypothesized to be hotspots of organic carbon burial, because they receive high rates of organic material fluxes from the watershed. Here we compile organic carbon concentrations from 573 fjord surface sediment samples and 124 sediment cores from nearly all fjord systems globally. We use sediment organic carbon content and sediment delivery rates to calculate rates of organic carbon burial in fjord systems across the globe. We estimate that about 18 Mt of organic carbon are buried in fjord sediments each year, equivalent to 11% of annual marine carbon burial globally. Per unit area, fjord organic carbon burial rates are one hundred times as large as the global ocean average, and fjord sediments contain twice as much organic carbon as biogenous sediments underlying the upwelling regions of the ocean. We conclude that fjords may play an important role in climate regulation on glacial-interglacial timescales.

  7. Tritium in the burial ground of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hyder, M.L.

    1993-06-01

    This memorandum reviews the available information on tritium-contaminated material discarded to burial grounds. Tritium was the first isotope studied because it represents the most immediate concern with regard to release to the environment. Substantial amounts of tritium are known to be present in the ground water underneath the area, and outcropping of this ground water in springs and seeps has been observed. The response to this release of tritium from the burial ground is a current concern. The amount of tritium emplaced in the burial ground facilities is very uncertain, however, some general conclusions can be made. In particular, most of the tritium buried is associated with spent equipment and other waste, rather than spent melts. Correspondingly, most of the tritium in the ground water seems to be associated with burials of this type, rather than the spent melts. Maps are presented showing the location of burials of tritiated waste by type, and the location of the largest individual burials according to COBRA records.

  8. Source of silicate and carbonate cements during deep burial diagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, P.K.

    1986-05-01

    Detrital silicate minerals and silicate cements (formed during shallow burial) of siliciclastic sandstones commonly dissolve during deep burial diagenesis. Quartz, feldspars, mica, and garnet among detrital silicate minerals, and quartz and kaolinite among authigenic silicate minerals show extensive dissolution features during deep burial diagenesis of siliciclastic sandstones of the Gondwana Supergroup, India. No dissolution features were observed in zircon, tourmalene, and rutile among detrital minerals or in chlorite and smectite among early formed authigenic minerals. Dissolution enriched the pore fluids in silica, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, and aluminum. Authigenic cements formed during this stage are illite, quartz, feldspar, iron oxide, and carbonates of calcium, magnesium, and iron. Mass-balance calculations show that the source of all silicate cements formed during deep burial diagenesis was internally derived from the dissolution of both detrital and early formed authigenic cements. However, a considerable gap exists between the amounts of cations (calcium, magnesium, and iron) derived internally and the respective amounts of these cations needed to form the various carbonate cements at this stage. Therefore, an outside source for these cations is needed to explain the formation of carbonate cements. A large mass transfer of cations from outside the sediment source seems remote since ground-water movement, which probably carried cement from an external source, is extremely restricted at great burial depths. Therefore, carbonate cements may have been major constituents during shallow burial diagenesis in Gondwana sandstones. Subsequently, these early formed carbonates were completely dissolved and remobilized as late-stage carbonate cement.

  9. Mummification in the Ancient and New World.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the Ancient and New World there was a custom to preserve the corpse in a natural and artificial way. Since Paleolithic man believed in an afterlife and even in Mesoamerica and the Andes cultures, care and ceremony were practiced to the burial of the dead in an ancestral cult. Mortuary rituals were developed in Pre-dynastic Egypt (4500-3100 BC) but apparently they had begun before in America, c. 5000 BC. Mummies served for assisting the soul to survive and for preventing the dead from frightening the livings. Incas arrived at a point of perfection in these practices after other Andean cultures but we should not forget their older predecessors, the Chinchorro culture on the arid coast of the Atacama Desert. Different steps in the technique can be distinguished in both worlds: natural desiccation covered by animal skins, methods to protect the body skin and flesh removal, replacement with clay; black, red or mud-coated corpses, evisceration, body cavity treatment, cleansing and anointing the interior, brain removal, mummified bodies, corpses covered with natron, before being washed and bandaged or wrapped. It will be necessary to carefully check dates, techniques and periods in the two zones to establish exactly the evolution of the methods applied. PMID:25811691

  10. Ancient Chinese Astronomical Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Jennifer Robin

    2004-05-01

    I am interested in the astronomical advances of the Ancient Chinese in measuring the solar day. Their development of gnomon & ruler, sundial, and water clock apparatuses enabled Chinese astronomers to measure the annual solar orbit and solar day more precisely than their contemporaries. I have built one of each of these devices to use in collecting data from Olympia, Washington. I will measure the solar day in the Pacific Northwest following the methodology of the ancient Chinese. I will compare with my data, the available historical Chinese astronomical records and current records from the United States Naval Observatory Master Clock. I seek to understand how ancient Chinese investigations into solar patterns enabled them to make accurate predictions about the movement of the celestial sphere and planets, and to develop analytic tests of their theories. Mayall, R. Newton; Sundials: their construction and use. Dover Publications 2000 North, John; The Norton History of Astronomy and Cosmology W.W. Norton& Co. 1995 Zhentao Xu, David W. Pankenier, Yaotiao Jiang; East Asian archaeoastronomy : historical records of astronomical observations of China, Japan and Korea Published on behalf of the Earth Space Institute by Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, c2000

  11. Immune response to measles vaccine in Peruvian children.

    PubMed Central

    Bautista-López, N. L.; Vaisberg, A.; Kanashiro, R.; Hernández, H.; Ward, B. J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the immune response in Peruvian children following measles vaccination. METHODS: Fifty-five Peruvian children received Schwarz measles vaccine (about 10(3) plaque forming units) at about 9 months of age. Blood samples were taken before vaccination, then twice after vaccination: one sample at between 1 and 4 weeks after vaccination and the final sample 3 months post vaccination for evaluation of immune cell phenotype and lymphoproliferative responses to measles and non-measles antigens. Measles-specific antibodies were measured by plaque reduction neutralization. FINDINGS: The humoral response developed rapidly after vaccination; only 4 of the 55 children (7%) had plaque reduction neutralization titres <200 mlU/ml 3 months after vaccination. However, only 8 out of 35 children tested (23%) had lymphoproliferative responses to measles antigens 3-4 weeks after vaccination. Children with poor lymphoproliferative responses to measles antigens had readily detectable lymphoproliferative responses to other antigens. Flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed diffuse immune system activation at the time of vaccination in most children. The capacity to mount a lymphoproliferative response to measles antigens was associated with expression of CD45RO on CD4+ T-cells. CONCLUSION: The 55 Peruvian children had excellent antibody responses after measles vaccination, but only 23% (8 out of 35) generated detectable lymphoproliferative responses to measles antigens (compared with 55-67% in children in the industrialized world). This difference may contribute to the less than uniform success of measles vaccination programmes in the developing world. PMID:11731811

  12. Seasonality in marine ecosystems: Peruvian seabirds, anchovy, and oceanographic conditions.

    PubMed

    Passuni, Giannina; Barbraud, Christophe; Chaigneau, Alexis; Demarcq, Hervé; Ledesma, Jesus; Bertrand, Arnaud; Castillo, Ramiro; Perea, Angel; Mori, Julio; Viblanc, Vincent A; Torres-MaitaA, Jose; Bertrand, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In fluctuating environments, matching breeding timing to periods of high resource availability is crucial for the fitness of many vertebrate species, and may have major consequences on population health. Yet, our understanding of the proximate environmental cues driving seasonal breeding is limited. This is particularly the case in marine ecosystems, where key environmental factors and prey abundance and availability are seldom quantified. The Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS) is a highly productive, low-latitude ecosystem of moderate seasonality. In this ecosystem, three tropical seabird species (the Guanay Cormorant Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, the Peruvian Booby Sula variegata, and the Peruvian Pelican Pelecanus thagus) live in sympatry and prey almost exclusively on anchovy, Engraulis ringens. From January 2003 to December 2012, we monitored 31 breeding sites along the Peruvian coast to investigate the breeding cycle of these species. We tested for relationships between breeding timing, oceanographic conditions, and prey availability using occupancy models. We found that all three seabird species exhibited seasonal breeding patterns, with marked interspecific differences. Whereas breeding mainly started during the austral winter/early spring and ended in summer/early fall, this pattern was stronger in boobies and pelicans than in cormorants. Breeding onset mainly occurred when upwelling was intense but ecosystem productivity was below its annual maxima, and when anchovy were less available and in poor physiological condition. Conversely, the abundance and availability of anchovy improved during chick rearing and peaked around the time of fledging. These results suggest that breeding timing is adjusted so that fledging may occur under optimal environmental conditions, rather than being constrained by nutritional requirements during egg laying. Adjusting breeding time so that fledglings meet optimal conditions at independence is unique compared with other

  13. Why did ancient people have atherosclerosis?: from autopsies to computed tomography to potential causes.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Gregory S; Wann, L Samuel; Allam, Adel H; Thompson, Randall C; Michalik, David E; Sutherland, M Linda; Sutherland, James D; Lombardi, Guido P; Watson, Lucia; Cox, Samantha L; Valladolid, Clide M; Abd El-Maksoud, Gomaa; Al-Tohamy Soliman, Muhammad; Badr, Ibrahem; el-Halim Nur el-Din, Abd; Clarke, Emily M; Thomas, Ian G; Miyamoto, Michael I; Kaplan, Hillard S; Frohlich, Bruno; Narula, Jagat; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Zink, Albert; Finch, Caleb E

    2014-06-01

    Computed tomographic findings of atherosclerosis in the ancient cultures of Egypt, Peru, the American Southwest and the Aleutian Islands challenge our understanding of the fundamental causes of atherosclerosis. Could these findings be true? Is so, what traditional risk factors might be present in these cultures that could explain this apparent paradox? The recent computed tomographic findings are consistent with multiple autopsy studies dating as far back as 1852 that demonstrate calcific atherosclerosis in ancient Egyptians and Peruvians. A nontraditional cause of atherosclerosis that could explain this burden of atherosclerosis is the microbial and parasitic inflammatory burden likely to be present in ancient cultures inherently lacking modern hygiene and antimicrobials. Patients with chronic systemic inflammatory diseases of today, including systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and human immunodeficiency virus infection, experience premature atherosclerosis and coronary events. Might the chronic inflammatory load of ancient times secondary to infection have resulted in atherosclerosis? Smoke inhalation from the use of open fires for daily cooking and illumination represents another potential cause. Undiscovered risk factors could also have been present, potential causes that technologically cannot currently be measured in our serum or other tissue. A synthesis of these findings suggests that a gene-environmental interplay is causal for atherosclerosis. That is, humans have an inherent genetic susceptibility to atherosclerosis, whereas the speed and severity of its development are secondary to known and potentially unknown environmental factors. PMID:25667093

  14. Multiple Palaeoproterozoic carbon burial episodes and excursions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. P.; Prave, A. R.; Condon, D. J.; Lepland, A.; Fallick, A. E.; Romashkin, A. E.; Medvedev, P. V.; Rychanchik, D. V.

    2015-08-01

    Organic-rich rocks (averaging 2-5% total organic carbon) and positive carbonate-carbon isotope excursions (δ13C > + 5 ‰ and locally much higher, i.e. the Lomagundi-Jatuli Event) are hallmark features of Palaeoproterozoic successions and are assumed to archive a global event of unique environmental conditions following the c. 2.3 Ga Great Oxidation Event. Here we combine new and published geochronology that shows that the main Palaeoproterozoic carbon burial episodes (CBEs) preserved in Russia, Gabon and Australia were temporally discrete depositional events between c. 2.10 and 1.85 Ga. In northwest Russia we can also show that timing of the termination of the Lomagundi-Jatuli Event may have differed by up to 50 Ma between localities, and that Ni mineralisation occurred at c. 1920 Ma. Further, CBEs have traits in common with Mesozoic Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs); both are exceptionally organic-rich relative to encasing strata, associated with contemporaneous igneous activity and marked by organic carbon isotope profiles that exhibit a stepped decrease followed by a stabilisation period and recovery. Although CBE strata are thicker and of greater duration than OAEs (100 s of metres versus metres, ∼106 years versus ∼105 years), their shared characteristics hint at a commonality of cause(s) and feedbacks. This suggests that CBEs represent processes that can be either basin-specific or global in nature and a combination of circumstances that are not unique to the Palaeoproterozoic. Our findings urge circumspection and re-consideration of models that assume CBEs are a Deep Time singularity.

  15. The Peruvian Continental Margin: Results from wide angle seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbenhoeft, A.; Bialas, J.; Kopp, H.; Kukowski, N.; Huebscher, C.

    2003-04-01

    Within the scope of the GEOPECO (Geophysical Experiments at the Peruvian Continental Margin) project, seismic investigations along the Pacific margin of Peru were carried out using ocean bottom hydrophones (OBH) and seismometers (OBS) recording marine airgun shots. The structure and the P- wave velocity of the oblique subducting Nazca and overriding South-American Plates from 8°S to 15°S were determined by forward modeling and tomographic inversion of the wide-angle seismic data combined with the analysis of reflection seismic data. The region south of 12°S has been influenced by the southward migration of the aseismic Nazca Ridge the past 11 Ma. The oceanic Nazca Plate is divided by Mendana Fracture Zone (MFZ) which marks a transition zone of a different crustal age of approximately 28 Ma in the north to 38 Ma in the south at the Peruvian trench. North of MFZ the oceanic crust is influenced by Trujillo Trough trending N15E and the surrounding extensional stresses leading to a crustal thinning as can be seen in the northernmost refraction seismic model. The oceanic crust south of MFZ is overall homogeneous with a thin pelagic sedimentary layer and normal oceanic crustal layers. The P-wave velocity of the mantle is overall 7.9-8.1km/s. The Peruvian Continental Margin is characterized by the continental slope and several basins, Trujillo and Yaquina basin, Lima basin and Pisco basin, which are partly affected by the southward migration of the subducting Nazca Ridge. This caused uplift and subsidence along the margin leading to erosional tectonic features. The basins and continental basement could be mapped with forward modeling and tomographic inversion as well as the continental backstop on each profile. An accretionary prism is set up with a width of 20 to 30 km and 4 to 5 km thickness which does not further increase in size as revealed by the profiles recorded further north of Nazca Ridge. This and a taper of 14- 17 degrees at the collision zone indicates that

  16. Outsourcing care: how Peruvian migrants meet transnational family obligations.

    PubMed

    Leinaweaver, Jessaca B

    2010-01-01

    Migration from Peru has increased dramatically over the past decade, but the social and relational repercussions of these transnational movements have not yet been fully explored. Examination of the way migrants manage their responsibilities to dependent kin in Peru reveals that child fostering makes it possible for adults to migrate in search of better work opportunities by ensuring care for their children and company for their older relatives. For Peruvians engaging in labor migration, child fostering tempers some of the challenges of continuing to participate in established social networks from a distance. PMID:20824951

  17. Demographic and social differentiation among northern Peruvian peasants.

    PubMed

    Deere, C D; Janvry, A

    1981-01-01

    "In this paper, [the authors] apply the concepts of demographic and social differentiation to the analysis of inequality among rural households in the northern Peruvian department of Cajamarca. While [they] demonstrate that social rather than demographic differentation is the more important process in this area, [they] illustrate the complementarity of Chayanov's methodological analysis of the family life cycle with a Marxist class-theoretical framework. Both enrich the study of patterns in the agricultural sector of household labor use, family structure and composition, and income inequality." PMID:12311854

  18. The ancient shorelines of Lanai, Hawaii, revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, Barbara H.; Helsley, Charles E.

    2002-06-01

    Three ancient shorelines (the Mahana, Kaluakapo and Manele) have been described at elevations of 365, 190 and 170 m in the Kaluakapo Crater, Lanai, Hawaii [Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 237 (1978) 1]. Stearns' original observation of a fossil-bearing outcrop at 326 m was interpreted as an ancient shoreline. Subsequently, Moore and Moore (1984, 1988) [Science 226 (1984) 1312; Geol. Soc. Am., Spec. Pap. 229 (1988) 101] argued that Stearns' fossil evidence represented the highest inundation of tsunami waves associated with the collapse of the flanks of the Hawaiian Islands chain (the Giant Wave Hypothesis, GWH). Subsequently, Stearns' fossil-bearing swale site has never been observed. Geological field studies of Kaluakapo Crater were conducted to clarify the nature of the highest coral-bearing outcrops preserved on Lanai. These field studies found no support for a shoreline at 326 m. However, the field studies did document a shingle terrace with numerous coral clasts at 190-m elevation. We find in situ fossil-bearing marine deposits at 170-m elevation within Kaluakapo Crater. Furthermore, we observe: the undisturbed nature of marine deposits at 190 m, the preservation of fine-grained materials at 170 m, the absence of in situ deposits with a biological component between 200 and 365 m, the dearth of rounded boulders (lacking weathering rinds) between 200 and 365 m, and the lack of post-depositional burial of the terrace deposit (despite loose debris being present on the high ground surrounding the 190-m terrace). These observations lead us to believe that erosion by the hypothesized giant waves did not take place. Our observations are inconsistent with the "Giant Wave" tsunami inundation of the Kaluakapo Crater area. Thus, we concur with Stearns (1938, 1978) [Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 49 (1938) 615; Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 237 (1978) 1], Jones (1993) [Jones, A.T., 1993. Elevated fossil coral deposits in the Hawaiian Islands: a measure of island uplift in the Quaternary

  19. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  20. Genomes of Helicobacter pylori from native Peruvians suggest admixture of ancestral and modern lineages and reveal a western type cag-pathogenicity island

    PubMed Central

    Devi, S Manjulata; Ahmed, Irshad; Khan, Aleem A; Rahman, Syed Asad; Alvi, Ayesha; Sechi, Leonardo A; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2006-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is presumed to be co-evolved with its human host and is a highly diverse gastric pathogen at genetic levels. Ancient origins of H. pylori in the New World are still debatable. It is not clear how different waves of human migrations in South America contributed to the evolution of strain diversity of H. pylori. The objective of our 'phylogeographic' study was to gain fresh insights into these issues through mapping genetic origins of H. pylori of native Peruvians (of Amerindian ancestry) and their genomic comparison with isolates from Spain, and Japan. Results For this purpose, we attempted to dissect genetic identity of strains by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of the 7 housekeeping genes (atpA, efp, ureI, ppa, mutY, trpC, yphC) and the sequence analyses of the babB adhesin and oipA genes. The whole cag pathogenicity-island (cagPAI) from these strains was analyzed using PCR and the geographic type of cagA phosphorylation motif EPIYA was determined by gene sequencing. We observed that while European genotype (hp-Europe) predominates in native Peruvian strains, approximately 20% of these strains represent a sub-population with an Amerindian ancestry (hsp-Amerind). All of these strains however, irrespective of their ancestral affiliation harbored a complete, 'western' type cagPAI and the motifs surrounding it. This indicates a possible acquisition of cagPAI by the hsp-Amerind strains from the European strains, during decades of co-colonization. Conclusion Our observations suggest presence of ancestral H. pylori (hsp-Amerind) in Peruvian Amerindians which possibly managed to survive and compete against the Spanish strains that arrived to the New World about 500 years ago. We suggest that this might have happened after native Peruvian H. pylori strains acquired cagPAI sequences, either by new acquisition in cag-negative strains or by recombination in cag positive

  1. Dental Patterns in Peruvians: A Panoramic Radiography Study.

    PubMed

    Perez, Ivan E

    2015-12-01

    The dental pattern is defined as the combination of distinct codes assigned to describe specific tooth conditions including virgin, missing, and restored teeth that comprise the complete dentition or from discrete groups of teeth. This pattern can be then compared to the dentition of individual/s in an attempt to determine positive identification. The aims of the present investigation were to study and determine the diversity of dental patterns in Peruvian citizens based on a sample of panoramic radiographs. Digital panoramic radiographs of 900 adult Peruvian patients (450 female and 450 male) were evaluated to determine the dental patterns. The most frequent dental patterns found in the complete dentition, maxillae, upper-anterior and lower-anterior sextants were all-virgin-teeth (0.3%), all-extracted teeth (1.9%), all-virgin teeth (1%) and all-virgin-teeth (34.2% and 72.3%) respectively. The diversity was calculated by the use of the Simpson's diversity index, the resulting values for the full-dentition, maxilla and mandible were over the 99.8% value and were similar to those previously reported in the scientific literature. This study demonstrates the positive benefit of dental patterns in the process of identification. Additionally a combination of codes is proposed that could prove useful in cases where a better radiographic description is required. PMID:26851634

  2. [Sexuality in Ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Androutsos, G; Marketos, S

    1994-10-01

    The present article explores the sexuality in ancient Egypt. In particular in this article are presented the ways of concubinage (marriage, concubinage, adultery), the incest, loves of the pharaohs and of the common people, the freedom of choice in garments, the status of the hetairas and of the whores, the sexual perversions (male and female homosexuality, necrophilia, sodomism, bestiality, rape, masturbation, exhibitionism), the operations of the genitals (circumcision, excision, castration) and finally the level of knowledge in gynaecology, fertility, contraception and obstetrics that even today demands our admiration. PMID:7858632

  3. Urology in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sakti

    2007-01-01

    The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland. PMID:19675749

  4. Gnomons in Ancient China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Geng

    Gnomon shadow measurement was one of the most fundamental astronomical observations in ancient China. It was crucial for calendar making, which constituted an important aspect of imperial governance. A painted stick discovered from a prehistoric (2300 BC) astronomical site of Taosi (see Chap. 201, "Taosi Observatory", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_215") is the oldest gnomon known of China. From second century BC onward, gnomon shadow measurements have been essential part of calendrical practice. Various historical measurements are discussed in this chapter.

  5. Ancient human DNA.

    PubMed

    Kirsanow, Karola; Burger, Joachim

    2012-01-20

    The contribution of palaeogenetic data to the study of various aspects of hominin biology and evolution has been significant, and has the potential to increase substantially with the widespread implementation of next generation sequencing techniques. Here we discuss the present state-of-the-art of ancient human DNA analysis and the characteristics of hominin aDNA that make sequence validation particularly complex. A brief overview of the development of anthropological palaeogenetic analysis is given to illustrate the technical challenges motivating recent technological advancements. PMID:22169595

  6. Ancient celtic horns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Murray

    2002-11-01

    There is considerable evidence from iconographic and documentary sources that musical lip-reed instruments were important in the early celtic communities of Scotland and Ireland. In recent years several studies have been undertaken with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the musical nature of these ancient horns, and of their place in the life and culture of the time. A valuable source of tangible evidence is to be found in the archaeological remains deposited across Scotland and the whole of Ireland. A project is now under way, under the auspices of the Kilmartin House Trust and the general direction of John Purser, which has brought together an international team of musicians, craftsmen, archaeologists, musicologists and physicists with the aim of analyzing ancient musical artifacts, reconstructing some of the original instruments, and analyzing the sounds they produce. This paper describes acoustical studies carried out on a number of recent reconstructions of wooden and bronze instruments, and discusses the role of acoustics in this type of investigation. [Work supported by Sciart and EPSRC.

  7. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  8. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed. PMID:27166952

  9. The Genetic History of Peruvian Quechua-Lamistas and Chankas: Uniparental DNA Patterns among Autochthonous Amazonian and Andean Populations.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, José R; Lacerda, Daniela R; Acosta, Oscar; Jota, Marilza S; Robles-Ruiz, Paulo; Salazar-Granara, Alberto; Vieira, Pedro Paulo R; Paz-Y-Miño, César; Fujita, Ricardo; Santos, Fabricio R

    2016-03-01

    This study focuses on the genetic history of the Quechua-Lamistas, inhabitants of the Lamas Province in the San Martin Department, Peru, who speak their own distinct variety of the Quechua family of languages. It has been suggested that different pre-Columbian ethnic groups from the Peruvian Amazonia, like the Motilones or "shaven heads", assimilated the Quechua language and then formed the current native population of Lamas. However, many Quechua-Lamistas claim to be direct descendants of the Chankas, a famous pre-Columbian indigenous group that escaped from Inca rule in the Andes. To investigate the Quechua-Lamistas and Chankas' ancestries, we compared uniparental genetic profiles (17 STRs of Q-M3 Y-chromosome and mtDNA complete control region haplotypes) among autochthonous Amazonian and Andean populations from Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador. The phylogeographic and population genetic analyses indicate a fairly heterogeneous ancestry for the Quechua-Lamistas, while they are closely related to their neighbours who speak Amazonian languages, presenting no direct relationships with populations from the region where the ancient Chankas lived. On the other hand, the genetic profiles of self-identified Chanka descendants living in Andahuaylas (located in the Apurimac Department, Peru, in the Central Andes) were closely related to those living in Huancavelica and the assumed Chanka Confederation area before the Inca expansion. PMID:26879156

  10. Communication Media in Ancient Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabusch, David M.

    Interest in early means of communication and in the uses and kinds of media that existed in ancient cultures is starting to grow among communication scholars. Conversation analysis of these cultures is obviously impossible, so that the emphasis must rest with material cultural artifacts. Many ancient cultures used non-verbal codes for dyadic…

  11. A European Mitochondrial Haplotype Identified in Ancient Phoenician Remains from Carthage, North Africa.

    PubMed

    Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A; Gosling, Anna L; Boocock, James; Kardailsky, Olga; Kurumilian, Yara; Roudesli-Chebbi, Sihem; Badre, Leila; Morel, Jean-Paul; Sebaï, Leïla Ladjimi; Zalloua, Pierre A

    2016-01-01

    While Phoenician culture and trade networks had a significant impact on Western civilizations, we know little about the Phoenicians themselves. In 1994, a Punic burial crypt was discovered on Byrsa Hill, near the entry to the National Museum of Carthage in Tunisia. Inside this crypt were the remains of a young man along with a range of burial goods, all dating to the late 6th century BCE. Here we describe the complete mitochondrial genome recovered from the Young Man of Byrsa and identify that he carried a rare European haplogroup, likely linking his maternal ancestry to Phoenician influenced locations somewhere on the North Mediterranean coast, the islands of the Mediterranean or the Iberian Peninsula. This result not only provides the first direct ancient DNA evidence of a Phoenician individual but the earliest evidence of a European mitochondrial haplogroup, U5b2c1, in North Africa. PMID:27224451

  12. A European Mitochondrial Haplotype Identified in Ancient Phoenician Remains from Carthage, North Africa

    PubMed Central

    Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.; Gosling, Anna L.; Boocock, James; Kardailsky, Olga; Kurumilian, Yara; Roudesli-Chebbi, Sihem; Badre, Leila; Morel, Jean-Paul; Sebaï, Leïla Ladjimi; Zalloua, Pierre A.

    2016-01-01

    While Phoenician culture and trade networks had a significant impact on Western civilizations, we know little about the Phoenicians themselves. In 1994, a Punic burial crypt was discovered on Byrsa Hill, near the entry to the National Museum of Carthage in Tunisia. Inside this crypt were the remains of a young man along with a range of burial goods, all dating to the late 6th century BCE. Here we describe the complete mitochondrial genome recovered from the Young Man of Byrsa and identify that he carried a rare European haplogroup, likely linking his maternal ancestry to Phoenician influenced locations somewhere on the North Mediterranean coast, the islands of the Mediterranean or the Iberian Peninsula. This result not only provides the first direct ancient DNA evidence of a Phoenician individual but the earliest evidence of a European mitochondrial haplogroup, U5b2c1, in North Africa. PMID:27224451

  13. Controls on biogenic silica burial in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Zanna; Kohfeld, Karen E.; Matsumoto, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the controls on opal export in the Southern Ocean can inform both the prediction of how the leakage of silicic acid from the Southern Ocean responds to climate and the interpretation of paleo-proxies. We have compiled a database of 185 230Thorium-normalized opal burial rates and 493 opal concentration measurements in Southern Ocean sediments and matched these with environmental climatologies. By subdividing the Southern Ocean on the basis of oceanographic regions and interpolating the opal burial rates, we estimate a total biogenic Si burial south of 40°S of 2.3 ± 1.0 Tmol Si yr-1. In both the seasonally ice-covered and permanently ice-free regions we can explain 73% of opal burial variability from surface ocean properties. Where sea ice is present for at least part of the year, the length of the ice-free season determines the upper limit of opal burial in the underlying sediments. In the ice-free regions of the Southern Ocean, the supply of silicic acid through winter mixing is the most important factor. Our results do not support a strong role of iron in controlling opal burial. We do however find that satellite-derived net primary production increases with increasing (modeled) dust delivery. These findings support the decoupling between carbon and opal fluxes in the Southern Ocean. When corrected for opal dissolution, the observed opal fluxes are in reasonable agreement with fluxes simulated using an ocean biogeochemical model. However, the results suggest current preservation algorithms for opal could be improved by incorporating the composition of particle flux, not only its magnitude.

  14. Language, Culture, and Power: Intercultural Bilingual Education among the Urarina of Peruvian Amazonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Bartholomew

    1999-01-01

    The Peruvian national indigenous federation established a bilingual, intercultural teachers' training program to counter stereotypes of indigenous people portrayed in the authoritarian, monolingual Spanish national curriculum, and to enhance language preservation, ethnic mobilization, and cultural survival. A complementary transitional bilingual…

  15. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    PubMed

    Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade. PMID:25299580

  16. Tamil Merchant in Ancient Mesopotamia

    PubMed Central

    Palanichamy, Malliya gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade. PMID:25299580

  17. Alternatives to the burial of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Price, J. Mark

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The approach for management of LLRW in different countries has evolved differently due to many factors such as culture and public sentiment, systems of government, public policy, and geography. There are also various methods to disposition LLRW including but not limited to: - Long term statutes and unconditional or conditional release of material, - Direct Burial, - Treatment (Processing) {yields} Burial, - Treatment {yields} Unconditional Release, - Recycle for Unconditional Release or Reuse Within Any Industry, - Controlled Recycle within Nuclear Industry. (author)

  18. Ancient Chinese Sundials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Kehui

    Timekeeping was essential in the agricultural society of ancient China. The use of sundials for timekeeping was associated with the use of the gnomon, which had its origin in remote antiquity. This chapter studies three sundials (guiyi 晷仪) from the Qin and Han dynasties, the shorter shadow plane sundial (duanying ping yi 短影平仪) invented by Yuan Chong in the Sui Dynasty, and the sundial chart (guiyingtu 晷影图) invented by Zeng Minxing in the Southern Song dynasty. This chapter also introduces Guo Shoujing's hemispherical sundial (yang yi 仰仪). A circular stone sundial discovered at the Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an is also mentioned. It is dated from the Sui and Tang dynasties. A brief survey of sundials from the Qing dynasty shows various types of sundials.

  19. Characterization of Ancient Tripitaka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Y. X.; Geng, L.; Gong, D. C.

    2015-08-01

    Tripitaka is the world's most comprehensive version of Buddhist sutra. There are limited numbers of Tripitaka currently preserved, most of them present various patterns of degradation. As little is known about the materials and crafts used in Tripitaka, it appeared necessary to identify them, and to further define adapted conservation treatment. In this work, a study concerning the paper source and dyestuff of the Tripitaka from approximate 16th century was carried out using fiber analysis and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The results proved that the papers were mainly made from hemp or bark of mulberry tree, and indigo was used for colorizing the paper. At the end, we provide with suggestions for protecting and restoring the ancient Tripitaka.

  20. Paleoindian settlement of the high-altitude Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Rademaker, Kurt; Hodgins, Gregory; Moore, Katherine; Zarrillo, Sonia; Miller, Christopher; Bromley, Gordon R M; Leach, Peter; Reid, David A; Álvarez, Willy Yépez; Sandweiss, Daniel H

    2014-10-24

    Study of human adaptation to extreme environments is important for understanding our cultural and genetic capacity for survival. The Pucuncho Basin in the southern Peruvian Andes contains the highest-altitude Pleistocene archaeological sites yet identified in the world, about 900 meters above confidently dated contemporary sites. The Pucuncho workshop site [4355 meters above sea level (masl)] includes two fishtail projectile points, which date to about 12.8 to 11.5 thousand years ago (ka). Cuncaicha rock shelter (4480 masl) has a robust, well-preserved, and well-dated occupation sequence spanning the past 12.4 thousand years (ky), with 21 dates older than 11.5 ka. Our results demonstrate that despite cold temperatures and low-oxygen conditions, hunter-gatherers colonized extreme high-altitude Andean environments in the Terminal Pleistocene, within about 2 ky of the initial entry of humans to South America. PMID:25342802

  1. The Peruvian diaspora: portrait of a migratory process.

    PubMed

    Durand, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1980s and especially the 1990s, Peru has become a nation of emigrants. Emigration has become massive over the past two decades, and the Peruvian populations of the United States, Japan, and Spain have tripled in less than a decade. A survey of households in five localities, three urban and two rural, in and around Lima helps to reveal the special character of this emigration. It tends to involve older and better-educated individuals than are typical of international migration and to target a wider variety of destinations. Moreover, it is a multiclass phenomenon. The economic, political, and social crisis brought about by a change in the economic model, two decades of terrorism, and a succession of failed democratic administrations has affected the society as a whole, and international migration seems to operate as an escape valve. PMID:20824948

  2. Compositional characterization of native Peruvian chili peppers (Capsicum spp.).

    PubMed

    Meckelmann, Sven W; Riegel, Dieter W; van Zonneveld, Maarten J; Ríos, Llermé; Peña, Karla; Ugas, Roberto; Quinonez, Lourdes; Mueller-Seitz, Erika; Petz, Michael

    2013-03-13

    The national Capsicum germplasm bank of Peru at INIA holds a unique collection of more than 700 Capsicum accessions, including many landraces. These conserved accessions have never been thoroughly characterized or evaluated. Another smaller collection exists at UNALM, and CIDRA provided taxonomically characterized fruits from the Amazon region of Ucayali. Of these collections, 147 accessions have been selected to represent the biodiversity of Peruvian Capsicum annuum , Capsicum baccatum , Capsicum chinense , and Capsicum frutescens by morphological traits as well as by agronomic characteristics and regional origin. All fruits from the selected accessions have been oven-dried and ground in Peru and analyzed in Germany. Results are reported for each accession by total capsaicinoids and capsaicinoid pattern, total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, specific flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, apigenin), fat content, vitamin C, surface color, and extractable color. A wide variability in phytochemical composition and concentration levels was found. PMID:23410113

  3. [Blood lead in the inhabitants of 4 Peruvian localities].

    PubMed

    Ramírez, A V; Paucar, J C; Medina, J M

    1997-05-01

    During 1994 and 1995, a cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the concentrations of lead in the blood of inhabitants of four Peruvian cities (Lima, Huancayo, La Oroya, and Yaupi) with different population densities and degrees of industrial development. In a random sample of 180 men and 180 women without occupational exposure to lead, blood lead levels were measured by the atomic absorption method with a Perkin Elmer 603 spectrophotometer without a graphite oven. The results revealed blood lead concentrations of 269 +/- 63 micrograms per liter (micrograms/L) in Lima, 224 +/- 47 micrograms/L in Huancayo; 348 +/- 40 micrograms/L in La Oroya, and 140 +/- 27 micrograms/L in Yaupi. It was concluded that blood lead levels in the inhabitants of these cities were related to the degree of industrialization and the population density of each locality. PMID:9377649

  4. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  5. Logging concessions enable illegal logging crisis in the Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N; Sky, Melissa A Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms. PMID:24743552

  6. [Cytotoxicity induced by Peruvian snake venom on fibroblasts of mice].

    PubMed

    Goñi, M; Vaisberg, A; Zavaleta, A

    1992-04-01

    The cytotoxic effect of venoms from six crotalinae Peruvian snakes (Bothrops atrox; B. brazili; B. pictus; B. barnetti; Lachesis m. muta y Crotalus durissus terrificus) was studied in an in vitro system of BALB/c 3T3 fibroblasts grown in Dulbecco modified minimal essential medium at 37 degrees C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2-95% air. The viability of the cells was evaluated 24 hours after the treatment with the different venoms, using the method of exclusion of trypan blue. The six venoms produced cytotoxic effects at 24 hours on the 3T3 fibroblasts. The venom from B. atrox was the most potent (DE50 = 162 ng/ml) and that from B. barnetti the least (DE50 = 7182 ng/ml). PMID:1297169

  7. Antileishmanial, antitrypanosomal, and cytotoxic screening of ethnopharmacologically selected Peruvian plants.

    PubMed

    González-Coloma, Azucena; Reina, Matías; Sáenz, Claudia; Lacret, Rodney; Ruiz-Mesia, Lastenia; Arán, Vicente J; Sanz, Jesús; Martínez-Díaz, Rafael A

    2012-04-01

    Extracts (34) from eight plant species of the Peruvian Amazonia currently used in traditional Peruvian medicine, mostly as antileishmanial remedies and also as painkiller, antiseptic, antipyretic, anti-inflamatory, antiflu, astringent, diuretic, antipoison, anticancerous, antiparasitic, insecticidal, or healing agents, have been tested for their antileishmanial, antitrypanosomal, and cytotoxic activity. Plant species were selected based on interviews conducted with residents of rural areas. The different plant parts were dried, powdered, and extracted by maceration with different solvents (hexane, chloroform, and 70% ethanol-water). These extracts were tested on promastigote forms of Leishmania infantum strain PB75, epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi strain Y, and the mammalian CHO cell line. Parasite viability and nonspecific cytotoxicity were analyzed by a modified MTT colorimetric assay method. The isolation and identification of pure compounds from selected extracts were performed by column chromatography, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS; mixtures), spectroscopic techniques [MS, infrared (IR), ultraviolet (UV)], and mono and two-dimensional (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR; COSY, HSQC, NOESY) experiments. Chondodendron tomentosum bark and Cedrela odorata were the most active extracts against Leishmania, while C. odorata and Aristoloquia pilosa were the most active against Trypanosoma, followed by Tabebuia serratifolia, Tradescantia zebrina, and Zamia ulei. Six compounds and two mixtures were isolated from Z. ulei [cycasin (1)], T. serratifolia {mixtures 1-2, and naphthoquinones 2-acetyl-4H,9H-naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione (2) and 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)-4H,9H-naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione (3)}, and C. tomentosum [chondrocurine (4); (S,S')-12-O-methyl(+)-curine (5); and cycleanine (6)]. Four compounds and the two mixtures exhibited significant activity. PMID:21922239

  8. Education and the community in the Peruvian educational reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malpica, Carlos

    1980-09-01

    The reform of Peruvian education initiated in 1972 was based on new concepts, postulated new policies and proposed to convert the old school system into a new educational system in accordance with the revolutionary process begun in 1968. The principles of permanent education, education in the community and the educating community inspired an ambitious educational model on a national scale, to organise community education nuclei (NECs) of a local dimension, in which a dynamic social education of a participatory and self-managerial character could be created. This process of nuclearisation, which has historical antecedents going back to the social, economic and political organisation of the Incan Empire, and was revived in the twentieth century by the creation of the famous Warisata School in Bolivia, has now undergone nine years of valuable experience in Peru, attempting to develop an efficient alternative to the old school model which originated before the Christian era. The community/education dialectic has suffered a profound change in Peru in the last ten years and the experience, whether of obstacles and limitations, appears to be valuable and irreversible. The non-statist, non-bureaucratic, non-party and non-private solution that was pursued by the Peruvian Revolution in the field of education is very attractive and could interest other countries of the region which, during the last 30 years have applied the nuclearisation model, as well as other countries in Latin America or other regions who have recently either initiated or considered it. This article presents the experience, relates it to its historical antecedents, gives some information on evaluation studies in progress and traces some perspectives or projections for educational nuclearisation.

  9. Developmental Effects Determine Submaximal Arterial Oxygen Saturation in Peruvian Quechua

    PubMed Central

    León-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera-Chira, María; Elías, Gianpietro; Brutsaert, Tom D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Kiyamu, Melisa, Fabiola León-Velarde, María Rivera-Chira, Gianpietro Elías, and Tom D. Brutsaert. Developmental effects determine submaximal arterial oxygen saturation in Peruvian Quechua. High Alt Med Biol 16, 138–146, 2015.—Andean high altitude natives show higher arterial oxygen saturation (Sao2) during exercise in hypoxia, compared to acclimatized sojourners. In order to evaluate the effects of life-long exposure to high altitude on Sao2, we studied two groups of well-matched, self-identified Peruvian Quechua natives who differed in their developmental exposure to hypoxia before and after a 2-month training period. Male and female volunteers (18–35 years) were recruited in Lima, Peru (150 m). The two groups were: a) Individuals who were born and raised at sea-level (BSL, n=34) and b) Individuals who were born and raised at high altitude (BHA, n=32), but who migrated to sea-level as adults (>16 years old). Exercise testing was conducted using a submaximal exercise protocol in normobaric hypoxia in Lima (BP=750 mmHg, Fio2=0.12), in order to measure Sao2 (%), ventilation (VE L/min) and oxygen consumption (Vo2, L/min). Repeated-measures ANOVA, controlling for VE/VO2 (L/min) and sex during the submaximal protocol showed that BHA maintained higher Sao2 (%) compared to BSL at all workloads before (p=0.005) and after training (p=0.017). As expected, both groups showed a decrease in Sao2 (%) (p<0.001), as workload increased. Resting Sao2 levels were not found to be different between groups. The results suggest that developmental exposure to altitude contributes to the maintenance of higher Sao2 levels during submaximal exercise at hypoxia. PMID:25977978

  10. Developmental Effects Determine Submaximal Arterial Oxygen Saturation in Peruvian Quechua.

    PubMed

    Kiyamu, Melisa; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera-Chira, María; Elías, Gianpietro; Brutsaert, Tom D

    2015-06-01

    Kiyamu, Melisa, Fabiola León-Velarde, María Rivera-Chira, Gianpietro Elías, and Tom D. Brutsaert. Developmental effects determine submaximal arterial oxygen saturation in Peruvian Quechua. High Alt Med Biol 16, 138-146, 2015.--Andean high altitude natives show higher arterial oxygen saturation (Sao(2)) during exercise in hypoxia, compared to acclimatized sojourners. In order to evaluate the effects of life-long exposure to high altitude on Sao(2), we studied two groups of well-matched, self-identified Peruvian Quechua natives who differed in their developmental exposure to hypoxia before and after a 2-month training period. Male and female volunteers (18-35 years) were recruited in Lima, Peru (150 m). The two groups were: a) Individuals who were born and raised at sea-level (BSL, n=34) and b) Individuals who were born and raised at high altitude (BHA, n=32), but who migrated to sea-level as adults (>16 years old). Exercise testing was conducted using a submaximal exercise protocol in normobaric hypoxia in Lima (BP=750 mmHg, Fio(2)=0.12), in order to measure Sao(2) (%), ventilation (VE L/min) and oxygen consumption (Vo(2), L/min). Repeated-measures ANOVA, controlling for VE/VO(2) (L/min) and sex during the submaximal protocol showed that BHA maintained higher Sao(2) (%) compared to BSL at all workloads before (p=0.005) and after training (p=0.017). As expected, both groups showed a decrease in Sao(2) (%) (p<0.001), as workload increased. Resting Sao(2) levels were not found to be different between groups. The results suggest that developmental exposure to altitude contributes to the maintenance of higher Sao(2) levels during submaximal exercise at hypoxia. PMID:25977978

  11. Emerging genetic patterns of the European Neolithic: perspectives from a late Neolithic Bell Beaker burial site in Germany.

    PubMed

    Lee, Esther J; Makarewicz, Cheryl; Renneberg, Rebecca; Harder, Melanie; Krause-Kyora, Ben; Müller, Stephanie; Ostritz, Sven; Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Schreiber, Stefan; Müller, Johannes; von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Nebel, Almut

    2012-08-01

    The transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture in Europe is associated with demographic changes that may have shifted the human gene pool of the region as a result of an influx of Neolithic farmers from the Near East. However, the genetic composition of populations after the earliest Neolithic, when a diverse mosaic of societies that had been fully engaged in agriculture for some time appeared in central Europe, is poorly known. At this period during the Late Neolithic (ca. 2,800-2,000 BC), regionally distinctive burial patterns associated with two different cultural groups emerge, Bell Beaker and Corded Ware, and may reflect differences in how these societies were organized. Ancient DNA analyses of human remains from the Late Neolithic Bell Beaker site of Kromsdorf, Germany showed distinct mitochondrial haplotypes for six individuals, which were classified under the haplogroups I1, K1, T1, U2, U5, and W5, and two males were identified as belonging to the Y haplogroup R1b. In contrast to other Late Neolithic societies in Europe emphasizing maintenance of biological relatedness in mortuary contexts, the diversity of maternal haplotypes evident at Kromsdorf suggests that burial practices of Bell Beaker communities operated outside of social norms based on shared maternal lineages. Furthermore, our data, along with those from previous studies, indicate that modern U5-lineages may have received little, if any, contribution from the Mesolithic or Neolithic mitochondrial gene pool. PMID:22552938

  12. Identification of kinship and occupant status in Mongolian noble burials of the Yuan Dynasty through a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yinqiu; Song, Li; Wei, Dong; Pang, Yuhong; Wang, Ning; Ning, Chao; Li, Chunmei; Feng, Binxiao; Tang, Wentao; Li, Hongjie; Ren, Yashan; Zhang, Chunchang; Huang, Yanyi; Hu, Yaowu; Zhou, Hui

    2015-01-19

    The Yuan Dynasty (AD 1271-1368) was the first dynasty in Chinese history where a minority ethnic group (Mongols) ruled. Few cemeteries containing Mongolian nobles have been found owing to their tradition of keeping burial grounds secret and their lack of historical records. Archaeological excavations at the Shuzhuanglou site in the Hebei province of China led to the discovery of 13 skeletons in six separate tombs. The style of the artefacts and burials indicate the cemetery occupants were Mongol nobles. However, the origin, relationships and status of the chief occupant (M1m) are unclear. To shed light on the identity of the principal occupant and resolve the kin relationships between individuals, a multidisciplinary approach was adopted, combining archaeological information, stable isotope data and molecular genetic data. Analysis of autosomal, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA show that some of the occupants were related. The available evidence strongly suggests that the principal occupant may have been the Mongol noble Korguz. Our study demonstrates the power of a multidisciplinary approach in elucidating information about the inhabitants of ancient historical sites. PMID:25487330

  13. Identification of kinship and occupant status in Mongolian noble burials of the Yuan Dynasty through a multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yinqiu; Song, Li; Wei, Dong; Pang, Yuhong; Wang, Ning; Ning, Chao; Li, Chunmei; Feng, Binxiao; Tang, Wentao; Li, Hongjie; Ren, Yashan; Zhang, Chunchang; Huang, Yanyi; Hu, Yaowu; Zhou, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The Yuan Dynasty (AD 1271–1368) was the first dynasty in Chinese history where a minority ethnic group (Mongols) ruled. Few cemeteries containing Mongolian nobles have been found owing to their tradition of keeping burial grounds secret and their lack of historical records. Archaeological excavations at the Shuzhuanglou site in the Hebei province of China led to the discovery of 13 skeletons in six separate tombs. The style of the artefacts and burials indicate the cemetery occupants were Mongol nobles. However, the origin, relationships and status of the chief occupant (M1m) are unclear. To shed light on the identity of the principal occupant and resolve the kin relationships between individuals, a multidisciplinary approach was adopted, combining archaeological information, stable isotope data and molecular genetic data. Analysis of autosomal, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA show that some of the occupants were related. The available evidence strongly suggests that the principal occupant may have been the Mongol noble Korguz. Our study demonstrates the power of a multidisciplinary approach in elucidating information about the inhabitants of ancient historical sites. PMID:25487330

  14. Lead in Ancient Peru: the Curamba Smelter and Lead Sling Bullets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, William E.; Parodi, Luisa Vetter; Farfán, Armando V.; Dykstra, David

    2012-11-01

    Since the 16th century, the Inca site of Curamba, in southern Peru, has been interpreted as a metallurgical center for processing silver ore. Yet, aside from the many shallow pits, interpreted as hornos for smelting silver, there was no physical evidence for the use of huayras or tocochimbos, which were the structures traditionally used for precontact silver smelting in the ancient Andes. Geochemical analyses (inductively coupled plasma) of scoria excavated from the hornos at Curamba indicate low Ag (<0.3 ppm to 0.4 ppm), Au (<2 ppm), and Cu (18 ppm to 31 ppm) contents, whereas Pb (155 ppm to 234 ppm) and Zn (125 ppm to 259 ppm) contents were high. This suggests that nonargentiferous galena (PbS) was smelted to obtain lead. A lead-zinc signature is also indicated by the presence of As, Ba, Fe, Mn, and V, yet no ore minerals such as PbS or sphalerite [(Zn,Fe)S] have been found at the site. Several precontact lead artifacts from ancient Peru have been described as bars ( lingotes) or weights ( pesos). However, alternatively, these artifacts might be more accurately described as: (a) biconic to ovoid (30 mm to 60 mm, 30 g to 40 g) or (b) spherical (35 mm, 80 g to 160 g); therefore, in composition, dimensions, form, and weight, these ancient Peruvian lead artifacts from the north coast are strikingly similar to ancient Roman and Celtic lead sling ammunition from first-century BC battle sites, and are herein interpreted to have served a similar function in ancient Andean warfare.

  15. Large increases in carbon burial in northern lakes during the Anthropocene

    PubMed Central

    Heathcote, Adam J.; Anderson, N. John; Prairie, Yves T.; Engstrom, Daniel R.; del Giorgio, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Northern forests are important ecosystems for carbon (C) cycling and lakes within them process and bury large amounts of organic-C. Current burial estimates are poorly constrained and may discount other shifts in organic-C burial driven by global change. Here we analyse a suite of northern lakes to determine trends in organic-C burial throughout the Anthropocene. We found burial rates increased significantly over the last century and are up to five times greater than previous estimates. Despite a correlation with temperature, warming alone did not explain the increase in burial, suggesting the importance of other drivers including atmospherically deposited reactive nitrogen. Upscaling mean lake burial rates for each time period to global northern forests yields up to 4.5 Pg C accumulated in the last 100 years—20% of the total burial over the Holocene. Our results indicate that lakes will become increasingly important for C burial under future global change scenarios. PMID:26607672

  16. Large increases in carbon burial in northern lakes during the Anthropocene.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, Adam J; Anderson, N John; Prairie, Yves T; Engstrom, Daniel R; del Giorgio, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Northern forests are important ecosystems for carbon (C) cycling and lakes within them process and bury large amounts of organic-C. Current burial estimates are poorly constrained and may discount other shifts in organic-C burial driven by global change. Here we analyse a suite of northern lakes to determine trends in organic-C burial throughout the Anthropocene. We found burial rates increased significantly over the last century and are up to five times greater than previous estimates. Despite a correlation with temperature, warming alone did not explain the increase in burial, suggesting the importance of other drivers including atmospherically deposited reactive nitrogen. Upscaling mean lake burial rates for each time period to global northern forests yields up to 4.5 Pg C accumulated in the last 100 years--20% of the total burial over the Holocene. Our results indicate that lakes will become increasingly important for C burial under future global change scenarios. PMID:26607672

  17. Large increases in carbon burial in northern lakes during the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heathcote, Adam J.; Anderson, N. John; Prairie, Yves T.; Engstrom, Daniel R.; Del Giorgio, Paul A.

    2015-11-01

    Northern forests are important ecosystems for carbon (C) cycling and lakes within them process and bury large amounts of organic-C. Current burial estimates are poorly constrained and may discount other shifts in organic-C burial driven by global change. Here we analyse a suite of northern lakes to determine trends in organic-C burial throughout the Anthropocene. We found burial rates increased significantly over the last century and are up to five times greater than previous estimates. Despite a correlation with temperature, warming alone did not explain the increase in burial, suggesting the importance of other drivers including atmospherically deposited reactive nitrogen. Upscaling mean lake burial rates for each time period to global northern forests yields up to 4.5 Pg C accumulated in the last 100 years--20% of the total burial over the Holocene. Our results indicate that lakes will become increasingly important for C burial under future global change scenarios.

  18. 38 CFR 3.1704 - Burial allowance based on service-connected death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... under § 3.1709, Transportation expenses for burial in a national cemetery; and (2) VA may pay the plot or interment allowance for burial in a State veterans cemetery under § 3.1707(a), Plot or...

  19. Organic carbon burial efficiency in a large tropical hydroelectric reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, R.; Kosten, S.; Sobek, S.; Cardoso, S. J.; Figueiredo-Barros, M. P.; Estrada, C. H. D.; Roland, F.

    2015-11-01

    Hydroelectric reservoirs bury significant amounts of organic carbon (OC) in their sediments. Many reservoirs are characterized by high sedimentation rates, low oxygen concentrations in bottom water, and a high share of terrestrially derived OC, and all of these factors have been linked to a high efficiency of OC burial. However, investigations of OC burial efficiency (OCBE, i.e. the ratio between OC buried and deposited) in reservoirs is limited to a few studies, none of which include spatially resolved analyses. In this study we determined the spatial variation in OCBE in a large tropical reservoir and related it to sediment characteristics. Our results show that the sediment accumulation rate explains up to 92 % of the spatial variability in OCBE, outweighing the effect of other variables, such as OC source and oxygen exposure time. OCBE at the pelagic sites varied from 48 to 86 % (mean 67 %) and decreased towards the dam. At the margins, OCBE was lower (9 to 17 %) due to the low sediment accumulation in shallow areas. Our data show that the variability in OCBE both along the rivers-dam and the margin-pelagic axes must be considered in whole-reservoir assessments. Combining these results with a spatially resolved assessment of sediment accumulation and OC burial in the studied reservoir, we estimated a whole-basin OC burial efficiency of 57 %. Being the first whole-basin assessment of OCBE in a reservoir, these results suggest that reservoirs may bury OC more efficiently than natural lakes.

  20. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    H. M. Sulloway

    2008-10-02

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground located in the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit of the 100-F Area on the Hanford Site. The trenches received waste from the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm, including animal manure, animal carcasses, laboratory waste, plastic, cardboard, metal, and concrete debris as well as a railroad tank car.

  1. Organic carbon burial efficiency in a subtropical hydroelectric reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, Raquel; Kosten, Sarian; Sobek, Sebastian; Jaqueline Cardoso, Simone; Figueiredo-Barros, Marcos Paulo; Henrique Duque Estrada, Carlos; Roland, Fábio

    2016-06-01

    Hydroelectric reservoirs bury significant amounts of organic carbon (OC) in their sediments. Many reservoirs are characterized by high sedimentation rates, low oxygen concentrations in bottom water and a high share of terrestrially derived OC, and all of these factors have been linked to a high efficiency of OC burial. However, investigations of OC burial efficiency (OCBE, i.e., the ratio between buried and deposited OC) in reservoirs are limited to a few studies, none of which include spatially resolved analyses. In this study we determined the spatial variation in OCBE in a large subtropical reservoir and related it to sediment characteristics. Our results show that the sediment accumulation rate explains up to 92 % of the spatial variability in OCBE, outweighing the effect of other variables, such as OC source and oxygen exposure time. OCBE at the pelagic sites varied from 48 to 86 % (mean 67 %) and decreased towards the dam. At the margins, OCBE was lower (9-17 %) due to the low sediment accumulation in shallow areas. Our data show that the variability in OCBE both along the rivers-dam and the margin-pelagic axes must be considered in whole-reservoir assessments. Combining these results with a spatially resolved assessment of sediment accumulation and OC burial in the studied reservoir, we estimated a spatially resolved mean OC burial efficiency of 57 %. Being the first assessment of OCBE with such a high spatial resolution in a reservoir, these results suggest that reservoirs may bury OC more efficiently than natural lakes.

  2. 40 CFR 229.1 - Burial at sea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burial at sea. 229.1 Section 229.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING GENERAL PERMITS § 229.1... materials which are readily de-com-pos-a-ble in the marine environment may be disposed of under the...

  3. Astronomy in the Ancient Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonia, Irakli; Jijelava, Badri

    This chapter discusses the role of recurrent heavenly phenomena in the formation of ancient cultural traditions. Artifacts bearing witness to astronomical and calendrical practices in the ancient Caucasus are described and we analyze the significance of the "boats of the sun" petroglyphs at Gobustan in Azerbaijan, the solar station at Abuli in Georgia, and the "sky dial" at Carahunge in Armenia. Similarities and differences between the ancient cultures of the region are discussed. Finally, we present the results of the latest field research and new facts and hypotheses.

  4. Burying Dogs in Ancient Cis-Baikal, Siberia: Temporal Trends and Relationships with Human Diet and Subsistence Practices

    PubMed Central

    Losey, Robert J.; Garvie-Lok, Sandra; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Katzenberg, M. Anne; Germonpré, Mietje; Nomokonova, Tatiana; Sablin, Mikhail V.; Goriunova, Olga I.; Berdnikova, Natalia E.; Savel’ev, Nikolai A.

    2013-01-01

    The first objective of this study is to examine temporal patterns in ancient dog burials in the Lake Baikal region of Eastern Siberia. The second objective is to determine if the practice of dog burial here can be correlated with patterns in human subsistence practices, in particular a reliance on terrestrial mammals. Direct radiocarbon dating of a suite of the region’s dog remains indicates that these animals were given burial only during periods in which human burials were common. Dog burials of any kind were most common during the Early Neolithic (∼7–8000 B.P.), and rare during all other time periods. Further, only foraging groups seem to have buried canids in this region, as pastoralist habitation sites and cemeteries generally lack dog interments, with the exception of sacrificed animals. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data indicate that dogs were only buried where and when human diets were relatively rich in aquatic foods, which here most likely included river and lake fish and Baikal seal (Phoca sibirica). Generally, human and dog diets appear to have been similar across the study subregions, and this is important for interpreting their radiocarbon dates, and comparing them to those obtained on the region’s human remains, both of which likely carry a freshwater old carbon bias. Slight offsets were observed in the isotope values of dogs and humans in our samples, particularly where both have diets rich in aquatic fauna. This may result from dietary differences between people and their dogs, perhaps due to consuming fish of different sizes, or even different tissues from the same aquatic fauna. This paper also provides a first glimpse of the DNA of ancient canids in Northeast Asia. PMID:23696851

  5. Widespread mixing and burial of Earth's Hadean crust by asteroid impacts.

    PubMed

    Marchi, S; Bottke, W F; Elkins-Tanton, L T; Bierhaus, M; Wuennemann, K; Morbidelli, A; Kring, D A

    2014-07-31

    The history of the Hadean Earth (∼4.0-4.5 billion years ago) is poorly understood because few known rocks are older than ∼3.8 billion years old. The main constraints from this era come from ancient submillimetre zircon grains. Some of these zircons date back to ∼4.4 billion years ago when the Moon, and presumably the Earth, was being pummelled by an enormous flux of extraterrestrial bodies. The magnitude and exact timing of these early terrestrial impacts, and their effects on crustal growth and evolution, are unknown. Here we provide a new bombardment model of the Hadean Earth that has been calibrated using existing lunar and terrestrial data. We find that the surface of the Hadean Earth was widely reprocessed by impacts through mixing and burial by impact-generated melt. This model may explain the age distribution of Hadean zircons and the absence of early terrestrial rocks. Existing oceans would have repeatedly boiled away into steam atmospheres as a result of large collisions as late as about 4 billion years ago. PMID:25079556

  6. Molecular genetic analysis of 400-year-old human remains found in two Yakut burial sites.

    PubMed

    Ricaut, François-Xavier; Kolodesnikov, Sergei; Keyser-Tracqui, Christine; Alekseev, Anatoly Nikoyevich; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2006-01-01

    The excavation of five frozen graves at the Sytygane Syhe and Istekh-Myrane burial sites (dated at 400 years old) in central Yakutia revealed five human skeletons belonging to the Yakut population. To investigate the origin and evolution of the Yakut population as well as the kinship system between individuals buried in these two sites, DNA was extracted from bone samples and analyzed by autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) and by sequencing hypervariable region I (HV1) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region. The results showed a diversity of sepulchral organizations linked probably to the social or genetic background of the subjects. Comparison of STR profiles, mitochondrial haplotypes, and haplogroups with data from Eurasian populations indicated affinities with Asian populations and suggested a relative specificity and continuity of part of the Yakut mitochondrial gene pool during the last five centuries. Moreover, our results did not support a Central Asian (with the exception of maternal lineage of West Eurasian origin) or Siberian origin of the maternal lineages of these ancient Yakut subjects, implying an ethnogenesis of the Yakut population probably more complex than previously proposed. PMID:16229028

  7. 76 FR 61148 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for United States Flag for Burial Purposes) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for United States Flag for Burial Purposes) Activity... comments on the information needed to determine eligibility for issuance of a burial flag for a deceased... information technology. Title: Application for United States Flag for Burial Purposes, VA Form 21-2008....

  8. 38 CFR 3.1600 - Payment of burial expenses of deceased veterans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Payment of burial expenses of deceased veterans. 3.1600 Section 3.1600 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits § 3.1600 Payment of burial expenses of deceased veterans....

  9. Ancient Astronomy in Ukraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemenko, Tatyana G.; Vavilova, Iryna B.

    2007-08-01

    Astronomical culture and research have long-standing traditions in Ukraine. The first signs of astronomical knowledge were found in archaeological excavations and records. The most ancient find (dated as 15,000 B.C.) is a mammoth tusk with a fretwork image of a table of lunar phases found in the Poltava region. The so-called Trypillya culture (dated 4,000 - 3,000 B.C) had numerous examples of ornaments at the howls, distaffs, wheels and other everyday articles with symbolic images of zodiac constellations, and vessel-calendars indicating the vernal/autumnal equinoxes and the motion of the Sun. Some of such unique exhibits stored at the National Museum of History of Ukraine will be described in details in this paper. For example, the vessel calendar dating by IV century of our era (from village Romashki, Kyiv region). This image was interpreted by B. Rybakov as an agricultural calendar from May to August (time of harvesting). Most of exhibits of Museum were founded by archaeologist Vikenty Khvoyko and presented by him to Museum in 1905. Description and pictures of vessels and cups from Chernyahiv, Trypillya IV century B.C. with the Solar signs and tusk of the mammoth from Kyrilovska parking with notches interpreted as a calendar as well as tree-storied pictures of vessel from Trypillya interpreted as a “vertical cross section of the world” in dynamics will be also given. Another unique historical record relates to the times of the powerful state of the Kievan Rus' (X- XIII centuries), when astronomical observations were conducted mainly in cloisters. For example, the authors of the Lavrentievska chronicle describe the solar eclipses of the years 1064, 1091, and 1115 A.D. and the lunar eclipses of 1161 A.D. At that times some natural cataclysms have been connected with eclipses that, for example, was described in “The Word about Igor's shelf” by Nestor Letopisec. Thus, facts discussed in paper pointed out once more that astronomy is one of the most ancient

  10. [Ancient Egyptian Odontology].

    PubMed

    Berghult, B

    1999-01-01

    In ancient Egypt during the reign of Pharaoh Djoser, circa 2650 BC, the Step Pyramid was constructed by Imhotep. He was later worshiped as the God of Medicine. One of his contemporaries was the powerful writer Hesy who is reproduced on a panel showing a rebus of a swallow, a tusk and an arrow. He is therefore looked upon as being the first depicted odontologist. The art of writing begun in Egypt in about 3100 BC and the medical texts we know from different papyri were copied with hieratic signs around 1900-1100 BC. One of the most famous is the Papyrus Ebers. It was purchased by professor Ebers on a research travel to Luxor in 1873. Two years later a beautiful facsimile in color was published and the best translation came in 1958 in German. The text includes 870 remedies and some of them are related to teeth and oral troubles like pain in the mouth, gingivitis, periodontitis and cavities in the teeth. The most common oral pain was probably pulpitis caused by extreme attrition due to the high consumption of bread contaminated with soil and/or quern minerals. Another text is the Papyrus Edwin Smith with four surgical cases of dental interest. The "toothworms" that were presumed to bring about decayed teeth have not been identified in the medical texts. It was not until 1889 W.D. Miller presented a scientific explanation that cavities were caused by bacteria. In spite of extensive research only a few evidence of prosthetic and invasive treatments have been found and these dental artifacts have probably been made post mortem. Some of the 150 identified doctors were associated with treatments of disorders of the mouth. The stele of Seneb from Sa'is during the 26th dynasty of Psamtik, 664-525 BC, shows a young man who probably was a dental healer well known to Pharaoh and his court. Clement of Alexandria mentions circa 200 AD that the written knowledge of the old Egyptians was gathered in 42 collections of papyri. Number 37-42 contained the medical writings. The

  11. Finding ancient parasite larvae in a sample from a male living in late 17th century Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, D H; Chai, J Y; Park, E A; Lee, W; Lee, H; Lee, J S; Choi, Y M; Koh, B J; Park, J B; Oh, C S; Bok, G D; Kim, W L; Lee, E; Lee, E J; Seo, M

    2009-06-01

    Parasitological examination of samples from tombs of the Korean Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) could be helpful to researchers in understanding parasitic infection prevalence in pre-industrial Korean society. Whereas most of our previous parasitological studies revealed the presence of ancient parasite eggs in coprolites of Korean mummies, a sample from a man living in late 17th century Korea proved to be relatively unique in possessing what appeared to be several species of parasite larvae. The larvae identified included Strongyloides stercoralis and Trichostrongylus spp., along with eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Paragonimus westermani. Since ancient parasite larvae retain enough morphology to make proper species identification possible, even after long burial times, the examination of parasite larvae within ancient samples will be conducted more carefully in our future work. PMID:19071966

  12. Hunting for Ancient Rocky Shores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Markes E.

    1988-01-01

    Promotes the study of ancient rocky shores by showing how they can be recognized and what directions future research may follow. A bibliography of previous research articles, arranged by geologic period, is provided in the appendix to this paper. (CW)

  13. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonia, I.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  14. Ancient Astronomical Monuments of Athens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.

    2010-07-01

    In this work, four ancient monuments of astronomical significance found in Athens and still kept in the same city in good condition are presented. The first one is the conical sundial on the southern slope of the Acropolis. The second one is the Tower of the Winds and its vertical sundials in the Roman Forum of Athens, a small octagonal marble tower with sundials on all 8 of its sides, plus a water-clock inside the tower. The third monument-instrument is the ancient clepsydra of Athens, one of the findings from the Ancient Agora of Athens, a unique water-clock dated from 400 B.C. Finally, the fourth one is the carved ancient Athenian calendar over the main entrance of the small Byzantine temple of the 8th Century, St. Eleftherios, located to the south of the temple of the Annunciation of Virgin Mary, the modern Cathedral of the city of Athens.

  15. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum): (I) Phytochemical and Genetic Differences in Three Maca Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, Henry O.; Mscisz, Alina; Mrozikiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Baraniak, Marek; Mielcarek, Sebastian; Kedzia, Bogdan; Piatkowska, Ewa; Jólkowska, Justyna; Pisulewski, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates were previously reported as physiologically-important constituents present in Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon) and linked to various therapeutic functions of differently-colored Peruvian Maca hypocotyls. In two separate Trials, three colours of Maca hypocotyls “Black”, “Red” and “Yellow” (termed “Maca phenotypes”), were selected from mixed crops of Peruvian Maca for laboratory studies as fresh and after being dried. Individual Maca phenotypes were cultivated in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes at 4,200m a.s.l. (Junin and Ninacaca). Glucosinolate levels, chromatographic HPLC profiles and DNA variability in the investigated Maca phenotypes are presented. Genotypic profiles were determined by the ISSR-PCR and RAPD techniques. Compared to the Black and Red phenotypes, the Yellow phenotype contained much lower Glucosinolate levels measured against Glucotropaeolin and m-methoxy-glucotropaeolin standards, and exhibited different RAPD and ISSR-PCR reactions. The Red Maca phenotype showed the highest concentrations of Glucosinolates as compared to the Black and Yellow Maca. It appears that the traditional system used by natives of the Peruvian Andean highlands in preparing Maca as a vegetable dish (boiling dried Maca after soaking in water), to supplement their daily meals, is as effective as laboratory methods - for extracting Glucosinolates, which are considered to be one of the key bioactive constituents responsible for therapeutic functions of Peruvian Maca phenotypes. It is reasonable to assume that the HPLC and DNA techniques combined, or separately, may assist in determining ID and “Fingerprints” identifying individual Peruvian Maca phenotypes, hence confirming the authenticity of marketable Maca products. The above assumptions warrant further laboratory testing. PMID:26508907

  16. Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum): (I) Phytochemical and Genetic Differences in Three Maca Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Henry O; Mscisz, Alina; Mrozikiewicz, Mieczyslaw; Baraniak, Marek; Mielcarek, Sebastian; Kedzia, Bogdan; Piatkowska, Ewa; Jólkowska, Justyna; Pisulewski, Pawel

    2015-09-01

    Glucosinolates were previously reported as physiologically-important constituents present in Peruvian Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon) and linked to various therapeutic functions of differently-colored Peruvian Maca hypocotyls. In two separate Trials, three colours of Maca hypocotyls "Black", "Red" and "Yellow" (termed "Maca phenotypes"), were selected from mixed crops of Peruvian Maca for laboratory studies as fresh and after being dried. Individual Maca phenotypes were cultivated in the highlands of the Peruvian Andes at 4,200m a.s.l. (Junin and Ninacaca). Glucosinolate levels, chromatographic HPLC profiles and DNA variability in the investigated Maca phenotypes are presented. Genotypic profiles were determined by the ISSR-PCR and RAPD techniques. Compared to the Black and Red phenotypes, the Yellow phenotype contained much lower Glucosinolate levels measured against Glucotropaeolin and m-methoxy-glucotropaeolin standards, and exhibited different RAPD and ISSR-PCR reactions. The Red Maca phenotype showed the highest concentrations of Glucosinolates as compared to the Black and Yellow Maca. It appears that the traditional system used by natives of the Peruvian Andean highlands in preparing Maca as a vegetable dish (boiling dried Maca after soaking in water), to supplement their daily meals, is as effective as laboratory methods - for extracting Glucosinolates, which are considered to be one of the key bioactive constituents responsible for therapeutic functions of Peruvian Maca phenotypes. It is reasonable to assume that the HPLC and DNA techniques combined, or separately, may assist in determining ID and "Fingerprints" identifying individual Peruvian Maca phenotypes, hence confirming the authenticity of marketable Maca products. The above assumptions warrant further laboratory testing. PMID:26508907

  17. Ancient lakes on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldspiel, J. M.; Squyres, S. W.

    1989-01-01

    The valley systems in Mars' ancient cratered terrain provide strong evidence for a warmer and wetter climate very early in planetary history. The valley systems in some instances debouch into closed depressions that could have acted as local ponding basins for the flow. A survey of the Martian equatorial region shows that numerous local depressions at the confluence of valley systems exist. These depressions (approximately 100 km) typically are characterized by many valleys flowing into them and few or none flowing out. If ponding did take place, these basin would have contained lakes for some period during Mars' early warmer epoch. Although the collection basins are numerous, location of ones that have not suffered significant subsequent geologic modification is difficult. Some morphologic features suggest that volcanic lavas may have filled them subsequent to any early fluvial activity. Two detailed maps of valley systems and local ponding basins in USGC 1:2,000,000 subquadrangles were completed and a third is in progress. The completed regions are in Mare Tyrrhenum (MC-22 SW) and Margarifter Sinus (MC-19 SE), and the region in progress is in Iapygia (MC-21 NW). On the maps, the valley systems and interpreted margins of ponding basins are indicated. The depressions are of interest for two reasons. First, the depressions were surely the sites in which the materials eroded from the valleys were deposited. Such sediments could preserve important information about the physical conditions at the time of deposition. Second, the sediments could preserve evidence of water-atmosphere interactions during the early period of the Martian climate. Atmospheric carbon dioxide would dissolve in water, and solid carbonate minerals would tend to precipitate out to form carbonate sedimentary deposits. Formation of carbonates in this manner might account for some of the CO2 lost from the early more dense atmosphere.

  18. Molecular characterization of an earliest cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) collection from Peruvian Amazon using microsatllite DNA markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is indigenous to the Amazon region of South America. The Peruvian Amazon harbors a large number of diverse cacao populations. Since the 1930s, several numbers of populations have been collected from the Peruvian Amazon and maintained as ex situ germplasm repositories in ...

  19. Two contemporaneous mitogenomes from terminal Pleistocene burials in eastern Beringia

    PubMed Central

    Tackney, Justin C.; Potter, Ben A.; Raff, Jennifer; Powers, Michael; Watkins, W. Scott; Warner, Derek; Reuther, Joshua D.; Irish, Joel D.; O’Rourke, Dennis H.

    2015-01-01

    Pleistocene residential sites with multiple contemporaneous human burials are extremely rare in the Americas. We report mitochondrial genomic variation in the first multiple mitochondrial genomes from a single prehistoric population: two infant burials (USR1 and USR2) from a common interment at the Upward Sun River Site in central Alaska dating to ∼11,500 cal B.P. Using a targeted capture method and next-generation sequencing, we determined that the USR1 infant possessed variants that define mitochondrial lineage C1b, whereas the USR2 genome falls at the root of lineage B2, allowing us to refine younger coalescence age estimates for these two clades. C1b and B2 are rare to absent in modern populations of northern North America. Documentation of these lineages at this location in the Late Pleistocene provides evidence for the extent of mitochondrial diversity in early Beringian populations, which supports the expectations of the Beringian Standstill Model. PMID:26504230

  20. Evaluation of local structure alphabets based on residue burial.

    PubMed

    Karchin, Rachel; Cline, Melissa; Karplus, Kevin

    2004-05-15

    Residue burial, which describes a protein residue's exposure to solvent and neighboring atoms, is key to protein structure prediction, modeling, and analysis. We assessed 21 alphabets representing residue burial, according to their predictability from amino acid sequence, conservation in structural alignments, and utility in one fold-recognition scenario. This follows upon our previous work in assessing nine representations of backbone geometry.1 The alphabet found to be most effective overall has seven states and is based on a count of C(beta) atoms within a 14 A-radius sphere centered at the C(beta) of a residue of interest. When incorporated into a hidden Markov model (HMM), this alphabet gave us a 38% performance boost in fold recognition and 23% in alignment quality. PMID:15103615

  1. Preliminary report on a glass burial experiment in granite

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.E.; Zhu, B.F.; Robinson, R.S.; Wicks, G.G.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary results of a two-year burial experiment in granite are discussed. Three compositions of simulated alkali borosilicate waste glasses were placed in boreholes approximately 350 meters deep. The glass sample configurations include mini-cans (stainless steel rings into which glass has been cast) and pineapple slices (thin sections from cylindrical blocks). Assemblies of these glass samples were prepared by stacking them together with granite, compacted bentonite and metal rings to provide several types of interfaces that are expected to occur in the repository. The assemblies were maintained at either ambient mine temperature (8 to 10/sup 0/C) or 90/sup 0/C. The glasses were analyzed before burial and after one month storage at 90/sup 0/C. The most extensive surface degradation occurred on the glasses interfaced with bentonite. In general, very little attack was observed on glass surfaces in contact with the other materials. The limited field and laboratory data are compared.

  2. Enhanced Site Characterization of the 618-4 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Christopher J.; Last, George V.; Chien, Yi-Ju

    2001-09-25

    This report describes the results obtained from deployment of the Enhanced Site Characterization System (ESCS) at the Hanford Site's 618-4 Burial Ground. The objective of this deployment was to use advanced geostatistical methods to integrate and interpret geophysical and ground truth data, to map the physical types of waste materials present in unexcavated portions of the burial ground. One issue of particularly interest was the number of drums (containing depleted uranium metal shavings or uranium-oxide powder) remaining in the burial ground and still requiring removal.Fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (ART), a neural network classification method, was used to cluster the study area into 3 classes based on their geophysical signatures. Multivariate statistical analyses and discriminant function analysis (DFA) indicated that the drum area as well as a second area (the SW anomaly) had similar geophysical signatures that were different from the rest of the burial ground. Further analysis of the drum area suggested that as many as 770 drums to 850 drums may remain in that area. Similarities between the geophysical signatures of the drum area and the SW anomaly suggested that excavation of the SW anomaly area also proceed with caution.Deployment of the ESCS technology was successful in integrating multiple geophysical variables and grouping these observations into clusters that are relevant for planning further excavation of the buried ground. However, the success of the technology could not be fully evaluated because reliable ground truth data were not available to enable calibration of the different geophysical signatures against actual waste types.

  3. Solid Waste Burial Grounds/Central Waste Complex hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-09-30

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for Solid Waste Burial Grounds/Central Waste Complex on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is documented.

  4. Self-burial mechanics of hygroscopically responsive awns.

    PubMed

    Jung, Wonjong; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young

    2014-12-01

    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the mechanics of self-burial of some plant seeds whose morphologies respond to environmental changes in humidity. The seeds of Erodium and Pelargonium have hygroscopically responsive awns that play a critical role in their self-burial into soil. The awn, coiled in a dry state, uncoils to stretch linearly under highly humid condition because of a tilted arrangement of cellulose microfibrils in one of the layers of the awn's bilayered structure. By measuring the mechanical characteristics of the awns of Pelargonium carnosum, we find that the extensional force of the awn can be aptly modeled by the theory of elasticity for a coiled spring. We further show that although the resistance to the seed-head penetrating relatively coarse soils without spinning is large enough to block the digging seed, the rotation of the seed greatly reduces the soil's resistance down to a level the awn can easily overcome. Our mechanical analysis reveals that the self-burial of the seed is a sophisticated outcome of the helically coiled configuration of the awn. PMID:24760793

  5. Self-burial mechanics of hygroscopically active awns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Wonjong; Kim, Wonjung; Kim, Ho-Young

    2013-11-01

    We present the results of a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the mechanics of self-burial of some plant seeds whose morphologies respond to humidity change of the surroundings. The seeds of Pelargonium species have hygroscopically active awns that play a critical role in the dispersal from the parent plant and burial in soil. While the awn uncoils to a linear shape in a highly humid condition, it recoils to a helical shape when dry. The rotation is driven by the structure of the cell walls that are comprised of cellulose microfibers aligned in a tilted helix. During uncoiling of the awn, the revolving tail generates thrust to burrow into soil, so that the seed is self-buried. We present the direct observation of the self-burial of the seed with the thrust into a soft substrate being measured at the same time. The elastica theory allows us to rationalize this botanical digging mechanics using the structural deformations of the hygroexpansive tissues. This work was supported by the Sogang University Research Grant of 2013 (201310009.01) and the National Research Foundation of Korea (grant no. 2012-008023).

  6. Ground resistance influences lizard burial in dry and wet sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Sarah; Kuckuk, Robyn; Goldman, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Many terrestrial animals move within soil in which water content can vary, and little is known about how water content affects locomotor performance. To investigate the effect of water content on burial, we created controlled dry and wet substrates. We used 0.3 mm glass particles and varied water content W, the mass of water to mass of dry loosely packed sand. Drag force on a submerged 1.6 cm diameter rod increased by a factor of 4 as W increased from 0 to 0.03, after which force increases were small. Drag force in wet media periodically fluctuated with time and corresponded with surface fracturing. We characterized how W affected burial performance and strategy of a generalist burrower, the ocellated skink lizard (Chalcides ocellatus). High speed x-ray imaging was used to measure head, body and limb kinematics in substrates with W= 0 and W= 0.03. In both states during burial the body was maintained in a curved posture and the animal moved using a start-stop motion. During movement, the head oscillated and the forelimb on the convex side of the body was used to push the animal forward. Both speed and angular excursion of the head oscillation decreased in the W= 0.03 state. The differences in locomotion were attributed to the changing resistance force within the media.

  7. Plant Sensitivity to Burial and Coastal Foredune Morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, E. B.; Moore, L. J.; deVries, E.; Jass, T. L.; Duran Vinent, O.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal dunes arise from a feedback between plant growth and aeolian sediment transport. Dune plants are uniquely adapted to the harsh coastal environment, and are able to tolerate high temperature, drought, salt spray, and burial by sand. Accurate modeling of coastal dunes relies on understanding how coastal plants respond to these stresses, and how the dune building feedback is modified as a result. We use two years of data from an experimental planting on Hog Island, VA, USA to parameterize a logistic growth model that explicitly includes the effects of plant burial on three species of common dune plants on the US East Coast: Spartina patens, Ammophila breviligulata, and Uniola paniculata. We couple this new plant growth model to the Coastal Dune Model of Durán and Moore (2013). Using this enhanced model we explore the consequences of plant sensitivity to burial on coastal dune growth. These results will add to the growing literature on coupled vegetation and sand transport models, specifically the modeling of coastal dunes.

  8. Undulation frequency affects burial performance in living and model flatfishes.

    PubMed

    McKee, Amberle; MacDonald, Ian; Farina, Stacy C; Summers, Adam P

    2016-04-01

    Flatfishes bury themselves under a thin layer of sand to hide from predators or to ambush prey. We investigated the role of undulation frequency of the body in burial in five species of flatfishes (Isopsetta isolepis, Lepidopsetta bilineata, Hippoglossoides elassodon, Parophrys vetulus, and Psettichthys melanostictus). High-speed videos show that undulations begin cranially and pass caudally while burying, as in forward swimming in many other fishes. The flatfishes also flick the posterior edge of their dorsal and anal fins during burial, which may increase the total surface area covered by substrate. We built a simple physical model - a flexible, oval silicone plate with a motorized, variable-speed actuator - to isolate the effect of undulation frequency on burial. In both the model and actuated dead flatfish, increased undulation frequency resulted in an increase in the area of sand coverage. Complete coverage required an undulation frequency of no more than 10Hz for our models, and that was also sufficient for live flatfishes. The model shows that undulation is sufficient to bury the animal, but live flatfishes showed a superior ability to bury, which we attribute to the action of the median fins. PMID:26763759

  9. Model Results For The 23 June, 2001 Peruvian Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, V.; Borrero, J.; Koshimura, S.; Ortiz, M.

    Tsunami generated by the June 23, 2001 Peruvian earthquake devastated Peru- vian coast near the epicenter and was recorded throughout Pacific by coastal tide-gages. This widespread impact motivated modeling efforts to produce re- alistic tsunami simulation of this event. Preliminary results were produced by the TIME center using two resident numerical models, TUNAMI-2 and MOST. Both models were used to produce preliminary simulation shortly after the earthquake, and first results were posted on the Internet a day after the event (http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tsunami/peru_pmel.html). These numerical results aimed to quantify the magnitude of the tsunami and, to certain extend, to guide the post- tsunami survey. The first simulations have been revised using new data about the seis- mic source and the results of the post-tsunami survey by the International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST). We use the ITST measurements in heavily damaged Camana area to constrain our inundation model. Measured water-level data along the topo- graphic transects is used to constrain the inundation model. Preliminary numerical analysis of tsunami inundation will be presented.

  10. Preliminary Simulation Results of the 23 June, 2001 Peruvian Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, V. V.; Koshimura, S.; Ortiz, M.; Borrero, J.

    2001-12-01

    The tsunami generated by the June 23, 2001 Peruvian earthquake devastated a 50--km section of coast near the earthquake epicenter and was recorded on tide-gages throughout the Pacific. The coastal town of Camana sustained the most damage with tsunami waves penetrating up to 1--km inland and runup exceeding 5--m. The extreme local effects and widespread impact motivated modeling efforts to produce a realistic tsunami simulation of this event. Preliminary results were produced by the TIME center using two resident numerical models, TUNAMI--2 and MOST. Both models were used to produce preliminary simulations shortly after the earthquake, and first results were posted on the Internet a day after the event (http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tsunami/peru_pmel.html). These numerical results aimed to quantify the magnitude of the tsunami and, to certain extent, to guide the post-tsunami survey. The first simulations have been revised using new data about the seismic source and the results of the post-tsunami survey. Measured inundation distances, flow depths, and runup along topographic transects are used to constrain the inundation model. Preliminary numerical analysis of tsunami inundation will be presented.

  11. [Outbreak of paratyphoid fever among Peruvian naval personnel].

    PubMed

    Pazzaglia, G; Wignall, F S; Batchelor, R; Alexander, W; Vargas Alfaro, L; Zavaleta, A

    1992-05-01

    A retrospective epidemiological study was conducted in connection with an outbreak of paratyphoid fever at a Peruvian naval installation in Callao. The study sought to determine the magnitude of the outbreak, the source of infection, the attack rates, the persistence of bacilli excretion, and the clinical picture of the disease. The source of Salmonella paratyphi B infection had been a meal of chicken and rice served to around 400 members of the naval police. Over a period of three weeks, 21 persons were hospitalized and 52 received outpatient treatment at the naval hospital. In addition, through a questionnaire it was revealed that 86 unreported cases of diarrhea related to the outbreak had occurred. The most common clinical manifestations were fever, headache, weakness, anorexia, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. The general attack rate was 39.8%. In a follow-up survey carried out 37 days after exposure, fecal cultures indicated that 8.5% of the persons affected continued to excrete the microorganism. The high rates of attack and transmission of S. paratyphi B in this outbreak point up the considerable pathogenicity and virulence of some strains of the microorganism and their impact on public health. It is suggested that preventive measures be taken at naval and other similar installations, including the education of workers who handle and prepare food, in order to ensure proper hygiene. PMID:1610504

  12. Epidemiology of Taeniasis and Cysticercosis in a Peruvian Village

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, F.; Garcia, H. H.; Gilman, R. H.; Gonzales, A. E.; Castro, M.; Tsang, V. C. W.; Pilcher, J. B.; Vasquez, L. E.; Lescano, M.; Carcamo, C.; Madico, G.; Miranda, E.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of cysticercosis in a rural area where the disease is endemic, the authors studied the seroepidemiology of human and porcine cysticercosis in a Peruvian jungle community (Maceda, Peru) in 1988 using an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. Of the 371 sampled inhabitants, 30 (8%) were seropositive, most of whom were asymptomatic. After niclosamide therapy, four Taenia species worms were identified in the seropositive group, compared with one in the control group (p = 0.06). Pigs were frequently infected: 44 of 133 (33%) were found positive for Taenia by tongue examination and 57 of 133 (43%) were positive by EITB. In 69% of the sampled households that had pigs, there was at least one seropositive pig. The number of pigs diagnosed positive by the tongue examination was significantly greater in households that had latrines than in those that did not. Cysticercosis is a common but usually asymptomatic infection that affects both humans and pigs in the high jungle areas of Peru. PMID:1585900

  13. Subsistence economy of el paraiso, an early peruvian site.

    PubMed

    Quilter, J; E, B O; Pearsall, D M; Sandweiss, D H; Jones, J G; Wing, E S

    1991-01-18

    Studies of food remains from the Preceramic monumental site of E1 Paraíso, Peru (1800 to 1500 B.C.), have shed new light on a debate regarding the relative importance of seafood versus terrestrial resources and the role of cultigens in subsistence economies during the early development of Peruvian civilization. Fish was the primary animal food at the site whereas plant foods consisted of a mixture of cultivated resources (squashes, beans, peppers, and jicama) with an additional reliance on fruits (guava, lucuma, and pacae). Wild plants, especially the roots of sedges and cat-tail, also may have accounted for a substantial part of the diet. Cotton was a chief crop, used in making fishing tackle and the textiles that served as clothing and items of high value and status. As an example of the beginnings of civilization, El Paraíso is a case in which impressive architecture was built on a relatively simple subsistence economy and energy was expended in the production of resources useful in local and regional exchange systems. PMID:17733284

  14. Reproduction and population levels of Peruvian Guano Birds, 1980 to 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovar, H.; GuilléN, V.; Cabrera, D.

    1987-12-01

    The three species of guano birds, guanay cormorant (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii), Peruvian booby (Sula variegate), and Peruvian pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis thagus), depend mainly on the Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens) for sustenance. A naturally occurring limitation on the population size of these birds is the oceanographic phenomenon known as "El Niño". The industrialization of the anchovy fishery during the 1960s and 1970s has also affected seabird populations: The annual extraction of huge volumes offish has decreased the availability of food for the guano birds, causing large population fluctuations and considerable changes in the relative abundance of the birds. Because of its great intensity and duration, the 1982-1983 El Niño caused high avian mortality, depressing populations to levels from which they have not yet recovered.

  15. Multibeam observations of mine burial near Clearwater, FL, including comparisons to predictions of wave-induced burial

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfson, M.L.; Naar, D.F.; Howd, P.A.; Locker, S.D.; Donahue, B.T.; Friedrichs, Carl T.; Trembanis, A.C.; Richardson, M.D.; Wever, T.F.

    2007-01-01

    A Kongsberg Simrad EM 3000 multibeam sonar (Kongsberg Simrad, Kongsberg, Norway) was used to conduct a set of six repeat high-resolution bathymetric surveys west of Indian Rocks Beach (IRB), just to the south of Clearwater, FL, between January and March 2003, to observe in situ scour and burial of instrumented inert mines and mine-like cylinders. Three closely located study sites were chosen: two fine-sand sites, a shallow one located in ??? 13 m of water depth and a deep site located in ???14 m of water depth; and a coarse-sand site in ???13 m. Results from these surveys indicate that mines deployed in fine sand are nearly buried within two months of deployment (i.e., they sunk 74.5% or more below the ambient seafloor depth). Mines deployed in coarse sand showed a lesser amount of scour, burying until they present roughly the same hydrodynamic roughness as the surrounding rippled bedforms. These data were also used to test the validity of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS, Gloucester Point, VA) 2-D burial model. The model worked well in areas of fine sand, sufficiently predicting burial over the course of the experiment. In the area of coarse sand, the model greatly overpredicted the amount of burial. This is believed to be due to the presence of rippled bedforms around the mines, which affect local bottom morphodynamics and are not accounted for in the model, an issue currently being addressed by the modelers. This paper focuses specifically on two instrumented mines: an acoustic mine located in fine sand and an optical instrumented mine located in coarse sand. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  16. Neonatal medicine in ancient art.

    PubMed

    Yurdakök, Murat

    2010-01-01

    There are a limited number of artistic objects from ancient times with particular importance in neonatal medicine. The best examples are figurines from ancient Egypt of Isis nursing Horus, showing the importance of breastfeeding. The earliest images of the human fetus were made by the Olmecs in Mexico around 1200- 400 BCE. One of the earliest representations of congenital anomalies is a figurine of diencephalic twins thought to be the goddess of Anatolia, dated to around 6500 BCE. In addition to these figurines, three sets of twins in the ancient world have medical importance, and Renaissance artists often used them as a subject for their paintings: "direct suckling animals" (Romulus and Remus), "heteropaternal superfecundation" (mother: Leda, fathers: Zeus, the king of the Olympian gods, and Leda's husband, Tyndareus), and "twin-to-twin transfusion" in monozygotic twins (Jacob and Esau). PMID:20560265

  17. Ancient "Observatories" - A Relevant Concept?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    It is quite common, when reading popular books on astronomy, to see a place referred to as "the oldest observatory in the world". In addition, numerous books on archaeoastronomy, of various levels of quality, frequently refer to the existence of "prehistoric" or "ancient" observatories when describing or citing monuments that were certainly not built with the primary purpose of observing the skies. Internet sources are also guilty of this practice. In this chapter, the different meanings of the word observatory will be analyzed, looking at how their significances can be easily confused or even interchanged. The proclaimed "ancient observatories" are a typical result of this situation. Finally, the relevance of the concept of the ancient observatory will be evaluated.

  18. Understanding Malaria: Fighting an Ancient Scourge

    MedlinePlus

    ... is derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. The Spanish learned about quinine from Peruvian Indians in the 1600s. Export of quinine to Europe, and later the United States, was a lucrative business until World War II cut off access to the world ...

  19. Burial Duration and Frequency Influences Resilience of Differing Propagule Types in a Subtidal Seagrass, Posidonia australis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Sedimentation that leads to periodic, and often prolonged, burial events is becoming more common on the world’s coastlines as human populations expand and create urbanised marine environments. Different seagrass species react differently to sediment burial but many species in the southern hemisphere are yet to be examined. How seagrasses react to burial has restoration implications. There is a need to critically assess seagrass transplant propagule responses to periodic (pulse) and prolonged (press) burial events before selecting the most appropriate species, transplant propagule, and transplant site. In my study, mesocosm experiments, coupled with field measurements were used to assess how sexual (seedlings) and vegetative (sprigs) propagules of Posidonia australis responded to pulse and press burial events. Seedlings were highly susceptible to burial (both pulse and press), with no survival at the end of the experimental period. In contrast, rhizome growth in vegetative propagules was stimulated by pulse burial, although press burial events resulted in mortality. The implication for Posidonia australis restoration efforts in areas where burial is periodic, was that vegetative propagules are optimal transplant units, in comparison to seedlings. Press burial however, renders a transplant site sub-optimal for both seedling and sprig transplants. PMID:27526020

  20. Demographic knowledge and nation-building: the Peruvian census of 1940.

    PubMed

    López, Raúl Necochea

    2010-09-01

    The demographers who organized the 1940 census of Peru portrayed the increasingly mixed-race Peruvian population as indicative of the breaking down of cultural barriers to the emergence of a robust Peruvian identity, a process that, they claimed, would lead to greater national development. This paper analyzes the ways in which demographers constructed cultural heterogeneity as a potential national asset. This reveals how scientific knowledge of miscegenation affected the formation of a nationalist project in the second half of the twentieth century, and also how demographers' ideological commitments to socialism shaped scientific practice. PMID:21466143

  1. Description of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Peruvian Amazon Basin

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Roberto; Lopez, Victor; Cardenas, Roldan; Requena, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    A new species of sand fly, which we describe as Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., was collected in the northern Peruvian Amazon Basin. In this region of Peru, cutaneous leishmaniasis is transmitted primarily by anthropophilic sand flies; however, zoophilic sand flies of the subgenus Trichophoromyia may also be incriminated in disease transmission. Detection of Leishmania spp. in Lutzomyia auraensis Mangabeira captured in the southern Peruvian Amazon indicates the potential of this and other zoophilic sand flies for human disease transmission, particularly in areas undergoing urban development. Herein, we describe Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., and report new records of sand flies in Peru. PMID:26335468

  2. Description of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Peruvian Amazon Basin.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Roberto; Lopez, Victor; Cardenas, Roldan; Requena, Edwin

    2015-07-01

    A new species of sand fly, which we describe as Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., was collected in the northern Peruvian Amazon Basin. In this region of Peru, cutaneous leishmaniasis is transmitted primarily by anthropophilic sand flies; however, zoophilic sand flies of the subgenus Trichophoromyia may also be incriminated in disease transmission. Detection of Leishmania spp. in Lutzomyia auraensis Mangabeira captured in the southern Peruvian Amazon indicates the potential of this and other zoophilic sand flies for human disease transmission, particularly in areas undergoing urban development. Herein, we describe Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) nautaensis n. sp., and report new records of sand flies in Peru. PMID:26335468

  3. Night Blindness and Ancient Remedy

    PubMed Central

    Al Binali, H.A. Hajar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A. PMID:25774260

  4. Night blindness and ancient remedy.

    PubMed

    Al Binali, H A Hajar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A. PMID:25774260

  5. Interdisciplinary investigation on ancient Ephedra twigs from Gumugou Cemetery (3800 B.P.) in Xinjiang region, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mingsi; Yang, Yimin; Wang, Binghua; Wang, Changsui

    2013-07-01

    In the dry northern temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, the genus Ephedra comprises a series of native shrub species with a cumulative application history reaching back well over 2,000 years for the treatment of asthma, cold, fever, as well as many respiratory system diseases, especially in China. There are ethnological and philological evidences of Ephedra worship and utilization in many Eurasia Steppe cultures. However, no scientifically verifiable, ancient physical proof has yet been provided for any species in this genus. This study reports the palaeobotanical finding of Ephedra twigs discovered from burials of the Gumugou archaeological site, and ancient community graveyard, dated around 3800 BP, in Lop Nor region of northwestern China. The macro-remains were first examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and then by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for traits of residual biomarkers under the reference of modern Ephedra samples. The GC-MS result of chemical analysis presents the existence of Ephedra-featured compounds, several of which, including benzaldehyde, tetramethyl-pyrazine, and phenmetrazine, are found in the chromatograph of both the ancient and modern sample. These results confirm that the discovered plant remains are Ephedra twigs. Although there is no direct archaeological evidence for the indication of medicinal use of this Ephedra, the unified burial deposit in which the Ephedra was discovered is a strong indication of the religious and medicinal awareness of the human inhabitants of Gumugou towards this plant. PMID:23564427

  6. Acupuncture: From Ancient Practice to Modern Science

    MedlinePlus

    ... Section CAM Acupuncture From Ancient Practice to Modern Science Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... of Progress / Acupuncture From Ancient Practice to Modern Science / Low Back Pain and CAM / Time to Talk / ...

  7. Land Use Change Driven by Gold Mining; Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, J. J.; Carter, C. E.; domec, J.; Delgado, C. I.

    2011-12-01

    Many factors such as poverty, ineffective institutions and environmental regulations may prevent developing countries from managing how natural resources are extracted to meet a strong market demand. Extraction for some resources has reached such proportions that evidence is measurable from space. We present recent evidence of the global demand for a single commodity and the ecosystem destruction resulting from commodity extraction, recorded by satellites for one of the most biodiverse areas of the world. We find that since 2003, recent mining deforestation in Madre de Dios, Peru is increasing nonlinearly alongside a constant annual rate of increase in international gold price (~18%/yr). We detect that the new pattern of mining deforestation (1915 ha/year, 2006-2009) is outpacing that of nearby settlement deforestation. We show that gold price is linked with exponential increases in Peruvian national mercury imports over time (R2 = 0.93, p = 0.04, 2003- 2009). Given the past rates of increase we predict that mercury imports may more than double for 2011 (~500 t/year). Virtually all of Peru's mercury imports are used in artisanal gold mining. Much of the mining increase is unregulated/ artisanal in nature, lacking environmental impact analysis or miner education. As a result, large quantities of mercury are being released into the atmosphere, sediments and waterways. Other developing countries endowed with gold deposits are likely experiencing similar environmental destruction in response to recent record high gold prices. The increasing availability of satellite imagery ought to evoke further studies linking economic variables with land use and cover changes on the ground.

  8. A developmental analysis of generic nouns in Southern Peruvian Quechua

    PubMed Central

    Mannheim, Bruce; Gelman, Susan A.; Escalante, Carmen; Huayhua, Margarita; Puma, Rosalía

    2010-01-01

    Generic noun phrases (e.g., “Cats like to drink milk”) are a primary means by which adults express generalizations to children, yet they pose a challenging induction puzzle for learners. Although prior research has established that English speakers understand and produce generic noun phrases by preschool age, little is known regarding the cross-cultural generality of generic acquisition. Southern Peruvian Quechua provides a valuable comparison because, unlike English, it is a highly inflected language in which generics are marked by the absence rather than the presence of any linguistic markers. Moreover, Quechua is spoken in a cultural context that differs markedly from the highly educated, middle-class contexts within which earlier research on generics was conducted. We presented participants from 5 age groups (3-6, 7-9, 10-12, 14-35, and 36-90 years of age) with two tasks that examined the ability to distinguish generic from non-generic utterances. In Study 1, even the youngest children understood generics as applying broadly to a category (like “all”) and distinct from indefinite reference (“some”). However, there was a developmental lag before children understood that generics, unlike “all”, can include exceptions. Study 2 revealed that generic interpretations are more frequent for utterances that (a) lack specifying markers and (b) are animate. Altogether, generic interpretations are found among the youngest participants, and may be a default mode of quantification. These data demonstrate the cross-cultural importance of generic information in linguistic expression. PMID:21779154

  9. Climate change and potato cropping in the Peruvian Altiplano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanabria, J.; Lhomme, J. P.

    2013-05-01

    The potential impacts of climate change on potatoes cropping in the Peruvian highlands (Altiplano) is assessed using climate projections for 2071-2100, obtained from the HadRM3P regional atmospheric model of the Hadley Centre. The atmospheric model is run under two different special report on emission scenarios: high CO2 concentration (A2) and moderate CO2 concentration (B2) for four locations situated in the surroundings of Lake Titicaca. The two main varieties of potato cultivated in the area are studied: the Andean potato ( Solanum tuberosum) and the bitter potato ( Solanum juzepczukii). A simple process-oriented model is used to quantify the climatic impacts on crops cycles and yields by combining the effects of temperature on phenology, of radiation and CO2 on maximum yield and of water balance on yield deficit. In future climates, air temperature systematically increases, precipitation tends to increase at the beginning of the rainy season and slightly decreases during the rest of the season. The direct effects of these climatic changes are earlier planting dates, less planting failures and shorter crop cycles in all the four locations and for both scenarios. Consequently, the harvesting dates occur systematically earlier: roughly in January for the Andean potato instead of March in the current situation and in February for the bitter potato instead of April. Overall, yield deficits will be higher under climate change than in the current climate. There will be a strong negative impact on yields for S. tuberosum (stronger under A2 scenario than under B2); the impact on S. juzepczukii yields, however, appears to be relatively mixed and not so negative.

  10. Skeletal concentrations of lead, cadmium, zinc, and silver in ancient North American Pecos Indians

    SciTech Connect

    Ericson, J.E. ); Smith, D.R.; Flegal, A.R. )

    1991-06-01

    Bone samples of 14 prehistoric North American Pecos Indians from circa 1400 A.D. were analyzed for lead, cadmium, zinc, and silver by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to establish the baseline levels of these elements in an ancient North American population. Measurements of outer and inner bone fractions indicate the former were contaminated postmortem for lead, zinc, and cadmium. The contamination-adjusted average level of lead (expressed as the ratio fo atomic lead to atomic calcium) in bones of the Indians was 8.4 {plus minus} 4.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}7}, which was similar to ratios in bones of ancient Peruvians (0.9 to 7.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}7}) and significantly lower than ratios in bones of modern adults in England and the United States (210 to 350 {times} 10{sup {minus}7}). Cadmium concentrations in Pecos Indian bones are also approximately 50-fold lower than those of contemporary humans. These data support earlier findings that most previously reported natural concentrations of lead in human tissues are erroneously high and indicate that natural concentrations of cadmium are also between one and two orders of magnitude lower than contemporary concentrations.

  11. Experimental assessment of critical anthropogenic sediment burial in eelgrass Zostera marina.

    PubMed

    Munkes, Britta; Schubert, Philipp R; Karez, Rolf; Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2015-11-15

    Seagrass meadows, one of the world's most important and productive coastal habitats, are threatened by a range of anthropogenic actions. Burial of seagrass plants due to coastal activities is one important anthropogenic pressure leading to the decline of local populations. In our study, we assessed the response of eelgrass Zostera marina to sediment burial from physiological, morphological, and population parameters. In a full factorial field experiment, burial level (5-20cm) and burial duration (4-16weeks) were manipulated. Negative effects were visible even at the lowest burial level (5cm) and shortest duration (4weeks), with increasing effects over time and burial level. Buried seagrasses showed higher shoot mortality, delayed growth and flowering and lower carbohydrate storage. The observed effects will likely have an impact on next year's survival of buried plants. Our results have implications for the management of this important coastal plant. PMID:26388446

  12. Ancient India: The Asiatic Ethiopians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Carolyn McPherson

    This curriculum unit was developed by a participant in the 1993 Fulbright-Hays Program "India: Continuity and Change." The unit attempts to place India in the "picture frame" of the ancient world as a part of a whole, not as a separate entity. Reading materials enable students to draw broader general conclusions based on the facts presented. The…

  13. Drinking habits in ancient India.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, Ottilingam; Raghavan, D Vijaya; Murthy, A G Tejus

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of one or other form of intoxicating substances has been present throughout the history of the world. This article traces such use in the Indian subcontinent, both in North and South India. References to the use of intoxicants are to be found in the Vedas, the Great Epics, and the ancient Tamil literature. PMID:26985113

  14. Drinking habits in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, Ottilingam; Raghavan, D. Vijaya; Murthy, A. G. Tejus

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of one or other form of intoxicating substances has been present throughout the history of the world. This article traces such use in the Indian subcontinent, both in North and South India. References to the use of intoxicants are to be found in the Vedas, the Great Epics, and the ancient Tamil literature. PMID:26985113

  15. Retroflex Endings in Ancient Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Mantaro J.

    1973-01-01

    Reconstruction of Ancient Chinese retroflex endings (syllable-final consonants) based on internal phonological evidence in Modern Chinese. Paper read at the December 1972 meeting of the Kukeo Hakhoe (The National Language Association of Korea); research supported by the Social Science Research Council, Committee for Korean Studies. (RS)

  16. The ancient art of memory.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Allan

    2013-12-01

    Revision of Freud's theory requires a new way of seeking dream meaning. With the idea of elaborative encoding, Sue Llewellyn has provided a method of dream interpretation that takes into account both modern sleep science and the ancient art of memory. Her synthesis is elegant and compelling. But is her hypothesis testable? PMID:24304762

  17. Ancient medicine--a review.

    PubMed

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozencić, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Mucić-Pucić, Branka; Neralić-Meniga, Inja

    2008-01-01

    Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples. PMID:18812066

  18. Discovering the Ancient Temperate Rainforest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Anne

    1997-01-01

    Two activities for grades 3 through 8 explore species adaptation and forestry issues in the North American rainforests. In one activity, students create imaginary species of plants or animals that are adapted for life in an ancient temperate rainforest. In the second activity, students role play groups affected by plans to log an area of the…

  19. Ancient and Modern Coins Unit Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Mint (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    Ancient times comes to life when a student can hold in his/her hand or read about an artifact, such as a coin of the Greek or Roman era. Students are familiar with coins, and this commonality helps them understand the similarities and differences between their lives and times in ancient Greece or Rome. Many symbols on the ancient coins can be…

  20. Development and Applications of Thallium isotopes: a new proxy tracking the extent of manganese oxide burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, J. D.; Nielsen, S.; Ostrander, C.; Peterson, L. C.; Anbar, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Thallium (Tl) isotopes are a new and potential powerful paleoredox proxy with the possibility to track bottom water oxygen conditions based on the burial flux of manganese oxides. Thallium has a residence time of ~20 thousand years, which is long enough to render modern oxic seawater conservative with respect to concentration and isotopes. The isotopic signature of Tl in the global ocean is driven mainly by two outputs (1) adsorption onto manganese oxides and (2) low temperature oceanic crust alteration. Importantly, the isotopic inputs of Tl are all nearly the same value; thus, the isotopic composition and flux of the outputs almost exclusively set the seawater signature. For relatively short term redox events it is reasonable to assume that the dominant isotope fractionation process is associated with manganese oxide precipitation because low temperature alteration is controlled by long-term average ocean crust production rates. We present a broad range of modern samples that span several open ocean profiles combined with water column and sediment profiles from the permanently anoxic basins of the Black Sea and Cariaco Basins. The open ocean shows no variation in depth profiles that encompass most of the major water masses in the Atlantic and Southern Oceans. The anoxic basins, however, reveal Tl isotope signatures closer to their inputs, which is likely due to basinal restriction. The authigenic fraction of organic-rich sediments from the Black Sea and Cariaco Basin capture the Tl isotope value of the overlying water column, which shows that Tl isotopes could be applied as a faithful deep time redox proxy. For the first time, we will present new data showing that Tl isotopes is tracking bottom water ocean oxygenation. We are applying this isotope system to ancient samples, testing the spatial and temporal variability of ocean oxygenation coinciding with major biogeochemical events.

  1. Biomass burial and storage to reduce atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, N.

    2012-04-01

    To mitigate global climate change, a portfolio of strategies will be needed to keep the atmospheric CO2 concentration below a dangerous level. Here a carbon sequestration strategy is proposed in which certain dead or live trees are harvested via collection or selective cutting, then buried in trenches or stowed away in above-ground shelters. The largely anaerobic condition under a sufficiently thick layer of soil will prevent the decomposition of the buried wood. Because a large flux of CO2 is constantly being assimilated into the world's forests via photosynthesis, cutting off its return pathway to the atmosphere forms an effective carbon sink. It is estimated that a theoretical carbon sequestration potential for wood burial is 10 ± 5 GtC/y, but probably 1-3 GtC/y can be realized in practice. Burying wood has other benefits including minimizing CO2 source from deforestation, extending the lifetime of reforestation carbon sink, and reducing fire danger. There are possible environmental impacts such as nutrient lock-up which nevertheless appears manageable, but other environmental concerns and factors will likely set a limit so that only part of the full potential can be realized. Based on data from forest industry, the cost for wood burial is estimated to be 14/tCO2 (50/tC), lower than the typical cost for power plant CO2 capture with geological storage. The low cost for carbon sequestration with wood burial is possible because the technique uses the natural process of photosynthesis to remove carbon from the atmosphere. The technique is low tech, distributed, safe, and can be stopped at any time, thus an attractive option for large-scale implementation in a world-wide carbon market.

  2. Burial history influence on the generation of some Italian oils

    SciTech Connect

    Mattavelli, L.; Novelli, L. )

    1990-05-01

    Many Italian oils were sourced by Triassic source rock; evidence of this exists in the Po Plain. In the Adriatic Sea, and offshore southern Sicily. Bulk and geochemical characteristics of these oils are quite dissimilar: heavy oils as well as gasolines were discovered. Such differences are partly attributable to the organic matter type and to environmental conditions, but the role of the source rock's burial histories is fundamental in determining oil characteristics. The different burial histories in these two areas definitely account for these differences. In the Po Plain, the Raethian Argilliti di Riva di Solto Formation, source rock of condensates of the Malossa area, started to generate very early as a consequence of the noticeable Rhaetian-Liassic subsidence. The generation of oil continued for a long geological time, but probably hydrocarbons were lost for the lack of traps. Only condensates, generated by the further Pliocene-Quaternary burial, were accumulated in the Neogene traps. In the western part of the Po Plain, Gaggiano and Villafortuna oils (34 and 40{degree} API), sourced by the Ladinian Meride Formation, were generated only during the sizeable Neogene-Quaternary subsidence. The high heating rate in this case probably enhanced expulsion efficiency, allowing secondary migration toward shallower depths and, consequently, preventing hydrocarbons from secondary cracking. Offshore in southern Sicily (Gela field), the recent subsidence (Pliocene-Pleistocene) is responsible for Triassic source rock maturation. In this case the shallower depth reached by the source rock and, consequently, the lower temperatures at which maturity occurred are partly responsible for the generation of heavy oils, even if other factors such as early expulsion due to tectonics and organic matter type probably play a more important role.

  3. Precipitation data for Burial Grounds 5 and 6, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, 1976-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, D A; Beatty, J S; Benjamin, P M; Tranum, W M

    1982-01-01

    As part of a hydrogeologic investigation, precipitation data were collected at two stations, one each in Burial Grounds 5 and 6 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee. Daily, monthly, and annual values are reported herein for the period from January 1976 through December 1980. During this period, annual values ranged from about 25% above to about 25% below the calculated mean of 51.96 inches at Burial Ground 5 and 49.60 inches at Burial Ground 6.

  4. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during and after closure

  5. Geologic setting of the low-level burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, K.A.; Jaeger, G.K.; Slate, J.L.; Swett, K.J.; Mercer, R.B.

    1994-10-13

    This report describes the regional and site specific geology of the Hanford Sites low-level burial grounds in the 200 East and West Areas. The report incorporates data from boreholes across the entire 200 Areas, integrating the geology of this area into a single framework. Geologic cross-sections, isopach maps, and structure contour maps of all major geological units from the top of the Columbia River Basalt Group to the surface are included. The physical properties and characteristics of the major suprabasalt sedimentary units also are discussed.

  6. Burial Level Change Defines a High Energetic Relevance for Protein Binding Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenhua; He, Ying; Wong, Limsoon; Li, Jinyan

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interfaces defined through atomic contact or solvent accessibility change are widely adopted in structural biology studies. But, these definitions cannot precisely capture energetically important regions at protein interfaces. The burial depth of an atom in a protein is related to the atom's energy. This work investigates how closely the change in burial level of an atom/residue upon complexation is related to the binding. Burial level change is different from burial level itself. An atom deeply buried in a monomer with a high burial level may not change its burial level after an interaction and it may have little burial level change. We hypothesize that an interface is a region of residues all undergoing burial level changes after interaction. By this definition, an interface can be decomposed into an onion-like structure according to the burial level change extent. We found that our defined interfaces cover energetically important residues more precisely, and that the binding free energy of an interface is distributed progressively from the outermost layer to the core. These observations are used to predict binding hot spots. Our approach's F-measure performance on a benchmark dataset of alanine mutagenesis residues is much superior or similar to those by complicated energy modeling or machine learning approaches. PMID:26357227

  7. Fe deficiency but not anemia up-regulates Fe absorption in breast-fed Peruvian infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about homeostatic regulation of iron (Fe) absorption in infants. Using stable isotopes, we evaluated healthy breast-fed Peruvian infants to determine if they can compensate for their poor Fe status by increasing Fe absorption (abs). Two groups were recruited; Group 1 (G1) consisted...

  8. Bilingual Education and Language Use among the Shipibo of the Peruvian Amazon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tacelosky, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Investigates how language choice for education contributes to changes in the way a society views and uses language in the context of the Peruvian Amazon. Oral surveys were administered to Shipibo people in 13 communities along the Ucayali River of eastern Peru where a transition type bilingual education program was introduced several decades ago.…

  9. Icon and Idea: A Symbolic Reading of Pictures in a Peruvian Indian Chronicle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adorno, Rolena

    1979-01-01

    An examination and categorization of over 400 full-page drawings in the 1615 "Nueva coronica y bien gobierno" of Felipe Guaman Poma de Alaya, which details life in the Peruvian Viceroyalty. Explains the function of the illustrations in the text and that of five "signifying attributes" of spatial configuration. (SB)

  10. A Peculiar Mutation Spectrum Emerging from Young Peruvian Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Marchio, Agnès; Bertani, Stéphane; Rojas Rojas, Teresa; Doimi, Franco; Terris, Benoît; Deharo, Eric; Dejean, Anne; Ruiz, Eloy; Pineau, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma usually afflicts individuals in their later years following longstanding liver disease. In Peru, hepatocellular carcinoma exists in a unique clinical presentation, which affects patients around age 25 with a normal, healthy liver. In order to deepen our understanding of the molecular processes ongoing in Peruvian liver tumors, mutation spectrum analysis was carried out on hepatocellular carcinomas from 80 Peruvian patients. Sequencing analysis focused on nine genes typically altered during liver carcinogenesis, i.e. ARID2, AXIN1, BRAF, CTNNB1, NFE2L2, H/K/N-RAS, and TP53. We also assessed the transcription level of factors involved in the control of the alpha-fetoprotein expression and the Hippo signaling pathway that controls contact inhibition in metazoans. The mutation spectrum of Peruvian patients was unique with a major class of alterations represented by Insertions/Deletions. There were no changes at hepatocellular carcinoma-associated mutation hotspots in more than half of the specimens analyzed. Furthermore, our findings support the theory of a consistent collapse in the Hippo axis, as well as an expression of the stemness factor NANOG in high alpha-fetoprotein-expressing hepatocellular carcinomas. These results confirm the specificity of Peruvian hepatocellular carcinoma at the molecular genetic level. The present study emphasizes the necessity to widen cancer research to include historically neglected patients from South America, and more broadly the Global South, where cancer genetics and tumor presentation are divergent from canonical neoplasms. PMID:25502816

  11. Two new nor-triterpene glycosides from peruvian "Uña de Gato" (Uncaria tomentosa).

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Mariko; Hashimoto, Ken-Ichiro; Yokoya, Masashi; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Sandoval, Manuel; Aimi, Norio

    2003-02-01

    Two new 27-nor-triterpene glycosides, tomentosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from Peruvian "Uña de Gato" (cat's claw, plant of origin: Uncaria tomentosa), a traditional herbal medicine in Peru. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical interconversions. This is the first report of naturally occurring pyroquinovic acid glycosides. PMID:12608878

  12. Ascaridole as a pharmacologically active principle of "Paico," a medicinal Peruvian plant.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, E; Umeyama, K; Saito, Y; Yamazaki, M; Satake, M

    1993-07-01

    "Paico," Chenopodium ambrosioides L., is a traditional Peruvian medicine which is considered to be nervine, antirheumatic, anthelmintic, etc. An attempt was made to isolate the component having sedative and/or analgesic properties from "Paico" and "Aritasou" (the Japanese name for C. ambrosioides). Ascaridole was identified as the active principle in both materials. PMID:8374999

  13. Molecular characterization of Peruvian Citrus tristeza virus isolates based on 3’UTR sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus in Peru was decimated by quick decline and stem pitting strains of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). Commercial citrus production in Peru is being restored by use of CTV cross-protection. To characterize the predominant CTV strains involved, Peruvian CTV isolates from “protected” and “non-protecti...

  14. Micromorphology of two prehistoric ritual burials from Yemen, and considerations on methodological aspects of sampling the burial matrix - work in progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usai, Maria-Raimonda; Brothwell, Don; Buckley, Stephen; Ai-Thour, Kalid; Canti, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Introduction In the central area of Yemen, two burial sites placed high in the crevices of vertical cliff face of Cretaceous sandstone (Tawilah Group) provided evidence of human remains and yielded burial soils. Radiocarbon dating indicated c.2500-2900 years BP for the burials. In other local comparable sites the deep horizontal crevices yielded Bronze Age human remains, in exceptional state of preservation Questions: What was the nature of the burial matrix? Are other human influences superimposed on the soils derived from it? Is it simply decomposed crevice rock, scraped together at the time of burial, or the result of a more complex burial practice? Such questions are also relevant to a variety of other burials of different periods and world regions. Methods Seven matrix samples from Cliff Burials (A) Talan (Layers 4,10,12,14,18,20 and 22, from top to bottom) and (B) Shiban Kawkaban (Layer 1 and 9) were analysed with micromorphology, supplemented by SEM microprobe, X-ray diffraction, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results Cliff Burial Site Talan. The presence of cholesterol was confirmed in the lower sample. The second layer contained darker earth with fibrous plant material. A hard calcareous upper capping contrasted with the other levels of matrix, and it displayed a highly birefingent material with a significant component of uric acid. The other levels had variable organic content and plant inclusions, and possibly pollen. In Layer 10, aromatic acids indicative of balsam and sugar markers suggested plant gum. Cholesterol was the major sterol in Layers 10 and 22, but whilst in Layer 10 its oxidation products were present and cholestanol was abundant as normally in soils, it was only a minor component of Layer 22 where, rather, a significant amount of coprostanol indicated faecal input, and cholesterol oxidation products were absent. Cliff Burial Site Shiban Kawkaban. Although no stratification was visible to the naked eye, variation was observed at a

  15. The Application of GPR in Florida for Detecting Forensic Burials

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Koppenjan; J. J. Schultz; S. Ono; H. Lee

    2003-01-01

    A study was performed at the University of Florida to measure ground penetrating radar(GPR) performance for detecting forensic burials. In controlled scenarios, 24 burials were constructed with pig cadavers. Two soils were utilized to represent two of the most common soil orders in Florida: an Entisol and an Ultisol. Graves were monitored on a monthly basis for time periods up to 21 months with grid data acquired with pulsed and swept-frequency GPR systems incorporating several different frequency antennas. A small subset of the graves was excavated to assess decomposition and relate to the GPR images during the test. The grave anomalies in the GPR depth profiles became less distinctive over time due to body decomposition and settling of the disturbed soil (backfill) as it compacted. Soil type was a major factor. Grave anomalies became more difficult to recognize over time for deep targets that were within clay. Forensic targets that were in sandy soil were recognized for the duration of this study. Time elapsed imagery will be presented to elucidate the changes, or lack thereof, of grave anomalies over the duration of this study. Further analysis was performed using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) reconstruction of images in 2-D and 3-D.

  16. Burial dolomitization of Lower Cambrian platform margin, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Barnaby, R.J.; Read, J.F.

    1989-03-01

    Shady Dolomite platform carbonates (Lower Cambrian) record several episodes of dolomite replacement and cementation during deep burial. Rare relict nonluminescent dolomite cores (zone 1) were replaced and overgrown by dark orange-red cathodoluminescent (CL) dolomite (zone 2A), the dominant replacement phase. Zone 2A dolomite was corroded, fractured, brecciated, and overgrown by Mississippi-Valley-type or lead-zinc minerals. Dark orange-red CL saddle dolomite (zone 2B) precipitated after mineralization and was fractured, corroded, and overgrown by bright orange-red CL saddle dolomite (zone 3). Cementation by later dark orange-red CL saddle dolomite (zone 4) was followed by quartz, calcite, and dedolomite. Only late-stage dolomite (zones 3 and 4) and calcite cement have elevated /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr values (0.7103-0.7111) relative to marine carbonate and earlier dolomites (0.7090-0.7097), recording influx of radiogenic strontium-enriched fluids during late Paleozoic thrusting. Although the replacement dolomites are buried, it is unclear whether they replaced limestone or an unstable near-surface precursor dolomite. If a precursor dolomite were present, it was completely overprinted during burial diagenesis, preserving no trace of its initial composition.

  17. A burial cave in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    West, Dixie; Lefèvre, Christine; Corbett, Debra; Crockford, Susan

    2003-01-01

    During the 1998 field season, the Western Aleutians Archaeological and Paleobiological Project (WAAPP) team located a cave in the Near Islands, Alaska. Near the entrance of the cave, the team identified work areas and sleeping/sitting areas surrounded by cultural debris and animal bones. Human burials were found in the cave interior. In 2000, with permission from The Aleut Corporation, archaeologists revisited the site. Current research suggests three distinct occupations or uses for this cave. Aleuts buried their dead in shallow graves at the rear of the cave circa 1,200 to 800 years ago. Aleuts used the front of the cave as a temporary hunting camp as early as 390 years ago. Finally, Japanese and American military debris and graffiti reveal that the cave was visited during and after World War II. Russian trappers may have also taken shelter there 150 to 200 years ago. This is the first report of Aleut cave burials west of the Delarof Islands in the central Aleutians. PMID:21755641

  18. Genetic research at a fivefold children's burial from medieval Berlin.

    PubMed

    Rothe, Jessica; Melisch, Claudia; Powers, Natasha; Geppert, Maria; Zander, Judith; Purps, Josephine; Spors, Birgit; Nagy, Marion

    2015-03-01

    Berlin originated from the two twin cities Berlin and Cölln, which both were founded at the beginning of the 13th century. However the real date of their foundation as well as the origin of the first settlers is still unknown. On the Berlin site the historic city center is still visible in the Nikolaiviertel, but the medieval origin of Cölln disappeared almost completely. In 2007 a large scale excavation, which comprised an area of about 1700m(2) of the historical center of the St. Peters church, recovers the remains of Cölln's first citizens and span a period of 500 years of medieval population. Here we present the first genetic analysis of a fivefold children's burial from excavations in Berlin. The genetic data unveiled next to ancestry and eye color data also the kinship and the gender of the five individuals. Together with the archeological context the new gained information help to shed more light on the possible reasons for this burial. PMID:25466970

  19. Burial increases seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) subspecies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Seed longevity and persistence in soil seed banks may be especially important for population persistence in ecosystems where opportunities for seedling establishment and disturbance are unpredictable. The fire regime, an important driver of population dynamics in sagebrush steppe ecosystems, has been altered by exotic annual grass invasion. Soil seed banks may play an active role in postfire recovery of the foundation shrub Artemisia tridentata, yet conditions under which seeds persist are largely unknown. Methods: We investigated seed longevity of two Artemisia tridentata subspecies in situ by retrieving seed bags that were placed at varying depths over a 2 yr period. We also sampled naturally dispersed seeds in litter and soil immediately after seed dispersal and before flowering in subsequent seasons to estimate seed persistence. Key results: After 24 mo, seeds buried at least 3 cm below the soil surface retained 30–40% viability whereas viability of seeds on the surface and under litter declined to 0 and Artemisia tridentata has the potential to form a short-term soil seed bank that persists longer than has been commonly assumed, and that burial is necessary for seed longevity. Use of seeding techniques that promote burial of some seeds to aid in formation of a soil seed bank may increase restoration potential.

  20. Benthic nitrogen cycling traversing the capitalize peruvian oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlen, L.; Dale, A. W.; Sommer, S.; Mosch, T.; Hensen, C.; Noffke, A.; Scholz, F.; Wallmann, K.

    2011-10-01

    Benthic nitrogen (N) cycling was investigated at six stations along a transect traversing the Peruvian oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) at 11°S. An extensive dataset including porewater concentration profiles and in situ benthic fluxes of nitrate (NO 3-), nitrite (NO 2-) and ammonium (NH 4+) was used to constrain a 1-D reaction-transport model designed to simulate and interpret the measured data at each station. Simulated rates of nitrification, denitrification, anammox and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) by filamentous large sulfur bacteria (e.g. Beggiatoa and Thioploca) were highly variable throughout the OMZ yet clear trends were discernible. On the shelf and upper slope (80-260 m water depth) where extensive areas of bacterial mats were present, DNRA dominated total N turnover (⩽2.9 mmol N m -2 d -1) and accounted for ⩾65% of NO 3- + NO 2- uptake by the sediments from the bottom water. Nonetheless, these sediments did not represent a major sink for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN = NO 3- + NO 2- + NH 4+) since DNRA reduces NO 3- and, potentially NO 2-, to NH 4+. Consequently, the shelf and upper slope sediments were recycling sites for DIN due to relatively low rates of denitrification and high rates of ammonium release from DNRA and ammonification of organic matter. This finding contrasts with the current opinion that sediments underlying OMZs are a strong sink for DIN. Only at greater water depths (300-1000 m) did the sediments become a net sink for DIN. Here, denitrification was the major process (⩽2 mmol N m -2 d -1) and removed 55-73% of NO 3- and NO 2- taken up by the sediments, with DNRA and anammox accounting for the remaining fraction. Anammox was of minor importance on the shelf and upper slope yet contributed up to 62% to total N 2 production at the 1000 m station. The results indicate that the partitioning of oxidized N (NO 3-, NO 2-) into DNRA or denitrification is a key factor determining the role of marine sediments as DIN

  1. Population Genetics of Plasmodium vivax in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Ratto, Christopher; Gamboa, Dionicia; Soto-Calle, Veronica E.; Van den Eede, Peter; Torres, Eliana; Sánchez-Martínez, Luis; Contreras-Mancilla, Juan; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Rodriguez Ferrucci, Hugo; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Erhart, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Background Characterizing the parasite dynamics and population structure provides useful information to understand the dynamic of transmission and to better target control interventions. Despite considerable efforts for its control, vivax malaria remains a major health problem in Peru. In this study, we have explored the population genetics of Plasmodium vivax isolates from Iquitos, the main city in the Peruvian Amazon, and 25 neighbouring peri-urban as well as rural villages along the Iquitos-Nauta Road. Methodology/ Results From April to December 2008, 292 P. vivax isolates were collected and successfully genotyped using 14 neutral microsatellites. Analysis of the molecular data revealed a similar proportion of monoclonal and polyclonal infections in urban areas, while in rural areas monoclonal infections were predominant (p = 0.002). Multiplicity of infection was higher in urban (MOI = 1.5–2) compared to rural areas (MOI = 1) (p = 0.003). The level of genetic diversity was similar in all areas (He = 0.66–0.76, p = 0.32) though genetic differentiation between areas was substantial (PHIPT = 0.17, p<0.0001). Principal coordinate analysis showed a marked differentiation between parasites from urban and rural areas. Linkage disequilibrium was detected in all the areas (IAs = 0.08–0.49, for all p<0.0001). Gene flow among the areas was stablished through Bayesian analysis of migration models. Recent bottleneck events were detected in 4 areas and a recent parasite expansion in one of the isolated areas. In total, 87 unique haplotypes grouped in 2 or 3 genetic clusters described a sub-structured parasite population. Conclusion/Significance Our study shows a sub-structured parasite population with clonal propagation, with most of its components recently affected by bottleneck events. Iquitos city is the main source of parasite spreading for all the peripheral study areas. The routes of transmission and gene flow and the reduction of the parasite population described

  2. Sources and fate of amino sugars in coastal Peruvian sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niggemann, Jutta; Schubert, Carsten J.

    2006-05-01

    Amino sugars are involved in the marine carbon and nitrogen cycles and comprise a geochemically significant fraction of marine organic material (OM). However, information on abundance and distribution of these compounds in marine sediments is scarce. Three sediment cores (<50 cm) from the coastal region off Peru were investigated for concentrations of glucosamine (GlcN), galactosamine (GalN), mannosamine (ManN), and muramic acid (Mur). The sum of the four amino sugars accounted for 1.0-2.4% of organic carbon and 1.9-3.8% of nitrogen in the sediments. At the shallowest (102 m) and the deepest site (1278 m), carbon-normalized concentrations decreased down-core, suggesting preferential degradation of amino sugars compared to bulk sedimentary OM. At the site from the center of the oxygen minimum zone (238 m), amino sugar concentrations were high throughout the core, pointing to enhanced preservation of amino sugars under anoxic conditions. GlcN (44-56 mol%) and GalN (33-42 mol%) were the dominant amino sugars in all investigated samples, while ManN (6-14 mol%) and Mur (1-4 mol%) were significantly less abundant. Mur was predominantly associated with cell wall remains rather than with living bacteria, since bacterial abundances estimated based on Mur concentrations were up to 500 times higher than cell counts reported for sediments from this area. GlcN/GalN-ratios (1.1-1.7) indicated that chitin, a polymer of GlcN, was not a major contributor to the amino sugar pool of the investigated sediments. Furthermore, GlcN/Mur-ratios (13-68) are inconsistent with a predominant contribution of intact peptidoglycan, which exhibits a 1:1-ratio. The present study includes a compilation of previously published information on distribution and abundance of amino sugars in the marine environment. Both concentrations and ratios observed in the Peruvian sediments fall in the range of values reported for OM in water column and sediments from different oceanic regions and water depths

  3. Dynamics of Carbon Burial in the Coastal Oceans through the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider-Mor, A.; Bowen, G. J.

    2008-12-01

    Climatic recovery from the Paleocene-Eocene boundary thermal maximum (PETM) involved the rapid burial of thousands of petagrams of carbon, a significant fraction of which may have been sequestered in marginal marine sediments. This burial flux may have been modulated by changes in climate, biology, sea level, and sediment flux, but the primary pathways and controls on excess carbon burial have remained speculative to this point. Using the global PETM carbon isotope excursion and C/N ratios as tracer of organic carbon source, we investigated preservation of organic carbon through the PETM as particulate organic carbon (POC) and mineral-bound carbon (MBC) at three coastal ocean sites (Tawanui, New Zealand; IODP leg 302, Arctic Ocean; and Wilson Lake, NJ, USA). We show that an increase in total organic carbon burial during the PETM is dominated by burial of young (<10,000 year old), land-derived POC, but that elevated POC burial was limited to sites with high sedimentation rates through the event (ca. 5 cm/kyr). In contrast, MBC sources were more variable, both among sites and through the PETM, and although there was no conclusive evidence for reburial of kerogen-derived MBC at the study sites the carbon isotope data suggest that a fraction of the MBC at each site may have had a long (>10,000 years) residence time prior to burial. MBC dominated the organic burial flux only at the low sedimentation-rate site (Tawanui), but also contributed significantly to changes in total burial at the Arctic site where bottom water anoxia or suboxia has been inferred during the PETM. Our results demonstrate that changes in total carbon burial rates in marginal marine sediments were determined by decoupled responses of the POC and MBC burial pathways that varied substantially among locations, and that the strongest feedbacks on PETM climate involved changes in the transfer of sediment and particulate organic carbon from the continents to the coastal oceans.

  4. Dating Pliocene lacustrine sediments in the central Jordan Valley, Israel — Implications for cosmogenic burial dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, M.; Matmon, A.; Fink, D.; Ron, H.; Niedermann, S.

    2011-05-01

    Cosmogenic burial dating of sediments is usually used at sites with relatively simple or known exposure-burial histories, such as in caves. In an attempt to extend the applicability of the method to other common geological settings (i.e. the dating of late Neogene sedimentary formations), where much less is known about the exposure-burial history, we apply the cosmogenic burial method on Pliocene-early Pleistocene (1.5-4.5 Ma) lacustrine sediments in the central Jordan Valley, Israel. 26Al, 10Be, and 21Ne concentrations in quartz were obtained from a 170 m tectonically-tilted section. Assuming fast burial and no post-burial production we obtained burial ages which range between 3.5 and 5.3 Ma. Integrating simple geological reasoning and the cosmogenic nuclide data, post burial production is found to be insignificant. We also found that the samples contain two distinct populations of grains (chert and quartz) from two different sources which experienced different pre-burial exposure histories. The cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in the samples are in accordance with those expected for the mixing of two sources, and the burial ages computed for both end members agree. Theoretical calculations of two-source mixing show that initial 26Al/10Be ratios are depressed relative to the expected surface ratios and may result in burial ages overestimated by as much as 500 ka. Using ages derived from cosmogenic nuclides, independent age constraints, and magnetostratigraphy we correlate the bottom of the section to the Cochiti Normal magnetic subchron (4.19-4.30 Ma) within the Reverse Gilbert chron, and the top of the section to the Reverse subchron at the top of the Gilbert chron (3.60-4.19 Ma).

  5. Molecular analysis of ancient caries

    PubMed Central

    Simón, Marc; Montiel, Rafael; Smerling, Andrea; Solórzano, Eduvigis; Díaz, Nancy; Álvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A.; Jiménez-Marín, Andrea R.; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2014-01-01

    An 84 base pair sequence of the Streptococcus mutans virulence factor, known as dextranase, has been obtained from 10 individuals from the Bronze Age to the Modern Era in Europe and from before and after the colonization in America. Modern samples show four polymorphic sites that have not been found in the ancient samples studied so far. The nucleotide and haplotype diversity of this region have increased over time, which could be reflecting the footprint of a population expansion. While this segment has apparently evolved according to neutral evolution, we have been able to detect one site that is under positive selection pressure both in present and past populations. This study is a first step to study the evolution of this microorganism, analysed using direct evidence obtained from ancient remains. PMID:25056622

  6. Ancient DNA and human history.

    PubMed

    Slatkin, Montgomery; Racimo, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    We review studies of genomic data obtained by sequencing hominin fossils with particular emphasis on the unique information that ancient DNA (aDNA) can provide about the demographic history of humans and our closest relatives. We concentrate on nuclear genomic sequences that have been published in the past few years. In many cases, particularly in the Arctic, the Americas, and Europe, aDNA has revealed historical demographic patterns in a way that could not be resolved by analyzing present-day genomes alone. Ancient DNA from archaic hominins has revealed a rich history of admixture between early modern humans, Neanderthals, and Denisovans, and has allowed us to disentangle complex selective processes. Information from aDNA studies is nowhere near saturation, and we believe that future aDNA sequences will continue to change our understanding of hominin history. PMID:27274045

  7. Ancient DNA and human history

    PubMed Central

    Slatkin, Montgomery; Racimo, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    We review studies of genomic data obtained by sequencing hominin fossils with particular emphasis on the unique information that ancient DNA (aDNA) can provide about the demographic history of humans and our closest relatives. We concentrate on nuclear genomic sequences that have been published in the past few years. In many cases, particularly in the Arctic, the Americas, and Europe, aDNA has revealed historical demographic patterns in a way that could not be resolved by analyzing present-day genomes alone. Ancient DNA from archaic hominins has revealed a rich history of admixture between early modern humans, Neanderthals, and Denisovans, and has allowed us to disentangle complex selective processes. Information from aDNA studies is nowhere near saturation, and we believe that future aDNA sequences will continue to change our understanding of hominin history. PMID:27274045

  8. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India*

    PubMed Central

    Abhyankar, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry. PMID:25838724

  9. Ancient Celestial Spheres from Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrakoudis, S.; Papaspyrou, P.; Petoussis, V.; Moussas, X.

    2006-08-01

    We present several ancient celestial spheres from the 8th century B.C. found throughout Greece, mainly in Thessaly, at the temple of Itonia Athena, but also in Olympia and other places. These celestial spheres have an axis, equator and several meridians and they have several markings with the symbol of stars (today's symbol for the Sun) $\\odot$. Such instruments could have been used to measure the time, the latitude of a location, or the coordinates of stars.

  10. Nanoscience of an ancient pigment.

    PubMed

    Johnson-McDaniel, Darrah; Barrett, Christopher A; Sharafi, Asma; Salguero, Tina T

    2013-02-01

    We describe monolayer nanosheets of calcium copper tetrasilicate, CaCuSi(4)O(10), which have strong near-IR luminescence and are amenable to solution processing methods. The facile exfoliation of bulk CaCuSi(4)O(10) into nanosheets is especially surprising in view of the long history of this material as the colored component of Egyptian blue, a well-known pigment from ancient times. PMID:23215240