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Sample records for andre sao paulo

  1. University of Sao Paulo

    SciTech Connect

    Acquadro, J.C.; Added, N.; Ferraretto, M.

    1995-08-01

    Argonne has agreed to assist the University of Sao Paulo (USP) in the construction of a small superconducting heavy-ion linac to serve as an energy booster for projectiles from their 8-MV tandem. This booster will be similar in many respects to the ANL booster linac built in the late 1970s. The ANL contribution to this project will be (1) to build (at USP expense) 14 split-ring niobium resonators and some of the associated rf electronics, (2) to provide technical information, and (3) to train USP staff members in several phases of superconducting-linac technology. Two Brazilian engineers worked at Argonne for one year, gaining experience in cryogenics and in superconducting-resonator technology. Another engineer worked on the new control system at ATLAS for two years, the first year supported by Sao Paulo and the second with direct ANL support. Sao Paulo personnel returned to ANL in 1993 for assembly and testing of the first batch of completed resonators. The fabrication of the resonators will be completed by early 1995 when the Sao Paulo personnel will come back for final assembly and testing. Fabrication of electronics modules at ANL is still in progress.

  2. Promoting the Earth Charter in Sao Paulo's Municipal Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inojosa, Rose Marie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the process of widespread teacher training based on the Earth Charter in the municipal area of Sao Paulo, Brazil, South America. This effort diffused knowledge of the Earth Charter through 800 educators and by means of them, to one million children. This process was developed by the team from UMAPAZ--Open University of the…

  3. Biological effects of air pollution in Sao Paulo and Cubatao

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, G.M.S.; Saldiva, P.H.; Pasqualucci, C.A.; Massad, E.; Martins M de, E.; Zin, W.A.; Cardoso, W.V.; Criado, P.M.; Komatsuzaki, M.; Sakae, R.S. )

    1989-08-01

    Rats were used as biological indicators of air quality in two heavily polluted Brazilian towns: Sao Paulo and Cubatao. They were exposed for 6 months to ambient air in areas where the pollution was known to be severe. The following parameters were studied and compared to those of control animals: respiratory mechanics, mucociliary transport, morphometry of respiratory epithelium and distal air spaces, and general morphological alterations. The results showed lesions of the distal and upper airways in rats exposed in Cubatao, whereas the animals from Sao Paulo showed only alterations of the upper airways but of greater intensity than those observed in the Cubatao group. There are both qualitative and quantitative differences in the pollutants of these places: in Sao Paulo automobile exhaust gases dominate and in Cubatao the pollution is due mainly to particulates of industrial sources. The correlation of the pathological findings with the pollutants is discussed and it is concluded that biological indicators are useful to monitor air pollutions which reached dangerous levels in Sao Paulo and Cubatao.

  4. Discussing the air pollution of Sao Paulo City -- Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Assuncao, J.V. de; Filho, J.B.G.

    1999-07-01

    The city of Sao Paulo has a population of about 10 million people (1998 estimate) and a vehicle fleet of about 4.5 millions. A great increase in the ratio of persons per car occurred in the last 28 years, starting from 11.4 persons per car in 1970 and reaching 2.2 persons per car in 1998, a ratio similar to those in developed countries. The population of the city represents about 6% of the Brazilian population, 30% of the State population, and 61% of Metropolitan population. In the 60's and in the beginning of the 70's the air quality in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region and in Sao Paulo City was more influenced by industrial sources. Nowadays emissions in the metropolitan region come mainly from vehicles (94.8% of CO, 94.9% of NO{sub x}, 94.3% of HC and 54.1% of SO{sub x}, in 1997) and 40% contribution in relation to inhaling particulate (PM10) and in the city of Sao Paulo the contribution of vehicle emissions is the same or greater. Light-duty vehicles are powered by gasohol, a mixture of 78% gasoline and 22%, ethanol, and by plain ethanol. Heavy-duty vehicles are diesel oil fueled. A great concern exists in relation to health effects of small sized particulate and photochemical oxidants and its precursors. Besides the implementation of a strong air pollution control for stationary sources of particulate and sulfur dioxide, since the 70's and the existence of a federal law that established a program of emission control for new vehicles in 1986, only the sulfur dioxide control program was successful since the air quality levels of other common pollutants are still above the air quality standards for some part of the year. Other attempts were made in the last years, like the prohibition of free circulation of 20% of cars each day during the weekdays (rodizio of cars). Even with that the air quality levels don't meet the standards the all year, and other measures must be taken to solve the problem.

  5. Downward Atmospheric Longwave Radiation in the City of Sao Paulo

    SciTech Connect

    Barbaro, Eduardo W.; Oliveira, Amauri P.; Soares, Jacyra; Ferreira, Mauricio J.; Boznar, Marija Z.; Mlakar, Primoz; Escobedo, Joao F.

    2009-03-11

    This work evaluates objectively the consistency and quality of a 9 year dataset based on 5 minute average values of downward longwave atmospheric (LW) emission, shortwave radiation, temperature and relative humidity. All these parameters were observed simultaneously and continuously from 1997 to 2006 in the IAG micrometeorological platform, located at the top of the IAG-USP building. The pyrgeometer dome emission effect was removed using neural network technique reducing the downward long wave atmospheric emission error to 3.5%. The comparison, between the monthly average values of LW emission observed in Sao Paulo and satellite estimates from SRB-NASA project, indicated a very good agreement. Furthermore, this work investigates the performance of 10 empirical expressions to estimate the LW emission at the surface. The comparison between the models indicates that Brunt's one presents the better results, with smallest ''MBE,''''RMSE'' and biggest ''d'' index of agreement, therefore Brunt is the most indicated model to estimate LW emission under clear sky conditions in the city of Sao Paulo.

  6. The Sao Paulo Microtron: Equipment and Planned Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, M. N.; Maidana, N. L.; Vanin, V. R.

    2007-10-26

    The Linear Accelerator Laboratory (LAL) of the Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFUSP) is building a two-stage racetrack microtron, which will generate continuous wave electron beams with energies up to 38 MeV. This paper describes the characteristics of the accelerator, and reports on the experimental equipment that will be available in order to pursue the photonuclear physics research program. Operation will begin with the first stage (5 MeV), and concentrate on NRF (Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence) measurements and radiation physics studies. Planned experiments for the second stage explore the cw character of the beam on coincidence experiments. A photon tagger has been already tested with radioactive sources and is ready to be installed. Gamma and neutron detector arrays are being developed for the detailed study of photoneutron reactions. Plans include the study of NRF and pygmy resonances, near the neutron binding energy.

  7. [The demographic characteristics of slaves in Sao Paulo, 1777-1829].

    PubMed

    Luna, F V

    1992-01-01

    "The introduction and development of sugar and coffee production in Sao Paulo [Brazil] led to deep changes in its populational structure. The large number of slaves who entered the province, mainly adult men, destroyed the population's relative balance, both in terms of sex and age structures. The study, based on manuscripts known as ¿Macos de Populacao' which belong to the Arquivo do Estado de Sao Paulo, covers twenty-five different communities in Sao Paulo, in the years 1777, 1804 and 1829. The demographic characteristics of the slaves and their relation with economic variables were analysed.... Special attention was given to the slaves' marriage and their reproductive capacity." (EXCERPT) PMID:12321100

  8. Concept and Use of Psychoactive Drugs Among University Students in the Sao Paulo Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanini, Antonio C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a medical-social questionnaire made by members of the Scientific Commission of the First International Congress of Drug Addiction Among University Students, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1974. (Author)

  9. New aerosol particles formation in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vela, Angel; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Ynoue, Rita

    2016-04-01

    The Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), in the southeast region of Brazil, is considered a megalopolis comprised of Sao Paulo city and more 38 municipalities. The air pollutant emissions in the SPMA are related to the burning of the fuels: etanol, gasohol (gasoline with 25% ethanol) and diesel. According to CETESB (2013), the road vehicles contributed up to about 97, 87, and 80% of CO, VOCs and NOx emissions in 2012, respectively, being most of NOx associated to diesel combustion and most of CO and VOCs from gasohol and ethanol combustion. Studies conducted on ambient air pollution in the SPMA have shown that black carbon (BC) explains 21% of mass concentration of PM2.5 compared with 40% of organic carbon (OC), 20% of sulfates, and 12% of soil dust (Andrade et al., 2012). Most of the observed ambient PM2.5 mass concentration usually originates from precursors gases such as sulphur dioxide (SO2), ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and VOCs as well as through the physico-chemical processes such as the oxidation of low volatile hydrocarbons transferring to the condensed phase (McMurry et al., 2004). The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry model (WRF-Chem; Grell et al. 2005), configured with three nested grid cells: 75, 15, and 3 km, is used as photochemical modeling to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to evolution of particles number and mass size distribution from a vehicular emission model developed by the IAG-USP laboratory of Atmospheric Processes and based on statistical information of vehicular activity. The spatial and temporal distributions of emissions in the finest grid cell are based on road density products compiled by the OpenStreetMap project and measurements performed inside tunnels in the SPMA, respectively. WRF-Chem simulation with coupled primary aerosol (dust and sea-salt) and biogenic emission modules and aerosol radiative effects turned on is conducted as the baseline simulation (Case_0) to evaluate the model

  10. Vehicular emissions of organic particulate matter in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, B. S.; Andrade, M. F.; Herckes, P.; Dusek, U.; Röckmann, T.; Holzinger, R.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicular emissions have a strong impact on air pollution in big cities. Many factors affect these emissions: type of vehicle, type of fuel, cruising velocity, and brake use. This study focused on emissions of organic compounds by Light (LDV) and Heavy (HDV) duty vehicle exhaust. The study was performed in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on different fuels: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol), hydrated ethanol, and diesel (with 5 % of biodiesel). The vehicular emissions are an important source of pollutants and the principal contribution to fine particulate matter (smaller than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) in Sao Paulo. The experiments were performed in two tunnels: Janio Quadros (TJQ) where 99 % of the vehicles are LDV, and Rodoanel Mario Covas (TRA) where up to 30 % of the fleet was HDV. The PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively, using two samplers operating in parallel. The samples were analyzed by Thermal-Desorption Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS), and by Thermal-Optical Transmittance (TOT). The organic aerosol (OA) desorbed at TD-PTR-MS represented around 30 % of the OA estimated by the TOT method, mainly due to the different desorption temperatures, with a maximum of 870 and 350 °C for TOT and TD-PTR-MS, respectively. Average emission factors (EF) organic aerosol (OA) and organic carbon (OC) were calculated for HDV and LDV fleet. We found that HDV emitted more OA and OC than LDV, and that OC emissions represented 36 and 43 % of total PM2.5 emissions from LDV and HDV, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDV and LDV exhibited distinct features. Nitrogen-containing compounds measured in the desorbed material up to 350 °C contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning. Additionally, 70 % of the organic compounds measured from the aerosol

  11. The Social Distribution of Reports of Health-Related Concerns among Adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moura, S. L.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the health-related concerns of adolescents living on streets as compared to poor and privileged adolescents living with their families in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The different groups of respondents were similar in terms of individuals' fear of disease and lack of concern about health in old age. AIDS and cancer were feared by…

  12. Unravelling the Drivers of the Recent Drought over Sao Paulo (Brazil) using HadCM3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattnayak, K. C.; Tindall, J. C.; Brienen, R.; Baker, J.; Spracklen, D. V.; Gloor, E. U.

    2015-12-01

    Since ca. 2010, Sao Paulo has struggled with a multi-year drought. Reservoir levels of Sao Paulo, south-America's largest city, are at a record low level, and as a result the city has implemented water-controlling measures. Usually, the rainy season runs from October through March, bringing important rain for this city. However, over the last 5 years, Sao Paulo has experienced multiple years of below average rainfall. In this study, we try to explain the climatic drivers and mechanisms behind the observed drought over Sao Paulo using a combination of observations and model simulations. We analyse observed precipitation, air temperature and sea surface temperature (SST) datasets over the recent past to characterise the climate anomalies and visualize the extent of the drought. We then use the Hadley Centre Climate model (HadCM3) with prescribed observed SST anomalies to probe the possible causes behind the drought. This analysis will show us possible climatic drivers behind the drought in the most densely populated region of South America.

  13. The new structure of the gas industry in the State of Sao Paulo

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, J.A.J.

    1998-07-01

    The rapidly increasing availability of natural gas is leading to a significant increase in the importance of the gas industry in Brazil. This new era is already causing major changes in the existing gas distribution companies. Gas distribution concessions are a natural monopoly and the growth in demand for this energy source will require that these growing concessions are regulated. The south/south-east of Brazil is the center of the country's industrial base and the State of Sao Paulo is where most of the manufacturing activity is located. In addition, natural gas from Bolivia is scheduled to arrive in the State of Sao Paulo at the end of 1998. These two facts combined will mean major changes in the operations of manufacturing industry and in the gas supply business. Comparing the experience faced by other countries where a competitive environment in the gas industry has been introduced with privatization programs and the dismantlement of monopolies, this paper attempts to look into the future of the natural gas industry in the State of Sao Paulo in respect to the possible regulation that might be applicable, focusing on the new regulatory framework proposed to the gas industry sector and the perspectives for the introduction of the competition in gas industry in the State of Sao Paulo.

  14. "Conscientizacao" through Graffiti Literacies in the Streets of a Sao Paulo Neighborhood: An Ecosocial Semiotic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iddings, Ana Christina DaSilva; McCafferty, Steven G.; da Silva, Maria Lucia Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we applied an ecosocial semiotic theoretical framework to the analysis of graffiti literacies in the Vila Madalena neighborhood of Sao Paulo, Brazil, to inquire about the nature and processes of "conscientizacao" (critical awareness) for adult street dwellers who had no or little ability to read and write (as traditionally defined).…

  15. FAP Group Supervision: Reporting Educational Experiences at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wielenska, Regina Christina; Oshiro, Claudia Kami Bastos

    2012-01-01

    The present article describes and analyzes educational experiences related to the teaching of FAP for psychology graduate students and psychiatry residents at the University of Sao Paulo. The first experience involved psychology graduate students and includes an example of the shaping process occurring within the supervisor-supervisee…

  16. Landscape risk factors for attacks of vampire bats on cattle in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Murilo Novaes; Monteiro, Antonio Miguel Vieira; Lewis, Nicola; Gonçalves, Celso Alberto; Filho, Vladimir de Souza Nogueira

    2010-02-01

    Vampire-bat (Desmodus rotundus) attacks on cattle are a major concern for cattle-raising area. Blood loss and paralytic rabies due to bat bites can impose severe losses on the livestock. We took four municipalities inside the Sao Joao da Boa Vista veterinary district (Sao Paulo, Brazil) as a study area and tested a set of landscape features for spatial correlation with distance to areas in which vampire-bat attacks on cattle were documented. Bat- and cattle-related data from the Sao Paulo State Rabies Control Program were used. Landscape data (first-order rivers and their tributaries, main roads, railways and urban areas) were obtained from official cartographic agencies; forest, sugarcane and pasture data were acquired from remote-sensing mappings. The study area was taken as a grid split into 178 cells. Each 4kmx4km cell was filled with bat, cattle and landscape data. Our analysis detected that grid cells that were closer to areas of bat attacks on cattle had higher cattle density and a greater percentage of the land committed to sugarcane cropping, and were close to forest fragments. These results shed light on the need for rethink the Rabies Control Program strategies for defining the surveillance of vampire-bat populations and rabies control in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. PMID:20004487

  17. Geologic mapping of the Bauru Group in Sao Paulo state by LANDSAT images. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Godoy, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    The occurrence of the Bauru Group in Sao Paulo State was studied, with emphasis on the western plateau. Regional geological mapping was carried out on a 1:250.000 scale with the help of MSS/LANDSAT images. The visual interpretation of images consisted basically of identifying different spectral characteristics of the geological units using channels 5 and 7. Complementary studies were made for treatment of data with an Interative Image (I-100) analyser in order to facilitate the extraction of information, particularly for areas where visual interpretation proved to be difficult. Regional characteristics provided by MSS/LANDSAT images, coupled with lithostratigraphic studies carried out in the areas of occurrence of Bauru Group sediments, enabled the homogenization of criteria for the subdivision of this group. A spatial distribution of the mapped units was obtained for the entire State of Sao Paulo and results were correlated with proposed stratigraphic divisions.

  18. Hospitalization flow in the public and private systems in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness. RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients. CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. PMID:26465661

  19. Seasonal behavior of tropospheric ozone in the Sao Paulo (Brazil) metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massambani, Oswaldo; Andrade, Fatima

    This paper presents a study of the seasonal behavior of tropospheric ozone and its precursors in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area as observed during 1987. The 03, NO, NO 2, NMHC, and meteorological data were collected at an air quality station in downtown Sao Paulo by the State Environmental Protection Agency (CETESB). The air pollutant measurements were related to both daily total insolation and the number of hours of insolation measured at the Sao Paulo University Climatological Station. Correlations between both radiation parameters and total daily integrated ozone amounts were performed. The total number of sunshine hours was highly correlated to mean hourly ozone concentration values during each month of 1987. The seasonal behavior of NO, NO 2, and NMHC was also studied. Two diurnal peaks in average NO concentration were observed, i.e. one in early morning and one in early evening; both were due to emissions from urban mobile sources. The magnitude of these peaks doubled in value during the winter months. Its diurnal concentration variation was inverse to that of the 03; similar behavior was found for NO 2 and for NMHC. The data presented herein show the influence of solar radiation and of ozone precursors on photochemical smog formation in this tropical region.

  20. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Deployment, Operation and Initial Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, R.; Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Rudlosky, S.; Goodman, S. J.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anseimo, E. M.; Pinto, O.

    2012-01-01

    An 8-10 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network is being deployed in the vicinity of Sao Paulo to create the SP-LMA for total lightning measurements in association with the international CHUVA [Cloud processes of the main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribution to cloud resolving modeling and to the GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement)] field campaign. Besides supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives and the Sao Luiz do Paraitinga intensive operation period (IOP) in November-December 2011, the SP-LMA will support the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), both sensors on the NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R), presently under development and scheduled for a 2015 launch. The proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready for use on "day1" following the launch of GOES-R. A preliminary survey of potential sites in the vicinity of Sao Paulo was conducted in December 2009 and January 2010, followed up by a detailed survey in July 2010, with initial network deployment scheduled for October 2010. However, due to a delay in the Sao Luiz do Paraitinga IOP, the SP-LMA will now be installed in July 2011 and operated for one year. Spacing between stations is on the order of 15-30 km, with the network "diameter" being on the order of 30-40 km, which provides good 3-D lightning mapping 150 km from the network center. Optionally, 1-3 additional stations may be deployed in the vicinity of Sao Jos dos Campos.

  1. Atlantic tropical forest mapping in the northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Simi, R. Jr.; Almeida, S.A.S.; Manso, A.P.

    1997-06-01

    The northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State includes the cities of Ubatuba, Caraguatatuba, Sao Sebastiao and Ilha Bela. Large development projects, such as road and highway constructions and joint real estate exploration of susceptible coastal ecosystems have threatened the harmony and ecological stability of these ecosystems. Recently, the Atlantic tropical rain forest has been the most destructed ecosystem in the coastal zone in response to real estate investments in urban areas along the main roads. In the northern coastal zone of Sao Paulo State, 80% of the counties are included in the State Park of Serra do Mar. As tourism is a strong growing economical activity, as well as coastal production, it should be of interest to create a plan for sustainable development. The objective of this study is to map and characterize land use cover changes with emphasis on the Atlantic tropical rain forest degradation using Landsat TM images. Preliminary results for land use cover changes indicate that the Atlantic tropical rain forest was reduced by 6.1 % during the period of July 1992 and October 1995.

  2. Visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil: spatial and space-time analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cardim, Marisa Furtado Mozini; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Chiaravalloti, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To perform both space and space-time evaluations of visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS The population considered in the study comprised autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis and deaths resulting from it in Sao Paulo, between 1999 and 2013. The analysis considered the western region of the state as its studied area. Thematic maps were created to show visceral leishmaniasis dissemination in humans in the municipality. Spatial analysis tools Kernel and Kernel ratio were used to respectively obtain the distribution of cases and deaths and the distribution of incidence and mortality. Scan statistics were used in order to identify spatial and space-time clusters of cases and deaths. RESULTS The visceral leishmaniasis cases in humans, during the studied period, were observed to occur in the western portion of Sao Paulo, and their territorial extension mainly followed the eastbound course of the Marechal Rondon highway. The incidences were characterized as two sequences of concentric ellipses of decreasing intensities. The first and more intense one was found to have its epicenter in the municipality of Castilho (where the Marechal Rondon highway crosses the border of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and the second one in Bauru. Mortality was found to have a similar behavior to incidence. The spatial and space-time clusters of cases were observed to coincide with the two areas of highest incidence. Both the space-time clusters identified, even without coinciding in time, were started three years after the human cases were detected and had the same duration, that is, six years. CONCLUSIONS The expansion of visceral leishmaniasis in Sao Paulo has been taking place in an eastbound direction, focusing on the role of highways, especially Marechal Rondon, in this process. The space-time analysis detected the disease occurred in cycles, in different spaces and time periods. These meetings, if considered, may

  3. Airport Choice in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena; Muller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Using the conditional LOGIT model, this paper addresses the airport choice in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area. In this region, Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) and Congonhas Airport (CGH) compete for passengers flying to several domestic destinations. The airport choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers perform considering airport access characteristics, airline level of service characteristics and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. It was found that access time to the airports better explain the airport choice than access distance, whereas direct flight frequencies gives better explanation to the airport choice than the indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) flight frequencies. Out of 15 tested variables, passenger experience with the analyzed airports was the variable that best explained the airport choice in the region. Model specifications considering 1, 2 or 3 variables were tested. The model specification most adjusted to the observed data considered access time, direct flight frequencies in the travel period (morning or afternoon peak) and passenger experience with the analyzed airports. The influence of these variables was therefore analyzed across market segments according to departure airport and flight duration criteria. The choice of GRU (located neighboring Sao Paulo city) is not well explained by the rationality of access time economy and the increase of the supply of direct flight frequencies, while the choice of CGH (located inside Sao Paulo city) is. Access time was found to be more important to passengers flying shorter distances while direct flight frequencies in the travel period were more significant to those flying longer distances. Keywords: Airport choice, Multiple airport region, Conditional LOGIT model, Access time, Flight frequencies, Passenger experience with the analyzed airports, Transportation planning

  4. Finding Aedes aegypti in a natural breeding site in an urban zone, Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Camara, Tamara Nunes; Urbinatti, Paulo Roberto; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This is the description of how nine Aedes aegypti larvae were found in a natural breeding site in the Pinheiros neighborhood, city of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil. The record was conducted in December 2014, during an entomological surveillance program of dengue virus vectors, with an active search of potential breeding sites, either artificial or natural. Finding Ae. aegypti larvae in a tree hole shows this species’ ability to use both artificial and natural environments as breeding sites and habitats, which points towards the importance of maintaining continuous surveillance on this mosquito in all kinds of water-holding containers. PMID:26982959

  5. Elevation of a cane-growing area of the state of Sao Paulo using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Mendonca, F. J.; Lee, D. C. L.; Tardin, A. T.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Chen, S. C.; Lucht, L. A. M.; Moreira, M. A.; Delima, A. M.; Maia, F. C. S.

    1981-01-01

    Images at a scale of 1:250.000 were visually interpreted for identification and area estimates of sugar cane plantations in Sao Paulo. The basic criteria for crop identification were the spectral characteristics of channels 5 and 7 and their temporal variations observed from different LANDSAT passes. Using this technique, it was possible to map the sugar cane areas as well as the sugar cane already harvested. An area of 801,950 hectares was estimated within the study area. The confidence interval of correct classification ranged from 87.11% to 94.71%.

  6. Lidar/photometry studies at Sao Paulo in the 2003-2005 period, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landulfo, Eduardo; Sawamura, Patricia; Uehara, Sandro T.; Nakaema, Walter M.; Torres, Ani S.; Lopes, Fábio J. S.; Matos, Caio A.; de Jesus, Wellington C.

    2007-09-01

    A lidar system has been operational at Sao Paulo, Brazil (23° S, 46° W) since 2001 and colocated is a sunphotometer belonging to AERONET . During this last years aerosol properties has been extracted from both systems and seasonal trends have been observed specially when long range transport takes place bringing plumes with biomass burning aerosol which can distinctively be extracted from a heavy loaded atmosphere as SÃ#o Paulo. These events trigger poor air quality conditions which can be easily correlated. The parameters for studying these patterns are Aerosol Optical Depth, Angström Exponent and Lidar Ratio. We show here some case studies belonging to years 2003, 2004 and 2005.

  7. Quantifying impacts on air quality of vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Godoy, José Marcus; Luiza Godoy, Maria; Junior, Djacinto

    2016-04-01

    Vehicular emissions in megacities such as Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro are increasingly becoming a global issue. The São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in Southeast of Brazil, is a megacity with a population of 18 million people, with 7 million cars and large-scale industrial emissions. Rio de Janeiro is also a large city with different meteorology than São Paulo. All cars in Brazil runs gasohol, with 23% ethanol in gasoline, and for the last 10 years, flex cars that can run on gasohol, ethanol or any mixture dominate the market. Overall ethanol accounts for about 30-40% of fuel burned in both cities. To improve the understanding of vehicular emission impacts on aerosol composition and life cycle in these two large megacities a source apportionment study, combining online and offline measurements, was performed. Aerosols were collected for one year to capture seasonal variability at 4 sites in each city, with inorganic and organic aerosol component being sampled. Organic and elemental carbon were measured using a Sunset Laboratory Dual Optics (transmission and reflectance) Carbon Analyzer and about 22 trace elements has been measured using polarized X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). Aerosol mass and black carbon were also measured, as well as trace gases to help in aerosol source apportionment. In Sao Paulo, the average PM2.5 mass concentration obtained varied from 9.6 to 12.2 μg m-3 for the several sites, and similar concentrations were measured in Rio de Janeiro. At all sites, organic matter (OM) has dominated fine mode aerosol concentration with 42 to 60% of the aerosol mass. EC accounted for 21 to 31% of fine mode aerosol mass concentration. Sulfate accounted for 21 to 26% of PM2.5 for the sites. Aerosol source apportionment was done with receptor analysis and integration with online data such as PTR-MS, Aethalometers, Nephelometers and ACSM helped to apportion vehicular emissions. For the 8 sites operated in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, vehicular

  8. The Prince, the Captain and "The State": An Examination of the Mesquita Family Ownership of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" to 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etsinger, Jean

    Julio Mesquita joined the staff of "O Estado de Sao Paulo" in 1885 and became a director in 1891, when he also began his first term as a deputy of the Sao Paulo state assembly. Until his death in 1927, Mesquita guided the newspaper's growth in all respects--editorial, political, technological, and economic. Julio de Mesquita Filho assumed…

  9. Two Moments of School Architecture in Sao Paulo: Ramos de Azevedo and His Republican Pioneering Schools/Helio Duarte and the "Educational Agreement"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lima, Ana Gabriela Godinho

    2005-01-01

    There are two peculiar moments in the history of the "struggle for national education", which, specifically in the city of Sao Paulo, capital of the State of Sao Paulo, one of the major and richest cities in Brazil, produced very interesting results in school architecture. The first moment happened in the period called the "First Republic"…

  10. Prevalence and populations of Listeria monocytogenes in meat products retailed in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Yoshida, Júlia T U; Franco, Bernadette D G de Melo

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of the populations and serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes in 552 refrigerated samples of ground beef, chicken leg, hot dog, and pork sausage collected in supermarkets in the city of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, between May 2008 and July 2009. The supermarkets were selected after stratification by geographical region and by random draw. Tests for presence and enumeration of L. monocytogenes were based on ISO 11290-1:1996/Amd.1:2004 and ISO 11290-2:1998 methods, respectively. Listeria spp. were detected in 469 (85.0%) of the studied meat products. The most frequently isolated species was L. innocua (64.1%), followed by L. monocytogenes (48.7%), L. welshimeri (13.4%), L. seeligeri (7.1%), L. ivanovii (0.2%), and L. grayi subspecies murrayi (0.2%). L. monocytogenes was detected in 269 (48.7%) samples, with highest prevalence in ground beef (59.4%) followed by chicken legs (58.0%), pork sausages (39.8%), and hot dogs (37.7%). The populations were <10(2) colony-forming units/g in the majority of samples (62.5%). Prevalence of serotypes varied according to the type of meat product. These data are relevant for estimating the risks of listeriosis associated with consumption of meat products in Sao Paulo, and for establishing science-based intervention strategies aimed at reducing these risks, especially for pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals. PMID:25407460

  11. Source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol in Sao Paulo using 13C and 14C measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, Beatriz; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Holzinger, Rupert; Röckmann, Thomas; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Dusek, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo is affected by high aerosol concentrations, which contain a large fraction of organic material. Up to date, not much is known about the composition and origin of the organic aerosol in this city. We present the first source apportionment of the carbonaceous aerosol fraction in Sao Paulo, using stable (13C) and radioactive carbon isotopes (14C). 14C provides a clear-cut distinction between fossil sources, which contain no 14C, and contemporary sources such as biofuels, biomass burning, or biogenic sources, which contain a typical contemporary 14C/12C ratio. 13C can be used to distinguish C3 plants, such as maize and sugarcane, from C4 plants. This can help to identify a possible impact of sugarcane field burning in the rural areas of Sao Paulo State on the aerosol carbon in the city. In the first part of the study, we compare two tunnel studies: Tunnel 1 is frequented only by light duty vehicles, which run mainly on mixtures of gasoline with ethanol (gasohol, 25% ethanol and 85% gasoline) or hydrated ethanol (5% water and 95% ethanol). Tunnel 2 contains a significant fraction of heavy-duty diesel vehicles, and therefore the fraction of biofuels in the average fleet is lower. Comparison of 14C in organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) shows that in both tunnels there is no significant contribution of biofuels to EC. Combusting ethanol-gasoline fuels in a vehicle engine does apparently not result in significant EC formation from ethanol. Biofuels contribute around 45% to OC in Tunnel 1 an only 20% in Tunnel 2, reflecting a strong impact of diesel vehicles in Tunnel 2. In the second part of the study we conduct a source apportionment of ambient aerosol carbon collected in a field study during winter (July-August) 2012. Ambient EC has two main sources, vehicular emissions and biomass burning. We estimate a contribution of vehicular sources to EC of roughly 90% during weekdays and 80% during weekends, using the 14C values measured in

  12. SURVEY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS ASSOCIATED WITH AUTOMOTIVE EMISSIONS IN THE URBAN AIRSHED OF SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (MRSP), Brazil, is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world (population 17 million, approx.) and relies heavily on alcohol-based fuels for automobiles. It is estimated that about 40% of the total volume of fuel is ethanol with som...

  13. Environmental benefits of replacing fuel oil by natural gas in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, S.; Assuncao, J.V. de

    1998-12-31

    The Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo (Brazil) has a population 16.322 million people (1995 estimate) living in an area of 8,051 km2 with most of them concentrated in the city of Sao Paulo with 9.8 million people and 4.6 million cars. Although with an air quality better than some other Latin American megacities such as Mexico and Santiago do Chile, the air quality still exceeds the national air quality standards. In 2/17/1993 Brazilian Petroleum Company (PETROBRAS) and the Bolivian Petroleum Company (Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos -- YPFB) signed an agreement to bring natural gas from Bolivia to the south and southeast of Brazil. The end of the construction of the gas pipeline will be in 1999, and it will deliver 4 million Nm3/day of natural gas to COMGAS Sao Paulo State Gas Company. This amount will increase to 8.1 million Nm3/day by the year 2006, that will be sufficient to supply the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region market need at that time. In this study an estimate of the influence in the air quality was performed supposing the substitution of fuel oil by natural gas in industry and also in diesel buses. The results showed that there will be benefits in relation to sulfur dioxide, PM10, greenhouse gases and trace elements, and negligible effects in relation to NO{sub x}, NMTOC and carbon monoxide.

  14. Education, Training and Employment in Small-Scale Enterprises: Three Industries in Sao Paulo, Brazil. IIEP Research Report No. 63.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Elenice M.; Caillods, Francoise

    Despite the prophecies forecasting their probable disappearance or annihilation, small-scale enterprises have persisted in the Brazilian industrial structure since 1950. To account for the survival of small firms in Brazil, specifically in the state of Sao Paulo, a study examined 100 small firms in three industrial sectors: clothing, mechanical…

  15. Body fat distribution in stunted compared with normal-height children from the shantytowns of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether central fat distribution varies between children who were growth retarded as young children, compared to normal height children from the same impoverished communities of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Research methods and procedures: A prospectiv...

  16. The Water Crisis in Sao Paulo City: Drought and its Climate Connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro Lima, C. H.; Lall, U.

    2014-12-01

    In 2014, Sao Paulo city had its largest water shortage in history. By the end of the first half of 2014, the Cantareira system of water reservoirs, which is responsible for supplying fresh water for about 9 million people in the city, dried to less than 10% of its active storage, leading to a critical situation and the need to pump water from its dead storage and allocate water from other smaller systems of reservoirs in order to meet the demand of the city and avoid a mandatory water rationing. Understanding and identifying the leading factors for such a water crisis is critical for the security of the city. Here, we investigate historical data of water levels and inflows into the Cantareira system and of the rainfall series over the contributing basin in order to estimate the contribution of climate factors to the variability of the water storage levels at the Cantareira system and shed some light on the main causes of the current water shortage. Preliminary results based on natural inflow data from 1930 to 2014 and water storage levels from 2004 through 2014 reveal that, about 60% of the low frequency (beyond seasonal cycle) variance in the storage level trends is explained by trends in the inflows. A remarkably monotonic decreasing trend of about 1.5% per month in the storage levels is observed since 2010 and is closely associated with a similar decreasing trend in the inflows into the system for the period. In fact, the annual average inflow for 2012 (25.6 m3/s) and 2013 (25.7 m3/s) was 65% of the long term average and still below the 2004-2012 average withdrawal to supply Sao Paulo (26.64 m3/s). By the end of the 2013 rainy season the system had accumulated 63% of its total capacity, but the persistence of low inflows and high temperatures during 2013 did not allowed any increase in the water levels. In 2014 austral summer the system experienced the worst hydrological drought since 1930 based on the available streamflow records. The average inflow for the

  17. Urban land use of the Sao Paulo metropolitan area by automatic analysis of LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Niero, M.; Foresti, C.

    1983-01-01

    The separability of urban land use classes in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo was studied by means of automatic analysis of MSS/LANDSAT digital data. The data were analyzed using the media K and MAXVER classification algorithms. The land use classes obtained were: CBD/vertical growth area, residential area, mixed area, industrial area, embankment area type 1, embankment area type 2, dense vegetation area and sparse vegetation area. The spectral analysis of representative samples of urban land use classes was done using the "Single Cell" analysis option. The classes CBD/vertical growth area, residential area and embankment area type 2 showed better spectral separability when compared to the other classes.

  18. The Impact of Antipsychotic Polytherapy Costs in the Public Health Care in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Razzouk, Denise; Kayo, Monica; Sousa, Aglaé; Gregorio, Guilherme; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Cardoso, Andrea Alves; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Guidelines for the treatment of psychoses recommend antipsychotic monotherapy. However, the rate of antipsychotic polytherapy has increased over the last decade, reaching up to 60% in some settings. Studies evaluating the costs and impact of antipsychotic polytherapy in the health system are scarce. Objective To estimate the costs of antipsychotic polytherapy and its impact on public health costs in a sample of subjects with psychotic disorders living in residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Method A cross-sectional study that used a bottom-up approach for collecting costs data in a public health provider´s perspective. Subjects with psychosis living in 20 fully-staffed residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo were assessed for clinical and psychosocial profile, severity of symptoms, quality of life, use of health services and pharmacological treatment. The impact of polytherapy on total direct costs was evaluated. Results 147 subjects were included, 134 used antipsychotics regularly and 38% were in use of antipsychotic polytherapy. There were no significant differences in clinical and psychosocial characteristics between polytherapy and monotherapy groups. Four variables explained 30% of direct costs: the number of antipsychotics, location of the residential facility, time living in the facility and use of olanzapine. The costs of antipsychotics corresponded to 94.4% of the total psychotropic costs and to 49.5% of all health services use when excluding accommodation costs. Olanzapine costs corresponded to 51% of all psychotropic costs. Conclusion Antipsychotic polytherapy is a huge economic burden to public health service, despite the lack of evidence supporting this practice. Great variations on antipsychotic costs explicit the need of establishing protocols for rational antipsychotic prescriptions and consequently optimising resource allocation. Cost-effectiveness studies are necessary to estimate the best value for money

  19. Cost and benefits of a distribution automation system for the northeast area of Sao Paulo

    SciTech Connect

    Jardini, J.A.; Carvalho, J.C.M.

    1995-12-31

    An evaluation of the costs and the benefits of distribution automation was done for an area in the northeastern part of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The results showed that the savings pay for the automation cost. The major gain relies on the substation supervision and staff reduction. CESP is one of the three utilities responsible for the distribution of electricity in Sao Paulo, a state crossed by the Capricornium Tropic in the southeast of Brazil. CESP generates power (9,3 GW), has transmission (20,000 km), bulk power supply to other utilities, and distributes power to six regions covering 120,000 km2 , where 1,300,000 customers are located. The main regional office is in a town called RIO CLARO, which economy is based on agro industries and manufacturers. RIO CLARO area represents 8% of CESP`s area, has 26% of customers, and is responsible for 37% of the income. In Brazil, the experience with DA is limited, and consists basically on prototypes installed in a few pilot areas, being one in CESP`s area. This prototype includes digital automation of three substations and feeders in GUARUJA, a seaside town. The system has been in operation since 1984 and has proved to be satisfactory. DA has not been given an adequate attention before, because: salaries in Brazil are low if compared to the developed countries; Brazilian computer market was protected up to 1992 meaning that only a few Brazilian manufacturers could offer automation products; foreign products were not available; there was shortage of investment even in the main equipments due to the course of the Brazilian economy. Recently, there has been access to foreign technology, there is a competitive market and offer of good products and maintenance services.

  20. Investigating environmental determinants of diet, physical activity, and overweight among adults in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jaime, Patricia Constante; Duran, Ana Clara; Sarti, Flávia Mori; Lock, Karen

    2011-06-01

    There is worldwide recognition that the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity-related health problems is rapidly increasing in low- and middle-income countries. Environmental determinants of obesity are likely to differ between countries, particularly in those undergoing rapid socioeconomic and nutrition transitions such as Brazil. This study aims to describe some built environment and local food environment variables and to explore their association with the overweight rate and diet and physical activity area-level aggregated indicators of adults living in the city of Sao Paulo, the largest city in Brazil. This formative study includes an ecological analysis of environmental factors associated with overweight across 31 submunicipalities of the city of Sao Paulo using statistical and spatial analyses. Average prevalence of overweight was 41.69% (95% confidence interval 38.74, 44.64), ranging from 27.14% to 60.75% across the submunicipalities. There was a wide geographical variation of both individual diet and physical activity, and indicators of food and built environments, favoring wealthier areas. After controlling for area socioeconomic status, there was a positive correlation between regular fruits and vegetables (FV) intake and density of FV specialized food markets (r = 0.497; p < 0.001), but no relationship between fast-food restaurant density and overweight prevalence was found. A negative association between overweight prevalence and density of parks and public sport facilities was seen (r = -0.527; p < 0.05). Understanding the relationship between local neighborhood environments and increasing rates of poor diet, physical activity, and obesity is essential in countries undergoing rapid economic and urban development, such as Brazil, in order to provide insights for policies to reduce increasing rates of NCDs and food access and health inequalities. PMID:21327549

  1. Reconnaissance for uranium in the coal of Sao Paulo, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haynes, Donald D.; Pierson, Charles T.; White, Max G.

    1958-01-01

    Uranium-bearing coal and carbonaceous shale of the Rio Bonito formation of Pennsylvanian age have been found in the States of Sao Paulo, Santa Catarlna and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The uranium oxide content of the samples collected in the State of Sao Paulo ranges from 0.001 percent to 0.082 percent. The samples collected in Santa Catarina averaged about 0.002 percent uranium oxide; those collected in Rio Grande do Sul, about 0.003 percent uranium oxide. Since the field and laboratory investigations are still in their initial stages, only raw data on the radioactivity and uranium content of Brazilian coals are given in this report.

  2. Indoor Particulate Matter in Houses of Elderly in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segalin, B.; Goncalves, F. T.; Fornaro, A.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), Brazil, is responsible for particulate matter measurements (PM) in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP). However, there are few works with indoor measures for MASP. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the PM in households in the MASP. The chosen households were there are aged people over 60 years old. The measurements were sampled during 24 hours using a Personal Cascade Impactor (SKC Cat No. 225-370), which the following aerodynamic diameters: 10.0 - 2.5 (A); 1.0 - 2.5 (B); 0.50 - 1.0 (C); 0.25 - 0.50 (D), and < 0.25 μm (E). Together the impactor, there is a Leland Legacy pump (SKC Cat No. 100-3002) with a flow of 9L/min. It was analyzed 56 households with average values of PM10 and PM2.5 of 30.7 and 23.4 μg/m3, respectively. On average, 76% of PM10 consists of PM2.5, percentage higher than the outdoor environment (60% - CETESB), and 43% of the PM2.5 consists of PM smaller than 0.25 μm. Among all households, there was no exceedance of thresholds national standards PM10 (120 μg/m3) and PM2.5 (60 μg/m3). However, 10.7% of residences exceeded the PM10 threshold of the World Health Organization (50 μg/m3) and 39.2% for PM2.5 (20 μg/m3). The cluster analysis grouped the measures in the houses in four profiles. In three of them were greater amount of mass in ultrafine particles (E), followed by coarse particles (A) with the minimum in C level. The maximum in E may be due to the high contribution vehicular and secondary aerosol outdoor environment. The secondary maximum in A may be due to particles ressuspension and also arising from outdoors. These three groups differ only by the amount of PM measured in the households; they represent high, medium and low PM concentrations. The fourth group has average concentrations, but it presents a different profile because its maximum is in the D rather than E. All data will be analyzed concerning the possible sources.

  3. Determinants of the use of health care services: multilevel analysis in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo

    PubMed Central

    Chiavegatto, Alexandre Dias Porto; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Malik, Ana Maria; Takaoka, Julia; Viana, Maria Carmen; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo. METHODS Data from the Sao Paulo Megacity study – the Brazilian version of the World Mental Health Survey multicenter study – were used. A total of 3,588 adults living in 69 neighborhoods in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, including 38 municipalities and 31 neighboring districts, were selected using multistratified sampling of the non-institutionalized population. Multilevel Bayesian logistic models were adjusted to identify the individual and contextual determinants of the use of health care services in the past 12 months and presence of a regular physician for routine care. RESULTS The contextual characteristics of the place of residence (income inequality, violence, and median income) showed no significant correlation (p > 0.05) with the use of health care services or with the presence of a regular physician for routine care. The only exception was the negative correlation between living in areas with high income inequality and presence of a regular physician (OR: 0.77; 95%CI 0.60;0.99) after controlling for individual characteristics. The study revealed a strong and consistent correlation between individual characteristics (mainly education and possession of health insurance), use of health care services, and presence of a regular physician. Presence of chronic and mental illnesses was strongly correlated with the use of health care services in the past year (regardless of the individual characteristics) but not with the presence of a regular physician. CONCLUSIONS Individual characteristics including higher education and possession of health insurance were important determinants of the use of health care services in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. A better understanding of these determinants is essential for the development of public policies that promote equitable use of health care

  4. Incidence of Leptospirosis infection in the East Zone of Sao Paulo City, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a zoonosis which is spread through contamined running water. This contaminations is seriously affected by the flooding which occurs in the area surrounding the Aricanduva river. The transmission of the disease results mainly from the contact of water with soil contaminated by the urine of infected animals. We aimed to conduct an epidemiological survey on Leptospirosis cases in Sao Paulo East Zone area. Method The analysis conducted in this study was based on data collected from the health authorities of that region close the Aricanduva river between 2007 and 2008 years, which give the rates of confirmed cases, mortality and death from human Leptospirosis. Other information concerned with the relationships among rainfall index, points of flooding and incidence of Leptospirosis. Results We observed a direct and important water contamination. Records of flooding points and dates of the reported cases in the region showed a direct relationship from which the period of higher rainfall also recorded an increase in cases. The annual record of the city and the region and rainfall regions also presented correlation. Conclusion The association between the indices of flooding and Leptospirosis cases indicates that preventive measures are necessary to avoid exposing the community. PMID:23672682

  5. Tiering strategic environmental assessment and project environmental impact assessment in highway planning in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Luis E. Silva-Sanchez, Solange S.

    2008-10-15

    Constructing highways in dense urban areas is always a challenge. In Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region, heavy truck traffic contributes to clog streets and expressways alike. As part of the traffic neither originates nor head to the region, a peripheral highway has been proposed to reduce traffic problems. This project, called Rodoanel, is an expressway approximately 175 km long. The fact that the projected south and north sections would cross catchments that supply most of the metropolis water demand was strongly disputed and made the environmental permitting process particularly difficult. The agency in charge commissioned a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) of a revamped project, and called it the Rodoanel Programme. However, the SEA report failed to satisfactorily take account of significant strategic issues. Among these, the highway potential effect of inducing urban sprawl over water protection zones is the most critical issue, as it emerged later as a hurdle to project licensing. Conclusion is that, particularly where no agreed-upon framework for SEA exists, when vertical tiering with downstream project EIA is sought, then a careful scoping of strategic issues is more than necessary. If an agreement on 'what is strategic' is not reached and not recognized by influential stakeholders, then the unsettled conflicts will be transferred to project EIA. In such a context, SEA will have added another loop to the usually long road to project approval.

  6. [Travelling together: an experience in sex education in the area surrounding Sao Paulo].

    PubMed

    Barroso, C; Simonetti, C; Vieira, E

    1983-05-01

    This study describes group discussions of female sexuality held in a Sao Paulo Mothers' Club for the purpose of educating participants and producing educational pamphlets for publication. The participant research methodology is an attempt to integrate feminism with academic practice; the research is to be used to improve the condition of the research subjects and the research process itself is seen as educational. Participants were 8-15 low-income housewives 25-33 years old, with low level reading skills. In a series of discussion meetings, topics of interest identified included the physiology of the human body, sex education of children, and methods of contraception. Drafts of pamphlets and illustrations were presented for the immediate feedback of the group. Additional topics included the role of women in the family and society, women's rights, traditional class beliefs and myths about sexuality, medical care and examinations, and self-examination. 5 pamphlets and an accompanying manual for their use were produced for distribution to women's groups throughout Brazil. These include: Understanding Our Body; Do I want to be a Mother?; When Children Ask Certain Things; A gynecological Exam; and Much Pleasure. PMID:12313650

  7. The effects of Sao Paulo urban heat island on lightning activity: Decadal analysis (1999-2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourscheidt, Vandoir; Pinto, Osmar; Naccarato, Kleber P.

    2016-05-01

    Eleven years of lightning data from the Brazilian Integrated National Lightning Detection Network were used to analyze the effects of the urban heat island (UHI) of Sao Paulo on lightning activity, extending the investigation of previous works. Cloud-to-ground lightning data were analyzed in both spatial and temporal perspectives, using different approaches: flash density, flash rate, thunderstorm hours (TH), and the cell initiation technique (CIT), which aims to identify the onset of thunderstorms. Land surface temperature (LST) from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) was used to analyze the UHI evolution over the years. MODIS data were validated using ground stations, distributed within the urban area. Different time intervals (seasonal and intraday) were used in an attempt to separate local convective systems from synoptic-scale events. The results indicate significant effects of the UHI (using LST) on THs and CIT. The CIT showed a nearly ring pattern, especially during the afternoon (14:00-18:00 LT) of summer months, reinforcing temperature contrast as a condition for storm initiation. The results also suggest an amplification of the UHI effects on thunderstorm activity by local factors (sea and country breeze, synoptic events, and terrain). Higher flash rates were also observed throughout the urban region, which influences the lightning density. Temporal analysis indicates that minimum temperature and lightning activity increase in wintertime. In summary, the results agree with previous studies about the UHI and indicate its importance on lightning occurrence, especially by increasing the temperature contrast and the instability in these regions.

  8. The acoustics for speech of eight auditoriums in the city of Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bistafa, Sylvio R.

    2002-11-01

    Eight auditoriums with a proscenium type of stage, which usually operate as dramatic theaters in the city of Sao Paulo, were acoustically surveyed in terms of their adequacy to unassisted speech. Reverberation times, early decay times, and speech levels were measured in different positions, together with objective measures of speech intelligibility. The measurements revealed reverberation time values rather uniform throughout the rooms, whereas significant variations were found in the values of the other acoustical measures with position. The early decay time was found to be better correlated with the objective measures of speech intelligibility than the reverberation time. The results from the objective measurements of speech intelligibility revealed that the speech transmission index STI, and its simplified version RaSTI, are strongly correlated with the early-to-late sound ratio C50 (1 kHz). However, it was found that the criterion value of acceptability of the latter is more easily met than the former. The results from these measurements enable to understand how the characteristics of the architectural design determine the acoustical quality for speech. Measurements of ST1-Gade were made as an attempt to validate it as an objective measure of ''support'' for the actor. The preliminary diagnosing results with ray tracing simulations will also be presented.

  9. Flood hazards analysis based on changes of hydrodynamic processes in fluvial systems of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simas, Iury; Rodrigues, Cleide

    2016-04-01

    The metropolis of Sao Paulo, with its 7940 Km² and over 20 million inhabitants, is increasingly being consolidated with disregard for the dynamics of its fluvial systems and natural limitations imposed by fluvial terraces, floodplains and slopes. Events such as floods and flash floods became particularly persistent mainly in socially and environmentally vulnerable areas. The Aricanduva River basin was selected as the ideal area for the development of the flood hazard analysis since it presents the main geological and geomorphological features found in the urban site. According to studies carried out by Anthropic Geomorphology approach in São Paulo, to study this phenomenon is necessary to take into account the original hydromorphological systems and its functional conditions, as well as in which dimensions the Anthropic factor changes the balance between the main variables of surface processes. Considering those principles, an alternative model of geographical data was proposed and enabled to identify the role of different driving forces in terms of spatial conditioning of certain flood events. Spatial relationships between different variables, such as anthropogenic and original morphology, were analyzed for that purpose in addition to climate data. The surface hydrodynamic tendency spatial model conceived for this study takes as key variables: 1- The land use present at the observed date combined with the predominant lithological group, represented by a value ranging 0-100, based on indexes of the National Soil Conservation Service (NSCS-USA) and the Hydraulic Technology Center Foundation (FCTH-Brazil) to determine the resulting balance of runoff/infiltration. 2- The original slope, applying thresholds from which it's possible to determine greater tendency for runoff (in percents). 3- The minimal features of relief, combining the curvature of surface in plant and profile. Those three key variables were combined in a Geographic Information System in a series of

  10. The Impact of Epidemic Violence on the Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Wagner Silva; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Quintana, Maria Inês; Dewey, Michael E.; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Vilete, Liliane Maria Pereira; Figueira, Ivan; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; de Mello, Marcelo Feijó; Prince, Martin; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Andreoli, Sérgio Baxter

    2013-01-01

    Background Violence and other traumatic events, as well as psychiatric disorders are frequent in developing countries, but there are few population studies to show the actual impact of traumatic events in the psychiatric morbidity in low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Aims To study the relationship between traumatic events and prevalence of mental disorders in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional survey carried out in 2007–2008 with a probabilistic representative sample of 15- to 75-year-old residents in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results The sample comprised 3744 interviews. Nearly 90% of participants faced lifetime traumatic events. Lifetime prevalence of any disorders was 44% in Sao Paulo and 42.1% in Rio de Janeiro. One-year estimates were 32.5% and 31.2%. One-year prevalence of traumatic events was higher in Rio de Janeiro than Sao Paulo (35.1 vs. 21.7; p<0.001). Participants from Rio de Janeiro were less likely to have alcohol dependence (OR = 0.55; p = 0.027), depression (OR = 0.6; p = 0.006) generalized anxiety (OR = 0.59; p = 0.021) and post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.62; p = 0.027). Traumatic events correlated with all diagnoses – e.g. assaultive violence with alcohol dependence (OR = 5.7; p<0.001) and with depression (OR = 1.7; p = 0.001). Conclusion Our findings show that psychiatric disorders and traumatic events, especially violence, are extremely common in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, supporting the idea that neuropsychiatric disorders and external causes have become a major public health priority, as they are amongst the leading causes of burden of disease in low and middle-income countries. The comparison between the two cities regarding patterns of violence and psychiatric morbidity suggests that environmental factors may buffer the negative impacts of traumatic events. Identifying such factors

  11. Decreased fertility in mice exposed to environmental air pollution in the city of Sao Paulo.

    PubMed

    Mohallem, Soraya Vecci; de Araújo Lobo, Débora Jã; Pesquero, Célia Regina; Assunção, João Vicente; de Andre, Paulo Afonso; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Dolhnikoff, Marisa

    2005-06-01

    It has largely been shown that air pollution can affect human health. Effects on human fertility have been shown mainly in males by a decrease in semen quality. Few studies have focused on the environmental effects on female fertility. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of air pollution in the city of Sao Paulo on mouse female fertility. Four groups of female Balb/c mice were placed in two chambers 10 days (newborn) or 10 weeks (adults) after birth. Mice were maintained in the chambers 24 h a day, 7 days a week, for 4 months. The first chamber received air that had passed through an air filter (clean chamber) and the second received ambient air (polluted chamber). We measured PM10 and NO2 inside both chambers. Mice belonging to the adult groups were bred to male mice after living for 3 months inside the chambers. The newborn groups mated after reaching reproductive age (12 weeks). After 19 days of pregnancy the numbers of live-born pups, reabsorptions, fetal deaths, corpora lutea, and implantation failures were determined. PM10 and NO2 concentrations in the clean chamber were 50% and 77.5% lower than in the polluted chamber, respectively. Differences in fertility parameters between groups were observed only in animals exposed to air pollution at an early age (10 days after birth). We observed a higher number of live-born pups per animal in the clean chamber than per animal from the polluted chamber (median=6.0 and 4.0, respectively; P=0.037). There was a higher incidence of implantation failures in the polluted group than in the clean group (median=3.5 and 2.0, respectively; P=0.048). There were no significant differences in the other reproductive parameters between groups. These results support the concept that female reproductive health represents a target of air pollutants. PMID:15820725

  12. Radon Content in Ground Waters Drawn From the Metamorphic Basement, Eastern Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, F. D.; Brenha Ribeiro, F.

    2007-05-01

    Ground water drawn from granitic and metamorphic rocks frequently presents relatively high radioactivity, mostly due to the presence of uranium, radium and radon isotopes. In particular, the radon isotope 222Rn seems to have particular significance since it is normally much enriched in ground water in relation to other uranium series isotopes and is in large disequilibrium with its 226Ra mother isotope. Furthermore, radon is one of the main agents of radioactivity transfer from crust uppermost layers to lower atmosphere. At the eastern part of Sao Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, it outcrops a metamorphic terrain with a large number water bearing fractures that composes a set of fractured aquifers. Ground water is drawn from these aquifers through a large number of relatively shallow drilled wells, mostly less than 200 m deep. The radioactivity, and in particular the radon activity concentration, of the ground waters drawn from this metamorphic terrain has not yet been investigated in detail. The 222Rn activity concentration was measured in ground waters drawn from three wells drilled in different rocks of this metamorphic basement. The first well cuts a K-feldspar bearing granite, the second well cuts a granite- gneiss and the third well cuts a gneiss. The ground water samples were collected between July, 2005 and August, 2006 with a time interval of about one month between sampling campaigns. The year long mean activity concentrations were, (76 +/- 7) Bq/L for the first well, (26 +/- 3) Bq/L for the second well and (39 +/- 4) Bq/L for the third one. The activity concentrations show a time dependent variability that is interpreted as consequence of rain fall seasonal variations.

  13. Evaluating the reforested area for the municipality of Buri by automatic analysis of LANDSAT imagery. [Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Lee, D. C. L.; Filho, R. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The class of reforestation (Pinus, Eucalyptus, Araucaria) was defined using iterative image analysis (1-100) and LANDSAT MSS data. Estimates of class area by 1-100 were compared with data supplied by the forestry institute in Sao Paulo. LANDSAT channels 4 and 5 served to differentiate the Pinus, Eucalyptus, and Araucaria from the other trees. Channels 6 and 7 gave best results for differentiating between the classes. A good representative spectral response was obtained for Auraucaria on these two channels. The small relative differences obtained were +4.24% for Araucaria, -7.51% for Pinus, and -32.07% for Eucalyptus.

  14. Sickle cell disease in a Brazilian population from Sao Paulo: a study of the beta s haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, M S; Nechtman, J F; Figueiredo, M S; Kerbauy, J; Arruda, V R; Sonati, M F; Saad, S O; Costa, F F; Stoming, T A

    1994-01-01

    In this study we have determined the frequency of beta S haplotypes in a Brazilian sickle cell disease population from Sao Paulo, Brazil, by analyzing sequence variations in the immediate 5' flanking and second intervening sequence (IVSII) regions of the gamma globin genes. This association between sequence differences and beta s haplotype backgrounds was determined by screening genomic DNA samples using dot blot analysis of polymerase chain reaction products. We studied 148 beta s chromosomes, and found that haplotype 20 (CAR or Bantu) significantly predominated in this population. This is in agreement with the findings of the historical Portuguese Atlantic slave trade from Africa to South America. PMID:7860085

  15. Ammonia determination in a roadway tunnel of the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira da Silva Filho, M.; Fornaro, A.; Pedrotti, J.; Ito, D.; Prado, Y.; Coelho, L. H. G.

    2012-04-01

    The degradation in air quality has been one of the most serious health problems afflicting the more than 19 million inhabitants of the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo (MASP). There are more than 7.5 million vehicles being 40% running with ethanol as fuel, 80% using a 3-way catalyst, and 15% being flex-fuel. This vehicular fleet is the main responsible for the air pollution problems, highlighting the aerosol. The different evaluations of the ionic composition of the aerosol and rainwater samples of the MASP showed the importance of the ammonium, from ammonia gas phase incorporated in liquid or solid atmospheric phase. Ammonia is the third most abundant nitrogen compound in the atmosphere, and whose global emissions are mainly from biogenic sources. Despite its short residence time it has a significant role influencing the acidity of cloud water and the formation of secondary aerosols. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the ammonia in urban area and in a roadway tunnel, with intense light vehicles traffic. The air sampling was carried out inside and outside the Janio Quadros roadway tunnel in MASP between 5 and 10 May, 2011 by using a simplified impinger system with 1.0 mmol L-1 H2SO4 solution, 1 L min-1 flux during 1 h. The ammonium measurements were carried out by a flow injection system using gas-diffusion and coupled contactless conductivity detection. The results point out that the number and the velocity of the vehicles influence on the ammonia concentration in both site sampling. The ammonia concentrations were twice higher inside the roadway tunnel, reaching the maximum value of 98 ?g m-3, with mean value of 48.1 (?15.4) ?g m-3. These data suggest that atmospheric ammonia is not only restricted to biogenic emissions, but also by vehicles in the MASP. Consequently, more regional assistance should be given to the sources of this compound, considering the increase of the megacities in the world and their effects on the global emissions.

  16. Assessment of medical waste management at a primary health-care center in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, A.M.M.; Guenther, W.M.R.

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment of medical waste management at health-care center before/after intervention. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Qualitative and quantitative results of medical waste management plan are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adjustments to comply with regulation were adopted and reduction of waste was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method applied could be useful for similar establishments. - Abstract: According to the Brazilian law, implementation of a Medical Waste Management Plan (MWMP) in health-care units is mandatory, but as far as we know evaluation of such implementation has not taken place yet. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the improvements deriving from the implementation of a MWMP in a Primary Health-care Center (PHC) located in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The method proposed for evaluation compares the first situation prevailing at this PHC with the situation 1 year after implementation of the MWMP, thus allowing verification of the evolution of the PHC performance. For prior and post-diagnosis, the method was based on: (1) application of a tool (check list) which considered all legal requirements in force; (2) quantification of solid waste subdivided into three categories: infectious waste and sharp devices, recyclable materials and non-recyclable waste; and (3) identification of non-conformity practices. Lack of knowledge on the pertinent legislation by health workers has contributed to non-conformity instances. The legal requirements in force in Brazil today gave origin to a tool (check list) which was utilized in the management of medical waste at the health-care unit studied. This tool resulted into an adequate and simple instrument, required a low investment, allowed collecting data to feed indicators and also conquered the participation of the unit whole staff. Several non-conformities identified in the first diagnosis could be corrected by the instrument utilized

  17. Ethnicity and Cutaneous Melanoma in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Luiz, Olinda C.; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Gonçalves, Fernanda T.; Francisco, Guilherme; Festa-Neto, Cyro; Sanches, José Antonio; Gattas, Gilka J. F.; Chammas, Roger; Eluf-Neto, José

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last century the incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased worldwide, a trend that has also been observed in Brazil. The identified risk factors for melanoma include the pattern of sun exposure, family history, and certain phenotypic features. In addition, the incidence of melanoma might be influenced by ethnicity. Like many countries, Brazil has high immigration rates and consequently a heterogenous population. However, Brazil is unique among such countries in that the ethnic heterogeneity of its population is primarily attributable to admixture. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of European ethnicity to the risk of cutaneous melanoma in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 424 hospitalized patients (202 melanoma patients and 222 control patients) regarding phenotypic features, sun exposure, and number of grandparents born in Europe. Through multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found the following variables to be independently associated with melanoma: grandparents born in Europe—Spain (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.03–8.77), Italy (OR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.41–8.57), a Germanic/Slavic country (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.05–8.93), or ≥2 European countries (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.06–7.47); eye color—light brown (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.14–3.84) and green/blue (OR = 4.62; 95% CI 2.22–9.58); pigmented lesion removal (OR = 3.78; 95% CI: 2.21–6.49); no lifetime sunscreen use (OR = 3.08; 95% CI: 1.03–9.22); and lifetime severe sunburn (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.03–3.19). Conclusions Our results indicate that European ancestry is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. Such risk appears to be related not only to skin type, eye color, and tanning capacity but also to others specific characteristics of European populations introduced in the New World by European immigrants. PMID:22558444

  18. Limitations and drawbacks of using Preliminary Environmental Reports (PERs) as an input to Environmental Licensing in Sao Paulo State: A case study on natural gas pipeline routing

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchhoff, Denis . E-mail: dkirchho@fes.uwaterloo.ca; Montano, Marcelo . E-mail: minduim@sc.usp.br; Ranieri, Victor Eduardo Lima . E-mail: vranieri@sc.usp.br; Dutra de Oliveira, Isabel Silva . E-mail: beldutra@sc.usp.br; Doberstein, Brent . E-mail: bdoberst@fes.uwaterloo.ca; Pereira de Souza, Marcelo . E-mail: mps@sc.usp.br

    2007-05-15

    This article discusses the limitations and implications to environmental management issues posed by the Environmental Licensing approach adopted in Sao Paulo State. In Brazil, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an essential precondition to the Environmental Licensing of activities and, in fact, it has been the most important and required tool for the licensing of projects. However, in 1994 the State of Sao Paulo implemented a simplified instrument called a 'Preliminary Environmental Report' in order to make the environmental licensing process faster. Since then, the Preliminary Environmental Report (PER) has had the role of indicating whether an EIA needs to be elaborated upon or not. The positives and negatives regarding technical, institutional and legal aspects related to the use of Preliminary Environmental Reports (rather than EIA) are discussed using the case study of a high-pressure natural gas pipeline between the cities of Sao Carlos and Porto Ferreira in the State of Sao Paulo. The main conclusion is that the Environmental Licensing process in Sao Paulo should not use PERs as the sole input to decision making about proposed activities, since the PER approach does not guarantee that the proposed activity is environmentally suitable, does not address locational issues or comparison of alternatives, and risk assessment issues are not considered in the earliest stages of assessment.

  19. Airline Choice for Domestic Flights in Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: An Application of the Conditional Logit Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Marcelo Baena

    2006-01-01

    Using the conditional (multinomial) LOGIT model, this paper addresses airline choice in the S o Paulo Metropolitan Area. There are two airports in this region, where two, three or even four airlines compete for passengers flying to an array of domestic destinations. The airline choice is believed to be a result of the tradeoff passengers face among flight cost, flight frequency and airline performance. It was found that the lowest fare better explains airline choice than the highest fare, whereas direct flight frequencies give better explanation to airline choice than indirect (connections and stops) and total (direct plus indirect) ones. Out of 15 variables tested, the lowest fare was the variable that best explained airline choice. However, its signal was counterintuitive (positive) possibly because the cheapest airline was offering few flights, so passengers overwhelmingly failed to choose the cheapest airline. The model specification most adjusted to the data considered the lowest fare, direct flight frequency in the travel day and period (morning or afternoon peak) and airline age. Passengers departing from S o Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport (GRU) airport make their airline choice in terms of cost whereas those from Sao Paulo-Congonhas Airport (CGH) airport do not. Finally, senior passengers place more importance on airline age than junior passengers.

  20. Larval immersion tests with ivermectin in populations of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) from State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larval immersion tests (LIT) with commercial formulation of ivermectin were carried out with larvae of two field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from commercial dairy farms of the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil and a susceptible strain (Porto Alegre) to differentiate resistant suspect...

  1. Alternatives for the Training of Skilled Industrial Labor in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Program of Studies in Non-Formal Education, Supplementary Series. Paper No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukomski, Michael

    The study deals with the development of skilled industrial manpower in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and with the Federal government's SENAI (Service Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial) industrial apprenticeship and trainign program. An analysis of six variables among lathe setter-operators showed that: present work situations among the operators varied…

  2. Master Planning in Brazilian Higher Education: Expanding the 3-Year Public College System in the State of Sao Paulo. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.10.10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa, Renato H. L.

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, Higher education (HE) in Brazil had been, identified with colleges and universities running traditional academic undergraduate programs, with expected graduation time of 4 years or more. The universities in the state of Sao Paulo are at the top of international rankings among Brazilian HEIs, accounting for about half of all indexed…

  3. Social Support Network for the Elderly Attending the Open University Program for Senior Citizens at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domingues, Marisa Accioly; Ordonez, Tiago Nascimento; Lima-Silva, Thais Bento; Torres, Maria Juliana; de Barros, Thabata Cruz; Cachioni, Meire

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the social support network of older adults enrolled in the Open University for Senior Citizens at the School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of Sao Paulo. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 117 elderly or older adults, mostly female (78%), married (53%), retired (82%), and aged on average…

  4. Numerical Study of the Wintertime Planetary Boundary Layer Development in the Urban Area of Sao Paulo - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, F. N. D.; Soares, J.; Oliveira, A. P.; Miranda, R. M.; Chen, F.

    2015-12-01

    The gradual replacement of natural by built surfaces and the ongoing emission of particulate matter and other pollutants that happens in urban environments, besides degrading the environment, influence the local weather and climate patterns. Urban areas have different albedo, heat and hydraulic capacity and conductivity, roughness, emissivity, and transmissivity, when compared to naturally vegetated areas. This set of characteristics may change the surface energy budget, air temperature, humidity, atmospheric chemical composition, wind direction and velocity, and therefore the planetary boundary layer (PBL) development. The effects of urbanization on the PBL have been studied in many mid-latitude areas, however in the tropical or subtropical areas they are scarce. The MCITY Brazil project developed in 2 cities of Brazil, Sao Paulo (23°32' S) and Rio de Janeiro (latitude 22° 55' S), has provided the necessary data to properly investigate the effects of urbanization in these two cities. The project included a campaign of soundings launched every 3 hours for 10 consecutive days in August (Austral winter) from an airport at the north part of the city of Sao Paulo, that allowed the study of the PBL development, and also the measurements of the components of the energy budget equation by micrometeorological towers. Therefore, the goal of this work is to simulate the development of the PBL in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo during winter, comparing its characteristics in urbanized and non urbanized sites, in order to assess the impact of urbanization on the development of the PBL in this area. The model used is the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) with a single layer urban canopy parameterization (SLUCM) and realistic anthropogenic heat diurnal evolution. Preliminary results showed that the model is able to reproduce the PBL development during the campaign, including the passage of a cold-frontal system. The urban PBL reaches greater heights during the day than

  5. The influence of atmospheric particles on the elemental content of vegetables in urban gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amato-Lourenco, Luís Fernando; Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais

    2016-09-01

    Although urban horticulture provides multiple benefits to society, the extent to which these vegetables are contaminated by the absorption of chemical elements derived from atmospheric deposition is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of air pollution on leafy vegetables in community gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Vegetable seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. acephala (collard greens) and Spinacia oleracea (spinach) obtained in a non-polluted rural area and growing in vessels containing standard uncontaminated soil were exposed for three consecutive periods of 30, 60 and 90 days in 10 community gardens in Sao Paulo and in one control site. The concentrations of 17 chemical elements (traffic-related elements and those essential to plant biology) were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Tillandsia usneoides L. specimens were used as air plant biomonitors. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr and Pb found in vegetables were compared to the recommended values for consumption. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to cluster the elemental concentrations, and Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) were employed to evaluate the association of the factor scores from each PCA component with variables such as local weather, traffic burden and vertical barriers adjacent to the gardens. We found significant differences in the elemental concentrations of the vegetables in the different community gardens. These differences were related to the overall traffic burden, vertical obstacles and local weather. The Pb and Cd concentrations in both vegetables exceeded the limit values for consumption after 60 days of exposure. A strong correlation was observed between the concentration of traffic-related elements in vegetables and in Tillandsia usneoides L. An exposure response was observed between traffic burden and traffic-derived particles absorbed in the vegetables. Traffic-derived air pollution directly influences the absorption of

  6. Correlation of fungi and endotoxin with PM2.5 and meteorological parameters in atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degobbi, Cristiane; Lopes, Fernanda D. T. Q. S.; Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Muñoz, Julian Esteban; Saldiva, Paulo H. N.

    2011-04-01

    Particulate matter, especially PM2.5, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality from respiratory diseases. Studies that focus on the chemical composition of the material are frequent in the literature, but those that characterize the biological fraction are rare. The objectives of this study were to characterize samples collected in Sao Paulo, Brazil on the quantity of fungi and endotoxins associated with PM2.5, correlating with the mass of particulate matter, chemical composition and meteorological parameters. We did that by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regressions. The results have shown that fungi and endotoxins represent significant portion of PM2.5, reaching average concentrations of 772.23 spores μg -1 of PM2.5 (SD: 400.37) and 5.52 EU mg -1 of PM2.5 (SD: 4.51 EU mg -1), respectively. Hyaline basidiospores, Cladosporium and total spore counts were correlated to factor Ba/Ca/Fe/Zn/K/Si of PM2.5 ( p < 0.05). Genera Pen/Asp were correlated to the total mass of PM2.5 ( p < 0.05) and colorless ascospores were correlated to humidity ( p < 0.05). Endotoxin was positively correlated with the atmospheric temperature ( p < 0.05). This study has shown that bioaerosol is present in considerable amounts in PM2.5 in the atmosphere of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Some fungi were correlated with soil particle resuspension and mass of particulate matter. Therefore, the relative contribution of bioaerosol in PM2.5 should be considered in future studies aimed at evaluating the clinical impact of exposure to air pollution.

  7. Detection and distribution of rotavirus in raw sewage and creeks in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Mehnert, D.U.; Stewien, K.E. )

    1993-01-01

    Rotavirus invection is an important cause of hospitalization and mortality of infants and children in developing countries, especially where the water supply and sewage disposal systems are in precarious conditions. This report describes the detection, quantitation, and distribution of rotaviruses in domestic sewage and sewage polluted creeks in the city of San Paulo. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  8. Physico-chemical properties of aerosols in Sao Paulo, Brazil and mechanisms of secondary organic aerosol formation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, Paulo; Ferreira de Brito, Joel; Varanda Rizzo, Luciana; Luiza Godoy, Maria; Godoy, Jose Marcus

    2013-04-01

    Megacities emissions are increasingly becoming a global issue, where emissions from the transportation sector play an increasingly important role. Sao Paulo is a megacity with a population of about 18 million people, 7 million cars and large-scale industrial emissions. As a result of the vehicular and industrial emissions, the air quality in Sao Paulo is bellow WMO standards for aerosol particles and ozone. Many uncertainties are found on gas- and particulate matter vehicular emission factors and their following atmospheric processes, e.g. secondary organic aerosol formation. Due to the uniqueness of the vehicular fuel in Brazil, largely based on ethanol use, such characterization currently holds further uncertainties. To improve the understanding of the role of this unique emission characteristics, we are running a source apportionment study in Sao Paulo focused on the mechanisms of organic aerosol formation. One of the goals of this study is a quantitative aerosol source apportionment focused on vehicular emissions, including ethanol and gasohol (both fuels used by light-duty vehicles). This study comprises four sampling sites with continuous measurements for one year, where trace elements and organic aerosol are being measured for PM2.5 and PM10 along with real-time NOx, O3, PM10 and CO measurements. Aerosol optical properties and size distribution are being measured on a rotation basis between sampling stations. Furthermore, a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) and an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) are used to measure in real time VOCs and aerosol composition, respectively. Trace elements were measured using XRF and OC/EC analysis was determined with a Sunset OC/EC instrument. A TSI Nephelometer with 3 wavelengths measure light scattering and a MAAP measure black carbon. Results show aerosol number concentrations ranging between 10,000 and 35,000 cm-3, mostly concentrated in the nucleation and Aitken modes, with a peak in size at 80

  9. Violence and post-traumatic stress disorder in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: the protocol for an epidemiological and genetic survey

    PubMed Central

    Andreoli, Sérgio Baxter; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva; Quintana, Maria Ines; Guindalini, Camila; Breen, Gerome; Blay, Sergio Luis; Coutinho, Evandro SF; Harpham, Trudy; Jorge, Miguel Roberto; Lara, Diogo Rizzato; Moriyama, Tais S; Quarantini, Lucas C; Gadelha, Ary; Vilete, Liliane Maria Pereira; Yeh, Mary SL; Prince, Martin; Figueira, Ivan; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Mello, Marcelo F; Dewey, Michael E; Ferri, Cleusa P; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2009-01-01

    Background violence is a public health major concern, and it is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and other psychiatric outcomes. Brazil is one of the most violent countries in the world, and has an extreme social inequality. Research on the association between violence and mental health may support public health policy and thus reduce the burden of disease attributable to violence. The main objectives of this project were: to study the association between violence and mental disorders in the Brazilian population; to estimate the prevalence rates of exposure to violence, post-traumatic stress disorder, common metal disorder, and alcohol hazardous use and dependence: and to identify contextual and individual factors, including genetic factors, associated with the outcomes. Methods/design one phase cross-sectional survey carried out in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A multistage probability to size sampling scheme was performed in order to select the participants (3000 and 1500 respectively). The cities were stratified according to homicide rates, and in Sao Paulo the three most violent strata were oversampled. The measurements included exposure to traumatic events, psychiatric diagnoses (CIDI 2.1), contextual (homicide rates and social indicators), and individual factors, such as demographics, social capital, resilience, help seeking behaviours. The interviews were carried between June/2007 February/2008, by a team of lay interviewers. The statistical analyses will be weight-adjusted in order to take account of the design effects. Standardization will be used in order to compare the results between the two centres. Whole genome association analysis will be performed on the 1 million SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) arrays, and additional association analysis will be performed on additional phenotypes. The Ethical Committee of the Federal University of Sao Paulo approved the study, and participants who matched diagnostic criteria have been

  10. Dietary intake and food contributors of polyphenols in adults and elderly adults of Sao Paulo: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Miranda, A M; Steluti, J; Fisberg, R M; Marchioni, D M

    2016-03-28

    A comprehensive estimation of polyphenol intake is needed to gain a better understanding of the association between polyphenol-rich food intake and the potential effects of this intake on chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate the intake of polyphenols and the major dietary contributors in the population of Sao Paulo. Data were obtained from the Health Survey-São Paulo (ISA-Capital 2008) and were reported for 1103 adults and elderly adults. Food intake was estimated by one 24-h dietary recall (24HR). Polyphenol intake was calculated by matching food consumption data from the 24HR with the polyphenol content in foods listed in the Phenol-Explorer database. The mean total intake of polyphenols was 377·5 (se 15·3) mg/d. The main polyphenol classes were phenolic acids (284·8 (se 15·9) mg/d) and flavonoids (54·6 (se 3·5) mg/d). Intakes were higher in the elderly adults than in other adults (P<0·001) and higher in individuals with lower educational level (P=0·01) and current smokers (P=0·02). The main dietary contributors for total polyphenols were coffee (70·5 %), citrus fruits (4·6 %) and tropical fruits (3·4 %). Coffee was the major source of polyphenols, providing 266·2 (se 16·5) mg/d, and contributed 92·3 % of the phenolic acids and 93·1 % of the alkylmethoxyphenols. These findings will be useful for assessing the potential role on health of polyphenols and specific polyphenol-rich foods, such as coffee, and enable a comparison with people from other countries. PMID:26810764

  11. Vehicular particulate matter emissions in road tunnels in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ccoyllo, Odón R; Ynoue, Rita Y; Martins, Leila D; Astolfo, Rosana; Miranda, Regina M; Freitas, Edmilson D; Borges, Alessandro S; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Freitas, Helber; Moreira, Andréa; Andrade, Maria F

    2009-02-01

    In the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, ozone and particulate matter (PM) are the air pollutants that pose the greatest threat to air quality, since the PM and the ozone precursors (nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds) are the main source of air pollution from vehicular emissions. Vehicular emissions can be measured inside road tunnels, and those measurements can provide information about emission factors of in-use vehicles. Emission factors are used to estimate vehicular emissions and are described as the amount of species emitted per vehicle distance driven or per volume of fuel consumed. This study presents emission factor data for fine particles, coarse particles, inhalable particulate matter and black carbon, as well as size distribution data for inhalable particulate matter, as measured in March and May of 2004, respectively, in the Jânio Quadros and Maria Maluf road tunnels, both located in São Paulo. The Jânio Quadros tunnel carries mainly light-duty vehicles, whereas the Maria Maluf tunnel carries light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. In the Jânio Quadros tunnel, the estimated light-duty vehicle emission factors for the trace elements copper and bromine were 261 and 220 microg km(-1), respectively, and 16, 197, 127 and 92 mg km(-1), respectively, for black carbon, inhalable particulate matter, coarse particles and fine particles. The mean contribution of heavy-duty vehicles to the emissions of black carbon, inhalable particulate matter, coarse particles and fine particles was, respectively 29, 4, 6 and 6 times higher than that of light-duty vehicles. The inhalable particulate matter emission factor for heavy-duty vehicles was 1.2 times higher than that found during dynamometer testing. In general, the particle emissions in São Paulo tunnels are higher than those found in other cities of the world. PMID:18228152

  12. The Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SPLMA): Prospects to GOES-R GLM and CHUVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Rachel I.; Carrey, Larry; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.; Goodman, Steven J.; Bruning, Eric C.; Koshak, William; Morales, Carlos A.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Angelis, Carlos F.; Pinto, Osmar, Jr.; Naccarato, Kleber; Saba, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristics and prospects of a Lightning Mapping Array to be deployed at the city of S o Paulo (SPLMA). This LMA network will provide CHUVA campaign with total lightning, lightning channel mapping and detailed information on the locations of cloud charge regions for the thunderstorms investigated during one of its IOP. The real-time availability of LMA observations will also contribute to and support improved weather situational awareness and mission execution. For GOES-R program it will form the basis of generating unique and valuable proxy data sets for both GLM and ABI sensors in support of several on-going research investigations

  13. An Analysis of Delay and Travel Times at Sao Paulo International Airport (AISP/GRU): Planning Based on Simulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santana, Erico Soriano Martins; Mueller, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of flight delays in Brazil, mostly verified at the ground (airfield), is responsible for serious disruptions at the airport level but also for the unchaining of problems in all the airport system, affecting also the airspace. The present study develops an analysis of delay and travel times at Sao Paulo International Airport/ Guarulhos (AISP/GRU) airfield based on simulation model. Different airport physical and operational scenarios had been analyzed by means of simulation. SIMMOD Plus 4.0, the computational tool developed to represent aircraft operation in the airspace and airside of airports, was used to perform these analysis. The study was mainly focused on aircraft operations on ground, at the airport runway, taxi-lanes and aprons. The visualization of the operations with increasing demand facilitated the analyses. The results generated in this work certify the viability of the methodology, they also indicated the solutions capable to solve the delay problem by travel time analysis, thus diminishing the costs for users mainly airport authority. It also indicated alternatives for airport operations, assisting the decision-making process and in the appropriate timing of the proposed changes in the existing infrastructure.

  14. Neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Ana Clara; Diez Roux, Ana V; do Rosario DO Latorre, Maria; Jaime, Patricia C

    2013-01-01

    Differential access to healthy foods has been hypothesized to contribute to health disparities, but evidence from low and middle-income countries is still scarce. This study examines whether the access of healthy foods varies across store types and neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses (SES) in a large Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010–2011 across 52 census tracts. Healthy food access was measured by a comprehensive in-store data collection, summarized into two indexes developed for retail food stores (HFSI) and restaurants (HMRI). Descriptive analyses and multilevel models were used to examine associations of store type and neighborhood SES with healthy food access. Fast food restaurants were more likely to be located in low SES neighborhoods whereas supermarkets and full service restaurants were more likely to be found in higher SES neighborhoods. Multilevel analyses showed that both store type and neighborhood SES were independently associated with in-store food measures. We found differences in the availability of healthy food stores and restaurants in Sao Paulo city favoring middle and high SES neighborhoods. PMID:23747923

  15. Economic analysis of vaccination to control bovine brucellosis in the States of Sao Paulo and Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, A J S; Rocha, F; Amaku, M; Ferreira, F; Telles, E O; Grisi Filho, J H H; Ferreira Neto, J S; Zylbersztajn, D; Dias, R A

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that causes important economic losses in Brazil, and the country has therefore established a national program for its control and eradication. Using data generated in the last national brucellosis survey, we conducted an economic analysis in two Brazilian States with different brucellosis status, Mato Grosso (with high prevalence) and Sao Paulo (with low prevalence). The economic analysis was based on the calculation of the additional benefits and costs of controlling bovine brucellosis through the vaccination of heifers aged between 3 and 8 months with S19 vaccine, considering maximal and minimal impacts of the disease. The analysis showed that vaccinating 90% of the replacement heifers aged 3-8 months of age offers the best economic performance in a vaccination program against bovine brucellosis if compared to vaccination rates of 70% and 80%. Moreover, regions with higher prevalences of bovine brucellosis would experience significant economic advantages when implementing a vaccination strategy to control the disease. This economic analysis will allow decision makers to plan more economically effective vaccination programs. PMID:25548080

  16. Magnetic Properties of Brazilian Peats From SA~o Paulo State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berquó, T. S.; Thompson, R.; Partiti, C. S. M.

    The low temperature magnetic properties of peats from middle Paraíba do Sul Valley (São Paulo State) Brazil have been studied in 5 meter long cores with maximum radio- carbon ages of around 11,000 years BP. The magnetic susceptibility in general is low, but consistently presents an increase near the bottom of profile. Results from Möss- bauer spectroscopy indicate the presence of Fe3+ and Fe2+ at the bottom of cores, but only de presence of Fe3+ at the top of cores. The additional Fe2+ at the bottom of cores, may be related to the higher magnetic susceptibility. Measurements from a SQUID magnetometer MPMS XL show a strong (super)paramagnetic behavior in (i) hysteresis loops (fields up to 6 T, at both room temperature and 10K) and in (ii) low temperature magnetic curves. Slope changes on 1/ plots indicate that two mag- netic components are responsible for the low temperature magnetic properties. During heating using a Bartington (air atmosphere) susceptibility bridge, some peat samples generate new phases with higher magnetic susceptibility than initially. The new phases have reversible magnetic properties and Curie temperatures of around 580oC. These samples usually are from the bottom of the core.

  17. The contribution of vehicular emission to the atmospheric concentrations of carbon compounds in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M.; Fornaro, A.; Miranda, R.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Freitas, E. D.; LAPAt-Laboratorio de Analise dos Processos Atmosfericos

    2013-05-01

    It is recognized that megacities have regional and global effects on climate, and that aerosols and Green House Gases (GHG) constitute the principal tracer of those effects. Such is the case in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), one of the largest mega-cities in the world. MASP has a population of almost 20 million inhabitants. The main source of air pollution is the transport sector. In this region, there are approximately 6.5 million passenger cars and commercial vehicles: 85% light duty, 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (diesel + 3% bio-diesel) and 12% motorcycles. Of the light duty vehicle, approximately 55% burn a mixture (v/v) of 78% gasoline with 22% ethanol (referred to as gasohol), 4% use hydrated ethanol (95% ethanol + 5% water), 38% flexible fuel vehicles capable of burning both gasohol as hydrated ethanol, and 2% use diesel. In average 50% of the fuel used in MASP is ethanol what brings the necessity of more studies to understand the formation of photochemical oxidants and secondary particles. According to the São Paulo State Environmental Protection Agency, 97% of carbon monoxide (CO), 85% of hydrocarbons (HC), 82% of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 36% of sulfur dioxide emitted, and 36% of all inhalable particulate matter (PM10) are emitted by the vehicular fleet. Concerning particles, 75% of the Fine Particle Concentration is related to the burning of fuel, mainly diesel. The fine particles are composed of Organic Carbon (40%), Black Carbon (30%), ions (15%) and metals. It is known that the soot is warming the climate and is important to the radiative balance. Another important driver to the radiative balance, the CO2 is mainly emitted by the transport sector, which is responsible for 57% of its emission. A comprehensive project under development has the objective of determine the role of MASP as the source of gaseous and particle compounds to the atmosphere of the region and in a mesoscale perspective. The project with funding from the São Paulo

  18. Emission of CO2 by the transport sector and the impact on the atmospheric concentration in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M. D. F.; Kitazato, C.; Perez-Martinez, P.; Nogueira, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is impacted by the emission of 7 million vehicles, being 85% light-duty vehicles (LDV), 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDV)s, and 12% motorcycles. About 55% of LDVs burn a mixture of 78% gasoline and 22% ethanol (gasohol), 4% use hydrous ethanol (95% ethanol and 5% water), 38% are flex-fuel vehicles that are capable of burning both gasohol and hydrous ethanol and 3% use diesel (diesel + 5% bio-diesel). The owners of the flex-fuel vehicles decide to use ethanol or gasohol depending on the market price of the fuel. Many environmental programs were implemented to reduce the emissions by the LDV and HDV traffic; the contribution from the industrial sector has been decreasing as the industries have moved away from MASP, due to the high taxes applied to the productive sector. Due to the large contribution of the transport sector to CO2, its contribution is important in a regional scale. The total emission is estimated in 15327 million tons per year of CO2eq (60% by LDV, 38% HDV and 2% motorcycles). Measurements of CO2 performed with a Picarro monitor based on WS-CRDS (wavelength-scanned cavity ringdown spectroscopy) for the years 2012-2013 were performed. The sampling site was on the University of Sao Paulo campus (22o34´S, 46o44´W), situated in the west area of the city, surrounded by important traffic roads. The average data showed two peaks, one in the morning and the other in the afternoon, both associated with the traffic. Correlation analysis was performed between the concentrations and the number of vehicles, as a proxy for the temporal variation of the CO2 emission. The highest concentration was 430 ppm at 8:00am, associated to the morning peak hour of vehicles and the stable condition of the atmosphere. The average concentration was 406 ±12 ppm, considering all measured data. According to official inventories from the Environmental Agency (CETESB), the emission of CO2 has increased 39% from 1990 to 2008, associated

  19. Assessment of land use in protected areas of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iori, P.; da Silva, R. B.; Dias Junior, M. S.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    It is of universal knowledge that the soil, a basic natural resource, is renewable only if conserved or used correctly(Primavesi, 2002). It is salient for Araújo et al. (2007) that the establishment of index of soil quality is an important tool in the functions of control, supervision and monitoring of areas for environmental protection. The objective of this study was to compare the quality of the soil by means of a comparative diagram in different soil uses in permanent preservation areas (APP). The study was conducted in areas near the Ribeira de Iguape river in the city of Registro - São Paulo - Brazil, belonging to the Atlantic Forest domain, a Haplic Cambisol. The following uses of the soil had been evaluated: a) banana culture (CBAN) without agricultural traffic of machines; b) degraded pasture (PDEG) with extensive system predominantly Brachiaria decumbens L. c) use silvopastoral (MPIs), consisted in a kills with a traffic free for the animals, and d) native vegetation (MNAT), proposed in this study as a reference area.The following physical indicators were analyzed: bulk density (BD), total soil porosity (TP), macroporosity (Ma), microporosity (Mi), water dispersible clay (ADA), flocculation index (FI), preconsolidation pressure (PP), soil shear strength (SS), soil resistance to penetration (RP). To construct the comparative diagram the values for each attribute of the soil in each land use were related to the values of the native forest. It was feasible to use the comparative model in the qualitative evaluation of soil use, allowing separate environments under different uses. According to the comparative diagram of banana culture is the use that most negatively impacts the physical and mechanical soil due to the smaller size of the lower polygon.

  20. Disability life expectancy for the elderly, city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2000: gender and educational differences.

    PubMed

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Machado, Carla Jorge; do Nascimento Rodrigues, Roberto

    2007-05-01

    There is evidence that 'health life expectancy' (expected number of years to be lived in health) differs by socioeconomic status. Time spent in health or disability plays a critical role in the use of health care services. The objective of this study was to estimate 'disability life expectancy' by age, gender and education attainment for the elderly of the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in the year 2000. Data came from the SABE database, population censuses and mortality statistics (SEADE Foundation). Life expectancy with disability was calculated using Sullivan's method on the basis of the current probability of death and prevalence of disability by educational level. The prevalence of disability increased with age, for both sexes and both levels of educational attainment studied. Men showed a lower prevalence of disability, in general, and persons with lower educational attainment showed a higher prevalence of disability. Regarding life expectancy, women could expect to live longer than men, with and without disability. For both sexes, the percentage of life expectancy lived with disability decreased with increasing educational attainment. With increasing educational attainment, the sex differences in the percentage of remaining years to be lived with disability increased for most ages. Finally, the percentage of remaining years to be lived with disability increased with age for males and females, except for males with high educational attainment between the ages 70-75 and 75-80. The results may serve as a guide for public policies in the country, since health problems faced by older persons, such as disability, are the result of a number of past experiences during their life-times, such as health care, housing conditions, hygiene practices and education. Education influences health behaviours and is related, to some extent, to all these factors. Therefore, improvements in education for the disadvantaged may improve health. PMID:16707040

  1. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia: the Sao Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several epidemiologic studies have shown a possible association between thyroid function and cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia in a population sample of older people Methods A cross-sectional study - São Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH) - in a population sample of low-income elderly people ≥ 65 years-old to evaluate presence of subclinical thyroid disease as a risk factor for dementia. Thyroid function was assessed using thyrotropic hormone and free-thyroxine as well as routine use of thyroid hormones or antithyroid medications. Cases of dementia were assessed using a harmonized one-phase dementia diagnostic procedure by the "10/66 Dementia Research Group" including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Logistic regression models were used to test a possible association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia. Results and discussion Prevalence of dementia and of subclinical hyperthyroidism were respectively of 4.4% and 3.0%. After age adjustment, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and any type of dementia and vascular dementia (Odds Ratio, 4.1, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.3-13.1, and 5.3 95% CI, 1.1-26.4; respectively). Analyzing data by gender, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism with dementia and Alzheimer's disease only for men (OR, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.5-43.4; OR, 12.4; 95% CI, 1.2-128.4; respectively). No women with subclinical hypothyroidism presented Alzheimer's disease in the sample. Conclusion The results suggest a consistent association among people with subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia. PMID:20515500

  2. Prevalence of Mental Disorders among Prisoners in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Andreoli, Sergio Baxter; dos Santos, Maíra Mendes; Quintana, Maria Ines; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva; Blay, Sergio Luiz; Taborda, Jose Geraldo Vernet; de Jesus Mari, Jair

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the prison population in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods Through stratified random sampling, 1.192 men and 617 women prisoners were evaluated for the presence of psychiatric disorders by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, 2.1 version, according to definitions and criteria of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The prevalence estimates of mental disorders and their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated and adjusted for sample design through complex sample analysis. Results Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates differed between genders. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of any mental disorder was, respectively, 68.9% and 39.2% among women, and 56.1% and 22.1% among men. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of anxious-phobic disorders was, respectively, 50% and 27.7% among women and 35.3% and 13.6% among men, of affective disorders was 40% and 21% among women and 20.8% and 9.9% among men, and of drug-related disorders was 25.2% and 1.6% among women and 26.5% and 1.3% among men. For severe mental disorders (psychotic, bipolar disorders, and severe depression), the lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates were, respectively, 25.8% and 14.7% among women, and 12.3% and 6.3% among men. Conclusions This is the first large-scale epidemiological study performed with the prison population in Brazil, revealed high rates of psychiatric disorders among men and women. Many similarities, as well as some differences, were found between our results and those of studies conducted in other countries. The differences observed are more likely due to the peculiarities of the prison systems in each country than to the diagnostic criteria adopted in the studies. This fact reinforces the importance of conducting such studies as part of planning and development of appropriate policies for the particular mental health needs of specific prison populations. PMID:24551174

  3. Analysis of astronomy knowledge of the students in the Federal Institute Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, A. C.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    Este trabalho é parte integrante da pesquisa de mestrado acadêmico em ensino de ciências. Nele, busca-se apresentar os resultados da pesquisa realizada entre os 106 alunos do curso superior de tecnologia em automação industrial do Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo campus Cubatão, divididos em cinco turmas, duas no período matutino e três no período noturno. A análise dos resultados deste pré questionárioconstatou a falta de conhecimento básico dos discentes, sobre assuntos relacionados à astronomia, o que pode ser atribuído ao ineficiente processo de aprendizado pelo qual eles passaram tanto no ensino médio como no ensino fundamental, em escolas municipais, estaduais e particulares onde estudaram. No ensino de astronomia, têm-se diagnosticado constantemente diversas dificuldades conceituais tanto por parte de alunos como de professores de todas as áreas e níveis de ensino e poucos de fato a compreendem (ALBRECHT; VOELZKE, 2010). Demonstra-se as duas etapas concluídas do trabalho. A primeira etapa indica a análise dos conhecimentos prévios sobre conceitos astronômicos, através do questionário com 25 perguntas. A fim de corrigir as falhas constatadas, experimentalmente ministrou-se, externo ao conteúdo programático, um curso básico em astronomia, com diferentes estratégias de ensino, tais como, utilização de aulas expositivas dialogadas, recursos audiovisuais e palestras, para corrigir as dificuldades diagnosticadas. Essas estratégias de ensino se comprovaram adequadas às necessidades dos alunos e os conceitos foram finalmente compreendidos. Ao término do curso, completado o interstício de 120 dias, para caracterizar que houve a aprendizagem significativa, realizou-se uma nova pesquisa, quando, exatamente os mesmos 106 alunos responderam as mesmas 25 questões aplicadas na primeira etapa. Constata-se na segunda etapa, após análise, que em todas as questões, houve maior compreensão dos assuntos

  4. Air Quality Impairment Associated to Local and Regional Pollutants Sources in the Megacity of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M.

    2007-05-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), with more than 19 million inhabitants in 2006, about 2000 major industrial facilities, and more than 7 million vehicles based on diesel, gasoline, and ethanol, has 8051 km2. MASP is one of the biggest urban agglomerate in the world. Associated to its dimension many important problems appear and among them the bad air quality is one of the most important due to the human health effects. MASP is the richest area in Brazil representing 17% of Brazilian GNP in 2000. Not only the high pollutants concentration but also the accentuated modification of the land use in the area resulted in bad quality of life characterized by local and regional climate modification, as for instance the light rain suppression and the increase of the heavier rain. In MASP the air pollution has worsened due to the cumulative effects of population growth, industrialization and increased vehicle use. Currently there are about 7.2 million passenger and commercial vehicles: 93.5% light- duty and 6.5% heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Of the light-duty vehicles, approximately 76.3% burn a mixture of 78-80% (v/v) gasoline and 22% ethanol (referred to as gasohol), and 17.2% use hydrated ethanol (95% ethanol + 5% water), these data were obtained from the Sao Paulo Environmental Protection Agency. Over the past several years, ambient ozone concentrations in the MASP have reached levels of more than five times that considered protective of public health by the World Health Organization. In the wintertime, ozone levels routinely exceed the 160 ug/m3 hourly Brazilian National Ambient Air-Quality Standard. About 90% of the O3 precursors in the MASP atmosphere are emitted by the vehicle fleet. According to the official state EI of HC (hydrocarbons) emissions from mobile sources, 22% are from gasohol-powered vehicles, 15% from diesel-powered vehicles, 6% from ethanol-powered vehicles and 5% from motorcycles. In addition, a significant contribution to HC emissions comes

  5. A preliminary assessment of metal bioaccumulation in the blue crab, Callinectes danae S., from the Sao Vicente Channel, Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bordon, Isabella C A C; Sarkis, Jorge E S; Tomás, Acácio R G; Souza, Marcelo R; Scalco, Allan; Lima, Mariana; Hortellani, Marcos A

    2012-04-01

    The concentrations of metals in tissues of Callinectes danae were evaluated, aiming to determine the bioaccumulation process of this species. Gills presented the highest mean concentrations for most metals, except for Hg (Sao Vicente Channel is included) would be important to confirm if this pattern of bioaccumulation can be extended to the population of C. danae of this estuary. PMID:22349281

  6. Prevalence of equine Piroplasmosis and its association with tick infestation in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum samples were collected from 582 horses from 40 stud farms in the State of São Paulo and tick (Acari: Ixodidae) infestations were evaluated on them. Serum samples were subjected to the complement fixation test (CFT) and a competitive inhibition ELISA (cELISA) for Babesia caballi and Theileria e...

  7. Impact of vehicular emissions on the formation of fine particles in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area: a numerical study with the WRF-Chem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vara-Vela, A.; Andrade, M. F.; Kumar, P.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Muñoz, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of vehicular emissions on the formation of fine particles (PM2.5; ≤ 2.5 µm in diameter) in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) in Brazil, where ethanol is used intensively as a fuel in road vehicles. The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model, which simulates feedbacks between meteorological variables and chemical species, is used as a photochemical modelling tool to describe the physico-chemical processes leading to the evolution of number and mass size distribution of particles through gas-to-particle conversion. A vehicular emission model based on statistical information of vehicular activity is applied to simulate vehicular emissions over the studied area. The simulation has been performed for a 1-month period (7 August-6 September 2012) to cover the availability of experimental data from the NUANCE-SPS (Narrowing the Uncertainties on Aerosol and Climate Changes in Sao Paulo State) project that aims to characterize emissions of atmospheric aerosols in the SPMA. The availability of experimental measurements of atmospheric aerosols and the application of the WRF-Chem model made it possible to represent some of the most important properties of fine particles in the SPMA such as the mass size distribution and chemical composition, besides allowing us to evaluate its formation potential through the gas-to-particle conversion processes. Results show that the emission of primary gases, mostly from vehicles, led to a production of secondary particles between 20 and 30 % in relation to the total mass concentration of PM2.5 in the downtown SPMA. Each of PM2.5 and primary natural aerosol (dust and sea salt) contributed with 40-50 % of the total PM10 (i.e. those ≤ 10 µm in diameter) concentration. Over 40 % of the formation of fine particles, by mass, was due to the emission of hydrocarbons, mainly aromatics. Furthermore, an increase in the number of small particles impaired the

  8. Status of Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) as a pest of coconut in the state of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, D C; de Moraes, G J; Dias, C T S

    2012-08-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, is one of the main pests of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of the coconut mite and other mites on coconut palms in the state of São Paulo and to estimate the possible role of predatory mites in the control of this pest. The effect of cultivated genotypes and sampling dates on the mite populations was also estimated. We sampled attached fruits, leaflets, inflorescences, and fallen fruits. The coconut mite was the main phytophagous mite found on attached and fallen fruits, with average densities of 110.0 and 20.5 mites per fruit, respectively. The prevalent predatory mites on attached and fallen fruits were Proctolaelaps bulbosus Moraes, Reis & Gondim Jr. and Proctolaelaps bickleyi (Bram), both Melicharidae. On leaflets, the tenuipalpids Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijsks) and Tenuipalpus coyacus De Leon and the tetranychid Oligonychus modestus (Banks) were the predominant phytophagous mites. On both leaflets and inflorescences, the predominant predatory mites belonged to the Phytoseiidae. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), predators widely associated with the coconut mite in northeastern Brazil and several other countries, were not found. The low densities of the coconut mite in São Paulo could be related to prevailing climatic conditions, scarcity of coconut plantations (hampering the dispersion of the coconut mite between fields), and to the fact that some of the genotypes cultivated in the region are unfavorable for its development. PMID:23950068

  9. [Time trends in death rates from homicides in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1979-1994].

    PubMed

    Barata, R B; Ribeiro, M C; Moraes, J C

    1999-01-01

    To study homicide trends by gender and age, 1979-1994, São Paulo, Brazil, cubic polynomials were used to determine the best model for adjusting to time trends in homicide mortality rates by age and gender in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, 1979-1994. The model best adjusted to each group was selected considering the regression coefficient (Beta) , R2 value, residual analysis, and model's simplicity. The results show linear growth for total rates and rates by gender due to behavior of rates in the 20-29 and 30-39 year age groups. The reciprocal model adjusted best to rates for the 40-49 and 50-59 year age groups, while rates for adolescents followed the multiplicative model. There was no significant relationship between homicide rates and time for the remaining groups (under 10 and over 59 years). Rates for males were considerably higher in all age groups. The remarkably steady growth in homicide rates among adolescents and young adults is consistent with trends observed in other urban areas in developing and developed countries and denotes deteriorating living conditions and increased poverty. PMID:10633193

  10. [Professional trajectory of obstetric nurses from the University of Sao Paulo College of Nursing: a focus on social phenomenology].

    PubMed

    Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa

    2002-01-01

    This study aimed at understanding the experiences of students that were enrolled in the Obstetric Nursing Program offered by the University of São Paulo College of Nursing. Data were collected through interviews with the former students, who had different life histories after their graduation. The proposal of this research was based on Alfred Schutz' Social Phenomenology framework, considering that people express, in their actions socially experienced, the meaning of these experiences. Results showed two social types: the ones who continue in the area because they like what they do and the ones who do not work in the area as they were disappointed with the lack of professional autonomy. The reasons mentioned offer important guidelines that must be analyzed by the ones who are still working in the area, by the class associations and the ones who are responsible for the capacitation of these professionals. PMID:12641050

  11. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Network Assessment and Analyses for Intercomparison Studies and GOES-R Proxy Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. C.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Carey, L. D.; Goodman, S. J.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anselmo, E. M.; Neves, J. R.; Buechler, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    A 12 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network was deployed during October 2011 in the vicinity of Sao Paulo, Brazil (SP-LMA) to contribute total lightning measurements to an international field campaign [CHUVA - Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)]. The SP-LMA was operational from November 2011 through March 2012 during the Vale do Paraiba campaign. Sensor spacing was on the order of 15-30 km, with a network diameter on the order of 40-50km. The SP-LMA provides good 3-D lightning mapping out to 150 km from the network center, with 2-D coverage considerably farther. In addition to supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives, the SP-LMA is supporting the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), on NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R: scheduled for a 2015 launch). These proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready to use on "day1" following the GOES-R launch. As the CHUVA Vale do Paraiba campaign opportunity was formulated, a broad community-based interest developed for a comprehensive Lightning Location System (LLS) intercomparison and assessment study, leading to the participation and/or deployment of eight other ground-based networks and the space-based Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). The SP-LMA data is being intercompared with lightning observations from other deployed lightning networks to advance our understanding of the capabilities/contributions of each of these networks toward GLM proxy and validation activities. This paper addresses the network assessment including noise reduction criteria, detection efficiency estimates, and statistical and climatological (both temporal and spatially) analyses for intercomparison studies and GOES-R proxy activities.

  12. Application of remote sensing to the photogeologic mapping of the region of the Itatiaia alkaline complex. M.S. Thesis; [Minas Gerais, Rio De Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and Itatiaia, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Rodrigues, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing methods applied to geologically complex areas, through interaction of ground truth and information obtained from multispectral LANDSAT images and radar mosaics were evaluated. The test area covers parts of Minos Gerais, Rio De Janeiro and Sao Paulo states and contains the alkaline complex of Itatiaia and surrounding Precambrian terrains. Geological and structural mapping was satisfactory; however, lithological varieties which form the massif's could not be identified. Photogeological lineaments were mapped, some of which represent the boundaries of stratigraphic units. Automatic processing was used to classify sedimentary areas, which includes the talus deposits of the alkaline massifs.

  13. Validation of the emission inventory in the Sao Paulo Metropolitan Area of Brazil, based on ambient concentrations ratios of CO, NMOG and NO x and on a photochemical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivanco, Marta G.; Andrade, Maria de Fátima

    In recent years, photochemical air pollution has become a significant problem in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA). For some air pollutants, especially ozone and particulate matter, concentrations in excess of national air quality standards have been registered. According to data published by the State Environmental Agency (CETESB), approximately 90% of ozone precursors are emitted into the atmosphere by the vehicle fleet [CETESB, 2000. Relatório de Qualidade do ar do Estado de Sao Paulo, 1999; CETESB, 2002. Relatório de Qualidade do ar do Estado de Sao Paulo, 2004]. The estimation of precursor emissions speciation is a rather complex task. Estimating spatial and temporal variation of vehicle emissions is the greatest source of uncertainty. As in other locales, data regarding motor vehicle emissions are scarce. Due to the considerable discrepancies in emission inventories reported in various regions of the world, we evaluated the official emission inventories of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) and nitrogen oxides (NO x) using an observation-based approach. Ratios of NO x/carbon monoxide (CO) and NMOG/CO were calculated from ambient measurements taken in the early morning (0700-0800) during July and August of 1999. This top-down approach assumes that early morning ambient concentrations of CO, NO x and NMOG are dominated by motor vehicle emissions, and that the photochemical process has not substantially affected the concentrations. Based on these ratios and on the assumption that official inventory of CO emissions is reasonably accurate, on-road motor vehicle emissions of NO x seem to be significantly overestimated and NMOG emissions slightly underestimated. An Eulerian photochemical model, using both the revised motor vehicle emission inventory and the original official emissions provided by CETESB, was applied to an episodic air pollution event in the SPMA (9-12 August 1999). Meteorology fields were obtained from the CALMET model. When the revised, rather

  14. Assessment of hygienic conditions of ground pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on the market in Sao Paulo City, by means of two methodologies for detecting the light filth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pepper should to be collected, processed, and packed under optimum conditions to avoid the presence of foreign matter. The hygienic conditions of ground pepper marketted in São Paulo city were assessed in determining the presence of foreign matter by means of two extraction methodologies. This study...

  15. Major Andre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henisch, B. A.; Henisch, H. K.

    1976-01-01

    If most Revolutionary era people seem two-dimensional their lives simpler to understand than ours, it may be only that history, with the benefit of hindsight, clarifies. Examines a profile of Major John Andre, the British liaison officer in Benedict Arnold's plan to surrender West Point, as both hero and villain to show the complexity of early…

  16. Nocturnal awakening with headache and its relationship with sleep disorders in a population-based sample of adult inhabitants of Sao Paulo City, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lucchesi, Ligia Mendonça; Speciali, Jose Geraldo; Santos-Silva, Rogerio; Taddei, Jose Augusto; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo

    2010-12-01

    Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of nocturnal awakening with headache (NAH) in the population of São Paulo City according to gender, age (20-80 years old) and socioeconomic classes and its relationship to sleep disorders, sleep parameters, anxiety, depression, fatigue, life quality and obesity. We used a population-based survey with a representative three-stage cluster sample. Questionnaires and scales were applied face-to-face, and polysomnography was performed in 1101 volunteers, aged 42 ± 14 years, 55% women. The complaint of NAH occurring at least once a week had a prevalence of 8.4%, mostly in women, obese subjects and those aged 50-59 years-old. We observed associations of NAH with insomnia, restless leg syndrome (RLS), nightmares and bruxism, but not obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. In a logistics regression model, risk factors for NAH were female gender, odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) 4.5 (2.8-7.3); obesity, OR 1.9 (1.1-3.3); age between 50 and 59 years, OR 2.4 (1.2-4.7); severe anxiety, OR 8.1 (3.6-18.1); RLS, 2.7 (1.2-5.6); and nightmares, 2.2 (1.3-3.7). Our study shows that NAH was highly prevalent in the population of São Paulo and suggests that this phenomenon has specific characteristics with specific risk factors: obesity, RLS and nightmares. PMID:20974608

  17. On-road emissions of carbonyls from vehicles powered by biofuel blends in traffic tunnels in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Thiago; Souza, Kely Ferreira de; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Carvalho, Lilian Rothschild Franco de

    2015-05-01

    On-road emissions of carbonyls from the current vehicle fleet of Brazil were determined in two experimental campaigns, conducted in traffic tunnels located in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), in southeastern Brazil. Among carbonyl species, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant in all sampling periods. In Brazil, heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) run on a blend of 95% regular diesel/5% biodiesel from soy, whereas light-duty vehicles (LDVs) run on gasohol (75-80% gasoline/20-25% ethanol) or hydrous ethanol. We found that HDVs showed the highest overall carbonyl emissions, although LDVs were responsible for high emissions of acetaldehyde. In comparison with LDVs in California, which are powered by 90% gasoline/10% ethanol, LDVs in Brazil were found to emit 352% and 263% more formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.

  18. Sao Paulo Lightning Mapping Array (SP-LMA): Network Assessment and Analyses for Intercomparison Studies and GOES-R Proxy Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Goodman, S. J.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Albrecht, R.; Morales, C. A.; Anselmo, E. M.; Neves, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    A 12 station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) network was deployed during October 2011in the vicinity of São Paulo, Brazil (SP-LMA) to contribute total lightning measurements to an international field campaign [CHUVA - Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)]. The SP-LMA was operational from November 2011 through March 2012. Sensor spacing was on the order of 15-30 km, with a network diameter on the order of 40-50km. The SP-LMA provides good 3-D lightning mapping out to150 km from the network center, with 2-D coverage considerably farther. In addition to supporting CHUVA science/mission objectives, the SP-LMA is supporting the generation of unique proxy data for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), on NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R (GOES-R: scheduled for a 2015 launch). These proxy data will be used to develop and validate operational algorithms so that they will be ready to use on "day1" following the GOES-R launch. The SP-LMA data also will be intercompared with lightning observations from other deployed lightning networks to advance our understanding of the capabilities/contributions of each of these networks toward GLM proxy and validation activities. This paper addresses the network assessment and analyses for intercomparison studies and GOES-R proxy activities

  19. Vehicular emission factors and chemical profile of Particulate Matter measured in two road tunnels in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, T.; Miranda, R. M.; Dominutti, P. A.; Hetem, I. G.; Fornaro, A.; Andrade, M.

    2013-12-01

    The main source of air pollution in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP), Brazil, is vehicle exhaust. In this study, trace-element concentrations inside and outside of two traffic tunnels in the MASP are shown. The experiments were conducted in May and July 2011, respectively, in the Jânio Quadros (JQT) and Rodoanel (RAT) road tunnels, both located in MASP. The JQT carries mainly light-duty vehicles (LDV), whereas the RAT carries LDVs and heavy-duty vehicles (HDV). Hourly carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide were measured during the sampling campaign. Particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM2.5-10) samples were collected 6-h (daytime) and 12-h (overnight), employing gravimetric analysis to quantify PM mass concentration; reflectance to quantify black carbon (BC) concentrations and X-ray fluorescence to characterize elemental composition. Mean concentrations for PM2.5 and BC inside the JQT were 41(×11), and 19(×9) μg/m3, respectively. In the RAT mean concentrations were 175(×61), and 140(×78) μg/m3, for PM2.5 and BC, respectively. Emission Factors (EFs) for PM2.5, PM2.5-10, BC and trace metal (Na to Pb) from mobile sources operating under real-world conditions were determined using these traffic tunnels in the MASP as experimental set-up. LDV emission factors were 45 × 18 mg/km, 39 × 17 mg/km, 306 × 121 μg/km, 108 × 46 μg/km, 742 × 453 μg/km, 624 × 261 μg/km, and 33 × 15 μg/km, for PM2.5, BC, Na, P, S, Cu, and Pb, respectively. HDV emission factors were 326 × 119 mg/km, 231 × 98 mg/km, 446 × 218 μg/km, 384 × 143 μg/km, 4618 × 1878 μg/km, 44 × 18 μg/km, and 46 × 20 μg/km, for PM2.5, BC, Na, P, S, Cu, and Pb, respectively. In general, the mean contribution of HDVs to the emissions of fine particles was from 1.4 to 7.3 times higher than that of LDVs. In addition, the data show a significant reduction in the EFs values when compared with data obtained in the last campaign held in the MASP in 2004. The reduction

  20. Vulnerabilities in snakebites in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bertolozzi, Maria Rita; Scatena, Camila Morato da Conceição; França, Francisco Oscar de Siqueira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe elements of vulnerability of victims of snakebite. METHODS This qualitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study had, as theoretical framework, the concept of vulnerability in individual, social, and programmatic dimensions. We interviewed 21 patients admitted into a hospital specialized in the care of accidents caused by venomous animals. The interviews were analyzed according to a discourse analysis technique. RESULTS Patients were mainly young men, living in remote countryside areas, where health services frequently have limited resources. We found social and individual conditions of vulnerability, such as precarious schooling, low professional qualification, housing without access to piped water, no sewage treated, and no regular garbage collection, and lack of knowledge on this health problem. Regarding the programmatic dimension, we found limited accessibility to the health services that could affect the prognosis and the frequency of sequelae and deaths. CONCLUSIONS Considering such vulnerabilities evoke the need to improve the program for control the Accidents by Venomous Animals and the training of health workers, we highlight the potential use of the concept of vulnerability, which may amplify the understanding and the recommendations for the practice and education related to snakebites. PMID:26603351

  1. Population Growth and Policies in Mega-Cities. Sao Paulo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis.

    This document is one in a series of studies that focus on the population policies and plans of a number of mega-cities in developing countries. The object of the series is to examine the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of the population policies of mega-cities from a broad perspective, emphasizing the reciprocal links between…

  2. Paulo Freire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Convergence, 1970

    1970-01-01

    The noted educator, Paulo Friere, who has done literacy work in Brazil and Chile, contends that all teaching methods imply a concept of man; his distinctive literacy approach is aimed chiefly at conscientizacion, an awakening of consciousness involving an accurate awareness of one's place in nature, time, and society. (Editor/LY)

  3. "Sedentary" Homeless Children in S. Paulo, Brazil: Their Houses, Their Families, Their Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinovich, Elaine Pedreira

    This study examined the lifestyle of children from a sedentary grouping of 20 homeless families living under a viaduct in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The study particularly focused on issues related to this lifestyle, including dimensions of housing and cultural variations in housing related to child development and child rearing. The lifestyle of the…

  4. HD-SAO-DM cross index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, T. A.; Mead, J.

    1978-01-01

    A table of correspondence SAO-HD-DM-GC was prepared by Morin (1973). The machine-readable version of this cross identification was obtained from the Centre de Donnees Stellaires (Strasbourg, France). The table was sorted at the Goddard Space Flight Center by HD number and all blank HD number records were removed to produce the HD-SAO-DM table presented. There were 258997 entries in the original table; there are 180411 entries after removing the blank HD records. The Boss General Catalogue (GC) numbers were retained on the machine-readable version after the sort.

  5. My Session With André.

    PubMed

    Eigen, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The author shares personal reminiscences of a therapy session with André Green, as well as impressions of professional meetings, readings, and clinical work. He describes personal help he received and aspects of Green's writings on dynamics of madness, as well as the latter's end-of-life discussion of therapeutic limits. PMID:26485484

  6. First description of necrosis in leaves and pseudo-bulbs of Oncidium orchids caused by Burkholderia gladioli in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A necrosis of orchid leaves and pseudobulbs was observed in a commercial orchid nursery in Mogi das Cruzes, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The symptoms were water-soaked, brown lesions that can develop into large areas of necrosis that extend throughout the entire plant, ultimately causing death. Bacteria were...

  7. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.

  8. Otomi de San Andres Cuexcontitlan, Estado de Mexico (Otomi of San Andres Cuexcontitlan, State of Mexico).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lastra, Yolanda

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Otomi, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in San Andres Cuexcontitlan, in the state of Mexico. The objective of collecting such a representative…

  9. Radar image of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This radar image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The area is predominantly scrub forest. Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. Image brightness differences in this image are caused by differences in vegetation type and density. Tributaries of the Sao Francisco are visible in the upper right. The Sao Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

    This radar image was obtained by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission as part of its mission to map the Earth's topography. The image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas, and consequently does not show topographic data but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover, and urbanization.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

  10. [Health levels in San Andres Cholula].

    PubMed

    Alvarez Martinez, A; Corro Fernandez, G; Balmaceda, M

    1991-12-01

    In matters of health and curing, the community of San Andres Cholula in Puebla, Mexico, demonstrates a syncretism similar to religious syncretism. Perspectives on illness and health consistent with the traditional medical practices of curanderos coexist with modern medical practices. Curanderos and physicians often treat the same patients. A curandero's powers are viewed as a special gift transmitted by God or the saints during a dream. The curandero effects a cure not only through knowledge of the medicinal plants, rites, and ceremonies, but by understanding the context of the patient. The Western medical concept of disease emphasizes a biological model and technological control, to the detriment of mental, behavioral, and social factors and determinants. The traditional medical concept stresses the relationship of the individual to the social and ecological environment. Improvements in life expectancy in the developing countries in recent years have been attributed to improved levels of living or to importation of vaccination programs, antibiotics, and similar technologies from the developed countries. The vital register of San Andres Cholula records many deaths whose cause cannot be easily interpreted according to the World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases. It is clear, however, that the root cause of many deaths is malnutrition. The proportion of deaths caused by infectious diseases has declined in Mexico since 1940, but Puebla is still included among the states with the highest incidence. There are great regional and rural-urban mortality differentials in Mexico. In the past 50 years, the infant mortality rate has declined from 250 to 40/1000 live births in San Andres Cholula, more as a result of vaccination campaigns than of improved levels of living. 89% of children have been vaccinated, but the population still lives in about the same state of material comfort as it has for generations except that most households have televisions

  11. Artificial and natural radioactivity in edible mushrooms from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Castro, L P; Maihara, V A; Silva, P S C; Figueira, R C L

    2012-11-01

    Environmental biomonitoring has demonstrated that organisms such as crustaceans, fish and mushrooms are useful to evaluate and monitor both ecosystem contamination and quality. Particularly, some mushroom species have a high capacity to retain radionuclides and some toxic elements from the soil and the air. The potential of mushrooms to accumulate radionuclides in their fruit-bodies has been well documented. However, there are no studies that determine natural and artificial radionuclide composition in edible mushrooms, in Brazil. Artificial ((137)Cs) and natural radioactivity ((40)K, (22)(6)Ra, (2)(28)Ra) were determined in 17 mushroom samples from 3 commercialized edible mushroom species. The edible mushrooms collected were Agaricus sp., Pleurotus sp. and Lentinula sp. species. The activity measurements were carried out by gamma spectrometry. The levels of (137)Cs varied from 1.45 ± 0.04 to 10.6 ± 0.3 Bq kg(-1), (40)K levels varied from 461 ± 2 to 1535 ± 10 Bq kg(-1), (2)(26)Ra levels varied from 14 ± 3 to 66 ± 12 Bq kg(-1) and (228)Ra levels varied from 6.2 ± 0.2 to 54.2 ± 1.7 Bq kg(-1). (137)Cs levels in Brazilian mushrooms are in accordance with the radioactive fallout in the Southern Hemisphere. The artificial and natural activities determined in this study were found to be below the maximum permissible levels as established by national legislation. Thus, these mushroom species can be normally consumed by the population without any apparent risks to human health. PMID:22765964

  12. Geological map of parts of the state of Sao Paulo based on LANDSAT images. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejususparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Amaral, G.; Liu, C. C.; Filho, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Interpretation of LANDSAT images revealed the subdivision of the Bauru formation into three distinct lithofacies. Delineation of structural features yielded new information on paleoenvironmental reconstitution and hydrogeology. Structural features and photogeological units were revealed in the precambrian basement at the eastern portion of the state.

  13. Exposure to MTV's Global HIV Prevention Campaign in Kathmandu, Nepal; Sao Paulo, Brazil; and Dakar, Senegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Burke, Holly McClain; Castelnau, Laure; Neupane, Shailes; Sall, Yacine Ba; Wong, Emily

    2007-01-01

    In 2002 MTV aired a global media campaign, "Staying Alive," to promote HIV prevention among 16- to 25-year-olds. Skeptics believed that a global MTV campaign would reach only a small group of elite young people. MTV increased access to its campaign, however, by making all materials "rights free" to third-party (non-MTV) broadcasters. Over 789…

  14. Contact allergy in male construction workers in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2000-2005.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Marzia Silva; de Avelar Alchorne, Alicede Oliveira; Costa, Enilde Borges; Montesano, Fábio Tadeu

    2007-04-01

    There are no recent data on allergens in the construction industry in Brazil; apparently there were no changes in allergenic substances. The objective of this study was to identify sensitization to allergens in adult males working in the construction industry. A cross-sectional study with adult males submitted to patch tests from May 2000 to December 2005. Out of 169 male patients, 83 were construction workers. The five most frequent allergens among the construction workers were potassium dichromate (57%), carba-mix (34.9%), cobalt chloride (30.2%), thiuram-mix (27.9%) and neomycin (19.8%). There is a significant sensitization to potassium dichromate, cobalt, carba-mix, and thiuram-mix, demonstrating that cement and rubber gloves of personal protection equipment still account for allergic contact dermatitis in construction industry workers. PMID:17343626

  15. Brevipalpus phoenicis (group species B) on Citrus spp. and Coffea arabica, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some mite species of the genus Brevipalpus are considered pests of economic importance for several agricultural crops such as citrus and coffee. They are associated with the transmission of viruses [e.g.:citrus leprosis virus (CiLV), coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV)]. Recent studies indicate that the ...

  16. Ten years of a multidisciplinary diabetic foot team approach in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Fábio; Augusto Magalhães, Antonio; Gamba, Mônica; Nery, Caio; Cardoso, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus can cause devastating foot problems including loss of protective sensation with subsequent ulcerations and amputations. The natural history and pathophysiology of diabetic foot ulcers is best understood and managed by a multiprofessional team approach. The main factors for prevention and treatment of these devastating diabetic foot conditions are shown, with special attention to education of the patient. This approach decreases the morbidity of the disease, besides its economical and social feasibility. PMID:22396805

  17. Mutagenic effect of methanol in gas station operators from Sao Paulo/Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Gattas, G.J.F.; Cardoso, L.A.; Faria, M.M.

    1997-10-01

    The frequency of micronucleus (MN) in oral scamous cells of 76 gas station operators was investigated. Subjects were exposed to a fuel called MEG a mix of 33% methanol, 60% ethanol and 7% gasoline. In Brazil the ethyl alcohol, extracted from sugar cane have been used as a fuel since 70`s. In November 1991, for economical reasons, the MEG fuel was introduced in big cities. The MN frequency was evaluated in three different periods: before MEG introduction (1989), and twice after MEG utilization (1992 and 1995). Some individuals were analyzed more than one time. For each individual the frequency of MN was performed in 2000 oral cells. Statistical analysis through non parametric tests revealed a highly significant increase (P=0.001) in the frequency of MN before (1.38/2000 cells) and immediately after methanol introduction (3.0/2000 cells). The frequency of MN returned to be normal (1.4/2000 cells), in the third evaluation when the exposition to methanol decreased. It should represent genetic risk for individuals under occupational exposure and for the population as a whole when methanol has been introduced as a large-scale fuel.

  18. [Epidemiological study of tinea pedis in a population studied in Santa Casa de Sao Paulo].

    PubMed

    Zaitz, C; Proença, N G

    1989-01-01

    The authors make an epidemiologic study of tinea pedis aiming at establishing its minimal frequency in the population studied, as well as recognizing the most frequent fungi and the clinical aspects they determine. We've tried to study the role of the dermatophytes in the normal microbiota of the feet. Finally we analyzed the influence of sex and seasonality factors on the incidence of tinea pedis. PMID:2693864

  19. Lead exposure in pregnant women and their newborns in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Troster, E.J.; Schvartsman, S. )

    1988-06-01

    Blood lead concentrations of a group of mothers and their newborns were studied. The results showed a correlation between maternal and newborn levels. It is suggested that biochemical alterations may be present in some of the mothers and in a smaller proportion of the newborns. In addition, a comparison of the lead levels in blood with those in the environment was made.

  20. The use of LANDSAT data to monitor the urban growth of Sao Paulo Metropolitan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Niero, M.; Lombardo, M. A.; Foresti, C.

    1982-01-01

    Urban growth from 1977 to 1979 of the region between Billings and the Guarapiranga reservoir was mapped and the problematic urban areas identified using several LANDSAT products. Visual and automatic interpretation techniques were applied to the data. Computer compatible tapes of LANDSAT multispectral scanner data were analyzed through the maximum likelihood Gaussian algorithm. The feasibility of monitoring fast urban growth by remote sensing techniques for efficient urban planning and control is demonstrated.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SAO Star Catalog J2000 (SAO Staff 1966; USNO, ADC 1990)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAO Staff

    1995-10-01

    This machine-readable SAO catalog from the Astronomical Data Center is based on an original binary version of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Star Catalog (SAO, SAO Staff 1966). Subsequent improvements by T. A. Nagy (1979) included the addition of equatorial coordinates in radians and cross-identifications from the Table of Correspondences SAO/HD/DM/GC (Morin 1973). As a prelude to creation of the 1984 version of the SAO, a new version of the SAO-HD-GC-DM Cross Index was prepared (Roman, Warren, and Schofield 1983). The 1984 version of the SAO contained the corrected and extended cross identifications, all errata published up to January 1984 and known to the ADC, numerous errors forwarded to the ADC by colleagues, and errors discovered at the ADC during the course of this work. Clayton A. Smith of the U. S. Naval Observatory provided J2000.0 positions and proper motions for the SAO stars. Published and unpublished errors discovered in the previous version (1984) have been corrected (up to May 1991). The catalog contains SAO number; the right ascension and declination with a B1950.0 equinox and epoch; annual proper motion and its standard deviation, photographic and visual magnitudes; spectral type; references to sources; the Durchmusterung (DM) identifier if the star is listed in the Bonner DM (BD), Cordoba DM (CD), or Cape Photographic DM (CP); component identification; The Henry Draper (Extension) (HD or HDE) number; and J2000 positions and proper motions. Multiple-star component identifications have been added to stars where more than one SAO entry has the same DM number. The Henry Draper Extension (HDE) numbers have been added for stars found in both volumes of the extension. Data for duplicate SAO entries (those referring to the same star) have been flagged. J2000 positions in usual units and in radians have been added. (1 data file).

  2. Satellite Movie Shows Andres Weaken to a Tropical Storm

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from June 1 to 3 shows Hurricane Andres eye disappear and weaken to a tropical storm in the Eastern Pacific Ocean, south of Baja California...

  3. Prevalence and severity of wheezing in the first year of life in the city of Santo André, Brazil☆

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Isabel Cristina C.; Wandalsen, Neusa Falbo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and the severity of wheezing in the first year of life for infants who live in Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: Cross sectional study with the administration of the Estudio Internacional de Sibilancias en Lactantes (EISL), which is a standardized and validated written questionnaire applied to parents and/or guardians of infants aged 12-24 months treated at primary health units, vaccination centers, day care centers, or kindergartens. The questionnaire consisted of questions regarding demographic characteristics, presence of wheezing, respiratory infections, and risk factors. Results were analyzed using the SPSS for Windows, 20.0 (SPSS Inc. - Chicago, Il, United States). Logistic regression was applied to verify variables associated to recurrent wheezing. Results: Among the 1,028 infants studied, 48.5% had one or more episodes of wheezing during the first 12 months of life (wheezing once), and 23.9% had three or more episodes (recurrent wheezing). Nocturnal symptoms, severe breathing difficulty, and visits to the emergency room were observed in 67.3%, 42.4%, and 60.7% of infants, respectively. Among the studied infants, 19.4% were hospitalized, and 11.0% had a medical diagnosis of asthma in the first year of life. Use of β2-agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, oral corticosteroids, and leukotriene receptor antagonists were observed in 88.8%, 21.0%, 54.9%, and 3.2% of children with wheezing, respectively. Use of oral corticosteroids, perception of breathlessness by parents, diagnosis of asthma, pneumonia, and hospitalization for pneumonia were more frequent among infants with recurrent wheezing (p<0.001). Conclusions: In the city of Santo André, approximately half of infants had at least one episode of wheezing in the first year of life, and almost 25% had recurrent wheezing. Wheezing disorders in Santo André have early onset and high morbidity. PMID:25479844

  4. Shaded Relief of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The scrub forest terrain shows relief of about 400 meters (1300 feet). Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. This region has little topographic relief, but even subtle changes in topography have far-reaching effects on regional ecosystems. The image covers an area of 57 km x 79 km and represents one quarter of the 225 km SRTM swath. Colors range from dark blue at water level to white and brown at hill tops. The terrain features that are clearly visible in this image include tributaries of the Sao Francisco, the dark-blue branch-like features visible from top right to bottom left, and on the left edge of the image, and hills rising up from the valley floor. The San Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter

  5. André Danjon et l'informatique.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsac, J.

    There is not any paper by André Danjon about computer science. The only way to know his ideas about it is through his action. At the end of the fifties, several scientists in astronomy and astrophysics had been convinced that a computer would be of great help in their research works. André Danjon immediatly agreed that it was a good idea. He greatly supported them in the process of having a computer bought by the Meudon Observatory. A computing center was started there in 1959. As soon as 1957, André Danjon had initiated a French association for computing, the "association française de calcul". This association provoked a world meeting of associations for information processing in Paris in 1959, where the IFIPS has been created.

  6. SAO HMC photodetector/event timer engineering model test report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-05

    The test unit is a custom photodetector/event timer, PET, built for the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, SAO, by Los Alamos which records elapsed time in 10 ps steps. The 1 Kg, 12 cm diameter PET unit uses 10 watts of electrical power and was tested to SAO`s specified flight conditions. The event timer has two inputs -- a reference clock oscillator input and a stop signal. Like a stop watch with split timing capability, the event timer records the instant a stop signal arrives. At that sample instant, the number of elapsed clock cycles are stored and the sample instant position between two reference clock edges is interpolated and stored. Then that stored data can be shifted serially to an external computer. The photodetector part of the PET responds to an optical input and provides the electrical output signal to the event timer specifying the sample instant. This test report discusses the event timer test results. Test equipment is shown for most of the operational tests. The relay rack contains test pursers and clocks. The environmental chamber controls temperature. The computer reads and records the serial data from the PET. Reported testing topics include: Pulse shapes to be used as test inputs, test results obtained using the electrical source`s input, optical test results which are the best simulation of specified operational conditions, heat sink operation in vacuum. Vibration tests performed to SAO`s specification.

  7. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, John Andre, November 15, 1777, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, John Andre, November 15, 1777, Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, California, See Catalog of Graphic Material #44, PHOTOCOPY OF 'MUD ISLAND WITH THE OPERATIONS FOR REDUCING IT'. - Fort Mifflin, Mud Island, Marine & Penrose Ferry Roads, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. Metals in sediments of San Andres lagoon, Tamaulipas, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez, F.G.; Aguilera, L.G. ); Sharma, V.K. )

    1994-03-01

    Heavy metal pollution in water is generally associated with industrial and municipal discharges into rivers, estuaries and lagoons. Once metals are in the water column, they may be taken up by organisms, deposited in the sediments or remain for some period in the water itself. The deposition rate in sediments depends on, among other factors, metal concentration in surface sediments. The concentrations of heavy metals in sediments of coastal, estuarine and lagoon environments have been determined by many workers. For the past several years, we have been interested in determining trace and heavy metal concentrations in the lagoons in Mexico to establish the levels of metal pollution. The work reported here is the completion of our ongoing study in San Andres lagoon. San Andres lagoon is located north of two industrial ports, Tampico and Altamira. In this industrial zone, the basins of the Panuco and Tamesi Rivers are localized and have industrial effluent throughout the year. All these activities and the input of the Tigre River, which runs through an agricultural and cattle-raising region, may affect the biogeochemistry of the San Andres lagoon. In the present work, we report concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn and Pb in sediments of San Andres lagoon. The measurements were made in different seasons; Rain-84 (August-September 1984); North (October-December 1984); Dry (April 1985); and Rain-85 (April-June 1985). 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) star catalog (Sao staff 1966, edition ADC 1989): Documentation for the machine-readable version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Nancy G.; Warren, Wayne H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    An updated, corrected, and extended machine readable version of the catalog is described. Published and unpublished errors discovered in the previous version were corrected, and multiple star and supplemental BD identifications were added to stars where more than one SAO entry has the same Durchmusterung number. Henry Draper Extension (HDE) numbers were added for stars found in both volumes of the extension. Data for duplicate SAO entries (those referring to the same star) were flagged. J2000 positions in usual units and in radians were added.

  10. Paulo Freire: Pedagogue of Liberation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, John L.

    This book is an analytic and critical treatment of Paulo Freire's philosophy. Its two central theses are that Freire's thought is best understood as that of an educational practitioner and theorist and that the most fruitful interpretation of Freire comes from understanding him as a Catholic thinker. Chapter 1 situates Freire's lifelong work in…

  11. Paulo Freire, Literacy Through Conscientization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John W., Ed.

    1974-01-01

    The topic of this review concerning international literacy is the Brazilian educator Paulo Freire and his theories and methods for teaching illiterates to read by teaching them fewer than 20 three syllable words, reflective of their social condition, such as "Shanty-town" and "wages" ("favela" and "salario" in Portuquese), whose syllables can be…

  12. Bird richness and composition in a Cerrado fragment in the State of São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Manica, L T; Telles, M; Dias, M M

    2010-05-01

    Bird species richness is an important measure for monitoring biodiversity changes. We analysed avifauna richness and composition in a 472 ha protected cerrado fragment and surroundings at Fazenda Canchim (RL-CPPSE), São Carlos, in the State of São Paulo (SP). We carried out 95.1 hours of observation (22 visits) at irregular intervals from May 2004 to December 2006. Qualitative surveys were done walking through tracks inside the fragment and on the roads at its edge. We recorded 160 species, six of which were endemic to Cerrado domain, 22 migratory, seven threatened within the State of São Paulo, and two globally threatened. We found 28 species in the cerradão, 110 in the cerrado sensu stricto, 13 in the gallery forest, 26 in the reservoir border, 26 in pasturelands and sugar cane monoculture and 55 in an anthropic area. Most of the species had low frequency of occurrence in all vegetation forms. Insectivores were the major trophic category (46.9%), which is typical in tropical regions, and it is also related to resource availability. Omnivores followed with 19.4%, granivores with 8.8% and frugivores with 7.5%. We conclude that, despite its size and conservation status, our study area has a remarkable bird community and must be considered as a priority conservation area to preserve bird species in Sao Paulo State. PMID:20552144

  13. Establishment and characterization of a new highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell line derived from Saos2

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lin; Fan, Qiming; Tu, Bing; Yan, Wei; Tang, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone in adolescents and young adults. There is a shortage of tumorigenic and highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell lines that can be used for metastasis study. Here we establish and characterize a highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell line that is derived from Saos2 cell line based on bioluminescence. The occasional pulmonary metastatic cells developed from Saos2 were isolated, harvested, characterized and named Saos2-l. The parental Saos2 and Saos2-l cells were further characterized both in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that Saos2-l cells demonstrated increased cell adhesion, migration and invasion compared to the parental Saos2 cells. Conversely, Saos2-l cells grew at a slightly slower rate than that of the parental cells. When injected into nude mice, Saos2-l cells had a greater increase in developing pulmonary metastases compared to the parental Saos2 cells. Further transcriptional profiling analysis revealed that some gene expression were up-regulated or down-regulated in the highly metastatic Saos2-l cells, indicating possible influencing factors of metastasis. Thus, we have established and characterized a highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell line that should serve as a valuable tool for future investigations on the pathogenesis, metastasis and potential treatments of human osteosarcoma. PMID:25031706

  14. Agricultural and Ranching area, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This agricultural and Ranching area, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil (13.0S, 43.5W) has been under study for several years. See scene STS-31-92-045 for comparison. This area has many small single family subsistence farms, large square and rectangular commercial farms and pastures for livestock grazing. Over the several years of observation, the number and size of farms has increased and center-pivot, swing-arm irrigation systems have been installed.

  15. The role of partnerships in promoting physical activity: the experience of Agita São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Matsudo, Victor

    2012-01-01

    around the outpatients clinic, as well as the establishment of a fitness room in the basic unit of health; and Sorocaba, a city of 600,000 inhabitants, that after 4 years of the program of building walk and bike pathways, and parks, found a decrease in hospitalization of 50% by stroke, and 57% of diabetes type 2. A recent paper has shown that sedendarism has declined relatively about 70% from 2002 to 2008 in the State of Sao Paulo, and World Bank has reported that Agita represents a saving of 310 million US dollars per year in the health sector of Sao Paulo. All this scenario strongly suggests that the social issue in the developing countries facilitates the success of strategic partnerships. PMID:22243915

  16. Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections in Women in a Sao Paulo Quaternary Care Hospital: Bacterial Spectrum and Susceptibility Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Hisano, Marcelo; Bruschini, Homero; Nicodemo, Antonio Carlos; Srougi, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) in women are very common. Regular analysis of bacterial flora is important to formulate updated guidelines. The objective of this study is to determine and compare the microbiology of UTIs and their susceptibility patterns in a quaternary care hospital. In a seven-year review, the urine culture results of 480 female patients with uncomplicated UTIs were analyzed. Patients were divided into three groups according to their diagnosis and treatment characteristics: Group 1, cystitis at outpatient basis; group 2, cystitis at the Emergency Unit; and group 3, pyelonephritis. Group 1 included older patients, with a higher incidence of concomitant diabetes mellitus and recurrent UTIs. E. coli was the most common pathogen, responsible for 75.1% of cases, mainly for pyelonephritis (87.3%). Of the oral antimicrobials tested for cystitis, amoxicillin/clavulanate and nitrofurantoin had the highest susceptibility profiles (84.4% and 87.3%, respectively). For E. coli only, their susceptibility profiles were as high as 90.8% and 97.4%, respectively. For pyelonephritis treatment, fluoroquinoles had a susceptibility profile <90%, while ceftriaxone and gentamicin had susceptibility >90%. Uncomplicated UTI treatment is becoming more challenging because the susceptibility profiles of oral antimicrobials are increasingly resistant. In our environment, cystitis can still be managed with nitrofurantoin. Uncomplicated pyelonephritis should be managed with ceftriaxone or gentamicin. PMID:27025737

  17. Sex Trade Involvement in Sao Paulo, Brazil and Toronto, Canada: Narratives of Social Exclusion and Fragmented Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean A.; Liborio, Renata Maria Coimbra

    2011-01-01

    An extensive international literature has been developed regarding the risk trajectories of sex trade-involved children and youth. This literature has not, however, substantially incorporated the narratives of youths regarding their experiences. In this article, the contemporary literature on child and youth sex trade-involvement is reviewed and…

  18. 77 FR 51759 - U.S. Medical Mission to Brazil; Sao Paulo, Brazil, May 21-24, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... table with two chairs, unlimited Internet access; Complimentary promotion and listing on the official Hospitalar 2013 portal; Listed in Hospitalar 2013 hard copy exhibitor catalog; Advanced promotion to top....gpoaccess.gov/fr ), posting on ITA's trade mission calendar-- http://export.gov/trademissions- -and...

  19. Brazil: Implications of Technological Change for Skills Training in Sao Paulo Industries. Training Discussion Paper No. 47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Assis, Marisa

    The Brazilian economy is led by the industrial sector, which accounts for 34 percent of production and employs 25 percent of the economically active population. The labor force formally employed in industry consists mainly of relatively young males with little schooling. A large number of institutions both in the regular education system and…

  20. Mavale project: Sensor techniques applied to macrozoning of the Paraiba Valley and littoral north of the State of Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-04-01

    This project was designed with two basic objectives in mind. The first is to support the Consortium for Integrated Development of the Paraiba Valley and the Northern Littoral (CODIVAP) for preparation of regulatory guidelines for use of the regional lands. The second is to place at the disposal of the country's technical/scientific community a regional planning method based on the use of Remote Orbital Sensor data. This project involved studies on the following areas: maps - geological, pedological, geomorphological, ground cover, land use, urban area and urban expansion in the last decade, areas favorable for replenishment and concentration of ground water; compartmentation of the region into sub-basins and study of the relationships of land use to surface water quality; generation of a map indicating the suitability of land for civil engineering and urban expansion projects and projects subject to geological risk; preparation of a map showing suitability for agricultural use of the land; and social/economic/demographic analysis. The region of the study encompasses 40 municipalities and portions of 4 others, in an overall region of 18.111 sq. km. Imagery from MSS/Landsat, TM/Landsat, and HRV/SPOT was interpreted, exploring the multispectral, multitemporal, synoptic characteristics as well as the detail (compatible with spatial resolutions of the sensor systems). As a function of the objectives of the different thematic studies involved in the environmental and physical diagnostics, images were interpreted visually or processed digitally in alternate scales of 1:250,000, 1:100,000, or 1:50,000. These studies were complemented with pre-existing bibliographical and cartographic information, and the final mapping products are presented to the scale of 1:250,000, compatible with decisions at the regional level. Thematic studies relative to the physical/territorial, and social/economical reality were integrated in the search for holistic understanding of the region and its problems relative to land use and occupation. The macrozoning proposal directed at reorganizing human activities in the regional territory was generated from technical discussions of the body of researchers involved in the project and representatives of the municipalities which comprise the region of the study.

  1. Improving the Quality of School Facilities through Building Performance Assessment: Educational Reform and School Building Quality in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Sheila Walbe; Moreira, Nanci Saraiva; Ono, Rosaria; Limongi Franca, Ana J. G.; Nogueira, Roselene A. M. F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The paper describes the purpose of and strategies for conducting post-occupancy evaluations (POEs) as a method for assessing school building performance. Set within the larger context of global efforts to develop and apply common indicators of school building quality, the authors describe research conducted within the newest generation of…

  2. Ozone phytotoxic potential with regard to fragments of the Atlantic Semi-deciduous Forest downwind of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moura, Bárbara B; Alves, Edenise S; de Souza, Silvia R; Domingos, Marisa; Vollenweider, Pierre

    2014-09-01

    In the Metropolitan Region of Campinas (MRC), Brazil, high levels of primary pollutants contribute to ozone (O3) formation. However, little is known regarding the O3 effects in the tropics. Objectives in this study were to characterize the present levels of O3 pollution and to evaluate the relevance of current concentration-based indices for assessing the phytotoxic potential of O3. Changes in O3 concentrations and precursors at 5 monitoring stations within towns of MRC were analyzed. The daily O3 profile was typical for urban sites and showed little yearly variation. Given the permanently foliated forest canopy, yearly rather than seasonal O3 indices were thus more appropriate for estimating the effective ozone dose. With yearly SUM00, SUM60 and AOT40 of 156, 16 and 14 ppm h and confirmed by evidence of O3 injury in foliage, oxidative stress in the MRC has reached levels high enough to affect trees from the Atlantic Semi-deciduous Forest. PMID:24892227

  3. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild rodents and marsupials from the Atlantic forest, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects a large spectrum of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Small mammals and rodents play an important role in the epidemiology of T. gondii because they are sources of infection for domestic and feral cats. Serum samples from 151 rodents and 4...

  4. ELEVATED LEVELS OF MULTIPLE CYTOCHROME P450 FORMS IN TILAPIA FROM BILLINGS RESERVOIR-SAO PAULO, BRAZIL. (R827102)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) levels in tissues of fish inhabiting polluted areas have been used extensively in biomonitoring studies in Europe and North America. However, little information is available about the extent of CYP1A expression in fish from South American waters, nor on ...

  5. André Toupet: Surgeon Technician Par Excellence

    PubMed Central

    Katkhouda, Namir; Khalil, Michael R.; Manhas, Sharan; Grant, Steven; Velmahos, George C.; Umbach, Thomas W.; Kaiser, Andreas M.

    2002-01-01

    André Toupet is best known for the posterior fundoplication that bears his name, currently used for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or completing Heller’s myotomy and subject today to intense discussions. This was not different in 1963, when Toupet proposed his technique at a time when the Nissen fundoplication was emerging as the treatment of choice for GERD. Behind the procedure, we discover a man with great surgical talent and meticulous attention to technical details who opposed criticism with hard work and strong family values. PMID:11923617

  6. Modeling the QBO and SAO Driven by Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.

    1999-01-01

    Hines' Doppler spread parameterization (DSP) for small scale gravity waves (GW) is applied in a global scale numerical spectral model (NSM) to describe the semi-annual and quasi-biennial oscillations (SAO and QBO) as well as the long term interannual variations that are driven by wave mean flow interactions. This model has been successful in simulating the salient features observed near the equator at altitudes above 20 km, including the QBO extension into the upper mesosphere inferred from UARS measurements. The model has now been extended to describe also the mean zonal and meridional circulations of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that affect the equatorial QBO and its global scale extension. This is accomplished in part through tuning of the GW parameterization, and preliminary results lead to the following conclusions: (1) To reproduce the upwelling at equatorial latitudes associated with the Brewer/Dobson circulation that in part is modulated in the model by the vertical component of the Coriolis force, the eddy diffusivity in the lower stratosphere had to be enhanced and the related GW spectrum modified to bring it in closer agreement with the form recommended for the DSP. (2) To compensate for the required increase in the diffusivity, the observed QBO requires a larger GW source that is closer to the middle of the range recommended for the DSP. (3) Through global scale momentum redistribution, the above developments are conducive to extending the QBO and SAO oscillations to higher latitudes. Multi-year interannual oscillations are generated through wave filtering by the solar driven annual oscillation in the zonal circulation. (4) In a 3D version of the model, wave momentum is absorbed and dissipated by tides and planetary waves. Thus, a somewhat larger GW source is required to generate realistic amplitudes for the QBO and SAO.

  7. Geothermal resources of Sao Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Duffield, W.A.; Muffler, L.J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Geothermal studies were carried out on the island of Sao Miguel, Azores to characterize the nature of the resource, to estimate its magnitude, and to identify target areas toward which exploration and developmental drilling might be directed. The main geothermal resource areas are Furnas, Agua de Pau, and Sete Cidades, three Quaternary silicic volcanic centers characterized by summit calderas beneath which magmatic heat sources provide thermal energy to overlying hydrothermal convection systems. For each of the systems, the studies have defined the size of the system, the subsurface temperature, the thermodynamic state of fluid in the system, the chemical composition of the fluid, and permeable parts of the system. 8 figs. (ACR)

  8. Smad7 mediates inhibition of Saos2 osteosarcoma cell differentiation by NF{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Eliseev, Roman A. . E-mail: Roman_Eliseev@urmc.rochester.edu; Schwarz, Edward M.; Zuscik, Michael J.; O'Keefe, Regis J.; Drissi, Hicham; Rosier, Randy N.

    2006-01-01

    The transcription factor NF{kappa}B is constitutively activated in various tumor cells where it promotes proliferation and represses apoptosis. The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) delay cell proliferation and promote differentiation and apoptosis of bone cells through activation of Smad downstream effectors and via Smad-independent mechanisms. Thus, NF{kappa}B and BMP pathways play opposing roles in regulating osteoblastic cell fate. Here, we show that in osteosarcoma Saos2 osteoblasts, NF{kappa}B regulates the activity of the BMP/Smad signaling. Inhibition of NF{kappa}B by overexpression of mI{kappa}B leads to the induction of osteoblast differentiation. Saos2 cells overexpressing mI{kappa}B (Saos2-mI{kappa}B) exhibit higher expression of osteoblast phenotypic genes such as alkaline phosphatase, Runx2 and osteocalcin and are more responsive to BMP2 in comparison to wild-type cells (Saos2-wt) or empty vector infected controls (Saos2-EV). Furthermore, BMP-2 signaling and Smad phosphorylation are significantly increased in Saos2-mI{kappa}B cells in comparison to Saos2-EV cells. Inhibition of NF{kappa}B signaling in Saos2-mI{kappa}B cells is associated with decreased expression of the BMP signaling inhibitor Smad7. While gain of Smad7 function in Saos2-mI{kappa}B cells results in inhibition of BMP signaling, anti-sense knockdown of Smad7 in Saos2-EV cells leads to upregulation of BMP signaling. We therefore conclude that in osteosarcoma Saos2 cells, NF{kappa}B represses BMP/Smad signaling and BMP2-induced differentiation through Smad7.

  9. André Saint-Marc 1944-1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reme, H.; Anderson, K. A.

    Andr Śaint-Marc, professor at the Institute of Technology of the Universite Paul Sabatier (IUT), in Toulouse, France, died suddenly and unexpectedly February 17, 1988, a few months before his 44th birthday.Saint-Marc carried out a research career in cosmic rays and space plasma physics beginning in 1969 at the Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements (CESR), a laboratory of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and the Université Paul Sabatier. He was born in Condegaygues, France (Lotet-Garonne). His four university degrees were awarded by the Universite Paul Sabatier. His Thèse de Docteur de Specialité was earned in 1973 for work on propagation of auroral X rays in Earth's atmosphere. The highest degree, the Doctorat d'Etat, came in 1979 for his studies of beam-plasma interactions in the ionosphere.

  10. What is Tetramorium semilaeve André, 1883? (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Borowiec, Lech; Galkowski, Christophe; Salata, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tetramorium semilaeve André, 1883 is redescribed based on the type series and new material from terra typica (Pyrénées-Orientales). Lectotype worker is designated. Detailed descriptions of gyne and male are given. A review of material from the Mediterranean area suggests that in the past the name Tetramorium semilaeve has been applied to more than one species and the true Tetramorium semilaeve is common only in the western part of the Mediterranean basin. The structure of the male genitalia is the most reliable set of characters allowing a proper distinction of species in Tetramorium semilaeve species group. All names attributed to the former name “semilaeve” are discussed. PMID:26257559

  11. Uranus occults SAO158687. [stellar occultation and planetary parametric observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Veverka, J.; Millis, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Experience gained in obtaining atmospheric parameters, oblatenesses, and diameters of Jupiter and Mars from recent stellar occultations by these planets is used to predict what can be learned from the March 1977 occultation of the star SAO158687 by Uranus. The spectra of this star and Uranus are compared to indicate the relative instrument intensities of the two objects, the four passbands where the relative intensities are most nearly equal are listed, and expected photon fluxes from the star are computed on the assumption that it has UBVRI colors appropriate for a K5 main-sequence object. It is shown that low photon noise errors can be achieved by choosing appropriate passbands for observation, and the rms error expected for the Uranus temperature profiles obtained from the occultation light curves is calculated. It is suggested that observers of this occultation should record their data digitally for optimum time resolution.

  12. Early experience of the SAO Satellite-Tracking Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, M. R.

    When Fred L. Whipple of Harvard University assumed the directorship of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in mid-1955, he proposed to the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation that the observatory be given responsibility for optical tracking of satellites during the IGY of 1957-1958. Several countries had expressed their intentions to launch satellites during the 18-month period to support research in ionospheric and upper atmospheric physics, including the effects of solar flares and solar radiation, and in geodesy and geophysics. On the basis of his experience at the Harvard College observatory with the Super-Schmidt cameras for meteor photography, Whipple was confident that optical tracking could provide a powerful means of monitoring satellite positions. The proposal was accepted in late 1955, and it was assumed that the total observing program would last only 18 months and would involve only a few satellites.

  13. Validation of the Updated SAO OMI Formaldehyde Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Abad, G.; Liu, X.; Liu, C.; Nowlan, C. R.; Chance, K.; Fried, A.; Janz, S. J.; Kanaya, Y.; Puentedura, O.

    2014-12-01

    The new SAO OMI formaldehyde retrieval, version v3.0.2 publicly released in June 2014, introduces major changes with respect to the previous version of the product. These changes include optimization of fitting window and fitting parameters, update of reference cross sections, reference sector normalization to the Pacific Ocean and a new air mass factor calculation. In this context it is necessary to assess the accuracy of the new product and perform a validation exercise. We compare the new data with other satellite retrievals from OMI, GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY performed by the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, with in situ airborne measurements recorded using a Difference Frequency Generation Absorption Spectrometer (DFGAS) instrument, with aircraft passive remote sensing retrievals from the ACAM and GeoTASO instruments recorded during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaigns in Maryland and Texas and with ground-based DOAS measurements.

  14. Performance evaluation of the SAO VLG-11 atomic hydrogen masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, M. W.; Vessot, R. F.; Mattison, E. M.

    1978-01-01

    A new generation of frequency standards, the VLG-11 hydrogen maser, has been designed and built at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO). A comprehensive series of environmental and short-term stability tests on three VLG-11 masers has been completed and evaluated. The test results reported here show substantial improvements over previous hydrogen masers in measured sensitivity to variations in ambient temperature, barometric pressure, and magnetic fields. The maser frequency stability, as represented by the two-sample (Allan) variance, has been measured for averaging times ranging from 1 to 100,00 seconds. The variance is lower than 1 x 10 to the -15th for averaging intervals between 1400 and 20,000 seconds. For times shorter than 4000 seconds, the measured stability data agree remarkably well with theoretical values calculated from thermal noise mechanisms and the 'noise within the linewidth' regime is clearly discernable in the data.

  15. Properties of QBO and SAO Generated by Gravity Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Mengel, J. G.; Reddy, C. A.; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.

    1999-01-01

    We present an extension for the 2D (zonal mean) version of our Numerical Spectral Mode (NSM) that incorporates Hines' Doppler spread parameterization (DSP) for small scale gravity waves (GW). This model is applied to describe the seasonal variations and the semi-annual and quasi-biennial oscillations (SAO and QBO). Our earlier model reproduced the salient features of the mean zonal circulation in the middle atmosphere, including the QBO extension into the upper mesosphere inferred from UARS measurements. In the present model we incorporate also tropospheric heating to reproduce the upwelling at equatorial latitudes associated with the Brewer-Dobson circulation that affects significantly the dynamics of the stratosphere as Dunkerton had pointed out. Upward vertical winds increase the period of the QBO observed from the ground. To compensate for that, one needs to increase the eddy diffusivity and the GW momentum flux, bringing the latter closer to values recommended in the DSP. The QBO period in the model is 30 months (mo), which is conducive to synchronize this oscillation with the seasonal cycle of solar forcing. Multi-year interannual oscillations are generated through wave filtering by the solar driven annual oscillation in the zonal circulation. Quadratic non-linearities generate interseasonal variations to produce a complicated pattern of variability associated with the QBO. The computed temperature amplitudes for the SAO and QBO are in substantial agreement with observations at equatorial and extratropical latitudes. At high latitudes, however, the observed QBO amplitudes are significantly larger, which may be a signature of propagating planetary waves not included in the present model. The assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium not being imposed, we find that the effects from the vertical Coriolis force associated with the equatorial oscillations are large for the vertical winds and significant for the temperature variations even outside the tropics but are

  16. Driving of the SAO by gravity waves as observed from satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ern, M.; Preusse, P.; Riese, M.

    2015-04-01

    It is known that atmospheric dynamics in the tropical stratosphere have an influence on higher altitudes and latitudes as well as on surface weather and climate. In the tropics, the dynamics are governed by an interplay of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and semiannual oscillation (SAO) of the zonal wind. The QBO is dominant in the lower and middle stratosphere, and the SAO in the upper stratosphere/lower mesosphere. For both QBO and SAO the driving by atmospheric waves plays an important role. In particular, the role of gravity waves is still not well understood. In our study we use observations of the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) satellite instrument to derive gravity wave momentum fluxes and gravity wave drag in order to investigate the interaction of gravity waves with the SAO. These observations are compared with the ERA-Interim reanalysis. Usually, QBO westward winds are much stronger than QBO eastward winds. Therefore, mainly gravity waves with westward-directed phase speeds are filtered out through critical-level filtering already below the stratopause region. Accordingly, HIRDLS observations show that gravity waves contribute to the SAO momentum budget mainly during eastward wind shear, and not much during westward wind shear. These findings confirm theoretical expectations and are qualitatively in good agreement with ERA-Interim and other modeling studies. In ERA-Interim most of the westward SAO driving is due to planetary waves, likely of extratropical origin. Still, we find in both observations and ERA-Interim that sometimes westward-propagating gravity waves may contribute to the westward driving of the SAO. Four characteristic cases of atmospheric background conditions are identified. The forcings of the SAO in these cases are discussed in detail, supported by gravity wave spectra observed by HIRDLS. In particular, we find that the gravity wave forcing of the SAO cannot be explained by critical-level filtering alone; gravity

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination from age 60 in São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Joao Tonolio; Gagliardi, Anna; Pinho, Amanda; Durand, Laure; Fonseca, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination of adults aged 60 years and older against Streptococcus pneumonia is not recommended in Brazil. The 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) is only available for institutionalized persons or with underlying diseases despite the substantial medical and economic burden related to pneumococcal infections in adults over than 59 years. The study aimed at evaluating the cost effectiveness of implementing a large PPV program in this population. This analysis was performed using a static decision tree model. Demographic and epidemiological data were obtained from Brazilian official sources and international literature. Economic data were obtained from a study performed in 2007 in a public and a private hospital located in Sao Paulo. Vaccination was assumed to protect for 5 years with 60% effectiveness against bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (BPP) and 21% effectiveness against non bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (NBPP). Deterministic and sensitivity analyses were performed. The pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination saved 5,218 life year gained (LYG). The vaccination program was found to be cost effective in the social security and public health care perspectives with a mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of R$10,887 and R$8,281 per LYG respectively. Results were sensitive to the vaccine effectiveness against NBPP, the incidence and case-fatality rate of NBPP. From a societal perspective, PPV23 program for adults 60 and older was found to be cost-saving. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination is clinically and economically favored over the present vaccination strategy, in which persons aged over 59 years in Sao Paulo have not been vaccinated. PMID:21941088

  18. The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System: A Gateway to the Planetary Sciences Literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneken, E. A.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Thompson, D.; Bohlen, E.; Murray, S. S.

    2009-03-01

    The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) provides various free services for finding, accessing, and managing bibliographic data, including a basic search form, the myADS notification service, and private libraries, plus access to scanned published articles.

  19. Observations of gravity waves from satellite and implications for the wave driving of the SAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ern, Manfred; Preusse, Peter; Riese, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics at low latitudes in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere is governed by an interplay of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and the semiannual oscillation (SAO) of the zonal wind. It is known that tropical dynamics has significant influence on the atmosphere over a large range of altitudes and latitudes. For example, QBO and SAO effects are seen in the MLT region, and there is a significant influence of the QBO on surface weather and climate in the Northern Hemisphere during winter. Still, global models have large difficulties in simulating a realistic QBO and SAO. One main uncertainty is the wave driving of these oscillations, in particular the driving by gravity waves (GWs). We derive GW temperature variances, GW momentum fluxes and potential GW drag from over three years of High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) satellite data in the stratopause region. These observations are compared with the SAO driving due to planetary waves, as well as the zonal wind tendencies, both determined from the ECMWF ERA-Interim (ERAI) reanalysis. HIRDLS satellite observations and ERAI support the general assumption that, due to selective filtering of the GW spectrum by the QBO in the stratosphere, GWs mainly contribute to the SAO momentum budget during SAO eastward wind shear. However, during SAO westward wind shear the GW contribution is usually smaller, and the wave driving is dominated by planetary waves, probably of extratropical origin. Still, we find indications in both satellite observations and ERAI that sometimes GW drag is important also during SAO westward wind shear.

  20. Implementing Technology for Science Classrooms in Sao Tome and Principe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardim, Maria Dolores Rodrigues

    This qualitative bounded case study was designed to understand how technology integration in schools could be addressed in a first-wave country. The integration of educational technology in Sao Tome and Principe (STP), a first-wave agricultural civilization, can narrow the divide between STP and third-wave information age societies. The conceptual framework was based on theories of change, learning, and context. Toffler's wave theory described how societies changed while Fullan's change theory examined how the people might change. Roger's diffusion of innovations addressed how processes change. Bandura, Vygotsky, and Siemen provided the framework for the learning within the model of change. Finally, the context theories of Tessmer and Richey's instructional design, Lave and Wenger's situated learning, and Sticht's functional context theory were applied. Twenty five individuals from 5 schools, including teachers, school directors, key educational stakeholders, and the minister of education were involved in a pilot project to integrate technology into the science curriculum. The data were collected via interviews, reflective summaries, and confidential narratives. The resulting data were analyzed to find emerging patterns. The results of this analysis showed that a first-wave civilization can adopt a third-wave civilization's features in terms of technology integration, when there is the support of opinion leaders and most of the necessary contextual requirements are in place. The study contributes to social change by providing access to knowledge through technology integration, which empowers both teachers and students.

  1. Musculoskeletal Pain as a Marker of Health Quality. Findings from the Epidemiological Sleep Study among the Adult Population of São Paulo City

    PubMed Central

    Palombini, Luciana; Godoy, Luciana M.

    2015-01-01

    Background We are witnessing the growth of urban populations, particularly in the developing world. São Paulo, the largest city in South America, continues to grow, and this growth is dramatically effecting the environment and human health. The aim of this study was to estimate the point prevalence of chronic pain in São Paulo city dwellers and to explore the influence of aspects related to urbanicity. Methods A two-stage cluster randomized sample included 1100 individuals of the city of Sao Paulo, representing the population proportionally in terms of gender, age and social classes in 2007. For this observational cross-sectional study, the household sample was interviewed using validated questionnaires for sociodemographic aspects, the Beck inventories for anxiety and depression, the WHOQoL-REF for quality of life, the Chalder Fatigue Scale. Musculoskeletal pain was defined as diffuse pain or pain located in the back, joints or limbs. Data regarding sleep complaints and polysomnography were obtained from the Epidemiologic Sleep Study conducted in São Paulo city in 2007. Results The prevalence estimate of chronic musculoskeletal pain was approximately 27%, with a female/male ratio of approximately 2.6/1. The predictors were being in the age-range of 30–39 years, low socioeconomic and schooling levels, obesity, sedentarism, fatigue, non-restorative sleep, daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, poor life quality, anxiety and depression symptoms. Psychological wellbeing was the main discriminator between responders with chronic musculoskeletal pain and the controls, followed by depression for the participants with poor psychological wellbeing, and fatigue, for the remaining ones. Insomnia syndrome was the third-level discriminator for those with fatigue, whereas sleep quality for those without fatigue. Conclusions Musculoskeletal pain was frequently reported by São Paulo city dwellers and its correlates with psychological and sleep aspects are suggestive of a

  2. Closed-loop control of SaO2 in the neonate.

    PubMed

    Morozoff, P E; Evans, R W

    1992-01-01

    A microprocessor-based device has been designed to control oxygen saturation (SaO2) in neonates by adjusting the inspired air-oxygen mixture (FiO2) delivered by a mechanical blender. The user sets a target SaO2, which the controller attempts to maintain. Alarms are actuated if the neonate's SaO2 is outside predefined limits. SaO2 levels are extracted from a commercial pulse oximeter and analyzed by an eight-bit microprocessing unit (MPU). Delivered percentages of FiO2 are adjusted by a motorized air-oxygen blender. The controller has a menu-driven user interface and can graphically present four-hour trends of the SaO2, FiO2, or blender setting. Sixteen hours of collected data can be stored and later downloaded to a personal computer. A real-time multitasking operating system forms the nucleus of the controller's software. Major tasks that share MPU time are control, filtering, user display, data collection, data archiving, alarm monitoring, and user input. Analog SaO2 levels are read and converted to digital values, which are then filtered to extract noise. A differential control algorithm is used to determine the required FiO2 blender setting. The blender is then adjusted to the new setting, after which the controller waits to repeat the process of sampling SaO2 and adjusting FiO2. System response time and blender increments are adjustable to allow a user to tune the controller to the patient's needs. Alarm conditions of concern within the device are SaO2 and FiO2 sensor disconnection, blender disconnection, and SaO2 limiting errors. In preliminary trials, for a target of 92.0% SaO2, a prototype controller maintained an average of 91.6% with a standard deviation of 5.0% over a one-hour period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1562825

  3. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - San Andres and Providencia (Fact Sheet); NREL(National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Archipelago of San Andres, Providencia, and Santa Catalina (unpopulated), also known as San Andres and Providencia, which is equidistant between Costa Rica and Jamaica and 775 kilometers northwest of Colombia. The archipelago is part of Colombia, though Nicaragua has also laid claim to it.

  4. Paulo Freire and the Concept of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, Kelvin Stewart

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I argue that Paulo Freire's liberatory conception of education is interesting, challenging, even transforming because central to it are important aspects of education which other philosophers marginalise. I also argue that Freire's critics are right when they claim that he paid insufficient attention to another important aspect of…

  5. Paulo Freire and the Politics of Postcolonialism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that Paulo Freire's work has been appropriated in ways that denudes it of some of its important political insights. Argues that Freire's work must be read as a postcolonial text and that North Americans must engage in a radical form of border crossing to reconstruct Freire's work in the specificity of its historical and political…

  6. A Pedagogy of Hope after Paulo Freire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In my review of the articles published in this issue of "SAJHE" I use the notion of "after" in two senses: "in imitation of" and "following in time" (moving beyond) (Schad 2003, x). In the first instance I wish to assess the extent to which contributors have drawn on Paulo Freire's concept of a "pedagogy of hope"--how their work imitates that of…

  7. The Critical Spirituality of Paulo Freire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Darrell

    2012-01-01

    Starting from the premise that Paulo Freire's capacity for hope in the face of personal struggle and exile issued from his spirituality, this paper examines Freire's spirituality through the lens of Michael Dantley's concept of critical spirituality. The concept of spirituality as discussed in the literature is explored, followed by an explication…

  8. Epidemiological Evaluation of Notifications of Environmental Events in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Telma de Cassia dos Santos; Christensen, Rogerio Araujo; Pereira, Farida; Leite, Andre Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Increasing urbanization across the globe, combined with an increased use of chemicals in various regions, contributes to several environmental events that influence environmental health. Measures that identify environmental factors and events should be introduced to facilitate epidemiological investigations by health services. The Brazilian Ministry of Health published a new list of notifiable diseases on 25 January 2011 and introduced environmental events as a new category of notifiable occurrences. The Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance in State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, created an online notification system that highlights “environmental events”, such as exposure to chemical contaminants, drinking water with contaminants outside of the recommended range, contaminated air, and natural or anthropogenic disasters. This paper analyzed 300 notifications received between May 2011 and May 2012. It reports the number of notifications with event classifications and analyzes the events relating to accidents with chemical substances. This paper describes the characteristics of the accidents that involved chemical substances, methods used, types of substances, exposed population, and measures adopted. The online notification of environmental events increases the analysis of the main events associated with diseases related to environmental chemicals; thus, it facilitates the adoption of public policies to prevent environmental health problems. PMID:25050657

  9. Investigation of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon inputs in sediments using geochemical markers. II. Sao Sebastião, SP--Brazil.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Patricia Matheus; Bícego, Márcia Caruso

    2004-12-01

    The São Sebastião Channel, NE São Paulo State, Brazil, is an area of environmental interest of that state not only because of the tourism, but also because of the presence of the most important oil terminal of Brazil, the PETROBRAS Maritime Terminal (DTCS). Sediment samples were collected at 15 sites in the channel, extracted and analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS for composition and levels of the following organic geochemical markers: aliphatic hydrocarbons (normal and isoprenoid alkanes), petroleum biomarkers, linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The total concentrations varied from 0.04 to 8.53 micorg g(-1) for aliphatics, from 51.1 to 422.0 ng g(-1) for petroleum biomarkers, from 12.6 to 27.7 ng g(-1) for LABs and from 20.4 to 200.3 ng g(-1) for PAHs. The PETROBRAS Maritime Terminal (DTCS), Sao Sebastião Harbor and sewage outfalls along the area had clear influences on the geochemical marker concentrations, especially at locales in the central and north parts of the channel. PMID:15556173

  10. The driving of the SAO by gravity waves derived from satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ern, Manfred; Preusse, Peter; Riese, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The dynamics in the tropical stratosphere and lower mesosphere is strongly influenced by an interplay of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and the semiannual oscillation (SAO) of the zonal wind. The tropical dynamics has significant influence on atmospheric dynamics over a large range of altitudes and latitudes. For example, QBO and SAO effects are seen in the MLT region, and there is a significant influence of the QBO on the surface weather and climate in the Northern Hemisphere during winter. Still, global models have large difficulties in reproducing a realistic QBO and SAO. One of the main reasons are uncertainties in the wave driving of these oscillations, in particular the driving by gravity waves (GWs) that are too small-scale to be resolved by the global models. Direct estimates of the GW driving of the QBO and SAO from global observations are still missing. We derive GW temperature variances, GW momentum fluxes and GW drag from over three years of High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) satellite data. These observations are compared with the zonal wind tendencies and the drag that is still missing in the tropical momentum budget of the ECMWF ERA Interim (ERAI) reanalysis after considering zonal wind tendency, Coriolis force, advection terms and drag of resolved global-scale waves. In the stratopause region ERAI is no longer well-constrained by data assimilation. Nevertheless, the missing drag and its relative variations can be used as a proxy for GW drag. Qualitatively, we find good agreement between satellite observations and ERAI, however the missing drag in ERAI is likely too high by about a factor of two. Both HIRDLS satellite observations and ERAI support the general assumption that, due to the pre-filtering of the GW spectrum by the QBO in the stratosphere, GWs mainly contribute to the SAO momentum budget during SAO eastward wind shear. During SAO westward wind shear the GW contribution is usually smaller, and the wave driving is dominated

  11. Who Is DeAndre? Tapping the Power of Popular Culture in Literacy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainer, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    Gainer talks about the importance of connecting students' background knowledge, experiences, and interests to curricular goals. He highlights the voice of DeAndre, an eighth-grade boy in special education classes, whose participation in an after-school club led to the creation of a video. According to Gainer, "[W]hen given the opportunity to…

  12. The diameter of 88 Thisbe from its occultation of SAO 187124

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, R. L.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; White, N. M.; Bowell, E.; Klemola, A.; Elliott, R. C.; Smethells, W. G.; Price, P. M.; Mckay, C. P.

    1982-01-01

    The 7 October, 1981 occultation of SAO 187124 by 88 Thisbe was observed at twelve sites. The occultation observations, together with information about the asteroid's light curve, gives a mean diameter for Thisbe of 232 + or - 10 km. This value is 10 percent larger than the previously published radiometric diameter of Thisbe.

  13. Initial analysis from a lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires in the central and western portion of the São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Lopes, Fábio Juliano; Held, Gerhard; Nakaema, Walter M.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.; Bassan, Jose M.; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2011-11-01

    The central and western portion of the Sao Paulo State has large areas of sugar cane plantations, and due to the growing demand for biofuels, the production is increasing every year. During the harvest period some plantation areas are burnt a few hours before the manual cutting, causing significant quantities of biomass burning aerosol to be injected into the atmosphere. During August 2010, a field campaign has been carried out in Ourinhos, situated in the south-western region of Sao Paulo State. A 2-channel Raman Lidar system and two meteorological S-Band Doppler Radars are used to indentify and quantify the biomass burning plumes. In addiction, CALIPSO Satellite observations were used to compare the aerosol optical properties detected in that region with those retrieved by Raman Lidar system. Although the campaign yielded 30 days of measurements, this paper will be focusing only one case study, when aerosols released from nearby sugar cane fires were detected by the Lidar system during a CALIPSO overpass. The meteorological radar, installed in Bauru, approximately 110 km northeast from the experimental site, had recorded "echoes" (dense smoke comprising aerosols) from several fires occurring close to the Raman Lidar system, which also detected an intense load of aerosol in the atmosphere. HYSPLIT model forward trajectories presented a strong indication that both instruments have measured the same air masss parcels, corroborated with the Lidar Ratio values from the 532 nm elastic and 607 nm Raman N2 channel analyses and data retrieved from CALIPSO have indicated the predominance of aerosol from biomass burning sources.

  14. Privilege, Poverty, and Power: Remembering Paulo Freire's Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Democracy & Education, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This special edition honors the life and work of Paulo Freire by recalling the impact he had and continues to have on educators and students. Articles in this issue are: (1) "Editor's Introduction" (Tom Wilson); (2) "Nita's Elegy to Paulo Freire (in Portuguese) 'Privilegio, Pobreza e Poder'" (Ana Maria Araujo "Nita" Freire); (3) "Elegy to Paulo…

  15. A psychosocial study of male-to-female transgendered and male hustler sex workers in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prado Cortez, Fernanda Cestaro; Boer, Douglas Pieter; Baltieri, Danilo Antonio

    2011-12-01

    This study examined sociodemographic variables, personality characteristics, and alcohol and drug misuse among male sex workers in the city of Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 45 male-to-female transgender sex workers and 41 male hustlers were evaluated in face-to-face interviews at their place of work from 2008 to 2010. A "snowball" sampling procedure was used to access this hard-to-reach population. Male-to-female transgender sex workers reported fewer conventional job opportunities, fewer school problems, and higher harm avoidance and depression levels than male hustlers. Also, transgender sex workers reported earning more money through sex work and more frequently living in hostels with peers than their counterparts. As biological male sex workers are a heterogeneous population, attempts to classify them into distinctive groups should be further carried out as a way to better understand and identify their behavior, design effective health interventions, and consequently minimize the likelihood of unintended adverse outcomes. Our study showed that gender performance can be an important variable to be considered by researchers and policy makers when working with sex workers and developing HIV/AIDS prevention and public health programs, given that transgender and male sex workers not only display distinctive behavior and physical appearance but also reveal differences on specific psychological measures, such as personality traits and depression levels. We recommend that counselors working with this population strike a balance between facilitating self-disclosure and establishing more evidence-based directive interventions. PMID:21667231

  16. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the SAO-HD-GC-DM cross index version 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, N. G.; Warren, W. H., Jr.; Schofield, N., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An updated and extended machine readable version of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory star catalog (SAO) is described. A correction of all errors which were found since preparation of the original catalog which resulted from misidentifications and omissions of components in multiple star systems and missing Durchmusterung numbers (the common identifier) in the SAO Catalog are included and component identifications from the Index of Visual Double Stars (IDS) are appended to all multiple SAO entries with the same DM numbers, and lower case letter identifiers for supplemental BD stars are added. A total of 11,398 individual corrections and data additions is incorporated into the present version of the cross index.

  17. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Star catalogue (SAO) version 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, N. G.; Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An updated, corrected and extended machine readable version of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory star catalog (SAO) is described. Published and unpublished errors discovered in the previous version have been corrected, and multiple star and supplemental BD identifications added to stars where more than one SAO entry has the same Durchmusterung number. Henry Draper Extension (HDE) numbers have been added for stars found in both volumes of the extension. Data for duplicate SAO entries (those referring to the same star) have been blanked out, but the records themselves have been retained and flagged so that sequencing and record count are identical to the published catalog.

  18. The role of diagenetic studies in flow-unit modeling: San Andres formation, Yoakum County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, S. )

    1994-03-01

    The Permian San Andres Formation represents one of the most prolific hydrocarbon-producing intervals of the Permian basin. Dolostone lithofacies intercalated with thin evaporites accommodate highly compartmentalized reservoirs resulting from complex depositional and diagenetic histories. This compartmentalization often facilitates the use of these reservoirs in flow-unit studies. Perhaps more important than the relationship of productive intervals to depositional facies is the degree to which diagenetic processes have influenced reservoir properties. Detailed petrographic evaluation of the reservoir in question, though often overlooked, should be an integral part of flow-unit studies. Once a diagenetic sequence is established, the information may be incorporated in to the facies model to better understand how to subdivide the reservoir. Such an investigation has been conducted on the San Andres Formation in Reeves field of southeastern Yoakum County, Texas. Here, multistage diagenetic overprints are superimposed on depositional facies that vary in degree of lateral extent, thereby complicating the geometries of individual productive zones within the reservoir. Analysis of the reservoir reveals that Reeves San Andres sediments were subjected to dominant diagenetic processes, including dolomitization and sulfate implacement, both of which are major factors in porosity preservation, and a variety of minor processes that have had little effect on reservoir quality. The recognition of diagenetic facies, and understanding of the processes that have created them, and identification of the implications of these processes on reservoir properties is a vital part of any flow-unit study.

  19. André B. Muller (25.9.1918-1.4.2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, R. M.

    2006-06-01

    With great sadness, we have learned about the death of André Muller on 1 April, at the age of 87. Living in retirement in his native Holland since 1983, he was one of ESOs true pioneers, an outstanding representative of the select group of European astronomers who succeeded in steering ESO through the difficult initial phases. André was close-ly associated with the entire process, from the first site monitoring programmes in South Africa to the subsequent search in Chile, the decision in favour of the La Silla site, as well as the management of ESOs early activities in Chile, includ-ing the construction of the headquarters and observatory and the installation of the first generation of ESO telescopes. Few persons, if any, have been so inti-mately connected to the setting-up of ESOs facilities and it would be impossible to list in detail all of the services André performed for the organisation with such great expertise and zeal during his long career.

  20. Depositional model for the San Andres Formation, Roberts unit, Wasson field, Yoakum County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Ginger, E.P. )

    1992-04-01

    The Permian San Andres reservoir at Roberts unit produces from approximately 250 ft of anhydritic dolostones. The reservoir interval, which is more than 500 ft below the top of the San Andres Formation, consists of fossiliferous and pelletal/peloidal dolowackestones and dolopackstones. They were deposited in a shallow-marine environment with local shoaling conditions. Toward the top of the reservoir, intertidal and supratidal deposits interfinger with the subtidal units and form the lateral and overlying seals. A sponge-bryozoan bank lithofacies is recognized within the subtidal deposits at Roberts unit. The banks consist of dolomitized mud-rich boundstones dominated by bryozoans, sponges, and crinoids. Interbedded fossiliferous dolowackestones, dolopackstones, and dolograinstones are common. The restricted nature of the San Andres in the western part of Roberts unit (i.e., shoreward of the banks) indicates that the banks baffled wave energy and inhibited current circulation on the platform, resulting in a mud-dominated, restricted lagoonal facies with very low faunal diversity. The sponge-bryozoan banks occur within a narrow belt across the central part of Roberts unit and continue into the adjacent Willard unit. Their distribution has a distinct northeast-soutwest trend that parallels the subjacent Abo shelf margin reef trend, suggesting that the Abo reef trend influenced subsequent bank development.

  1. An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir Foster and South Cowden fields,

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    GEOPHYSICAL OBJECTIVES: The goals of work done this quarter were to (1) refine the maps of seismic-derived porosity for the upper Grayburg for reapplication to the production model, (2) determine rock fabric and porosity patterns for the lower Grayburg and the upper San Andres, (3) relate any seismic-derived porosity characteristics, particularly seismic waveform attributes, to the historical production of oil allocated to lower Grayburg and San Andres zones, and (4) to test other geologic attributes for possible inter-relationships. GEOLOGIC OBJECTIVES: Continue the integrated geological/geophysical effort to develop a usable seismic velocity/log porosity transform for each Grayburg producing interval. The lower Grayburg and San Andres core were revisited to glean lithology and porosity information for the seismic inversion model. Update recent production and injection for each well in the study area. Add new production and injection wells to spreadsheet. Continue evaluation of effectiveness of recent completions, plug backs and injector conversions by monitoring oil production and produced water composition. ENGINEERING OBJECTIVES: To build the most accurate reservoir picture by continued integration of all data types available and utilize that model to optimize oil production. Monitoring and testing of new and worked-over wells continues to test the early production models. Methods to improve water quality are being evaluated using normal field management procedures.

  2. Statistical Analysis Aiming at Predicting Respiratory Tract Disease Hospital Admissions from Environmental Variables in the City of São Paulo

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coêlho, Micheline; Luiz Teixeira Gonçalves, Fabio; do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This study is aimed at creating a stochastic model, named Brazilian Climate and Health Model (BCHM), through Poisson regression, in order to predict the occurrence of hospital respiratory admissions (for children under thirteen years of age) as a function of air pollutants, meteorological variables, and thermal comfort indices (effective temperatures, ET). The data used in this study were obtained from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, between 1997 and 2000. The respiratory tract diseases were divided into three categories: URI (Upper Respiratory tract diseases), LRI (Lower Respiratory tract diseases), and IP (Influenza and Pneumonia). The overall results of URI, LRI, and IP show clear correlation with SO2 and CO, PM10 and O3, and PM10, respectively, and the ETw4 (Effective Temperature) for all the three disease groups. It is extremely important to warn the government of the most populated city in Brazil about the outcome of this study, providing it with valuable information in order to help it better manage its resources on behalf of the whole population of the city of Sao Paulo, especially those with low incomes. PMID:20706674

  3. Evaluation of anthropic influences in an estuarine system of Southeastern Brazilian Coast by applying enrichment factors in cores from Bertioga Channel, Sao Paulo state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, R. C.; Sartoretto, J. R.; Salaroli, A. B.; Gabriela, C.; Andreza, R. P.; Tessler, M. G.; Mahiques, M.; Goncalves, C.

    2011-12-01

    Santos estuary, located in Southeastern Brazilian Coast, is impacted by several anthropic activities. The largest commercial harbor in South America and the main petrochemical and metallurgical industrial centre in the country, with approximately 1100 industries, are also in this estuary. The estuarine system has an important channel, called Bertioga Channel, which connects the upper Santos estuary to the ocean. In this channel are located the main mangroves of the estuarine complex that have a great potential of heavy metals retention. This behavior is related to sedimentary dynamics of system, where contaminated sediments from upper estuary are filtrated by channel before reaching the ocean. In this context, the main goal of this work was to carry out a study on toxic elements in cores from Bertioga Channel. Enrichment Factor (EF) was determined and it was related to geochronological data, allowing the evaluation of anthropic activities impact in this region. Thus, in February 2010, were collected five cores along the channel using a vibrocorer. The cores (150 - 220 cm) were sliced at every 2 cm, the samples were frozen and freeze-drying. Elemental preparation and analysis (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sc and Zn) followed SW-846 methodologies applying ICP-OES technique. Geocronology was determined via gamma spectrometry, by 210Pbxs and 137Cs methods. In order to assess the degree of sediment contamination, enrichment factors (EF) were calculated using Sc as normalization element Background values correspondeded to the element concentration in the bottom sediment core as determined by 210Pb chronology. EFs obtained in all analyzed cores were lower than 2, indicating a minimal pollution for the region. However, in core Bertioga 5 (the closest one to Santos harbor), it can be seen As, Cr, Pb and Zn enrichment from the bottom to the top, mainly from 70's, when harbor activities expanded. Despite of the low levels found for the studied elements, Bertioga channel area has suffered environmental impact due to domestic sewer releasing and the presence of marina in the region.

  4. Aspects of a conceptual groundwater flow model of the Serra Geral basalt aquifer (Sao Paulo, Brazil) from physical and structural geology data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Amélia J.; Maldaner, Carlos H.; Negri, Francisco; Rouleau, Alain; Wahnfried, Ingo D.

    2016-02-01

    A preliminary conceptual model of groundwater flow was developed for the Serra Geral fractured basalt aquifer in order to assess the recharge to the underlying sandstone Guarani Aquifer System, one of the main aquifer systems in Brazil, which supplies water to millions of people. Detailed geological investigations included macroscopic description of the basalt flow units and the underlying sandstone. Petrographic and chemical analyzes were conducted on rock samples from outcrops and from five drilled boreholes. Detailed fracture surveys were accomplished at outcrops to characterize fracture sets and their potential to transmit water in the current tectonic context. Four basalt flows were identified in the Ribeirao Preto area and were named B1, B2, B3 and B4 (from oldest to youngest). The cooling process in flow B3 led to the generation of large sub-horizontal fractures at the contacts B2/B3 and B3-C/B3-E, which are the most transmissive structures. Groundwater flow in the basalt appears to be of the stratabound type because fractures, in general, do not propagate through the basalt vesicular layers, which behave as a regional hydraulic barrier for the vertical groundwater flow. However, it is proposed that the localized, continuous and closely spaced subvertical tectonic fractures, the only features that have the potential to crosscut the vesicular layers and the intertrappe sediments, can vertically connect the sub-horizontal transmissive fractures. Weathering and water seepage, observed in rock exposures, indicate that subvertical NE-trending fractures would be the most transmissive in the Ribeirao Preto area.

  5. Aspects of a conceptual groundwater flow model of the Serra Geral basalt aquifer (Sao Paulo, Brazil) from physical and structural geology data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Amélia J.; Maldaner, Carlos H.; Negri, Francisco; Rouleau, Alain; Wahnfried, Ingo D.

    2016-08-01

    A preliminary conceptual model of groundwater flow was developed for the Serra Geral fractured basalt aquifer in order to assess the recharge to the underlying sandstone Guarani Aquifer System, one of the main aquifer systems in Brazil, which supplies water to millions of people. Detailed geological investigations included macroscopic description of the basalt flow units and the underlying sandstone. Petrographic and chemical analyzes were conducted on rock samples from outcrops and from five drilled boreholes. Detailed fracture surveys were accomplished at outcrops to characterize fracture sets and their potential to transmit water in the current tectonic context. Four basalt flows were identified in the Ribeirao Preto area and were named B1, B2, B3 and B4 (from oldest to youngest). The cooling process in flow B3 led to the generation of large sub-horizontal fractures at the contacts B2/B3 and B3-C/B3-E, which are the most transmissive structures. Groundwater flow in the basalt appears to be of the stratabound type because fractures, in general, do not propagate through the basalt vesicular layers, which behave as a regional hydraulic barrier for the vertical groundwater flow. However, it is proposed that the localized, continuous and closely spaced subvertical tectonic fractures, the only features that have the potential to crosscut the vesicular layers and the intertrappe sediments, can vertically connect the sub-horizontal transmissive fractures. Weathering and water seepage, observed in rock exposures, indicate that subvertical NE-trending fractures would be the most transmissive in the Ribeirao Preto area.

  6. Piscinoodinium pillulare (Schäperclaus, 1954) Lom, 1981 (Dinoflagellida) infection in cultivated freshwater fish from the northeast region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Parasitological and pathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Moraes, J R; Andrade, P M; Schalch, S H; Moraes, F R

    2001-11-01

    The Aquaculture Center of Unesp, Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil, received fishes for diagnosis from fish farmers reporting fish crowding at pond edges and in water inlets. Fifty-three out of 194 cases showed round to oval, immobile whitish structures, measuring up to 162 microm diameter, identified as the dinoflagellate Piscinoodinium pillulare. In 34 diagnosed cases the parasites were present in the gills, in 2 on body surface, and 9 in both. Thirty-one out of 53 were tambacu hybrids hosts; 7, Piaractus mesopotamicus; 6, Colossoma macropomum; 5, Leporinus macrocephalus; 3, Oreochromis niloticus; and 1, Prochilodus lineatus. Fish showed increased mucous production on body surface and gills, while ecchymosis in the caudal peduncle and operculum was present. The gills also showed paleness, congestion, and petechiae. Histopathology presented a great number of trophonts situated between secondary lamellae, fixed to or detached from the epithelium. Primary lamellae presented interstitial hemorrhages, severe hyperplasia of the epithelium, goblet cells, and mononuclear infiltrates. The present work is the first report of P pillulare in Brazil and emphasizes the importance of this dinoflagellate which caused significant economic losses from 1995 through 1997. PMID:12071320

  7. Family Farmers and Major Retail Chains in the Brazilian Organic Sector: Assessing New Development Pathways. A Case Study in a Peri-Urban District of Sao Paulo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Julien

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the organic sector in Brazil is seen as a leverage for the social emancipation of the small family farmers. Next to the traditional alternatives circuits of organic food and farming, new powerful capitalistic actors, such as supermarket chains, are rapidly entering the Brazilian organic arena. Can family farming benefit from the…

  8. Stand-level patterns of carbon fluxes and partitioning in a Eucalyptus grandis plantation across a gradient of productivity, in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campoe, Otávio C; Stape, José Luiz; Laclau, Jean-Paul; Marsden, Claire; Nouvellon, Yann

    2012-06-01

    Wood production represents a large but variable fraction of gross primary production (GPP) in highly productive Eucalyptus plantations. Assessing patterns of carbon (C) partitioning (C flux as a fraction of GPP) between above- and belowground components is essential to understand mechanisms driving the C budget of these plantations. Better knowledge of fluxes and partitioning to woody and non-woody tissues in response to site characteristics and resource availability could provide opportunities to increase forest productivity. Our study aimed at investigating how C allocation varied within one apparently homogeneous 90 ha stand of Eucalyptus grandis (W. Hill ex Maiden) in Southeastern Brazil. We assessed annual above-ground net primary production (ANPP: stem, leaf, and branch production) and total belowground C flux (TBCF: the sum of root production and respiration and mycorrhizal production and respiration), GPP (computed as the sum of ANPP, TBCF and estimated aboveground respiration) on 12 plots representing the gradient of productivity found within the stand. The spatial heterogeneity of topography and associated soil attributes across the stand likely explained this fertility gradient. Component fluxes of GPP and C partitioning were found to vary among plots. Stem NPP ranged from 554 g C m(-2) year(-1) on the plot with lowest GPP to 923 g C m(-2) year(-1) on the plot with highest GPP. Total belowground carbon flux ranged from 497 to 1235 g C m(-2) year(-1) and showed no relationship with ANPP or GPP. Carbon partitioning to stem NPP increased from 0.19 to 0.23, showing a positive trend of increase with GPP (R(2) = 0.29, P = 0.07). Variations in stem wood production across the gradient of productivity observed at our experimental site were a result of the variability in C partitioning to different forest system components. PMID:22543478

  9. Child Psychiatry Takes to the Streets: A Developmental Partnership between a University Institute and Children and Adolescents from the Streets of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scivoletto, Sandra; da Silva, Thiago Fernando; Rosenheck, Robert Alan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: High levels of domestic violence, mental illness, and alienation from authorities are associated with high incidence of children/adolescents living on the streets in low and middle income countries. The Equilibrium Project (Programa Equilibrio) was created to facilitate social reintegration through a virtual partnership between an…

  10. MUTAGENICITY AND DNA ADDUCT FORMATION OF PAH, NITRO-PAH, AND OXY-PAH FRACTIONS OF ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATE MATTER FROM SAO PAULO, BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary
    What is the study?
    Near roadway and immediate roadway exposures to transportation emissions gave very similar results in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay and in an assay for DNA adducts indicating that near roadway genotoxicity is not altered significantly over...

  11. Latent Tuberculosis Infection Diagnostic and Treatment Cascade among Contacts in Primary Health Care in a City of Sao Paulo State, Brazil: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a tool for global TB control, especially in close contacts. But data is scarce in high burden countries, under field conditions, including data on the benefits of LTBI management. Objective To analyze the LTBI diagnosis and treatment cascade among contacts in primary health care (PHC) services in São José do Rio Preto—SP, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional design, conducted with contacts of pulmonary TB patients followed in all PHC services. Data was collected from May to September 2014 in the Reporting System for TB cases (TBWEB) and Reporting System for Chemoprophylaxis. Medical records and treatment follow-up forms were reviewed and all the nurses responsible for TB in PHC services were interviewed. Results Among 336 contacts included, 267 (79.4%) were screened for TB or LTBI, according to the presence or not of respiratory symptoms. Among those contacts screened, 140 (52.4%) were symptomatic, 9 (3.4%) had TB disease, 106/221 (48%) had positive TST result, meeting the criteria for LTBI treatment, and 64/106 (60.4%) actually started it. Overall, among 267 screened, only 64 (24%) started LTBI treatment. The completion rates of treatment among the contacts who started it, those with positive TST result and those screened were 56.3% (36/64), 16.3% (36/221) and 13.5% (36/267), respectively. Nurses claimed that asymptomatic TB contacts pay no attention to preventive health care and do not seek medical care as they do not have symptoms of the disease. In reviewing the medical records, high proportions of contacts without evaluation, incomplete assessment, incorrect records of contraindication for LTBI treatment, lack of notes regarding the identification and evaluation of contacts were identified. Conclusions There is a need for better organization of the surveillance and investigation routine for contacts in PHC, considering the reorganization of the work process and the features of the local health system. PMID:27285720

  12. Remote Sensing techniques used to characterize soil erosion in southwestern Sao Paulo state. M.S. Thesis - 29 Sep. 1982; [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Pinto, S. D. A. F.

    1983-01-01

    Within randomly sampled squares of a 1 km x 1 km grid, rill/gullies frequency, land cover/land use type and shape of the slopes were extracted from aerial photographs of the Ribeirao Anhumas drainage basin. Mean slope gradient, stream frequency and slope length were calculated on topographic maps. Ground truth data on fine sand/coarse sand ratio and vegetation cover densities were obtained. The MSS-LANDSAT-2 data (CCTs) were analyzed using single-cell, cluster synthesis and slicer algorithms. Graphical and statistical analyses of the data indicate that different slope gradients and land cover/land use types are the most significant factors related to the soil erosion process. The digital analysis of MSS data allowed the association among gray level classes and vegetation cover classes, which defined seven classes. These gray level classes and slope gradient classes were used to rank erosion risk.

  13. Study project of intrusive rocks: States of Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, south and east of Minas Gerais and southeast of the state of Sao Paulo. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, A. R.; DOSANJOS; Barbos, M. P.; Veneziani, P.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of mapping intrusive rocks in polycyclic and polymetamorphic areas using the logic method for photointerpretation of LANDSAT and radar imagery was investigated. The resolution, scale and spectral characteristics of the imagery were considered. Spectral characteristics of the intrusive rock units mapped using image 100 were investigated. It was determined that identification of acidic and basic intrusive bodies and determination of their relationships with principal structural directions using the logic method was feasible. Tectonic compartments were subdivided into units according to their predominant lithographic types, ignoring stratigraphy. The principal directions of various foliations, faults, megafolds, and fractural systems were defined. Delineation of the boundaries of intrusive bodies mapped using the spectral characteristics of Image 100 imagery ws determined to be more accurate than visual analysis. A 1:500,000 scale map of intrusions in the areas studied was generated.

  14. Phenotypic instability of Saos-2 cells in long-term culture

    SciTech Connect

    Hausser, Heinz-Juergen . E-mail: heinz-juergen.hausser@medizin.uni-ulm.de; Brenner, Rolf E.

    2005-07-22

    The human osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 is widely used as a model system for human osteoblastic cells, though its phenotypic stability has not been ascertained. We therefore propagated these cells over 100 passages and compared relevant phenotypic properties. In general, higher passage cells exhibited higher proliferation rates and lower specific alkaline phosphatase activities, though mineralization was significantly more pronounced in cultures of late passage cells. Whereas expression of most genes investigated did not vary profoundly, some genes exhibited remarkable differences. Decorin, for instance, that has been discussed as a regulator of proliferation and mineralization, is strongly expressed only in early passage cells, and two receptors for pleiotrophin and midkine exhibited an almost mutually exclusive expression pattern in early and late passage cells, respectively. Our observations indicate that special care is required when results obtained with Saos-2 cells with different culture history are to be compared.

  15. Radiocarbon dates for lava flows and pyroclastic deposits on Sao Miguel, Azores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, R.B.; Rubin, M.

    1991-01-01

    We report 63 new radiocarbon analyses of samples from Sao Miguel, the largest island in the Azores archipelago. The samples are mainly carbonized tree roots and other plant material collected from beneath 20 mafic lava flows and spatter deposits and from within and beneath 42 trachytic pyroclastic flow, pyroclastic surge, mudflow, pumice-fall and lacustrine deposits and lava flows. One calcite date is reported. These dates establish ages for 48 previously undated lava flows and pyroclastic deposits, and revise three ages previously reported. These data are critical to deciphering the Holocene and late Pleistocene eruptive history of Sao Miguel and evaluating its potential volcanic hazards. Average dormant intervals during the past 3000 years are about 400 years for Sete Cidades volcano, 145 years for volcanic Zone 2, 1150 years for Agua de Pau volcano and 320 years for Furnas volcano. No known eruptions have occurred in volcanic Zone 4 during the past 3000 years. -from Authors

  16. Osteogenic potential of biosilica on human osteoblast-like (SaOS-2) cells.

    PubMed

    Wiens, Matthias; Wang, Xiaohong; Schlossmacher, Ute; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Glasser, Gunnar; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Schröder, Heinz C; Müller, Werner E G

    2010-12-01

    Biosilica is a natural polymer, synthesized by the poriferan enzyme silicatein from monomeric silicate substrates. Biosilica stimulates mineralizing activity and gene expression of SaOS-2 cells. To study its effect on the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA), SaOS-2 cells were grown on different silicatein/biosilica-modified substrates (bone slices, Ca-P-coated coverslips, glass coverslips). Growth on these substrates induced the formation of HA nodules, organized in longitudinal arrays or spherical spots. Nodules of sizes above 1 μm were composed of irregularly arranged HA prism-like nanorods, formed by aggregates of three to eight SaOS-2 cells. Moreover, growth on silicatein/biosilica-modified substrates elicited increased [(3)H]dT incorporation into DNA, indicative of enhanced cell proliferation. Consequently, an in vitro-based bioassay was established to determine the ratio between [(3)H]dT incorporation and HA formation. This ratio was significantly higher for cells that grew on silicatein/biosilica-modified substrates than for cells on Ca-P-coated coverslips or plain glass slips. Hence, we propose that this ratio of in vitro-determined parameters reflects the osteogenic effect of different substrates on bone-forming cells. Finally, qRT-PCR analyses demonstrated that growth of SaOS-2 cells on a silicatein/biosilica matrix upregulated BMP2 (bone morphogenetic protein 2, inducer of bone formation) expression. In contrast, TRAP (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, modulator of bone resorption) expression remained unaffected. We conclude that biosilica shows pronounced osteogenicity in vitro, qualifying this material for studies of bone replacement also in vivo. PMID:20725824

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SAO-HD-GC-DM Cross Index (ADC 1983) (Roman+ 1983)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, N. G.; Warren, W. H., Jr.; Schofield, N. J., Jr.

    1996-05-01

    The catalog is an updated, corrected, and extended version of a table of correspondences originally prepared by Morin (1973). The individual data corrections, additions, and changes included in the new version number 11398, with 8600 data records having at least one change. In addition to the correction of all errors found since preparation of the original catalog, most of which resulted from misidentifications and omissions of components in multiple-star systems and missing Durchmusterung numbers (the common identifier) in the SAO Catalog, component identifications from the Index Catalogue of Visual Double Stars (IDS) have been appended to all multiple SAO stars having the same DM numbers, and lowercase identifications for supplemental (footnoted) BD stars have been added. Stars deleted (duplicate entries) in the SAO Catalog have been appended with a "D" and their data removed, although the records have been kept (with SAO number only) in order not to change the number of SAO stars. The data include SAO number, HD number, HD multiplicity code, GC number, DM identification code (BD, CD, CP), and number. There are fewer objects than records because of the deleted entries appended with a "D" as described above (35 stars deleted). (1 data file).

  18. Semi-annual oscillation (SAO) of the nighttime ionospheric D region as detected through ground-based VLF receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silber, Israel; Price, Colin; Rodger, Craig J.

    2016-03-01

    Earth's middle and upper atmosphere exhibits several dominant large-scale oscillations in many measured parameters. One of these oscillations is the semi-annual oscillation (SAO). The SAO can be detected in the ionospheric total electron content (TEC), the ionospheric transition height, the wind regime in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT), and in the MLT temperatures. In addition, as we report for the first time in this study, the SAO is among the most dominant oscillations in nighttime very low frequency (VLF) narrowband (NB) subionospheric measurements. As VLF signals are reflected off the ionospheric D region (at altitudes of ˜ 65 and ˜ 85 km, during the day and night, respectively), this implies that the upper part of the D region is experiencing this oscillation as well, through changes in the dominating electron or ion densities, or by changes in the electron collision frequency, recombination rates, and attachment rates, all of which could be driven by oscillatory MLT temperature changes. We conclude that the main source of the SAO in the nighttime D region is NOx molecule transport from the lower levels of the thermosphere, resulting in enhanced ionization and the creation of free electrons in the nighttime D region, thus modulating the SAO signature in VLF NB measurements. While the cause for the observed SAO is still a subject of debate, this oscillation should be taken into account when modeling the D region in general and VLF wave propagation in particular.

  19. Preliminary Goddard geopotential using optical tracking data and a comparison with SAO models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, F. J.; Wagner, C. A.; Putney, B. H.; Nickerson, K. G.

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) geopotential and center of mass station coordinate solution was obtained from satellite orbital data using numerical integration theory. This geodetic solution is a prelude to a more general solution which will combine the 1971 International Satellite Geodesy Experiment (ISAGEX) laser data with the present data being employed. The present GSFC geopotential solution consists of the spherical harmonic coefficients through degree and order eight with higher order satellite resonant coefficients. The solution represents a first iteration result from 17 satellites with approximately 150 weekly orbital arcs containing some 40,000 optical observations. The GSFC preliminary result is compared with final results from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) solutions including the 1969 SAO Standard Earth II solution. One aspect of interest for the comparison is that SAO uses an analytic theory for the orbital solution whereas GSFC uses a numerical integration theory. The comparison of geopotential results shows that good agreement exists in general but that there are some areas of minor differences.

  20. The impact of simple donor education on donor behavioral deferral and infectious disease rates in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Goncalez, Thelma T.; Sabino, Ester C.; Salles, Nanci Alves; Almeida-Neto, Cesar de; Mendrone-Jr, Alfredo; Dorlhiac-Laccer, Pedro E.; Liu, Jing; Murphy, Edward L.; Schreiber, George B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that HIV residual risk is higher in Brazilian than in US and European blood donors; probably due to failure to defer at risk individuals in Brazil. This study assessed the impact of an educational brochure in enhancing blood donor's knowledge about screening test window phase and reducing at risk individuals from donating. Study design and Methods This trial compared an educational intervention with blood center's usual practice. The brochure was distributed in alternating months to all donors. After donating, sampled participants completed 2 questions about their HIV window period knowledge. The impact on HIV risk deferral, leaving without donation, CUE use and test positivity was also analysed. Results From August-November 2007 we evaluated 33,940 donations in the main collection center of FPS/HSP at Sao Paulo, Brazil. A significant (p <.001) pamphlet effect was found on correct responses to both questions assessing HIV window phase knowledge (68.1% vs. 52.9%) and transfusion risk (91.1% vs. 87.2%). After adjusting for gender and age, the pamphlet effect was strongest for people with more than eight years of education. There was no significant pamphlet effect on HIV risk deferral rate, leaving without donation, use of CUE, or infectious disease rates. Conclusion While the educational pamphlet increased window period knowledge, contrary to expectations this information alone was not enough to make donors self-defer or acknowledge their behavioral risk. PMID:20003056

  1. Indoor and outdoor atmospheric fungal spores in the São Paulo metropolitan area (Brazil): species and numeric concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Fábio Luiz Teixeira; Bauer, Heidi; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Pukinskas, Sandra; Matos, Dulcilena; Melhem, Márcia; Puxbaum, Hans

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the indoor and outdoor concentrations of fungal spores in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), collected at different sites in winter/spring and summer seasons. The techniques adopted included cultivation (samples collected with impactors) and microscopic enumeration (samples collected with impingers). The overall results showed total concentrations of fungal spores as high as 36,000 per cubic meter, with a large proportion of non culturable spores (around 91% of the total). Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. were the dominant species both indoors and outdoors, in all seasons tested, occurring in more than 30% of homes at very high concentrations of culturable airborne fungi [colony forming units(CFU) m-3]. There was no significant difference between indoor and outdoor concentrations. The total fungal spore concentration found in winter was 19% higher than that in summer. Heat and humidity were the main factors affecting fungal growth; however, a non-linear response to these factors was found. Thus, temperatures below 16°C and above 25°C caused a reduction in the concentration (CFU m-3) of airborne fungi, which fits with MASP climatalogy. The same pattern was observed for humidity, although not as clearly as with temperature given the usual high relative humidity (above 70%) in the study area. These results are relevant for public health interventions that aim to reduce respiratory morbidity among susceptible populations.

  2. São Paulo urban heat islands have a higher incidence of dengue than other urban areas.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ricardo Vieira; Albertini, Marcos Roberto; Costa-da-Silva, André Luis; Suesdek, Lincoln; Franceschi, Nathália Cristina Soares; Bastos, Nancy Marçal; Katz, Gizelda; Cardoso, Vivian Ailt; Castro, Bronislawa Ciotek; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Allegro, Vera Lúcia Anacleto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    Urban heat islands are characterized by high land surface temperature, low humidity, and poor vegetation, and considered to favor the transmission of the mosquito-borne dengue fever that is transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. We analyzed the recorded dengue incidence in Sao Paulo city, Brazil, in 2010-2011, in terms of multiple environmental and socioeconomic variables. Geographical information systems, thermal remote sensing images, and census data were used to classify city areas according to land surface temperature, vegetation cover, population density, socioeconomic status, and housing standards. Of the 7415 dengue cases, a majority (93.1%) mapped to areas with land surface temperature >28°C. The dengue incidence rate (cases per 100,000 inhabitants) was low (3.2 cases) in high vegetation cover areas, but high (72.3 cases) in low vegetation cover areas where the land surface temperature was 29±2°C. Interestingly, a multiple cluster analysis phenogram showed more dengue cases clustered in areas of land surface temperature >32°C, than in areas characterized as low socioeconomic zones, high population density areas, or slum-like areas. In laboratory experiments, A. aegypti mosquito larval development, blood feeding, and oviposition associated positively with temperatures of 28-32°C, indicating these temperatures to be favorable for dengue transmission. Thus, among all the variables studied, dengue incidence was most affected by the temperature. PMID:25523076

  3. [Governance and regulation in health: challenges for health management in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ibanhes, Lauro Cesar; Heimann, Luiza Sterman; Junqueira, Virginia; Boaretto, Roberta Cristina; Pessoto, Umberto Catarino; Cortizo, Carlos Tato; Castro, Iracema Ester do Nascimento; Rocha, Jucilene Leite da; Kayano, Jorge; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Barboza, Renato; Telesi, Emilio

    2007-03-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between the public and private sectors in the Unified National Health System (SUS), based on research whose objective was to identify governance strategies and mechanisms for public/private relations in the health sector, considering the search for equity in Greater Metropolitan Sao Paulo, Brazil. Governance was used as an analytical category, with health system regulation as the issue. Municipal and State health secretaries, members of health councils, and SUS staff were interviewed, and the empirical material was classified as: (a) regulatory mechanisms and instruments; (b) power loci; and (c) actors' positions concerning the SUS and its relationship to the private sector. Mechanisms and instruments have been created and used in the municipalities for regulation of their own services. Regulatory measures for the complementary and supplementary healthcare sector are practically nonexistent. There are numerous institutional power loci, seen more as places for submitting demands than as forums for negotiation. Despite some progress, governance appears to be more of a formal issue. Discussion is needed on the relationship between the public and private sectors and its regulation by municipalities in order to improve the health system. PMID:17334572

  4. [Professional profile analysis of dentists graduated at Bauru dental School - University of São Paulo between 1996 and 2000].

    PubMed

    Bastos, José Roberto de Magalhães; Aquilante, Aline Guerra; Almeida, Beatriz Simões de; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Bijella, Vitoriano Truvijo

    2003-12-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the professional profile of the 248 dentists graduated at Bauru Dental School - University of Sao Paulo between 1996 and 2000, verify if they accomplish educational and collective measures and determine the level of professional satisfaction. The material was a self-applicable questionnaire containing both multiple choice and open questions. The return rate was 39.5%. Analysis of data showed that the dentists, who were predominantly males, chose Dentistry as a profession because they felt comfortable with it, and evaluate the graduate course as good. Results showed that the practitioners still do not focus on the need of education and prevention in oral health, especially at the collective level. It was concluded that the predominant professional profile was to work at their dental office (38.8%) or at a peer's dental office, receiving an amount of the total profile (25.5%); 26.5% work with health mutual support and 12.2% work at public service. Although 63.3% are professionally realized, only 12.2% are economically realized. The great difficult is the increase in the competition between dentists and saturation of the dental work market. PMID:21394402

  5. [Andrés Bello and the royal philanthropic vaccine expedition].

    PubMed

    Costa-Casaretto, C

    1991-08-01

    In 1803 [corrected], Charles IV King of Spain, sent an expedition to perform widespread ("arm to arm") vaccination against smallpox in the American colonies. The expedition led by Dr Francisco Javier de Belmis visited Puerto Rico, Venezuela, Central America, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú, Bolivia and Chile. A poem to the vaccine was written by Andres Bello, the first rector of the University of Chile, then in Venezuela (1804). The expedition reached Chile in 1807, led by Dr Julián Grajales. This expedition was the most important medical act in the history of the Spanish colonies. PMID:1844782

  6. São Paulo aerosol characterization study.

    PubMed

    Alonso, C D; Martins, M H; Romano, J; Godinho, R

    1997-12-01

    The São Paulo Metropolitan area (SPMA) is characterized as having one of the worst air pollution problems in Brazil, with frequent violations of air quality standards for particulate matter. This paper presents the results of a receptor model source apportionment study carried out to develop a quantitative database on which a control strategy could be developed. The study was conducted in four sites with distinct land uses. Fine, coarse (CP), and total suspended particles (TSP) samples were collected on Teflon and glass filters and analyzed by x-ray fluorescence (XRF), ion chromatography, and thermal evolution. The sources were characterized by similar methodology. Chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor modeling indicated that carbonaceous material plays an important role in the aerosol composition; that the three major source categories contributing to the fine particles are vehicles, secondary carbon, and sulfates; and that the main contributors to CP and TSP are road dust and vehicles. All sampling sites presented the same general pattern in terms of source contribution, although this contribution varied from site to site. PMID:9448518

  7. LARGE-SCALE ASYMMETRIES IN THE TRANSITIONAL DISKS OF SAO 206462 AND SR 21

    SciTech Connect

    Pérez, Laura M.; Chandler, Claire J.; Isella, Andrea; Carpenter, John M.

    2014-03-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations in the dust continuum (690 GHz, 0.45 mm) and {sup 12}CO J = 6-5 spectral line emission of the transitional disks surrounding the stars SAO 206462 and SR 21. These ALMA observations resolve the dust-depleted disk cavities and extended gaseous disks, revealing large-scale asymmetries in the dust emission of both disks. We modeled these disk structures with a ring and an azimuthal Gaussian, where the azimuthal Gaussian is motivated by the steady-state vortex solution from Lyra and Lin. Compared to recent observations of HD 142527, Oph IRS 48, and LkHα 330, these are low-contrast (≲ 2) asymmetries. Nevertheless, a ring alone is not a good fit, and the addition of a vortex prescription describes these data much better. The asymmetric component encompasses 15% and 28% of the total disk emission in SAO 206462 and SR 21, respectively, which corresponds to a lower limit of 2 M {sub Jup} of material within the asymmetry for both disks. Although the contrast in the dust asymmetry is low, we find that the turbulent velocity inside it must be large (∼20% of the sound speed) in order to drive these azimuthally wide and radially narrow vortex-like structures. We obtain residuals from the ring and vortex fitting that are still significant, tracing non-axisymmetric emission in both disks. We compared these submillimeter observations with recently published H-band scattered light observations. For SR 21 the scattered light emission is distributed quite differently from the submillimeter continuum emission, while for SAO 206462 the submillimeter residuals are suggestive of spiral-like structure similar to the near-IR emission.

  8. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (SAO OMPS) formaldehyde retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Abad, Gonzalo; Vasilkov, Alexander; Seftor, Colin; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents our new formaldehyde (H2CO) retrievals, obtained from spectra recorded by the nadir instrument of the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) flown on board NASA's Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SUOMI-NPP) satellite. Our algorithm is similar to the one currently in place for the production of NASA's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) operational H2CO product. We are now able to produce a set of long-term data from two different instruments that share a similar concept and a similar retrieval approach. The ongoing overlap period between OMI and OMPS offers a perfect opportunity to study the consistency between both data sets. The different spatial and spectral resolution of the instruments is a source of discrepancy in the retrievals despite the similarity of the physic assumptions of the algorithm. We have concluded that the reduced spectral resolution of OMPS in comparison with OMI is not a significant obstacle in obtaining good-quality retrievals. Indeed, the improved signal-to-noise ratio of OMPS with respect to OMI helps to reduce the noise of the retrievals performed using OMPS spectra. However, the size of OMPS spatial pixels imposes a limitation in the capability to distinguish particular features of H2CO that are discernible with OMI. With root mean square (RMS) residuals ˜ 5 × 10-4 for individual pixels we estimate the detection limit to be about 7.5 × 1015 molecules cm-2. Total vertical column density (VCD) errors for individual pixels range between 40 % for pixels with high concentrations to 100 % or more for pixels with concentrations at or below the detection limit. We compare different OMI products (SAO OMI v3.0.2 and BIRA OMI v14) with our OMPS product using 1 year of data, between September 2012 and September 2013. The seasonality of the retrieved slant columns is captured similarly by all products but there are discrepancies in the values of the VCDs. The mean biases among the two OMI products and our OMPS product

  9. Convenio "Andres Bello:" Informe Final [de la] Segunda Reunion de Ministros de Educacion de la Region Andina ("Andres Bello" Agreement: Final Report of the Second Meeting of the Andean Region Ministers of Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministros de Educacion de la Region Andina, Lima (Peru).

    This final report of the second meeting of the Andean Region Ministers of Education subscribing to the Andres Bello Agreement on education and culture contains a resume of the individual sessions and the proposals approved during that meeting. The proposals cover various educational problems and issues and begin with the Declaration of Lima which…

  10. Spatial prediction of caves in San Andres Dolomite, Yates field, West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Nosal, E.A.; Carlson, J.L.; Craig, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    Persistent speculations that caves played a key role in the high flow rates of many early wells in the Yates field (203 wells potentialed for more than 10,000 BOPD each, 26 wells for more than 80,000 BOPD each) has raised questions of why the caves exist, how many there are, and how to incorporate them into reservoir management practice. This paper describes the use of probability theory to answer these questions. Among the geologic factors that contributed to the remarkable early productivity of Yates are zones of karst in the upper San Andres Dolomite, the principle reservoir unit. Hundreds of infill wells drilled after unitization of the field in 1976 have provided ample data on cave numbers and patterns. These data indicate that karstification was produced by dynamic lenses of fresh water beneath a cluster of islands formed when lowering of Late Permian sea level exposed San Andres limestone to rainfall and dissolution. The seemingly random occurrences of caves can be fitted into a geologic framework of systematic karst processes to produce mappable petrophysical parameters. The most important of these predicts, in probabilistic terms, where the caves are located. The contribution of cave porosity to total reservoir porosity can also be estimated. This cave component of porosity can be displayed as a petrophysical log and manipulated in the same way as matrix porosity.

  11. A taxonomic revision of the genus Oxyopomyrmex André, 1881 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Salata, Sebastian; Borowiec, Lech

    2015-01-01

    Oxyopomyrmex André, 1881 is a small genus of myrmicine ants found in arid grasslands of the Mediterranean region. Here we provide a new taxonomic revision of the genus. Twelve species are recognized, including five new to science: O. laevibus sp. nov. (Greece: Crete), O. magnus sp. nov. (Spain), O. negevensis sp. nov. (Israel) O. polybotesi sp. nov. (Greece: Nisyros, W Turkey) and O. pygmalioni sp. nov. (Cyprus). Oxyopomyrmex santschii var. nigripes Santschi, 1907 and O. santschii var. nitidior Santschi, 1910 are raised to species level. The following new synonymies are proposed: O. krueperi Forel, 1911 = O. lagoi Menozzi, 1936 syn. nov.; O. nigripes Santschi, 1907 = O. sabulonis var. rugocciput Santschi, 1923 syn. nov. = O. emeryi var. brunnescens Santschi, 1929 syn. nov.; O. nitidior Santschi, 1910 = O. emeryi var. laticeps Santschi, 1915 syn. nov. = O. emeryi st. sabulonis Santschi, 1915 syn. nov.; O. saulcyi Emery, 1889 = O. santschii Forel, 1904 syn. nov. = O. santschii var. siciliana Karavaiev, 1912 syn. nov. = O. gaetulus Santschi, 1929 syn. nov. = O. saulcyi var. latinodis Santschi, 1939 syn. nov. A neotype for O. oculatus André, 1881 is designated. An identification key based on the gyne, male and worker caste is provided. PMID:26624163

  12. Geologic description of the San Andres reservoir facies in the Mabee field

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.D. )

    1992-04-01

    The Mabee field is located in Andrews and Martin counties, Texas, approximately 16 mi northwest of Midland in the Permian basin. Production is from the upper Permian San Andres dolomite at an average depth of 4700 ft. The San Andres/Grayburg formations are the most prolific oil-producing formations in the Permian basin, with total production over 10 billion bbl, and an estimated additional 3.8 billion bbl to be recovered by conventional secondary and tertiary methods. The Mabee field has produced over 90 MMBO by primary and secondary methods since its discovery in 1943. A tertiary CO{sub 2} flood will be implemented in 1992. An essential prerequisite to a successful CO{sub 2} project is a detailed reservoir description and facies analysis. Examination of over 5000 ft of core established six major facies in an overall shallowing-upward sequence. The cap rock consists of dense anhydritic dolomites of the supratidal and oncolite facies. Production primarily is from the underlying dolomitized subtidal and ooid facies. Sandstones interfinger with the ooid facies, but are tightly cemented and act as barriers to fluid migration. The lower-most open-marine facies is below the oil/water contact for the field. Reservoir characterization improves the planning and operation of an enhanced recovery project.

  13. Microfossil evidence for pre-Columbian maize dispersals in the neotropics from San Andres, Tabasco, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Mary E D; Piperno, Dolores R; Pope, Kevin O; Jones, John G

    2007-04-17

    The history of maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most debated topics in New World archaeology. Molecular and genetic studies indicate that maize domestication took place in tropical southwest Mexico. Although archaeological evidence for the evolution of maize from its wild ancestor teosinte has yet to be found in that poorly studied region, other research combining paleoecology and archaeology is documenting the nature and timing of maize domestication and dispersals. Here we report a phytolith analysis of sediments from San Andrés, Tabasco, that confirms the spread of maize cultivation to the tropical Mexican Gulf Coast >7,000 years ago ( approximately 7,300 calendar years before present). We review the different methods used in sampling, identifying, and dating fossil maize remains and compare their strengths and weaknesses. Finally, we examine how San Andrés amplifies the present evidence for widespread maize dispersals into Central and South America. Multiple data sets from many sites indicate that maize was brought under cultivation and domesticated and had spread rapidly out of its domestication cradle in tropical southwest Mexico by the eighth millennium before the present. PMID:17426147

  14. The epidemiology and transmissibility of Zika virus in Girardot and San Andres island, Colombia, September 2015 to January 2016.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Diana Patricia; Dean, Natalie E; Yang, Yang; Kenah, Eben; Quintero, Juliana; Tomasi, Simon; Ramirez, Erika Lorena; Kelly, Yendi; Castro, Carolina; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Halloran, M Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M

    2016-07-14

    Transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) was first detected in Colombia in September 2015. As of April 2016, Colombia had reported over 65,000 cases of Zika virus disease (ZVD). We analysed daily surveillance data of ZVD cases reported to the health authorities of San Andres and Girardot, Colombia, between September 2015 and January 2016. ZVD was laboratory-confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in the serum of acute cases within five days of symptom onset. We use daily incidence data to estimate the basic reproductive number (R0) in each population. We identified 928 and 1,936 reported ZVD cases from San Andres and Girardot, respectively. The overall attack rate for reported ZVD was 12.13 cases per 1,000 residents of San Andres and 18.43 cases per 1,000 residents of Girardot. Attack rates were significantly higher in females in both municipalities (p < 0.001). Cases occurred in all age groups with highest rates in 20 to 49 year-olds. The estimated R0 for the Zika outbreak was 1.41 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-1.74) in San Andres and 4.61 (95% CI: 4.11-5.16) in Girardot. Transmission of ZIKV is ongoing in the Americas. The estimated R0 from Colombia supports the observed rapid spread. PMID:27452806

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Hamburg/SAO Survey for ELGs. III. (Hopp+, 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, U.; Engels, D.; Green, R. F.; Ugryumov, A. V.; Izotov, Y. I.; Hagen, H.-J.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Lipovetsky, V. A.; Pustilnik, S. A.; Brosch, N.; Masegosa, J.; Martin, J.-M.; Marquez, I.

    2000-03-01

    We present the third list with results of the Hamburg/SAO Survey for Emission-Line Galaxies (HSS therein, SAO - Special Astrophysical Observatory, Russia). This survey is based on the digitized objective-prism photoplate database of the Hamburg Quasar Survey (HQS). Here, we present new spectroscopic results of candidates which were obtained in 1998 with the 2.1m KPNO and the 2.2m Calar Alto telescopes. All candidates are selected in the declination band +35{deg} to +40{deg}. The follow-up spectroscopy with the 2m class telescopes confirmed 85 emission-line objects out of 113 observed candidates and allowed their quantitative spectral classification. For 80 of them, the redshifts are determined for the first time. For 5 previously known Emission-Line Galaxies (ELGs), line ratios are presented for the first time. We could classify 55 out of the 85 emission-line objects as BCG/HII galaxies or probable BCGs (Blue Compact Galaxies) , 4 - as QSOs, 6 - as Seyfert galaxies, 1 - as super-association in a subluminous spiral galaxy, and 11 are low-excitation objects - either starburst nuclei (SBN), or dwarf amorphous nuclei starburst galaxies (DANS). We could not classify 8 ELGs. Further, for 8 more galaxies we did not detect any significant emission lines. (5 data files).

  16. An Einstein Observatory SAO-based catalog of B-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grillo, F.; Sciortino, S.; Micela, G.; Vaiana, G. S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    About 4000 X-ray images obtained with the Einstein Observatory are used to measure the 0.16-4.0 keV emission from 1545 B-type SAO stars falling in the about 10 percent of the sky surveyed with the IPC. Seventy-four detected X-ray sources with B-type stars are identified, and it is estimated that no more than 15 can be misidentified. Upper limits to the X-ray emission of the remaining stars are presented. In addition to summarizing the X-ray measurements and giving other relevant optical data, the present extensive catalog discusses the reduction process and analyzes selection effects associated with both SAO catalog completeness and IPC target selection procedures. It is concluded that X-ray emission, at the level of Lx not less than 10 exp 30 ergs/s, is quite common in B stars of early spectral types (B0-B3), regardless of luminosity class, but that emission, at the same level, becomes less common, or nonexistent, in later B-type stars.

  17. Planetary Signatures in the SAO 206462 (HD 135344B) Disk: A Spiral Arm Passing through Vortex?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Jaehan; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Hartmann, Lee

    2016-03-01

    The disk surrounding SAO 206462, an 8 Myr old Herbig Ae star, has recently been reported to exhibit spiral arms, an asymmetric dust continuum, and a dust-depleted inner cavity. By carrying out two-dimensional, two-fluid hydrodynamic calculations, we find that a planetary-mass companion located at the outer disk could be responsible for these observed structures. In this model, the planet excites primary and secondary arms interior to its orbit. It also carves a gap and generates a local pressure bump at the inner gap edge where a vortex forms through Rossby wave instability. The vortex traps radially drifting dust particles, forming a dust-depleted cavity in the inner disk. We propose that the vortex is responsible for the brightest southwestern peak seen in infrared scattered light and sub-millimeter dust continuum emission. In particular, it is possible that the scattered light is boosted as one of the spiral arms passes through the high density vortex region, although the vortex alone may be able to explain the peak. We suggest that a planetary companion with a mass of 10-15 {M}J is orbiting SAO 206462 at 100-120 au. Monitoring of the brightest peak over the next few years will help reveal its origin because the spiral arms and vortex will show distinguishable displacement.

  18. Updated Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Ozone Monitoring Instrument (SAO OMI) formaldehyde retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Abad, G.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Wang, H.; Kurosu, T. P.; Suleiman, R.

    2015-01-01

    We present and discuss the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) formaldehyde (H2CO) retrieval algorithm for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) which is the operational retrieval for NASA OMI H2CO. The version of the algorithm described here includes relevant changes with respect to the operational one, including differences in the reference spectra for H2CO, the fit of O2-O2 collisional complex, updates in the high-resolution solar reference spectrum, the use of a model reference sector over the remote Pacific Ocean to normalize the retrievals, an updated air mass factor (AMF) calculation scheme, and the inclusion of scattering weights and vertical H2CO profile in the level 2 products. The setup of the retrieval is discussed in detail. We compare the results of the updated retrieval with the results from the previous SAO H2CO retrieval. The improvement in the slant column fit increases the temporal stability of the retrieval and slightly reduces the noise. The change in the AMF calculation has increased the AMFs by 20%, mainly due to the consideration of the radiative cloud fraction. Typical values for retrieved vertical columns are between 4 × 1015 and 4 × 1016 molecules cm-2, with typical fitting uncertainties ranging between 45 and 100%. In high-concentration regions the errors are usually reduced to 30%. The detection limit is estimated at 1 × 1016 molecules cm-2.

  19. Application of echinoid sperm and embryo bioassays for the pollution assessment of Sao Sebastiao Channel, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Zamboni, A.J.; Nipper, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    The Sao Sebastiao Channel, located on the Southeastern Brazilian coast, encompasses the largest oil terminal in the country and is also a highly touristic area. Frequent oil spills are responsible for chronic contamination problems and sewage disposal in the waters of the channel is also common practice. the water and sediment quality in different sites along Sao Sebastiao Channel was evaluated quarterly throughout a year, by toxicity testing with sperm cells and embryos of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus. Water samples were collected from two depths (1 m below surface and 1 m above the bottom). Sediments, collected by a grab sampler, had their pore water extracted by centrifuging. It was then analyzed for toxicity. The results showed that the pore water from most sites impaired sperm viability and embryo development of the test organisms. Sediments were further characterized for particle size distribution, TOC, heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons content. They contained baseline concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni and Fe, but the hydrocarbons levels were above the average for nearby coastal areas. The overlying water from the deeper layer was of better quality than the surface, but very fast changes were observed along time and space. This seems to be intimately associated with the predominant hydrodynamic and meteorological phenomena in that region. The results showed that these toxicity test methods can be applied in association with other forms of analysis, for the establishment of quality criteria for Brazilian coastal environments.

  20. High resolution spectroscopy of the high latitude rapidly evolving post-AGB star SAO 85766 (= IRAS 18062+2410)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, M.; García-Lario, P.; Sivarani, T.; Manchado, A.; Sanz Fernández de Córdoba, L.

    2000-05-01

    SAO 85766 (b = +20o) is an IRAS source with far-infrared colours similar to planetary nebulae. According to the HDE catalogue, its spectrum in 1940 was that of an A5 star. The UV fluxes and colours derived from data obtained by the TD1 satellite in 1972 also indicate that SAO 85766 was an A-type supergiant at that epoch. However, high resolution spectra of SAO 85766 obtained in 1993 in the wavelength interval 4350Ä to 8820Ä shows that now it is similar to that of an early B type post-AGB supergiant. In addition to the absorptions lines typical of a B1I type star, the spectrum of SAO 85766 is found to show numerous permitted and forbidden emission lines of several elements, typically observed in the spectra of young high density low excitation planetary nebulae. From an analysis of the absorption lines we have estimated Teff=22000+/-500 K, log g=3.0+/-0.5, xi t=15+/-2km s-1 and [M/H]=-0.6. Carbon is found to be strongly underabundant ([C/Fe] = -1.0), similarly to what has been observed in other high galactic latitude hot post-AGB stars. The underabundance of carbon and metals, high galactic latitude, high radial velocity (46 km s-1), the presence of planetary nebula type detached cold circumstellar dust shell and also the presence of low excitation nebular emission lines in the spectrum indicate that SAO 85766 is a low mass star in the post-AGB stage of evolution. The above mentioned characteristics and the variations observed in the spectrum of SAO 85766 suggest that it has rapidly evolved during the past 50 years and it is now in the early stages of the planetary nebula phase. The central star may just have become hot enough to photoionize the circumstellar envelope ejected during the previous AGB phase. >From an analysis of the nebular emission lines we find Te=10000+/- 500K and Ne=2.5 104 cm-3. The nebula also shows an abundance pattern similar to that of the central star. The rapid post-AGB evolution of SAO 85766 appears to be similar to that observed in the

  1. Formacion de Formadores en Planeamiento y Administracion de la Education: Informe Final. Reunion Tecnica de la Red REPLAD, Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil, 9-13 de noviembre de 1987. (Educational Development of Professionals in Educational Planning and Administration: Final Report. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Major Project for Education (Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 9-13, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    This final report provides a synthesis of conference presentations by representatives from institutions in 17 Latin American and the Caribbean nations. The material includes descriptions about institutions of higher education planning and developing of their respective schools of education, ministries of education, and national and regional…

  2. SAO and Kelvin Waves in the EuroGRIPS GCMS and the UK Meteorological Offices Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amodei, M.; Pawson, S.; Scaife, A. A.; Lahoz, W.; Langematz, U.; Li, Ding Min; Simon, P.

    2000-01-01

    This work is an intercomparison of four tropospheric-stratospheric climate models, the Unified Model (UM) of the U.K. Meteorological Office (UKMO), the model of the Free University in Berlin (FUB). the ARPEGE-climat model of the National Center for Meteorological Research (CNRM), and the Extended UGAMP GCM (EUGCM) of the Center for Global Atmospheric Modelling (CGAM), against the UKMO analyses. This comparison has been made in the framework of the "GSM-Reality Intercomparison Project for SPARC" (GRIPS). SPARC (Stratospheric Processes and their Role in Climate) aims are to investigate the effects of the middle atmosphere on climate and the GRIPS purpose is to organized a comprehensive assessment of current Middle Atmosphere-Climate Models (MACMs). The models integrations were made without identical contraints e.g. boundary conditions, incoming solar radiation). All models are able to represent the dominant features of the extratropical circulation. In this paper, the structure of the tropical winds and the strengths of the Kelvin waves are examined. Explanations for the differences exhibited. between the models. as well as between models and analyses, are also proposed. In the analyses a rich spectrum of waves (eastward and westward) is present and contributes to drive the SAO (SemiAnnual Oscillation) and the QBO (Quasi-Biennal Oscillation). The amplitude of the Kelvin waves is close to the one observed in UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) data. In agreement with observations, the Kelvin waves generated in the models propagate into the middle atmosphere as wave packets which underlines convective forcing origin. In most models, slow Kelvin waves propagate too high and are hence overestimated in the upper stratosphere and in the mesosphere, except for the UM which is more diffusive. These waves are not sufficient to force realistic westerlies of the QBO or SAO westerly phases. If the SAO is represented by all models only two of them are able to generate

  3. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (SAO OMPS) formaldehyde retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Abad, G.; Vasilkov, A.; Seftor, C.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents our new formaldehyde (H2CO) retrievals, obtained from spectra recorded by the nadir instrument of the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) flown on-board NASA's Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SUOMI-NPP) satellite. Our algorithm is similar to the one currently in place for the production of NASA's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) operational H2CO product. We are now able to produce a consistent set of long term data from two different instruments that share a similar concept. The ongoing overlap period between OMI and OMPS offers a perfect opportunity to study the consistency between both data sets. The different spatial and spectral resolution of the instruments is a source of discrepancy in the retrievals despite the similarity of the physic assumptions of the algorithm. We have concluded that the reduced spectral resolution of OMPS in comparison with OMI is not a significant obstacle in obtaining good quality retrievals. Indeed, the improved signal to noise ratio (SNR) of OMPS with respect to OMI helps to reduce the noise of the retrievals performed using OMPS spectra. However, the size of OMPS spatial pixels imposes a limitation in the capability to distinguish particular features of H2CO that are discernible with OMI. With root mean square (RMS) residuals ~ 5 × 10-4 for individual pixels we estimate the detection limit to be about 7.5 × 1015 molecules cm-2. Total vertical column densities (VCD) errors for individual pixels range between 40 % for pixels with high concentrations to 100 % or more for pixels with concentrations at or below the detection limit. We compare different OMI products with our OMPS product using one year of data, between September 2012 and September 2013. The seasonality of the retrieved slant columns is captured similarly by all products but there are discrepancies in the values of the VCDs. The mean biases among the two OMI products and our OMPS product are 21 % between OMI SAO and OMPS SAO and 38

  4. Tumstatin induces apoptosis and stimulates phosphorylation of p65NF-κB in human osteoblastic osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Yin, Ruo-Feng; Teng, Jia-Song

    2016-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of tumstatin on inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in Saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells and to understand the mechanism involved. Inhibition of cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT assay and induction of apoptosis through nuclear fragmentation assay. Viability of Saos-2 cells was reduced to 19% on treatment with 25 µM concentration of tumstatin after 48 h. Presence of characteristic apoptotic nuclei, rounded cell shape and shrunken size were caused by tumstatin treatment at 25 µM concentration. The level of mRNA corresponding to PTEN, FasR and FasL was increased significantly in tumstatin treated Saos-2 cells compared to untreated control. Investigation of the mechanism revealed NF-κB activation by phosphorylation on serine 536. The activated NF-κB was translocated into the nucleus from the cytoplasm on treatment with tumstatin. Degradation of the IκBα by tumstatin was found to be much slower compared to that induced by treatment with TNF-α. Thus, tumstatin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in Saos-2 cells through activation of NF-κB and its translocation to the nucleus. Therefore, tumstatin can play an important role in the treatment of osteosarcoma. PMID:27109498

  5. Resonant extended states in driven quasiperiodic lattices: Aubry-Andre localization by design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Molina, L.; Doerner, E.; Danieli, C.; Flach, S.

    2014-10-01

    We consider a quasiperiodic Aubry-Andre (AA) model and add a weak time-space-periodic perturbation. The undriven AA model is chosen to be well in the localized regime. The driving term controls the effective number of propagation channels. For a spatial resonance which reduces the reciprocal space dynamics to an effective one-dimensional two-leg ladder, the ac perturbation resonantly couples certain groups of localized eigenstates of the undriven AA model and turns them into extended ones. Slight detuning of the spatial and temporal frequencies off resonance returns these states into localized ones. We analyze the details of the resonant extended eigenstates using Floquet representations. In particular, we find that their size grows linearly with the system size. Initial wave packets overlap with resonant extended eigenstates and lead to ballistic spreading.

  6. Untested Feasibility: Imagining the Pragmatic Possibility of Paulo Freire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronald, Kate; Roskelly, Hephzibah

    2001-01-01

    Considers how teachers might re-create, rather than import, Paulo Freire into North American contexts--and so not lose the power of his ideas. Takes the method of pragmatism and connects it to Freire's concept of praxis to argue for pragmatic theory and practice in the work of teaching literacy. (SG)

  7. The Meaning of Conscientizacao: The Goal of Paulo Freire's Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William A.

    Techniques for applying Brazilian adult educator and political organizer Paulo Freire's theory of "conscientizacao" are discussed. Freire's pedagogy is designed to liberate both oppressor and oppressed from the victimization of the oppressive system through "conscientizacao" or consciousness raising. The term refers to the developmental processes…

  8. Paulo Freire's Relevance to Online Instruction and Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kash, Sheri; Dessinger, Joan Conway

    2010-01-01

    Paulo Freire argued that learning should be conversational, accessible, and centered on the experience of the participants. Freirean theory remains strong in adult education and has implications for human performance technology applications in such areas as online learning in terms of design, accessibility, and content, as well as performance…

  9. Paulo Freire and His Contribution to Multiethnic Churches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gushiken, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    Paulo Freire's educational philosophy encourages conscientization in individuals as a means to overcoming oppression. This approach includes dialogue that leads to critical thinking and problem-posed learning that fosters self-discovery. This article applies this process to a multi-ethnic congregation as it nurtures ethnic equality. In addition,…

  10. Power-Filled Lessons for Leadership Educators from Paulo Freire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaak, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This paper is designed to introduce readers to teacher-philosopher-practitioner, Paulo Freire and to illustrate the power of his educational ideals for the task of teaching leadership. Readers will encounter Freire, understand how one's definition of leadership needs to match one's approach to teaching leadership, review a proposed Freirean…

  11. Commentary: Paulo Freire and the Future of the Radical Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allman, Paula; Wallis, John

    1997-01-01

    Assesses the contributions of Paulo Freire and considers whether his philosophy and approach can be applied in adult and community education today. Suggests that so-called radical education has not addressed epistemological questions, leaving the nature of knowledge unquestioned. (SK)

  12. Validation of OMI Total Ozone Retrievals from the SAO Ozone Profile Algorithm and Three Operational Algorithms 3 with Brewer Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Juseon; Kim, Jae H.; Liu, Xiong; Chance, Kelly

    2015-04-01

    The optimal estimation (OE) based ozone profile algorithm developed at Smithsonian 3 Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) is assessed as to its accuracy to extract total ozone amount from 4 Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements through the validation using Brewer ground 5 based measurements between January 2005 and December 2008. We compare it against the quality of 6 three OMI operational ozone products, derived from NASA TOMS, KNMI DOAS, and KNMI OE 7 algorithms, respectively. The validation demonstrates that the SAO ozone profile algorithm generally 8 has the best total ozone retrieval performance compared to the three OMI operational ozone products. 9 The individual station comparisons show an agreement between SAO and Brewer within ± 1% except 10 at polar stations (~ -2 %), with a high correlation coefficient of ~ 0.99 at most stations. The KNMI OE 11 algorithm systematically overestimates the true total ozone value at all stations with a bias from 2 % 12 at low/mid latitude stations to 5 % at high latitude stations. On the other hand, TOMS/DOAS 13 algorithm underestimates total ozone by ~ -1.7 % on average. The standard deviations of differences 14 are ~ 1.8 % for SAO and TOMS while DOAS and KNMI show the standard deviation values of 2.2 15 and 2.5 %, respectively. The remarkable stability of SAO OE algorithm is found with no significant 16 dependency on algorithmic variables such as viewing geometries, cloud parameters, and time. In 17 comparison, the severe dependency on both solar and viewing zenith angles is found in KNMI OE 18 algorithm, which is characterized with a negative (positive) correlation with smaller (larger) solar 19 zenith angles and the strong cross-track dependent biases ranging from 4% at nadir and 1% at off-20 nadir positions. The dependence of DOAS and TOMS algorithms on the algorithmic variables is 21 marginal compared to KNMI OE algorithm, but distinct compared to SAO OE algorithm. Relative 22 differences between SAO/DOAS and

  13. The effect of São Paulo's smoke-free legislation on carbon monoxide concentration in hospitality venues and their workers

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Tania M O; Pereira, Alexandre C; Megid, Maria Cristina; Shimabukuro, Cristina E; Valentin, Luis Sergio O; da C Ferreira, Marizete M; Nobre, Moacyr R C; Lancarotte, Ines; Barretto, Antonio Carlos Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that there is no safe level of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure and there is a close link between SHS and the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the most important components present in SHS. Objective To evaluate the impact of the smoking ban law in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, on the CO concentration in restaurants, bars, night clubs and similar venues and in their workers. Methods In the present study we measured CO concentration in 585 hospitality venues. CO concentration was measured in different environments (indoor, semi-open and open areas) from visited venues, as well as, in the exhaled air from approximately 627 workers of such venues. Measurements were performed twice, before and 12 weeks after the law implementation. In addition, the quality of the air in the city during the same period of our study was verified. Results The CO concentration pre-ban and pot-ban in hospitality venues was indoor area 4.57 (3.70) ppm vs 1.35 (1.66) ppm (p<0.0001); semi-open 3.79 (2.49) ppm vs 1.16 (1.14) ppm (p<0.0001); open area 3.31(2.2) ppm vs 1.31 (1.39) ppm (p<0.0001); smoking employees 15.78 (9.76) ppm vs 11.50 (7.53) ppm (p<0.0001) and non-smoking employees 6.88 (5.32) ppm vs 3.50 (2.21) ppm (p<0.0001). The average CO concentration measured in the city was lower than 1 ppm during both pre-ban and post-ban periods. Conclusion São Paulo's smoking-free legislation reduced significantly the CO concentration in hospitality venues and in their workers, whether they smoke or not. PMID:21109684

  14. Supraphysiological Levels of Quercetin Glycosides are Required to Alter Mineralization in Saos2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Leslie A.; Peters, Sandra J.; Sullivan, Philip J.; Ward, Wendy E.

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoid intake is positively correlated to bone mineral density (BMD) in women. Flavonoids such as quercetin exhibit strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity that may be beneficial for bone health. Quercetin, previously shown to positively influence osteoblasts, is metabolized into glycosides including rutin and hyperoside. We compared the effects of these glycosides on mineralization in human osteoblast (Saos2) cells. Administration of rutin (≥25 µM) and hyperoside (≥5 µM) resulted in higher mineral content, determined using the alizarin red assay. This was accompanied by higher alkaline phosphatase activity with no cell toxicity. The expression of osteopontin, sclerostin, TNFα and IL6, known stimuli for decreasing osteoblast activity, were reduced with the addition of rutin or hyperoside. In summary, rutin and hyperoside require supraphysiological levels, when administered individually, to positively influence osteoblast activity. This information may be useful in developing nutraceuticals to support bone health. PMID:27136576

  15. SEISMIC STUDY OF THE AGUA DE PAU GEOTHERMAL PROSPECT, SAO MIGUEL, AZORES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Phillip B.; Rodrigues da Silva, Antonio; Iyer, H.M.; Evans, John R.

    1985-01-01

    A 16 station array was operated over the 200 km**2 central portion of Sao Miguel utilizing 8 permanent Instituto Nacional de Meterologia e Geofisica stations and 8 USGS portable stations. Forty four local events with well constrained solutions and 15 regional events were located. In addition, hundreds of unlocatable seismic events were recorded. The most interesting seismic activity occurred in a swarm on September 6 and 7, 1983 when over 200 events were recorded in a 16 hour period. The seismic activity around Agua de Pau was centered on the east and northeast slopes of the volcano. The data suggest a boiling hydrothermal system beneath the Agua de Pau volcano, consistent with a variety of other data.

  16. SAO/NASA joint investigation of astronomical viewing quality at Mount Hopkins Observatory: 1969-1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, M. R.; Bufton, J. L.; Hogan, D.; Kurtenbach, D.; Goodwin, K.

    1974-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of the astronomical seeing conditions have been made with a stellar-image monitor system at the Mt. Hopkins Observatory in Arizona. The results of this joint SAO-NASA experiment indicate that for a 15-cm-diameter telescope, image motion is typically 1 arcsec or less and that intensity fluctuations due to scintillation have a coefficient of irradiance variance of less than 0.12 on the average. Correlations between seeing quality and local meteorological conditions were investigated. Local temperature fluctuations and temperature gradients were found to be indicators of image-motion conditions, while high-altitude-wind conditions were shown to be somewhat correlated with scintillation-spectrum bandwidth. The theoretical basis for the relationship of atmospheric turbulence to optical effects is discussed in some detail, along with a description of the equipment used in the experiment. General site-testing comments and applications of the seeing-test results are also included.

  17. Thirty Years, One Million Spectra: Public Access to the SAO Spectral Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mink, J.; Moran, S.

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 30 years, the SAO Telescope Data Center has reduced and archived over 1,000,000 spectra, consisting of 287,000 spectra from five high dispersion Echelle spectrographs and 717,000 spectra from four low dispersion spectrographs, across three telescopes. 151,000 spectra from six instruments are currently online and publicly available, covering many interesting objects in the northern sky, including most of the galaxies in the Updated Zwicky Catalog which are reachable through NED or Simbad. A majority of the high dispersion spectra will soon be made public, as will more data from the MMT multi-fiber spectrographs. Many objects in the archive have multiple spectra over time, which make them a valuable resource for archival time-domain studies. We are now developing a system to make all of the public spectra more easily searchable and viewable through the Virtual Observatory.

  18. Supraphysiological Levels of Quercetin Glycosides are Required to Alter Mineralization in Saos2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Nash, Leslie A; Peters, Sandra J; Sullivan, Philip J; Ward, Wendy E

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoid intake is positively correlated to bone mineral density (BMD) in women. Flavonoids such as quercetin exhibit strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity that may be beneficial for bone health. Quercetin, previously shown to positively influence osteoblasts, is metabolized into glycosides including rutin and hyperoside. We compared the effects of these glycosides on mineralization in human osteoblast (Saos2) cells. Administration of rutin (≥25 µM) and hyperoside (≥5 µM) resulted in higher mineral content, determined using the alizarin red assay. This was accompanied by higher alkaline phosphatase activity with no cell toxicity. The expression of osteopontin, sclerostin, TNFα and IL6, known stimuli for decreasing osteoblast activity, were reduced with the addition of rutin or hyperoside. In summary, rutin and hyperoside require supraphysiological levels, when administered individually, to positively influence osteoblast activity. This information may be useful in developing nutraceuticals to support bone health. PMID:27136576

  19. APPLICATION OF AUDIO-MAGNETOTELLURIC SURVEYS ON SAO MIGUEL ISLAND, AZORES PORTUGAL.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoover, Donald; Rodrigues Da Silva, A.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Amaral, Roberto

    1984-01-01

    Geothermal exploration and development has been under way on Sao Miguel Island, Azores since 1975. This work had been restricted to the Fogo volcano, one of three dormant silicic volcanic centers on the island. The USGS in 1982 and 1983 conducted reconnaissance natural-source audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) surveys of all three silicic centers to evaluate the potential for geothermal systems at each and to demonstrate the utility of the method in areas of difficult terrain. Results on Fogo showed a low resistivity trend extending from the present production area upslope to the caldera boundary. The upper part of this trend is the upwelling zone of a thermal plume which supplies the production area. Further exploration and drilling are now planned for this area.

  20. Keck Observations of HD 169142 and SAO 26804: Results from a Survey of Vega-like sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, R. S.; Telesco, C. M.; Pina, R. K.; Knacke, R. F.

    2001-05-01

    We present new mid-IR (10 and 18 μm ) observations of two Vega-like sources, HD 169142 and HD 233517 (SAO 26804). Using OSCIR on Keck II, we have detected extended emission around HD 169142 in what appears to be a nearly face-on disk. The mid-IR-emitting region of the disk has a diameter of ~175 AU, comparable to HD 141569 and the Vega-like archetype β Pictoris. The position of HD 169142 in the H-R diagram implies that it is close to, but not yet on, the ZAMS. Comparison with PMS evolutionary tracks indicates that it is 3 - 10 Myr old, in transition between the Herbig Ae/Be and Vega-like classes. Assuming that the mid-IR-emitting dust particles are Mie spheres implies that their diameter is < 3 μm . We also present new 10 and 18 μm images of HD 233517 (SAO 26804) that show this source is unresolved at the highest resolution currently attainable in the mid-IR. Our imaging with OSCIR on Keck II places full-width at half maximum (FWHM) limits on the source size of 0\\farcs31 at 10.8 μm and 0\\farcs inconsistent with previously published values. The fact that SAO 26804 is unresolved in the mid-IR has implications for the evolutionary status. We propose that the unresolved nature of SAO 26804 is strong circumstantial evidence that the source is not a main sequence (luminosity class V dwarf) Vega-like source, but a lithium-rich giant (luminosity class III). The giant classification for SAO 26804 is supported by its position in the H-R diagram. This research was supported in part by NSF and NASA grants to the University of Florida and Pennsylvania State University at Erie.

  1. IS THE POST-AGB STAR SAO 40039 MILDLY HYDROGEN-DEFICIENT?

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, S. Sumangala; Pandey, Gajendra; Giridhar, Sunetra; Lambert, David L. E-mail: pandey@iiap.res.in E-mail: dll@astro.as.utexas.edu

    2011-08-10

    We have conducted an LTE abundance analysis for SAO 40039, a warm post-AGB star whose spectrum is known to show surprisingly strong He I lines for its effective temperature and has been suspected of being H-deficient and He-rich. High-resolution optical spectra are analyzed using a family of model atmospheres with different He/H ratios. Atmospheric parameters are estimated from the ionization equilibrium set by neutral and singly ionized species of Fe and Mg, the excitation of Fe I and Fe II lines, and the wings of the Paschen lines. On the assumption that the He I lines are of photospheric and not chromospheric origin, a He/H ratio of approximately unity is found by imposing the condition that the adopted He/H ratio of the model atmosphere must equal the ratio derived from the observed He I triplet lines at 5876, 4471, and 4713 A, and singlet lines at 4922 and 5015 A. Using the model with the best-fitting atmospheric parameters for this He/H ratio, SAO 40039 is confirmed to exhibit mild dust-gas depletion, i.e., the star has an atmosphere deficient in elements of high condensation temperature. The star appears to be moderately metal-deficient with [Fe/H] = -0.4 dex. But the star's intrinsic metallicity as estimated from Na, S, and Zn, elements of a low condensation temperature, is [Fe/H]{sub o} {approx_equal} -0.2 ([Fe/H]{sub o} refers to the star's intrinsic metallicity). The star is enriched in N and perhaps O as well, changes reflecting the star's AGB past and the event that led to He enrichment.

  2. Mineralization of bone-related SaOS-2 cells under physiological hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Tolba, Emad; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Wang, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a physiological energy-rich polymer with multiple phosphoric anhydride bonds. In cells such as bone-forming osteoblasts, glycolysis is the main pathway generating metabolic energy in the form of ATP. In the present study, we show that, under hypoxic culture conditions, the growth/viability of osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells is not impaired. The addition of polyP to those cells, administered as amorphous calcium polyP nanoparticles (aCa-polyP-NP; approximate size 100 nm), significantly increased the proliferation of the cells. In the presence of polyP, the cells produce significant levels of lactate, the end product of anaerobic glycolysis. Under those conditions, an eight-fold increase in the steady-state level of the membrane-associated carbonic anhydrase IX is found, as well as a six-fold induction of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Consequently, biomineral formation onto the SaOS-2 cells decreases under low oxygen tension. If the polyP nanoparticles are added to the cells, the degree of mineralization is enhanced. These changes had been measured also in human mesenchymal stem cells. The assumption that the bicarbonate, generated by the carbonic anhydrase in the presence of polyP under low oxygen, is deposited as a constituent of the bioseeds formed during initial hydroxyapatite formation is corroborated by the identification of carbon besides of calcium, oxygen and phosphorus in the initial biomineral deposit onto the cells using the sensitive technology of high-resolution energy dispersive spectrometry mapping. Based on these data, we conclude that polyP is required for the supply of metabolic energy during bone mineral formation under physiological, hypoxic conditions, acting as a 'metabolic fuel' for the cells to grow. PMID:26453899

  3. Influence of Topographic and Hydrographic Factors on the Spatial Distribution of Leptospirosis Disease in São Paulo County, Brazil: An Approach Using Geospatial Techniques and GIS Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, M. C.; Ferreira, M. F. M.

    2016-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by Leptospira genus bacteria. Rodents, especially Rattus norvegicus, are the most frequent hosts of this microorganism in the cities. The human transmission occurs by contact with urine, blood or tissues of the rodent and contacting water or mud contaminated by rodent urine. Spatial patterns of concentration of leptospirosis are related to the multiple environmental and socioeconomic factors, like housing near flooding areas, domestic garbage disposal sites and high-density of peoples living in slums located near river channels. We used geospatial techniques and geographical information system (GIS) to analysing spatial relationship between the distribution of leptospirosis cases and distance from rivers, river density in the census sector and terrain slope factors, in Sao Paulo County, Brazil. To test this methodology we used a sample of 183 geocoded leptospirosis cases confirmed in 2007, ASTER GDEM2 data, hydrography and census sectors shapefiles. Our results showed that GIS and geospatial analysis techniques improved the mapping of the disease and permitted identify the spatial pattern of association between location of cases and spatial distribution of the environmental variables analyzed. This study showed also that leptospirosis cases might be more related to the census sectors located on higher river density areas and households situated at shorter distances from rivers. In the other hand, it was not possible to assert that slope terrain contributes significantly to the location of leptospirosis cases.

  4. [Health education in Brazil: from Paulo Freire to today].

    PubMed

    Masselli, Maria Cecilia; Vieira, Carla Maria; Oliveira, Nayara L S; Smeke, Elizabeth L M

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the experience of Brazil in the area of health education integrated in popular education movements. More specifically, the paper discusses the link between health education and popular education, focusing in particular on the work of Paulo Freire. Anti-slavery movements, protest movements against social inequalities and the reconstruction of democracy after the end of the military dictatorship (1965-1984) provided fertile ground for a dynamic process of change--a process illustrated by the creation of the Unified Health System. These developments occurred in a context of social change and unrest. Since then, other actors and other forms of action have emerged, though creativity and popular empowerment remain central to the process of change. However, in popular education, nothing is set in stone and new issues have emerged, as Paulo Freire had predicted. The point is to recognize that popular education applied to health, or rather integrating health, is constantly changing and developing. PMID:24313076

  5. Sharp bounds on the radius of relativistic charged spheres: Guilfoyle's stars saturate the Buchdahl-Andréasson bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemos, José P. S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.

    2015-07-01

    Buchdahl, by imposing a few reasonable physical assumptions on matter, i.e., its density is a nonincreasing function of the radius and the fluid is a perfect fluid, and on the configuration, such as the exterior is the Schwarzschild solution, found that the radius r0 to mass m ratio of a star would obey the bound {{r}0}/m≥slant 9/4, the Buchdahl bound. He also noted that the bound was saturated by the Schwarzschild interior solution, i.e., the solution with {{ρ }m}(r)=constant, where {{ρ }m}(r) is the energy density of the matter at r, when the central central pressure blows to infinity. Generalizations of this bound in various forms have been studied. An important generalization was given by Andréasson, by including electrically charged matter and imposing a different set of conditions, namely, p+2{{p}T}≤slant {{ρ }m}, where p is the radial pressure and pT the tangential pressure. His bound is sharp and given by {{r}0}/m≥slant 9/{{(1+\\sqrt{1+3 {{q}2}/r02})}2}, the Buchdahl-Andréasson bound, with q being the total electric charge of the star. For q = 0 one recovers the Buchdahl bound. However, following Andréasson's proof, the configuration that saturates the Buchdahl bound is an uncharged shell, rather than the Schwarzschild interior solution. By extension, the configurations that saturate the electrically charged Buchdahl-Andréasson bound are charged shells. One could expect then, in turn, that there should exist an electrically charged equivalent to the interior Schwarzschild limit. We find here that this equivalent is provided by the equation {{ρ }m}(r)+{{Q}2}(r)/(8π {{r}4})=constant, where Q(r) is the electric charge at r. This equation was put forward by Cooperstock and de la Cruz, and Florides, and realized in Guilfoyle's stars. When the central pressure goes to infinity, Guilfoyle's stars are configurations that also saturate the Buchdahl-Andréasson bound. A proof in Buchdahl's manner, such that these configurations are the limiting

  6. Carbonate shoreline sedimentation in San Andres Formation, Lincoln County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.W.; Pierce, R.W.

    1986-03-01

    The Permian San Andres Formation of late Leonardian-early Guadalupian age is a significant hydrocarbon producer and crops out over a large area in south-central New Mexico. However, since its definition in 1909, the age and depositional environment of this unit have been questioned. In 1971 in Pecos County, Vincent Kelly divided the unit into three members: Rio Bonito, Bonney Canyon, and Fourmile Draw. The lowest member, although named for the Rio Bonito, has a type section designated at Sunset along U.S. Highway 70/380. Two miles east of Sunset, near Riverside, on the Rio Bonito, the Rio Bonito Member is exposed in a long series of roadcuts. Petrographic investigation of these rocks reveals an alternating sequence of high to low-energy intertidal to subtidal facies marked by oolitic and fossiliferous dolocalcarenite interbedded with dolomitic mudstone. The unit has been recrystallized and stylolites are abundant, as is dolomite and nodular mosaic anhydrite. These alternating units contain a faunal assemblage that is marked by red algae, foraminifera, bryozoa, crinoids, pelecypods, brachiopods, and cephalopods. Burrow fillings and fecal pellets are also abundant. The authors suggest that these units mark an extensive carbonate flat containing shoals and lagoons with open-marine and intertidal channels.

  7. Properties of diphenolase from Vanilla planifolia (Andr.) shoot primordia cultured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Debowska, R; Podstolski, A

    2001-07-01

    Properties of diphenolase (PPO, EC1.10.3.1) from vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andr.) shoot primordia culture were investigated. Two pH optima of the enzyme extraction at pH 6 and 8 were found. Nevertheless, the enzymes shared the same optimum pH of activity-between pH 3 and 4. Sodium dodecyl sulfate slightly improved diphenolase extraction but caused a 3-fold increase in its specific activity. The extracts of pH 6 and 8.0 revealed three isozyme bands after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-two of them were similar in both extracts and two distinct. The enzyme showed high thermal stability-no loss was observed after 120 min at 50 degrees C. Diethyldithiocarbamic acid, ethylenediaminetetracetic acid disodium salt, ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether) N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid, L-ascorbic acid, dithiothreitol, glutathione (reduced), and beta-mercaptoethanol were found to be potent inhibitors of the diphenolase studied. The enzyme showed also monophenolase activity. Km and Vmax were calculated with monophenols [p-coumaric acid, 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid] and with diphenols (caffeic acid, hydrocaffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, 4-methylcatechol, protocatechuic aldehyde and acid, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine). The highest Vmax was found with 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol and the greatest affinity to protocatechuic acid, respectively-the most abundant monophenol and one of the least abundant o-diphenols in the studied Vanilla tissue. PMID:11453787

  8. A homosexual militant at the beginning of the century: Marc André Raffalovich.

    PubMed

    Cardon, P

    1993-01-01

    This work is based on my thesis from Aix en Provence on French Civilisation and Letters (1984). The head of the examinations was the writer Raymond Jean. My idea is to show how the decadent writer and poet Marc André Raffalovich fought against the personalities in science concerning homosexuality with a new point of view and with great difficulty, shedding new light on this subject in a review from 1886 to 1914 under the direction of Dr. Alexandre Lacassagne Les Archives d'Anthropologie Criminelle de Médecine Légale et de Psychologie Normale et Pathologique published in 1886, edited by the director A. Lacassagne, professor and chairman of legal medicine, Lyon, and author of the article "Pederastie," Dictionnaire Encyclopedique des Sciences Medicales, volume XXII published in 1886. In 1893, he wrote an introduction for l'Inversion Sexuelle of Dr. Julien Chevalier (Paris: Masson-Lyon Storck). This monthly review "d'au moins 80 pages" was called L'Ecole Lyonnaise, and so to say, l'Ecole Francaise d'Anthropologie Criminelle, which defends against l'Ecole Italienne of Lombroso, the culturalist theory of the birth of the criminal; according to this école du milieu social: "La Société a les criminels qu'elle merite" (The society has criminals it deserves). After the first world war, it was to be overridden by the Marxist analysis. PMID:8301079

  9. André Green on the Theory and Treatment of "Non-Neurotic" Patients.

    PubMed

    Reed, Gail S

    2015-10-01

    A pivotal turning point in contemporary psychoanalytic practice and conceptualization was the presentation by André Green at the 1975 meeting of the International Psychoanalytical Association. In his presentation Green opened new ways of thinking about non-neurotic patients based on a theory of psychosis that accounts for confusion of subject and object and a mode of symbolization derived from a dual organization of patient and analyst. Green proposed that analysts lend themselves to the fusional needs of their patients while the focus is on the force of the negative-destructive mental states where connection is superseded by disconnections that in turn lead to disorganization resulting in blank depression and negative hallucination. Green finds precedent for this viewpoint in his reading of Winnciott's work on transitional space as a developmental movement toward separation. Central to clinical work with non-neurotic patients is the analyst's use of their countertransference as a form of binding the inchoate into form built on interpreting in the transference as opposed to interpreting of the transference while titrating the degree of silence so as not to fuel the terror of too much absence. PMID:26485485

  10. Adenosine Triphosphate stimulates differentiation and mineralization in human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Cutarelli, Alessandro; Marini, Mario; Tancredi, Virginia; D'Arcangelo, Giovanna; Murdocca, Michela; Frank, Claudio; Tarantino, Umberto

    2016-05-01

    In the last years adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and subsequent purinergic system activation through P2 receptors were investigated highlighting their pivotal role in bone tissue biology. In osteoblasts ATP can regulate several activities like cell proliferation, cell death, cell differentiation and matrix mineralization. Since controversial results exist, in this study we analyzed the ATP effects on differentiation and mineralization in human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells. We showed for the first time the altered functional activity of ATP receptors. Despite that, we found that ATP can reduce cell proliferation and stimulate osteogenic differentiation mainly in the early stages of in vitro maturation as evidenced by the enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Osteocalcin (OC) genes and by the increased ALP activity. Moreover, we found that ATP can affect mineralization in a biphasic manner, at low concentrations ATP always increases mineral deposition while at high concentrations it always reduces mineral deposition. In conclusion, we show the osteogenic effect of ATP on both early and late stage activities like differentiation and mineralization, for the first time in human osteoblastic cells. PMID:27189526

  11. Imaging polarimetry of distant comets at the 6-m BTA telescope of the SAO RAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Oleksandra; Afanasiev, Viktor; Rosenbush, Vera; Kiselev, Nikolai

    2016-07-01

    Results of the recent polarimetric observations of distant comets C/2013 V4 (Catalina), C/2014 A4 (SONEAR), C/2010 S1 (LINEAR), C/2010 R1 (LINEAR), and 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 are presented together with analysis of their photometry and spectroscopy. Observations were carried out at the 6-m telescope BTA of the SAO RAS with the multi-mode focal reducer SCORPIO-2 from 2011 to 2015. Comets were observed in the range of heliocentric distances from 4.2 to 7.0 AU and phase angles from 4.9 to 9.4 degrees. The maps of intensity and linear polarization over the coma are derived. The comets observed show a considerable activity at heliocentric distances far exceeding a zone of water sublimation. Molecular emissions were only detected in the spectra of comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. The linear polarization of distant comets with a high level of activity is the first ever measured at the heliocentric distances larger than 5 AU. The degree of linear polarization (from -2 to -3.7%) for these comets is significantly higher (in absolute value) than the typical value of the whole coma polarization (about -1.5 %) at the minimum of negative polarization branch for close to the Sun comets.

  12. Microfacies analysis of the Leonardian-Guadalupian lower member of the San Andres Formation in the southern Sacremento Mountains, Otero County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Whitman, C.; Clemons, R.E. )

    1992-04-01

    The Rio Bonito Member of the San Andres Formation records a transgression of the northwestern shelf during the late Leonardian. Late Leonardian to Guadalupian marine carbonates exposed in the Sacramento Mountains relate a marked change from equatorial tidal flat rocks of the middle Leonardian Yeso Formation. These rocks were deposited during a worldwide sea level lowstand. The Yeso-San Andres contact, previously thought to be a gradational boundary, is here interpreted as a flooding surface resulting from the eustatic sea level rise after the lowstand. Inundation of the northwestern shelf led to deposition of the thick Andres Formation marine limestone sequence within a shallow-lagoon or shelf setting. Depositional environments are predominantly subtidal and intertidal. Microfacies include packstones of comminuted bioclasts of normal saline affinities redistributed by light currents. These shoal upward at times to Dasycladacean algal grainstones interpreted as tidal bars prograding across the lagoon or shelf. More restricted wackestones and laminated mudstones occur at the base of the section and indicate a transition from tidal flat to submerged shelf. Aggradation of sediment into the intertidal zone may have occurred cyclically during San Andres deposition. One such cycle is present over the interval exposed in the Sacramento Mountains. Intertidal rocks resemble tidal flat deposits of dolostone, carbonate mudstones, and a thin tongue of quartzarenite interpeted to be Glorieta Sandstone. These rocks were previously attributed to interginguing of the Yeso with the San Andres.

  13. Effect of bioglass on growth and biomineralization of SaOS-2 cells in hydrogel after 3D cell bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Tolba, Emad; Schröder, Heinz C; Neufurth, Meik; Feng, Qingling; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of bioglass (bioactive glass) on growth and mineralization of bone-related SaOS-2 cells, encapsulated into a printable and biodegradable alginate/gelatine hydrogel. The hydrogel was supplemented either with polyphosphate (polyP), administered as polyP • Ca2+-complex, or silica, or as biosilica that had been enzymatically prepared from ortho-silicate by silicatein. These hydrogels, together with SaOS-2 cells, were bioprinted to computer-designed scaffolds. The results revealed that bioglass (nano)particles, with a size of 55 nm and a molar ratio of SiO2 : CaO : P2O5 of 55 : 40 : 5, did not affect the growth of the encapsulated cells. If silica, biosilica, or polyP • Ca2+-complex is co-added to the cell-containing alginate/gelatin hydrogel the growth behavior of the cells is not changed. Addition of 5 mg/ml of bioglass particles to this hydrogel significantly enhanced the potency of the entrapped SaOS-2 cells to mineralize. If compared with the extent of the cells to form mineral deposits in the absence of bioglass, the cells exposed to bioglass together with 100 µmoles/L polyP • Ca2+-complex increased their mineralization activity from 2.1- to 3.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L silica from 1.8- to 2.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L biosilica from 2.7- to 4.8-fold or with the two components together (100 µmoles/L polyP • Ca2+-complex and 50 µmoles/L biosilica) from 4.1- to 6.8-fold. Element analysis by EDX spectrometry of the mineral nodules formed by SaOS-2 revealed an accumulation of O, P, Ca and C, indicating that the mineral deposits contain, besides Ca-phosphate also Ca-carbonate. The results show that bioglass added to alginate/gelatin hydrogel increases the proliferation and mineralization of bioprinted SaOS-2 cells. We conclude that the development of cell-containing scaffolds consisting of a bioprintable, solid and cell-compatible inner matrix surrounded by a printable hard and flexible outer matrix containing bioglass, provide

  14. Effect of Bioglass on Growth and Biomineralization of SaOS-2 Cells in Hydrogel after 3D Cell Bioprinting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohong; Tolba, Emad; Schröder, Heinz C.; Neufurth, Meik; Feng, Qingling; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Müller, Werner E. G.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of bioglass (bioactive glass) on growth and mineralization of bone-related SaOS-2 cells, encapsulated into a printable and biodegradable alginate/gelatine hydrogel. The hydrogel was supplemented either with polyphosphate (polyP), administered as polyP•Ca2+-complex, or silica, or as biosilica that had been enzymatically prepared from ortho-silicate by silicatein. These hydrogels, together with SaOS-2 cells, were bioprinted to computer-designed scaffolds. The results revealed that bioglass (nano)particles, with a size of 55 nm and a molar ratio of SiO2∶CaO∶P2O5 of 55∶40∶5, did not affect the growth of the encapsulated cells. If silica, biosilica, or polyP•Ca2+-complex is co-added to the cell-containing alginate/gelatin hydrogel the growth behavior of the cells is not changed. Addition of 5 mg/ml of bioglass particles to this hydrogel significantly enhanced the potency of the entrapped SaOS-2 cells to mineralize. If compared with the extent of the cells to form mineral deposits in the absence of bioglass, the cells exposed to bioglass together with 100 µmoles/L polyP•Ca2+-complex increased their mineralization activity from 2.1- to 3.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L silica from 1.8- to 2.9-fold, or with 50 µmoles/L biosilica from 2.7- to 4.8-fold or with the two components together (100 µmoles/L polyP•Ca2+-complex and 50 µmoles/L biosilica) from 4.1- to 6.8-fold. Element analysis by EDX spectrometry of the mineral nodules formed by SaOS-2 revealed an accumulation of O, P, Ca and C, indicating that the mineral deposits contain, besides Ca-phosphate also Ca-carbonate. The results show that bioglass added to alginate/gelatin hydrogel increases the proliferation and mineralization of bioprinted SaOS-2 cells. We conclude that the development of cell-containing scaffolds consisting of a bioprintable, solid and cell-compatible inner matrix surrounded by a printable hard and flexible outer matrix containing bioglass, provide a

  15. Genesis and emplacement of oil in the San Andres Formation, Northern Shelf of the Midland Basin, Texas. Report of Investigations No. 116

    SciTech Connect

    Ramondetta, P.J.

    1982-01-01

    San Andres oil constitutes more than 80 percent of the total production from the Northern Shelf of the Midland Basin, Texas. The San Andres and Clear Fork carbonate rocks of the Northern Shelf contain sufficient amounts of lipid-rich organic material to rank them as potential petroleum source beds. Organic maturation of these rocks as revealed from vitrinite reflectance and kerogen color, however, is not sufficient to have initiated categenesis. Therefore, oil within Northern Shelf reservoirs was derived mostly from other sources. San Andres oils have a common source, as evidenced by their remarkably uniform composition, which is revealed in liquid and gas chromatography. Wolfcampian basinal clastics and dark argillaceous limestones of the northern Midland Basin are the most likely source rocks for this oil. Vertical expulsion of basinal oil through fractures into overlying shelf and shelf-margin carbonates has occurred along the Lower Permian Abo Reef trend. The trapping mechanism in the Northern Shelf is a combination of structural and facies control. Good reservoir conditions exist in San Andres strata that are draped and subsequently fractured over the subjacent shelf-margin buttress. Late Cretaceous uplift in New Mexico exposed Permian strata, iniating a west-to-east flow of relatively fresh ground water. Passage of this meteoric water through San Andres and Clear Fork reservoirs caused downdip degradation and flushing of the oil. As a result of this ground-water movement, oil/water contacts tilt downdip 0.3/sup 0/ to 0.5/sup 0/, and oil production is slightly offset downdip from local structural highs. The San Andres and Clear Fork oil was degraded by anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria, which resulted in an enrichment of sulfur and light aromatics and a slight depletion of saturated hydrocarbons. This biodegradation progressively increases updip, as evidenced by higher sulfur contents and lower API gravity. 28 figures, 7 tables.

  16. Ambient Dose Equivalent in S. Paulo and Bauru cities

    SciTech Connect

    Umisedo, Nancy K.; Okuno, Emico; Cancio, Francisco S.; Aldred, Martha A.; Yoshimura, Elisabeth M.

    2008-08-07

    The Laboratory of Dosimetry (Institute of Physics, University of S. Paulo) performs since 1981 the external individual monitoring of workers exposed to X and gamma rays based on thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). Personal dose equivalent refers only to the exposure of workers due to the working activities, and the dose due to background radiation, also measured with TLD, must be subtracted to evaluate it. A compilation of ambient dose equivalent was done to evaluate the dose due to the background radiation in the work places, and also to contribute to the knowledge of the level of indoor radiation to which the public is exposed.

  17. Ambient Dose Equivalent in S. Paulo and Bauru cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umisedo, Nancy K.; Okuno, Emico; Cancio, Francisco S.; Aldred, Martha A.; Yoshimura, Elisabeth M.

    2008-08-01

    The Laboratory of Dosimetry (Institute of Physics, University of S. Paulo) performs since 1981 the external individual monitoring of workers exposed to X and gamma rays based on thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). Personal dose equivalent refers only to the exposure of workers due to the working activities, and the dose due to background radiation, also measured with TLD, must be subtracted to evaluate it. A compilation of ambient dose equivalent was done to evaluate the dose due to the background radiation in the work places, and also to contribute to the knowledge of the level of indoor radiation to which the public is exposed.

  18. Evolution models from the AGB to the PNe and the rapid evolution of SAO 244567

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawlor, Timothy M.; Sebzda, Steven; Peterson, Zach

    2015-08-01

    We present evolution calculations from the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) to the Planetary Nebula (PNe) phase for models of mass 1 M⊙ over a range of metallicities from primordial, Z = 10-14, through near solar, Z = 0.02. Using our grid of models, we determine a central star mass dependence on initial metallicity. We also present a range of low masses for our low to very low metal models. The understanding of these objects is an important part of galactic evolution and the evolution of the composition of the universe over a broad range of red shits. For our low Z models, we find key differences in how they cross the HR diagram to the PNe phase, compared with models with higher initial Z. Some of our models experience the so called AGB Final Thermal Pulse (AFTP), which is a helium pulse that occurs while leaving the AGB and causes a rapid looping evolution while evolving between the AGB and PN phase. We use these models to make comparisons to the central star of the Stingray Nebula, SAO 244567. This object has been observed to be rapidly evolving (heating) over more than the last 50 years and is the central star of the youngest known planetary nebula. These two characteristics are similar to what is expected for AFTP models. It is a short lived phase that is related to, but different than, very late thermal pulse objects such as Sakurai’s Object, FG Sge, and V605 Aql. These objects experienced a similar thermal pulse, but later on the white dwarf cooling track.

  19. DIVERSE AND ATYPICAL GENOTYPES IDENTIFIED IN TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM DOGS IN SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dogs are considered a potential risk for transmission of Toxoplasma gondii to humans because they can mechanically transmit oocysts to people. The prevalence of T. gondii in 118 unwanted dogs from the São Paulo city, São Paulo state, Brazil, was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by th...

  20. Home Runs and Humbugs: Comment on Bond and DePaulo (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, C. F. Bond Jr. and B. M. DePaulo provided a meta-analysis of means and concluded that average lie detection accuracy was significantly greater than chance for most people. Now, they have presented an analysis of standard deviations (C. F. Bond Jr. & B. M. DePaulo, 2008), claiming that there are no reliable individual differences in lie…

  1. An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Weinbrandt, R.; Trentham, R.C.; Robertson, W.

    1998-05-28

    The goals of work done this quarter were (1) to analyze the preliminary seismic inversion model for the Grayburg A, B, and C sequences and the upper San Andres formation; (2) modify the inversion model to improve its accuracy and to include the deeper Holt Formation; and (3) test various rock property quantities against the improved model and other seismic attributes using refined analysis boundaries. A satisfactory inversion model and porosity analysis remains to be accomplished, but much has been learned about the modeling and analysis processes. Qualitative comparison of sonic logs with the inversion model traces in profile view shows great similarity and success is being made toward good quantitative results.

  2. An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. Quarterly report, third quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The goals of work done this quarter were to (1) refine the maps of seismic-derived porosity for the upper Grayburg for reapplication to the production model, (2) determine rock fabric and porosity patterns for the lower Grayburg and the upper San Andres, (3) relate any seismic-derived porosity characteristics, particularly seismic waveform attributes, to the historical production of oil allocated to lower Grayburg and San Andres zones, and (4) to test other geologic attributes for possible inter-relationships. Progress on these goals is described. Additional studies were carried out in the following: Upper Grayburg porosity mapping, pipeline fracturing, reservoir simulation, reservoir engineering, and water quality for injection.

  3. Numerical Methods in Atmospheric and Oceanic Modelling: The Andre J. Robert Memorial Volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosmond, Tom

    Most people, even including some in the scientific community, do not realize how much the weather forecasts they use to guide the activities of their daily lives depend on very complex mathematics and numerical methods that are the basis of modern numerical weather prediction (NWP). André Robert (1929-1993), to whom Numerical Methods in Atmospheric and Oceanic Modelling is dedicated, had a career that contributed greatly to the growth of NWP and the role that the atmospheric computer models of NWP play in our society. There are probably no NWP models running anywhere in the world today that do not use numerical methods introduced by Robert, and those of us who work with and use these models everyday are indebted to him.The first two chapters of the volume are chronicles of Robert's life and career. The first is a 1987 interview by Harold Ritchie, one of Robert's many proteges and colleagues at the Canadian Atmospheric Environment Service. The interview traces Robert's life from his birth in New York to French Canadian parents, to his emigration to Quebec at an early age, his education and early employment, and his rise in stature as one of the preeminent research meteorologists of our time. An amusing anecdote he relates is his impression of weather forecasts while he was considering his first job as a meteorologist in the early 1950s. A newspaper of the time placed the weather forecast and daily horoscope side by side, and Robert regarded each to have a similar scientific basis. Thankfully he soon realized there was a difference between the two, and his subsequent career certainly confirmed the distinction.

  4. Seismic estimation of porosity in the Permian San Andres carbonate reservoir, Welch Field, Dawson, County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, G.P.; Hinterlong, G.D. )

    1996-01-01

    OXY and the DOE Are partners in a advanced technology demonstration project at OXY's West Welch Unit. Production is from a low permeability San Andres reservoir of Permian age similar to many shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin. The project involves the construction of a detailed geological model for numerical simulation to design and then conduct a CO[sub 2] flood of the reservoir. Depositional textures of the reservoir rock are highly variable from diagenesis, mostly anhydritic cementing, creating a highly complex pore system. Identification of the interwell reservoir continuity and flow units present the greatest challenge to the reservoir description. A 1993 vintage 3-D seismic survey with a bin spacing of 110[prime] by 165[prime] has been used to assist with the interwell reservoir description. The structure definition at the top and base of the reservoir have been accurately mapped with respect to the well data. Core and well log measurements of porosity, permeability and water saturation were computed and summed across the seismic reservoir interval. Measurements of amplitude, frequency and phase within the 3-D volume were summed across the reservoir interval. All seismic attributes were sampled to the wells and compared through scatterplots to the well log and core measurements. Excellent correlation between three seismic attributes and porosity has been documented. A deterministic method has been used to estimate porosity values at each seismic bin location. The method uses the seismic measurements to shape the geology between the wells while maintaining agreement with the well data at the well locations.

  5. Seismic estimation of porosity in the Permian San Andres carbonate reservoir, Welch Field, Dawson, County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, G.P.; Hinterlong, G.D.

    1996-12-31

    OXY and the DOE Are partners in a advanced technology demonstration project at OXY`s West Welch Unit. Production is from a low permeability San Andres reservoir of Permian age similar to many shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin. The project involves the construction of a detailed geological model for numerical simulation to design and then conduct a CO{sub 2} flood of the reservoir. Depositional textures of the reservoir rock are highly variable from diagenesis, mostly anhydritic cementing, creating a highly complex pore system. Identification of the interwell reservoir continuity and flow units present the greatest challenge to the reservoir description. A 1993 vintage 3-D seismic survey with a bin spacing of 110{prime} by 165{prime} has been used to assist with the interwell reservoir description. The structure definition at the top and base of the reservoir have been accurately mapped with respect to the well data. Core and well log measurements of porosity, permeability and water saturation were computed and summed across the seismic reservoir interval. Measurements of amplitude, frequency and phase within the 3-D volume were summed across the reservoir interval. All seismic attributes were sampled to the wells and compared through scatterplots to the well log and core measurements. Excellent correlation between three seismic attributes and porosity has been documented. A deterministic method has been used to estimate porosity values at each seismic bin location. The method uses the seismic measurements to shape the geology between the wells while maintaining agreement with the well data at the well locations.

  6. Inhibition of autophagy and enhancement of endoplasmic reticulum stress increase sensitivity of osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells to cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guodong; Bi, Haiyong; Gao, Ji; Lu, Xing; Zheng, Yanping

    2016-07-01

    WIN55,212-2, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, can activate cannabinoid receptors, which has proven anti-tumour effects in several tumour types. Studies showed that WIN can inhibit tumour cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in diverse cancers. However, the role and mechanism of WIN in osteosarcoma are still unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of WIN55,212-2 on osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 in terms of cell viability and apoptosis. Meanwhile, we further explored the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in apoptosis induced by WIN55,212-2. Our results showed that the cell proliferation of Saos-2 was inhibited by WIN55,212-2 in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. WIN55,212-2-induced Saos-2 apoptosis through mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Meanwhile, WIN55,212-2 can induce endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in Saos-2 cells. Inhibition of autophagy and enhancement of endoplasmic reticulum stress increased apoptosis induced by WIN55,212-2 in Saos-2 cells. These findings indicated that WIN55,212-2 in combination with autophagic inhibitor or endoplasmic reticulum stress activator may shed new light on osteosarcoma treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27309350

  7. Binary star speckle measurements during 1992-1997 from the SAO 6-m and 1-m telescopes in Zelenchuk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balega, I. I.; Balega, Y. Y.; Maksimov, A. F.; Pluzhnik, E. A.; Shkhagosheva, Z. U.; Vasyuk, V. A.

    1999-12-01

    We present the results of speckle interferometric measurements of binary stars made with the television photon-counting camera at the 6-m Big Azimuthal Telescope (BTA) and 1-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) between August 1992 and May 1997. The data contain 89 observations of 62 star systems on the large telescope and 21 on the smaller one. For the 6-m aperture 18 systems remained unresolved. The measured angular separation ranged from 39 mas, two times above the BTA diffraction limit, to 1593 mas.

  8. Microfossil evidence for pre-Columbian maize dispersals in the neotropics from San Andrés, Tabasco, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Mary E. D.; Piperno, Dolores R.; Pope, Kevin O.; Jones, John G.

    2007-01-01

    The history of maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most debated topics in New World archaeology. Molecular and genetic studies indicate that maize domestication took place in tropical southwest Mexico. Although archaeological evidence for the evolution of maize from its wild ancestor teosinte has yet to be found in that poorly studied region, other research combining paleoecology and archaeology is documenting the nature and timing of maize domestication and dispersals. Here we report a phytolith analysis of sediments from San Andrés, Tabasco, that confirms the spread of maize cultivation to the tropical Mexican Gulf Coast >7,000 years ago (≈7,300 calendar years before present). We review the different methods used in sampling, identifying, and dating fossil maize remains and compare their strengths and weaknesses. Finally, we examine how San Andrés amplifies the present evidence for widespread maize dispersals into Central and South America. Multiple data sets from many sites indicate that maize was brought under cultivation and domesticated and had spread rapidly out of its domestication cradle in tropical southwest Mexico by the eighth millennium before the present. PMID:17426147

  9. Model for deposition of bedded halite in a shallow shelf setting, San Andres Formation, Palo Duro Basin, Texas panhandle

    SciTech Connect

    Hovorka, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    Existing depositional models for evaporites do not adequately describe facies relationships, halite fabrics, and trace element geochemistry of halite from the Permian San Andres Formation. Interbedding of anhydritic halite and mudstone with disrupted bedding records alternation between marine-dominated brine pool and subaerial environments. Chevron structures and hopper crystal cumulates in the halite indicate subaqueous deposition. Abundant anhydrite partings within halite, which thicken and become interbedded with marine shelf carbonates to the south, demonstrate the facies equivalence and physical connection of evaporite and marine environments. Maintenance of marine character in trace element profiles through halite sequences documents the episodic influx of marine water. Haloturbated structure in mudstone interbeds within the halite is produced by displacive growth of halite within mudstone and dissolution and collapse of this halite as ground-water chemistry fluctuates in response to conditions of alternating desiccation and wetting. Karst features cutting the halite also imply subaerial exposure. Mapping of the fine-scale sedimentary structures, geochemical signature, and insoluble component mineralogy of halite sequences indicates that the brine pool environment extended over areas in excess of 100 km/sup 2/. Sabkha, salina, playa, and deep water basin models of halite-precipitating environments do not satisfactorily describe the shallow marine shelf depositional environment of the San Andres halite.

  10. The rise and fall of psoroptic scabies in bighorn sheep in the San Andres Mountains, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Walter M; Weisenberger, Mara E

    2005-07-01

    Between 1978 and 1997, a combination of psoroptic scabies (Psoroptes spp.), mountain lion (Puma concolor) predation, and periodic drought reduced a population of native desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in the San Andres Mountains (SAM), New Mexico, from >200 individuals to a single ewe. In 1999, this ewe was captured, ensured to be Psoroptes-free, and released back into the SAM. Eleven radio-collared rams were translocated from the Red Rock Wildlife Area (RRWA) in New Mexico into the SAM range and monitored through 2002 to determine whether Psoroptes spp. mites were still in the environment. None of these sentinel rams acquired scabies during this period, and no additional native sheep were found to be present in the range. In 2002, 51 desert bighorn sheep were translocated into the SAM from the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge in Arizona (n = 20) and the RRWA in New Mexico (n = 31). Twenty-one bighorn sheep have died in the SAM since that time, but Psoroptes spp. mites have not been detected on any of these animals, nor have they been found on mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) sampled since 2000. We conclude that psoroptic scabies is no longer present in the San Andres bighorn sheep population and that psoroptic scabies poses a minimal to nonexistent threat to the persistence of this population at this time. PMID:16244062

  11. Depositional cyclicity and scaling petrophysical parameters for characterization of fluid flow in carbonate platform reservoirs: San Andres outcrop, Algerita escarpment, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, F.J.; Kerans, C.; Senger, R.K. )

    1992-04-01

    San Andres outcrops along the Algerita escarpment in the Guadalupe Mountains of New Mexico are composed of five sequences: a lower to middle San Andres sequence and four upper San Andres sequences. Within a sequence the predictable stacking patterns of cycles in different systems tracts, and of facies and rock-fabric successions within cycles, provide the necessary geologic framework for petrophysical quantification of geologic models. Rock fabric is a fundamental scale controlling the petrophysical properties of porosity, permeability, and capillarity. Four basic rock fabrics are present in the upper San Andres at Lawyer Canyon: dolograinstone, dolograin-dominated packstone, finely crystalline mud-dominated dolostone, and separate-vug dolograinstone. These four rock fabrics have unique average permeability values and porosity-permeability transforms. Permeability distribution was determined in the grainstone facies of cycle 1 at scales ranging from 1 in. to 100 ft. Variogram analysis of spatial permeability distribution indicates short-range correlation with a relatively high nugget, suggesting that permeability heterogeneity is largely random within a rock-fabric facies. A detailed cross section showing the nine cycles and the vertical and lateral distribution of rock fabrics within the cycles was converted to a permeability flow model using geometric mean permeabilities. The resulting rock-fabric flow model is suitable for input into reservoir simulators for performance prediction studies.

  12. Evaluation of a Voluntary Tutoring Program in Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics for First-Year Undergraduates at Universidad Andres Bello, Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiménez, Verónica A.; Acuña, Fabiola C.; Quiero, Felipe J.; López, Margarita; Zahn, Carmen I.

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the preliminary results of a tutoring program that provides personalized academic assistance to first-year undergraduates enrolled in introductory chemistry, physics and mathematics courses at Universidad Andres Bello (UNAB), in Concepción, Chile. Intervened courses have historically large enrolments, diverse student population…

  13. APPLICATION OF WATER-JET HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNOLOGY TO DRILL AND ACIDIZE HORIZONTAL DRAIN HOLES, TEDBIT (SAN ANDRES) FIELD, GAINES COUNTY, TEXAS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael W. Rose

    2005-09-22

    The San Andres Formation is one of the major hydrocarbon-producing units in the Permian Basin, with multiple reservoirs contained within the dolomitized subtidal portions of upward shoaling carbonate shelf cycles. The test well is located in Tedbit (San Andres) Field in northeastern Gaines County, Texas, in an area of scattered San Andres production associated with local structural highs. Selected on the basis of geological and historical data, the Oil and Gas Properties Wood No. 1 well is considered to be typical of a large number of San Andres stripper wells in the Permian Basin. Thus, successful completion of horizontal drain holes in this well would demonstrate a widely applicable enhanced recovery technology. Water-jet horizontal drilling is an emerging technology with the potential to provide significant economic benefits in marginal wells. Forecast benefits include lower recompletion costs and improved hydrocarbon recoveries. The technology utilizes water under high pressure, conveyed through small-diameter coiled tubing, to jet horizontal drain holes into producing formations. Testing of this technology was conducted with inconclusive results. Paraffin sludge and mechanical problems were encountered in the wellbore, initially preventing the water-jet tool from reaching the kick-off point. After correcting these problems and attempting to cut a casing window with the water-jet milling assembly, lateral jetting was attempted without success.

  14. Green tea polyphenols-induced apoptosis in human osteosarcoma SAOS-2 cells involves a caspase-dependent mechanism with downregulation of nuclear factor-{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Bin Hafeez, Bilal; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Wang, Naizhen; Gupta, Sanjay; Zhang Ailin; Haqqi, Tariq M. . E-mail: txh5@case.edu

    2006-10-01

    Development of chemotherapy resistance and evasion from apoptosis in osteosarcoma, a primary malignant bone tumor, is often correlated with constitutive nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) activation. Here, we investigated the ability of a polyphenolic fraction of green tea (GTP) that has been shown to have antitumor effects on various malignant cell lines to inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in human osteosarcoma SAOS-2 cells. Treatment of SAOS-2 cells with GTP (20-60 {mu}g/ml) resulted in reduced cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis, which correlated with decreased nuclear DNA binding of NF-{kappa}B/p65 and lowering of NF-{kappa}B/p65 and p50 levels in the cytoplasm and nucleus. GTP treatment of cells reduced I{kappa}B-{alpha} phosphorylation but had no effect on its protein expression. Furthermore, GTP treatment resulted in the inhibition of IKK-{alpha} and IKK-{beta}, the upstream kinases that phosphorylate I{kappa}B-{alpha}. The increase in apoptosis in SAOS-2 cells was accompanied with decrease in the protein expression of Bcl-2 and concomitant increase in the levels of Bax. GTP treatment of SAOS-2 cells also resulted in significant activation of caspases as was evident by increased levels of cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-8 in these cells. Treatment of SAOS-2 cells with a specific caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-CHO (Ac-DEVD-CHO) and general caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp (OMe)-fluoromethyl ketone (Z-VAD-FMK) rescued SAOS-2 cells from GTP-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that GTP is a candidate therapeutic for osteosarcoma that mediates its antiproliferative and apoptotic effects via activation of caspases and inhibition of NF-{kappa}B.

  15. New thelodont findings from the Lower Devonian Andrée Land Group, Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blom, H.; Žigaitė, Ž.

    2012-04-01

    During the last 50 years, ever since Ørvig (1957) described the first thelodont material from Sörkapp Land, have the amount of scales available from the Lower Devonian of Spitsbergen slowly increased to a body that clearly promotes an extended taxonomical and biostratigraphical revision. More recently, have thelodonts been described from a more stratigraphically controlled sequence of beds from the Red Bay Group (Blom and Goujet 2002). These Lochkovian (lowermost Devonian) taxa show a faunal differentiation which also allowed a detailed comparison between the Red Bay Group of Spitsbergen and sections of similar age from other parts of the Northern Hemisphere (Blom and Goujet 2002), supporting the suggested detailed biozonal subdivision of the Lochkovian deposits as presented by Talimaa (2000) based on distribution data from northern Eurasia. Although the stratigraphical framework of Spitsbergen is complicated, the Red Bay and Andrée Land groups have a well distributed fauna of thelodont scales that have been suggested to be the main reference of thelodont biozonation in the Pragian and Emsian (Talimaa 2000). We have examined a major part of thelodont collections comming from the region, including some newly collected samples. As a result, a biostratigraphic distribution of a number of well known thelodont taxa have been described from the Wood Bay and Grey Hoek formations in NW Spitsbergen. In addition, one new thelodont genus and two new species have been discovered. These data, together with known thelodont assemblages from the Canadian Arctic (Vieth 1980) and Severanya Zemlya (Karatajute-Talimaa 1978) allows us to speak about the usefulness of thelodonts in biostratigraphy and global correlation in the upper parts of the Lower Devonian. Blom, H. and Goujet, D. 2002. Thelodont scales from the Lower Devonian Red Bay Group, Spitsbergen. Palaeontology, 45(4): 795-820. Karatajūtė -Talimaa, V. N., 1978. Silurian and Devonian Thelodonts of the USSR and Spitsbergen

  16. SAO 244567 - A post-AGB star which has turned into a planetary nebula within the last 40 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, M.; Garcia-Lario, P.; Pottasch, S. R.; Manchado, A.; Clavel, J.; de Martino, D.; van de Steene, G. C. M.; Sahu, K. C.

    1993-01-01

    SAO 244567 (Hen 1357 = CPD -59 deg 6926 = IRAS 17119-5926) is an IRAS source with far infrared colors and flux distribution similar to those of planetary nebulae. The IUE ultraviolet spectra obtained in July 1988 and April 1992 show nebular emission lines, and also the changes in the spectra suggest the formation of the planetary nebula and the rapid evolution of the central star. The optical spectrum of this star obtained by Henize around 1950 shows only the H-alpha line in emission, while the most recent one, obtained in 1990 shows strong forbidden emission lines corresponding to a low excitation and young planetary nebula. The IUE ultraviolet spectra show evidence for the presence of stellar wind and mass loss. The stellar lines show P-Cygni type profiles and the terminal velocity of the stellar wind is about - 3000 km/s. The spectral type of the central star is O8 V. The presence of a detached cold dust shell (125 K), high galactic latitude and abundances suggest that SAO 244567 has recently evolved from a low or intermediate mass progenitor star which has ejected its outer envelope during the AGB stage of evolution and is rapidly evolving towards hotter spectral types.

  17. Cadmium exposure activates the ERK signaling pathway leading to altered osteoblast gene expression and apoptotic death in Saos-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Arbon, Kate S.; Christensen, Cody M.; Harvey, Wendy A.; Heggland, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports of cadmium in electronic waste and jewelry have increased public awareness regarding this toxic metal. Human exposure to cadmium is associated with the development of osteoporosis. We previously reported cadmium induces apoptosis in human tumor-derived Saos-2 osteoblasts. In this study, we examine the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and protein kinase C (PKC) pathways in cadmium-induced apoptosis and altered osteoblast gene expression. Saos-2 osteoblasts were cultured in the presence or absence of 10 μM CdCl2 for 2–72 hours. We detected significant ERK activation in response to CdCl2 and pretreatment with the ERK inhibitor PD98059 attenuated cadmium-induced apoptosis. However, PKCα activation was not observed after exposure to CdCl2 and pretreatment with the PKC inhibitor, Calphostin C, was unable to rescue cells from cadmium-induced apoptosis. Gene expression studies were conducted using qPCR. Cells exposed to CdCl2 exhibited a significant decrease in the bone-forming genes osteopontin (OPN) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA. In contrast, SOST, whose protein product inhibits bone formation, significantly increased in response to CdCl2. Pretreatment with PD98059 had a recovery effect on cadmium-induced changes in gene expression. This research demonstrates cadmium can directly inhibit osteoblasts via ERK signaling pathway and identifies SOST as a target for cadmium-induced osteotoxicity. PMID:22019892

  18. Rapid photometric and spectroscopic evolution of the young planetary nebula Hen 3-1357 and its central star SAO 244567

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipova, V. P.; Ikonnikova, N. P.; Kniazev, A. Yu.; Rajoelimanana, Andry

    2013-03-01

    We present the results of spectroscopic and photometric observations for the young compact planetary nebula Hen 3-1357 and its central star SAO 244567. High-resolution spectroscopy has allowed the expansion velocity of the nebula, V exp = 8.4 ± 1.5 km s-1, and the heliocentric velocity of the object, V r = +12.6 ± 1.7 km s-1, to be determined. The gas shell parameters ( N e , T e ), the extinction in the H β line, and the O, N, Ne, Ar, S, Cl, He, and C abundances have been determined from low-resolution spectra taken in 1992 and 2011. We have found significant changes in the relative intensities of forbidden lines in the spectrum of Hen 3-1357 within the last 20 years: the low-excitation [O I], [O II], and [N II] lines became stronger relative to H β by a factor of ˜2, while the [O III] lines weakened by a factor of ˜ 2, suggesting a decrease in the excitation class of the nebula. The V-band photometry performed under the ASAS-3 program revealed a decline in the yearly mean brightness of SAO 244 567 from 2001 to 2009 by 0_.^m 5 and rapid variability with an amplitude of a few tenths of a magnitude. Published observational data in a wide spectral range, from the near ultraviolet to the radio band, suggest an appreciable weakening of the flux from the star and the nebula.

  19. [The socialization of medicine in the era of São Paulo Governor Adhemar de Barros.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Fabio de Oliveira

    2014-11-01

    The article analyzes how the process of the professionalization of physicians in São Paulo related to healthcare policy under the administration of São Paulo governor Adhemar de Barros (1947-1951) during a period of broad change in the realm of health known by São Paulo physicians as the "socialization of medicine." Medical professionalism confronted certain ambivalences under this populist administration, including doctors' struggle to achieve pay equal to that of state public attorneys; the establishment of a state health department; and some contradictory ties between the area of health under Adhemar and the professional ideology and organization of medicine in São Paulo. The article undertakes a more in-depth analysis of the ideological manifestations of important leaders in the state's medical community. PMID:25388442

  20. [The socialization of medicine in the era of São Paulo Governor Adhemar de Barros].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Fabio de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    The article analyzes how the process of the professionalization of physicians in São Paulo related to healthcare policy under the administration of São Paulo governor Adhemar de Barros (1947-1951) during a period of broad change in the realm of health known by São Paulo physicians as the "socialization of medicine." Medical professionalism confronted certain ambivalences under this populist administration, including doctors' struggle to achieve pay equal to that of state public attorneys; the establishment of a state health department; and some contradictory ties between the area of health under Adhemar and the professional ideology and organization of medicine in São Paulo. The article undertakes a more in-depth analysis of the ideological manifestations of important leaders in the state's medical community. PMID:25606733

  1. How Two Sides of the Atlantic Contributed to Understanding of the Global Oceans: Charles Yentsch and Andre Morel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.

    2013-01-01

    In a few short days in September of this year, the ocean color/ocean optics community lost two of the founding members of its Hall of FameCharles Yentsch and Andre Morel. Yentsch passed away at the age of 85 on September 19, and Morel passed away on September 23 at the age of 79. It might sound clich to say that someone was instrumental to the advance of science in a particular field, but in the case of Yentsch and Morel and ocean color instrumentation, such an assessment would likely be accurate. Each mans career complimented that of the other Yentsch was one of the first to make measurements of the light field of the ocean from altitude and to advocate an instrument in space that could observe the spectrum of ocean radiance Morels theoretical underpinnings established a firm foundation for the measurements such an instrument could make, allowing their successful interpretation.

  2. PT -breaking threshold in spatially asymmetric Aubry-André and Harper models: Hidden symmetry and topological states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harter, Andrew K.; Lee, Tony E.; Joglekar, Yogesh N.

    2016-06-01

    Aubry-André-Harper lattice models, characterized by a reflection-asymmetric sinusoidally varying nearest-neighbor tunneling profile, are well known for their topological properties. We consider the fate of such models in the presence of balanced gain and loss potentials ±i γ located at reflection-symmetric sites. We predict that these models have a finite PT -breaking threshold only for specific locations of the gain-loss potential and uncover a hidden symmetry that is instrumental to the finite threshold strength. We also show that the topological edge states remain robust in the PT -symmetry-broken phase. Our predictions substantially broaden the possible experimental realizations of a PT -symmetric system.

  3. Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. in Brazil and the impact of the Sao Francisco River in the speciation of this sand fly vector.

    PubMed

    Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; Sonoda, Ivan V; Fonseca, Jose A; Melo, Marcia A; Balbino, Valdir Q; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    In our recently published article "Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. in Brazil and the impact of the Sao Francisco River in the speciation of this sand fly vector" by Iliano V. Coutinho-Abreu et al. a sentence located in paragraph 8 in the Discussion section had its meaning altered due to the improper insertion of three words. PMID:18834535

  4. Case studies on the geological application of LANDSAT imagery in Brazil. [Sao Domingos Range, Pocos de Caldas, and Araguaia and Tocantins Rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demendonca, F. (Principal Investigator); Correa, A. C.; Liu, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Sao Domingos Range, Pocos de Caldas, and Araguaia and Tocantins Rivers in Brazil were selected as test sites for LANDSAT imagery. The satellite images were analyzed using conventional photointerpretation techniques, and the results indicate the application of small scale image data in regional structural data analysis, geological mapping, and mineral exploration.

  5. The Arg-Gly-Asp-containing peptide, rhodostomin, inhibits in vitro cell adhesion to extracellular matrices and platelet aggregation caused by saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, H. S.; Yang, R. S.; Huang, T. F.

    1995-01-01

    Saos-2 cells, derived from a primary human osteosarcoma, caused dose-dependent platelet aggregation in heparinised human platelet-rich plasma. Saos-2 tumour cell-induced platelet aggregation (TCIPA) was completely inhibited by hirudin but unaffected by apyrase. The cell suspension shortened the plasma recalcification times of normal, factor VIII-deficient and factor IX-deficient human plasmas in a dose-dependent manner. However, the cell suspension did not affect the recalcification time of factor VII-deficient plasma. Moreover, a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against human tissue factor completely abolished TCIPA. Flow cytometric analysis using anti-integrin MAbs as the primary binding ligands demonstrated that the integrin receptors alpha v beta 3, alpha 5 beta 1 and alpha 6 beta 1 were present of Saos-2 cells, which might mediate tumour cell adhesion to extracellular matrix. Rhodostomin, an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing snake venom peptide which antagonises the binding of fibrinogen to platelet membrane glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, prevented Saos-2 TCIPA as well as tumour cell adhesion to vitronectin, fibronectin and collagen type I. Likewise, the synthetic peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS) showed a similar effect. On a molar basis, rhodostomin was about 18,000 and 1000 times, respectively, more potent than GRGDS in inhibiting TCIPA and tumour cell adhesion. PMID:7841039

  6. SaOS-2 cell response to macro-porous boron-incorporated TiO2 coating prepared by micro-arc oxidation on titanium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qianli; Elkhooly, Tarek A; Liu, Xujie; Zhang, Ranran; Yang, Xing; Shen, Zhijian; Feng, Qingling

    2016-10-01

    The aims of the present study were to develop boron-incorporated TiO2 coating (B-TiO2 coating) through micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and subsequently evaluate the effect of boron incorporation on the in vitro biological performance of the coatings. The physicochemical properties of B-TiO2 coating and its response to osteoblast like cells (SaOS-2) were investigated compared to the control group without boron (TiO2 coating). The morphological and X-ray diffraction results showed that both coatings exhibited similar surface topography and phase composition, respectively. However, the incorporation of B led to an enhancement in the surface hydrophilicity of B-TiO2 coating. The spreading of SaOS-2 cells on B-TiO2 coating was faster than that on TiO2 coating. The proliferation rate of SaOS-2 cells cultured on B-TiO2 decreased after 5days of culture compared to that on TiO2 coating. SaOS-2 cells cultured on B-TiO2 coating exhibited an enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, Collagen I synthesis and in vitro mineralization compared to those on TiO2 coating. The present findings suggest that B-TiO2 coating is a promising candidate surface for orthopedic implants. PMID:27287114

  7. Verification of LANDSAT imagery for morphametric and topological studies of drainage basins in a section of the western plateau of Sao Paulo State: Tiete-Aguapei watershed. M.S. Thesis; [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Camargo, J. C. G.

    1982-01-01

    The potential of using LANDSAT MSS imagery for morphometric and topological studies of drainage basins was verified. Using Tiete and Aguapei watershed (Western Plateau) as the test site because of its homogeneous landscape. Morphometric variables collected for ten drainage basins include: circularity index; river density; drainage density; topographic texture; areal and index length; basin parameter; and main river length 1st order and 2nd order channel length. The topographical variables determined were: order; magnitude; bifuraction ratio; weighted bifuraction ratio; number of segments; number of linking; trajectory length; and topological diameter. Data were collected on topographical maps at the scale of 1:250,000 and 1:59,000 and on LANDSAT imagery at the scale of 1:250,000. The results which were summarized on tables for further analysis, show that LANDSAT imagery can supply the lack of topographic charts for drainage studies.

  8. Antimalarial activity of extracts and alkaloids isolated from six plants used in traditional medicine in Mali and Sao Tome.

    PubMed

    Ancolio, C; Azas, N; Mahiou, V; Ollivier, E; Di Giorgio, C; Keita, A; Timon-David, P; Balansard, G

    2002-11-01

    Methanol and chloroform extracts were prepared from various parts of four plants collected in Mali: Guiera senegalensis (Gmel.) Combretaceae, Feretia apodanthera (Del.) Rubiaceae, Combretum micranthum (Don.) Combretaceae, Securidaca longepedunculata (Fres.) Polygalaceae and two plants -collected in Sao Tome: Pycnanthus angolensis (Welw.) Myristicaceae and Morinda citrifolia (Benth.) Rubiaceae were assessed for their in vitro antimalarial activity and their cytotoxic effects on human monocytes (THP1 cells) by flow cytometry. The methanol extract of leaves of Feretia apodanthera and the chloroform extract of roots of Guiera senegalensis exhibited a pronounced antimalarial activity. Two alkaloids isolated from the active extract of Guiera senegalensis, harman and tetrahydroharman, showed antimalarial activity (IC(50) lower than 4 microg/mL) and displayed low toxicity against THP1. Moreover, the decrease of THP1 cells in S phase of the cell cycle, after treatment with harman and tetrahydroharman, was probably due to an inhibition of total protein synthesis. PMID:12410545

  9. Dynamic study of the upper Sao Francisco River and the Tres Marias reservoir using MSS/LANDSAT images. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Sausen, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    The use of LANDSAT multispectral ban scanner imagery to verify the relationship between the behavior of the Tres Marias reservoir and the dynamics of the Sao Francisco River supply basin is described. The dispersion of suspended sediments and their concentration in the surface layers of the water are considered. A five year survey of the region during both dry and rainy seasons was performed. The drainage network was analyzed based on the patterns of dessication, water rises and soil use in the supply basin. Surface layers of the reservoir were tabulated as a function of the levels of gray in the imagery. In situ observations of water depth and reflectance were performed. Ground truth and LANDSAT data were correlated to determine the factors affecting the dynamics of the supply basin.

  10. A Comparison between Cytotoxicity Induced by Two Resin Based Sealers (2Seal and AH Plus) in Saos-2 and MG-63 Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Maryam; Zabihi, Ebrahim; Gharouee, Hamed

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the cytotoxicity induced by two resin-based sealers, 2Seal and AH Plus, in two osteoblast-like cell lines, MG-63 and Saos-2. Using sterile discs of both sealers in complete media, 24- and 72-h extracts were prepared. The extracts were exchanged with Saos-2 or MG-63 cell culture media at 75% confluence, and after 24 h incubation, cell viability tests were performed for each extract and cell line using MTT and trypan blue dye exclusion assays. Corresponding incubated media were used as negative control groups. For both extracts and sealers, cytotoxicity was observed in both cell lines. For Saos-2, there was no statistical difference in toxicity between the sealers for either extract (p > 0.05). For MG-63, the 2Seal 24-h extract and the AH Plus 72-h extract had greater cytotoxicity than the other extracts (p < 0.05(. Both AH Plus and 2Seal demonstrated significant cytotoxicity in these two cell lines. In contrast to 2Seal, the cytotoxicity of AH Plus in the MG-63 cell line increased with extraction time from 24 to 72 h. The AH Plus and 2Seal 24-h extracts showed different levels of cytotoxicity in the MG-63 cell line, while in the Saos-2 cell line there were no detectable differences. This may reflect higher sensitivity of the MG-63 cell line compared to Saos-2 toward cytotoxicity induced by these two sealers, or different kinetics of toxicant release from the sealers. PMID:24551778

  11. Validation of OMI total ozone retrievals from the SAO ozone profile algorithm and three operational algorithms with Brewer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, J.; Liu, X.; Kim, J. H.; Chance, K.; Haffner, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of total ozone computed from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) optimal estimation (OE) ozone profile algorithm (SOE) applied to the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is assessed through comparisons with ground-based Brewer spectrometer measurements from 2005 to 2008. We also compare the three OMI operational ozone products, derived from the NASA Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) algorithm, the KNMI (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute) differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) algorithm, and KNMI's Optimal Estimation (KOE) algorithm. The best agreement is observed between SAO and Brewer, with a mean difference of within 1% at most individual stations. The KNMI OE algorithm systematically overestimates Brewer total ozone by 2% at low and mid-latitudes and 5% at high latitudes while the TOMS and DOAS algorithms underestimate it by ~1.65% on average. Standard deviations of ~1.8% are calculated for both SOE and TOMS, but DOAS and KOE have higher values of 2.2% and 2.6%, respectively. The stability of the SOE algorithm is found to have insignificant dependence on viewing geometry, cloud parameters, or total ozone column. In comparison, the KOE-Brewer differences are significantly correlated with solar and viewing zenith angles and show significant deviations depending on cloud parameters and total ozone amount. The TOMS algorithm exhibits similar stability to SOE with respect to viewing geometry and total column ozone, but has stronger cloud parameter dependence. The dependence of DOAS on observational geometry and geophysical conditions is marginal compared to KOE, but is distinct compared to the SOE and TOMS algorithms. Comparisons of all four OMI products with Brewer show no apparent long-term drift, but seasonal features are evident, especially for KOE and TOMS. The substantial differences in the KOE vs. SOE algorithm performance cannot be sufficiently explained by the use of soft calibration (in SOE) and the use of

  12. Precipitation variability in São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufek, A. S.; Ambrizzi, T.

    2008-08-01

    The State of São Paulo is the richest in Brazil, responsible for over 30% of the Brazilian gross rate. It has a population of around 30 million and its economy is based on agriculture and industrial products. Any change in climate can have a profound influence on the socio-economics of the State. In order to determine changes in total and extreme rainfall over São Paulo State, climate change indices derived from daily precipitation data were calculated using specially designed software. Maps of trends for a subset of 59 rain gauge stations were analysed for the period 1950-1999 and also for a subset of this period, 1990-1999, representing more recent climate. A non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was applied to the time series. Maps of trends for six annual precipitation indices (annual total precipitation (PRCPTOT), very heavy precipitation days (R20 mm), events greater than the 95th percentile (R95p), maximum five days precipitation total (RX5day), the length of the largest wet spell (CWD) and the length of the largest dry spell (CDD)) were analysed for the entire period. These exhibited statistically significant trends associated with a wetter climate. A significant increase in PRCPTOT, associated with very heavy precipitation days, were observed at more than 45% of the rain gauge stations. The Mann-Kendall test identified that the positive trend in PRCPTOT is possibly related to the increase in the R95p and R20 mm indices. Therefore, the results suggest that there has been a change in precipitation intensity. In contrast, the indices for the more recent shorter time series are significantly different to the longer term indices. The results indicate that intense precipitation is becoming concentrated in a few days and spread over the period when the CDD and R20 mm indices show positive trends, while negative ones are seen in the RX5day index. The trends found could be related to many anthropogenic aspects such as biomass burning aerosols and land use.

  13. Geochemical and stable isotopic evolution of the Guarani Aquifer System in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sracek, Ondra; Hirata, Ricardo

    2002-09-01

    l'État de Sao Paulo (Brésil). L'évolution des concentrations des espèces dissoutes et la modélisation géochimique ont fait apparaître le rôle notable des échanges de cations et de la dissolution des carbonates de l'amont vers l'aval des nappes. La perte de calcium par échange de cation avec le sodium pilote la dissolution des carbonates et donne naissance à des eaux souterraines à faciès Na-HCO3. Le front d'échange de cation se déplace vers l'aval probablement plus lentement que la vitesse d'écoulement de l'eau souterraine et est actuellement situé à proximité des villes de Sertaozinho et de Aguas de Santa Barbara (respectivement puits PZ-34 et PZ-148), dans une zone captive proche de la surface, à 50-70 km de la zone de recharge. Une partie du sodium provient probablement du système aquifère du Guarani, associée aux chlorures et aux sulfates de la formation Piramboia sous-jacente, par diffusion liée à la dissolution d'évaporites comme la halite et le gypse. De fortes concentrations en fluorures (jusqu'à 13,3 mg/L) peuvent être expliquées par la dissolution d'un minéral fluoré également pilotée par l'échange de cations. Cependant, on ne sait pas bien si la dissolution intervient directement dans le système aquifère du Guarani ou dans la formation basaltique sus-jacente de Serra Geral. Les valeurs de δ2H et δ18O décroissent vers l'aval de la nappe. Les valeurs de δ13C du carbone minéral dissous sont enrichies vers l'aval, indiquant qu'il se produit une dissolution de calcite en système fermé. Les valeurs de δ13C du carbone minéral dissous dans les puits géothermaux profonds sont très élevées (supérieures à -6,0‰) et rendent probablement compte d'échanges isotopiques avec des carbonates possédant un δ13C d'environ -3,0‰. De prochaines études devront s'attacher à évaluer les flux verticaux et le potentiel de pénétration de contamination du système aquifère du Guarani. Resumen. El propósito de este

  14. Historical analysis (2000-2005) of the coastal water quality in San Andrés Island, SeaFlower Biosphere Reserve, Caribbean Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gavio, Brigitte; Palmer-Cantillo, Shelly; Mancera, J Ernesto

    2010-07-01

    To understand the coastal water quality of San Andrès Island, and provide tools for the management of its marine resources, we present the historical analysis of the island monitoring, which includes ammonia, nitrites, nitrate, phosphates, fecal and total coliforms. The anthropogenic pressure on the coastal system is heavy, with water nutrification, posing at risk seagrass and coral ecosystems. During dry season, biologically available nitrogen is 3-9 times higher than the maximum recommended for coral reefs, while during wet season values are 2-6.4 times the maximum. Biologically available phosphorous is also high, 1-8 times the maximum during dry season, 2-13 times during wet season. In some sites the concentration of pathogenic bacteria is above the limits set by law for primary and secondary contact. It is urgent to improve the management of sewage discharge, the main polluting source of San Andres coastal waters. PMID:20219216

  15. An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. Quarterly report, July--September, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, R.C.; Weinbrandt, R.; Robertson, W.

    1997-02-14

    During the third quarter, the Foster No. 11 was drilled to test the simulation and contact additional reserves in the San Andres and the Lower Grayburg. The well was located in the Southwest quarter of Section 36 to take advantage of the lack of producing wells in the West half of the Southwest quarter of the section. A full suite of logs: Compensated Neutron, Three Detector Density, Long Spacing Sonic, Dual Lateralog, Micro-CFL, Spectral Gamma Log and Mud Log were run. Additionally, a Repeat Formation Tester was employed in an effort to obtain reservoir pressure data. Eighteen tests were attempted, with six good tests, and two formation fluid samples recovered. The results indicate that the San Andres and the Lower Grayburg are in different pressure regimes, and the A1 Zone is depleted. Core was cut in the Lower Grayburg and San Andres to provide rock property information for these two intervals. Based on the log calculations and core recovery, the initial No. 11 Foster completion was attempted in the San Andres. The interval from 4,238 feet(-1,290) to 4,323 feet(-1375) was perforated and acidized. Rates of 3--4 BO and 6--8 BWPD were established. Because water zones were indicated both above and below the completed interval, the fracture completion had to be designed to minimize fracturing into these zones. A Mini Frac was attempted with 3,500 gallons cross-link gel and 6,000 pounds of 100 mesh sand followed by 2,000 gallons nitrified gel and 6,000 pounds of sand. At the end of the quarter, the well was on test.

  16. An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden fields, Ector County, Texas. Quarterly report, 1 July 1995--30 September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, J.J.; Trentham, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate a methodology for reservoir characterization of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs which is feasible for the independent operator. Furthermore, it will provide one of the first public demonstrations of the enhancement of reservoir characterization using high resolution three dimensional (3-D) seismic data. This particular project will evaluate the Grayburg and San Andres reservoirs in the Foster and South Cowden Fields of Ector County, Texas. The investigators will showcase a multi-disciplinary approach to waterflood design and implementation, along with the addition of reserves by selective infill drilling. This approach in reservoir development will be applicable to a wide range of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs throughout the United States. Technology transfer will take place through all phases of the project. Production problems associated with shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs are being evaluated by a technical team integrating subsurface geological data, engineering data and 3-D seismic data. The team is using a network of state-of-the-art industry standard software running on high performance computer workstations. Twenty-four Grayburg and seven San Andres thin sections have been evaluated from the J.E. Witcher Well No. 6. This evaluation has been valuable in formulating a depositional model and in definitively dividing the Grayburg and San Andres reservoirs into distinct layers or ``units``.

  17. Comparison of TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry and in situ sea level data at Sao Tome Island, Gulf of Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verstraete, Jean-Marc; Park, Young-Hyang

    1995-12-01

    In situ sea level data from a shallow pressure tide gauge (mean depth 3.21 m) at Sao Tome Island, Gulf of Guinea, and altimeter data from TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) were analyzed and compared. The Texas model, a T/P-derived tide model, is used for the tidal correction of altimeter data. Sea level anomaly time series from both data sets were low-pass filtered by using a Gaussian recurrent interpolation scheme, suppressing high-frequency fluctuations of periods much less than 2 months. According to the 1992-1993 Sao Tome tide gauge data, a clear seasonal signal was observed both in 1992 and in 1993, presenting two sea level maxima in February and October and two minima in June and December. These sea level variations are consistent with the known seasonal mean sea level cycle of the area, most of which can be explained by steric sea level changes due to the seasonal cycle of upper 500-m water column properties in the Gulf of Guinea. On the basis of the 60-day low-passed tide gauge time series, significant year to year variations were observed as well, with a 6.3-cm sea level difference in February (+8.1 cm in 1992 versus +1.8 cm in 1993) and a 4.4-cm difference in October (+4.6 cm in 1992 versus +9.0 cm in 1993). Minimum sea levels, occurring just prior to the upwelling season (July-August), were almost the same for both years (-9 to -10 cm) but lasted much longer in 1992 (2 months) than in 1993 (2 weeks). During the 15-month period of concomitant observations, from October 1992 to December 1993, these seasonal and year to year sea level variations are remarkably well reproduced by the T/P sea level time series, with an rms difference of 2.2 cm and a correlation coefficient of 0.88. This result in the equatorial Atlantic is consistent with other intercomparisons in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. This excellent recovery of the oceanic signal is undoubtedly the result of unprecedented high precision of T/P measurements and the reliable T/P-derived tide model that is used in

  18. Analysis of hospitalization occurred due to motorcycles accidents in São Paulo city

    PubMed Central

    Gorios, Carlos; Armond, Jane de Eston; Rodrigues, Cintia Leci; Pernambuco, Henrique; Iporre, Ramiro Ortiz; Colombo-Souza, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the motorcycle accidents occurred in the city of São Paulo, SP, Brazil in the year 2013, with emphasis on information about hospital admissions from SIH/SUS. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. The study covered 5,597 motorcyclists traumatized in traffic accident during the year 2013 occurred in the city of São Paulo. A survey was conducted using secondary data from the Information System of Hospitalization Health System (SIH/SUS). RESULTS: In 2013, in the city of São Paulo there were 5,597 admissions of motorcyclists traumatized in traffic accidents, of which 89.8% were male. The admission diagnosis were: leg fracture, femur fracture, and intracranial injury. CONCLUSION: This study confirms other preliminary studies on several points, among which stands out the highest prevalence of male young adults. Level of Evidence II, Retrospective Study. PMID:26327804

  19. Contourite systems in the region of the southern São Paulo Plateau escarpment, South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, D. G.; Murdmaa, I. O.; Ivanova, E. V.; Levchenko, O. V.; Yutsis, V. V.; Frantseva, T. N.

    2013-07-01

    Seismoacoustic investigations with a high-resolution parametric echo-sounder "SES 2000 deep" carried out on cruises 33, 35, and 37 of the R/V Akademik Ioffe revealed several erosional-depositional contourite systems on the São Paulo Plateau escarpment and its toe in the South Atlantic. Two contourite terraces related to interfaces between different water masses are observable on the escarpment. These terraces presumably reflect the activity of internal waves and turbulent eddies. The São Paulo contourite channel and genetically related drift are traceable along the escarpment toe. Changes in planktonic foraminiferal assemblages in Core AI-2563 retrieved from the summit of the São Paulo contourite drift suggest a shallowing of the Weddell Sea Deep Water mass during glacial times. It is established that the contour current of the Weddell Sea Deep Water and Lower Circumpolar Water considerably affect the formation of contourite depositional systems on the escarpment and its toe.

  20. Development of a morphogenetically active scaffold for three-dimensional growth of bone cells: biosilica-alginate hydrogel for SaOS-2 cell cultivation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Schröder, Heinz C; Feng, Qingling; Schlossmacher, Ute; Link, Thorben; Wang, Xiaohong

    2015-11-01

    Polymeric silica is formed from ortho-silicate during a sol-gel formation process, while biosilica is the product of an enzymatically driven bio-polycondensation reaction. Both polymers have recently been described as a template that induces an increased expression of the genes encoding bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and osteoprotegerin in osteoblast-related SaOS-2 cells; simultaneously or subsequently the cells respond with enhanced hydroxyapatite formation. In order to assess whether the biocompatible polymeric silica/biosilica can serve as a morphogenetically active matrix suitable for three-dimensional (3D) cell growth, or even for 3D cell bioprinting, SaOS-2 cells were embedded into a Na-alginate-based hydrogel. Four different gelatinous hydrogel matrices were used for suspending SaOS-2 cells: (a) the hydrogel alone; (b) the hydrogel with 400 μM ortho-silicate; (c) the hydrogel supplemented with 400 μM ortho-silicate and recombinant silicatein to allow biosilica synthesis to occur; and (d) the hydrogel with ortho-silicate and BSA. The SaOS-2 cells showed an increased growth if silica/biosilica components were present in the hydrogel. Likewise intensified was the formation of hydroxyapatite nodules in the silica-containing hydrogels. After an incubation period of 2 weeks, cells present in silica-containing hydrogels showed a significantly higher expression of the genes encoding the cytokine BMP-2, the major fibrillar structural protein collagen 1 and likewise of carbonic anhydrase. It is concluded that silica, and to a larger extent biosilica, retains its morphogenetic/osteogenic potential after addition to Na-alginate-based hydrogels. This property might qualify silica hydrogels to be also used as a matrix for 3D cell printing. PMID:23585362

  1. Determinación de la orientación global SAO-Hipparcos mediante una expansión en armónicos vectoriales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cionco, R. G.; Vucetich, H.; Orellana, R.; Arias, E. F.

    En base a las diferencias de posición y movimientos propios de 101352 estrellas con posición SAO observadas por HIPPARCOS y utilizando la naturaleza vectorial de esas diferencias, determinamos 6 parámetros de orientación global (3 de rotación y 3 de desplazamiento axial), para los sistemas de referencia asociados a los marcos mencionados, mediante una descomposición en serie de armónicos vectoriales ortogonales.

  2. Expression of extracellular calcium (Ca2 + o)-sensing receptor in the clonal osteoblast-like cell lines, UMR-106 and SAOS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Kifor, O.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Brown, E. M.; O'Malley, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a G protein-coupled receptor that plays key roles in extracellular calcium ion (Ca2 + o) homeostasis in parathyroid gland and kidney. More recent data have suggested the presence of this receptor in additional tissues, such as brain, intestine and skin. In this study, we examined the expression of the CaR in the rat and human osteosarcoma cell lines, UMR-106 and SAOS-2, respectively, which possess osteoblast-like characteristics. Both immunocytochemistry and Western blot analysis, using a polyclonal antiserum specific for the CaR, detected CaR protein in UMR-106 and SAOS-2 cells. The use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with CaR-specific primers, followed by nucleotide sequencing of the amplified products, also identified CaR transcripts in each cell line. Therefore, taken together, our data strongly suggest that the osteoblast-like cell lines, UMR-106 and SAOS-2, possess both CaR protein and mRNA very similar if not identical to those in parathyroid and kidney.

  3. The André E. Lalonde AMS Laboratory - The new accelerator mass spectrometry facility at the University of Ottawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieser, W. E.; Zhao, X.-L.; Clark, I. D.; Cornett, R. J.; Litherland, A. E.; Klein, M.; Mous, D. J. W.; Alary, J.-F.

    2015-10-01

    The University of Ottawa, Canada, has installed a multi-element, 3 MV tandem AMS system as the cornerstone of their new Advanced Research Complex and the principal analytical instrument of the André E. Lalonde Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory. Manufactured by High Voltage Engineering Europa B.V., the Netherlands, it is equipped with a 200 sample ion source, a high resolution, 120° injection magnet, a 90° high energy analysis magnet (mass-energy product 350 MeV-AMU), a 65°, 1.7 m radius electric analyzer and a 2 channel gas ionization detector. It is designed to analyze isotopes ranging from tritium to the actinides and to accommodate the use of fluoride target materials. This system is being extended with a second injection line, consisting of selected components from the IsoTrace Laboratory, University of Toronto. This line will contain a pre-commercial version of the Isobar Separator for Anions, manufactured by Isobarex Corp., Bolton, Ontario, Canada. This instrument uses selective ion-gas reactions in a radio-frequency quadrupole cell to attenuate both atomic and molecular isobars. This paper discusses the specifications of the new AMS equipment, reports on the acceptance test results for 10Be, 14C, 26Al and 127I and presents typical spectra for 10Be and actinide analyses.

  4. New and improved recovery of oil from an abandoned reservoir: Round Tank-San Andres pool. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, R.W.

    1983-05-01

    The purpose of this field program was to determine the potential for recovery of additional oil from a reservoir where primary production had been depleted. The selected pool, Round Tank in Chaves County, had yielded minor amounts of oil from seventeen wells completed in the Slaughter zone of the San Andres Formation. It was not known whether the small yields were the result of isolated pockets of oil-saturated porosity or lack of adequate reservoir pressure. Geologic studies indicated that there was continuity of porosity in a number of zones. To verify this it was planned to inject water into selected intervals in one of the abandoned wells where casing had been left in the hole. If water could be injected then a waterflood program would have the potential for recovery of additional oil. The well was reentered and an attempt made to cement holes in the casing in order to continue with selected injection of water. This proved impossible because of the condition of the casing and the project was terminated to avoid further expenditures. A new well will be required to determine if a waterflood program can result in recovery of additional oil at Round Tank. The report includes information on 195 abandoned oil reservoirs in New Mexico and a discussion of possible additional recovery of oil from some of these reservoirs. 42 figures, 11 tables.

  5. Individual determinants of fish choosing in open-air street markets from Santo André, SP/Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, Juliana Parreira; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Pinheiro, Sonia Regina; de Oliveira, Thaís Helena Nishikata; Ribeiro, Naassom Almeida Souza; Martins, Cassia Neves; Porfírio, Bruno Augusti; Sanches, Sandra Abelardo; de Souza, Orlando Bispo; Telles, Evelise Oliveira; Balian, Simone de Carvalho

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the determinants of fish consumption in the population that attends open-air street markets in the city of Santo André, SP, Brazil.We performed a survey, covering approximately 482 people in 49 street markets.It consisted of free-answer questions, half open choice and half multiple-choice options, for the identification and evaluation of socioeconomic factors that facilitate and hinder fish consumption.A descriptive analysis of the data and further tests were used to determine the association between variables and linearity with consumption, with a significance level of 5%. The most commonly cited types of fish consumed were hake, sardine and dogfish. The factors that facilitate the purchase and consumption of fish are listed as follows: a preference for purchasing fish at street markets, appearance, firmness, fresh presentation, frozen presentation, as well as the respondent's education and individual monthly income. Limiting factors were identified as the price and the presence of spines. Perishability, odour, ethnicity, proximity to points of sale of residence and work, gender, age, number of people in the household, presence of children and acquisition supermarket were not characteristics that influenced decisions about fish consumption. PMID:23643568

  6. An Integrated Study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Weinbrandt, Richard; Trentham, Robert C; Robinson, William

    1997-10-23

    For a part of the Foster and South Cowden (Grayburg-San Andres) oil fields, improvement in oil production has been accomplished, in part, by using "pipeline fracturing" technology in the most recent completion to improve fluid flow rates, and filtration of waterflood injection water to preserve reservoir permeability. The 3D seismic survey acquired in conjunction with this DOE project has been used to calculate a 3D seismic inversion model, which has been analyzed to provide detailed maps of porosity within the productive upper 250 feet of the Grayburg Formation. Geologic data, particularly from logs and cores, have been combined with the geophysical interpretation and production history information to develop a model of the reservoir that defines estimations of remaining producible oil. The integrated result is greater than the sum of its parts, since no single data form adequately describes the reservoir. Each discipline relies upon computer software that runs on PC-type computers, allowing virtually any size company to affordably access the technology required to achieve similar results.

  7. Public-private partnerships and public hospital performance in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    La Forgia, Gerard M; Harding, April

    2009-01-01

    Public hospitals that are directly managed by government perform poorly in many developing countries. Approaches to improving them through internal managerial reforms have failed, and effective alternatives are much needed. Policymakers are considering reforms through public-private partnerships (PPPs)--a promising but so far unevaluated approach. We present results of a successful reform in São Paulo, Brazil. The PPP model gave facility managers latitude to manage human resources--a factor critical to success. Given the prevalence of direct management of public hospitals in developing countries, the São Paulo experience has implications for policymakers seeking to improve hospital performance. PMID:19597211

  8. Modulation of the initial mineralization process of SaOS-2 cells by carbonic anhydrase activators and polyphosphate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C; Schlossmacher, Ute; Neufurth, Meik; Feng, Qingling; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-05-01

    Ca-phosphate/hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals constitute the mineral matrix of vertebrate bones, while Ca-carbonate is the predominant mineral of many invertebrates, like mollusks. Recent results suggest that CaCO₃ is also synthesized during early bone formation. We demonstrate that carbonic anhydrase-driven CaCO₃ formation in vitro is activated by organic extracts from the demosponge Suberites domuncula as well as by quinolinic acid, one component isolated from these extracts. Further results revealed that the stimulatory effect of bicarbonate (HCO₃ (-)) ions on mineralization of osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells is strongly enhanced if the cells are exposed to inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), a linear polymer of phosphate linked by energy-rich phosphodiester bonds. The effect of polyP, administered as polyP (Ca²⁺ salt), on HA formation was found to be amplified by addition of the carbonic anhydrase-activating sponge extract or quinolinic acid. Our results support the assumption that CaCO₃ deposits, acting as bio-seeds for Ca-carbonated phosphate formation, are formed as an intermediate during HA mineralization and that the carbonic anhydrase-mediated formation of those deposits is under a positive-negative feedback control by bone alkaline phosphatase-dependent polyP metabolism, offering new targets for therapy of bone diseases/defects. PMID:24374859

  9. Response of SAOS-2 cells to simulated microgravity and effect of biocompatible sol-gel hybrid coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catauro, M.; Bollino, F.; Papale, F.

    2016-05-01

    The health of astronauts, during space flight, is threatened by bone loss induced by microgravity, mainly attributed to an imbalance in the bone remodeling process. In the present work, the response to the microgravity of bone cells has been studied using the SAOS-2 cell line grown under the condition of weightlessness, simulated by means of a Random Positioning Machine (RPM). Cell viability after 72 h of rotation has been evaluated by means of WST-8 assay and compared to that of control cells. Although no significant difference between the two cell groups has been observed in terms of viability, F-actin staining showed that microgravity environment induces cell apoptosis and altered F-actin organization. To investigate the possibility of hindering the trend of the cells towards the death, after 72 h of rotation the cells have been seeded onto biocompatible ZrO2/PCL hybrid coatings, previously obtained using a sol-gel dip coating procedure. WST-8 assay, carried out after 24 h, showed that the materials are able to inhibit the pro-apoptotic effect of microgravity on cells.

  10. Seroprevalence of antibodies against dengue virus among pregnant women in the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe.

    PubMed

    Yen, Tsai-Ying; Trovoada dos Santos, Maria de Jesus; Tseng, Lien-Feng; Chang, Shu-Feng; Cheng, Chien-Fu; Carvalho, Arlindo Vicente de Assunção; Shu, Pei-Yun; Lien, Jih-Ching; Tsai, Kun-Hsien

    2016-03-01

    Dengue fever has become a worldwide public health concern, threatening an estimated 40% of the world's population. However, most resources and attention are still focused on malaria, while dengue statuses are poorly recognized in many African countries. In this serological survey, dengue virus (DENV) transmission was demonstrated by using serum samples collected from 78 pregnant women in the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe (DRSTP) during 2003 to 2004. Immunofluorescence assay was performed and 31 samples (39.74%) were found positive for DENV antibodies. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that 53 samples (67.95%) were positive for dengue E IgG, and 38 samples (48.72%) were positive for NS1 IgG. A prevalence of 35.90% was therefore determined for dengue IgG by considering samples that yielded positive results by all three tests. Cross-reactions with other flaviviruses were examined by indirect ELISA against Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, and yellow fever virus. Only one sample exhibited stronger absorbance against Japanese encephalitis virus and West Nile virus. Moreover, one sample was positive for dengue IgM. These results agreed with the previous researches in neighboring countries and suggested DENV exposure. The study contributes to raising public awareness of dengue and supporting future control strategies. PMID:26739653

  11. Paulo Freire and Ivan Illich: Technology, Politics and the Reconstruction of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Richard; Kellner, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the theories of education and technology held by two of the most important philosophers of education during the last few decades, Paulo Freire and Ivan Illich. These two related thinkers each charted a unique approach to the questions surrounding modern education and technology, and despite their widely acknowledged…

  12. Education in the Realm of the Senses: Understanding Paulo Freire's Aesthetic Unconscious through Jacques Ranciere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tyson Edward

    2009-01-01

    In this article I re-examine the role that aesthetics play in Paulo Freire's pedagogy of the oppressed. As opposed to the vast majority of scholarship in this area, I suggest that aesthetics play a more centralised role in pedagogy above and beyond arts-based curricula. To help clarify Freire's position, I will argue that underlying the linguistic…

  13. Paulo Freire: The Man from Recife. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 385

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirylo, James D.

    2011-01-01

    The unfolding of Paulo Freire's philosophy, uniqueness, and the lens through which he viewed the world, which ultimately brought this gentle spirit of a man onto the world stage, began at a young age in his hometown of Recife, Brazil. Remarkably grounded in the wisdom of humility, yet gifted with a determined strength, deep insight, and perceptive…

  14. Centering Love, Hope, and Trust in the Community: Transformative Urban Leadership Informed by Paulo Freire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Peter M.; Brown, Tanya; Hopson, Rodney

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we suggest that communities must explore alternative leadership ideologies, actors, and venues to make meaningful academic and social improvements in our cities. We examine how themes from Paulo Freire's critical ideology can help expand our conceptualizations of educational leadership and facilitate pragmatic responses to complex…

  15. Paulo Freire's Last Laugh: Rethinking Critical Pedagogy's Funny Bone through Jacques Ranciere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tyson Edward

    2010-01-01

    In several enigmatic passages, Paulo Freire describes the pedagogy of the oppressed as a "pedagogy of laughter". The inclusion of laughter alongside problem-posing dialogue might strike some as ambiguous, considering that the global exploitation of the poor is no laughing matter. And yet, laughter seems to be an important aspect of the pedagogy of…

  16. The Impact of Private Schools on Educational Attainment in the State of São Paulo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Jonathan M. B.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a comprehensive dataset on secondary school students in Brazil to examine the impact of private school enrollment on educational attainment in São Paulo. The results show that private school students (across all levels of tuition) perform better than their public school counterparts on Brazil's high school exit exam, even after…

  17. [Habermas and Paulo Freire: theoretical referrals for the study on communication in nursing].

    PubMed

    Larocca, Liliana Muller; Mazza, Verônica de Azevedo

    2003-08-01

    The present work has the objective of introducing the ideas of Jürgen Habermas and Paulo Freire about the dialogue as a fundamental human phenomenon, data on their trajectories of life, ideological approaches when locating the human being through history and their relevance as theoretical referrals for the study on communication in the process of the nurse's work. PMID:15058821

  18. Cutaneous melanoma in the State of São Paulo: a spatial approach*

    PubMed Central

    Amancio, Camila Trolez; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cutaneous melanoma is a skin cancer with low incidence but high mortality rates. Several factors are associated with increased risk of melanoma, such as excessive sun exposure, fair skin, and family history, among others. Little is known about the spatial distribution of this cancer in Brazil. OBJECTIVE To identify, through the use of geostatistical tools, spatial clusters of municipalities in the state of São Paulo based on their incidence of cutaneous melanoma. METHODS This was an ecological and exploratory study of data on new cases obtained from Fundação Oncocentro for the period 1 January 2006-31 December 2011. Cases were separated by gender and rates per 100,000 inhabitants were calculated and used to compile thematic maps, Moran maps and kernel maps, using TerraView software. RESULTS There were 3,172 new cases of cutaneous melanoma in the study period. High rates were identified in the North, Northwest, Southwest, and Southeast regions of São Paulo state. Global Moran's I values were statistically significant (p<0.05) at 0.12, 0.08, and 0.16, respectively, for males, females, and all cases. Areas such as the Southeast, North, and Northwest of São Paulo were identified as being of high priority for intervention. CONCLUSION Spatial clusters of municipalities with high incidence rates of cutaneous melanoma in the state of São Paulo were identified. These data can serve as an important input for public health agencies. PMID:24937818

  19. Paulo Freire and the Politics of Education: A Response to Neumann

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Jacob Neumann provides a thoughtful reading of "Paulo Freire in the 21st century: Education, dialogue, and transformation" [v48 n6 p634-644 2016]. His comments on the importance of contextualising Freire's work and the value of openness in engaging Freirean ideas are insightful and helpful. His use of the term "apolitical" is,…

  20. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in bats from São Paulo city, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii with a worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies in bats from São Paulo city, Brazil. A total of 616 serum samples were collected from 22 species of bats. Anti-T. gon...

  1. Epistemology of the Oppressed: The Dialectics of Paulo Freire's Theory of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    As part of a critical analysis of Paulo Freire's work, this paper argues that, Freire's critical, liberatory pedagogy as conceived in "Education as the Practice of Freedom" (P. Freire, 1982a), coherently systematized in "Extension or Communication" (P. Freire, 1982b) and carried out through "Pedagogy of the Oppressed" (P. Freire, 1974) into his…

  2. Transforming Faith: H. Richard Niebuhr and Paulo Freire on Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Joshua Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Through a contextual comparison of the theological ethics of H. Richard Niebuhr and the educational theory of Paulo Freire, I argue that socialization, while an essential task of moral education, is an insufficient aim. The proper aim of moral education is individual development. The intention of my argument is address tendencies towards…

  3. OCCURRENCE OF NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN CAPYBARAS (HYDROCHAERIS HYDROCHAERIS) FROM SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is a large rodent distributed throughout tropical America. Antibodies to Neospora caninum in 213 feral capybaras from 11 counties of the State of São Paulo, Brazil were assessed using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (titer '1:25) and found in 20 (9.4...

  4. SEROPREVALENCE AND ISOLATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM SHEEP FROM SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection but little is known of ovine toxoplasmosis in Brazil. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed in sera of 495 sheep from 36 counties of São Paulo State, Brazil, using the modified agglutination test (MAT titer =1:25) and found in 120...

  5. Paulo Freire's Pedagogy of Hope: An Autoethnography in a Social Justice Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Molly A.

    2013-01-01

    This autoethnographic study provides a critical analysis of the implementation of ideas and theories derived from Paulo Freire's "Pedagogy of the Oppressed" (1970) and "Pedagogy of Hope: Reliving Pedagogy of the Oppressed" (1994) in a social justice oriented classroom; in particular, themes of critical thinking,…

  6. Sitting in the Waiting Room: Paulo Freire and the Critical Turn in the Field of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottesman, Isaac

    2010-01-01

    Although it is commonly assumed that Paulo Freire was widely influential in the field of education in the United States immediately upon publication of his classic work, "Pedagogy of the Oppressed", in 1970, the historical evidence indicates otherwise. In fact, Freire's work only began to gain wide reception in the field in the mid- and late…

  7. Paulo Freire and "The Need for a Kind of Education in Hope"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Darren

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores Paulo Freire's philosophy of hope. This is significant because, for Freire, it was human hope that rendered education possible, necessary and necessarily political. Like other areas of his thought, however, his reading of hope contained ambiguities and contradictions, and the paper explores these by locating Freire's thought in…

  8. Paulo Freire in Chile, 1964-1969: "Pedagogy of the Oppressed" in Its Sociopolitical Economic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holst, John D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, John Holst presents findings of his historical research on Paulo Freire's educational work in Chile from 1964 to 1969. Freire's "Education as the Practice of Freedom", which was written in 1965 from notes he brought from Brazil, was informed by a liberal developmentalist outlook. In contrast, his "Pedagogy of the Oppressed",…

  9. The Liberating Teaching Methods of the Brazilian Paulo Freire and Hypertext.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Martinez, Jose Luis

    2003-01-01

    Exemplifies, through the pedagogical theories put forth by Paulo Freire in his book "Pedagogia del oprimado" (teaching the oppressed) and along with the potentials of hypertext, the intimate relationship between socio-cultural forces and the technical responses emerging from the dialectic process between them. (AS)

  10. Looking Up to Paulo Freire: Education and Political Culture during the Spanish Transition to Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Tamar

    2011-01-01

    Paulo Freire's pedagogy was developed in reaction to the state of "periphery" of illiterate farmers in Brazil and Chile. However, his thinking, which illuminated capitalism's oppressive nature in the classrooms, was enthusiastically accepted in the "centre" and he became a global point of reference for social action. In this article I trace his…

  11. Reconsidering Emancipatory Education: Staging a Conversation between Paulo Freire and Jacques Ranciere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    In this essay Sarah Galloway considers emancipation as a purpose for education through examining the theories of Paulo Freire and Jacques Ranciere. Both theorists are concerned with the prospect of distinguishing between education that might socialize people into what is taken to be an inherently oppressive society and education with emancipation…

  12. The São Paulo Science and Technology Park (CienTec Park)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantovani, M. S. M.; Bernardelli Massabki, P.; Massambani, O.

    2003-04-01

    The State Park of Ipiranga Springs (PEFI), a native forest of 543 ha enclosed in one of the world largest Metropolis, represents more than 10% of the total of the green areas in the city of São Paulo. This space has been preserved through the efforts of three main institutions: the Botanic Garden, the Zoo Foundation and the University of São Paulo (USP). The districts surrounding the Park, with c.a. 2 millions of inhabitants, are mostly low-income families, with limited opportunities of leisure and cultural activity. There, violence and crime present the highest index for the whole Metropolitan Region, and recent statistics indicate a growing demographic pressure to occupy these areas. The proposal of the University of São Paulo, to promote in its property within PEFI a Science and Technology Park, represents a rare opportunity and valuable contribution to the social promotion in these districts and to the maintenance of that portion of green area: a residue of the Serra do Mar (Atlantic) Forest. This space of 141 ha of which 20 ha were occupied by the Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmosphere Science Institute of USP, encloses an exceptionally interesting inheritage for the City of São Paulo. A set of historical buildings of the fourth decade of last century, was recognized by the Council for the Preservation of Historical, Archeological, Artistic and Tourist Heritage of the State of São Paulo, and the City Council for the Preservation of Historical, Cultural and Natural Heritage of the City of São Paulo. The USP proposal resulted into an agreement with the Science and Technology Secretary of the São Paulo State Government, that supported financially the basic architectural project. This project was elaborated by seven of the most gifted Brazilian Architects, taking into account the restoration of the historical buildings and their integration with a new architectural set where the exhibits, interactive activities and cultural programs will take place. While the

  13. An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, J.J.; Trentham, R.C.; Weinbrandt, R.; Flanders, W.

    1996-02-02

    An enhanced oil recovery project is being proposed in response to the US Department of Energy`s Near Term Class 2 Oil Program for shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. Productivity problems associated with a shallow shelf carbonate reservoir will be addressed by integrating high resolution 3-D seismic data, reservoir characterization techniques, and 3-D reservoir simulation. The purpose of the study is to yield results which will preserve access to existing well bores by identifying additional reserves. The general approach will be to shoot a 3-D seismic survey designed specifically for imaging the Grayburg/San Andres interval. The data will then be processed and interpreted using state of the art techniques aimed at identifying porosity, permeability barriers and their zones within the reservoir. A technical team will integrate existing geological data with the geophysical results of the seismic survey for detailed reservoir characterization. These results will be used in a 3-D reservoir simulation model to delineate flow units. A field demonstration of infill drilling and water flood development will follow. The authors expect the results of this study to demonstrate a methodology for reservoir characterization which is feasible for the independent operator. Furthermore, it will provide one of the first public demonstrations of the enhancement of reservoir characterization using high resolution 3-D seismic data. Additionally, it will showcase the improvement of water flood development by using an integrated multi-disciplinary approach, and the addition of otherwise unrecovered reserves by selective infill drilling. This report has four sections: summary of preliminary data; plots and maps; well production data; and well data.

  14. Combined magnetic fabrics and microstructures: evidence of an early magmatic event in the Paleoproterozoic Teofilandia granitoids (Sao Francisco craton, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, H. S.; Bouchez, J. L.; Nedelec, A.; Sabate, P.

    2003-04-01

    The study area concerns the southern part of the Paleoproterozoic (2.2--2.0 Ga) Itapicuru Greenstone Belt (Serrinha Block), eastern border of the Sao Francisco craton (Brazil). This is a problematic area, occupied by the Teofilandia granitoids (granites, granodiorites, tonalites, gneisses), where the overall N-S map structures rotate to E-W toward the south of the Serrinha Block. A set of 160 sampling stations covering ˜220 km^2 have been subjected to a detailed structural study combining magnetic fabrics AND microstructural characters. Three types of microstructures, corresponding to three successive events, helped to sort the different magnetic fabrics. (1) Purely magmatic microstructures, sometimes slightly overprinted by the following events, characterize preserved sectors that carry N-S trending magnetic lineations. Around these relictual sectors (2) the granitoids display typical high-T orthogneissic microstructures, attesting for their pervasive deformation in the solid-state parallel to E-W (±30^o), as observed in the field and attested by the E-W trending magnetic lineations. Finally (3) low-T/high-stress, sub-mylonitic microstructures under greenschist facies conditions, affect the area with various intensities, and are associated with E-W trending magnetic lineations. We conclude that the Teofilandia granitoids reveal their N-S-directed emplacement at ˜2.1 Ga, probably coeval with the N-S stretch of the whole Rio Itapicuru belt, within the relictual cores of kilometer-thick lenses that were preserved from the following events. The pervasive high-T structures, with foliations dipping to the south and E-W stretching directions, are ascribed to a lateral ramp of the shear event that accompanied the convergence of the Serrinha block with the Salvador Curaca mobile belt. The final, low-T/high stress event is likely coeval with the hydrothermal episode responsible for the gold mineralizations of the Teofilandia area at 2.08 Ga.

  15. The white epidemic and the asepsis of refined earthenware in Belle Époque São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rafael de Abreu E

    2012-12-01

    The article examines Brazilian refined earthenwares known as faiança fina (fine faience) and relates ideas about its production to the contextual backdrop of hygienist discourses in the city of São Paulo in the early twentieth century. Based on an analysis of glaze components, moisture expansion processes, and technological aspects of the production of earthenware recovered from the Petybon archeological site, it is suggested that the establishment of factories and the production and consumption of white ceramics in the city of São Paulo were partially a consequence of the vigorous hygienization policies and modernity projects then advocated by São Paulo's elites. PMID:23295654

  16. Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. in Brazil and the impact of the Sao Francisco River in the speciation of this sand fly vector.

    PubMed

    Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; Sonoda, Ivan V; Fonseca, Jose A; Melo, Marcia A; Balbino, Valdir Q; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the principal vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi in the Americas, and constitutes a complex of species. Various studies have suggested an incipient speciation process based on behavioral isolation driven by the chemotype of male sexual pheromones. It is well known that natural barriers, such as mountains and rivers can directly influence population divergence in several organisms, including insects. In this work we investigated the potential role played by the Sao Francisco River in eastern Brazil in defining the current distribution of Lu. longipalpis s.l. Our studies were based on analyses of polymorphisms of the cytochrome b gene (cyt b) sequences from Lu. longipalpis s.l. available in public databases, and from additional field-caught individuals. Altogether, 9 distinct populations and 89 haplotypes were represented in the analyses. Lu. longipalpis s.l. populations were grouped according to their distribution in regards to the 10 degrees S parallel: north of 10 degrees S (<10 degrees S); and south of 10 degrees S (>10 degrees S). Our results suggest that although no polymorphisms were fixed, moderate genetic divergences were observed between the groups analyzed (i.e., FST = 0.184; and Nm = 2.22), and were mostly driven by genetic drift. The population divergence time estimated between the sand fly groups was about 0.45 million years (MY), coinciding with the time of the change in the course of the Sao Francisco River, during the Mindel glaciation. Overall, the polymorphisms on the cyt b haplotypes and the current speciation process detected in Lu. longipalpis s.l. with regards to the distribution of male sexual pheromones suggest a role of the Sao Francisco River as a significant geographical barrier in this process. PMID:18549496

  17. Effect of nicotine in matrix mineralization by human bone marrow and Saos-2 cells cultured on the surface of plasma-sprayed titanium implants.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M L; Carvalho, J C; Peres, F; Fernandes, M H

    2009-01-01

    Smoking has an established negative impact in the clinical outcome of dental implants. This work analyses the response of human osteoblastic cells to nicotine, at the surface of plasma-sprayed commercial titanium implants. Human bone marrow (HBM) and Saos-2 cells, seeded on the surface of titanium implants and cultured in experimental conditions favoring osteoblastic differentiation, were exposed continuously to nicotine (0.0001 to 0.5 mg mL(-1)) and characterized for cell proliferation and function. Exposure of HBM cells resulted in increased cell proliferation, higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and earlier onset of matrix mineralization at levels up to 0.2 mg mL(-1), an initial inhibitory effect in cell growth and functional activity followed by a recovery in the presence of 0.3 mg mL(-1) and a dose-dependent deleterious effect at higher levels. By contrast, exposure to nicotine did not affect cell proliferation of Saos-2 cells at levels up to 0.2 mg mL(-1), and caused only a small positive effect in ALP activity in the presence of 0.05 and 0.1 mg mL(-1); however, matrix mineralization by Saos-2 cells also occurred earlier in the cultures exposed to levels of nicotine up to 0.1 mg mL(-1). Higher concentrations caused dose-dependent inhibitory effects. Considering the high diffusion potential of nicotine, results suggest a local role of nicotine in modulating bone formation events at the implant surface. PMID:18260147

  18. An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres reservoir, Foster and South Cowden fields, Ector County, Texas. Quarterly report, October--December, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, R.C.; Weinbrandt, R.; Robertson, W.

    1997-03-17

    Seismic objectives addressed during the fourth quarter concerned seismic recognition of Grayburg carbonate porosity and development of maps of the distribution of seismic properties which can be related to reservoir porosity. Synthetic seismograms representing various porosity combinations for the Grayburg A sequence were interpolated in forward models to demonstrate waveform character, and a seismic inversion model was used as the basis for work with seismic-guided attribute maps which have been instrumental in defining porosity within the upper Grayburg. The geologic objectives addressed during the quarter were the integration of the geologic model into the 3D to accurately portray the lithologic markers, the coring and logging of the Witcher {number_sign}12, and working toward the development of a successful completion technique for the lower Grayburg and San Andres. Considerable effort went into developing a usable seismic velocity/log porosity transform. There were a number of engineering objectives this quarter. The development of a successful completion technique for the lower Grayburg and San Andres which would contact the maximum volume of reservoir, minimize potential water production, and be cost effective was a high priority. The Witcher {number_sign}12 was drilled, and Foster-Pegues {number_sign} 4 re-entered and converted to injection this Quarter. The first steps in the quantitative integration of seismic data into the reservoir simulation were taken this quarter. Work on water quality, buildup and fall off tests and the update of production and injection data in the model was ongoing.

  19. Neurological Impact of World War I on the Artistic Avant-Garde: The Examples of André Breton, Guillaume Apollinaire and Blaise Cendrars.

    PubMed

    Bogousslavsky, Julien; Tatu, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    World War I erupted at a time when artistic avant-gardes were particularly thriving across Europe. Young poets, writers, painters and sculptors were called to arms or voluntary enrolled to fight, and several of them died during the conflict. Among others, it dramatically changed their creative output, either through specific wounds or through personal encounters and experiences. These individual events then significantly modified the course of the literary and artistic avant-garde movements. Three particularly illustrative examples of avant-garde French poets are presented here: André Breton (1896-1966), Guillaume Apollinaire (1880-1918) and Blaise Cendrars (1887-1961). The deep source of the surrealist movement can indeed be found in André Breton's involvement as an auxiliary physician with critical interest in neuropsychiatry, which caused him to discover automatic writing. Guillaume Apollinaire's right temporal subdural hematoma strongly modified his emotional state and subsequent artistic activities. Alternatively, after losing his right, writing hand, Blaise Cendrars not only substituted it with a phantom but also rapidly switched from poetry to novels after he learnt to write with his left hand. PMID:27035346

  20. Precipitation, density, and population dynamics of desert bighorn sheep on San Andres National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, L.C.; Weisenberger, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the determinants of population size and performance for desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) is critical to develop effective recovery and management strategies. In arid environments, plant communities and consequently herbivore populations are strongly dependent upon precipitation, which is highly variable seasonally and annually. We conducted a retrospective exploratory analysis of desert bighorn sheep population dynamics on San Andres National Wildlife Refuge (SANWR), New Mexico, 1941-1976, by modeling sheep population size as a function of previous population sizes and precipitation. Population size and trend of desert bighorn were best and well described (R 2=0.89) by a model that included only total annual precipitation as a covariate. Models incorporating density-dependence, delayed density-dependence, and combinations of density and precipitation were less informative than the model containing precipitation alone (??AlCc=8.5-22.5). Lamb:female ratios were positively related to precipitation (current year: F1,34=7.09, P=0.012; previous year: F1,33=3.37, P=0.075) but were unrelated to population size (current year. F1,34=0.04, P=0.843; previous year: F1,33 =0.14, P=0.715). Instantaneous population rate of increase (r) was related to population size (F1,33=5.55; P=0.025). Precipitation limited populations of desert bighorn sheep on SANWR primarily in a density-independent manner by affecting production or survival of lambs, likely through influences on forage quantity and quality. Habitat evaluations and recovery plans for desert bighorn sheep need to consider fundamental influences on desert bighorn populations such as precipitation and food, rather than focus solely on proximate issues such as security cover, predation, and disease. Moreover, the concept of carrying capacity for desert bighorn sheep may need re-evaluation in respect to highly variable (CV =35.6%) localized precipitation patterns. On SANWR carrying capacity for desert

  1. Development and recent activity of the San Andrés landslide on El Hierro, Canary Islands, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimeš, Jan; Yepes, Jorge; Becerril, Laura; Kusák, Michal; Galindo, Inés; Blahut, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Extremely voluminous landslides with a long run-out (also known as megalandslides) on oceanic volcanic islands are infrequent denudational processes on such islands. At the same time, they represent a major geological hazard that must be looked into to avoid negative consequences for the inhabitants of these islands. Their occurrence can be related to periods of intense seismo-volcanic activity, similar to that which occurred on El Hierro Island over 2011-2012. Landslides on volcanic islands are studied using onshore and offshore geological, geophysical and geomorphological records, considering their unique triggering conditions (e.g. lava intrusions, eruptive vents, magma chamber collapses). Previous work has pointed out similarities between specific cases of landslides on volcanic islands and deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs) which are typical in high mountain settings. Nevertheless, the methodological approaches and concepts used to investigate DSGSDs are not commonly applied on volcanic islands studies, even though their use may provide new information about the development stage, recent movements and future hazards. Therefore, this approach for studying the San Andrés landslide (SAL) on El Hierro (Canary Islands) has been developed applying a detailed morphological field mapping, an interpretation of digital elevation models, structural measurements, kinematic testing, and a precise movement monitoring system. The acquired information revealed a strong structural influence on the landslide morphology and the presence of sets of weakened planes acting as the sliding surfaces of the SAL or secondary landslides within its body. The presence of secondary landslides, deep erosive gullies, coastal cliffs and high on-shore relative relief also suggests a high susceptibility to future landslide movement. Direct monitoring on the landslide scarps and the slip plane, performed between February 2013 and July 2014, using an automated optical

  2. [Health assistance to homeless people in a health unit in São Paulo city].

    PubMed

    Canônico, Rhavana Pilz; Tanaka, Ana Cristina D'Andretta; Mazza, Márcia Maria Porto Roccetto; de Fátima e Souza, Maria; Bernat, Maria Cristina; Junqueira, Luciana Xavier

    2007-12-01

    Geraldo Honório de Paula Souza health unit is located close to the Public Health College at University de São Paulo and has largely contributed to improve education in the health field. As it registers just population who live in a specific location nearly, it has also provided help to the homeless people in the area of Pinheiros couting on the support of the Program Gente de Rua, a partnership between Social Center Nossa Senhora do Bom Parto and Health Secretary of São Paulo municipality. This program consists of three communitarian agents and a nurse who take care of this population in the health center. The agents first contact homeless people who can be later assisted by a heath team in the unit. Assistance also includes visits by the agents and the nurse from the program, taking into consideration the principle of equity of Brazilian Unified Health System. PMID:20608380

  3. Phytochemical evidence for the plant origin of Brazilian propolis from São Paulo state.

    PubMed

    Bankova, V; Boudourova-Krasteva, G; Sforcin, J M; Frete, X; Kujumgiev, A; Maimoni-Rodella, R; Popov, S

    1999-01-01

    Propolis and plant secretions from three species, most frequently mentioned as botanical sources of the bee glue in Brazil (Baccharis dracunculifolia, Araucaria angustifolia and Eucalyptus citriodora) have been investigated using GC-MS. Based on chemical evidence, B. dracunculifolia was shown to be the main propolis source in São Paulo state. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of all four materials were also tested, the most active being propolis and Baccharis leaf exudate. PMID:10431391

  4. Inactivation of the WNT5A Alternative Promoter B Is Associated with DNA Methylation and Histone Modification in Osteosarcoma Cell Lines U2OS and SaOS-2.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Himani; Rumph, Candie; Katula, Karen S

    2016-01-01

    WNT5A is a secreted ligand involved in Wnt pathway signaling and has a role in cell movement and differentiation. Altered WNT5A expression is associated with various cancers, although in most studies the focus has been on only one of the known WNT5A isoforms. In this study, we analyzed expression from two of the major WNT5A promoters, termed promoter A and promoter B, in normal human osteoblasts, SaOS-2 and U2OS osteosarcoma cell lines, and osteosarcoma tumor tissue. We found that both promoters A and B are active in normal osteoblasts with nearly 11-fold more promoter B than A transcripts. Promoter B but not promoter A transcripts are decreased or nearly undetectable in the SaOS-2 and U2OS cell lines and osteosarcoma tumor tissues. Transient transfection of promoter A and promoter B reporter constructs confirmed that SaOS-2 cells have the necessary factors to transcribe both promoters. Bisulfite sequencing analysis revealed that three CpG enriched regions upstream of the promoter B exon 1βare highly methylated in both SaOS-2 and U2OS cells. The CpG island sub-region R6 located in promoter B exon 1β was approximately 51% methylated in SaOS-2 and 25% methylated in U2OS. Region 3 was approximately 28% methylated in normal osteoblasts, whereas the others were unmethylated. Promoter B was re-activated by treatment of SaOS-2 cells with 1 μM 5-azacytidine, which was associated with only a small insignificant change in methylation of sub-region R6. ChIP analysis of U2OS and SaOS-2 cells indicated that the promoter B region is less enriched in the active histone mark H3K4me3, in comparison to promoter A and that there is increased enrichment of the repressive mark H3K27me3 in association with the promoter B genomic region in the cell line SaOS-2. These findings show that epigenetic inactivation of the WNT5A promoter B involves both DNA methylation and histone modifications and suggest that differential expression of the WNT5A alternative promoters A and B is a

  5. Inactivation of the WNT5A Alternative Promoter B Is Associated with DNA Methylation and Histone Modification in Osteosarcoma Cell Lines U2OS and SaOS-2

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Himani; Rumph, Candie; Katula, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    WNT5A is a secreted ligand involved in Wnt pathway signaling and has a role in cell movement and differentiation. Altered WNT5A expression is associated with various cancers, although in most studies the focus has been on only one of the known WNT5A isoforms. In this study, we analyzed expression from two of the major WNT5A promoters, termed promoter A and promoter B, in normal human osteoblasts, SaOS-2 and U2OS osteosarcoma cell lines, and osteosarcoma tumor tissue. We found that both promoters A and B are active in normal osteoblasts with nearly 11-fold more promoter B than A transcripts. Promoter B but not promoter A transcripts are decreased or nearly undetectable in the SaOS-2 and U2OS cell lines and osteosarcoma tumor tissues. Transient transfection of promoter A and promoter B reporter constructs confirmed that SaOS-2 cells have the necessary factors to transcribe both promoters. Bisulfite sequencing analysis revealed that three CpG enriched regions upstream of the promoter B exon 1βare highly methylated in both SaOS-2 and U2OS cells. The CpG island sub-region R6 located in promoter B exon 1β was approximately 51% methylated in SaOS-2 and 25% methylated in U2OS. Region 3 was approximately 28% methylated in normal osteoblasts, whereas the others were unmethylated. Promoter B was re-activated by treatment of SaOS-2 cells with 1 μM 5-azacytidine, which was associated with only a small insignificant change in methylation of sub-region R6. ChIP analysis of U2OS and SaOS-2 cells indicated that the promoter B region is less enriched in the active histone mark H3K4me3, in comparison to promoter A and that there is increased enrichment of the repressive mark H3K27me3 in association with the promoter B genomic region in the cell line SaOS-2. These findings show that epigenetic inactivation of the WNT5A promoter B involves both DNA methylation and histone modifications and suggest that differential expression of the WNT5A alternative promoters A and B is a

  6. Biomass burning aerosol in the State of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, L. L. S.; Artaxo, P.; Martinelli, L. A.; Camargo, P. B.; Ferraz, E. S. B.

    2003-04-01

    A detailed aerosol source apportionment study has been performed in three sites in State of São Paulo with different land-use: sugarcane crops, cattle, urban area and forest. During the summer and winter, the period when sugarcane is burned every year, PM10 has been sampled during day and night in a period of 48 hours, using stacked filters units collecting fine and coarse particulate mode, providing mass, BC and elemental concentration for each aerosol mode. The concentrations of around 20 elements were determined using particle induced X-ray emission technique (PIXE). Ion chromatography was used to determine up to 11 water-soluble ion components. Highest levels of pollutants have been measured around the sugarcane crops, where the annual PM10 concentration (57.1"45.2µgm-3) exceeds of the other urban and industrialized areas and the BC concentration is significantly higher during the sugarcane burning period (4.2"2.2 µgm-3) than the rest of the year (2.0"1.0 µgm-3). The main sources of the aerosol are correlated to the land cover. Factor and cluster analysis showed the main source int the State of São Paulo is biomass burning, followed by soil dust, biogenic emissions and industrial emissions. The sampling and analytical procedures applied in this study showed the sugarcane burning and agricultural practices are the main source of inhalable particulate, possibly altering the aerosol concentration in some places of the State of São Paulo.

  7. Pb isotopic signatures of the atmosphere of the São Paulo city Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babinski, M.; Aily, C.; Ruiz, I. R.; Sato, K.

    2003-05-01

    Lead isotopic compositions of the atmosphere of the São Paulo city, Brazil, were determined from particulate matter (PM{10}) collected on teflon filters, and rainwater samples at the São Paulo University for the period between Auguste 1999 and September/2000. The PM{10} ^{207}Pb/^{206}Pb ratios range from 0.786 to 0.875, and ^{208}Pb/^{206}Pb from 1.934 to 2.119, defining an array on the Pb diagram. Lead concentrations range from 3.02 to 254.52 ng/m^3. Rainwater samples displayed the same isotopic ratios measured on PM{10} collected the same day, thus indicating that aerosols are scavenged by rain. Analyses of possible pollutants sources such as gasoline and ethanol, soot from vehicle exhaust pipes, and particulate material from industrial emissions, collected on fiberglass filters, mostly yielded isotopic compositions falling into an interval defined by 84% of the PM{10} samples (^{207}Pb/^{206}Pb = 0.840-0.870). However, 15% of the PM{10} samples are more radiogenic, indicating a significant, unidentified radiogenic source (^{207}Pb/^{206}Pb < 0.780), evident mainly in samples collected during weekends and from November/1999 to April/2000. We suggest that most of the anthropogenic Pb found in the São Paulo atmosphere comes from industrial emissions, since the amount of Pb present in vehicular fuels is negligible.

  8. An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County Texas. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, R.C.; Weinbrandt, R.; Robinson, W.

    1997-05-28

    The goals of work done this quarter were (1) to analyze the preliminary seismic inversion model for the Grayburg A, B, and C sequences and the upper San Andres formation; (2) modify the inversion model to improve its accuracy and to include the deeper Holt Formation; and (3) test various rock property quantities against the improved model and other seismic attributes using refined analysis boundaries. A satisfactory inversion model and porosity analysis remains to be accomplished, but much has been learned about the modeling and analysis processes. Qualitative comparison of sonic logs with the inversion model traces in profile view shows great similarity and success is being made toward good quantitative results. Progress on these goals is described. Additional studies were carried out on the following: Witcher No. 12 core and completion, water analyses, reservoir simulation, reservoir engineering, and water quality for injection.

  9. Hydrogeology and aquifer test on the San Andres-Glorieta Aquifer on the southwest part of the Zuni Indian Reservation, Cibola County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crouch, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    A large-yield aquifer test of the confined San Andres-Glorieta aquifer was conducted in 1988 to estimate aquifer properties and evaluate the potential effects of large-scale development on the aquifer by pumping from a cave-fracture system on the southwest part of the Zuni Indian Reservation. The San Andres-Glorieta aquifer underlies the reservation and in much of the area is the only aquifer capable of yielding large volumes of water. Two observation wells were drilled 1.2 and 2.7 miles from the pumped well. Water-level responses were recorded at distances from 179 feet to about 5 miles from the pumped well at these and other wells and at Rainbow Spring. Water levels declined at all observation wells and Rainbow Spring in response to pumping for more than 10 days at about 2,580 gallons per minute. Drawdown after 9 days varied from about 4 feet at the pumped well to about 0.2 foot at the most distant observation well and Rainbow Spring. If pumping continued at the average rate as the first 9 days of the test, 2,540 gallons per minute, and aquifer response remained constant, Rainbow Spring would have nearly 2 feet of drawdown after 30 years, and probably would be accompanied by a reduction in springflow of about 65 percent, to about 210 gallons per minute. Water quality remained generally unchanged throughout the aquifer test and is practically the same as that of samples collected at well ZS-1 in 1984 and Rainbow Spring in 1979.

  10. Rock-physics-based carbonate pore type characterization and reservoir permeability heterogeneity evaluation, Upper San Andres reservoir, Permian Basin, west Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Qifeng; Sun, Yuefeng; Sullivan, Charlotte

    2011-05-01

    In addition to mineral composition and pore fluid, pore type variations play an important role in affecting the complexity of velocity-porosity relationship and permeability heterogeneity of carbonate reservoirs. Without consideration of pore type diversity, most rock physics models applicable to clastic rocks for explaining the rock acoustic properties and reservoir parameters relationship may not work well for carbonate reservoirs. A frame flexibility factor ( γ) defined in a new carbonate rock physics model can quantify the effect of pore structure changes on seismic wave velocity and permeability heterogeneity in carbonate reservoirs. Our study of an Upper San Andres carbonate reservoir, Permian Basin, shows that for core samples of given porosity, the lower the frame flexibility factor ( γ), the higher the sonic wave velocity. For the studied reservoir, samples with frame flexibility factor ( γ) < 3.85 represent either visible vuggy pore space in a dolopackstone or intercrystalline pore space in dolowackstone. On the other hand, samples with frame flexibility factor ( γ) > 3.85 indicate either dominant interparticle pore space in dolopackstone or microcrack pore space in dolowackstone or dolomudstone. Using the frame flexibility factor ( γ), different porosity-impedance and porosity-permeability trends can be classified with clear geologic interpretation such as pore type and rock texture variations to improve porosity and permeability prediction accuracy. New porosity-permeability relations with γ classification help delineate permeability heterogeneity in the Upper San Andres reservoir, and could be useful for other similar carbonate reservoir studies. In addition, results from analysis of amplitude variation with offset (AVO) and impedance modeling indicate that by combining rock physics model and pre-stack seismic inversion, simultaneous estimation of porosity and frame flexibility factor ( γ) is quite feasible because of the strong influence of

  11. The transduction of His-TAT-p53 fusion protein into the human osteogenic sarcoma cell line (Saos-2) and its influence on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; Ma, Yushu; Wang, Jinzhi; Tao, Xinyi; Wei, Dongzhi

    2008-03-01

    The p53 gene is a tumor suppressor gene. It encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein p53 involved in the regulation of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis to maintain the genomic integrity of the cell. As mutations of p53 gene are found in most human cancers, p53 protein becomes a hot target in the research of anticancer therapy. In the present study, an 11-amino acid domain of TAT protein which has been demonstrated to be able to transduce across cell membranes was fused with p53. The result revealed that the fusion protein His-TAT-p53 accumulated in the nucleus and inhibited the growth of the Saos-2 cells. Besides apoptosis, an increased percentage of G2 phase suggested that the transduction of His-TAT-p53 into cells might be associated with a G2 arrest of cell cycle. PMID:17206471

  12. Inorganic polymeric phosphate/polyphosphate as an inducer of alkaline phosphatase and a modulator of intracellular Ca2+ level in osteoblasts (SaOS-2 cells) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Müller, Werner E G; Wang, Xiaohong; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Kropf, Klaus; Schlossmacher, Ute; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Glasser, Gunnar; Wiens, Matthias; Schröder, Heinz C

    2011-06-01

    Inorganic polymeric phosphate is a physiological polymer that accumulates in bone cells. In the present study osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells were exposed to this polymer, complexed in a 2:1 stoichiometric ratio with Ca(2+), polyP (Ca(2+) salt). At a concentration of 100 μM, polyP (Ca(2+) salt) caused a strong increase in the activity of the alkaline phosphatase and also an induction of the steady-state expression of the gene encoding this enzyme. Comparative experiments showed that polyP (Ca(2+) salt) can efficiently replace β-glycerophosphate in the in vitro hydroxyapatite (HA) biomineralization assay. In the presence of polyP (Ca(2+) salt) the cells extensively form HA crystallites, which remain intimately associated with or covered by the plasma membrane. Only the tips of the crystallites are directly exposed to the extracellular space. Element mapping by scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy coupled to a silicon drift detector supported the finding that organic material was dispersed within the crystallites. Finally, polyP (Ca(2+) salt) was found to cause an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) level, while polyP, as well as inorganic phosphate (P(i)) or Ca(2+) alone, had no effect at the concentrations used. These findings are compatible with the assumption that polyP (Ca(2+) salt) is locally, on the surface of the SaOS-2 cells, hydrolyzed to P(i) and Ca(2+). We conclude that the inorganic polymer polyP (Ca(2+) salt) in concert with a second inorganic, and physiologically occurring, polymer, biosilica, activates osteoblasts and impairs the maturation of osteoclasts. PMID:21397057

  13. Comparison of cell viability and morphology of a human osteoblast-like cell line (SaOS-2) seeded on various bone substitute materials: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ayobian-Markazi, Nader; Fourootan, T.; Kharazifar, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many studies have shown favorable results following the use of different bone graft materials. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of four different bone graft materials regarding cell viability and morphology of Human osteoblast-like cells (SaOS-2) in vitro. Materials and Methods: The effects of Bio-Oss®, Tutodent®, Osteon®, and Cerasorb® were studied on the human osteoblast-like cell line to evaluate various parameters. Human osteoblast-like cells were seeded onto the mentioned bone substitute materials (BSMs). Cell differentiation; cell viability and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the seeded cells were evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy, cell viability test and phase contrast microscopy Analysis of variance (ANOVA). Tamhane's post-hoc, Kruskal-Wallis Test, and Dunn's Test were used. The results were considered to be statistically significant at P<0.05. Results: The control group (SaOS-2 cells which were incubated in Dulbecco Modified Eagle Medium without any kind of bone graft materials) had the highest level of cell viability (P<0.001), followed by Tutodent®, Osteon®, Cerasorb®, and Bio-Oss®. There was no significant difference in MTT assay results between Tutodent® and the control group (P=0.032). All tested bone graft materials showed significantly higher ALP activity than the control (P<0.001). The Tutodent® group showed the best cell growth among all experimental groups, followed by the Osteon® group. The former had a higher spindle-like morphology with good attachment to the surface. Cells cultivated on the surfaces of the Cerasorb® and Bio-Oss® granules had more round morphologies. Conclusion: This in vitro study demonstrated that all tested BSMs can provide good cell differentiation but a lower rate of proliferation. PMID:22363369

  14. Distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis Chemotype Populations in São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Claudio; Colla-Jacques, Fernanda E.; Hamilton, James G. C.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.; Shaw, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Background American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is an emerging disease in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Its geographical expansion and the increase in the number of human cases has been linked to dispersion of Lutzomyia longipalpis into urban areas. To produce more accurate risk maps we investigated the geographic distribution and routes of expansion of the disease as well as chemotype populations of the vector. Methodology/Principal Findings A database, containing the annual records of municipalities which had notified human and canine AVL cases as well as the presence of the vector, was compiled. The chemotypes of L. longipalpis populations from municipalities in different regions of São Paulo State were determined by Coupled Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry. From 1997 to June 2014, L. longipalpis has been reported in 166 municipalities, 148 of them in the Western region. A total of 106 municipalities were identified with transmission and 99 were located in the Western region, where all 2,204 autochthonous human cases occurred. Both the vector and the occurrence of human cases have expanded in a South-easterly direction, from the Western to central region, and from there, a further expansion to the North and the South. The (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B population of L. longipalpis is widely distributed in the Western region and the cembrene-1 population is restricted to the Eastern region. Conclusion/Significance The maps in the present study show that there are two distinct epidemiological patterns of AVL in São Paulo State and that the expansion of human and canine AVL cases through the Western region has followed the same dispersion route of only one of the two species of the L. longipalpis complex, (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B. Entomological vigilance based on the routes of dispersion and identification of the chemotype population could be used to identify at-risk areas and consequently define the priorities for control measures. PMID:25781320

  15. Precipitation diagnostics of an exceptionally dry event in São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Caio A. S.; Cardoso, Denis H. F.; Firpo, Mári A. F.

    2016-08-01

    The State of São Paulo in Brazil experienced in 2014 and early 2015 an expressive precipitation deficit, leading to drought conditions with impacts in water availability for public consumption, hydropower generation, and agriculture, particularly during austral summer. This study performs a detailed diagnostics of the observed precipitation during 2014 and early 2015 over a particular region of São Paulo State, which includes the massively populated metropolitan region of São Paulo. The diagnostic was designed to provide answers to a number of relevant questions for the activities, decisions, and strategic planning of several sectors (e.g., general public, media, and high-level governments). Examples of questions such diagnostics can help answer are: How much precipitation has the region received? Has the region experienced drought conditions in the past? When have similar drought conditions been observed in the past? What has been the observed precipitation pattern in the last years? How severe/rare were the 2014 and 2015 droughts? When does the rainy season typically start/end in the region? What happened during the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 rainy seasons? The performed diagnostics based on historical 1961/1962-2014/2015 records revealed that the 2013/2014 austral summer was a very rare event classified as exceptionally dry. Similar drought events were previously recorded but with smaller magnitude in terms of precipitation deficits, making the 2013/2014 drought event the driest on the examined record. In fact, the region has been experiencing a precipitation deficit pattern since 1999/2000. One of the contributing factors for the expressive precipitation deficit in 2014 was the abnormally early end of the 2013/2014 rainy season in the region.

  16. Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Karina Camasmie; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological research suggests that air pollution may cause chronic diseases, as well as exacerbation of related pathologies such as cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates air pollution scenarios considering a Health Impact Assessment approach in São Paulo, Brazil. We have analyzed abatement scenarios of Particulate Matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10), <2.5 μm (PM2.5) and ozone concentrations and the health effects on respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the period from 2009 to 2011 through the APHEKOM tool, as well as the associated health costs. Considering World Health Organization (WHO) standards of PM2.5 (10 μg/m3), São Paulo would avoid more than 5012 premature deaths (equivalent to 266,486 life years’ gain) and save US$15.1 billion annually. If São Paulo could even diminish the mean of PM2.5 by 5 μg/m3, nearly 1724 deaths would be avoided, resulting in a gain of US$ 4.96 billion annually. Reduced levels of PM10, PM2.5 and ozone could save lives and an impressive amount of money in a country where economic resources are scarce. Moreover, the reduced levels of air pollution would also lower the demand for hospital care, since hospitalizations would diminish. In this sense, Brazil should urgently adopt WHO air pollution standards in order to improve the quality of life of its population. PMID:27409629

  17. Precipitation diagnostics of an exceptionally dry event in São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, Caio A. S.; Cardoso, Denis H. F.; Firpo, Mári A. F.

    2015-07-01

    The State of São Paulo in Brazil experienced in 2014 and early 2015 an expressive precipitation deficit, leading to drought conditions with impacts in water availability for public consumption, hydropower generation, and agriculture, particularly during austral summer. This study performs a detailed diagnostics of the observed precipitation during 2014 and early 2015 over a particular region of São Paulo State, which includes the massively populated metropolitan region of São Paulo. The diagnostic was designed to provide answers to a number of relevant questions for the activities, decisions, and strategic planning of several sectors (e.g., general public, media, and high-level governments). Examples of questions such diagnostics can help answer are: How much precipitation has the region received? Has the region experienced drought conditions in the past? When have similar drought conditions been observed in the past? What has been the observed precipitation pattern in the last years? How severe/rare were the 2014 and 2015 droughts? When does the rainy season typically start/end in the region? What happened during the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 rainy seasons? The performed diagnostics based on historical 1961/1962-2014/2015 records revealed that the 2013/2014 austral summer was a very rare event classified as exceptionally dry. Similar drought events were previously recorded but with smaller magnitude in terms of precipitation deficits, making the 2013/2014 drought event the driest on the examined record. In fact, the region has been experiencing a precipitation deficit pattern since 1999/2000. One of the contributing factors for the expressive precipitation deficit in 2014 was the abnormally early end of the 2013/2014 rainy season in the region.

  18. Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Abe, Karina Camasmie; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological research suggests that air pollution may cause chronic diseases, as well as exacerbation of related pathologies such as cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates air pollution scenarios considering a Health Impact Assessment approach in São Paulo, Brazil. We have analyzed abatement scenarios of Particulate Matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10), <2.5 μm (PM2.5) and ozone concentrations and the health effects on respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the period from 2009 to 2011 through the APHEKOM tool, as well as the associated health costs. Considering World Health Organization (WHO) standards of PM2.5 (10 μg/m³), São Paulo would avoid more than 5012 premature deaths (equivalent to 266,486 life years' gain) and save US$15.1 billion annually. If São Paulo could even diminish the mean of PM2.5 by 5 μg/m³, nearly 1724 deaths would be avoided, resulting in a gain of US$ 4.96 billion annually. Reduced levels of PM10, PM2.5 and ozone could save lives and an impressive amount of money in a country where economic resources are scarce. Moreover, the reduced levels of air pollution would also lower the demand for hospital care, since hospitalizations would diminish. In this sense, Brazil should urgently adopt WHO air pollution standards in order to improve the quality of life of its population. PMID:27409629

  19. A Cratera de Colônia (São Paulo - SP) Aspectos Gerais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varella, Paulo Gomes; Atulim, Regina Auxiliadora

    2006-06-01

    Despite the studies carried out during the last five decades, Colônia crater, situated at the south of São Paulo (SP), is not much known to the Brazilian scientific community (including astronomers) let alone to the population at large. For this paper, we have selected the main characteristics of that crater, such as size, age, geographic location, geological features of the area, and items in favor of its description as an impact crater, since, up to our days, many researchers have been still uncertain as to its origin. We have also established, a comparison between Colônia crater and other similar Brazilian craters, in order to single it out as a very important site for astronomical, paleoclimatic, geological, and geophysical research. It has also been our aim to provide some subsidy to science teachers who wish to approach this subject in the classroom, and stress (emphasize) the importance of this crater as a Brazilian patrimony, considering that this topic, save for a few distinguished exceptions, is not regularly taught at school. Lastly, (finally) we describe, briefly, the current condition of the crater, pointing out the protection initiatives taken by CONDEPHAAT (Conselho de Defesa do Patrimônio Histórico, Artístico, Arqueológico e Turístico do Estado de São Paulo) and the creation of APA (Área de Proteção Ambiental) Capivari-Monos to refrain the disastrous occupation while propitiating a preservative action to protect the important fountainhead area of São Paulo as well as the crater itself.

  20. [The crowdsourcing and cyberactivism agenda in São Paulo city].

    PubMed

    Segurado, Rosemary

    2015-12-01

    This article presents the results of a study that analyzed 144 Facebook profiles to identify how digital media are used in setting the agendas for discussions and in organizing and mobilizing people about social, political and cultural topics like ethnic, racial, gender, and citizens' rights issues in São Paulo city. This platform was chosen because of its growing appropriation for political actions. The study found that the incorporation of digital tools in political action is bringing about a number of changes in the discussion of social, political, and cultural topics, and redefining the ways that agendas and deliberations are organized, fostering innovative forms of participation by social actors. PMID:26785873

  1. Onychomycosis caused by Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Godoy, P; Nunes, E; Silva, V; Tomimori-Yamashita, J; Zaror, L; Fischman, O

    2004-04-01

    Fusarium species are common soil saprophytes and plant pathogens that have been frequently reported as etiologic agents of opportunistic infections in humans. We report eight cases of onychomycosis caused by Fusarium solani (4) and Fusarium oxysporum (4) in São Paulo, Brazil. These species were isolated from toenails in all cases. The infections were initially considered to be caused by dermatophytes. The clinical appearance of the affected toenails was leukonychia or distal subungual hyperkeratosis with yellowish brown coloration. The eight cases reported here suggest that Fusarium spp. should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of tinea unguium. PMID:15180157

  2. Psychotropic Drug Use in São Paulo, Brazil – An Epidemiological Survey

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, Maria Ines; Andreoli, Sergio Baxter; Peluffo, Marcela Poctich; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva; Feijo, Marcelo M.; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Coutinho, Evandro S. F.; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of one month psychotropic drug use in São Paulo, Brazil, and to assess the gap treatment between the presence of mental disorders and psychotropic drug users. Method A probabilistic sample of non-institutionalized individuals from the general population of São Paulo (n = 2336; turnout: 84.5%) who were 15 years or older were interviewed by a trained research staff, applying the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (CIDI WHO) (depression, anxiety-phobia, OCD\\PTSD, alcoholism sections), and an inventory investigating psychotropic drug use during the 12-month and one-month periods immediately preceding the interview. Logistic models were fitted to investigate associations between psychotropic drug use as well as socio-demographic and clinical variables. Results The one month prevalence of psychotropic drug use in São Paulo was 5.89%, the most commonly used drugs were antidepressants (3.15%) and tranquilizers (2.67%). A higher consumption of psychotropic drugs (overall, antidepressants and tranquilizers) was observed among women (OR:2.42), older individuals (OR:1.04), individuals with higher levels of formal education (1.06), and individuals with a family (OR:2.29) or personal history of mental illness (OR:3.27). The main psychotropic drug prescribers were psychiatrists (41%), followed by general practitioners (30%); 60% of psychotropic drugs were obtained through a government-run dispensing program. Most individuals who obtained a positive diagnosis on the CIDI 2.1 during the previous month were not using psychotropic medication (85%). Among individuals with a diagnosis of moderate to severe depression, 67.5% were not on any pharmacological treatment. Conclusion There is a change in the type of psychotropic more often used in São Paulo, from benzodiazepines to antidepressants, this event is observed in different cultures. The prevalence of use is similar to other developing countries. Most of the patients presenting

  3. In vitro isolation and molecular characterization of an Ehrlichia canis strain from São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Aguiar, Daniel M.; Hagiwara, Mitika K.; Labruna, Marcelo B.

    2008-01-01

    An Ehrlichia canis isolate was obtained from an naturally infected dog exhibiting clinical signs of ehrlichiosis in São Paulo Municipality, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The isolate was characterized by PCR and DNA sequencing of portions of the ehrlichial genes dsb, 16SrRNA, and p28. Partial dsb and 16S rRNA sequences were identical to three and five other E. canis strains, respectively, from different countries and continents (including North America, Africa, Asia and Europe). Conversely, the p28 partial sequence for this E. canis (São Paulo) differed by 1, 2, and 2 nucleotides from the corresponding sequences of the E. canis strains Jake (from USA), Oklahoma (USA), and VHE (Venezuela), respectively. The results in this study indicate that E. canis is the only recognized Ehrlichia species infecting dogs in Brazil. PMID:24031251

  4. Analyses of Teaching Strategies and Learning of Concepts of Astronomy in Elementary Education II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Poffo, M. Roberta

    2012-07-01

    The proposed curricular of the State of Sao Paulo suggests for the discipline of Physical and Biological Sciences contents related to Astronomy for the Elementary Education. In 2010, a study was realised in a public school in Santo Andr to examine the pupils' previous knowledge. Only 19% of them reached a satisfactory note. In this year the contents were presented with three different teaching strategies. In the first class an expositive lesson with audiovisual aids was held, in the second one an expositive lesson in dialogue form was used, and in the third class a textbook research. After the approach a clear improvement of the performance was observe, and the class where the contents had been presented in an expositive lesson with dialogue showed the best effectsciency. This study facilitates analyses of the learning procedure and teaching strategies to improve the Astronomy education in the discipline of Science.

  5. Hemosporidian parasites of free-living birds in the São Paulo Zoo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Carolina Romeiro Fernandes; Guimarães, Lilian de Oliveira; Monteiro, Eliana Ferreira; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Katayama, Michele Viana; Santos, Stéfanie Vanessa; Guida, Fernanda Junqueira Vaz; Simões, Roseli França; Kirchgatter, Karin

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies addressed the diversity of bird Plasmodium and Haemoproteus parasites. However, a few have been carried out in continental avian hotspot regions such as Brazil, a country with markedly different biomes, including Amazon, Brazilian Savanna, Atlantic Forest, Caatinga, Pantanal, and Pampas. We present the first study on hemosporidian (Haemosporida) parasites in free-living birds from an Atlantic Forest fragment where more than 80 avian species have been reported. Within this area, the São Paulo Zoo locates, and it is the fourth largest zoo in the world and the largest in Latin America. A total of 133 free-living bird samples representing 12 species were collected in the zoo, with the overall hemosporidian prevalence of 18 % by PCR-based diagnostics. Twenty-four positive PCR signals were reported from four different bird species, including migratory ones. Columba livia, an urban species, considered nowadays a pest in big cities, showed 100 % prevalence of Haemoproteus spp., mainly Haemoproteus columbae. We discuss the epidemiological importance of new parasites introduced by migratory birds in the São Paulo Zoo area and the risk it poses to the captive species, which are natives or exotics. We also warn about the influence these parasites can have on the biodiversity and the structure of host populations by altering the competitive interaction between the free-living and the captive birds. PMID:26677094

  6. The mental health of Korean immigrants in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sam; Razzouk, Denise; Mari, Jair Jesus de; Shirakawa, Itiro

    2009-04-01

    This study investigated the frequency of lifetime mental disorders among Korean immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Snowball sampling with multiple focuses was used to recruit Korean immigrants older than 18 years and living in São Paulo. A total of 324 Korean immigrants were selected and their mental status was evaluated using a structured interview, namely the Portuguese or the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1. The diagnoses of mental disorders were made according to the ICD-10. The frequency of any lifetime psychiatric disorder was 41.9%. The frequencies of main disorders were: anxiety disorder, 13% (post-traumatic stress disorder, 9.6%); mood disorder, 8.6%; somatoform disorders, 7.4%; dissociative disorder, 4.9%; psychotic disorder, 4.3%; eating disorder, 0.6%; any substance (tobacco, alcohol, drugs) use disorder, 23.1%. The frequency of any psychiatric disorder except alcohol and tobacco use disorders was 26.2%. Korean immigrants have more psychiatric disorders than the Korean population in Korea, particularly post-traumatic stress disorder, and almost the same rate as the Brazilian population. Mental health authorities should promote a healthier integration and the development of culturally sensitive mental health programs for Korean immigrants. PMID:19347208

  7. Rabies seroprevalence of street dogs from São Paulo City, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sallum, P C; Almeida, M F; Massad, E

    2000-04-28

    A sample of 602 street dogs captured by the São Paulo zoonosis-control municipal service was analyzed for the presence of serum antibodies against the rabies virus and compared to a control sample of 37 dogs from the kennel of the police of São Paulo. Data were stratified into 4 age intervals and the age from the street-dog sample was estimated by general aspects and dental observation according to standard techniques. We assumed that seropositivity was due to previous vaccination (no sub-clinical infection). From the prevalence data, we estimated the age-dependent incidence-density rate of vaccination by a simple mathematical model, which also allowed the estimation of the period of antibody protection given by the supposed vaccination. Crude seroprevalence in the street-dog sample was 16.5% and in the sample from the police-kennel dogs was 80%. The average age of first vaccination calculated for the street-dog sample was 5 years of age (if we assumed an average period of vaccine protection of 3 years) - but 5 months of age for the police-kennel sample. PMID:10760397

  8. Two summers of São Paulo drought: Origins in the western tropical Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seth, Anji; Fernandes, Kátia; Camargo, Suzana J.

    2015-12-01

    Two years of drought in Southeast Brazil have led to water shortages in São Paulo, the country's most populous city. We examine the observed drought during austral summers of 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 and the related large-scale dynamics. The 2013-2014 precipitation deficits were more concentrated in the state of São Paulo, while in 2014-2015 moderate deficits were seen throughout the region. We find that a persistent warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly in the western tropical Pacific Ocean was an important driver of drought via atmospheric teleconnection in the two December-February seasons. The warm SST and associated convective heating initiated a wave train across the South Pacific. The resulting anticyclonic geopotential height anomaly over the southwest Atlantic expanded the westward margin of the South Atlantic high and prevented low-pressure systems from entering southeast Brazil from midlatitudes. This mechanism suggests a hemispheric symmetry to that proposed for the recent California drought.

  9. Identification and molecular characterization of norovirus in são paulo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Morilla, Simone Guadagnucci; Cilli, Audrey; de Cássia Compagnoli Carmona, Rita; Timenetsky, Maria do Carmo Sampaio Tavares

    2008-10-01

    Norovirus (NoV), previously called Norwalk-like virus, represents an important group of human pathogens associated with outbreaks of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Epidemiological surveys of outbreaks have shown that the most important routes of transmission are person-to-person contacts and contaminated food and water, with the virus affecting adults and children. NoV is classified into genogroups, being genogroups GI, GII and GIV found in humans. In view of the high genetic diversity of NoV and the lack of information about this virus in Brazil, the aim of the present study was the molecular characterization of NoV isolated from diarrheic stool samples of patients from São Paulo State. In this study, 204 stool specimens collected during diarrhea outbreaks were analyzed by RT-PCR, and 12 were sequenced for genogroup confirmation. One-step PCR was performed in order to amplify the B region of ORF 1 using the MON 431, 432, 433 and 434 primer pool. From total, 32 (15.7%) stool specimens were positive for NoV genogroup GII. Comparison of the sequences of the PCR products to GenBank sequences showed 88.8% to 98.8% identity, suggesting the presence of genogroup GII in gastroenteritis outbreaks in São Paulo State. PMID:24031277

  10. Identification and Molecular Characterization of Norovirus in São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Morilla, Simone Guadagnucci; Cilli, Audrey; de Cássia Compagnoli Carmona, Rita; Timenetsky, Maria do Carmo Sampaio Tavares

    2008-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV), previously called Norwalk-like virus, represents an important group of human pathogens associated with outbreaks of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Epidemiological surveys of outbreaks have shown that the most important routes of transmission are person-to-person contacts and contaminated food and water, with the virus affecting adults and children. NoV is classified into genogroups, being genogroups GI, GII and GIV found in humans. In view of the high genetic diversity of NoV and the lack of information about this virus in Brazil, the aim of the present study was the molecular characterization of NoV isolated from diarrheic stool samples of patients from São Paulo State. In this study, 204 stool specimens collected during diarrhea outbreaks were analyzed by RT-PCR, and 12 were sequenced for genogroup confirmation. One-step PCR was performed in order to amplify the B region of ORF 1 using the MON 431, 432, 433 and 434 primer pool. From total, 32 (15.7%) stool specimens were positive for NoV genogroup GII. Comparison of the sequences of the PCR products to GenBank sequences showed 88.8% to 98.8% identity, suggesting the presence of genogroup GII in gastroenteritis outbreaks in São Paulo State. PMID:24031277

  11. Genotypic Characterization of Cryptosporidium hominis from Water Samples in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Ronalda S.; Dropa, Milena; Fernandes, Licia N.; Carvalho, Terezinha T.; Sato, Maria Inês Z.; Soares, Rodrigo M.; Matté, Glavur R.; Matté, Maria Helena

    2011-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium has emerged as one of the most important water contaminants, causing waterborne outbreaks of diarrheal diseases worldwide. The small size of oocysts under the microscope and the possibility of changes in characteristics of oocysts, mainly in environmental samples, make the taxonomy of the genus difficult if morphologic characteristics are considered. This limitation encouraged the application of molecular methods to identify this microorganism. The aim of this study was to detect and identify by nested-polymerase chain reaction oocysts of Cryptosporidium present in water samples in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Water samples were concentrated through a membrane filter, DNA was extracted by using a standard technique, and both amplification reactions used forward and reverse oligonucleotides that were complementary to Cryptosporidium 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Thirty water samples from different sites of collection in the state of São Paulo were evaluated. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 30% of the samples. By genoptyping, C. hominis and Cryptosporidium sp. were identified in recreational water and C. meleagridis was identified in surface water samples. This is the first report of C. hominis in environmental samples in Brazil. Although identification of Cryptosporidium is still a difficult task, molecular methods are essential for specific identification and are a helpful tool to aid to understand the epidemiology of this parasite in Brazil. PMID:22049036

  12. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in Pediatric Intensive Care Units in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Renato Lopes; Abreu Carvalhaes, João Tomás; Sanae Nishimura, Lucilia; de Andrade, Maria Cristina; Cabilio Guth, Beatriz Ernestina

    2011-01-01

    The hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is one of the most frequent causes of pediatric acute renal failure. The aim of this study was to report the clinic and microbiologic features associated with 13 post-diarrheal HUS cases identified in pediatric intensive care units in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, from January 2001 to August 2005. Epidemiologic, clinic, and laboratorial information, along with fecal and serum samples, were collected for identifying the genetic sequences of Stx and for studying antibodies directed against LPS O26, O111 and O157. STEC was isolated from three patients, and serotypes O26:H11, O157:H7 and O165:H- were identified. In nine patients, high levels of IgM against LPS O111 (n=2) and O157 (n=7) were detected. Dialysis was required in 76.9% of the patients; arterial hypertension was present in 61.5%, neurological complications were observed in 30.7%, and only one patient died. During a 5–year follow-up period, one patient developed chronic kidney disease. The combined use of microbiologic and serologic techniques provided evidence of STEC infection in 92.3% of the HUS cases studied, and the importance of O157 STEC as agents of HUS in São Paulo has not been previously highlighted. PMID:21804902

  13. Association between air pollution and intrauterine mortality in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, L A; Loomis, D; Conceição, G M; Braga, A L; Arcas, R M; Kishi, H S; Singer, J M; Böhm, G M; Saldiva, P H

    1998-01-01

    The associations among daily counts of intrauterine mortality and pollutant concentrations (NO2, SO2, CO, O3, and particulate matter (3/4)10 microm) were investigated for the period ranging from January 1991 to December 1992 in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We used Poisson regression techniques, adjusted for season and weather. The association between intrauterine mortality and air pollution was strong for NO2 (coefficient = 0.0013/ microg/m3; p<0.01) but lesser for SO2 (coefficient = 0.0005/ microg/m3; p<0.10) and CO (coefficient = 0.0223/ppm; p<0.10). A significant association was observed when an index that combined these three pollutants was considered in the models instead of considering each pollutant individually (p<0.01). These associations exhibited a short time lag, not over 5 days. In addition, some evidence of fetal exposure to air pollution was obtained by disclosing a significant association between the levels of carboxyhemoglobin of blood sampled from the umbilical cord and ambient CO levels in children delivered by nonsmoking pregnant women in the period from May to July 1995. Our results suggest that air pollution in São Paulo may promote adverse health effects on fetuses. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9618348

  14. Evaluation of the air quality benefits of the subway system in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cacilda Bastos Pereira da; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Amato-Lourenço, Luis Fernando; Rodrigues-Silva, Fernando; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri

    2012-06-30

    Air pollution is a severe problem in major urban areas due to increasing numbers of vehicles, reduced road capacity and few investments in public transportation, especially in developing countries. Public transportation has a special role in avoiding congestion and consequent environmental and health impacts but is considered expensive. The objective of this paper was to analyze the benefits of the São Paulo subway in terms of the air pollution in the city through strikes events, analyzing both the health outcomes and the related economic burden. For the strike events, increases in air pollutant concentrations during the strike day was observed when compared to a similar day in terms of day of the week and meteorological conditions. Increases in mortality were also observed and the associated economic burden calculated. Despite the elevated construction and operation costs of the subway, when environment and social values are considered, cost-benefit analysis results would indicate a worthwhile investment. The consideration of these aspects is essential to sustainable transportation analyses, and in the case of the São Paulo subway, our analysis clearly demonstrated the important role of this system in the city's environmental, social and economic attributes. PMID:22446073

  15. Determination of Aflatoxins in Peanut Products in the Northeast Region of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Carlos A. F.; Gonçalves, Natália B.; Rosim, Roice E.; Fernandes, Andrezza M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine aflatoxin levels in peanut products traded in the Northeast region of São Paulo, Brazil. To this end, 240 samples of peanut products traded in the cities of Araras, Leme, Pirassununga and Porto Ferreira were collected from June 2006 to May 2007. The samples were analyzed for aflatoxins (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2 by high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed 44.2% samples positive for AF at levels of 0.5 to 103.8 μg·kg−1. Nine of the positive samples (3.7% of the analysed samples) had total aflatoxin concentrations (B1+B2+G1+G2) higher than the limit established by Brazilian regulations (20 μg·kg−1). Based on the above data, the probable mean daily intake (PDIM) of aflatoxins from peanut products in the Northeast region of São Paulo was estimated to be 0.23 ng kg b.w. day−1. Although this PDIM value was relatively low, results indicate that aflatoxin contamination of peanut products may be a public health concern in Brazil, when considering the potential exposure of highly susceptible consumers. For example, it should be emphasized that children are potentially exposed to aflatoxins, since they consume large quantities of peanut candies, and these products had the highest number of samples positive for AFB1. PMID:19333440

  16. San Andres Rift, Nicaraguan Shelf: A 346-Km-Long, North-South Rift Zone Actively Extending the Interior of the "Stable" Caribbean Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvajal, L. C.; Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    The San Andres rift (SAR) is an active, 015°-trending, bathymetric and structural rift basin that extends for 346 km across the Nicaraguan platform and varies in bathymetric width from 11-27 km and in water depth from 1,250 to 2,500 m. We used four 2D regional seismic lines tied to two offshore, industry wells located west of the SAR on the Nicaraguan platform to map normal faults, transfer faults, and possibly volcanic features with the rift. The Colombian islands of San Andres (26 km2) and Providencia (17 km2) are footwall uplifts along west-dipping, normal fault bounding the eastern margin of the rift. Mapping indicates the pre-rift section is Late Cretaceous to Oligocene in age and that the onset of rifting began in the early to middle Miocene as shown by wedging of the Miocene and younger sedimentary fill controlled by north-south-striking normal faults. Structural restorations at two locations across the rift shows that the basin opened mainly by dip-slip fault motions producing a total, east-west extension of 18 km in the north and 15 km in the south. Structural restoration shows the rift formed on a 37-km-wide, elongate basement high - possibly of late Cretaceous, volcanic origin and related to the Caribbean large igneous province. Previous workers have noted that the SAR is associated with province of Pliocene to Quaternary seamounts and volcanoes which range from non-alkaline to mildly alkaline, including volcanic rocks on Providencia described as andesites and rhyolites. The SAR forms one of the few recognizable belts of recorded seismicity within the Caribbean plate. The origin of the SAR is related to Miocene and younger left-lateral displacement along the Pedro Banks fault to the north and the southwestern Hess fault to the south. We propose that the amount of left-lateral displacement that created the rift is equivalent to the amount of extension that formed it: 18-20 km.

  17. Encounters between the "Oppressed" and the "Oppressor": Rethinking Paulo Freire in Anti-Racist Feminist Education in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chia-Ling

    2016-01-01

    With the aim of rethinking Paulo Freire's theory and its practices in race/ethnicity and education, this article uses intersectionality to deepen our understanding of differences among the oppressed and break the opposition between the oppressed and oppressor. Based on an ethnographic study carried out at a feminist adult educational institution…

  18. When a Student Does Not Want to Be in School: A Reading of Paulo Freire through Family Alcoholism Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Edric C.

    2009-01-01

    As Richardson reminds us, "People make sense of their lives, for the most part, in terms of specific events." The author develops a set of poems based on his autoethnography study on Children of Alcoholics (COA). As the author reads Paulo Freire through alcoholism discourse, he creates a link between COA and his own school experiences. While the…

  19. Dogs and Opossums Positive for Vaccinia Virus during Outbreak Affecting Cattle and Humans, São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Marina G.; Barros, Claudenice B.; Appolinário, Camila M.; Antunes, João M.A.P.; Mioni, Mateus S.R.; Bacchiega, Thais S.; Allendorf, Susan D.; Vicente, Acácia F.; Fonseca, Clóvis R.

    2016-01-01

    During a vaccinia virus (VACV) outbreak in São Paulo State, Brazil, blood samples were collected from cows, humans, other domestic animals, and wild mammals. Samples from 3 dogs and 3 opossums were positive for VACV by PCR. Results of gene sequencing yielded major questions regarding other mammalian species acting as reservoirs of VACV. PMID:26812352

  20. Three new species of Xenotarsonemus (Acari: Tarsonemidae) from the northwestern region of São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pitton, Thafarel; Lofego, Antonio C; Rezende, José M

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Xenotarsonemus Beer (Acari, Tarsonemidae), X. demitei n. sp., X. kaingang n. sp. and X. luziae n. sp., are described based on specimens collected from plants in native vegetation in the northwestern region of the São Paulo State, Brazil. PMID:27470778

  1. New species of Tenuipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) from Semidecidual Forest remnants in the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Castro, Elizeu B; Feres, Reinaldo J F

    2013-01-01

    Three new species of the genus Tenuipalpus (Acariformes: Tenuipalpidae), T tapiae sp. nov., T. apichai sp. nov., and T. nambii sp. nov. collected in Semidecidual Forest native plants in the northwest of the state of São Paulo, Brazil are described and illustrated. A key of the Brazilian species of Tenuipaipus based on females is presented. PMID:26106786

  2. Dogs and Opossums Positive for Vaccinia Virus during Outbreak Affecting Cattle and Humans, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Peres, Marina G; Barros, Claudenice B; Appolinário, Camila M; Antunes, João M A P; Mioni, Mateus S R; Bacchiega, Thais S; Allendorf, Susan D; Vicente, Acácia F; Fonseca, Clóvis R; Megid, Jane

    2016-02-01

    During a vaccinia virus (VACV) outbreak in São Paulo State, Brazil, blood samples were collected from cows, humans, other domestic animals, and wild mammals. Samples from 3 dogs and 3 opossums were positive for VACV by PCR. Results of gene sequencing yielded major questions regarding other mammalian species acting as reservoirs of VACV. PMID:26812352

  3. Dynamics and Sources of Atmospheric Lead in São Paulo, Brazil:Preliminary Insights from High Temporal Resolution Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, D.; Gioia, S. M. C. L.; Babinski, M.; Kerr, A. A. F. S.

    2009-04-01

    We present the results of a pilot study investigating the major processes that control concentrations and sources of lead (Pb) in the atmosphere of São Paulo City, Brazil. Aerosols were collected with high temporal resolution during a four-day period in July of 2005. The highest Pb concentrations measured coincided with large celebrations due to a soccer game final and the associated high traffic occurrence and large fireworks. This highlights the impact that a singular transient event can have on air quality even in a megacity like São Paulo. Under meteorological conditions nonconducive to pollutant dispersion (i.e., dry weather), Pb and particulate matter concentrations accumulated during the night, leading to the highest concentrations in aerosols collected early in the morning of the following day. The stable isotopes of Pb suggest that emissions from traffic remain the main source of Pb in São Paulo City due to the large traffic fleet, despite low Pb concentrations in gasoline and alcohol. Changes in wind directions result in different sources being dominant, such as industrial emissions from areas within the greater São Paulo Metropolitan Area.

  4. Paulo Freire on Higher Education: A Dialogue at the National University of Mexico. SUNY Series, Teacher Empowerment and School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobar, Miguel; And Others

    This volume presents a dialogue in 1984 between internationally recognized philosopher/educator, Paulo Freire, and Miguel Escobar, Alfredo L. Fernandez, and Gilberto Guevara-Niebla, educators at the National University of Mexico, on educational emancipation and the role of higher education. The dialogues address the relationships between education…

  5. FLOATING COMMUNITIES OF ALGAE IN AN ARTIFICIAL POND IN THE PARQUE DO ESTADO, SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL(1).

    PubMed

    de Mattos Bicudo, C E; Teixeira Bicudo, R M

    1967-12-01

    A fresluvater floating algal community was repeatedly observed in an artificial pond in the Parque do Estado São Paulo, Brazil. The ontogeny and composition of the community are discussed and are related to oxygen liberation during photosynthesis of the periphyton, or of the pond-bottom algne, which carries up portions of the algae growing there. PMID:27065035

  6. Promotion of physical activity in a developing country: the Agita São Paulo experience.

    PubMed

    Matsudo, Victor; Matsudo, Sandra; Andrade, Douglas; Araujo, Timoteo; Andrade, Erinaldo; de Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Braggion, Glaucia

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present key points of an intervention programme (Agita São Paulo Program) to promote physical activity in a developing country. Agita is a multi-level, community-wide intervention designed to increase knowledge about the benefits and the level of physical activity in a mega-population of 34 million inhabitants of São Paulo State, Brazil. The main message was taken from the Centers for Disease Control/American College of Sports Medicine (CDC/ACSM) recommendation that: 'everyone should accumulate at least 30 minutes of physical activity, on most days of the weeks, of moderate intensity, in one single or in multiple sessions'. Activities were encouraged in three settings: home, transport and leisure time. Focus groups were students from elementary schools through to college, white and blue collar workers, and elderly people. Innovative aspects included: (1) a research centre leading the process, (2) scientific and institutional partnerships (over 160 groups), (3) a feasible approach--the 'one-step-ahead' model, (4) empowerment, (5) inclusion, (6) non-paid media, (7) social marketing, and (8) culture-linked. Data were obtained from 645 random, home-based questionnaires over four years--stratified by sex, age, education and socio-economic level. These data show that the Agita message reached 55.7% of the population, and among these, 23.1% knew the main message. Recall of Agita and knowledge of its purpose were well distributed among different socioeconomic levels, being known by 67% of the most educated. The prevalence of people reaching the recommendation was 54.8% (men 48.7%, women 61%); and risk of being sedentary was quite smaller among those who knew the Agita message (7.1%) compared with those who did not know (13.1%). In conclusion, based upon the Agita São Paulo experience, it appears that a multi-level, community-wide intervention to promote physical activity may obtain good results if the model contains the items listed above

  7. Low-head hydropower assessment of the Brazilian State of São Paulo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Artan, Guleid A.; Cushing, William Matthew; Mathis, Melissa; Tieszen, Larry L.

    2014-01-01

    This study produced a comprehensive estimate of the magnitude of hydropower potential available in the streams that drain watersheds entirely within the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Because a large part of the contributing area is outside of São Paulo, the main stem of the Paraná River was excluded from the assessment. Potential head drops were calculated from the Digital Terrain Elevation Data,which has a 1-arc-second resolution (approximately 30-meter resolution at the equator). For the conditioning and validation of synthetic stream channels derived from the Digital Elevation Model datasets, hydrography data (in digital format) supplied by the São Paulo State Department of Energy and the Agência Nacional de Águas were used. Within the study area there were 1,424 rain gages and 123 streamgages with long-term data records. To estimate average yearly streamflow, a hydrologic regionalization system that divides the State into 21 homogeneous basins was used. Stream segments, upstream areas, and mean annual rainfall were estimated using geographic information systems techniques. The accuracy of the flows estimated with the regionalization models was validated. Overall, simulated streamflows were significantly correlated with the observed flows but with a consistent underestimation bias. When the annual mean flows from the regionalization models were adjusted upward by 10 percent, average streamflow estimation bias was reduced from -13 percent to -4 percent. The sum of all the validated stream reach mean annual hydropower potentials in the 21 basins is 7,000 megawatts (MW). Hydropower potential is mainly concentrated near the Serra do Mar mountain range and along the Tietê River. The power potential along the Tietê River is mainly at sites with medium and high potentials, sites where hydropower has already been harnessed. In addition to the annual mean hydropower estimates, potential hydropower estimates with flow rates with exceedance probabilities of 40

  8. Variability of Disk Emission in Pre-Main Sequence and Related Stars. II. Variability in the Gas and Dust Emission of the Herbig Fe Star SAO 206462

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitko, Michael L.; Day, Amanda N.; Kimes, Robin L.; Beerman, Lori C.; Martus, Cameron; Lynch, David K.; Russell, Ray W.; Grady, Carol A.; Schneider, Glenn; Lisse, Carey M.; Nuth, Joseph A.; Cure, Michel; Henden, Arne A.; Kraus, Stefan; Motta, Veronica; Tamura Motohide; Hornbeck, Jeremy; Williger, Gerard M.; Fugazza, Dino

    2011-01-01

    We present thirteen epochs of near-infrared (0.8-5 microns) spectroscopic observations of the pre-transitional, "gapped" disk system in SAO 206462 (=HD 135344B). In all, six gas emission lines (Br(alpha) , Br(gamma), Pa(beta), Pa(delta), Pa(epsilon), and the 0.8446 microns line of O I) along with continuum measurements made near the standard J, H, K, and L photometric bands were measured. A mass accretion rate of approximately 2 x 10(exp 8)Solar Mass/yr was derived from the Br(gamma) and Pa(beta) lines. However, the fluxes of these lines varied by a factor of over two during the course of a few months. The continuum also varied, but by only approx.30%, and even decreased at a time when the gas emission was increasing. The H I line at 1.083 microns was also found to vary in a manner inconsistent with that of either the hydrogen lines or the dust. Both the gas and dust variabilities indicate significant changes in the region of the inner gas and the inner dust belt that may be common to many young disk systems. If planets are responsible for defining the inner edge of the gap, they could interact with the material on time scales commensurate with what is observed for the variations in the dust, while other disk instabilities (thermal, magneto-rotational) would operate there on longer time scales than we observe for the inner dust belt. For SAO 206462, the orbital period would likely be 1-3 years. If the changes are being induced in the disk material closer to the star than the gap, a variety of mechanisms (disk instabilities, interactions via planets) might be responsible for the changes seen. The He I feature is most likely due to a wind whose orientation changes with respect to the observer on time scales of a day or less. To further constrain the origin of the gas and dust emission will require multiple spectroscopic and interferometric observations on both shorter and longer time scales that have been sampled so far.

  9. Interaction of Human Osteoblast-Like Saos-2 and MG-63 Cells with Thermally Oxidized Surfaces of a Titanium-Niobium Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Vandrovcova, Marta; Jirka, Ivan; Novotna, Katarina; Lisa, Vera; Frank, Otakar; Kolska, Zdenka; Stary, Vladimir; Bacakova, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    An investigation was made of the adhesion, growth and differentiation of osteoblast-like MG-63 and Saos-2 cells on titanium (Ti) and niobium (Nb) supports and on TiNb alloy with surfaces oxidized at 165°C under hydrothermal conditions and at 600°C in a stream of air. The oxidation mode and the chemical composition of the samples tuned the morphology, topography and distribution of the charge on their surfaces, which enabled us to evaluate the importance of these material characteristics in the interaction of the cells with the sample surface. Numbers of adhered MG-63 and Saos-2 cells correlated with the number of positively-charged (related with the Nb2O5 phase) and negatively-charged sites (related with the TiO2 phase) on the alloy surface. Proliferation of these cells is correlated with the presence of positively-charged (i.e. basic) sites of the Nb2O5 alloy phase, while cell differentiation is correlated with negatively-charged (acidic) sites of the TiO2 alloy phase. The number of charged sites and adhered cells was substantially higher on the alloy sample oxidized at 600°C than on the hydrothermally treated sample at 165°C. The expression values of osteoblast differentiation markers (collagen type I and osteocalcin) were higher for cells grown on the Ti samples than for those grown on the TiNb samples. This was more particularly apparent in the samples treated at 165°C. No considerable immune activation of murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells on the tested samples was found. The secretion of TNF-α by these cells into the cell culture media was much lower than for either cells grown in the presence of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, or untreated control samples. Thus, oxidized Ti and TiNb are both promising materials for bone implantation; TiNb for applications where bone cell proliferation is desirable, and Ti for induction of osteogenic cell differentiation. PMID:24977704

  10. VARIABILITY OF DISK EMISSION IN PRE-MAIN SEQUENCE AND RELATED STARS. II. VARIABILITY IN THE GAS AND DUST EMISSION OF THE HERBIG Fe STAR SAO 206462

    SciTech Connect

    Sitko, Michael L.; Day, Amanda N.; Kimes, Robin L.; Beerman, Lori C.; Martus, Cameron; and others

    2012-01-20

    We present 13 epochs of near-infrared (0.8-5 {mu}m) spectroscopic observations of the pre-transitional, 'gapped' disk system in SAO 206462 (=HD 135344B). In all, six gas emission lines (Br{alpha}, Br{gamma}, Pa{beta}, Pa{gamma}, Pa{delta}, Pa{epsilon}, and the 0.8446 {mu}m line of O I) along with continuum measurements made near the standard J, H, K, and L photometric bands were measured. A mass accretion rate of approximately 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} was derived from the Br{gamma} and Pa{beta} lines. However, the fluxes of these lines varied by a factor of over two during the course of a few months. The continuum also varied, but by only {approx}30%, and even decreased at a time when the gas emission was increasing. The H I line at 1.083 {mu}m was also found to vary in a manner inconsistent with that of either the hydrogen lines or the dust. Both the gas and dust variabilities indicate significant changes in the region of the inner gas and the inner dust belt that may be common to many young disk systems. If planets are responsible for defining the inner edge of the gap, they could interact with the material on timescales commensurate with what is observed for the variations in the dust, while other disk instabilities (thermal, magnetorotational) would operate there on longer timescales than we observe for the inner dust belt. For SAO 206462, the orbital period would likely be 1-3 years. If the changes are being induced in the disk material closer to the star than the gap, a variety of mechanisms (disk instabilities, interactions via planets) might be responsible for the changes seen. The He I feature is most likely due to a wind whose orientation changes with respect to the observer on timescales of a day or less. To further constrain the origin of the gas and dust emission will require multiple spectroscopic and interferometric observations on both shorter and longer timescales that have been sampled so far.

  11. TDEM survey in urban environmental for hydrogeological study at USP campus in São Paulo city, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porsani, Jorge Luís; Bortolozo, Cassiano Antonio; Almeida, Emerson Rodrigo; Sobrinho, Esther Novais Santos; Santos, Thiago Gomes dos

    2012-01-01

    In this work, some TDEM (Time Domain Electromagnetic) results at USP ( University of São Paulo) campus in São Paulo city, Brazil, are presented. The data were acquired focusing on two mains objectives: (i) to map geoelectrical stratigraphy of São Paulo sedimentary basin, emphasizing on hydrogeological studies about sedimentary and crystalline aquifers, and (ii) to analyze the viability of TDEM data acquisition use in urban environment. The study area is located in São Paulo basin border, characterized by Resende and São Paulo formations, which are constituted by sand-clays sediments over a granite-gneissic basement. Two equipments were used in order to acquire database: Protem47 (low power), and Protem57-MK2 (high power). Capacitive noise affect obtained data with Protem47 due to the presence of metal pipes buried at IAG/USP (Institute of Astronomy, Geophysics, and Atmospheric Science) test site at USP. On the other hand, capacitive noise did not affect acquired data with Protem57-MK2, and the data present high signal to noise ratio. Surveys helped in determining sedimentary and crystalline aquifers, characterized by a fracture zone with water inside basin basement (conductive zone). Results show good agreement with local geology obtained from lithological boreholes located in the study areas. Moreover, it shows that TDEM method can be used in urban environments with a countless potential in hydrogeological studies, offering great reliability. Studies showed that main TDEM-method limitation at USP was the lack of space for opening the transmitter loop. Results are very promising and open new perspectives for TDEM-method use in urban environments as this area remains unexplored.

  12. Causes of Hospitalization among Children Ages Zero to Nine Years Old in the City of São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Ana Paula Scoleze; Sucupira, Ana Cecília Silveira Lins; Grisi, Sandra Josefina Ferraz Ellero

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The profile of child morbidity is an important parameter for defining and altering health policies. Studies about infant mortality are more numerous than those on morbidity, especially related to hospital admissions. The objective of this study is to describe the causes of admission in the public health system for children from zero to nine years of age in the city of São Paulo during the years 2002 to 2006 and compare these results to those from the national data. METHOD: Through a cross-sectional study, data were obtained from the Hospital Information System, which is available in the Information System of the Unified Health System - DATASUS. RESULTS: Within the period, 16% of the total admissions corresponded to children from zero to nine years of age, with most of the children being younger than one year of age. In the city of São Paulo, the admission coefficient increased 11%, and in Brazil, it decreased 14%. Respiratory diseases were the main causes of hospitalization. In São Paulo, the second most frequent causes of admission were diseases that originated during the perinatal period (15.9%), and in Brazil, the second most frequent cause of admission was infectious-parasitic diseases (21.7%). Admissions for perinatal diseases increased 32% in São Paulo and 6% in Brazil. While hospitalizations for diarrhea decreased in Brazil, an increase was recorded in the city of São Paulo for children under five years old. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study show a paradoxical increase in the number of hospitalizations during an expansion of primary attention, indicating that the rise was not associated with a significant improvement in the quality of service. PMID:20126344

  13. Vascular access: an historical perspective from Sir William Harvey to the 1956 Nobel prize to André F. Cournand, Werner Forssmann, and Dickinson W. Richards.

    PubMed

    Sette, Piersandro; Dorizzi, Romolo M; Azzini, Anna M

    2012-01-01

    Sir William Harvey (1578-1657), who had many precursors, discovered blood circulation in 1628 after a significant number of anatomic dissection of cadavers; his studies were continued by Sir Christopher Wren and Daniel Johann Major. The first central vein catheterization was performed on a horse by Stephen Hales, an English Vicar. In 1844, a century later, the French biologist Claude Bernard attempted the first carotid artery cannulation and repeated the procedure in the jugular vein, again on a horse. He was first to report the complications now well known to be associated with this maneuver. In 1929 Werner Forssmann tried cardiac catheterization on himself, but could not investigate the procedure further since his findings were rejected and ridiculed by colleagues. His work was continued by André Frédéric Cournand and Dickinson Woodruff Richards Jr in the United States. In 1956 the three physicians shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine for their studies on vascular and cardiac systems. The genius and the perseverance of the three physicians paved the way towards peripheral and central catheter vein placement, one of the most frequently performed maneuvers in hospitals. Its history still remains unknown to most and deserves a short description. PMID:21983826

  14. Description of new species of Pterygorhabditis Timm, and Aspidonema (Sachs, ) Andrássy, (Nematoda: Bunonematoidea) in aquatic habitats from India.

    PubMed

    Tahseen, Q; Khan, R; Ahlawat, S

    2016-07-01

    The paper contains descriptions of two new species of the genera Pterygorhabditis Timm, 1957 and Aspidonema (Sachs, 1949) Andrássy, 1958 belonging to the families Pterygorhabditidae Goodey 1963 and Bunonematidae Micoletzky 1922, respectively. Species were procured from fixed samples, collected earlier from aquatic habitats. Pterygorhabditis punctata n. sp. is characterized by a cuticle with flattened hexagonal blocks arranged in eight longitudinal rows in both sexes; each metastegostomal plate with a minute denticle, and males with long, slender, fused spicules and nine pairs of post-cloacal, prominently setose genital papillae. Aspidonema formosa n. sp. is the first report of the genus from India. The species is characterized by the right side provided with 35-48 pairs of warts flanking a row of smooth membranous shields and surrounded by a well-developed network and an anisomorphic metastegostom without discernible armature. Species are compared with other congeners, together with the diagnoses of amended genera, and keys to the identification of species are provided. PMID:26212762

  15. New data on two remarkable Antarctic species Amblydorylaimus isokaryon (Loof, 1975) Andrássy, 1998 and Pararhyssocolpus paradoxus (Loof, 1975), gen. n., comb. n. (Nematoda, Dorylaimida)

    PubMed Central

    Elshishka, Milka; Lazarova, Stela; Radoslavov, Georgi; Hristov, Petar; Peneva, Vlada K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The taxonomic position of two antarctic dorylaimid species Amblydorylaimus isokaryon (Loof, 1975) Andrássy, 1998 and Pararhyssocolpus paradoxus (Loof, 1975), gen. n., comb. n. are discussed on the basis of morphological, including SEM study, morphometric, postembryonic and sequence data of 18S rDNA and the D2-D3 expansion fragments of large subunit rDNA. The evolutionary trees inferred from 18S sequences show insufficient resolution to determine the assignment of the two species to particular families, moreover Pararhyssocolpus paradoxus gen. n., comb. n. (=Rhyssocolpus paradoxus) previously regarded as a member of Nordiidae or Qudsianematidae, showed distant relationship both to Rhyssocolpus vinciguerrae and Eudorylaimus spp. The phylogram inferred from 28S sequences revealed that Amblydorylaimus isokaryon is a member of a well-supported group comprised of several Aporcelaimellus spp., while, no close relationships could be revealed for the Pararhyssocolpus paradoxus gen. n., comb. n. to any nematode genus. On the basis of molecular data and morphological characteristics, some taxonomic changes are proposed. Amblydorylaimus isokaryon is transferred from family Qudsianematidae to family Aporcelaimidae, and a new monotypic genus Pararhyssocolpus gen. n. is proposed, attributed to Pararhyssocolpidae fam. n. The diagnosis of the new family is provided together with emended diagnosis of the genera Amblydorylaimus and Pararhyssocolpus gen. n. Data concerning distribution of these endemic genera in the Antarctic region are also given. PMID:26257550

  16. Monsters and the case of L. Joseph: André Feil's thesis on the origin of the Klippel-Feil syndrome and a social transformation of medicine.

    PubMed

    Belykh, Evgenii; Malik, Kashif; Simoneau, Isabelle; Yagmurlu, Kaan; Lei, Ting; Cavalcanti, Daniel D; Byvaltsev, Vadim A; Theodore, Nicholas; Preul, Mark C

    2016-07-01

    André Feil (1884-1955) was a French physician best recognized for his description, coauthored with Maurice Klippel, of patients with congenital fusion of cervical vertebrae, a condition currently known as Klippel-Feil syndrome. However, little is known about his background aside from the fact that he was a student of Klippel and a physician who took a keen interest in describing congenital anomalies. Despite the relative lack of information on Feil, his contributions to the fields of spinal disease and teratology extended far beyond science to play an integral role in changing the misguided perception shrouding patients with disfigurements, defects, deformities, and so-called monstrous births. In particular, Feil's 1919 medical school thesis on cervical abnormalities was a critical publication in defying long-held theory and opinion that human "monstrosities," anomalies, developmental abnormalities, and altered congenital physicality were a consequence of sinful behavior or a reversion to a primitive state. Indeed, his thesis on a spinal deformity centering on his patient, L. Joseph, was at the vanguard for a new view of a patient as nothing less than fully human, no matter his or her physicality or appearance. PMID:27364256

  17. [A shoulder operation in 1878 on the Juliette Gide, mother of André Gide, by the doctors Brouardel and Berger].

    PubMed

    Steel, David

    2015-01-01

    A hitherto unpublished letter, very probably of 6 July 1878, written by Anna Shackleton to Claire Démarest, gives a detailed description of an operation conducted in Paris the previous day by Drs. Paul Brouhardel and Paul Berger to reduce a month-old dislocated shoulder. The shoulder in question is that of Juliette Gide, the mother of the famous French writer André Gide. Anna Shackleton was the Rouen-born English ex-governess of the adolescent Juliette (Claire's younger sister) who had become her close friend. The operation takes place in the Gide family apartment and involves five other medical staff assisting the two supervising doctors, both of whom, Brouardel in particular, were to follow brilliant careers. Under chloroform for an hour the patient undergoes distraction effected by ropes attached to her body and arm and to the door and window of the family dining-room where a temporary bed has been installed. Thanks to her robust constitution and to the skill of the seven-strong medical team, Juliette Gide eventually regains full use of her arm. PMID:27029137

  18. Ctenostomatous Bryozoa from São Paulo, Brazil, with descriptions of twelve new species.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Leandro M; Migotto, Alvaro E; Winston, Judith E

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes 21 ctenostomatous bryozoans from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, based on specimens observed in vivo. A new family, Jebramellidae n. fam., is erected for a newly described genus and species, Jebramella angusta n. gen. et sp. Eleven other species are described as new: Alcyonidium exiguum n. sp., Alcyonidium pulvinatum n. sp., Alcyonidium torquatum n. sp., Alcyonidium vitreum n. sp., Bowerbankia ernsti n. sp., Bowerbankia evelinae n. sp., Bowerbankia mobilis n. sp., Nolella elizae n. sp., Panolicella brasiliensis n. sp., Sundanella rosea n. sp., Victorella araceae n. sp. Taxonomic and ecological notes are also included for nine previously described species: Aeverrillia setigera (Hincks, 1887), Alcyonidium hauffi Marcus, 1939, Alcyonidium polypylum Marcus, 1941, Anguinella palmata van Beneden, 1845, Arachnoidella evelinae (Marcus, 1937), Bantariella firmata (Marcus, 1938) n. comb., Nolella sawayai Marcus, 1938, Nolella stipata Gosse, 1855 and Zoobotryon verticillatum (delle Chiaje, 1822). PMID:25544281

  19. [Traffic accidents: a qualitative approach from Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Marcos S; Oliveira, Patrícia C P

    2002-01-01

    This article takes an interdisciplinary qualitative approach to the problem of traffic accidents in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. The authors begin by analyzing the "municipalization" (i.e., decentralization to the municipal level) of transport and traffic management in Campinas based on social representations by members of the local government's technical staff. Data demonstrate a significant drop in traffic accident mortality in Campinas in the last ten years. The findings illustrate how new transport and traffic policies had several positive effects. Special attention is given to the objectives, strategies, and obstacles dealt with by local government in the "municipalization" of traffic. The paper concludes by emphasizing the need for specific public policies to revitalize urban mass transportation, including special traffic safety educational programs. PMID:12244350

  20. Dinosaurs remains from western São Paulo state, Brazil (Bauru Basin, Adamantina Formation, Upper Cretaceous)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candeiro, C. R. A.; Abranches, C. T.; Abrantes, E. A.; Avilla, L. S.; Martins, V. C.; Moreira, A. L.; Torres, S. R.; Bergqvist, L. P.

    2004-12-01

    In this contribution is presented the preliminary results of a paleontological expedition to five Upper Cretaceous fossil sites in the western part of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Although the material is fragmented, the recovered fossils constitute an important record of the theropod dinosaur; some isolated teeth are the first record of Carcharodontosauridae in the Upper Cretaceous period in Brazil. The authors group the teeth of the theropod into five morphological groups on the basis of the general morphology of each tooth's cross-section and the presence of wrinkles on the crown. Spinosaurid and abelisaurid are also represented in this assembly, though other morph groups remain undetermined. One tooth in particular and a caudal vertebra indicate the presence of sauropods from the family Titanosauridae family.

  1. Managers' perspective on continuous health education in a region of São Paulo State.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Silvana Martins; Aiub, Allan Correa; Rigato, Anna Francine Gonçalo; Fortuna, Cinira Magali; Matumoto, Silvia; Ogata, Marcia Niituma; Silva, Monica Vilchez da; Nogueira, Ana Carolina

    2015-08-01

    OBJECTIVEAnalysing the concepts of Continuous Health Education - CHE (EPS - in Portuguese), operated by municipal managers and translated into official documents.METHODQualitative research with the use of official documents and semi-structured interviews with the Municipal Health Secretaries or Coordinators of Primary Health Care in the Northeast Region of São Paulo State, and thematic analysis of empirical material.RESULTSResults indicate difficulties in the municipalities problematizing their management practices, services and health care; EPS tools presented are insufficient and unsatisfactory for amending the array of problems raised and are still far from the routine of Primary Care services.CONCLUSIONDespite efforts to implement EPS actions for the strengthening of primary care, the process appears to be incipient. PMID:26353105

  2. Inspiratory Flow Limitation in a Normal Population of Adults in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Palombini, Luciana O.; Tufik, Sergio; Rapoport, David M.; Ayappa, Indu A.; Guilleminault, Christian; de Godoy, Luciana B. M.; Castro, Laura S.; Bittencourt, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Inspiratory flow limitation (IFL) during sleep occurs when airflow remains constant despite an increase in respiratory effort. This respiratory event has been recognized as an important parameter for identifying sleep breathing disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate how much IFL normal individuals can present during sleep. Design: Cross-sectional study derived from a general population sample. Setting: A “normal” asymptomatic sample derived from the epidemiological cohort of São Paulo. Patients and Participants: This study was derived from a general population study involving questionnaires and nocturnal polysomnography of 1,042 individuals. A subgroup defined as a nonsymptomatic healthy group was used as the normal group. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: All participants answered several questionnaires and underwent full nocturnal polysomnography. IFL was manually scored, and the percentage of IFL of total sleep time was considered for final analysis. The distribution of the percentage of IFL was analyzed, and associated factors (age, sex, and body mass index) were calculated. There were 95% of normal individuals who exhibited IFL during less than 30% of the total sleep time. Body mass index was positively associated with IFL. Conclusions: Inspiratory flow limitation can be observed in the polysomnography of normal individuals, with an influence of body weight on percentage of inspiratory flow limitation. However, only 5% of asymptomatic individuals will have more than 30% of total sleep time with inspiratory flow limitation. This suggests that only levels of inspiratory flow limitation > 30% be considered in the process of diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea in the absence of an apnea-hypopnea index > 5 and that < 30% of inspiratory flow limitation may be a normal finding in many patients. Citation: Palombini LO; Tufik S; Rapoport DM; Ayappa IA; Guilleminault C; de Godoy LBM; Castro LS; Bittencourt L

  3. The diameter of nanotubes formed on Ti-6Al-4V alloy controls the adhesion and differentiation of Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Filova, Elena; Fojt, Jaroslav; Kryslova, Marketa; Moravec, Hynek; Joska, Ludek; Bacakova, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Ti-6Al-4V-based nanotubes were prepared on a Ti-6Al-4V surface by anodic oxidation on 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples. The 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples and a control smooth Ti-6Al-4V sample were evaluated in terms of their chemical composition, diameter distribution, and cellular response. The surfaces of the 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples consisted of nanotubes of a relatively wide range of diameters that increased with the voltage. Saos-2 cells had a similar initial adhesion on all nanotube samples to the control Ti-6Al-4V sample, but it was lower than on glass. On day 3, the highest concentrations of both vinculin and talin measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and intensity of immunofluorescence staining were on 30 V nanotubes. On the other hand, the highest concentrations of ALP, type I collagen, and osteopontin were found on 10 V and 20 V samples. The final cellular densities on 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples were higher than on glass. Therefore, the controlled anodization of Ti-6Al-4V seems to be a useful tool for preparing nanostructured materials with desirable biological properties. PMID:26648719

  4. Paleomagnetism of Miocene volcanics on Sao Tome: Paleosecular variation at the Equator and a comparison to its latitudinal dependence over the last 5 Myr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opdyke, N. D.; Kent, D. V.; Foster, D. A.; Huang, K.

    2015-11-01

    A collection was made in January 2009 of 10 oriented samples from each of 54 sites in lavas on Sao Tome Island (nominal location 0.3ºN, 6.5ºE). Some sites were affected by lightning leaving a total of 42 sites for analysis of paleosecular variation. Overall magnetic properties were excellent (highly stable magnetizations carried by pseudosingle domain magnetite). After principal component analysis of progressive alternating field demagnetization data for the samples, 22 sites had normal polarity magnetizations (D = 0. 6º, I = -8.3º, α95 = 4.3º, κ = 53.1) and 20 had reverse magnetizations (D = 176.0º, I = 4.2º, α95 = 7.3º, κ = 20.8); the directions are within 5° of antiparallel, yielding a positive reversal test. The combined data set of 42 site mean virtual geomagnetic poles converted to common (normal) polarity yields a pole position at 86.0°N, 211.5ºE, A95=3.1º. Ar/Ar and K/Ar dating reveals that these rocks are Miocene in age (˜5-11 Ma), old enough to allow northerly plate motion to help explain the slightly far-sided pole position. The between-site dispersion in virtual geomagnetic poles was estimated as the angular standard deviation, Sb, and equaled 11.4° with 95% confidence interval between 9.9° and 13.4°.

  5. The diameter of nanotubes formed on Ti-6Al-4V alloy controls the adhesion and differentiation of Saos-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Filova, Elena; Fojt, Jaroslav; Kryslova, Marketa; Moravec, Hynek; Joska, Ludek; Bacakova, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Ti-6Al-4V-based nanotubes were prepared on a Ti-6Al-4V surface by anodic oxidation on 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples. The 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples and a control smooth Ti-6Al-4V sample were evaluated in terms of their chemical composition, diameter distribution, and cellular response. The surfaces of the 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples consisted of nanotubes of a relatively wide range of diameters that increased with the voltage. Saos-2 cells had a similar initial adhesion on all nanotube samples to the control Ti-6Al-4V sample, but it was lower than on glass. On day 3, the highest concentrations of both vinculin and talin measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and intensity of immunofluorescence staining were on 30 V nanotubes. On the other hand, the highest concentrations of ALP, type I collagen, and osteopontin were found on 10 V and 20 V samples. The final cellular densities on 10 V, 20 V, and 30 V samples were higher than on glass. Therefore, the controlled anodization of Ti-6Al-4V seems to be a useful tool for preparing nanostructured materials with desirable biological properties. PMID:26648719

  6. [War of Words:Revista Politécnicaand the construction of an idea of science in São Paulo, 1904-1917].

    PubMed

    Sávio, Marco Antônio Cornacioni

    2013-11-30

    This article discusses the role of the journal, Revista Politécnica in the creation of an idea of science in São Paulo during the first republican period in Brazil. Published by the students of the Escola Politécnica de São Paulo (São Paulo Polytechnic), which went through upheavals in its formative years, the periodical became a vehicle for the promotion and communication of an idea of science amongst the São Paulo elites at the time. It not only assured the institution a prominent position in the state, but also helped its consolidation as a national center of science, as opposed, for instance, to its main competitor, the Escola Politécnica do Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro Polytechnic). PMID:24346203

  7. The prevalence of physical activity and its associated effects among students in the São Paulo public school network, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Leonardo José; Matsudo, Victor Keihan Rodrigues; Andrade, Douglas Roque; Azevedo, Mário; Ferrari, Gerson Luis de Moraes; Oliveira, Luis Carlos; Araújo, Timóteo Leandro; Matsudo, Sandra Marcela Mahecha

    2016-04-01

    The current study evaluated physical activity (PA) level and its associated effects among students in the public network of São Paulo, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was taken using a representative sample of students in São Paulo public school system. International Physical Activity Questionnaire determined PA level. Students who reported at least 300 minutes/week of PA were considered active. The independente variables were: gender, age, body mass index, education, region, recognition of the Agita São Paulo program. The prevalence of regular PA was 71.7%. Males (PR = 1.09, 95% CIs = 1.04 -1.15) at least 17 years old (PR = 1.16, 95% CIs 1.09-1.24) in their 3rd year of high school (PR = 1.20, 95% CIs = 1.12-1.29) who resided in the Midwest region (PR = 1.27, 95% CIs 1.16-1.38) were most likely to be active. Males at least 17 years old in their 3rd year of high school who lived in the Midwest and recognized the Agita São Paulo/Agita Galera program had higher levels of PA. São Paulo students presented a high level of PA. Moreover, males older than 17 years, attending their 3rd year of high school, who lived in the Midwest region, and recognized the Agita São Paulo/Agita Galera program were the most likely to be more active. PMID:27076008

  8. New occurrences of microvertebrate fossil accumulations in Bauru Group, Late Cretaceous of western São Paulo state, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alveş, Y. M.; Bergqvist, L. P.; Brito, P. M.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we present the results of several palaeontological expeditions to four Upper Cretaceous fossil microsites of the Adamantina and Presidente Prudente formations in western São Paulo State, Brazil. Despite the fragmentary condition of the fossils recovered, they represent an important record of vertebrate microremains. The material, recovered through screen washing, comprises teeth and scales of Lepisosteidae; two morphotypes of Halecostomi teeth with similarities to Characiformes and Amiiformes; a Teleostei tooth of molariform shape; fin spines of Siluriformes; teeth of possible Baurusuchidae, Notosuchia (probably Adamantinasuchus or Mariliasuchus), Neosuchia (probably Itasuchus or Goniopholis), and other Mesoeucrocodylia indet.; probable teeth of Abelisauroidea, other Theropoda indet., and a phalanx of Aves. The comparative microvertebrate fossil accumulation from western São Paulo State provides evidence that: 1) floodplain channels accumulate large concentrations of microremains; 2) coarse sandstone privileges enamel tissues like teeth and scales; 3) new vertebrate fossil records have been discovered in Florida Paulista, Alfredo Marcondes, and Alvares Machado outcrops.

  9. Overview of the Late Cretaceous Biota of the western São Paulo State, Brazil, Bauru Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.; Rich, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    The Turonian-Maastrichtian beds of the Bauru Group, western São Paulo State (Brazil), have yielded a diverse biota. The nine species of mesoecrocodilians are all mesosuchians. There is a single frog, a Neubatrachia. The vertebrates include, four types of fishes, a neobatrachian frog, an anilioid snake, two lizard, six species of podocnemid turtles, nine species of mesosuchian mesoecrocodilians three theropods, two birds, five titanosaurid sauropods, and one mammalian. The invertebrates include one cyclo, one cyclophoroid and eight pulmonates. Plants are represented by only two carophyte species. The biota from western São Paulo State is one the most diverse of the Late Cretaceous in Brazil. The biota from this area confirms that Bauru Group was connected to Patagonia and other Gondwanan areas during the Late Cretaceous.

  10. Biofuel, dairy production and beef in Brazil: competing claims on land use in São Paulo state.

    PubMed

    Novo, André Luiz Monteiro; Jansen, Kees; Slingerland, Maja; Giller, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the competing claims on land use resulting from the expansion of biofuel production. Sugarcane for biofuel drives agrarian change in So Paulo state, which has become the major ethanol-producing region in Brazil. We analyse how the expansion of sugarcane-based ethanol in So Paulo state has impacted dairy and beef production. Historical changes in land use, production technologies, and product and land prices are described, as well as how these are linked to changing policies in Brazil. We argue that sugarcane/biofuel expansion should be understood in the context of the dynamics of other agricultural sectors and the long-term national political economy rather than as solely due to recent global demand for biofuel. This argument is based on a meticulous analysis of changes in three important sectors - sugarcane, dairy farming, and beef production - and the mutual interactions between these sectors. PMID:21125724

  11. An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. Annual report, August 1, 1996--July 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, R.C.; Weinbrandt, R.; Robinson, W.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this two-phase study is to demonstrate an integrated methodology for reservoir characterization of shallow shelf carbonate reservoir that is feasible, and cost effective for the independent operator. Furthermore, it will provide one of the first public demonstrations of the enhancement of reservoir characterization using high-resolution three dimensional (3D) seismic data. This particular project is evaluating the Grayburg and San Andres reservoirs in the Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. This 68 year old field was approaching its economic limit and the leases evaluated would have been abandoned in 10 years. A multidisciplinary approach to waterflood design and implementation, along with the addition of reserves by selective infill drilling and deepening, is being applied to this field. This approach in reservoir development will be applicable to a wide range of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs throughout the US. The first phase of the project included the design, acquisition, and interpretation of the 3D seismic survey, the collection and evaluation of geologic (core and log) data, and engineering (historical production, well test, injection) data from a variety of sources. From this work, a geologically based production history model was simulated. Based on the recommendations made at the end of Phase One, three new wells were drilled, one existing well was deepened, two wells were worked over, one TA`d well was re-entered, and one well was converted to injection. In addition, the quality of the injection water was greatly improved, a step necessary prior to increasing injection in the project area. The realignment of the waterflood and all additional well work await the completion of the seismic based history match and engineering simulation.

  12. Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activity of Pseudopterosins and seco-Pseudopterosins Isolated from the Octocoral Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae of San Andrés and Providencia Islands (Southwest Caribbean Sea)

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Hebelin; Aristizabal, Fabio; Duque, Carmenza; Kerr, Russell

    2011-01-01

    To expand the potential of pseudopterosins and seco-pseudopterosins isolated from the octocoral Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae of San Andrés and Providencia islands (southwest Caribbean Sea), we report the anti-microbial profile against four pathogenic microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans) and report a more complete cytotoxic profile against five human cells lines (HeLa, PC-3, HCT116, MCF-7 and BJ) for the compounds PsG, PsP, PsQ, PsS, PsT, PsU, 3-O-acetyl-PsU, seco-PsJ, seco-PsK and IMNGD. For the cytotoxic profiles, all compounds evaluated showed moderate and non-selective activity against both tumor and normal cell lines, where PsQ and PsG were the most active compounds (GI50 values between 5.8 μM to 12.0 μM). With respect to their anti-microbial activity the compounds showed good and selective activity against the Gram-positive bacteria, while they did not show activity against the Gram-negative bacterium or yeast. PsU, PsQ, PsS, seco-PsK and PsG were the most active compounds (IC50 2.9–4.5 μM) against S. aureus and PsG, PsU and seco-PsK showed good activity (IC50 3.1–3.8 μM) against E. faecalis, comparable to the reference drug vancomycin (4.2 μM). PMID:21556163

  13. Prevalence of Dyslipidemia According to the Nutritional Status in a Representative Sample of São Paulo

    PubMed Central

    Garcez, Marcela Riccioppo; Pereira, Jaqueline Lopes; Fontanelli, Mariane de Mello; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight is one of the major public health problems in Brazil; it is associated with dyslipidemia, which is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Objective To evaluate the lipid profile of residents of the municipality of São Paulo, state of São Paulo, according to the nutritional status. Methods Data from the population-based cross-sectional study ISA-Capital 2008 on a sample of residents of São Paulo were used. Participants were categorized into groups according to body mass index and age range. The levels of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-HDL cholesterol were measured. The association between lipid profile, nutricional status, and waist circumference was investigated. The data were processed using the survey mode of the Stata 11.0 software. Results The prevalence of any type of dyslipidemia in the population was 59.74%, with low HDL-cholesterol dyslipidemia being the most common type. Not overweight individuals had higher mean levels of HDL-cholesterol and lower levels of LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-HDL cholesterol when compared with the overweight group. The rate of inadequacy of these variables was higher in the overweight individuals, regardless of the age group, to the exception of LDL-cholesterol in the adults and elderly. A higher prevalence of isolated hypertriglyceridemia was observed in individuals with higher waist circumference among the adults and the total population. Conclusion The results indicate an association between dyslipidemia and overweight in the population of the city of São Paulo. The most prevalent dyslipidemia in this population was low HDL-cholesterol. PMID:25590927

  14. Spatial accessibility to vaccination sites in a campaign against rabies in São Paulo city, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Polo, Gina; Acosta, Carlos Mera; Dias, Ricardo Augusto

    2013-08-01

    It is estimated that the city of São Paulo has over 2.5 million dogs and 560 thousand cats. These populations are irregularly distributed throughout the territory, making it difficult to appropriately allocate health services focused on these species. To reasonably allocate vaccination sites, it is necessary to identify social groups and their access to the referred service. Rabies in dogs and cats has been an important zoonotic health issue in São Paulo and the key component of rabies control is vaccination. The present study aims to introduce an approach to quantify the potential spatial accessibility to the vaccination sites of the 2009 campaign against rabies in the city of São Paulo and solve the overestimation associated with the classic methodology that applies buffer zones around vaccination sites based on Euclidean (straight-line) distance. To achieve this, a Gaussian-based two-step floating catchment area method with a travel-friction coefficient was adapted in a geographic information system environment, using distances along a street network based on Dijkstra's algorithm (short path method). The choice of the distance calculation method affected the results in terms of the population covered. In general, areas with low accessibility for both dogs and cats were observed, especially in densely populated areas. The eastern zone of the city had higher accessibility values compared with peripheral and central zones. The Gaussian-based two-step floating catchment method with a travel-friction coefficient was used to assess the overestimation of the straight-line distance method, which is the most widely used method for coverage analysis. We conclude that this approach has the potential to improve the efficiency of resource use when planning rabies control programs in large urban environments such as São Paulo. The findings emphasize the need for surveillance and intervention in isolated areas. PMID:23602338

  15. Survey of volatile organic compounds associated with automotive emissions in the urban airshed of São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colón, Maribel; Pleil, Joachim D.; Hartlage, Thomas A.; Lucia Guardani, M.; Helena Martins, M.

    The Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (MRSP), Brazil, is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the world (population 17 million, approx.) and relies heavily on alcohol-based fuels for automobiles. It is estimated that about 40% of the total volume of fuel is ethanol with some vehicles using pure ethanol and others a gasoline/ethanol blend. As such, São Paulo is an excellent example of an oxygenates-dominated airshed of mobile sources and is most likely indicative of the future in heavily populated areas in the US such as Los Angeles where "oxy-fuels" are becoming an important replacement for the conventional pure petroleum-based fuels. In this work, we surveyed the ambient air to identify and quantify the organic compounds associated with the evaporative and exhaust emissions of these fuels and to begin to understand the potential for human exposure. Because this was an initial test without detailed prior knowledge of the airshed of the area, we applied two different air sampling methods for various time periods to assess the ambient concentrations of a variety of polar and nonpolar volatile organic compounds (VOCs). For quality assurance (QA), we collected all the samples in duplicate (whole-air samples in Summa canisters and adsorbent-based samples on Perkin-Elmer Air Toxics tubes) at various flow rates to test performance. All samples were collected over identical time frames, typically for 1-, 2-, and 4-h periods per day at six different locations over a period of 1 week. Overall São Paulo results demonstrate that mean concentrations of single-ring aromatics are 2-3 times higher, volatile aldehydes are 5-10 times higher, and simple alcohols 10-100 times higher as compared to results of a recent study performed by EPA in the Los Angeles basin. C 4-C 11n-alkanes were only slightly elevated in São Paulo.

  16. Identification of Plasmodium relictum causing mortality in penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) from São Paulo Zoo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Marina Galvão; Lopez, Rodrigo Pinho Gomez; de Menezes, Regiane Maria Tironi; Costa-Nascimento, Maria de Jesus; Lima, Giselle Fernandes Maciel de Castro; Araújo, Radamés Abrantes de Sousa; Guida, Fernanda Junqueira Vaz; Kirchgatter, Karin

    2010-10-11

    This study reports avian malaria caused by Plasmodium relictum in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) from São Paulo Zoo. The disease was highly infective among the birds and was clinically characterized by its acute course and high mortality. The penguins of São Paulo Zoo were housed for at least 2 years without malaria; however, they had always been maintained in an enclosure protected from mosquito exposure during the night period. When they presented pododermatitis, they were freed at night for a short period. São Paulo Zoo is located in one of the last forest remnants of the city, an area of original Atlantic forest. In the winter, the space destined for Zoo birds is shared with migratory species. Hence the possibility exists that the disease was transmitted to the penguins by mosquitoes that had previously bitten infected wild birds. Avian malaria parasites are transmitted mainly by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Culex, common vectors in the Atlantic forest. In this study, one Culex (Cux.) sp. was found, infected with P. relictum. There are diverse problems in housing distinct species of animals in captivity, principally when occupying the same enclosure, since it facilitates the transmission of diseases with indirect cycles, as is the case of Plasmodium spp., because certain species that cause discrete infections in some bird species can become a serious danger for others, especially penguins, which do not possess natural resistance. Thus, serious implications exist for periodically testing and administrating malaria therapy in captive penguins potentially exposed to mosquitoes during the night period, as well as other captive birds from São Paulo Zoo. PMID:20638795

  17. Emmanuel Levinas & Paulo Freire: The Ethics of Responsibility for the Face-to-Face Interaction in the Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Margarita Victoria

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is a reflection on the ethics of education on the net as a contribution to the face-to-face interaction in the virtual world. We think the ethics is a result of a process of responsible interchange with others. Two important thinkers of the last few decades, Emmanuel Levinas e Paulo Freire contribute each one with one's…

  18. PTH/cAMP/PKA signaling facilitates canonical Wnt signaling via inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in osteoblastic Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Akira; Ozono, Keiichi; Kubota, Takuo; Kondou, Hiroki; Tachikawa, Kanako; Michigami, Toshimi

    2008-05-01

    Although the intermittent administration of PTH is known to stimulate the bone formation, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we investigated the crosstalk between PTH/cAMP signaling and canonical Wnt signaling using the human osteoblastic cell line Saos-2. Treatment with PTH or forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase, facilitated T-cell factor (TCF)-dependent transactivation in a dose-dependent manner, which was abolished by pre-treatment with a PKA inhibitor, H89. Wnt3a and forskolin synergistically increased the TCF-dependent transactivation. Interestingly, intermittent treatment with PTH enhanced the TCF-dependent transactivation more profoundly than continuous treatment. In addition to the effects on TCF-dependent reporter activity, treatment with PTH or forskolin resulted in the increased expression of endogenous targets of Wnts, Wnt-induced secreted protein 2 (WISP2) and naked cuticle 2 (NKD2). We then investigated the convergence point of PTH/cAMP signaling and the canonical Wnt pathway. Western blotting demonstrated that GSK-3beta was rapidly phosphorylated at Ser(9) on treatment with PTH or forskolin, leading to its inactivation. Moreover, overexpression of a constitutively active mutant of GSK-3beta abolished the TCF-dependent transactivation induced by forskolin. On the other hand, overexpression of the Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (DKK1) failed to cancel the effects of forskolin on the canonical Wnt pathway. Interestingly, treatment with Wnt3a markedly reduced the forskolin-induced expression of receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), a target gene of PTH/cAMP/PKA. These results suggest that cAMP/PKA signaling activates the canonical Wnt pathway through the inactivation of GSK-3beta, whereas Wnt signaling might inhibit bone resorption through a negative impact on RANKL expression in osteoblasts. PMID:17990294

  19. Spatial analysis of neonatal mortality in the state of São Paulo, 2006-2010☆

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Milena Cristina Silva; Gomes, Camila Moraes Santos; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify spatial patterns of distribution of overall, early, and late neonatal mortality rates in São Paulo state. METHODS: An ecological and exploratory study was carried in micro-regions of São Paulo sate. Mortality rates per 1,000 live births (LB) were calculated using data on overall, early, and late neonatal mortality in São Paulo between 2006 and 2010; these data were obtained from Information System and Information Technology Department of the Brazilian National Healthcare System (DATASUS). The global Moran's indices (I) were calculated for rates and thematic maps were built with these rates. Micro-regions with a high priority for intervention were identified by the box map. The software TerraView 4.2.1 was used for spatial analysis. RESULTS: The rates of early and late neonatal mortality were 6.2 per thousand LB and 2.5 per thousand LB, respectively. The global Moran's indexes (I) were I=0.13, I=0.15, and I=0.26 for overall, early, and late neonatal mortality rates, respectively; all global Moran's indices showed p-values <0.05. Thematic maps showed clusters of micro-regions with high rates located in the southwest and east of the state. CONCLUSION: The results presented in this study allow the implementation of policies by health managers, aiming to reduce neonatal mortality. PMID:25511002

  20. [Epidemiology of tuberculosis in children under 15 years of age in the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil, 1984].

    PubMed

    Dias, M H

    1991-12-01

    Reported cases of tuberculosis in minors under fifteen years old in S. Paulo County, State of S. Paulo, Brazil, are analyzed. The Health Information Center of the Health Secretariat of the State of S. Paulo was notified of the diagnosis in all cases which occurred in 1984. The medical records were analyzed and the physicians in charge of the reports interviewed. Among the population studied the annual notification rate was 21.4/100,000 for minors under fifteen with largest incidence (31.8/100,000) for those under fifteen years old. Significant discrepancies between the various regions were observed. Pulmonary tuberculosis was by far the most predominant form of the disease (83.1% and 17.8/100,000). Pulmonary tuberculosis associated with extrapulmonary cases accounts for 4.7% of all the cases (1.100,000). Extrapulmonary cases (2.5/100,000) accounted for 12.2% of all reports. Also, a significant coefficient (1/100,000) was observed for meningitis (isolated or associated), equivalent to 4.9% of all cases. Nearly 35.7% (46 cases) of the lung material analysed revealed BK+. Of the extrapulmonary material analysed sixteen cases (53.3%) of them were BK+. The incidence of positive sputum smear cases was 0.9/100,000 inhab., being greater in the age group 10-14 (2.8/100,000 inhab). PMID:1843231

  1. Relationship between Black Carbon and heavy traffic in São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, R. M.; Perez-Martinez, P.; Ribeiro, F. N. D.; Andrade, M. D. F.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols play an important role in air quality, human health and global climate change. Black Carbon (BC) can be considered the most efficient light absorber in the visible spectrum and is mainly found in the fine fraction of aerosol. Typically is emitted by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels related to traffic, industrial processes and biomass burning. São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) with more than 19 million inhabitants, 7 million vehicles, as well as the major industrial and technological park of the country, has high concentrations of air pollutants, especially in the winter and vehicles are considered the principal source of particles emitted to the atmosphere. Since November 2014, Black Carbon and PM2.5 are being monitored using a MAAP (Multi Angle Absorption Photometer) Thermo 5012 and a Dust Trak DRX-8533 TSI in the East Campus of University of São Paulo, close to important highways and also to the largest airport of Brazil (Guarulhos Airport). Average BC concentration was 1.7 μg/m3 with some peaks above 17.0 μg/m3 and for PM2.5 average was 10.2 μg/m3. Particle concentrations reached values greater than the air quality standard (60 μg/m3) in the winter months. Winds coming from the East direction predominate. Traffic restrictions to heavy duty vehicles in the road-rings next to the sampling site during some hours of the day are the responsible for the daily BC and PM2.5 behavior (figure below), where high concentrations occur early in the morning and late at night, when heavy diesel vehicles are released for transit. Seasonal variations are different for BC and PM2.5 due to local sources of BC and meteorological conditions that have more influence on the particles. The weekly variation indicates that concentrations are lower on Sundays and higher from Tuesday to Thursday. Emission factors for BC were calculated based on traffic information.

  2. Greenhouse gases measurements in road tunnel in São Paulo Megacity, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaro, A.; Andrade, M. F.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Galichio, W.; Astolfo, R.; Miranda, R. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is the richest area in Brazil and is one of the largest megacities in the world, with more than 20 million inhabitants. The fleet, with more than 7 million vehicles, is unique in that most are fueled by ethanol or by a gasoline-ethanol (flex-fuel vehicles) mixture containing 75-78% gasoline (by volume) and 22-25% ethanol (a blend referred to as gasohol). Nowadays, approximately 50% of the fuel burned by the fleet is ethanol. The vehicular emissions are responsible for approximately 98, 97, and 96%, respectively, of all emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). In addition, the fleet is the largest source of CO2 emissions in the MASP. The goal is to evaluate of the vehicles emissions of the pollutants and greenhouse gases (CH4 and CO2) in the MASP. The gases carbon dioxide and methane were carried out by Picarro G2301 Analyzer for CO2/CH4/H2O in air. Field measurements were carried out in two road tunnels within the MASP: May 2 to 13, 2011 in the Janio Quadros (JQ) tunnel and from July 04 to 19, 2011 in the Rodoanel (RA) tunnel. The JQ tunnel is located in the southwest portion of São Paulo. It is a two-lane tunnel that is 1900 m in length, and the traffic in both lanes flows in the same directions. The in-tunnel emissions are mainly from gasohol- and ethanol-powered vehicles. The RA tunnel is located in the West portion of the city and different from JQ tunnel. It is 1700m in length and carries gasohol, ethanol and diesel powered vehicles, being that approximately 40% of the heavy-duty (burning diesel) in its four-lane. The results showed that the effects of the number and velocity of the vehicles in the variability of greenhouse gases and pollutants. The carbon dioxide reaching the hourly maximum value of 550 ppm in-inside the JQ tunnel, and 900 ppm in-side the RA tunnel.

  3. Mental Disorders in Megacities: Findings from the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Laura Helena; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Andreoni, Solange; Silveira, Camila Magalhães; Alexandrino-Silva, Clovis; Siu, Erica Rosanna; Nishimura, Raphael; Anthony, James C.; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Kessler, Ronald C.; Viana, Maria Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Background World population growth is projected to be concentrated in megacities, with increases in social inequality and urbanization-associated stress. São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) provides a forewarning of the burden of mental disorders in urban settings in developing world. The aim of this study is to estimate prevalence, severity, and treatment of recently active DSM-IV mental disorders. We examined socio-demographic correlates, aspects of urban living such as internal migration, exposure to violence, and neighborhood-level social deprivation with 12-month mental disorders. Methods and Results A representative cross-sectional household sample of 5,037 adults was interviewed face-to-face using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), to generate diagnoses of DSM-IV mental disorders within 12 months of interview, disorder severity, and treatment. Administrative data on neighborhood social deprivation were gathered. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate individual and contextual correlates of disorders, severity, and treatment. Around thirty percent of respondents reported a 12-month disorder, with an even distribution across severity levels. Anxiety disorders were the most common disorders (affecting 19.9%), followed by mood (11%), impulse-control (4.3%), and substance use (3.6%) disorders. Exposure to crime was associated with all four types of disorder. Migrants had low prevalence of all four types compared to stable residents. High urbanicity was associated with impulse-control disorders and high social deprivation with substance use disorders. Vulnerable subgroups were observed: women and migrant men living in most deprived areas. Only one-third of serious cases had received treatment in the previous year. Discussion Adults living in São Paulo megacity had prevalence of mental disorders at greater levels than similar surveys conducted in other areas of the world. Integration of mental health promotion and care into the

  4. Atmospheric impacts of vehicular emissions in São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, P. P.; Brito, J. F.; Rizzo, L. V.; Godoy, J.; Godoy, M. L.; Alves, N. D.

    2013-12-01

    São Paulo is a large megacity (18 million people) with 7 million vehicles, with a peculiar vehicle fleet with significant ethanol emissions. A mixture of 24% of ethanol in the gasoline and a large fraction of vehicles running pure ethanol in flex fuel vehicles makes the city particularly interesting from the point of view of aerosol formation. A long term experiment was designed to analyze the physico-chemical properties of aerosols in São Paulo, as well as to apportion aerosol sources, with emphasis on vehicular emissions. Aerosol size distribution in the size range of 10 to 600 nm were measured with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). Optical properties are being measured with a TSI Nephelometer and a Thermo MAAP (Multi Angle Absorption Photometer). The composition of fine and coarse mode aerosols are being measured with XRF analysis and a Sunset instrument measure organic and elemental carbon in quartz filters. An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) is used to characterize organic aerosols, in parallel with a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) to determine VOC concentrations. The measured total particle concentration typically varies between 10,000 and 50,000 per cm-3 being the lowest late in the night and highest around noon after peak vehicle emissions. Clear diurnal patterns in aerosol optical properties were observed. Scattering and absorption coefficients typically range between 20 and 100 Mm-1 at 450 nm, and between 10 to 40 Mm-1 at 637 nm, respectively, both of them peaking at 7:00 local time, the morning rush hour. The corresponding single scattering albedo varies between 0.50 and 0.85, indicating a significant contribution of primary absorbing particles to the aerosol population. During the first month a total of seven new particle formation events were observed with growth rates ranging from 9 to 25 nm h-1. Interestingly enough there were also events where condensed vapors were evaporating from the condensed phase thus

  5. Organic Aerosols from SÃO Paulo and its Relationship with Aerosol Absorption and Scattering Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, P.; Brito, J. F.; Rizzo, L. V.

    2012-12-01

    The megacity of São Paulo with its 19 million people and 7 million cars is a challenge from the point of view of air pollution. High levels of organic aerosols, PM10, black carbon and ozone and the peculiar situation of the large scale use of ethanol fuel makes it a special case. Little is known about the impact of ethanol on air quality and human health and the increase of ethanol as vehicle fuel is rising worldwide An experiment was designed to physico-chemical properties of aerosols in São Paulo, as well as their optical properties. Aerosol size distribution in the size range of 1nm to 10 micrometers is being measured with a Helsinki University SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer), an NAIS (Neutral ion Spectrometer) and a GRIMM OPC (Optical Particle Counter). Optical properties are being measured with a TSI Nephelometer and a Thermo MAAP (Multi Angle Absorption Photometer). A CIMEL sunphotometer from the AERONET network measure the aerosol optical depth. Furthermore, a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) and an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) are used to real-time VOC analysis and aerosol composition, respectively. The ACSM was operated for 3 months continuosly during teh wintertime of 2012. The measured total particle concentration typically varies between 10,000 and 30,000 cm-3 being the lowest late in the night and highest around noon and frequently exceeding 50,000 cm-3. Clear diurnal patterns in aerosol optical properties were observed. Scattering and absorption coefficients typically range between 20 and 100 Mm-1 at 450 nm, and between 10 to 40 Mm-1 at 637 nm, respectively, both of them peaking at 7:00 local time, the morning rush hour. The corresponding single scattering albedo varies between 0.50 and 0.85, indicating a significant contribution of primary absorbing particles to the aerosol population. During the first month a total of seven new particle formation events were observed with growth rates ranging from 9 to 25

  6. Traffic-related air quality trends in São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Martínez, Pedro José; Fátima Andrade, María.; Miranda, Regina Maura

    2015-06-01

    The urban population of South America has grown at 1.05%/yr, greater urbanization increasing problems related to air pollution. In most large cities in South America, there has been no continuous long-term measurement of regulated pollutants. One exception is São Paulo, Brazil, where an air quality monitoring network has been in place since the 1970s. In this paper, we used an air quality-based approach to determine pollutant trends for emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ozone (O3), and coarse particulate matter (PM10), mostly from mobile sources, in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo for the 2000-2013 period. Mobile sources included light-duty vehicles (LDVs, comprising gasoline- or ethanol-powered cars and motorcycles) and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs, comprising diesel-powered trucks and buses). Pollutant concentrations for mobile source emissions were measured and correlated with fuel sales by the emission factors. Over the 2000-2013 period, concentrations of NOx, CO, and PM10 decreased by 0.65, 0.37, and 0.71% month-1, respectively, whereas sales of gasoline, ethanol, and diesel increased by 0.26, 1.96, and 0.38% month-1, respectively. LDVs were the major mobile source of CO, whereas LDVs were the major source of NOx and PM10. Increases in fuel sales and in the corresponding traffic volume were partially offset by decreases in pollutant concentrations. Between 2000 and 2013, there was a sharp (-5 ppb month-1) decrease in the concentrations of LDV-emitted CO, together with (less dramatic) decreases in the concentrations of HDV-emitted NOx and PM10 (-0.25 and -0.09 ppb month-1, respectively). Variability was greater for HDV-emitted NOx and PM10 (R = -0.47 and -0.41, respectively) than for LDV-emitted CO (R = -0.72). We draw the following conclusions: the observed concentrations of LDV-emitted CO decreased at a sharper rate than did those of HDV-emitted NOx and PM10; mobile source contributions to O3 formation varied significantly, LDVs

  7. EFFECTS OF HEAVY INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION ON RESPIRATORY FUNCTION IN THE CHILDREN OF CUBATAO, BRAZIL; A PRELIMINARY REPORT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cubatao is located on the coast of Brazil 44 km from Sao Paulo. ts geography and wind patterns limit dispersion of air pollutants which result from heavy industrial activity within the city. ew York University and EPA in collaboration with the University of Sao Paulo are conducti...

  8. Students' Preferred Teaching Techniques for Biochemistry in Biomedicine and Medicine Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novelli, Ethel L.B.; Fernandes, Ana Angelica H.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the students' preferred teaching techniques, such as traditional blackboard, power-point, or slide-projection, for biochemistry discipline in biomedicine and medicine courses from Sao Paulo State University, UNESP, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Preferences for specific topic and teaching techniques were…

  9. Relation between aerosol particles and their optical properties: a case study for São Paulo-Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Regina; Andrade, Maria de Fatima

    2013-04-01

    Brazil has a territory of 8.5 million km2 and a population of more than 160 million inhabitants, distributed throughout 26 states. Brazillian capital-cities with millions inhabitants and vehicles have several problems concerning air pollution. São Paulo, capital of São Paulo State, with more than 19 million inhabitants, 7 million vehicles, as well as the major industrial and technological park of the country, has high concentrations of air pollutants, especially in the winter. Air pollution, high building density, and a lack of green areas, combined with the proliferation of asphalt and concrete surfaces, have resulted in a greater number of urban heat island effects, fewer drizzle events, and rainfall events of greater intensity. São Paulo has an extensive air quality monitoring network, which has shown that ozone levels often exceed the NAAQS limit during spring and summer, and that concentrations of inhalable particles exceed the NAAQS limit mainly during the winter, from June to August. Aerosols are produced by a variety of processes, creating differences in their physicochemical properties and hence in their ability to scatter and absorb solar radiation. For most urban areas in Brazil, vehicles are considered the principal source of particles emitted to the atmosphere. Particles have been monitored in the winter of 2012 in São Paulo using a MOUDI (Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor), in order to have the mass distribution of the aerosol. The concentrations of coarse particles can still be larger than those of fine particles, although the difference between both has become smaller than in the past. The samples collected were analyzed by gravimetry for mass concentration, optical reflectance for Black Carbon concentration and X-ray Fluorescence for elementar characterization. Optical properties were obtained from Aeronet (Aerosol Robotic Network, http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/) for São Paulo city. It was found that a high fraction of elements was derived

  10. Diurnal characteristics of lightning flashes detected over the São Paulo lightning mapping array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chronis, T.; Lang, T.; Koshak, W.; Blakeslee, R.; Christian, H.; McCaul, E.; Bailey, J.

    2015-12-01

    This study examines diurnal variations of lightning flash characteristics observed by the Lightning Mapping Array in São Paulo, Brazil. The diurnal flash counts exhibit the typical afternoon convective maximum. The mean source altitude demonstrates a discrete increase that is temporally coincident with the local sunrise. The mean horizontal and vertical flash extents each attain a maximum (minimum) around local sunrise (afternoon, i.e., 13:00-17:00 local solar time). In addition, joint histograms of flash horizontal and vertical extents show that the majority of the flashes occurring during the afternoon convection are shorter and more comparable in size, and the differences between the horizontal and vertical extents are reduced. Conversely, flashes preceding and following the peak in afternoon convection are less symmetric, with larger horizontal than vertical extents. We discuss whether these observations could be partially explained by the diurnal variations in the convectively induced mixing regimes that control thundercloud charge regions and associated charge separation distances. The documented diurnal flash characteristics closely match recently published findings on the diurnal variation of the peak currents of cloud-to-ground flashes. Possible physical mechanisms for these observations are discussed.

  11. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in bats from São Paulo city, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Aline D; D'Auria, Sandra R N; Camargo, Maria C G O; Rosa, Adriana R; Sodré, Miriam M; Galvão-Dias, Maria A; Jordão, Luciana R; Dubey, J P; Gennari, Solange M; Pena, Hilda F J

    2014-12-15

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii protozoan with a worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies in bats from São Paulo city, Brazil. A total of 616 serum samples were collected from 22 species of bats. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were searched using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT ≥ 1:16) and IgG anti-bat antibodies produced in sheep on samples collected during 2006-2011; 32.62% (201/616) of bats had T. gondii antibodies. The modified agglutination test (MAT ≥ 1:25) was performed on samples collected during 2010-2011; 18.61% (35/188) were seropositive. The concordance between IFAT and MAT (serum samples from 2010 to 2011) by Kappa (95% CI) was 0.144, resulting in a low agreement between the techniques. The specificity and sensitivity of MAT and IFAT have not been evaluated for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in bats. Thus, it was verified that bats are exposed to T. gondii during their lifetime and they are also part of the toxoplasmosis epidemiology. PMID:25468027

  12. YELLOW FEVER PREVENTION STRATEGIES AWARENESS AMONG HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS IN SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Avelino-Silva, Vivian Iida; Francelino, Hilario Sousa; Kallás, Esper Georges

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Vaccination is the main preventive strategy against Yellow Fever (YF), which is a public health concern in Brazil. However, HIV-infected patients might have insufficient knowledge regarding YF, YF prevention, and vaccines in general. Methods: In this questionnaire-based study, data from 158 HIV-infected individuals were addressed in three distinct outpatient clinics in São Paulo. Information was collected on demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as patients' knowledge of vaccines, YF and YF preventive strategies. In addition, individual YF vaccine recommendations and vaccine status were investigated. Results: Although most participants adequately ascertain the vaccine as the main prevention strategy against YF, few participants were aware of the severity and lack of specific treatment for YF. Discrepancy in YF vaccine (patients who should have taken the vaccine, but did not) was observed in 18.8% of participants. Conclusion: YF is an important and preventable public health concern, and these results demonstrate that more information is necessary for the HIV-infected population. PMID:25229222

  13. Migrant labor and wear-out in manual sugarcane harvesting in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Luz, Verônica Gronau; Corrêa Filho, Heleno Rodrigues; Silva, Alessandro José Nunes da; Laat, Erivelton Fontana de; Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade de Gouveia; Silva, Fernando Oliveira Catanho da; Zangirolani, Lia Thieme Oikawa

    2012-10-01

    The scope of this paper is to describe the work of manual sugarcane harvesters, assessing the nutritional behavior and body composition between the beginning and the end of the harvest. A descriptive longitudinal study was made of harvesters in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil, who answered a socio-demographic questionnaire and authorized measurement of Body Mass Index, Body Fat Percentage and Arm Muscle Circumference at three stages. Creatine kinase on the skeletal isoform, C-reactive protein and plasma urea were measured at the end of the harvest. Thirty male migrant harvesters with ages ranging from 18 to 44 from the Northeast (Ceará) were assessed over a nine-month period. The workers suffered significant body fat and weight loss in the first half of the harvest. Eighteen workers had abnormal levels of creatine kinase and four - out of 24 who had donated blood - had altered urea levels. Sugarcane harvesting work causes weight and body fat loss and gains in the lean body mass index, which suffers wear-out when working on consecutive harvests. It can also cause changes in biochemical markers of chronic systemic inflammation. Further studies will make it possible to comprehend the relationships between stress, wear-out, labor longevity and health in sugarcane harvesting. PMID:23099768

  14. [Spatial distribution of endemic diseases in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State].

    PubMed

    Hino, Paula; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena; da Cunha, Tarcísio Neves; dos Santos, Claudia Benedita

    2011-01-01

    The perception that some diseases happen in certain places is old. The concern in studying the relation between the human being and the environment resulted in several studies of medical geography, directed to the analysis of diseases spatial distribution. This sectional study was carried out in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, and aimed to illustrate, through health problems (dengue, leprosy and tuberculosis), how a Geographic Information System tool allows the identification of heterogeneous areas, providing support for the choice of strategies and specific interventions according to the need of residents, as well as, priority of resources to more vulnerable groups. The population comprised cases of dengue, leprosy and tuberculosis notified in Ribeirão Preto in 2000. Data were collected in the Health Secretary Epidemiological Surveillance of the city. In order to obtain the thematic maps, data were geo-codified with the software MapInfo 7.8 e Spring 4.3. The thematic maps showed the density distribution of dengue, leprosy and tuberculosis cases in the city as a way to complement the analysis of health information, pointing priority areas for the control of these diseases. PMID:21503478

  15. [Health promotion in primary care: study based on the Paulo Freire method].

    PubMed

    Heidemann, Ivonete Teresinha Schülter Buss; Wosny, Antonio de Miranda; Boehs, Astrid Eggert

    2014-08-01

    The scope of this study is to analyze the implementation of health promotion actions in the working process of the Family Health Teams of a city in the state of Santa Catarina. It involves research adopting a qualitative approach linked to the methodological benchmark of Paulo Freire, consisting of three dialectic moments: thematic investigation; encoding and decoding; critical revelation. Fifteen Culture Circles were conducted, covering five district health units, with the participation of 70 professionals. Each meeting was scheduled to last two hours with an average attendance of thirteen participants of the Family Health teams. The research revealed that there are limitations to the implementation of health promotion as a key element of participatory action together with the community. It also highlighted the importance of interdisciplinarity and intersectorality between workers and the city, state and federal manager. The commitment to the principles of the Unified Health System (SUS) and health promotion also presents itself as a challenge to improve the quality of life of the population. PMID:25119094

  16. Seroepidemiology of group A rotavirus in suburban São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cox, M J; Azevedo, R S; Nokes, D J; Beards, G M; McCrae, M A; Massad, E; Medley, G F

    1998-06-01

    Age-specific patterns of rotavirus infection were investigated using a randomly selected and representative sample of sera from a suburban community of São Paulo, Brazil screened for class-specific antibodies to group A rotavirus. Age-serology of anti-rotavirus IgG showed primary infection predominant in young infants with a median age of around 18 months consistent with IgM serology suggesting highest rates of recent infection between ages 4 and 48 months. Anti-rotavirus serum IgA prevalence increased gradually with age. Paired samples from infants, collected 1 month apart, indicated high exposure rates with seroconversion occurring in several infants during the reported low transmission season. Between 5 and 10% of adults had elevated IgM levels indicative of recent infection and, potentially, of an important contribution adults may play to rotavirus transmission. Further understanding of the dynamics of rotavirus transmission within populations, at group and serotype level, would benefit the design and monitoring of future immunization programmes. PMID:9692612

  17. Profile of trauma victims of motorcycle accidents treated at hospital São Paulo

    PubMed Central

    Miki, Natália; Martimbianco, Ana Luiza Cabrera; Hira, Lúcia Tomomi; Lahoz, Gisele Landim; Fernandes, Hélio Jorge Alvachian; dos Reis, Fernando Baldy

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate retrospectively, through analysis of medical records, the epidemiological aspects of patients traumatized by motorcycle accidents treated at the orthopedics ward, Hospital São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: It is a retrospective observational study. The analysis of patients' medical records comprised the period from January 2008 to December 2009. The data checked were: age, gender, type of collision, type and location of fracture, treatment performed (conservative or surgical), type of surgery, cost of synthesis material and hospitalization, period of hospitalization and postoperative complications. After data collection, statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS: We analyzed 381 victims involved in motorcycle accidents. Patients were predominantly male (85%), with a mean age of 30.7 years old. Referring to distribution and site of lesions, 75.5% of individuals had lower limb fractures and in 95.4% of the cases, the treatment of choice was surgery. Twenty-nine patients were rehospitalized due to postoperative complications, such as exposure and failure of synthesis material, wound infection, necrosis, osteomyelitis, and pseudoarthrosis. CONCLUSION: It was possible to identify useful characteristics for planning preventative strategies to reduce the rate of motorcycle accidents and redirect public investment in health. Level of Evidence III, Retrospective Study. PMID:25246854

  18. Seroepidemiology of group A rotavirus in suburban São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, M. J.; Azevedo, R. S.; Nokes, D. J.; Beards, G. M.; McCrae, M. A.; Massad, E.; Medley, G. F.

    1998-01-01

    Age-specific patterns of rotavirus infection were investigated using a randomly selected and representative sample of sera from a suburban community of São Paulo, Brazil screened for class-specific antibodies to group A rotavirus. Age-serology of anti-rotavirus IgG showed primary infection predominant in young infants with a median age of around 18 months consistent with IgM serology suggesting highest rates of recent infection between ages 4 and 48 months. Anti-rotavirus serum IgA prevalence increased gradually with age. Paired samples from infants, collected 1 month apart, indicated high exposure rates with seroconversion occurring in several infants during the reported low transmission season. Between 5 and 10% of adults had elevated IgM levels indicative of recent infection and, potentially, of an important contribution adults may play to rotavirus transmission. Further understanding of the dynamics of rotavirus transmission within populations, at group and serotype level, would benefit the design and monitoring of future immunization programmes. PMID:9692612

  19. Dynamics of cytochrome P450 inducers in polluted sites of São Paulo city reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Rocha-e-Silva, Thomaz A A; Rantin, Francisco T; Matsumura-Tundisi, Jose E; Matsumura-Tundisi, Takako; Tundisi, Jose G; Degterev, Igor A

    2004-09-01

    The first analysis of water pollutants using biomarkers at the Guarapiranga Reservoir, which supplies water for one-third of the population of the São Paulo megalopolis (Brazil), is reported. Studies were performed before and after the start of water pumping to the Guarapiranga from the highly polluted Billings reservoir. Billings's water was purified by passing through the natural wetland located near Guarapiranga. Liver enzymes of Oreochromis niloticus (tilopias) obtained from both reservoirs served as biomarkers of pollution in a comparison with animals obtained from a reference site. Enhanced levels of total cytochromes P450 (3.4 times) and b5 (2.7 times) and activity of cytochrome c (P450) reductase (2.2 times) were observed in specimens collected near the water influx from the Billings before the pumping started. However, these parameters were significantly decreased 3 months later. This effect is probably due to dilution of pollutants because of the increased level of water in the Guarapiranga. PMID:15261731

  20. Perception of the value of generic drugs in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Elene Paltrinieri; Ferraz, Marcos Bosi

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of opinion-leaders, patients and their accompanying family members or carers about generic drugs. Three groups of participants were surveyed: (i) 50 customers while they were visiting commercial pharmacies located in São Paulo city, Brazil, (ii) 25 patients and 25 companions while they were waiting at the university outpatient clinic, and (iii) 50 healthcare opinion-leaders from government, hospitals, health plans, academia, and pharmaceutical companies. The questions explored socio-demographic characteristics and perceptions regarding value attributes of generic drugs compared to brand name drugs. Respondents had an average age of 52 years and 53% were women. Respondents believed generic drugs to be cheaper than brand name drugs (97%), and 31% thought generic drugs to be less effective than brand name drugs. Also, generic drugs were perceived by 54% of respondents to be as safe as brand name drugs and 74% would prefer brand name drugs if there was no price difference. In conclusion, multiple factors may contribute to the decision to buy generic drugs; among these, perceived effectiveness, safety and price appear to be the most important factors. PMID:26958819

  1. Halotolerant bacteria in the São Paulo Zoo composting process and their hydrolases and bioproducts

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Lilian C.G.; Ramos, Patricia Locosque; Marem, Alyne; Kondo, Marcia Y.; Rocha, Rafael C.S.; Bertolini, Thiago; Silveira, Marghuel A.V.; da Cruz, João Batista; de Vasconcellos, Suzan Pantaroto; Juliano, Luiz; Okamoto, Debora N.

    2015-01-01

    Halophilic microorganisms are able to grow in the presence of salt and are also excellent source of enzymes and biotechnological products, such as exopolysaccharides (EPSs) and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Salt-tolerant bacteria were screened in the Organic Composting Production Unit (OCPU) of São Paulo Zoological Park Foundation, which processes 4 ton/day of organic residues including plant matter from the Atlantic Rain Forest, animal manure and carcasses and mud from water treatment. Among the screened microorganisms, eight halotolerant bacteria grew at NaCl concentrations up to 4 M. These cultures were classified based on phylogenetic characteristics and comparative partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as belonging to the genera Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Brevibacterium. The results of this study describe the ability of these halotolerant bacteria to produce some classes of hydrolases, namely, lipases, proteases, amylases and cellulases, and biopolymers. The strain characterized as of Brevibacterium avium presented cellulase and amylase activities up to 4 M NaCl and also produced EPSs and PHAs. These results indicate the biotechnological potential of certain microorganisms recovered from the composting process, including halotolerant species, which have the ability to produce enzymes and biopolymers, offering new perspectives for environmental and industrial applications. PMID:26273248

  2. [Inequalities in distribution of dental caries in teenagers of Indaiatuba, São Paulo State, 2004].

    PubMed

    Rihs, Lilian Berta; de Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário; Cypriano, Silvia; Abdalla, Nádja Moscoso

    2010-07-01

    The objectives of this work was to know the dental caries prevalence and treatment need, besides the distribution of the dental caries in a population of 12 year-old teenagers with high incidence of dental caries. 309 adolescents of public schools of Indaiatuba, São Paulo State, in 2004, were examined. They were selected by process systematic random and the exams followed the World Health Organization criteria. The percentile of school caries free was of 38.8%. Among the adolescents examined, 36.6% (n=113) presented dental caries. DMFT was of 2.50 (IC95%=2.07-2.93). The decayed component was the highest (61.0%). The coefficient of Gini was 0.602 and SiC value was of 5.97 (IC95%=5.32-6.62); in this group especially, 74.7% (n=74) presented dental caries activity in the moment of the exam. Thus, it can be concluded that the adolescents of this city presented low dental caries experience; however, their needs were not assisted, once most of DMFT was formed of the decayed component at 12 years old. In the group SiC, it was verified that this came quite high, being recommended actions addressed to this specific group of adolescents. PMID:20694339

  3. Isolation and characterization of Leptospira interrogans from pigs slaughtered in São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Miraglia, Fabiana; Moreno, Andréa Mike; Gomes, Cleise Ribeiro; Paixão, Renata; Liuson, Esequiel; Morais, Zenaide Maria; Maiorka, Paulo; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Dellagostin, Odir Antonio; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda

    2008-01-01

    With the aim of isolating Leptospira spp., blood serum, kidney, liver and genital tract of 137 female swine (40 sows and 97 gilts) and also urine samples from 22 sows were collected in a slaughterhouse in the State of São Paulo, from April 2003 to August 2004. Four isolates were obtained from animals that presented microagglutination test (MAT) titers ≥ 100 for the serovar Pomona and one was obtained from an animal negative by MAT in which Leptospira was isolated from the liver and reproductive tract. The presence of leptospiral DNA was investigated by PCR, and positive results were found in kidneys of 11 females, liver of two, genital tract of two and urine of one of them. Nephrosis, interstitial multifocal nephritis, moderate to severe changing, hyalines cylinders and hemorrhagic focuses, hepatic and uterine horns congestion were histological lesions observed in higher frequency in animals positive for leptospira. The silver impregnation (Warthin Starry) confirmed the presence of spirochetes in renal tubules of four females with positive leptospira cultures from kidneys. The serogroup of the five isolates was identified as Pomona by cross agglutination with reference polyclonal antibodies. Molecular characterization of the isolates was carried out by variable-number tandem-repeats analysis. All the isolates revealed a pattern distinct from the L. interrogans Pomona type strain, but identical to a previously identified pattern from strains isolated in Argentina belonging to serovar Pomona. PMID:24031254

  4. Catastrophic Regime Shift in Water Reservoirs and São Paulo Water Supply Crisis.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Renato M; Kraenkel, Roberto A; Prado, Paulo I

    2015-01-01

    The relation between rainfall and water accumulated in reservoirs comprises nonlinear feedbacks. Here we show that they may generate alternative equilibrium regimes, one of high water-volume, the other of low water-volume. Reservoirs can be seen as socio-environmental systems at risk of regime shifts, characteristic of tipping point transitions. We analyze data from stored water, rainfall, and water inflow and outflow in the main reservoir serving the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, by means of indicators of critical regime shifts, and find a strong signal of a transition. We furthermore build a mathematical model that gives a mechanistic view of the dynamics and demonstrates that alternative stable states are an expected property of water reservoirs. We also build a stochastic version of this model that fits well to the data. These results highlight the broader aspect that reservoir management must account for their intrinsic bistability, and should benefit from dynamical systems theory. Our case study illustrates the catastrophic consequences of failing to do so. PMID:26372224

  5. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in five farms in Holambra, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, J; Hasegawa, H; Forli, A A; Nishimura, N F; Yamanaka, A; Shimabukuro, T; Sato, Y

    1995-01-01

    A parasitological survey was carried out on 222 inhabitants of five farms in Holambra, located 30 km north of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, on October 1992. Approximately 70% of the inhabitants were found to be infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. The positive rates of 6 helminths and 7 protozoan species detected are as follows: 5.4% Ascaris lumbricoides; 8.6% Trichuris trichiura; 19.8% Necator americanus; 10.4% Strongyloides stercoralis; 1.4% Enterobius vermicularis; 0.9% Hymenolepis nana; 3.2% Entamoeba histolytica; 2.7% E. hartmanni; 9.9% E. coli; 14.0% Endolimax nana; 2.3% Iodamoeba butschlii; 10.4% Giardia lamblia; 37.8% Blastocystis hominis. The positive rates of helminth infection were generaly higher in the younger-group under 16 years-old than those in the elder group aged 16 or more, whereas the infection rates of protozoan species were higher in the elder group. The infection rate of Strongyloides was found to be 10.4% by a newly developed sensitive method (an agarplate culture methods). PMID:7569635

  6. Catastrophic Regime Shift in Water Reservoirs and São Paulo Water Supply Crisis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The relation between rainfall and water accumulated in reservoirs comprises nonlinear feedbacks. Here we show that they may generate alternative equilibrium regimes, one of high water-volume, the other of low water-volume. Reservoirs can be seen as socio-environmental systems at risk of regime shifts, characteristic of tipping point transitions. We analyze data from stored water, rainfall, and water inflow and outflow in the main reservoir serving the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, by means of indicators of critical regime shifts, and find a strong signal of a transition. We furthermore build a mathematical model that gives a mechanistic view of the dynamics and demonstrates that alternative stable states are an expected property of water reservoirs. We also build a stochastic version of this model that fits well to the data. These results highlight the broader aspect that reservoir management must account for their intrinsic bistability, and should benefit from dynamical systems theory. Our case study illustrates the catastrophic consequences of failing to do so. PMID:26372224

  7. PGEs and other traffic-related elements in roadside soils from São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Morcelli, C P R; Figueiredo, A M G; Sarkis, J E S; Enzweiler, J; Kakazu, M; Sigolo, J B

    2005-06-01

    The distribution of platinum, palladium, and rhodium in soils adjacent to a major road in São Paulo, Brazil, is presented. Sampling was made at four sites with varying traffic volumes and driving styles (stop/start vs. constant speed). High-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) with NiS fire assay collection and Te coprecipitation was used as analytical procedure. The platinum group element (PGE) pattern distribution in the analyzed roadside soil was similar to that of other traffic-related elements such as Zn and Cu, characterized by a strong decrease of the PGE content with increasing distance from the traffic lane. The results indicate that the PGE concentrations in roadside soil are directly influenced by traffic conditions and distance, which characterize their catalytic converter origin. Pt, Pd, and Rh contents range between 0.3 and 17 ng g(-1), 1.1 and 58 ng g(-1), and 0.07 and 8.2 ng g(-1) respectively. Lower levels of Pt and lower Pt/Pd ratios in relation to similar studies in other countries were observed due to the different Pt/Pd ratios in Brazilian automobile catalytic converters. This is the first study to assess traffic-derived Pt, Pd, and Rh deposition in Brazil. PMID:15919530

  8. Assessment of dietary intake of fumonisin B₁ in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bordin, K; Rosim, R E; Neeff, D V; Rottinghaus, G E; Oliveira, C A F

    2014-07-15

    In this study, fumonisin B1 (FB1) consumption was assessed through determination of FB1 in corn meal, corn flour, corn flakes, polenta, canned corn and popcorn collected from homes of residents of Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil, and using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) filled out by the residents. One hundred and twenty samples were collected from 39 residents on four separate occasions. FB1 was determined by high performance liquid chromatography using a validated method that uses SAX column clean-up. The highest levels of FB1 were found in corn meal at a mean concentration of 474.6 μg kg(-1). However, none of the samples tested for FB1 had levels above the tolerance limit established in Brazil. The mean probable daily intake (PDIM) of FB1 was 63.3 ng kg(-1)body weight day(-1), which is approximately 3% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) recommended for fumonisins. PMID:24594171

  9. The New 30 THz Solar Telescope in São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudaka, A. S.; Cassiano, M. M.; Marcon, R.; Cabezas, D. P.; Fernandes, L. O. T.; Hidalgo Ramirez, R. F.; Kaufmann, P.; de Souza, R. V.

    2015-08-01

    It has been found that solar bursts exhibit one unexpected spectral component with fluxes increasing with frequency in the sub-THz range, which is distinct from the well-known microwave emission that peaks at a few to some tens of GHz. This component has been found to extend into the THz range of frequencies by recent 30 THz solar flare observations of impulsive bursts with flux intensities considerably higher than fluxes at sub-THz and microwaves frequencies. High-cadence solar observations at 30 THz (continuum) are therefore an important tool for the study of active regions and flaring events. We report the recent installation of a new 30 THz solar telescope in São Paulo, located at the top of one of the University's buildings. The instrument uses a Hale-type coelostat with two 20 cm diameter flat mirrors sending light to a 15 cm mirror Newtonian telescope. Radiation is directed to a microbolometer array camera that is kept at room temperature. Observations are usually obtained with 5 frames s^{-1} cadence. One 60 mm refractor has been added to observe H\\upalpha images simultaneously. We describe our new telescopes and the new observatory examples of the first results obtained.

  10. Immunological assays employed for the elucidation of an histoplasmosis outbreak in São Paulo, SP

    PubMed Central

    Passos, Angela Noronha; Kohara, Valdelene Sayuri; de Freitas, Roseli Santos; Vicentini, Adriana Pardini

    2014-01-01

    Several reports showed outbreaks of histoplasmosis acquired while bat-inhabited caves were visited by tourists, miners or researchers. We evaluated the performance of double immunodifusion (DI) and immunoblotting (IB) assays, employed for the histoplasmosis outbreak elucidation occurred in Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo. The existence of epidemiologic link, four patients with clinical signs suggestive of histoplasmosis and mycological confirmation has made that all 35 individuals involved to the cave visit were subjected to serological evaluation. By DI, we observed reactivity against H. capsulatum antigen in a single serum examined nearly 20 days after exposure to fungal propagules. On the other hand, IB showed reactivity against H and M fractions in 50% of samples evaluated. The analysis of the second sample batch, collected two months after the exposure showed that 96.7% were reactive by DI with antibodies titers ranging from 1 to 16 and 100% of reactivity against H and M fractions, by IB, suggesting an acute infection. The analysis of the overall agreement between the methods showed to be reasonable (κ = 0.37). This study confirms the importance and efficacy of more sensitive methodologies, such as IB assay, to early elucidation of disease, especially in cases of patients without mycological information. PMID:25763041

  11. Halotolerant bacteria in the São Paulo Zoo composting process and their hydrolases and bioproducts.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lilian C G; Ramos, Patricia Locosque; Marem, Alyne; Kondo, Marcia Y; Rocha, Rafael C S; Bertolini, Thiago; Silveira, Marghuel A V; da Cruz, João Batista; de Vasconcellos, Suzan Pantaroto; Juliano, Luiz; Okamoto, Debora N

    2015-06-01

    Halophilic microorganisms are able to grow in the presence of salt and are also excellent source of enzymes and biotechnological products, such as exopolysaccharides (EPSs) and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Salt-tolerant bacteria were screened in the Organic Composting Production Unit (OCPU) of São Paulo Zoological Park Foundation, which processes 4 ton/day of organic residues including plant matter from the Atlantic Rain Forest, animal manure and carcasses and mud from water treatment. Among the screened microorganisms, eight halotolerant bacteria grew at NaCl concentrations up to 4 M. These cultures were classified based on phylogenetic characteristics and comparative partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as belonging to the genera Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Brevibacterium. The results of this study describe the ability of these halotolerant bacteria to produce some classes of hydrolases, namely, lipases, proteases, amylases and cellulases, and biopolymers. The strain characterized as of Brevibacterium avium presented cellulase and amylase activities up to 4 M NaCl and also produced EPSs and PHAs. These results indicate the biotechnological potential of certain microorganisms recovered from the composting process, including halotolerant species, which have the ability to produce enzymes and biopolymers, offering new perspectives for environmental and industrial applications. PMID:26273248

  12. Clinico-Pathological Discrepancies in a General University Hospital in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Kotovicz, Fabiana; Mauad, Thais; Saldiva, Paulo H. N.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The autopsy rate has continuously diminished over the past few decades, reducing the quality of medical care and the accuracy of statistical health data. OBJECTIVE To assess the accuracy of clinical diagnoses by comparing pre- and postmortem findings, and to identify potential risk factors for misdiagnoses. METHODS Retrospective evaluations performed between June 2001 and June 2003 in a 2500-bed tertiary university hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, including 288 patients who died at that institution and had a postmortem examination. RESULTS Clinical and autopsy records were reviewed and compared for categorization using the adapted Goldman criteria. The overall major and minor discrepancy rates were 16.3% and 28.1%, respectively. The most common missed diagnoses were pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, and myocardial infarction, and the most prevalent underlying diseases were infectious diseases, cerebro-cardiovascular conditions, and malignancies. Patients age 60 or older had an increased risk of diagnostic disagreement, as did female patients. The period of hospitalization, last admission unit at the hospital and underlying disease were not significantly related to the pre-mortem diagnostic accuracy. DISCUSSION The discrepancy rate found in this study is similar to those reported globally. The factors influencing diagnostic accuracy as well as the most commonly missed diagnoses are also consistent with the literature. CONCLUSION Autopsy remains a crucial tool for improving medical care, and effort must be focused on increasing its practice worldwide. PMID:18925315

  13. Factors affecting vitamin D status in different populations in the city of São Paulo, Brazil: the São PAulo vitamin D Evaluation Study (SPADES)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypovitaminosis D is a common condition among elderly individuals in temperate-climate countries, with a clear seasonal variation on 25 hydroxyvitamin D [(25(OH)D] levels, increasing after summer and decreasing after winter, but there are few data from sunny countries such as Brazil. We aimed to evaluate 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and its determining factors, in individuals in the city of São Paulo belonging to different age groups and presenting different sun exposure habits. Methods 591 people were included as follows: 177 were living in institutions (NURSING HOMES, NH, 76.2 ± 9.0 years), 243 were individuals from the community (COMMUNITY DWELLINGS, CD, 79.6 ± 5.3 years), 99 were enrolled in physical activity program designed for the elderly (PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, PA, 67.6 ± 5.4 years) and 72 were young (YOUNG, 23.9 ± 2.8 years). Ionized calcium, PTH, 25(OH)D, creatinine and albumin were evaluated. ANOVA, Mann–Whitney and Kruskal Wallis tests, Pearson Linear Correlation and Multiple Regression were used in the statistical analysis. Results 25(OH)D mean values during winter for the different groups were 36.1 ± 21.2 nmol/L (NH), 44.1 ± 24.0 nmol/L (CD), 78.9 ± 30.9 nmol/L (PA) and 69.6 ± 26.2 nmol/L (YOUNG) (p < 0.001) while during summer they were 42.1 ± 25.9 nmol/L, 59.1 ± 29.6 nmol/L, 91.6 ± 31.7 nmol/L and 103.6 ± 29.3 nmol/L, respectively (p < 0.001). The equation which predicts PTH values based on 25(OH)D concentration is PTH = 10 + 104.24.e-(vitD-12.5)/62.36 and the 25(OH)D value above which correlation with PTH is lost is 75.0 nmol/L. In a multiple regression analysis having 25(OH)D concentration as the depending variable, the determining factors were PTH, ionized calcium and month of the year (p < 0.05). Conclusions Much lower 25(OH)D values were found for the older individuals when compared to younger individuals. This finding is possibly due to

  14. Small vs. large dust grains in transitional disks: do different cavity sizes indicate a planet?. SAO 206462 (HD 135344B) in polarized light with VLT/NACO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garufi, A.; Quanz, S. P.; Avenhaus, H.; Buenzli, E.; Dominik, C.; Meru, F.; Meyer, M. R.; Pinilla, P.; Schmid, H. M.; Wolf, S.

    2013-12-01

    Context. Transitional disks represent a short stage of the evolution of circumstellar material. Studies of dust grains in these objects can provide pivotal information on the mechanisms of planet formation. Dissimilarities in the spatial distribution of small (μm-size) and large (mm-size) dust grains have recently been pointed out. Aims: Constraints on the small dust grains can be obtained by imaging the distribution of scattered light at near-infrared wavelengths. We aim at resolving structures in the surface layer of transitional disks (with particular emphasis on the inner 10-50 AU), thus increasing the scarce sample of high-resolution images of these objects. Methods: We obtained VLT/NACO near-IR high-resolution polarimetric differential imaging observations of SAO 206462 (HD 135344B). This technique allows one to image the polarized scattered light from the disk without any occulting mask and to reach an inner working angle of ~0.1″. Results: A face-on disk is detected in H and Ks bands between 0.1″ and 0.9″. No significant differences are seen between the H and Ks images. In addition to the spiral arms, these new data allow us to resolve for the first time an inner disk cavity for small dust grains. The cavity size (≃28 AU) is much smaller than what is inferred for large dust grains from (sub-)mm observations (39 to 50 AU). This discrepancy cannot be ascribed to any resolution effect. Conclusions: The interaction between the disk and potential orbiting companion(s) can explain both the spiral arm structure and the discrepant cavity sizes for small and large dust grains. One planet may be carving out the gas (and, thus, the small grains) at 28 AU, and generating a pressure bump at larger radii (39 AU), which holds back the large grains. We analytically estimate that, in this scenario, a single giant planet (with a mass between 5 and 15 MJ) at 17 to 20 AU from the star is consistent with the observed cavity sizes. Based on observations collected at the

  15. Educational and Sex Differentials in Life Expectancies and Disability-Free Life Expectancies in São Paulo, Brazil, and Urban Areas in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Flávia Cristina Drumond

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate transition probabilities between disability states, total life expectancy, and the latter’s decomposition into years spent disabled and disability-free by age, sex and education among older adults in São Paulo, Brazil, and urban areas in Mexico. Methods Applied a micro-simulation method (Interpolative Markov Chains) using longitudinal data. Results We found large between-country educational differences in incidence of and recovery from disability with higher rates in Mexico than in São Paulo, but no differences in mortality. Older adults in Mexico spent longer time being disability-free than in São Paulo for both levels of education. Males and females in São Paulo spent a larger fraction of their remaining life disabled at every age than their counterparts in urban areas in Mexico. Discussion There were educational differences in the prevalence of disability in São Paulo and urban areas in Mexico, and significant educational differences in disability incidence and recovery across sites. PMID:23781016

  16. Assessment of the landslide and flood risks in São Paulo City, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Bianca; Listo, Fabrízio

    2010-05-01

    In Brazilian cities, especially during summer, the landslides and floods cause disaster and economic losses. Aricanduva basin is one of the most critical in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (RMSP), where many types of morphodynamic processes occur. This is the largest river basin in São Paulo City. The current situation is characterized by intense urbanization, soil sealing and consequent reduction of soil infiltration, increasing the frequency of flood events in this area. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to map risk areas of landslides and floods in the sub-basin Limoeiro, located in the head of the Aricanduva basin. For mapping the risk areas, we prepared a record field to floods and landslides, based on several studies. Initially, it were identified the natural indicators (vegetation, topography, surface cover and drainage) and anthropogenic (urban pattern, soil cover, building types, occupation density, road conditions, infrastructure, drainage systems, distance between houses and slope, at the top and base, and the drainage channel). On the second step of this research, we identified the evidences of mass movements (scars, cracks, subsidence, trees, poles and inclined walls). Thus, on the basis of this analysis it was possible to define the risk probability: R1 (low or no risk), R2 (moderate), R3 (high) and, R4 (very high). Subsequently, by means of oblique photographs (taken from helicopter flight) it was possible to define risk areas in the basin. In all the sectors identified, were recorded approximately 903 urban settlements. The results showed that from the 25 sectors of risk, 14 sectors (56%) presented landslide risk and 11 (44%), flood risk. Of the sectors that showed landslide risk areas, 21% have very high probability (R4), 21% high (R3), 29% moderate (R2) and 29% low (R1). The sectors at flood risk presented 45% of very high probability (R4), 10% high (R3), 18% moderate (R2) and 27% low (R1). There is large presence of sediments from

  17. Chemical Characterization of Submicron Aerosol Particles in São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira De Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Godoy, J.; Godoy, M. L.; de Assunção, J. V.; Alves, N. D.; Artaxo, P.

    2013-12-01

    Megacities, large urban conglomerates with a population of 10 million or more inhabitants, are increasingly receiving attention as strong pollution hotspots with significant global impact. The emissions from such large centers in both the developed and developing parts of the world are strongly impacted by the transportation sector. The São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in the Southeast of Brazil, is a megacity with a population of 18 million people and 7 million vehicles, many of which fuelled by a considerably amount of anhydrous ethanol. Such fleet is considered a unique case of large scale biofuel usage worldwide. Despite the large impact on human health and atmospheric chemistry/dynamics, many uncertainties are found in terms of gas and particulate matter emissions from vehicles and their atmospheric reactivity, e.g. secondary organic aerosol formation. In order to better understand aerosol life cycle on such environment, a suite of instruments for gas and particulate matter characterization has been deployed in two sampling sites within the SPMA, including an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM). The instrumentation was deployed at the rooftop of a 45m high building in the University of São Paulo during winter/spring 2012. The site is located roughly 6km downwind of the city center with little influence from local sources. The second site is located in a downtown area, sampling at the top floor of the Public Health Faculty, approximately 10m above ground. The instrumentation was deployed at the Downtown site during summer/fall 2013. The average non-refractory submicron aerosol concentration at the University site was 6.7 μg m-3, being organics the most abundant specie (70%), followed by NO3 (12%), NH4 (8%), SO4 (8%) and Chl (2%). At the Downtown site, average aerosol concentration was 15.1 μg m-3, with Organics composing 65% of the mass, followed by NH4 (12%), NO3 (11%), SO4 (11%) and Chl (1%). The analysis of specific fragmentation

  18. Rabies surveillance in bats in Northwestern State of São Paulo.

    PubMed

    Casagrande, Daiene Karina Azevedo; Favaro, Ana Beatriz Botto de Barros da Cruz; Carvalho, Cristiano de; Picolo, Mileia Ricci; Hernandez, Janaína Camila Borges; Lot, Monique Serra; Albas, Avelino; Araújo, Danielle Bastos; André Pedro, Wagner; Queiroz, Luzia Helena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Rabies is an important zoonosis that occurs in mammals, with bats acting as Lyssavirus reservoirs in urban, rural and natural areas. Rabies cases in bats have been recorded primarily in urban areas in Northwestern State of São Paulo since 1998. This study investigated the circulation of rabies virus by seeking to identify the virus in the brain in several species of bats in this region and by measuring rabies-virus neutralizing antibody levels in the hematophagous bat Desmodus rotundus. Methods From 2008 to 2012, 1,490 bat brain samples were sent to the Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP) Rabies Laboratory in Araçatuba, and 125 serum samples from vampire bats that were captured in this geographical region were analyzed. Results Rabies virus was detected in the brains of 26 (2%) of 1,314 non-hematophagous bats using the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and the mouse inoculation test (MIT). None of the 176 hematophagous bat samples were positive for rabies virus when a virus detection test was utilized. Out of 125 vampire bat serum samples, 9 (7%) had levels of rabies virus neutralization antibodies (RVNAs) that were higher than 0.5IU/mL; 65% (81/125) had titers between 0.10IU/mL and 0.5IU/mL; and 28% (35/125) were negative for RVNAs using the simplified fluorescent inhibition microtest (SFIMT) in BHK21 cells. The observed positivity rate (1.7%) was higher than the average positivity rate of 1.3% that was previously found in this region. Conclusions The high percentage of vampire bats with neutralizing antibodies suggests that recent rabies virus exposure has occurred, indicating the necessity of surveillance measures in nearby regions that are at risk to avoid diffusion of the rabies virus and possible rabies occurrences. PMID:25626649

  19. Magnetic Fabrics of the Cabreuva Granite, São Paulo State, SE Brazil: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abujamra, J. P.; Raposo, M. I. B.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic fabric and rock magnetism studies were performed on the units of the 570 ± 3 Ma-old isotropic Cabreuva granite (NW of São Paulo State). This intrusion with 160 km2 is roughly elliptical in the oriental and occidental sectors whereas in the south sector it is circular. It is composed of quartz-monzodiorite, granodiorite, quartz-monzonite, monzogranite, diorite, quartz syenite and synogarnite. Magnetic fabrics were determined by applying both anisotropy of low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM). The two fabrics are coaxial. The parallelism between AMS and AARM tensors excludes the presence of a single domain (SD) effect on the AMS fabric of the units. Several rock-magnetism experiments performed in one specimen from each sampled unit show that for all units the magnetic susceptibility and magnetic fabrics are carried by magnetite grains. Foliations and lineations in the units were successful determined by applying magnetic methods. Most of the magnetic foliations are horizontal or steeply dipping in all units, and are roughly parallel to the foliation of the rocks which surround the granite. The magnetic lineations present mostly low plunges for the whole pluton. Thin section analysis show that rocks from the Cabreuva granite were not affected by the regional strain during and after emplacement. This evidence allows us to interpret the observed magnetic fabrics as primary in origin (magmatic) acquired when the rocks were solidified as a result of magma flow, in which horizontally plunging magnetic lineation suggests that the feeder zone is far from this area.

  20. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis, toxocariasis and cysticercosis in a rural settlement, São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Ferreira, Antonio Walter; Araujo, Patricia Regina; Troiani, Charlene; Zago, Sueli Cristina; Kaiahara, Marcia; Sasso, Leticia; Iha, Alberto; Vaz, Adelaide

    2013-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Toxocara spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Taenia solium metacestode infection and determine some of the associated risk factors for people living in the Dona Carmen settlement, Pontal of Paranapanema, São Paulo, Brazil. Methods Serum samples from 194 subjects were tested and participants answered a questionnaire. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system based on Toxocara spp. excretory-secretory antigens obtained from the cultured second-stage larvae of Toxocara canis or vesicular fluid (VF) antigen from Taenia crassiceps metacestode was used to detect anti-Toxocara spp. IgG and IgE and anti-T. solium metacestode, respectively. For cysticercosis, the reactive ELISA samples were assayed by Western blotting using 18 kDa and 14 kDa proteins purified from VF. For T. gondii-specific IgG and IgM antibodies, anti-SAG-1, GRA-1, and GRA-7 epitope specificity was determined by ELISA. Results Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies were found in 102/194 individuals (52.6%) with increased infections in females (P  =  0.02) and those with ≤US$300 monthly income (P  =  0.01). Positive IgM antibodies were detected in 21/194 individuals (10.8%). Antibodies specific to Toxocara spp. were found in 28/194 subjects (14.4%). All the individuals with Toxocara spp. also had T. gondii-specific IgG antibodies. Taenia solium metacestode antibodies were detected in 11 subjects (5.7%), but none were reactive based on Western blotting. Conclusion In spite of environmental, educational, and socioeconomic factors favoring parasite infection, the seropositivity rates of T. gondii, Toxocara spp., and T. solium metacestode-specific IgG antibodies are similar to the rates found in studies conducted in different populations in Brazil. PMID:23683335

  1. Spatial distribution of low birthweight infants in Taubaté, São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Luiz Fernando C.; Costa, Thais Moreira; Zöllner, Maria Stella A. da C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the spatial pattern of low birth weight infants in the city of Taubaté, São Paulo, Southeast Brazil. METHODS: Ecological and exploratory study, developed with the data acquired from the Health Department of Taubaté, regarding the period from January 1st 2006 and December 31st 2010. Birth certificates were used to obtain the data from infants weighing less than 2500g. A digital basis of census tracts was applied and the Global Moran index (IM) was estimated. Thematic maps were built for the distribution of low birth weight, health centers and tracts, according to the priority care (Moran map). The adopted statistical significance was α=5% and TerraView software conducted the spatial analysis. RESULTS: There were 18,915 live births during the study period, with 1,817 low birth weight infants (9.6%). The low birth weight infants' prevalence during the period ranged from 9.3 to 9.8%. A total of 1,185 infants with known addresses, compatible with the digital base (65.2% of low birth weight infants), were included. The IM for low birth weight was 0.12, with p<0.01; regarding the health centers distribution, IM was -0.07, with p=0.01. The Moran map identified 11 census tracts with high priority for intervention by health managers, located in the outskirts of the city. CONCLUSIONS: The spatial analysis identified the low birth weight distribution by census tracts and the sectors with a high priority for intervention. PMID:24473951

  2. Alcoholism in a geriatric outpatient clinic of São Paulo-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hirata, E S; Almeida, O P; Funari, R R; Klein, E L

    1997-03-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence are an increasing health problem among the elderly, but there is only scanty information about their prevalence and associated risk factors in developing countries. The authors set out to evaluate the prevalence and associated clinical/demographic features of alcoholism in a sample of male elderly subjects attending a Geriatric Primary Health Outpatient Clinic in a State University Hospital in the City of São Paulo-Brazil. Three hundred four patients were assessed with the Brazilian version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test and a semistructured questionnaire designed to investigate associated features. Lifetime alcoholism was present in 15.1% of the sample, although only 4.3% were active drinkers. Patients classified as "cases" were younger than their nonalcoholic counterparts (70.61 vs. 73.31), and there was a mild, though not significant, excess of Blacks and Mulattos among the former (32.6% vs. 15.9%). Cases were also more likely to rely on their family for financial support (59.0% vs. 43.5%) and to acknowledge a positive family history of alcoholism (51.4% vs. 31.2%). Alcohol abuse or dependence was further associated with heavy smoking (58.7% vs. 44.0%). The authors concluded that alcoholism in this Brazilian elderly sample was likely to be associated with an earlier age at onset of medical problems, financial dependence, Black/Mulatto race, smoking, and positive family history of alcohol abuse/dependence. The authors suggest that the use of standardized methods of assessment of alcoholism in general medical settings may increase the detection of cases and contribute to improved health measures for the management of these patients. PMID:9195283

  3. Deep structure of the Santos Basin-São Paulo Plateau System, SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evain, M.; Afilhado, A.; Rigoti, C.; Loureiro, A.; Alves, D.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Schnurle, P.; Feld, A.; Fuck, R.; Soares, J.; Lima, M. Vinicius; Corela, C.; Matias, L.; Benabdellouahed, M.; Baltzer, A.; Rabineau, M.; Viana, A.; Moulin, M.; Aslanian, D.

    2015-08-01

    The structure and nature of the crust underlying the Santos Basin-São Paulo Plateau System (SSPS), in the SE Brazilian margin, are discussed based on five wide-angle seismic profiles acquired during the Santos Basin (SanBa) experiment in 2011. Velocity models allow us to precisely divide the SSPS in six domains from unthinned continental crust (Domain CC) to normal oceanic crust (Domain OC). A seventh domain (Domain D), a triangular shape region in the SE of the SSPS, is discussed by Klingelhoefer et al. (2014). Beneath the continental shelf, a ~100 km wide necking zone (Domain N) is imaged where the continental crust thins abruptly from ~40 km to less than 15 km. Toward the ocean, most of the SSPS (Domains A and C) shows velocity ranges, velocity gradients, and a Moho interface characteristic of the thinned continental crust. The central domain (Domain B) has, however, a very heterogeneous structure. While its southwestern part still exhibits extremely thinned (7 km) continental crust, its northeastern part depicts a 2-4 km thick upper layer (6.0-6.5 km/s) overlying an anomalous velocity layer (7.0-7.8 km/s) and no evidence of a Moho interface. This structure is interpreted as atypical oceanic crust, exhumed lower crust, or upper continental crust intruded by mafic material, overlying either altered mantle in the first two cases or intruded lower continental crust in the last case. The deep structure and v-shaped segmentation of the SSPS confirm that an initial episode of rifting occurred there obliquely to the general opening direction of the South Atlantic Central Segment.

  4. Deep structure of the Santos Basin-São Paulo Plateau System, SE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evain, Mikael; Afilhado, Alexandra; Rigoti, Caesar; Loureiro, Afonso; Alves, Daniela; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Schnurle, Philippe; Feld, Aurelie; Fuck, Reinhardt; Soares, Jose; Vinicius de Lima, Marcus; Corela, Carlos; Matias, Luis; Benabdellouahed, Massinissa; Baltzer, Agnes; Rabineau, Marina; Viana, Adriano; Moulin, Maryline; Aslanian, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The structure and nature of the crust underlying the Santos Basin-São Paulo Plateau System (SSPS), in the SE Brazilian margin, is discussed based on five wide-angle seismic profiles acquired during the SanBa experiment in 2011. Velocity models allow us to precisely divide the SSPS in six domains from unthinned continental crust (Domain CC) to normal oceanic crust (Domain OC). A seventh domain (Domain D), a triangular shape region in the SE of the SSPS, is discussed by [Klingelhoefer et al., GJI, 2014]⁠. Beneath the continental shelf, a ~100 km wide necking zone (Domain N) is imaged where continental crust thins abruptly from ~40 km to less than 15 km. Toward the ocean, most of the SSPS (Domain A and C) shows velocity ranges, velocity gradients and a Moho interface characteristic of thinned continental crust. The central domain (Domain B) has, however, a very heterogeneous structure. While its southwestern part still exhibits extremely thinned (7 km) continental crust, its northeastern part depicts a 2-4 km thick upper layer (6.0-6.5 km/s) overlying an anomalous velocity layer (7.0-7.8 km/s) and no evidence of a Moho interface. This structure is interpreted as atypical oceanic crust, exhumed lower crust or upper continental crust intruded by mafic material, overlying either altered mantle in the first two cases or intruded lower continental crust in the last case. The v-shaped structuration in this central domain confirms an initial episode of rifting within the SSPS oblique to the general opening direction of the South Atlantic central segment.

  5. [Correlation between homicide rates and economic indicators in São Paulo, Brazil, 1996].

    PubMed

    Barata, R B; Ribeiro, M C

    2000-02-01

    Around 30% of the deaths due to violent causes in Brazil result from homicides. Violence has traditionally been related to larger social problems, such as poverty. Recently, however, a positive correlation has been observed between higher incomes and an increase in the homicide rate, so that some researchers have begun to consider inequality, rather than poverty, as an explanation for the epidemic of violence. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between urbanization, poverty, and economic inequality and homicide rates in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, in 1996. Information regarding population size, average monthly income of household heads, income distribution, and Gini index was obtained for each municipality, based on the demographic census. Homicide rates were calculated based on official data. Data were analyzed in terms of correlation and relative risk with 95% confidence intervals. Homicide rates rose in direct proportion to city population and ranged from 6.96 (per 100,000 inhabitants) in municipalities with a population smaller than 10,000 inhabitants, to 55.54 in municipalities with more than 1 million inhabitants. Relative risk ranged from 1.35 to 7.98. A significant correlation with population size was found only for incomes above 3.11 times the minimum wage and a Gini index greater than 0.50. There was a strong, direct, and significant correlation between homicide rates and the income ratio between the ninetieth and the twentieth percentiles of the population. It is necessary to probe more deeply into the macrosocial determinants of homicide rates in order to identify indicators of inequality that can generate meaningful data for developing public health strategies. PMID:10748663

  6. SAO RAS SN candidates classifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatkhullin, T. A.; Moskvitin, A. S.

    2016-08-01

    We observed SN candidates (AT 2016eow, AT 2016enu and AT 2016enf) with the BTA/Scorpio-I on August, 4. Direct images in the R band and long-slit spectra in the range of 3600-7600AA (resolution FWHM = 10A) were obtained.

  7. Marshes as “Mountain Tops”: Genetic Analyses of the Critically Endangered São Paulo Marsh Antwren (Aves: Thamnophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Camargo, Crisley; Gibbs, H. Lisle; Costa, Mariellen C.; Del-Rio, Glaucia; Silveira, Luís F.

    2015-01-01

    Small populations of endangered species can be impacted by genetic processes such as drift and inbreeding that reduce population viability. As such, conservation genetic analyses that assess population levels of genetic variation and levels of gene flow can provide important information for managing threatened species. The São Paulo Marsh Antwren (Formicivora paludicola) is a recently-described and critically endangered bird from São Paulo State (Brazil) whose total estimated population is around 250–300 individuals, distributed in only 15 isolated marshes around São Paulo metropolitan region. We used microsatellite DNA markers to estimate the population genetic characteristics of the three largest remaining populations of this species all within 60 km of each other. We detected a high and significant genetic structure between all populations (overall FST = 0.103) which is comparable to the highest levels of differentiation ever documented for birds, (e.g., endangered birds found in isolated populations on the tops of African mountains), but also evidence for first-generation immigrants, likely from small local unsampled populations. Effective population sizes were small (between 28.8–99.9 individuals) yet there are high levels of genetic variability within populations and no evidence for inbreeding. Conservation implications of this work are that the high levels of genetic structure suggests that translocations between populations need to be carefully considered in light of possible local adaptation and that remaining populations of these birds should be managed as conservation units that contain both main populations studied here but also small outlying populations which may be a source of immigrants. PMID:26447791

  8. Marshes as "Mountain Tops": Genetic Analyses of the Critically Endangered São Paulo Marsh Antwren (Aves: Thamnophilidae).

    PubMed

    de Camargo, Crisley; Gibbs, H Lisle; Costa, Mariellen C; Del-Rio, Glaucia; Silveira, Luís F; Wasko, Adriane P; Francisco, Mercival R

    2015-01-01

    Small populations of endangered species can be impacted by genetic processes such as drift and inbreeding that reduce population viability. As such, conservation genetic analyses that assess population levels of genetic variation and levels of gene flow can provide important information for managing threatened species. The São Paulo Marsh Antwren (Formicivora paludicola) is a recently-described and critically endangered bird from São Paulo State (Brazil) whose total estimated population is around 250-300 individuals, distributed in only 15 isolated marshes around São Paulo metropolitan region. We used microsatellite DNA markers to estimate the population genetic characteristics of the three largest remaining populations of this species all within 60 km of each other. We detected a high and significant genetic structure between all populations (overall FST = 0.103) which is comparable to the highest levels of differentiation ever documented for birds, (e.g., endangered birds found in isolated populations on the tops of African mountains), but also evidence for first-generation immigrants, likely from small local unsampled populations. Effective population sizes were small (between 28.8-99.9 individuals) yet there are high levels of genetic variability within populations and no evidence for inbreeding. Conservation implications of this work are that the high levels of genetic structure suggests that translocations between populations need to be carefully considered in light of possible local adaptation and that remaining populations of these birds should be managed as conservation units that contain both main populations studied here but also small outlying populations which may be a source of immigrants. PMID:26447791

  9. Knowledge about epilepsy among health professionals: a cross-sectional survey in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Benedito-Silva, Ana Amélia; Sousa, Bolivar Saldanha; Gomes da Silva, Sergio; Souza-Vancini, Maria Iones; Vancini-Campanharo, Cássia Regina; Cabral, Francisco Romero; de Lima, Cristiano; Barbosa de Lira, Claudio Andre

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the epilepsy knowledge among health professionals in São Paulo, Brazil. Design This is a cross-sectional study. Participants Professionals with academic degrees in physical education (n=134), nutrition (n=116), medicine (n=100), psychology (n=53), nursing (n=122) and physiotherapy (n=99) who lived in São Paulo City, Brazil. Primary and secondary outcome measures Knowledge of health professionals about epilepsy. Methods Professionals with academic degrees in physical education (n=134), nutrition (n=116), medicine (n=100), psychology (n=53), nursing (n=122) and physiotherapy (n=99) who lived in São Paulo City, Brazil, were invited to participate in the study. The subjects (n=624) answered a questionnaire composed of 25 simple closed-ended questions from three areas: personal, educational and knowledge. Results Out of all subjects, 88.5% (n=552) had a postgraduate education, while 11.5% (n=72) had only an undergraduate degree. The authors found that physical educators, nutritionists and physiotherapists received lower scores on their epilepsy knowledge than other health professionals. Conclusions Health professionals are considered better-educated group inside the society, especially with regards to healthcare issues. Thus, it is important they also have an accurate and correct knowledge about epilepsy. The findings of the present study indicate an imperative improvement in education about epilepsy, as well as an inclusion of formal programmes for epilepsy education especially for non-medical professionals. An improvement in epilepsy education might contribute to an improvement in epilepsy care and management. PMID:22517981

  10. Measurement of tropospheric aerosol in São Paulo area using a new upgraded Raman LIDAR system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landulfo, Eduardo; Rodrigues, Patrícia F.; da Silva Lopes, Fábio Juliano; Bourayou, Riad

    2012-11-01

    Elastic backscatter LIDAR systems have been used to determine aerosol profile concentration in several areas such as weather, pollution and air quality monitoring. In order to determine the aerosol extinction and backscattering profiles, the Klett inversion method is largely used, but this method suffers from lack of information since there are two unknown variables to be determined using only one measured LIDAR signal, and assumption of the LIDAR ratio (the relation between the extinction and backscattering coefficients) is needed. When a Raman LIDAR system is used, the inelastic backscattering signal is affected by aerosol extinction but not by aerosol backscatter, which allows this LIDAR to uniquely determine extinction and backscattering coefficients without any assumptions or any collocated instruments. The MSP-LIDAR system, set-up in a highly dense suburban area in the city of São Paulo, has been upgraded to a Raman LIDAR, and in its actual 6-channel configuration allows it to monitor elastic backscatter at 355 and 532 nm together with nitrogen and water vapor Raman backscatters at 387nm and 608 nm and 408nm and 660 nm, respectively. Thus, the measurements of aerosol backscattering, extinction coefficients and water vapor mixing ratio in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) are becoming available. The system will provide the important meteorological parameters such as Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and will be used for the study of aerosol variations in lower troposphere over the city of São Paulo, air quality monitoring and for estimation of humidity impact on the aerosol optical properties, without any a priori assumption. This study will present the first results obtained with this upgraded LIDAR system, demonstrating the high quality of obtained aerosol and water vapor data. For that purpose, we compared the data obtained with the new MSP-Raman LIDAR with a mobile Raman LIDAR collocated at the Center for Lasers and Applications, Nuclear and Energy Research

  11. [The serovars of Leptospira interrogans isolated from cases of human leptospirosis in São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Sakata, E E; Yasuda, P H; Romero, E C; Silva, M V; Lomar, A V

    1992-01-01

    Eighteen strains of L. interrogans isolated from human cases were serotyped by the agglutinin-absorption test at Instituto Adolfo Lutz in São Paulo, Brazil. Fourteen were identified as serovar copenhageni (icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup), 2 as canicola (canicola serogroup), 1 as castellonis (Ballum serogroup) and 1 as pomona serogroup (serovar not yet defined). The frequency of serovar copenhageni in 100% of the isolates in icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup is emphasized and more studies to verify the real serovars prevalence as subsidy to the epidemiology of this infection are suggested by the authors. PMID:1342073

  12. [The role of the pharmacist in dispensing medication in Adult Psychosocial Care Centers in the city of São Paulo, Capital of the State of São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Zanella, Carolina Gomes; Aguiar, Patricia Melo; Storpirtis, Sílvia

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of the pharmacist in dispensing medication by conducting cross-sectional exploratory-descriptive research in eight Adult Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS) in São Paulo. The pharmacists responsible for each of the dispensing units studied filled out a semi-structured questionnaire about the service provided. Two Adult CAPS units were selected from each of the North, South, Eastand West regions of São Paulo. The central region has no Adult CAPS, and was therefore not included in the study. Most of the respondents were aged between 35 and 40 years and were predominantly female. It was found that half of the respondents performed only 25% of dispensations and few conducted an analysis of all prescriptions before dispensing medication. All respondents contacted the prescriber if any medication-related problems a rose. However, few pharmaceutical interventions were commonly performed. Furthermore, one respondent indicated that all his/her functions in the pharmacy could be delegated to another professional. These findings reveal the pressing need for actions that ensure the ongoing training of pharmacists to enable them to be clinically prepared to deal with patients with mental disorders. PMID:25715126

  13. Facial trauma in the largest city in latin america, são paulo, 15 years after the enactment of the compulsory seat belt law

    PubMed Central

    de Barros, Tarley Eloy Pessoa; Campolongo, Gabriel Denser; Zanluqui, Talita; Duarte, Dayane

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents are a reality throughout Brazil. The face is one of the anatomic parts most affected by these accidents, especially when a seat belt is not used. These accidents are costly for the public health system and have a significant impact on society and the lives of families involved. The compulsory use of seat belts in Brazil, especially in São Paulo, has decreased the rate of facial trauma. This suggests that the public health policies and measures adopted by the Brazilian authorities have benefited the population 15 years after the enactment of the law of compulsory seat belts in the city of São Paulo. PMID:21120309

  14. Evolution of elastic properties and acoustic emission, during uniaxial loading of rocks, from the Fogo Volcano in the island of Sao Miguel, Azores; Preliminary results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, M.; Wallenstein, N.

    2012-04-01

    A Computerized Uniaxial Press working up to 250 kN was installed in the middle 2011 in the Laboratory of Microseismic Monitoring of ISEL. The system is able to record continuous time, pressure and axial strain (1 µm resolution) at 1s sampling rate. The loading platens were designed to integrate acoustic emission (AE) transducers. Signals are acquired and processed through an 8-channel ESG Hyperion Ultrasonic Monitoring System (10 MSPS, 14/16-bit ADC). The first experiments, presented here, were applied to a set of rock samples from the Fogo, an active central volcano in the island of Sao Miguel. Two different volcanic rock types were studied: a fine grained alkali basaltic rock with a porphyritic texture, a porosity of 4.5% and bulk density of 2700 kg m-3 (sample #3); and a benmoreitic rock with a trachytic texture, a porosity of 8.1 %, and bulk density of 2400 kg m-3 (sample #4). Cores from sample #3 were subjected to continuous increasing pressure, until failure. They show a uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) spanning from 60 to 85 MPa and a stress-strain curve with two phases: a first one with relative low Young's Module (YM) followed by a second phase were the YM increases roughly 3 times. The stress transition value occurs broadly in a stress level 50% of the UCS. The AE produced in the process is almost negligible until the YM transition stress level and increases after that. Important pulses of high AE rate occur, (> 100 s-1), associated with the occurrence and propagation of fractures, which are always parallel to the principal stress, showing an evident pattern of tensile fractures. About 20s before the failure, very important deformation rate is observed, the YM strongly decrease, and continuous AE events, with low rate, usually <50 s-1. The failure is accompanied with a sudden rise of AE events with rate > 200 s-1. Cycling stress experiences were also performed showing reversible stress-strain relation for axial pressure below the YM transition level

  15. Traffic Related Air Quality Trends in São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Martinez, P.; Andrade, M. D. F.

    2014-12-01

    An air quality based approach is used to determine pollutant-trends of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOX), ozone (O3) and particle matter (PM10) mostly from road transport sources in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (MRSP) for the years 2000-2013. Road transport sources included flex (gasoline and ethanol) cars and motorcycles and diesel trucks and buses. Air pollutant concentrations for the transport sources were measured and related with the fuel sales by the emission factors (EFs) expressed in grams of pollutant per kilometer driven or unit of fuel consumed. Over the 14- year time period, pollutant concentrations of NOX, CO and PM10 decreased by 0.65, 0.37 and 0.71% month-1, respectively. Oppossitely during this time, fuel sales of gasoline, ethanol and diesel increased by 0.26, 1.96 and 0.38% month-1. Flex engines are the prevalent road source of CO, oppositely to diesel ones which appear to be the major source of NOX and PM10. Decrease in air pollutants are partially offset by the increment of fuel sales and related transport activity. For CO, there have been steep decreases in pollutant concentrations (rate of -5 parts per billion, ppb, month-1) for gasoline and ethanol engines between 2000 and 2013. Similarly, diesel related NOX and PM10 concentrations decreased but at slower time rates (-0.25 and -0.09 ppb month-1). Rates uncertainties are larger for diesel pollutants (coefficient of determination R of -0.47 and -0.41) than for gasoline and ethanol related CO (R equal to -0.72). This paper led to the following conclusions: (1) concentrations of gasoline and ethanol related CO, estimated by air quality network measurements, decreased at steeper rate than diesel pollutants NOX and PM10, (2) transport source contributions to the O3 formation differ significantly through the time period focus of this work, with higher contributions coming from gasoline and ethanol engines at the beinning of the reviewed period (2000-2007) and from diesel engines

  16. [Implementation of the Family Health Program and socio-spatial exclusion in the city of São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bousquat, Aylene; Cohn, Amélia; Elias, Paulo Eduardo

    2006-09-01

    The present article analyzes the implementation of the Family Health Program (FHP) in São Paulo, Brazil, taking as its reference the occupation of the city's space, characterized by strong socio-spatial segregation. The population coverage and consolidation achieved by the FHP and the partner institutions' legal and institutional formats were identified in 96 Administrative Districts (AD). The study then proceeded to stratify these ADs beginning with their position in a ranked social exclusion map. ADs were classified in five groups. Based on these results, a typology was produced in the FHP implementation in this capital city of the State of São Paulo. Clearly distinct patterns were identified when the ADs were ranked for exclusion/inclusion. FHP implementation was effective within the peripheral ADs, especially those in Group 1, indicating pressure for the Municipal Health Secretariat to comply with its discourse, which had assumed the FHP as a health care model to be implemented throughout the city, at least reaching the entire low-income population. PMID:16917591

  17. Wheezing conditions in early childhood: prevalence and risk factors in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Benício, Maria Helena D.; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Cardoso, Maria Regina A.; Konno, Sílvia C.; Monteiro, Carlos A.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for wheezing disorders in early childhood in São Paulo, Brazil, the largest metropolitan area of South America. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional survey of 1132 children aged 6-59 months was carried out between 1995 and 1996 to obtain information on recent wheezing and on independent variables such as demographic, socioeconomic, environmental, maternal and nutritional variables and immunization status. Intestinal parasitic infections were diagnosed using standard techniques. Multiple unconditional logistic regression was used to describe associations between outcome and independent variables. FINDINGS: The prevalence of recent wheezing (one or more reported episodes in the past 12 months) was 12.5%; 93% of children with wheezing were also reported to have a medical diagnosis of asthma. Recent wheezing was associated with low per capita income, poor quality of housing, day-care attendance, low birth weight and infection with intestinal helminths. CONCLUSION: Wheezing in early childhood in São Paulo, although more common than in most developing countries, remains less prevalent than in urban areas of industrialized countries. Low income and conditions associated with poverty (poor housing, low birth weight and parasitic infections) are some of the main risk factors for wheezing disorders among young children in this city. PMID:15508196

  18. Urban influence on litterfall trace metals fluxes in the Atlantic forest of São Paulo (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fostier, A.-H.; Cecon, K.; Forti, M. C.

    2003-05-01

    A monitoring project for two forest catchments was establisbed in 2001 in Sâo Paulo State, Brazil. The chosen catchments differed significantly with respect to human occupation. One catchment area, PEFI (23°39'S and 46°37'W), is inside the largest metropolis of South America, the city of São Paulo, within a Park of 549.3 ha, located about 50 km away from the ocean. The other catchment area, CUNHA (between parallels 23°13'18'' and 23°16'10''South and meridians 45°02'53'' and 45°02'53'' West), is within a State Reserve of the Atlantic Forest, with 2850 ha, located about 15 km from the ocean, surrounded by rural areas and small villages. PEFI is about 798 m above sea level, while CUNHA is about 1050 m. In this work we examined the monthly litterfall trace metal (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cr, Cd, Hg) fluxes for both catchments during the 2001 dry season (may to September). Trace element concentrations were also determined in soils. CUNHA is characterized by low fluxes and low concentrations in soil, compared with PEFI. The same tendency was also observed for rainfall and throughfall Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu fluxes.

  19. Management of gillnet fisheries in the south coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Jocemar T; Pereira, Alineide L C

    2014-09-01

    Gillnetting is one of the most practiced fishing methods adopted in the South of Brazil and has been increasingly expanding over the last years. This paper presents the characterization of the activity and discusses its management, in accordance to results from the discussions on the development of regulations on net fisheries in the South Coast Marine Protected Area (APAMLS) in the state of São Paulo. Gillnet fleets are formed by small-scale boats, with low autonomy, and lower fishing capacity, when compared to boats from other ports in the South and Southeast. However, the number of fishing units is high, reaching 1,709 units operating in the South coast of São Paulo in 2010. This kind of fleet uses several types of gillnets, and the activity may be classified according to the fishery type (industrial, coastal artisanal and estuarine artisanal). The activity was discussed in the APAMLS and the fishing industry, with the participation of all segments, and a proposal for gillnetting regulation was reached. The results suggested that gillnet length for industrial fisheries should be reduced by 30%. It must be emphasized that without effective inspection measures leading the fishing industry to believe in the enforcement of the proposal, private interests of the most influential political sectors may cause the process to retrocede. PMID:25211105

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a bioassay-fractionated extract of PM 10 collected in São Paulo, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Martinis, Bruno S.; Okamoto, Robert A.; Kado, Norman Y.; Gundel, Lara A.; Carvalho, Lilian R. F.

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in airborne particles (PM 10) collected in an urban site of São Paulo City, Brazil. Samples were Soxhlet extracted sequentially with dichloromethane and acetone, followed by solid phase fractionation. Increasing polar fractions (A-K) of dichloromethane and acetone extracts were obtained. Fractionated extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and Salmonella microsuspension bioassay. Sixteen PAH compounds were quantified in dichloromethane B and C fractions, nevertheless the D and E fractions presented higher mutagenic activities. Concentrations of the individual PAHs ranged from 0.8 ng m -3 (perylene) to 12.8 ng m -3 (benzofluranthene), reaching a total concentration of 95.5 ng m -3. BaP/BgP and Pyr/BaP ratios indicated the presence of vehicular emissions and BghiP/Ind and Chr/BeP ratios suggested a contribution of wood combustion emissions. Further investigation is still necessary for a better understanding of the PAH sources in the urban atmosphere of São Paulo City.

  1. Serosurvey for feline leukemia virus and lentiviruses in captive small neotropic felids in São Paulo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Filoni, Claudia; Adania, Cristina Harumi; Durigon, Edison Luiz; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2003-03-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), Gammaretrovirus, and feline immunodeficiency virus, a Lentivirus, are members of the family Retroviridae, and may establish persistent infections in the domestic cat (Felis catus). Cytoproliferative and cytosuppressive disorders may result from infection with these viruses. Morbidity and mortality rates are high in domestic cats worldwide. Infection of endangered neotropic small felids with these viruses could be devastating. To investigate the prevalence of FeLV and feline lentiviruses in neotropic small felids kept in captivity in São Paulo state. Brazil, serum samples from 104 animals belonging to the species Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, Leopardus wiedii, Herpailurus yaguarondi, and Oncifelis geoffroyi were tested for FeLV and feline lentiviruses by commercially available immunoassays. All results were negative, suggesting that retrovirus infection is not an important clinical problem in these populations. Because domestic cats in São Paulo city are naturally infected with these pathogens, and feral cats are commonly found in zoologic facilities in Brazil, preventive measures should be taken to avoid transmission of retroviruses to naive populations of wild and captive neotropic felids in Brazil. PMID:12723802

  2. Reduction in local ozone levels in urban São Paulo due to a shift from ethanol to gasoline use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvo, Alberto; Geiger, Franz M.

    2014-06-01

    Ethanol-based vehicles are thought to generate less pollution than gasoline-based vehicles, because ethanol emissions contain lower concentrations of mono-nitrogen oxides than those from gasoline emissions. However, the predicted effect of various gasoline/ethanol blends on the concentration of atmospheric pollutants such as ozone varies between model and laboratory studies, including those that seek to simulate the same environmental conditions. Here, we report the consequences of a real-world shift in fuel use in the subtropical megacity of São Paulo, Brazil, brought on by large-scale fluctuations in the price of ethanol relative to gasoline between 2009 and 2011. We use highly spatially and temporally resolved observations of road traffic levels, meteorology and pollutant concentrations, together with a consumer demand model, to show that ambient ozone concentrations fell by about 20% as the share of bi-fuel vehicles burning gasoline rose from 14 to 76%. In contrast, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide concentrations increased. We caution that although gasoline use seems to lower ozone levels in the São Paulo metropolitan area relative to ethanol use, strategies to reduce ozone pollution require knowledge of the local chemistry and consideration of other pollutants, particularly fine particles.

  3. Assessment of ametryn contamination in river water, river sediment, and mollusk bivalves in São Paulo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jacomini, Analu Egydio; de Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Avelar, Wagner Eustáquio Paiva; Bonato, Pierina Sueli

    2011-04-01

    São Paulo state, Brazil, is one of the main areas of sugar cane agriculture in the world. Herbicides, in particular, ametryn, are extensively used in this extensive area, which implies that this herbicide is present in the environment and can contaminate the surface water by running off. Thereby, residues of ametryn were analyzed in samples of river water an river sediment and in freshwater bivalves obtained from the rivers Sapucaí, Pardo and Mogi-Guaçu in São Paulo State, Brazil. Samples were taken in the winter of 2003 and 2004 in two locations in each river. The specimens of freshwater bivalves collected and analyzed were Corbicula fluminea, an exotic species, and Diplodon fontaineanus, a native species. Additionally, the evaluation of the ability of bioconcentration and depuration of ametryn by the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea was also performed. Ametryn concentrations in the samples were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Residues of ametryn in water (50 ng/L) and in freshwater bivalves (2-7 ng/g) were found in the Mogi-Guaçu River in 2004, and residues in river sediments were found in all rivers in 2003 and 2004 (0.5-2 ng/g). The observation of the aquatic environment through the analysis of these matrixes, water, sediment, and bivalves, revealed the importance of the river sediment in the accumulation of the herbicide ametryn, which can contaminate the biota. PMID:20567812

  4. A continuous multi-millennial record of surficial bivalve mollusk shells from the São Paulo Bight, Brazilian shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dexter, Troy A.; Kaufman, Darrell S.; Krause, Richard A.; Barbour Wood, Susan L.; Simões, Marcello G.; Huntley, John Warren; Yanes, Yurena; Romanek, Christopher S.; Kowalewski, Michał

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the potential of using surficial shell accumulations for paleoenvironmental studies, an extensive time series of individually dated specimens of the marine infaunal bivalve mollusk Semele casali was assembled using amino acid racemization (AAR) ratios (n = 270) calibrated against radiocarbon ages (n = 32). The shells were collected from surface sediments at multiple sites across a sediment-starved shelf in the shallow sub-tropical São Paulo Bight (São Paulo State, Brazil). The resulting 14C-calibrated AAR time series, one of the largest AAR datasets compiled to date, ranges from modern to 10,307 cal yr BP, is right skewed, and represents a remarkably complete time series: the completeness of the Holocene record is 66% at 250-yr binning resolution and 81% at 500-yr binning resolution. Extensive time-averaging is observed for all sites across the sampled bathymetric range indicating long water depth-invariant survival of carbonate shells at the sediment surface with low net sedimentation rates. Benthic organisms collected from active depositional surfaces can provide multi-millennial time series of biomineral records and serve as a source of geochemical proxy data for reconstructing environmental and climatic trends throughout the Holocene at centennial resolution. Surface sediments can contain time-rich shell accumulations that record the entire Holocene, not just the present.

  5. [Social reproduction of leprosy: a study of patients profile with leprosy in the city of São Paulo].

    PubMed

    Helene, Lúcia Maria Frazão; Salum, Maria Josefina Leuba

    2002-01-01

    This study discusses the relationship between work and living conditions among leprosy patients enrolled in the São Paulo municipal public health system in 1996. Social patterns were studied based on the theory of social determination of the health-disease process. The main purpose of the study was to emphasize evidence of the disease determination network, seeking new knowledge to improve public policies on leprosy. Data were gathered from a sample of leprosy patients registered in the city's public health system. Although patients' families are characterized by a common social thread, different work/life possibilities allow for a classification of patients into three social groups. The majority belong to groups that are marginalized from social production, living in areas where social exclusion is more extreme, on the outskirts of the city. If the trends in this study persist, incident leprosy cases will result from the social exclusion of migrants from Brazil's Southeast and Northeast. The study also discusses the position of young people and female patients in the determination network of this infectious disease in the city of São Paulo. PMID:11910429

  6. An integrated study of the Grayburg/San Andres Reservoir, Foster and South Cowden Fields, Ector County, Texas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, February 1, 1995--April 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, J.J.; Rowland, D.A.; Trentham, R.C.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate a methodology for reservoir characterization of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs which is feasible for the independent operator. Furthermore, it will provide one of the first public demonstrations of the enhancement of reservoir characterization using high resolution 3-D seismic data. This particular project will evaluate the Grayburg and San Andres reservoirs in the Foster and South Cowden Fields of Ector County, Texas. We intend to showcase a multi-disciplinary approach to waterflood design and implementation, along with the addition of reserves by selective infill drilling. We believe this approach in reservoir development will be applicable to a wide range of shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs throughout the United States. Technology transfer will take place through all phases of the project. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: geological; reservoir engineering; and geophysics.

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of the gorgonian Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae collected at the Islands of Providencia and San Andrés (SW Caribbean)

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Hebelin; Valenzuela, Alba Lucia; Ospina, Luis Fernando; Duque, Carmenza

    2009-01-01

    Background We are reporting for the first time the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of extracts and fractions, and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of pure compounds, all isolated from Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae collected at the Providencia (chemotype 1) and San Andrés (chemotype 2) Islands (SW Caribbean). Methods Extracts from P. elisabethae were fractionated on silica gel to yield fractions: F-1 (pseudopterosins PsQ, PsS and PsU) and F-2 (amphilectosins A and B, PsG, PsK, PsP and PsT and seco-pseudopterosins seco-PsJ and seco-PsK) from chemotype 1, and F-3 (elisabethatrienol, 10-acetoxy-9-hydroxy- and 9-acetoxy-10-hydroxy-amphilecta-8,10,12,14-tetraenes (interconverting mixture) and amphilecta-8(13),11,14-triene-9,10-dione) from chemotype 2. By using preparative RP-HPLC and spectroscopic means, we obtained the pure PsG, PsK, PsP, PsQ, PsS, PsT, PsU, seco-PsK and the interconverting mixture of non-glycosylated diterpenes (IMNGD). The anti-inflammatory properties of extracts and fractions were evaluated using in vivo model "12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse ear oedema". The activities of pure compounds and of the IMNGD were evaluated using in vitro assays myeloperoxidase (MPO) release (by human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs)), nitric oxide release (by J-774 cells) and scavenger activity on NO. Results In the in vivo anti-inflammatory assay, extracts and F-3 showed low inhibition levels of inflammation compared to indomethacin, F-1 and F-2. Additionally, we evaluated the MPO release to the inflammation site, and found a marked inhibition of MPO levels by all extracts and fractions, even superior to the inhibition shown by indomethacin. Furthermore, in the MPO in vitro assay, IMNGD, PsQ, PsS, PsT and PsU, exhibited higher inhibition levels compared to dexamethasone and indomethacin. In the NO release in vitro, IMNGD, PsP and PsT were the most potent treatments. Finally, because the PsG, PsP and seco-PsK did not exhibit any NO

  8. [Incidence pityriasis rosea of Gibert in the Dermatology Service of the Hospital do Servidor Público in the state of São Paulo].

    PubMed

    de Souza Sittart, J A; Tayah, M; Soares, Z

    1984-01-01

    The authors present a retrospective study on the incidence of Pitiriase Rosea in the Dermatology Department of the Hospital do Servidor Público do Estado de São Paulo, covering a 17 years span. Figures concerning race, sex, age, mensal and anual incidence as well the distribution in the seasons of the year are analysed. PMID:6392788

  9. Using the Method of Paulo Freire in Nutrition Education: An Experimental Plan for Community Action in Northeast Brazil. Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 3 (1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummon, Therese; Lotham, Michael C., Ed.

    This monograph provides an interpretation of the work and ideas of Paulo Freire and describes an attempt to use his methods in a preliminary trial of a small scale nutrition program in four villages in Maranhao State, Northeast Brazil. The introductory chapter indicates the seriousness of the nutritional problems of the rural poor as well as the…

  10. Public Stigma towards Older Adults with Depression: Findings from the São Paulo-Manaus Elderly in Primary Care Study.

    PubMed

    Scazufca, Marcia; P de Paula Couto, Maria Clara; Huang, Hsiang; Kester, Rachel; Braga, Patrícia Emília; Peluso, Érica T P; Blay, Sérgio L; R Menezes, Paulo; E Ribeiro, Euler

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates three domains of public stigma (perceived negative reactions, perceived discrimination, and dangerousness) against older adults with depression. The sample comprised of older adults registered with primary care clinics (n = 1,291) and primary health care professionals (n = 469) from São Paulo and Manaus, Brazil. Participants read a vignette describing a 70-year-old individual (Mary or John) with a depressive disorder and answered questions measuring stigma. The prevalence of the three stigma domains was between 30.2 and 37.6% among older participants from São Paulo and between 27.6 and 35.4% among older participants from Manaus. Older adults from both cities reported similar prevalence of perceived stigma. Key factors associated with stigmatizing beliefs among older participants were reporting depressive symptoms, having physical limitations, and identifying the case of the vignette as a case of mental disorder. Among health professionals, the prevalence of the three stigma domains was between 19.8 and 34.8% in São Paulo and 30.2 and 44.6% in Manaus. The key factor associated with stigma among primary health care professionals was city, with consistently higher risk in Manaus than in São Paulo. Findings confirm that public stigma against older adults in Brazil is common. It is important to educate the public and primary health care providers in Brazil on stigma related to mental illness in order to reduce barriers to adequate mental health treatment. PMID:27352293

  11. Serological evidence of exposure to tick-borne agents in opossums (Didelphis spp.) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Aguiar, Daniel Moura de; Spolidorio, Mariana Granziera; Yoshinari, Natalino Hajime; Matushima, Eliana Reiko; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Horta, Mauricio Claudio

    2016-06-01

    This work involved a serological investigation of tick-borne pathogens in opossums in eight municipalities of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Serum samples from 109 opossums (91 Didelphis aurita and 18 Didelphis albiventris) were tested to detect antibodies to Rickettsia rickettsii (Taiaçu strain, 1:64 cut-off) and Ehrlichia canis (São Paulo strain, 1:40 cut-off), by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA); and against Borrelia burgdorferi (strain G39/40) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The presence of antibodies to anti-R. rickettsii, anti-E. canis and anti-B. burgdorferi was detected in 32 (29.35%), 16 (14.67%) and 30 (27.52%) opossums, respectively. Opossum endpoint titers ranged from 64 to 1,024 for R. rickettsii, from 40 to 160 for E. canis, and from 400 to >51,200 for B. burgdorferi. These serological results suggest that opossums have been exposed to Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia spp., and B. burgdorferi-related agents in the state of São Paulo. Our study underscores the need for further research about these agents in this study area, in view of the occurrence of Spotted Fever and Baggio-Yoshinari Syndrome disease in humans in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. PMID:27276663

  12. The history of venomous spider identification, venom extraction methods and antivenom production: a long journey at the Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Sylvia M

    2015-01-01

    The article provides a historical report on venomous spider identification, venom obtainment methods and serum production at the Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil. It is based on literature and personnal experience during the last 50 years. This result is the discovery that the real species causing potential severe human accidents were the spiders of the genus Loxosceles and Phoneutria. PMID:26085831

  13. [Homicide and public security indicator trends in the city of São Paulo between 1996 and 2008: a time-series ecological study].

    PubMed

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; de Almeida, Juliana Feliciano; Vicentin, Diego; Ruotti, Caren; Nery, Marcelo Batista; Cerda, Magdalena; Cardia, Nancy; Adorno, Sérgio

    2012-12-01

    The scope of this paper was to analyze the association between homicides and public security indicators in São Paulo between 1996 and 2008, after monitoring the unemployment rate and the proportion of youths in the population. A time-series ecological study for 1996 and 2008 was conducted with São Paulo as the unit of analysis. Dependent variable: number of deaths by homicide per year. Main independent variables: arrest-incarceration rate, access to firearms, police activity. Data analysis was conducted using Stata.IC 10.0 software. Simple and multivariate negative binomial regression models were created. Deaths by homicide and arrest-incarceration, as well as police activity were significantly associated in simple regression analysis. Access to firearms was not significantly associated to the reduction in the number of deaths by homicide (p>0,05). After adjustment, the associations with both the public security indicators were not significant. In São Paulo the role of public security indicators are less important as explanatory factors for a reduction in homicide rates, after adjustment for unemployment rate and a reduction in the proportion of youths. The results reinforce the importance of socioeconomic and demographic factors for a change in the public security scenario in São Paulo . PMID:23175401

  14. Public Stigma towards Older Adults with Depression: Findings from the São Paulo-Manaus Elderly in Primary Care Study

    PubMed Central

    Kester, Rachel; Braga, Patrícia Emília; Peluso, Érica T. P.; Blay, Sérgio L.; R. Menezes, Paulo; E. Ribeiro, Euler

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates three domains of public stigma (perceived negative reactions, perceived discrimination, and dangerousness) against older adults with depression. The sample comprised of older adults registered with primary care clinics (n = 1,291) and primary health care professionals (n = 469) from São Paulo and Manaus, Brazil. Participants read a vignette describing a 70-year-old individual (Mary or John) with a depressive disorder and answered questions measuring stigma. The prevalence of the three stigma domains was between 30.2 and 37.6% among older participants from São Paulo and between 27.6 and 35.4% among older participants from Manaus. Older adults from both cities reported similar prevalence of perceived stigma. Key factors associated with stigmatizing beliefs among older participants were reporting depressive symptoms, having physical limitations, and identifying the case of the vignette as a case of mental disorder. Among health professionals, the prevalence of the three stigma domains was between 19.8 and 34.8% in São Paulo and 30.2 and 44.6% in Manaus. The key factor associated with stigma among primary health care professionals was city, with consistently higher risk in Manaus than in São Paulo. Findings confirm that public stigma against older adults in Brazil is common. It is important to educate the public and primary health care providers in Brazil on stigma related to mental illness in order to reduce barriers to adequate mental health treatment. PMID:27352293

  15. Seasonal and diurnal variation of NOx-O3 in the troposphere of São Paulo State (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, C. D.; Cardoso, A. A.

    2006-05-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are emitted to the atmosphere mainly as a result of combustion and play an important role on the photochemical production and destruction of ozone (O3). Tropospheric O3 is recognized as one of most critical secondary pollutants due to its oxidant potential and phytotoxicity. Besides the concentrations of its precursors, some physical factors, such as temperature, solar radiation, humidity and wind conditions may affect its formation kinetics. In São Paulo State rural area, the major source of NOx to the atmosphere is the biomass burning in the sugar cane pre-harvest, which occurs during the dry season, between May and November. The influence of this NOx source upon the formation of O3 was evaluated in this present study in the period between June 2004 and May 2005. The NO and NO2 were collected in C-18 cartridge impregnated with triethanolamine. NO was previously oxidized to NO2 by CrO3. The Griess-Saltzman reaction was used to determination of NOx. The O3 was sampled in cellulose filters impregnated with indigo blue solution. Concentrations of NOx were higher at night and during the winter, when biomass burning in the sugar cane fields happen. The maximum values reached 118.4 ppbv for NO2 and 83.3 ppbv for NO. The NO2 concentration decrease during the night and a minimum value is observed at the middle of the next day, when the O3 levels reached a maximum. The NO concentrations out of the period of biomass burn (between December and April) were close to the method detection limit, suggesting that the sugar cane burning is the major source of NO in the troposphere at this site. The results still showed that there are two maximum seasonal periods of ozone, which can be related, first, to the higher radiation intensity (summertime), and second, to the greater spread of precursors in the atmosphere, even with a minimum of insulation (wintertime). In summer, the ozone mean values are lower than those in winter. In the winter the O3 peaks may be

  16. Isoquercitrin and polyphosphate co-enhance mineralization of human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells via separate activation of two RUNX2 cofactors AFT6 and Ets1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Schröder, Heinz C; Feng, Qingling; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Grebenjuk, Vladislav A; Müller, Werner E G

    2014-06-01

    Isoquercitrin, a dietary phytoestrogen, is a potential stimulator of bone mineralization used for prophylaxis of osteoporotic disorders. Here we studied the combined effects of isoquercitrin, a cell membrane permeable 3-O-glucoside of quercetin, and polyphosphate [polyP], a naturally occurring inorganic polymer inducing bone formation, on mineralization of human osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells. Both compounds isoquercitrin and polyP induce at non-toxic concentrations the mineralization process of SaOS-2 cells. Co-incubation experiments revealed that isoquercitrin (at 0.1 and 0.3μM), if given simultaneously with polyP (as Ca(2+) salt; at 3, 10, 30 and 100μM) amplifies the mineralization-enhancing effect of the inorganic polymer. The biomineralization process induced by isoquercitrin and polyP is based on two different modes of action. After incubation of the cells with isoquercitrin or polyP the expression of the Runt-related transcription factor 2 [RUNX2] is significantly upregulated. In addition, isoquercitrin causes a strong increase of the steady-state-levels of the two co-activators of RUNX2, the activating transcription factor 6 [ATF6] and the Ets oncogene homolog 1 [Ets1]. The activating effect of isoquercitrin occurs via a signal transduction pathway involving ATF6, and by that, is independent from the induction cascade initiated by polyP. This conclusion is supported by the finding that isoquercitrin upregulates the expression of the gene encoding for osteocalcin, while polyP strongly increases the expression of the Ets1 gene and of the alkaline phosphatase. We show that the two compounds, polyP and isoquercitrin, have a co-enhancing effect on bone mineral formation and in turn might be of potential therapeutic value for prevention/treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:24726443

  17. An in vitro evaluation of the responses of human osteoblast-like SaOs-2 cells on SLA titanium surfaces irradiated by different powers of CO2 lasers.

    PubMed

    Ayubianmarkazi, Nader; Karimi, Mohammadreza; Koohkan, Shima; Sanasa, Armand; Foroutan, Tahereh

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial biofilms have been identified as the primary etiological factor for the development and progression of peri-implantitis. Lasers have been shown to remove bacterial plaque from titanium surfaces effectively and can restore its biocompatibility without damaging these surfaces. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the responses (i.e., the cell viability and morphology) of human osteoblast-like SaOs-2 cells to sandblasted, large grit, and acid-etched (SLA) titanium surfaces irradiated by CO2 lasers at two different power outputs. A total of 24 SLA disks were randomly radiated by CO2 lasers at either 6 W (group 1, 12 disks) or 8 W (group 2, 12 disks). Non-irradiated disks were used as a control group (four disks). The cell viability rates of the SaOs-2 cells in the control and study groups (6 and 8 W) were 0.33 ± 0.00, 0.24 ± 0.11, and 0.2372 ± 0.09, respectively (P < 0.6). Cells with cytoplasmic extensions and spreading morphology were most prominent in the control group (141.00 ± 29.00), while in the study groups (6 and 8 W), the number of cells with such morphology was 60.40 ± 26.00 and 35.20 ± 5.40, respectively (P < 0.005). Within the limits of this study, it may be concluded that the use of CO2 lasers with the aforementioned setting parameters could not be recommended for decontamination of SLA titanium surfaces. PMID:25958169

  18. 'Candidatus Liberibacter americanus', associated with citrus huanglongbing (greening disease) in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Diva do Carmo; Saillard, Colette; Eveillard, Sandrine; Danet, Jean Luc; da Costa, Paulo Inácio; Ayres, Antonio Juliano; Bové, Joseph

    2005-09-01

    Symptoms of huanglongbing (HLB) were reported in São Paulo State (SPS), Brazil, in March 2004. In Asia, HLB is caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' and in Africa by 'Candidatus Liberibacter africanus'. Detection of the liberibacters is based on PCR amplification of their 16S rRNA gene with specific primers. Leaves with blotchy mottle symptoms characteristic of HLB were sampled in several farms of SPS and tested for the presence of liberibacters. 'Ca. L. asiaticus' was detected in a small number of samples but most samples gave negative PCR results. Therefore, a new HLB pathogen was suspected. Evidence for an SPS-HLB bacterium in symptomatic leaves was obtained by PCR amplification with universal primers for prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene sequences. The amplified 16S rRNA gene was cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis and phylogeny studies showed that the 16S rRNA gene possessed the oligonucleotide signatures and the secondary loop structure characteristic of the alpha-Proteobacteria, including the liberibacters. The 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic tree showed that the SPS-HLB bacterium clustered within the alpha-Proteobacteria, the liberibacters being its closest relatives. For these reasons, the SPS-HLB bacterium is considered a member of the genus 'Ca. Liberibacter'. However, while the 16S rRNA gene sequences of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' and 'Ca. L. africanus' had 98.4% similarity, the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the SPS-HLB liberibacter had only 96.0% similarity with the 16S rRNA gene sequences of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' or 'Ca. L. africanus'. This lower similarity was reflected in the phylogenetic tree, where the SPS-HLB liberibacter did not cluster within the 'Ca. L asiaticus'/'Ca. L. africanus group', but as a separate branch. Within the genus 'Candidatus Liberibacter' and for a given species, the 16S/23S intergenic region does not vary greatly. The intergenic regions of three strains of 'Ca. L. asiaticus', from India, the People's Republic of China and Japan

  19. São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey - a population-based epidemiological study of psychiatric morbidity in the São Paulo metropolitan area: aims, design and field implementation.

    PubMed

    Viana, Maria Carmen; Teixeira, Marlene Galativicis; Beraldi, Fidel; Bassani, Indaiá de Santana; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2009-12-01

    The São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey is a population-based cross-sectional survey of psychiatric morbidity, assessing a probabilistic sample of household residents in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area, aged 18 years and over. Respondents were selected from a stratified multistage clustered area probability sample of households, covering all 39 municipalities, without replacement. Respondents were assessed using the World Mental Health Survey version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI), which was translated and adapted into the Brazilian-Portuguese language. Data was collected between May 2005 and April 2007 by trained lay interviewers. The World Mental Health Survey version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview comprises clinical and non-clinical sections, arranged as Part I and Part II, producing diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fourth Edition, and the International Classification of Diseases - 10th Revision. Mood, anxiety, impulse-control and substance use disorders, and suicide-related behavior, considered core disorders, as well as socio-demographic information, were assessed in all respondents. Non-clinical modules and non-core clinical sections (obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, gambling, eating disorders, neurasthenia, pre-menstrual disorders, psychotic symptoms and personality traits) were assessed in a sub-sample (2,942 respondents), composed by all respondents with at least one core disorder and a 25% random sample of those who were non-cases. A total of 5,037 individuals were interviewed, with a global response rate of 81.3%. Saliva samples were collected from 1,801 respondents, with DNA extracted stored pending further investigations. PMID:20098829

  20. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild rodents and marsupials from the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gennari, Solange Maria; Ogrzewalska, Maria Halina; Soares, Herbert Sousa; Saraiva, Danilo Gonçalves; Pinter, Adriano; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda Aparecida; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; Dubey, Jitender Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects a large spectrum of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Small rodents and marsupials play an important role in the epidemiology of T. gondii because they are sources of infection for domestic and feral cats. Serum samples from 151 rodents and 48 marsupials, captured in the Atlantic Forest, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, were analyzed for the presence of T. gondii antibodies. Antibodies detected by the modified agglutination test (MAT ≥ 25) were found in 8.6% (13/151) of the rodents and 10.4% (5/48) of the marsupials, with titers ranging from 25 to 6400 and from 25 to 3200, respectively for the rodents and marsupials. Three of the eight species of rodents (Akodon spp., Oligoryzomys nigripesand Rattus norvegicus), and one from the four marsupial species (Didelphis aurita) presented positive animals. T. gondii was described for the first time in the rodent Oligoryzomys nigripes. PMID:26444068