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Sample records for andreeva bay shore

  1. On-site gamma dose rates at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, northwest Russia.

    PubMed

    Reistad, O; Dowdall, M; Standring, W J F; Selnaes, Ø G; Hustveit, S; Steinhusen, F; Sørlie, A

    2008-07-01

    The spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and radioactive waste (RAW) storage facility at Andreeva Bay shore technical base (STB) is one of the largest and most hazardous nuclear legacy sites in northwest Russia. Originally commissioned in the 1960s the facility now stores large amounts of SNF and RAW associated with the Russian Northern Fleet of nuclear powered submarines. The objective of the present study was to map ambient gamma dose rates throughout the facility, in particular at a number of specific sites where SNF and RAW are stored. The data presented here are taken from a Norwegian-Russian collaboration enabling the first publication in the scientific literature of the complete survey of on-site dose rates. Results indicate that elevated gamma dose rates are found primarily at discrete sites within the facility; maximum dose rates of up to 1000 microSv/h close to the ground (0.1m) and up to 3000 microSv/h at 1m above ground were recorded, higher doses at the 1m height being indicative primarily of the presence of contaminated equipment as opposed to ground contamination. Highest dose rates were measured at sites located in the immediate vicinity of buildings used for storing SNF and sites associated with storage of solid and liquid radioactive wastes. Elevated dose rates were also observed near the former channel of a small brook that became heavily contaminated as a result of radioactive leaks from the SNF storage at Building 5 starting in 1982. Isolated patches of elevated dose rates were also observed throughout the STB. A second paper detailing the radioactive soil contamination at the site is published in this issue of Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. PMID:18243437

  2. On-site radioactive soil contamination at the Andreeva Bay shore technical base, Northwest Russia.

    PubMed

    Reistad, O; Dowdall, M; Selnaes, Ø G; Standring, W J F; Hustveit, S; Steenhuisen, F; Sørlie, A

    2008-07-01

    The radioactive waste (RAW) storage site at Andreeva Bay in the Russian Northwest has experienced radioactive contamination both as a result of activities carried out at the site and due to incidents that have occurred there in the past such as accidental releases of radioactive materials. The site is an interesting case study for decommissioning due to the extremely large amounts of radioactivity present at the site and the conditions under which it is stored; very little has been previously published in the scientific literature about this site. This paper complements the paper describing dose rates at Andreeva Bay which is published in this issue of Journal of Environmental Radioactivity by the same authors. This study presents new data related to the activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (90)Sr in surface soils and measurements of alpha- and beta-particle fluxes taken at different areas around the site. Limited data on 60Co is also presented. The results of the study indicate that the main areas of site contamination are associated with the former spent nuclear fuel storage facility at Building 5, due to accidental discharges which began in 1982. Substantial contamination is also observed at the solid radioactive waste storage facilities, probably due to the ingress of water into these facilities. More than 240 samples were measured: maximum contamination levels were 1 x 10(6)Bq/kg (137)Cs (mean value 4.1 x 10(5)Bq/kg) and 4 x 10(6)Bq/kg (90)Sr (mean value 1.2 x1 0(5)Bq/kg). Localised patches of alpha and beta contamination were also observed throughout the site. PMID:18276046

  3. Preparation for the Recovery of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) at Andreeva Bay, North West Russia - 13309

    SciTech Connect

    Field, D.; McAtamney, N.

    2013-07-01

    Andreeva Bay is located near Murmansk in the Russian Federation close to the Norwegian border. The ex-naval site was used to de-fuel nuclear-powered submarines and icebreakers during the Cold War. Approximately 22,000 fuel assemblies remain in three Dry Storage Units (DSUs) which means that Andreeva Bay has one of the largest stockpiles of highly enriched spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in the world. The high contamination and deteriorating condition of the SNF canisters has made improvements to the management of the SNF a high priority for the international community for safety, security and environmental reasons. International Donors have, since 2002, provided support to projects at Andreeva concerned with improving the management of the SNF. This long-term programme of work has been coordinated between the International Donors and responsible bodies within the Russian Federation. Options for the safe and secure management of SNF at Andreeva Bay were considered in 2004 and developed by a number of Russian Institutes with international participation. This consisted of site investigations, surveys and studies to understand the technical challenges. A principal agreement was reached that the SNF would be removed from the site altogether and transported to Russia's reprocessing facility at Mayak in the Urals. The analytical studies provided the information necessary to develop the construction plan for the site. Following design and regulatory processes, stakeholders endorsed the technical solution in April 2007. This detailed the processes, facilities and equipment required to safely remove the SNF and identified other site services and support facilities required on the site. Implementation of this strategy is now well underway with the facilities in various states of construction. Physical works have been performed to address the most urgent tasks including weather protection over one of the DSUs, installation of shielding over the cells, provision of radiation

  4. 3D simulation as a tool for improving the safety culture during remediation work at Andreeva Bay.

    PubMed

    Chizhov, K; Sneve, M K; Szőke, I; Mazur, I; Mark, N K; Kudrin, I; Shandala, N; Simakov, A; Smith, G M; Krasnoschekov, A; Kosnikov, A; Kemsky, I; Kryuchkov, V

    2014-12-01

    Andreeva Bay in northwest Russia hosts one of the former coastal technical bases of the Northern Fleet. Currently, this base is designated as the Andreeva Bay branch of Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management (SevRAO) and is a site of temporary storage (STS) for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other radiological waste generated during the operation and decommissioning of nuclear submarines and ships. According to an integrated expert evaluation, this site is the most dangerous nuclear facility in northwest Russia. Environmental rehabilitation of the site is currently in progress and is supported by strong international collaboration. This paper describes how the optimization principle (ALARA) has been adopted during the planning of remediation work at the Andreeva Bay STS and how Russian-Norwegian collaboration greatly contributed to ensuring the development and maintenance of a high level safety culture during this process. More specifically, this paper describes how integration of a system, specifically designed for improving the radiological safety of workers during the remediation work at Andreeva Bay, was developed in Russia. It also outlines the 3D radiological simulation and virtual reality based systems developed in Norway that have greatly facilitated effective implementation of the ALARA principle, through supporting radiological characterisation, work planning and optimization, decision making, communication between teams and with the authorities and training of field operators. PMID:25254659

  5. Understanding nutrients in the Chesapeake Bay watershed and implications for management and restoration: the Eastern Shore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ator, Scott W.; Denver, Judith M.

    2015-01-01

    The Eastern Shore includes only a small part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, but contributes disproportionately large loads of the excess nitrogen and phosphorus that have contributed to ecological and economic degradation of the bay in recent decades. Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States and a vital ecological and economic resource. The bay and its tributaries have been degraded in recent decades by excessive nitrogen and phosphorus in the water column, however, which cause harmful algal blooms and decreased water clarity, submerged aquatic vegetation, and dissolved oxygen. The disproportionately large nitrogen and phosphorus yields from the Eastern Shore to Chesapeake Bay are attributable to human land-use practices as well as natural hydrogeologic and soil conditions. Applications of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds to the Eastern Shore from human activities are intensive. More than 90 percent of nitrogen and phosphorus reaching the land in the Eastern Shore is applied as part of inorganic fertilizers or manure, or (for nitrogen) fixed directly from the atmosphere in cropland. Also, hydrogeologic and soil conditions promote the movement of these compounds from application areas on the landscape to groundwater and (or) surface waters, and the proximity of much of the Eastern Shore to tidal waters limits opportunities for natural removal of these compounds in the landscape. The Eastern Shore only includes 7 percent of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, but receives nearly twice as much nitrogen and phosphorus applications (per area) as the remainder of the watershed and yields greater nitrogen and phosphorus, on average, to the bay. Nitrogen and phosphorus commonly occur in streams at concentrations that may adversely affect aquatic ecosystems and have increased in recent decades.

  6. 76 FR 38300 - Safety Zone; Shore Thing and Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of Ocean View Beach Park, Norfolk, VA in support of the Shore Thing and Independence Day Fireworks event. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the Shore Thing and Independence Day Fireworks show. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic......

  7. 33 CFR 334.740 - North Shore Choctawhatchee Bay, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Shore Choctawhatchee Bay, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The area. The restricted area shall encompass all navigable waters of the United States as defined at 33 CFR part 329 within the area bounded by a..., Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. 334.740 Section 334.740 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF...

  8. 33 CFR 334.740 - North Shore Choctawhatchee Bay, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Shore Choctawhatchee Bay, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The area. The restricted area shall encompass all navigable waters of the United States as defined at 33 CFR part 329 within the area bounded by a..., Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. 334.740 Section 334.740 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF...

  9. 33 CFR 334.740 - North Shore Choctawhatchee Bay, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Shore Choctawhatchee Bay, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The area. The restricted area shall encompass all navigable waters of the United States as defined at 33 CFR part 329 within the area bounded by a..., Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. 334.740 Section 334.740 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF...

  10. Near-shore hypoxia in the Chesapeake Bay: Patterns and relationships among physical factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitburg, Denise L.

    1990-06-01

    Near-shore, shallow waters in the Chesapeake Bay periodically experience episodes of anoxia or severe hypoxia during summer. In order to examine the severity and temporal pattern of hypoxia, and environmental factors that may lead to such episodes, dissolved oxygen, salinity and temperature were measured at 15-min intervals during the summers of 1987 and 1988 in a western shore oyster bed. Bottom dissolved oxygen concentrations averaged lower at a 4-m site than at a 2-m site. At the 4-m site, dissolved oxygen concentrations dropped below 2 mg l -1 during approximately 40% of days and below 1 mg l -1 during approximately 10% of days each summer. However, diel fluctuations in oxygen concentrations were sufficiently large that even on days of the most severe oxygen minima, dissolved oxygen concentrations always reached or exceeded a level tolerable by most estuarine organisms during some part of the day. During episodes of severe hypoxia on the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay, oxygen minima (1) coincided with increased salinities and ebb tides, (2) were preceded by winds from the S-SSE (minima of ⩽0·5 1 mg l -1) or SW (minima of 0·6-1·1 mg l -1), and (3) were reached during 22.00-06.00 hours. Severe hypoxia at the study site therefore appeared to result from intrusions of bottom water, which were most effectively driven by southerly winds. Tidal currents were required to provide the final force that brought deep water close to shore. The diel pattern of intrusions is most likely caused by winds, which were often either too strong or had too weak a southerly component to permit intrusions (without near-shore mixing and reaeration) to occur during afternoon-early evening hours, and the diel periodicity of tides. Short-term fluctuations in temperature and salinity were not as great as fluctuations in dissolved oxygen when compared to seasonal fluctuations of each parameter. For many organisms, short-term fluctuations in temperature and salinity may therefore be

  11. The Tsunami Geology of the Bay of Bengal Shores and the Predecessors of the 2004 Indian Ocean Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, C.; Rajendran, K.; Seshachalam, S.; Andrade, V.

    2010-12-01

    The 2004 Aceh-Andaman earthquake exceeded the known Indian Ocean precedents by its 1,300-km long fault rupture and the height and reach of its tsunami. Literature of the ancient Chola dynasty (AD 9-11 centuries) of south India and the archeological excavations allude to a sea flood that crippled the historic port at Kaveripattinam, a trading hub for Southeast Asia. Here, we combine a variety of data from the rupture zone as well as the distant shores to build a tsunami history of the Bay of Bengal. A compelling set of geological proxies of possible tsunami inundation include boulder beds of Car Nicobar Island in the south and the East Island in the northernmost Andaman, a subsided fossil mangrove forest near Port Blair and a washover sedimentation identified in the Kaveripattinam coast of Tamil Nadu, south India. We have developed an extensive chronology for these geological proxies, and we analyze them in conjunction with the historical information culled from different sources for major sea surges along the Bay of Bengal shores. The age data and the depositional characteristics of these geological proxies suggest four major tsunamis in the last 2000 years in the Bay of Bengal, including the 1881 Car Nicobar tsunami. Among these, the evidence for the event of 800-1200 cal yr BP is fairly well represented on both sides of the Bay of Bengal shores. Thus, we surmise that the 800-1000-year old tsunami mimics the transoceanic reach of the 2004 Indian Ocean and the age constraints also agree with the sea surge during the Chola period. We also obtained clues for a possible medieval tsunami from the islands occurred probably a few hundred years after the Chola tsunami, but its size cannot constrained, nor its source. The convergence of ages and the multiplicity of sites would suggest at least one full size predecessor of the 2004 event 1000-800 years ago.

  12. Control of upland bank erosion through tidal marsh construction on restored shores: Application in the maryland portion of Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbisch, Edgar W.; Garbisch, Joanna L.

    1994-09-01

    During the period of 1972 through 1993, Environmental Concern Inc. (EC) and its recent (1989) affiliate Environmental Construction Company (ECC) have completed 216 marsh construction projects to control upland bank erosion in tributaries of the Maryland portion of Chesapeake Bay. Of these projects, 26 have involved marsh construction on unaltered existing shores and 190 have utilized marsh construction on shores that have been restored to former increased elevations through shoreline filling and grading. This paper describes the latter restoration technique. Throughout the 21-year period of applying the technique for long-term upland bank erosion control, refinements to the design standards and criteria for site suitability have been made so as to optimize its successful application. As a result of this experience, a reliable bioengineering restoration technique has evolved to control upland bank erosion. This paper describes the details of this successful technique through a review of: (1) its objectives and benefits, (2) suitability of sites for its application, (3) the design of its shore restoration, (4) its construction, (5) its maintenance, and (6) comparison of its cost with those of structural techniques for bank erosion control. Although the technique has only been applied in the Maryland portions of Chesapeake Bay, its applicability should, with modifications, be broadly applicable to all water bodies.

  13. 75 FR 34367 - Safety Zone; Shore Thing & Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Register (75 FR 26155). We received no comments on the proposed rule. No public meeting was requested, and... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Shore Thing & Independence Day Fireworks... Park, Norfolk, VA in support of the Shore Thing & Independence Day Fireworks event. This action...

  14. 76 FR 27967 - Safety Zone; Shore Thing and Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Shore Thing and Independence Day Fireworks... View Beach Park, Norfolk, VA in support of the Shore Thing and Independence Day Fireworks event....

  15. 75 FR 26155 - Safety Zone; Shore Thing & Independence Day Fireworks, Chesapeake Bay, Norfolk, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Shore Thing & Independence Day Fireworks... View Beach Park, Norfolk, VA in support of the Shore Thing & Independence Day Fireworks event....

  16. Investigation of Wave Energy Converter Effects on Near-shore Wave Fields: Model Generation Validation and Evaluation - Kaneohe Bay HI.

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Chang, Grace; Jones, Craig

    2014-09-01

    The numerical model, SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) , was used to simulate wave conditions in Kaneohe Bay, HI in order to determine the effects of wave energy converter ( WEC ) devices on the propagation of waves into shore. A nested SWAN model was validated then used to evaluate a range of initial wave conditions: significant wave heights (H s ) , peak periods (T p ) , and mean wave directions ( MWD) . Differences between wave height s in the presence and absence of WEC device s were assessed at locations in shore of the WEC array. The maximum decrease in wave height due to the WEC s was predicted to be approximately 6% at 5 m and 10 m water depths. Th is occurred for model initiation parameters of H s = 3 m (for 5 m water depth) or 4 m (10 m water depth) , T p = 10 s, and MWD = 330deg . Subsequently, bottom orbital velocities were found to decrease by about 6%.

  17. A preliminary evaluation of the occurrence and characteristics of cut-off ponds of the Maryland shores of the Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Under the auspices of the Maryland Power Plant Siting Program, a preliminary investigation of occurrence and characteristics of cut-off ponds in the Maryland portion of the Chesapeake Bay was conducted. These small ponds occur commonly along the Bay shore. A sand berm separates the freshwaters of the ponds from the saline waters of the Bay; this berm is occasionally breached permitting interchange between ponds and Bay. A survey of aerial maps and photographs has revealed approximately 1800 ponds bordering the mid and upper Bay.

  18. Cross-shore variation of wind-driven flows on the inner shelf in Long Bay, South Carolina, United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Voulgaris, George; Work, Paul A.

    2006-03-01

    The cross-shore structure of subtidal flows on the inner shelf (7 to 12 m water depth) of Long Bay, South Carolina, a concave-shaped bay, is examined through the analysis of nearly 80 days of near-bed (1.7-2.2 m above bottom) current observations acquired during the spring and fall of 2001. In the spring and under northeastward winds (upwelling favorable) a two-layered flow was observed at depths greater than 10 m, while closer to the shore the currents were aligned with the wind. The two-layered flow is attributed to the presence of stratification, which has been observed under similar conditions in the South Atlantic Bight. When the wind stress was southwestward (downwelling favorable) and exceeded 0.1 N/m2, vertical mixing occurred, the two-layered flow pattern disappeared, and currents were directed alongshore with the wind at all sites and throughout the water column. In the fall, near-bed flows close to the shore (water depth <7 m) were often reduced compared to or opposed those measured farther offshore under southwestward winds. A simplified analysis of the depth-averaged, alongshore momentum balance illustrates that the alongshore pressure gradient approached or exceeded the magnitude of the alongshore wind stress at the same time that the nearshore alongshore current opposed the wind stress and alongshore currents farther offshore. In addition, the analysis suggests that the wind stress is reduced closer to shore so that the alongshore pressure gradient is large enough to drive the flow against the wind.

  19. The Potomac River Basin and Western Shore Chesapeake Bay Drainage as a Proposed CUAHSI Hydrologic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, A. J.; Smith, J. A.; Welty, C.; Eshleman, K. N.; Piasecki, M.; Prestegaard, K. L.; Brubaker, K. L.; Palmer, M. A.; Imhoff, P. T.; Wilcock, P. R.; Scanlon, T. M.; Fisher, G. T.; Shedlock, R. J.; Gellis, A. C.; Groffman, P. M.; Belt, K.; Toran, L.; Traver, R.; Jordan, T.

    2004-12-01

    A long-term hydrologic observatory is proposed for an area encompassing the Potomac River Basin and the basins that form the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay from the Gunpowder River on the north to the Rappahannock River on the south. The area is approximately 52,000 sq km and spans five physiographic provinces, with total relief of about 1200 m, and includes parts of MD, VA, PA, WV, and DC. The Potomac and adjacent mid-Atlantic drainage are characterized by a high frequency of floods and droughts, with attendant concerns about flood hazards and about the reliability of water supply. As of 2000, the population of the proposed study area was 8.26 million, with the highest density in the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan region. Land use is 45 percent forested, 32 percent agriculture, 5.7 percent developed, and 4.8 percent open water. Heterogeneous natural landscape patterns have been influenced by the legacy of four centuries of human disturbance, including a wave of deforestation, agricultural land use, and land abandonment leading to reforestation contemporaneous with some of the most rapidly expanding urban areas in the U.S. A wealth of existing instrumented field sites forms a network of resources that will be woven together as part of this effort, including: the USGS NAWQA study in the Potomac River Basin; the NSF-funded Baltimore LTER; USDA-ARS sites in Beltsville, MD; the Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin's work in overseeing management of the Potomac River; the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center's field sites, and active field sites of major research universities located in the region. This effort represents a significant partnership with local district offices of the U.S. Geological Survey. This poster presents study area attributes, preliminary study design, and a proposed core data program. The program is designed to attract researchers in the following areas of scientific inquiry: (1) orographic precipitation mechanisms, runoff

  20. Hydrocarbon-bearing sandstone in the Upper Jurassic Naknek Formation on the south shore of Kamishak Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Richard G.; Herriott, Trystan M.; Helmold, Kenneth P.; Gillis, Robert J.; Lillis, Paul G.

    2013-01-01

    The presence of an active petroleum system in Kamishak Bay is demonstrated by an outcrop of hydrocarbon-bearing sandstone in the Upper Jurassic Naknek Formation near the south shore of the bay (fig. 1). The outcrop is about 140 km southwest of Homer on a small, unnamed island near the mouth of the Douglas River (fig. 17). The existence of this outcrop was kindly reported to us by Les Magoon (U.S. Geological Survey, emeritus), who also provided a topographic map showing its exact position. The outcrop was mentioned very briefly in publications by Magoon and others (1975, p. 19) and by Lyle and Morehouse (1977, p. E-1), but to our knowledge there are no detailed descriptions of this outcrop or its hydrocarbons in the published scientific literature.

  1. Gazetteer of hydrologic characteristics of streams in Massachusetts; coastal river basins of the North Shore and Massachusetts Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandle, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    The coastal river basins of the North Shore and Boston Bay include streams draining the Parker River (60.4 square miles), Rowley River (9.9 square miles), Ipswich River (156 miles), Mystic River (66.0 square miles), Charles River (311 square miles), Neponset River (117 square miles), Weymouth Fore and Weymouth Back Rivers (about 63 square miles) and Weir River (about 20 square miles) basins. The study area in eastern and northeastern Massachusetts also includes the minor river basins draining into Massachusetts Bay, Ipswich Bay, or the Atlantic Ocean. Drainage areas using the latest available 1:24,000 scale topographic maps were computed for the first time for streams draining more than 3 square miles and were recomputed for data-collection sites. Streamflow characteristics at 15 gaging stations were calculated using a new data base with daily flow records through 1981. These characteristics include annual and monthly flow statistics, duration of daily flow values, and the annual 7-day mean low flow at the 2-year and 10-year recurrence intervals. Seven-day low-flow statistics are presented for 95 partial-record sites and the procedures used to determine the hydrologic characteristics of a basin are summarized. Basin characteristics representing 14 commonly used indices to estimate various streamflows are presented for 15 gaged streams. This gazetteer will aid in the planning and siting of water-resources related activities and will provide a common data base for governmental agencies and the engineering and planning communities. (USGS)

  2. Gazetteer of hydrologic characteristics of streams in Massachusetts; coastal river basins of the South Shore and Buzzards Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wandle, S.W.; Morgan, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The coastal river basins include the minor river basins draining into Massachusetts Bay along the South Shore or into Buzzards Bay. The larger of these basins are the North, South, Jones, Wareham, Weweantic, Mattapoisett, Acushnet, and Slocums River basins. Drainage areas, using the latest available 1:24,000 scale topographic maps, were computed for data collection sites. Statistics on streamflow characteristics computed with a new data base are presented for six gaged streams. Daily-flow records through 1982 were used to compute annual and monthly flow statistics, duration of daily flow values, and the annual 7-day mean low flow at the 2-year and 10-year recurrence intervals. Seven-day low-flow statistics are presented for 49 partial-record sites and procedures used to determine the hydrologic characteristics of the basin are summarized. This gazetteer will aid in the planning and siting of water-resources related activities and will provide a common data base for governmental agencies and the engineering and planning communities. (USGS)

  3. Landsat-8 imagery to estimate clarity in near-shore coastal waters: Feasibility study - Chabahar Bay, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabiri, Keivan; Moradi, Masoud

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the advantages of incorporating the new band of Landsat-8 OLI imagery (band 1: Coastal/Aerosol, 435-451 nm) to a model for estimation of Secchi disk depth (SDD) values (as an indicator for transparency) in near-shore coastal waters using multispectral bands. In doing so, Chabahar Bay in the southern part of Iran (north of Gulf of Oman) was selected as the study area. Two approximately four-hour in-situ observations (including 48 and 56 field measured SDD values for each date respectively) were performed in the study area using Secchi disk; this was designed to start about two hours before and end about two hours after the time of satellite overpasses. Thereafter, a model was formed for estimation of SDD values based on the terms including all possible linear and mutual ratio values of Coastal/Aerosol (B1), Blue (B2), Green (B3), and Red bands (B4). In the first step, the correlation between reflectance/ratio reflectance values of these bands and Ln(SDD) values were calculated to indicate higher correlated bands/band ratios with the first field measured SDD values. Consequently, 17 combinations of highest correlated bands/band ratios were selected to estimate SDD values. In this regard, 32 points among the 48 field observations were selected to determine unknown coefficients of models using a multiple linear regression, and the rest 16 points were designated for accuracy assessment the results. Eventually, the measured SDD values in second field observations were utilized for validating the results. Final results demonstrated that combination of linear terms including B1, B2 and B3 bands and band ratio terms including ratio reflectance values of B4/B3, B3/B1, and B2/B1 has led to obtain the highest accuracy (R2=0.866 and RMSE=0.919, SVM feature weight=4.294). This was in agreement with the results obtained from the second observations. Finally, by applying the entire 104 field observed SDD values, the model in form of SDD=0.077exp(1.209RB1

  4. Storm erosion during the past 2000 years along the north shore of Delaware Bay, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitina, Daria L.; Kemp, Andrew C.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Vane, Christopher H.; van de Plassche, Orson; Engelhart, Simon E.

    2014-03-01

    The recent impacts of tropical cyclones and severe storms on the U.S. Atlantic coast brought into focus the need for extended records of storm activity from different geomorphologic settings. Such reconstructions are typically developed from sites that experienced repeated overwash of sand into low-energy, depositional environments. However, salt-marsh sediment may also preserve a record of repeated erosion from tropical cyclones and storms. We describe late Holocene sediments beneath the Sea Breeze salt marsh (Delaware Bay, New Jersey) from more than 200 gouge cores positioned along seven transects. The stratigraphic record documents at least seven depositional sequences consisting of salt-marsh peat and mud couplets that represent dramatic changes in sedimentation regime. There are a number of processes that could produce these stratigraphic sequences against a background of rising relative sea level including: lateral migration of tidal creeks; tidal channel network and/or drainage ditch expansion; changes in sediment delivery rates; rapid relative sea-level change; tsunami; and formation of salt pans. The abrupt contacts between the salt-marsh peat and overlying intertidal mud suggest that erosion of the peat was followed by rapid infilling of accommodation space. Correlation of erosional surfaces across 2.5 km suggests a common mechanism and we propose that the erosion was caused by tropical cyclones and/or storms. We developed a chronology of repeated salt-marsh erosion and recovery using 137Cs, metal pollution (Pb concentration and stable isotopes), and radiocarbon data. Two recent episodes of salt-marsh erosion may correlate with historic tropical cyclones in AD 1903, and AD 1821/1788 that impacted the Atlantic coast of New Jersey, but the erosive nature of the Sea Breeze site hinders definitive correlation. Prehistoric erosional sequences correlate with overwash fans preserved in the regional sedimentary record. We estimated that it takes from several

  5. Observations of large-amplitude cross-shore internal bores near the shelf break, Santa Monica Bay, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, M.A.; Xu, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    Two sets of moorings were deployed along a cross-shelf transect in central Santa Monica bay for four months in the winter of 1998-1999. Both sites had an array of instruments attached to tripods set on the seafloor to monitor currents over the entire water column, surface waves, near-bed temperature, water clarity and suspended sediment. A companion mooring had temperature sensors spaced approximately 10 m apart to measure temperature profiles between the surface and the seafloor. One array was deployed in 70 m of water at a site adjacent to the shelf break, just northwest of a major ocean outfall. The other was deployed on the mid shelf in 35 m of water approximately 6 km from the shelf break site. The subtidal currents in the region flowed parallel to the isobaths with fluctuating time scales around 10 days, a typical coastal-ocean pattern. However, during the falling phase of the barotropic spring tide, sets of large-amplitude, sheared cross-shore current pulses with a duration of 2-5 h were observed at the shelf break site. Currents in these pulses flowed exclusively offshore in a thin layer near the bed with amplitudes reaching 30-40 cm/s. Simultaneously, currents with amplitudes around 15-20 cm/s flowed exclusively onshore in the thicker layer between the offshore flow layer and the sea surface. The net offshore transport was about half the onshore transport. Near-surface isotherms were depressed 30-40 m. These pulses were likely internal bores generated by tidal currents. Bed stresses associated with these events exceeded 3 dynes/cm2. These amplitudes are large enough to resuspend and transport not only fine-grained material, but also medium to coarse sands from the shelf toward the slope. Consequently, the seafloor over the shelf break was swept clear of fine sediments. The data suggest that the internal bores dissipate and are reduced in amplitude as they propagate across this relatively narrow shelf. There is evidence that they reach the 35 m site, but

  6. Across-shore variability in plankton layering and abundance associated with physical forcing in Monterey Bay, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevadjian, J. C.; McManus, M. A.; Ryan, J.; Greer, A. T.; Cowen, R. K.; Woodson, C. B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further our understanding of the role of the coastal physical oceanographic environment as a dynamic and constantly evolving habitat for plankton. Over a 3-week period in the summer of 2010, an array of moorings were deployed and shipboard and autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) surveys were conducted to investigate the association between physical processes and plankton distributions over the Monterey Bay, California inner shelf. Acoustic backscatter, chlorophyll-a fluorescence, and high-resolution zooplankton imagery data collected during the shipboard surveys were used to map the distributions of phytoplankton and zooplankton; and profiles of temperature, salinity, oxygen, and nitrate from the AUV characterized the physical and chemical environment. A synthesis of underway and moored time series data provided insight into the histories of water masses in the area, and facilitated tracking of internal wave groups as they propagated towards shore. A near-bottom intrusion of recently-upwelled water was found to be strongly influenced by the diurnal tide, resulting in daily across-shelf excursions past the mooring array at the 20-m isobath. Behind the leading edge of the intrusion, the water column was highly stratified in temperature, salinity, oxygen, and nitrate; and thin layers of phytoplankton and zooplankton persisted at the upper boundary of the intrusion. In ambient waters shoreward of the intrusion, stratification was weak; copepod, appendicularian, and gelatinous zooplankton abundances were relatively low; and phytoplankton and acoustic backscatter were broadly distributed throughout the lower half of the water column. The arrival of two shoreward-propagating internal wave groups observed during the shipboard survey corresponded with disparate responses in plankton distribution. In the wake of the first wave group, phytoplankton and zooplankton layers thinned or converged; in the wake of the second wave group, an eight

  7. [Microbiological and isotopic geochemical investigation of Lake Kislo-Sladkoe, a meromictic water body at the Kandalaksha Bay Shore (White Sea)].

    PubMed

    Savvichev, A S; Lunina, O N; Rusanov, I I; Zakharova, E E; Veslopolova, E F; Ivanov, M V

    2014-01-01

    Microbiological, biogeochemical, and isotopic geochemical investigation of Lake Kislo-Sladkoe (Polusolenoe in early publications) at the Kandalaksha Bay shore (White Sea) was carried out in September 2010. Lake Kislo-Sladkoe was formed in the mid-1900s out of a sea gulf due to a coastal heave. At the time of investigation, the surface layer was saturated with oxygen, while near-bottom water contained sulfide (up to 32 mg/L). Total number of microorganisms was high (12.3 x 10(6) cells/mL on average). Light CO2 fixation exhibited two pronounced peaks. In the oxic zone, the highest rates of photosynthesis were detected at 1.0 and 2.0 m. The second, more pronounced peak of light CO2 fixation was associated with activity of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in the anoxic layer at the depth of 2.9 m (413 μg C L(-1) day(-1)). Green-colored green sulfur bacteria (GSB) predominated in the upper anoxic layer (2.7-2.9 m), their numbers being as high as 1.12 x 10(4) cells/mL, while brown-colored GSB predominated in the lower horizons. The rates of both sulfate reduction and methanogenesis peaked in the 2.9 m horizon (1690 μg S L(-1) day(-1) and 2.9 μL CH4 L(-1) day(-1)). The isotopic composition of dissolved methane from the near-bottom water layer (δ13C (CH4) = -87.76 per thousand) was significantly lighter than in the upper horizons (δ13C (CH4) = -77.95 per thousand). The most isotopically heavy methane (δ13C (CH4) = -72.61 per thousand) was retrieved from the depth of 2.9 m. The rate of methane oxidation peaked in the same horizon. As a result of these reactions, organic matter (OM) carbon of the 2.9 m horizon became lighter (-36.36 per thousand), while carbonate carbon became heavier (-7.56 per thousand). Thus, our results demonstrated that Lake Kislo-Sladkoe is a stratified meromictic lake with active microbial cycles of carbon and sulfur. Suspended matter in the water column was mostly of autochthonous origin. Anoxygenic photosynthesis coupled to utilization of

  8. Shoring pumping station excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, J.B.; Reardon, D.J. )

    1991-11-01

    The city of San Mateo, Calif., operates three 12- to 50-year old wastewater pumping stations on a 24-m (80-ft) wide lot located in a residential area near San Francisco Bay. Because the aging stations have difficulty pumping peak 2.19-m{sup 3}/s (50-mgd) wet-weather flows and have structural and maintenance problems, a new 2.62-m{sup 3}/s (60-mgd) station was proposed - the Dale Avenue Pumping Station - to replace the existing ones. To prevent potential damage to adjacent homes, the new station was originally conceived as a circular caisson type; however, a geotechnical investigation recommended against this type of structure because the stiff soils could make sinking the structure difficult. This prompted an investigation of possible shoring methods for the proposed structure. Several shoring systems were investigated, including steel sheeting, soldier beams and lagging, tieback systems, open excavation, and others; however, each had disadvantages that prevented its use. Because these conventional techniques were unacceptable, attention was turned to using deep soil mixing (DSM) to create a diaphragm wall around the area to be excavated before constructing the pumping station. Although this method has been used extensively in Japan since 1983, the Dale Avenue Pumping Station would be the technology's first US application. The technology's anticipated advantages were its impermeability, its fast and efficient installation that did not require tiebacks under existing homes, its adaptability to subsurface conditions ranging from soft ground to stiff clay to gravels, and its lack of pile-driving requirements that would cause high vibration levels during installation.

  9. Molecular genetic conspecificity of Spiculopteragia houdemeri (Schwartz, 1926) and S. andreevae (Dróżdż, 1965) (Nematoda: Ostertagiinae) from wild ruminants in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sultan, K; Omar, M; Makouloutou, P; Kaneshiro, Y; Saita, E; Yokoyama, M; Suzuki, K; Hosoi, E; Sato, H

    2014-03-01

    Male dimorphism of the subfamily Ostertagiinae (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae) is a well-known phenomenon, and two or more morphotypes of a single species have previously been described as different species. Two Spiculopteragia spp., S. houdemeri (syn. S. yamashitai) and S. andreevae (syn. Rinadia andreevae) recorded in Asian cervids and wild bovids, are considered to represent major and minor morphs of S. houdemeri, respectively, based solely on their co-occurrence in the same host individual along with monomorphic females. In this study, males of morph houdemeri ( = S. houdemeri) and morph andreevae ( = S. andreevae) as well as females with three different vulval ornamentations were collected from sika deer (Cervus nippon) and Japanese serows (Capricornis crispus) distributed on the mainland of Japan. Morphologically characterized worms were subjected to molecular genetic analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA gene and a partial region of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene of mitochondrial DNA. Of 181 collected sika deer, 177 (97.8%) and 73 (40.3%) deer harboured males of morphs houdemeri and andreevae, respectively. Worm numbers of the former morph were found to range between 1 and 444 per individual, whereas only 1-25 worms per individual were detected for the latter morph. Five out of six serows harboured 47-71 or 2-9 males of morphs houdemeri and andreevae per individual, respectively. Females with one or two vulval flaps were predominant, but there was a substantial presence of flapless females in both host species. All the morphs of male and female adults had an identical genetic background, thus directly confirming the morphological polymorphism of S. houdemeri. PMID:23168162

  10. Bay Mills' Bold Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Eric

    2011-01-01

    It's a long, long way from Bay Mills Community College, near the shores of frigid Lake Superior, to Detroit. But distance, time and demographics aside, the school and the city are united by Bay Mills' status as the nation's only tribally controlled college that authorizes quasi-public schools, known officially as public school academies. And it's…

  11. 4. South (shore) end of dock as viewed from shore ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. South (shore) end of dock as viewed from shore looking north includes section of creosote pipe as it leaves the shore. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, Oil-Creosote Unloading Dock, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  12. Use of remote sensing in shoreline and near shore management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capper, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The legal aspects of resources management to regulate near-shore and shoreline area activities in the Chesapeake Bay are discussed. The need for information and acquisition in order to define the resources prior to developing legislation on resources management is explained. The steps which are followed in devising the regulatory legislation and enforcing its provisions are outlined.

  13. Life on Our Shore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Graham; Grassam, Matthew; Scott, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    St. Martin's Church of England Primary School in Scarborough, North Yorkshire, enjoys a unique location, being approximately 10 minutes walk from a rocky shore and a similar distance from the University of Hull (Scarborough Campus) and its Centre for Environmental and Marine Sciences. A grant provided by the Royal Society (under their Education…

  14. SSRL Emergency Response Shore Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert W.; Papasin, Richard; McIntosh, Dawn M.; Denham, Douglas; Jorgensen, Charles; Betts, Bradley J.; Del Mundo, Rommel

    2006-01-01

    The SSRL Emergency Response Shore Tool (wherein SSRL signifies Smart Systems Research Laboratory ) is a computer program within a system of communication and mobile-computing software and hardware being developed to increase the situational awareness of first responders at building collapses. This program is intended for use mainly in planning and constructing shores to stabilize partially collapsed structures. The program consists of client and server components, runs in the Windows operating system on commercial off-the-shelf portable computers, and can utilize such additional hardware as digital cameras and Global Positioning System devices. A first responder can enter directly, into a portable computer running this program, the dimensions of a required shore. The shore dimensions, plus an optional digital photograph of the shore site, can then be uploaded via a wireless network to a server. Once on the server, the shore report is time-stamped and made available on similarly equipped portable computers carried by other first responders, including shore wood cutters and an incident commander. The staff in a command center can use the shore reports and photographs to monitor progress and to consult with structural engineers to assess whether a building is in imminent danger of further collapse.

  15. Hunting for Ancient Rocky Shores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Markes E.

    1988-01-01

    Promotes the study of ancient rocky shores by showing how they can be recognized and what directions future research may follow. A bibliography of previous research articles, arranged by geologic period, is provided in the appendix to this paper. (CW)

  16. The Variety of Shore Birds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varza, Dennis

    1977-01-01

    The types of habitats that exist along the ocean shore and the various types of birds inhabiting them are detailed. Topics discussed include shorebird feeding habits and methods, nesting patterns, and seasonal migration. (BT)

  17. 46 CFR 169.686 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shore power. 169.686 Section 169.686 Shipping COAST... Gross Tons § 169.686 Shore power. If a shore power connection is provided it must meet the following requirements: (a) A shore power connection box or receptacle and a cable connecting this box or receptacle...

  18. 46 CFR 169.686 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shore power. 169.686 Section 169.686 Shipping COAST... Gross Tons § 169.686 Shore power. If a shore power connection is provided it must meet the following requirements: (a) A shore power connection box or receptacle and a cable connecting this box or receptacle...

  19. 46 CFR 169.686 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shore power. 169.686 Section 169.686 Shipping COAST... Gross Tons § 169.686 Shore power. If a shore power connection is provided it must meet the following requirements: (a) A shore power connection box or receptacle and a cable connecting this box or receptacle...

  20. 46 CFR 169.686 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shore power. 169.686 Section 169.686 Shipping COAST... Gross Tons § 169.686 Shore power. If a shore power connection is provided it must meet the following requirements: (a) A shore power connection box or receptacle and a cable connecting this box or receptacle...

  1. 46 CFR 169.686 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shore power. 169.686 Section 169.686 Shipping COAST... Gross Tons § 169.686 Shore power. If a shore power connection is provided it must meet the following requirements: (a) A shore power connection box or receptacle and a cable connecting this box or receptacle...

  2. 34. VIEW OF SPACE BETWEEN BAYS SIX AND SEVEN IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VIEW OF SPACE BETWEEN BAYS SIX AND SEVEN IN CONDENSER BASEMENT BELOW TURBINE HALL. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  3. Sea Searcher's Handbook: Activities from the Monterey Bay Aquarium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation, Monterey, CA.

    The activities in this book guide exploration of rocky shores, wetlands, sandy shores, kelp forests, the open sea and deep sea, and introduce students to a variety of topics and different approaches. This material is written by marine educators and was tested with over 70,000 children visiting the Monterey Bay Aquarium (California) each year. The…

  4. On Sandy Shores. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strang, Craig; And Others

    The activities in this guide (for grades 2-4) transport students to the sandy shore, one of the most fascinating ecosystems on the planet. At this ecological juncture a multiplicity of life forms find ways to survive, thrive, and interact with each other. Using a wide variety of learning formats, students explore and deepen their understanding of…

  5. 46 CFR 183.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shore power. 183.390 Section 183.390 Shipping COAST...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.390 Shore power. A vessel with an electrical system operating at more than 50 volts, which is provided with a means to connect to shore...

  6. 46 CFR 129.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shore power. 129.390 Section 129.390 Shipping COAST... Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.390 Shore power. Each vessel that has an electrical system operating at more than 50 volts and has provisions for receiving shore power must meet the requirements...

  7. 46 CFR 129.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shore power. 129.390 Section 129.390 Shipping COAST... Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.390 Shore power. Each vessel that has an electrical system operating at more than 50 volts and has provisions for receiving shore power must meet the requirements...

  8. 46 CFR 129.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shore power. 129.390 Section 129.390 Shipping COAST... Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.390 Shore power. Each vessel that has an electrical system operating at more than 50 volts and has provisions for receiving shore power must meet the requirements...

  9. 46 CFR 183.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shore power. 183.390 Section 183.390 Shipping COAST...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.390 Shore power. A vessel with an electrical system operating at more than 50 volts, which is provided with a means to connect to shore...

  10. 46 CFR 183.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shore power. 183.390 Section 183.390 Shipping COAST...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.390 Shore power. A vessel with an electrical system operating at more than 50 volts, which is provided with a means to connect to shore...

  11. 46 CFR 183.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shore power. 183.390 Section 183.390 Shipping COAST...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.390 Shore power. A vessel with an electrical system operating at more than 50 volts, which is provided with a means to connect to shore...

  12. 46 CFR 129.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shore power. 129.390 Section 129.390 Shipping COAST... Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.390 Shore power. Each vessel that has an electrical system operating at more than 50 volts and has provisions for receiving shore power must meet the requirements...

  13. 46 CFR 183.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shore power. 183.390 Section 183.390 Shipping COAST...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.390 Shore power. A vessel with an electrical system operating at more than 50 volts, which is provided with a means to connect to shore...

  14. 46 CFR 129.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shore power. 129.390 Section 129.390 Shipping COAST... Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.390 Shore power. Each vessel that has an electrical system operating at more than 50 volts and has provisions for receiving shore power must meet the requirements...

  15. Modeling circulation patterns induced by spatial cross-shore wind variability in a small-size coastal embayment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerralbo, Pablo; Espino, Manuel; Grifoll, Manel

    2016-08-01

    This contribution shows the importance of the cross-shore spatial wind variability in the water circulation in a small-sized micro-tidal bay. The hydrodynamic wind response at Alfacs Bay (Ebro River delta, NW Mediterranean Sea) is investigated with a numerical model (ROMS) supported by in situ observations. The wind variability observed in meteorological measurements is characterized with meteorological model (WRF) outputs. From the hydrodynamic simulations of the bay, the water circulation response is affected by the cross-shore wind variability, leading to water current structures not observed in the homogeneous-wind case. If the wind heterogeneity response is considered, the water exchange in the longitudinal direction increases significantly, reducing the water exchange time by around 20%. Wind resolutions half the size of the bay (in our case around 9 km) inhibit cross-shore wind variability, which significantly affects the resultant circulation pattern. The characteristic response is also investigated using idealized test cases. These results show how the wind curl contributes to the hydrodynamic response in shallow areas and promotes the exchange between the bay and the open sea. Negative wind curl is related to the formation of an anti-cyclonic gyre at the bay's mouth. Our results highlight the importance of considering appropriate wind resolution even in small-scale domains (such as bays or harbors) to characterize the hydrodynamics, with relevant implications in the water exchange time and the consequent water quality and ecological parameters.

  16. Unraveling the dynamics that scale cross-shore headland relief on rocky coastlines: 1. Model development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limber, Patrick W.; Brad Murray, A.; Adams, Peter N.; Goldstein, Evan B.

    2014-04-01

    We have developed an exploratory model of plan view, millennial-scale headland and bay evolution on rocky coastlines. Cross-shore coastline relief, or amplitude, arises from alongshore differences in sea cliff lithology, where durable, erosion-resistant rocks protrude seaward as headlands and weaker rocks retreat landward as bays. The model is built around two concurrent negative feedbacks that control headland amplitude: (1) wave energy convergence and divergence at headlands and bays, respectively, that increases in intensity as cross-shore amplitude grows and (2) the combined processes of beach sediment production by sea cliff erosion, distribution of sediment to bays by waves, and beach accumulation that buffers sea cliffs from wave attack and limits further sea cliff retreat. Paired with the coastline relief model is a numerical wave transformation model that explores how wave energy is distributed along an embayed coastline. The two models are linked through genetic programming, a machine learning technique that parses wave model results into a tractable input for the coastline model. Using a pool of 4800 wave model simulations, genetic programming yields a function that relates breaking wave power density to cross-shore headland amplitude, offshore wave height, approach angle, and period. The goal of the coastline model is to make simple, but fundamental, scaling arguments on how different variables (such as sea cliff height and composition) affect the equilibrium cross-shore relief of headland and bays. The model's generality highlights the key feedbacks involved in coastline evolution and allows its equations (and model behaviors) to be easily modified by future users.

  17. Ship2Shore Marine Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, N. R.; Sen, G.; Doehler, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) Observatory, comprised of VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada (NC) cabled networks, supports transformative coastal to deep ocean research and enables real-time interactive experiments. Engaging students, educators and the public is critical to increasing the global awareness of our integral relationship with the ocean. One way to accomplish this is to encourage educators to incorporate marine science concepts into their lesson plans. ONC's new initiative, Ship2Shore Marine Educators (S2SME), enables educators to learn first hand about marine science and technology by going to sea on a maintenance/research cruise. While at sea Marine Educators (ME) participate in technology deployments, assist with water and core sampling, write daily blogs, produce short video updates, develop learning resources and conduct presentations to students on shore via video conferencing. MEs participating in the last NC cruise -"Wiring the Abyss 2012" - were fascinated with being a part of science in the real world. They had an experience of a lifetime and anticipate incorporating what they have learned into their lessons during the upcoming semester. Outreach between the MEs and ONC communication staff aboard the ship resulted in nearly 7,000 unique visitors to the "Wiring the Abyss 2012'' cruise website. Live ROPOS video feeds (~ 9,000 views), highlight videos (436 views/day), daily blogs (~1200 views) and stunning images (~391 views/day) were among the top rated pages. Visitors from 10 countries tuned in to "Wiring the Abyss 2012" and experienced the Pacific's deep sea! One of the best experiences for the MEs was connecting with students and teachers on shore via video conferencing. Roughly 300 students in BC and USA received a live connection from approximately 200km off the west coast. Students were most fascinated by a demo involving compressed Styrofoam cups, showing the intensity of pressure at the bottom of the sea. Successes: A positive working

  18. 46 CFR 120.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shore power. 120.390 Section 120.390 Shipping COAST... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.390 Shore power. A vessel with an electrical system operating at...

  19. 46 CFR 120.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shore power. 120.390 Section 120.390 Shipping COAST... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.390 Shore power. A vessel with an electrical system operating at...

  20. 46 CFR 120.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shore power. 120.390 Section 120.390 Shipping COAST... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.390 Shore power. A vessel with an electrical system operating at...

  1. 46 CFR 120.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shore power. 120.390 Section 120.390 Shipping COAST... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.390 Shore power. A vessel with an electrical system operating at...

  2. 46 CFR 120.390 - Shore power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shore power. 120.390 Section 120.390 Shipping COAST... PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.390 Shore power. A vessel with an electrical system operating at...

  3. Diel variation in near-shore great lakes fish assemblages and implications for assessment sampling and coastal management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, J.E., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    I compared fish assemblages captured in three different microhabitats (shoreline, pelagic near-shore, and benthic near-shore) during day and night fishing in different protection (inside bay or tributary vs. outside in Lake Ontario proper) and turbidity regimes of four near-shore areas of Lake Ontario. The effects of diel movement and availability to gear were clearly evident. Fish assemblages were consistently and significantly more diverse at night than during the day, with nighttime assemblages often being supersets of daytime assemblages. Evidence for a turbidity effect was much weaker than the effects of nocturnal movements and changes in availability to the gear associated with darkness. Nighttime sampling is more likely to capture the full array of species in near-shore areas of the Great Lakes than daytime sampling.

  4. Shore height and differentials between macrobenthic assemblages in vegetated and unvegetated areas of an intertidal sandflat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. S. K.; Barnes, M. K. S.

    2012-06-01

    Intertidal macrobenthic faunal assemblages of a dual seagrass/callianassid-structured sandflat system were investigated in subtropical Moreton Bay, Queensland. Consistently across all 20 stations, the gastropod-dominated seagrass supported greater abundance (2.5×) and species richness (2×) than the amphipod-dominated sandflat. There was no evidence of along-shore or up-shore variation in the overall assemblage properties such as total abundance, species richness or diversity within either habitat type, except for variation in sandflat abundance between sites. But seagrass and sandflat assemblages both varied significantly in composition from site to site, and seagrass assemblage composition also varied with shore height. Shore height and site, however, only accounted for ≤41% of total variation. The two faunal assemblages showed a Bray-Curtis dissimilarity of 97.7% and within-habitat similarities of <20%. There was no consistency in distribution of greater diversity, dominance or evenness. No differential between any assemblage features in adjacent sandflat and seagrass samples changed with shore height, supporting hypotheses that such differentials are not maintained by predation. Macrofaunal species richness and diversity were closely coupled within sandflat stations but were uncoupled within seagrass ones, questioning the value of diversity as a comparative measure.

  5. Spatial and seasonal patterns of ichthyoplankton assemblages in the Haizhou Bay and its adjacent waters of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zengguang; Ye, Zhenjiang; Wan, Rong

    2015-12-01

    Surveys were conducted in five voyages in Haizhou Bay and its adjacent coastal area from March to December 2011 during full moon spring tides. The ichthyoplankton assemblages and the environmental factors that affect their spatial and seasonal patterns were determined. Totally 35 and 12 fish egg and larvae taxa were identified, respectively. Over the past several decades, the egg and larval species composition has significantly changed in Haizhou Bay and its adjacent waters, most likely corresponding with the alteration of fishery resources, which are strongly affected by anthropogenic activities and climate change. The Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index identified four assemblages: near-shore bay assemblage, middle bay assemblage and two closely related assemblages (near-shore/middle bay assemblage and middle/edge of bay assemblage). The primary species of each assemblage principally reflected the spawning strategies of adult fish. The near-shore bay assemblage generally occurred in near-shore bay, with depths measuring <20 m, and the middle bay assemblage generally occurred in the middle of bay, with depths measuring 20 to 40 m. Spatial and seasonal variations in ichthyoplankton in each assemblage were determined by interactions between biological behavioral traits and oceanographic features, particularly the variation of local conditions within the constraint of a general reproductive strategy. The results of Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicated that both fish egg and larval abundance were positively correlated with depth, which is critical to the oceanographic features in Haizhou Bay.

  6. Along-shore variations of offshore flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Erin; Mahrt, L.

    2003-02-01

    Using eddy correlation data collected by the LongEZ research aircraft, the adjustment of atmospheric flow downstream from a coastline is examined. Along-shore variation of the turbulence over the water is generated by the varying width of the upstream land strip between the sea and inland water. Over the coastal zone, the turbulence is strongest downstream from the widest part of land. The along-shore variation of the turbulence decreases with increasing sea fetch due to horizontal mixing. In other terms, the footprint of the flux farther offshore includes a larger width of upstream land. Beyond 5 km sea fetch, the along-shore variation becomes small.

  7. Along the Coast & Close to Shore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Considers the characteristics of beaches, rocky shores, coral reefs, and kelp forests. Discusses plants and animals that live in these habitats. Activities include life between the tides, reef buddies, sea forests, seaside adventure, and four copycat pages. (RT)

  8. Survival of hatchery-reared lake trout stocked near shore and off shore in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elrod, Joseph H.

    1997-01-01

    Establishing a stock of mature, hatchery-reared fish is necessary to restore a self-sustaining population of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in Lake Ontario. Stocking fish off shore rather than near shore to reduce predation on these fish by large lake trout or piscivorous birds may enhance survival of hatchery-reared fish and accelerate establishment of a population of adults. Results of an earlier study did not support routinely stocking fish off shore by helicopter in Lake Ontario, but stresses associated with helicopter stocking suggested another method of transporting fish off shore might enhance survival. I conducted this study to determine whether stocking lake trout off shore by barge would enhance first-year survival. Two lots of yearling lake trout were stocked at each of four locations in Lake Ontario in May 1992. One lot was stocked from shore, and an identical lot was transported by barge 3.4–10.4 km off shore of nearshore locations and stocked in water 46–52 m deep. Fish were recovered during trawl, gillnet, and creel surveys in 1992–1996. First-year survival of lake trout stocked off shore tended to be better than that of fish stocked near shore. Predation by double-crested cormorantsPhalacrocorax auritus likely affected survival of fish stocked near shore at two locations, 7 and 37 km, respectively, from a nesting colony of 5,443 pairs of double-crested cormorants. Predation by large lake trout remains a viable hypothesis, which explains, at least partially, lower survival of lake trout stocked near shore at two other locations. Stocking lake trout off shore of traditional nearshore stocking sites likely will enhance first-year survival of hatchery-reared fish and promote accumulation of an adult population, especially for those occassions where nearshore stocking locations are near nesting colonies of double-crested cormorants.

  9. Numerical simulation of the thermal conditions in a sea bay water area used for water supply to nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, A. S.

    2013-07-15

    Consideration is given to the numerical simulation of the thermal conditions in sea water areas used for both water supply to and dissipation of low-grade heat from a nuclear power plant on the shore of a sea bay.

  10. The Fur Trade as an Environment for Education: Problems and Implications from Hudson Bay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jennifer S. H.

    Fur trade settlements in North America were a fertile environment for cultural education. The fur trade became a network of closely linked social spheres in which individuals had to acquire competence in order to function and survive. The Hudson Bay Company's decision to plant permanent posts on the shores of the Hudson Bay put settlers and their…

  11. 33 CFR 334.320 - Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake Bay entrance; naval... entrance; naval restricted area. (a) The area. Beginning at a point on the south shore of Chesapeake Bay at... shall be placed on or near the bottom. (2) This section shall be enforced by the Commandant, Fifth...

  12. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  13. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  First Views of James Bay, Canada     ... show the winter landscape of James Bay, Ontario, Canada from three of the instrument's nine cameras. The image at left captures the opening ... down. The image on the right was taken seven minutes after the first image from the most oblique, aftward-viewing camera. "These ...

  14. Anthropogenic marine debris in the coastal environment: a multi-year comparison between coastal waters and local shores.

    PubMed

    Thiel, M; Hinojosa, I A; Miranda, L; Pantoja, J F; Rivadeneira, M M; Vásquez, N

    2013-06-15

    Anthropogenic marine debris (AMD) is frequently studied on sandy beaches and occasionally in coastal waters, but links between these two environments have rarely been studied. High densities of AMD were found in coastal waters and on local shores of a large bay system in northern-central Chile. No seasonal pattern in AMD densities was found, but there was a trend of increasing densities over the entire study period. While plastics and Styrofoam were the most common types of AMD both on shores and in coastal waters, AMD composition differed slightly between the two environments. The results suggest that AMD from coastal waters are deposited on local shores, which over time accumulate all types of AMD. The types and the very low percentages of AMD with epibionts point to mostly local sources. Based on these results, it can be concluded that a reduction of AMD will require local solutions. PMID:23507233

  15. Field Trip to a Rocky Shore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Field trip activities designed for use on Maine's coast are provided, with brief definitions of the major physical zones to be found in this area. An introduction to the study of zonation of plants and animals living on the rocky shore is presented along with a list of the materials needed and the procedures to be followed when making a study of…

  16. 32 CFR 700.922 - Shore patrol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 700.922 Shore patrol. (a) When liberty is granted to any considerable number of persons, except in an... on the part of any person on liberty. The senior patrol officer shall communicate with the chief of... patrol shall not be landed. If consent cannot be obtained, the size of liberty parties shall be held...

  17. 32 CFR 700.922 - Shore patrol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 700.922 Shore patrol. (a) When liberty is granted to any considerable number of persons, except in an... on the part of any person on liberty. The senior patrol officer shall communicate with the chief of... patrol shall not be landed. If consent cannot be obtained, the size of liberty parties shall be held...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. 334.1160 Section 334.1160 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a) The danger zone. A sector in San Pablo Bay adjacent to the westerly shore of Mare Island with a...

  19. 33 CFR 334.1160 - San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. 334.1160 Section 334.1160 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1160 San Pablo Bay, Calif.; target practice area, Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Vallejo. (a) The danger zone. A sector in San Pablo Bay adjacent to the westerly shore of Mare Island with a...

  20. 3. View northwest across East Shore Drive toward the Carr ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View northwest across East Shore Drive toward the Carr Family burial plot (Wanton Cemetery) at northeast corner of Nicholas Carr Farm - Nicholas Carr Farm, Bounded by North, Weeden, & East Shore Roads, Jamestown, Newport County, RI

  1. Removing shore protection structures to facilitate migration of landforms and habitats on the bayside of a barrier spit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordstrom, Karl F.; Jackson, Nancy L.

    2013-10-01

    Coastal landforms and habitats require space to reform in response to storm damage to increase the likelihood of long-term sustainability. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential for removing shore protection structures to allow natural shoreline processes to prevail as part of a strategy to adapt to sea level rise associated with climate change. The location of the study was Sandy Hook Spit, New Jersey, a site managed by the U.S. National Park Service (NPS). A field investigation was conducted to identify the structures that impede migration of landforms and habitats, the function of each structure in protecting resources, and the opportunities to facilitate landform migration by removing the structures or allowing them to deteriorate. Nineteen shore-parallel walls are present along the ocean and bay shore of a 10 km long portion of the spit. Most of the shore protection structures were built when the spit was formerly used by the US Army, and many bulkheads on the bay shore have deteriorated. Sediment will become available to the longshore transport system where protection structures are removed, contributing to spit growth at the ends of drift cells, possibly mimicking the spits that were more conspicuous on the bay shore prior to human alterations. Observations indicate that new habitat can be created by loss and re-creation in a different location by longshore extension, not just by landward migration. Allowing shore protection structures to deteriorate will leave human infrastructure in the landscape. Removing these structures is more costly but can result in a more rapid reversion to a natural system. The time horizon is critical in determining the social, political and economic feasibility of removing structures and the expectations for geomorphic and habitat change. The feasibility of protecting threatened buildings and roads will decrease in the future as sea level rises and the existing protection structures degrade or fall below new

  2. 27 CFR 9.135 - Virginia's Eastern Shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Virginia's Eastern Shore... Virginia's Eastern Shore. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Virginia's Eastern Shore.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of...

  3. 27 CFR 9.135 - Virginia's Eastern Shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Virginia's Eastern Shore... Virginia's Eastern Shore. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Virginia's Eastern Shore.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of...

  4. 27 CFR 9.135 - Virginia's Eastern Shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Virginia's Eastern Shore... Virginia's Eastern Shore. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Virginia's Eastern Shore.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of...

  5. 27 CFR 9.135 - Virginia's Eastern Shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Virginia's Eastern Shore... Virginia's Eastern Shore. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Virginia's Eastern Shore.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of...

  6. 27 CFR 9.135 - Virginia's Eastern Shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Virginia's Eastern Shore... Virginia's Eastern Shore. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Virginia's Eastern Shore.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of...

  7. 33 CFR 127.611 - International shore connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International shore connection... HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.611 International shore connection. The marine transfer area for LNG must have an international shore connection that...

  8. 33 CFR 127.1511 - International shore connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false International shore connection... International shore connection. Each marine transfer area for LHG that receives foreign flag vessels must have an international shore connection meeting the requirements of ASTM F 1121 (incorporated by...

  9. 33 CFR 127.611 - International shore connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false International shore connection... HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.611 International shore connection. The marine transfer area for LNG must have an international shore connection that...

  10. 33 CFR 127.611 - International shore connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false International shore connection... HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.611 International shore connection. The marine transfer area for LNG must have an international shore connection that...

  11. 33 CFR 127.1511 - International shore connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false International shore connection... International shore connection. Each marine transfer area for LHG that receives foreign flag vessels must have an international shore connection meeting the requirements of ASTM F 1121 (incorporated by...

  12. 33 CFR 127.1511 - International shore connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false International shore connection... International shore connection. Each marine transfer area for LHG that receives foreign flag vessels must have an international shore connection meeting the requirements of ASTM F 1121 (incorporated by...

  13. 33 CFR 127.611 - International shore connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false International shore connection... HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.611 International shore connection. The marine transfer area for LNG must have an international shore connection that...

  14. 33 CFR 127.1511 - International shore connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false International shore connection... International shore connection. Each marine transfer area for LHG that receives foreign flag vessels must have an international shore connection meeting the requirements of ASTM F 1121 (incorporated by...

  15. 33 CFR 127.611 - International shore connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false International shore connection... HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.611 International shore connection. The marine transfer area for LNG must have an international shore connection that...

  16. 33 CFR 127.1511 - International shore connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International shore connection... International shore connection. Each marine transfer area for LHG that receives foreign flag vessels must have an international shore connection meeting the requirements of ASTM F 1121 (incorporated by...

  17. GALVESTON BAY CCMP

    EPA Science Inventory

    Galveston Bay ranks high among the nation's great bay systems, providing huge economic benefits to the region and state. Remarkably, the bay's natural resources are self-renewing as long as the bay remains healthy and productive. However, Galveston Bay, like many other U.S. bays,...

  18. Physical processes in a coupled bay-estuary coastal system: Whitsand Bay and Plymouth Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uncles, R. J.; Stephens, J. A.; Harris, C.

    2015-09-01

    Whitsand Bay and Plymouth Sound are located in the southwest of England. The Bay and Sound are separated by the ∼2-3 km-wide Rame Peninsula and connected by ∼10-20 m-deep English Channel waters. Results are presented from measurements of waves and currents, drogue tracking, surveys of salinity, temperature and turbidity during stratified and unstratified conditions, and bed sediment surveys. 2D and 3D hydrodynamic models are used to explore the generation of tidally- and wind-driven residual currents, flow separation and the formation of the Rame eddy, and the coupling between the Bay and the Sound. Tidal currents flow around the Rame Peninsula from the Sound to the Bay between approximately 3 h before to 2 h after low water and form a transport path between them that conveys lower salinity, higher turbidity waters from the Sound to the Bay. These waters are then transported into the Bay as part of the Bay-mouth limb of the Rame eddy and subsequently conveyed to the near-shore, east-going limb and re-circulated back towards Rame Head. The Simpson-Hunter stratification parameter indicates that much of the Sound and Bay are likely to stratify thermally during summer months. Temperature stratification in both is pronounced during summer and is largely determined by coastal, deeper-water stratification offshore. Small tidal stresses in the Bay are unable to move bed sediment of the observed sizes. However, the Bay and Sound are subjected to large waves that are capable of driving a substantial bed-load sediment transport. Measurements show relatively low levels of turbidity, but these respond rapidly to, and have a strong correlation with, wave height.

  19. James Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  First Light over James Bay     View Larger Image MISR "First light", 16:40 UTC, 24 February 2000 . This is the first image of Earth's ... the line of flight. At the top of the image, the dark-to-light transition captures the opening of the MISR cover. Progressing southward, ...

  20. Narragansett Bay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Narragansett Bay, situated on the eastern side of Rhode Island, comprises about 15% of the State’s total area. Ninety-five percent of the Bay’s surface area is in Rhode Island with the remainder in southeastern Massachusetts; 60% of the Bay’s watershed is in Massachusetts. At the...

  1. Estimation of Freshwater Flow to Joe Bay, South Florida.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucker, M. A.; Hittle, C. D.

    2002-05-01

    During the last century, drainage canals were constructed as part of the Central and Southern Flood Control (C&SF) project. Flood control was achieved but degradation to the Everglades ecosystem was evident. Problems related to Florida Bay include sea grass die off, algae blooms, and extreme salinity conditions. Modifications to the C&SF project are proposed as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP). One objective of CERP is to improve the timing and distribution of freshwater flow within the Everglades ecosystem and to Florida Bay. Several CERP projects propose changes to the existing canal network that borders Everglades National Park (ENP) in southern Miami-Dade County. An examination of flows to Joe Bay, a small embayment on the northeastern shores of Florida Bay, has provided baseline information on current spatial and temporal water deliveries prior to CERP modifications. Understanding the existing complex water delivery system and the effects the system has on Everglades hydrology will provide a necessary benchmark against which to measure restoration success. The study was initiated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in May 1999 to estimate creek flows to Joe Bay and determine the relative amounts derived from Taylor Slough and overflow from the C-111 Canal. It is important to understand the source of freshwater to Joe Bay before it enters Florida Bay. Taylor Slough transports freshwater to northeastern Florida Bay from the northwest while overflow from the C-111 Canal provides freshwater to northeastern Florida Bay from the northeast. Joe Bay, receives part of the freshwater from each of these sources via sheet flow and small estuarine creeks, and subsequently discharges southward to northeastern Florida Bay via Trout Creek. Trout Creek contributes approximately 50 percent of the total freshwater flow to northeastern Florida Bay (Hittle 2001). Eight non-gaged creeks entering Joe Bay were selected for acoustic Doppler current

  2. 33 CFR 334.1100 - San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Mare Island Strait in vicinity of U.S. Naval Shipyard, Mare...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Mare Island Strait, within 100 yards of the shore of that part of the Navy Yard, Mare Island, south of the causeway between the City of Vallejo and Mare Island... Yard to its northwesterly limit on the waters of San Pablo Bay, and the waters within 50 yards of...

  3. 77 FR 39911 - The New York North Shore Helicopter Route

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ...This action requires helicopter pilots to use the New York North Shore Helicopter Route when operating along the north shore of Long Island, New York. The North Shore Helicopter Route was added to the New York Helicopter Route Chart in 2008 and prior to this action, its use has been voluntary. The purpose of this rule is to protect and enhance public welfare by maximizing utilization of the......

  4. Delivery of marine larvae to shore requires multiple sequential transport mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Maya C; Branch, George M; Fisher, Jennifer L; Hoffmann, Vera; Ellis, Allan G; Largier, John L

    2015-05-01

    Most sedentary marine animals disperse from their place of origin during their initial life stages as larvae. The delivery of planktonic larvae back to coastal adult habitats after weeks or months of offshore development is commonly thought to be stochastic, resulting in large recruitment fluctuations and making predictive understanding of population dynamics difficult. Time series of invertebrate settlement on intertidal shores have been used to infer how various oceanographic processes deliver planktonic larvae ashore. However, the possibility that successful settlement may involve a series of different transport mechanisms, which are sequentially utilized by late-stage larvae, has received little attention. To address this, we monitored both the delivery of mussel and barnacle larvae to inner-shelf moorings positioned 200-1400 m from the shore, and larval settlement in the intertidal adult habitat, at two contrasting sites: a headland forming an upwelling center and a downstream bay. Model selection was employed to determine the most likely scenario(s) of larval onshore transport from four a priori transport mechanisms individually and in combination: (1) upwelling or relaxation/downwelling, (2) tidal motions, (3) diurnal sea breezes, and (4) surface waves. Mussel larvae were delivered to the inner shelf during upwelling in the bay, but during downwelling at the headland, and were further transported to the shore by surface waves at both locales. In contrast, the delivery of barnacle larvae to the inner shelf occurred during relaxation/downwelling events at both sites, and intertidal settlement coincided with spring tides, suggesting a role for internal tides in their onshore transport. Thus, sequential mechanisms appear to be utilized by larvae to get to the shore, involving interactions of regional-scale upwelling/downwelling processes and local-scale tidal and surface-wave processes, which differ among taxa and among sites with different topography. A

  5. Movements and bioenergetics of canvasbacks wintering in the upper Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howerter, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    The movement patterns, range areas and energetics of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) wintering in the upper Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, were investigated. Eighty-seven juvenile female canvasbacks were radio-tracked between 30 December 1988 and 25 March 1989. Diurnal time and energy budgets were constructed for a time of day-season matrix for canvasbacks using riverine and main bay habitats. Canvasbacks were very active at night, making regular and often lengthy crepuscular movements (x = 11.7 km) from near shore habitats during the day to off shore habitats at night. Movement patterns were similar for birds using habitats on the eastern and western shores of the Bay. Canvasbacks had extensive home ranges averaging 14,286 ha, and used an average of 1.97 core areas. Sleeping was the predominant diurnal behavior. Telemetry indicated that canvasbacks actively fed at night. Canvasbacks spent more time in active behaviors (e.g. swimming, alert) on the eastern shore than on the western shore. Similarly, canvasbacks were more active during daytime hours at locations where artificial feeding occurred. Behavioral patterns were only weakly correlated with weather patterns. Canvasbacks appeared to reduce energy expenditure in mid-winter by reducing distances moved, reducing feeding activities and increasing the amount of time spent sleeping. This pattern was observed even though 1988-89 mid-winter weather conditions were very mild.

  6. Observations of exchange between eastern Casco Bay and the western Gulf of Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzen, C. D.; Churchill, J. H.; Pettigrew, N. R.

    2005-09-01

    Exchange of water between eastern Casco Bay and the adjacent Gulf of Maine shelf is examined to assess the circulation processes that impact the distribution and occurrence of a toxic dinoflagellate, Alexandrium fundyense, in eastern Casco Bay. Over the inner shelf adjacent to the bay, tidal variance is weak, and the across-shelf current is highly coherent and in phase with the along-shelf wind stress. Although tidal current variance increases as one advances into the bay, non-tidal currents account for 30-40% of the across-shelf current variance at the bay entrance. Between the shelf and the bay interior is a transition region, where the circulation response to wind forcing changes as the wind adjusts to the changing orientation of the shoreline. Far from shore, the overall large-scale coastline orientation dominates the wind-driven response, but within a few internal Rossby radii, the local coastline clearly dominates the flow patterns and across-shelf wind becomes locally shore-parallel inside the bay. Within the bay interior, the across-shelf wind is highly coherent and in phase with the near-surface subtidal across-shelf current. The Kennebec River north of the study area supplies freshwater to eastern Casco Bay in all seasons. A pool of low-density, relatively fresh water at the entrance to the bay sets up an across-shelf density gradient that is reversed from a typical estuary, and likely contributes to the mean surface on-shelf transport in this region. Surface-drifter trajectories observed over the course of the study suggest that both the across-shelf wind and the across-shelf density gradient are important in driving surface up-bay transport and in the retention of surface-dwelling organisms in eastern Casco Bay.

  7. 20. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM THE SHORE OF THE POTOMAC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM THE SHORE OF THE POTOMAC RIVER AT THE UPSTREAM SIDE OF THE CONTROL GATES AND LOCK FOR THE ARMORY CANAL. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  8. 46 CFR 108.427 - International shore connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false International shore connection. 108.427 Section 108.427... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Main System § 108.427 International shore connection. A fire main system on a unit in international service must have— (a) At least one international...

  9. 46 CFR 108.427 - International shore connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false International shore connection. 108.427 Section 108.427... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Main System § 108.427 International shore connection. A fire main system on a unit in international service must have— (a) At least one international...

  10. 46 CFR 108.427 - International shore connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false International shore connection. 108.427 Section 108.427... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Main System § 108.427 International shore connection. A fire main system on a unit in international service must have— (a) At least one international...

  11. 46 CFR 108.427 - International shore connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false International shore connection. 108.427 Section 108.427... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Main System § 108.427 International shore connection. A fire main system on a unit in international service must have— (a) At least one international...

  12. 46 CFR 108.427 - International shore connection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false International shore connection. 108.427 Section 108.427... AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Main System § 108.427 International shore connection. A fire main system on a unit in international service must have— (a) At least one international...

  13. LOOKING ESE AT PAIR OF LAKE SHORE & MICHIGAN SOUTHERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING ESE AT PAIR OF LAKE SHORE & MICHIGAN SOUTHERN RAILWAY BRIDGES. SINGLE PITTSBURGH, FORT WAYNE & CHICAGO RAILWAY BRIDGE (HAER No. IL-156) AT RIGHT OF FRAME. - Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway, Bridge No. 6, Spanning Calumet River, east of Chicago Skyway (I-90), Chicago, Cook County, IL

  14. Cross-shore surfzone tracer dispersion in an alongshore current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, David B.; Feddersen, Falk; Guza, R. T.

    2010-10-01

    Cross-shore surfzone tracer dispersion in a wave driven alongshore current is examined over a range of wave and current conditions with 6 continuous dye releases, each roughly 1-2 hours in duration, at Huntington Beach, California. Fluorescent dye tracer released near the shoreline formed shore parallel plumes that were sampled on repeated cross-shore transects with a jet ski mounted fluorometer. Ensemble averaged cross-shore tracer concentration profiles are generally shoreline attached (maximum at or near the shoreline), with increasing cross-shore widths and decreasing peak values with downstream distance. More than a few 100 m from the source, tracer is often well mixed across the surfzone (i.e., saturated) with decreasing tracer concentrations farther seaward. For each release, cross-shore surfzone absolute diffusivities are estimated using a simple Fickian diffusion solution with a no-flux boundary at the shoreline, and range from 0.5-2.5 m2 s-1. Surfzone diffusivity scalings based on cross-shore bore dispersion, surfzone eddy mixing length, and undertow driven shear dispersion are examined. The mixing-length scaling has correlation r2 = 0.59 and the expected best-fit slope <1, indicating that horizontal rotational motions are important for cross-shore tracer dispersion in the surfzone.

  15. Looking northeast from shore along the length of Pier 22 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking northeast from shore along the length of Pier 22 with a view of rigging platforms and Shore Power Supply Electric Distribution Center (Building 734) in the distance - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Finger Piers 22 & 23, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. 27 CFR 9.79 - Lake Michigan Shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lake Michigan Shore. 9.79... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.79 Lake Michigan Shore. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lake...

  17. 33 CFR 165.507 - Security Zone; Chesapeake Bay, between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD. 165.507 Section 165.507 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.507 Security Zone; Chesapeake Bay, between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD. (a... to the eastern shore at Kent Island, Maryland. (c) Regulations. (1) All persons are required...

  18. 33 CFR 165.507 - Security Zone; Chesapeake Bay, between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD. 165.507 Section 165.507 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.507 Security Zone; Chesapeake Bay, between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD. (a... to the eastern shore at Kent Island, Maryland. (c) Regulations. (1) All persons are required...

  19. 33 CFR 165.507 - Security Zone; Chesapeake Bay, between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD. 165.507 Section 165.507 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.507 Security Zone; Chesapeake Bay, between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD. (a... to the eastern shore at Kent Island, Maryland. (c) Regulations. (1) All persons are required...

  20. Pesticide fate and transport from farm fields adjacent to the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture is a primary land-use in the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (JBNERR) watershed located on Puerto Rico's southeast coast. Crop production in near-shore areas depends on pesticides for weed, disease and insect control. There are continuing concerns about their potential fo...

  1. 33 CFR 334.1260 - Dabob Bay, Whitney Point; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Beginning at the high water line along the westerly shore of Dabob Bay, 100 yards northerly of the Naval...°59′ E. 2000 yards, thence to S. 00°01′ W. 200 yards, thence N. 89°59′ W. approximately 2000 yards to the high water line 100 yards southerly of the control building. (2) The regulations. (i) No...

  2. Lighting the Way: Keweenaw Bay Ojibwa Community College Serves as a Beacon Light for Tribal Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Sherrole

    2015-01-01

    On the shores of Lake Superior, the Keweenaw Bay Indian Community (KBIC), a small cluster of Ojibwa (also known as Chippewa), keep their fires alive in the face of daunting pressures to let go of their ways. After the ravages of war, colonization, and territorial loss, KBIC continues to make a stand for their people and future generations. Their…

  3. CHESAPEAKE BAY MONITORING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chesapeake Bay Program is the unique regional partnership which has been directing and conducting the restoration of the Chesapeake Bay since the signing of the historic 1983 Chesapeake Bay Agreement. The Chesapeake Bay Program partners include the states of Maryland, Pennsyl...

  4. Subsurface geology of Corpus Christi Bay, Neuces County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, J.W.

    1996-09-01

    Prolific production in Corpus Christi Bay has occurred mainly in the regressive Frio Barrier Bar System and the associated shore face-shelf environment. All production in Corpus Christi Bay area is below the Anahuac transgressive wedge with the greatest accumulation in the 1st Marg. sand, which has produced a minimum of 680 BCF of gas in the Red Fish Bay-Mustang Island Common 10 reservoir, the largest single reservoir in South Texas. The 1st Marg. sands have produced in excess of 990 BCFG from four fields in Corpus Christi Bay. Shallow hydrocarbons in Corpus Christi Bay are associated with the South Texas Frio Barrier Bar System and are structurally trapped on large fault bound anticlines or up-to-the-coast relief faults. Deeper production from the Frio Sands is mainly on the Barrier Bar shoreface and associated with fault bounded anticlinal closures. Structural complexity increases with depth especially along the large strike aligned growth faults, some up to 4000 ft displacement, and the associated rollover anticlines. subsidiary faults, and shale plugs. These deeper reservoirs are usually pressure-depletion drives. The oil industry can point with pride to the co-existence with the fragile bay environment while extracting huge reserves. Most of the wells are on State of Texas marine leases and are controlled by State rules and City of Corpus Christi Bay drilling ordinances.

  5. Model for carbonate deposition in an Epicontinental Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Carney, C.; Smosna, R.

    1986-05-01

    By mapping the distribution of correlative sediments across the north-central region of the Appalachian basin, a paleogeographic model has been generated for part of the Mississippian period. During the Chesterian, the upper Greenbrier Limestone was deposited in an embayment that extended northward into parts of West Virginia, Ohio, Pennsylvanian, and Maryland. The bay, only a few hundred kilometers wide, was surrounded by lowlands to the west and north, and deltaic sediments shed from nearby highlands diluted the easternmost facies. In the bay, several different shallow-water carbonate environments are distinguished. Muddy skeletal sand was deposited in the central part, which was characterized by normal marine circulation and salinity. This open-bay facies supported a moderately diverse fauna of forams, brachiopods, and mollusks. From the central facies to the bay margins, water depth decreased, circulation became more restricted, and salinity was slightly higher. A restricted-bay facies developed closer to shore, with sediment consisting of pelletal mud and scattered skeletal grains. Diversity was lower, and the fauna was composed primarily of forams and ostracodes. A tidal mud flat surrounded the embayment on all three sides where partly to totally dolomitized mud containing cryptalgal structures formed. Oolite shoals, present on the eastern side of the bay near its mouth, mark areas where tidal currents were concentrated. Eventually, the epicontinental sea flooded the small enclosed bay, replacing the shallow-water facies with an open-marine facies. The new environment supported a highly diverse fauna including crinoids, brachiopods, mollusks, forams, and ostracods.

  6. Database Design for the Evaluation of On-shore and Off-Shore Storm Characteristics over East Central Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Amy A.; Wilson, Jennifer G.; Brown, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Data from multiple sources is needed to investigate lightning characteristics over differing terrain (on-shore vs. off-shore) by comparing natural cloud-to-ground lightning behavior differences depending on the characteristics of attachment mediums. The KSC Lightning Research Database (KLRD) was created to reduce manual data entry time and aid research by combining information from various data sources into a single record for each unique lightning event of interest. The KLRD uses automatic data handling functions to import data from a lightning detection network and identify and record lighting events of interest. Additional automatic functions import data from the NASA Buoy 41009 (located approximately 20 miles off the coast) and the KSC Electric Field Mill network, then match these electric field mill values to the corresponding lightning events. The KLRD calculates distances between each lightning event and the various electric field mills, aids in identifying the location type for each stroke (i.e., on-shore vs. off-shore, etc.), provides statistics on the number of strokes per flash, and produces customizable reports for quick retrieval and logical display of data. Data from February 2014 to date covers 48 unique storm dates with 2295 flashes containing 5700 strokes, of which 2612 are off-shore and 1003 are on-shore. The number of strokes per flash ranges from 1 to 22. The ratio of single to subsequent stroke flashes is 1.29 for off-shore strokes and 2.19 for on-shore strokes.

  7. Burrowing mayflies as indicators of ecosystem health: Status of populations in western Lake Erie, Saginaw Bay and Green Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, T.A.; Bur, M.T.; Gorman, O.T.; Schaeffer, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Environment Canada are supporting the development of indicators of ecosystem health that can be used to report on progress in restoring and maintaining the Great Lakes ecosystem, as called for in the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between the United States and Canada. One indicator under development is based on burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia: Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae). We sampled in western Lake Erie, Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron), and Green Bay (Lake Michigan) in spring 2001 at 117 stations covering about 1,870 km2 of lake bed, to determine the status of nymphal populations of Hexagenia, and to provide information that would further the technical development of an indicator of ecosystem health based on Hexagenia. In western Lake Erie, density and biomass of nymphs were generally highest on fine-grained substrate in offshore waters and were lower on coarser substrates in near shore waters. Nymphs were virtually absent from Saginaw Bay, where only one nymph was collected at 28 stations. Nymphs were collected at only 6 of 48 stations in Green Bay, and density and biomass were highest at the northern end of the bay. Polluted sediments are likely responsible for the absence or low density and biomass of nymphs observed on fine-grained substrates in western Lake Erie, Saginaw Bay, and Green Bay, all of which historically supported abundant populations.

  8. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Fistarol, Giovana O; Coutinho, Felipe H; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E M; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A B; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Amado Filho, Gilberto M; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E; Thompson, Cristiane C; Salomon, Paulo S; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km(2). In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay's degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay's water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  9. Seasonal Sea-Level Variations in San Francisco Bay in Response to Atmospheric Forcing, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Jingyuan; Cheng, R.T.; Smith, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    The seasonal response of sea level in San Francisco Bay (SFB) to atmospheric forcing during 1980 is investigated. The relations between sea-level data from the Northern Reach, Central Bay and South Bay, and forcing by local wind stresses, sea level pressure (SLP), runoff and the large scale sea level pressure field are examined in detail. The analyses show that the sea-level elevations and slopes respond to the along-shore wind stress T(V) at most times of the year, and to the cross-shore wind stress T(N) during two transition periods in spring and autumn. River runoff raises the sea-level elevation during winter. It is shown that winter precipitation in the SFB area is mainly attributed to the atmospheric circulation associated with the Alcutian Low, which transports the warm, moist air into the Bay area. A multiple linear regression model is employed to estimate the independent contributions of barometric pressure and wind stress to adjusted sea level. These calculations have a simple dynamical interpretation which confirms the importance of along-shore wind to both sea level and north-south slope within the Bay.

  10. Continuous resistivity profiling data from Northport Harbor and Manhasset Bay, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, V.A.; Bratton, J.F.; Crusius, J.; Kroeger, K.D.; Worley, C.R.

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of coastal groundwater systems was performed along the North Shore of Long Island, New York, during May 2008 to constrain nutrient delivery to Northport Harbor and Manhasset Bay by delineating locations of likely groundwater discharge. The embayments are bounded by steep moraines and are underlain by thick, fine-grained sediments deposited in proglacial lakes during the last ice age. Beach sand and gravel overlie the glacial deposits along the coast. The continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys that were conducted indicate the existence of low-salinity groundwater in shore-parallel bands, typically 25 to 50 meters wide, along the shorelines of both bays. Piezometer sampling and seepage meter deployments in intertidal and subtidal areas of the two bays confirmed the presence and discharge of brackish and low-salinity groundwater. The large tidal ranges (up to 3 meters) and the steep onshore topography and hydraulic gradients are important variables controlling coastal groundwater discharge in these areas.

  11. Endocrine disrupter--estradiol--in Chesapeake Bay tributaries.

    PubMed

    Dorabawila, Nelum; Gupta, Gian

    2005-04-11

    Exogenous chemicals that interfere with natural hormonal functions are considered endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Estradiol (17beta-estradiol or E2) is the most potent of all xenoestrogens. Induction of vitellogenin (VTG) production in male fish occurs at E2 concentrations as low as 1 ng l-1. E2 reaches aquatic systems mainly through sewage and animal waste disposal. Surface water samples from ponds, rivers (Wicomico, Manokin and Pocomoke), sewage treatment plants (STPs), and coastal bays (Assawoman, Monie, Chincoteague, and Tangier Sound-Chesapeake Bay) on the Eastern Shore of Maryland were analyzed for E2 using enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). E2 concentrations in river waters varied between 1.9 and 6.0 ng l-1. Highest E2 concentrations in river waters were observed immediately downstream of STPs. E2 concentrations in all the coastal bays tested were 2.3-3.2 ng l-1. PMID:15811666

  12. Association of bald eagle reproductive impairment with elevated organochlorine exposure in Green Bay, Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Dykstra, C.R.; Meyer, M.W.; Best, D.A.; Bowerman, W.W. IV; Warnke, D.K.

    1995-12-31

    Bald eagles have recently recolonized the shores of the upper Great Lakes following near-extirpation in the DDT-era. However, bald eagles nesting along the shore of Green Bay, Lake Michigan, currently have reproductive rates which are much lower than those of eagles nesting in inland reference areas in the Great Lakes Basin. Productivity of Green Bay eagles averaged only 0.39 young per occupied territory (5-year average; 1990--1994), compared to 1.13 young per occupied territory in inland Wisconsin, and 0.90 young per occupied territory on the Lake Superior shore in Wisconsin. Eaglet plasma samples collected at reference nests in inland Wisconsin averaged 34 ppb total PCBs and 4 ppb p,p{prime}-DDE (geometric mean, n = 31). Eaglets on Green Bay had contaminant loads which were 7--19 times greater (253 ppb total PCBs and 74 ppb DDE, n = 6), while eaglets on Lake Superior had only 3--5x greater contaminant loads (114 ppb total PCBs and 21 ppb DDE, n = 31). Addled eggs collected in Green Bay nests from 1986--1992 averaged 35 ppm total PCBs and 10 ppm DDE, (n = 13 eggs in 8 nest-attempts), and those collected on the south shore of Lake Superior averaged 11 ppm total PCBs and 3 ppm DDE (n = 6, 1986--1993). Levels of contaminants in contemporary Green Bay eagle eggs exceed those levels associated with normal reproduction, and approach or exceed those levels associated with near-total reproductive failure, suggesting that organochlorine contaminants may impair reproduction in Green Bay eagles.

  13. Composition and Dynamics of the Black Sea Benthopelagic Plankton and Its Contribution to the Near-Shore Plankton Communities

    PubMed Central

    Vereshchaka, Alexander L.; Anokhina, Ludmila L.

    2014-01-01

    At a shallow (7 m) near-shore sampling site in the Black Sea we analyzed composition, abundance, and biomass of benthopelagic organisms and the contribution these animals make to the total plankton. The site was monitored across several years (1996–2001; 2006–2007) whilst for 1999–2000 the seasonal variations were analysed. A total of 321 samples from Golubaja Bay near Novorossiysk (44°34′31.04″ N, 37°58′45.11″ E) in 1996–2007 were taken with a Judey net. The benthopelagic fauna was represented by 69 taxa, a diversity comparable to similar shelf areas. The benthopelagic component played an important role in near-shore plankton communities in the Black Sea accounting for 50% of the total zooplankton biomass at night during all seasons. Abundance and biomass of the benthopelagic animals showed seasonal fluctuations, the highest biomass being recorded during winter (>75% of the total zooplankton biomass) and early spring due to large amphipods, whilst the highest abundances occur during late summer because of numerous young stages of various taxa. Amphipods, mysids, and decapods are the main contributors to the plankton biomass and abundances. Both night and daytime samples are strongly recommended for the adequate description of the near-shore plankton communities. PMID:24945680

  14. Groundwater Management Along Lake Ontario's North Shore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holysh, S.; Gerber, R.; Doughty, M.

    2009-05-01

    A large stretch of the north shore of Lake Ontario is characterized by a till plain that slopes down from the Oak Ridges Moraine, a 160 km long ridge of sand, silt and gravel deposits oriented in an approximately east-west direction north of Lake Ontario. Since 2000, an ongoing collaborative, multi-faceted program has been underway to better characterize the groundwater flow system on the Lake's north shore. The program is a collaborative effort between Conservation Authorities (Ontario's watershed management bodies), and several large municipalities (City of Toronto, Regional Municipalities of Peel, York and Durham). The program has three main components: database, geology and groundwater flow modeling; each of which is being actively managed and updated. In Ontario, as in many jurisdictions in North America, water and environmental data has long been neglected. Studies that involve the measurement of hydrological parameters and the collection of useful data are commonly required for approval of land use change by provincial, regional and/or local government agencies. So although data is frequently collected (at a considerable cost), it has never been rigorously assembled into a comprehensive database that can be used for future reference. Rather, the data is collected by consultants, reported through various studies, and then simply lost in archived files. In a similar fashion, individuals at many government agencies have collected water related data that now reside in locations unknown and, thus, unavailable to others in the organization. With this in mind, a comprehensive digital database was assembled to establish the foundation for long term successful groundwater management. The data model design incorporates information required for groundwater modeling purposes, thus extending beyond that of traditional groundwater information. The key data sources include borehole geology, water levels, pumping rates, surface water flows, climate data and water quality

  15. EAARL coastal topography--North Shore, Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Fredericks, Xan; Wright, C.W.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Barras, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    This DVD contains lidar-derived coastal topography GIS datasets of a portion of the north shore of Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana. These datasets were acquired on February 28, March 1, and March 5, 2010.

  16. "Strangers from a Different Shore" as History and Historiography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Sucheng

    1990-01-01

    "Strangers from a Different Shore" paints a panoramic vista, speaks with an epic voice, is easy to read, but contains many misleading statements and imprecise generalizations. The author fails to acknowledge his debt to other researchers and writers. (DM)

  17. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF PAIRED INTERSTATE BRIDGES FROM NORTH SHORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF PAIRED INTERSTATE BRIDGES FROM NORTH SHORE OF THE COLUMBIA RIVER LOOKING WEST - Vancouver-Portland Interstate Bridge, Interstate Route 5 Spanning Columbia River, Vancouver, Clark County, WA

  18. 7. Level 7 conveyor area. Stub shoring under bin to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Level 7 conveyor area. Stub shoring under bin to apron feeder. - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  19. Looking southeast towards the shore end of Pier 22, the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southeast towards the shore end of Pier 22, the seawall is visible at the right edge of the photograph - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Finger Piers 22 & 23, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  20. 2. LOOKING NORTHNORTHWEST ACROSS FEDERAL CHANNEL FROM THE ALAMEDA SHORE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. LOOKING NORTH-NORTHWEST ACROSS FEDERAL CHANNEL FROM THE ALAMEDA SHORE, TO THE NORTH TRAINING WALL. (Panoramic view 2 of 2). - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  1. 8. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING NORTH SHORE AND OPERATOR'S HOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING NORTH SHORE AND OPERATOR'S HOUSE WITH BRIDGE IN OPEN POSITION - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Mystic River Bridge, Spanning Mystic River between Groton & Stonington, Groton, New London County, CT

  2. 28. May 1974. GENERAL VIEW FROM SHORE, WEST OF ENTIRE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. May 1974. GENERAL VIEW FROM SHORE, WEST OF ENTIRE BRIDGE. 1 through PA-2-28 were previously transmitted to the Library of Congress. - Smithfield Street Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River on Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  3. 2005 hydrographic survey of south San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxgrover, Amy C.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Hovis, Gerald T.; Martin, Craig A.; Hubbard, James R.; Samant, Manoj R.; Sullivan, Steve M.

    2007-01-01

    An acoustic hydrographic survey of South San Francisco Bay (South Bay) was conducted in 2005. Over 20 million soundings were collected within an area of approximately 250 sq km (97 sq mi) of the bay extending south of Coyote Point on the west shore, to the San Leandro marina on the east, including Coyote Creek and Ravenswood, Alviso, Artesian, and Mud Sloughs. This is the first survey of this scale that has been conducted in South Bay since the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Ocean Service (NOS) last surveyed the region in the early 1980s. Data from this survey will provide insight to changes in bay floor topography from the 1980s to 2005 and will also serve as essential baseline data for tracking changes that will occur as restoration of the South San Francisco Bay salt ponds progress. This report provides documentation on how the survey was conducted, an assessment of accuracy of the data, and distributes the sounding data with Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) compliant metadata. Reports from NOS and Sea Surveyor, Inc., containing additional survey details are attached as appendices.

  4. Extension of the Morris-Shore transformation to multilevel ladders

    SciTech Connect

    Rangelov, A. A.; Vitanov, N. V.; Shore, B. W.

    2006-11-15

    We describe situations in which chains of N degenerate quantum energy levels, coupled by time-dependent external fields, can be replaced by independent sets of chains of length N, N-1,...,2 and sets of uncoupled single states. The transformation is a generalization of the two-level Morris-Shore transformation [J.R. Morris and B.W. Shore, Phys. Rev. A 27, 906 (1983)]. We illustrate the procedure with examples of three-level chains.

  5. An exploratory numerical model of rocky shore profile evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Hironori; Dickson, Mark E.; Kench, Paul S.

    2016-09-01

    Rocky shores occur along much of the world's coastline and include a wide range of coastal morphologies, such as intertidal shore platforms. Considerable research effort has been placed on trying to understand developmental processes on rocky shores, but progress has been forestalled because these landscapes develop slowly and preserve little evidence of evolution through time. This paper presents a new exploratory numerical model developed to study long-term shore profile evolution on rock coasts. The model purposely considers only a limited number of processes, each represented in a highly abstracted way. Despite these simplifications, the model exhibits a large range of emergent shore profile shapes. This behavior is enabled both by broader spatial representation of the driving erosion forces and the flexibility provided by a grid discretization scheme. Initial model testing shows the development of varied rocky profile geometries, ranging from steep plunging cliffs, cliffs with narrow benches, and cliffs with a variety of shore platform shapes. Most of the model geometries are similar to those observed in the field, and model behavior is robust and internally consistent across a relatively large parameter space. This paper provides a detailed description of the new model and its subsequent testing. Emphasis is placed on comparison of model results with published field observations in which morphometric relationships are described between shore platform gradient and tidal range, and platform elevation and platform width. The model adequately simulates these morphometric relationships, while retaining its ability to simulate a wide range of profile shapes. The simplicity of process representations, and the limited number of processes implemented, means that model outputs can be interpreted reasonably easily. Hence, an opportunity is now provided, following the testing described in this paper, to use the model to systematically investigate the broader controlling

  6. Possible origin of the high incidence of Clostridium botulinum type E in an inland bay (Green Bay of Lake Michigan).

    PubMed

    Bott, T L; Johnson, J; Foster, E M; Sugiyama, H

    1968-05-01

    Bottom and shoreline sediments of Green Bay, northern Lake Michigan, and rivers of the Green Bay drainage basin, as well as soils of the surrounding land mass, were examined for Clostridium botulinum type E. Detection was based on identification of type E toxin in enrichment cultures and was influenced by many factors. Testing smaller amounts of sample in multiple cultures was more productive than examining large inocula in fewer cultures. Incubation at 30 C was unsatisfactory, but 14 days at 20 C or 7 days at 25 C gave good results. Mild heating (60 C for 30 min) of specimens reduced the incidence of positive findings. Freezing enrichment cultures prior to testing for toxicity eliminated many nonbotulinal toxic substances that killed mice. A control culture inoculated with type E spores was employed to show whether a specimen contained factors which could mask the presence of type E. Samples from 708 stations were tested in 2,446 cultures. Type E was found in nearly all underwater specimens of Green Bay and northern Lake Michigan but was present less frequently in samples taken along their shores. The incidence was still lower in the rivers emptying into Green Bay with the organism being rare on the shores of these rivers and in the soils of the land mass proper. Samples from the upper reaches of the rivers practically never contained type E. Runoff could deposit type E spores in Green Bay, but this is not considered to be the major factor in the high incidence of the organism. Multiplication in the bay itself is indicated. PMID:4870273

  7. The Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, Michael John; O'Neill, Clare K.; Palmer, Matthew R.

    2010-05-01

    A pre-operational Coastal Observatory has been functioning since August 2002 in Liverpool Bay, Irish Sea. Its rationale is to develop the science underpinning the ecosystem based approach to marine management, including distinguishing between natural and man-made variability, with particular emphasis on eutrophication and predicting responses of a coastal sea to climate change. Liverpool Bay has strong tidal mixing, receives fresh water principally from the Dee, Mersey and Ribble estuaries, each with different catchment influences, and has enhanced levels of nutrients. Horizontal and vertical density gradients are variable both in space and time. The challenge is to understand and model accurately this variable region which is turbulent, turbid, receives enhanced nutrients and is productive. The Observatory has three components, for each of which the goal is some (near) real-time operation - measurements; coupled 3-D hydrodynamic, wave and ecological models; a data management and web-based data delivery system which provides free access to the data, http://cobs.pol.ac.uk. The integrated measurements are designed to test numerical models and have as a major objective obtaining multi-year records, covering tidal, event (storm / calm / bloom), seasonal and interannual time scales. The four main strands on different complementary space or time scales are:- a) fixed point time series (in situ and shore-based); very good temporal and very poor spatial resolution. These include tide gauges; a meteorological station on Hilbre Island at the mouth of the Dee; two in situ sites, one by the Mersey Bar, measuring waves and the vertical structure of current, temperature and salinity. A CEFAS SmartBuoy whose measurements include surface nutrients is deployed at the Mersey Bar site. b) regular (nine times per year) spatial water column surveys on a 9 km grid; good vertical resolution for some variables, limited spatial coverage and resolution, and limited temporal resolution. The

  8. Bottom sediments of Saginaw Bay, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Leonard E.

    1964-01-01

    Saginaw Bay is a southwest extension of Lake Huron on the east shore of the Southern Peninsula of Michigan. It is a shallow-water derivative of the Pleistocene Lake Saginaw. Sixty-one bottom samples were collected on a semigrid pattern and analyzed physically. Findings were treated statistically. Sediments range in size from large pebbles to clay. Medium- to fine-grained clear quartz sand is common to all parts of the bay. Currents and wave action are primarily responsible for both median diameter and sorting distribution patterns. Only a very general correlation can be established between depth and median diameter. Heavy minerals occur in abundance locally and show an affinity to shallow-water areas subject to prevailing currents. Shape also locally determines heavy mineral concentrations. Only general conclusions can be established from roundness and sphericity and acid-soluble content. Increased organic content is correlative with quiet water environments. The shallow-water, heterogeneous nature of Saginaw Bay is not conducive to the recognition of sedimentary criteria suitable for correlations in other than a local environment.

  9. BUZZARDS BAY IR, 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 2002 Buzzards Bay Implementation Review (IR) summarizes the progress and challenges ahead for the Buzzards Bay Project. Major new completed actions during the past two years include: designation of Buzzards Bay as a no discharge area in August 2000; full support by the Massac...

  10. SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL RESILIENCE AND ADAPTATION ON THE EASTERN SHORE OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is expected that this research will yield methods for operationalizing and assessing the presence of factors of resilience in social-ecological systems, as well as further understanding on the relationship between vulnerability, adaptation and resilience. In addition, it...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  12. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  14. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  15. 33 CFR 334.1070 - San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island; naval restricted area. 334.1070 Section 334.1070 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1070 San Francisco Bay between Treasure Island and Yerba Buena Island... Island, the north shore of Yerba Buena Island, and the connecting causeway, west of a line extending...

  16. Comparison of SWAT and AnnAGNPS Applications to a Sub-Watershed Within the Chesapeake Bay Watershed in Maryland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted under the USDA-CEAP program on the Choptank watershed which is located within the Chesapeake Bay watershed in the Eastern Shore region of Maryland. The watershed is nearly 400 square mile and is dominated by corn and soybean productions. Poultry manure is being used heavil...

  17. Pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls in transport in two Atlantic coastal plain tributaries and loadings to Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, G.D.; Miller, C.V.; Huff, T.B.; Roberts, E., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of current-use pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine (OC) insecticides were determined above the reach of tide in the Chesterville Branch and Nanticoke River on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay during base-flow and storm-flow hydrologic regimes to evaluate mass transport to Chesapeake Bay. The two rivers monitored showed relatively high concentrations of atrazine, simazine, alachlor, and metolachlor in comparison to previously investigated western shore tributaries, and reflected the predominant agricultural land use in the eastern shore watersheds. The four current use pesticides showed the greatest seasonal contribution to annual loadings to tidal waters of Chesapeake Bay from the two rivers, and the relative order of annual loadings for the other contaminant classes was PAHs > PCBs > OC insecticides. Annual loadings normalized to the landscape areas of selected Chesapeake Bay watersheds showed correlations to identifiable source areas, with the highest pesticide yields (g/km2/yr) occurring in eastern shore agricultural landscapes, and the highest PAH yields derived from urban regions.

  18. Comments on recent canvasback habitat trends and threats on Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, M.C.

    1976-01-01

    During the last 22 years, the North American winter population of canvasbacks has fluctuated from 481,000 in 1955 to 179,000 in 1972. The Chesapeake Bay population has averaged 33 percent of the North American population and 64 percent of the Atlantic Flyway population. In Maryland, significant annual fluctuations have been recorded between the eastern and western shore of Chesapeake Bay. In 1968, 11 percent of the Bay canvasbacks were on the western shore, whereas in 1971, 87 percent of the birds wintered in this area. This increase in 1971 is believed to be in response to large populations of small Rangia cuneata clams. I n recent years, mortality of small clams and reduced spawning have resulted in a larger size class for Rangia making them less desirable as a waterfowl food. Canvasback populations in 1975 and 1976 were more dispersed in Chesapeake Bay when the predominant food of canvasbacks was Macoma balthica. In the last 5 years, the number of canvasbacks wintering in Chesapeake Bay has declined slightly, while the North American and Atlantic Flyway populations have increased. Increases have been noted in New Jersey and North Carolina. This trend may indicate that the quality of canvasback habitat in Chesapeake Bay is declining at a faster rate than other areas along the Atlantic coast.

  19. 33 CFR 334.110 - Delaware Bay off Cape Henlopen, Del.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the south shore of Delaware Bay at longitude 75°06′12″; thence to latitude 38°47′25″, longitude 75°06′20″; thence to latitude 38°47′48″, longitude 75°06′00″; thence to latitude 38°50′43″, longitude 75°02′11″; thence to latitude 38°49′16″, longitude 74°59′35″; thence to a point on the shore at latitude...

  20. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    PubMed Central

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  1. 33 CFR 110.78 - Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.78 Sturgeon Bay, Sturgeon Bay, Wis. (a) Area 1. Beginning at a point bearing 126°, 3,000 feet from the fixed green Sturgeon Bay Canal Leading Light...

  2. Continuous resistivity profiling data from Great South Bay, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, V.A.; Bratton, J.F.; Kroeger, K.D.; Crusius, John; Worley, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of submarine aquifers adjacent to the Fire Island National Seashore and Long Island, New York was conducted to assess the importance of submarine groundwater discharge as a potential nonpoint source of nitrogen delivery to Great South Bay. Over 200 kilometers of continuous resistivity profiling data were collected to image the fresh-saline groundwater interface in sediments beneath the bay. In addition, groundwater sampling was performed at sites (1) along the north shore of Great South Bay, particularly in Patchogue Bay, that were representative of the developed Long Island shoreline, and (2) at sites on and adjacent to Fire Island, a 50-kilometer-long barrier island on the south side of Great South Bay. Other field activities included sediment coring, stationary electrical resistivity profiling, and surveys of in situ pore water conductivity. Results of continuous resistivity profiling surveys are described in this report. The onshore and offshore shallow hydrostratigraphy of the Great South Bay shorelines, particularly the presence and nature of submarine confining units, appears to exert primary control on the dimensions and chemistry of the submarine groundwater flow and discharge zones. Sediment coring has shown that the confining units commonly consist of drowned and buried peat layers likely deposited in salt marshes. Low-salinity groundwater extends from 10 to 100 meters offshore along much of the north and south shores of Great South Bay based on continuous resistivity profiling data, especially off the mouths of tidal creeks and beneath shallow flats to the north of Fire Island adjacent to modern salt marshes. Human modifications of much of the shoreline and nearshore areas along the north shore of the bay, including filling of salt marshes, construction of bulkheads and piers, and dredging of navigation channels, has substantially altered the natural hydrogeology of the bay's shorelines by truncating confining units and increasing

  3. Studies on Anthropogenic Impact on Water Quality in Hilo (Hawaii) Bay and Mapping the Study Stations Using Geospatial Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartier, A. J.; Williams, M. S.; Adolf, J.; Sriharan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hilo Bay has uncharacteristically brown waters compared to other waters found in Hawai'i. The majority of the freshwater entering Hilo Bay is from storm and surface water runoff. The anthropogenic impact on water quality at Hilo Bay is due to sediment entrance, cesspools (Bacteria), and invasive species (Albizia). This poster presentation will focus on the water quality and phytoplankton collected on a weekly basis at a buoy positioned one meter from the shore of Hilo Bay, preserving the phytoplankton intact, concentrating and dehydrating the sample with ethanol, and viewing the phytoplankton with a scanning electron microscope (Hitachi S-3400NII). The GPS (Global Positioning System) points were collected at the sampling stations. Three transects on three separate dates were performed in Hilo Bay with salinity, percent dissolved oxygen, turbidity, secchi depth, temperature, and chlorophyll fluorescence data collected at each sampling station. A consistent trend observed in all transects was as distance from the river increased turbidity decreased and salinity increased. The GPS data on June 30, 2015 showed a major correlation between stations and their distance from shore. There is a decrease in the turbidity but not the temperature for these stations. The GPS points collected on July 7, 2015 at thirteen stations starting with station one being at the shore to the water, showed that the salinity concentration fluctuate noticeably at the first 6 stations. As we proceed further away from the shore, the salinity concentration increases from stations seven through thirteen. The water temperature shows little variation throughout the thirteen stations. The turbidity level was high at the shore and shows a noticeable drop at station thirteen.

  4. Ground-water concerns for the Eastern Shore, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Eastern Shore of Virginia is a peninsula that is surrounded on three sides by salty water and has no major fresh surface-water sources; groundwater provides the sole freshwater supply. Beginning in about 1965, increases in groundwater withdrawals for agricultural, commercial, urban, and industrial uses have caused water-level declines and have created cone-like depressions in the water-level surface around major pumping centers near the Towns of Accomac, Cape Charles, Cheriton, Chincoteague, Exmore, and Hallwood, Virginia. Increased water withdrawals could adversely affect the supply of fresh groundwater on the Eastern Shore. In 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality and the counties of Accomack and Northampton, completed a comprehensive study of the groundwater resources of the Eastern Shore. This report highlights the major results of that study. (USGS)

  5. A history of intertidal flat area in south San Francisco Bay, California: 1858 to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, Bruce; Foxgrover, Amy

    2006-01-01

    A key question in salt pond restoration in South San Francisco Bay is whether sediment sinks created by opening ponds will result in the loss of intertidal flats. Analyses of a series of bathymetric surveys of South San Francisco Bay made from 1858 to 2005 reveal changes in intertidal flat area in both space and time that can be used to better understand the pre-restoration system. This analysis also documents baseline conditions of intertidal flats that may be altered by restoration efforts. From 1858 to 2005, intertidal flat area decreased by about 25% from 69.2 +6.4/-7.6 km2 to 51.2 +4.8/-5.8 km2. Intertidal flats in the north tended to decrease in area during the period of this study whereas those south of Dumbarton Bridge were either stable or increased in area. From 1983 to 2005, intertidal flats south of Dumbarton Bridge increased from 17.6 +1.7/-2.5 km2 to 24.2 +1.0/-1.8 km2. Intertidal flats along the east shore of the bay tended to be more erosional and decreased in area while those along the west shore of the bay did not significantly change in area. Loss of intertidal flats occurred intermittently along the eastern shore of the bay north of the Dumbarton Bridge. There was little or no loss from 1931 to 1956 and from 1983 to 2005. Predictions of future change in intertidal flat area that do not account for this spatial and temporal variability are not likely to be accurate. The causes of the spatial and temporal variability in intertidal flat area in South San Francisco Bay are not fully understood, but appear related to energy available to erode sediments, sediment redistribution from north to south in the bay, and sediment available to deposit on the flats. Improved understanding of sediment input to South San Francisco Bay, especially from Central Bay, how it is likely to change in the future, the redistribution of sediment within the bay, and ultimately its effect on intertidal flat area would aid in the management of restoration of South San

  6. Reservoir shore development in long range terrestrial laser scanning monitoring.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczmarek, Halina

    2016-04-01

    Shore zones of reservoirs are in most cases very active, getting transformed as a result of coastal processes and mass movements initiated on the slopes surrounding the reservoir. From the point of view of the users of water reservoirs shore recession strongly undesirable as it causes destruction to infrastructure and buildings located in the immediate vicinity of the reservoir. For this reason, reservoir shores require continuous geodetic monitoring. Fast and accurate geodetic measurements covering shore sections several kilometers long, often in poorly accessible areas, are available using long range terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The possibilities of using long range terrestrial laser scanning are shown on the example of the reservoir Jeziorsko on the Warta River (Central Poland). This reservoir, created in the years 1986-1992, is a typical retention reservoir, the annual fluctuations of which reach 5 m. Depending on the water level its surface area ranges from 42.3 to 19.6 km2. The width of the reservoir is 2.5 km. The total shore length of the reservoir, developed in Quaternary till and sand-till sediments, is 44.3 km, including 30.1 km of the unreinforced shore. Out of the unreinforced shore 27% is subject to coastal erosion. The cliff heights vary from a few cm to 12.5 meters, and the current rate of the cliff recession ranges from 0 to 1.12 m/y. The study used a terrestrial long range laser scanner Riegl VZ-4000 of a range of up to 4000 m. It enabled conducting the measurements of the cliff recession from the opposite shore of the reservoir, with an angular resolution of 0.002°, which gives about 50 measurement points per 1 m2. The measurements were carried out in the years 2014-2015, twice a year, in early spring before high water level, and in late autumn at a dropping water level. This allowed the separation of the impact of coastal processes and frost weathering on the cliff recession and their quantitative determination. The size and nature of

  7. Chesapeake Bay study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The objectives and scope of the Chesapeake Bay study are discussed. The physical, chemical, biological, political, and social phenomena of concern to the Chesapeake Bay area are included in the study. The construction of a model of the bay which will provide a means of accurately studying the interaction of the ecological factors is described. The application of the study by management organizations for development, enhancement, conservation, preservation, and restoration of the resources is examined.

  8. Tampa Bay: Chapter N

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Larry; Spear, Kathryn; Cross, Lindsay; Baumstark, René; Moyer, Ryan; Thatcher, Cindy

    2013-01-01

    Tampa Bay is Florida’s largest open-water estuary and encompasses an area of approximately 1036 km2 (400 mi2) (Burgan and Engle, 2006; TBNEP, 2006). The Bay’s watershed drains 5,698 km2 (2,200 mi2) of land and includes freshwater from the Hillsborough River to the north east, the Alafia and Little Manatee rivers to the east, and the Manatee River to the south (Figure 1). Freshwater inflow also enters the bay from the Lake Tarpon Canal, from small tidal tributaries, and from watershed runoff. Outflow travels from the upper bay segments (Hillsborough Bay and Old Tampa Bay) into Middle and Lower Tampa Bay. Southwestern portions of the water shed flow through Boca Ciega Bay into the Intracoastal Waterway and through the Southwest Channel and Passage Key Inlet into the Gulf of Mexico. The average depth in most of Tampa Bay is only 3.4 m (11 ft); however, 129 km (80 mi) of shipping channels with a maximum depth of 13.1 m (43 ft) have been dredged over time and are regularly maintained. These channels help to support the three ports within the bay, as well as commercial and recreational boat traffic.

  9. Spatial And Temporal Variation In The Dissolved Trace Element Chemistry Of Chesapeake Bay Surface Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorval, E.; Hannigan, R.; Jones, C.

    2001-12-01

    Surface waters were collected from sea grass beds around the Chesapeake Bay of Virginia as well as from the mouths of the York, James, Potomac and Rappahannock rivers and Tangier and Smith islands. These sea grass beds represent the nursery habitats for a variety of sport fish including Spotted Sea Trout and Weakfish. Trace element ratios of fish otoliths record the unique chemistries of bodies of water in which the fish live. The data presented here represent the initial results of a "ground-truthing" investigation of the relationships between the water and otolith chemistry. Waters were collected bi-monthly (July through September) from 30 sites around the western and eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay including major tributaries and Tangier and Smith islands. Water was collected using trace metal clean procedures including filtration through a 0.45 uM filter and acidification in the field to pH < 2 with ultra-pure nitric acid. Dissolved trace element composition was measured by sector field ICP-MS. The trace element chemistry of samples show both spatial and temporal variation. Using discriminant analysis it is not possible to statistically classify samples to the respective zones (western shore, eastern shore or islands) but it is possible to separate samples from the Tangier and Smith island sites from the eastern and western shore sites. Elements that allow this classification include Ce and Th, which are found in higher concentration in the samples from the island sites than in the eastern and western shore samples. These relationships follow the trends observed in pH and dissolved oxygen likely related to a restricted flow regime between the islands and the eastern shore. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios are unique for the sea grass beds along the western shore and allow the distinction of beds located between the York and Rappahannock rivers from those between the Rappahannock and Potomac rivers. Sr and Ba concentrations are variable between sites along the eastern

  10. Electrical Resistivity and Seismic Characterization of Submarine Groundwater Discharge in Long Bay, SC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viso, R. F.; McCoy, C.; Quafisi, D.; Gayes, P. T.

    2007-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been identified as a significant contributor of dissolved nutrients and contaminants to near-shore waters. Little is known, however, about geologic controls on the spatial distribution of SGD seeps. Discharge estimates are typically derived from geochemical tracers such as Rn-222. Such estimates of total fluxes over a given area do not consider the potential for spatial variability in discharge rates. Higher fluxes of chemically distinct SGD over smaller areas could have complex effects on localized water masses, ecosystems, and geological features. In an effort to assess the distribution of SGD, electrical resistivity and seismic surveys were conducted along the inner shelf of Long Bay, South Carolina during a series of cruises between October, 2005 and November 2006. In addition, basic bottom water quality parameters including dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, and pH were measured. Preliminary submarine groundwater flux estimates for northern Long Bay were also generated from measurements of Rn-222. The resistivity signal is highly variable along shore with several instances of elevated values suggesting presence of relatively fresher pore waters. In some cases, elevated resistivity measurements were spatially co-registered with seismically defined paleochannels extending across the shelf. Other areas of elevated resistivity values correlate with smaller discontinuities in seismic reflectors. A third category of resistivity anomalies does not correlate with seismically defined features. Overall, anomaly frequency and intensity decrease rapidly with increasing distance from shore. At distances > 1 km from shore, the resistivity signal is uniform in space and low in magnitude, implying less of a fresh water contribution. Water quality parameters are variable along shore and may reflect the influence of SGD. Rn-derived fluxes suggest SGD equivalent to as much as 50% of riverine discharge into Long Bay. Ongoing work is

  11. Characterizing submarine groundwater discharge: A seepage meter study in Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Holly A.; Lubetsky, Jonathan S.; Harvey, Charles F.

    2003-03-01

    A seepage meter study was performed in Waquoit Bay on Cape Cod, Massachusetts to characterize the amount, pattern, and origin of submarine groundwater discharge. Measurements from grids of 40 seepage meters provide a detailed representation of groundwater flux in both space and time. At the head of the bay, a distinct band of high, saline discharge was observed between 25 and 45 m from the shoreline. Slug tests indicated no pattern of permeability to explain the band of discharge, and the band was not observed offshore of an island where freshwater discharge is negligible. Experiments using clusters of seepage meters showed large variability in discharge at the meter scale and similar temporal variation throughout the domain, reflecting tidal influence primarily near shore. The small-scale variability challenges the assumption of locally homogeneous flow used in many models, and the band of discharge contradicts predictions that total outflow is largely fresh and decreases monotonically from shore.

  12. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, OF SILVER LAKE WEST SHORE WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, OF SILVER LAKE WEST SHORE WITH RUINS OF SILVER LAKE MINE AT BOTTOM CENTER. NOTE CONTINUITY OF GEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS WHERE BOTTOM OF LAKE CAN BE SEEN. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  13. Whatever Happened to Democracy? A Comment on Bischoff and Shores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrag, Francis

    2015-01-01

    The paradigm for formulating educational policy adopted by Bischoff and Shores, which appears to be the prevailing one, appears to offer no role to the citizen, rendering the paradigm suspect. The authors' honest admission of the limitations of social science knowledge undercuts the argument for the usefulness of research in this area.

  14. Supporting Off-Shore Students: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussin, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on the first part of a recent research study into current initiatives to support the learning of non-English speaking background (NESB) transnational students in Asia who are studying off-shore at Australian universities. Learning support and development staff in 12 universities were surveyed using a questionnaire. The survey…

  15. 27 CFR 9.79 - Lake Michigan Shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Shore viticultural area are four U.S.G.S. maps, 1:250,000 series. They are entitled: (1) Chicago (1953...) Starting at the most northern point, the intersection the Kalamazoo River with Lake Michigan. (2) Then southeast along the winding course of the Kalamazoo River for approximately 35 miles until it intersects...

  16. 27 CFR 9.79 - Lake Michigan Shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Shore viticultural area are four U.S.G.S. maps, 1:250,000 series. They are entitled: (1) Chicago (1953...) Starting at the most northern point, the intersection the Kalamazoo River with Lake Michigan. (2) Then southeast along the winding course of the Kalamazoo River for approximately 35 miles until it intersects...

  17. 27 CFR 9.79 - Lake Michigan Shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Shore viticultural area are four U.S.G.S. maps, 1:250,000 series. They are entitled: (1) Chicago (1953...) Starting at the most northern point, the intersection the Kalamazoo River with Lake Michigan. (2) Then southeast along the winding course of the Kalamazoo River for approximately 35 miles until it intersects...

  18. 27 CFR 9.79 - Lake Michigan Shore.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Shore viticultural area are four U.S.G.S. maps, 1:250,000 series. They are entitled: (1) Chicago (1953...) Starting at the most northern point, the intersection the Kalamazoo River with Lake Michigan. (2) Then southeast along the winding course of the Kalamazoo River for approximately 35 miles until it intersects...

  19. Modeling cover Crop Effectiveness on Maryland's Eastern Shore

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover cropping has become a widely used conservation practice on Maryland’s Eastern shore. It is one of the main practices funded by the Maryland Department of Agriculture’s (MDA) Maryland Agricultural Water Quality Cost Share (MACS) program. The major benefits of this practice include reduction of ...

  20. 5 CFR 630.704 - Granting shore leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....704 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND...) Lump-sum payment. Shore leave may not be the basis for lump-sum payment on separation from the service... approved absence immediately before an employee's separation when an agency knows the employee will...

  1. Evaluating Conservation Practices and Land Use on Maryland's Eastern Shore

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP), conservation program effects are being evaluated in the Choptank River "special emphasis" watershed on Maryland’s Eastern Shore. Hand-drawn maps of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) enrolled areas were obtained from farm planning office...

  2. 1. Full SW side of dock as viewed from shore ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Full SW side of dock as viewed from shore at the Oil/Creosote Unloading Dock. This view formed a panorama with photo WA-131-H-5, which shows the Oil/Creosote Unloading Dock. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, West Dock, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  3. A Journey toward Excellence: An Interview with Bruce M. Shore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henshon, Suzanna E.

    2010-01-01

    Bruce M. Shore is in his 39th year as a Professor of Educational Psychology in the Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology at McGill University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, and Associate Director (McGill) of the multi-campus Centre for the Study of Learning and Performance. For 21 years he was jointly appointed as a member of the…

  4. View from shore showing the Tshaped configuration of the Gasoline ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from shore showing the T-shaped configuration of the Gasoline Wharf. Note the large cleats on the curbs of the top section of the wharf - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Gasoline Wharf, Offshore, near the intersection of Hornet Avenue & Curtis Street, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. Detail section extending from shore. Note the paired support pilings, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail section extending from shore. Note the paired support pilings, concrete curbs with rectangular openings for drainage, and large-diameter metal pipe suspended under the deck. USS MISSOURI in background - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Gasoline Wharf, Offshore, near the intersection of Hornet Avenue & Curtis Street, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 5. Oblique view of east side as viewed from shore. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Oblique view of east side as viewed from shore. This photo forms a panorama with photo WA-131-G-1, which shows the west dock from the same location. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, Oil-Creosote Unloading Dock, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  7. ENHANCED HYDRODYNAMICAL-NUMERICAL MODEL FOR NEAR-SHORE PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An optimized version of a multilayer Hansen type Hydrodynamical-Numerical (HN) model is presented and discussed here as the basis for the following experimental extensions and enhancements developed to more appropriately handle near-shore processes: Non-linear term extension to f...

  8. Near shore-wetland fish movements in the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Linkages of Great Lakes coastal wetlands and near shore habitats are under-explored, yet 90 species of fish are known to utilize wetlands for spawning and/or nursery habitat. The duration and frequency of wetland use for pelagic species with mobile adult stages is also poorly un...

  9. 33 CFR 165.130 - Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-security zone. 165.130 Section 165.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Hook Bay, New Jersey—security zone. (a) Naval Ammunition Depot Piers. The navigable waters within the following boundaries are a security zone: A line beginning on the shore at 40°25′55.6″ N, 074°04′31.4″...

  10. 33 CFR 165.130 - Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-security zone. 165.130 Section 165.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Hook Bay, New Jersey—security zone. (a) Naval Ammunition Depot Piers. The navigable waters within the following boundaries are a security zone: A line beginning on the shore at 40°25′55.6″ N, 074°04′31.4″...

  11. 33 CFR 165.130 - Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-security zone. 165.130 Section 165.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Hook Bay, New Jersey—security zone. (a) Naval Ammunition Depot Piers. The navigable waters within the following boundaries are a security zone: A line beginning on the shore at 40°25′55.6″ N, 074°04′31.4″...

  12. 33 CFR 165.130 - Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-security zone. 165.130 Section 165.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Hook Bay, New Jersey—security zone. (a) Naval Ammunition Depot Piers. The navigable waters within the following boundaries are a security zone: A line beginning on the shore at 40°25′55.6″ N, 074°04′31.4″...

  13. 33 CFR 165.130 - Sandy Hook Bay, New Jersey-security zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-security zone. 165.130 Section 165.130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Hook Bay, New Jersey—security zone. (a) Naval Ammunition Depot Piers. The navigable waters within the following boundaries are a security zone: A line beginning on the shore at 40°25′55.6″ N, 074°04′31.4″...

  14. The Role of Galveston Bay Meteorology in Ozone Concentrations in Houston, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen-Gammon, J. W.; Tobin, J.

    2007-12-01

    Galveston Bay is a body of water approximately 50 km by 30 km that opens into the Gulf of Mexico. The head of Galveston Bay is adjacent to the Houston Ship Channel, where large industrial emitters of ozone precursors are located. We consider the role of coastal circulations and mixing suppression over Galveston Bay in the location and magnitude of peak 8-h ozone values at monitors within the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria nonattainment area. Galveston Bay is found to have a salutary effect on ozone concentrations under most circumstances. Aside from boats and ships, Galveston Bay is free of ozone precursor emissions, and the onset of the sea breeze along Galveston Bay usually causes an immediate drop in ozone levels. The situation changes dramatically when the morning wind direction is from the northwest, allowing ozone precursors emitted during the night or early morning that are distributed in a shallow atmospheric layer to be carried over Galveston Bay. In morning and early afternoon, mixing is suppressed over Galveston Bay, and precursor concentrations remain high in the absence of ventilation. If winds are strong, high ozone concentrations are generally observed along the far shore of Galveston Bay. If winds are weak, a sea breeze will develop along Galveston Bay, and high levels of ozone will be carried back onshore in the vicinity of the Ship Channel. The coastal oscillation (a regular rotation of the wind vector driving by coastal heating contrasts near 30 N) can lead to wind reversals and high values of ozone by itself. We investigate peak ozone concentrations under a variety of wind conditions to infer whether the ozone concentrations are, on balance, higher due to the net effect of meteorological processes associated with Galveston Bay.

  15. CASCO BAY PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Casco Bay lies at the heart of Maine's most populated area. The health of its waters, wetlands, and wildlife depend in large part on the activities of the quarter-million residents who live in its watershed. Less than 30 years ago, portions of Casco Bay were off-limits to recr...

  16. Geological controls on submarine groundwater discharge in Long Bay, South Carolina (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viso, Richard; McCoy, Clay; Gayes, Paul; Quafisi, Dimitri

    2010-02-01

    A combination of geophysical methods including continuous electrical resistivity and high-resolution Chirp sub-bottom profiling were utilized to characterize geologic controls on pore fluid salinity in the nearshore of Long Bay, SC. Resistivity values ranged from less than 1 Ω m to greater than 40 Ω m throughout the bay. Areas of elevated electrical resistivity suggest the influence of relatively fresher water on pore water composition. Geophysical evidence alone does not eliminate all ambiguity associated with lithological and porosity variations that may also contribute to electrical structure of shallow marine sediments. The anomalous field is of sufficient magnitude that lithological variation alone does not control the spatial distribution of elevated electrical resistivity zones. Geographical distribution of electrical anomalies and structures interpreted from nearby sub-bottom profiles indicates abrupt changes in shallow geologic units control preferential pathways for discharge of fresh water into the marine environment. Shore parallel resistivity profiles show dramatic decreases in magnitude with increasing distance from shore, suggesting a significant portion of the terrestrially driven fresh SGD in Long Bay is occurring via the surficial aquifer within a few hundred meters of shore.

  17. Identifying rhodamine dye plume sources in near-shore oceanic environments by integration of chemical and visual sensors.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Kang, Xiaodong; Li, Yunyi; Li, Wei; Zhang, Aiqun; Yu, Jiangchen; Li, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a strategy for identifying the source location of a chemical plume in near-shore oceanic environments where the plume is developed under the influence of turbulence, tides and waves. This strategy includes two modules: source declaration (or identification) and source verification embedded in a subsumption architecture. Algorithms for source identification are derived from the moth-inspired plume tracing strategies based on a chemical sensor. The in-water test missions, conducted in November 2002 at San Clemente Island (California, USA) in June 2003 in Duck (North Carolina, USA) and in October 2010 at Dalian Bay (China), successfully identified the source locations after autonomous underwater vehicles tracked the rhodamine dye plumes with a significant meander over 100 meters. The objective of the verification module is to verify the declared plume source using a visual sensor. Because images taken in near shore oceanic environments are very vague and colors in the images are not well-defined, we adopt a fuzzy color extractor to segment the color components and recognize the chemical plume and its source by measuring color similarity. The source verification module is tested by images taken during the CPT missions. PMID:23507823

  18. Identifying Rhodamine Dye Plume Sources in Near-Shore Oceanic Environments by Integration of Chemical and Visual Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; Kang, Xiaodong; Li, Yunyi; Li, Wei; Zhang, Aiqun; Yu, Jiangchen; Li, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a strategy for identifying the source location of a chemical plume in near-shore oceanic environments where the plume is developed under the influence of turbulence, tides and waves. This strategy includes two modules: source declaration (or identification) and source verification embedded in a subsumption architecture. Algorithms for source identification are derived from the moth-inspired plume tracing strategies based on a chemical sensor. The in-water test missions, conducted in November 2002 at San Clemente Island (California, USA) in June 2003 in Duck (North Carolina, USA) and in October 2010 at Dalian Bay (China), successfully identified the source locations after autonomous underwater vehicles tracked the rhodamine dye plumes with a significant meander over 100 meters. The objective of the verification module is to verify the declared plume source using a visual sensor. Because images taken in near shore oceanic environments are very vague and colors in the images are not well-defined, we adopt a fuzzy color extractor to segment the color components and recognize the chemical plume and its source by measuring color similarity. The source verification module is tested by images taken during the CPT missions. PMID:23507823

  19. Attitudes about recreation, environmental problems, and estuarine health along the New Jersey Shore, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, J.

    1998-11-01

    Management of ecosystems has advanced by an improvement in understanding not only of how ecosystems function, but of how people perceive their functioning and what they consider to be environmental problems within those systems. Central to such management is understanding how people view estuaries. In this article the author explores the perceptions and attitudes of people about coastal recreation, environmental problems, and future land use along the New Jersey shore (USA) by interviewing people who attended a duck decoy and craft show on Barnegat Bay. The people who were interviewed engaged in more days of fishing than any other recreational activity and engaged in camping the least. There were significant differences in recreational rates as a function of gender and location of residence, with men hunting and fishing more than women and photographing less than women. Jet skis were perceived as the most severe environmental problem, with chemical pollution, junk, oil runoff and overfishing as second level problems. Birds were perceived as not an environmental problem at all. Fishing, hiking, preservation, and camping ranked as the highest preferred future land uses for the two sites examined (Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station, Naval Weapons Station Earle). The preferred future land uses for these two sites, which are not under consideration for land-use changes, were very similar to those of people living near the Department of Energy`s Savannah River Site in South Carolina, despite the media attention and considerations of nuclear storage.

  20. Nutrient and Fecal Indicator Bacteria Inputs from Submarine Groundwater Discharge on the North Shore of Kauai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knee, K.; Boehm, A.; Paytan, A.

    2006-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is a potentially important source of freshwater, nutrients, and pollution to the coastal ocean, yet it has not been well quantified for most locations. This poster investigates the impacts of SGD in Hanalei Bay, Ha'ena, and Princeville, three locations on the north shore of Kaua'i, Hawai'i, during two sampling trips conducted in March 2005 and August 2006. The short-lived isotopes of radium, 223Ra and 224Ra, were used to calculate the flux of groundwater into the coastal ocean in these areas. Nutrient concentrations and levels of total coliform bacteria, E. coli, and Enterococcus were measured in groundwater, the nearshore ocean, rivers, and streams. Fluxes of nutrients and bacteria associated with groundwater discharge were estimated. The results indicate that nutrient subsidies to the nearshore ocean from SGD may be comparable to those from rivers and streams, and that FIB subsidies may also be significant in some areas. More sampling is necessary to assess seasonal variability, which may be significant.

  1. An investigation of recent storm histories using Ground Penetrating Radar at Bay-Bay Spit, Bicol, Central Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switzer, Adam D.; Pile, Jeremy; Soria, Janneli Lea A.; Siringan, Fernando; Daag, Arturo; Brill, Dominik

    2016-04-01

    The Philippine archipelago lies in the path of seasonal tropical cyclones, and much of the coast is prone to periodic inundation and overwash during storm surges. On example is typhoon Durian a category 3 storm that made landfall on the 30th November 2006, in Bicol province, on the east central Philippine coast. Satellite imagery from May 2007 reveal that Durian breached a sandy spit that runs southeast from the mouth of the Quinale River at Bay-Bay village towards Tabaco City. The imagery also showed that, although the breach site showed signs of partial recovery, geomorphological evidence of the inundation event associated with typhoon Durian still remains. In 2012 we mapped the geomorphological features of Durian. In June 2013 we returned to conduct Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys on the Bay-Bay spit to investigate potential subsurface evidence of previous storm events. The GPR surveys comprised five, 1.5 km, longshore profiles and 12 cross-shore profiles, of 50 m - 200 m in length. The GPR system used for this study was a Sensors and Software Noggin with 100 Mhz antennas. Near surface velocities were determine using Hyperbolae matching in order to estimate depth. Topographic and positional data were collected using a dGPS system. After minimal processing depth of penetration during the survey varied from 2 - 8 m. The cross-shore GPR profiles reveal at least two erosional events prior to 2006 typhoon Durian, with approximately 10 m of recovery and progradation between each erosion surface. The GPR profiles that captured the erosional features were revisited in September 2013 for trial pitting, stratigraphic description, and sediment sampling. Sediment cores were taken horizontally from the trench walls and vertically from the trench bases to date sediments using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL), which eventually could constrain the timing of the erosional surfaces.

  2. 29 CFR Appendix D to Subpart P of... - Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches D Appendix D to.... 1926, Subpt. P, App. D Appendix D to Subpart P of Part 1926—Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches (a) Scope. This appendix contains information that can be used when aluminum hydraulic shoring is...

  3. 29 CFR Appendix D to Subpart P of... - Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches D Appendix D to.... 1926, Subpt. P, App. D Appendix D to Subpart P of Part 1926—Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches (a) Scope. This appendix contains information that can be used when aluminum hydraulic shoring is...

  4. 78 FR 12048 - Gulf Shore Energy Partners, LP; Notice of Abbreviated Application for Limited Amendment to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Gulf Shore Energy Partners, LP; Notice of Abbreviated Application for Limited Amendment to Certificate of Public Convenience and Necessity On February 11, 2013, Gulf Shore Energy Partners, LP (``Gulf Shore''), filed...

  5. 76 FR 28972 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on April 28, 2011, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company (Eastern Shore), 1110 Forrest Avenue, Dover, Delaware,...

  6. 76 FR 20659 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on April 1, 2011, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company (Eastern Shore), 1110 Forrest Avenue, Dover, Delaware,...

  7. 76 FR 28972 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on April 28, 2011, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company (Eastern Shore), 1110 Forrest Avenue, Dover, Delaware...

  8. 29 CFR Appendix D to Subpart P of... - Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches D Appendix D to.... 1926, Subpt. P, App. D Appendix D to Subpart P of Part 1926—Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches (a) Scope. This appendix contains information that can be used when aluminum hydraulic shoring is...

  9. Excavating, Trenching, and Shoring Safety. Module SH-38. Safety and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This student module on excavating, trenching, and shoring safety is one of 50 modules concerned with job safety and health. This module outlines the hazards of trenching and shoring and the procedures and equipment that should be employed to prevent cave-ins and other trenching and shoring accidents. Following the introduction, 10 objectives (each…

  10. 78 FR 39719 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 13, 2013, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company (Eastern Shore) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission an application under section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act to construct, and operate...

  11. 77 FR 65542 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 12, 2012, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company (Eastern Shore), 1110 Forrest Avenue, Dover, Delaware 19904, filed in the above referenced docket an application pursuant to section 7 of the Natural Gas...

  12. 75 FR 13524 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application March 15, 2010. Take notice that on March 5, 2010, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company, (Eastern Shore), 1110 Forrest Avenue, Dover, Delaware 19904, pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), as amended,...

  13. 77 FR 32624 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 14, 2012, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company (Eastern Shore), filed in Docket No. CP12-461-000, an application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) and Part 157 of the Commission's...

  14. Shore protection structures: Effects on recession rates and beaches from the 1870s to the 1970s along the Ohio shore of lake Erie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, C. H.; Benson, D. J.; Guy, D. E.

    1981-11-01

    Shore-protection structures—largely groins and seawalls—have increased in number along the 300-km-long mainland Ohio shore of Lake Erie from about 60 in 1876 77, to about 1,400 in the late 1930s, to about 3,600 in the mid 1970s. Recession rates, on the other hand, have decreased from the early period (1876 1877 to the late 1930s) to the later period (late 1930s to 1973). Forexample, the length of shore that receded at the intermediate rate (0.3 to 0.9 m/yr) decreased from 76 to 54 km and the length of shore that receded at the lowest rate (less than 0.3 m/yr) increased from 151 to 171 km. Beach widths also have decreased; the length of shore fronted by wide (greater than 15 m) beaches decreased from 64 km to 35 km between 1876 1877 and 1968. Furthermore, the length of shore without a beach increased from 84 km in 1876 1877 to 112 km in 1968. The decreases in recession rates have been caused by the shore-protection structures, which have directly armored the shore from waves (seawalls) or reduced the wave energy reaching the shore by trapping sand (groins). Moreoever, because the shore is a major source of sand for the beaches, the decrease in recession has led to a reduced sand supply and narrower beaches. Ironically, by protecting the shore, the structures apparently have more than compensated for the loss of the best natural form of shore protection, beach sand.

  15. Shelf sediment dispersal during the dry season, Princess Charlotte Bay, Great Barrier Reef, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahl, Lauren E.; Marsden, M. A. H.

    1987-10-01

    Princess Charlotte Bay, located on the northern Great Barrier Reef, is an environment of terrigenous and carbonate deposition. The dynamics on this shelf are controlled by the Great Barrier Reef at the edge of the shelf, and the mid-shelf, shore-normal reefs. This study examines the dynamics during the dry season, with six time-series records from instrumented tripod deployments and numerous hydrographic stations. The shallow nearshore waters and the estuaries prove to be the sites where most active sediment resuspension and transport takes place. Sediment resuspension is effected primarily by waves in the nearshore, and channeling of tidal currents in the estuaries. Bedload transport did not occur during this study, mainly because current velocities were too low. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) transport in the bay is governed by tides and winds. Strong tidal flow imparts a strong offshore component to the transport, and strong southeast winds impart an alongshore component that transports SPM out of the bay to the northwest. Rattlesnake Channel, east of Princess Charlotte Bay, is another route by which SPM leaves the bay. Flow through this channel is predominantly tidal, with ebb waters (leaving Princess Charlotte Bay) carrying higher SPM concentrations than flood waters. SPM flux in the nearshore was an order of magnitude higher than at offshore stations, with highest fluxes generally occurring at times of sustained southeast winds. Transect data show that SPM drops to average bay values in water 11 m deep, indicating most SPM is transported in nearshore waters.

  16. Estimation of extreme marine hydrodynamic variables in western Laizhou Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yanchen; Qiao, Lulu; Xu, Jishang; Zhou, Chunyan; Ding, Dong; Bi, Wei

    2015-06-01

    Laizhou Bay and its adjacent waters are of great importance to China's marine oil and gas development. It is therefore crucial to estimate return-period values of marine environmental variables in this region to ensure the safety and success of maritime engineering and maritime exploration. In this study, we used numerical simulations to estimate extreme wave height, sea current velocity and sea-level height in western Laizhou Bay. The results show that the sea-level rise starts at the mouth of the bay, increases toward west/southwest, and reaches its maximum in the deepest basin of the bay. The 100-year return-period values of sea level rise can reach 3.4-4.0 m in the western bay. The elevation of the western part of the Qingdong Oil Field would remain above the sea surface during extreme low sea level, while the rest of the oil field would be 1.6-2.4 m below the sea surface. The return-period value of wave height is strongly affected by water depth; in fact, its spatial distribution is similar to the isobath's. The 100-year return-period values of effective wave height can be 6 m or higher in the central bay and be more than 1 m in the shallow water near shore. The 100-year return-period values of current velocity is about 1.2-1.8 m s-1 in the Qingdong Oil Field. These results provide scientific basis for ensuring construction safety and reducing construction cost.

  17. Possible Origin of the High Incidence of Clostridium botulinum Type E in an Inland Bay (Green Bay of Lake Michigan)1

    PubMed Central

    Bott, Thomas L.; Johnson, Jodie; Foster, E. M.; Sugiyama, H.

    1968-01-01

    Bottom and shoreline sediments of Green Bay, northern Lake Michigan, and rivers of the Green Bay drainage basin, as well as soils of the surrounding land mass, were examined for Clostridium botulinum type E. Detection was based on identification of type E toxin in enrichment cultures and was influenced by many factors. Testing smaller amounts of sample in multiple cultures was more productive than examining large inocula in fewer cultures. Incubation at 30 C was unsatisfactory, but 14 days at 20 C or 7 days at 25 C gave good results. Mild heating (60 C for 30 min) of specimens reduced the incidence of positive findings. Freezing enrichment cultures prior to testing for toxicity eliminated many nonbotulinal toxic substances that killed mice. A control culture inoculated with type E spores was employed to show whether a specimen contained factors which could mask the presence of type E. Samples from 708 stations were tested in 2,446 cultures. Type E was found in nearly all underwater specimens of Green Bay and northern Lake Michigan but was present less frequently in samples taken along their shores. The incidence was still lower in the rivers emptying into Green Bay with the organism being rare on the shores of these rivers and in the soils of the land mass proper. Samples from the upper reaches of the rivers practically never contained type E. Runoff could deposit type E spores in Green Bay, but this is not considered to be the major factor in the high incidence of the organism. Multiplication in the bay itself is indicated. PMID:4870273

  18. Fossils from bore holes on the Eastern Shore Peninsula, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Ruth; Gardner, Julia A.; Sohn, I.G.

    1955-01-01

    This report lists Foraminifera, Mollusca, and Ostracoda in five bore holes that penetrated a maximum of 445 feet of section in sediments of Pleistocene and Miocene age, and discusses the paleoecologic and stratigraphic significance of the fossils. It includes the contents of references 6, 16, and 18 of Virginia Division of Geology Mineral Resources Circular No. 2, dealing with the geology and groundwater resources of the Eastern Shore peninsula.

  19. Lutzow-Holm Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Lutzow-Holm Bay and the Shirase Glacier, Antarctica ... in the lower right-hand corner of these images, are the primary drainage systems for the Antarctic ice sheet. These two views ...

  20. Long-term comparison of the fish community in a Costa Rican rocky shore marine reserve.

    PubMed

    Myers, Mark C; Wagner, Jonathan; Vaughan, Christopher

    2011-03-01

    Despite their role in supporting diverse marine fish communities, tropical rocky shores and reefs have attracted less research and fewer targeted conservation efforts compared to coral reefs. We studied fish community composition in Playa Blanca Marine Reserve (9 degrees 40' N - 84 degrees 40' W), a rocky shore site on the central Pacific coast of Costa Rica. We conducted visual surveys of fishes along six strip transects soon after the area was designated a marine reserve in 1995, then again in 2006 following an eleven-year period of complete protection. We recorded a total of 31 406 sightings of 72 species from 30 families. Pomacentrids (42.5%), labrids (16.6%) and haemulids (14.8%) dominated the community, accounting for > 70% of total fish abundance. In comparison to other sites in the region, the fish community was more similar to one reported from Bahia Honda, Panama (7 degrees 50' N - 81 degrees 35 W) than from the geographically more proximate Culebra Bay, Costa Rica (10 degrees 45' N - 85 degrees 43 W). Sixty-one species from 26 families were recorded in 1995; sixty-nine species from 28 families in 2006. Our results suggest that the Playa Blanca Marine Reserve is fulfilling its conservation role. Average fish abundance, species richness and Shannon's index of community diversity were greater in 2006 than 1995, and fish community composition varied significantly within each transect among years. Much of the change in community composition among years resulted from spatial and temporal variation in the abundance of a few dominant species, including Abudefduf troschelli, Thalassoma lucasanum, Chromis atrilobata, and Stegastes flavilatus/acapulcoensis. Of the 48 species/species groups recorded in both years, 37 (77%) were more abundant in 2006 than 1995, and several species recorded as uncommon or rare in 1995 were more frequent and abundant in 2006. Fish community composition and the abundance of some species changed in the reserve over time, but further

  1. Predicted liquefaction of East Bay fills during a repeat of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.; Blair, J.L.; Noce, T.E.; Bennett, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Predicted conditional probabilities of surface manifestations of liquefaction during a repeat of the 1906 San Francisco (M7.8) earthquake range from 0.54 to 0.79 in the area underlain by the sandy artificial fills along the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay near Oakland, California. Despite widespread liquefaction in 1906 of sandy fills in San Francisco, most of the East Bay fills were emplaced after 1906 without soil improvement to increase their liquefaction resistance. They have yet to be shaken strongly. Probabilities are based on the liquefaction potential index computed from 82 CPT soundings using median (50th percentile) estimates of PGA based on a ground-motion prediction equation. Shaking estimates consider both distance from the San Andreas Fault and local site conditions. The high probabilities indicate extensive and damaging liquefaction will occur in East Bay fills during the next M ??? 7.8 earthquake on the northern San Andreas Fault. ?? 2006, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  2. Development of San Leandro synform and neotectonics of the San Francisco Bay block, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marlow, M. S.; Jachens, R.C.; Hart, P.E.; Carlson, P.R.; Anima, R.J.; Childs, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    High-resolution, 24-channel seismic-reflection data show a stratified synform beneath south San Francisco Bay. These seismic-reflection data reveal an eastward-dipping bedrock surface that is about 40 m deep (subbottom) beneath the western south bay, and that reaches a maximum observed depth of 500-800 m (subbottom) below the eastern half of the south bay. An angular unconformity cuts both the synform and underlying bedrock. The age of the unconformity is unknown but may be Pleistocene, when these strata forming the synform were presumably exposed subaerially during lowered sea levels. The synformal strata, the unconformity, and some generally flat-lying and overlying strata are folded near the eastern shore of the bay. This folding may result from movement on the Hayward fault (fault interactions and localized strain partitioning) or from compressional deformation in the East Bay Hills related to NE-SW ('fault-normal') convergence between the Pacific and North American plates. In general, reflections from sediment overlying the unconformity are flat lying (except near the eastern shore of the bay), whereas reflections beneath the unconformity dip eastward. The overlying, flat sediment section fills a shallow basin that is coincident with an elliptical residual gravity low. This low appears to be related to the deeper sedimentary, synformal section based on the spatial correlation between the east-dipping reflections and the gravity anomaly. Projecting the east-dipping reflections to the center of the gravity low suggests that the total section of flat-lying and dipping reflections in the synform may exceed 1000 m. Modeling of the gravity low suggests a total low-density section, about 1.5 km thick, at the center of the synform relative to the surrounding bedrock of presumed Franciscan Complex.High-resolution, 24-channel seismic-reflection data show a stratified synform beneath south San Francisco Bay. These seismic-reflection data reveal an eastward

  3. Pollution of coastal region impacted by acid mine drainage in Morphou bay, northern Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Gokcekus, Huseyin; Kabdasli, Sedat; Kabdasli, Isik; Turker, Umut; Tunay, Olcay; Olmez, Tugba

    2003-08-01

    Abandoned copper mines, located in Lefka-Xeros area by the Morphou bay were primarily producing copper. Secondary products, such as silver and gold were also produced for a century by cyanide leaching method. The residues of mining processes were deposited in large tailing ponds that were constructed with primitive technology. In this research, water samples from several different points of tailing ponds, Lefka river and coast of Morphou bay are collected. The laboratory analysis of the samples is then carried out, considering basic pollutant parameters such as copper. The cross-shore and Longshore numerical modelling technique is applied associating the wave climate and the morphologic characteristics of the Morphou bay with the laboratory results to measure long-term effects of the pollution, diffused into the Mediterranean sea. PMID:12929799

  4. 78 FR 62009 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Availability of the... Project (Project), proposed by Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company (Eastern Shore) in the above-referenced docket. Eastern Shore states that the Project would provide about 55,200 dekatherms of natural gas...

  5. 33 CFR 167.102 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. 167.102 Section 167.102 Navigation and....102 In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. (a)...

  6. 33 CFR 167.102 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. 167.102 Section 167.102 Navigation and....102 In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. (a)...

  7. 33 CFR 167.103 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. 167.103 Section 167.103 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. (a) A...

  8. 33 CFR 167.102 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. 167.102 Section 167.102 Navigation and....102 In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. (a)...

  9. 33 CFR 167.103 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. 167.103 Section 167.103 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. (a) A...

  10. 33 CFR 167.102 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. 167.102 Section 167.102 Navigation and....102 In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Narragansett Bay approach. (a)...

  11. 33 CFR 167.103 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. 167.103 Section 167.103 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. (a) A...

  12. 33 CFR 167.103 - In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. 167.103 Section 167.103 Navigation and Navigable... the approaches to Narragansett Bay, RI, and Buzzards Bay, MA: Buzzards Bay approach. (a) A...

  13. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  14. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  15. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  17. Geology of the Monterey Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greene, H. Gary

    1977-01-01

    Geophysical data and sea floor samples collected from the continental shelf and slope between Ano Nuevo Point and Point Sur, California indicate that the Monterey Bay region has had a complex late Cenozoic tectonic history. Uplift and depression have produced a succession of regressive and transgressive sedimentary units, while contemporaneous right-slip along faults of the San Andreas system have offset major structural and lithologic elements. This deformation produced three regional and several local unconformities within upper Tertiary rocks and initiated development of a canyon system that today includes the Monterey, Ascension, Carmel, and other large submarine canyons. The Tertiary stratigraphy of the offshore Monterey Bay area is divided into two provinces by a major structural boundary, the north-trending Palo Colorado-San Gregorio fault zone. East of this zone in the offshore are four seismically distinct sequences that can be correlated with major sequences onshore. These sequences comprise (1) pre-Tertiary basement, and (2) middle Miocene, (3) upper Miocene to Pliocene, and (4) upper Pliocene to Holocene sedimentary intervals. Each of the latter three sequences is bounded by unconformities, as is its counterpart on land. Only Neogene sedimentary rocks are present offshore; Paleogene units, if originally present, have been removed completely by pre-middle Miocene erosion. An extensive erosional surface was cut during Zemorrian time into the late Mesozoic granitic basement rocks. Incised into this surface are the ancestral Monterey Canyon and an unnamed canyon. Marine sedimentary rocks of upper Miocene and Pliocene age overlie this unconformably and fill the unnamed canyon. Similar rocks also may have once filled Monterey Canyon. Near shore these strata are covered by terrestrial alluvial and eolian deposits, deltaic deposits, marine canyon fill, landslide and slump deposits, and unconsolidated sediments that range in age from upper Pliocene to Holocene

  18. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, Pine Beach, St. Andrews Bay and Fort Morgan quadrangles, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, John C.; Bohman, Larry R.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on a topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the shores of St. Andrews Bay, Mobile Bay, and Bon Secour Bay from Fort Morgan eastward to about four miles east of Gasque, Ala. The storm tide went completely across the land between the beach and Mobile Bay throughout much of the area. Most homes on the beach side of Alabama State Highway 180 were completely destroyed, and the highway was washed out in several places. Damage to homes and other structures on the bay side was not as great. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Ala., since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Ala. (USGS)

  19. Holocene transgressive stratigraphy and sediment dispersal, eastern shore, Nova Scotia

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.K.; Boyd, R.

    1985-02-01

    Coastal sedimentation along Nova Scotia's eastern shore is dominated by a rising sea level, restricted drumlin sediment supply, and inherited glacial topography. Evolution of barrier systems follows a 500-1000 year cyclic sequence of: (1) generation from marine erosion of glacial deposits, (2) transgression resulting from ongoing sea level rise and depletion of original sediment sources, and (3) landward removal following an estuarine retreat path to new sites of reconstruction. The dominant sediment transfer mechanism operating during this transgressive cycle is landward dispersal by tidal inlet, overwash, and eolian process. Vibrocore, surface sampling, marine geophysics, and underwater photography were used to investigate the potential for eastern shore coastal deposits to be incorporated into the shelf stratigraphic record. High-resolution seismic profiles from the inner continental shelf reveal a lower acoustic unit interpreted as Wisconsin glacial deposits. Overlying the lower unit is a discontinuous upper unit 1-2 m thick, which occupies topographic depressions and is composed of sand, silty sand, and a coarse gravel lag. Side-scan sonar and underwater photographs show large gravel ripples covering the upper acoustic unit in water up to 30 m deep. The upper acoustic unit is interpreted as the remnants of reworked coastal barriers, drumlins, and till. Transgressive sedimentation on the eastern shore of Nova Scotia, therefore, conforms to the concept of shoreface retreat. Coastal sediments here are poorly preserved, except in linear shelf valleys, because of a high-energy wavy climate and prior landward transfer into tidal deltas, washovers, and associated back-barriers deposits.

  20. Interferometric Sidescan Bathymetry, Sediment and Foraminiferal Analyses; a New Look at Tomales Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anima, Roberto J.; Chin, John L.; Finlayson, David P.; McGann, Mary; Wong, Florence L.

    2008-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with Point Reyes National Sea Shore (PRNS), and the Tomales Bay Watershed Council [http://www.tomalesbaywatershed.org/] has completed a detailed bathymetric survey, and sediment and foraminiferal analyses of the floor of Tomales Bay, California. The study goals are to detail the submarine morphology, the sediment distribution, sedimentary features, and distribution of foraminifera to provide a framework for future studies. The USGS collected swath bathymetric data with a SEA SWATHplus interferometric sidescan sonar system (2004, 2005) and an echo sounder system (2006). The data were processed into continuous mosaic images that show bathymetric detail of the bay floor with 0.2-m vertical and 4.0-m horizontal resolution. Acoustic backscatter data from the 2004 and 2005 surveys were processed into 2-m resolution grids. In addition, 27 sediment samples were collected from various parts of the bay for grain size analyses and a comprehensive study of the distribution of foraminifera in Tomales Bay. The foraminiferal analysis determined that the invasive foraminifera Trochammina hadai from Japan was present in Tomales Bay. The project was conducted in response to a request from the National Park Service, and the Tomales Bay Watershed Council who voiced a need to look at the environmental impacts of human input to the surrounding watersheds that ultimately flow into the bay. The mapping, sediment, and foraminiferal data establish a baseline survey for future comparisons of possible geologic and anthropogenic changes that might occur due to changes in land use or development in the surrounding watershed. These data may also aid in determining the possible pathways of pollutants entering the bay from the surrounding watersheds.

  1. A budget of marine and terrigenous sediments, Hanalei Bay, Kauai, Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calhoun, R.S.; Fletcher, C.H.; Harney, J.N.

    2002-01-01

    The sediment budget of Hanalei Bay on the north shore of Kauai was calculated using sedimentological and geophysical methods. The calculations of the budget subsequently allowed an interpretation of the Holocene history of the bay. The bay sediments are easily separated into marine (carbonate) and terrigenous (siliciclastic) grains. Surficial sediments are dominated by carbonate grains ( ??? 70%) of coralline algae, coral, and mollusc fragments as well as foraminifera, Halimeda, bryozoa, and echinoderm tests. However, siliciclastic grains (e.g. olivine, plagioclase, volcanic lithics) from the Hanalei River watershed draining shield volcanic highlands are the most common individual grain type ( ??? 27%) and form a zone of high concentration from the mouth of the Hanalei River into the center of the bay. Flooding in the bay by the post-glacial sea-level rise began soon after 11.7 kyears. The resulting marine environment caused the net deposition of 45.5 ?? 1.5 ?? 106 m3 of sediment in the bay and approximately 33.7 ?? 11.2 ?? 106 m3 of sediment on the Hanalei coastal plain. The total volume of carbonate sediment stored in the bay and coastal plain is greater than the volume likely to have been produced exclusively within the bay during the same time. Calculations indicate that approximately 2490 m3 year-1 have been imported into the bay or coastal plain and deposited since 11,700 years ago. The majority of this sediment influx is likely delivered from the east by the strong tradewind-driven littoral currents that characterize Kauai's north shore. Net carbonate sediment deposition in Hanalei Bay peaked at a rate of 15,500 m3 year-1 between 5000 and 3000 years ago (when sea level may have been 2 m above present) diminishing to 3890 m3 year-1 from 1000 years ago to the present. This influx is likely to have played a significant role in the mid to late Holocene progradation of the Hanalei shoreline. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A budget of marine and terrigenous sediments, Hanalei Bay, Kauai, Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calhoun, R. Scott; Fletcher, Charles H.; Harney, Jodi N.

    2002-06-01

    The sediment budget of Hanalei Bay on the north shore of Kauai was calculated using sedimentological and geophysical methods. The calculations of the budget subsequently allowed an interpretation of the Holocene history of the bay. The bay sediments are easily separated into marine (carbonate) and terrigenous (siliciclastic) grains. Surficial sediments are dominated by carbonate grains (˜70%) of coralline algae, coral, and mollusc fragments as well as foraminifera, Halimeda, bryozoa, and echinoderm tests. However, siliciclastic grains (e.g. olivine, plagioclase, volcanic lithics) from the Hanalei River watershed draining shield volcanic highlands are the most common individual grain type (˜27%) and form a zone of high concentration from the mouth of the Hanalei River into the center of the bay. Flooding in the bay by the post-glacial sea-level rise began soon after 11.7 kyears. The resulting marine environment caused the net deposition of 45.5±1.5×10 6 m 3 of sediment in the bay and approximately 33.7±11.2×10 6 m 3 of sediment on the Hanalei coastal plain. The total volume of carbonate sediment stored in the bay and coastal plain is greater than the volume likely to have been produced exclusively within the bay during the same time. Calculations indicate that approximately 2490 m 3 year -1 have been imported into the bay or coastal plain and deposited since 11,700 years ago. The majority of this sediment influx is likely delivered from the east by the strong tradewind-driven littoral currents that characterize Kauai's north shore. Net carbonate sediment deposition in Hanalei Bay peaked at a rate of 15,500 m 3 year -1 between 5000 and 3000 years ago (when sea level may have been 2 m above present) diminishing to 3890 m 3 year -1 from 1000 years ago to the present. This influx is likely to have played a significant role in the mid to late Holocene progradation of the Hanalei shoreline.

  3. Storm-driven sediment transport in Massachusetts Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, John C.; Butman, Bradford; Dalyander, P. Soupy

    2008-02-01

    Massachusetts Bay is a semi-enclosed embayment in the western Gulf of Maine about 50 km wide and 100 km long. Bottom sediment resuspension is controlled predominately by storm-induced surface waves and transport by the tidal- and wind-driven circulation. Because the Bay is open to the northeast, winds from the northeast ('Northeasters') generate the largest surface waves and are thus the most effective in resuspending sediments. The three-dimensional oceanographic circulation model Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is used to explore the resuspension, transport, and deposition of sediment caused by Northeasters. The model transports multiple sediment classes and tracks the evolution of a multilevel sediment bed. The surficial sediment characteristics of the bed are coupled to one of several bottom-boundary layer modules that calculate enhanced bottom roughness due to wave-current interaction. The wave field is calculated from the model Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN). Two idealized simulations were carried out to explore the effects of Northeasters on the transport and fate of sediments. In one simulation, an initially spatially uniform bed of mixed sediments exposed to a series of Northeasters evolved to a pattern similar to the existing surficial sediment distribution. A second set of simulations explored sediment-transport pathways caused by storms with winds from the northeast quadrant by simulating release of sediment at selected locations. Storms with winds from the north cause transport southward along the western shore of Massachusetts Bay, while storms with winds from the east and southeast drive northerly nearshore flow. The simulations show that Northeasters can effectively transport sediments from Boston Harbor and the area offshore of the harbor to the southeast into Cape Cod Bay and offshore into Stellwagen Basin. This transport pattern is consistent with Boston Harbor as the source of silver found in the surficial sediments of Cape Cod Bay and

  4. Cosmogenic nuclides application on French Mediterranean shore platform development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliano, Jérémy; Lebourg, Thomas; Godard, Vincent; Dewez, Thomas; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier; Marçot, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    Rocky shorelines are among the most common elements of the world's littoral zone, and the potential effects of rising sea level on the ever increasing populations require a better understanding of their dynamics. The sinuosity and heterogeneity of the shoreline morphology at large and intermediate wavelengths (1-100 km) results from their constant evolution under the combined influence of marine and continental forcings. This macro-scale organization is the expression of the action of elementary erosion processes acting at shorter wavelengths (<1 km) which lead to the development of shore platforms by landward retreat of cliff edges. Modern analytical techniques (laser-scaning, micro-erosion meters, aerial surveys) constitute appropriate methods to identify and quantify processes of cliff retreat to 1-100 yrs time-scales. But over this time frame, shore platform development appears imperceptible. Precise knowledge of long-term erosion rates are needed to understand rocky shore evolution, and develop quantitative modeling of platform development. Rocky coasts constitute a Quaternary sea level evolution archive that is partly preserved and progressively destroyed. One major challenges is to determine the degree to which coast morphologies are (i) contemporary, (ii) or ancient features inherited, (iii) or partly inherited from Quaternary interglacial stages. In order to fill the lack of long term coast morphodynamic data, we use cosmogenic nuclides (36Cl) to study abrasion surfaces carved in carbonates lithologies along the French Mediterranean coast, in a microtidal environment (Côte Bleue, West of Marseille). 36Cl concentration heritage influences strongly our interpretations in terms of age and denudation of the surfaces. We propose to constrain heritage in sampling oldest relic marine surfaces at 10m of altitude, and along recent cliff scarp. 36Cl concentrations show that the lowest platforms near sea level are contemporary and the highest ones (8-14 m above sea

  5. Mobile Bay, Alabama area seen in Skylab 4 Earth Resources Experiment Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A near vertical view of the Mobile Bay, Alabama area seen in this Skylab 4 Earth Resources Experiment Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in earth orbit. North of Mobile the Tombigbee and Alabama Rivers join to form the Mobile River. Detailed configuration of the individual stream channels and boundaries can be defined as the Mobile River flows into Mobile Bay and into the Gulf of Mexico. The Mobile River Valley with its numerous stream channels is a distinct light shade in contrast to the dark green shade of the adjacent areas. The red coloration of Mobile Bay reflects the sediment load carried into the bay by the rivers. The westerly movement of the shore currents at the mouth of Mobile Bay is shown by the contrasting light blue of the sediment-laden current the the blue of the Gulf. Agricultural areas east and west of Mobile Bay are characterized by a rectangular pattern in green to white shades. Color variations may reflect

  6. REMOTE SENSING OF COVER CROP PERFORMANCE ON MARYLAND'S EASTERN SHORE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of cover crops on agricultural land has been identified as a desirable management practice with potential to positively impact Chesapeake Bay water quality. Accordingly, state cost share programs have been developed to promote cover crops. This project uses a combination of remote sensing an...

  7. Remote Sensing of Cover Crop Production on Maryland's Eastern Shore

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of winter cover crops is being promoted throughout Maryland as an effective agricultural best management practice with great promise for reducing nutrient inputs to the Chesapeake Bay. Remote sensing provides a tool for real-time estimation of cover crop productivity and nutrient uptake effi...

  8. 33 CFR 334.700 - Choctawhatchee Bay, aerial gunnery ranges, Air Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... The danger zone shall encompass all navigable waters of the United States as defined at 33 CFR part... CFR part 329, including the waters of Choctawhatchee Bay within an area bounded by a line connecting... northeast shore at latitude 30°28′09.11″ N, longitude 086°29′02.30″ W; thence to latitude 30°25′30″...

  9. The ability to feed in hypoxia follows a seasonally dependent pattern in shore crab Carcinus maenas.

    PubMed

    Legeay; Massabuau

    2000-04-26

    The ability of the adult shore crab Carcinus maenas, native to the Bay of Arcachon (SW France), to feed in hypoxia was determined at various seasons. Crabs previously kept at field temperature were fed after a 5-day fasting period at 15 degrees C. Their blood oxygenation and pH regulation strategy and also their gill anatomy were analysed. From May to October, C. maenas feed at levels of O(2) partial pressure (p(O(2))) in the water, pwO(2)=2 kPa (1 mg l(-1)), without switching to their anaerobic metabolism. In March-April, before the main moulting period, the same food intake at pwO(2)=4 kPa induced a systematic blood lactate increase associated with some mortality. An analysis performed at pwO(2)=4 kPa at that time showed that in intermoult crabs the development of a coating of foreign material over the gill cuticle interfered with O(2)-supply, preventing the small arterial p(O(2)) increases (from 0.7 to 1 kPa) which occurred at other seasons. This led to a cellular hypoxia despite a systematic postprandial blood-pH alkalinisation which favoured O(2)-loading at gill level and increased arterial O(2) concentration. In March-April, alkalinisation appeared at pwO(2) values >/=6 kPa and from May to at least July at pwO(2)>/=2 kPa. Results are discussed in terms of season-related physiological performance, as hypoxic events mainly occur during the hot season. PMID:10727691

  10. Spatial and Temporal Variations in the Zooplankton Community of Phosphorescent Bay, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios-Jara, E.

    1998-06-01

    Nocturnal variations of zooplankton abundance and hydrographic conditions were examined at three locations (centre, north shore and south shore) in Phosphorescent Bay, Puerto Rico, from May 1992 through April 1993. Seven taxa accounted for approximately 96% of the annual mean zooplankton abundance: Oithonaspp. (43·5%), Acartia tonsa(31·5%), copepod nauplii (8·8%), Paracalanusspp.(6·7%), gastropod veligers (2·5%), larvaceans (1·7%) and Pseudo-diaptomus cokeri(1·6%). Copepods dominated numerically throughout the year and comprised 94·3% of total zooplankton. Higher abundance of zooplankton (mean±1 SD=252 259±176 797 individuals m -3) was associated with cool water temperatures (24·9-27·4 °C) and dry conditions (0·3-2·9 cm precipitation/month) which prevailed between December and March relative to the period between April and November (warm/wet season) (mean±1 SD=59 773±26 861 individuals m -3), when temperature and precipitation were higher (27·3-30·3 °C, 3·1-20·6 cm month -1). Fluctuations of zooplankton populations, particularly copepods, followed progressive increments in chlorophyll aconcentrations. This abundance pattern was consistent at the three sampling stations. Zooplankton abundance was higher on the north shore of the bay. The taxonomic composition of zooplankton was similar at the sampling stations studied.