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Sample records for androctonus crassicauda olivier

  1. Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier), a dangerous and unduly neglected scorpion--I. Pharmacological and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Ismail, M; Abd-Elsalam, M A; al-Ahaidib, M S

    1994-12-01

    Androctonus crassicauda venom has an i.v. LD50 in mice of 0.32 +/- 0.02 mg/kg, which makes the scorpion among the most toxic species in the world. Fifty-one non-fatal and one fatal cases of scorpion sting were presented. Pain and tenderness were very common following the sting. Generalized erythema occurred in 20-25% of all infants and children below the age of 5 years. Severe CNS manifestations including seizures, unconsciousness and marked irritability occurred mainly in infants and young children, while hypertension occurred in the majority of victims below the age of 11 years. Two pregnant victims were treated with antivenom with no bad consequences on mothers or foetuses. The fatal case described was inadequately treated with antivenom and presented a rare situation of intracranial coagulation in the basal cisterns or low in the cranial subarachnoid space. The victim developed moderate hydrocephalus of the communicating type with clear ventricular CSF and strongly xanthocromic fluid from lumbar puncture. The effects of A. crassicauda venom on isolated hearts, atria and anaesthetized rat blood pressure appeared to be mediated largely through stimulation of the autonomic nervous system with predominance of sympathetic stimulation and release of tissue catecholamines. Electrocardiograms recorded simultaneously with blood pressure changes showed evidence of ectopic foci during the hypertensive phase and ischaemia, inferior wall infarction and different degrees of heart block during the late hypotensive phase. Androctonus crassicauda venom was unique in following a three-compartment open model comprising a central compartment 'blood', a rapidly equilibrating 'shallow' tissue compartment and a slowly equilibrating 'deep' tissue compartment. The overall elimination half-life, t1/2 beta, was 24 hr, indicating that the venom has the slowest elimination among all known scorpion venoms. The long stay of the venom in the body might explain the increased risk of toxicity

  2. Antigenic Cross-Reactivity Anti-Birtoxin Antibody against Androctonus crassicauda Venom

    PubMed Central

    Van Zoelen, Suhandan Adigüzel; Ozkan, Ozcan; Inceoglu, Bora

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antivenom is still widely used in the treatment of envenomation as there are no vaccines or other effective agents available against animal venoms. Recently, neurotoxins named birtoxin family have been described from Parabuthus transvaalicus and Androctonus crassicauda. The aim of the present study was to test the anti-birtoxin antibodies for their ability to neutralize the lethal effects of A. crassicauda scorpion venom. Methods: SDS-PAGE and Western blotting used the presence of components from A. crassicauda and P. transvaalicus scorpion venoms and to determine the degree of cross-reactivity. The Minimum Lethal Dose (MLD) of venom was assessed by subcutaneously (sc) injections in mice. Results: The MLD of the A. crassicauda venom was 35 μg/ 20g mouse by sc injection route. Western blotting showed the presence of components from A. crassicauda and P. transvaalicus scorpion venoms strongly cross react with the A. crassicauda antivenom. However, Western blotting of the A. crassicauda scorpion venom using the Refik Saydam Public Health Agency (RSPHA) generated antibody showed that not all the venom components cross reacted with the anti-birtoxin antibody. The antibodies only cross reacted with components falling under the 19 kDa protein size of A. crassicauda venom. Conclusion: The bioassays and Western blotting of A. crassicauda venom with the anti-birtoxin antibodies produced against a synthetic peptide showed that these antibodies cross reacted but did not neutralize the venom of A. crassicauda. PMID:26623429

  3. Induction of IL-12 from human monocytes after stimulation with Androctonus crassicauda scorpion venom.

    PubMed

    Saadi, Samahir; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Pipelzadeh, Mohammad Hassan; Hadaddezfuli, Reza

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of venom from Androctonus crassicauda to induce expression/production of interleukin (IL)-12 by isolated human monocytes. For this purpose, isolated human monocytes were exposed to different concentrations of the venom (0.16-20 μg/ml) for varying periods (6, 12, and 24 h). Apart from measures of venom cytotoxicity (i.e., lactase dehydrogenase activity [LDH] release), measures of IL-12 p40 mRNA (by Real-time PCR) of IL-12 release (by ELISA) were performed. The results showed that the venom produced significant concentration- and duration of incubation-dependent cytotoxicity. Expression of IL-12 p40 mRNA was significantly increased at all exposure timepoints relative to that in unexposed cells, but was maximal after 6 h of exposure. At that timepoint, the effect from a dose of 2.5 μg venom/ml provided the maximal increase among all doses tested. At the level of the protein itself, IL-12 production remained almost consistently elevated (vs. unexposed control values) across all exposure timepoints, with the greatest formation again occurring after 6 h of incubation at a dose of 2.5 μg venom/ml. The findings from this study demonstrated that venom from the A. crassicauda scorpion contained active constituents that could induce a sustained activation of human monocytes that was manifested, in part, as promotion of the expression/production of IL-12. PMID:26415903

  4. An in vitro comparative study upon the toxic properties of the venoms from Hemiscorpius lepturus, Androctonus crassicauda and Mesobuthus eupeus scorpions.

    PubMed

    Khodadadi, Ali; Pipelzadeh, Mohammad Hassan; Vazirianzadeh, Babak; Pipelzadeh, Mahsa; Sharifat, Mossa

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the toxic effects of the venoms from Hemiscorpius lepturus (H. lepturus), Androctonus crassicauda (A. crassicauda) and Mesobuthus eupeus (M. eupeus). For this purpose, three in vitro models were employed to compare the toxic effects of various concentrations of the venoms from these three scorpions, namely: hemolytic potential using human RBCs, phospholipase activity using Saubouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) supplemented with 2% egg yolk and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme releasing effect using K562 leukemia cell line. In addition, the neutralizing effectiveness of the antivenom against these toxic properties was assessed. The results showed that, unlike the venoms from A. crassicauda and M. eupeus, the venom from H. lepturus produced dose-dependent lysis of human RBCs and showed phospholipase activity. However, all the tested venoms showed variable degrees of LDH releasing properties. The venom from H. lepturus had highest and the venom from M. eupeus had the lowest LDH releasing effect. The antivenom effectively inhibited all the tested toxicities. In conclusion, these results suggest that the venoms from the studied scorpions have variable toxic properties, which may explain the underlying reason for the differences in their clinical manifestations. In addition, the antivenom was effective in neutralizing all the tested toxic effects. PMID:22569320

  5. Scorpion (Androctonus crassicauda) venom limits growth of transformed cells (SH-SY5Y and MCF-7) by cytotoxicity and cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Zargan, Jamil; Sajad, Mir; Umar, Sadiq; Naime, Mohammad; Ali, Shakir; Khan, Haider A

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of study was to examine the cytotoxic and anti-cancer properties along with addressing the plausible pathway followed by scorpion venom to reduce cell viability in SH-SY5Y and MCF-7 cells. Following exposure of cells with scorpion venom, cytotoxicity was estimated using MTT and lactate dehydrogenase assays. Apoptotic effects were measured by assessment of mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive nitrogen species, DNA fragmentation, and caspase-3 activity whereas antiproliferative effect was assayed using BrdU incorporation. Our results indicate that scorpion venom causes suppression of proliferation by arresting S-phase and induction of apoptosis through increased nitric oxide production, caspase-3 activity and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane. Induction of apoptosis and arrest of DNA synthesis are critical determinant factors for development of anti cancer drugs. These properties may lead to isolation of effective molecule(s) with potential anticancer activity from scorpion venom of Androctonus crassicauda. PMID:21536027

  6. Assessment of immunogenic characteristics of Hemiscorpius lepturus venom and its cross-reactivity with venoms from Androctonus crassicauda and Mesobuthus eupeus.

    PubMed

    Khanbashi, Shahin; Khodadadi, Ali; Assarehzadegan, Mohammad-Ali; Pipelzadeh, Mohammad Hassan; Vazirianzadeh, Babak; Hosseinzadeh, Mohsen; Rahmani, Ali Hassan; Asmar, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Hemiscorpius lepturus (H. lepturus), one of the most venomous scorpions in tropical and sub-tropical areas, belongs to the Hemiscorpiidae family. Studies of antibodies in sera against the protein component of the venom from this organism can be of great use for the development of engineered variants of proteins for eventual use in the diagnosis/treatment of, and prevention of reactions to, stings. In the present in vitro study, the proteins of H. lepturus venom, which could specifically activate the production of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in victims accidently exposed to the venom from this scorpion, were evaluated and their cross-reactivity with venoms from two other important scorpion species including Androctonus crassicauda and Mesobuthus eupeus assessed. H. lepturus venom was analyzed with respect to its protein composition and its antigenic properties against antibodies found in sera collected from victims exposed to the venom of this scorpion within a previous 2-month period. The cross-reactivity of the H. lepturus venom with those from A. crassicauda and M. eupeus was assessed using ELISA and immunoblotting. Electrophoretic analysis of the venom of H. lepturus revealed several protein bands with weights of 8-116 KDa. The most frequent IgG-reactive bands in the test sera had weights of 34, 50, and 116 kDa. A weak cross-reactivity H. lepturus of venom with venoms from A. crassicauda and M. eupeus was detected. The results of immunoblotting and ELISA experiments revealed that H. lepturus venom activated the host immune response, leading to the production of a high titer of antibodies. Clearly, a determination of the major immunogenic components of H. lepturus venom could be valuable for future studies and ultimately of great importance for the potential production of recombinant or hypo-venom variants of these proteins. PMID:24946724

  7. Biological assays on the effects of Acra3 peptide from Turkish scorpion Androctonus crassicauda venom on a mouse brain tumor cell line (BC3H1) and production of specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Caliskan, Figen; Ergene, Emel; Sogut, Ibrahim; Hatipoglu, Ibrahim; Basalp, Aynur; Sivas, Hulya; Kanbak, Gungor

    2013-12-15

    Constitutes of the venom scorpion are a rich source of low molecular mass peptides which are toxic to various organisms, including man. Androctonus crassicauda is one of the scorpions from the Southeastern Anatolia of Turkey with public health importance. This work is focused on the investigation of biological effects of Acra3 peptide from Androctonus crassicauda. For this purpose, Acra3 isolated from crude venoms was tested for its cytotoxicity on BC3H1 mouse brain tumor cells using tetrazolium salt cleavage and lactate dehydrogenase activity assays. To determine whether the cytotoxic effects of Acra3 was related to the induction of apoptosis, the morphology of the cells and the nuclear fragmentation was examined by using Acridin Orange staining and DNA fragmentation assay, respectively. Caspase 3 and caspase 9 activities were measured spectrophotometrically and flow cytometric assay was performed using Annexin-V FITC and Propidium Iodide staining. Furthermore toxic peptide Acra3 was used as an antigen for immunological studies. Results showed that Acra3 exerted very strong cytotoxic effect on BC3H1 cells with an IC50 value of 5 μg/ml. Exposure of the cells to 0.1 and 0.5 μg/ml was resulted in very strong appearance of the apoptotic morphology in a dose dependent manner. On the other side, not any DNA fragmentation was observed after treatment of the cells. Caspase 3 and 9 activities were slightly decreased with Acra3. Results from flow cytometry and lactate dehydrogenase activity assays indicate that Acra3 exerts its effects by inducing a stronger necrosis than apoptosis in BC3H1 cells. To evaluate its immunogenicity, monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific for Acra3 antigen (5B9) was developed by hybridoma technology using spleen and lymph nodes of mice and immunoglobulin type of antibody was found to be IgM. We suggest that Acra3 may exert its effects by inducing both necrotic and apoptotic pathway in some way on mouse brain tumor cells. These findings will be

  8. Cationicity-enhanced analogues of the antimicrobial peptides, AcrAP1 and AcrAP2, from the venom of the scorpion, Androctonus crassicauda, display potent growth modulation effects on human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Du, Qiang; Hou, Xiaojuan; Ge, Lilin; Li, Renjie; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Hui; Wang, Lei; Wei, Minjie; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The non disulphide-bridged peptides (NDBPs) of scorpion venoms are attracting increased interest due to their structural heterogeneity and broad spectrum of biological activities. Here, two novel peptides, named AcrAP1 and AcrAP2, have been identified in the lyophilised venom of the Arabian scorpion, Androctonus crassicauda, through "shotgun" molecular cloning of their biosynthetic precursor-encoding cDNAs. The respective mature peptides, predicted from these cloned cDNAs, were subsequently isolated from the same venom sample using reverse phase HPLC and their identities were confirmed by use of mass spectrometric techniques. Both were found to belong to a family of highly-conserved scorpion venom antimicrobial peptides - a finding confirmed through the biological investigation of synthetic replicates. Analogues of both peptides designed for enhanced cationicity, displayed enhanced potency and spectra of antimicrobial activity but, unlike the native peptides, these also displayed potent growth modulation effects on a range of human cancer cell lines. Thus natural peptide templates from venom peptidomes can provide the basis for rational analogue design to improve both biological potency and spectrum of action. The diversity of such templates from such natural sources undoubtedly provides the pharmaceutical industry with unique lead compounds for drug discovery. PMID:25332684

  9. Olivier Chesneau's Work on Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millour, F.; Lagadec, E.

    2015-12-01

    Olivier Chesneau founded a brand new field of observational astrophysics with his attempts to resolve the novae expanding fireball from the very first days of the explosion. With the images he could get, he showed that novae do indeed explode in an aspherical way, leading to a change of paradigm for the physics of these yet-poorly understood catastrophic systems. He also set the stage for a new way of estimating novae distances, by directly measuring the sky-size of the fireball and comparing it with spectroscopic scales, taking into account the tremendous effects of the fireball geometry.

  10. Role of Crassicauda sp. in natural mortality of pantropical spotted dolphins Stenella attenuata: a reassessment.

    PubMed

    Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Simpkin, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Evaluating the effect of parasites on population size is essential for designing management and conservation plans of wild animal populations. Although knowledge in this area is scarce in cetaceans, current evidence suggests that species of the nematode genus Crassicauda may play an important regulatory role in some populations. In the present study, a semiparametric regression technique was applied to a previously published dataset to re-examine the role of Crassicauda sp. in natural mortality of pantropical spotted dolphins Stenella attenuata. The resulting model indicated parasite-induced mortality at ages between 6.5 and 9 yr and at roughly 12 yr. The maximum mortality estimates obtained could represent 2 to 4% of natural mortality in dolphins 6 to 8 yr old. This estimate is substantially smaller than previously published values, but in contrast with previous research, our model provides clear statistical evidence for parasite-induced mortality because the bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals of the estimated mortality rates excluded the 0 value. We also evaluated, through simulations, how potential sampling biases of infected dolphins could overestimate parasite-induced mortality. Small differences in sampling selectivity between infected and uninfected animals could substantially reduce the mortality estimates. However, the simulated models also supported the notion of statistically significant mortality in juvenile dolphins. Given that dolphins older than 16 yr were poorly represented in the dataset, further research is needed to establish whether Crassicauda sp. causes meaningful mortality for population dynamics among adult individuals. PMID:24492057

  11. Morphological and molecular observations on the status of Crassicauda magna, a parasite of the subcutaneous tissues of the pygmy sperm whale, with a re-evaluation of the systematic relationships of the genus Crassicauda.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Abdul; Beveridge, Ian; Bryant, Malcolm S

    2015-03-01

    Members of the genus Crassicauda (Nematoda: Spirurida) are parasites of the body tissues of whales and dolphins. Owing to the large size of worms and difficulties in the recovery of entire nematodes from the tissues of hosts, limited information is available on morphological descriptions of both male and female worms. Furthermore, there are currently no available sequence data for this genus to assist with such identifications. This paper describes for the first time features of the anterior extremity and the male tail of Crassicauda magna, suggesting that Crassicauda duguyi may be a synonym of this species. In addition, molecular data are presented for the genus for the first time suggesting that the genus belongs within the superfamily Acuarioidea rather than within the Habronematoidea, in which it is currently placed. PMID:25482860

  12. Olivier Chesneau's Work on Low Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagadec, E.

    2015-12-01

    During his too short career, Olivier Chesneau pioneered the study of the circumstellar environments of low mass evolved stars using very high angular resolution techniques. He applied state of the art high angular resolution techniques, such as optical interferometry and adaptive optics imaging, to the the study of a variety of objects, from AGB stars to Planetary Nebulae, via e.g. Born Again stars, RCB stars and Novae. I present here an overview of this work and most important results by focusing on the paths he followed and key encounters he made to reach these results. Olivier liked to work in teams and was very strong at linking people with complementary expertises to whom he would communicate his enthusiasm and sharp ideas. His legacy will live on through the many people he inspired.

  13. Olivier Chesneau's Work on Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Olivier Chesneau challenged several fields of observational stellar astrophysics with bright ideas and an impressive amount of work to make them real in the span of his career, from his first paper on P Cygni in 2000, up to his last one on V838 Mon in 2014. He was using all the so-called high-angular resolution techniques since it helped his science to be made, namely study in details the inner structure of the environments around stars, be it small mass (AGBs), more massive (supergiant stars), or explosives (Novae). I will focus here on his work on massive stars.

  14. Clinicopathological investigations on mice envenomed with scorpion venom (Androctonus amoreuxi).

    PubMed

    Hamedy, A F; Kilany, Omnia E; Mohallal, Mahmoud E; Soliman, Belal A; Shoukry, Nahla M; Khaled, Howayda S

    2012-12-01

    The present study assessed the toxicity of Androctonus amoreuxi crude venom on blood and biochemical serum parameters of mice. Adult male Albino mice were divided into three groups, in the control group mice were injected S.C. with saline solution. The second group and the third were injected with the venom S.C. in mice in the following doses 1/4 and 1/2 dose of LD50 respectively. Blood and serum samples were taken after 3 hours, 6 hours, 9 hours, 12 hours, 4 days and 7 days. Hematocrit (Ht), red blood cells (RBC) count, hemoglobin, MCV, MCH & MCHC were performed. Serum biochemical parameters, the levels of total proteins, albumin, globulin, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, ALT, AST, ALP, creatinine, uric acid and urea were measured. RBCs, Hob, PCV, MCV, MCH & MCHC showed significant increase, and increase in total protein, albumin and globulin within the experiment. Glucose and cholesterol levels were significantly increase from the beginning. Triglycerides showed significant decrease after 6 hours. Liver enzymes and kidney functions revealed significant changes post-injection. PMID:23469627

  15. Pathophysiological and neurobehavioral injuries in mice experimentally envenomed with Androctonus liouvillei (Pallary, 1928) scorpion venom.

    PubMed

    El Hidan, Moulay Abdelmonaim; Touloun, Oulaid; El Hiba, Omar; Boumezzough, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The genus Androctonus is represented by 7 scorpion species in Morocco. All studies conducted on the characterization of Androctonus species venom are limited to Androctonus mauritanicus. However, there is other species which arouses also interest of scientists due to their high toxicity. Thus, we chose to assess the toxic effect of Androctonus liouvillei venom by sublethal injection and the effects on some vital organs, by a histological and a biochemical tools. In addition, we aimed to characterize the neurobehavioral impairments, in Swiss mice, 3h, 6h and 12h following envenomation. The LD50 of A. liouvillei scorpion venom was found to be 0.29mg/kg by subcutaneous injection route. Venom administration induced glomerular destruction and disorganization in the Bowman's spac. Examination of lungs showed a remarkable focal rupture of the alveolar structure and intra-alveolar hemorrhage. Concurrently, there was a significant enhancement in the serum enzymes levels of AST, ALT, CPK and LDH, and a high level of glucose and creatinine. Proteinuria was also observed. Regarding the behavioral effects we noted a hypoactivity and anxiogenic-like effect, manifested by an increased time spent in the open arms in groups tested 30min and 12h after the injection. Concomitantly with an increased immobility time in the tail suspension test. The present finding show an obvious profound neuromodulatory effect of A. liouvillei venom manifested by an impaired neurobehavioral and physiological patterns in mice that may in part explain the toxic effect of the venom in human as one of the potent death agents. PMID:26651916

  16. Screening of upregulated genes induced by high density in the vetch aphid Megoura crassicauda.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Asano; Ishikawa, Yuki; Okada, Yasukazu; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Brisson, Jennifer A; Miura, Toru

    2012-03-01

    Aphids exhibit several polyphenisms in which discontinuous, alternative phenotypes are produced depending on environmental conditions. One representative example is the wing polyphenism, where winged and wingless females are produced through parthenogenesis. Previous work has shown that, in some aphid species, the density condition sensed by the mother aphid determines the developmental fate of embryos in her ovary, with high densities leading to winged progeny and low densities to wingless progeny. However, little is known about the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the wing polyphenism. To identify genes involved in the wing-morph determination in the vetch aphid, Megoura crassicauda, we compared maternal and embryonic transcripts between high- and low-density conditions using differential display, followed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Under the high-density condition, two genes (Uba1 and Naca) were found to be upregulated in maternal tissues without ovaries, while one gene (ClpP) was upregulated in ovaries containing embryos. Uba1 and Naca encode factors that function in protein modification or transcriptional/translational regulation, respectively. In addition to differential display, candidate gene approaches focusing on morphogenetic and endocrine genes, i.e., wg, dpp, ap, hh, InR, IRS, Foxo, EcR, and USP, were also carried out. We found that wg was upregulated in maternal tissues under the high-density condition. The identified genes from both approaches are candidates for further study of their involvement in the transduction of density signals in mother aphids and/or the initial process of wing differentiation in embryos. PMID:22514053

  17. Pharmacognostic studies of insect gall of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Savitri; Kaushik, Vasuki Srinivas; Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Ramanna, Latha Muuaiah; Lakkappa, Dhananjaya Bhadrapura

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the detailed pharmacognostic profile of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Q. infectoria olivier) (Fagaceae), an important medicinal plant used in the Indian system of medicine. Methods Samples of galls of Q. infectoria were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physiochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis and othjer methods for standardization as recommended by WHO. Results Macroscopically, the crude drug is globose with horny appearances on external surface (1.4-2.3 cm in length and 1-1.5 cm in diameter), with greyish-brown to brownish-black in colour externally and dark brown buff colored. Surface is smooth with numerous horny protuberances giving rough touch, and with unpleasant odour. Microscopically, a wide zone of radially elongated parenchyma cells between upper and lower epidermis were found. The vascular strands were present at all places and radially elongated sclerides touched the lower epidermis. In physico-chemical studies, the moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble, water soluble, petroleum ether, chloroform extractive value and tannin content were found to be 2.790, 5.020, 0.110, 38.780, 41.210, 0.402, 1.590 and 49.200 percentage respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes, tannins, saponins and alkaloids. Conclusions The results of the present study serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this medicinally important plant drug material for future investigations and applications. PMID:24144128

  18. Clinical comparison of scorpion envenomation by Androctonus mauritanicus and Buthus occitanus in children.

    PubMed

    Aboumaâd, Bouchra; Lahssaini, Mohammed; Tiger, Abdelaziz; Benhassain, Sidi Mohammed

    2014-11-01

    The clinical results of scorpion stings by Androctonus mauritanicus (Am) and Buthus occitanus (Bo) (main sources of scorpionism in Morocco) were evaluated in this work. The objective was to compare the clinical manifestations of envenoming from these species by investigating possible correlations among symptoms/signs and laboratory abnormalities of envenomed patients. 41 children (25 males, 18 months - 11 years) were admitted at the Provincial Hospital of El Jadida-Morocco. Their minor (18 children) or severe (23 children) systemic signs such as pallor (48.8%), pulmonary edema (APE) (36.6%), convulsion (26.8%), coma (7.3%) were more frequent in children envenomed by Am than Bo, but angioedema (Quincke's edema) (4.9%) was particularly developed in the latter group. The laboratory blood abnormalities (hyperglycemia, high levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine, bilirubin, leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, platelets and low levels of lymphocytes and hemoglobin) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in patients envenomed by Am than Bo, and in all population in comparison to control group. The correlation among these biological analyzes and clinical status showed that higher levels of LDH and value of leukocytes ≥19 × 10(3)/mm(3) were indices of cardiac dysfunction with APE. Pallor sign was correlated with a state of shock and/or low level of hemoglobin, associated or not to bilirubin increase. Fatalities (7.3%), presenting toxic myocarditis, had lowest count of lymphocytes (≤4.2%) in comparison to survivors. This is the first report on lymphopenia which may be useful for forecast the fatal outcome in scorpion envenomation. PMID:25218169

  19. Toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic analyses of Androctonus australis hector venom in rats: Optimization of antivenom therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hammoudi-Triki, D.; Lefort, J.; Rougeot, C.; Robbe-Vincent, A.; Bon, C.; Laraba-Djebari, F.; Choumet, V. . E-mail: vchoumet@pasteur.fr

    2007-02-01

    This paper reports the simultaneous determination of toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic properties of Androctonus australis hector venom, in the absence and presence of antivenom (F(ab'){sub 2} and Fab), in envenomed rats. After subcutaneous injection of the venom, toxins showed a complete absorption phase from the site of injection associated with a distribution into a large extravascular compartment. The injection of Fab and F(ab'){sub 2} induced the neutralization of venom antigens in the blood compartment, as well as the redistribution of venom components from the extravascular compartment to the blood compartment. Interestingly, F(ab'){sub 2} and Fab showed distinct efficiencies depending on their route of injection. F(ab'){sub 2} induced a faster venom neutralization and redistribution than Fab when injected intravenously. Fab was more effective than F(ab'){sub 2} by the intramuscular route. The hemodynamic effects of Aah venom were further investigated. Changes in mean arterial pressure and heart rate were observed in parallel with an upper airway obstruction. Fab was more effective than F(ab'){sub 2} for preventing early symptoms of envenomation, whatever their route of administration. Intraperitoneal injection of F(ab'){sub 2} and Fab was similar for the prevention of the delayed symptoms, even after a late administration. Fab was more effective than F(ab'){sub 2} in the inhibition of airway resistance, independent of the route and time of administration. These results show that the treatment for scorpion stings might be improved by the intravascular injection of a mixture of Fab and F(ab'){sub 2}. If antivenom cannot be administered intravenously, Fab might be an alternative as they are more effective than F(ab'){sub 2} when injected intramuscularly.

  20. Antileishmanial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of Quercus infectoria Olivier extract.

    PubMed

    Kheirandish, Farnaz; Delfan, Bahram; Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Moradi, Nasim; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Rashidipour, Marzieh

    2016-08-01

    Currently, there is no effective vaccine available, and chemotherapy is the main approach for treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). During recent decades, studies have demonstrated that a number of plant-derived compounds may act as new therapeutic tools against leishmaniasis. This study was evaluated the antileishmanial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of Quercus infectoria Olivier (oak) extract. The total amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds was measured in oak extract. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was also performed to determine the amount of quercetin and gallic acid in this plant. This extract (0-80g/mL) was evaluated in vitro against promastigote and intracellular amastigote forms of Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) using MTT assay and in a macro-phage model, respectively. Then oak extract was tested on CL in infected male BALB/c mice with L. major in order to evaluate the antileishmanial activity topically. Moreover, cytotoxicity effects of oak in murine macrophage cells were tested by MTT assay. Antioxidative activity of oak was also determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1,1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging test. The amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in the oak extract was 57.50 and 1.86%, respectively. The amount of quercetin and gallic acid in the oak extract was 0.0064 and 0.22%, respectively. The findings revealed that oak significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the growth rate of promastigote of (IC50 12.65μg/mL) and amastigotes (IC50 10.31μg/mL) as a dose-dependent response. In the in vivo assay, after 4 weeks of treatment, 91.6, 66.66, and 50% recovery was observed in the infected mice treated with 20, 10, and 5mg/kg of oak extract, respectively. After treatment of the infected mice with the concentration of 10 and 20mg/kg of oak, the mean diameter of lesions, parasite load and mean number of parasites was significantly (P<0.05) reduced. Selectivity index of greater than 10 for oak revealed that oak extract had

  1. Methodology for determining susceptibility of rough rice to Rhyzopertha dominica (L.) and Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varieties of rough rice, Oryzae sativa (L)., were obtained from different sources in the south-central United States and evaluated for susceptibility to the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (Fab.), and the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier), in laboratory studies. Adult R. ...

  2. Characterization of Am IT, an anti-insect β-toxin isolated from the venom of scorpion Androctonus mauretanicus.

    PubMed

    Oukkache, Naoual; ElJaoudi, Rachid; Chgoury, Fatima; Rocha, Marisa Teixeira; Sabatier, Jean-Marc

    2015-06-25

    In the present study, a 'novel' toxin, called Am IT from the venom of scorpion Androctonus mauretanicus is isolated and characterized. A detailed analysis of the action of Am IT on insect axonal sodium currents is reported. Am IT was purified through gel filtration followed by C18 reversed-phase HPLC. Toxicity of Am IT in vivo was assessed on male German cockroach (Blattella germanica) larvae and C57/BL6 mice. Cross-reactivity of Am IT with two β-toxins was evidenced using (125)I-iodinated toxin-based radioimmunoassays with synaptosomal preparations from rat brain. The complete amino acid sequence of Am IT was finally determined by Edman sequencing. Am IT was observed to compete with AaH IT4 purified from the venom of scorpion Androctonus australis in binding assays. It was recognized by an antibody raised against a β-type toxin, which indicated some structural similarity with β-toxins (or related toxin family). The 'novel' toxin exhibited dual activity since it competed with anti-mammal toxins in binding assays as well as showed contracting activity to insect. The toxin competed with radio-labeled β-toxin Css IV by binding to Na(+) channels of rat brain synaptosomes. Analysis of toxin amino acid sequences showed that Am IT shares high structural identity (92%) with AaH IT4. In conclusion, Am IT not only reveals an anti-insect compound properties secreted by 'Old World' scorpions, paralyzing insect larvae by binding to Na(+) channels on larvae's nerve-cell membranes, but also exerts toxic activity in mice, which is similar to anti-mammal toxins from 'New World' scorpions (North and South Americas). Therefore, Am IT appears to be structurally and functionally similar to AaH IT4. PMID:26109302

  3. Effect of Androctonus bicolor scorpion venom on serum electrolytes in rats: A 24-h time-course study.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, A; Khan, H A; Manthiri, R A

    2016-03-01

    Black fat-tailed scorpion (Androctonus bicolor) belongs to the family Buthidae and is one of the most venomous scorpions in the world. The effects of A. bicolor venom on serum electrolytes were not known and therefore investigated in this study. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups with five animals in each group. One of the groups served as control and received vehicle only. The animals in the remaining groups received a single subcutaneous injection of crude A. bicolor venom (200 μg/kg bodyweight) and were killed at different time intervals including 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h after venom injection. The results showed that scorpion venom caused significant increase in serum sodium levels within 30 min after injection which slightly subsided after 1 h and then persisted over 24 h. Serum potassium levels continued to significantly increase until 4 h and then slightly subsided. There were significant decreases in serum magnesium (Mg(+)) levels following scorpion venom injection, at all the time points during the course of study. Serum calcium levels were significantly increased during the entire course of study, whereas serum chloride was significantly decreased. In conclusion, A. bicolor envenomation in rats caused severe and persistent hypomagnesemia with accompanied hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, and hypercalcemia. It is important to measure serum Mg(+) levels in victims of scorpion envenomation, and patients with severe Mg(+) deficiency should be treated accordingly. PMID:25964378

  4. Influence of Life Diet on the Biology and Demographic Parameters of Agistemus olivi Romeih, a Specific Predator of Eriophyid Pest Mites (Acari: Stigmaeidae and Eriophyidae)

    PubMed Central

    Momen, Faten Mamdouh

    2012-01-01

    The influence of various life diets on the biology and demographic parameters of the predatory mite, Agistemus olivi Romeih, was studied under laboratory conditions. A. olivi successfully developed and reproduced on all of the tested eriophyid mites. Feeding on Aceria mangiferae Sayed enhanced the development of A. olivi, resulted in the shortest mean generation time and was the most commensurate food for the ovipostion of the predator, as exhibited by the highest fecundity and net reproductive rate. Preying on Aculops lycopersici (Massee) gave the lowest fecundity and net reproductive rate; therefore, this prey was the least suitable for the oviposition of A. olivi. Preying on Aculus fockeui (Nalepa et Trouessart) and A. mangiferae produced higher intrinsic rates of increase and finite rates of increase for the predator in comparison to A. lycopersici, which showed the lowest value. These differences in response to various eriophyid pests should be considered for the production of healthy cultures of A. olivi. PMID:24575223

  5. In vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of the Egyptian scorpion Androctonus amoreuxi venom in an Ehrlich ascites tumor model.

    PubMed

    Salem, Mohamed L; Shoukry, Nahla M; Teleb, Wafaa K; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed A

    2016-01-01

    Scorpion venom is a highly complex mixture of about 100-700 different components, where peptides are the major constituents with various biological and pharmacological properties including anticancer activities. In this study, anticancer efficacy of the venom of the Egyptian scorpion Androctonus amoreuxi has been evaluated. In vitro, the human breast cancer MCF-7 cell line was treated with the venom and the IC50 was estimated. In vivo studies, Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells were inoculated into CD-1 mice intraperitoneally to form liquid tumor or subcutaneously to form solid tumor and then treated with intraperitoneal injection with venom (0.22 mg/kg) every other day. The total tumor cells in the ascitic fluid and the size of the solid tumor were assessed after 14 and 30 days, respectively. In addition, the mean survival time (MST), body weight, tumor volume, PCV, viability of tumor cells, CBC, AST, ALP, creatinine, oxidative stress biomarkers (GSH, MDA, PCC), tumor marker Ki67, growth factor VEGF and caspase-3 were measured in normal control, EAC control and venom-treated groups (n = 6). Treatment with venom induced anti-tumor effects against liquid and in solid tumors as indicated by a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in tumor volume/size, count of viable EAC cells, expression of Ki67 and VEGF as well as by remarkable increases in MST and caspase-3 expression as compared to non-treated group. Interestingly, the venom restored the altered hematological and biochemical parameters of tumor-bearing animals and significantly increased their life span. These data indicate to (1) the cytotoxic potential effects of A. amoreuxi on tumor cells via anti-proliferative, apoptotic and anti-angiogenic activities; (2) opening a new avenue for further studies on the anti-cancer effects of this agent. PMID:27247867

  6. Orthorhombic crystals and three-dimensional structure of the potent toxin II from the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector.

    PubMed Central

    Fontecilla-Camps, J C; Habersetzer-Rochat, C; Rochat, H

    1988-01-01

    Orthorhombic crystals (space group P212121, a = 45.94 A, b = 40.68 A, c = 29.93 A) of the potent scorpion alpha-toxin II from Androctonus australis Hector were grown using sterile techniques. The structure was solved by a combination of heavy-atom and model phasing. Subsequently, it was refined at 1.8 A resolution by a fast-Fourier restrained least-squares procedure. The crystallographic R factor is 0.152 for data with 7.0 A greater than d greater than 1.8 A and F greater than 2.5 sigma (F) and 0.177 when all data are considered. Eighty-nine solvent molecules have been incorporated into the model. The dense core formed by the alpha-helical and antiparallel beta-sheet moieties and three of the four disulfide bridges is similar in variant 3, a toxin purified from the North American scorpion Centruroides sculpturatus, and in toxin II. However, the two molecules differ markedly in the orientation of loops protruding from the core. Toxin II seems to contain several highly ordered solvent molecules. Eight of them occupy a cavity consisting of the C-terminal region and a loop found only in scorpion alpha-toxins. The highly reactive and pharmacologically important Lys-58 is found at one of the extremes of this cavity, where it establishes a series of hydrogen bonds with protein and solvent atoms. The reactivities of the five lysine residues of toxin II are highly correlated with the formation of hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and salt links. PMID:3174645

  7. Unique diversity of the venom peptides from the scorpion Androctonus bicolor revealed by transcriptomic and proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Shi, Wanxia; Zeng, Xian-Chun; Ge, Feng; Yang, Mingkun; Nie, Yao; Bao, Aorigele; Wu, Shifen; E, Guoji

    2015-10-14

    Androctonus bicolor is one of the most poisonous scorpion species in the world. However, little has been known about the venom composition of the scorpion. To better understand the molecular diversity and medical significance of the venom from the scorpion, we systematically analyzed the venom components by combining transcriptomic and proteomic surveys. Random sequencing of 1000 clones from a cDNA library prepared from the venom glands of the scorpion revealed that 70% of the total transcripts code for venom peptide precursors. Our efforts led to a discovery of 103 novel putative venom peptides. These peptides include NaTx-like, KTx-like and CaTx-like peptides, putative antimicrobial peptides, defensin-like peptides, BPP-like peptides, BmKa2-like peptides, Kunitz-type toxins and some new-type venom peptides without disulfide bridges, as well as many new-type venom peptides that are cross-linked with one, two, three, five or six disulfide bridges, respectively. We also identified three peptides that are identical to known toxins from scorpions. The venom was also analyzed using a proteomic technique. The presence of a total of 16 different venom peptides was confirmed by LC-MS/MS analysis. The discovery of a wide range of new and new-type venom peptides highlights the unique diversity of the venom peptides from A. bicolor. These data also provide a series of novel templates for the development of therapeutic drugs for treating ion channel-associated diseases and infections caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens, and offer molecular probes for the exploration of structures and functions of various ion channels. PMID:26254009

  8. [Application of ELISA for the quantification of Androctonus australis hector venom in the envenomed serum of people and rats before and after immunotherapy].

    PubMed

    Hammoudi-Triki, D; Laraba-Djebari, F

    2003-11-01

    Scorpion envenomation remains an important health problem in many countries in the world, especially in North Africa, Asia and America. In Algeria, the most dangerous species for humans are Androctonus australis hector (Aah) and Buthus occitanus tunetanus (Bot). These scorpions are responsible for the apparition of various symptoms in envenomed patients such as: pain, hypertention, hypotension, sudation and fever. An aggravation of clinical conditions of envenomed patients is characterized by a pulmonary cedema and myocardial damage. The evaluation of the severity of scorpion envenoming by immuno-enzymatic assay requires firstly, the preparation of a specific anti-horse F(ab')2 peroxydase conjugate not yet commercialized. The restatement of conditions of ELISA sandwich test allowed its utilization in determination of the venom concentration in envenomed patients and rats sera after envenoming by scorpion venom. Standardization of this test, its reproductibility, linearity and its detection limit were defined. The venom concentrations are directly deducted from standard curves prepared by the dilution of Androctonus australis hector in human serum collected from healthy donors and in non envenomed rats serum. The present study showed that ELISA test has a good linear response in a range of concentrations of venom antigen. Its detection limit was 0.5 ng/ml of Aah venom in serum. This specific test of scorpion envenoming aims in one side at establishing a correlation between venom levels and the clinical observations and at evaluating the severity of the envenoming before and after immunotherapy. PMID:14717046

  9. More heat, less light! The resource curse & HIV/AIDS: A reply to Olivier Sterck.

    PubMed

    de Soysa, Indra; Gizelis, Ismene Theodora

    2016-02-01

    We reported fairly robust results suggesting that resource rich countries did less well containing HIV/AIDS than resource poor states (de Soysa and Gizelis, 2013). We argued that public action to prevent the spread of disease was going to be weaker in resource rich states because rulers would have less incentive to fight disease. Olivier Sterck (this issue) criticizes our study on several grounds, arguing that resource rich states can provide anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and thereby fight the AIDS epidemic. He, however, finds no relationship between resource wealth and HIV/AIDS. We argue that his reanalyses do not fully address the theoretical association between resource wealth and the spread of HIV/AIDS and that his argument about ART is more wishful than a realistic expectation. Future research should probe more carefully why resource wealth has not been deployed more effectively for fighting disease-a point we can all agree on. PMID:26723198

  10. [Spontaneus ductal closure in a fetus postnatally diagnosed as Adams-Olivier syndrome].

    PubMed

    Włoch, Agata; Borowski, Dariusz; Czuba, Bartosz; Włoch, Stanisław; Sodowski, Krzysztof

    2006-08-01

    In utero isolated ductal closure is uncommon and can lead to congestive heart failure, fetal hydrops and death if not recognized. A case report of premature spontaneus ductal closure in the third trimester of pregnancy in a fetus postnatally diagnosed as Adams-Olivier Syndrome is presented. On ultrasound examination an intrauterine growth restriction, defects of bones of hands and feet as well as ventriculomegaly were found. No nonsteroid drug treatment during pregnancy was applied. Fetal echocardiography was performed following an abnormal four-chamber view. Premature ductal closure was diagnosed. Fetal echocardiogram showed absent flow in the ductus arteriosus, dilated right ventricle with decreased function, and moderate tricuspid and pulmonary valve insufficiency with no signs of fetal hydrops. An elective cesarean section was performed. All abnormalities observed on former echocardiogram exam withdrew within 3 months of infant's life. The infant stays in the tertiary care centre due to the extracardiac malformations. PMID:17076195

  11. Taxonomic note on the oil-collecting bee Centris dimidiata (Olivier, 1789 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Centridini).

    PubMed

    Vivallo, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Centris dimidiata (Olivier) is currently considered an easily recognizable species widely distributed throughout the Amazon basin, mainly in Brazil. For much of its taxonomic history, C. atriventris Mocsáry and C. furcata (Fabricius) have been considered its junior subjective synonymies. Such interpretation was apparently due to the lack of a detailed study of the type specimens, misinterpretation of the original descriptions, and inability to study the apparently lost type specimen of C. dimidiata. In this paper, a neotype for C. dimidiata is designated, the species is placed in Centris (Ptilotopus), and C. denudans rubida Gribodo is proposed as its new junior synonymy. Simultaneously, as a result of a detailed study of the type material of C. atriventris and C. furcata, both species are revalidated and their placement in Centris (Melacentris) is confirmed. For all species, the female is redescribed and the male is described for the first time. A lectotype for C. atriventris is designated and new distribution records and a distribution map are provided. PMID:27615988

  12. Transcriptome analysis of Phoenix canariensis Chabaud in response to Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier attacks

    PubMed Central

    Giovino, Antonio; Bertolini, Edoardo; Fileccia, Veronica; Al Hassan, Mohamad; Labra, Massimo; Martinelli, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Red Palm Weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier) threatens most palm species worldwide. Until now, no studies have analyzed the gene regulatory networks of Phoenix canariensis (Chabaud) in response to RPW attacks. The aim of this study was to fill this knowledge gap. Providing this basic knowledge is very important to improve its management. Results: A deep transcriptome analysis was performed on fully expanded leaves of healthy non-infested trees and attacked trees at two symptom stages (middle and late infestation). A total of 54 genes were significantly regulated during middle stage. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that phenylpropanoid-related pathways were induced at this stage. More than 3300 genes were affected during late stage of attacks. Higher transcript abundances were observed for lipid fatty acid metabolism (fatty acid and glycerolipids), tryptophan metabolism, phenylpropanoid metabolism. Key RPW-modulated genes involved in innate response mediated by hormone crosstalk were observed belonging to auxin, jasmonate and salicylic acid (SA) pathways. Among transcription factors, some WRKYs were clearly induced. qRT-PCR validation confirmed the upregulation of key genes chosen as validation of transcriptomic analysis. Conclusion: A subset of these genes may be further analyzed in future studies to confirm their specificity to be induced by RPW infestations. PMID:26528297

  13. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier against Oral Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Tan, Liy Si; Shafiei, Zaleha; Zin, Noraziah Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    The galls of Quercus infectoria are commonly used in Malay traditional medicine to treat wound infections after childbirth. In India, they are employed traditionally as dental applications such as that in treatment of toothache and gingivitis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier against oral bacteria which are known to cause dental caries and periodontitis. Methanol and acetone extracts were screened against two Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 and Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586). The screening test of antibacterial activity was performed using agar-well diffusion method. Subsequently, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by using twofold serial microdilution method at a concentration ranging between 0.01 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was obtained by subculturing microtiter wells which showed no changes in colour of the indicator after incubation. Both extracts showed inhibition zones which did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) against each tested bacteria. Among all tested bacteria, S. salivarius was the most susceptible. The MIC ranges for methanol and acetone extracts were the same, between 0.16 and 0.63 mg/mL. The MBC value, for methanol and acetone extracts, was in the ranges 0.31-1.25 mg/mL and 0.31-2.50 mg/mL, respectively. Both extracts of Q. infectoria galls exhibited similar antibacterial activity against oral pathogens. Thus, the galls may be considered as effective phytotherapeutic agents for the prevention of oral pathogens. PMID:22203875

  14. Complement system and immunological mediators: Their involvements in the induced inflammatory process by Androctonus australis hector venom and its toxic components.

    PubMed

    Bekkari, Nadjia; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Androctonus australis hector scorpion venom is well known by its high toxicity, it induces massive release of neurotransmitters that lead to pathophysiological disorders in cardiovascular, neuro-hormonal and immune systems. Previous studies have shown the relationship between the severity of scorpion envenoming and immune system activation. This study was assessed to investigate the involvement of complement system and inflammatory mediators after sublethal injection of Aah venom, its toxic fraction (FtoxG50) and its main toxins (AahI and AahII) into NMRI mice. The Activation complement system by the venom is also compared to that induced of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Obtained results showed that seric complement system (CS) is activated by the venom and by its toxic components; this activation is more pronounced into liver tissue when toxic components (FtoxG50, AahI or AahII) are used. Increase of cytokine levels (IL1β, TNFα and ICAM) into hepatic tissue induced by AahI or AahII neurotoxins is correlated with tissue alterations. Aprotinin, a non specific inhibitor of complement system seems to be able to reduce CS consumption and to restore partially the induced tissue damage by venom. The mechanisms by which toxic fraction or LPS induced the activation of complement system seem to be different. Sensitivity of hepatic tissue is more pronounced after FtoxG50 injection; however lung tissue is more sensible to LPS than FoxG50. PMID:25921955

  15. In vitro studies with renal proximal tubule cells show direct cytotoxicity of Androctonus australis hector scorpion venom triggered by oxidative stress, caspase activation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Saidani, Chanez; Hammoudi-Triki, Djelila; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima; Taub, Mary

    2016-09-15

    Scorpion envenomation injures a number of organs, including the kidney. Mechanisms proposed to explain the renal tubule injury include direct effects of venom on tubule epithelial cells, as well as indirect effects of the autonomic nervous system, and inflammation. Here, we report direct effects of Androctonus australis hector (Aah) scorpion venom on the viability of Renal Proximal Tubule (RPT) cells in vitro, unlike distal tubule and collecting duct cells. Extensive NucGreen nuclear staining was observed in immortalized rabbit RPT cells following treatment with Aah venom, consistent with cytotoxicity. The involvement of oxidative stress is supported by the observations that 1) anti-oxidants mitigated the Aah venom-induced decrease in the number of viable RPT cells, and 2) Aah venom-treated RPT cells were intensively stained with the CellROX(®) Deep Red reagent, an indicator of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Relevance to normal RPT cells is supported by the red fluorescence observed in Aah venom treated primary rabbit RPT cell cultures following their incubation with the Flica reagent (indicative of caspase activation and apoptosis), and the green fluorescence of Sytox Green (indicative of dead cells). PMID:27470530

  16. Wheat cultivars affecting life history and digestive amylolytic activity of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Borzoui, E; Naseri, B

    2016-08-01

    The life history and digestive α-amylase activity of the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella Olivier (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) were studied on six wheat cultivars (Arg, Bam, Nai 60, Pishtaz, Sepahan and Shanghai) at 25 ± 1°C, relative humidity of 65 ± 5% and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. A delay in the developmental time of S. cerealella immature stages was detected when larvae were fed on cultivar Sepahan. The maximum survival rate of immature stages was seen on cultivar Bam (93.33 ± 2.10%), and the minimum rates were on cultivars Nai 60 (54.66 ± 2.49%) and Sepahan (49.33 ± 4.52%). The highest realized fecundity and fertility were recorded for females which came from larvae fed on cultivar Bam (93.30 ± 2.10 eggs/female and 91.90 ± 3.10%, respectively); and the lowest ones were observed for females which came from larvae fed on cultivar Sepahan (49.30 ± 4.50 eggs/female and 67.4 ± 11.1%, respectively). The heaviest male and female weights of S. cerealella were observed on cultivar Bam (2.97 ± 0.02 and 4.80 ± 0.01 mg, respectively). The highest amylolytic activity of the fourth instar was detected on cultivar Bam (0.89 ± 0.04 mg maltose min-1), which had the maximum mean hundred-wheat weight (5.92 ± 0.19 g). One α-amylase isozyme was detected in the midgut extracts from the fourth instar larvae fed on different wheat cultivars, and the highest intensity was found in larvae fed on cultivar Bam. Correlation analyses showed that very high correlations existed between the immature period, fecundity and fertility on one side and inhibition of α-amylase, soluble starch content and hundred-wheat weight on the other. According to the obtained results, cultivar Sepahan is an unfavorable host for the feeding and development of S. cerealella. PMID:27019124

  17. Subtype-selective activation of K(v)7 channels by AaTXKβ₂₋₆₄, a novel toxin variant from the Androctonus australis scorpion venom.

    PubMed

    Landoulsi, Zied; Miceli, Francesco; Palmese, Angelo; Amoresano, Angela; Marino, Gennaro; El Ayeb, Mohamed; Taglialatela, Maurizio; Benkhalifa, Rym

    2013-11-01

    K(v)7.4 channel subunits are expressed in central auditory pathways and in inner ear sensory hair cells and skeletal and smooth muscle cells. Openers of K(v)7.4 channels have been suggested to improve hearing loss, systemic or pulmonary arterial hypertension, urinary incontinence, gastrointestinal and neuropsychiatric diseases, and skeletal muscle disorders. Scorpion venoms are a large source of peptides active on K⁺ channels. Therefore, we have optimized a combined purification/screening procedure to identify specific modulator(s) of K(v)7.4 channels from the venom of the North African scorpion Androctonus australis (Aa). We report the isolation and functional characterization of AaTXKβ₂₋₆₄, a novel variant of AaTXKβ₁₋₆₄, in a high-performance liquid chromatography fraction from Aa venom (named P8), which acts as the first peptide activator of K(v)7.4 channels. In particular, in both Xenopus oocytes and mammalian Chinese hamster ovary cells, AaTXKβ₂₋₆₄, but not AaTXKβ₁₋₆₄, hyperpolarized the threshold voltage of current activation and increased the maximal currents of heterologously expressed K(v)7.4 channels. AaTXKβ₂₋₆₄ also activated K(v)7.3, K(v)7.2/3, and K(v)7.5/3 channels, whereas homomeric K(v)1.1, K(v)7.1, and K(v)7.2 channels were unaffected. We anticipate that these results may prove useful in unraveling the novel biologic roles of AaTXKβ₂₋₆₄-sensitive K(v)7 channels and developing novel pharmacologic tools that allow subtype-selective targeting of K(v)7 channels. PMID:24019223

  18. Enhancement of long-lasting immunoprotective effect against Androctonus australis hector envenomation using safe antigens: Comparative role of MF59 and Alum adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Abdelmounaim; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima

    2015-10-26

    Envenomation is a public health problem in many regions of the world. The only available treatment is the serotherapy that has limited efficiency due to the delay of its administration. The goal of this study is to provide a new and more efficient alternative to this treatment. A comparative study of the effects of two adjuvants in their ability to enhance the efficiency of the detoxified and safe antigens to produce a long lasting immunoprotection is undertaken using Aluminum Hydroxide adjuvant (Alum) or the water-in-oil MF59 adjuvant mixed with Androctonus australis hector (Aah) detoxified venom, and compare their effects on the immune system. Immunization schedule was performed with two groups of rabbits, which were injected with attenuated venom and Alum or MF59 adjuvant preparations, once a month during three months. Blood samples were collected each week for cell count, evaluation of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinoperoxydase (EPO) activities and antibody titer. After four months from the last immunization, rabbits were challenged with increased doses of native Aah venom. Results showed that MF59 effect was immediate in the first 24h post-immunization by activating the recruitment of lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils, while Alum adjuvant effect seems to be delayed, and appeared in the second week after immunization. An important cell infiltration was observed with Alum preparation, due to its specific local depot effect. However, immunized animals with MF59 preparation challenged with the native venom showed a protective effect against its toxicity until 6 LD50 compared to those immunized with Alum preparation which are only protected at 4 LD50. One week after challenge, only immunized animals with Alum preparation present an increase in cell infiltration, MPO and EPO activities. These results are correlated with the ability of MF59 adjuvant to induce a potent immunoprotective effect against Aah venom compared to Alum adjuvant. PMID:26419199

  19. Antimicrobial/cytolytic peptides from the venom of the North African scorpion, Androctonus amoreuxi: biochemical and functional characterization of natural peptides and a single site-substituted analog.

    PubMed

    Almaaytah, Ammar; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Lei; Chen, Tianbao; Walker, Brian; Shaw, Chris

    2012-06-01

    The venoms of scorpions are complex cocktails of polypeptide toxins that fall into two structural categories: those that contain cysteinyl residues with associated disulfide bridges and those that do not. As the majority of lethal toxins acting upon ion channels fall into the first category, most research has been focused there. Here we report the identification and structural characterization of two novel 18-mer antimicrobial peptides from the venom of the North African scorpion, Androctonus amoreuxi. Named AamAP1 and AamAP2, both peptides are C-terminally amidated and differ in primary structure at just two sites: Leu-->Pro at position 2 and Phe-->Ile at position 17. Synthetic replicates of both peptides exhibited a broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activity against a Gram-positive bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus), a Gram-negative bacterium (Escherichia coli) and a yeast (Candida albicans), at concentrations ranging between 20 μM and 150 μM. In this concentration range, both peptides produced significant degrees of hemolysis. A synthetic replicate of AamAP1 containing a single substitution (His-->Lys) at position 8, generated a peptide (AamAP-S1) with enhanced antimicrobial potency (3-5 μM) against the three test organisms and within this concentration range, hemolytic effects were negligible. In addition, this His-->Lys variant exhibited potent growth inhibitory activity (ID(50) 25-40 μm) against several human cancer cell lines and endothelial cells that was absent in both natural peptides. Natural bioactive peptide libraries, such as those that occur in scorpion venoms, thus constitute a unique source of novel lead compounds with drug development potential whose biological properties can be readily manipulated by simple synthetic chemical means. PMID:22484288

  20. Screening of tropical isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae for virulence to the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaodong; Yan, Wei; Qin, Weiquan; Zhang, Jing; Niu, Xiaoqing; Ma, Guangchang; Li, Fuheng

    2016-01-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a serious pest of the palm tree in tropical regions of the world. One strain of Metarhizium sp. ZJ-1, isolated from Chinese soils, was evaluated for growth characteristics, and screened for its virulence to R. ferrugineus larvae in laboratory conditions. An approximately 685-bp fragment was amplified by ITS (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) PCR from strain ZJ-1, further phylogenetic analysis revealed that 93 % similarity to Metarhizium anisopliae. Inoculation of 1 × 10(8) conidia/mL caused 100 % mortality of R. ferrugineus, LT50 levels of ZJ-1 were 1.66 days (1 × 10(8) conidia/mL), indicating that the conidia of strain ZJ-1 were highly virulent. These results suggest that M. anisopliae ZJ-1 has potential as an effective and persistent biological control agent for R. ferrugineus. PMID:27468401

  1. Two-dimensional sup 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance study of AaH IT, an anti-insect toxin from the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector. Sequential resonance assignments and folding of the polypeptide chain

    SciTech Connect

    Darbon, H. ); Weber, C.; Braun, W. )

    1991-02-19

    Sequence-specific nuclear magnetic resonance assignments for the polypeptide backbone and for most of the amino acid side-chain protons, as well as the general folding of AaH IT, are described. AaH IT is a neurotoxin purified from the venom of the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector and is specifically active on the insect nervous system. The secondary structure and the hydrogen-bonding patterns in the regular secondary structure elements are deduced from nuclear Overhauser effects and the sequence locations of the slowly exchanging amide protons. The backbone folding is determined by distance geometry calculations with the DISMAN program. The regular secondary structure includes two and a half turns of {alpha}-helix running from residues 21 to 30 and a three-stranded antiparallel {beta}-sheet including peptides 3-5, 34-38, and 41-46. Two tight turns are present, one connecting the end of the {alpha}-helix to an external strand of the {beta}-sheet, i.e., turn 31-34, and another connecting this same strand to the central one, i.e., turn 38-41. The differences in the specificity of these related proteins, which are able to discriminate between mammalian and insect voltage-dependent sodium channels of excitable tissues, are most probably brought about by the position of the C-terminal peptide with regard to a hydrophobic surface common to all scorpion toxins examined thus far. Thus, the interaction of a given scorpion toxin with its receptor might well be governed by the presence of this solvent-exposed hydrophobic surface, whereas adjacent areas modulate the specificity of the interaction.

  2. Beneficial effects of Androctonus australis hector venom and its non-toxic fraction in the restoration of early hepatocyte-carcinogenesis induced by FB1 mycotoxin: Involvement of oxidative biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Nadjia, Bekkari; Fatima, Laraba-Djebari

    2015-10-01

    Some venom components are known to present potential biological activities that are useful as tools in therapeutics. In this study anti-tumoral activity of Androctonus australis hector (Aah) venom and its purified fraction on early step of hepato-carcinogenesis initiated by Fumonisin (FB1), was tested. Initiated hepatic tumor was assessed in mice by decreased doses of Fumonisin B1 associated to phenobarbital. Scorpion venom was used to investigate its activity on initiated tumor by FB1. Evaluation of oxidative unbalance, enzymatic activities and DNA quantification in the liver were correlated with tissue analysis. Obtained results showed that the initiated pathogenesis by FB1 at seven months was characterized by tissue alterations and biomarker variations. These alterations were characterized by atypical lesions such as muffled nucleus, karyo- and cyto-megaly; up normal and large number of nuclei into hepatocytes. These alterations were confirmed by DNA alteration. An unbalance of oxidative status was also observed, characterized by an increased levels of respectively oxidant (NO and MDA) and antioxidant (GSH and catalase activity) mediators. Aah venom and its non-toxic fraction used at low doses seemed to be able to restore partially the hepatic altered tissue induced by FB1. Decreased levels of oxidative and anti-oxidative mediators were also observed. DNA in hepatocytes returned also to the physiological values. Structure of hepatic tissue showed restoration of some alterations such as karyo- and cyto-megaly; decrease of polyploidy hepatocytes induced by FB1. Aah venom and its non-toxic fraction seem to contain some bioactive components with anti-tumoral activity. Purification of this activity from non-toxic fraction F1 could be of interest to identify the components with anti-tumoral activities. PMID:26142225

  3. Five-grass pollen immunotherapy tablet: an update on the latest findings from clinical trials: an interview with Olivier de Beaumont.

    PubMed

    de Beaumont, Olivier; Wilkinson, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Interview by Jonathan Wilkinson (Managing Commissioning Editor, Future Science Group). Olivier de Beaumont became Doctor of Medicine at the University of Paris Descartes in 1993. In the same year, he also took a Master of Health Economics degree at Paris Dauphine University. He is also a Master of Business Administration, ESCP Paris, 1999. At Stallergenes, he has been serving as Vice President/Head of Corporate Clinical Development since 2005, responsible for the clinical development plan, clinical operations, biometry and pharmacovigilance. In 2011, he took the responsibility of Senior Vice President Global Medical Affairs responsible for medical information and education, medical communication and nonregistration clinical studies. In 2014 he became Senior Vice President Global Scientific and Medical Affairs. From 2002 to 2005 he led the European business development of the world's leading clinical research organization Quintiles, developing Phase I-IV clinical trial programs for pharmaceutical companies. Previous roles included: Chief Scientific Officer and cofounder of Direct Medica (2000-2002), product champion and lifecycle management at Aventis (1998-2000), medical affairs manager in oncology and respiratory diseases at corporate Rhone-Poulenc Rorer (1993-1998). PMID:25428642

  4. AaeAP1 and AaeAP2: novel antimicrobial peptides from the venom of the scorpion, Androctonus aeneas: structural characterisation, molecular cloning of biosynthetic precursor-encoding cDNAs and engineering of analogues with enhanced antimicrobial and anticancer activities.

    PubMed

    Du, Qiang; Hou, Xiaojuan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yingqi; Xi, Xinping; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Mei; Duan, Jinao; Wei, Minjie; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2015-02-01

    The main functions of the abundant polypeptide toxins present in scorpion venoms are the debilitation of arthropod prey or defence against predators. These effects are achieved mainly through the blocking of an array of ion channel types within the membranes of excitable cells. However, while these ion channel-blocking toxins are tightly-folded by multiple disulphide bridges between cysteine residues, there are additional groups of peptides in the venoms that are devoid of cysteine residues. These non-disulphide bridged peptides are the subject of much research interest, and among these are peptides that exhibit antimicrobial activity. Here, we describe two novel non-disulphide-bridged antimicrobial peptides that are present in the venom of the North African scorpion, Androctonus aeneas. The cDNAs encoding the biosynthetic precursors of both peptides were cloned from a venom-derived cDNA library using 3'- and 5'-RACE strategies. Both translated precursors contained open-reading frames of 74 amino acid residues, each encoding one copy of a putative novel nonadecapeptide, whose primary structures were FLFSLIPSVIAGLVSAIRN and FLFSLIPSAIAGLVSAIRN, respectively. Both peptides were C-terminally amidated. Synthetic versions of each natural peptide displayed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities, but were devoid of antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines. However, synthetic analogues of each peptide, engineered for enhanced cationicity and amphipathicity, exhibited increases in antimicrobial potency and acquired antiproliferative activity against a range of human cancer cell lines. These data clearly illustrate the potential that natural peptide templates provide towards the design of synthetic analogues for therapeutic exploitation. PMID:25626077

  5. AaeAP1 and AaeAP2: Novel Antimicrobial Peptides from the Venom of the Scorpion, Androctonus aeneas: Structural Characterisation, Molecular Cloning of Biosynthetic Precursor-Encoding cDNAs and Engineering of Analogues with Enhanced Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activities

    PubMed Central

    Du, Qiang; Hou, Xiaojuan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yingqi; Xi, Xinping; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Mei; Duan, Jinao; Wei, Minjie; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The main functions of the abundant polypeptide toxins present in scorpion venoms are the debilitation of arthropod prey or defence against predators. These effects are achieved mainly through the blocking of an array of ion channel types within the membranes of excitable cells. However, while these ion channel-blocking toxins are tightly-folded by multiple disulphide bridges between cysteine residues, there are additional groups of peptides in the venoms that are devoid of cysteine residues. These non-disulphide bridged peptides are the subject of much research interest, and among these are peptides that exhibit antimicrobial activity. Here, we describe two novel non-disulphide-bridged antimicrobial peptides that are present in the venom of the North African scorpion, Androctonus aeneas. The cDNAs encoding the biosynthetic precursors of both peptides were cloned from a venom-derived cDNA library using 3'- and 5'-RACE strategies. Both translated precursors contained open-reading frames of 74 amino acid residues, each encoding one copy of a putative novel nonadecapeptide, whose primary structures were FLFSLIPSVIAGLVSAIRN and FLFSLIPSAIAGLVSAIRN, respectively. Both peptides were C-terminally amidated. Synthetic versions of each natural peptide displayed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities, but were devoid of antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines. However, synthetic analogues of each peptide, engineered for enhanced cationicity and amphipathicity, exhibited increases in antimicrobial potency and acquired antiproliferative activity against a range of human cancer cell lines. These data clearly illustrate the potential that natural peptide templates provide towards the design of synthetic analogues for therapeutic exploitation. PMID:25626077

  6. Book Review: Electrodynamics from Ampère to Einstein. Olivier Darrigol, Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York, 2000, xix+532 pp., UK £75, ISBN 0-19-850594-9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, P. M.

    The scope of Olivier Darrigol's impressive treatise arouses both surprise and admiration. Darrigol has already established his credentials and expertise on this subject with a series of very substantial articles published during the past decade. However, writing the history of an individual science, especially of a theme within a scientific discipline, is hardly currently popular practice amongst historians of science. Darrigol's ambitious enterprise follows the pattern set by E. T. Whittaker's still valuable History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity (its first volume originally published in 1910), rather than the local studies favoured by contemporary historians of science. To descend to the jocular, unsympathetic readers might observe Eduard Fraenkel's celebrated request in his Horace to shut the book and never open it again as it could only disappoint and distress them. But let me hasten to add that this is scarcely the recommended option for the serious student of the subject, for Darrigol's achievement matches Whittaker's of nearly a century ago, and does so in a wholly contemporary idiom. In its sophistication of analysis and detail of presentation, this treatise will surely become a standard resource for historians of science in the coming century. Darrigol offers a richly textured narrative, painstaking in its attention to detail and compelling in conceptual thrust, a work which will repay attention by historians and philosophers of physics.

  7. The Lesser of Two Weevils: Molecular-Genetics of Pest Palm Weevil Populations Confirm Rhynchophorus vulneratus (Panzer 1798) as a Valid Species Distinct from R. ferrugineus (Olivier 1790), and Reveal the Global Extent of Both

    PubMed Central

    Rugman-Jones, Paul F.; Hoddle, Christina D.; Hoddle, Mark S.; Stouthamer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The red palm weevil (RPW) is a major pest of palms. It is native to southeast Asia and Melanesia, but in recent decades has vastly expanded its range as the result of multiple accidental anthropogenic introductions into the Middle East, Mediterranean Basin, Caribbean, and U.S.A. Currently regarded as a single species, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), RPW displays remarkable color variation across its range, and consequently has a taxonomic history littered with new species descriptions and synonymization. We compared DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from RPW populations throughout the native and invaded ranges, to investigate the specific status and invasion history of this serious economic pest, and to identify possible common routes of entry. Analyses of COI haplotype data provide conclusive support, corroborated by sequences of additional nuclear gene regions, for the existence of at least two predominantly allopatric species. The true R. ferrugineus is native only to the northern and western parts of continental southeast Asia, Sri Lanka and the Philippines, and is responsible for almost all invasive populations worldwide. In contrast, the second species, which is currently synonymized under R. ferrugineus and should be resurrected under the name R. vulneratus (Panzer), has a more southern distribution across Indonesia, and is responsible for only one invasive population; that in California, U.S.A. The distribution of COI haplotypes is used to discuss the possible existence of further cryptic species, sources and routes of entry of different invasive populations, and the implications of our findings for current control methods. PMID:24143263

  8. Teaching the Shakespearean Film: Olivier's "Henry V."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, John

    For at least two kinds of literature instructors, classroom use of a film derived from a Shakespeare play is potentially promising: a Shakespeare course instructor can present one attempt to visualize the implications of the printed word, and a teacher of a course which compares film and literature has at least one respectable film adaptation of a…

  9. Teratogenicity in the rat of the venom from the scorpion Androctonus amoreuxi (Aud. & Sav.).

    PubMed

    Ismail, M; Ellison, A C; Tilmisany, A K

    1983-01-01

    A. amoreuxi venom caused a high foetal resorption rate in rats, particularly when injected on days 9-11 of gestation. Vertebral and ossification defects and foetal weight loss were observed in many of the viable foetuses obtained from mothers treated with scorpion venom. Treatment of the rats with phentolamine in addition to the venom significantly reduced the venom-induced hyperglycemia. It also conferred some protection against foetal resorption but had only a slight effect on chondrification or foetal weight loss. This shows that hyperglycemia might be responsible for foetal mortality, but alone is not a decisive factor in the effect of the venom on the chondrification process. Treatment of the rats with triamterene reduced the foetal resorption rate and significantly decreased the effects of the venom on chondrification. However, marked stippling was observed in the long bones and was ascribed to marked mobilization of ionized calcium in the foetus. Foetuses removed from rats treated with phentolamine or triamterene in addition to the venom, however, showed flattened and depressed skulls, possibly from a missing 1st cervical vertebra or failure of the occipital fontanel to close. Treatment of the rats with the scorpion venom over a longer period of time and starting at an earlier time of gestation (days 7-14) caused total foetal resorption, which may be due to inhibition of histamine formation by the venom. The teratogenic effect of the venom appears to be the result of its metabolic effect and action on body electrolytes of the maternal animal, rather than to a direct effect on the foetuses. This was evidenced from experiments with labelled venom, where only a small fraction (0.08-0.33%) was detected in foetuses or placenta. PMID:6344336

  10. Histopathological changes in liver of mice after experimental envenomation with Androctonus amoreuxi scorpion venom.

    PubMed

    Fetaih, Hamdy A; Shoukry, Nahla M; Soliman, Belal A; Mohallal, Mahmoud E; Khaled, Howayda S

    2013-08-01

    A total of 78 adult male Albino mice were divided into thirteen groups (6 mice in each). One served as a control group and the other twelve groups were venom treated groups. The mice of treated groups were injected with 0.1 ml saline solution in which a particular amount of scorpion venom. The first 6 groups were subcutaneously injected with 1/2 LD50 (0.05 microg/g body weight), while the other 6 groups were injected with 1/4 LD 50 (0.025 microg/g body weight) by the same route. The animals from each group were anesthetized with ethyl ether and sacrificed at different time intervals (3, 6, 9, 12 hrs, 4 & 7days post toxin administration). The microscopic examination of liver tissue obtained from envenomed animals showed variable histopathological changes being severely increased with the time interval of envenoming. The most obvious changes in the liver were acute cellular swelling, hydropic degeneration, congestion of central veins and portal blood vessels. Besides, extramedullary hematopoiesis and invaginations in nuclei of hepatic cells, with formation of intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions were observed. PMID:24260823

  11. Scorpion fauna and epidemiological aspects of scorpionism in southeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nejati, Jalil; Mozafari, Ehsan; Saghafipour, Abedin; Kiyani, Malek

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify the scorpion fauna and classify the epidemiological aspects of scorpionism in an endemic region, Southeast Iran. Methods Scorpionism data were collected from health centers and hospitals in Sistan-Baluchestan Province during 2010-2011. Specimens were collected at night, using UV light, between May and October 2012. Results In total, 246 scorpions were collected from two families (Buthidae and Scorpionidae). Five species including Odontobuthus odonturus, Hottentotta (Buthotus) jayakari, Compsobuthus matthiesseni, Scorpio maurus and Orthochirus scrobiculosus are reported for the first time from this area. Androctonus crassicauda was the dominant species. In total, 3 638 scorpion sting cases were recorded by health system, the majority of which were females. Stings mostly occurred in July and the age group of 15-24 years presented the highest frequency. Scorpionism decreased during 2011 compared with that in 2010 (68.2%). Conclusions Based on the results, scorpionism is a serious health problem in this area and increasing knowledge of residents regarding the prevention methods of scorpion stings is recommended. Additional research on the scorpion fauna, their ecological and molecular variety in this part of the country is needed as well as the correlation between scorpions' species and the clinical signs and symptoms. PMID:25183084

  12. Rapid colonization of new habitats in the Wadden Sea by the ovoviviparous Littorina saxatilis (Olivi)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmsen, U.

    1998-09-01

    The intertidal periwinkle Littorina saxatilis completely lacks larval dispersal and adult vagility is low. Although this suggests a low dispersal rate, L. saxatilis is frequently found in recently established habitats “exotic” to the Wadden Sea. Populations occur on man-made structures like dikes, breakwater and groynes, some of which are not older than several years. Furthermore, L. saxatilis is found on marsh grass Spartina anglica, introduced to the Wadden Sea in the 1920s and 1930s, as well as on mats of green macroalgae, which have become an abundant feature on the tidal flats since the late 1970s. Seagrass beds are likely to be the original habitat of L. saxatilis in the Wadden Sea. Since seagrass populations have dramatically declined over the last decades, colonization of new habitat types enabled L. saxatilis to maintain its Wadden Sea populations despite a changing environment. Colonizers can reach new habitats by means of passive transport, especially by rafting on macrophytes and by aerial dispersal attached to birds. In thew Wadden Sea, the ovoviviparously reproducing L. saxatilis has demonstrated its ability to successfully found new populations with only a few individuals. No reduction of genetic variablility (founder effect) was observed in recently established populations.

  13. Susceptibility and Immune Defence Mechanisms of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) against Entomopathogenic Fungal Infections.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Abid; Rizwan-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Al-Ayedh, Hassan; AlJabr, Ahmed Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Insects infected with entomopathogenic fungi, experience physiological changes that influence their growth and immune defence. The potential of nine isolates of entomopathogenic fungi was evaluated after determining percent germination and relative conidial hydrophobicity. However, nutritional indices were evaluated after immersing eighth-instar Rhynchophorus ferrugineus larvae into each isolate suspension (1 × 10⁷ conidia/mL). The results showed that isolates B6884 and M9374 had 44.51% and 39.02% higher conidial hydrophobicity compared with isolate I03011 (least virulent). The results of nutritional index assays revealed a significant reduction in growth indices after infection with different isolates. Compared with control, B6884 and M9374 greatly decreased larval growth by reducing the efficacy of conversion of ingested food (36%-47%) and Efficacy of conversion of digested food (50%-63%). Furthermore, only isolate B6884 induced 100% mortality within 12 days. Compared with control, isolate I03011, possessing the lowest conidial hydrophobicity, only reduced 0.29% of the efficacy of conversion of ingested food (ECI) and 0.48% of the efficacy of conversion of digested food (ECD). Similarly, transcriptomic analysis of genes related to the Red palm weevil (RPW) immune response, including pathogen recognition receptors (C-type lectin and endo-beta-1,4-glucanse), signal modulator (Serine protease-like protein), signal transductors (Calmodulin-like protein and EF-hand domain containing protein) and effectors (C-type lysozyme, Cathepsin L., Defensin-like protein, Serine carboxypeptidase, and Thaumatin-like protein), was significantly increased in larval samples infected with B6884 and M9374. These results suggest that for an isolate to be virulent, conidial hydrophobicity and germination should also be considered during pathogen selection, as these factors could significantly impact host growth and immune defence mechanisms. PMID:27618036

  14. Changes in cell surface properties of shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli by Quercus infectoria G. Olivier.

    PubMed

    Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan; Suwalak, Sakol

    2009-08-01

    The effects of Quercus infectoria (family Fagaceae) nutgalls on cell surface properties of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) were investigated with an assay of microbial adhesion to hydrocarbon. The surface of bacterial cells treated with Q. infectoria exhibited a higher level of cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) toward toluene than did the surface of untreated cells. With 50% ethanolic extract, the CSH of the three strains of STEC O157:H7 treated with 4X MIC of the extract resulted in moderate or strong hydrophobicity, whereas at 2x MIC and MIC, the CSH of only one strain of E. coli O157:H7 was significantly affected. The 95% ethanolic extract had a significant effect on CSH of all three strains at both 4X MIC and 2X MIC but not at the MIC. The effect on bacterial CSH was less pronounced with the other STEC strains. At 4X MIC, the 50% ethanolic extract increased the CSH of all non-O157 STEC strains significantly. At 2X MIC and 4X MIC, the 95% ethanolic extract affected the CSH of E. coli O26:H11 significantly but did not affect E. coli O111 :NM or E. coli O22. Electro microscopic examination revealed the loss of pili in the treated cells. The ability of Q. infectoria extract to modify hydrophobic domains enables this extract to partition the lipids of the bacterial cell membrane, rendering the membrane more permeable and allowing leakage of ions and other cell contents, which leads to cell death. Further studies are required to evaluate the effects of Q. infectoria extract in food systems or in vivo and provide support for the use of this extract as a food additive for control of these STEC pathogens. PMID:19722403

  15. Sociogenetic structure of Polistes (Aphanilopterus) versicolor Olivier, 1791 colonies (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistini)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The observation of two distinct, well-defined oviposition areas in nests of the primitively eusocial wasp Polistes versicolor suggests the presence of multiple egg-layers and territorial behaviors. Electrophoretic analysis of enzyme loci in pupae from 35 colonies revealed an average observed heterozygosity of 0.10 and the existence of private polymorphisms, thereby indicating a low dispersion in this species. No evidence of diploid males was found. Phenotypic segregation analysis revealed the presence of more than one egg-laying female in 15 out of 35 colonies, as well as spatially preferential oviposition in 2 out of 13 nests, with distinct oviposition areas. Genetic relatedness estimates for brood were lower than expected for haplodiploid species under monogynous conditions (r = 0.75 for female broods and r = 0.5 for male) in 4 of those 13 nests, thereby inferring complex sociogenetic structuring in Polistes versicolor colonies. PMID:21637576

  16. Comment on: `The quest for a consistent signal in ground and GRACE gravity time-series', by Michel Van Camp, Olivier de Viron, Laurent Metivier, Bruno Meurers and Olivier Francis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crossley, D. J.; Boy, J.-P.; Hinderer, J.; Jahr, T.; Weise, A.; Wziontek, H.; Abe, M.; Förste, C.

    2014-12-01

    The paper in question by Van Camp and co-authors [MVC] challenges previous work showing that ground gravity data arising from hydrology can provide a consistent signal for the comparison with satellite gravity data. The data sets used are similar to those used previously, that is, the gravity field as measured by the GRACE satellites versus ground-based data from superconducting gravimeters (SGs) over the same continental area, in this case Central Europe. One of the main impediments in this paper is the presentation that is frequently confusing and misleading as to what the data analysis really shows, for example, the irregular treatment of annual components that are first subtracted then reappear in the analysis. More importantly, we disagree on specific points. Two calculations are included in our comment to illustrate where we believe that the processing in [MVC] paper is deficient. The first deals with their erroneous treatment of the global hydrology using a truncated spherical harmonic approach which explains almost a factor 2 error in their computation of the loading. The second shows the effect of making the wrong assumption in the GRACE/hydrology/surface gravity comparison by inverting the whole of the hydrology loading for underground stations. We also challenge their claims that empirical orthogonal function techniques cannot be done in the presence of periodic components, and that SG data cannot be corrected for comparisons with GRACE data. The main conclusion of their paper, that there is little coherence between ground gravity stations and this invalidates GRACE comparisons, is therefore questionable. There is nothing in [MVC] that contradicts any of the previous papers that have shown clearly a strong relation between seasonal signals obtained from both ground gravity and GRACE satellite data.

  17. Filiferol, a chalconoid analogue from Washingtonia filifera possibly involved in the defence against the Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier.

    PubMed

    Cangelosi, Benedetta; Clematis, Francesca; Monroy, Fernando; Roversi, Pio Federico; Troiano, Raffaele; Curir, Paolo; Lanzotti, Virginia

    2015-07-01

    A chalconoid analogue, 1,3,5-benzentriol 2-[(2S,3R)-3-(3,4-dihydroxylphenyl)-2,3-dihydroxylpropyl], named filiferol (1), has been isolated and purified for the first time from the leaf basal tissues of the palm species Washingtonia filifera. The chemical structure of the isolated compound has been elucidated unambiguously by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Filiferol has been based on a flavonol structure with the reduction of the common flavonoid keto group to give an unprecedented methylene carbon on the three carbon chain. An analogous compound with S stereochemistry at C3 has been obtained as synthetic intermediate for developing an enantioselective synthesis of (2R,3S)-(+)-catechin. Even though 1 proved to be deprived of antifungal properties, it displays a very effective larvicidal activity against Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, an important pest affecting cultivated and ornamental palms. 1 has been isolated from leaf tissues of W. filifera, a species resistant to this pest, but this molecule seems instead undetectable in tissues of other palm species susceptible to the parasite. The presence of 1 could therefore account for W. filifera natural resistance to the attacks of the Red Palm Weevil (R. ferrugineus). PMID:25725962

  18. Heat production in Littorina saxatilis Olivi and Littorina neritoides L. (gastropoda: Prosobranchia) during an experimental exposure to air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronberg, Inge

    1990-06-01

    The adaptation of littorinid molluscs to prolonged aerial exposure was investigated by the determination of heat production. Littorina saxatilis, inhabiting the upper eulittoral, reached a maximum metabolic activity during submersion (heat production: 3.26×10-3J s-1 (gadw)-1. On the first three days of desiccation, the heat production was continuously reduced to 40% of the submersed value. A prolonged aerial exposure was lethal for this species. In the supralittoral L. neritoides, three stages of energy metabolism could be observed: An intermediate heat production during submersion (1.97×10-3Js-1 (gadw)-1), an increased metabolism during the first hour of aerial exposure (heat production 204% of submersed value), and a minimal metabolism (39% of the submersed value and 19% of maximum value) during the following days and weeks of desiccation. Recovery depended on water salinity; L. saxatilis proved to be less euryhaline than L. neritoides. Thus, the metabolic adaptations correlate with the level of littoral habitat; inactivity combined with a drastically reduced energy consumption is a metabolically economic way to survive in periodically dry environments.

  19. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of the Methanol Extract from the Galls of Quercus infectoria (Olivier) in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Noraisah Akbar

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the analgesic activity of the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria in rats using hot plate and tail-flick methods. The extract was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 20 mg/kg while morphine sulfate and sodium salicylate (10 mg/kg) served as standards. The methanol extract exhibited significant analgesic activity in the tail-flick model (P < 0.05) by increasing the reaction time of the rats to 8.0 sec at 30 min after treatment in comparison to control (4.4 sec). Morphine sulfate produced a reaction time of 11.9 sec in the same test. At the peak of activity (30 min), the extract produced maximum possible analgesia (MPA) of 34.2%, whilst morphine sulfate achieved a peak MPA of 70.9%. No analgesic effects have been observed using sodium salicylate in the tail-flick model. In the same model, the extract and sodium salicylate demonstrated comparable reaction times. Tail-flick is a better method to evaluate analgesic activity as no significant results were observed for all treatments using hot plate with the exception of morphine sulfate, which showed significant results only at 45 and 60 min after treatment. In conclusion, the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria displayed analgesic activity. PMID:25254062

  20. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of the Methanol Extract from the Galls of Quercus infectoria (Olivier) in Rats.

    PubMed

    Fan, Sook-Ha; Ali, Noraisah Akbar; Basri, Dayang Fredalina

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the analgesic activity of the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria in rats using hot plate and tail-flick methods. The extract was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 20 mg/kg while morphine sulfate and sodium salicylate (10 mg/kg) served as standards. The methanol extract exhibited significant analgesic activity in the tail-flick model (P < 0.05) by increasing the reaction time of the rats to 8.0 sec at 30 min after treatment in comparison to control (4.4 sec). Morphine sulfate produced a reaction time of 11.9 sec in the same test. At the peak of activity (30 min), the extract produced maximum possible analgesia (MPA) of 34.2%, whilst morphine sulfate achieved a peak MPA of 70.9%. No analgesic effects have been observed using sodium salicylate in the tail-flick model. In the same model, the extract and sodium salicylate demonstrated comparable reaction times. Tail-flick is a better method to evaluate analgesic activity as no significant results were observed for all treatments using hot plate with the exception of morphine sulfate, which showed significant results only at 45 and 60 min after treatment. In conclusion, the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria displayed analgesic activity. PMID:25254062

  1. Smoke, pheromone and kairomone olfactory receptor neurons in males and females of the pine sawyer Monochamus galloprovincialis (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Gonzalo; Ammagarahalli, Byrappa; Hall, David R; Pajares, Juan A; Gemeno, César

    2015-11-01

    The response of antennal olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) of Monochamus galloprovincialis to several odourants was tested using single sensillum electrophysiology. Behaviourally active pheromone, and kairomone (host and sympatric bark beetle pheromone) odours were tested alongside smoke compounds released by burnt wood that are potentially attractive to the insect. The antennae bore several types of sensilla. Two plate areas in the proximal and distal ends of each antennal segment were covered with basiconic sensilla that responded to the odour stimuli. Sensilla basiconica contained one or two cells of different spike amplitude. The 32 male and 38 female ORNs tested responded with excitations or inhibitions to the different plant odours. In general the response of male and female receptors was very similar so they were pooled to perform a cluster analysis on ORN responses. Six ORNs were clearly specialised for pheromone reception. Responses to kairomone and smoke odours were less specific than those of pheromone, but a group of 9 cells was clearly excited by smoke compounds (mainly eugenol and 4-methyl 2-methoxyphenol), a group of 8 cells was very responsive to α-pinene, β-pinene and cis-verbenol, and a group of 14 cells responded to a wider range of compounds. The rest of the cells (47%) were either non-responsive or slightly inhibited by smoke compounds. Dose-response curves were obtained for several compounds. Different compounds induced significantly different latencies and these appeared to be unrelated to their boiling point. PMID:26296453

  2. Susceptibility and possible resistance mechanisms in the palm species Phoenix dactylifera, Chamaerops humilis and Washingtonia filifera against Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Cangelosi, B; Clematis, F; Curir, P; Monroy, F

    2016-06-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, known as the Red Palm Weevil (RPW), is reported as a pest of up to 40 palm species. However, the susceptibility degree and the defense mechanisms of these species against this weevil are still poorly known. In Europe, the RPW is a major pest of Phoenix canariensis while other palm species, including the congeneric Phoenix dactylifera, seem to be less suitable hosts for this insect. The aim of our study was to compare the defensive response of P. dactylifera, Chamaerops humilis and Washingtonia filifera against R. ferrugineus and try to define the mechanisms of resistance that characterize these species. Bioassays were carried out to evaluate the mortality induced on RPW larvae by extracts from the leaf rachis of the studied palm species. Tests at semi-field scale were also conducted, based either on forced palm infestation, with larvae of RPW, or on natural infestation, with adult females. Rachis extracts from C. humilis and W. filifera caused 100% larval mortality after 2 days of exposure, while extracts of P. dactylifera did not impair larval survival. Independently of the effect of the leaf extracts, the weevils were unable to naturally infest the three palm species, although larval survival was high after forced infestation of the plants. We concluded that the observed lack of infestation of P. dactylifera by RPW is due to factors other than antibiosis. In W. filifera and C. humilis, although the presence of antixenosis mechanisms cannot be excluded, resistance to R. ferrugineus seems to rely on the presence of antibiosis compounds. PMID:26976073

  3. Comment on ``The existence of an inner core super-rotation questioned by teleseismic doublets'' by Georges Poupinet, Annie Souriau, and Olivier Coutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaodong

    2001-08-01

    Poupinet et al. [J. Geophys. Res. 89 (1984) 5719] presented a new methodology for testing whether the PKP travel times observed at College, Alaska station from South Sandwich Islands earthquakes indicate inner core rotation. They applied the method to seven events and concluded that there is no evidence for PKP(DF) times increasing systematically with event dates, and therefore no reason to postulate that the inner core rotates at a different rate than the mantle. In a reanalysis of the same seven events, I find that their results are systematically biased by the choice of radial Earth models and by incorrectly assuming that one of the phases had reversed polarity. I also question their choice of events, but upon correcting for these biases, conclude that these seven events are consistent with the previous model of inner core rotation.

  4. Efficacy of aggregation pheromone in trapping red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier) and rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros Linn.) from infested coconut palms.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, A K; Chandrashekharaiah, M; Kandakoor, Subhash B; Nagaraj, D N

    2014-05-01

    Red palm weevil and Rhinoceros beetle are the major pests inflicting severe damage to coconut palms. Due to ineffectiveness of the current management practices to control the two important pests on coconut, a study was conducted to know the attractiveness of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle to aggregation pheromone. Olfactometer studies indicated that the aggregation pheromone of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle attracted significantly more number of weevils (13.4 females and 7.6 male weevils) and beetles (6.5 male and 12.3 female beetles), respectively than control. Similarly, field studies found that both 750 and 1000 mg pheromone dosage lures of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle trapped significantly higher numbers of weevils (695.80 and 789 weevils, respectively) and beetles (98 and 108 beetles, respectively) in traps (P < 0.05), respectively. On an average (n = 6 field trials) 80-85% red palm weevil and 72-78% rhinoceros beetle population got trapped. Observations indicated activity of red palm weevil throughout the year and of rhinoceros beetle from September to March around Bangalore, South India. Pheromone traps for red palm weevil can be placed in fields from June to August and October to December and September to February for rhinoceros beetle. Population reductions of the two coleopteran pests by pheromone traps are compatible with mechanical and cultural management tools with cumulative effects. PMID:24813002

  5. [Space organization and structure of the scorpion population in the region of Sfax (Tunisia)].

    PubMed

    Nouira, S; Ktari, M H

    1989-01-01

    Four species of scorpions live in Sfax area: Androctonus australis, Androctonus aeneas, Buthus occitanus and Scorpio maurus. Preliminary study of this community organization showed that: spatial segregation allow coexistence of different species, nature and texture of the soil determine biogeography distribution and populations abundances in the sector studied, populations of scorpions maintains close connections between them and with guild of insectivorous and nocturnal lizards, particularly competition and predation. PMID:2488541

  6. On the type species of the South American dung beetle genus Chalcocopris Burmeister, 1846 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), with some comments on the type locality of C. hesperus (Olivier, 1789).

    PubMed

    Cupello, Mario; Rossini, Michele; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a new paper authored by two of us (Rossini & Vaz-de-Mello, 2015) addressed a taxonomic revision of Chalcocopris Burmeister, 1846, describing a second species for the genus and expanding our knowledge of its distribution and morphological diversity. In the present work, we address additional nomenclatural and historical issues not covered in that paper. PMID:27395499

  7. Systematics and phylogenetics of Indo-Pacific Luciolinae fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) and the description of new genera.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, Lesly A; Lambkin, Christine L

    2013-01-01

    This revision completes a taxonomic survey of fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) in the area encompassed by Australia, the Republic of Palau, Federated States of Micronesia, Papua New Guinea, Indonesia (West Irian/Papua), Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, Vanuatu and Fiji. It finalises the taxonomic issues arising from the 1969–70 voyage of the scientific vessel Alpha Helix to New Guinea. The firefly fauna of this area is exclusively Luciolinae. The scope of the revision was extended to include all known Luciolinae genera and certain species from SE Asia, and a phylogenetic analysis of 436 morphological characters of males, females, and associated larvae includes 142 Luciolinae species (Ballantyne & Lambkin 2009, and Fu et al. 2012a). The phylogenetic analyses infer four major groups within the Luciolinae. The monotypic Missimia Ballantyne is sister to all remaining Luciolinae and forms a grade to Aquatica Fu etBallantyne. The large clade of Curtos Motschulsky, Photuroluciola Pic, Colophotia Motschulsky, Poluninius gen. nov., Pyrophanes Olivier, Pteroptyx s. str. Olivier, Medeopteryx gen. nov., Trisinuata gen. nov., and Australoluciola gen. nov.forms a grade to the clade of Luciola s. str. Laporte (including Bourgeoisia Olivier). The monotypic Emeia Fu et al.forms a grade with a clade of Luciola and Pygoluciola Wittmer, sister to a large clade of Convexa Ballantyne, Pacifica gen. nov., Magnalata Ballantyne, Lloydiella Ballantyne, Asymmetricata Ballantyne, Pygatyphella s. str. Ballantyne, Atyphella Olliff, Aquilonia Ballantyne, and Gilvainsula Ballantyne. Luciola is paraphyletic, found in up to six clades across the tree. Together with Luciola, Magnalata, Aquilonia, and Gilvainsula render Atyphella paraphyletic. The new genera described here are all monophyletic and supported in the phylogenetic analyses that also provide evidence for the inclusion of taxa within them. Twenty-three genera including five new ones, and ten new species, are recognised and keys are

  8. A new species of Derancistrus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Prioninae) from Dominican Republic with notes on other species of Prioninae of Hispaniola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Derancistrus hovorei is described from Dominican Republic. A diagnosis is provided to discriminate it from related taxa, in particular Derancistrodes vittatus (Olivier) and Derancistrus elegans (Palisot de Beauvois). Biological, distributional, and/or taxonomic notes are provided for other Hispani...

  9. Summary of the Conference "The Physics of Evolved Stars"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marco, O.

    2015-12-01

    Olivier Chesneau was an astronomer of many talents. His expertise was on optical and infrared interferometry. Olivier*s tool of choice, the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), allowed him to see solutions to open questions in stellar astrophysics. These visions led to collaborations with experts in each of the fields where VLTI observations could be useful. As a result Olivier was a man in the middle of a phenomenal network of astronomers, collaborators and friends. I am fortunate to have been one of them. In this contribution I summarise the conference "Physics of Evolved Stars", held in Nice in June 2015 in memory of Olivier. The conference neatly showcased the science that Olivier had been involved with during his life and laid out the advancements that were made thanks in great part to him and to the collaborations he started. Without doubt his bubbly, happy personality, child-like in a way, made him the perfect connector bringing the technique, the questions and the experts in diverse fields together. Dear to all who worked with him, he was truly the little prince of Astronomy. We shall miss him every day.

  10. Effects of atropine and propranolol on lung inflammation in experimental envenomation: comparison of two buthidae venoms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous works had shown that scorpion venom induced neurotransmitter elevation and an inflammatory response associated with various anatomo-pathological modifications. The most dangerous scorpions species in Algeria responsible for these effects are Androctonus australis hector (Aah) and Androctonus amoreuxi (Aam). Results Comparison of the physiopathological effects induced by the two venoms showed differences in the kinetic of cytokine release and in lung injury. The lung edema was only observed in response to Aah venom and it was correlated with cell infiltration. In order to better understand the involved mechanism in inflammatory response, we used two antagonists, atropine (non-selective muscarinic antagonist) and propranolol (β adrenergic antagonist), which lead to a decrease of cell infiltration but has no effect on edema forming. Conclusion These results suggest another pathway in the development of lung injury following envenomation with Aam or Aah venom. PMID:23849182

  11. Evidence for existence of different Escherichia coli populations in karst aquifer depending on hydrological conditions and the use of watershed. Fabienne Petit1*, Mehdy Ratajczak1, Nicolas Massei 1, Olivier Clermont 2, Erick Denamur 2, Thierry Berthe1,. 1CNRS UMR 6143 M2C, Université de Rouen, FED SCALE 4116, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan 2 INSERM U722, Université Paris 7 Denis Diderot ,75018 Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabienne, P.; Mehdy, R.; Massei, N.; Clermont, O.; Denamur, E.; Berthe, T.

    2011-12-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a commensal bacterium of the gastro-intestinal tract of human and vertebrate animals, even if the aquatic environment could be considered as a secondary habitat. During turbids events consecutive to the rainfall, E.coli are released from manure and feces in karstic hydrosystem with different settling velocities, related to their association to particles. In water, survival of E. coli, was dependant to the grazing by protozoans and their ability to overcome environmental stress. In these conditions, viable but non culturable (VNC) population of E. coli, could be observed. The aim of this study was to investigate, in a small well characterized rural karstic watershed (i) the structure of E. coli population based on the survival ability, the distribution in four main phylo-groups (A, B1, B2, D), and the phenotypic characteristics, (ii) the fate and the distribution of viable non culturable E. coli according their settling velocities, from surface water to groundwater. For this purpose we combined microbiology and hydrology approaches, and solid phase cytometry (ChemScan°RDI) methodology was performed to numbered VNC E. coli. The distribution in the four main E. coli phylo-groups (A, B1, B2, D) shown that the E. coli population structure was modified not only by the hydrological conditions but also the use of the watershed (presence of cattle). Survival abilities of E. coli strains based on microcosm experiments, vary from 2 days to at least 14 days. Characterization of E. coli was performed by studying specific traits present in host-associated strains (virulence factors, antibiotic resistance) and those that could be involved in water persistence (growth temperature substrate range, biofilm formation and grazing by protozoa). Three major clusters of strains were defined by using a correspondence factor analysis. In water characterized by high level of fecal contamination a first cluster of E. coli strains was related to A and B2 phylo-group, presented a multiple-antibiotic-resistance profile, and had low survival abilities in water. In slightly contaminated water, E. coli strains were persistent in water, sensitive to antibiotics, and able to develop at low temperature (from 7°C to 20°C) and to degrade macromolecules. In the same karstic hydrosystem, whatever the hydrological conditions, a population of E. coli in VNC state was observed, even in dry period where VNC E. coli raised to 96% of the total viable E. coli population. The distribution of the E. coli VNC population according to their settling velocity varies along the transfer between the swallow hole to the spring. Thus rapid flow inside karstic aquifer supports the culturability of E. coli. In contrast, in during low-flow period with slow transport of contaminant, E. coli lose their culturability but could maintained inside in VNC state in such hydrosystem.

  12. A review of the genus Selasia (Elateridae: Agrypninae: Drilini) in the Palaearctic Region.

    PubMed

    Trllova, Sarka; Kundrata, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The six species of the soft-bodied elaterid genus Selasia Laporte (Agrypninae: Drilini) from the Palaearctic Region are reviewed: S. arabica Geisthardt, 2003 (Yemen, Oman, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia), S. atriventris Pic, 1914 (India, Nepal), S. boruckae Kundrata, 2012 (Nepal), S. homhilia Geisthardt, 2003 (Yemen: Socotra), S. merkli Kundrata, 2012 (Pakistan), and S. socotrana Kundrata, 2012 (Yemen: Socotra). Selasia arabica and S. atriventris are recorded for the first time from Oman and Nepal, respectively. The variability in coloration of S. arabica is discussed. Selasia bleusei Olivier, 1913 from Rhodes is redescribed and transferred to Drilus Olivier, 1790 as D. bleusei (Olivier, 1913), comb. nov. A differential diagnosis is given and taxonomically important characters are figured. An identification key as well as data on the distributions, type depositories and bibliographic references of each Palaearctic Selasia species are provided. PMID:25781402

  13. Asteroid 2005 SB223: no evidence of cometary activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousis, O.; Behrend, R.; Lorin, O.

    2006-07-01

    Olivier Mousis, Besançon Observatory, France, imaged the object 2005 SB223 which has a cometary like orbit (q=2.77 UA, e=0.91, i=91°). One hundred R-filtered 30s-images were obtained on 2006-06-01.8 UT when the object was at the heliocentric distance of 3.36 AU, using the 1.0m telescope at Sutherland (SAAO, South-Afrika). The data analysis was performed by Raoul Behrend, Geneva Observatory, Switzerland and Olivier Lorin, Besançon Observatory, France.

  14. Impact of temperature and relative humidity on life history parameters of adult Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a pest of stored corn, Zea mays L., and other grains throughout the world. S. cerealella are routinely exposed to temperatures below 20°C in regions of the U.S. where corn is grown, yet there are no data describi...

  15. Description of a new species of the genus Laelaspis Berlese (Acari, Mesostigmata, Laelapidae) from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Shahrooz; Mehrzad, Nazanin; Latifi, Malihe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Laelaspis Berlese, Laelaspis elongatus sp. n. is described based on adult female and male specimens collected in association with Pheidole pallidula (Nylander) (Hym., Formicidae) in Ahwaz, Khuzestan Province, southwestern Iran, and also Acinopus (Acinopus) picipes (Olivier) (Col., Carabidae) in Bam, Kerman Province, southeastern Iran. PMID:26843834

  16. Detection of Rhynchophorus palmarum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and identification of associated nematodes in south Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study reports a survey conducted to find the South American palm weevil Rhynchophorus palmarum (L.) and the red palm weevil R. ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), two invasive species of palm trees. The study was performed in the Rio Grande Valley of south Texas and near the bor...

  17. TESTING FOR A TRAIL FOLLOWING PHEROMONE ON THE SILKY CANE WEEVIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The silky cane weevil (SCW), Metamasius hemipterus sericeus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a pest of sugarcane, and palms, and was introduced into Florida in the mid-1980s. In laboratory tests it was observed that weevils followed tracks already walked by other co-specifics and experiments...

  18. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (13th, Paris, France, July 9-13, 1989), Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergnaud, Gerard, Ed.; Rogalski, Janine, Ed.; Artique, Michele, Ed.

    This proceedings of the annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) includes the following research papers: "A Model of Understanding Two-Digit Numeration and Computation" (H. Murray & A. Olivier); "The Computer Produces a Special Graphic Situation of Learning the Change of Coordinate System" (S.…

  19. Additions to the review of Chinese Enochrus, with description of a new species (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Enochrinae).

    PubMed

    Jia, Fenglong; Lin, Renchao

    2015-01-01

    A new species, Enochrus (Methydrus) limbourgisp. n., is described from Jiangxi Province, Southeast China, and illustrated. Subgenus Enochrus s. str. Thomson, 1859 is recorded for the first time in China, based on the record of Enochrus(s. str.)melanocephalus (Olivier, 1792) from Inner Mongolia. The male of Enochrus (Hydatotrephis) liangi Jia & Zhao, 2007 is described for the first time. PMID:25685023

  20. Thinking about the Nature and Role of Authority in Democratic Education with Rousseau's "Emile"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaud, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Educational authority is an issue in contemporary democracies. Surprisingly, little attention has been given to the problem of authority in Jean-Jacques Rousseau's "Emile" and his work has not been addressed in the contemporary debate on the issue of authority in democratic education. Olivier Michaud's goals are, first, to address both of these…

  1. A new cavernicolous assassin bug of the genus Bagauda Bergroth (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Emesinae) from the Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Siddharth; Ghate, Hemant V

    2016-01-01

    A new cavernicolous, thread-legged assassin bug, Bagauda ernstmayri sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Emesinae), collected from a cave near Satara, in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra, India, is described. Its interaction with the web of an uloborid spider Zosis geniculata (Olivier, 1789) (Araneae: Uloboridae) is discussed. PMID:27395629

  2. Acoustical detection of early instar Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Canary Island date palm Phoenix canariensis (Arecales: Arecaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), is of international concern due to destructive larval feeding within palm trees. Originating from tropical Asia, RPW has spread throughout the eastern hemisphere where it has become a significant economic pest to the ornamental and date...

  3. Acoustic detectability of Rhynchophorus cruentatus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The palmetto weevil, Rhynchophorus cruentatus Fabricius, native to Florida, attacks palm trees. Like its economically destructive relatives, R. ferrugineus (Olivier) and R. palmarum L., it feeds internally and often is not detected until irreparable damage occurs. Acoustic methods previously used su...

  4. Acoustic detection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) and Oryctes elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Phoenix dactylifera (Arecales: Arecacae) trees and offshoots in Saudi Arabian orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larvae are cryptic, internal-tissue feeding pests of palm trees that are difficult to detect until after they have caused severe economic damage; consequently, infestations may remain undetected until they are widespread in an orchard....

  5. Acoustic assessment of Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) effects on Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larval activity and mortality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), the red palm weevil, is an economically important palm tree pest in subtropical regions of the world. Previous studies have shown that R. ferrugineus can be infected and killed by the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana. Howev...

  6. Honeydew and insecticide-bait as competing food resources for a fruit fly and common parasitoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honeydew from phloem-feeding insects and fruit fly insecticidal baits may both serve as adult food resources for some insect species. In California olive orchards the black scale, Saissetia oleae (Olivier), is a common honeydew-producer, while spinosad-based fruit fly bait (GF-120) is used to contro...

  7. Comparative anatomy of the female genitalia of generic-level taxa in tribe Aedini (DipteraL Culicidae). Part XVII. Genus Dahliana Reinert, Harbach and Kitching

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparative, morphological analysis of the female genitalia of species included in genus Dahliana was conducted. The female genitalia of the genus are characterized and a comparison with other taxa is provided. The type species of the genus, Da. geniculata (Olivier), is illustrated. Treatment o...

  8. Book review: "cellulose science and technology"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Cellulose Science and Technology” by Jean-Luc Wertz, Olivier Bédué and Jean P. Mercier is a fairly comprehensive, up-to-date introduction to many areas of cellulose science. Their summary of a vast and often controversial literature is reasonably comprehensive. It requires little background to re...

  9. The West Indian Peridinetini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Baridinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two genera and eight species of Peridinetini are recognized in the West Indies; four of the species are newly described. Peridinetus Schönherr occurs in the Greater Antilles with P. concentricus (Olivier), P. decipiens Prena sp. n., P. fuscosignum Prena sp. n., P. roeselii (Boheman) and P. sexguttat...

  10. Evaluation of a single application of Neonicotnoid and multi-application contact insecticides for flatheaded borer management in field grown Acer rubrum L. cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials evaluated insecticides for flatheaded borer (Chrysobothris femorata [Olivier]) control and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) cultivar growth over a 4-year period. Soil-applied systemic insecticides (acephate, imidacloprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) and trunk-applied contact i...

  11. Diseases, lesions and malformations in the long-beaked common dolphin Delphinus capensis from the Southeast Pacific.

    PubMed

    Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Van Waerebeek, Koen; Montes, David; Kennedy, Seamus; Reyes, Julio C; Garcia-Godos, Ignacio A; Onton-Silva, Karina; Alfaro-Shigueto, Joanna

    2006-01-30

    Miscellaneous lesions of the head, skull, teeth, trunk, appendages, skin and genital tract were observed in 120 of 930 long-beaked common dolphins Delphinus capensis taken in fisheries off Peru between 1985 and 2000. Seven subsamples were defined according to the varying field sampling protocols. Forty-two dolphins showed at least 2 types of injuries or diseases affecting 1 or more organs. The majority (5 of 7) of traumas encountered were diagnosed as caused by violent, fisheries-related interactions, and the skin in 20.4 % of specimens (n = 54) showed healed scars from such interactions. Prevalences of malformations and traumas of crania (n = 103) were 2.9 and 1.9%, respectively. Lytic cranial lesions were present in 31.1% of dolphins (n = 103) and accounted for 84.2% of all bone injuries. Skull damage diagnostic for Crassicauda sp. infestation was encountered in 26.5% of dolphins (n = 98) and did not differ among sex and age classes. Crassicauda sp. and tooth infections were responsible for, respectively, 78.8 and 6.1% of the lytic lesions. Adult dolphins showed a high prevalence of worn and broken teeth (35%, n = 20) as well as damaged alveoli (20%, n = 70). Prevalence of 'paired teeth', a congenital condition, was 9.4% (n = 32). Lesions of the head, body and appendages were present in 10 dolphins and included traumas, deformations (e.g. scoliokyphosis and brachygnathia) and chronic mastitis. Ovarian cysts suggestive of follicular cysts were observed in 1 of 24 females. Chronic orchitis affected 1 of 78 males. Of 12 dolphins 2 had vesicular lesions of the penis. Prevalence of cutaneous lesions, abnormalities and scars ranged between 1.8% (n = 56) and 48.2% (n = 27). PMID:16532606

  12. A first exploration of the venom of the Buthus occitanus scorpion found in southern France

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France; Bosmans, Frank; Céard, Brigitte; Diochot, Sylvie; Bougis, Pierre E.

    2014-01-01

    Even though Buthus occitanus scorpions are found throughout the Mediterranean region, a lack of distinctive characteristics has hampered their classification into different subspecies. Yet, stings from this particular scorpion family are reported each year to result in pain followed by various toxic symptoms. In order to determine the toxicity origin of the rare French Buthus occitanus Amoreux scorpion, we collected several specimens and studied their venom composition using a nano ultra high performance liquid chromatography and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (nano UHPLC/MALDI-TOF-MS) automated workflow combined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) approach. Moreover, we compared this dataset to that obtained from highly lethal Androctonus australis and Androctonus mauretanicus scorpions collected in North Africa. As a result, we found that the Buthus occitanus Amoreux venom is toxic to mice, an observation that is most likely caused by venom components that inhibit voltage-gated sodium channel inactivation. Moreover, we identified similarities in venom composition between Buthus occitanus scorpions living in the South of France and other Buthidae collected in Morocco and Algeria. As such, the results of this study should be taken into consideration when treating stings from the Buthus occitanus species living in the South of France. PMID:24418174

  13. [Use of medicinal plants against scorpionic and ophidian venoms].

    PubMed

    Memmi, A; Sansa, G; Rjeibi, I; El Ayeb, M; Srairi-Abid, N; Bellasfer, Z; Fekhih, A

    2007-01-01

    The scorpionic and ophidian envenomations are a serious public health problem in Tunisia especially in Southeastern regions. In these regions Artemisia campestris L is a plant well known which has a very important place in traditional medicine for its effectiveness against alleged venom of scorpions and snakes. In this work, we tested for the first time, the anti-venomous activity of Artemisia campestris L against the scorpion Androctonus australis garzonii and the viper Macrovipera lebetina venoms. Assays were conducted by fixing the dose of extract to3 mg/mouse while doses of venom are variable. The leaves of Artemisia campestris L were extracted by various organic solvents (Ether of oil, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol) and each extract was tested for its venom neutralizing capacity. For the ethanolic extract, a significant activity with respect to the venoms of scorpion Androctonus australis garzonii (Aag), was detected. Similarly, a significant neutralizing activity against the venom of a viper Macrovipera lebetina (Ml), was obtained with the dichloromethane extract. These results suggest the presence of two different type of chemical components in this plant: those neutralizing the venom of scorpion are soluble in ethanol whereas those neutralizing the venom of viper are soluble in dichloromethane. PMID:19388583

  14. The Genus Criodion (Audinet-Serville, 1833) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae): First Record for Panama

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, David Ezequiel; Marin, Margarita; Santos Murgas, Alonso

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The Cerambycidae are one of the largest beetle families. Cerambycid beetles are found on all continents, but the tropics are extremely rich in this species. The genus Criodion (Audinet-Serville, 1833) includes 13 species in the Neotropical Region, two of which occur in Central America. Panama has a high biodiversity, yet a small number of sites have been extensively studied. In this contribution, new distributional data are given for C. cinereum (Olivier, 1795) and C. tuberculatum Gahan, 1892. New information Two species of the genus Criodion (Audinet-Serville, 1833) are recorded for first time in Panama, Criodion cinereum (Olivier, 1795) and Criodion tuberculatum Gahan, 1892. Relevant details are presented for each species. PMID:27099560

  15. Algal taxonomy forum: Algal Taxonomist, Let Serendipity Reign!

    PubMed

    Druehl, Louis

    2013-04-01

    The publication of a mini-review by Olivier De Clerck et al. in this issue of the Journal of Phycology presented an opportunity to open a dialogue on challenges faced by contemporary algal taxonomists. The Editorial Office solicited the following two additional contributions in response to De Clerck et al.'s paper; the responses were edited solely for clarity, space and format. PMID:27008510

  16. The Circumstellar Dust of "Born-Again" Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, A.; Gehrz, R. D.; Helton, L. A.; Woodward, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    We describe the evolution of the carbon dust shells around Very Late Thermal Pulse (VLTP) objects as seen at infrared wavelengths. This includes a 20-year overview of the evolution of the dust around Sakurai*s object (to which Olivier made a seminal contribution) and FG Sge. VLTPs may occur during the endpoint of as many as 25% of solar mass stars, and may therefore provide a glimpse of the possible fate of the Sun.

  17. Annotated checklist of Dryopidae and Heteroceridae (Coleoptera: Byrrhoidea) of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mascagni, Alessandro; Jäch, Manfred A; Ostovan, Hadi; Ghahari, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of Dryopidae and Heteroceridae (Coleoptera: Byrrhoidea) of Iran is summarized. A total of ten species of Dryopidae in three genera (Dryops Olivier, Parahelichus Löbl & Smetana, and Praehelichus Löbl & Smetana), and 18 species of Heteroceridae in two genera (Augyles Schiödte and Heterocerus Fabricius) are listed. Augyles hispidulus (Kiesenwetter, 1843) (Heteroceridae) is recorded from Iran for the first time. PMID:27470861

  18. A vector supersymmetry killing IR divergences in non-commutative gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschke, D. N.

    2008-02-01

    This is a report on the joint work with François Gieres, Stefan Hohenegger, Olivier Piguet and Manfred Schweda. We consider a non-commutative U(1) gauge theory with an extension which was originally proposed by A. A. Slavnov [3, 4] in order to get rid of UV/IR mixing problems. Here we show, that the improved IR behaviour of this model is mainly due to the appearence of a linear vector supersymmetry.

  19. 33 CFR 117.501 - Teche Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... bridge, mile 48.7 at Olivier. (14) S3195 bridge, mile 50.4 at New Iberia. (15) S87 Spur bridge, mile 52.5 at New Iberia. (16) S86 bridge, mile 53.0 at New Iberia. (17) S3156 bridge, mile 53.3 at New Iberia. (18) S44 bridge, mile 56.7 at Morbihan. (19) Iberia Parish bridge, mile 58.0 at New Iberia....

  20. Circular dichroism study of the hemocyanin thermostability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolova Georgieva, Dessislava; Stoeva, Stanka; Abid Ali, Syed; Abbasi, Atiya; Genov, Nicolay; Voelter, Wolfgang

    1998-05-01

    Circular dichroism spectroscopy is used to investigate the thermostability of six arthropod hemocyanins (Hcs), representatives of the subphyla Crustacea (infraorder Brachyura) and Chelicerate (infraorders Xiphosura and Arachnida), and three molluscan Hcs from gastropod organisms. Melting points ( Tm) are determined from the temperature dependence of ellipticity of dioxygen-binding proteins from Maia squinado, Callinectes sapidus, Carcinus maenas, Limulus polyphemus, Buthus sindicus, Androctonus australis, Megathura crenulata, Haliotis tuberculata, and Rapana thomasiana. Both, arthropod and molluscan Hcs, are thermostable proteins with melting temperatures in the region 68-91°C. Binuclear dioxygen-binding sites contribute significantly to the thermostability and increase the Tm values of the apo-forms by 3-16°C. An elevated thermostability is observed in the case of the Limulus polyphemus Hc. One of the reasons is the high degree of hemocyanin oligomerization.

  1. Novel structural class of four disulfide-bridged peptides from Tityus serrulatus venom.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Adriano M C; Legros, Christian; Almeida, Flávia de Marco; Mansuelle, Pascal; De Lima, Maria Elena; Bougis, Pierre E; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie France

    2003-02-21

    A new structural class of short peptides folded by four disulfide-bridges was found in the venom of the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus. Peptides were put on evidence independently by means of two different approaches of structurally guided prospection. First, a cDNA sequence was obtained using a degenerate primer constructed according to the C-terminal sequence of kaliotoxin (KTx2), from the Androctonus australis venom. Second, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analyses of toxic fraction FIII from T. serrulatus venom revealed a family of molecules ranging approximately from 2900 to 3000 Da. Three new peptides were isolated and named TsPep1, TsPep2, and TsPep3. Biochemical characterization showed that they are 29 amino acids long, constrained by a new pattern of four disulfide-bridges. These results enable us to classify these new molecules as part of a novel structural class of short peptides from scorpion venoms. PMID:12589824

  2. Evidence for a new class of scorpion toxins active against K+ channels.

    PubMed

    Legros, C; Céard, B; Bougis, P E; Martin-Eauclaire, M F

    1998-07-24

    cDNAs encoding novel long-chain scorpion toxins (64 amino acid residues, including only six cysteines) were isolated from cDNA libraries produced from the venom glands of the scorpions Androctonus australis from Old World and Tityus serrulatus from New World. The encoded peptides were very similar to a recently identified toxin from T. serrulatus, which is active against the voltage-sensitive 'delayed-rectifier' potassium channel, but they were completely different from the long-chain and short-chain scorpion toxins already characterised. However, there was some sequence similarity (42%) between these new toxins, Aa TX Kbeta and Ts TX Kbeta, and scorpion defensins purified from the hemolymph of Buthidae scorpions Leiurus quinquestriatus and A. australis. Thus, according to a multiple sequence alignment using CLUSTAL, these new toxins seem to be related to the scorpion defensins. PMID:9714546

  3. [Ischemic stroke following a scorpion sting].

    PubMed

    Elkhayari, M; Hachimi, A; Ziadi, A; Abdenasser Samkaoui, M

    2013-01-01

    Scorpion envenomation is caused by an accidental scorpion sting. In its severe form, it involves life-threatening respiratory or cardiac damage; it may also cause the neurological severity of systemic manifestations. We report the case of a young 35-year-old woman stung by an Androctonus mauretanicus scorpion, who developed impaired consciousness, hemiplegia and respiratory distress. At admission, the brain computed tomography showed a hypodense area in the right parietal region; the chest radiograph revealed a bilateral alveolar syndrome. Troponin was elevated and hemostasis disorders were present. The clinical course was remarkable: cardiogenic shock with multiple organ failure followed by death on day 3. This case illustrates a rare complication of scorpion envenomation: ischemic stroke due to an undetermined mechanism, which in addition to the cardiac and respiratory injuries, led to the serious complications and fatal outcome. PMID:23648127

  4. Wheat germ in vitro translation to produce one of the most toxic sodium channel specific toxins.

    PubMed

    Gad, Wael; Ben-Abderrazek, Rahma; Wahni, Khadija; Vertommen, Didier; Muyldermans, Serge; Bouhaouala-Zahar, Balkiss; Messens, Joris

    2014-01-01

    Envenoming following scorpion sting is a common emergency in many parts of the world. During scorpion envenoming, highly toxic small polypeptides of the venom diffuse rapidly within the victim causing serious medical problems. The exploration of toxin structure-function relationship would benefit from the generation of soluble recombinant scorpion toxins in Escherichia coli. We developed an in vitro wheat germ translation system for the expression of the highly toxic Aah (Androctonus australis hector)II protein that requires the proper formation of four disulphide bonds. Soluble, recombinant N-terminal GST (glutathione S-transferase)-tagged AahII toxin is obtained in this in vitro translation system. After proteolytic removal of the GST-tag, purified rAahII (recombinant AahII) toxin, which contains two extra amino acids at its N terminal relative to the native AahII, is highly toxic after i.c.v. (intracerebroventricular) injection in Swiss mice. An LD50 (median lethal dose)-value of 10 ng (or 1.33 pmol), close to that of the native toxin (LD50 of 3 ng) indicates that the wheat germ in vitro translation system produces properly folded and biological active rAahII. In addition, NbAahII10 (Androctonus australis hector nanobody 10), a camel single domain antibody fragment, raised against the native AahII toxin, recognizes its cognate conformational epitope on the recombinant toxin and neutralizes the toxicity of purified rAahII upon injection in mice. PMID:24924257

  5. Induction of neutralizing antibodies against Tityus serrulatus scorpion toxins by immunization with a mixture of defined synthetic epitopes.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, L M; Diniz, C R; Granier, C; Chávez-Olórtegui, C

    2002-01-01

    We have used the Spot method of multiple peptide synthesis to prepare sets of immobilized overlapping peptides of uniform size (15 mer), covering the complete amino acid sequences of TsNTxP a non-toxic and immunogenic protein and TsIV, an alpha-type toxin that is the major lethal component of the venom of scorpion Tityus serrulatus. Anti-TsNTxP antibodies binding to peptides, revealed three antigenic regions, one in the N-terminal, the second in the central part and the other in the C-terminal part of TsNTxP. One peptide epitope in the C-terminal part of TsIV was identified with anti-TsIV neutralizing rabbit antibodies. Anti-peptide antibodies were raised against these four peptides all together covalently coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and found to neutralize in vitro the toxic effects of the T. serrulatus venom. Quantities of venom equivalent to 13.5 LD(50) were effectively neutralized by 1ml of the anti-peptide serum. The antigenic specificities of the anti-peptides were compared by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using synthetic peptides and crude venoms from T. serrulatus, T. bahiensis, T. cambridgei, T. stigmurus, Androctonus autralis Hector and Centruroides sculpturatus to coat the microtitration plates. The anti-peptide antibodies had a comparable high reactivity with the crude venom of T. serrulatus, moderate binding to T. bahiensis, T. cambridgei, T. stigmurus and Centruroides sculpturatus venoms but were unable to recognize the venom of Androctonus autralis Hector. These results show that by using peptides derived from the sequence of scorpion toxins, the generation of anti-peptide antibodies able to neutralize the cognate venom appears to be an alternative strategy for the easy preparation of antivenoms. PMID:11602284

  6. Wheat germ in vitro translation to produce one of the most toxic sodium channel specific toxins

    PubMed Central

    Gad, Wael; Ben-Abderrazek, Rahma; Wahni, Khadija; Vertommen, Didier; Muyldermans, Serge; Bouhaouala-Zahar, Balkiss; Messens, Joris

    2014-01-01

    Envenoming following scorpion sting is a common emergency in many parts of the world. During scorpion envenoming, highly toxic small polypeptides of the venom diffuse rapidly within the victim causing serious medical problems. The exploration of toxin structure-function relationship would benefit from the generation of soluble recombinant scorpion toxins in Escherichia coli. We developed an in vitro wheat germ translation system for the expression of the highly toxic Aah (Androctonus australis hector)II protein that requires the proper formation of four disulphide bonds. Soluble, recombinant N-terminal GST (glutathione S-transferase)-tagged AahII toxin is obtained in this in vitro translation system. After proteolytic removal of the GST-tag, purified rAahII (recombinant AahII) toxin, which contains two extra amino acids at its N terminal relative to the native AahII, is highly toxic after i.c.v. (intracerebroventricular) injection in Swiss mice. An LD50 (median lethal dose)-value of 10 ng (or 1.33 pmol), close to that of the native toxin (LD50 of 3 ng) indicates that the wheat germ in vitro translation system produces properly folded and biological active rAahII. In addition, NbAahII10 (Androctonus australis hector nanobody 10), a camel single domain antibody fragment, raised against the native AahII toxin, recognizes its cognate conformational epitope on the recombinant toxin and neutralizes the toxicity of purified rAahII upon injection in mice. PMID:24924257

  7. Parasites of cetaceans stranded on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J B; Morales, J A; González-Barrientos, R C; Hernández-Gamboa, J; Hernández-Mora, G

    2011-12-15

    Information regarding parasitic fauna of cetaceans from Costa Rica is provided for the first time. A total of 25 stranded dolphins and whales were examined between 2001 and 2009, including striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) (n=19), pantropical spotted dolphin (S. attenuata) (n=2), spinner dolphin (S. longirostris) (n=1), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) (n=1), dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima) (n=1) and Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) (n=1). Pathological findings associated with the parasites are also presented. In the most representative dolphin species, S. coeruleoalba, the prevalence of parasites was 89.5%; moreover, all examined specimens of S. attenuata, S. longirostris, T. truncatus and Z. cavirostris presented parasites. No parasites were recovered from K. sima. Fourteen helminth taxa were identified, including six species of cestodes (Strobilocephalus triangularis, Tetrabothrius forsteri, Trigonocotyle sp., Phyllobothrium delphini, Monorygma grimaldi, Tetraphyllidea gen. sp. plerocercoid), four digeneans (Nasitrema globicephalae, Brachycladium palliatum, B. pacificum and Oschmarinella albamarina) and four nematodes (Anisakis spp., Halocercus lagenorhynchi, Halocercus sp. and Crassicauda anthonyi). A commensal crustacean, Xenobalanus globicipitis, was also identified. All identified parasites representing new geographic records for the Pacific coast of Central America and new host records are presented. Parasitological information is valuable for conservation of cetaceans in Pacific coast of Costa Rica. PMID:21665367

  8. A systematic health assessment of indian ocean bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and indo-pacific humpback (Sousa plumbea) dolphins incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lane, Emily P; de Wet, Morné; Thompson, Peter; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Plön, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Coastal dolphins are regarded as indicators of changes in coastal marine ecosystem health that could impact humans utilizing the marine environment for food or recreation. Necropsy and histology examinations were performed on 35 Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) and five Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea) incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, between 2010 and 2012. Parasitic lesions included pneumonia (85%), abdominal and thoracic serositis (75%), gastroenteritis (70%), hepatitis (62%), and endometritis (42%). Parasitic species identified were Halocercus sp. (lung), Crassicauda sp. (skeletal muscle) and Xenobalanus globicipitis (skin). Additional findings included bronchiolar epithelial mineralisation (83%), splenic filamentous tags (45%), non-suppurative meningoencephalitis (39%), and myocardial fibrosis (26%). No immunohistochemically positive reaction was present in lesions suggestive of dolphin morbillivirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. The first confirmed cases of lobomycosis and sarcocystosis in South African dolphins were documented. Most lesions were mild, and all animals were considered to be in good nutritional condition, based on blubber thickness and muscle mass. Apparent temporal changes in parasitic disease prevalence may indicate a change in the host/parasite interface. This study provided valuable baseline information on conditions affecting coastal dolphin populations in South Africa and, to our knowledge, constitutes the first reported systematic health assessment in incidentally caught dolphins in the Southern Hemisphere. Further research on temporal disease trends as well as disease pathophysiology and anthropogenic factors affecting these populations is needed. PMID:25203143

  9. A Systematic Health Assessment of Indian Ocean Bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and Indo-Pacific Humpback (Sousa plumbea) Dolphins Incidentally Caught in Shark Nets off the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Emily P.; de Wet, Morné; Thompson, Peter; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Plön, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Coastal dolphins are regarded as indicators of changes in coastal marine ecosystem health that could impact humans utilizing the marine environment for food or recreation. Necropsy and histology examinations were performed on 35 Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) and five Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea) incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, between 2010 and 2012. Parasitic lesions included pneumonia (85%), abdominal and thoracic serositis (75%), gastroenteritis (70%), hepatitis (62%), and endometritis (42%). Parasitic species identified were Halocercus sp. (lung), Crassicauda sp. (skeletal muscle) and Xenobalanus globicipitis (skin). Additional findings included bronchiolar epithelial mineralisation (83%), splenic filamentous tags (45%), non-suppurative meningoencephalitis (39%), and myocardial fibrosis (26%). No immunohistochemically positive reaction was present in lesions suggestive of dolphin morbillivirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. The first confirmed cases of lobomycosis and sarcocystosis in South African dolphins were documented. Most lesions were mild, and all animals were considered to be in good nutritional condition, based on blubber thickness and muscle mass. Apparent temporal changes in parasitic disease prevalence may indicate a change in the host/parasite interface. This study provided valuable baseline information on conditions affecting coastal dolphin populations in South Africa and, to our knowledge, constitutes the first reported systematic health assessment in incidentally caught dolphins in the Southern Hemisphere. Further research on temporal disease trends as well as disease pathophysiology and anthropogenic factors affecting these populations is needed. PMID:25203143

  10. Additional records of metazoan parasites from Caribbean marine mammals, including genetically identified anisakid nematodes.

    PubMed

    Colón-Llavina, Marlene M; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Paoletti, Michela; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Williams, Ernest H

    2009-10-01

    Studies of marine mammal parasites in the Caribbean are scarce. An assessment for marine mammal endo- and ectoparasites from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, but extending to other areas of the Caribbean, was conducted between 1989 and 1994. The present study complements the latter and enhances identification of anisakid nematodes using molecular markers. Parasites were collected from 59 carcasses of stranded cetaceans and manatees from 1994 to 2006, including Globicephala macrorhynchus, Kogia breviceps, Kogia sima, Lagenodelphis hosei, Mesoplodon densirostris, Peponocephala electra, Stenella longirostris, Steno bredanensis, Trichechus manatus. Tursiops truncatus, and Ziphius cavirostris. Sixteen species of endoparasitic helminthes were morphologically identified, including two species of acanthocephalans (Bolbosoma capitatum, Bolbosoma vasculosum), nine species of nematodes (Anisakis sp., Anisakis brevispiculata, Anisakis paggiae, Anisakis simplex, Anisakis typica, Anisakis ziphidarium, Crassicauda anthonyi, Heterocheilus tunicatus, Pseudoterranova ceticola), two species of cestodes (Monorygma grimaldi, Phyllobothrium delphini), and three species of trematodes (Chiorchis groschafti, Pulmonicola cochleotrema, Monoligerum blairi). The nematodes belonging to the genus Anisakis recovered in some stranded animals were genetically identified to species level based on their sequence analysis of mitochondrial DNA (629 bp of mtDNA cox 2). A total of five new host records and six new geographic records are presented. PMID:19582477

  11. Crassicaudosis: a parasitic disease threatening the health and population recovery of large baleen whales.

    PubMed

    Lambertsen, R H

    1992-12-01

    This communication briefly reviews knowledge of the systemic disease caused by Crassicauda boopis in blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus), fin whales (B. physalus) and humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae). Infections with this giant nematode characteristically incite a chronic inflammatory reaction of the blood vessels which drain the kidneys. In this critical location, the parasite-induced lesion can cause complete vascular occlusion and kidney failure. Whale calves and juveniles typically suffer the heaviest parasite burdens following transplacental infection of the developing whale foetus. There is also probable whale-to-whale transmission post-partum, involving urinary contamination of the environment with C. boopis eggs and larvae. The frequency of the infection can exceed 95%. Haematological findings suggest that systemic pathological effects are typical at the population level. Gradual development of occlusive lesions in the renal veins appears to correlate with a major peak in natural mortality at about one year of age. To date, all findings support the conclusion that premature death caused by C. boopis infection is potentially a major impediment to population recovery of affected whale species. This suggests the interesting possibility of actively encouraging the population recovery of three species of large baleen whales. Such a restoration effort would entail remotely-deployed anthelminthic therapy administered, at sea, to infected whale cows and calves. PMID:1305859

  12. Morbidity and mortality in stranded Cook Inlet beluga whales Delphinapterus leucas.

    PubMed

    Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Dushane, Jennifer L; Goertz, Caroline E C; Measures, Lena N; Romero, Carlos H; Raverty, Stephen A

    2015-05-11

    The endangered Cook Inlet (Alaska, USA) stock of beluga whales Delphinapterus leucas declined 47% between 1994 and 1998, from an estimated 653 whales to 347 whales, with a continued decline to approximately 312 in 2012. Between 1998 and 2013, 164 known dead strandings were reported by the National Marine Fisheries Service. Only 38 of these animals, or 23% of the known stranded carcasses, were necropsied. Carcasses were found between April and October. The majority of animals necropsied were adults (n=25), followed by juveniles (n=6), calves (n=3), and aborted fetuses (n=4). Eight of the 11 mature females were pregnant, post-partum, or lactating. Many (82%) of these belugas were in moderate to advanced autolysis, which hampered determination of a cause of death (COD). Each animal had a single primary COD assigned within a broad set of categories. The CODs were unknown (29%), trauma (18%), perinatal mortality (13%), mass stranding (13%), single stranding (11%), malnutrition (8%), or disease (8%). Other disease processes were coded as contributory or incidental to COD. Multiple animals had mild to moderate verminous pneumonia due to Stenurus arctomarinus, renal granulomas due to Crassicauda giliakiana, and ulcerative gastritis due to Anisakis sp. Each stranding affords a unique opportunity to obtain natural history data and evidence of human interactions, and, by long-term monitoring, to characterize pathologies of importance to individual and population health. PMID:25958805

  13. Conceptual Commitments of AGI Systems: Editorial, Commentaries, and Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-06-01

    Editorial: Conceptual Commitments of AGI Systems Haris Dindo / James Marshall / Giovanni Pezzulo 23 General Problems of Unified Theories of Cognition, and Another Conceptual Commitment of LIDA Benjamin Angerer / Stefan Schneider 26 LIDA, Committed to Consciousness Antonio Chella 28 The Radical Interactionism Conceptual Commitment Olivier L. Georgeon / David W. Aha 31 Commitments of the Soar Cognitive Architecture John E. Laird 36 Conceptual Commitments of AGI Projects Pei Wang 39 Will (dis)Embodied LIDA Agents be Socially Interactive? Travis J. Wiltshire / Emilio J. C. Lobato / Florian G. Jentsch / Stephen M. Fiore 42 Author's Response to Commentaries Steve Strain / Stan Franklin 48

  14. NASA Shared Services Center breaks ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA officials and elected leaders were on hand for the groundbreaking ceremony of the NASA Shared Services Center Feb. 24, 2006, on the grounds of Stennis Space Center. The NSSC provides agency centralized administrative processing, human resources, procurement and financial services. From left, Louisiana Economic Development Secretary Mike Olivier, Stennis Space Center Director Rick Gilbrech, Computer Sciences Corp. President Michael Laphen, NASA Deputy Administrator Shana Dale, Rep. Gene Taylor, Sen. Trent Lott, Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour, NASA Administrator Mike Griffin and Shared Services Center Executive Director Arbuthnot use golden shovels to break ground at the site.

  15. Gauss and Markov quadrature formulae with nodes at zeros of eigenfunctions of a Sturm-Liouville problem, which are exact for entire functions of exponential type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, D. V.; Ivanov, V. I.

    2015-08-01

    Gauss and Markov quadrature formulae with nodes at zeros of eigenfunctions of a Sturm-Liouville problem, which are exact for entire functions of exponential type, are established. They generalize quadrature formulae involving zeros of Bessel functions, which were first designed by Frappier and Olivier. Bessel quadratures correspond to the Fourier-Hankel integral transform. Some other examples, connected with the Jacobi integral transform, Fourier series in Jacobi orthogonal polynomials and the general Sturm-Liouville problem with regular weight are also given. Bibliography: 39 titles.

  16. Femtosecond filamentation in air at low pressures. Part II: Laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méchain, G.; Olivier, T.; Franco, M.; Couairon, A.; Prade, B.; Mysyrowicz, A.

    2006-05-01

    We present experimental studies of filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse in air at low pressures. The evolution of the filament has been studied by measuring along the propagation axis the conductivity and the sub-THz emission from the plasma channel. We show experimentally that the filamentation process occurs at pressures as low as 0.2 atm in agreement with numerical simulations. Experimental and numerical results [A. Couairon, M. Franco, G. Méchain, T. Olivier, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun., submitted for publication] are compared and the possible sources of discrepancy are discussed.

  17. Continuum and discrete initial-boundary value problems and the Einstein field equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiglio, Manuel; Sarbach, Olivier

    2012-03-01

    In this talk we outline some of the theory necessary to understand continuum and discrete initial-boundary value problems arising from hyperbolic partial differential equations, and discuss applications to numerical relativity. In particular, we present a well posed initial and initial-boundary value formulations for Einstein's equations, and discuss multi-domain high order finite difference techniques and spectral methods to discretize them. The talk is a very brief outline of the contents of an upcoming Living Review in Relativity, ``Continuum and discrete initial boundary value problems and the Einstein field equations,'' by Olivier Sarbach and Manuel Tiglio.

  18. Evaluation of the lethal potency of scorpion and snake venoms and comparison between intraperitoneal and intravenous injection routes.

    PubMed

    Oukkache, Naoual; El Jaoudi, Rachid; Ghalim, Noreddine; Chgoury, Fatima; Bouhaouala, Balkiss; Mdaghri, Naima El; Sabatier, Jean-Marc

    2014-06-01

    Scorpion stings and snake bites are major health hazards that lead to suffering of victims and high mortality. Thousands of injuries associated with such stings and bites of venomous animals occur every year worldwide. In North Africa, more than 100,000 scorpion stings and snake bites are reported annually. An appropriate determination of the 50% lethal doses (LD₅₀) of scorpion and snake venoms appears to be an important step to assess (and compare) venom toxic activity. Such LD₅₀ values are also commonly used to evaluate the neutralizing capacity of specific anti-venom batches. In the present work, we determined experimentally the LD₅₀ values of reference scorpion and snake venoms in Swiss mice, and evaluated the influence of two main venom injection routes (i.e., intraperitoneal (IP) versus intravenous (IV)). The analysis of experimental LD₅₀ values obtained with three collected scorpion venoms indicates that Androctonus mauretanicus (Am) is intrinsically more toxic than Androctonus australis hector (Aah) species, whereas the latter is more toxic than Buthus occitanus (Bo). Similar analysis of three representative snake venoms of the Viperidae family shows that Cerastes cerastes (Cc) is more toxic than either Bitis arietans (Ba) or Macrovipera lebetina (Ml) species. Interestingly, the venom of Elapidae cobra snake Naja haje (Nh) is far more toxic than viper venoms Cc, Ml and Ba, in agreement with the known severity of cobra-related envenomation. Also, our data showed that viper venoms are about three-times less toxic when injected IP as compared to IV, distinct from cobra venom Nh which exhibited a similar toxicity when injected IP or IV. Overall, this study clearly highlights the usefulness of procedure standardization, especially regarding the administration route, for evaluating the relative toxicity of individual animal venoms. It also evidenced a marked difference in lethal activity between venoms of cobra and vipers, which, apart from the

  19. Pre-clinical studies of toxin-specific Nanobodies: Evidence of in vivo efficacy to prevent fatal disturbances provoked by scorpion envenoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hmila, Issam; Cosyns, Bernard; Tounsi, Hayfa; Roosens, Bram; Caveliers, Vicky; Abderrazek, Rahma Ben; Boubaker, Samir; Muyldermans, Serge; El Ayeb, Mohamed; Bouhaouala-Zahar, Balkiss; Lahoutte, Tony

    2012-10-15

    Scorpions represent a significant threat to humans and animals in various countries throughout the world. Recently, we introduced Nanobodies (Nbs) to combat more efficiently scorpion envenoming and demonstrated the performance of NbAahIF12 and NbAahII10 to neutralize scorpion toxins of Androctonus australis hector venom. A bispecific Nb construct (NbF12-10) comprising these two Nbs is far more protective than the classic Fab′{sub 2} based therapy and is the most efficient antivenom therapy against scorpion sting in preclinical studies. Now we investigate the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of {sup 99m}Tc labeled Nbs by in vivo imaging in rodents and compared these data with those of the Fab′{sub 2} product (PAS). The pharmacodynamics of the Nbs was investigated in rats by in vivo echocardiography and it is shown that NbF12-10 prevents effectively the hemodynamic disturbances induced by a lethal dose of venom. Moreover, even a late injection of NbF12-10 restores the heart rate and brings the blood pressure to baseline values. Histology confirms that NbF12-10 prevents lung and heart lesions of treated mice after envenoming. In conjunction, in this preclinical study, we provide proof of concept that NbF12-10 prevents effectively the fatal disturbances induced by Androctonus venom, and that the Nanobody based therapeutic has a potential to substitute the classic Fab′{sub 2} based product as immunotherapeutic in scorpion envenoming. Further clinical study using larger cohorts of animals should be considered to confirm the full protecting potential of our NbF12-10. -- Highlights: ► Nanobody therapy prevents the hemodynamic disturbances induced by a lethal dose. ► Late injection of Nanobody restores hemodynamic parameters to baseline values. ► Nanobody therapy prevents lung and heart lesions of treated mice after envenoming. ► Labeled Nanobody and Fab’2 pharmacokinetics curves reach plateau in favour of Nanobody.

  20. Evaluation of the Lethal Potency of Scorpion and Snake Venoms and Comparison between Intraperitoneal and Intravenous Injection Routes

    PubMed Central

    Oukkache, Naoual; Jaoudi, Rachid El; Ghalim, Noreddine; Chgoury, Fatima; Bouhaouala, Balkiss; Mdaghri, Naima El; Sabatier, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Scorpion stings and snake bites are major health hazards that lead to suffering of victims and high mortality. Thousands of injuries associated with such stings and bites of venomous animals occur every year worldwide. In North Africa, more than 100,000 scorpion stings and snake bites are reported annually. An appropriate determination of the 50% lethal doses (LD50) of scorpion and snake venoms appears to be an important step to assess (and compare) venom toxic activity. Such LD50 values are also commonly used to evaluate the neutralizing capacity of specific anti-venom batches. In the present work, we determined experimentally the LD50 values of reference scorpion and snake venoms in Swiss mice, and evaluated the influence of two main venom injection routes (i.e., intraperitoneal (IP) versus intravenous (IV)). The analysis of experimental LD50 values obtained with three collected scorpion venoms indicates that Androctonus mauretanicus (Am) is intrinsically more toxic than Androctonus australis hector (Aah) species, whereas the latter is more toxic than Buthus occitanus (Bo). Similar analysis of three representative snake venoms of the Viperidae family shows that Cerastes cerastes (Cc) is more toxic than either Bitis arietans (Ba) or Macrovipera lebetina (Ml) species. Interestingly, the venom of Elapidae cobra snake Naja haje (Nh) is far more toxic than viper venoms Cc, Ml and Ba, in agreement with the known severity of cobra-related envenomation. Also, our data showed that viper venoms are about three-times less toxic when injected IP as compared to IV, distinct from cobra venom Nh which exhibited a similar toxicity when injected IP or IV. Overall, this study clearly highlights the usefulness of procedure standardization, especially regarding the administration route, for evaluating the relative toxicity of individual animal venoms. It also evidenced a marked difference in lethal activity between venoms of cobra and vipers, which, apart from the nature of toxins

  1. Response of the Woodborers Monochamus carolinensis and Monochamus titillator (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to Known Cerambycid Pheromones in the Presence and Absence of the Host Plant Volatile α-Pinene

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Jeremy D.; McKenney, Jessica L.; Millar, Jocelyn G.; McElfresh, J. Steven; Mitchell, Robert F.; Hanks, Lawrence M.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, several attractant pheromones have been identified for cerambycid beetles, including 2-(undecyloxy)-ethanol (hereafter monochamol) for Monochamus galloprovincialis (Olivier), M. alternatus Hope, and M. scutellatus (Say). This study screened eight known cerambycid pheromones or their analogues (including monochamol) as potential attractants for M. carolinensis Olivier and M. titillator (F.), in the presence and absence of the host volatile α-pinene. Monochamol attracted M. carolinensis in the presence and absence of α-pinene, whereas M. titillator was only attracted to the combination of monochamol and α-pinene. (2R*,3R*)-2,3-Hexanediol also attracted both M. carolinensis and M. titillator, but only in the presence of α-pinene. Subsequent coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection analyses of extracts of volatiles collected from both sexes demonstrated that male M. carolinensis and M. titillator release monochamol, and that antennae of males and females of both species detect it. These results indicate that monochamol is a male-produced pheromone for both M. carolinensis and M. titillator. PMID:23321107

  2. Response of the woodborers Monochamus carolinensis and Monochamus titillator (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to known cerambycid pheromones in the presence and absence of the host plant volatile α-pinene.

    PubMed

    Allison, Jeremy D; McKenney, Jessica L; Millar, Jocelyn G; Mcclfresh, J Steven; Mitchell, Robert F; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, several attractant pheromones have been identified for cerambycid beetles, including 2-(undecyloxy)-ethanol (hereafter monochamol) for Monochamus galloprovincialis (Olivier), M. alternatus Hope, and M. scutellatus (Say). This study screened eight known cerambycid pheromones or their analogues (including monochamol) as potential attractants for M. carolinensis Olivier and M. titillator (F.), in the presence and absence of the host volatile α-pinene. Monochamol attracted M. carolinensis in the presence and absence of α-pinene, whereas M. titillator was only attracted to the combination of monochamol and α-pinene. (2R*,3R*)-2,3-Hexanediol also attracted both M. carolinensis and M. titillator, but only in the presence of α-pinene. Subsequent coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection analyses of extracts of volatiles collected from both sexes demonstrated that male M. carolinensis and M. titillator release monochamol, and that antennae of males and females of both species detect it. These results indicate that monochamol is a male-produced pheromone for both M. carolinensis and M. titillator. PMID:23321107

  3. Taxonomic changes in the genus Diabrotica Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae): results of a synopsis of North and Central America Diabrotica species.

    PubMed

    Derunkov, A; Konstantinov, A

    2013-01-01

    The following new synonyms in Diabrotica Chevrolat 1836 are proposed: D.flaviventris Jacoby 1887 and D. tibialis Jacoby 1887 are synonyms of D. adelpha Harold 1875; D. peckii Bowditch 1911 is a synonym of D. bioculata Bowditch 1911; D. nummularis Harold 1877 is a synonym of D. circulata Harold 1875; D. linensis Bechyné 1956 is a synonym of D. trifurcata Jacoby 1887; D. brunneosignata Jacoby 1887 is a synonym of D. sinuata Olivier 1790; D. duplicata Jacoby 1887 is a synonym of D. viridifasciata Jacoby 1887. Diabrotica cyaneomaculata Jacoby 1887 does not share the synapomorphies of Diabrotica and is treated as incertae sedis. Diabrotica tripunctata (Fabricius) is removed from synonymy with D. sinuata Olivier and is considered to be a valid species. The original combination is restored for Diabroticafasciata Kirsch, the species being transferred from Paranapiacaba Bechyné back to Diabrotica. It was found that the type series of D. godmani Jacoby contains seven different taxa: one is D. godmani itself; one is D. championi Jacoby; one is D. quadricollis Jacoby; three are unidentified Diabrotica species, each different from the others; and one is not a Diabrotica. The type series of D. viridicollis Jacoby contains four different taxa, D. viridicollis Jacoby itself and three different unidentified Diabrotica species. PMID:26473221

  4. Planetary Nebulae: Reviews and Previews of a Rapidly Evolving Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balick, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Observational results from the ground and space in the past decade and covering the entire spectrum have jolted and energized research into the nature, the formation, and the evolution of planetary nebulae (PNs). The 101-level bubble structure of PNs turned out to be a pleasant but misleading fantasy as observations by HST and ALMA revealed basic details of their infancy. Some combination of close geriatric binary stars (the precusrors of SN Ia's) and magnetic fields dredged into the dusty winds appear to play vital roles in the ejection and collimation of AGB atmospheres. As a result, PNe and their antecedents, AGB stars and prePNs, are providing an array of new opportunities to study asymmetric wind formation, complex gas dynamics, CNO production rates in various galactic environments, and galaxy structure and evolution. I shall review the highlights of recent results, summarize their interpretations, and show some of the observational opportunities to monitor in the next decade, many of which couple strongly to research to related fields.This talk is dedicated to the career of Olivier Chesneau (1972-2014) who pioneered new high-resolution imaging methods that peered into the deep inner cores of nascent planetary nebulae. We remember Olivier as everyone's enthusiastic friend and colleague whose career ended in full stride.

  5. The Bostrichidae of the Maltese Islands (Coleoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Nardi, Gianluca; Mifsud, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Bostrichidae of the Maltese Islands are reviewed. Ten species are recorded with certainty from this Archipelago, of which 6 namely, Trogoxylon impressum (Comolli, 1837), Amphicerus bimaculatus (A.G. Olivier, 1790), Heterobostrychus aequalis (Waterhouse, 1884), Sinoxylon unidentatum (Fabricius, 1801), Xyloperthella picea (A.G. Olivier, 1790) and Apate monachus Fabricius, 1775 are recorded for the first time. Two of the mentioned species (Heterobostrychus aequalis and Sinoxylon unidentatum) are alien and recorded only on the basis of single captures and the possible establishment of these species is discussed. Earlier records of Scobicia pustulata (Fabricius, 1801) from Malta are incorrect and should be attributed to Scobicia chevrieri (A. Villa & J.B. Villa, 1835). A zoogeographical analysis and an updated checklist of the 12 species of Bostrichidae recorded from the Maltese Islands and neigbouring Sicilian islands (Pantelleria, Linosa and Lampedusa) are also provided. Rhizopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792) form granulipennis Lesne in Beeson & Bhatia, 1937 from Uttarakhand (northern India) was overlooked by almost all subsequent authors. Its history is summarized and the following new synonymy is established: Rhizopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792) form granulipennis Lesne in Beeson & Bhatia, 1937 = Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius, 1792), syn. n. Finally, records of Amphicerus bimaculatus from Azerbaijan, of Bostrichus capucinus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Jordan and Syria, of Scobicia chevrieri from Jordan and Italy, of Xyloperthella picea from Italy, and of Apate monachus from Corsica (France) and Italy, are also provided. PMID:25685033

  6. General biochemical and immunological characteristics of the venom from Peruvian scorpion Hadruroides lunatus.

    PubMed

    Costal-Oliveira, F; Duarte, C G; Machado de Avila, R A; Melo, M M; Bordon, K C F; Arantes, E C; Paredes, N C; Tintaya, B; Bonilla, C; Bonilla, R E; Suarez, W S; Yarleque, A; Fernandez, J M; Kalapothakis, E; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos

    2012-10-01

    This communication describes the general biochemical properties and some immunological characteristics of the venom from the Peruvian scorpion Hadruroides lunatus, which is the most medically relevant species in Peru. The soluble venom of this scorpion is toxic to mice, the LD₅₀ determined was 0.1 mg/kg and 21.55 mg/kg when the venom was injected intracranial or intraperitoneally, respectively. The soluble venom displayed proteolytic, hyaluronidasic, phospholipasic and cardiotoxic activities. High performance liquid chromatography of the soluble venom resulted in the separation of 20 fractions. Two peptides with phospholipasic activity were isolated to homogeneity and their molecular masses determined by mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF). Anti-H. lunatus venom sera were produced in rabbits. Western blotting analysis showed that most of the protein content of this venom is immunogenic. H. lunatus anti-venom displayed consistent cross-reactivity with venom antigens from the new World-scorpions Tityus serrulatus and Centruroides sculpturatus venoms; however, a weaker reactivity was observed against the venom antigens from the old World-scorpion Androctonus australis Hector. PMID:22750532

  7. Expression of the standard scorpion alpha-toxin AaH II and AaH II mutants leading to the identification of some key bioactive elements.

    PubMed

    Legros, Christian; Céard, Brigitte; Vacher, Hélène; Marchot, Pascale; Bougis, Pierre E; Martin-Eauclaire, Marie-France

    2005-05-25

    The AaH II toxin from the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector is considered to be the standard alpha-toxin because it selectively binds with the highest known affinity to site 3 of mammalian voltage-activated Na+ channels (Na(v)) on rat brain synaptosomes but does not bind to insect synaptosomes. We generated two different constructs in pMALp allowing us to produce AaH II fused with the maltose-binding protein (MBP) in E. coli. We obtained reasonable amounts of recombinant AaH II after cleavage by enterokinase at the site DDDDK. We show that the introduction of a net negative charge at the C-terminus by the suppression of H64 amidation and the addition of an extra residue to the C-terminus (G65) led to fully active AaH II mutants, exhibiting exactly the same affinity as the native toxin for its target on rat brain synaptosomes. In contrast, the mutation of residue K58 into V, I or E residues drastically reduced toxin activity. PMID:15725394

  8. Structure-function relationships of the major neurotoxin from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus with a new sodium channel receptor site

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    We have determined that ShN I, a 48-residue type 2 sea anemone toxin, delays the inactivation of the Na channel in lobster olfactory somas. The receptor for ShN I was identified in vesicle preparations of neuronal tissues from both crustaceans and mammals; however, the K{sub D} values for the former is more than 1,000 fold lower for the later. The binding of ({sup 125}I)-ShN I to this receptor was determined to be unaffected by Anemonia sulcata II, depolarization of the membrane, or veratridine. ShN I was unable to displace ({sup 125}I)-Androctonus austrialis Hector II, whereas unlabeled AaH II and As II displaced the labeled scorpion toxin from rat brain synaptosomes. This is the first characterization of a new Na channel receptor site which specifically binds type 2 anemone toxins. To study the interactions that specific amino acid residues of ShN I have with this receptor, we developed a strategy using solid phase peptide synthesis. Prior to the synthesis of analogs to ShN I, we assembled the native ShN I sequence and reoxidized the three intramolecular disulfide bonds. Chemical, physical, and pharmacological characterization of the purified synthetic ShN I showed it to be indistinguishable from the natural toxin.

  9. Study of severe scorpion envenoming following subcutaneous venom injection into dogs: Hemodynamic and concentration/effect analysis.

    PubMed

    Elatrous, Souheil; Ouanes-Besbes, Lamia; Ben Sik-Ali, Habiba; Hamouda, Zineb; BenAbdallah, Saoussen; Tilouche, Nejla; Jalloul, Faten; Fkih-Hassen, Mohamed; Dachraoui, Fahmi; Ouanes, Islem; Abroug, Fekri

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate the dose-effects of Androctonus australis hector (Aah) venom injected subcutaneously on hemodynamics and neurohormonal secretions, 10 anesthetized and ventilated mongrel dogs, were split in two groups (n = 5/group). Subcutaneous injection was done with either 0.2 mg/kg or 0.125 mg/kg of the purified G50 scorpion toxic fraction. Hemodynamic parameters using right heart catheter were recorded and plasma concentrations of catecholamine, troponin, and serum toxic fraction were measured sequentially from baseline to 120 min. We identified the dose of toxic fraction evoking characteristic hemodynamic perturbation of severe envenomation, the time-lapse to envenomation, and the associated plasma level. The injection of 0.125 mg/kg toxic fraction was not associated with significant variations in hemodynamic parameters, whereas the 0.2 mg/kg dose caused envenomation characterized by significant increase in plasma catecholamines, increased pulmonary artery occluded pressure, mean arterial pressure, and systemic vascular resistance (p < 0.05), in association with sustained decline in cardiac output (p < 0.001). Envenomation occurred by the 30th minute, and the corresponding concentration of toxic fraction was 1.14 ng/ml. The current experiment allowed the identification of the sub-lethal dose (0.2 mg/kg) of the toxic fraction of Aah administered by the subcutaneous route. Two parameters with potential clinical relevance were also uncovered: the time-lapse to envenomation and the corresponding concentration of toxic fraction. PMID:26166304

  10. Natural infestation of Pimeliaphilus joshuae on scorpion species from Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed A

    2011-09-01

    The main goal of this study was to study the acarine parasite, Pimeliaphilus joshuae (Prostigmata: Pterygosomatidae) on various scorpion species from Egypt to determine its prevalence, abundance and intensity in relation to host species, size and sex. A total of 95 Leiurus quinquestriatus, 98 Androctonus australis, 40 A. amoreuxi, 30 Scorpio maurus palmatus and 46 Orthochirus scrobicuosus were examined during August 2009. Prevalence and mean abundance of P. joshuae varied significantly in relation to host species, host size and sex. In L. quinquestriatus, A. australis, and A. amoreuxi, the prevalence was 76.8, 13.3, and 50.0%, whereas the mean abundance was 47.6, 6.7 and 14.3%, respectively. Prevalence and mean abundance of P. joshuae were both positively correlated with host size in L. quinquestriatus and A. australis. We conclude that P. joshuae is found in a wide range of scorpion species exhibiting a low degree of host specificity. Controlled laboratory infection experiments are required to explain why S. m. palmatus and O. scrobicuosus are not susceptible to infestation by P. joshuae. PMID:21465333

  11. Neutralizing capacity of antibodies elicited by a non-toxic protein purified from the venom of the scorpion Tityus serrulatus.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Olórtegui, C; Kalapothakis, E; Ferreira, A M; Ferreira, A P; Diniz, C R

    1997-02-01

    Polyclonal rabbit antibodies raised against a non-toxic protein (TsNTxP) purified from the toxic fraction of the crude venom of Tityus serrulatus can neutralize the effects of the venom. The antigenic specificities of anti-TsNTxP were compared by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using TsNTxP, TstFG50 (toxic fraction of venom that represents most of the toxicity of the crude venom), and crude venoms from T. serrulatus, T. bahiensis, T. cambridgei, T. stigmurus, Androctonus australis Hector and Centruroides sculpturatus to coat microtitration plates. The anti-TsNTxP antibodies had a comparable high cross-reactivity with the toxic fraction and crude venom of T. serrulatus, moderate binding capacity for T. bahiensis, T. cambridgei, T. stigmurus and were unable to recognize the venoms of A. australis Hector and C. sculpturatus. Quantities of venom equivalent to 20 LD50 were effectively neutralized by 1 ml of the anti-TsNTxP serum. This result shows that this protein may be of interest in the production of antivenoms for clinical use. PMID:9080578

  12. Autoradiographic localization of voltage-dependent sodium channels on the mouse neuromuscular junction using /sup 125/I-alpha scorpion toxin. I. Preferential labeling of glial cells on the presynaptic side

    SciTech Connect

    Boudier, J.L.; Jover, E.; Cau, P.

    1988-05-01

    Alpha-scorpion toxins bind specifically to the voltage-sensitive sodium channel in excitable membranes, and binding is potential-dependent. The radioiodinated toxin II from the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector (alpha ScTx) was used to localize voltage-sensitive sodium channels on the presynaptic side of mouse neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) by autoradiography using both light and electron microscopy. Silver grain localization was analyzed by the cross-fire method. At the light-microscopic level, grain density over NMJ appeared 6-8x higher than over nonjunctional muscle membrane. The specificity of labeling was verified by competition/displacement with an excess of native alpha ScTx. Labeling was also inhibited by incubation in depolarizing conditions, showing its potential-dependence. At the electron-microscopic level, analysis showed that voltage-sensitive sodium channels labeled with alpha ScTx were almost exclusively localized on membranes, as expected. Due to washout after incubation, appreciable numbers of binding sites were not found on the postsynaptic membranes. However, on the presynaptic side, alpha ScTx-labeled voltage-sensitive sodium channels were localized on the membrane of non-myelin-forming Schwann cells covering NMJ. The axonal presynaptic membrane was not labeled. These results show that voltage-sensitive sodium channels are present on glial cells in vivo, as already demonstrated in vitro. It is proposed that these glial channels could be indirectly involved in the ionic homeostasis of the axonal environment.

  13. Use of antibodies specific to defined regions of scorpion. cap alpha. -toxin to study its interaction with its receptor site on the sodium channel

    SciTech Connect

    Ayeb, M.E.; Bahraoui, E.M.; Granier, C.; Rochat, H.

    1986-10-21

    Five antibody populations selected by immunoaffinity chromatography for the specificity toward various regions of toxin II of the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector were used to probe the interaction of this protein with its receptor site on the sodium channel. These studies indicate that two antigenic sites, one located around the disulfide bridge 12-63 and one encompassing residues 50-59, are involved in the molecular mechanisms of toxicity neutralization. Fab fragments specific to the region around disulfide bridge 12-63 inhibit binding of the /sup 125/I-labeled toxin to its receptor site. Also, these two antigenic regions are inaccessible to the antibodies when the toxin is bound to its receptor site. In contrast, the two other antigenic sites encompassing the only ..cap alpha..-helix region (residues 23-32) and a ..beta..-turn structure (residues 32-35) are accessible to the respective antibodies when the toxin is bound to its receptor. Together, these data support the recent proposal that a region made of residues that are conserved in the scorpion toxin family is involved in the binding of the toxin to the receptor.

  14. Transgenic plants expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein show increased resistance and toxicity to both chewing and sucking pests.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Min; Li, Jie; Zhu, Jin-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Shu; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Chen, Xue-Xin; Li, Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of pest-resistant transgenic plants to reduce yield losses and decrease pesticide use has been successful. To achieve the goal of controlling both chewing and sucking pests in a given transgenic plant, we generated transgenic tobacco, Arabidopsis, and rice plants expressing the fusion protein, AaIT/GNA, in which an insecticidal scorpion venom neurotoxin (Androctonus australis toxin, AaIT) is fused to snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA). Compared with transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants expressing AaIT or GNA, transgenic plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited increased resistance and toxicity to one chewing pest, the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Transgenic tobacco and rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA showed increased resistance and toxicity to two sucking pests, the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, and the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, respectively. Moreover, in the field, transgenic rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited a significant improvement in grain yield when infested with N. lugens. This study shows that expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein in transgenic plants can be a useful approach for controlling pests, particularly sucking pests which are not susceptible to the toxin in Bt crops. PMID:25641865

  15. Cardiac involvement and its complications about three cases of severe scorpion envenomation.

    PubMed

    Aboumaâd, B; Tiger, A; Khattabi, A; Soulaymani, R; Lahssaini, M; Benhassain, S M; Iba, N

    2014-02-01

    For several decades, Morocco is confronted to medico-social problem of scorpion stings and envenomations. In 2009, epidemiological data established by the Poison Control Center recorded 29,816 stung patients, with an incidence of 1.1‰ and a fatality rate of 0.18%. The neurotoxins from scorpion venom are potent activators of the autonomic nervous system resulting a physiopathological disorder of vital systems. The most serious clinical manifestations are neurotoxic effects, pulmonary edema and cardiovascular distress. This present work reports the cases of three children (4 years and 6 months, 8 months and 15 days, 4 years), hospitalized in intensive care for an envenomation by Androctonus mauritanicus (the most fatal scorpion specie). The children presented cardiac dysfunction where pulmonary edema and state of shock were complications resultants. Two cases survived after supportive and symptomatic treatment based on dobutamine as primordial treatment in cardiovascular and pulmonary correction and other drugs. The third case died. The objective of this work was to detect the limit of the effectiveness of symptomatic treatment during a severe scorpion envenomation. PMID:24316266

  16. Development and characterization of a new carrier for vaccine delivery based on calcium-alginate nanoparticles: Safe immunoprotective approach against scorpion envenoming.

    PubMed

    Nait Mohamed, Faez Amokrane; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima

    2016-05-23

    To enhance humoral defense against diseases, vaccine formulation is routinely prepared to improve immune response. Studies in nanomaterials as a carrier of vaccine delivery are promising and interesting. In this study, attenuated Androctonus australis hector (Aah) venom and its toxic fraction were encapsulated into different formulations inside calcium-alginate nanoparticles (Ca-Alg Nps), and used as a vaccine delivery system against scorpion envenomation. Ca-Alg Nps were prepared by ionic gelation and characterized. An immunization schedule was undertaken in rabbits in order to study how Aah venom entrapped in Ca-Alg Nps might induce protective immunity. Results showed the influence of different parameters on the suitable nanoparticle formation. They also showed no toxicity of free Ca-Alg Nps and a different inflammatory profile depending on the nanovaccine formulations. More interestingly, evaluation of specific IgG titer and IgG1/IgG2a isotype balance revealed a protective effect with the nanoparticles encapsulating the attenuated antigens. Challenge up to 6 LD 50 of native venom, allowed to an important immunoprotection of all immunized rabbits, with no recorded death. Taken together and with respect to the properties of nanoparticles and high immunogenicity, calcium-alginate nanoparticles could be considered as a new promising adjuvant system and a vaccine delivery against scorpion envenomation. PMID:27109567

  17. Hydrogen Lines in Mira Stars Through Interferometry and Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabas, N.; Chiavassa, A.; Millour, F.; Wittkowski, M.

    2015-12-01

    Balmer lines in emission are the most prominent features in Mira stars spectra and have a strong potential as a proxy to study the lower atmosphere's dynamics. In Fabas et al. ([1]), we accumulated spectropolarimetric observations of Balmer lines in emission. As the shock is propagating outwards, linear polarization rate increases and the angle of this polarization evolves. Assuming that linear polarization arises from anisotropic scattering, it has the potential of telling us about the geometric structure of the shock as it propagates and the study of such atmospheric structures can typically be performed with interferometry. In 2012, AMBER data on the Mira star omicron Ceti were collected in which the Brackett γ line is studied. The data show signatures in the interferometric observables around this line. Olivier Chesneau was in the jury evaluating the PhD thesis of N. Fabas and he was seduced by the idea to study these shock waves with interferometry and use polarimetry as a complementary study.

  18. Beyond ion-conduction: Channel-dependent and -independent roles of TRP channels during development and tissue homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Vrenken, Kirsten S; Jalink, Kees; van Leeuwen, Frank N; Middelbeek, Jeroen

    2016-06-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels comprise a family of cation channels implicated in a variety of cellular processes, including proliferation, cell migration and cell survival. As a consequence, members of this ion family play prominent roles during embryonic development, tissue maintenance and cancer progression. Although most TRP channels are non-selective, many cellular responses, mediated by TRP channels, appear to be calcium-dependent. In addition, there is mounting evidence for channel-independent roles for TRP channels. In this review, we will discuss how both these channel-dependent and -independent mechanisms affect cellular programs essential during embryonic development, and how perturbations in these pathways contribute to a variety of pathologies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate. Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen. PMID:26585368

  19. Evaluation of the efficacy of an insecticidal paint based on chlorpyrifos and pyriproxyfen in a microencapsulated formulation against Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Llácer, E; Dembilio, O; Jacas, J A

    2010-04-01

    The weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important pest of palms. It has recently colonized the Mediterranean Basin where it is a serious problem on ornamental Phoenix canariensis (hort. ex Chabaud) palms. The efficacy of an insecticidal paint based on chlorpyrifos and pyriproxyfen in a microencapsulated formulation (Inesfly IGR FITO, Industrias Químicas Inesba S.L., Paiporta, Spain) against this weevil has been studied. Laboratory results proved that pyriproxyfen has no effect against R. ferrugineus when applied in this microencapsulated formulation. Semifield trials dismissed Inesfly IGR FITO as a curative insecticide but showed the potential of this product in the preventative control of R. ferrugineus in palms. One single application could prevent infestation for up to 6 mo with a mean efficacy of 83.3%. PMID:20429455

  20. An account of the taxonomy and distribution of Syllidae (Annelida, Polychaetes) in the eastern Mediterranean, with notes on the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Faulwetter, Sarah; Chatzigeorgiou, Georgios; Galil, Bella S.; Arvanitidis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The syllid fauna of three locations in Crete and Israel (eastern Mediterranean Sea) was studied, yielding 82 syllid species, many of which were found for the first time in the respective areas: Seventeen species were recorded for the first time on the Israeli coasts and 20 in Greek waters. Perkinsyllis augeneri (Hartmann-Schröder, 1979) and Prosphaerosyllis chauseyensis Olivier et al., 2011 are new records for the Mediterranean Sea. Detailed information is given on the morphology, ecology and distribution of the species recorded for the first time in the studied areas. In addition, an update on the distribution of the genus Prosphaerosyllis San Martín, 1984 in the Mediterranean is given and an identification key to the Mediterranean species is provided. PMID:22207817

  1. Generic redescription, two new species, and a key to the species of the cicada genus Ariasa Distant, 1905 with the description of a new genus (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadinae: Fidicinini).

    PubMed

    Sanborn, Allen F

    2016-01-01

    The cicada genus Ariasa Distant, 1905 is redescribed.  Ariasa albimaculosa n. sp. is described from Colombia and A. bartletti n. sp. is described from Peru.  The current 14 species of Ariasa are listed along with their synonymies, known distribution of each species, and a key to the species is provided.  The first records of Ariasa bilaqueata (Uhler, 1903) for Peru and French Guiana are provided. Cracenpsaltria brasiliorum (Kirkaldy, 1909) rev. stat., n. comb. is determined to be the correct name for the taxon Cicada marginata Olivier, 1790 and the new genus Cracenpsaltria n. gen. is erected for the taxon.  The distribution of C. brasiliorum rev. stat., n. comb. is expanded to include Bolivia and Peru. PMID:27470740

  2. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Dermestidae, Endecatomidae, Bostrichidae, and Ptinidae

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian; Turgeon, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We report ten new species records for the Coleoptera fauna of New Brunswick, Canada from the families Dermestidae, Endecatomidae, Bostrichidae, and Ptinidae. Anthrenus fuscus Olivier and Anthrenus museorum (Linnaeus) of the family Dermestidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick. Endecatomus rugosus (Randall) and the family Endecatomidae are recorded for the first time for New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces. Two Bostrichidae, the adventive Dinoderus minutus (Fabricius) and the native Stephanopachys substriatus (Paykull), are newly recorded for the province. Five species of Ptinidae, the adventive Anobium punctatum (DeGeer) and Microbregma emarginatum emarginatum (Duftschmid), and the native Hadrobregmus notatus (Say), Ptilinus lobatus Casey, and Ptilinus ruficornis Say are added to the faunal list of New Brunswick. Collection data, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for all these species. PMID:22539890

  3. Bait and habitat preferences, and temporal variability of social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) attracted to vertebrate carrion.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Thiago de Carvalho; Giannotti, Edilberto; Thyssen, Patrícia Jacqueline; Solis, Daniel Russ; Godoy, Wesley Augusto Conde

    2011-09-01

    In addition to feeding on carrion tissues and fluids, social wasps can also prey on immature and adult carrion flies, thereby reducing their populations and retarding the decomposition process of carcasses. In this study, we report on the occurrence and behavior of social wasps attracted to vertebrate carrion. The collections were made monthly from September 2006 to October 2007 in three environments (rural, urban, and forest) in six municipalities of southeast Brazil, using baited bottle traps. We collected Agelaia pallipes (Olivier, 1791) (n = 143), Agelaia vicina (Saussure, 1854) (n = 106), Agelaia multipicta (Haliday, 1836) (n = 18), and Polybia paulista Ihering, 1896 (n = 3). The wasps were observed feeding directly on the baits and preying on adult insects collected in the traps. Bait and habitat associations, temporal variability of social wasps, and possible forensic implications of their actions are discussed. PMID:21936327

  4. Graphical method for profiling hob mill that generate cycloid worms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodor, V.; Berbinschi, S.; Baroiu, N.; Oancea, N.

    2015-11-01

    The hob mill for generating ordered curls of cycloid surface with non involute profiles may be profiled based on the fundamental theorems of surface enveloping - Olivier - as surface reciprocally enveloping with point like contact. In this paper, is proposed a methodology based on a complementary theorem of the surface enveloping in a graphical expression developed in a graphical design environment - CATIA. The graphical method presented in this paper is developed in two stages: determining of the rack gear model based on the solid model of the surface to be generated, using an original algorithm, following this, based on 3D modelling is determined the solid model of the primary peripheral surface of the hob mill. An application for a cycloid worm is presented - a central screw of helical pumps. In order to prove the quality of method, the analytical and graphical solutions are comparatively presented.

  5. Diagnostics of reactive pulsed plasmas by UV and VUV absorption spectroscopy and by modulated beam Mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunge, Gilles

    2011-10-01

    Pulsed plasmas are promising for etching applications in the microelectronic industry. However, many new phenomena are involved when a high density discharge is pulsed. To better understand these processes it is necessary to probe the radicals' kinetics with a microsecond resolution. We have developed several diagnostics to reach this goal including broad band absorption spectroscopy with UV LEDs to detect small polyatomic radicals and with a deuterium VUV source to detect larger closed shell molecules and the modulated mass spectrometry to monitor atomic species. We will discuss the impact of the plasma pulsing frequency and duty cycle on the radical densities in Cl2 based plasmas, and the consequences on plasma processes. Work done in collaboration with Paul Bodart, Melisa Brihoum, Maxime Darnon, Erwin Pargon, Olivier Joubert, and Nader Sadeghi, CNRS/LTM.

  6. Non-hollow-core Cybister trabeculae and compressive properties of two biomimetic models of beetle forewings.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Wanyong; Xie, Juan; Chen, Jinxiang; Guo, Xiaojun

    2016-12-01

    In 2006, the forewing trabeculae of Cybister tripunctatus Olivier (i.e., Cybister) beetles were reported to be hollow, and a biomimetic structural model (i.e., Song's model) was reported to exhibit better compressive mechanical properties than a solid-core trabecula-honeycomb model (i.e., Chen's model). To test these assertions, the current study first observed the trabecular microstructure of the Cybister beetle and confirmed that the trabeculae are solid. Second, the finite element method (FEM) was used to perform a contrast analysis of the compressive mechanical properties of Song's and Chen's biomimetic models. The results indicated that Chen's model exhibited better compressive mechanical properties. These findings, which are completely opposite of Song's findings, were obtained because the comparison models designed for use in Song's study were not comparable to that of Chen's model in terms of the core volumes. This study will benefit the development of beetle forewing biomimetic research. PMID:27612788

  7. Hybrid pupil mapping/masking systems for high-contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderbei, Robert J.

    2006-06-01

    Pupil mapping, also known as phase induced amplitude apodization or PIAA, has emerged as an interesting design concept for NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder space telescope. However, in a previous paper it was demonstrated that diffraction effects limit the best achievable contrast to about 10 -5, which is 5 orders of magnitude short of the required level. Recent work by Olivier Guyon and his collaborators shows that a certain hybrid system can restore the contrast to the required level without degrading significantly the attractive throughput, achromaticity, and inner working angle advantages. In this paper, efficient computational tools are described that can be used to evaluate such designs. It is shown that a design similar to the one proposed by Guyon does indeed meet the contrast requirement.

  8. Quantifying Quantumness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Daniel; Giraud, Olivier; Braun, Peter A.

    2010-03-01

    We introduce and study a measure of ``quantumness'' of a quantum state based on its Hilbert-Schmidt distance from the set of classical states. ``Classical states'' were defined earlier as states for which a positive P-function exists, i.e. they are mixtures of coherent states [1]. We study invariance properties of the measure, upper bounds, and its relation to entanglement measures. We evaluate the quantumness of a number of physically interesting states and show that for any physical system in thermal equilibrium there is a finite critical temperature above which quantumness vanishes. We then use the measure for identifying the ``most quantum'' states. Such states are expected to be potentially most useful for quantum information theoretical applications. We find these states explicitly for low-dimensional spin-systems, and show that they possess beautiful, highly symmetric Majorana representations. [4pt] [1] Classicality of spin states, Olivier Giraud, Petr Braun, and Daniel Braun, Phys. Rev. A 78, 042112 (2008)

  9. Transport in Old and New Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, David

    2012-02-01

    There is increasing interest in thermoelectric materials motivated in part by recent progress and in part by the potential of these materials in various energy technologies. Thermoelectric performance is a multiply contra-indicated property of matter. For example, it requires (1) high thermopower and high electrical conductivity, (2) high electrical conductivity and low thermal conductivity and (3) low thermal conductivity and high melting point. The key is finding an optimal balance. In this talk, I discuss some of the issues involved in the context of recent results. These include the surprising doping dependence of the thermopower in PbTe and PbSe, and the interplay between acoustic and optical phonons in PbTe. The potential of some new materials is discussed. This work was done in collaboration with David Parker, Olivier Delaire and Mao-Hua Du.

  10. Solutions of the sDiff(2)Toda equation with SU(2) symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, Daniel; McIver, John K.

    2010-07-01

    We present the general solution to the Plebański equation for an \\bm{\\mathfrak{h}} space that admits Killing vectors for an entire SU(2) of symmetries, which is therefore also the general solution of the sDiff(2)Toda equation that allows these symmetries. Desiring these solutions as a bridge toward the future for yet more general solutions of the sDiff(2)Toda equation, we generalize the earlier work of Olivier, on the Atiyah-Hitchin metric, and re-formulate work of Babich and Korotkin, and Tod, on the Bianchi IX approach to a metric with an SU(2) of symmetries. We also give careful delineations of the conformal transformations required to ensure that a metric of Bianchi IX type has a zero Ricci tensor, so that it is a self-dual, vacuum solution of the complex-valued version of Einstein's equations, as appropriate for the original Plebański equation.

  11. Born Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics calculation of the νO-H IR spectra for acetic acid cyclic dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Amine Benmalti, Mohamed; Krallafa, Abdelghani; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Both ab initio molecular dynamics simulations based on the Born-Oppenheimer approach calculations and a quantum theoretical model are used in order to study the IR spectrum of the acetic acid dimer in the gas phase. The theoretical model is taking into account the strong anharmonic coupling, Davydov coupling, multiple Fermi resonances between the first harmonics of some bending modes and the first excited state of the symmetric combination of the two vO-H modes and the quantum direct and indirect relaxation. The IR spectra obtained from DFT-based molecular dynamics is compared with our theoretical lineshape and with experiment. Note that in a previous work we have shown that our approach reproduces satisfactorily the main futures of the IR experimental lineshapes of the acetic acid dimer [Mohamed el Amine Benmalti, Paul Blaise, H. T. Flakus, Olivier Henri-Rousseau, Chem Phys, 320(2006) 267-274.].

  12. A synopsis of the genus Cypholoba Chaudoir (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Anthiini) known to occur in the Republic of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mawdsley, Jonathan R.; Erwin, Terry L.; Sithole, Hendrik; Mawdsley, Alice S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Nearly one third of the described species of Cypholoba Chaudoir (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are known to inhabit the Republic of South Africa. A key and diagnostic notes are provided for their identification, as well as notes about way of life for some of the species based on observations in the Kruger National Park. Fifteen species and subspecies of the genus are recorded from the Republic of South Africa; adult specimens of each species and subspecies are illustrated and information about the distribution of each species in the Republic of South Africa is summarized and mapped: Cypholoba alstoni (Péringuey), Cypholoba alveolata (Brême), Cypholoba amatonga Péringuey, Cypholoba fritschi (Chaudoir), Cypholoba gracilis gracilis (Dejean), Cypholoba gracilis scrobiculata (Bertoloni), Cypholoba gracilis zuluana Basilewsky, Cypholoba graphipteroides graphipteroides (Guérin-Méneville), Cypholoba leucospilota semilaevis (Chaudoir), Cypholoba macilenta (Olivier), Cypholoba notata (Perroud), Cypholoba oberthueri seruana Strohmeyer, Cypholoba opulenta (Boheman), Cypholoba rutata (Péringuey), and Cypholoba tenuicollis aenigma (Dohrn). PMID:22539909

  13. Design of a Computerised Flight Mill Device to Measure the Flight Potential of Different Insects.

    PubMed

    Martí-Campoy, Antonio; Ávalos, Juan Antonio; Soto, Antonia; Rodríguez-Ballester, Francisco; Martínez-Blay, Victoria; Malumbres, Manuel Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Several insect species pose a serious threat to different plant species, sometimes becoming a pest that produces significant damage to the landscape, biodiversity, and/or the economy. This is the case of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), Semanotus laurasii Lucas (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), and Monochamus galloprovincialis Olivier (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), which have become serious threats to ornamental and productive trees all over the world such as palm trees, cypresses, and pines. Knowledge about their flight potential is very important for designing and applying measures targeted to reduce the negative effects from these pests. Studying the flight capability and behaviour of some insects is difficult due to their small size and the large area wherein they can fly, so we wondered how we could obtain information about their flight capabilities in a controlled environment. The answer came with the design of flight mills. Relevant data about the flight potential of these insects may be recorded and analysed by means of a flight mill. Once an insect is attached to the flight mill, it is able to fly in a circular direction without hitting walls or objects. By adding sensors to the flight mill, it is possible to record the number of revolutions and flight time. This paper presents a full description of a computer monitored flight mill. The description covers both the mechanical and the electronic parts in detail. The mill was designed to easily adapt to the anatomy of different insects and was successfully tested with individuals from three species R. ferrugineus, S. laurasii, and M. galloprovincialis. PMID:27070600

  14. Barcoding Chrysomelidae: a resource for taxonomy and biodiversity conservation in the Mediterranean Region

    PubMed Central

    Magoga, Giulia; Sassi, Davide; Daccordi, Mauro; Leonardi, Carlo; Mirzaei, Mostafa; Regalin, Renato; Lozzia, Giuseppe; Montagna, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Mediterranean Region is one of the world’s biodiversity hot-spots, which is also characterized by high level of endemism. Approximately 2100 species of leaf beetle (Coleoptera; Chrysomelidae) are known from this area, a number that increases year after year and represents 5/6% of the known species. These features, associated with the urgent need to develop a DNA-based species identification approach for a broad spectrum of leaf beetle species, prompted us to develop a database of nucleotide sequences, with a solid taxonomic background, for all the Chrysomelidae Latreille, 1802 sensu latu inhabiting the Mediterranean region. The Mediterranean Chrysomelidae Barcoding project, which has started in 2009, involves more than fifty entomologists and molecular biologists from different European countries. Numerous collecting campaigns have been organized during the first seven years of the project, which led to the collection of more than 5000 leaf beetle specimens. In addition, during these collecting campaigns two new allochthonous species for Europe, namely Ophraella communa LeSage, 1986 and Colasposoma dauricum Mannerheim, 1849, were intercepted and some species new to science were discovered (e.g., Pachybrachis sassii Montagna, 2011 and Pachybrachis holerorum Montagna et al., 2013). DNA was extracted from 1006 specimens (~13% of the species inhabiting the Mediterranean region) and a total of 910 cox1 gene sequences were obtained (PCR amplification efficiency of 93.8%). Here we report the list of the barcoded subfamilies, genera and the number of species for which cox1 gene sequences were obtained; the metadata associated with each specimen and a list of problematic species for which marker amplification failed. In addition, the nucleotide divergence within and between species and genera was estimated and values of intraspecific nucleotide divergence greater than the average have been discussed. Cryptocephalus quadripunctatus G. A. Olivier, 1808

  15. Tissue distribution and activity testing suggest a similar but not identical function of fetuin-B and fetuin-A.

    PubMed Central

    Denecke, Bernd; Gräber, Steffen; Schäfer, Cora; Heiss, Alexander; Wöltje, Michael; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi

    2003-01-01

    Fetuins are serum proteins with diverse functions including the regulation of osteogenesis and inhibition of unwanted mineralization. Besides the alpha2-Heremans and Schmid glycoprotein/fetuin-A, the recently identified fetuin-B is a second member of the fetuin family [Olivier, Soury, Risler, Smih, Schneider, Lochner, Jouzeau, Fey and Salier (1999) Genomics 57, 352-364; Olivier, Soury, Ruminy, Husson, Parmentier, Daveau and Salier (2000) Biochem. J. 350, 589-597], which belongs to the cystatin superfamily. We compared the expressions of fetuin-B and fetuin-A at the RNA level and established that both genes are most highly expressed in liver tissue. Like fetuin-A, fetuin-B mRNA is also highly expressed in tongue and placenta tissues. We demonstrated for the first time that fetuin-B is also expressed at the protein level in sera and several organs of mouse, rat and human. We isolated contiguous genomic clones containing both fetuin-B and fetuin-A genes, indicating that these genes are closely linked at the genome level. The close proximity of both these genes may explain our observation that fetuin-B expression was decreased in fetuin-A-deficient mice. Unlike fetuin-A, the amount of fetuin-B protein in human serum varied with gender and was higher in females than in males. Functional analysis revealed that fetuin-B, similarly to fetuin-A, is an inhibitor of basic calcium phosphate precipitation, albeit less active when compared with fetuin-A. Therefore fetuin-B may have a function that is partly overlapping, if not identical, with the function of fetuin-A. PMID:12943536

  16. Barcoding Chrysomelidae: a resource for taxonomy and biodiversity conservation in the Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Magoga, Giulia; Sassi, Davide; Daccordi, Mauro; Leonardi, Carlo; Mirzaei, Mostafa; Regalin, Renato; Lozzia, Giuseppe; Montagna, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean Region is one of the world's biodiversity hot-spots, which is also characterized by high level of endemism. Approximately 2100 species of leaf beetle (Coleoptera; Chrysomelidae) are known from this area, a number that increases year after year and represents 5/6% of the known species. These features, associated with the urgent need to develop a DNA-based species identification approach for a broad spectrum of leaf beetle species, prompted us to develop a database of nucleotide sequences, with a solid taxonomic background, for all the Chrysomelidae Latreille, 1802 sensu latu inhabiting the Mediterranean region. The Mediterranean Chrysomelidae Barcoding project, which has started in 2009, involves more than fifty entomologists and molecular biologists from different European countries. Numerous collecting campaigns have been organized during the first seven years of the project, which led to the collection of more than 5000 leaf beetle specimens. In addition, during these collecting campaigns two new allochthonous species for Europe, namely Ophraella communa LeSage, 1986 and Colasposoma dauricum Mannerheim, 1849, were intercepted and some species new to science were discovered (e.g., Pachybrachis sassii Montagna, 2011 and Pachybrachis holerorum Montagna et al., 2013). DNA was extracted from 1006 specimens (~13% of the species inhabiting the Mediterranean region) and a total of 910 cox1 gene sequences were obtained (PCR amplification efficiency of 93.8%). Here we report the list of the barcoded subfamilies, genera and the number of species for which cox1 gene sequences were obtained; the metadata associated with each specimen and a list of problematic species for which marker amplification failed. In addition, the nucleotide divergence within and between species and genera was estimated and values of intraspecific nucleotide divergence greater than the average have been discussed. Cryptocephalus quadripunctatus G. A. Olivier, 1808, Cryptocephalus

  17. Responses of Cerambycidae and Other Insects to Traps Baited With Ethanol, 2,3-Hexanediol, and 3,2-Hydroxyketone Lures in North-Central Georgia.

    PubMed

    Miller, D R; Crowe, C M; Mayo, P D; Silk, P J; Sweeney, J D

    2015-10-01

    In north-central Georgia, 13 species of woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae) were attracted to multiple-funnel traps baited with ethanol and one of the following pheromones: (1) racemic 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one; (2) racemic 3-hydroxyoctan-2-one; and (3) syn-2,3-hexanediol. The following species were attracted to traps baited with ethanol and 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one: Anelaphus pumilus (Newman), Eburia quadrigeminata (Say), Euderces pini (Olivier), Knulliana cincta (Drury), Neoclytus mucronatus (F.), Neoclytus scutellaris (Olivier), and Xylotrechus colonus (F.). Clytus marginicollis Castelnau & Gory, and Anelaphus parallelus (Newman) were attracted to traps baited with ethanol and 3-hydroxyoctan-2-one, whereas traps baited with ethanol and syn-2,3-hexanediol were attractive to Anelaphus villosus (F.), A. parallelus, Neoclytus acuminatus (F.), Neoclytus jouteli jouteli Davis, and Megacyllene caryae (Gahan). Ethanol enhanced catches of seven cerambycid species in traps baited with syn-2,3-hexanediol and 3,2-hydroxyketones. Catches of bark and ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in ethanol-baited traps were largely unaffected by the addition of syn-2,3-hexanediol and 3,2-hydroxyketone lures, except for two species. The mean catches of Hypothenemus rotundicollis Wood & Bright and Dryoxylon onoharaensum (Murayama) in ethanol-baited traps increased and decreased, respectively, with the addition of racemic 3-hydroxyoctan-2-one. Traps baited with ethanol and syn-2,3-hexanediol were attractive to Xylobiops basilaris (Say) (Bostrichidae) and Chariessa pilosa (Forster) (Cleridae), whereas Temnoscheila virescens (F.) (Trogossitidae) were attracted to traps baited with ethanol and 3-hydroxyhexan-2-one. The assassin bug, Apiomerus crassipes (F.) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), was attracted to traps baited with ethanol and 3,2-hydroxyketones. PMID:26453724

  18. Design of a Computerised Flight Mill Device to Measure the Flight Potential of Different Insects

    PubMed Central

    Martí-Campoy, Antonio; Ávalos, Juan Antonio; Soto, Antonia; Rodríguez-Ballester, Francisco; Martínez-Blay, Victoria; Malumbres, Manuel Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Several insect species pose a serious threat to different plant species, sometimes becoming a pest that produces significant damage to the landscape, biodiversity, and/or the economy. This is the case of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), Semanotus laurasii Lucas (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), and Monochamus galloprovincialis Olivier (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), which have become serious threats to ornamental and productive trees all over the world such as palm trees, cypresses, and pines. Knowledge about their flight potential is very important for designing and applying measures targeted to reduce the negative effects from these pests. Studying the flight capability and behaviour of some insects is difficult due to their small size and the large area wherein they can fly, so we wondered how we could obtain information about their flight capabilities in a controlled environment. The answer came with the design of flight mills. Relevant data about the flight potential of these insects may be recorded and analysed by means of a flight mill. Once an insect is attached to the flight mill, it is able to fly in a circular direction without hitting walls or objects. By adding sensors to the flight mill, it is possible to record the number of revolutions and flight time. This paper presents a full description of a computer monitored flight mill. The description covers both the mechanical and the electronic parts in detail. The mill was designed to easily adapt to the anatomy of different insects and was successfully tested with individuals from three species R. ferrugineus, S. laurasii, and M. galloprovincialis. PMID:27070600

  19. TNF-α Involvement in Insulin Resistance Induced by Experimental Scorpion Envenomation

    PubMed Central

    Ait-Lounis, Aouatef; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima

    2012-01-01

    Background Scorpion venom induces systemic inflammation characterized by an increase in cytokine release and chemokine production. There have been few experimental studies assessing the effects of scorpion venom on adipose tissue function in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings To study the adipose tissue inflammation (ATI) induced by Androctonus australis hector (Aah) venom and to assess possible mechanisms of ATI, mice (n = 6, aged 1 month) were injected with Aah (0.45 mg/kg), toxic fraction of Aah (FTox-G50; 0.2 mg/kg) or saline solution (control). Inflammatory responses were evaluated by ELISA and cell sorting analyses in adipose tissue 45 minutes and 24 hours after injection. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to assess the regulation of genes implicated in glucose uptake. The titers of selected inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) were also determined in sera and in insulin target tissues. The serum concentration of IL-1β rose 45 minutes after envenomation and returned to basal level after 24 hours. The pathophysiological effects of the venom after 24 hours mainly involved M1-proinflammatory macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue combined with high titers of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α. Indeed, TNF-α was strongly induced in both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. We studied the effects of Aah venom on genes implicated in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Insulin induced a significant increase in the expression of the mRNAs for hexokinase 2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in both skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in control mice; this upregulation was completely abolished after 24 hours in mice envenomed with Aah or FTox-G50. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that Aah venom induces insulin resistance by mechanisms involving TNF-α-dependent Map4k4 kinase activation in the adipose tissue. PMID:22816003

  20. Na+-channel-associated scorpion toxin receptor sites as probes for neuronal evolution in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Berwald-Netter, Y; Martin-Moutot, N; Koulakoff, A; Couraud, F

    1981-02-01

    Purified neurotoxin II of the scorpion Androctonus australis Hector (ScTx) has previously been shown to bind specifically to the Na+-ionophore-associated, voltage-sensitive receptor sites of excitable cells. We have conducted binding studies, using high-specific-activity 125I-labeled ScTx, to detect and quantify the Na+-channel receptors on cells of the developing fetal mouse brain. In vivo, the onset of detectable specific binding is at 12 fetal days. The rate of receptor appearance is initially slow but increases sharply as of the 16th day of mouse ontogenesis. The mean number of receptors at 12 and 19 days is 120 and 20,000 per cell, respectively (i.e., 0.5 and 80 per square micrometer). When corrected for the fraction of cell population corresponding to putative neuroblasts and neurons, identified by immunofluorescence as tetanus toxin binding cells, these values are, respectively, 1040 and 33,900 ScTx receptors per tetanus toxin binding cell or 4.2 and 136 per square micrometer. At all stages, the toxin binds to a single class of noninteracting sites; Kd = 0.1-0.5 nM. Similar findings in terms of ScTx-receptor properties and quantitative evolution were obtained in vitro. Specific 125I-labeled ScTx binding the presence of tetanus toxin binding cells. In cultures of central nervous system glia without neurons, only nonspecific low-level ScTx binding was detected. These results suggest that the high-affinity scorpion toxin receptors may be used as quantitative markers of neuronal differentiation. PMID:6262759

  1. Enhanced insecticidal activity of Chilo iridescent virus expressing an insect specific neurotoxin.

    PubMed

    Nalcacioglu, Remziye; Muratoglu, Hacer; Yesilyurt, Aydın; van Oers, Monique M; Vlak, Just M; Demirbag, Zihni

    2016-07-01

    Previously we have generated a recombinant Chilo iridescent virus (CIV) by inserting the green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) into the CIV 157L open reading frame (ORF) locus and showed that this recombinant (rCIV-Δ157L-gfp) was fully infectious both in cell culture as well as in insect larvae. This study opened up a new avenue for increasing the speed of kill of CIV and other iridoviruses by inserting virulence or toxin genes into the viral genome. In the current study we constructed a recombinant CIV (rCIV-Δ157L/gfp-AaIT) where the 157L ORF was replaced with both the AaIT neurotoxin gene from the scorpion Androctonus australis and the gfp gene, each under control of the viral major capsid protein (mcp) gene promoter. Recombinant virus was purified by successive rounds of plaque purification using Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf-9) cells. One-step growth curves for the recombinant viruses, rCIV-Δ157L/gfp-AaIT and rCIV-Δ157L-gfp, and wild-type CIVs in Sf-9 cells showed similar profiles. AaIT toxin expression in infected third instar Galleria mellonella larvae was confirmed by western blot analysis using an antibody against the AaIT protein. rCIV-Δ157L/gfp-AaIT infection at a concentration that kills 100% of the larvae caused paralysis in infected third instar G. mellonella larvae from two days after injection, whereas infection with non-AaIT containing viruses showed mortality starting much later (>10days). Bioassays on these larvae demonstrated that the speed of kill of CIV carrying AaIT was strikingly enhanced as compared to wild-type CIV. These results suggest that insertion of a toxin gene into CIV provides further opportunities to control a wide range of pest insects, such as weevils, using an iridovirus. PMID:27369385

  2. Immunomodulatory and protective properties of tacrolimus in experimental scorpion envenomation.

    PubMed

    Kabrine, M; Laraba-Djebari, F

    2014-01-01

    Involvement of imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory events has been reported in the developed pathogenesis after scorpion envenomation. The immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties of tacrolimus (FK-506) have been investigated: i) to better understand evolution of signaling pathways which are involved in the immune system ii) to reduce observed clinical signs while keeping a balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice received tacrolimus (1 mg/kg every 12 hours per os) for 21 days before envenomation with a sublethal dose (10 microg/20 g body weight) of Androctonus australis hector venom (Aah). Cell migration, pulmonary edema, exudation, Myeloperoxydase (MPO), Eosinophil peroxydase (EPO), C-reactive protein (CRP), C3, Creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), and hyperglycemia were analyzed 30 min, 3 and 24 hours after injection of Aah venom. Histological analysis of lung parenchyma was undertaken 24 hours after envenomation. Aah lethality was evaluated on mice with or without pretreatment with tacrolimus. (Fab’)2 fragments (40 mg/kg) were also used as specific treatment in all protocols. Tacrolimus significantly inhibited cell migration, pulmonary edema, exudation, CRP and hyperglycemia. It also decreased MPO and EPO activities and prevented tissue damage in lung tissue, balancing seric parameter levels (CPK, ASAT and ALAT). The pretreated animals seemed to be protected by this macrolide against the venom lethality. These findings suggest that the overactivation of the immune system is one of the causes involved in the aggravation of the pathophysiological effects induced after envenomation. The obtained results showed that the use of F(ab’)2 fragments as specific treatment cannot reduce the induced inflammatory response. PMID:24674680

  3. Androctonin, a hydrophilic disulphide-bridged non-haemolytic anti-microbial peptide: a plausible mode of action.

    PubMed Central

    Hetru, C; Letellier, L; Oren, Z; Hoffmann, J A; Shai, Y

    2000-01-01

    Androctonin is a 25-residue non-haemolytic anti-microbial peptide isolated from the scorpion Androctonus australis and contains two disulphide bridges. Androctonin is different from known native anti-microbial peptides, being a relatively hydrophilic and non-amphipathic molecule. This raises the possibility that the target of androctonin might not be the bacterial membrane, shown to be a target for most amphipathic lytic peptides. To shed light on its mode of action on bacteria and its non-haemolytic activity, we synthesized androctonin, its fluorescent derivatives and its all-D-amino acid enantiomer. The enantiomer preserved high activity, suggesting a lipid-peptide interaction between androctonin and bacterial membranes. In Gram-positive and (at higher concentrations) Gram-negative bacteria, androctonin induced an immediate perturbation of the permeability properties of the cytoplasmic membrane of the bacterial energetic state, concomitant with perturbation of the morphology of the cell envelope as revealed by electron microscopy. Androctonin binds only to negatively charged lipid vesicles and induces the leakage of markers at high concentrations and with a slow kinetics, in contrast with amphipathic alpha-helical anti-microbial peptides that bind and permeate negatively charged vesicles, and to a smaller extent also zwitterionic ones. This might explain the selective lytic activity of androctonin towards bacteria but not red blood cells. Polarized attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that androctonin adopts a beta-sheet structure in membranes and did not affect the lipid acyl chain order, which supports a detergent-like effect. The small size of androctonin, its hydrophilic character and its physicochemical properties are favourable features for its potential application as a replacement for commercially available antibiotics to which bacteria have developed resistance. PMID:10642525

  4. Immunopathologic effects of scorpion venom on hepato-renal tissues: Involvement of lipid derived inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Lamraoui, Amal; Adi-Bessalem, Sonia; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima

    2015-10-01

    Scorpion venoms are known to cause different inflammatory disorders through complex mechanisms in various tissues. In the study here, the involvement of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-derived metabolites in hepatic and renal inflammation responses were examined. Mice were envenomed with Androctonus australis hector scorpion venom in the absence or presence of inhibitors that can interfere with lipid inflammatory mediator synthesis, i.e., dexamethasone (PLA2 inhibitor), indomethacin (non-selective COX-1/COX-2 inhibitor), or celecoxib (selective COX-2 inhibitor). The inflammatory response was assessed by evaluating vascular permeability changes, inflammatory cell infiltration, oxidative/nitrosative stress marker levels, and by histologic and functional analyses of the liver and kidney. Results revealed that the venom alone induced an inflammatory response in this tissues marked by increased microvascular permeability and inflammatory cell infiltration, increases in levels of nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation, and decreases in antioxidant defense. Moreover, significant alterations in the histological architecture of these organs were associated with increased serum levels of some metabolic enzymes, as well as urea and uric acid. Pre-treatment of mice with dexamethasone led to significant decreases of the inflammatory disorders in the hepatic parenchyma; celecoxib pre-treatment seemed to be more effective against renal inflammation. Indomethacin pre-treatment only slightly reduced the inflammatory disorders in the tissues. These results suggest that the induced inflammation response in liver was mediated mainly by PLA2 activation, while the renal inflammatory process was mediated by prostaglandin formation by COX-2. These findings provide additional insight toward the understanding of activated pathways and related mechanisms involved in scorpion envenoming syndrome. PMID:26231296

  5. On the identity of some weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius (1745–1808) in the Museum of Zoology of Copenhagen (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea, Curculionoidea, Tenebrionoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The types of thirty-two nominal weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for twenty-two of them. A neotype is designated for Curculio sticticus Fabricius, 1777. Protapion varipes (Germar, 1817) is declared a nomen protectum over Curculio flavipes Fabricius, 1775. Based on a study of syntypes, Rhinomacer curculioides Fabricius, 1781 is confirmed as a member of Mycterus (Mycteridae), Bruchus undatus Fabricius, 1787 is tentatively transferred to Erotylidae, Curculio fulvirostris Fabricius, 1787 and Anthribus roboris Fabricius, 1798 are confirmed as members of Salpingus (Salpingidae), and Brachycerus cristatus Fabricius, 1798 is transferred to Tenebrionidae. Based on lectotype designation, Curculio caninus Fabricius, 1792 is confirmed as a synonym of Sitona lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Curculio innocuus Fabricius, 1802 as a synonym of Cneorhinus barcelonicus (Herbst, 1797). Bruchus rufipes Fabricius, 1792 is not considered an available species name, but a later use of Bruchus rufipes Olivier, 1790. Cossonus incisus Pascoe, 1885 is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Cossonus illigeri Champion, 1909 and Cossonus vulneratus Illiger, 1805 from synonymy under Cossonus canaliculatus (Fabricius, 1792) (a primary homonym of Curculio canaliculatus Olivier, 1791). Cossonus canaliculatus Fabricius, 1802 is a secondary homonym of the former and is replaced with Cossonus incisus. Salpingus fulvirostris (Fabricius, 1787) is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Salpingus planirostris (Fabricius, 1787), a primary homonym of Curculio planirostris Piller & Mitterpacher, 1783. The following new combinations are proposed: Brachysomus erinaceus (Fabricius, 1802) (from Curculio), Bronchus ferus (Gyllenhal, 1840) (from Hipporhinus), Bronchus glandifer (Fabricius, 1792) (from Curculio), Bronchus nivosus (Sparrman, 1785) (from Curculio), Bronchus sparrmani (Gyllenhal, 1833) (from Hipporhinus

  6. PREFACE: Nanosafe 2012: International Conferences on Safe Production and Use of Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardif, François

    2013-04-01

    , FR) Co-chair: Georgios KATALAGARIANAKIS (EC, BE) Mélanie AUFFAN (CEREGE, FR) Jorge BOCZKOWSKI (INSERM, FR) Jean-Yves BOTTERO (CEREGE, FR) Jacques BOUILLARD (INERIS, FR) Derk BROUWER (TNO, NL) Marie CARRIERE (CEA, FR) Claude EMOND (U. MONTREAL, CA) Cassandra ENGEMAN (UCSB, USA) Eric GAFFET (CNRS, FR) François GENSDARMES (IRSN, FR) Alexei GRINBAUM (CEA, FR) Antje GROBE (U.STUTTGART, DE) Peter HOET (KUL, BE) Eric QUEMENEUR (CEA, FR) Olivier LE BIHAN (INERIS, FR) Robert MUIR (NANEUM, UK) Tinh NGUYEN (NIST, USA) Bernd NOWACK (EMPA, CH) Günter OBERDÖRSTER (U. ROCHESTER, USA) David PUI (U. MINNESOTA, USA) Michael RIEDIKER (IST, CH) Yves SAMSON (CEA, FR) Ken TAKEDA (U. TOKYO, JP) Olivier WITSCHGER (INRS, FR) The PDF contains a list of sponsor logos, the conference programme and planning documents.

  7. MEETING: Chlamydomonas Annotation Jamboree - October 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, Arthur R

    2007-04-13

    Shotgun sequencing of the nuclear genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlamydomonas throughout) was performed at an approximate 10X coverage by JGI. Roughly half of the genome is now contained on 26 scaffolds, all of which are at least 1.6 Mb, and the coverage of the genome is ~95%. There are now over 200,000 cDNA sequence reads that we have generated as part of the Chlamydomonas genome project (Grossman, 2003; Shrager et al., 2003; Grossman et al. 2007; Merchant et al., 2007); other sequences have also been generated by the Kasuza sequence group (Asamizu et al., 1999; Asamizu et al., 2000) or individual laboratories that have focused on specific genes. Shrager et al. (2003) placed the reads into distinct contigs (an assemblage of reads with overlapping nucleotide sequences), and contigs that group together as part of the same genes have been designated ACEs (assembly of contigs generated from EST information). All of the reads have also been mapped to the Chlamydomonas nuclear genome and the cDNAs and their corresponding genomic sequences have been reassembled, and the resulting assemblage is called an ACEG (an Assembly of contiguous EST sequences supported by genomic sequence) (Jain et al., 2007). Most of the unique genes or ACEGs are also represented by gene models that have been generated by the Joint Genome Institute (JGI, Walnut Creek, CA). These gene models have been placed onto the DNA scaffolds and are presented as a track on the Chlamydomonas genome browser associated with the genome portal (http://genome.jgi-psf.org/Chlre3/Chlre3.home.html). Ultimately, the meeting grant awarded by DOE has helped enormously in the development of an annotation pipeline (a set of guidelines used in the annotation of genes) and resulted in high quality annotation of over 4,000 genes; the annotators were from both Europe and the USA. Some of the people who led the annotation initiative were Arthur Grossman, Olivier Vallon, and Sabeeha Merchant (with many individual

  8. Venom conjugated polylactide applied as biocompatible material for passive and active immunotherapy against scorpion envenomation.

    PubMed

    Ayari-Riabi, Sana; Trimaille, Thomas; Mabrouk, Kamel; Bertin, Denis; Gigmes, Didier; Benlasfar, Zakaria; Zaghmi, Ahlem; Bouhaouala-Zahar, Balkiss; Elayeb, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Scorpion envenoming represents a public health issue in subtropical regions of the world. Treatment and prevention need to promote antitoxin immunity. Preserving antigenic presentation while removing toxin effect remains a major challenge in toxin vaccine development. Among particulate adjuvant, particles prepared with poly (D,L-lactide) polymer are the most extensively investigated due to their excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. The aim of this study is to develop surfactant-free PLA nanoparticles that safely deliver venom toxic fraction to enhance specific immune response. PLA nanoparticles are coated with AahG50 (AahG50/PLA) and BotG50 (BotG50/PLA): a toxic fraction purified from Androctonus australis hector and Buthus occitanus tunetanus venoms, respectively. Residual toxicities are evaluated following injections of PLA-containing high doses of AahG50 (or BotG50). Immunization trials are performed with the detoxified fraction administered alone without adjuvant. A comparative study of the effect of Freund is also included. The neutralizing capacity of sera is determined in naive mice. Six months later, immunized mice are challenged subcutaneously with increased doses of AahG50. Subcutaneous lethal dose 50 (LD50) of AahG50 and BotG50 is of 575 μg/kg and 1300 μg/kg respectively. By comparison, BotG50/PLA is totally innocuous while 50% of tested mice survive 2875 μg AahG50/kg. Alhydrogel and Freund are not able to detoxify such a high dose. Cross-antigenicity between particulate and soluble fraction is also, ensured. AahG50/PLA and BotG50/PLA induce high antibody levels in mice serum. The neutralizing capacity per mL of anti-venom was 258 μg/mL and 186 μg/mL calculated for anti-AahG50/PLA and anti-BotG50/PLA sera, respectively. Animals immunized with AahG50/PLA are protected against AahG50 injected dose of 3162 μg/kg as opposed all non-immunized mice died at this dose. We find that the detoxification approach based PLA nanoparticles, benefit

  9. Comparative insecticidal properties of two nucleopolyhedrovirus vectors encoding a similar toxin gene chimer.

    PubMed

    Treacy, M F; Rensner, P E; All, J N

    2000-08-01

    Laboratory, greenhouse and field studies were conducted to characterize the insecticidal properties of genetically altered forms of Autographa californica (Speyer) nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcNPV) and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) NPV (HzNPV) against selected heliothine species. The altered viruses each contained a chimeric 0.8-kb fragment encoding the insect-specific, sodium channel neurotoxin from the Algerian scorpion Androctonus australis Hector (AaIT, hence recombinant viruses designated Ac-AaIT and Hz-AaIT). Based on LD50 values, results from diet-overlay bioassays showed Ac-AaIT and Hz-AaIT to be equally virulent against larval tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.), but Hz-AaIT averaged 1,335-fold greater bioactivity than Ac-AaIT against larval cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). Hz-AaIT killed larvae of both heliothine species at rates significantly faster than those imparted by HzNPV (viral LT50 values averaged 2.5 and 5.6 d, respectively). In greenhouse studies, foliar sprays of Ac-AaIT and Hz-AaIT were equally effective in controlling H. virescens on cotton; however, Hz-AaIT provided control of H. zea on cotton at a level superior to that of Ac-AaIT. For example, after three weekly sessions of foliar application and H. zea artificial infestation, cotton treated with Ac-AaIT or Hz-AaIT at 10 x 10(11) occulsion bodies (OB)/ha averaged 2.5 and 16.2 nondamaged flower buds per plant, respectively. Another greenhouse study conducted against heliothine species on cotton showed that the quicker killing speed exhibited by Hz-AaIT led to improved plant protection versus HzNPV. Finally, results from three field trials demonstrated that Hz-AaIT at 5-12 x 10(11) OB/ha provided control of the heliothine complex in cotton at levels slightly better than Bacillus thuringiensis, equal to the macrolide, spinosad, and only slightly less than that of selected pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides. Overall, results from these studies indicate that, because of host range

  10. Scorpion envenoming in the north of Mali (West Africa): epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects.

    PubMed

    Dabo, A; Golou, G; Traoré, M S; Diarra, N; Goyffon, M; Doumbo, O

    2011-08-01

    Scorpion envenomation remains a poorly known problem in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in Mali, where the incidence is high in Northern area of the country (Sahara desert). We conducted a prospective study in two district health centers, Kidal and Tessalit (North-east of Mali), to describe the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic features of scorpion stings. This study consisted of an exhaustive follow-up from admission to discharge of all patients stung by scorpions. Of a total of 282 cases recorded during one year, 207 (73.4%) occurred in Kidal, and the remaining 75 (26.6%) took place in Tessalit. The annual incidence was significantly higher in Tessalit (437 cases/100,000 population/year) than in Kidal (243 cases/100,000 population/year) (p < 10⁻⁶). Two hundred two (71.6%) stings occurred inside human dwellings, 142 (50.4%) during sleeping/resting, especially in August. One hundred ninety-one (67.7%) were on the lower extremities. Nocturnal stings, 168 (59.6%), occurred more often than diurnal stings, 114 (40.4%). Most patients, 163 (57.8%), were admitted less than 1 h after being stung. Local pain at the sting site was the common primary complaint. However, moderate and severe clinical signs were significantly higher in children than in adults (p < 0.05). The death rate (3.9%) was higher in children (3.5%) than in adults (0.3%) (p = 8.10⁻⁶; RR = 0.90 [IC: 0.84-0.06]). Of the 22 scorpion species identified, 13 (59.1%) were Leiurus quinquestriiatus, 8 (36.4%) were Androctonus amoreuxi, and 1 (4.5%) specimen was Buthiscus bicalcaratus. From these species, L. quinquestriiatus and A. amoreuxi were responsible of stings. The medical treatment was only symptomatic, and one hundred twenty-eight (45.3%) patients received traditional remedies before seeking medical attention. Our findings suggest that scorpion stings are common in the north of Mali and are a significant threat to human health. PMID:21605586

  11. Different roles of protein kinase C-beta and -delta in arachidonic acid cascade, superoxide formation and phosphoinositide hydrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Duyster, J; Schwende, H; Fitzke, E; Hidaka, H; Dieter, P

    1993-01-01

    In contrast with protein kinase C (PKC)-beta, PKC-delta is exclusively detectable in the membrane fraction of liver macrophages. After long-term treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) PKC-beta is depleted faster (within 3 h) than PKC-delta (> 7h). Simultaneously, pretreatment with PMA for 3 h inhibits the PMA- and zymosan-induced generation of superoxide and the PMA-induced formation of prostaglandin (PG) E2, whereas a preincubation of more than 7 h is required to affect the zymosan-induced release of PGE2 and inositol phosphates. These results support an involvement of PKC-beta in the PMA-induced activation of the arachidonic acid cascade and in superoxide formation and imply an involvement of PKC-delta in zymosan-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis and PGE2 formation. Two phorbol ester derivates, sapintoxin A (SAPA) and 12-deoxyphorbol 13-phenylacetate 20-acetate (DOPPA), which have been previously reported to activate preferentially PLC-beta but not PKC-delta in vitro [Ryves, Evans, Olivier, Parker and Evans (1992) FEBS Lett. 288, 5-9], induce the formation of PGE2 and superoxide, down-regulate PKC-delta and potentiate inositol phosphate formation in parallel SAPA, but not DOPPA, down-regulates PKC-beta and inhibits the PMA-induced formation of eicosanoids and superoxide. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 PMID:8389125

  12. Plasticity in Vegetative Growth over Contrasted Growing Sites of an F1 Olive Tree Progeny during Its Juvenile Phase.

    PubMed

    Ben Sadok, Inès; Martinez, Sebastien; Moutier, Nathalie; Garcia, Gilbert; Leon, Lorenzo; Belaj, Angelina; De La Rosa, Raúl; Khadari, Bouchaib; Costes, Evelyne

    2015-01-01

    Climatic changes impact fruit tree growth and severely limit their production. Investigating the tree ability to cope with environmental variations is thus necessary to adapt breeding and management strategies in order to ensure sustainable production. In this study, we assessed the genetic parameters and genotype by environment interaction (GxE) during the early tree growth. One hundred and twenty olive seedlings derived from the cross 'Olivière' x 'Arbequina' were examined across two sites with contrasted environments, accounting for ontogenetic trends over three years. Models including the year of growth, branching order, environment, genotype effects, and their interactions were built with variance function and covariance structure of residuals when necessary. After selection of a model, broad sense heritabilities were estimated. Despite strong environmental effect on most traits, no GxE was found. Moreover, the internal structure of traits co-variation was similar in both sites. Ontogenetic growth variation, related to (i) the overall tree form and (ii) the growth and branching habit at growth unit scale, was not altered by the environment. Finally, a moderate to strong genetic control was identified for traits at the whole tree scale and at internode scale. Among all studied traits, the maximal internode length exhibited the highest heritability (H2 = 0.74). Considering the determinant role of this trait in tree architecture and its stability across environments, this study consolidates its relevance for breeding. PMID:26062090

  13. Effect of Cardinal Directions on Gall Morphology and Parasitization of the Gall Wasp, Cynips quercusfolii

    PubMed Central

    Zargaran, Mohammed Reza; Safaralizadeh, Mohammed Hassan; Pourmirza, Ali Asghar; Valizadegan, Orouj

    2011-01-01

    This survey investigated the relationship between gall morphology and some fitness components in the asexual generation of Cynips quercusfolii L. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Results showed that larger C. quercusfolii galls were formed on the south side of oak trees Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagales: Fagaceae). Larval chamber diameter in the gall was similar, but gall diameter and gall wall thickness varied with the location of the gall on the tree. Cynips quercusfolii was attacked by parasitoids, and the south-facing galls suffered significantly lower parasitoid attacks. Thickness of gall walls and parasitism rate were negatively correlated. Mean gall diameter and gall wall thickness were significantly larger in south-facing galls than other directions, but the difference in the mean larval chamber diameter was not significant. These results suggest that the position of galls on the tree affected gall wall thickness, and this plays an important role in parasitoid attacks. These results suggest that C. quercusfolii prefer to attack the south side of oak trees, and selection of this side by wasps led to formation of larger galls with thick walls that decreased parasite attack, which will affect growth and survival of wasp larvae. PMID:22950357

  14. Acoustic Detection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) and Oryctes elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Phoenix dactylifera (Arecales: Arecacae) Trees and Offshoots in Saudi Arabian Orchards.

    PubMed

    Mankin, R W; Al-Ayedh, H Y; Aldryhim, Y; Rohde, B

    2016-04-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larvae are cryptic, internal tissue-feeding pests of palm trees that are difficult to detect; consequently, infestations may remain hidden until they are widespread in an orchard. Infested trees and propagable offshoots that develop from axillary buds on the trunk frequently are transported inadvertently to previously uninfested areas. Acoustic methods can be used for scouting and early detection of R. ferrugineus, but until now have not been tested on multiple trees and offshoots in commercial date palm orchard environments. For this report, the acoustic detectability of R. ferrugineus was assessed in Saudi Arabian date palm orchards in the presence of commonly occurring wind, bird noise, machinery noise, and nontarget insects. Signal analyses were developed to detect R. ferrugineus and another insect pest, Oryctes elegans Prell (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), frequently co-occurring in the orchards, and discriminate both from background noise. In addition, it was possible to distinguish R. ferrugineus from O. elegans in offshoots by differences in the temporal patterns of their sound impulses. As has been observed often with other insect pests, populations of the two species appeared clumped rather than uniform or random. The results are discussed in relation to development of automated methods that could assist orchard managers in quickly identifying infested trees and offshoots so that R. ferrugineus infestations can be targeted and the likelihood of transferring infested offshoots to uninfested areas can be reduced. PMID:26743218

  15. On the history of the quantum. Introduction to the HQ2 special issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dongen, Jeroen; Dieks, Dennis; Uffink, Jos; Kox, A. J.

    The historiography of quantum theory exhibits a period of intense activity that started in the 1960s, with the Archives for the History of Quantum Physics project, and continued with the work of scholars like Max Jammer, Martin J. Klein, John Heilbron, Paul Forman and Thomas Kuhn. At the end of the 1970s, however, interest of historians seems to have shifted away, even if there have been notable exceptions, such as the multi-volume work by Jagdish Mehra and Helmut Rechenberg, and monographs like those of Olivier Darrigol and Mara Beller. Perhaps this development has had to do with a diminishing number of scholars possessing the necessary technical skills in physics together with historical sensitivity. Moreover, many historians of physics in this period have focused their interest on another subject, namely the development of the theory of relativity. Stimulated by the start of the Einstein Papers Project, and initiated by pioneers such as John Stachel and John Norton around 1980, very soon a dedicated group of scholars devoted time and energy to analyzing the genesis and development of general relativity, and other aspects of Einstein's science.

  16. Plasticity in Vegetative Growth over Contrasted Growing Sites of an F1 Olive Tree Progeny during Its Juvenile Phase

    PubMed Central

    Ben Sadok, Inès; Martinez, Sebastien; Moutier, Nathalie; Garcia, Gilbert; Leon, Lorenzo; Belaj, Angelina; De La Rosa, Raúl; Khadari, Bouchaib; Costes, Evelyne

    2015-01-01

    Climatic changes impact fruit tree growth and severely limit their production. Investigating the tree ability to cope with environmental variations is thus necessary to adapt breeding and management strategies in order to ensure sustainable production. In this study, we assessed the genetic parameters and genotype by environment interaction (GxE) during the early tree growth. One hundred and twenty olive seedlings derived from the cross ‘Olivière’ x ‘Arbequina’ were examined across two sites with contrasted environments, accounting for ontogenetic trends over three years. Models including the year of growth, branching order, environment, genotype effects, and their interactions were built with variance function and covariance structure of residuals when necessary. After selection of a model, broad sense heritabilities were estimated. Despite strong environmental effect on most traits, no GxE was found. Moreover, the internal structure of traits co-variation was similar in both sites. Ontogenetic growth variation, related to (i) the overall tree form and (ii) the growth and branching habit at growth unit scale, was not altered by the environment. Finally, a moderate to strong genetic control was identified for traits at the whole tree scale and at internode scale. Among all studied traits, the maximal internode length exhibited the highest heritability (H2 = 0.74). Considering the determinant role of this trait in tree architecture and its stability across environments, this study consolidates its relevance for breeding. PMID:26062090

  17. Involvement of aquaporin channels in water extrusion from biosilica during maturation of sponge siliceous spicules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Müller, Werner E G

    2015-08-01

    Aquaporins are a family of small, pore-forming, integral cell membrane proteins. This ancient protein family functions as water channels and is found in all kingdoms (including archaea, eubacteria, fungi, plants, and animals). We discovered that in sponges aquaporin plays a novel role during the maturation of spicules, their skeletal elements. Spicules are synthesized enzymatically via silicatein following a polycondensation reaction. During this process, a 1:1 stoichiometric release of water per one Si-O-Si bond formed is produced. The product of silicatein, biosilica, is a fluffy, soft material that must be hardened in order to function as a solid rod. Using the model of the demosponge species Suberites domuncula Olivi, 1792, which expresses aquaporin, cDNA was cloned and the protein was heterologously expressed. The sponge aquaporin is grouped with the type 8 aquaporins. The function of the sponge aquaporin can be blocked by Mn-sulfate (MnSO4) and mercury chloride (HgCl2). Microscopic and functional studies suggest that aquaporin is involved in removal of the reaction water at the site where siliceous spicules are formed. Another molecule that is likely to be involved in biosilica maturation is the mucin/nidogen-like polypeptide. cDNA has also been cloned from S. domuncula. Experimental studies suggest that water extrusion/suctioning from biosilica after enzymatic synthesis during spicule formation involves both aquaporin-mediated water channeling and "polymerization-induced phase separation" facilitated by the mucin/nidogen-like polypeptide. PMID:26338867

  18. Synergism of turpentine and ethanol as attractants for certain pine-infesting beetles (Coleoptera)

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, T.W.; Wilkening, A.J.; Atkinson, T.H.; Nation, J.L.; Wilkinson, R.C.; Foltz, J.L.

    1988-06-01

    Responses of seven species of pine-infesting beetles to traps baited with either turpentine, ethanol, turpentine and ethanol released from separate dispensers, or a 1:1 solution of turpentine and ethanol released from one dispenser were assessed in three field experiments. The weevil species, Pachylobius picivorus (Germar), and the cerambycid pine sawyer, Monochamus carolinenis (Olivier), were attracted to turpentine and were unaffected by the addition of ethanol. The ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, responded to ethanol alone but was not attracted to turpentine, nor did the presence of turpentine significantly affects its response to ethanol. The remaining four species) hylobius pales, M. titillator, Dendroctonus terebrans and x. pubescens) displayed responses to turpentine that were enhanced by the addition of ethanol, but in different ways according to the method of deployment. Reasons for increased responses by some species to a solution of turpentine and ethanol over the two released separately are not clear; they may lie in different dosages of evaporation rates of volatiles in the field. Laboratory analyses of trapped headspace volatiles from dispensers containing only turpentine and those containing a solution of turpentine and ethanol revealed no differences in the amounts of four principal monoterpene hydrocarbons (..cap alpha..-pinene, camphene, ..beta..-pinene, and limonene) released over time.

  19. High Sensitivity Gravity Measurements in the Adverse Environment of Oil Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfutzner, Harold

    2014-03-01

    Bulk density is a primary measurement within oil and gas reservoirs and is the basis of most reserves calculations by oil companies. The measurement is performed with a gamma-ray source and two scintillation gamma-ray detectors from within newly drilled exploration and production wells. This nuclear density measurement, while very precise is also very shallow and is therefore susceptible to errors due to any alteration of the formation and fluids in the vicinity of the borehole caused by the drilling process. Measuring acceleration due to gravity along a well provides a direct measure of bulk density with a very large depth of investigation that makes it practically immune to errors from near-borehole effects. Advances in gravity sensors and associated mechanics and electronics provide an opportunity for routine borehole gravity measurements with comparable density precision to the nuclear density measurement and with sufficient ruggedness to survive the rough handling and high temperatures experienced in oil well logging. We will describe a borehole gravity meter and its use under very realistic conditions in an oil well in Saudi Arabia. The density measurements will be presented. Alberto Marsala (2), Paul Wanjau (1), Olivier Moyal (1), and Justin Mlcak (1); (1) Schlumberger, (2) Saudi Aramco.

  20. The store-operated Ca(2+) entry-mediated signaling is important for cancer spread.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yih-Fung; Hsu, Keng-Fu; Shen, Meng-Ru

    2016-06-01

    Tumor cell migration and invasion are essential steps in the metastatic cascade that has great impact on patient outcomes. Spatial and temporal organization of Ca(2+) signaling regulates the multiple aspects of migration machinery, including cytoskeletal reorganization, traction force generation, and focal adhesion dynamics. Stromal interaction molecules (STIM) and Orai proteins, recently identified as critical constituents of store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), have been implicated in cancer cell migration and tumor metastasis. The clinical significance of STIM proteins and Orai Ca(2+) channels in tumor progression and their diagnostic and prognostic potentials have also been demonstrated in different types of cancers. Here we review the recent advances in understanding the important roles and regulatory mechanisms of STIM/Orai-mediated SOCE in cancer spread. The clinical implications and the emergence as a selective target for cancer therapeutics are also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate. Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen. PMID:26643254

  1. Quark Matter 2011 (QM11) Quark Matter 2011 (QM11)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    International Advisory Committee Antinori, FedericoPaic, Guy Braun-Munzinger, PeterPajares, Carlos Cifarelli, LuisaPeitzmann, Thomas Erazmus, BarbaraRedlich, Krzysztof Eskola, KariRiccati, Lodovico Gaardhøje, Jens JørgenRoland, Gunther Gale, CharlesRoy, Christelle Gelis, FrancoisSchukraft, Jürgen Giubellino, PaoloSinha, Bikash Greiner, CarstenSrivastava, Dinesh Gyulassy, MiklosStachel, Johanna Harris, JohnSteinberg, Peter Hatsuda, TetsuoStroth, Joachim Heinz, UlrichSugitate, Toru Jacak, BarbaraTserruya, Itzhak Karsch, FrithjofVelkovska, Julia Kharzeev, DimaWang, Enke Kodama, TakeshiWang, Xin, Nian Lévai, PéterWessels, Johannes Manko, VladislavXu, Nu Müller, BerndtZajc, William Ollitrault, Jean-Yves Organizing Committee Arleo, FrancoisDupieux, Pascal Bastid, NicoleFurget, Christophe Bourgeois, Marie-LaureGranier de Cassagnac, Raphael Bregant, MarcoGuernane, Rachid Carminati, FedericoHervet, Carnita Castillo, JavierKuhn, Christian Cheynis, BrigitteOlivier, Nathalie Conesa, DelValle, Zaida Connor, MichelleRenshall, Lucy Crochet, PhilippeSuire, Christophe Delagrange, HuguesTihinen, Ulla Program Committee Schutz, Yves (Chair)Baldisseri, Alberto Wiedemann, Urs (co-Chair)Safarik, Karel Aurenche, Patrick

  2. On automatic bioacoustic detection of pests: the cases of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus and Sitophilus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Potamitis, Ilyas; Ganchev, Todor; Kontodimas, Dimitris

    2009-08-01

    The present work reports research efforts toward development and evaluation of a unified framework for automatic bioacoustic recognition of specific insect pests. Our approach is based on capturing and automatically recognizing the acoustic emission resulting from typical behaviors, e.g., locomotion and feeding, of the target pests. After acquisition the signals are amplified, filtered, parameterized, and classified by advanced machine learning methods on a portable computer. Specifically, we investigate an advanced signal parameterization scheme that relies on variable size signal segmentation. The feature vector computed for each segment of the signal is composed of the dominant harmonic, which carry information about the periodicity of the signal, and the cepstral coefficients, which carry information about the relative distribution of energy among the different spectral sub-bands. This parameterization offers a reliable representation of both the acoustic emissions of the pests of interest and the interferences from the environment. We illustrate the practical significance of our methodology on two specific cases: 1) a devastating pest for palm plantations, namely, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier and 2) a pest that attacks warehouse stored rice (Oryza sativa L.), the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (both Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Dryophorinae). These pests are known in many countries around the world and contribute for significant economical loss. The proposed approach led to detection results in real field trials, reaching 99.1% on real-field recordings of R. ferrugineus and 100% for S. oryzae. PMID:19736784

  3. IRAM 30 m large scale survey of {sup 12}CO(2-1) and {sup 13}CO(2-1) emission in the Orion molecular cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Berné, O.; Cernicharo, J.; Marcelino, N.

    2014-11-01

    Using the IRAM 30 m telescope, we have surveyed a 1 × 0.°8 part of the Orion molecular cloud in the {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO (2-1) lines with a maximal spatial resolution of ∼11'' and spectral resolution of ∼0.4 km s{sup –1}. The cloud appears filamentary, clumpy, and with a complex kinematical structure. We derive an estimated mass of the cloud of 7700 M {sub ☉} (half of which is found in regions with visual extinctions A{sub V} below ∼10) and a dynamical age for the nebula of the order of 0.2 Myr. The energy balance suggests that magnetic fields play an important role in supporting the cloud, at large and small scales. According to our analysis, the turbulent kinetic energy in the molecular gas due to outflows is comparable to turbulent kinetic energy resulting from the interaction of the cloud with the H II region. This latter feedback appears negative, i.e., the triggering of star formation by the H II region is inefficient in Orion. The reduced data as well as additional products such as the column density map are made available online (http://userpages.irap.omp.eu/∼oberne/Olivier{sub B}erne/Data).

  4. Glacial history of the North Atlantic marine snail, Littorina saxatilis, inferred from distribution of mitochondrial DNA lineages.

    PubMed

    Panova, Marina; Blakeslee, April M H; Miller, A Whitman; Mäkinen, Tuuli; Ruiz, Gregory M; Johannesson, Kerstin; André, Carl

    2011-01-01

    The North Atlantic intertidal gastropod, Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792), exhibits extreme morphological variation between and within geographic regions and has become a model for studies of local adaptation; yet a comprehensive analysis of the species' phylogeography is lacking. Here, we examine phylogeographic patterns of the species' populations in the North Atlantic and one remote Mediterranean population using sequence variation in a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (607 bp). We found that, as opposed to many other rocky intertidal species, L. saxatilis has likely had a long and continuous history in the Northwest Atlantic, including survival during the last glacial maximum (LGM), possibly in two refugia. In the Northeast Atlantic, several areas likely harboured refugial populations that recolonized different parts of this region after glacial retreat, resulting in strong population structure. However, the outlying monomorphic Venetian population is likely a recent anthropogenic introduction from northern Europe and not a remnant of an earlier wider distribution in the Mediterranean Sea. Overall, our detailed phylogeography of L. saxatilis adds an important piece to the understanding of Pleistocene history in North Atlantic marine biota as well as being the first study to describe the species' evolutionary history in its natural range. The latter contribution is noteworthy because the snail has recently become an important model species for understanding evolutionary processes of speciation; thus our work provides integral information for such endeavours. PMID:21412417

  5. Micro-spatial distribution of two sibling periwinkle species across the intertidal indicates hybrdization.

    PubMed

    Granovitch, Andrei I; Maximovich, Alexei N; Avanesyan, Alina V; Starunova, Zinaida I; Mikhailova, Natalia A

    2013-09-01

    Populations of periwinkles Littorina saxatilis (Olivi 1792) and L. arcana Hannaford Ellis, 1978 are well suited for microevolutionary studies, being at the same time closely related and intraspecifically diverse. The divergence between these two sibling species, sympatric over large parts of their distribution areas, is small, the only morphological difference being the pallial gland complex structure in females. Molecular identification is possible with the use of a RAPD nuclear marker (cloned A2.8 DNA fragment) typical for L. arcana. However, in some individuals from sympatric populations molecular and morphological criteria suggest conflicting species affiliation, which may be explained either by hybridization or by shared ancestral polymorphism. We tested the hybridization hypotheses examining the micro-spatial distribution of these two species across the intertidal zone in two distant sites at the Barents Sea. We found that (a) the frequency of putative hybrids in sympatric populations was proportional to the frequency of L. arcana; (b) L. saxatilis bearing A2.8 DNA fragment were almost absent in the lower part of the intertidal zone, where L. arcana was absent too; (c) there was a close positive correlation between the distribution of potential parent molluscs and putative hybrids. Moreover, logistic regression models showed a good agreement between the distribution of putative hybrid frequencies and that of parental species frequencies. All our observations taken together support the hypothesis of hybridization between L. saxatilis and L. arcana. Elucidating the mechanisms that support the species status of these sympatric populations is necessary. PMID:23887893

  6. Alien molluscan species established along the Italian shores: an update, with discussions on some Mediterranean "alien species" categories.

    PubMed

    Crocetta, Fabio; Macali, Armando; Furfaro, Giulia; Cooke, Samantha; Guido Villani; Valdés, Angel

    2013-01-01

    The state of knowledge of the alien marine Mollusca in Italy is reviewed and updated. Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792), Polycera hedgpethi Er. Marcus, 1964 and Haminoea japonica Pilsbry, 1895are here considered as established on the basis of published and unpublished data, and recent records of the latter considerably expand its known Mediterranean range to the Tyrrhenian Sea. COI sequences obtained indicate that a comprehensive survey of additional European localities is needed to elucidate the dispersal pathways of Haminoea japonica.Recent records and interpretation of several molluscan taxa as alien are discussed both in light of new Mediterranean (published and unpublished) records and of four categories previously excluded from alien species lists. Within this framework, ten taxa are no longer considered as alien species, or their records from Italy are refuted. Furthermore, Trochocochlea castriotae Bellini, 1903 is considered a new synonym for Gibbula albida (Gmelin, 1791). Data provided here leave unchanged as 35 the number of alien molluscan taxa recorded from Italy as well as the percentage of the most plausible vectors of introduction, but raise to 22 the number of established species along the Italian shores during the 2005-2010 period, and backdate to 1792 the first introduction of an alien molluscan species (Littorina saxatilis) to the Italian shores. PMID:23794825

  7. Pattern cladistics and the 'realism-antirealism debate' in the philosophy of biology.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Silva, Francisco

    2009-06-01

    Despite the amount of work that has been produced on the subject over the years, the 'transformation of cladistics' is still a misunderstood episode in the history of comparative biology. Here, I analyze two outstanding, highly contrasting historiographic accounts on the matter, under the perspective of an influential dichotomy in the philosophy of science: the opposition between Scientific Realism and Empiricism. Placing special emphasis on the notion of 'causal grounding' of morphological characters (sensu Olivier Rieppel) in modern developmental biology's (mechanistic) theories, I arrive at the conclusion that a 'new transformation of cladistics' is philosophically plausible. This 'reformed' understanding of 'pattern cladistics' entails retaining the interpretation of cladograms as 'schemes of synapomorphies', but in association to construing cladogram nodes as 'developmental-genetic taxic homologies', instead of 'standard Darwinian ancestors'. The reinterpretation of pattern cladistics presented here additionally proposes to take Bas Van Fraassen's 'constructive empiricism' as a philosophical stance that could properly support such analysis of developmental-genetic data for systematic purposes. The latter suggestion is justified through a reappraisal of previous ideas developed by prominent pattern cladists (mainly, Colin Patterson), which concerned a scientifically efficient 'observable/non-observable distinction' linked to the conceptual pair 'ontogeny and phylogeny'. Finally, I argue that a robust articulation of Antirealist alternatives in systematics may provide a rational basis for its disciplinary separation from evolutionary biology, as well as for a critical reconsideration of the proper role of certain Scientific Realist positions, currently popular in comparative biology. PMID:19507040

  8. Transcriptomic Analysis of Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Using 454 Pyrosequencing Technology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-Kai; Wen, Jun-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most important pests of Ailanthus altissima; however, so far, no studies on the genome or transcriptome of E. chinensis have been reported. Using the Roche 454 FLX Titanium platform, an RNA pool obtained from E. chinensis eggs, larva, pupae, and adults was sequenced and assembled de novo to achieve maximum diversity of sampled transcripts. We obtained 1,441,137 (∼518 Mb) raw reads with an average length of 360 bp. After trimming, 89% qualified reads were produced and assembled into 35,509 isotigs with an average length of 440 bp, N50 of 1,048 bp, and 111,643 singletons. We generated 87,894 unigenes following a cluster analysis of the isotigs and singletons, and then functionally annotated the unigenes with gene descriptions. We obtained 23,363 GO assignments, and 12,724 unigenes were assigned to KOG. Based on these annotations, 294 biochemical pathways involved in growth, reproduction, and stress or immune responses were predicted. A total of 659,026 single nucleotide variants and 6,112 simple sequence repeats were detected. Our data provide comprehensive information on the sequence and possible functions of E. chinensis transcripts. PMID:27620556

  9. Calcium-ATPases: Gene disorders and dysregulation in cancer.

    PubMed

    Dang, Donna; Rao, Rajini

    2016-06-01

    Ca(2+)-ATPases belonging to the superfamily of P-type pumps play an important role in maintaining low, nanomolar cytoplasmic Ca(2+) levels at rest and priming organellar stores, including the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, and secretory vesicles with high levels of Ca(2+) for a wide range of signaling functions. In this review, we introduce the distinct subtypes of Ca(2+)-ATPases and their isoforms and splice variants and provide an overview of their specific cellular roles as they relate to genetic disorders and cancer, with a particular emphasis on recent findings on the secretory pathway Ca(2+)-ATPases (SPCA). Mutations in human ATP2A2, ATP2C1 genes, encoding housekeeping isoforms of the endoplasmic reticulum (SERCA2) and secretory pathway (SPCA1) pumps, respectively, confer autosomal dominant disorders of the skin, whereas mutations in other isoforms underlie various muscular, neurological, or developmental disorders. Emerging evidence points to an important function of dysregulated Ca(2+)-ATPase expression in cancers of the colon, lung, and breast where they may serve as markers of differentiation or novel targets for therapeutic intervention. We review the mechanisms underlying the link between calcium homeostasis and cancer and discuss the potential clinical relevance of these observations. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate. Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen. PMID:26608610

  10. Fast and efficient QTL mapper for thousands of molecular phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Ongen, Halit; Buil, Alfonso; Brown, Andrew Anand; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Delaneau, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: In order to discover quantitative trait loci, multi-dimensional genomic datasets combining DNA-seq and ChiP-/RNA-seq require methods that rapidly correlate tens of thousands of molecular phenotypes with millions of genetic variants while appropriately controlling for multiple testing. Results: We have developed FastQTL, a method that implements a popular cis-QTL mapping strategy in a user- and cluster-friendly tool. FastQTL also proposes an efficient permutation procedure to control for multiple testing. The outcome of permutations is modeled using beta distributions trained from a few permutations and from which adjusted P-values can be estimated at any level of significance with little computational cost. The Geuvadis & GTEx pilot datasets can be now easily analyzed an order of magnitude faster than previous approaches. Availability and implementation: Source code, binaries and comprehensive documentation of FastQTL are freely available to download at http://fastqtl.sourceforge.net/ Contact: emmanouil.dermitzakis@unige.ch or olivier.delaneau@unige.ch Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26708335

  11. Transcriptomic Analysis of Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Using 454 Pyrosequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen-Kai; Wen, Jun-Bao

    2016-01-01

    Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most important pests of Ailanthus altissima; however, so far, no studies on the genome or transcriptome of E. chinensis have been reported. Using the Roche 454 FLX Titanium platform, an RNA pool obtained from E. chinensis eggs, larva, pupae, and adults was sequenced and assembled de novo to achieve maximum diversity of sampled transcripts. We obtained 1,441,137 (∼518 Mb) raw reads with an average length of 360 bp. After trimming, 89% qualified reads were produced and assembled into 35,509 isotigs with an average length of 440 bp, N50 of 1,048 bp, and 111,643 singletons. We generated 87,894 unigenes following a cluster analysis of the isotigs and singletons, and then functionally annotated the unigenes with gene descriptions. We obtained 23,363 GO assignments, and 12,724 unigenes were assigned to KOG. Based on these annotations, 294 biochemical pathways involved in growth, reproduction, and stress or immune responses were predicted. A total of 659,026 single nucleotide variants and 6,112 simple sequence repeats were detected. Our data provide comprehensive information on the sequence and possible functions of E. chinensis transcripts. PMID:27620556

  12. Characteristics of the tensile mechanical properties of fresh and dry forewings of beetles.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Wanyong; Chen, Jinxiang; Wu, Zhishen; Xie, Juan; Wang, Yong

    2016-08-01

    Based on a tensile experiment and observations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), this study demonstrated the characteristics of the tensile mechanical properties of the fresh and dry forewings of two types of beetles. The results revealed obvious differences in the tensile fracture morphologies and characteristics of the tensile mechanical properties of fresh and dry forewings of Cybister tripunctatus Olivier and Allomyrina dichotoma. For fresh forewings of these two types of beetles, a viscous, flow-like, polymer matrix plastic deformation was observed on the fracture surfaces, with soft morphologies and many fibers being pulled out, whereas on the dry forewings, the tensile fracture surfaces were straightforward, and there were no features resembling those found on the fresh forewings. The fresh forewings exhibited a greater fracture strain than the dry forewings, which was caused by the relative slippage of hydroxyl inter-chain bonds due to the presence of water in the fibers and proteins in the fresh forewings. Our study is the first to demonstrate the phenomenon of sudden stress drops caused by the fracturing of the lower skin because the lower skin fractured before the forewings of A. dichotoma reached their ultimate tensile strength. We also investigated the reasons underlying this phenomenon. This research provides a much better understanding of the mechanical properties of beetle forewings and facilitates the correct selection of study objects for biomimetic materials and development of the corresponding applications. PMID:27157727

  13. Juvenile hormone downregulates vitellogenin production in Ectatomma tuberculatum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) sterile workers.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Dihego Oliveira; de Paula, Sérgio Oliveira; Zanuncio, José Cola; Martinez, Luis Carlos; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    In the ant Ectatomma tuberculatum (Olivier 1792), workers have active ovaries and lay trophic eggs that are eaten by the queen and larvae. Vitellogenins are the main proteins found in the eggs of insects and are the source of nutrients for the embryo in the fertilized eggs and for adults in the trophic eggs. In social insects, vitellogenin titres vary between castes and affect reproductive social status, nursing, foraging, longevity, somatic maintenance, and immunity. In most insects, vitellogenin synthesis is mainly regulated by juvenile hormone. However, in non-reproductive worker ants, this relationship is poorly characterized. This study determined the effects of juvenile hormone on vitellogenin synthesis in non-reproductive E. tuberculatum workers. Juvenile hormone was topically applied onto workers, and the effect on vitellogenin synthesis in the fat body and vitellogenin titres in the haemolymph were analysed by ELISA and qPCR. Juvenile hormone downregulated protein synthesis and reduced vitellogenin titres in the haemolymph, suggesting that in workers of E. tuberculatum, juvenile hormone loses its gonadotrophic function. PMID:26567344

  14. Modulation of immune responses of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Insecta: Coleoptera) induced by the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Nematoda: Rhabditida).

    PubMed

    Mastore, Maristella; Arizza, Vincenzo; Manachini, Barbara; Brivio, Maurizio F

    2015-12-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate relationships between the red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) and the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (EPN); particularly, the work was focused on the immune response of the insect host in naive larvae and after infection with the EPN. Two main immunological processes have been addressed: the activity and modulation of host prophenoloxidase-phenoloxidase (proPO) system, involved in melanization of not-self and hemocytes recognition processes responsible for not-self encapsulation. Moreover, immune depressive and immune evasive strategies of the parasite have been investigated. Our results suggest that RPW possess an efficient immune system, however in the early phase of infection, S. carpocapsae induces a strong inhibition of the host proPO system. In addition, host cell-mediated mechanisms of encapsulation, are completely avoided by the parasite, the elusive strategies of S. carpocapsae seem to be related to the structure of its body-surface, since induced alterations of the parasite cuticle resulted in the loss of its mimetic properties. S. carpocapsae before the release of its symbiotic bacteria, depress and elude RPW immune defenses, with the aim to arrange a favorable environment for its bacteria responsible of the septicemic death of the insect target. PMID:24846780

  15. The New World whirligig beetles of the genus Dineutus Macleay, 1825 (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae, Gyrininae, Dineutini).

    PubMed

    Gustafson, Grey T; Miller, Kelly B

    2015-01-01

    All New World members of the whirligig beetle genus Dineutus Macleay, 1825 are treated. The New World Dineutus are found to be composed of 18 species and 6 subspecies: one species, Dineutusmexicanus Ochs, 1925, stat. n. is elevated from subspecies to species rank, and the subspecies Dineutuscarolinusmutchleri Ochs, 1925, syn. n. is synonymized here with the typical form. Lectotypes are designated for Dineutusdiscolor Aubé, 1838, Dineutesmetallicus Aubé, 1838, Dineutussolitarius Aubé, 1838, Dineutesanalis Régimbart, 1883, and Gyrinuslongimanus Olivier, 1795. Each taxonomic unit is provided with a taxonomic history, type locality, diagnosis, distribution, habitat information, and a discussion section. The aedeagus and male mesotarsal claws are illustrated, and dorsal and ventral habitus images of both sexes, for each species and subspecies are provided. General distribution maps are provided for all taxonimc units. A key to the genera of New World Gyrinidae, as well as all the New World Dineutus species is provided. General Dineutus anatomy as well as a clarification of homology and anatomical terms is included. PMID:25685002

  16. Ecological studies of Bulinus rohlfsi, the intermediate host of Schistosoma haematobium in the Volta Lake

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, R. K.; Chu, K. Y.

    1977-01-01

    In the present ecological study of cercarial transmission of Schistosoma haematobium in the Volta Lake, Ghana, habitat observations and sampling of Bulinus truncatus rohlfsi were conducted within a 60-km stretch of shoreline. Observations revealed that human water contact sites in each village undergo constant changes in shape and vegetation. Snail sampling surveys in water contact sites were carried out monthly (for 27 months) in 8 villages using newly designed palm-leaf traps, and in 8 additional villages (for 16 months) using a modification of Olivier & Sneidermann's man—time method. Results to date confirm the finding by Chu & Vanderburg that cercarial transmission in the lake takes place almost exclusively within water contact sites. Additional results indicate that even within individual water contact sites this transmission is focal, most infected snails being found very close to the shoreline. Transmission also varies significantly according to shape, vegetation, and geographical location of the water contact sites, and is distinctly seasonal in most villages. These findings lead us to conclude that control of cercarial transmission in the Volta Lake is both attainable and feasible with existing methods. PMID:304396

  17. Abundance and Diversity of Soil Arthropods in the Olive Grove Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Maria Fátima; Pereira, José Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Arthropods are part of important functional groups in soil food webs. Recognizing these arthropods and understanding their function in the ecosystem as well as when they are active is essential to understanding their roles. In the present work, the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods is examined in olive groves in the northeast region of Portugal during the spring. Five classes of arthropods were found: Chilopoda, Malacostraca, Entognatha, Insecta, and Arachnida. Captures were numerically dominated by Collembola within Entognatha, representing 70.9% of total captures. Arachnida and Insecta classes represented about 20.4 and 9.0%, respectively. Among the predatory arthropods, the most representative groups were Araneae and Opiliones from Arachnida, and Formicidae, Carabidae, and Staphylinidae from Insecta. From the Formicidae family, Tetramorium semilaeve (Andre 1883), Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander 1856), and Crematogaster scutellaris (Olivier 1792) were the most representative ant species. Arthropods demonstrated preference during the day, with 74% of the total individuals recovered in this period, although richness and similarity were analogous during the day and night. PMID:22943295

  18. Sampling methods for assessing social wasps species diversity in a eucalyptus plantation.

    PubMed

    De Souza, A R; Venâncio, D F A; Zanuncio, J C; Prezoto, F

    2011-06-01

    Social wasps were collected in a eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urograndis, a genetically enhanced eucalyptus) plantation in Juiz de Fora, state of Minas Gerais, southwestern of Brazil, by using a variety of sampling methods, including active capture and baited traps set at two microhabitats. Six new records of social wasps for this region were obtained during the study: Brachygastra lecheguana Latreille, Polybia ignobilis Haliday, Polybia occidentalis Olivier, Polybia platycephala (Richards), Protonectarina sylveirae Saussure, and Protopolybia exigua Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). The active capture method sampled the greatest number of species. Baited traps installed in the canopy sampled agreater number of individuals of social wasps than those set on the trunks of eucalyptus trees. Fruit based baits captured a greater number of social wasp species than those baited with a protein derivative. Once no method was able to sample all species, we concluded that the efficiency of a survey can be maximized by using traps with a variety of different baits, in combination with active capture methods. PMID:21735938

  19. Ca(2+) microdomains, NAADP and type 1 ryanodine receptor in cell activation.

    PubMed

    Guse, Andreas H; Wolf, Insa M A

    2016-06-01

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a Ca(2+) mobilizing second messenger that belongs to the superfamily of regulatory adenine nucleotides. Though NAADP has been known since 20years, several aspects of its metabolism and molecular mode of action are still under discussion. Though the importance of the type 1 ryanodine receptor was discovered and published already in 2002 Hohenegger et al. (2002 Oct 15) , recent data re-emphasize these original findings in pancreatic acinar cells and in T-lymphocytes. Here we review recent developments in NAADP formation and metabolism, putative target Ca(2+) channels for NAADP with special emphasis on the type 1 ryanodine receptor, and NAADP binding proteins. The latter are basis for a unifying hypothesis for NAADP action. Finally, the role of NAADP in T cell Ca(2+) signaling and activation is discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate . Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen. PMID:26804481

  20. Standard metabolic rate is associated with gestation duration, but not clutch size, in speckled cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea.

    PubMed

    Schimpf, Natalie G; Matthews, Philip G D; White, Craig R

    2012-12-15

    Metabolic rate varies significantly between individuals, and these differences persist even when the wide range of biotic and abiotic factors that influence metabolism are accounted for. It is important to understand the life history implications of variation in metabolic rate, but they remain poorly characterised despite a growing body of work examining relationships between metabolism and a range of traits. In the present study we used laboratory-bred families (one sire to three dams) of Nauphoeta cinerea (Olivier) (speckled cockroaches) to examine the relationship between standard metabolic rate (SMR) and reproductive performance (number of offspring and gestation duration). We show that SMR is negatively associated with female gestation duration. Age at mating is negatively associated with gestation duration for females, and mass is negatively associated with the average gestation duration of the females a male was mated with. In addition to the results in the current literature, the results from the present study suggest that the association between metabolism and life history is more complex than simple relationships between metabolism and various fitness traits. Future work should consider longitudinal, ontogenetic as well as selective and quantitative genetic breeding approaches to fully examine the associations between metabolism and fitness. PMID:23259052

  1. Standard metabolic rate is associated with gestation duration, but not clutch size, in speckled cockroaches Nauphoeta cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Schimpf, Natalie G.; Matthews, Philip G. D.; White, Craig R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Metabolic rate varies significantly between individuals, and these differences persist even when the wide range of biotic and abiotic factors that influence metabolism are accounted for. It is important to understand the life history implications of variation in metabolic rate, but they remain poorly characterised despite a growing body of work examining relationships between metabolism and a range of traits. In the present study we used laboratory-bred families (one sire to three dams) of Nauphoeta cinerea (Olivier) (speckled cockroaches) to examine the relationship between standard metabolic rate (SMR) and reproductive performance (number of offspring and gestation duration). We show that SMR is negatively associated with female gestation duration. Age at mating is negatively associated with gestation duration for females, and mass is negatively associated with the average gestation duration of the females a male was mated with. In addition to the results in the current literature, the results from the present study suggest that the association between metabolism and life history is more complex than simple relationships between metabolism and various fitness traits. Future work should consider longitudinal, ontogenetic as well as selective and quantitative genetic breeding approaches to fully examine the associations between metabolism and fitness. PMID:23259052

  2. The New World whirligig beetles of the genus Dineutus Macleay, 1825 (Coleoptera, Gyrinidae, Gyrininae, Dineutini)

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Grey T.; Miller, Kelly B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract All New World members of the whirligig beetle genus Dineutus Macleay, 1825 are treated. The New World Dineutus are found to be composed of 18 species and 6 subspecies: one species, Dineutus mexicanus Ochs, 1925, stat. n. is elevated from subspecies to species rank, and the subspecies Dineutus carolinus mutchleri Ochs, 1925, syn. n. is synonymized here with the typical form. Lectotypes are designated for Dineutus discolor Aubé, 1838, Dineutes metallicus Aubé, 1838, Dineutus solitarius Aubé, 1838, Dineutes analis Régimbart, 1883, and Gyrinus longimanus Olivier, 1795. Each taxonomic unit is provided with a taxonomic history, type locality, diagnosis, distribution, habitat information, and a discussion section. The aedeagus and male mesotarsal claws are illustrated, and dorsal and ventral habitus images of both sexes, for each species and subspecies are provided. General distribution maps are provided for all taxonimc units. A key to the genera of New World Gyrinidae, as well as all the New World Dineutus species is provided. General Dineutus anatomy as well as a clarification of homology and anatomical terms is included. PMID:25685002

  3. Morphology of the Male Reproductive System of the Social Wasp, Polistes Versicolor Versicolor, with Phylogenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Vinícius Albano; Moreira, Jane; Lino-Neto, José

    2010-01-01

    Variation in the morphology of the adult male reproductive system among different groups of Hymenoptera offer characteristics that help studies of behavior and the evolutionary history of this group. The objective of this study was to describe the adult male reproductive system of the wasp Polistes versicolor versicolor Olivier (Vespidae: Polistini). The reproductive systems were dissected, fixed and embedded for light microscopy. In P. v. versicolor, the reproductive system includes a pair of testes, each one with three fusiform follicles. From each follicle emerges an efferent duct that later join together, forming a deferent duct. The first half of the deferent duct is enlarged and differentiated into a region specialized for sperm storage, the seminal vesicle. At the post-vesicular region of each of the deferent ducts an accessory gland emerges. The seminal vesicle and the accessory gland are covered with a capsule forming a vesicle-gland complex, also observed in some species of North American Polistes. Sperm are released from testes in bundles, which are disorganized inside seminal vesicles. In the testicular follicles, 95 spermatozoa were observed per cyst on average. PMID:20673189

  4. [Pollinators of Bertholletia excelsa (Lecythidales: Lecythidaceae): interactions with stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) and trophic niche].

    PubMed

    Santos, Charles F; Absy, Maria L

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the foraging behavior and interactions of Xylocopa frontalis Olivier (Apidae: Xylocopini) and Eulaema mocsaryi (Friese) (Apidae: Euglossini) in the presence of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) in flowers of Bertholletia excelsa, the Brazilian nut. The palynological load carried by both species was also examined. This study was conducted in the farm Aruanã, Itacoatiara/ Amazonas state, Brazil, during the flowering peak of B. excelsa. The visitation by the main pollinators X. frontalis and E. mocsaryi were influenced by the presence and activities of stingless bees in the flowers of B. excelsa. Meliponini bees did not have any effect on the visits and collection of floral resources by X. frontalis, while negatively affecting the number of visits by E. mocsaryi. The stingless bees presented a variety of strategies to get access to pollen grains of B. excelsa, grouped into two categories: opportunism -Frieseomelitta trichocerata Moure, Tetragona goettei (Friese), and Tetragona kaieteurensis (Schwarz), and stealing -Trigona branneri Cockerell, Trigona fuscipennis Friese, and Trigona guianae Cockerell. The palynological analysis from X. frontalis showed that the bee collected pollen in a few species of plants, but mainly on B. excelsa. The pollen grains of B. excelsa were poorly represented in the pollen shipments of E. mocsaryi, due to its large trophic niche in the locality. PMID:21271049

  5. Further contributions to the longhorn beetle (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) fauna of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Reginald P.; Alderson, Chantelle A.; Webster, Vincent L.; CoryC. Hughes; Sweeney, Jon D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sixteen species of Cerambycidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick, Canada; Arhopalus obsoletus (Randall), Atimia confusa confusa (Say), Callidium frigidum Casey, Phymatodes amoenus (Say), Phymatodes testaceus (Linnaeus), Neoclytus mucronatus mucronatus (Fabricius), Xylotrechus aceris Fisher, Xylotrechus sagittatus sagittatus (Germar), Tylonotus bimaculatus Haldeman, Lepturges angulatus (LeConte), Lepturges symmetricus (Haldeman), Urgleptes querci (Fitch), Oplosia nubila (LeConte), Eupogonius subarmatus (LeConte), Monochamus carolinensis (Olivier), and Pogonocherus parvulus LeConte. Urgleptes signatus (LeConte) and Urgleptes querci are newly recorded from Nova Scotia. All but two specimens were collected in 12-funnel Lindgren traps. Xylotrechus aceris, Tylonotus bimaculatus, Lepturges angulatus, Lepturges symmetricus, Urgleptes signatus (NS), and Pogonocherus parvulus were detected exclusively in traps deployed in the forest canopy, and most individuals of Oplosia nubila and Monochamus carolinensis were captured in canopy traps. Arhopalus obsoletus, Atimia confusa confusa, Callidium frigidum, Phymatodes testaceus, and Xylotrechus sagittatus sagittatus were captured almost exclusively in traps near (1 m above) the forest floor. These results highlight the importance of sampling both the understory and upper canopy when using traps for surveying diversity of Cerambycidae. PMID:26865818

  6. Pharmacodynamic Interaction of Quercus infectoria Galls Extract in Combination with Vancomycin against MRSA Using Microdilution Checkerboard and Time-Kill Assay

    PubMed Central

    Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Khairon, Radhiah

    2012-01-01

    The galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier possess astringent properties which helps in the tightening of the vaginal epithelium in the post-natal period. The present study aimed to observe the time-kill kinetics of the acetone and methanol extracts of gall of Q. infectoria in combination with vancomycin against two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains; ATCC 33591 and MU 9495 (laboratory-passaged strain). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts were determined using microdilution technique whereas the checkerboard and time-kill kinetics were employed to verify the synergistic effects of treatment with vancomycin. The FIC index value of the combinations against both MRSA strains showed that the interaction was synergistic (FIC index <0.5). Time-kill assays showed the bactericidal effect of the combination treatment at 1/8XMIC of the extract and 1/8XMIC of vancomycin, were respectively at 7.2 ± 0.28 hr against ATCC 33591 compared to complete attenuation of the growth of the same strain after 8 hr of treatment with vancomycin alone. In conclusion, the combination extracts of Q. infectoria with vancomycin were synergistic according to FIC index values. The time-kill curves showed that the interaction was additive with a more rapid killing rate but, which did not differ significantly with vancomycin. PMID:22899953

  7. Antiinflammatory evaluation of alcoholic extract of galls of Quercus infectoria.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Hamid, Hinna; Ali, Asif; Alam, M Sarwar; Athar, Mohammad

    2004-02-01

    Galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae) possess pleiotropic therapeutic activities, with particular efficacy against inflammatory diseases. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract of Q. infectoria galls on various in vivo and in vitro experimental models of inflammation. Oral administration of gall extract significantly inhibited carrageenan, histamine, serotonin and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced paw oedemas, while topical application of gall extract inhibited phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) induced ear inflammation. The extract also inhibited various functions of macrophages and neutrophils relevant to the inflammatory response. In vitro exposure of rat peritoneal macrophages to gall extract ameliorated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated PGE2 and nitric oxide (NO) production and PMA stimulated superoxide (O2*-) production in a dose dependent manner. Gall extract also scavenged NO and O2*-. Probing into mechanism of NO inhibition in macrophages revealed gall extract to ameliorate the induction of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), respectively without any inhibitory effect on its catalytic activities even at higher concentrations. Gall extract also significantly inhibited formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) stimulated degranulation in neutrophils. These results suggest that alcoholic extract of galls of Q. infectoria exerts in vivo antiinflammatory activity after oral or topical administration and also has the ability to prevent the production of some inflammatory mediators. PMID:15013194

  8. Effect of cardinal directions on gall morphology and parasitization of the gall wasp, Cynips quercusfolii.

    PubMed

    Zargaran, Mohammed Reza; Safaralizadeh, Mohammed Hassan; Pourmirza, Ali Asghar; Valizadegan, Orouj

    2011-01-01

    This survey investigated the relationship between gall morphology and some fitness components in the asexual generation of Cynips quercusfolii L. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae). Results showed that larger C. quercusfolii galls were formed on the south side of oak trees Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagales: Fagaceae). Larval chamber diameter in the gall was similar, but gall diameter and gall wall thickness varied with the location of the gall on the tree. Cynips quercusfolii was attacked by parasitoids, and the south-facing galls suffered significantly lower parasitoid attacks. Thickness of gall walls and parasitism rate were negatively correlated. Mean gall diameter and gall wall thickness were significantly larger in south-facing galls than other directions, but the difference in the mean larval chamber diameter was not significant. These results suggest that the position of galls on the tree affected gall wall thickness, and this plays an important role in parasitoid attacks. These results suggest that C. quercusfolii prefer to attack the south side of oak trees, and selection of this side by wasps led to formation of larger galls with thick walls that decreased parasite attack, which will affect growth and survival of wasp larvae. PMID:22950357

  9. Pharmacodynamic Interaction of Quercus infectoria Galls Extract in Combination with Vancomycin against MRSA Using Microdilution Checkerboard and Time-Kill Assay.

    PubMed

    Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Khairon, Radhiah

    2012-01-01

    The galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier possess astringent properties which helps in the tightening of the vaginal epithelium in the post-natal period. The present study aimed to observe the time-kill kinetics of the acetone and methanol extracts of gall of Q. infectoria in combination with vancomycin against two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains; ATCC 33591 and MU 9495 (laboratory-passaged strain). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts were determined using microdilution technique whereas the checkerboard and time-kill kinetics were employed to verify the synergistic effects of treatment with vancomycin. The FIC index value of the combinations against both MRSA strains showed that the interaction was synergistic (FIC index <0.5). Time-kill assays showed the bactericidal effect of the combination treatment at 1/8XMIC of the extract and 1/8XMIC of vancomycin, were respectively at 7.2 ± 0.28 hr against ATCC 33591 compared to complete attenuation of the growth of the same strain after 8 hr of treatment with vancomycin alone. In conclusion, the combination extracts of Q. infectoria with vancomycin were synergistic according to FIC index values. The time-kill curves showed that the interaction was additive with a more rapid killing rate but, which did not differ significantly with vancomycin. PMID:22899953

  10. Density and Distribution of Xylocopa Nests (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Caatinga Areas in the Surroundings of Passion Fruit Crops.

    PubMed

    Martins, C F; de Siqueira, K M M; Kiill, L H P; Sá, I I S; Aguiar, C M L

    2014-08-01

    Due to their importance as pollinators of many plant species, this study aimed to know the nest density, spatial distribution, and nesting substrates used by Xylocopa species in the Caatinga, a xerophilous vegetation of Northeastern Brazil. Three areas of Caatinga in the surroundings of passion fruit crops were sampled. The bee species found in these areas were Xylocopa grisescens Lepeletier and Xylocopa frontalis (Olivier). All nests were in Commiphora leptophloeos (Burseraceae) trees (n = 113). Phytosociological analysis showed that this tree species presented the highest absolute density (212.5 individuals/ha) and index of importance value (52.7). The distribution pattern of the C. leptophloeos was aggregated. The nests were located in dead and dried branches with an average diameter of 5.3 ± 2.0 cm (n = 43). The mean number of nests/tree was 3.1 ± 2.8 (n = 113). The less disturbed area showed 6.7 nests/ha and 4.2 nests/tree. In the disturbed areas, 0.9 nests/ha and 2.4 to 2.7 nests/tree were observed. The availability of substrate for nesting in the studied areas and its importance as a limiting factor for nesting are discussed. PMID:27193809

  11. Nutritional and Antinutritional Composition of the Five Species of Aquatic Edible Insects Consumed in Manipur, India

    PubMed Central

    Shantibala, T.; Lokeshwari, R. K.; Debaraj, H.

    2014-01-01

    The people living in Manipur have a distinct identity, culture, and food habits. They have a prototype culture of eating insects. In our study, the nutritive contents of five potentially-edible aquatic insects, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae), Laccotrephes maculatus (F.) (Nepidae), Hydrophilus olivaceous (F.) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), Cybister tripunctatus (Olivier), and Crocothemis servilia (Drury) (Odonata: Libellulidae), were analyzed to inform consumers about the nutritional quality of the insects and the suggested quantity of their intake. A good amount of protein content and high gross energy was recorded among the insects. The results showed high levels of sodium, calcium, and magnesium present in the insects, indicating that they are a good source of minerals. Antinutritional properties of these insects were below 0.52%, which is a non-toxic level. Aquatic insects, such as C. tripunctatus, also possesses strong antioxidant activity (110 µg/mL). Therefore, these insects can play a major role in food security, health, and environment management. It is essential to cultivate edible insects to maintain their population sustainability. PMID:25373161

  12. A new species of the snapping shrimp genus Alpheus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Alpheidae) from Japan, associated with the innkeeper worm Ikedosoma elegans (Annelida: Echiura: Echiuridae).

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the snapping shrimp genus Alpheus Fabricius, 1798, Alpheus ikedosoma, is described and illustrated on the basis of material from Boso Peninsula and Ariake Sea, Japan. All examined specimens were extracted with the help of a bait suction pump from burrows of innkeeper worm (Annelida: Echiura), constructed on easily accessible intertidal sand beaches or sand flats. The host worm from Boso Peninsula was identified as Ikedosoma elegans (Ikeda, 1904) (Echiuridae). The new species is tentatively referred to the A. brevirostris (Olivier, 1811) species group, but it is characteristic in having several unusual features for the group, such as the very short rostrum without dorsal ridge, the absence of adrostral grooves on the carapace, the strongly reduced dorsolateral spines on the telson, the unarmed antennal basicerite, the non-elongate, almost glabrous major chela, and the lack of movable spines or spinules on ventromesial margin of each cheliped merus. The new species represents the sixth species of Alpheus associated with echiuran burrows. PMID:26701509

  13. Foundation Pattern, Productivity and Colony Success of the Paper Wasp, Polistes versicolor

    PubMed Central

    Alves de Oliveira, Simone; Monteiro de Castro, Mariana; Prezoto, Fábio

    2010-01-01

    Polistes versicolor (Olivier) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) colonies are easily found in anthropic environments; however there is little information available on biological, ecological and behavioral interactions of this species under these environmental conditions. The objective of this work was to characterize the foundation pattern, the productivity, and the success of colonies of P. versicolor in anthropic environments. From August 2003 to December 2004, several colonies were studied in the municipal district of Juiz de Fora, Southeastern Brazil. It was possible to determine that before the beginning of nest construction the foundress accomplishes recognition flights in the selected area, and later begins the construction of the peduncle and the first cell. As soon as new cells are built, the hexagonal outlines appear and the peduncle is reinforced. Foundation of nests on gypsum plaster was significantly larger (p < 0.0001; χ2 test) in relation to the other types of substrate, revealing the synantropism of the species. On average, the P. versicolor nest presents 244.2 ± 89.5 (100–493) cells and a medium production of 171.67 ± 109.94 (37–660) adults. Cells that produced six individuals were verified. Usually, new colonies were founded by an association of females, responsible for the success of 51.5%. Although these results enlarge knowledge on the foundation pattern of P. versicolor in anthropic environments, other aspects of the foundation process require further investigation. PMID:20879919

  14. Transient Networks and Dense Colloidal Suspensions: From Viscous Flow to Elastic Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchaud, Elisabeth

    2013-03-01

    In order to analyze the mechanical response of viscoelastic materials in highly non-linear regimes, we have designed a new kind of Hele-Shaw cell where both viscous liquids and soft elastic solids can be tested at a controlled loading rate. We first consider model Maxwell liquids - characterized by a single relaxation time - with the project of benchmarking the response of complex, glassy systems. We use several solutions of microemulsions connected by telechelic polymers. We show that these materials undergo instability in a broad range of loading rates. At low rates, this instability is shown to be of the viscous Saffman-Taylor type. At high rates, we observe a purely elastic bulk instability discovered recently in the context of soft elastomers. A microfluidic version of our cell makes it possible to study the response of colloidal suspensions. We use more or less concentrated PNIPA aqueous solutions for which temperature controls the volume fraction. Observations are interpreted in the light of our understanding of their viscoelastic properties. This work was done in collaboration with Maxime Lefranc, Baudouin Saintyves, Olivier Dauchot and Serge Mora. It was funded by ANR, France.

  15. Acoustic Assessment of Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) Effects on Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) Larval Activity and Mortality.

    PubMed

    Jalinas, Johari; Güerri-Agulló, Berenice; Mankin, R W; López-Follana, R; Lopez-Llorca, L V

    2015-04-01

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) is an economically important pest of palm trees in the subtropics. Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), has been shown to be pathogenic against R. ferrugineus in laboratory and field studies. However, because they remain inside the trunks until adulthood, the slowing of feeding and increases in mortality of internally feeding R. ferrugineus larvae over time after B. bassiana treatment has not been established. To explore the potential of acoustic methods to assess treatment effects, sound impulses produced by untreated, 10(4)-, and 10(6)-conidia ml(-1) B. bassiana-treated larvae in palms were recorded for 23 d, after which the palms were dissected and the larvae examined. Analyses were performed to identify trains of impulses with characteristic patterns (bursts) produced frequently by moving and feeding larvae but only rarely (3-8% of the larval rate) by interfering background noise or tree vibrations. The rates of bursts, the counts of larval impulses per burst, and the rates of impulses in bursts decreased significantly over time in both B. bassiana treatments but not in the control. This supports a hypothesis that larvae had briefer movement and feeding bouts as they became weaker after infection, which reduced the counts of larval impulses per burst, the rates of bursts, and the rates of impulses in bursts. There is considerable potential for use of acoustic methods as tools for nondestructive assessment of effects of biological control treatments against internally feeding insect pests. PMID:26470155

  16. Multifaceted plasma membrane Ca(2+) pumps: From structure to intracellular Ca(2+) handling and cancer.

    PubMed

    Padányi, Rita; Pászty, Katalin; Hegedűs, Luca; Varga, Karolina; Papp, Béla; Penniston, John T; Enyedi, Ágnes

    2016-06-01

    Plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPases (PMCAs) are intimately involved in the control of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. They reduce Ca(2+) in the cytosol not only by direct ejection, but also by controlling the formation of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate and decreasing Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pool. In mammals four genes (PMCA1-4) are expressed, and alternative RNA splicing generates more than twenty variants. The variants differ in their regulatory characteristics. They localize into highly specialized membrane compartments and respond to the incoming Ca(2+) with distinct temporal resolution. The expression pattern of variants depends on cell type; a change in this pattern can result in perturbed Ca(2+) homeostasis and thus altered cell function. Indeed, PMCAs undergo remarkable changes in their expression pattern during tumorigenesis that might significantly contribute to the unbalanced Ca(2+) homeostasis of cancer cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate. Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen. PMID:26707182

  17. Investigation of a novel image segmentation method dedicated to forest fire applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudz, S.; Chetehouna, K.; Hafiane, A.; Laurent, H.; Séro-Guillaume, O.

    2013-07-01

    To face fire it is crucial to understand its behaviour in order to maximize fighting means. To achieve this task, the development of a metrological tool is necessary for estimating both geometrical and physical parameters involved in forest fire modelling. A key parameter is to estimate fire positions accurately. In this paper an image processing tool especially dedicated to an accurate extraction of fire from an image is presented. In this work, the clustering on several colour spaces is investigated and it appears that the blue chrominance Cb from the YCbCr colour space is the most appropriate. As a consequence, a new segmentation algorithm dedicated to forest fire applications has been built using first an optimized k-means clustering in the Cb-channel and then some properties of fire pixels in the RGB colour space. Next, the performance of the proposed method is evaluated using three supervised evaluation criteria and then compared to other existing segmentation algorithms in the literature. Finally a conclusion is drawn, assessing the good behaviour of the developed algorithm. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Dr Olivier Séro-Guillaume (1950-2013), CNRS Research Director.

  18. Labview Implementation of Image Processing and Phasing Control for the SIBOA Segmented Mirror Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, James D.

    2002-01-01

    'NASA is preparing to launch the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). This telescope will be larger than the Hubble Space Telescope, be launched on an Atlas missile rather than the Space Shuttle, have a segmented primary mirror, and be placed in a higher orbit. All these differences pose significant challenges.' This effort addresses the challenge of implementing an algorithm for aligning the segments of the primary mirror during the initial deployment that was designed by Philip Olivier and members of SOMTC (Space Optics Manufacturing Technology Center). The implementation was to be performed on the SIBOA (Systematic Image Based Optical Alignment) test bed. Unfortunately, hardware/software aspect concerning SIBOA and an extended time period for algorithm development prevented testing before the end of the study period. Properties of the digital camera were studied and understood, resulting in the current ability of selecting optimal settings regarding saturation. The study was successful in manually capturing several images of two stacked segments with various relative phases. These images can be used to calibrate the algorithm for future implementation. Currently the system is ready for testing.

  19. One Approach to the Synthesis, Design and Manufacture of Hyperboloid Gear Sets With Face Mating Gears. Part 1: Basic Theoretical and Cad Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abadjiev, Valentin; Abadjieva, Emilia

    2016-06-01

    Hyperboloid gear drives with face mating gears are used to transform rotations between shafts with non-parallel and non-intersecting axes. A special case of these transmissions are Spiroid and Helicon gear drives. The classical gear drives of this type are the Archimedean ones. The objective of this study are hyperboloid gear drives with face meshing, when the pinion possesses threads of conic convolute, Archimedean and involute types, or the pinion has threads of cylindrical convolute, Archimedean and involute types. For simplicity, all three types transmis- sions with face mating gears and a conic pinion are titled Spiroid and all three types transmissions with face mating gears and a cylindrical pinion are titled Helicon. Principles of the mathematical modelling of tooth contact synthesis are discussed in this study. The presented research shows that the synthesis is realized by application of two mathematical models: pitch contact point and mesh region models. Two approaches for synthesis of the gear drives in accordance with Olivier's principles are illustrated. The algorithms and computer programs for optimization synthesis and design of the studied hyperboloid gear drives are presented.

  20. Molecular phylogeny and biotechnological potential of bacterial endophytes associated with Malpighia emarginata.

    PubMed

    Specian, V; Costa, A T; Felber, A C; Polonio, J C; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A

    2016-01-01

    Acerola (Malpighia emarginata) is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical climates, which has great commercial interest due to the high vitamin C content of its fruit. However, there are no reports of the endophytic community of this plant species. The aim of this study was to verify the genetic diversity of the leaf endophytic bacterial community of two varieties (Olivier & Waldy Cati 30) of acerola, and to evaluate their biotechnological ability by assessing their in vitro control of pathogenic fungi and the enzymatic production of cellulase, xylanase, amylase, pectinase, protease, lipase, esterase, and chitinase. In total, 157 endophytic bacteria were isolated from the leaves of two varieties of the plant at 28° and 37°C. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the molecular identification of 58 bacteria, 39.65% of which were identified at the species level. For the first time, the genus Aureimonas was highlighted as an endophytic bacterium. Furthermore, 12.82% of the isolates inhibited the growth of all phytopathogens evaluated and at least one of the above-mentioned enzymes was produced by 64.70% of the endophytes, demonstrating that M. emarginata isolates have potential use in biotechnological studies. PMID:27173262

  1. Book Review: Book review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragh, Helge

    While "hydrostatics" has been known since antiquity, the word "hydrodynamics" was only coined by Daniel Bernoulli in 1738. From about that time onward the mechanics of fluids became an important area of physics which attracted the interest of some of the greatest mathematical physicists, including Euler, d'Alembert, Lagrange and Cauchy. Yet, in spite of its undeniable importance in the history of science, hydrodynamics has been largely ignored by modern historians. Fortunately this situation has now changed with the publication of Olivier Darrigol's book, which offers a modern and thorough treatment of the subject from its beginning about 1740 to the 1920s. It is to be hoped that the book will stimulate further interest in the history of hydrodynamics and related areas such as the history of elasticity and aerodynamics, and continuum mechanics in general. Darrigol, who may be best known for his works in the history of quantum and relativity theories, published in 2000 a comprehensive survey of the development of electrodynamics from Ampère to Einstein, a much needed replacement of Edmund Whittaker's classical history of ether and electricity. His present work gives a concise yet wide-ranging synthetic account of the development of hydrodynamics, an area of physics with some historical connections to field electrodynamics.

  2. Comparison of correction methods of inhomogeneities in daily data on example of Central European temperature and precipitation series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, P.; Gruber, Ch.; Zahradnicek, P.

    2009-04-01

    Prior any data analysis, data quality control and homogenization have to be undertaken to get rid of erroneous values in time series. In this work we focused especially on comparison of methods for daily data inhomogeneities correction. Two basic approaches for inhomogeneity adjustments were adopted and compared: (i) "delta" method - adjustment of monthly series and projection of estimated smoothed monthly adjustments into annual variation of daily adjustments and (ii) "variable" correction of daily values according to the corresponding percentiles. "Variable" correction methods were investigated more deeply and their results were mutually compared. The methods used were HOM of Paul Della-Marta, SPLIDHOM of Olivier Mestre and a new method of Petr Stepanek. For the calculation, the software ProClimDB has been combined with R software scripts containing HOM and SPLIDHOM and the different methodological approaches were applied to daily data of various meteorological elements measured in the area of the Czech Republic. The tool is open and freely available. Series were processed by means of the developed ProClimDB and AnClim software (www.climahom.eu).

  3. Dipolar Effects in an Ultracold Gas of LiCs Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidemueller, Matthias

    2011-05-01

    Recently, there has been important progress in the investigation of ultracold polar molecules in the absolute ground state, thus opening intriguing perspectives for strongly correlated quantum systems under the influence of long-range dipolar forces. We have studied the formation of LiCs molecules via photoassociation (PA) in a double-species magneto-optical trap. The LiCs dimer is a particularly promising candidate for observing dipolar effects, as it possesses the largest dipole moment of all alkali dimers (5.5 Debye in the ground state). Ultracold LiCs molecules in the absolute rovibrational ground state are formed by a single photo-association step. The dipole moment of ground state levels is determined by Stark spectroscopy and was found to be in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. Vibrational redistribution due to spontaneous emission and blackbody radiation is observed and compared a rate-equation model.In collaboration with Johannes Deiglmayr, Marc Repp, University of Heidelberg; Roland Wester, University of Innsbruck; and Olivier Dulieu, Laboratoire Aime Cotton. Work was supported by DFG and ESF in the framework of the Eurocores EuroQUAM as well as the Heidelberg Center for Quantum Dynamics.

  4. The Early Stages of Groundwater-fed River Bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, R.; Seybold, H. F.; Gibbins, G.; Rothman, D.

    2014-12-01

    Recent work shows, both theoretically and empirically, that river networks fed by subsurface flow bifurcate on average at an angle of 2π/5 [1]. However, the network's existence within a complex natural framework obscures the emergence of this pattern. Fortunately, this ambiguity betrays the presence of processes that have had some effect on the channels during the network's long history. In particular, we concern ourselves with the signature of the third dimension - the topographic relief - on the early stages of channel bifurcation. While, on average, channels grow in a direction dictated by the shape of the groundwater table, we hypothesize that the valley relief plays a crucial role in determining the opening angle and its relaxation to 2π/5 in this regime. A network-wide averaging of several thousand channel bifurcations driven by subsurface flow on the Florida Panhandle reveals that rivers on average branch initially at an angle wider than 2π/5, yet quickly relax to 2π/5 after a few meters. We hypothesize that this initial wide growth direction is governed by the shape of the topography. As these channels form independent valleys, the Laplacian field prevails, yielding an emergent 2π/5 branching angle. Our results therefore suggest that the path-selection of incipient channels fed by subsurface flow is coupled both to the local topography and the surrounding groundwater field. 1. Devauchelle, Olivier, et al. "Ramification of stream networks." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109.51 (2012): 20832-20836.

  5. IRAM 30 m Large Scale Survey of 12CO(2-1) and 13CO(2-1) Emission in the Orion Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berné, O.; Marcelino, N.; Cernicharo, J.

    2014-11-01

    Using the IRAM 30 m telescope, we have surveyed a 1 × 0.°8 part of the Orion molecular cloud in the 12CO and 13CO (2-1) lines with a maximal spatial resolution of ~11'' and spectral resolution of ~0.4 km s-1. The cloud appears filamentary, clumpy, and with a complex kinematical structure. We derive an estimated mass of the cloud of 7700 M ⊙ (half of which is found in regions with visual extinctions AV below ~10) and a dynamical age for the nebula of the order of 0.2 Myr. The energy balance suggests that magnetic fields play an important role in supporting the cloud, at large and small scales. According to our analysis, the turbulent kinetic energy in the molecular gas due to outflows is comparable to turbulent kinetic energy resulting from the interaction of the cloud with the H II region. This latter feedback appears negative, i.e., the triggering of star formation by the H II region is inefficient in Orion. The reduced data as well as additional products such as the column density map are made available online (http://userpages.irap.omp.eu/~oberne/Olivier_Berne/Data).

  6. A Global Assessment of Wolf-Rayet Binaries in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffat, A. F. J.

    2008-08-01

    In the Galaxy, comprehensive empirical studies of advanced massive-star evolution via Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars have been hampered by huge disparities in apparent brightness and interstellar extinction, and by uncertainties in the distances. These problems all but disappear in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs), where one can also systematically probe the effects of lower initial metallicity (Z). Over two decades ago I began, partly involving Virpi Niemela, a vast optical spectroscopic program to examine all of the (then about 100) known MC WR stars for binarity and use them to extract information on general properties of WR stars. Now in 2006 the last step of this project is being wrapped up by the third doctoral student [Olivier Schnurr working on the WNL stars, after Peter Bartzakos (WC) in 1998 and Cédric Foellmi (WNE) in 2002] to embark on this project, now including the 144 known MC WR stars, as defined by the catalogues of Breysacher et al. for the LMC and Massey et al. for the SMC. Here we will summarize the highlights of this work. These include (1) a normal binary WR frequency in both MCs as in the Galaxy, (2) the increased presence of H in WNE stars, even binaries, as one goes to lower Z, (3) colliding winds, and (4) very massive WNLha stars. I will end with some suggestions for future work.

  7. On the Numerical Solution of the Elliptic Monge—Ampère Equation in Dimension Two: A Least-Squares Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Edward J.; Glowinski, Roland

    During his outstanding career, Olivier Pironneau has addressed the solution of a large variety of problems from the Natural Sciences, Engineering and Finance to name a few, an evidence of his activity being the many articles and books he has written. It is the opinion of these authors, and former collaborators of O. Pironneau (cf. [DGP91]), that this chapter is well-suited to a volume honoring him. Indeed, the two pillars of the solution methodology that we are going to describe are: (1) a nonlinear least squares formulation in an appropriate Hilbert space, and (2) a mixed finite element approximation, reminiscent of the one used in [DGP91] and [GP79] for solving the Stokes and Navier-Stokes equations in their stream function-vorticity formulation; the contributions of O. Pironneau on the two above topics are well-known world wide. Last but not least, we will show that the solution method discussed here can be viewed as a solution method for a non-standard variant of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, an area where O. Pironneau has many outstanding and celebrated contributions (cf. [Pir89], for example).

  8. Comparison of correction methods for inhomogeneities in daily time series on example of Central European datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, P.; Zahradnicek, P.,

    2010-09-01

    Prior any data analysis, data quality control and homogenization have to be undertaken to get rid of erroneous values in time series. In this work we focused especially on comparison of methods for daily data inhomogeneities correction. Two basic approaches for inhomogeneity adjustments were adopted and compared: (i) "delta" method - adjustment of monthly series and projection of estimated smoothed monthly adjustments into annual variation of daily adjustments and (ii) "variable" correction of daily values according to the corresponding percentiles. "Variable" correction methods emerged only in recent years. Their results were investigated in this work more deeply and they were mutually compared. Among the analyzed methods belong HOM of Paul Della-Marta, SPLIDHOM method of Olivier Mestre and own methods (DAP). We applied multi-element approach (using e.g. weather types) as well and investigated if it can improve the models. Comparison of the available correction methods is also current task of the ongoing COST action ESO601 (www. homogenisation.org). Performance of the available correction methods (on daily scale) is shown on example of Central European series of various meteorological elements (air temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, sunshine duration). Comparisons among the methods as well as its various modifications (parameters settings) were investigated. For the task, ProClimDB software has been used (read more at www.climahom.eu).

  9. Positive polarotaxis in a mayfly that never leaves the water surface: polarotactic water detection in Palingenia longicauda (Ephemeroptera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriska, György; Bernáth, Balázs; Horváth, Gábor

    2007-02-01

    Tisza mayflies, Palingenia longicauda (Olivier 1791), swarm exclusively over the river Tisza (from which the name of the mayfly was derived). This river is bordered by a high vertical wall of trees and bushes, which hinder P. longicauda to move away horizontally from the water. During swarming, Tisza mayflies fly immediately above the river in such a way that their cerci touch the water frequently or sweep its surface. This continuous close connection with water and the vertical wall of the shore and riparian vegetation result in that Tisza mayflies never leave the water surface; consequently, they need not search for water. Several Ephemeroptera species move away far from water and return to it guided by the horizontal polarization of water-reflected light. To reveal whether also P. longicauda is or is not polarotactic, we performed a field experiment during the very short swarming period of Tisza mayflies. We show here that also P. longicauda has positive polarotaxis, which, however, can be observed only under unnatural conditions, when the animals are displaced from the water and then released above artificial test surfaces. P. longicauda is the first species in which polarotactic water detection is demonstrated albeit it never leaves the water surface, and thus, a polarotactic water detection seems unnecessary for it. The polarotactic behaviour of Tisza mayflies explains the earlier observation that these insects swarm above wet asphalt roads running next to river Tisza.

  10. Software for detection and correction of inhomogeneities in time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanek, Petr

    2010-05-01

    During the last decade, software package consisting of AnClim, ProClimDB and LoadData software for processing climatological data has been created. This software offers complex solution in processing climatological time series, starting from loading data from a central database (e.g. Oracle, software LoadData), through data duality control and homogenization to time series analysis, extreme values evaluation and model outputs verification (ProClimDB and AnClim software). In recent years tools for correction of inhomogeneites in daily data was introduced. Partly methods already programmed in R (e.g. by Christine Gruber, ZAMG) like HOM of Paul Della-Marta and SPLIDHOM method of Olivier Mestre or own methods are available, some of them being able to apply multi-element approach (using e.g. weather types). Available methods can be easily compared and evaluated (both for inhomogeneity detection or correction in this case). Comparison of the available correction methods is also current task of ongoing COST action ESO601 (www. homogenisation.org). Further methods, if available under R, can be easily linked with the software and then the whole processing can benefit from user-friendly environment in which all the most commonly used functions for data handling and climatological processing are available (read more at www.climahom.eu).

  11. Cluster Dynamical Mean Field Methods and the Momentum-selective Mott transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gull, Emanuel

    2011-03-01

    Innovations in methodology and computational power have enabled cluster dynamical mean field calculations of the Hubbard model with interaction strengths and band structures representative of high temperature copper oxide superconductors, for clusters large enough that the thermodyamic limit behavior may be determined. We present the methods and show how extrapolations to the thermodynamic limit work in practice. We show that the Hubbard model with next-nearest neighbor hopping at intermediate interaction strength captures much of the exotic behavior characteristic of the high temperature superconductors. An important feature of the results is a pseudogap for hole doping but not for electron doping. The pseudogap regime is characterized by a gap for momenta near Brillouin zone face and gapless behavior near the zone diagonal. for dopings outside of the pseudogap regime we find scattering rates which vary around the fermi surface in a way consistent with recent transport measurements. Using the maximum entropy method we calculate spectra, self-energies, and response functions for Raman spectroscopy and optical conductivities, finding results also in good agreement with experiment. Olivier Parcollet, Philipp Werner, Nan Lin, Michel Ferrero, Antoine Georges, Andrew J. Millis; NSF-DMR-0705847.

  12. Organic Semiconductors: A Molecular Picture of the Charge-Transport and Energy-Transport Processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2007-03-01

    Conjugated organic oligomer and polymer materials are being increasingly considered for their incorporation as the active semiconductor elements in devices such as photo-voltaic cells, light-emitting diodes, or field-effects transistors. In the operation of these devices, electron-transfer and energy-transfer processes play a key role, for instance in the form of charge transport (in the bulk or across interfaces), energy transport, charge separation, or charge recombination [1]. Here, we provide a theoretical description of electron-transfer phenomena based on electron-transfer theory, which allows us to provide a molecular, chemically-oriented understanding. In this presentation, we focus on the parameters that impact the mobility of charge carriers [2], that is the electronic coupling within chains and between adjacent chains and the reorganization energy of the chains upon ionization. Materials under study include conjugated oligomers such as oligoacenes, oligothiophene-acenes, oligothiophenes, and oligothienacenes. [1] J.L. Br'edas, D. Beljonne, V. Coropceanu, and J. Cornil, ``Charge-Transfer and Energy-Transfer Processes in pi-Conjugated Oligomers and Polymers'', Chemical Reviews, 104, 4971-5004 (2004). [2] V. Coropceanu, J. Cornil, D.A. da Silva Filho, Y. Olivier, R. Silbey, and J.L. Br'edas, ``Charge Transport in Organic Semiconductors'', Chemical Reviews, 107, xxx (2007).

  13. Pharmacological targeting of ion channels for cancer therapy: In vivo evidences.

    PubMed

    Leanza, Luigi; Managò, Antonella; Zoratti, Mario; Gulbins, Erich; Szabo, Ildiko

    2016-06-01

    Since the discovery of the participation of various ion channels in the regulation of cell proliferation and programmed cell death two decades ago, the field exploring ion channel function in relation to cancer has undergone rapid development. Although the mechanisms accounting for the impact of ion channel modulators on cancer growth have not been fully clarified in all cases, numerous in vivo experiments targeting diverse ion channels in various cancer models illustrate the great potentiality of this approach and promote ion channels to the class of oncological targets. In the present review we give an updated overview of the field and critically discuss the promising results obtained in pre-clinical models using specific pharmacological modulators of calcium, sodium, potassium and anion-permeable ion channels, whose expression is often altered in tumor cells and tissues. The most, especially critical issues are specificity of action and side-effects. Interestingly, some of the most potent drugs are natural products, and several of the active compounds are already used in the clinic for other purposes. In these latter cases involving drug repositioning we may expect a faster progression from preclinical to clinical studies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate. Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen. PMID:26658642

  14. Piperidinyl amides with insecticidal activity from the maritime plant Otanthus maritimus.

    PubMed

    Christodoulopoulou, Lito; Tsoukatou, Maria; Tziveleka, Leto A; Vagias, Constantinos; Petrakis, Panos V; Roussis, Vassilios

    2005-03-01

    Two new piperidine amides, N-[(2E,4E,8Z)-tetradecatrienoyl]piperidine (1) and N-[(2E,4E,8Z,11Z)-tetradecatetrenoyl]piperidine (2), along with the known metabolites N-[(2E,4E)-tetradecadienoyl]piperidine (3), N-isobutyl-(2E,4E,)-tetradecadienamide (4), N-isobutyl-(2E,4E,8Z)-tetradecatrienamide (5), N-isobutyl-(2E,4E,8Z,11Z)-tetradecatetraenamide (6), sesamine (7), pinoresinol (8), and espeletone (9), were isolated from the dichloromethane/methanol extracts of the plant Otanthus maritimus Hoffman & Link collected from coastal areas in Greece. Pinoresinol (8) and espeletone (9) are reported for the first time as metabolites of O. maritimus. The structures of the new natural products were elucidated by interpretation of their NMR and high-resolution mass spectral measurements. The insecticidal properties of the crude extracts, essential oil, and isolated metabolites 1-9 were evaluated on Crematogaster scutellaris (Olivier) ants and Reticulitermes balkanensis (Clement) termites, showing significant levels of activity. PMID:15740019

  15. Abundance and diversity of soil arthropods in the olive grove ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Maria Fátima; Pereira, José Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Arthropods are part of important functional groups in soil food webs. Recognizing these arthropods and understanding their function in the ecosystem as well as when they are active is essential to understanding their roles. In the present work, the abundance and diversity of soil arthropods is examined in olive groves in the northeast region of Portugal during the spring. Five classes of arthropods were found: Chilopoda, Malacostraca, Entognatha, Insecta, and Arachnida. Captures were numerically dominated by Collembola within Entognatha, representing 70.9% of total captures. Arachnida and Insecta classes represented about 20.4 and 9.0%, respectively. Among the predatory arthropods, the most representative groups were Araneae and Opiliones from Arachnida, and Formicidae, Carabidae, and Staphylinidae from Insecta. From the Formicidae family, Tetramorium semilaeve (Andre 1883), Tapinoma nigerrimum (Nylander 1856), and Crematogaster scutellaris (Olivier 1792) were the most representative ant species. Arthropods demonstrated preference during the day, with 74% of the total individuals recovered in this period, although richness and similarity were analogous during the day and night. PMID:22943295

  16. Insects associated with Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae) in west Niger.

    PubMed

    Habou, Zakari Abdoul; Adam, Toudou; Haubruge, Eric; Mergeai, Guy; Verheggen, François J

    2014-01-01

    Jatropha curcas has been introduced into Niger since 2004 by International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT). This plant is cultivated for its oil, which can be used as a Biofuel. Through direct and indirect insect collection methods, an inventory of the insect associated with J. curcas has been conducted in Western Niger during two rainy seasons (from June to October) in 2010 and 2011. We have identified insects belonging to the following families: Acrididae (Oedaleus senegalensis Krauss, Oedaleus nigeriensis Uvarov, Heteracris leani Uvarov, Catantops stramineus Walker, Parga cyanoptera Uvarov, and Acanthacris ruficornis citrina Audinet-Serville), Pyrgomorphidae (Poekilocerus bufonius hieroglyphicus Klug), Cetoniidae (Pachnoda interrupta Olivier, Pachnoda marginata aurantia Herbst, Pachnoda sinuata Heinrich and McClain, and Rhabdotis sobrina Gory and Percheron), Meloidae (Decapotoma lunata Pallas), Pentatomidae (Agonoscelis versicoloratus Dallas, Nezara viridula Linn, and Antestia sp. Kirkaldy), Coreidae (Leptoglossus membranaceus Fabricius and Cletus trigonus Thunberg), and Scutelleridae (Calidea panaethiopica Kirkaldy). Origin and potential impact on J. curcas of all these insect species are presented and discussed. The lower insect's diversity indexes are observed in 2010 and 2011 for Niamey, Saga, and Gaya because of semi-arid character of the Sahelian area. PMID:25528746

  17. The role of oxytocin in male and female reproductive behavior.

    PubMed

    Veening, J G; de Jong, T R; Waldinger, M D; Korte, S M; Olivier, B

    2015-04-15

    Oxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide with an impressive variety of physiological functions. Among them, the 'prosocial' effects have been discussed in several recent reviews, but the direct effects on male and female sexual behavior did receive much less attention so far. As our contribution to honor the lifelong interest of Berend Olivier in the control mechanisms of sexual behavior, we decided to explore the role of OT in the present review. In the successive sections, some physiological mechanisms and the 'pair-bonding' effects of OT will be discussed, followed by sections about desire, female appetitive and copulatory behavior, including lordosis and orgasm. At the male side, the effects on erection and ejaculation are reviewed, followed by a section about 'premature ejaculation' and a possible role of OT in its treatment. In addition to OT, serotonin receives some attention as one of the main mechanisms controlling the effects of OT. In the succeeding sections, the importance of OT for 'the fruits of labor' is discussed, as it plays an important role in both maternal and paternal behavior. Finally, we pay attention to an intriguing brain area, the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMHvl), apparently functioning in both sexual and aggressive behavior, which are at first view completely opposite behavioral systems. PMID:25088178

  18. Alien molluscan species established along the Italian shores: an update, with discussions on some Mediterranean “alien species” categories

    PubMed Central

    Crocetta, Fabio; Macali, Armando; Furfaro, Giulia; Cooke, Samantha; Guido Villani; Valdés, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The state of knowledge of the alien marine Mollusca in Italy is reviewed and updated. Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792), Polycera hedgpethi Er. Marcus, 1964 and Haminoea japonica Pilsbry, 1895are here considered as established on the basis of published and unpublished data, and recent records of the latter considerably expand its known Mediterranean range to the Tyrrhenian Sea. COI sequences obtained indicate that a comprehensive survey of additional European localities is needed to elucidate the dispersal pathways of Haminoea japonica.Recent records and interpretation of several molluscan taxa as alien are discussed both in light of new Mediterranean (published and unpublished) records and of four categories previously excluded from alien species lists. Within this framework, ten taxa are no longer considered as alien species, or their records from Italy are refuted. Furthermore, Trochocochlea castriotae Bellini, 1903 is considered a new synonym for Gibbula albida (Gmelin, 1791). Data provided here leave unchanged as 35 the number of alien molluscan taxa recorded from Italy as well as the percentage of the most plausible vectors of introduction, but raise to 22 the number of established species along the Italian shores during the 2005–2010 period, and backdate to 1792 the first introduction of an alien molluscan species (Littorina saxatilis) to the Italian shores. PMID:23794825

  19. Description of Parasitorhabditis frontali n. sp. (Nemata: Rhabditida) from Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bauchan, G.; Hsu, C.-Y.; Yuceer, C.

    2010-01-01

    A new Parasitorhabditis species with males and females was discovered from the southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis and its galleries in loblolly pine, Pinus taeda, growing in Mississippi. Females of the new species have a cupola-shaped tail with a small spike; males possess a 2 + (3+2) + 3 ray pattern on the tail fan with ray 10 reaching the margin, and a distinctive stomatal tooth. Parasitorhabditis frontali n. sp. has some similarities to P. hylurgi Massey, 1974 from Hylurgops pinifex in New York, USA, P. terebranus Massey, 1974 from D. terebrans (Olivier, 1795) in Texas USA, P. ligniperdae Fuchs, 1915 from Hylergops ligniperda (Fabricius, 1787) and P. dendroctoni Rühm, 1956 from D. micans (Kugelann, 1794) in Europe, P. ateri Fuchs, 1915 isolated from the beetle Hylastes ater (Paykull, 1800) in Germany, and P. malii Devdariani and Kakulia,1970 from Scolytus mali (Bechstein, 1805) within the republic of Georgia. Morphometrics for 44 species of Parasitorhabditis are provided to update older keys. Parasitorhabditis frontali n. sp. was initially grown on Malt Extract (ME) agar with its own microbial contaminants that included a bacterium and fungus. The nematode also grew and reproduced after slices of ME agar with nematodes and microbial contaminants were transferred to water agar. It was killed by E. coli on NGM agar plates commonly used to raise other Rhabditida. Drawings of diagnostic anatomy and low-temperature SEM images of bodies, heads, and tails are provided for cultured specimens from pine beetle frass. PMID:22736836

  20. Populus euphratica Displays Apoplastic Sodium Accumulation, Osmotic Adjustment by Decreases in Calcium and Soluble Carbohydrates, and Develops Leaf Succulence under Salt Stress1[W

    PubMed Central

    Ottow, Eric A.; Brinker, Monika; Teichmann, Thomas; Fritz, Eberhard; Kaiser, Werner; Brosché, Mikael; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Jiang, Xiangning; Polle, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Populus euphratica Olivier is known to exist in saline and arid environments. In this study we investigated the physiological mechanisms enabling this species to cope with stress caused by salinity. Acclimation to increasing Na+ concentrations required adjustments of the osmotic pressure of leaves, which were achieved by accumulation of Na+ and compensatory decreases in calcium and soluble carbohydrates. The counterbalance of Na+/Ca2+ was also observed in mature leaves from field-grown P. euphratica trees exposed to an environmental gradient of increasing salinity. X-ray microanalysis showed that a primary strategy to protect the cytosol against sodium toxicity was apoplastic but not vacuolar salt accumulation. The ability to cope with salinity also included maintenance of cytosolic potassium concentrations and development of leaf succulence due to an increase in cell number and cell volume leading to sodium dilution. Decreases in apoplastic and vacuolar Ca2+ combined with suppression of calcineurin B-like protein transcripts suggest that Na+ adaptation required suppression of calcium-related signaling pathways. Significant increases in galactinol synthase and alternative oxidase after salt shock and salt adaptation point to shifts in carbohydrate metabolism and suppression of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria under salt stress. PMID:16299175

  1. Species History Masks the Effects of Human-Induced Range Loss – Unexpected Genetic Diversity in the Endangered Giant Mayfly Palingenia longicauda

    PubMed Central

    Bálint, Miklós; Málnás, Kristóf; Nowak, Carsten; Geismar, Jutta; Váncsa, Éva; Polyák, László; Lengyel, Szabolcs; Haase, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater biodiversity has declined dramatically in Europe in recent decades. Because of massive habitat pollution and morphological degradation of water bodies, many once widespread species persist in small fractions of their original range. These range contractions are generally believed to be accompanied by loss of intraspecific genetic diversity, due to the reduction of effective population sizes and the extinction of regional genetic lineages. We aimed to assess the loss of genetic diversity and its significance for future potential reintroduction of the long-tailed mayfly Palingenia longicauda (Olivier), which experienced approximately 98% range loss during the past century. Analysis of 936 bp of mitochondrial DNA of 245 extant specimens across the current range revealed a surprisingly large number of haplotypes (87), and a high level of haplotype diversity (). In contrast, historic specimens (6) from the lost range (Rhine catchment) were not differentiated from the extant Rába population (, ), despite considerable geographic distance separating the two rivers. These observations can be explained by an overlap of the current with the historic (Pleistocene) refugia of the species. Most likely, the massive recent range loss mainly affected the range which was occupied by rapid post-glacial dispersal. We conclude that massive range losses do not necessarily coincide with genetic impoverishment and that a species' history must be considered when estimating loss of genetic diversity. The assessment of spatial genetic structures and prior phylogeographic information seems essential to conserve once widespread species. PMID:22412844

  2. Nutritional and antinutritional composition of the five species of aquatic edible insects consumed in Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Shantibala, T; Lokeshwari, R K; Debaraj, H

    2014-01-01

    The people living in Manipur have a distinct identity, culture, and food habits. They have a prototype culture of eating insects. In our study, the nutritive contents of five potentially-edible aquatic insects, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae), Laccotrephes maculatus (F.) (Nepidae), Hydrophilus olivaceous (F.) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), Cybister tripunctatus (Olivier), and Crocothemis servilia (Drury) (Odonata: Libellulidae), were analyzed to inform consumers about the nutritional quality of the insects and the suggested quantity of their intake. A good amount of protein content and high gross energy was recorded among the insects. The results showed high levels of sodium, calcium, and magnesium present in the insects, indicating that they are a good source of minerals. Antinutritional properties of these insects were below 0.52%, which is a non-toxic level. Aquatic insects, such as C. tripunctatus, also possesses strong antioxidant activity (110 µg/mL). Therefore, these insects can play a major role in food security, health, and environment management. It is essential to cultivate edible insects to maintain their population sustainability. PMID:25373161

  3. Ionizing irradiation of adults of Angoumois grain moth (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) to prevent reproduction, and implications for a generic irradiation treatment for insects.

    PubMed

    Hallman, Guy J; Phillips, Thomas W

    2008-08-01

    Ionizing irradiation is used as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests. A generic treatment of 400 Gy has been approved for commodities entering the United States against all insects except pupae and adults of Lepidoptera because some literature citations indicate that a few insects, namely, the Angoumois grain moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), and the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), are not completely controlled at that dose. Radiotolerance in insects increases as the insects develop, so the minimum absorbed dose to prevent F1 egg hatch for these two species when irradiated as adults was examined. Also, because hypoxia is known to increase radiotolerance in insects, Angoumois grain moth radiotolerance was tested in a hypoxic atmosphere. A dose range of 336-388 Gy prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 22,083 adult Indianmeal moths. Dose ranges of 443-505 and 590-674 Gy, respectively, prevented F1 egg hatch from a total of 15,264 and 13,677 adult Angoumois grain moths irradiated in ambient and hypoxic atmospheres. A generic dose of 600 Gy for all insects in ambient atmospheres might be efficacious, although many fresh commodities may not tolerate it when applied on a commercial scale. PMID:18767708

  4. Morphology and identification of the mature larvae of several species of the genus Otiorhynchus (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae) from Central Europe with an update of the life history traits.

    PubMed

    Gosik, Rafał; Sprick, Peter; Skuhrovec, Jiří; Deruś, Magdalena; Hommes, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The mature larvae of 14 Otiorhynchus taxa are described: O. (Otiorhynchus) armadillo (Rossi, 1792), O. (Nehrodistus) armatus Boheman, 1846, O. (Otiorhynchus) aurifer Boheman, 1843, O. (Pocodalemes) crataegi Germar, 1824, Otiorhynchus (Arammichnus) indefinitus Reitter, 1912 (syn. O. dieckmanni Magnano, 1979), O. (Choilisanus) raucus (Fa-bricius, 1777) and 3 taxa of the O. (Otiorhynchus) tenebricosus complex (Herbst, 1784), O. (Otiorhynchus) clavipes (Bonsdorff, 1785), O. (Otiorhynchus) fuscipes (Olivier, 1807) and O. (Otiorhynchus) lugdunensis Boheman, 1843, are described and illustrated for the first time. The larvae of (Otiorhynchus) meridionalis Gyllenhal, 1834, O. (Pendragon) ovatus (Linnaeus, 1758), O. (Zustalestus) rugosostriatus (Goeze, 1777), O. (Metopiorrhynchus) singularis (Linnaeus, 1767), and O. (Dorymerus) sulcatus (Fabricius, 1775) are redescribed and illustrated, and new characters are added. Important characters of the mature larvae (e.g. chaetotaxy, shape of head and body) are explained in detail and illustrated. A key to the identification of the mature larvae of 19 Otiorhynchus taxa is provided. Breeding and collecting data of the larvae are given, and the study is completed by a current overview on the life histories of all treated species. PMID:27394846

  5. The calcium-signaling toolkit: Updates needed.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Charlotte; Prevarskaya, Natalia; Vanden Abeele, Fabien

    2016-06-01

    Here, we review the role of Ca(2+) in apoptosis, namely that ER Ca(2+) depletion or a sustained elevation of cytosolic or mitochondrial Ca(2+) concentration are sufficient to trigger apoptosis. These concepts have emerged by the use of ER stressor agents that decrease the ER Ca(2+) pool by inhibiting SERCA pumps. However, aside from their well-known actions on Ca(2+) homeostasis disruption leading to apoptosis, new evidence show that some ER Ca(2+) modulators have significant implications in other Ca(2+)-mediated or Ca(2+)-independent pathways determining cell fate suggesting a more complex regulation of apoptosis by intracellular Ca(2+). Here, we discuss the crucial interplay between Ca(2+) mediated apoptosis, the Unfold Protein Response and autophagy determining cell fate, and the molecular compounds that have been used to depict these pathways. This review of the literature clearly shows the need for new inhibitors that do not interfere concomitantly with autophagy and Ca(2+) signaling. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate. Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen. PMID:26658643

  6. Morphology of salivary gland and distribution of dopamine and serotonin on red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayah, A. S. Nurul; Wahida, O. Nurul; Shafinaz, M. N. Norefrina; Idris, A. G.

    2013-11-01

    The Red Palm Weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) is insect pest to plants of the family Palmaceae. No study has been reported on the digestive mechanism of Red Palm Weevil (RPW). Salivary glands are responsible in the feeding regulation of insect while serotonin and dopamine play a significant role in the regulation of this gland. It is great to see the morphology of the salivary gland and how dopamine and serotonin possibly play their role in this gland. Two variation of RPW, striped and spotted RPW were chosen. The morphology of the gland of both RPW variants examined by using light microscopy was found to be a tubular type. Immunohistochemical analysis conducted showed that serotonin and dopamine in both variations did not innervate the glands suggesting they are not act as neurotransmitter. However, it can be detected on few areas within the glands. This suggests that serotonin and dopamine may act as a hormone because there is no evidence on the nerve fibers. The role of these biogenic amines in the salivary gland of RPW needs further investigation. Hopefully the data would help in understanding the mechanism of salivary glands control by biogenic amines in RPW specifically and insects with sucking mouthpart generally.

  7. Second-order modeling of arsenite transport in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua; Magdi Selim, H.

    2011-11-01

    Rate limited processes including kinetic adsorption-desorption can greatly impact the fate and behavior of toxic arsenic compounds in heterogeneous soils. In this study, miscible displacement column experiments were carried out to investigate the extent of reactivity during transport of arsenite in soils. Arsenite breakthrough curves (BTCs) of Olivier and Windsor soils exhibited strong retardation with diffusive effluent fronts followed by slow release or tailing during leaching. Such behavior is indicative of the dominance of kinetic retention reactions for arsenite transport in the soil columns. Sharp decrease or increase in arsenite concentration in response to flow interruptions (stop-flow) further verified that non-equilibrium conditions are dominant. After some 40-60 pore volumes of continued leaching, 30-70% of the applied arsenite was retained by the soil in the columns. Furthermore, continued arsenite slow release for months was evident by the high levels of residual arsenite concentrations observed during leaching. In contrast, arsenite transport in a reference sand material exhibited no retention where complete mass recovery in the effluent solution was attained. A second-order model (SOM) which accounts for equilibrium, reversible, and irreversible retention mechanisms was utilized to describe arsenite transport results from the soil columns. Based on inverse and predictive modeling results, the SOM model successfully depicted arsenite BTCs from several soil columns. Based on inverse and predictive modeling results, a second-order model which accounts for kinetic reversible and irreversible reactions is recommended for describing arsenite transport in soils.

  8. Large-Scale, Exhaustive Lattice-Based Structural Auditing of SNOMED CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    One criterion for the well-formedness of ontologies is that their hierarchical structure form a lattice. Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) has been used as a technique for assessing the quality of ontologies, but is not scalable to large ontologies such as SNOMED CT. We developed a methodology called Lattice-based Structural Auditing (LaSA), for auditing biomedical ontologies, implemented through automated SPARQL queries, in order to exhaustively identify all non-lattice pairs in SNOMED CT. The percentage of non-lattice pairs ranges from 0 to 1.66 among the 19 SNOMED CT hierarchies. Preliminary manual inspection of a limited portion of the 518K non-lattice pairs, among over 34 million candidate pairs, revealed inconsistent use of precoordination in SNOMED CT, but also a number of false positives. Our results are consistent with those based on FCA, with the advantage that the LaSA computational pipeline is scalable and applicable to ontological systems consisting mostly of taxonomic links. This work is based on collaboration with Olivier Bodenreider from the National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, USA.

  9. The genera in the second catalogue (1833–1836) of Dejean’s Coleoptera collection

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet, Yves; Bouchard, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    Abstract All genus-group names listed in the second edition of the catalogue (1833-1836) of Dejean’s beetle collection are recorded. For each new genus-group name the originally included available species are listed and for generic names with at least one available species, the type species and the current status are given. Names available prior to the publication of Dejean’s second catalogue (1833-1836) are listed in an appendix. The following new synonymies are proposed: Cyclonotum Dejean, 1833 (= Dactylosternum Wollaston, 1854) [Hydrophilidae], Hyporhiza Dejean, 1833 (= Rhinaspis Perty, 1830) [Scarabaeidae], Aethales Dejean, 1834 (= Epitragus Latreille, 1802) [Tenebrionidae], Arctylus Dejean, 1834 (= Praocis Eschscholtz, 1829) [Tenebrionidae], Euphron Dejean, 1834 (= Derosphaerus Thomson, 1858) [Tenebrionidae], Hipomelus Dejean, 1834 (= Trachynotus Latreille, 1828) [Tenebrionidae], Pezodontus Dejean, 1834 (= Odontopezus Alluaud, 1889) [Tenebrionidae], Zygocera Dejean, 1835 (= Disternopsis Breuning, 1939) [Cerambycidae], and Physonota Chevrolat, 1836 (= Anacassis Spaeth, 1913) [Chrysomelidae]. Heterogaster pilicornis Dejean, 1835 [Cerambycidae] and Labidomera trimaculata Chevrolat, 1836 [Chrysomelidae] are placed for the first time in synonymy with Anisogaster flavicans Deyrolle, 1862 and Chrysomela clivicollis Kirby, 1837 respectively. Type species of the following genus-group taxa are proposed: Sphaeromorphus Dejean, 1833 (Sphaeromorphus humeralis Erichson, 1843) [Scarabaeidae], Adelphus Dejean, 1834 (Helops marginatus Fabricius, 1792) [Tenebrionidae], Cyrtoderes Dejean, 1834 (Tenebrio cristatus DeGeer, 1778) [Tenebrionidae], Selenepistoma Dejean, 1834 (Opatrum acutum Wiedemann, 1823) [Tenebrionidae], Charactus Dejean, 1833 (Lycus limbatus Fabricius, 1801) [Lycidae], Corynomalus Chevrolat, 1836 (Eumorphus limbatus Olivier, 1808) [Endomychidae], Hebecerus Dejean, 1835 (Acanthocinus marginicollis Boisduval, 1835) [Cerambycidae], Pterostenus Dejean, 1835

  10. Watching How Planets Form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    Anatomy of a Planet-Forming Disc around a Star More Massive than the Sun With the VISIR instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have mapped the disc around a star more massive than the Sun. The very extended and flared disc most likely contains enough gas and dust to spawn planets. It appears as a precursor of debris discs such as the one around Vega-like stars and thus provides the rare opportunity to witness the conditions prevailing prior to or during planet formation. "Planets form in massive, gaseous and dusty proto-planetary discs that surround nascent stars. This process must be rather ubiquitous as more than 200 planets have now been found around stars other than the Sun," said Pierre-Olivier Lagage, from CEA Saclay (France) and leader of the team that carried out the observations. "However, very little is known about these discs, especially those around stars more massive than the Sun. Such stars are much more luminous and could have a large influence on their disc, possibly quickly destroying the inner part." The astronomers used the VISIR instrument [1] on ESO's Very Large Telescope to map in the infrared the disc surrounding the young star HD 97048. With an age of a few million years [2], HD 97048 belongs to the Chameleon I dark cloud, a stellar nursery 600 light-years away. The star is 40 times more luminous than our Sun and is 2.5 times as massive. The astronomers could only have achieved such a detailed view due to the high angular resolution offered by an 8-metre size telescope in the infrared, reaching a resolution of 0.33 arcsecond. They discovered a very large disc, at least 12 times more extended than the orbit of the farthest planet in the Solar System, Neptune. The observations suggest the disc to be flared. "This is the first time such a structure, predicted by some theoretical models, is imaged around a massive star," said Lagage. ESO PR Photo 36/06 ESO PR Photo 36/06 A Flared Proto-Planetary Disc Such a geometry can only be