Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is a rare, chronic progressive pan-endarteritis involving the aorta and its main branches. Anesthesia for patients with TA is complicated by severe uncontrolled hypertension, end-organ dysfunction, stenosis of major blood vessels, and difficulties in monitoring arterial blood pressure. We present the successful anestheticmanagement of a 23-year-old woman having TA with bilateral subclavian and renal artery stenosis posted for emergency cesarean section by using the epidural volume extension technique, which offers the combined advantage of both spinal and epidural anesthesia and, at the same time, also avoids the need of sophisticated neurological monitors like EEG and transcranial Doppler.
Living donor transplantation has helped to partially relieve the refractory shortage of deceased donor grafts. However, living related donation exposes healthy donors to a certain risk of morbidity and even mortality. Anestheticmanagement of elective live donation surgery with a relatively young and healthy patient is apparently simple; nonetheless, it requires both knowledge and diligence from the anesthesiologist. Some concerns persist regarding the appropriate intraoperative organ protection strategy and potential negative effects of certain surgical maneuvers on graft function. Even when careful attention is paid to maintaining intraoperative cardiorespiratory and metabolic homeostasis, preventing blood loss, preserving renal function, and assuring adequate postoperative analgesia, among other things, these procedures are not completely devoid of some major risks related to anesthesia and surgery. Maximal effort should be applied to minimize the perioperative risks for the donor, every minimal impending complication should be promptly recognized, and a timely treatment implemented. Some anesthetic considerations regarding the most frequently performed living organ transplantations are briefly reported in this article. PMID:20613693
Continuing advances in anesthesiology enable surgeons to perform more and more complex operations. Nowhere is this relation more important than for the patient undergoing thoracic surgery. Specialized anesthetictechniques including safe lung separation, the maintenance of oxygenation during selective one-lung ventilation, and effective postoperative analgesia allow procedures such as lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation to be performed routinely.
Many of the most common anesthetics are used in surgical oncology, yet effects on cancer cells are still not known. Anesthesia technique could differentially affect cancer recurrence in oncologic patients undergoing surgery, due to immunosuppression, stimulation of angiogenesis, and dissemination of residual cancer cells. Data support the use of intravenous anesthetics, such as propofol anesthesia, thanks to antitumoral protective effects inhibiting cyclooxygenase 2 and prostaglandins E2 in cancer cells, and stimulation of immunity response; a restriction in the use of volatile anesthetics; restriction in the use of opioids as they suppress humoral and cellular immunity, and their chronic use favors angiogenesis and development of metastases; use of locoregional anesthesia compared with general anesthesia, as locoregional appears to reduce cancer recurrence after surgery. However, these findings must be interpreted cautiously as there is no evidence that simple changes in the practice of anesthesia can have a positive impact on postsurgical survival of cancer patients. PMID:24683330
D'Arrigo, Maria G.; Triolo, Stefania; Mondello, Stefania; La Torre, Domenico
A traumatic pneumothorax and severe hemorrhage were present in a mare with a large thoracic wall defect, lung perforation, and multiple rib fractures. General anesthesia was induced to allow surgical exploration. We describe the anesthetictechnique, and discuss the management of the ventilatory, hemodynamic, and metabolic disturbances encountered. PMID:23204585
Chesnel, Maud-Aline; Aprea, Francesco; Clutton, R. Eddie
Pulmonary hypertension is a condition that can result in serious complications in patients undergoing any type of anesthesia during the perioperative period. By definition, pulmonary artery hypertension is caused by a persistent rise in mean pulmonary artery pressure ?25 mm Hg with Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ? 15 mm Hg or exercise mean pulmonary artery pressure ?35 mm Hg and pulmonary vascular resistance ? 3 wood unit's. The severity of the complications depends on the severity of the underlying condition, other comorbidities, and type of procedure, anesthetictechnique, and anesthetic drugs. In this article, we briefly review the pulmonary vascular physiology, pathophysiology of the disease, clinical assessment and diagnosis, treatment options, and the anestheticmanagement of these patients. PMID:21248623
\\u000a As longevity increases for patients with spinal cord injuries (SCI), operative procedures are often necessary to further rehabilitation,\\u000a control pain, evaluate urinary dysfunction, maintain skin integrity and reverse further neurologic degeneration. Increasingly,\\u000a SCI women are completing pregnancies. Considerations for anestheticmanagement of patients with chronic SCI include avoiding\\u000a autonomic hyperreflexia and hyperkalemia-related to succinylcholine, preventing exacerbations of pulmonary dysfunction and
This article deals with specific agents that either have been or are being employed for the production of general anesthesia or sedative states for the control of pain or anxiety in the dental setting. Change, progress, trends, and contributions to the field of dental anesthesia made by dentists are stressed. In addition, a brief synopsis of the most popular present-day techniques and agents is discussed. Finally, the future of the field of dental anesthesia and the role to be played by dentists is considered. PMID:3542611
\\u000a Comorbid medical and surgical conditions dictate the complexity of kidney and pancreas transplantation. Patients who present\\u000a for kidney and\\/or pancreatic transplantation share similar perioperative concerns (risks associated with diabetes, hypertension,\\u000a vascular access, and cardiovascular disease) in performing a successful transplantation. This chapter discusses specific anesthetic\\u000a management issues related separately to kidney and pancreatic transplantation.
This is the first report in the literature of a sole regional anesthetic for adult craniopagus twins using a supraclavicular block for an elbow incision and drainage/bursa excision procedure. It demonstrates that for these complex medical patients, a total regional anesthesia technique is preferable when possible. There are several known general anesthetic complications in these patients. Anesthetic crossover between the twins can occur and may be variable; furthermore, the incidence and severity of the crossover effects of different anesthetics vary. Positioning of the twins can be difficult with both regional and general anesthesia. However, with regional anesthesia, the twins can position themselves and report any discomfort, which could go unnoticed under general anesthesia, leading to other complications. Craniopagus twins have a high likelihood of a difficult airway due to anatomy or positioning difficulties, which is avoided by regional anesthesia. This case emphasizes the unique challenges that these patients pose and the ability of regional anesthesia to help avoid the pitfalls of general anesthesia in these patients. PMID:23759707
Schleelein, Laura E; Perate, Alison R; Ganesh, Arjunan
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is a genetic cardiomyopathy characterized by replacement of right ventricular myocardium by fibrofatty infiltrates, leading to significant ventricular arrhythmias with sudden death and right ventricular dysfunction. Elective operations should be postponed, until the arrhythmias and myocardial function are well tolerated. There has been no guideline on the anestheticmanagement of this serious, despite rare, disease and there are a few reports of the patients undergoing operation under either general or regional anesthesia. The most important issue of the anestheticmanagement is to avoid excessive sympathetic stimulation, especially beta stimulation which can easily induce life-threatening arrhythmias. Also, it is better to avoid adrenalin as an adjunct to the local anesthetics. Anesthetic maintenance was performed with volatile anesthetics except halothane, opiates, muscle relaxants except pancuronium and intravenous anesthetics including propofol, ketamine and benzodiazepines. Invasive monitoring of arterial blood pressure and central venous pressure is recommended and transesophageal echocardiography, if available, provides diagnostic information for an intraoperative cardiac event. It is essential to apply alpha-adrenergic agonists instead of beta-agonists for intraoperative hemodynamic support. The arrhythmias should be managed with beta-blockers or amiodarone. Adequate control of postoperative analgesia and nausea/vomiting is also important to suppress sympathetic activities. PMID:24558930
Job's syndrome also known as hyper-IgE syndrome is a rare disorder associated with immunodeficiency. It includes recurrent abscesses of staphylococcal origin affecting skin and musculoskeletal system, recurring pneumonia and pneumatoceles, eosinophilia, craniofacial, and bone growth changes. This case report describes the disease and anestheticmanagement. Ten-year-old male child weighing 18 kg was diagnosed recently as Job's syndrome and was posted for abscess drainage over chest, back, upper, and lower limb. He had associated severe mental retardation. The choice of anesthetictechnique was based on multiple surgical sites and associated mental retardation. Due to associated mental retardation child was sedated under our vigilance with syrup midazolam 9 mg orally and EMLA cream applied with occlusive dressing 30 min prior to shifting to OT. Upon arrival to the OT, pulse oximetry, noninvasive blood pressure, Electrocardiogram, temperature probe, cardioscope were attached. Inhalation induction done with sevoflurane and IV line secured with 22G cannula. Glycopyrolate 0.1 mg + fentanyl 30 mcg + Propofol 30 mg given intravenously. General anesthesia was maintained with bag and mask ventilation with oxygen + nitrous oxide + sevoflurane with spontaneous ventilation. Postoperative period was uneventful. This case is presented in view of rarity of its occurrence and frequency of repeated surgical intervention and anesthesia. Associated mental retardation in this case could be an isolated incident or could be an occurrence related to underlying disease process itself.
Background Effective pain control in Dentistry may be achieved by local anesthetictechniques. The success of the anesthetictechnique in mandibular structures depends on the proximity of the needle tip to the mandibular foramen at the moment of anesthetic injection into the pterygomandibular region. Two techniques are available to reach the inferior alveolar nerve where it enters the mandibular canal, namely indirect and direct; these techniques differ in the number of movements required. Data demonstrate that the indirect technique is considered ineffective in 15% of cases and the direct technique in 1329% of cases. Objective Objective: The aim of this study was to describe an alternative technique for inferior alveolar nerve block using several anatomical points for reference, simplifying the procedure and enabling greater success and a more rapid learning curve. Materials and Methods A total of 193 mandibles (146 with permanent dentition and 47 with primary dentition) from dry skulls were used to establish a relationship between the teeth and the mandibular foramen. By using two wires, the first passing through the mesiobuccal groove and middle point of the mesial slope of the distolingual cusp of the primary second molar or permanent first molar (right side), and the second following the oclusal plane (left side), a line can be achieved whose projection coincides with the left mandibular foramen. Results The obtained data showed correlation in 82.88% of cases using the permanent first molar, and in 93.62% of cases using the primary second molar. Conclusion This method is potentially effective for inferior alveolar nerve block, especially in Pediatric Dentistry. PMID:21437463
PALTI, Dafna Geller; de ALMEIDA, Cristiane Machado; RODRIGUES, Antonio de Castro; ANDREO, Jesus Carlos; LIMA, José Eduardo Oliveira
Apert syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by craniosynostosis, midface hypoplasia and syndactyly. In general, patients present in early childhood for craniofacial reconstruction surgery. Anesthetic implications include difficult airway, airway hyper-reactivity; however, possibility of raised intracranial pressure especially when operating for craniosynostosis and associated congenital heart disease should not be ignored. Most of the cases described in literature talk of management of syndactyly. We describe the successful anestheticmanagement of a patient of Aperts syndrome with craniosynostosis posted for bicornual strip craniotomy and fronto-orbital advancement in a 5-year-old child. PMID:25191197
Background Opioid pharmacotherapy is often used to treat cancer pain. However, morphine and other opioid-like substance use in patients with cancer may have significant adverse consequences, including the suppression of both innate and acquired immune responses. Although studies have examined the possibility that regional anesthesia attenuates the immunosuppressive response of surgery, the effects of morphine and other opioid-related substances on tumor progression remain unknown. Methods This article presents an evidence-based review of the influence of opioids and anesthetictechnique on the immune system in the context of cancer recurrence. The review focuses on the field of regional anesthesia and the setting of surgical oncologic procedures. The method for perioperative pain management and the technique of anesthesia chosen for patients in cancer surgery were explored. Results General anesthetics have been indicated to suppress both cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity. Evidence suggests that intravenous opioids suppress the immune system. However, the mechanisms by which anesthetics and analgesics inhibit the immune system are not understood. Compared with the alternatives, regional analgesia offers reduced blood loss and superior postoperative analgesia. Because of these advantages, the use of regional analgesia has increased in oncologic surgeries. Conclusion Immune responses from all components of the immune system, including both the humoral and cell-mediated components, appear to be suppressed by anesthetics and analgesics. The clinical anesthesiologist should consider these factors in the application of technique, especially in cancer surgery. PMID:24940132
Kaye, Alan David; Patel, Nayan; Bueno, Franklin Rivera; Hymel, Brad; Vadivelu, Nalini; Kodumudi, Gopal; Urman, Richard D.
Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy is a primary myocardial disease with unknown aetiology. This disease follows a prospective course that is characterized by ventricular dilation and impaired myocardial dilation. Congestive heart failure and malignant arrhythmias are the most widespread complications. The incidence of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy in the general population is 5-8/100.000. Because of the increased risks of perioperative complications, anestheticmanagement of this disease requires the application of a specific technique. This case report demonstrates the application of successful regional anestheticmanagement (thoracic epidural anesthesia) in a patient who had been diagnosed with severe idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. PMID:24937943
Tracheomalacia is a rare condition characterized by weakness of tracheobronchial cartilaginous bridges. Severe weakness results in tracheal collapse during inspiration, obstructing normal airflow. Tracheomalacia may also be associated with esophageal atresia, tracheoesophageal fistula, and gastroesophageal reflux. Aortopexy is an established surgical procedure for treatment of severe tracheomalacia. A 2-month-old boy was scheduled for aortopexy. He had already undergone repair of tracheoesophageal fistula and had failed multiple attempts at extubation. Intraoperative flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed to guide the amount and direction of aortopexy for assuring the most effective tracheal decompression. Since tracheomalacia is best assessed in a spontaneously breathing patient, it was an anesthetic challenge to maintain an adequate depth of anesthesia while allowing the patient to breathe spontaneously. Throughout the intraoperative period, SpO2 remained ?96%. Following the procedure, the trachea was extubated and patient was able to breathe normally. PMID:23878453
\\u000a Abstract\\u000a Purpose To report the anestheticmanagement of labour pain and Cesarean section in a patient with urticaria pigmentosa at risk for\\u000a systemic mastocytosis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Clinical A 37-yr-old patient with a history of urticaria pigmentosa and an allergic reaction to a local anesthetic agent was seen in\\u000a consultation at 36 weeks gestation. She previously tested negative for an allergy test to lidocaine. Recommendations
General anesthesia was successfully performed in a 9-year-old boy with FOP. FOP is a very rare inherited disease of the connective tissue, characterized by progressive heterotopic ossification of skeletal muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Trauma and invasive medical procedures can induce heterotopic ossification. Anesthetic concerns for FOP patients include particular attention to airway management and susceptibility to respiratory complications. Regarding the airway management in general anesthesia, excessive stretching of the jaw and extension of the head may lead to the ankylosis of the temporo-mandibular joint and the neck stiffness. Ankylosis of the costvertebral joints induces restrictive ventilatory impairment, which causes atelectasis and lung infection in the perioperative period. Relating to anestheticmanagement for a child with FOP, anesthesiologists should keep in mind the prevention of exacerbation of the symptoms and subsequent impairment of activities of daily living postoperatively. PMID:24063139
Introduction: Citrullinemia is a defect in the urea cycle that causes ammonia to accumulate in the blood. We describe the anestheticmanagement of a patient with citrullinemia, who experienced an unexpected 10 day hospital admission. Case Presentation: We anesthetized a 3.5 year-old boy with citrullinemia who was scheduled for a dentistry procedure. Perioperative precautions included minimizing fasting period, hypothermia prevention, relieving anxiety and pain, perioperative infusion of D10W and benzoate sodium, as well as a pediatric endocrinology consultation. The operation lasted 4 hours and its course was uneventful. He had a delayed recovery from anesthesia and was discharged from hospital after 10 days. Conclusions: General anesthesia and surgery can be a risk factor for exacerbating the course of the disease in patients with citrullinemia. It appears that administering short acting sedatives and analgesics in these patients would be of more benefit. Further studies are required to identify a safe method for anesthesia in citrullinemia. PMID:25289380
Anesthesia care for the pregnant and the parturient presenting with a neurological disease requires (1) expertise with neuroanesthesia and obstetric anesthesia care, (2) accurate physical examination of the neurological system preoperatively, (3) safe choice and conductance of the anesthesia technique (mostly regional anesthesia), (4) avoidance of unfavorable drug effects for the fetus and the nervous system of the mother, and (5) intraoperative neuromonitoring together with the control of the fetal heart rate. The most important message is that in the ideal case, any woman with a known, preexisting neurological disorder should discuss her plans to become pregnant with her physician before she becomes pregnant. Neurological diseases in pregnancy can be classified into three categories: (a) Pre-existent chronic neurological diseases such as epilepsy and multiple sclerosis (MS). (b) Diseases with onset predominantly in pregnancy such as some brain tumors or cerebrovascular events. (c) Pregnancy-induced conditions such as eclampsia and Hemolysis elevated liver enzymes and low platelets syndrome. This article addresses specific issues surrounding neurologic disease in pregnant women including MS parturient, spinal cord injury, parturient with increased intracranial pressure and shunts, parturient with brain tumors, Guillain-Barré syndrome and epilepsy.
The Montgomery silicone t-tube used for post-procedural tracheal stenosis has advantage of acting as both stent and tracheostomy tube. The anestheticmanagement of patient with t-tube in situ poses a challenge. Safe management of such patients requires careful planning. We describe anestheticmanagement for direct laryngoscopy of a patient with t-tube in situ. PMID:23493795
Resection of bilateral pheochromocytomas of a 33-year-old man with Sipple syndrome was scheduled. Oral prazosin was started twenty days before the operation and increased to a maintenance dose of 6 mg per day. Oral lavetalol 300 mg per day was added for five days before the operation because prazosin alone was insufficient. Intravascular volume was expanded with two units of stored whole blood per day for four days before the operation for preoperative preparation. Anesthesia was induced with thiamylal 250 mg and vecuronium bromide 9 mg, and maintained with enflurane, nitrous oxide and oxygen. Phentolamine, labetalol and nitroglycerin were used for treatment of hypertensive crises during operation and anesthesia. To combat hypotension which follows the resection of the tumor, continuous infusion of norepinephrine was used for four hours after the operation. There were no hypotensive periods and no complications. After removing bilateral pheochromocytomas of the adrenals, treatment of full adrenocortical replacement therapy was performed. Concurrent use of alpha-and beta-adrenergic blocking agents was important for successful anestheticmanagement for the resection of pheochromocytoma. PMID:1677051
Ishizaki, A; Kim, S; Shiratsuchi, T; Matsukawa, M; Uchiyama, M; Yamamoto, T
Objective: To develop evidence-based recommendations that optimize the safety and efficacy of perioperative anesthetic care and pain management in weight loss surgery (WLS) patients.Research Methods and Procedures: This Task Group examined the scientific literature on anesthetic perioperative care and pain management published in MEDLINE from January 1994 to March 2004. We also reviewed additional data from other sources (e.g., book
Roman Schumann; Stephanie B. Jones; Vilma E. Ortiz; Kathleen Connor; Istvan Pulai; Edwin T. Ozawa; Alan M. Harvey; Daniel B. Carr
Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a disease of unknown etiology which affects pregnant females during late pregnancy or during the first 5 months post-partum. The clinical presentation of these patients is similar to that of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Anestheticmanagement of such cases poses a challenge; due to the increased risk of various perioperative complications. We report the successful anestheticmanagement of lower segment caesarean section in a patient with PPCM.
Now-a-days truncus arteriosus has been known as “common arterial trunk” (CAT) and is an uncommon congenital cardiac defect presenting in about 1-3% congenital heart disease. Environmental and genetic factors effects on incidence of CAT and other conotruncal anomalies. The majority patients with CAT and 22q11 deletion have other anomalies such as hypoplasia or aplasia of the thymus or parathyroid glands and immune deficits (T-cell deficiency), calcium metabolism disorder (hypocalcemia), palatal defects, learning and speech disorder, craniofacial anomalies, and neuropsychological abnormalities. CAT without surgical treatment frequently involves early severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) or early death from heart failure and associated conditions. Therefore, without corrective surgical repair, most CAT patients die in the initial years of life. In numerous centers early surgical repair associated with superior than 80% long-standing survival. Anesthesiologist must be performs comprehensive preoperative evaluation of infants or neonates with this disorder. In CAT patient exactly hemodynamic monitoring and suitable techniques to regulate pulmonary vascular resistance and systemic vascular resistance and cardiac function are more important than the select of a special anesthetic drug. Therefore, anesthetic drugs should be carefully administrated and titrate and under monitoring. Management of CAT after surgical repair depends on the adequacy of treatment, cardiac function, level of PAH, and degree of bleeding. Inotropic support is frequently necessary after the cardiac ischemia associated to the surgical repair. Pulmonary vasodilator drugs were used to PAH treatment. PMID:25097611
Now-a-days truncus arteriosus has been known as "common arterial trunk" (CAT) and is an uncommon congenital cardiac defect presenting in about 1-3% congenital heart disease. Environmental and genetic factors effects on incidence of CAT and other conotruncal anomalies. The majority patients with CAT and 22q11 deletion have other anomalies such as hypoplasia or aplasia of the thymus or parathyroid glands and immune deficits (T-cell deficiency), calcium metabolism disorder (hypocalcemia), palatal defects, learning and speech disorder, craniofacial anomalies, and neuropsychological abnormalities. CAT without surgical treatment frequently involves early severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) or early death from heart failure and associated conditions. Therefore, without corrective surgical repair, most CAT patients die in the initial years of life. In numerous centers early surgical repair associated with superior than 80% long-standing survival. Anesthesiologist must be performs comprehensive preoperative evaluation of infants or neonates with this disorder. In CAT patient exactly hemodynamic monitoring and suitable techniques to regulate pulmonary vascular resistance and systemic vascular resistance and cardiac function are more important than the select of a special anesthetic drug. Therefore, anesthetic drugs should be carefully administrated and titrate and under monitoring. Management of CAT after surgical repair depends on the adequacy of treatment, cardiac function, level of PAH, and degree of bleeding. Inotropic support is frequently necessary after the cardiac ischemia associated to the surgical repair. Pulmonary vasodilator drugs were used to PAH treatment. PMID:25097611
Background and purpose To our knowledge, there is no evidence to support the use of local infiltration analgesia (LIA) for postoperative pain relief after periacetabular osteotomy (PAO). We investigated the effect of wound infiltration with a long-acting local anesthetic (ropivacaine) for postoperative analgesia after PAO. Patients and methods We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00815503) in 53 patients undergoing PAO to evaluate the effect of local anesthetic infiltration on postoperative pain and on postoperative opioid consumption. All subjects received intraoperative infiltration followed by 5 postoperative injections in 10-hour intervals through a multi-holed catheter placed at the surgical site. 26 patients received ropivacaine and 27 received saline. The intervention period was 2 days and the observational period was 4 days. All subjects received patient-controlled opioid analgesia without any restrictions on the total daily dose. Pain was assessed at specific postoperative time points and the daily opioid usage was registered. Results Infiltration with 75 mL (150 mg) of ropivacaine did not reduce postoperative pain or opioid requirements during the first 4 days. Interpretation The clinical importance of ropivacaine as single component in postoperative treatment of pain is questionable, and we are planning further studies to explore the potential of LIA in larger volume—and also a multimodal regimen—to treat pain in this category of patients. PMID:24650022
Anesthesia for non-cardiac surgeries in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy with other co-morbidities is a challenging situation for anesthetists. The choice of anesthesia and anesthetic agents should be judicious and balanced to maintain optimum cardiac output and to avoid myocardial depression for a successful postoperative outcome. Here, we describe the anestheticmanagement for emergency exploratory laparotomy in a patient who was suffering from ischemic cardiomyopathy along with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and was presented to the emergency operation theater for gastrointestinal tract perforation.
Carotid body tumor (CBT) is a rare tumor, which arises at bifurcation of carotid artery from chemoreceptor cells. These cells sense the partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide from the blood. Hence, carotid body plays an important role in the control of ventilation during hypoxia, hypercapnia, and acidosis. The tumor arising from these cells is benign and has tendency to turn out malignant. This tumor is found in persons who live at high altitudes. Removal of tumor poses several anesthetic challenges and perioperative morbidity or mortality. We report successful anestheticmanagement of CBT excision.
Karigar, Shivanand L.; Kunakeri, Sangamesh; Shetti, Akshaya N.
Spinal anesthesia for the cesarean delivery of triplets is associated with an increased incidence of maternal hy- potension and placental hypoperfusion. We performed a retrospective case series analysis between January 1992 and June 2000 to evaluate the effects of regional anesthetictechniques for cesarean delivery in triplet pregnancies on maternal and neonatal outcome. Spinal and epidural anesthesia were compared with
Teresa Marino; Leonidas C. Goudas; Valery Steinbok; Sabrina D. Craigo; Ralph W. Yarnell
Anesthesia for partial glossectomy in a premature child with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome presents as a unique challenge to the Anesthesiologist. Airway management in patients presenting with macroglossia is especially significant and requires meticulous preparation and pre-operative assessment. This report delineates the anesthetic concerns such as an anticipated difficult airway due to a large tongue, prematurity, hypoglycemia and an oral cavity surgery and their management.
The use of alternative medicine is prevalent worldwide. However, its effect on intraoperative anesthetic care is underreported. We report the anestheticmanagement of a patient who underwent an extensive head and neck cancer surgery and presented with a severe intraoperative metabolic alkalosis from the long term ingestion of baking soda and other herbal remedies. PMID:25180100
The use of alternative medicine is prevalent worldwide. However, its effect on intraoperative anesthetic care is underreported. We report the anestheticmanagement of a patient who underwent an extensive head and neck cancer surgery and presented with a severe intraoperative metabolic alkalosis from the long term ingestion of baking soda and other herbal remedies.
Background: The achievement of successful local anesthesia is a continual challenge in dentistry. Adjunctive local anesthetictechniques and their armamentaria, such as intraosseous injection (the Stabident system and the X-tip system) have been proposed to be advantageous in cases where the conventional local anesthetictechniques have failed. Aim: A clinical study was undertaken using intraosseous injection system by name X-tip to evaluate its effectiveness in cases where inferior alveolar nerve block has failed to provide pulpal anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Sixty adult patients selected were to undergo endodontic treatment for a mandibular molar tooth. Inferior alveolar nerve block was given using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Twenty-four patients (40%) had pain even after administration of IAN block; intraosseous injection was administered using 4% articaine containing 1:100,000 epinephrine, using the X-tip system. The success of X-tip intraosseous injection was defined as none or mild pain (Heft-Parker visual analog scale ratings ? 54 mm) on endodontic access or initial instrumentation. Results: Intraosseous injection technique was successful in 21 out of 24 patients (87.5%), except three patients who had pain even after supplemental X-tip injection. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, we can conclude that supplemental intraosseous injection using 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine has a statistically significant influence in achieving pulpal anesthesia in patients with irreversible pulpitis.
Eclampsia is one of the most common emergencies encountered by anesthesiologists which involve a safe journey of two lives. The definition, etiology, pathophysiology, treatment guidelines along with a special reference to management of labour pain and caesarean section are discussed. Eclampsia is commonly faced challenging case in our day to day anaesthesia practice,but less is discussed in our anaesthesia text books. Lot of controversies with regard to fluid management and monitoring still remain unanswered
Parthasarathy, S.; Kumar, V. R. Hemanth; Sripriya, R.; Ravishankar, M.
Anestheticmanagement for massive blood loss in liver surgery concomitant with hemodynamic instability secondary to carcinoid crisis can be challenging in the perioperative setting. Hypotension, diarrhea, facial flushing, bronchospasm, and tricuspid and pulmonic valvular diseases are the common manifestations of carcinoid syndrome. This report illustrates the importance of early recognition and treatment for signs and symptoms of carcinoid syndrome not only in the preoperative setting but also in the intraoperative phase to prevent undue cardiovascular collapse. PMID:25137869
Introduction: Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine-secreting tumor, which is seen rarely in children. These tumors predominantly secrete norepinephrine and epinephrine. They might be familial and associated with hereditary tumors such as Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type II. Case Presentation: The child might present with a spectrum of clinical manifestation including hypertension, headache, visual disturbances, and behavioral problems. A meticulous preoperative preparation is essential for a stable intraoperative and postoperative outcome Conclusions: We described successful perioperative management of a child who underwent bilateral laparoscopic cortical sparing adrenalectomy and a repeated surgery for the residual tumor removal. PMID:24790902
We managed an 87-year-old man with diaphragmatic relaxation under general anesthesia. He had dyspnea and severe constipation. The chest X-ray revealed that two thirds of the left chest cavity were compressed by the megacolon gas. The Spo2 before the operation was 93%. The colon gas was deflated before and after the induction of anesthesia. There was no significant improvement in the tidal volume and the arterial oxygen tension. The postoperative chest X-ray showed that the shift of the left diaphragm was improved. He was able to walk 100 meters and the severe constipation disappeared after the operation. PMID:24498779
Gorham-Stout disease is a rare disorder of bone loss and proliferation of lymphatic and vascular tissue (lymphangiomatosis). A 30-year-old nulliparous woman with Gorham-Stout disease presented at 8weeks of gestation with a fused cervical spine. At 31weeks she developed basilar invagination and neurological symptoms that were managed with a neck brace. Anesthetic considerations were those of airway compromise, development of severe preeclampsia and Kasabach-Merritt coagulopathy. Elective tracheostomy was declined. She presented two days before a planned cesarean delivery at 35weeks in preterm labor. A semi-urgent cesarean delivery under spinal anesthetic proceeded uneventfully, with an otolaryngologist present in case a surgical airway was required. Mother and baby were discharged home after three days. Maternal postpartum recovery was complicated by episodes of respiratory compromise and critical bone loss in the cervical spine, necessitating further surgical reinforcement. PMID:21111606
Gambling, D R; Catanzarite, V; Fisher, J; Harms, L
Malignant Hyperthermia is a pharmacogenetic disorder. Classical manifestations comprise of tachycardia, increase in expired carbon dioxide levels, muscle rigidity, hyperthermia (>38.8°C) and unexpected acidosis. Here we report a case of 16-year-old female patient, ASA-I with chronic rhino-sinusitis and slight strabismus of the left eye posted for functional endoscopic sinus surgery, developing a rise in ETCO2 and temperature immediately following anesthesia induction. She was aggressively managed to an uneventful recovery. We present a case of intra-operative post-induction hyperthermia possibly MH, its anesthetic implications, challenges encountered and its management.
Background: The most common technique to anesthetize mandibular primary teeth is inferior alveolar (I.A) nerve block injection which induces a relatively sustained anesthesia and in turn may potentially traumatize soft-tissues. Therefore, the need of having an alternative technique of anesthesia with a shorter term but the same efficacy is reasonable. The aim of this study was a comparison of the efficacy of two anesthetictechniques of mandibular primary first molar. Materials and Methods: In this randomized crossover clinical trial, 40 children with ages ranged from 5 years to 8 years whose mandibular primary first molars were eligible for pulpotomy, were selected and divided randomly into two groups. The right and left mandibular first molars of group A were anesthetized with infiltration and I. A nerve block techniques in the first and second sessions respectively. The left and right mandibular first molars of group B were anesthetized with I.A nerve block and infiltration techniques in the first and second sessions respectively. The severity of pain were measured and recorded according to sound-eye-motor scale by a certain person. Data was analyzed using Wilcoxon Signed Rank and Mann-Whitney U tests (P > 0.05). Results: The severity of pain was lower in infiltration technique versus I.A nerve block. There were no significant differences between the severities of pain on pulpal exposure of two techniques. Conclusion: It seems that infiltration technique is more favorable to anesthetize the mandibular primary first molar compared to I.A nerve block. PMID:24348619
Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) is a rare disease characterized by a classic triad comprising a short neck, a low posterior hairline, and restricted motion of the neck due to fused cervical vertebrae. We report repeated anestheticmanagement for orthognathic surgeries for a KFS patient with micrognathia. Because KFS can be associated with a number of other anomalies, we therefore performed a careful preoperative evaluation to exclude them. The patient had an extremely small mandible, significant retrognathia, and severe limitation of cervical mobility due to cervical vertebral fusion. As difficult intubation was predicted, awake nasal endotracheal intubation with a fiberoptic bronchoscope was our first choice for gaining control of the patient's airway. Moreover, the possibility of respiratory distress due to postoperative laryngeal edema was considered because of the surgeries on the mandible. In the operating room, tracheotomy equipment was always kept ready if a perioperative surgical airway control was required. Three orthognathic surgeries and their associated anesthetics were completed without a fatal outcome, although once the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit for precautionary postoperative airway management and observation. Careful preoperative examination and preparation for difficult airway management are important for KFS patients with micrognathia. PMID:25191983
The paper summarizes a 5-year experience of evaluating the safety of anestheticmanagement of patients with thermal lesions treated at the department of thermal lesions of Vishnevsky's Institute of Surgery, Russia's Academy of Medical Sciences. Regular internal auditings, based on the principles of registering the critical incidents, the course of 1473 general anesthesia managements was analyzed in 168 patients. The conclusion is that the introduction of protocols of anestheticmanagement as well as a regular monitoring over meeting the fixed targets cut the total frequency of critical incidents from 2.85 to 1.19 as estimated per one general anesthesia. Finally the authors suggest a concept whose essence in that the operation of the modern anesthesiology department must be based on a scientifically substantiated technology of anestheticmanagement. PMID:15314867
Hydatidosis is a parasitic infection caused by the encysted larvae of Echinococcus granulosus, commonly called as hydatid cyst. Almost all organs can be involved, but most commonly it affects liver (55%–70%) followed by the lungs (18%–35%). The surgery and anestheticmanagement become very challenging if these cysts are in or near the vicinity of vital organs, such as heart. Pulmonary hydatid cysts may rupture into the bronchial tree or pleural cavity and produce cough, chest pain, or hemoptysis and there are chances of injury to heart if the cyst is in close proximity to it. We are describing the successful management of such a case of pulmonary and hepatic hydatid cyst in a young female patient.
A 14-month-old baby weighing 4300 g was a giant infant with macroglossia. Exomphalos was not present, but diastasis recti abdominis was observed. The patient was therefore diagnosed as having Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (EMG syndrome). Other characteristic signs such as neonatal hypoglycemia, hemihypertrophy, and a small ventricular septal defect were also recognized, but nephromegaly or hepatomegaly was not present. Tongue reduction by wedge resection was performed under general anesthesia. Some of the problems associated with anestheticmanagement in this syndrome are hypoglycemia, airway obstruction and cardiovascular status. After induction with increasing concentration of halothane (0.5-4.0%) and 66% nitrous oxide in oxygen, a nasotracheal tube was inserted. Endotracheal intubation was easy without using a neuromuscular blocking agent. Anesthetic maintenance was accomplished with nitrous oxide 66% in oxygen and halothane 0.5-1.0% and no neuromuscular blocking agent was used. The plasma glucose level was kept within normal ranges during and after the operation by infusion of acetate Ringer's solution with 5% glucose. The postoperative progress was uneventful. PMID:1608168
Kato, T; Ochiai, Y; Naganawa, Y; Maki, I; Ozawa, Y; Ohnishi, M; Hata, T
We gave anesthesia for tracheal separation in a patient with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The patient, a 33-year-old woman, was bedridden and unable to communicate, and was going to undergo a tracheal separation procedure for repeated bouts of aspiration pneumonia. After a tracheostomy with local anesthesia and sedation with propofol, general anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol (1.5-3.0 microg x ml(-1), target controlled infusion) and remifentanil (0.05-0.15 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)). We did not use an anesthetic apparatus from the standpoint of infection control, and provided manual ventilation with a disposable Jackson-Rees circuit. During the operation, an entropy monitor indicated alternating extremely low (0-10) and high (90-100) values without circulatory change, probably due to a previously existing electroencephalographic abnormality. The surgery was uneventful, and spontaneous breathing and eyelid opening occurred about 10 minutes after discontinuation of remifentanil and propofol. In such infected patients, abnormal prion proteins can exist outside of the central nervous system throughout the period of anestheticmanagement. Therefore, careful infection control must be undertaken, even if the surgical site is not directly related to the central nervous system. PMID:23157092
Although transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is an effective way of providing analgesia in post-operative abdominal surgery patients; however, it can be considered as an anesthetictechnique in high-risk cases for surgery. We report a case of a geriatric female with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the respiratory failure, hypotension, posted in an emergency with old perforation leading to peritonitis. The surgery was successfully conducted under bilateral TAP block, which was used as a sole anesthetictechnique. TAP block can be considered as an anesthetictechnique for abdominal surgery in moribund patients. PMID:24249994
We report a case of a female having systemic lupus erythematosus, who was on steroid therapy and was scheduled for vaginal hysterectomy. She presented with breathlessness on mild exertion, a characteristic facial malar rash, and a platelet count 56,000 cells/cu mm. The patient was given a subarachnoid block with 2.8 ml 0.5% bupivacaine heavy in L3–L4 intervertebral space. Inj. Hydrocortisone 25 mg was given I.V. intraoperatively and repeated every 6 hours for 24 hours. Anestheticmanagement included considerations of systemic organ involvement, thrombocytopenia, and perioperative steroid replacement. Spinal block can be given with platelet count > 50,000/cumm. Strict asepsis should be maintained for invasive procedures. Maintenance of normothermia decreases the impact of Raynaud's phenomenon.
The objective of the Audio Signal Management technical program was to design and develop an Exploratory Development Model Audio Signal Management System (ASMS). This system is to be used to test and evaluate present and future voice data entry algorithms, processing techniques, and hardware modules. The ASMS consists of internal functions implemented on the RADC PDP 11/70 computer, external functions implemented in stand-alone hardware devices, an Audio Distribution Network (ADN) for shaping and routing audio signals, and an ADP Data entry communication interface/keyboard translator with HP 2645A terminal for function control and transcription.
Tail biopsy in mice is a common procedure in genetically modified mouse colonies. We evaluated the anesthetic and analgesic effects of various agents commonly used to mitigate pain after tail biopsy. We used a hot-water immersion assay to evaluate the analgesic effects of isoflurane, ice-cold ethanol, ethyl chloride, buprenorphine, and 2-point local nerve blocks before studying their effects on mice receiving tail biopsies. Mice treated with ethyl chloride spray, isoflurane and buprenorphine, and 2-point local nerve blocks demonstrated increased tail-flick latency compared with that of untreated mice. When we evaluated the behavior of adult and preweanling mice after tail biopsy, untreated mice demonstrated behavioral changes immediately after tail biopsy that lasted 30 to 60 min before returning to normal. The use of isoflurane, isoflurane and buprenorphine, buprenorphine, 2-point nerve block, or ethyl chloride spray in adult mice did not significantly improve their behavioral response to tail biopsy. Similarly, the use of buprenorphine and ethyl chloride spray in preweanling mice did not improve their behavioral response to tail biopsy compared with that of the untreated group. However, immersion in bupivacaine for 30 s after tail biopsy decreased tail grooming behavior during the first 30 min after tail biopsy. The anesthetic and analgesic regimens tested provide little benefit in adult and preweanling mice. Given that tail biopsy results in pain that lasts 30 to 60 min, investigators should carefully consider the appropriate anesthetic or analgesic regimen to incorporate into tail-biopsy procedures for mice. PMID:23294888
Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm is a rare cardiac abnormality rupture the right sinus and if ruptured open into the right ventricle or atrium. Usually silent, may cause significant hemodynamic changes. Few cases of ruptured Valsalva sinus aneurysm have been reported in the literature, and the course of this condition during pregnancy and anestheticmanagement have scarcely been mentioned. We report the case of a primipara with a Valsalva sinus aneurysm that ruptured into the right ventricle. Cardiac function worsened as pregnancy progressed. A cesarean section under spinal anesthesia was scheduled. PMID:20422851
A 32-year-old Indian female 38 weeks pregnant, with a history of multiple sclerosis since 2008 was admitted in obstetric ward for safe confinement. She had a history of diminution of vision in both eyes and limb weakness, relapsing - remitting type with movement-induced muscle spasms, in all the four limbs. Her symptoms were usually diplopia, difficulty in vision and ataxic gait. Sh was then treated with methylprednisolone. She was on oral dimethyl fumarate trial, which was stopped at the beginning of pregnancy. Presently, she was completely asymptomatic. Epidural anesthesia with an indwelling catheter was administered with 15 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine in 5 ml increments. A total of 3 mg of epidural morphine was given for post-operative analgesia. The surgery evolved without any intercurrences and patient was discharged from the hospital 72 h after surgery without worsening of her symptoms. We report a safe anestheticmanagement of a patient with MS undergoing cesarean section with low dose epidural bupivacaine with the addition of morphine for post-operative analgesia. PMID:25191198
A 60-year-old woman declared brain dead was scheduled for organ donation. We continuously measured total hemoglobin values (SpHb) using a Radical-7 monitor (Masimo Co, Irvine, CA, USA) to maintain the functions of organs and oxygen delivery. At the start of surgery, the SpHb value was 9.3 g x dl(-1). Packed red blood cells were transfused immediately No anesthetics or opioids were used during the operation. Blood pressure suddenly decreased to below 80 mmHg because of bleeding, manipulation of organs, and/or compression of the vena cava. Six units of red blood cells and 900 ml of colloids were rapidly transfused with real-time monitoring of SpHb values. On cross-clamping of the aorta, the SpHb value increased up to 10.2 g x dl(-1). The heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, and kidneys were donated from the patient without organ dysfunction. The highlight of this case report is that anesthesiologists could use SpHb monitoring for management of hemodynamics in a brain-dead organ donor. PMID:23814996
As the number and success of renal transplantation has grown, there has been an increase in the number of renal transplant patients giving birth. To date, there has been no data on obstetric anesthesia management of these patients. The purpose of this study was to build an Israeli national database on parturients after renal transplant. A sixteen-year (calendar years 1996-2011) retrospective study was conducted at three major tertiary centers with a combined current birth rate of approximately 25,000 deliveries annually. We found 83 labors in 64 women. Forty-two percent of this population suffered from hypertension while 12.5% had diabetes. Forty-seven percent of women had a vaginal delivery while 53% of women had a cesarean section. The rate of epidural analgesia for labor was 59%, and rate of regional anesthesia during cesarean section was 75%. There were no anesthetic complications in any cases. Standard ASA monitoring was used in all cases except for one woman with severe hypertension who required an arterial line during her cesarean section. Forty-seven percent of newborn were under 37 weeks with average gestational week 36?±?3 days and birth weight 2.5?±?0.7?kg. Average Apgar was 8.4?±?1.3 at one minute and 9.3?±?0.7 at five minutes. There was one neonatal death in the CS group due to placental abruption. Patients after renal transplant can safely undergo birth and obstetric analgesia. PMID:23799895
Ioscovich, A; Orbach-Zinger, S; Zemzov, D; Reuveni, A; Eidelman, L A; Ginosar, Y
Forty-eight male and 48 female 6- to 14-week-old kittens were neutered by use of 4 anesthetic protocols. Preanesthetic disposition, depth of sedation, loss of resistance to handling, induction quality, induction time, sternal and stand times, and recovery quality were evaluated. Analgesia and muscle relaxation without supplemental inhalational anesthetics were evaluated in male kittens, and the time until extubation was recorded in female kittens. Intramuscular administration of tiletamine/zolazepam (TZ), midazolam/ketamine, atropine/midazolam/ketamine/butorphanol (AMKB), and atropine/midazolam/ketamine/oxymorphone (AMKO) produced rapid sedation and smooth induction into anesthesia. In male kittens, there were no significant differences in sedation, relaxation, induction time, or quality. Tiletamine/zolazepam administration induced the best analgesia, and midazolam/ketamine administration induced the least analgesia for castration. The recovery time in male kittens was longest with TZ and shortest with the opioid groups (AMKB, AMKO). In females, TZ produced significantly faster induction times, but the degree of sedation and relaxation after administration of injectable agents was not significantly different among the groups. More females given TZ could be intubated without supplemental inhalational agents than females in other groups. Extubation time was rapid in all groups, but the times until sternal and standing were significantly longer, and recovery quality was significantly poorer in females given TZ. In kittens given opioids, reversal of the opioid did not shorten recovery time or improve recovery quality.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8420907
Background and Aims: Scars are common and cause functional problems and psychological morbidity. Recent advances in optical technologies have produced various laser systems capable of revising the appearance of scars from various etiologies to optimize their appearance. Methods: Laser treatment can commence as early as the time of the initial injury and as late as several years after the injury. Several optical technologies are currently available and combined laser/light treatments are required for treatment of scars. Since 2006, we have set up a scar management department in our clinic and more than 2000 patients have been treated by our combined laser irradiation techniques. Herein, we review several available light technologies for treatment of surgical, traumatic, and inflammatory scars, and discuss our combined laser treatment of scars, based upon our clinical experience. Results and Conclusions: Because scars have a variety of potential aetiologies and take a number of forms, no single approach can consistenty provide good scar treatment and management. The combination of laser and devices is essential, the choice of wavelength and approach being dictated by each patient as an individual. PMID:24511202
Local anesthetics are used broadly to prevent or reverse acute pain and treat symptoms of chronic pain. This chapter, on the\\u000a analgesic aspects of local anesthetics, reviews their broad actions that affect many different molecular targets and disrupt\\u000a their functions in pain processing. Application of local anesthetics to peripheral nerve primarily results in the blockade\\u000a of propagating action potentials, through
Agent-specific vaporizers minimize opportunities for error and evidence our specialty's commitment to patient safety as a general principle. End-tidal anesthetic gas concentration monitoring is a useful adjunct whenever inhaled anesthetics are used in operating rooms. Due to their expense and required maintenance, end-tidal anesthetic gas monitors are not commonly used in developing nations. Unfortunately, in resource-constrained environments, situations may arise in which inhaled anesthetic agent-vaporizer mismatch may be necessary in the absence of end-tidal anesthetic gas monitoring. Rather than merely censure such practice as a threat to safety, we believe that certain anesthetic agent-vaporizer mismatch situations can be safely managed providing patients with predictable inspired anesthetic gas concentrations while minimizing errors. We present an approach based on mathematical models and tested in an artificial lung model. Mismatching of inhaled agent and vaporizer is a dangerous practice and should not be performed unless it is absolutely necessary. Such situations may arise in remote locations where neither end-tidal anesthetic gas monitoring nor vaporizer-specific agent is available. We hope our article provides guidance in such situations. PMID:23558837
Adler, Adam C; Connelly, Neil Roy; Ankam, Abistanand; Raghunathan, Karthik
The purpose of this paper is to describe a scheduling technique which was used in the repair of an aircraft carrier. The paper presents the scheduling technique employed; how it was developed; its simplicity of design; its visibility, and its utilization....
Sleep cine magnetic resonance imaging and drug-induced sleep endoscopy are currently used to examine the patterns of dynamic airway collapse in children with obstructive sleep apnea. Providing anesthesia that mimics physiologic sleep in these children is a challenge but is critical for accurate interpretation of the airway evaluation. Anesthetic agents might negatively affect the upper airway evaluation. The anesthetictechnique in these patients must be tailored to improve patient safety and obtain optimal study. This review focuses on the periprocedural challenges and anestheticmanagement of children presenting for dynamic evaluation of the upper airway. PMID:25172630
Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is an evolving field of minimally invasive surgery. NOTES reaches the target organ by inserting the endoscope through a natural orifice (e.g. mouth, anus, urethra, vagina) and offers advantages of less postoperative pain and lower complication rate. Since its first description in 2004, NOTES has progressed from use on animal models to humans. We experienced anesthetic care of two patients who underwent transoral NOTES under general anesthesia. PMID:25237454
Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is an evolving field of minimally invasive surgery. NOTES reaches the target organ by inserting the endoscope through a natural orifice (e.g. mouth, anus, urethra, vagina) and offers advantages of less postoperative pain and lower complication rate. Since its first description in 2004, NOTES has progressed from use on animal models to humans. We experienced anesthetic care of two patients who underwent transoral NOTES under general anesthesia. PMID:25237454
Lee, Ji Hyeon; Chung, Chan Jong; Lee, Seung Cheo; Shin, Ho Jin
Anestheticmanagement of pediatric liver transplantation in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) requires tough decisions and comprehensive considerations of the cascade of effects that may arise and the required monitoring. Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol and remifentanil was chosen as the main anesthetic strategy. Malignant hyperthermia (MH), skeletal fragility, anhepatic phase during liver transplantation, uncertainties of TIVA in children, and propofol infusion syndrome were considered and monitored. There were no adverse events during the operation. Despite meticulous precautions with regard to the risk of MH, there was an episode of high fever (40?) in the ICU a few hours after the operation, which was initially feared as MH. Fortunately, MH was ruled out as the fever subsided soon after hydration and antipyretics were given. Although the delivery of supportive care and the administration of dantrolene are the core principles in the management of MH, perioperative fever does not always mean a MH in patients at risk for MH, and other common causes of fever should also be considered. PMID:25006373
The purpose of this prospective, randomized, blinded study was to compare injection pain and postoperative pain of an apical primary X-Tip intraosseous technique to a coronal primary Stabident intraosseous technique in mandibular first molars. Using a repeated-measures design, 41 subjects randomly received 2 primary intraosseous injections at 2 separate appointments. Using a site distal to the mandibular first molar for both injections, the subjects received 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1: 100,000 epinephrine administered with the X-Tip system using an apical location in alveolar mucosa or 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1: 100,000 epinephrine administered with the Stabident system using a coronal location in attached gingiva. The pain of infiltration, perforation, needle insertion, solution deposition, mock or actual guide sleeve removal and postoperative pain were recorded on a Heft-Parker visual analogue scale (VAS) scale for the 2 intraosseous systems. The results demonstrated that the apical primary X-Tip intraosseous technique was not statistically different (P > .05) from the coronal primary Stabident technique regarding pain ratings of infiltration, perforation, needle insertion, solution deposition, mock or actual guide sleeve removal and postoperative pain (at the time subjective anesthesia wore off). However, on postoperative days 1 through 3, significantly (P < .05) more males experienced postoperative pain with the X-Tip system than with the Stabident system. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:14558586
Gallatin, Juliane; Nusstein, John; Reader, Al; Beck, Mike; Weaver, Joel
Despite advances in various modalities of management, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) continues to be associated with high mortality, which is further increased by associated comorbidities. Aortic stenosis (AS) is one such disease which can further complicate the course of SAH. We recently managed a known patient of severe AS, who presented with aneurysmal SAH. Patient was planned for eurovascular intervention. With proper assessment and planning, patient was managed with favorable outcome despite the restrictions faced in the neurovascular intervention laboratory. PMID:23878455
A 60 years old chinese male scheduled for a removal of an intracardiac mass occupying majority of right ventricular space, right ventricular outflow tract and pulmonary artery. The giant cardiac mass was later diagnosed pathologically as metastatic liposarcoma. The patient had a history of surgical removal of myxoid liposarcoma from his left thigh many years ago. It is extremely rare for liposarcoma to metastatize to right ventricle and pulmonary artery. The anestheticmanagement of the surgical procedure to remove this kind of intracardiac mass poses significant challenges to anesthesia providers. Our patient developed refractory hypotension after induction of general anesthesia which necessitated urgent cardiopulmonary bypass. The surgical procedure was successful and the patient recovered from the surgery and was discharged home without significant complication. Accurate preoperative diagnosis and assessment of patient’s functional status, appropriate preoperative volume status, emergency cardiopulmonary bypass readiness, smooth and gentle induction of general anesthesia with less myocardial depressing agent, and closely monitoring patient’s vitals and hemodynamic parameters are imperative in managing this kind of patients. PMID:24655329
Meckel-Gruber syndrome, characterized by occipital encephalocele, microcephaly, polydactyly, cleft lip or palate, mandibular micrognathism, and anatomical abnormality of the larynx and tongue, along with other associated malformations, is in the list of diseases associated with difficult airway. However, there has been no report on the management of general anesthesia and airway management for such patients. A 2-year-old girl with Meckel-Gruber
Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare entity, and anestheticmanagement for cesarean section of a patient with this condition can be challenging. We hereby present the anestheticmanagement of a patient with PPCM complicated with preeclampsia scheduled for cesarean section, along with a mini review of literature. A 24 year-old primigravida with twin gestation was admitted to our hospital with severe PPCM and preeclampsia for peripartum care, which finally required a cesarean section. Preoperative optimization was done according to the goal of managing left ventricular failure. Combined spinal epidural (CSE) anaesthesia with bupivacaine and sufentanil was used for cesarean section under optimal monitoring. The surgery was completed without event or complication. Postoperative pain relief was adequate and patient required only one epidural top up with sufentanil 6 hours after operation. To the best of our knowledge there is no report in literature of the use of sufentanil as a neuraxial opioid in the anestheticmanagement of cesarean section in a patient with PPCM. CSE with sufentanil may be a safer and more effective alternative in such cases. PMID:21155028
The presence of co-morbidities during pregnancy can pose numerous challenges to the attending anesthesiologists during operative deliveries or during the provision of labor analgesia services. The presence of cardiac diseases, endocrinological disorders, respiratory diseases, renal pathologies, hepatic dysfunction, anemia, neurological and musculoskeletal disorders, connective tissue diseases and many others not only influence the obstetric outcome, but can significantly impact the anesthetictechnique. The choice of anesthesia during the pregnancy depends upon the type of surgery, the period of gestation, the site of surgery, general condition of patient and so on. Whatever, the anesthetictechnique is chosen the methodology should be based on evidentially supported literature and the clinical judgment of the attending anesthesiologist. The list of co-morbid diseases is unending. However, the present review describes the common co-morbidities encountered during pregnancy and their anestheticmanagement during operative deliveries.
We report two cases for anestheticmanagement of gastrectomy for gastric cancer which took place after receiving coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using the right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA). The first patient was a 75-year-old man after CABG using the RGEA 14 years before. He was diagnosed with gastric cancer and was scheduled for total gastrectomy. Preoperative coronary angiography (CAG) showed complete occlusion of the right coronary artery (RCA), whereas RGEA was patent. Because percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was hard to perform on the occluded RCA, proximal gastrectomy was carried out without lymph node dissection. The surgeons judged the surgery enough for radical treatment. Surgery was accomplished without any problems. The second patient was a 76-year-old man after CABG using the RGEA 15 years before. He was diagnosed with advanced gastric cancer and was scheduled for distal gastrectomy. Preoperative CAG showed the RCA partially occluded and the RGEA remaining patent. He received the scheduled surgery after confirmation of the success of PCI, performed preoperatively for reperfusion of the occluded segments. Although the RGEA was incised during the surgery, gastrectomy was accomplished without any problems in the cardiac function. PMID:20662297
Acute renal failure is not common in pregnancy. However, the incidence rises when pregnancy is complicated with Hemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes, Low Platelets (HELLP) syndrome, which itself is a rare occurrence. We had an unusual case of HELLP syndrome in twin pregnancy with deranged renal profile for emergency cesarean section. We report the case, its anestheticmanagement for emergency cesarean section, and perioperative supportive treatment for acute renal failure.
Ghodki, Poonam S.; Singh, Noopur D.; Patil, Kalyani N.
Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is an electrophysiological disorder of heart. Patients with such disorder may be asymptomatic or present with cardiac symptoms like palpitation and dyspnea. These patients may present with serious cardiac complication like atrial fibrillation and PSVT intraoperatively. We report a case of a 30-year-old female with WPW syndrome posted for laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia. We took all the precautions necessary to avoid tachycardia and arranged drugs necessary to treat any complications together with stringent monitoring which is very important for favorable outcome in these patients. Management of the case offers an opportunity to relearn the important considerations on WPW syndrome.
The congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a heritable arrhythmia in which mutations in genes coding for ion channels or ion channel associated proteins delay ventricular repolarization and place mutation carriers at risk for serious or fatal arrhythmias. Triggers and therapeutic management of LQTS arrhythmias have been shown to differ in a manner that depends strikingly on the gene that is mutated. Additionally, beta-blockers, effective in the management of LQT-1, have been thought to be potentially proarrhythmic in the treatment of LQT-3 because of concomitant slowing of heart rate that accompanies decreased adrenergic activity. Here we report that the beta-blocker propranolol interacts with wild type (WT) and LQT-3 mutant Na(+) channels in a manner that resembles the actions of local anesthetic drugs. We demonstrate that propranolol blocks Na(+) channels in a use-dependent manner; that propranolol efficacy is dependent on the inactivated state of the channel; that propranolol blocks late non-inactivating current more effectively than peak sodium current; and that mutation of the local anesthetic binding site greatly reduces the efficacy of propranolol block of peak and late Na(+) channel current. Furthermore our results indicate that this activity, like that of local anesthetic drugs, differs both with drug structure and the biophysical changes in Na(+) channel function caused by specific LQT-3 mutations. PMID:19481549
The congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a heritable arrhythmia in which mutations in genes coding for ion channels or ion channel associated proteins delay ventricular repolarization and place mutation carriers at risk for serious or fatal arrhythmias. Triggers and therapeutic management of LQTS arrhythmias have been shown to differ in a manner that depends strikingly on the gene that is mutated. Additionally, beta-blockers, effective in the management of LQT-1, have been thought to be potentially proarrhythmic in the treatment of LQT-3 because of concomitant slowing of heart rate that accompanies decreased adrenergic activity. Here we report that the beta-blocker propranolol interacts with wild type (WT) and LQT-3 mutant Na+ channels in a manner that resembles the actions of local anesthetic drugs. We demonstrate that propranolol blocks Na+ channels in a use-dependent manner; that propranolol efficacy is dependent on the inactivated state of the channel; that propranolol blocks late non-inactivating current more effectively than peak sodium current; and that mutation of the local anesthetic binding site greatly reduces the efficacy of propranolol block of peak and late Na+ channel current. Furthermore our results indicate that this activity, like that of local anesthetic drugs, differs both with drug structure and the biophysical changes in Na+ channel function caused by specific LQT-3 mutations. PMID:19481549
Maternal connective tissue disorders such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (most common), Sjogren's syndrome, mixed connective tissue disorders may lead to the rare condition of complete congenital heart block in the neonate. Rare fetal syndromes such as myocarditis, 18p syndrome, mucopolysaccharidoses and mitochondrial diseases are other causes. The mortality rate of this condition is inversely propotional to the age of presentation being 6 % in the neonatal age group. As the cardiac output in the neonate is heart rate dependent, it is crucial to maintain the heart rate in these patients. Pharamacological interventions with dopamine, isoprenaline, epinephrine and atropine are known for their variable response. Although permanent pacing is the most reliable mode of management, the access to it is often not readily available, especially in the developing countries. In such cases temporary pacing methods become lifesaving. Of all the modalities of temporary pacing (transcutaneous, transesophageal and transvenous) transcutaneous pacing is the most readily available and immediate mode. In this case report we present a two day old neonate with isolated complete congenital heart block and a resting heart rate of 50-55/min in immediate need of palliative surgery for trachea-esophageal fistula (TEF). With pharmacological intervention the heart rate could only be raised to 75-80/min. The surgery was successfully carried out using transcutaneous pacing to maintain a heart rate of 100/min. PMID:24665257
Khanna, Puneet; Arora, Shubhangi; Aravindan, Ajisha; Prasad, Ganga
Patients with a history of adverse reactions to a local anesthetic may often be incorrectly labeled as “allergic.” Determining if a patient is allergic to a local anesthetic is essential in the selection of appropriate pain control techniques. Local anesthetic allergy testing may be performed safely and with reasonable accuracy by a knowledgeable practitioner. This paper presents guidelines for an allergy testing method. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:3318567
Background It has been known that positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) increases the vasoconstriction threshold by baroreceptor unloading. We compared the effect on the thermoregulatory responses according to anesthetictechniques between an inhalation anesthesia with desflurane and a total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with propofol and reminfentanil when PEEP was applied in patients undergoing tympanoplasty. Methods Forty-six patients with a scheduled tympanoplasty were enrolled and the patients were divided in two study groups. Desflurane was used as an inhalation anesthetic in group 1 (n = 22), while TIVA with propofol and remifentanil was used in group 2 (n = 24). PEEP was applied by 5 cmH2O in both groups and an ambient temperature was maintained at 22-24? during surgery. The core temperature and the difference of skin temperature between forearm and fingertip were monitored for about 180 minutes before and after the induction of general anesthesia. Results The final core temperature was significantly higher in group 2 (35.4 ± 0.7?) than in group 1 (34.9 ± 0.5?). Peripheral thermoregulatory vasoconstriction was found in 5 subjects (23%) in group 1 and in 21 subjects (88%) in group 2. The time taken for reaching the thermoregulatory vasoconstriction threshold was 151.4 ± 19.7 minutes in group 1 and 88.9 ± 14.4 minutes in group 2. Conclusions When PEEP will be applied, anesthesia with TIVA may have more advantages in core temperature preservation than an inhalation anesthesia with desflurane. PMID:25097736
Jung, Ki Tae; Kim, Sang Hun; Lee, Hyun Young; Jung, Jong Dal; Yu, Byung Sik; Lim, Kyung Joon; So, Keum Young; Lee, Ju Young
The exact mechanism by which anesthetics induce cell membrane-mediated modifications is still an open question. Although the fluidization effect of the anesthetic molecules on the cellular membrane is widely recognized, it is not known if anesthetics show any preference for specific membrane domains, namely the lipid rafts. The importance of these membrane micro-domains derives from the fact that they have been associated with cell signaling pathways, as well as with specific drug interactions. The objective of this work is to contribute for the elucidation of this question through the comparison of the anesthetic interactions with membranes of various lipid compositions. Liposomes prepared with an equimolar mixture of POPC, sphingomyelin and cholesterol, were chosen as models for lipid rafts. The interactions of these liposomes with two local anesthetics, tetracaine and lidocaine, and one general anesthetic, propofol, were studied. The effect of cholesterol was investigated by comparing anesthetic interactions with POPC/SM liposomes and POPC/SM/CHOL liposomes. The following experimental techniques were used: quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, differential scanning calorimetry and phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance. Although the liposomes investigated by the different techniques are not in the same conditions, it is possible to assemble the information obtained from all experimental techniques employed to reach a general conclusion. Tetracaine interacts more with raftlike domains, lidocaine induces stronger modifications on POPC/SM liposomes and the results for propofol are not fully conclusive but it seems to be the least prone to lipid interactions. The results were compared with those obtained with DMPC-containing liposomes, reported in a previous work. PMID:23142844
Some techniques for managing the classroom and teaching programing that have worked well are described. Hardware placement and use, classroom management, instructional recommendations, and programing ideas are each discussed. (MNS)
Tracheobronchial injury (TBI) may lead to catastrophe if remains undetected or managed improperly. The incidence of TBI is less in children as compared with adults due to their pliable chest wall. Its clinical manifestations include persistent pneumothorax, cervical subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, cyanosis, and respiratory insufficiency. The recommended airway management is to intubate the healthy bronchus with a single-lumen or double-lumen endotracheal tube (ET) and bypassing the injured side. We report successful anestheticmanagement of traumatic rupture of the left main bronchus in a child by using a single-lumen cuffed-ET. Many factors affect the outcome of such injuries and include the extent of the lesion, the resulting pulmonary status, the adequacy of surgical reconstruction. More severe injury may require lobectomy or pneumonectomy. Early diagnosis and proper management result in good functional outcome. PMID:25281627
Pediatric hypertensive crisis is a potentially life threatening medical emergency, usually secondary to an underlying disease. Hypertension commonly occurs during general anesthesia, and is usually promptly and appropriately treated by anesthesiologists. However in children with severe, unexplained, or refractory hypertension, it has the potential to cause morbidity and even mortality in susceptible patients. We report an anestheticmanagement of an unexpected hypertensive crisis that developed during general anesthesia in a three-year-old girl with undiagnosed severe left renal artery stenosis. PMID:25368787
Park, Sang-hee; Min, Too Jae; Kim, Woon Young; Kim, Jae Hwan; Park, Young Cheol
Interventional neuroradiology (INR) has been a rapidly expanding and advancing clinical area during the past few decades. As the complexity and diversity of INR procedures increases, the demand for anesthesia also increases. Anesthesia for interventional neuroradiology is a challenge for the anesthesiologist due to the unfamiliar working environment which the anesthesiologist must consider, as well as the unique neuro-interventional components. This review provides an overview of the anesthetic options and specific consideration of the anesthesia requirements for each procedure. We also introduce the anestheticmanagement for interventional neuroradiology performed in our medical institution.
Joung, Kyung Woon; Yang, Ku Hyun; Shin, Won Jung; Song, Myung Hee; Ham, Kyungdon; Jung, Seung Chul; Lee, Deok Hee
: This study aims to describe a new technique for the management of auricular hematoma using fibrin glue. Five difficult cases of auricular hematoma were managed using this technique, including 2 recurrent and 3 delayed presentations. After skin preparation and local anesthetic, an incision was made, the hematoma was evacuated, and the cavity was washed out with saline. Fibrin glue was applied liberally; a dental roll pressure dressing was applied and secured with a prolene bead suture. The patients were given a course of oral antibiotic and reviewed after 5 days for removal of the external dressing. They were later assessed to exclude re-accumulation of the hematoma. All patients had complete resolution of the hematoma without re-accumulation; they were satisfied with the cosmetic results and experienced no complications. This case series provides evidence that fibrin glue is effective in the management of auricular hematoma. Larger studies may provide further evidence of the effectiveness of this new technique. PMID:24699189
CUMULATIVE SUM TECHNIQUES IN ATM TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT R. A. Vesilo School of MPCE, Macquarie University, NSW 2109 AUSTRALIA Abstract Effective ATM traffic management reÂ quires knowledge of when traffic parameter estimaÂ tion and serial correlation. 1 Introduction ATM traffic management involves monitoring
Applying Knowledge Managementtechniques for building corporate memories Ian Watson AI-CBR Computer-based reasoning and knowledge management... www.ai-cbr.org ...coincidentally I've just written a book about this... ...plug the book!!! www.ai-cbr.org Outline Â· Talk about Â Knowledge Â Knowledge management Â Why CBR
Report is reviewed which discusses history and trends of systems management, its basic principles, and nature of problems that lend themselves to systems approach. Report discusses systems engineering as applied to weapons acquisition, ecology, patient monitoring, and retail merchandise operations.
For several decades, anesthetic gases have greatly enhanced the comfort and outcome for patients during surgery. The benefits of these agents have heavily outweighed the risks. In recent years, the attention towards their overall contribution to global climate change and the environment has increased. Anesthesia providers have a responsibility to minimize unnecessary atmospheric pollution by utilizing techniques that can lessen any adverse effects of these gases on the environment. Moreover, health care facilities that use anesthetic gases are accountable for ensuring that all anesthesia equipment, including the scavenging system, is effective and routinely maintained. Implementing preventive practices and simple strategies can promote the safest and most healthy environment. PMID:23241038
Relaxation Techniques to Manage IBS Symptoms Jump to Topic Psychological Treatments Understanding Stress Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation ... 20 seconds and then begin again. Progressive Muscle Relaxation This method of relaxation focuses on the tensing ...
The accidental overdose of local anesthetics may prove fatal. The commonly used amide local anesthetics have varying adverse effects on the myocardium, and beyond a certain dose all are capable of causing death. Local anesthetics are the most frequently used drugs amongst anesthetists and although uncommon, local anaesthetic systemic toxicity accounts for a high proportion of mortality, with local anaesthetic-induced cardiac arrest particularly resistant to standard resuscitation methods. Over the last decade, there has been convincing evidence of intravenous lipid emulsions as a rescue in local anesthetic-cardiotoxicity, and anesthetic organisations, over the globe have developed guidelines on the use of this drug. Despite this, awareness amongst practitioners appears to be lacking. All who use local anesthetics in their practice should have an appreciation of patients at high risk of toxicity, early symptoms and signs of toxicity, preventative measures when using local anesthetics, and the initial management of systemic toxicity with intravenous lipid emulsion. In this paper we intend to discuss the pharmacology and pathophysiology of local anesthetics and toxicity, and the rationale for lipid emulsion therapy. PMID:21969824
Stereotactic techniques available for managing pediatric brain tumors include not only stereotactic biopsy but also stereotactic craniotomy, brachytherapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery. This paper illustrates the use of these techniques in brain tumors in children over a 2-year period at Children's Hospital, Boston. Stereotactic biopsy was used in six cases of deep-seated tumor, with successful tissue diagnosis in all six. Stereotactic
Peter Mcl. Black; Nancy J. Tarbell; Eben Alexander; Mark Rockoff; Min-Shu Zhan; Jay Loeffler
The director of a not-for-profit nursery school adapted the adult stress managementtechniques of exercise and relaxation for use with 3- to 5-year-old children. Specifically, children were taught visualization techniques and yoga exercises involving deep breathing. The goal of the practicum was to rechannel children's negative stress-related…
Background Fractured neck of femur generally requires operative fixation and is a common cause of admission to hospital. The combination of femoral nerve block and spinal anesthesia is a common anesthetictechnique used to facilitate the surgical procedure. The optimal disposition of local anesthetic (LA) relative the femoral nerve (FN) has not been defined. Our hypothesis was: that the deposition of LA relative to the FN influences the quality of analgesia for positioning of the patient for performance of spinal anesthesia. The primary outcome was verbal rating (VRS) pain scores 0–10 assessed immediately after positioning the patient to perform spinal anesthesia. Methods With Institutional ethical approval and having obtained written informed consent from each, 52 patients were studied. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01527812). Patients were randomly allocated to undergo to one of three groups namely: intention to deposit lidocaine 2% (15 ml) i. above (Group A), ii. below (Group B), iii. circumferential (Group C) to the FN. A blinded observer assessed i. the sensory nerve block (cold) in the areas of the terminal branches of the FN and ii. VRS pain scores on passive movement from block completion at 5 minutes intervals for 30 minutes. Immediately after positioning the patient for spinal anesthesia, VRS pain scores were recorded. Results Pain VRS scores during positioning were similar in the three groups [Above group/Below group/Circumferential group: 2(0–9)/0(0–10)/3(0–10), median(range), p:0.32]. The block was deemed to have failed in 20%, 47% and 12% in the Above group, Below group and Circumferential group respectively. The median number of needle passes was greater in the Circumferential group compared with the Above group (p:0.009). Patient satisfaction was greatest in the Circumferential group [mean satisfaction scores were 83.5(19.8)/88.1(20.5)/93.8(12.3), [mean(SD), p=0.04] in the Above, Below and Circumferential groups respectively. Conclusions We conclude that there is no clinical advantage to attempting to deposit LA circumferential to the femoral nerve (relative to depositing LA either above or below the nerve), during femoral nerve block in this setting. PMID:24460975
Regional anesthesia has become a routine part of the practice of anesthesiology in infants and children. Local anesthetic toxicity is extremely rare in infants and children; however, seizures, dysrhythmias, cardiovascular collapse, and transient neuropathic symptoms have been reported. Infants and children may be at increased risk from local anesthetics compared with adults. Larger volumes of local anesthetics are used for epidural anesthesia in infants and children than in adults. Metabolism and elimination of local anesthetics can be delayed in neonates, who also have decreased plasma concentrations of alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein, leading to increased concentrations of unbound bupivacaine. Most regional anesthetic procedures in infants and children are performed with the patient heavily sedated or anesthetized; because of this, and because a test dose is not a particularly sensitive marker of intravenous injection in the anesthetized patient, detection of intravascular local anesthetic injection is extremely difficult. The same local anesthetics used in adult anesthetic practice are also used in infants and children. Because of its extremely short duration of action, chloroprocaine has been used primarily for continuous epidural techniques in infants and children. The use of tetracaine has generally been limited to spinal and topical anesthesia. Lidocaine (lignocaine) has been used extensively in infants and children for topical, regional, plexus, epidural and spinal anesthesia. The association between prilocaine and methemoglobinemia has generally restricted prilocaine use in infants and children to the eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA). Because of its greater degree of motor block compared with other long-acting local anesthetics, etidocaine has generally been limited to plexus blocks in infants and children. Mepivacaine has been used for both plexus and epidural anesthesia in infants and children. Because postoperative analgesia is often the primary justification for regional anesthesia in infants and children, bupivacaine, a long-acting local anesthetic, is the most commonly reported local anesthetic for pediatric regional anesthesia. Given the lower toxic threshold of bupivacaine compared with other local anesthetics, the risk-benefit ratio of bupivacaine may be greater than that of other local anesthetics. Two new enantiomerically pure local anesthetics, ropivacaine and levobupivacaine, offer clinical profiles comparable to that of bupivacaine but without its lower toxic threshold. The extreme rarity of major toxicity from local anesthetics suggests that widespread replacement of bupivacaine with ropivacaine or levobupivacaine is probably not necessary. However, there are clinical situations, including prolonged local anesthetic infusions, use in neonates, impaired hepatic metabolic function, and anesthetictechniques requiring a large mass of local anesthetic, where replacement of bupivacaine with ropivacaine, levobupivacaine or (for continuous techniques) chloroprocaine appears prudent. PMID:12269841
We report a case of large thyroid carcinoma with tracheal and esophageal invasion who presented with preoperative stridor scheduled for total thyroidectomy and segmental tracheal resection. Careful and comprehensive preoperative anesthetic planning was done. Extracorporeal circulation membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was set up and running prior to induction under local anesthesia, due to an increased international normalized ratio (INR) and fear of bleeding in the airway. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) is the first choice in many circumstances of difficult airway. However, we twice failed to intubate under FOB guidance. Successful intubation was done with traditional laryngoscopy and a Glidescope. The operative course was smooth. The oral endotracheal tube (ETT) was changed to a nasal ETT after surgery with the Glidescope. FOB-assisted intubation carries a chance of failure, and in critical patients, the presence of other intubating modalities such as video-assisted or fiberoptic-assisted technology or safety measures, including ECMO, will greatly increase the safety of anesthesia and surgery. PMID:25150647
Purpose. To compare the effects of different anesthesia techniques on tourniquet-related ischemia-reperfusion by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) and neuromuscular side effects. Methods. Sixty ASAI-II patients undergoing arthroscopic knee surgery were randomised to three groups. In Group S, intrathecal anesthesia was administered using levobupivacaine. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane in Group I and TIVA with propofol in Group T. Blood samples were obtained before the induction of anesthesia (t1), 30?min after tourniquet inflation (t2), immediately before (t3), and 5?min (t4), 15?min (t5), 30?min (t6), 1?h (t7), 2?h (t8), and 6?h (t9) after tourniquet release. Results. MDA and IMA levels increased significantly compared with baseline values in Group S at t2–t9 and t2–t7. MDA levels in Group T and Group I were significantly lower than those in Group S at t2–t8 and t2–t9. IMA levels in Group T were significantly lower than those in Group S at t2–t7. Postoperatively, a temporary 1/5 loss of strength in dorsiflexion of the ankle was observed in 3 patients in Group S and 1 in Group I. Conclusions. TIVA with propofol can make a positive contribution in tourniquet-related ischemia-reperfusion. PMID:24701585
Kosucu, Muge; Coskun, Ilker; Eroglu, Ahmet; Kutanis, Dilek; Mentese, Ahmet; Karahan, S. Caner; Baki, Emre; Kerimoglu, Servet; Topbas, Murat
In the recent decade, nonintubated-intubated video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been extensively performed and evaluated. The indicated surgical procedures and suitable patient groups are steadily increasing. Perioperative anestheticmanagement presents itself as a fresh issue for the iatrogenic open pneumothorax, which is intended for unilateral lung collapse to create a steady surgical field, and the ensuing physiologic derangement involving ventilatory and hemodynamic perspectives. With appropriate monitoring, meticulous employment of regional anesthesia, sedation, vagal block, and ventilatory support, nonintubated VATS is proved to be a safe alternative to the conventional intubated general anesthesia. PMID:24455170
Placenta previa totalis can cause life-threatening massive postpartum hemorrhage, and careful anestheticmanagement is essential. Preventive uterine artery embolization (UAE) before placental expulsion was introduced to reduce postpartum bleeding in cases of placenta previa totalis. We describe the case of a 40-year-old woman (gravida 0, para 0) with placenta previa totalis and uterine myomas who underwent intraoperative UAE, which was preoperatively planned at the strong recommendation of the anesthesiologist, immediately after delivery of a fetus and before removal of the placenta during cesarean delivery under spinal-epidural anesthesia. After confirming embolization of both uterine arteries, removal of the placenta resulted in moderate bleeding. The estimated blood loss was 2.5 L, and 5 units of red blood cells were transfused. The parturient was discharged uneventfully on postoperative day 4. This case shows that the bleeding risk is reduced by intraoperative UAE in a patient with placenta previa totalis, and anesthesiologists have an important role in a multidisciplinary team approach. PMID:25368788
Lee, Jae Woo; Song, In Ae; Ryu, Junghee; Park, Hee-Pyoung; Jeon, Young-Tae; Hwang, Jung-Won
Placenta previa totalis can cause life-threatening massive postpartum hemorrhage, and careful anestheticmanagement is essential. Preventive uterine artery embolization (UAE) before placental expulsion was introduced to reduce postpartum bleeding in cases of placenta previa totalis. We describe the case of a 40-year-old woman (gravida 0, para 0) with placenta previa totalis and uterine myomas who underwent intraoperative UAE, which was preoperatively planned at the strong recommendation of the anesthesiologist, immediately after delivery of a fetus and before removal of the placenta during cesarean delivery under spinal-epidural anesthesia. After confirming embolization of both uterine arteries, removal of the placenta resulted in moderate bleeding. The estimated blood loss was 2.5 L, and 5 units of red blood cells were transfused. The parturient was discharged uneventfully on postoperative day 4. This case shows that the bleeding risk is reduced by intraoperative UAE in a patient with placenta previa totalis, and anesthesiologists have an important role in a multidisciplinary team approach. PMID:25368788
The GIS (geographic information system) technique is a newly developed data managementtechnique. It is the combination of geography, computer science, cartography, information science and real and remote control techniques. The GIS technique has been applied to many domains since it came out, and as the technique grows its applied fields is widen, e.g. land management, city information, transportation, fire
Michael Trick, Associate Professor of Industrial Administration at Carnegie-Mellon University, has designed a course to give consultants (and others who want to improve their quantitative skills) an introduction to a variety of useful techniques in management science, with an emphasis on practicality. The course covers sensitivity analysis, solving large problems, integer programming, heuristic decision-making, genetic algorithms/neural networks, relaxations, network models, data envelopment analysis, scenario optimization and multiple objective decision making. In addition to the class notes, the site also contains the homework for the class.
Michael Trick, Associate Professor of Industrial Administration at Carnegie-Mellon University, has designed a course to give consultants (and others who want to improve their quantitative skills) an introduction to a variety of useful techniques in management science, with an emphasis on practicality. The course covers sensitivity analysis, solving large problems, integer programming, heuristic decision-making, genetic algorithms/neural networks, relaxations, network models, data envelopment analysis, scenario optimization and multiple objective decision making. In addition to the class notes, the site also contains the homework for the class.
Adrenal gland surgery needs a multidisciplinary team including endocrinologist, radiologist, anesthesiologist, and surgeon. The indications for adrenal gland surgery include hormonal secreting and non-hormonal secreting tumors. Adrenal hormonal secreting tumors present to the anesthesiologist unique challenges requiring good preoperative evaluation, perioperative hemodynamic control, corrections of all electrolytes and metabolic abnormalities, a detailed and careful anesthetic strategy, overall knowledge about the specific diseases, control and maintaining of postoperative adrenal function, and finally a good collaboration with other involved colleagues. This review will focus on the endocrine issues, as well as on the above-mentioned aspects of anestheticmanagement during hormone secreting adrenal gland tumor resection. PMID:25368694
Adrenal gland surgery needs a multidisciplinary team including endocrinologist, radiologist, anesthesiologist, and surgeon. The indications for adrenal gland surgery include hormonal secreting and non-hormonal secreting tumors. Adrenal hormonal secreting tumors present to the anesthesiologist unique challenges requiring good preoperative evaluation, perioperative hemodynamic control, corrections of all electrolytes and metabolic abnormalities, a detailed and careful anesthetic strategy, overall knowledge about the specific diseases, control and maintaining of postoperative adrenal function, and finally a good collaboration with other involved colleagues. This review will focus on the endocrine issues, as well as on the above-mentioned aspects of anestheticmanagement during hormone secreting adrenal gland tumor resection. PMID:25368694
It is impossible to provide effective dental care without the use of local anesthetics. This drug class has an impressive history of safety and efficacy, but all local anesthetics have the potential to produce significant toxicity if used carelessly. The purpose of this review is to update the practitioner on issues regarding the basic pharmacology and clinical use of local anesthetic formulations. PMID:17175824
The vasoconstrictive and antidiuretic physiologic properties of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone) have long been known. Until recently however, vasopressin was mostly used for diabetes insipidus and noctournal enuresis. This review summarizes the growing body of evidence regarding the perioperative use of vasopressin and its analogues in the management of certain forms of cardiovascular collapse. Physiologically, vasopressin is involved in regulating osmotic, volemic, and cardiovascular homeostasis. It acts via several specific vasopressin receptors that are variably distributed in the heart, kidneys and vasculature etc. Under normal conditions, its antidiuretic effect predominates and vasopressin only induces vasoconstriction at high concentrations. Regarding catecholamine-resistant vasodilatory shock, current evidence suggests that with adequate volume resuscitation, exogenous vasopressin in low "physiologic" doses (0.01-0.04 units/min) safely supports mean arterial pressure without adversely affecting myocardial function and splanchnic circulation. One possible explanation is that metabolic acidosis impairs the function of alpha-adrenergic (but not vasopressin) receptors, thus diminishing the response to catecholamines. Although there is yet no clear cut mortality benefit, vasopressin is now recommended as a second-line agent in septic shock for its catecholamine-sparing effect and as an alternative to epinephrine in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. It has also demonstrated efficacy in ameliorating vasoplegia after cardiopulmonary bypass as well as perioperative hypotension in patients on renin-angiotensin system antagionists preoperatively. In summary, accumulating clinical experience and formal studies indicate that vasopressin has a role in restoring vascular tone in refractory vasodilatory shock states with minimal adverse effects provided that euvolemia is assured. PMID:22762470
In Human Resource Management (HRM), the top challenge for HR professionals is managing the organizational talents. The talent management problem can be solved using the classification technique in data mining. There are several classification techniques present such as Decision Tree, Neural Networks, Support vector machine (SVM) and nearest neighbour algorithm. In this paper we suggest a combined hybrid approach CACCSVM
Knowledge ManagementTechniques for Know-How Transfer Systems Design. The case of an Oil Company and knowledge managementtechniques for the development of a strategic approach for the transfer of professional are to be made in terms of capitalising, sharing, learning and transfer. Key words: Knowledge Management
Local anesthesia forms the foundation of pain control techniques in clinical dentistry. Within the rich local anesthetic drugs available in dentistry for the prevention and management of pain 4% articaine solutions achieve highest level of anesthetic potency and lowest systemic toxicity in all clinical situations, prior to its superlative physicochemical characteristics and the pharmacological profile. These are - low lipid solubility, high plasma protein binding rate, fast metabolization, fast elimination half time; low blood level. Articaine inactivates in both ways: in the liver and the blood serum. It has good spreading through tissues. Thus, articaine seems to be the local anesthetic of first choice in tissues with suppurative inflammation, for adults, children (over 4), elderly, pregnant women, breastfeeding women, patients suffering from hepatic disorders and renal function impairment. In Articaine solutions (1: 200,000) epinephrine is in low concentration, thus in patients at high risk adverse responses are maximally decreased. In these patients articaine should be used with careful consideration of risk/benefit ratio. Articaine solutions must not be used in persons who are allergic or hypersensitive to sulphite, due to content of Sodium metabisulfite as vasoconstrictor's antioxidant in it. Incidence of serious adverse effects related to dental anesthesia with articaine is very low. Toxic reactions are usually due to an inadvertent intravascular injection or use of excessive dose. To avoid overdoses maximum recommendation dose (MRD) must not be exceeded and aspiration test always performed prior all LA injections. In these article we introduce new graphs providing a quick and effect way to determine maximum LA dose. If the overdose reactions develop, adherence to the basic step of emergency management with end to a successful outcome in virtually all cases. PMID:21346262
Nizharadze, N; Mamaladze, M; Chipashvili, N; Vadachkoria, D
This review article is going to elaborate on the description, components, and advantages of mini-cardiopulmonary bypass (mini-CPB), with special reference to the anestheticmanagement and fast track anesthesia with mini-CPB. There are several clinical advantages of mini-CPB like, reduced inflammatory reaction to the pump, reduced need for allogenic blood transfusion and lower incidence of postoperative neurological complications. There are certainly important points that have to be considered by anesthesiologists to avoid sever perturbation in the cardiac output and blood pressure during mini-CPB. Fast-track anesthesia provides advantages regarding fast postoperative recovery from anesthesia, and reduction of postoperative ventilation time. Mini bypass offers a sound alternative to conventional CPB, and has definite advantages. It has its limitations, but even with that it has a definite place in the current practice of cardiac surgery.
This paper discusses human spaceflight fault management operations. Fault detection and response capabilities available in current US human spaceflight programs Space Shuttle and International Space Station are described while emphasizing system design impacts on operational techniques and constraints. Preflight and inflight processes along with products used to anticipate, mitigate and respond to failures are introduced. Examples of operational products used to support failure responses are presented. Possible improvements in the state of the art, as well as prioritization and success criteria for their implementation are proposed. This paper describes how the architecture of a command and control system impacts operations in areas such as the required fault response times, automated vs. manual fault responses, use of workarounds, etc. The architecture includes the use of redundancy at the system and software function level, software capabilities, use of intelligent or autonomous systems, number and severity of software defects, etc. This in turn drives which Caution and Warning (C&W) events should be annunciated, C&W event classification, operator display designs, crew training, flight control team training, and procedure development. Other factors impacting operations are the complexity of a system, skills needed to understand and operate a system, and the use of commonality vs. optimized solutions for software and responses. Fault detection, annunciation, safing responses, and recovery capabilities are explored using real examples to uncover underlying philosophies and constraints. These factors directly impact operations in that the crew and flight control team need to understand what happened, why it happened, what the system is doing, and what, if any, corrective actions they need to perform. If a fault results in multiple C&W events, or if several faults occur simultaneously, the root cause(s) of the fault(s), as well as their vehicle-wide impacts, must be determined in order to maintain situational awareness. This allows both automated and manual recovery operations to focus on the real cause of the fault(s). An appropriate balance must be struck between correcting the root cause failure and addressing the impacts of that fault on other vehicle components. Lastly, this paper presents a strategy for using lessons learned to improve the software, displays, and procedures in addition to determining what is a candidate for automation. Enabling technologies and techniques are identified to promote system evolution from one that requires manual fault responses to one that uses automation and autonomy where they are most effective. These considerations include the value in correcting software defects in a timely manner, automation of repetitive tasks, making time critical responses autonomous, etc. The paper recommends the appropriate use of intelligent systems to determine the root causes of faults and correctly identify separate unrelated faults.
Classroom techniques associated with conflict management and the six stages in the Managing Interpersonal Conflict (MIC) technique that can be used in basic interpersonal communication courses are outlined in this paper. Before presenting information on the MIC technique, the paper discusses the use of Jay Hall's Conflict Management Survey (which…
This article provides some insight into the basic science and concepts relevant to the use of local anesthetics by clinicians in the management of their patients, including a brief history of the development of local anesthetics and their physical properties, effectiveness, uses, limitations, and safety considerations. A generalized overview of the mechanism of action is also provided. The molecular detail of local anesthetics and voltage-gated ion channels can form the basis of understanding of (1) future developments in this area, and (2) toxicity. Most of the peer-reviewed literature related to this topic stems from work in adult humans and animals. PMID:24093648
This report is an introduction to decision analysis and problem-solving techniques for professionals in natural resource management. Although these managers are often called upon to make complex decisions, their training in the natural sciences seldom provides exposure to the decision-making tools developed in management science. Our purpose is to being to fill this gap. We present a general analysis of the pitfalls of group problem solving, and suggestions for improved interactions followed by the specific techniques. Selected techniques are illustrated. The material is easy to understand and apply without previous training or excessive study and is applicable to natural resource management issues.
. For this purpose, we use the optimal battery management strategy presented in  in a multi-level system, soComputationally Simple Battery ManagementTechniques for Wireless Nodes Maria Adamou 1 and Saswati In this paper, we investigate di#11;erent battery management policies for a wireless node. The goal
This presentation presents status and results of research on Software Health Management done within the NRA "ISWHM: Tools and Techniques for Software and System Health Management." Topics include: Ingredients of a Guidance, Navigation, and Control System (GN and C); Selected GN and C Testbed example; Health Management of major ingredients; ISWHM testbed architecture; and Conclusions and next Steps.
Schumann, Johann; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Darwiche, Adnan
Wetlands are important ecosystems that contain a vast array of plants and animals. Wetlands perform a variety of vital functions, such as purifying water. This publication explains the role of wetlands and how to construct and manage them....
ÂCSÂ90Â152 School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Submitted areas. Application requirements motivated the major research areas, processor scheduling and nonÂuniform. The nonÂuniform memory management research takes a different approach, predicated on obtaining more
Background In light of the growing number of people with dementia and age-related cataract, as well as changing anesthetic practices for cataract surgery, this study aimed to explore the experiences of cataract surgeons in managing patients with dementia and making anesthetic decisions. Methods This was a qualitative study using semistructured interviews with senior cataract surgeons from two centers in England. Fourteen surgeons were interviewed, and a thematic approach informed by grounded theory was used for the analysis. Results Choice of anesthesia for people with dementia was a central theme arising from the data. Surgeons varied in their thresholds for using general anesthesia. Decisions about suitability for local anesthesia were limited by time constraints and generally made rapidly and based on instinct; dementia was not always apparent at the point of preassessment. Surgeons used a variety of topical, sub-Tenon’s, and sharp needle blocks for people with dementia. Surgeons discussed techniques to help patients tolerate local anesthesia, such as clear communication, a primary nurse, hand-holding, and support from an anesthetist. However, within our sample, some surgeons had had negative experiences of operating on people with dementia, where an incorrect judgment had been made that they could tolerate local anesthetic cataract surgery. Conclusion This study highlights the differing practices of cataract surgeons when making anesthetic choices for people with dementia and the challenges they face. In order to avoid the situation of a patient with dementia becoming distressed during awake surgery, increased time at preassessment and anesthetic support may be beneficial. PMID:25328382
The consumer and industrial markets are experiencing unprecedented demand for battery management technology. Consumer appetite for the convenience of battery-powered portable equipment such as cellular phones and small form-factor computers is continuing to expand. The industrial market is being besieged by governmental regulations and consumer concerns on environmental pollution. This has increased development emphasis on electric motor-driven tools and vehicles.
and trivalent metal cations, ferricyanide, a lipophilic ion (tetraphenylborate), and a local anesthetic2412 Biochemistry 1984, 23, 2412-2420 1 4 N NMR of Lipid Bilayers: Effects of Ions and Anesthetics demonstrated that the 14NNMR technique can be used to directly monitor ion or anesthetic binding. The 14Nquadru
The purpose of this study was to assess the attitudes of parents toward behavior managementtechniques employed in pediatric dentistry. Sixty-seven parents viewed videotaped segments of actual treatment of three- to five-year-old children with whom the following behavior managementtechniques were used successfully: general anesthesia, Papoose Board ®a , sedation, hand-over- mouth exercise (HOME), physical restraint by the dentist, physical
Magnetic field management is concerned with the minimization of the effects of such fields on the public health, without sacrificing the effectiveness or reliability of the power system. The essential managementtechniques used for the underground transmission cables comprise geometry manipulation phase placement, and source shielding. In this paper, the simulation results of the standard recommended stack, triangular and flat
M. M. Dawoud; I. O. Habiballah; A. S. Farag; A. Firoz
Carrying out knowledge management effectively requires support from a repertoire of methods, techniques and tools. This paper provides a selection of those methods. They are described according to a conceptual framework that sees knowledge management as consisting of four activities that are performed sequentially. These activities are Review, Conceptualize, Reflect and Act. For each activity some methods are discussed while
This study reports the relationships between coping styles of Australian teachers and the classroom based classroom managementtechniques they use to cope with student misbehaviour. There is great interest internationally in improving educational systems by upgrading the quality of teachers' classroom management. However, the relationship between…
Classification is one of the tasks in data mining. Nowadays, there are many classification techniques being used to solve classification problems such as neural network, genetic algorithm, Bayesian and others. In this article, we attempt to present a study on how talent management can be implemented using decision tree induction techniques. By using this approach, talent performance can be predicted
Hamidah Jantan; Abdul Razak Hamdan; Zulaiha Ali Othman
In this theory development case study, we focus on the relations across recurrent waves in the amount and kind of language promoting and diffusing, and then demoting and rejecting, managementtechniques—techniques for transforming the input of organizational labor into organizational outputs. We suggest that rather than manifesting themselves as independent, transitory, and un-cumulative fads, the language of repeated waves cumulates
Mastering stress managementtechniques can help college developmental class educators protect themselves from burnout. These techniques can also be taught to students in developmental classes to enable them to maximize the benefits from these classes. This paper outlines the causes of stress, identifies stressors, describes responses to stress,…
The prime NDT method selected for characterization of the waste is real-time x-radiography (RTR). An RTR system specifically designed for the TRU waste inspection is currently being used to develop the best techniques for waste certification. It is based on a standard 420 kV constant potential x-ray machine with a rare-earth fluorescing screen (gadolinium oxysulfide) functioning as an image converter. The low-light-level image produced on the screen is picked up by a CCTV camera with an image intensifier coupled to a plumbicon imaging tube. The system was designed for automated waste container handling and translation. Image analysis is not currently automated, although the CCTV image is digitized to allow signal averaging and edge enhancement through digital filtering. The digitized image is available through an IEEE 488 I/O port for more sophisticated computerized analysis.
With roughly 234 million people undergoing surgery with anesthesia each year worldwide, it is important to determine whether commonly used anesthetics can induce any neurotoxicity. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of age-related dementia, and a rapidly growing health problem. Several studies suggest that anesthesia could be associated with the development of AD. Moreover, studies in cultured cells and animals show that commonly used inhalation anesthetics may induce changes consistent with AD neuropathogenesis, e.g., ?-amyloid protein accumulation. Therefore, in this mini review, we focus on the recent research investigating the effects of commonly used anesthetics including isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane, nitrous oxide, and propofol, on A? accumulation in vitro and in vivo. We further discuss the future direction of the research determining the effects of anesthetics on ?-amyloid protein accumulation. PMID:22918033
OBJECTIVE: To determine if topical administration of local anesthesia, applied to fresh skin-harvest sites, reduces pain and analgesic requirements after surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Nonopioid treatments for pain after therapeutic procedures on patients with burns have become popular because of the side effects associated with narcotics. The topical administration of local anesthesia originally offered little advantage because of poor epidermal penetration. METHODS: This study compares 2% lidocaine with 0.5% bupivacaine or saline, topically applied after skin harvest, to determine what effect this may have on pain and narcotic use. Sixty patients with partial- or full-thickness burns to approximately 10% to 15% of their body were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 received normal saline, group 2 had 0.5% bupivacaine, and group 3 had 2% lidocaine sprayed onto areas immediately after skin harvest. Blood samples were subsequently obtained to measure concentrations of the local anesthetic. Hemodynamic variables after surgery, wake-up times, emetic symptoms, pain, and narcotic use were compared. RESULTS: Higher heart rates were noted in the placebo group than in those receiving lidocaine or bupivacaine. No differences were noted in recovery from anesthesia or emetic symptoms. Pain scores were lower and 24-hour narcotic use was less in patients who received lidocaine. Plasma lidocaine levels were greater than bupivacaine at all time points measured. CONCLUSIONS: Topical lidocaine applied to skin-harvest sites produced an analgesic effect that reduced narcotic requirements compared with patients who received bupivacaine or placebo. Local anesthetic solutions aerosolized onto skin-harvest sites did not affect healing or produce toxic blood concentrations. PMID:9923808
Jellish, W S; Gamelli, R L; Furry, P A; McGill, V L; Fluder, E M
though you are absolute ly certain your recommended system is the most feasible, you must go through the exercise of sev eral other systems. This could be considered a waste of time but you better do as the Corporate Finance staff with their bright.... These are plant committees, seminars and exchange bulletins. Energy savings ideas should be identified and implemented and shared among the plants, divisions. Third, MOTIVATION AND ENTHUSIASM. This can be maintained through management reports and by giving...
The laser Doppler flowmetry technique has recently been used to report a significant transient increase of the cutaneous blood flow signal when a local non-noxious pressure is applied progressively on the skin (11.1 Pa/s). The present work analyses the dynamic characteristics of this vasodilatory reflex response on anaesthetised rats. A de-noising algorithm using wavelets is proposed to obtain accurate values of these dynamic characteristics. The blood flow peak and the time to reach this peak are computed on the de-noised recordings. The results show that the mean time to reach the peak of perfusion is 85.3 s (time t = 0 at the beginning of the pressure application). The mean peak value is 188.3 arbitrary units (a.u.), whereas the mean value of the perfusion before the pressure application is 113.4 a.u. The mean minimum value obtained at the end of the experiment is 60.7 a.u. This latter value is, on the average, reached 841.3 s after the beginning of the pressure application. The comparison of the dynamic characteristics, computed with the de-noising algorithm on signals obtained in other situations, will give a better understanding on some cutaneous lesions such as those present on diabetic people.
This paper describes a computer component manufacturing scenario which concentrates on the application of data mining techniques\\u000a to improve information management and process improvement within a manufacturing scenario. The case study involved, relates\\u000a to an engineering component manufacturing company with a consortium of several plant outlets in various geographical locations\\u000a world-wide. Currently, data, information and knowledge management, transparency and communication
We study a location managementtechnique for mobile computing using a hierarchical distributed directory server. Our model is an extension of a model by Awerbuch and Peleg, which is based on the graph-theoretic concept of regional matching. We evaluate the performance of the extended protocol based on the communication overhead incurred by sending messages across weighted links in a static
It appears that the Interpersonal Process Recall (IPR) method might have some usefulness as a classroom managementtechnique under some conditions. More work needs to be done to explore the nature of the conditions under which IPR is most valuable. (Author)
Stress-busters Tips and techniques for managing stress and introducing relaxation into your life UCSC Counseling & Psychological Services What is stress? Stress is the physiological and psychological semester or new job can bring on stress. We are all under stress every day. A certain amount of stress
This article examines the value of using complex animated PowerPoint presentations to teach operations managementtechniques and concepts. To provide context, literature covering the use of PowerPoint animations in business education is briefly reviewed. The specific animations employed in this study are identified and their expected benefits to…
Treleven, Mark D.; Penlesky, Richard J.; Callarman, Thomas E.; Watts, Charles A.; Bragg, Daniel J.
Conservation biology requires the development of practical tools and techniques to minimize con- flicts arising from human modification of ecosystems. We applied behavioral theory of primary and secondary repellents to predator management by using aversive stimulus devices (electronic training collars) and dis- ruptive stimulus devices (behavior-contingent audio and visual repellents) in a multipredator ( Canis lupus, Haliaeetus leucocephalus, Ursus spp.)
An elementary school teacher discusses conflict managementtechniques appropriate for use with children in kindergarten through the fourth grade. Discussion first recapitulates developmental theory from several perspectives, including those of Freud, Erikson, Piaget, and profiles conflict theory. Illustrative contemporary social problems that…
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a relatively new surgical procedure which is enjoying everincreasing popularity and presenting new anesthetic challenges. The advantages of shorter hospital stay and more rapid return to normal activities are combined with less pain associated with the small limited incisions and less postoperative ileus compared with the traditional open cholecystectomy. The efficacy of laparoscopic appendectomy and hemicolectomy has
The spinal cord is an important site where inhaled anesthetics suppress movement in response to nox- ious stimuli. Inhaled anesthetics also act in periph- eral tissues, although it is unclear whether these ac- tions influence anesthetic requirements. In six isoflurane-anesthetized mongrel dogs, we placed Y cannulas in the lower aorta and vena cava, allowing us to divert blood to, and
...2012-10-01 false Planning and managementtechniques applicable to the...10005.15 Planning and managementtechniques applicable to the...habitat values of lands or water courses. (c) Construction and...recreation opportunities. (e) Management and operations...
...2013-10-01 false Planning and managementtechniques applicable to the...10005.15 Planning and managementtechniques applicable to the...habitat values of lands or water courses. (c) Construction and...recreation opportunities. (e) Management and operations...
...2014-10-01 false Planning and managementtechniques applicable to the...10005.15 Planning and managementtechniques applicable to the...habitat values of lands or water courses. (c) Construction and...recreation opportunities. (e) Management and operations...
...2011-10-01 false Planning and managementtechniques applicable to the...10005.15 Planning and managementtechniques applicable to the...habitat values of lands or water courses. (c) Construction and...recreation opportunities. (e) Management and operations...
These Project TEAMS (Techniques and Education for Achieving Managerial Skills) instructional materials consist of five units for use in training independent business owner/managers. The first unit contains materials which deal with management skills relating to personal characteristics of successful business people, knowledge of self and chosen…
The administration of anesthesia to patients undergoing lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) requires a complete understanding of the pathophysiology of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the planned surgical procedure, and the anticipated postoperative course for this group of patients. Risk factors and associated morbidity and mortality are discussed within the context of patients with obstructive pulmonary disease in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial having surgical procedures. Preoperative evaluation and the anesthetictechniques used for patients undergoing LVRS are reviewed, as are monitoring requirements. Intraoperative events, including induction of anesthesia, lung isolation, management of fluid requirements, and options for ventilatory support are discussed. Possible intraanesthetic complications are also reviewed, as is the optimal management of such problems, should they occur. To minimize the potential for a surgical air leak in the postoperative period, positive-pressure ventilation must cease at the conclusion of the procedure. An awake, comfortable, extubated patient, capable of spontaneous ventilation, is only possible if there is careful attention to pain control. The thoracic epidural is the most common pain control method used with patients undergoing LVRS procedures; however, other alternative methods are reviewed and discussed. PMID:18453351
Brister, Neil W.; Barnette, Rodger E.; Kim, Victor; Keresztury, Michael
Bony anatomical anomalies can complicate the construction and successful wearing of removable prostheses. Osteopetrosis is a group of diseases that affect the growth and continuous remodelling of bone which in turn can result in gross irregular alveolar bone morphology. This paper describes the management of a patient with this problem and emphasises the challenges in constructing a successful complete maxillary removable prosthesis. The utilisation of a flexible base plate material as an alternative to traditional materials will be highlighted. Irregular bony morphology is a recognised potential obstacle to the successful construction of removable prostheses. In most cases the problem can be overcome but in extreme and less common circumstances, management of these features can be more problematic. This paper describes a technique used to manage extreme alveolar irregularity which may perhaps be applied to those problems more commonly encountered in every day clinical practice but are less extreme then those described in this paper. PMID:17645071
Dewan, Karun; Bishop, Karl; Hollisey-Mclean, David
Size discrepancy in microvascular anastomosis is a common issue in free flap transfer. The sudden change of caliber may cause turbulence to the blood flow and predisposes to platelet aggregation. Discrepancies in the cut end diameters have been managed by many geometrical methods in order to reduce the risk to thrombosis. In this paper, we pretended to summarize the techniques described and published about the management of size discrepancies in microvascular anastomosis, from the simple mechanical expansion with the jeweler's forceps to the sophisticated hardware such as devices or laser. Advantages and disadvantages are analyzed for many geometrical designs of anastomosis. We may conclude there is not an ideal technique to manage every size discrepancy, rather to question for the best method with the less complications, we should search for the best procedure to fit a specific case. A small caliber discrepancy may be well managed only with mechanical expansion. In traumatic or ischemic leg reconstruction, an end to side anastomosis will offer the continuity of the blood flow to both the vessel and the flap. In head and neck reconstruction, when a great discrepancy may be anticipated and the upstream donor vessel is smaller than the recipient one, a sleeve anastomosis can be performed. In the clinical set of a gap between the vessel ends, a graft must be used. Other geometrical designs (fish mouth or oblique cut), devices, glues or adhesives and laser helped anastomosis should be considered according the surgeon experience. PMID:10980514
The effect of cavinton (vinpocetine) on the systemic and regional hemodynamic parameters was studied by the radioactive microsphere technique in experiments on conscious and anesthetized rats. Intravenous administration of cavinton (10 mg/kg) was followed by the development of hypotension and bradycardia in conscious and anesthetized animals. Administration of cavinton to anesthetized rats increased the blood flow both in the brain and in most internal organs. In conscious animals the drug failed to increase the cerebral blood flow but increased the blood flow in the internal organs. It is suggested that dilation of the cerebral vessels under the influence of cavinton only in anesthetized rats could be related to a higher initial resistance of the cerebral vessels in anesthetized animals as compared with conscious ones. PMID:2707414
Background: Many women suffer from perineal trauma during the normal vaginal delivery. Perineal trauma is mainly associated with pain and complications after the childbirth. Perineal managementtechniques can play a significant role in perineal trauma reduction. This study aimed to compare the effects of perineal managementtechniques (hands-off technique, Ritgen maneuver and perineal massage using a lubricant during delivery) on the labor complications. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental clinical trial was conducted on 99 primiparous women who referred to Daran Hospital, Isfahan, Iran for normal vaginal delivery in 2009. The subjects were selected using a convenient method and randomly assigned to three groups of Ritgen maneuver, hands-off technique and perineal massage with lubricant. A questionnaire was used to determine the demographic characteristics of the participants and complications after birth. The short form of McGill Pain Questionnaire and the visual analogue scale for pain were also employed. The incidence and degree of perineal tears were evaluated immediately after delivery. Moreover, the incidence and severity of perineal pain were assessed 24 hours and also 6 weeks after delivery. Findings: In the Ritgen maneuver group, the frequency of tears, the relative frequency of tear degrees, the severity of perineal pain 24 hours after delivery and the frequency of pain and perineal pain severity 6 weeks after delivery were significantly different from the other two methods. Conclusions: Hands-off technique during parturition of the neonate's head was associated with fewer complications after delivery. It was even better than perineal massage during the parturition. PMID:23493441
Pain following orthopedic surgery is common and often suboptimally managed, with many patients reporting acute moderate to severe pain following surgery. Opioids are often used to manage this pain, yet this can result in significant side effects and complications, including constipation, nausea, vomiting, respiratory distress, and other central nervous system issues. Multimodal therapy that includes surgical site infiltration with extended release local anesthetic has been seen as a new way to minimize this pain for patients, which can result in improved quality of life and shorter length of hospital stay. This article examines the use of bupivacaine liposome injectable suspension (EXPAREL®; Pacira Pharmaceuticals, Inc., San Diego, California), a non-opioid product for pain management. Liposomal bupivacaine uses DepoFoam® technology that allows for the extended release of injected drugs. When used as the foundation of a multimodal regimen, it is effective in reducing postsurgical pain for up to 72 hours while reducing the need for opioids for pain relief. PMID:24911371
Barrington, John W; Dalury, David F; Emerson, Roger H; Hawkins, Richard J; Joshi, Girish P; Stulberg, Bernard N
The tremendous demands from social market are pushing the booming development of mobile communications faster than ever before, leading to plenty of new advanced techniques emerging. With the converging of mobile and wireless communications with Internet services, the boundary between mobile personal telecommunications and wireless computer networks is disappearing. Wireless networks of the next generation need the support of all the advances on new architectures, standards, and protocols. Mobility management is an important issue in the area of mobile communications, which can be best solved at the network layer. One of the key features of the next generation wireless networks is all-IP infrastructure. This paper discusses the mobility management schemes for the next generation mobile networks through extending IP's functions with mobility support. A global hierarchical framework model for the mobility management of wireless networks is presented, in which the mobility management is divided into two complementary tasks: macro mobility and micro mobility. As the macro mobility solution, a basic principle of Mobile IP is introduced, together with the optimal schemes and the advances in IPv6. The disadvantages of the Mobile IP on solving the micro mobility problem are analyzed, on the basis of which three main proposals are discussed as the micro mobility solutions for mobile communications, including Hierarchical Mobile IP (HMIP), Cellular IP, and Handoff-Aware Wireless Access Internet Infrastructure (HAWAII). A unified model is also described in which the different micro mobility solutions can coexist simultaneously in mobile networks.
Sun, Junzhao; Howie, Douglas P.; Sauvola, Jaakko J.
Monitoring methods used in fisheries-management assessments were examined and their potential applicability in confirmatory impact monitoring were evaluated using case studies from selected nuclear power plants. A report on Task I of the project examined the application of Catch-Per-Unit-Effort (CPUE) techniques in monitoring programs at riverine, large lake and ocean sites. Included in this final report is an examination of CPUE data for the Oconee Nuclear Plant on Lake Keowee, a reservoir site. This report also presents a summary of results obtained over the life of the project and guidelines for designing and implementing data collection programs and for data analysis and interpretation. Analysis of monitoring data from Lake Keowee confirmed findings from previous analyses of surveys at nuclear power plants on large lakes, rivers and coastal sites. CPUE techniques as applied to these monitoring programs do not provide data necessary to separate changes induced by plant operation from naturally occurring changes.
Most people see little similarity between a battlefield manager and a natural resource manager. However, except for the element of time, many striking similarities may be drawn. Indeed, there are more differences between the tranquil scenes of mountain scenery, forests, rivers or grasslands and bomb scarred battlefields where survival is often the prime objective. The similarities center around the basic need for information upon which good decisions may be made. Both managers of battlefields and of natural resources require accurate, timely, and continuous information about changing conditions. Based on this information, they each make decisions to conserve the materials and resources under their charge. Their common goal is to serve the needs of the people in their society. On the one hand, the goal is victory in battle to perpetuate a way of life or a political system. On the other, the goal is victory in an ongoing battle against fire, insects, disease, soil erosion, vandalism, theft, and misuse in general. Here, a desire to maintain natural resources in a productive and healthy condition prevails. The objective of the natural resource manager is to keep natural resources in such a condition that they will continue to meet the needs and wants of the people who claim them for their common good. In this paper, the different needs for information are compared and a little history of some of the quasi-military aspects of resource management is given. Needs for information are compared and current uses of data acquisition techniques are reviewed. Similarities and differences are discussed and future opportunities for cooperation in data acquisition are outlined.
Semiconductor Disk Lasers (SDLs) are compact lasers suitable for watt to multi-watt direct generation in the 670- 2350nm waveband and frequency-doubled operation in the ultraviolet and visible regions. This is, however, critically dependent on the thermal management strategy used as, in this type of laser, the pump is absorbed over micrometer lengths and the gain and loss are temperature sensitive. In this paper, we compare the two heat dissipation techniques that have been successfully deployed to-date: the "thin device" approach where the semiconductor active mirror is bonded onto a heatsink and its substrate subsequently removed, and the "heatspreader" technique where a high thermal conductivity platelet is directly bonded onto the active part of the unprocessed epilayer. We show that for SDLs emitting at 1060nm with pump spots of ~80Âµm diameter, the heatspreader approach outperforms the thin-device alternative, with the best results being obtained with a diamond heatspreader. Indeed, the thermal resistances are measured to be 4.9, 10.4 and 13.0 K/W for diamond-bonded, SiC-bonded and flip-chip devices respectively. It is also observed, as expected, that the thermal management strategy indirectly affects the optimum output coupling and thus the overall performance of these lasers.
Giet, S.; Kemp, A. J.; Burns, D.; Calvez, S.; Dawson, M. D.; Suomalainen, S.; Harkonen, A.; Guina, M.; Okhotnikov, O.; Pessa, M.
Natural resources management typically requires prediction of environmental changes over long time periods. In the case of forest management, for example, decisions can affect timber production, water catchment properties, recreational values, aesthetic values, energy usage or employment opportunities. This paper presents an application of advanced visualization techniques in combination with a geographic information system and linear programming in this context. The emphasis is on provision of visual feedback on the outcome of decision options. This main interactive window include a 3D view of the management area based initially on remote sensing imagery draped on a digital terrain model. Also on screen are a slider for time (from the present to 200 years hence), and sliders for decision variables such as required job support level, extent of habit conservation or catchment performance. As the time, or the decision variables are altered by the user the result is presented through replacement of textures in the 3D view to represent the changes in land cover. Initially the visualization is based on prior modeling in a well-defined decision space. The system reads model output in ARC/INFO export format while interactive visualization is based on the Silicon Graphics Performer Toolkit.
Smart Sensor Networks are becoming important target detection and tracking tools. The challenging problems in such networks include the sensor fusion, data management and communication schemes. This work discusses techniques used to distribute sensor management and multi-target tracking responsibilities across an ad hoc, self-healing cluster of sensor nodes. Although miniaturized computing resources possess the ability to host complex tracking and data fusion algorithms, there still exist inherent bandwidth constraints on the RF channel. Therefore, special attention is placed on the reduction of node-to-node communications within the cluster by minimizing unsolicited messaging, and distributing the sensor fusion and tracking tasks onto local portions of the network. Several challenging problems are addressed in this work including track initialization and conflict resolution, track ownership handling, and communication control optimization. Emphasis is also placed on increasing the overall robustness of the sensor cluster through independent decision capabilities on all sensor nodes. Track initiation is performed using collaborative sensing within a neighborhood of sensor nodes, allowing each node to independently determine if initial track ownership should be assumed. This autonomous track initiation prevents the formation of duplicate tracks while eliminating the need for a central "management" node to assign tracking responsibilities. Track update is performed as an ownership node requests sensor reports from neighboring nodes based on track error covariance and the neighboring nodes geo-positional location. Track ownership is periodically recomputed using propagated track states to determine which sensing node provides the desired coverage characteristics. High fidelity multi-target simulation results are presented, indicating the distribution of sensor management and tracking capabilities to not only reduce communication bandwidth consumption, but to also simplify multi-target tracking within the cluster.
Essawy, Magdi A.; Stelzig, Chad A.; Bevington, James E.; Minor, Sharon
...2012-10-01 false Anesthetics, drugs, and medicines. 147.105 Section 147.105 Shipping... § 147.105 Anesthetics, drugs, and medicines. Anesthetics, drugs, and medicines must be stowed and dispensed in accordance...
...2011-10-01 false Anesthetics, drugs, and medicines. 147.105 Section 147.105 Shipping... § 147.105 Anesthetics, drugs, and medicines. Anesthetics, drugs, and medicines must be stowed and dispensed in accordance...
...2013-10-01 false Anesthetics, drugs, and medicines. 147.105 Section 147.105 Shipping... § 147.105 Anesthetics, drugs, and medicines. Anesthetics, drugs, and medicines must be stowed and dispensed in accordance...
High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides non-invasive images of retinal anatomy, physiology, and function with depth-resolved laminar resolution. Eye movement and drift, however, could limit high spatial resolution imaging, and anesthetics that minimize eye movement could significantly attenuate retinal function. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal anesthetic preparations to minimize eye movement and maximize visual-evoked retinal response in rats. Eye movements were examined by imaging of the cornea with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera under isoflurane, urethane, ketamine/xylazine, and propofol anesthesia at typical dosages in rats. Combination of the paralytic pancuronium bromide with isoflurane or ketamine/xylazine anesthesia was also examined for the eye movement studies. Visual-evoked retinal responses were evaluated using full-field electroretinography (ERG) under isoflurane, ketamine/xylazine, urethane, and ketamine/xylazine + pancuronium anesthesia in rats. The degree of eye movement, measured as displacement per unit time, was the smallest under 1% isoflurane + pancuronium anesthesia. The ketamine/xylazine groups showed larger dark-adapted ERG a- and b-waves than other anesthetics tested. The isoflurane group showed the shortest b-wave implicit times. Photopic ERGs in the ketamine/xylazine groups showed the largest b-waves with the isoflurane group showing slightly shorter implicit times at the higher flash intensities. Oscillatory potentials revealed an early peak in the isoflurane group compared with ketamine/xylazine and urethane groups. Pancuronium did not affect the a- and b-wave, but did increase oscillatory potential amplitudes. Compared with the other anesthetics tested here, ketamine/xylazine + pancuronium was the best combination to minimize eye movement and maximize retinal function. These findings should set the stage for further development and application of high-resolution functional imaging techniques, such as MRI, to study retinal anatomy, physiology, and function in anesthetized rats. PMID:21519880
Nair, Govind; Kim, Moon; Nagaoka, Tsukasa; Olson, Darin E; Thulé, Peter M; Pardue, Machelle T; Duong, Timothy Q
Collisions between birds and aircraft (birdstrikes) have caused the loss of at least 88 aircraft and 243 lives in world civil aviation. Conservative estimates suggest that more routine damage and delays following birdstrikes cost the industry and its insurers US$1.2-1.5 billion per year. The majority of strikes happen close to airports and most countries have regulations that require airport managers to control the birdstrike risk on their property. Birdstrike prevention has, however, lagged behind other aspects of flight safety in the development and implementation of risk assessment protocols, possibly because of the inherent difficulty in quantifying the variability in the populations and behavior of the various bird species involved. This article presents a technique that uses both national and airport-specific data to evaluate risk by creating a simple probability-times-severity matrix. It uses the frequency of strikes reported for different bird species at a given airport over the preceding five years as a measure of strike probability, and the proportion of strikes with each species that result in damage to aircraft, in the national birdstrike database, as a measure of likely severity. Action thresholds for risk levels for particular bird species are then defined, above which the airport should take action to reduce the risk further. The assessment is designed for airports where the reporting and collation of birdstrike events is reasonably consistent over time and where a bird hazard management program of some sort is already in place. This risk assessment is designed to measure risk to the airport as a business rather than risk to the traveling passenger individually. It therefore takes no account of aircraft movement rate in the calculations and is aimed at minimizing the number of damaging incidents rather than concentrating on catastrophic events. Once set up at an airport, the technique is simple to implement for nonexperts, and it allows managers to focus bird control resources on the species causing the greatest risk, hence maximizing the return on investment. This protocol is now being successfully used at major airports in the United Kingdom and elsewhere in the world. PMID:16834629
The molecular mechanisms of modern inhaled anesthetics are still poorly understood although they are widely used in clinical settings. Considerable evidence supports effects on membrane proteins including ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels of excitable cells. Na+ channels are crucial to action potential initiation and propagation, and represent potential targets for volatile anesthetic effects on central nervous system depression. Inhibition of presynaptic Na+ channels leads to reduced neurotransmitter release at the synapse and could therefore contribute to the mechanisms by which volatile anesthetics produce their characteristic end points: amnesia, unconsciousness, and immobility. Early studies on crayfish and squid giant axon showed inhibition of Na+ currents by volatile anesthetics at high concentrations. Subsequent studies using native neuronal preparations and heterologous expression systems with various mammalian Na+ channel isoforms implicated inhibition of presynaptic Na+ channels in anesthetic actions at clinical concentrations. Volatile anesthetics reduce peak Na+ current (INa) and shift the voltage of half-maximal steady-state inactivation (h?) toward more negative potentials, thus stabilizing the fast-inactivated state. Furthermore recovery from fast-inactivation is slowed, together with enhanced use-dependent block during pulse train protocols. These effects can depress presynaptic excitability, depolarization and Ca2+ entry, and ultimately reduce transmitter release. This reduction in transmitter release is more potent for glutamatergic compared to GABAergic terminals. Involvement of Na+ channel inhibition in mediating the immobility caused by volatile anesthetics has been demonstrated in animal studies, in which intrathecal infusion of the Na+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin increases volatile anesthetic potency, whereas infusion of the Na+ channels agonist veratridine reduces anesthetic potency. These studies indicate that inhibition of presynaptic Na+ channels by volatile anesthetics is involved in mediating some of their effects. PMID:22479247
As the size of typical industrial strength information systems continues to rise, particularly in the arena of Internet based management information systems and multimedia servers, the issue of managing data distribution over clusters or `farms' to overcome performance and scalability issues is becoming of paramount importance. Further, where access is global, this can cause points of geographically localized load contention to `follow the sun' during the day. Traditional site mirroring is not overly effective in addressing this contention and so a more dynamic approach is being investigated to tackle load balancing. The general objective is to manage a self-adapting, distributed database so as to reliably and consistently provide near optimal performance as perceived by client applications. Such a management system must be ultimately capable of operating over a range of time varying usage profiles and fault scenarios, incorporate considerations for communications network delays, multiple updates and maintenance operations. It must also be shown to be capable of being scaled in a practical fashion to ever larger sized networks and databases. Two key components of such an automated system are an optimiser capable of efficiently finding new configuration options, and a suitable model of the system capable of accurately reflecting the performance (or any other required quality of service metric) of the real world system. As conditions change in the real world system, these are fed into the model. The optimiser is then run to find new configurations which are tested in the model prior to implementation in the real world. The model therefore forms an evaluation function which the optimiser utilises to direct its search. Whilst it has already been shown that Genetic Algorithms can provide good solutions to this problem, there are a number of issues associated with this approach. In particular, for industrial strength applications, it must be shown that the GA employed can provide reliable and consistent performance. This paper investigates evolutionary computation techniques, comparing results from genetic algorithms, simulated annealing and hillclimbing. Major differential algorithm performance is found across different fitness criteria. Preliminary conclusions are that a genetic algorithm approach seems superior to hillclimbing or simulated annealing when more realistic (from a quality of service viewpoint) objective functions are used. Further, the genetic algorithm approach displays regions of adequate robustness to parameter variation, which is also critical from a maintained quality of service viewpoint.
Perforation peritonitis is a common surgical emergency. Anesthesia in patients with perforation peritonitis can be challenging. Delayed presentations, old age, hemodynamic instability, presence of sepsis and organ dysfunction are some of the predictors of poor outcome in such patients. Pre-operative optimization can reduce intraoperative and post-operative morbidity and mortality, but surgery should not be unnecessarily delayed. Intensive care in critical care settings may be essential. PMID:24249978
These Project TEAMS (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills) instructional materials consist of five units for use in training business and industrial supervisors. Unit 1 is designed to help managers in business or industry increase management skills in regard to leadership techniques, problem solving and decision making, and…
THIS PAPER, PRESENTED AT THE SYMPOSIUM ON THE APPLICATION OF SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENTTECHNIQUES TO EDUCATIONAL PLANNING IN CALIFORNIA, JUNE 12-13, 1967, DISCUSSES THE USES OF SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENTTECHNIQUES IN PROGRAM PLANNING AND EVALUATION. THE DISCUSSION FOCUSES ON THE GENERAL CONCEPT OF MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND, WITHIN THIS…
The use of various nonpharmacologic behavior managementtechniques is an integral part of pediatric dental practice. These techniques enjoy broad-based acceptance within the profession, but until recently there has been little syste~natic attempt to ascertain the opinion of parents on the issue of behavior management. New findings suggest that many parents do not approve of the more commonly used management
Patricia P. Hagan; John P. Hagan; J. Bernard Machen
This paper examines some of the important organizational consequences of popular managementtechniques. Using informational reports on quality, empowerment, and teams, as well as a measure of the implementation of total quality management programs, we found that companies associated with popular managementtechniques did not have higher economic performance. Nevertheless, these same companies were more admired, perceived to be more
A series of case reports acknowledges the efficacy of dexmedetomidine as a sole sedative for awake intubations in managing a critical airway. However, most case reports documented in the literature used topicalization of the oropharynx either via nebulized lidocaine or the spray-as-you-go technique with either 2% or 4% lidocaine spray to achieve successful intubation. The following case report presents an intensive care unit (ICU) patient with a critical airway who had a true documented allergy to local anesthetics. This case report demonstrates that dexmedetomidine appears to be useful for sedation during awake intubations in critical airways, without the need for airway topicalization. The ability of dexmedetomidine to act as a sedative, anxiolytic, analgesic, and antisialagogue without causing respiratory depression is promising to the field of anesthesiology. Additional studies are needed to elucidate its potential role as the sole agent for awake fiberoptic intubation. PMID:21553097
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is the preferred route of feeding and nutritional support in patients with a functional gastrointestinal system who require long-term enteral nutrition. Besides its well-known advantages over parenteral nutrition, PEG offers superior access to the gastrointestinal system over surgical methods. Considering that nowadays PEG tube placement is one of the most common endoscopic procedures performed worldwide, knowing its indications and contraindications is of paramount importance in current medicine. PEG tubes are sometimes placed inappropriately in patients unable to tolerate adequate oral intake because of incorrect and unrealistic understanding of their indications and what they can accomplish. Broadly, the two main indications of PEG tube placement are enteral feeding and stomach decompression. On the other hand, distal enteral obstruction, severe uncorrectable coagulopathy and hemodynamic instability constitute the main absolute contraindications for PEG tube placement in hospitalized patients. Although generally considered to be a safe procedure, there is the potential for both minor and major complications. Awareness of these potential complications, as well as understanding routine aftercare of the catheter, can improve the quality of care for patients with a PEG tube. These complications can generally be classified into three major categories: endoscopic technical difficulties, PEG procedure-related complications and late complications associated with PEG tube use and wound care. In this review we describe a variety of minor and major tube-related complications as well as strategies for their management and avoidance. Different methods of percutaneous PEG tube placement into the stomach have been described in the literature with the “pull” technique being the most common method. In the last section of this review, the reader is presented with a brief discussion of these procedures, techniques and related issues. Despite the mentioned PEG tube placement complications, this procedure has gained worldwide popularity as a safe enteral access for nutrition in patients with a functional gastrointestinal system. PMID:24976711
Rahnemai-Azar, Ata A; Rahnemaiazar, Amir A; Naghshizadian, Rozhin; Kurtz, Amparo; Farkas, Daniel T
There are many conditions where it is useful for anesthetists to have a knowledge of blood rheology. Blood rheology plays an important role in numerous clinical situations. Hemorheologic changes may significantly affect the induction and recovery times with anesthetic agents. But also, hemorheologic factors are directly or indirectly affected by many anesthetic agents or their metabolites. In this review, the blood rheology with special emphasis on its application in anesthesiology, the importance hemorheological parameters in anesthesiology and also the effect of some anesthetic substances on red blood cell rheology were presented.
This field project involves a study of the Japanese-owned automotive assembly plants, or “transplants,” in the United States and the management and labor-relations techniques that have made them successful. The management and labor...
PurposeScrotal pouch orchiopexy without suture fixation will result in strong atraumatic fixation of the testis in the management of undescended testis. We describe a similar technique that is effective in the management of testicular torsion.
While not ignoring risk, agricultural cooperatives tend to accommodate risk through the holding of internal capital reserves rather than engage in active risk management. A lack of information regarding the risk, returns, and the effect on cooperative financial performance of both traditional and innovative risk management strategies is likely a constraint to the adoption of active risk management by cooperatives.
Mark R. Manfredo; Timothy J. Richards; Scott McDermott
Anesthetic potency increases at lower temperatures. In contrast, the transfer enthalpy of volatile anesthetics from water to macromolecules is usually positive. The transfer decreases at lower temperature. It was proposed that a few selective proteins bind volatile anesthetics with negative delta H, and these proteins are involved in signal transduction. There has been no report on direct estimation of binding delta H of anesthetics to proteins. This study used isothermal titration calorimetry to analyze chloroform binding to bovine serum albumin. The calorimetrically measured delta H cal was -10.37 kJ.mol-1. Thus the negative delta H of anesthetic binding is not limited to signal transduction proteins. The binding was saturable following Fermi-Dirac statistics and is characterized by the Langmuir adsorption isotherms, which is interfacial. The high-affinity association constant, K, was 2150 +/- 132 M-1 (KD = 0.47 mM) with the maximum binding number, Bmax = 3.7 +/- 0.2. The low-affinity K was 189 +/- 3.8 M-1 (KD = 5.29 mM), with a Bmax of 13.2 +/- 0.3. Anesthetic potency is a function of the activity of anesthetic molecules, not the concentration. Because the sign of delta H determines the temperature dependence of distribution of anesthetic molecules, it is irrelevant to the temperature dependence of anesthetic potency. PMID:9083685
Background The evaluation of patient satisfaction is a core aspect of the continuous quality improvement in anesthesia service that can be affected by the preoperative anesthetist visit. This visit enables the anesthetist to know about the patient’s general health status and the nature of surgery, to choose the type of anesthesia, and to discuss perioperative complications and their management with the patient. Patients have sometimes complained about the information given during the preoperative anesthetic evaluation in the University of Gondar teaching and referral hospital. The aim of this study was to determine the level of patient satisfaction with the preoperative anesthetist visit. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from February 15 to April 15, 2013. All consecutive elective patients who were operated upon under anesthesia during the study period were interviewed 24 hours after operation. A pretested questionnaire and checklists, which were developed based on the hospital’s anesthetic evaluation sheet, were used for data collection. Results A total of 116 elective patients were operated upon under anesthesia during the study period. Of these, 102 patients were included in our study, with a response rate of 87.9%. Anesthetists introduced themselves to ?24% patients; provided information about anesthesia to ?32%, postoperative complications to ?21%, postoperative analgesia to ?18, and postoperative nausea and vomiting to ?21%; and spent adequate time with ?74%. Patients’ questions were answered by the anesthetist in ?65% of cases, and ?65% of patients had reduced anxiety after the anesthetist visit. The patients’ overall satisfaction with the preoperative anesthetist visit was ?65%. Conclusion and recommendation Patient satisfaction with the preoperative anesthetic evaluation was low compared with the Royal College of Anaesthetists standards. Preoperative anesthetic evaluation should be emphasized. PMID:25258564
Gebremedhn, Endale Gebreegziabher; Nagaratnam, Vidhya
Local anesthetics have an impressive history of efficacy and safety in medical and dental practice. Their use is so routine, and adverse effects are so infrequent, that providers may understandably overlook many of their pharmacotherapeutic principles. The purpose of this continuing education article is to provide a review and update of essential pharmacology for the various local anesthetic formulations in current use. Technical considerations will be addressed in a subsequent article. PMID:22822998
Local anesthetics have an impressive history of efficacy and safety in medical and dental practice. Their use is so routine, and adverse effects are so infrequent, that providers may understandably overlook many of their pharmacotherapeutic principles. The purpose of this continuing education article is to provide a review and update of essential pharmacology for the various local anesthetic formulations in current use. Technical considerations will be addressed in a subsequent article. PMID:22822998
Aspirative capnography may be of help to diagnose early childhood asthma, but clinical usefulness in young children is limited by the relatively high respiratory rate. This study aimed to characterize the [Formula: see text] time course during airway constriction in 8 anesthetized rabbits, artificially ventilated at 30, 60 and 80breaths/min. Methacholine was inhaled to double the respiratory resistance measured at 8Hz by the forced oscillation technique. The capnogram shape changed in response to both methacholine and ventilatory frequency. Slope of phase II, the peak of first-order time derivative and trough of the second-order time derivative of the [Formula: see text] signal, were significantly attenuated after methacholine compared with baseline at all breathing rates (p<0.02). Moreover, significant correlations between respiratory reactance and resistance were observed with the phase III slope and the angle described by phase II and phase III (p<0.01). It is concluded that capnography may be useful to identify acute airway changes related to bronchoconstriction, even at high breathing frequencies. PMID:24035836
Ioan, I; Demoulin, B; Duvivier, C; Leblanc, A L; Bonabel, C; Marchal, F; Schweitzer, C; Varechova, S
This study sought to determine the levels of blood contamination found in and/or on used dental anesthetic cartridges and to measure antibacterial effects after exposure to a local anesthetic solution. The study analyzed a total of 1000 used cartridges from an oral surgery clinic, containing 1 of 3 anesthetic types. Blood testing included visual observations (using a dissecting microscope) and chemical analyses. From each cartridge, either 0.5 ml of residual anesthetic solution or a combination of anesthetic solution plus added saline was removed. Using reagent strip dipsticks, the solutions were analyzed for minute amounts of blood. Visual examinations were scored on a positive or negative scale. In addition, 4 types of bacteria were mixed with lidocaine or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for up to 30 days, and viable cell counts decreases were measured for the 2 solutions. A majority of the cartridges evaluated contained lidocaine, and while only 7 of the 1000 cartridges examined contained visible blood, the reagent strips detected blood in more than 76% of all cartridges. Lidocaine and PBS produced similar bacterial death rates. The authors concluded that blood contamination levels in the absence of pronounced antibacterial activity indicate that dental anesthetic cartridges could be considered a potential type of regulated medical waste. PMID:23454319
Leadership and management have become topics of recent interest in athletic training. These skills are distinct from each other and are vital to a successful and efficient athletic training room. Leadership is an influence relationship, while management is an authority relationship. Leadership is concerned with knowing yourself, your staff, your profession, and how to apply people skills. Management is concerned with organization, communication, and the development of your athletic training facility's mission. By applying good management and leadership skills, you can implement your mission statement, evaluate your results, and improve the performance of your athletic training facility. PMID:16558296
The three-in-one technique of simultaneously blocking the femoral, the lateral femoral cutaneous (LFC), and the obturator nerves by a single injection of a local anesthetic was first described in 1973, and it was suggested that the underlying mechanism was one of cephalad spread re- sulting in a blockade of the lumbar plexus. Today, the technique is widely used in surgery
Peter Marhofer; Christian Sitzwohl; Stephan Kapral
This article describes the effort to join two different approaches for the development of the proactive network management. The first approach was developed in the Laboratory of Network and Management, at Federal University of Santa Catarina, which uses remote monitoring and simulation tools. The second one, was developed in the National Supercomputing Center, which handles the problem with artificial intelligence
A. S. M. de Franceschi; M. A. da Rocha; H. L. Weber; C. B. Westphall
These Project TEAMS (Techniques and Education for Achieving Management Skills) instructional materials consist of five units for use in training health care administrators. Unit 1 contains materials designed to help the health care administrators increase their management skills in regard to self-awareness, time management, problem solving,…
The American Society for Pain Management Nursing believes that the administration of analgesia and the management of the associated effects are fundamental nursing responsibilities. This position statement will address the registered nurse’s responsibilities for the management and monitoring of analgesia by catheter techniques in all patients of all ages and in all care settings. It will provide recommendations for the
Chris Pasero; Nancy Eksterowicz; Maggie Primeau; Charlene Cowley
decided to offer a five-day course on 365 #12;"Esthetics and Visual Resource Management for Highways Management (VRM) processes for their own agencies. Training Course The Federal Highway Administration1/ Presented at the National Conference on Applied Techniques for Analysis and Management
This article is a summary of the final report on a study, the purpose of which was to define and assess the effect of participatory management in penology. It also distinguishes legend from fact and mythology from reality. (Author)
An RFID-based mobile handheld inventory management system is proposed in this paper. Differing from the manual inventory management method, the proposed system works on the personal digital assistant (PDA) with an RFID reader. The system identifies electronic tags on the properties and checks the property information in the back-end database server through a ubiquitous wireless network. The system also provides a set of functions to manage the back-end inventory database and assigns different levels of access privilege according to various user categories. In the back-end database server, to prevent improper or illegal accesses, the server not only stores the inventory database and user privilege information, but also keeps track of the user activities in the server including the login and logout time and location, the records of database accessing, and every modification of the tables. Some experimental results are presented to verify the applicability of the integrated RFID-based mobile handheld inventory management system.
The structural defects associated with the various forms of congenital heart disease lead to pathological and functional changes that place patients at risk for adverse events, and in fact the perioperative incidence of morbidity and mortality has been documented to be increased in children with congenital heart disease. Patients with congenital heart disease can present to the anesthesiologist in a relatively precarious state of balance of several hemodynamic factors, including preload, ventricular contractility, systemic vascular resistance, pulmonary vascular resistance, heart rate, and cardiac rhythm. Anesthetic drugs can affect each of these, and an ideal anesthetic drug for such patients does not exist. The purpose of this article is to review the hemodynamic effects of anesthetic drugs and how they may contribute to the occurrence of adverse events in children with congenital heart disease. PMID:25053242
Long-acting local anesthetics have proved to be effective for the suppression of both intraoperative and postoperative pain. They are useful for lengthy dental treatments and for prevention of severe pain following many types of surgical procedures. Although the currently available long-acting local anesthetics for dentistry have minimal side effects in the doses usually employed, there are potential problems. Bupivacaine, for example, can cause significant cardiac depressant and dysrhythmogenic responses. Etidocaine has less pronounced effects on the cardiovascular system, but its use may be associated with inadequate control of intraoperative bleeding. A new long-acting local anesthetic, ropivacaine, appears to offer advantages over either of the currently used long-acting agents. PMID:1308373
Antley-Bixler syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by multiple bone and cartilaginous abnormalities. The main features of this syndrome include brachycephaly, midface hypoplasia, dysplasia of ears and nose, radiohumeral synostosis, choanal stenosis, or atresia. Distinctive features are based on craniofacial deformity and humeroradial synostosis. In this report, we describe the anesthesia management of a 20-year-old Antley-Bixler syndrome patient who underwent maxillary advancement via Le Fort I osteotomy. During surgical management of craniofacial syndrome patients, particularly Antley-Bixler syndrome, the whole surgical team should be aware of possible deformities involving the airway, which may be underestimated or nondetected prior to surgery. These deformities including choanal atresia/stenosis may lead to failure of nasotracheal intubation and mask ventilation, therefore jeopardizing the surgical procedure and/or patient safety. Accurate preoperative preparation and being aware of the components of this syndrome is vital to eliminate respiratory complications and enable uneventful anesthetic and surgical management. PMID:23348324
Various conventions have been established for the Protection and Use of Trans-boundary Watercourses and International Lakes which aim to strengthen national measures for the protection and ecologically sound management of trans-boundary surface waters and groundwater and establish concrete procedural obligations of cooperation between littoral states. They also include provisions for monitoring, research and development, consultations, warning and alarm systems, mutual
Described is a structured approach to managing behavior and increasing socialization skills of severely disturbed children in primary and adolescent classrooms. It is noted that manual signing accompanied by verbalization, gesture, and physical assisting is used to communicate behavioral expectations in the primary class; while in the adolescent…
This paper examines the contributions of Industrial Engineering and Management Science toward reduction in the cost of production and distribution of food. Food processing firms were requested to respond to a questionnaire which asked for examples of their use of various operations research tools and information on the number of operations…
Time not only flies when we're having fun, but also when we're filing paperwork, checking e-mail, and looking for our car keys. But you can add hours to your day by managing yourself rather than time. Here's how. PMID:12822392
This paper discusses the case of a patient who experienced adverse reactions to a local anesthetic. It reviews symptoms of adverse reactions, possible causes, patient management, and alternative anesthesia modes. The second part of the paper discusses the product leaflet information and the associated legal issues. PMID:22915891
A 43-year-old woman with a history of lidocaine allergy required dermatologic surgery during pregnancy. To accomplish this without the use of general anesthesia, intradermal allergy testing was performed. This information enabled appropriate anesthetic care for a tissue biopsy at 29 weeks’ gestation and subsequent labor analgesia and obstetric management at term. (Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001;185:1253–4.)
The application of aeration/circulation techniques to lakes are reviewed from a theoretical and practical viewpoint. The effect of destratification on algal production is related to the mixed depth with the use of a mathematical model. Procedures are given to determine air requir...
These techniques determine when to speed up a processor to reach performance targets and when to slow it down to save energy. They use dynamic voltage and frequency scaling to balance speed and avoid worst case frequency limitations for both multiple-clock-domain and chip multiprocessors.
Qiang Wu; Philo Juang; Margaret Martonosi; Li-shiuan Peh; Douglas W. Clark
Describes some clinical observations of procrastinating and procrastinators and addresses how these observations have led to the development of a guaranteed scheduling technique (GST) to treat procrastination. Discusses the elements of GST and its implementation. Initial student reactions to GST have been favorable. (Author/RC)
We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of existing tools with respect to the Internet Protocol security (IPsec) name mapping problem: how to ensure a correct mapping between application-layer target names and network-layer target names. We show that DNSSEC is neither necessary nor sufficient for solving the IPsec name mapping problem. We describe design and implementation results for new techniques that
...Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Local anesthetic active ingredients. 346.10 Section 346.10...OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 346.10 Local anesthetic active ingredients. The active...
...Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Local anesthetic active ingredients. 346.10 Section 346.10...OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 346.10 Local anesthetic active ingredients. The active...
...Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Local anesthetic active ingredients. 346.10 Section 346.10...OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 346.10 Local anesthetic active ingredients. The active...
...Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Local anesthetic active ingredients. 346.10 Section 346.10...OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 346.10 Local anesthetic active ingredients. The active...
...Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Local anesthetic active ingredients. 346.10 Section 346.10...OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 346.10 Local anesthetic active ingredients. The active...
Very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrongenase deficiency (VLCADD) is a rare disorder of fatty acid metabolism that renders sufferers susceptible to hypoglycemia, liver failure, cardiomyopathy, and rhabdomyolysis. The literature about the management of these patients is hugely conflicting, suggesting that both propofol and volatile anesthesia should be avoided. We have reviewed the literature and have concluded that the source papers do not support the statements that volatile anesthetic agents are unsafe. The reports on rhabdomyolysis secondary to anesthesia appear to be due to inadequate supply of carbohydrate not volatile agents. Catabolism must be avoided with minimal fasting, glucose infusions based on age and weight, and attenuation of emotional and physical stress. General anesthesia appears to be protective of stress-induced catabolism and may offer benefits in children and anxious patients over regional anesthesia. Propofol has not been demonstrated to be harmful in VLCADD but is presented in an emulsion containing very long-chain fatty acids which can cause organ lipidosis and itself can inhibit mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism. It is therefore not recommended. Suxamethonium-induced myalgia may mimic symptoms of rhabdomyolysis and cause raised CK therefore should be avoided. Opioids, NSAIDS, regional anesthesia, and local anesthetictechniques have all been used without complication. PMID:25069536
Proper golf technique and equipment and preventive measures can minimize golf-related injuries of the back, shoulders, elbows, and hands and wrists. Rotating the shoulder and hip a similar amount during the backswing and keeping the spine vertical during the follow-through can reduce lumbar spine strain. A rigid back support may lower the risk of vertebral compression fracture in osteoporotic patients. Shortening the backswing can decrease pressure on a degenerative acromioclavicular joint. Therapy for 'golfer's elbow' includes medial counterforce bracing, larger club grips, and graphite shafts. Treatments for wrist and hand disorders include proper swing and grip technique and larger, softer grips. Diagnosis of the easy-to-miss fracture of the hook of the hamate may require tomogram, CT, or MRI. PMID:20086732
In this study, a new method for terminating second trimester pregnancies complicated by intrauterine fetal death is analysed. The technique consisted of a combination of extraamniotic ethacridine lactate with intramuscular sulprostone (16-phenoxy-omega-17,18,19,20 tetranor PGE2 methyl sulfonylamide). Objective documentation of the efficacy of this method was obtained by continuous monitoring of intrauterine pressure in two patients. The method was found to be simple, safe, cheap and effective and deserves increased acceptance. PMID:2564363
Topics dealing with the integration of remotely sensed data with geographic information system for application in energy resources management are discussed. Associated remote sensing and image analysis techniques are also addressed.
Brumfield, J. O. (editor); Schiffman, Y. M. (editor)
Discusses communication by objectives, a strategy that extends management by objectives techniques into the area of communication to strengthen ties between decision making and decision communicating. Discusses its classroom application. (FL)
Our research demonstrates that supply chain managementtechniques can improve the incremental gross profits of wind plant and storage operations by up to five times. Using Monte-Carlo simulation we create and test scenarios ...
Enteral feeding is considered a widespread, well-accepted means of delivering nutrition to adults and children who are unable to consume food by mouth or who need support in maintaining adequate nutrition for a variety of reasons, including acute and chronic disease states. Delivery of enteral feeding to nutritionally deprived patients may be achieved by several means. In this article, the indications and insertion of enteral access in children will be reviewed. In addition, common complications and management of problems will be discussed.
Nijs, Els L. F., E-mail: email@example.com [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Clinical Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (United States); Cahill, Anne Marie, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (United States)
The infrared spectra of some local anesthetics in the solid state are reported. A temperature study is also realized, especially on the p-amino group. The CNDO/2 method has been applied to calculate the V2 torsional barrier, these values being compared with those obtained from other conventional methods. The origin of the tilt angle in these compounds is discussed.
All of the amino-ester compounds are derivatives of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), which is a known allergen. All ester compounds are hydrolyzed and yield PABA as an intermediate metabolite. Many patients may have already been exposed to parabens before they receive their first local anesthetic injection. Methyl- and propylparaben are additives in many lotions, cosmetics and foodstuffs and are used to
Patients with drug allergy show a specific immune response to drugs. Chemically nonreactive drugs like, for example, local anesthetics are directly recognized by ??+ T cells in an HLA-DR restricted way, as neither drug metabolism nor protein processing is required for T cell stimulation. In this study we identified some of the structural requirements that determine cross-reactivity of T cells
Martin P Zanni; Salome von Greyerz; Yvonne Hari; Benno Schnyder; Werner J Pichler
The details of an unusual autoerotic death are presented; the postulated method of induction of cerebral hypoxia was inhalation of nitrous oxide from a dental anesthetic machine; the theme of dental anesthesia, presumably an elaborate bondage fetish, recurred in documentary material found at the scene. PMID:3354528
The Risk Management System collects information from engineering, operating, and management personnel to identify potentially hazardous conditions. This information is used in risk analysis, problem resolution, and contingency planning. The resulting hazard accountability system enables management to monitor all identified hazards. Data from this system are examined in project reviews so that management can decide to eliminate or accept these risks. This technique is particularly effective in improving the management of risks in large, complex, high-energy facilities. These improvements are needed for increased cooperation among industry, regulatory agencies, and the public.
Objective To describe the technique and complications of sonographically guided anesthetic injection of the anterior scalene muscle\\u000a in patients being investigated for neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Material and methods Subjects were identified via a retrospective review of medical records. For the procedure a 25-gauge needle was introduced\\u000a into the anterior scalene muscle under real-time ultrasound guidance followed by injection of local anesthetic.
The primary mode of action of local anesthetics is through sodium channel and axonal conduction block- ade. Local anesthetics also have extensive effects on presynaptic calcium channels that must function to stimulate the release of neurotransmitters. Thus, inter- ference with calcium channel conductance may en- hance spinal anesthesia with local anesthetics. The present study was designed to investigate the effects
Germination of Panicum capillare L. caryopses induced by solutions of ethanol and ethyl ether was prevented by application of pressure >1 MPa during the period of exposure to the anesthetic. This effect of pressure indicates that germination is correlated with expansion at a site of anesthetic action in a cell membrane. The effects of several other anesthetics were measured on
Background and Objectives. Recently it has been demonstrated that the use of ultrasound (US) improves the onset time and the quality of sensory block for 3-in-1 blocks compared with conventional nerve stimulator (NS) techniques. The present study was designed to evaluate if US guidance for 3-in-1 blocks reduces the amount of local anesthetic compared to NS guidance. Methods. After institutional
Peter Marhofer; Klaus Schrögendorfer; Thomas Wallner; Herbert Koinig; Nikolaus Mayer; Stefan Kapral
Postanesthetic pain is a relatively common complication after local anesthesia. This complication may be caused by the anesthetictechnique or by the anesthetic solution used. Tissue reactions induced by the anesthetic solutions may be one of the factors resulting in pain after anesthesia. The objective of this study was to comparatively analyze tissue reactions induced by different anesthetic solutions in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. The following solutions were utilized: 2% lidocaine without vasoconstrictor; a 0.5% bupivacaine solution with 1:200,000 adrenaline; a 4% articaine solution and 2% mepivacaine, both with 1:100,000 adrenaline; and a 0.9% sodium chloride solution as a control. Sterilized absorbent paper cones packed inside polyethylene tubes were soaked in the solutions and implanted in the subcutaneous region. The sacrifice periods were 1, 2, 5, and 10 days after surgery. The specimens were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological analysis. The results showed that there is a difference in tissue irritability produced by the local anesthetic solutions. The results also showed that there is no relation between the concentration of the drug and the inflammatory intensity, that the mepivacaine and articaine solutions promoted less inflammatory reaction than the bupivacaine, and that the lidocaine solution produced the least intense inflammation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:14959905
Ribeiro, Paulo Domingos; Sanches, Marcio Giampietro; Okamoto, Tetuo
We evaluated the effectiveness and practicality of using isoflurane as an inhalation anesthetic with oxygen as a gas carrier for American martens (Martes americana) in a field setting. Sixty-eight martens were trapped in the Waswanipi Cree Model Forest (Québec, Canada) from October to November 2005 and anesthetized with isoflurane in 100% oxygen (1 l/min) using a face mask. Induction setting of isoflurane was 3% for all animals. Mean (+/-SD) length of induction was 1.8+/-1.2 min. Maintenance isoflurane settings ranged from 1% to 4%. Procedures lasted an average of 16.4+/-7.1 min and were uneventful. Length of recovery, defined as the interval between the end of the procedure and animal release, was short (6.3+/-2.8 min), and well below reported lengths of recovery using injectable anesthetics (>/=70 min). As compared to open drop administration of isoflurane described in previous studies, the use of an anesthesia machine prevents the risk of potential fatal anesthetic overdose. We conclude that among anesthesia techniques currently available, isoflurane with oxygen as a gas carrier is a safe and useful field anesthetic in martens, when issues with equipment portability can be overcome. PMID:17984268
Background: Age and body temperature alter inhalational anesthetic requirement; however, no human genotype is associated with inhalational anesthetic requirement. There is an anecdotal impression that anesthetic requirement is increased in redheads. Furthermore, red hair results from distinct mutations of the melanocortin-1 receptor. We thus tested the hypothesis that the requirement for the volatile anesthetic desflurane is greater in natural redhead than in dark-haired women. Methods: We studied healthy women with bright red (n=10) or dark (n=10) hair. Blood was sampled for subsequent analyses of melanocortin-1 receptor alleles. Anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane and maintained with desflurane randomly set at an end-tidal concentration between 5.5 and 7.5%. After an equilibration period, a noxious electrical stimulation (100 Hz, 70 mA) was transmitted through bilateral intradermal needles. If the volunteer moved in response to stimulation, desflurane was increased by 0.5%; otherwise it was decreased by 0.5%. This was continued until volunteers “crossed-over” from movement to non-movement (or vice versa) four times. Individual logistic regression curves were used to determine desflurane requirement (P50). Desflurane requirements in the two groups were compared using Mann-Whitney nonparametric two-sample test; P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The desflurane requirement in redheads (6.2 volume-percent [95% CI, 5.9 - 6.5]) was significantly greater than in dark-haired women (5.2 volume-percent [4.9 – 5.5], P = 0.0004). Nine of 10 redheads were either homozygous or compound heterozygotes for mutations on the melanocortin-1 receptor gene. Conclusions: Red hair appears to be a distinct phenotype linked to anesthetic requirement in humans that can also be traced to a specific genotype. PMID:15277908
Liem, Edwin B.; Lin, Chun-Ming; Suleman, Mohammad-Irfan; Doufas, Anthony G.; Gregg, Ronald G.; Veauthier, Jacqueline M.; Loyd, Gary
The effects of local anesthetics on cultivated macrophages were studied in living preparations and recorded in still pictures and time-lapse cine-micrographs. Exposure to 12mM lidocaine or 1.5 mM tetracaine resulted in rounding in 10-15 min. Rounding was characterized by cell contraction, marked increase in retraction fibrils, withdrawal of cell processes, and, in late stages, pulsation-like activity and zeiosis. Cells showed appreciable membrane activity as they rounded. Respreading was complete within 15 min of perfusion in drug-free medium and entailed a marked increase in surface motility over control periods. As many as eight successive cycles of rounding and spreading were obtained with lidocaine without evidence of cell damage. The effects of anesthetics were similar to those observed with EDTA, but ethylene- glycol-bis(beta-aminoethylether)-N, N'-tetraacetic acid-Mg was ineffective. Rounding was also induced by benzocaine, an anesthetic nearly uncharged at pH 7.0. Quaternary (nondischargeable) compounds were of low activity, presumably because they are slow permeants. Lidocaine induced rounding at 10 degrees C and above but was less effective at 5 degrees C and ineffective at 0 degrees C. Rounding by the anesthetic was also obtained in media depleted or Na or enriched with 10 mM Ca or Mg. The latter finding, together with the failure of tetrodotoxin to induce rounding, suggests that the anesthetic effect is unrelated to inhibition of sodium conductance. It is possible that the drugs influence divalent ion fluxes or some component of the contractile cells' machinery, but a metabolic target of action cannot yet be excluded. PMID:814194
PDE Estimation Techniques for Advanced Battery Management Systems - Part II: SOH Identification S and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 . As such, battery management systems within these advanced transportation vehi- cles and renewable energy resources is battery energy storage. Advanced battery systems represent
PDE Estimation Techniques for Advanced Battery Management Systems - Part I: SOC Estimation S. J (ARRA) of 2009. As such, battery management systems within these advanced transportation and energy- cles and renewable energy resources is battery energy storage. Advanced battery systems represent
the battery life of mobile handhelds to few hours of operation. The research community, and operating system-aware operating systems, efficient resource management, the impact of users' interaction patterns with mobileIEEE COMMUNICATIONS SURVEYS & TUTORIALS, ACCEPTED FOR PUBLICATION 1 Energy ManagementTechniques
Objective: The management of patients with multiple ventricular septal defects remains controversial. Primary closure, interventional catheter techniques, and palliative surgery all may have a role, and specific management guidelines remain undefined. Methods: We reviewed the records of all 33 patients with multiple ventricular septal defects undergoing repair between January 1988 and October 1996. Pulmonary artery hypertension was present in 21
Tetsuya Kitagawa; Lucian A. Durham; Ralph S. Mosca; Edward L. Bove
The improvement of Crisis Management and Disaster Recovery techniques are national priorities in the wake of man-made and nature inflicted calamities of the last decade. Our prior work has demonstrated that the efficiency of sharing and managing information plays an important role in business recovery efforts after disaster event. With the proliferation of smart phones and wireless tablets, professionals who
Li Zheng; Chao Shen; Liang Tang; Tao Li; Steve Luis; Shu-Ching Chen
Previous studies have shown that teachers' aggressive classroom management impacts negatively on students. The authors compared student reaction to teachers' use of aggressive managementtechniques in Australia, China, and Israel. Reactions included distraction negativity toward teachers and perceptions that teachers' responses were unjustified,…
Romi, Shlomo; Lewis, Ramon; Roache, Joel; Riley, Philip
Total quality management and knowledge management are merged and used as a conceptual model to direct and develop information landscaping techniques through the coordination of information mapping, charting, querying, and reporting. Goals included: merge citation analysis and data mining, and apply data visualization and information architecture…
Argues that the knowledge management process can be categorized into knowledge creation, knowledge validation, knowledge presentation, knowledge distribution, and knowledge application activities. To capitalize on knowledge, an organization must be swift in balancing its knowledge management activities. In general, such a balancing act requires changes in organizational culture, technologies, and techniques. A number of organizations believe that by focusing exclusively
Increasing population and water conflicts are making water management one of the most important issues of the present world. It has become absolutely necessary to find ways to manage water more efficiently. Technological advancement has introduced various techniques for data acquisition and analysis, and these tools can be used to address some of the critical issues that challenge water resource
Prepared as part of Platte Technical Community College's project to help managers and supervisors develop practical, up-to-date managerial skills in a relatively short time, this instructional workbook provides information and exercises applicable to on-the-job situations. Unit I focuses on time management, the causes and management of stress, and…
Tests were performed to evaluate three different methods of utilizing air to provide thermal management control for compliant journal foil air bearings. The effectiveness of the methods was based on bearing bulk temperature and axial thermal gradient reductions during air delivery. The first method utilized direct impingement of air on the inner surface of a hollow test journal during operation. The second, less indirect method achieved heat removal by blowing air inside the test journal to simulate air flowing axially through a hollow, rotating shaft. The third method emulated the most common approach to removing heat by forcing air axially through the bearing s support structure. Internal bearing temperatures were measured with three, type K thermocouples embedded in the bearing that measured general internal temperatures and axial thermal gradients. Testing was performed in a 1 atm, 260 C ambient environment with the bearing operating at 60 krpm and supporting a load of 222 N. Air volumetric flows of 0.06, 0.11, and 0.17 cubic meters per minute at approximately 150 to 200 C were used. The tests indicate that all three methods provide thermal management but at different levels of effectiveness. Axial cooling of the bearing support structure had a greater effect on bulk temperature for each air flow and demonstrated that the thermal gradients could be influenced by the directionality of the air flow. Direct air impingement on the journal's inside surface provided uniform reductions in both bulk temperature and thermal gradients. Similar to the direct method, indirect journal cooling had a uniform cooling effect on both bulk temperatures and thermal gradients but was the least effective of the three methods.
Four patients whose religious beliefs prohibited accepting blood during surgery for scoliosis were anesthetized and managed successfully using plateletpheresis and plasmapheresis. Blood losses were replaced with crystalloid and hetastarch solutions. In addition, a moderate hypotensive technique was used to minimize surgical blood loss. Postoperatively, the patients received iron therapy and\\/or erythropoietin. Three of these patients had an uncomplicated postoperative course;
Hierarchical storage of web pages in proxy server and client browser caches introduce coherence problems, which require cache managementtechniques which are both accurate and computationally efficient. We suggest that current approaches, such as the most common Least Recently Used (LRU) technique, are inadequate for future network loads as they do not incorporate the dynamics of document selection and modification.
The Redundant Strapdown Inertial Measurement Unit presently tested in flight configuration consists of a semioctahedral array of four dynamically tuned, two-degree-of-freedom (TDOF) gyros and four TDOF accelerometers which can provide dual, fail-operational performance for integrated avionics systems. Attention is given to the multilevel algorithm used for the detection and isolation of three ranges of sensor failure in an integrated avionics context. A technique for the generation of accelerometer and gyro error thresholds which is sensitive to dynamic sensor errors and separation effects is presented, together with simulation results. Emphasis is placed on the ensuring of highly reliable data for flight control/navigation functions, while minimizing false or missed alarms.
Introduction Demons-Meigs’ syndrome is characterized by the presence of a benign ovarian tumor associated with ascites and a right-sided hydrothorax. Its pathophysiology remains unclear. Anesthesia of this syndrome is a real challenge. Respiratory, hemodynamic, metabolic problems and abdominal hypertension are the main anesthetic risks. Case presentation A 52-year-old African woman with Demons-Meigs’ syndrome was admitted for elective surgery under general anesthesia. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed a tumor mass, with tissue and cystic components associated with abundant ascites and a right pleural effusion of medium abundance. In the operating room after standard monitoring, a crash induction was performed. Just after, her saturation level decreased requiring the use of an alveolar recruitment maneuver followed by the application of positive end-expiratory pressure. Vasoconstrictor and vascular filling were used to correct the hypotension that occurred. Airway pressures remained at 35cm H2O. Maintenance of a slightly proclive position and opening of the abdomen with the progressive removal of 3200ml ascitic fluid allowed a lower thoracic pressure (airway pressures=24cm H2O). Her postoperative course was unremarkable. Clinical evolution after five months was marked by a complete recovery of our patient and no recurrence of effusion or ascites. Conclusions Demons-Meigs’ syndrome is a benign disease with a good prognosis. Respiratory and hemodynamic problems and abdominal hypertension are the main anesthetic risks of this syndrome. Good management of these risks is necessary to preserve the prognosis. PMID:25262179
Background and aims. Parental acceptance and consent are important parameters in selecting the required behavior managementtechnique during pediatric dental treatment. The present study sought to assess the effect of three different informing methods on the parental acceptance, consent and concern regarding the pharmacological and invasive behavior managementtechniques used in pediatric dentistry. Materials and methods. Ninety mothers of 3-6-year-old uncooperative children were selected and randomly assigned to three study groups. The parents in each group were initially asked to answer three questions related to their levels of ‘acceptance’,‘consent’, and ‘concern’ toward the five behavior managementtechniques. Then, the information about the techniques was presented through a piece of writing in group I, verbal presentation in group II and showing a film in group III. At last, the parents answered the same three questions again. Score changes were analyzed by using ANOVA, correlations, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis methods. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in score changes of parental acceptance, consent and concern between the three groups, overall and in relation to each behaviour managementtechnique (P > 0.05). Mothers with aca-demic education revealed more statistically significant concern following presentation of information by film (P < 0.05). Conclusion. None of the presentation methods had a significant preference over the others; in selecting the behavioral managementtechniques, it is advisable to observe individual factors, such as the level of education of the mothers. PMID:25093053
Paryab, Mehrysa; Afshar, Hossein; Mohammadi, Razie
Background Local and volatile anesthetics are widely used for surgery. It is not known whether anesthetics impinge on the orchestrated events in spontaneous resolution of acute inflammation. Here we investigated whether a commonly used local anesthetic (lidocaine) and a widely used inhaled anesthetic (isoflurane) impact the active process of resolution of inflammation. Methods and Findings Using murine peritonitis induced by zymosan and a systems approach, we report that lidocaine delayed and blocked key events in resolution of inflammation. Lidocaine inhibited both PMN apoptosis and macrophage uptake of apoptotic PMN, events that contributed to impaired PMN removal from exudates and thereby delayed the onset of resolution of acute inflammation and return to homeostasis. Lidocaine did not alter the levels of specific lipid mediators, including pro-inflammatory leukotriene B4, prostaglandin E2 and anti-inflammatory lipoxin A4, in the cell-free peritoneal lavages. Addition of a lipoxin A4 stable analog, partially rescued lidocaine-delayed resolution of inflammation. To identify protein components underlying lidocaine's actions in resolution, systematic proteomics was carried out using nanospray-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Lidocaine selectively up-regulated pro-inflammatory proteins including S100A8/9 and CRAMP/LL-37, and down-regulated anti-inflammatory and some pro-resolution peptides and proteins including IL-4, IL-13, TGF-â and Galectin-1. In contrast, the volatile anesthetic isoflurane promoted resolution in this system, diminishing the amplitude of PMN infiltration and shortening the resolution interval (Ri) ?50%. In addition, isoflurane down-regulated a panel of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, as well as proteins known to be active in cell migration and chemotaxis (i.e., CRAMP and cofilin-1). The distinct impact of lidocaine and isoflurane on selective molecules may underlie their opposite actions in resolution of inflammation, namely lidocaine delayed the onset of resoluion (Tmax), while isoflurane shortened resolution interval (Ri). Conclusions Taken together, both local and volatile anesthetics impact endogenous resolution program(s), altering specific resolution indices and selective cellular/molecular components in inflammation-resolution. Isoflurane enhances whereas lidocaine impairs timely resolution of acute inflammation. PMID:18382663
Fredman, Gabrielle; Kasuga, Kie; Gelman, Simon; Serhan, Charles N.
Women living with HIV face unique challenges managing their disease. The purpose of this descriptive, qualitative study was to describe self-managementtechniques reported by 48 women living with HIV in the United States. Participants were involved in one, 90-minute, digitally-recorded focus group exploring aspects of HIV self-management strategies. Descriptive statistics, qualitative description, and content analysis were used to analyze the data. Participants had been living with HIV for an average of 12 years, most (69%) were engaged in routine HIV care (85%) and were currently prescribed antiretroviral therapy. Participants reported using self-managementtechniques: taking personal time (n = 23; 48%), advocacy (n = 12; 25%), sleeping (n = 17, 35%); attending support groups (n = 10; 21%), and attending medical appointments (n = 8; 17%). Nurses can add strategies to enhance HIV self-management to routine clinical care, which may have a positive impact on the health of women living with HIV. PMID:22079674
Webel, Allison R.; Dolansky, Mary A.; Henry, Anna G.; Salata, Robert A.
Prepared as part of Platte Technical Community College's project to help managers and supervisors develop practical, up-to-date managerial skills in a relatively short time, this instructional workbook provides information and exercises applicable to on-the-job situations encountered by independent business owner/managers. Unit I provides…
Miniaturization of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) system may provide several benefits, such as decreasing the manpower,\\u000a cost, and amount of homologous blood required and improving patient care. We have proposed a portable CPB system-mountable\\u000a anesthetic machine. Our portable CPB system consists of a bypass circuit, a hard shell reservoir, a membrane oxygenator, and\\u000a two pumps. The reservoir has three chambers,
Background Local tissue injury from sustained release formulations for local anesthetics can be severe. There is considerable variability in reporting of that injury. We investigated the influence of the intrinsic myotoxicity of the encapsulated local anesthetic (lidocaine, low; bupivacaine, high) on tissue reaction in rats. Methods Cytotoxicity from a range of lidocaine and bupivacaine concentrations was measured in C2C12 myotubes over 6 days. Rats were given sciatic nerve blocks with 4 microparticulate formulations of lidocaine and bupivacaine: 10% (w/w) lidocaine poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA), 10% (w/w) bupivacaine PLGA, 50% (w/w) lidocaine PLGA, and 50% (w/w) bupivacaine PLGA. Effectiveness of nerve blockade was assessed by a modified hotplate test and weight-bearing measurements. Myotoxicity was scored in histologic sections of injection sites. Bupivacaine and lidocaine release kinetics from the particles were measured. Results Median sensory blockade duration for 50% (w/w) lidocaine was 255 (90–540) min versus 840 (277–1215) min for 50% (w/w) bupivacaine (P=0.056). All microparticulate formulations resulted in myotoxicity. The choice of local anesthetic did not influence the severity of myotoxicity. Median myotoxicity scores for 50% (w/w) lidocaine compared to 50% (w/w) bupivacaine at 4 days was 3.4 (2.1–4.2) vs. 3.3 (2.9–3.5)(P=0.44) and at 14 days 1.9 (1.8–2.4) versus 1.7 (1.3–1.9)(P=0.23) respictively. Conclusions Lidocaine and bupivacaine PLGA microspheres resulted in similar degrees of myotoxicity, irrespective of drug loading. Intrinsic myotoxicity did not predict tissue injury from sustained release of these anesthetics. Caution is warranted in the use of such devices near muscle and nerve. PMID:23460564
McAlvin, J. Brian; Reznor, Gally; Shankarappa, Sahadev A.; Stefanescu, Cristina F.; Kohane, Daniel S.
Extracorporeal Shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) is the main outpatient treatment modality for urinary tract calculi. Anesthesia\\u000a and analgesia are provided to treat the cutaneous, somatic, and visceral pain associated with SWL. Multiple anesthetictechniques\\u000a have been used effectively. The decision to employ one technique over another depends on patient, as well as procedural, factors.\\u000a Patient factors include intraoperative analgesia and sedation
In this article, we have proposed a blind, fragile and Region of Interest (ROI) lossless medical image watermarking (MIW) technique, providing an all-in-one solution tool to various medical data distribution and management issues like security, content authentication, safe archiving, controlled access retrieval, and captioning. The proposed scheme combines lossless data compression and encryption technique to embed electronic health record (EHR)/DICOM metadata, image hash, indexing keyword, doctor identification code and tamper localization information in the medical images. Extensive experiments (both subjective and objective) were carried out to evaluate performance of the proposed MIW technique. The findings offer suggestive evidence that the proposed MIW scheme is an effective all-in-one solution tool to various issues of medical information management domain. Moreover, given its relative simplicity, the proposed scheme can be applied to the medical images to serve in many medical applications concerned with privacy protection, safety, and management. PMID:23816251
Purpose – The paper seeks to address the viability of planning and executing the integration of four often independent marketing information managementtechniques, i.e. competitive intelligence (CI), customer relationship management (CRM), data mining (DM) and market research (MR). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research presented is a longitudinal, exploratory and descriptive case study, covering a three-year period during a critical development phase
Urinary stones are a well-established complication of lower urinary tract reconstruction in children and can be managed through an open, percutaneous, or transurethral endoscopic approach for their surgical removal. For children with no urethral access, it is not generally advised to pursue an endoscopic approach through a catheterizable channel. In this study, we describe a safe and effective technique for the endoscopic management of stones through a catheterizable channel in a child with a continent urinary reservoir. PMID:24726150
Vasudevan, Vinaya; Strine, Andrew C; Kaefer, Martin
In this study we used barium currents through voltage gated L-type calcium channels (recorded in freshly isolated cells with a conventional patch-clamp technique) to elucidate the cellular action mechanism for volatile anesthetics. It was found that halothane and isoflurane inhibited (dose-dependently and voltage independently) Ba2+ currents through voltage gated Ca2+ channels. Half maximal inhibitions occurred at 0.64 ± 0.07 mM and 0.86 ± 0.1 mM. The Hill slope value was 2 for both volatile anesthetics, suggesting the presence of more than one interaction site. Current inhibition by volatile anesthetics was prominent over the whole voltage range without changes in the peak of the current voltage relationship. Intracellular infusion of the GDP?S (100 ?M) together with staurosporine (200 nM) did not prevent the inhibitory effect of volatile anesthetics. Unlike pharmacological Ca2+ channel blockers, volatile anesthetics blocked Ca2+ channel currents at resting membrane potentials. In other words, halothane and isoflurane induced an 'initial block'. After the first 4-7 control pulses, the cells were left unstimulated and anesthetics were applied. The first depolarization after the pause evoked a Ca2+ channel current whose amplitude was reduced to 41 ± 3.4% and to 57 ± 4.2% of control values. In an analysis of the steady-state inactivation curve for voltage dependence, volatile anesthetics induced a negative shift of the 50% inactivation of the calcium channels. By contrast, the steepness factor characterizing the voltage sensitivity of the channels was unaffected. Unitary L-type Ca2+ channels blockade occurred under cell-attached configuration, suggesting a possible action of volatile anesthetics from within the intracellular space or from the part of the channel inside the lipid bilayer. PMID:23948226
Breast cancer is the most common type of malignancy in females. Advances in systemic therapies and radiotherapy (RT) provided long survival rates in breast cancer patients. RT has a major role in the management of breast cancer. During the past 15 years several developments took place in the field of imaging and irradiation techniques, intensity modulated RT, hypofractionation and partial-breast irradiation. Currently, improvements in the RT technology allow us a subsequent decrease in the treatment-related complications such as fibrosis and long-term cardiac toxicity while improving the loco-regional control rates and cosmetic results. Thus, it is crucial that modern radiotherapy techniques should be carried out with maximum care and efficiency. Several randomized trials provided evidence for the feasibility of modern radiotherapy techniques in the management of breast cancer. However, the role of modern radiotherapy techniques in the management of breast cancer will continue to be defined by the mature results of randomized trials. Current review will provide an up-to-date evidence based data on the role of modern radiotherapy techniques in the management of breast cancer. PMID:25114857
Background: The evidence-based practice guidelines for the management of chronic spinal pain with interventional techniques were developed to provide recommendations to clinicians in the United States. Objective: To develop evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for interventional techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic spinal pain, utilizing all types of evidence and to apply an evidence-based approach, with broad representation of
Mark V. Boswell; Andrea M. Trescot; Sukdeb Datta; David M. Schultz; Hans C. Hansen; Salahadin Abdi; Nalini Sehgal; Rinoo V. Shah; Vijay Singh; Ramsin M. Benyamin; Vikram B. Patel; Ricardo M. Buenaventura; James D. Colson; Harold J. Cordner; Richard S. Epter; Joseph F. Jasper; Elmer E. Dunbar; Sairam L. Atluri; Richard C. Bowman; Timothy R. Deer; John Swicegood; Peter S. Staats; Howard S. Smith; Allen W. Burton; David S. Kloth; James Giordano; Laxmaiah Manchikanti
The proliferation of Information Computer and Communication Technologies (IC2T) throughout the business environment has led to exponentially increasing amounts of data and information. Although these technologies were implemented to enhance and facilitate superior decision-making, the reality is information overload. Knowledge Management (KM) is a recent managementtechnique designed to make sense of this information chaos. Critical to knowledge management is the application of IC2T. This paper discusses how effective and efficient healthcare operations can ensue through the adoption of a networkcentric healthcare perspective that is grounded in process-oriented knowledge generation and enabled through World Healthcare Information Grid (WHIG). PMID:18048258
??In 2006&mdash-2008, we applied patch-burn managementtechniques to a sandsage (Artemisia filifolia) mixed-grass prairie in western Oklahoma and compared the responses to traditionally managed (i.e.,… (more)
Dynamic power management (DPM) is a design methodology for dynamically reconfiguring systems to provide the requested services and performance levels with a minimum number of active components or a minimum load on such com- ponents. DPM encompasses a set of techniques that achieves energy-efficient computation by selectively turning off (or re- ducing the performance of) system components when they are
Luca Benini; Alessandro Bogliolo; Giovanni De Micheli
This paper presents the findings from research using the critical incident technique to identify the use of key competencies for communication management practitioners. Qualitative data was generated from 202 critical incidents reported by 710 respondents. We also present a brief summary of the quantitative data, which identified two superordinate…
We examined cultural differences in mothers' acceptance of and intent to use behavioral parenting techniques for managing disruptive child behavior, and the possible roles of parenting styles and implicit theories in explaining these cultural differences. A community sample of 117 Euro-Canadian and Chinese-immigrant mothers of boys aged 4- to…
THE COMBINED APPLICATION OF SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENTTECHNIQUES IS DESCRIBED AS AN EFFECTIVE WAY TO ACHIEVE OPTIMUM RESULTS IN THE PLANNING AND EXECUTION OF PROJECTS IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION. PROJECTS OF THIS TYPE ARE GENERALLY FINITE, COMPLEX, HOMOGENOUS, AND NONREPETITIVE. SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF A PROJECT INCLUDES ITS DISASSEMBLY INTO…
Consumers' willingness to accept treatments is an important concern of clinicians and clinical researchers, particularly when treating children. However, few studies have directly asked parents to give reasons for accepting or refusing treatments. In the current study, 82 parents read descriptions of six behavioral child managementtechniques,…
This study evaluates the use of graphing calculators in the science classroom within the context of a collaborative action research approach. A class of diversified middle-class students (n=650) defined by teachers and administrators as "above average" were studied. Initially, information was gathered on current classroom managementtechniques as…
Topics dealing with the integration of remotely sensed data with geographic information system for application in energy resources management are discussed. Associated remote sensing and image analysis techniques are also addressed. For individual titles, see N83-26156 through N83-26175.
This paper describes how knowledge-based techniques can be used to overcome problems of workflow management in engineering applications. Using explicit process and product models as a basis for a workflow interpreter allows to alternate planning and execution steps, resulting in an increased flexibility of project coordination and enactment. To gain the full advantages of this flexibility, change processes have to
Healthcare organizations must find ways for managing conflict and developing effective working relationships to create healthy work environments. The effects of unresolved conflict on clinical outcomes, staff retention, and the financial health of the organization lead to many unnecessary costs that divert resources from clinical care. The complexity of delivering critical care services makes conflict resolution difficult. Developing collaborative working relationships helps to manage conflict in complex environments. Working relationships are based on the ability to deal with differences. Dealing with differences requires skill development and techniques for balancing interests and communicating effectively. Techniques used by mediators are effective for resolving disputes and developing working relationships. With practice, these techniques are easily transferable to the clinical setting. Listening for understanding, reframing, elevating the definition of the problem, and forming clear agreements can foster working relationships, decrease the level of conflict, and create healthy work environments that benefit patients and professionals. PMID:15461035
Delineates five selected hypnotically based techniques of client resistance management pioneered by Milton H. Erickson: acceptance; paradoxical encouragement; reframing; displacement; dissociation. Explains how techniques can be applied to nonhypnotic mental health counseling. Discusses relevant clinical, theoretical, and empirical issues related…
Sepsis is often associated with upregulation of nitric oxide production and fever, and it is common to control an excessive febrile response with antipyretic therapy and external cooling. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of hypothermia on NO production in a model of septic shock. Rats were anesthetized, ventilated, and instrumented for hemodynamic monitoring and divided into four groups. Normothermic controls (NC) received saline intravenously and were maintained at 37 °C. Hypothermic controls (HC) received saline but were allowed to become hypothermic. Normothermic endotoxic (NE) received Escherichia Coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS) intravenously to induce endotoxic shock and was maintained at 37 °C. Hypothermic endotoxic (HE) received LPS intravenously and was allowed to become hypothermic. Exhaled NO (NOe) was measured from mixed expired gas at time zero and every 30 min, for 5 h. After injection of LPS, NOe increased substantially in the NE group (700 ± 24 ppb), but increased only to 25 ± 2 ppb in the HE group. NOe increased to 90 ± 3 ppb in the NC group, and to 17.6 ± 3.1 ppb in the HC group after 5 h (P < 0.05), whilst blood pressure remained stable. In the HE group, blood pressure fell immediately after injection of the LPS, but thereafter remained stable despite the rise in NOe. In the NE group, the blood pressure fell gradually, and the animals became hypotensive. During the natural course of endotoxemia in anesthetized rats, allowing severe hypothermia to ensue by not actively managing temperature and hemodynamics resulted in significantly reduced expired NO concentrations, lung injury, and prolonged survival. The clinical benefits of such a finding currently remain unclear and merit further investigation. PMID:24722817
Hakim, T S; Pedoto, A; Nandi, J; Bosco, G; Rubini, A; Mangar, D; Paoli, A; Camporesi, E M
This article provides the first detailed description and systematic evaluation of the management of otic barotrauma using modified intravenous cannulae. A 24-gauge IC cannula was modified as a tool for tympanostomy tube placement and middle ear ventilation. The medical records of 271 ears of 156 adult patients (median age 49 years) who underwent this procedure were reviewed retrospectively. Hundred and ninty-one tubes were placed for otalgia because of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, 58 tubes were inserted for air travel prophylaxis and 22 tubes were placed for management of otic barotrauma post-flight. All the patients who had this procedure for prophylaxis experienced regular otic barotrauma symptoms during air travel prior to tube placement. All patients were reviewed 6 weeks (range 2-9 weeks) post-procedure. This technique of otic barotrauma management worked effectively in 99 % of treated patients. On follow-up, 88 % of tubes were found to be extruded and non-extruded tubes were removed in clinic without any anaesthesia. 99.6 % of tympanic membrane had healed completely and spontaneously without sequelae. Given the safety, effectiveness, low risk of complications associated with this novel tympanostomy technique, it provided a simple yet effective therapeutic option for the management of otic barotrauma. Finally, this technique can be easily applied in all health settings as it only requires medical supplies readily available in hospitals, therefore there is no additional cost. PMID:23208527
Zhang, Qi; Banks, Catherine; Choroomi, Sim; Kertesz, Thomas
Clinical circumstances often demand flexibility in electrodiagnostic procedures. We present a clinical case that required\\u000a alteration of our routine full-field electroretinography technique. The patient presented with reports of allergy to Xylocaine® (lidocaine) and refused the use of any type of topical anesthetic drops. This conflicted with our routine ERG method that\\u000a combines the use of the Henkes Lovac™ hard contact
This article details a self-hypnosis technique designed to teach patients how to manage acute or chronic pain through directed focus. The focused suggestion with somatic anchoring technique has been used with various types of pain, including somatic pain (arthritis, post-injury pain from bone breaks, or muscle tears), visceral pain (related to irritable bowel disease), and neuropathic pain (related to multiple sclerosis). This technique combines cognitive restructuring and mindfulness meditation with indirect and direct suggestions during hypnosis. The case examples demonstrate how the focused suggestion with somatic anchoring technique is used with both acute and chronic pain conditions when use of long-term medication has been relatively ineffective. PMID:23724568
Of the estimated 1.5 million osteoporosis-related fragility fractures that occur each year in the United States, vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) are the most common. It is estimated that approximately 20% to 25% of people who sustain a VCF have symptoms severe enough to seek medical attention. However, nonoperative outpatient management for VCFs is often successful in only 75% to 80% of cases. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of VCFs and of the surgical alternatives for VCF management, including indications for surgical intervention, overview of surgical techniques, clinical results, complications, and areas of future investigation. PMID:17571828
Amitriptyline, nortriptyline, imipramine, doxepin, desipramine, protriptyline, trimipramine, and maprotiline are tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) used orally in treating major depressive disorders. Recent studies showed that amitriptyline is more potent in blocking the sciatic nerve functions in vivo by local injection than bupivacaine, a long-acting local anesthetic. We therefore tested whether various TCAs could likewise act as local anesthetics in vivo after
Yukari Sudoh; Elaine Elliott Cahoon; Peter Gerner; Ging Kuo Wang
We have used epifluorescence microscopy to study the interactions of two local anesthetics of the ``caine'' family (tetracaine and dibucaine), with Langmuir monolayers of the phospholipid dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). These results show that incorporation of either dibucaine or tetracaine causes significant changes in the domain shapes of the liquid condensed phase in monolayers. In particular, at low pH, where the charged cationic form of the local anesthetics predominates, local anesthetic: DPPC monolayers formed significantly less compact liquid condensed domains with highly ramified shapes, compared to DPPC-only controls. For high pH values at which both local anesthetics are electrically neutral, the liquid condensed domains in mixed monolayers resembled that of DPPC-only controls, indicating that these effects have their origins in electrostatic interactions between the local anesthetics and the phospholipid headgroups. Epifluorescence images obtained using the intrinsic fluorescence of dibucaine indicated that dibucaine partitions into both the liquid condensed and liquid expanded phases.
Recent advances in the densitometric and imaging techniques involved in the management of osteoporosis are associated with increasing accuracy and precision as well as with higher exposure to ionising radiation. Therefore, special attention to quality assurance (QA) procedures is needed in this field. The development of effective and efficient QA programmes is mandatory to guarantee optimal image quality while reducing radiation exposure levels to the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable). In this review article, the basic QA procedures are discussed for the techniques applied to everyday clinical practice. PMID:23090242
Guglielmi, G; Damilakis, J; Solomou, G; Bazzocchi, A
In this review we addressed the various analgesic techniques in cardiac surgery, especially regional methods such as thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA). There are many techniques available for management of postoperative pain after cardiac operation including intravenous administration of analgesic drugs, infiltration of local anesthetics, nerve blocks, and neuroaxial techniques. Although there are many evidences declaring the benefits of neuroaxial blockade in improving postoperative well-being and quality of care in these patients, some studies have revealed limited effect of TEA on overall morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. On the other hand, some investigators have raised the concern about epidural hematoma in altered coagulation and risks of infection and local anesthetics toxicity during and after cardiac procedures. In present review, we tried to discuss the most recent arguments in the field of this controversial issue. The final conclusion about either using regional anesthesia in cardiac surgery or not has been assigned to the readers.
Ziyaeifard, Mohsen; Azarfarin, Rasoul; Golzari, Samad EJ
Numerous studies have suggested that chronic expo- sure to trace levels of anesthetic gas is harmful to oper- ating room (OR) personnel. In the delivery of pediatric general anesthesia, an uncuffed endotracheal tube (ETT) is normally used which can result in considerable volatile anesthetic and nitrous oxide contamination of the OR. In this report, we present a method to reduce
anesthetics (urethane and pentobarbital) suppressed dendritic calcium spikes in vitro, whereas a mixture anesthetics chosen (urethane, pentobarbital, and a mixture of ketamine and xylazine) belong to different
) Conduct breeding soundness examinations on all bulls every year. 2) Palpate and remove all non-producers. 3) Maintain cows in moderate body condition score at calving. 4) Appreciate the hidden values of vaccinations against reproductive diseases... reasons for this timing: ? Pregnancy status can be determined easily. ? Scheduling is made easier for other managementtechniques like deworming, vaccinating, health evaluations and culling due to failure to reproduce that also must...
Health coaching is quickly emerging as a new approach of partnering with patients to enhance self-management strategies for the purpose of preventing exacerbations of chronic illness and supporting lifestyle change. Medicare is now pilot testing this approach for patients with congestive heart failure and diabetes. With acute care hospitalization an outcome of great interest to us all, health coaching is an exciting technique worthy of consideration by home health providers. PMID:17426499
Objective: To describe a new hysteroscopic technique for the management of severe Asherman’s syndrome.Design: Prospective observational study.Setting: Volunteers in an academic research environment.Patient(s): Seven patients with secondary infertility associated with amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea secondary to severe Asherman’s syndrome.Intervention(s): Six to eight longitudinal incisions were made into the myometrium extending from the uterine fundus to the isthmus with a resectoscope fitted
Uncertainty management has always been the key hurdle faced by diagnostics and prognostics algorithms. A Bayesian treatment of this problem provides an elegant and theoretically sound approach to the modern Condition- Based Maintenance (CBM)/Prognostic Health Management (PHM) paradigm. The application of the Bayesian techniques to regression and classification in the form of Relevance Vector Machine (RVM), and to state estimation as in Particle Filters (PF), provides a powerful tool to integrate the diagnosis and prognosis of battery health. The RVM, which is a Bayesian treatment of the Support Vector Machine (SVM), is used for model identification, while the PF framework uses the learnt model, statistical estimates of noise and anticipated operational conditions to provide estimates of remaining useful life (RUL) in the form of a probability density function (PDF). This type of prognostics generates a significant value addition to the management of any operation involving electrical systems.
Context: Anaesthesia during cleft lip and palate surgery carries a high risk and difficult airway management in children. Aim: to study the perioperative anesthetic complications in poor children with cleft abnormalities. Settings and Design: Retrospective analysis. Materials and Methods: This retrospective audit was conducted on 2917 patients of smile train project under going general anesthesia for cleft lip and palate from January 2007 to December 2010. Demographic, pre-anesthetic status, anestheticmanagement and anesthesia complications were recorded. Chi-square test was used to assess the relation between patient factors and occurrence of complications. Results: Of the 3044, we were able to procure complete data of 2917 patients. Most of children presented with anemia 251 (35%), 202 (29%) had eosinophilia while 184 (26%) had upper respiratory tract infection. The incidence of perioperative complications was 8.19% of which 33.7% critical incidents occurred during the induction time. The most common complication was laryngospasm 77 (40.9%) followed by difficult intubation 64 (30.9%). There was no mortality. Conclusion: Since these procedures do not characterize an emergency, most of the perioperative complications can be prevented by following the routine installed by the institute and smile train protocols.
Jindal, Parul; Khurana, Gurjeet; Gupta, Deepali; Sharma, J. P.
Effective management of biological resources is contingent upon stakeholder compliance with rules. With respect to disease management, partial compliance can undermine attempts to control diseases within human and wildlife populations. Estimating non-compliance is notoriously problematic as rule-breakers may be disinclined to admit to transgressions. However, reliable estimates of rule-breaking are critical to policy design. The European badger (Meles meles) is considered an important vector in the transmission and maintenance of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle herds. Land managers in high bTB prevalence areas of the UK can cull badgers under license. However, badgers are also known to be killed illegally. The extent of illegal badger killing is currently unknown. Herein we report on the application of three innovative techniques (Randomized Response Technique (RRT); projective questioning (PQ); brief implicit association test (BIAT)) for investigating illegal badger killing by livestock farmers across Wales. RRT estimated that 10.4% of farmers killed badgers in the 12 months preceding the study. Projective questioning responses and implicit associations relate to farmers' badger killing behavior reported via RRT. Studies evaluating the efficacy of mammal vector culling and vaccination programs should incorporate estimates of non-compliance. Mitigating the conflict concerning badgers as a vector of bTB requires cross-disciplinary scientific research, departure from deep-rooted positions, and the political will to implement evidence-based management. PMID:23341973
Cross, Paul; St. John, Freya A. V.; Khan, Saira; Petroczi, Andrea
Leprosy or Hansen's disease is very uncommon in developed countries. More than 80% of the world's cases occurs and still reported from developing countries. But nowadays due to increase in international affairs, medical tourism, globalization and immigration, there is increasing possibility to find patients anywhere, which require anesthesia for surgical interventions. Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae and involves mainly skin, peripheral nervous system, upper respiratory tract, eyes and testes. Anesthetic consideration is focused mainly on complications related to leprosy like cardiac or respiratory dysautonomia, autonomic dysfunctions and side effects which are related to drug therapy and are challenging. There can be drug-related hepatitis and renal insufficiency in these patients. We report the anestheticmanagement of a patient with lepromatous leprosy who had undergone laparoscopic radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma under general anesthesia.
Sahu, Sandeep; Goyal, Vipin; Dhiraaj, Sanjay; Kishore, Kamal; Singh, P. K.
Background: In the contemporary dental practice, alleviation of pain is the most important factor to ameliorate patient's condition and to gain one's confidence towards the skills of the operator. Such confidence aids to the ultimate success of the treatment procedures. Aims and Objectives: This study compares the pain response of a group of 10 subjects to the Wand® with the response to traditional syringe injections and also compares the extent of the area anesthetized. Materials and Methods: 10 subjects were selected for the study and 20 injections were given contralaterally to them, 10 with Wand®, and rest with the traditional aspirating syringe. Each subject received 2 injections on the palate, Left side with Wand® (test) and Right side with Traditional syringe (control). All injections were given by the same investigator without the use of topical anesthetic spray/gel. Pain perception levels were recorded with a visual analogue scale. Also the extent of area anesthetized with a single palatal injection was assessed by probing. Results: The results showed injections with the syringe were more painful than injections with the Wand® in 2 of 10 subjects. Also the extent of the area anesthetized by both the techniques was similar except in 2 patients. Conclusion: The Wand® results in less painful injections; however, mean ratings of pain for both the groups, were mostly below the annoying level of pain. Also, the areas covered by the anesthetic effect of both the injections were comparatively similar. PMID:23055586
Background: The standard recommended insertion technique for LMA Classic™ requires the insertion of index finger into the oral cavity. Several anesthesiologists are reluctant to do this. We conducted this study to evaluate the modified technique of insertion of LMA Classic™ (not requiring insertion of fingers into the patient's mouth) against the standard index finger insertion technique. Materials and Methods: This prospective, randomized, comparative study was conducted on 200 consenting patients. Patients suitable for anesthetic with LMA Classic™ were randomized to standard technique group (standard insertion technique) and modified technique group (technique not requiring digital intraoral manipulation). Laryngeal mask airway (LMA) was inserted by five designated anesthesiologists. Anesthetic protocol was standardized. Time taken to achieve an effective airway, ease of insertion, glottic view obtained through LMA, and incidence of sore throat were assessed. Results: Patient characteristics and duration of surgery were comparable between the groups. Time to achieve an effective airway was comparable [18.5 (8) s with standard technique and 19.7 (10) s with modified technique; data are mean (standard deviation)]. Ease of insertion (92 easy with standard technique and 91 easy with modified technique), success rate (99% in both the groups), glottic view with fiberoptic bronchoscope, and sore throat incidence (six patients with standard technique and eight patients with modified technique) were comparable. The first attempt success rate was significantly higher with the standard technique (98 patients in the standard technique group and 91 patients in the modified technique group). Conclusions: LMA Classic™ can be inserted successfully without the need to insert index finger into patient's mouth, though the first attempt success rate is higher with the standard technique. PMID:23225929
Krishna, Handattu M; Kamath, Shyamsunder; Shenoy, Laxmi
Submucosal hemorrhoidectomy (Parks' procedure) is a recognized method for treating acute hemorrhoidal crisis. Anoderm preservation has been stressed in various techniques described for elective or emergency excisional hemorrhoidal management. Mucopexy techniques have been proven useful as an adjunct to minimally resectional techniques. A modified submucosal technique with anoderm preservation and mucopexy was applied to 45 patients who presented on an emergency basis with hemorrhoidal crisis. External piles were minimally removed, the minimum possible amount of diseased mucosa was excised, a linear incision was used at the anoderm to enter the subanodermal/mucosal plane to achieve the submucosal excision, and a mucopexy was added at the approximation of the mucosal flaps. Postoperative morbidity was minimal and pain after the procedure remained at acceptable levels. This technique allows for an excision limited to the pathology with important anatomic tissue preservation. This results in conservation of the sensitive and useful anoderm, a decreased risk of stenosis, and addresses the mucosal prolapse. The level of postoperative pain with this technique is acceptable and long-term follow-up reveals a high degree of patient satisfaction. PMID:24165256
Theodoropoulos, George E; Michalopoulos, Nikolaos V; Linardoutsos, Dimitrios; Flessas, Ioannis; Tsamis, Dimitrios; Zografos, George
The importance of using remote sensing techniques, in the visible and near-infrared ranges, for mapping, inventory, conservation and management of natural ecosystems is discussed. Some examples realized in Brazil or other countries are given to evaluate the products from orbital platform (MSS and RBV imagery of LANDSAT) and aerial level (photography) for ecosystems study. The maximum quantitative and qualitative information which can be obtained from each sensor, at different level, are discussed. Based on the developed experiments it is concluded that the remote sensing technique is a useful tool in mapping vegetation units, estimating biomass, forecasting and evaluation of fire damage, disease detection, deforestation mapping and change detection in land-use. In addition, remote sensing techniques can be used in controling implantation and planning natural/artificial regeneration.
Parada, N. D. J. (principal investigator); Verdesio, J. J.; Dossantos, J. R.
The results of several retrospective clinical studies suggest that exposure to anesthetic agents early in life is correlated with subsequent learning and behavioral disorders. Although ongoing prospective clinical trials may help to clarify this association, they remain confounded by numerous factors. Thus, some of the most compelling data supporting the hypothesis that a relatively short anesthetic exposure can lead to a long-lasting change in brain function are derived from animal models. The mechanism by which such changes could occur remains incompletely understood. Early studies identified anesthetic-induced neuronal apoptosis as a possible mechanism of injury, and more recent work suggests that anesthetics may interfere with several critical processes in brain development. The function of the mature brain requires the presence of circuits, established during development, which perform the computations underlying learning and cognition. In this review, we examine the mechanisms by which anesthetics could disrupt brain circuit formation, including effects on neuronal survival and neurogenesis, neurite growth and guidance, formation of synapses, and function of supporting cells. There is evidence that anesthetics can disrupt aspects of all of these processes, and further research is required to elucidate which are most relevant to pediatric anesthetic neurotoxicity. PMID:25144504
Wagner, Meredith; Ryu, Yun Kyoung; Smith, Sarah C; Mintz, Cyrus D
On orbit, ophthalmic anesthetics are used for tonometry and off-nominal corneal examinations. Proparacaine has been flown traditionally. However, the manufacturers recently changed its storage requirements from room temperature storage to refrigerated storage to preserve stability and prolong the shelf-life. Since refrigeration on orbit is not readily available and there were stability concerns about flying proparacaine unrefrigerated, tetracaine was selected as an alternative ophthalmic anesthetic in 2013. We will discuss the challenges encountered flying and using these anesthetics on the International Space Station.
Germination of Panicum capillare L. caryopses induced by solutions of ethanol and ethyl ether was prevented by application of pressure >1 MPa during the period of exposure to the anesthetic. This effect of pressure indicates that germination is correlated with expansion at a site of anesthetic action in a cell membrane. The effects of several other anesthetics were measured on germination of P. capillare seeds. Ethanol, chloroform, and ethyl ether had the highest activity. Methanol and isopropanol were inactive. The effective compounds are thought to distribute preferentially to lipid-solution interfaces in cell membranes of the seeds. PMID:24306239
Increasing population and water conflicts are making water management one of the most important issues of the present world. It has become absolutely necessary to find ways to manage water more efficiently. Technological advancement has introduced various techniques for data acquisition and analysis, and these tools can be used to address some of the critical issues that challenge water resource management. This research used learning machine techniques and information acquired through remote sensing, to solve problems related to soil moisture estimation and crop identification on large spatial scales. In this dissertation, solutions were proposed in three problem areas that can be important in the decision making process related to water management in irrigated systems. A data assimilation technique was used to build a learning machine model that generated soil moisture estimates commensurate with the scale of the data. The research was taken further by developing a multivariate machine learning algorithm to predict root zone soil moisture both in space and time. Further, a model was developed for supervised classification of multi-spectral reflectance data using a multi-class machine learning algorithm. The procedure was designed for classifying crops but the model is data dependent and can be used with other datasets and hence can be applied to other landcover classification problems. The dissertation compared the performance of relevance vector and the support vector machines in estimating soil moisture. A multivariate relevance vector machine algorithm was tested in the spatio-temporal prediction of soil moisture, and the multi-class relevance vector machine model was used for classifying different crop types. It was concluded that the classification scheme may uncover important data patterns contributing greatly to knowledge bases, and to scientific and medical research. The results for the soil moisture models would give a rough idea to farmers/irrigators about the moisture status of their fields and also about the productivity. The models are part of the framework which is devised in an attempt to provide tools to support irrigation system operational decisions. This information could help in the overall improvement of agricultural water management practices for large irrigation systems. Conclusions were reached based on the performance of these machines in estimating soil moisture using remotely sensed data, forecasting spatial and temporal variation of soil moisture and data classification. These solutions provide a new perspective to problem-solving techniques by introducing new methods that have never been previously attempted.
Methods based on chi-squared analysis are presented for detecting system and individual-port failures in the high-angle-of-attack flush airdata sensing system on the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle. The HI-FADS hardware is introduced, and the aerodynamic model describes measured pressure in terms of dynamic pressure, angle of attack, angle of sideslip, and static pressure. Chi-squared analysis is described in the presentation of the concept for failure detection and fault management which includes nominal, iteration, and fault-management modes. A matrix of pressure orifices arranged in concentric circles on the nose of the aircraft indicate the parameters which are applied to the regression algorithms. The sensing techniques are applied to the F-18 flight data, and two examples are given of the computed angle-of-attack time histories. The failure-detection and fault-managementtechniques permit the matrix to be multiply redundant, and the chi-squared analysis is shown to be useful in the detection of failures.
Whitmore, Stephen A.; Moes, Timothy R.; Leondes, Cornelius T.
In support of the National Low-Level Waste (LLW) Management Research and Development Program being carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Science Applications, Inc., conducted a survey of models and monitoring techniques associated with the transport of radionuclides and other chemical species from LLW burial sites. As a result of this survey, approximately 350 models were identified. For each model the purpose and a brief description are presented. To the extent possible, a point of contact and reference material are identified. The models are organized into six technical categories: atmospheric transport, dosimetry, food chain, groundwater transport, soil transport, and surface water transport. About 4% of the models identified covered other aspects of LLW management and are placed in a miscellaneous category. A preliminary assessment of all these models was performed to determine their ability to analyze the transport of other chemical species. The models that appeared to be applicable are identified. A brief survey of the state-of-the-art techniques employed to monitor LLW burial sites is also presented, along with a very brief discussion of up-to-date burial techniques.
This article proposes new power management based current control strategy for integrated wind-solar-hydro system equipped with battery storage mechanism. In this control technique, an indirect estimation of load current is done, through energy balance model, DC-link voltage control and droop control. This system features simpler energy management strategy and necessitates few power electronic converters, thereby minimizing the cost of the system. The generation-demand (G-D) management diagram is formulated based on the stochastic weather conditions and demand, which would likely moderate the gap between both. The features of management strategy deploying energy balance model include (1) regulating DC-link voltage within specified tolerances, (2) isolated operation without relying on external electric power transmission network, (3) indirect current control of hydro turbine driven induction generator and (4) seamless transition between grid-connected and off-grid operation modes. Furthermore, structuring of the hybrid system with appropriate selection of control variables enables power sharing among each energy conversion systems and battery storage mechanism. By addressing these intricacies, it is viable to regulate the frequency and voltage of the remote network at load end. The performance of the proposed composite scheme is demonstrated through time-domain simulation in MATLAB/Simulink environment.
This review will focus on inhalational anesthetic neuroprotection during cerebral ischemia and inhalational anesthetic preconditioning before ischemic brain injury. The limitations and challenges of past and current research in this area will be addressed before reviewing experimental and clinical studies evaluating the effects of inhalational anesthetics before and during cerebral ischemia. Mechanisms underlying volatile anesthetic neuroprotection and preconditioning will also
Hideto Kitano; Jeffrey R Kirsch; Patricia D Hurn; Stephanie J Murphy
Background We hypothesized that time of day of surgery would influence the incidence of anesthetic adverse events (AEs). Methods Clinical observations reported in a quality improvement database were categorized into different AEs that reflected (1) error, (2) harm, and (3) other AEs (error or harm could not be determined) and were analyzed for effects related to start hour of care. Results As expected, there were differences in the rate of AEs depending on start hour of care. Compared with a reference start hour of 7?am, other AEs were more frequent for cases starting during the 3 pm and 4 pm hours (p<0.0001). Post hoc inspection of data revealed that the predicted probability increased from a low of 1.0% at 9?am to a high of 4.2% at 4?pm. The two most common event types (pain management and postoperative nausea and vomiting) may be primary determinants of these effects. Conclusions Our results indicate that clinical outcomes may be different for patients anesthetized at the end of the work day compared with the beginning of the day. Although this may result from patient related factors, medical care delivery factors such as case load, fatigue, and care transitions may also be influencing the rate of anesthetic AEs for cases that start in the late afternoon. PMID:16885250
Wright, M C; Phillips-Bute, B; Mark, J B; Stafford-Smith, M; Grichnik, K P; Andregg, B C; Taekman, J M
The question of how structurally and pharmacologically diverse general anesthetics disrupt consciousness has persisted since the nineteenth century. There has traditionally been a significant focus on “bottom-up” mechanisms of anesthetic action, in terms of sensory processing, arousal systems, and structural scales. However, recent evidence suggests that the neural mechanisms of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness may involve a “top-down” process, which parallels current perspectives on the neurobiology of conscious experience itself. This article considers various arguments for top-down mechanisms of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness, with a focus on sensory processing and sleep-wake networks. Furthermore, recent theoretical work is discussed to highlight the possibility that top-down explanations may be causally sufficient, even assuming critical bottom-up events. PMID:25002838
Shoulder pain and dysfunction is a chief complaint commonly presenting to a chiropractor's office. The purpose of this article is to review the most common etiologies of shoulder pain, focusing on those conditions of a myofascial origin. In addition to a review of the literature, the author draws upon his own clinical experience to describe a method to diagnose and manage, patients with shoulder pain of myofascial origin using ischemic compression techniques. This hands-on therapeutic approach conveys several benefits including: positive therapeutic outcomes; a favorable safety profile and; it is minimally strenuous on the doctor and well tolerated by the patient. ImagesFigure 7
Infection is a devastating complication of total hip arthroplasty (THA). Risk factors have been recognised and prevention is possible. The nature of the disease is heterogeneous and for satisfactory management one has to weigh factors related to pathogen, host, local soft tissue, bone stock, surgeon experience and financial resources. Available data in the current literature is of poor quality and there is a lack of data comparing different techniques. Referral of patients to dedicated departments with the appropriate facilities may be more appropriate. PMID:25329980
Karachalios, Theofilos; Koutalos, Antonios; Komnos, George
Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys, photogrammetric aerotriangulation and compilation procedures, computer-aided image analyses, and conventional air photointerpretation techniques were employed to construct a geographic information system database for Sapelo Island and its bordering marshlands. This database includes 1:5000-scale topographic maps, 1:24,000-scale thematic maps, and digital elevation models in digital format, and covers a 40-year period from 1953 to 1993. It will facilitate the management of natural resources within the Sapelo Island National Estuarine Research Reserve (SINERR). Geographic information system overlay techniques indicate that Sapelo Island has increased in size by about 10 hectares (ha) per year between 1953 and 1974, and by one ha/yr from 1974 to present. While the areal extent of marshlands has remained relatively constant since 1953, logging on the island has increased significantly in recent years. The integrated approach employed in this study may be used to monitor coastal reserves throughout the United States. 10 refs.
Welch, R.; Remillard, M.; Alberts, J. (Georgia Univ., Athens (United States) Georgia Univ., Sapelo Island (United States))
We suggest that bubbles are the bistable hydrophobic gates responsible for the on-off transitions of single channel currents. In this view, many types of channels gate by the same physical mechanism—dewetting by capillary evaporation—but different types of channels use different sensors to modulate hydrophobic properties of the channel wall and thereby trigger and control bubbles and gating. Spontaneous emptying of channels has been seen in many simulations. Because of the physics involved, such phase transitions are inherently sensitive, unstable threshold phenomena that are difficult to simulate reproducibly and thus convincingly. We present a thermodynamic analysis of a bubble gate using morphometric density functional theory of classical (not quantum) mechanics. Thermodynamic analysis of phase transitions is generally more reproducible and less sensitive to details than simulations. Anesthetic actions of inert gases—and their interactions with hydrostatic pressure (e.g., nitrogen narcosis)—can be easily understood by actions on bubbles. A general theory of gas anesthesia may involve bubbles in channels. Only experiments can show whether, or when, or which channels actually use bubbles as hydrophobic gates: direct observation of bubbles in channels is needed. Existing experiments show thin gas layers on hydrophobic surfaces in water and suggest that bubbles nearly exist in bulk water. PMID:18234836
Roth, Roland; Gillespie, Dirk; Nonner, Wolfgang; Eisenberg, Robert E.
The implementation of a sterile-male-release technique from 1991 through 1999 and evaluation of its effectiveness in the Great Lakes sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) management program is reviewed. Male sea lampreys were injected with the chemosterilant bisazir (P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N- methylphosphinothioic amide) using a robotic device. Quality assurance testing indicated the device delivered a consistent and effective dose of bisazir. Viability of embryos in an untreated control group was 64% compared to 1% in a treatment group. A task force developed nine hypotheses to guide implementation and evaluation of the technique. An annual average of 26,000 male sea lampreys was harvested from as many as 17 Great Lakes tributaries for use in the technique. An annual average of 16,100 sterilized males was released into 33 tributaries of Lake Superior to achieve a theoretical 59% reduction in larval production during 1991 to 1996. The average number of sterile males released in the St. Marys River increased from 4,000 during 1991 to 1996 to 20,100 during 1997 to 1999. The theoretical reduction in reproduction when combined with trapping was 57% during 1991 to 1996 and 86% during 1997 to 1999. Evaluation studies demonstrated that sterilized males were competitive and reduced production of larvae in streams. Field studies and simulation models suggest reductions in reproduction will result in fewer recruits, but there is risk of periodic high recruitment events independent of sterile-male release. Strategies to reduce reproduction will be most reliable when low densities of reproducing females are achieved. Expansion of the technique is limited by access to additional males for sterilization. Sterile-male release and other alternative controls are important in delivering integrated pest management and in reducing reliance on pesticides.
Twohey, M. B.; Heinrich, J. W.; Seelye, J. G.; Fredricks, K. T.; Bergstedt, R. A.; Kaye, C. A.; Scholefield, R. J.; McDonald, R. B.; Christie, G. C.
The implementation of a sterile-male-release technique from 1991 through 1999 and evaluation of its effectiveness in the Great Lakes sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) management program is reviewed. Male sea lampreys were injected with the chemosterilant bisazir (P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide) using a robotic device. Quality assurance testing indicated the device delivered a consistent and effective dose of bisazir. Viability of embryos in an untreated control group was 64% compared to 1% in a treatment group. A task force developed nine hypotheses to guide implementation and evaluation of the technique. An annual average of 26,000 male sea lampreys was harvested from as many as 17 Great Lakes tributaries for use in the technique. An annual average of 16,100 sterilized males was released into 33 tributaries of Lake Superior to achieve a theoretical 59% reduction in larval production during 1991 to 1996. The average number of sterile males released in the St. Marys River increased from 4,000 during 1991 to 1996 to 20,100 during 1997 to 1999. The theoretical reduction in reproduction when combined with trapping was 57% during 1991 to 1996 and 86% during 1997 to 1999. Evaluation studies demonstrated that sterilized males were competitive and reduced production of larvae in streams. Field studies and simulation models suggest reductions in reproduction will result in fewer recruits, but there is risk of periodic high recruitment events independent of sterile-male release. Strategies to reduce reproduction will be most reliable when low densities of reproducing females are achieved. Expansion of the technique is limited by access to additional males for sterilization. Sterile-male release and other alternative controls are important in delivering integrated pest management and in reducing reliance on pesticides.
Twohey, Michael B.; Heinrich, John W.; Seelye, James G.; Fredricks, Kim T.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Kaye, Cheryl A.; Scholefield, Ron J.; McDonald, Rodney B.; Christie, Gavin C.
Background: Chronically compromised uterine perfusion may lead to placental insufficiency and subsequent intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Various therapeutic approaches (e.g. vasodilators, low-dose aspirin, intravenous glucose infusion, and hemodilution) are often of limited efficacy. Local anesthetics have been shown to improve placental blood flow in pre-eclamptic women. We hypothesized that epidural administration of local anesthetics might improve outcome in IUGR independent
D. Strümper; F. Louwen; M. E. Durieux; H. F. Gramke; J. Stuessel; D. Marcus-Soekarman; H. Van Aken; M. A. E. Marcus
The effectiveness of isoflurane as an inhalation anesthetic for muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) was evaluated. Thirty muskrats were anesthetized in an enclosed chamber using 10 ml of isoflurane in Carlton County, Minnesota (USA), from 27 September to 24 October 1994. Mean (±SE) induction time for adults, juveniles, and kits was 20.6 ± 2.9, 21.5 ± 2.4, and 16.9 ± 5.3 mm,
Topical application of a local anesthetic agent can induce adequate insensibility to pain, and therefore can avoid the use of general anesthesia or invasive infiltration techniques for myringotomy or the insertion of a tympanostomy tube. A comparative study was conducted on a guinea pig animal model to determine the effects of three agents on the structure of the tympanic membrane: 5% tetracaine base dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), pure DMSO, and Bonain's solution. Survival times ranged from 1 day to 3 months. Following removal from the animals, membranes were embedded in Spurr and cut in semithin sections. Signs of mild or severe external otitis were frequent; to avoid non-specific results, infected specimens were not evaluated. Bonain's solution caused loss of the epidermis and mucosal epithelium within 1 day of treatment. The connective tissue layers of the drum were severely hyperplastic after a survival time of 1 month. Tetracaine base in DMSO caused a loss of epithelium and mucosal cells in 3 days. Regeneration started within 7 days and a restitution to integrity was seen after 3 months in drums treated with tetracaine base or DMSO alone. PMID:3348754
Although central ghrelin has cardioprotective effect through inhibiting sympathetic nerve activity, the effects of central ghrelin on cardiac vagal nerve remain unknown. We investigated the effects of centrally administered ghrelin on cardiac autonomic nerve activities using microdialysis technique. A microdialysis probe was implanted in the right atrial wall adjacent to the sinoatrial node of an anesthetized rabbit and was perfused with Ringer's solution containing a cholinesterase inhibitor, eserine. After injection of ghrelin (1 nmol) into the right lateral cerebral ventricle, norepinephrine (NE) and acetylcholine (ACh) concentrations in the dialysate samples were measured as indices of NE and ACh release from nerve endings to the sinoatrial node using high-performance liquid chromatography. Heart rate was 270±4 bpm at baseline and decreased gradually after ghrelin injection to 234±9 bpm (P<0.01) at 60-80 min, followed by gradual recovery. Dialysate ACh concentration was 5.5±0.8 nM at baseline and increased gradually after ghrelin injection to 8.8±1.2 nM (P<0.01) at 60-80 min; the concentration started to decrease gradually from 100 to 120 min after injection reaching 5.6±0.8 nM at 160-180 min. Central ghrelin did not change mean arterial pressure or dialysate NE concentration. The elevated dialysate ACh concentration declined rapidly after transection of cervical vagal nerves. These results indicate that centrally administered ghrelin activates cardiac vagal nerve. PMID:21543266
There has been an explosive increase in the amount of interesting information about the physiologic and pathophysiologic roles of nitric oxide in cardiovascular, nervous, and immune systems. The possible involvement of the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in the effects of anesthetic agents has been the focus of many investigators. Relaxations of cerebral and peripheral arterial smooth muscle as well as increases in cerebral and other regional blood flows induced by anesthetic agents are mediated mainly via nitric oxide released from the endothelium and/or the nitrergic nerve and also via prostaglandin I2 or endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor. Preconditioning with volatile anesthetics protects against ischemia-reperfusion-induced myocardial dysfunction and cell death or neurotoxicity, possibly through nitric oxide release. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase decreases the anesthetic requirement. Involvement of nitric oxide in the effects of volatile, intravenous, and local anesthetics differs. This review article includes a summary of information about the sites and mechanisms by which various anesthetic agents interact with the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate system. PMID:18073558
There are various experimental studies regarding the toxicity and the time of action of local anesthetics, which contain general insights about their pharmacological and physicochemical properties. Although a detailed microscopic analysis of the local anesthetics would contribute to understanding these properties, there are relatively few theoretical studies about these molecules. In this article, we present the results from calculations performed for three local anesthetics: tetracaine, procaine, and lidocaine, both in their charged and uncharged forms, in aqueous environment. We have used the density functional theory and molecular dynamics simulations to study the structural characteristics of these compounds. The radial distribution function g(r) was used to examine the structure of water molecules surrounding different regions of the local anesthetics. We demonstrated the nonhomogeneous character of the anesthetics with respect to their affinity to water solvent molecules as well as the modifications in their affinity to water caused by changes in their charge state. We also observed that the biological potency of the anesthetics is more related to the behavior of specific groups within the molecule, which are responsible for the interaction with the lipid phase of membranes, rather than the general properties of the molecule as a whole.
Bernardi, R. C.; Gomes, D. E. B.; Pascutti, P. G.; Ito, A. S.; Taft, C. A.; Ota, A. T.
Presently there are no legally registered fish anesthetics that allow for the release of fish or use of the fish for food soon after they have been anesthetized. MS-222 (tricaine), the only anesthetic registered for use on fish in the United States, cannot be used within 21 d of harvesting the fish for food. As the start in a search for an anesthetic that can be used with little or no withdrawal period, we tested the efficacy of 16 chemicals as anesthetics on rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri. Efficacy was defined by the fish (1) becoming handleable (quiet enough to be manipulated and handled readily) in 3 min or less, (2) recovering in 10 min or less, and (3) showing no mortality after 15 min in the anesthetic solution. Four chemicals--MS-222, quinaldine sulfate, benzocaine, and 2-phenoxyethanol--met these criteria for efficacy. Chemicals that yielded excessive induction or recovery times or caused excessive mortality were methylpentynol, chlorobutanol, etomidate, metomidate, Piscaine, propanidid, carbon dioxide, nicotine, salt, Halothane, Metofane, and Biotal. Because carbon dioxide leaves no residues and requires no withdrawal period, it may be an acceptable alternative for fishery workers who can tolerate somewhat shallower anesthesia and longer induction and recovery times.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of topical ocular anesthetic abuse among welders in Iran and suggest public health solutions for this issue. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 390 welders were randomly recruited and queried on the use of anesthetic drops. A questionnaire was administered through structured one-on-one interviews conducted by the first author. Results: A total of 314 welders (80.5%) declared that they had used topical anesthetics at least once during their working lives. Almost 90% of them stated a preference for self-treatment over seeking help from a physician due to cultural and financial reasons. The most commonly used topical anesthetic was tetracaine. Most of the subjects (97.4%) had obtained the drugs from pharmacies without a prescription. Conclusions: The prevalence of topical ocular anesthetic abuse among welders in Iran is alarmingly high and may partially be due to cultural issues. Although most physicians are aware that topical anesthetics should only be used as a diagnostic tool, there is a crucial need to re-emphasize the ocular risks associated with chronic use of these medications. Educational programs for both physicians and the public are necessary to address the problem. PMID:24339685
Introduction: There has been a recent interest in injecting large body and face areas with local anesthetic in a minimally painful manner. The method includes adherence to minimal pain injection details as well feedback from the patient who counts the number of times he feels pain during the injection process. This article describes the successes and limitations of this technique as applied to primary cleft lip/nasal repair in grown patients. Methods: Thirty-two primary cleft lip patients were injected with local anesthesia by 3 surgeons and then underwent surgical correction of their deformity. At the beginning of the injection of the local anesthetic, patients were instructed to clearly inform the injector each and every time they felt pain during the entire injection process. Results: The average patient felt pain only 1.6 times during the injection process. This included the first sting of the first 27-gauge needle poke. The only pain that 51% of the patients felt was that first poke of the first needle; 24% of the patients only felt pain twice during the whole injection process. The worst pain score occurred in a patient who felt pain 6 times during the injection process. Ninety-one percent of the patients felt no pain at all after the injection of the local anesthetic and did not require a top-up. Conclusion: It is possible to successfully and reliably inject local anesthesia in a minimally painful manner for cleft lip and nasal repair in the fully grown cleft patient.
Aims To report on the suturing techniques and aspects of postoperative management in penetrating keratoplasty in the United Kingdom. Methods A postal questionnaire was sent to 137 ophthalmic consultants identified from a Royal College of Ophthalmology database as having a special interest in anterior segment surgery. The questionnaire surveyed surgeon preferences for surgical and suturing technique for penetrating keratoplasty surgery, and the postoperative care of corneal grafts. Results In all, 68% of questionnaires were completed and returned: 73% of respondents used a Flieringa ring or equivalent, 94% routinely used cardinal sutures, with 50.5% removing them at the end of the procedure. The most common suturing technique for routine penetrating keratoplasty was a single continuous suture (35%). In these cases, a 10/0 nylon suture was used by 89%. Sixty-six percent changed their technique in high-risk cases, 52% used a 3-1-1 knot, and 75% made a distinction between a reef and granny knot, with 76% using a reef. Thirty percent buried the knots within the donor material, and 29% within the host tissue. Twenty-five percent had no routine time for graft suture removal, but 41% removed them between 1 and 2 years post-surgery. After suture removal, 98% used steroids and 88% used topical antibiotics. Thirty-four percent stopped topical steroids before suture removal, with 38% stopping topical steroids more than 3 months prior to suture removal. Conclusion This survey demonstrates that there is considerable variation in suturing techniques and postoperative care for penetrating keratoplasty. These significant variations in practice need to be considered when interpreting outcomes and research. PMID:22942639
Lee, Richard MH; Lam, Fook Chang; Georgiou, Tassos; Paul, Bobby; Then, Kong Yong; Mavrikakis, Ioannis; Avadhanam, Venkata S; Liu, Christopher SC
Technological advances in micromechanics, optical sensing, and computing have led to innovative and reliable concepts of precise dosing and sensing of modern volatile anesthetics. Mixing of saturated desflurane flow with fresh gas flow (FGF) requires differential pressure sensing between the two circuits for precise delivery. The medical gas xenon is administered most economically in a closed circuit breathing system. Sensing of xenon in the breathing system is achieved with miniaturized and unique gas detector systems. Innovative sensing principles such as thermal conductivity and sound velocity are applied. The combination of direct injection of volatile anesthetics and low-flow in a closed circuit system requires simultaneous sensing of the inhaled and exhaled gas concentrations. When anesthetic conserving devices are used for sedation with volatile anesthetics, regular gas concentration monitoring is advised. High minimal alveolar concentration (MAC) of some anesthetics and low-flow conditions bear the risk of hypoxic gas delivery. Oxygen sensing based on paramagnetic thermal transduction has become the choice when long lifetime and one-time calibration are required. Compact design of beam splitters, infrared filters, and detectors have led to multiple spectra detector systems that fit in thimble-sized housings. Response times of less than 500 ms allow systems to distinguish inhaled from exhaled gas concentrations. The compact gas detector systems are a prerequisite to provide "quantitative anesthesia" in closed circuit feedback-controlled breathing systems. Advanced anesthesia devices in closed circuit mode employ multiple feedback systems. Multiple feedbacks include controls of volume, concentrations of anesthetics, and concentration of oxygen with a corresponding safety system. In the ideal case, the feedback system delivers precisely what the patient is consuming. In this chapter, we introduce advanced technologies and device concepts for delivering inhalational anesthetic drugs. First, modern vaporizers are described with special attention to the particularities of delivering desflurane. Delivery of xenon is presented, followed by a discussion of direct injection of volatile anesthetics and of a device designed to conserve anesthetic drugs. Next, innovative sensing technologies are presented for reliable control and precise metering of the delivered volatile anesthetics. Finally, we discuss the technical challenges of automatic control in low-flow and closed circuit breathing systems in anesthesia. PMID:18175104
Modern spacecraft (as well as most other complex mechanisms like aircraft, automobiles, and chemical plants) rely more and more on software, to a point where software failures have caused severe accidents and loss of missions. Software failures during a manned mission can cause loss of life, so there are severe requirements to make the software as safe and reliable as possible. Typically, verification and validation (V&V) has the task of making sure that all software errors are found before the software is deployed and that it always conforms to the requirements. Experience, however, shows that this gold standard of error-free software cannot be reached in practice. Even if the software alone is free of glitches, its interoperation with the hardware (e.g., with sensors or actuators) can cause problems. Unexpected operational conditions or changes in the environment may ultimately cause a software system to fail. Is there a way to surmount this problem? In most modern aircraft and many automobiles, hardware such as central electrical, mechanical, and hydraulic components are monitored by IVHM (Integrated Vehicle Health Management) systems. These systems can recognize, isolate, and identify faults and failures, both those that already occurred as well as imminent ones. With the help of diagnostics and prognostics, appropriate mitigation strategies can be selected (replacement or repair, switch to redundant systems, etc.). In this short paper, we discuss some challenges and promising techniques for software health management (SWHM). In particular, we identify unique challenges for preventing software failure in systems which involve both software and hardware components. We then present our classifications of techniques related to SWHM. These classifications are performed based on dimensions of interest to both developers and users of the techniques, and hopefully provide a map for dealing with software faults and failures.
Pipatsrisawat, Knot; Darwiche, Adnan; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Schumann, Johann
Interrami intraoral Kirschner wire fixation technique is presented for the reduction, stabilization, and immobilization of a pulverized and avulsed lower jaw caused by rifle fragmented bullet injuries. This indirect mandibular war injury fixation technique was tolerated by the patients and tissue more than any indirect external fixation. In addition, it is easier than open reduction using large bone plates for disrupted ballistics mandibular injury defects. An interrami intraoral fixation is appropriate for severely disrupted mandibular hard and soft tissues, and has been adapted in cases of mass casualties and limited resources. Benefits of use include limited hospital beds and fewer follow-up visits. Rifle fragmented bullet injuries need more attention for several reasons: not only because of the higher mortality and devastating nature of the injuries, but also because these injuries are responsible for an unreported type of bullet biomechanism wounding in the craniofacial region. In turn, this necessitates specialized victim management. The survival rates depend on immediate proper execution of airway, breathing, and circulation, which become more complicated as it relates to airway compromise and oropharyngeal hemorrhage resuscitation. Survival is predicated on the implementation of feasible, sensible, life-saving techniques that are applied at the appropriate time. PMID:23851763
Although local anesthesia remains the backbone of pain control in dentistry, researches are going to seek new and better means of managing the pain. Most of the researches are focused on improvement in the area of anesthetic agents, delivery devices and technique involved. Newer technologies have been developed that can assist the dentist in providing enhanced pain relief with reduced injection pain and fewer adverse effects. This overview will enlighten the practicing dentists regarding newer devices and methods of rendering pain control comparing these with the earlier used ones on the basis of research and clinical studies available. PMID:24163548
This study is a randomized, prospective, double-blind study to evaluate the effects of the combination of local anesthetics and an intravenous nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) vs NSAID alone on quality of recovery following dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia (GA). Twenty-seven healthy children aged 3–5.5 years underwent dental rehabilitation under GA. Fifteen children in the experimental group received oral infiltration of local anesthetic in addition to intravenous ketorolac tromethamine, while 12 children in the control group received intravenous ketorolac tromethamine alone for postoperative pain management. Pain behaviors were evaluated immediately postoperatively using a FLACC scale and 4 hours postoperatively by self-report using various scales. Parents reported perception of child pain and comfort and any occurrences of postoperative cheek biting. The use of intraoral infiltration local anesthesia for complete dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia for children aged 3–5.5 years did not result in improved pain behaviors in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU), nor did it result in improved pain behaviors 4–6 hours postoperatively as measured by the FLACC scale, FACES scale, and subjective reports of parents or a PACU nurse. Those children receiving local anesthesia had a higher incidence of negative symptoms related to local anesthetic administration, including a higher incidence of lip and cheek biting, which was of clinical importance, but not statistically significant. Infiltration of local anesthetic for dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia did not improve quality of recovery in children aged 3–5.5 years. PMID:20020791
Townsend, Janice A; Ganzberg, Steven; Thikkurissy, S
and in terms of performance. We propose a management system where these high-level and low-level management to the code of the managed JAVA entities and is concerned by performance optimization aspect. Importance of performance for management has already been depicted , taking as example a manager in charge of managing
General anesthesia was successfully performed in an 86-year-old woman with severe tracheobronchomalacia Tracheobronchomalacia in adult is a very rare disease, characterized by weakness of the trachea and bronchi, causing luminal narrowing during expiration. The patient had laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We used propofol, remifentanil, and rocuronium for induction of anesthesia. For maintenance of anesthesia, oxygen, air, propofol, fentanyl, and remifentanil were used. After the end of operation, we used sugammadex to reverse neuromuscular blockade by rocuronium. The patient showed spontaneous breathing and good awareness, and we extubated. The patient did well, and was discharged from the hospital 3 days after the operation. In this case, no special care such as postoperative CPAP was necessary, but normally, general anesthesia for a patient with tracheobronchomalacia requires attention. We gave general anesthesia satisfactorily in a patient with tracheobronchomalacia. PMID:25199324
One of only two native, freshwater turtle species in the western United States, western pond turtles are declining in portions of their original range. Declines are mostly due to habitat loss, introduction of non-native species, pollution, and lack of connectivity among populations. USGS zoologist R. Bruce Bury and colleagues from the U.S. Forest Service, California State University, and other agencies compiled and edited a new review and field manual of this charismatic species. Objectives were to determine its current distribution and abundance, summarize and evaluate population features, review techniques to detect population and habitat changes, and improve monitoring for long-term trends. Methods described in the manual should improve consistency, efficiency, and accuracy of survey data, resulting in improved management and conservation efforts.
Ingested foreign bodies, food bolus impaction, migration or retention of medical devices are frequent, in children as well as in adults. Most of these foreign bodies will naturally pass through the gastro-intestinal tract. Complications are rare but sometimes severe (oesophageal perforations are the most frequent and most feared). We aimed to review the literature on therapeutic management of digestive foreign bodies and food bolus impaction, with special focus on endoscopic indications, material, timing and techniques for removal. The role of the gastroenterologist is to recognise specific situations and to plan endoscopic removal in a timely manner with the most adequate conditions and extraction tools. Risk factors and underlying pathology, for example eosinophilic esophagitis, must be investigated and if necessary treated. PMID:23266207
Objective: To evaluate the effects of different hemostatic agents upon the outcome of periapical surgery. Design: A retrospective study was made of patients subjected to periapical surgery between 2006-2009 with the ultrasound technique and using MTA as retrograde filler material. We included patients with a minimum follow-up of 12 months, divided into two groups according to the hemostatic agent used: A) dressings impregnated in anesthetic solution with adrenalin; or B) aluminum chloride paste (Expasyl™). Radiological controls were made after 6 and 12 months, and on the last visit. The global evolution scale proposed by von Arx and Kurt (1999) was used to establish the outcome of periapical surgery. Results: A total of 96 patients (42 males and 54 females) with a mean age of 40.7 years were included. There were 50 patients in the aluminum chloride group and 46 patients in the anesthetic solution with vasoconstrictor group. No significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of outcome after 12 months - the success rate being 58.6% and 61.7% in the anesthetic solution with vasoconstrictor and aluminum chloride groups, respectively (p>0.05). Conclusion: The outcome after 12 months of follow-up was better in the aluminum chloride group than in the anesthetic solution with vasoconstrictor group, though the difference was not significant. Key words:Aluminum chloride, bleeding control, hemostasis, periapical surgery, outcome. PMID:23229242
Penarrocha-Diago, Maria; Maestre-Ferrin, Laura; Penarrocha-Oltra, David; von Arx, Thomas
The monitoring of respiratory and anesthetic gases in the operating room is important for patient safety. This study measured the accuracy and response time of a multiple-gas monitoring instrument that uses Raman light scattering. Measurements of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, nitrous oxide, halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane concentrations were compared with a gas mixer standard and with measurements made with an infrared anesthetic agent analyzer. Correlation coefficients were all greater than 0.999, and probable errors were less than 0.43 vol% for the gases and less than 0.03 vol% for the volatile anesthetics. Response time was 67 ms with a sample flow rate of 150 ml/min. There was some signal overlap between nitrogen and nitrous oxide and between the volatile anesthetic agents. Such overlap can be compensated for by linear matrix analysis. The Raman instrument promises a monitoring capability equivalent to the mass spectrometer and should prove attractive for the monitoring of respiratory and anesthetic gases in the operating room. PMID:3097268
VanWagenen, R A; Westenskow, D R; Benner, R E; Gregonis, D E; Coleman, D L
The mechanism(s) and site(s) of action of volatile inhaled anesthetics are unknown in spite of the clinical use of these agents for more than 150 years. In the present study, the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to investigate the action of anesthetic agents because of its powerful molecular genetics. It was found that growth of yeast cells is inhibited by the five common volatile anesthetics tested (isoflurane, halothane, enflurane, sevoflurane, and methoxyflurane). Growth inhibition by the agents is relatively rapid and reversible. The potency of these compounds as yeast growth inhibitors directly correlates with their lipophilicity as is predicted by the Meyer-Overton relationship, which directly correlates anesthetic potency of agents and their lipophilicity. The effects of isoflurane on yeast cells were characterized in the most detail. Yeast cells survive at least 48 h in a concentration of isoflurane that inhibits colony formation. Mutants resistant to the growth-inhibitory effects of isoflurane are readily selected. The gene identified by one of these mutations, zzz4-1, has been cloned and characterized. The predicted ZZZ4 gene product has extensive homology to phospholipase A2-activating protein, a GO effector protein of mice. Both zzz4-1 and a deletion of ZZZ4 confer resistance to all five of the agents tested, suggesting that signal transduction may be involved in the response of these cells to volatile anesthetics. PMID:8668160
Keil, R L; Wolfe, D; Reiner, T; Peterson, C J; Riley, J L
Morphopathological changes induced in the extraocular muscles by the local anesthetic agent bupivacaine hydrochloride were studied in the monkey using light and electron microscopy. Retrobulbar anesthetic blocks, using 0.75% bupivacaine hydrochloride, were performed in five adult cynomolgus monkeys. Morphological alterations in extraocular muscle fiber types were examined following survival periods of 3-27 days. Bupivacaine injections produced a mild and very limited myopathic response, with changes largely restricted to the global layer singly-innervated muscle fiber type which is characterized by low mitochondrial content. For survival times beyond 3 days, this fiber type exhibited peripheral migration and swelling of mitochondria and an outside-in pattern of myofibril dissolution. Some affected fibers also exhibited the Ringbinden or ring fiber pathology. Maximal myotoxic response was observed at 14 days after injections, and pathological changes were largely resolved by 27 days. A more limited analysis of the effects of retrobulbar injection of lidocaine revealed similar morphopathological responses, thereby suggesting that these effects are a property common to the entire class of aminoacyl anesthetics. In contrast to previous observations in other skeletal musculature, the extraocular muscles proved to be unexpectedly resistant to local anesthetic treatment as only limited alterations were observed. The observed muscle fiber type specificity was interpreted to result from differences in the relative ability of muscle fiber types to adapt to anesthetic-induced elevations of intracellular free calcium levels. PMID:3338877
The effectiveness of Particle-In-Cell (PIC) codes lies mainly in the robustness of the methods implemented, under the fundamental assumption that a sufficient number of pseudo-particles is concerned for a correct representation of the system. The consequent drawback is the huge increase of computational time required to run a simulation, to what concerns the particles charge assignment to the grid and the motion of the former through the latter. Moreover the coupling of such methods with Monte-Carlo-Collisional (MCC) modules causes another expensive computational cost to simulate particle multiple collisions with background gas and domain boundaries. Particles managementtechniques are therefore often introduced in PIC-MCC codes in order to improve the distribution of pseudo-particles in the simulation domain: as a matter of facts, the aim at managing the number of samples according to the importance of the considered region is a main question for codes simulating a local phenomenon in a larger domain or a strongly collisional system (e.g.: a ionizing plasma, where the number of particles increases exponentially). A clustering procedure based on the distribution function sampling applied to the 5D phase space (2D in space, 3D in velocity) is here proposed, representing the leading criterion for particles merging and splitting procedures guaranteeing the second order charge moments conservation. Applied to the study of the electrical breakdown in the early discharge phase of a Plasma Focus device, this technique is shown to increase performances of both PIC kernel and MCC module preserving the solution of the electric field and increasing samples representativeness in stochastic calculations (with respect to more traditional merging and splitting procedures).
Grasso, Giacomo; Frignani, Michele; Rocchi, Federico; Sumini, Marco
\\u000a Purpose Concerns persist regarding respiratory complications from combination deep intravenous sedation and local anesthesia for prone\\u000a position anorectal surgery. We examined the safety and efficacy of this approach by using a propofol-based and ketamine-based\\u000a technique.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A retrospective review was conducted on all patients undergoing anorectal surgery. Outcomes (perioperative times, specific\\u000a complications) were compared with respect to operative position and anesthetic approach.
Mark Y. Sun; Jonathan J. Canete; John C. Friel; Janet McDade; Sudershan Singla; Craig A. Paterson; Timothy C. Counihan
We applied a microdialysis technique to the left ventricular myocardium of anesthetized mice and tried to monitor acetylcholine (ACh) release from cardiac vagal nerves. Transection of bilateral cervical vagal nerves decreased dialysate ACh concentration. Electrical stimulation of the left cervical vagal nerve increased dialysate ACh concentration in proportion to the frequency of stimulation. Intravenous administration of hexamethonium, prevented the increase in dialysate ACh concentration during vagal nerve stimulation, indicating that ACh in the dialysate primarily reflects ACh released from post-ganglionic cardiac vagal nerves. Microdialysis permits monitoring of ACh release from post-ganglionic cardiac vagal nerves that are most likely to be innervating the left ventricle in mice. PMID:23499513
Manned space missions require the development of compact, efficient, and reliable life support systems. A number of aqueous biological conversion processes are associated with bioregenerative life support systems. Vessels, or bioreactors, capable of supporting these processes in microgravity must be developed. An annular flow bioreactor has been conceived. It has the potential to incorporate containment, phase separation, gas exchange, and illumination into a single vessel. The bioreactor utilizes capillary fluid managementtechniques and is configured as a cylindrical tube in which a two-phase liquid-gas flow is maintained. Vanes placed around the inner perimeter enhance capillary forces and cause the liquid phase to attach and flow along the interior surface of the tube. No physical barrier is required to complete phase separation. It is shown analytically that liquid film thickness is limited only by vane geometry and that an annular flow bioreactor capable of managing 284 liters would occupy 0.7 cubic m, less than half the volume of a Spacelab experiment rack.
Finger, Barry W.; Neville, Gale E., Jr.; Sager, John C.
Waste disposal and containment systems are intended to protect the quality of human health and the environment by preventing containment migration across all major pathways, including ground water, surface water, and air. Uncontrolled release of leachate from waste disposal facilities or landfills may have an adverse impact on ground water and surface waters. Since leachate quality and strength differs for each landfill, the associated risks of exposure vary accordingly. However, studies by the Texas Water Resources Institute of four municipal landfill leachates found all samples failed for acute toxicity tests. Regardless of site-specific quality and health risk of leachate generated at a landfill, in drafting the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Congress viewed waste disposal practices as a matter national in scope and directed the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to promulgate performance standards for landfills. As these standards apply towards leachate management, the USEPA has regulated in favor of leachate management strategies that are oriented towards proper leachate collection and minimization of leachate generation. This paper provides a brief background section on leachate characteristics and then addresses a number of time-tested, cost-effective leachate collections systems (LCS), leachate removal systems, and minimization techniques that meet the EPA`s dual goals for lined and unlined landfills.
Beech, J.F. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Atlanta, GA (United States); Seery, T.J. [Unisys Corp., Paoli, PA (United States)
Since scholarly interest in corporate social responsibility (CSR) has primarily focused on the synergies between social and economic performance, our understanding of how (and the conditions under which) companies use CSR to produce policy outcomes that work against public welfare has remained comparatively under-developed. In particular, little is known about how corporate decision-makers privately reconcile the conflicts between public and private interests, even though this is likely to be relevant to understanding the limitations of CSR as a means of aligning business activity with the broader public interest. This study addresses this issue using internal tobacco industry documents to explore British-American Tobacco’s (BAT) thinking on CSR and its effects on the company’s CSR Programme. The article presents a three-stage model of CSR development, based on Sykes and Matza’s theory of techniques of neutralization, which links together: how BAT managers made sense of the company’s declining political authority in the mid-1990s; how they subsequently justified the use of CSR as a tool of stakeholder management aimed at diffusing the political impact of public health advocates by breaking up political constituencies working towards evidence-based tobacco regulation; and how CSR works ideologically to shape stakeholders’ perceptions of the relative merits of competing approaches to tobacco control. Our analysis has three implications for research and practice. First, it underlines the importance of approaching corporate managers’ public comments on CSR critically and situating them in their economic, political and historical contexts. Second, it illustrates the importance of focusing on the political aims and effects of CSR. Third, by showing how CSR practices are used to stymie evidence-based government regulation, the article underlines the importance of highlighting and developing matrices to assess the negative social impacts of CSR. PMID:23997379
The roles of systems engineering, program and project management, and engineering management are continuously blurred and challenged in complex engineering organizations. The demands made of each of these functions can ...
Objective. There is growing interest in using closed-loop anesthetic delivery (CLAD) systems to automate control of brain states (sedation, unconsciousness and antinociception) in patients receiving anesthesia care. The accuracy and reliability of these systems can be improved by using as control signals electroencephalogram (EEG) markers for which the neurophysiological links to the anesthetic-induced brain states are well established. Burst suppression, in which bursts of electrical activity alternate with periods of quiescence or suppression, is a well-known, readily discernible EEG marker of profound brain inactivation and unconsciousness. This pattern is commonly maintained when anesthetics are administered to produce a medically-induced coma for cerebral protection in patients suffering from brain injuries or to arrest brain activity in patients having uncontrollable seizures. Although the coma may be required for several hours or days, drug infusion rates are managed inefficiently by manual adjustment. Our objective is to design a CLAD system for burst suppression control to automate management of medically-induced coma. Approach. We establish a CLAD system to control burst suppression consisting of: a two-dimensional linear system model relating the anesthetic brain level to the EEG dynamics; a new control signal, the burst suppression probability (BSP) defining the instantaneous probability of suppression; the BSP filter, a state-space algorithm to estimate the BSP from EEG recordings; a proportional-integral controller; and a system identification procedure to estimate the model and controller parameters. Main results. We demonstrate reliable performance of our system in simulation studies of burst suppression control using both propofol and etomidate in rodent experiments based on Vijn and Sneyd, and in human experiments based on the Schnider pharmacokinetic model for propofol. Using propofol, we further demonstrate that our control system reliably tracks changing target levels of burst suppression in simulated human subjects across different epidemiological profiles. Significance. Our results give new insights into CLAD system design and suggest a control-theory framework to automate second-to-second control of burst suppression for management of medically-induced coma.
Liberman, Max Y.; Ching, ShiNung; Chemali, Jessica; Brown, Emery N.
Objective There is growing interest in using closed-loop anesthetic delivery (CLAD) systems to automate control of brain states (sedation, unconsciousness and antinociception) in patients receiving anesthesia care. The accuracy and reliability of these systems can be improved by using as control signals electroencephalogram (EEG) markers for which the neurophysiological links to the anesthetic-induced brain states are well established. Burst suppression, in which bursts of electrical activity alternate with periods of quiescence or suppression, is a well-known, readily discernible EEG marker of profound brain inactivation and unconsciousness. This pattern is commonly maintained when anesthetics are administered to produce a medically-induced coma for cerebral protection in patients suffering from brain injuries or to arrest brain activity in patients having uncontrollable seizures. Although the coma may be required for several hours or days, drug infusion rates are managed inefficiently by manual adjustment. Our objective is to design a CLAD system for burst suppression control to automate management of medically-induced coma. Approach We establish a CLAD system to control burst suppression consisting of: a two-dimensional linear system model relating the anesthetic brain level to the EEG dynamics; a new control signal, the burst suppression probability (BSP) defining the instantaneous probability of suppression; the BSP filter, a state-space algorithm to estimate the BSP from EEG recordings; a proportional-integral controller; and a system identification procedure to estimate the model and controller parameters. Main Results We demonstrate reliable performance of our system in simulation studies of burst suppression control using both propofol and etomidate in rodent experiments based on Vijn and Sneyd, and in human experiments based on the Schnider pharmacokinetic model for propofol. Using propofol, we further demonstrate that our control system reliably tracks changing target levels of burst suppression in simulated human subjects across different epidemiological profiles. Significance Our results give new insights into CLAD system design and suggest a control-theory framework to automate second-to-second control of burst suppression for management of medically-induced coma. PMID:23744607
Liberman, Max Y.; Ching, ShiNung; Chemali, Jessica; Brown, Emery N.
Micro-systems with features of tiny volume and wireless communications are developed for different applications. To prolong devices' lifetime, energy harvesting techniques which use environmental energy as the power source are proposed. Although the amount of environmental energy is theoretically infinite, it is usually unstable and the instantaneous power available is limited. To utilize the environmental energy efficiently, power management circuits have to be built to track the unstable energy status and extract maximum power from the energy transducer. In this work, we use solar energy as an example and demonstrate the design of power management circuit for micro-systems that use energy harvesting techniques. An inductor-less solar power management system was proposed and built. The system targets to operate in all lighting environments. When the light intensity is low, a charge pump is used to step up the output voltage from the photovoltaic cell. Meanwhile, charge pump switching frequency can be auto-adjusted to transfer maximum solar power to the load. Another power management circuit was proposed and designed for solar energy harvesting systems. It is based on single inductor dual-input dual-output DC-DC converter. The converter clamps photovoltaic cells to a point where maximum solar power is extracted. At the same time, it generates a stable output voltage to power the load. Also, the converter schedules energy utilization among different energy sources and consumers. The single inductor implementation can reduce the devices' volume and cost. For devices that have very stringent volume requirement, it may not be possible to have built-in battery, and the load is powered by environmental energy only. To cater for the source characteristic, power management is executed in the load side. A charge based computation methodology was proposed where the load operation is controlled by the source energy status. Moreover, a control strategy was derived to improve system performance. For applications that are powered by environmental energy, the load circuits should utilize the energy efficiently. The energy consumption of the load should be minimized so that the environmental energy source can support more load operations. It has been demonstrated that minimum energy consumption for digital circuits occurs when operating the circuits in subthreshold region. In this work, we also looked at the energy-efficient circuit design based on sub-threshold logics. In particular we investigated the design of proper interfaces between the sub-threshold logics and other high voltage blocks in the system. A multi-stage sub-threshold level converter was designed to up-shift the sub-threshold voltage. It functions robustly for sub-threshold input, and the energy consumption is small. The multi-stage structure helps to increase the slew rate of the output and thus reduce the short-circuit current of the logic gates driven by the level converter.
Molecular Dynamic Simulations are performed to evaluate the interaction of lidocaine, procaine and tetracaine with a lipid membrane. The main interest is to evaluate the structural changes produced by these local anesthetics in the bilayers. Penetration trajectories, interaction energies, entropy changes and an order parameter are calculated to quantify the destabilization of the lipid configurations. We show that such structural parameters give important information to understand how anesthetic agents influence the structure of plasma membranes. Graphic processing units (GPUs) are used in our simulations. PMID:25181454
Zapata-Morin, Patricio A; Sierra-Valdez, F J; Ruiz-Suárez, J C
This case report illustrates an adult presenting with the simultaneous occurrence of both methemoglobinemia (MetHb) and systemic toxicity from the topical application of local anesthetics while undergoing laser epilation therapy of the legs. The concurrent development of both is considered uncommon in this setting and may have been related to several factors, including her recent previous treatment, increased absorption secondary to abraded skin with the addition of occlusive dressing, and possible alteration of protein binding and drug metabolism due to the use of medications. The clinical manifestations and mechanisms of MetHb and systemic local anesthetic toxicity are discussed. PMID:14751483
Local anesthetics such as dibucaine, QX572, tetracaine, and phenacaine, as well as other drugs with local anesthetic-like properties (e.g., mepacrine, propranolol, and SKF 525A) inhibit the specific calmodulin-dependent stimulation of erythrocyte Ca2+-ATPase (ATP phosphohydrolase, EC 22.214.171.124) and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (3',5'-cyclic-nucleotide 5'-nucleotidohydrolase, EC 126.96.36.199) from brain and heart. Basal activities of these enzymes in the absence of calmodulin are relatively
M. Volpi; R. I. Sha'Afi; P. M. Epstein; D. M. Andrenyak; M. B. Feinstein
A commercial gas monitor which utilizes Raman Spectroscopy has been developed to monitor anesthetic and respiratory gases in the hospital operating room. The instrument measures all molecular gases administered by the anesthesiologist in real time with fast response of breath waveform. These gases include carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, oxygen, nitrogen and various volatile halogenated organic anesthetics, e.g. halothane, isoflurane, enflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane. The key feature of this instrument which allows it to produce adequate Raman signals with a low cost argon ion laser is measuring these gases inside the laser resonant cavity.
Gregonis, Donald E.; Van Wagenen, Richard A.; Coleman, D.; Mitchell, John R.
Student well-being in the management classroom is of concern to both educators and managers. Well-being is conceptualized here as students' reduction in stress, enhanced experienced meaning and engagement in the classroom, and, ultimately, heightened satisfaction with life. The authors investigated whether purposeful semester-long classroom…
Flinchbaugh, Carol L.; Moore, E. Whitney G.; Chang, Young K.; May, Douglas R.
Background Anesthetic agents alter microcirculation, influencing tissue oxygenation and delivery of vital substrates. Laser Doppler perfusion imaging is a widespread technique in the field of microvascular research that can evaluate noninvasively and in real time the effects of environmental conditions, physical manipulations, diseases and treatments on peripheral perfusion. This study aims to evaluate laser Doppler perfusion imaging as a means to detect changes in skin microcirculation induced by some popular anesthetic agents in a murine model. Twenty-four age- and gender-matched healthy CD1 mice were examined by laser Doppler perfusion imaging. The skin microcirculatory response was measured at the level of plantar surfaces during isoflurane anesthesia with or without subsequent dexmedetomidine or acepromazine. At the end of the procedure, dexmedetomidine was reversed by atipamezole administration. Results In all mice, skin blood flow under isoflurane anesthesia did not show significant differences over time (P = 0.1). The serial perfusion pattern and values following acepromazine or dexmedetomidine administration differed significantly (P < 0.05). Conclusions We standardized a reliable laser Doppler perfusion imaging protocol to non-invasively assess changes in skin microcirculation induced by anesthesia in mice, considering the advantages and drawbacks of this technique and its translational value. PMID:24341447
Benzocaine was tested in the laboratory to determine the effective concentrations for anesthetizing juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and rainbow trout O. mykiss (formerly Salmo gairdneri). Tests were conducted at three water temperatures, in waters ranging from very soft to very hard, and with groups of rainbow trout from 5 to 47 cm long and chinook salmon 20 cm long.
We determined effective concentration ranges for carbonic acid as an anesthetic for rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss across a wide range of water temperatures and alkalinities. Effective concentrations were based on criteria for induction time (<3 min), recovery time (<10 min), and 72-h survival (100%). Induction time decreased and recovery time increased with increasing concentration. Mortalities were associated with high concentrations
Local anesthetic agents are chemically classified into two categories, the ester and newer generation the amide group. Allergic reactions were reported more commonly in the ester group, and so were the cross reactions of the agents in this group. In contrast, there were fewer reports of allergic reaction to the amide agents especially the cross-reactivity among them. Therefore, it becomes
It has been suggested since long that peripheral nerves possess opioid receptors and this has tempted clinicians in adding narcotics to local anesthetics to prolong the analgesic effects of these solutions. In this regard, we studied 45 patients undergoing surgical procedures on upper extremities. The patients scheduled for surgery were divided in to three groups, each comprising of 15 patients
Objective: To assess the feasibility of endoscopic telemanipulated cardiac surgery and describe the anesthetic, postoperative, and surgical implications of minimally invasive robotic-assisted cardiac surgery. Design: Prospective study. Setting: Cardiovascular and transplant center, university hospital. Participants: Twenty patients (13 men, 7 women) scheduled for either coronary artery bypass graft surgery or valve surgery. Mean age was 53 ± 5 years (range,
The effectiveness of isoflurane as an inhalation anesthetic for muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) was evaluated. Thirty muskrats were anesthetized in an enclosed chamber using 10 ml of isoflurane in Carlton County, Minnesota (USA), from 27 September to 24 October 1994. Mean (+/- SE) induction time for adults, juveniles, and kits was 20.6 +/- 2.9, 21.5 +/- 2.4, and 16.9 +/- 5.3 min, respectively (P = 0.77). Respective mean arousal times for adults, juveniles, and kits were 5.1 +/- 0.5, 5.7 +/- 0.7, and 5.7 +/- 0.6 min (P = 0.78). Heart rate, respiration rate, and body temperature were similar among age classes (P = 0.08 to 0.58). Mortality (3.3%) was comparable to that of other inhalation anesthetics. No short-term adverse effects were observed in recaptured individuals. Isoflurane is a safe and effective inhalation anesthetic for muskrats, although prolonged induction may limit its use in field studies. PMID:8592396
Modern naval battleforces generally include many different platforms each with onboard sensors such as radar, ESM, and communications. The sharing of information measured by local sensors via communication links across the battlegroup should allow for optimal or near optimal decisions. A fuzzy logic algorithm has been developed that automatically allocates electronic attack (EA) resources in real-time. The fuzzy logic approach allows the direct incorporation of expertise allowing decisions to be made based on these rules. Genetic algorithm based optimization is conducted to determine the form of the membership functions for the fuzzy root concepts. The resource manager is made up of five parts, the isolated platform model, the multi-platform model, the communication model, the fuzzy parameter selection tree and the fuzzy strategy tree. Automatic determination of fuzzy decision tree structure using a genetic program, an algorithm that creates other computer programs is discussed. A comparison to a tree obtained using a genetic program and one constructed based on expertise is made. The automatic discovery through genetic algorithms of multi-platform techniques, rules and strategies is discussed. Two new multi-platform power allocation algorithms based on fuzzy number theory and linear and nonlinear programming are introduced. Methods of validating the algorithms are examined.
Many Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs) require investigators to anesthetize mice for retroorbital blood collection. This policy necessitates the identi- fication of an anesthetic regimen that provides chemical restraint and adequate analgesia for a sufficient but preferably minimal duration. Anesthetizing mice for minimally invasive procedures of short duration is sometimes problematic because general an- esthesia is always associated
Knowledge Management Systems, 3rd European Conference on Knowledge Management, Dublin, Ireland, September 2002, ISBN:0-9540488-6-5, pp. 15-25. Knowledge Modelling Techniques for Developing Knowledge Management.email@example.com Knowledge management is fast becoming a commercial necessity for many organizations, in order
The influence of the local anesthetics tetracaine (TTC) and procaine (PRC) on bilayers of specifically deuterated phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) has been studied by /sup 2/H and /sup 31/P NMR. Dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamines (DMPE), deuterated at positions 2, 4, and 14 of the sn-2 chain, position 2 of the sn-1 chain, and in the ethanolamine headgroup, were mixed 1:1 with a semisynthetic egg PE and the effect of measured quantities of TTC and PRC on the /sup 2/H quadrupole splittings, spin-lattice relaxation times, and /sup 31/P chemical shift anisotropy were observed. Experiments were performed at pH 5.5, when the anesthetics are primarily charged, and at pH 9.5, when they are uncharged. Tetracaine was observed to disorder the hydrocarbon region of the bilayer and to induce a conformational change in the PE headgroup. Conversely, procaine had little or no effect on the hydrocarbon region and induced only a small change in the headgroup. These conformational changes and disordering effects, when adjusted for anesthetic partitioning, are essentially independent of the charge on the anesthetic. However, at pH 5.5 and low TTC/PE molar ratios (less than 0.1), the /sup 2/H NMR spectra showed two lipid environments--one corresponding to free PE and the other to PE in contact with TTC. Continued addition of TTC resulted in the eventual disappearance of the free PE signal and the corresponding growth of the signal from PE in contact with TTC. At pH 9.5, when TTC is uncharged, only one signal is observed. In mixtures of PE and phosphatidylserine, a conformational change in the headgroup was noted which was similar to that seen in the pure PE; however, there was no evidence for slow lateral diffusion of the anesthetics.
Background: Management of intes- tinal fistulae in open abdominal wounds remains a significant clinical challenge for those caring for patients surviving damage control abdominal operations. Breaking the cycle of tissue inflamma- tion, infection, and sepsis, resulting from leakage of enteric contents, should be a major goal in the approach to these com- plex patients. We describe a technique utilizing vacuum
Jeremy Goverman; Jay A. Yelon; John Joseph Platz; Rufino C. Singson; Michael Turcinovic
This paper deals with the extraction and analysis of faculty performance of management discipline from student feedback using clustering and association rule mining techniques. The performance of a faculty of any school or an Institute has been found to be dependent on a number of parameters broadly ranging from the individual's qualifications, experience, level of commitment, research activities undertaken to
Pain is a common experience; however, there is limited research regarding techniques used by parents to alleviate their children's pain. This study, using an online survey, examines non-pharmacological techniques used by community parents to treat children's pain. Most parents reported the use of at least one technique; most common was comforting the child. Mothers reported using more techniques than fathers.
Ayala Y. Gorodzinsky; Jessica M. Bernacki; W. Hobart Davies; Amy L. Drendel; Steven J. Weisman
Within Real Property Portfolio Management. there is a conscious search for new methodologies to improve building management practice, particularly for facilities in use. An approach in this direction is realized by the ...
the impacts of various rangeland management practices (grazing, herbicide treatment of the woody shrubs, and herbicide treatment of the shrubs followed by burning) on water yield and (2) to assess the impacts of various rangeland management practices...
Non-covalent complexes between three derivitized cyclodextrins (CD's) and six local anesthetics were studied using capillary electrophoresis (CE) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The CE study was performed using the complete filling technique (CFT). A comparison between the migration data from CE and ESI-MS inclusion complex peak abundances was made representing the association between local anesthetics and CD's in the solution and the gas phase, respectively. The results from this study showed comparable behavior of the complexes in the CE and mass spectrometer, indicating similarity in the parameters controlling the stability of these complexes. Therefore, the formation of specific non-covalent complexes, as shown in this study, could be used to predict the behavior of a complexing agent with a substrate in the solution phase by observing data obtained from ESI-MS. PMID:12216733
Vasopressin or antidiuretic hormone is a potent endogenous hormone, which is responsible for regulating plasma osmolality and volume. In high concentrations, it also raises blood pressure by inducing moderate vasoconstriction. It acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain to control circadian rhythm, thermoregulation and adrenocorticotropic hormone release. The therapeutic use of vasopressin has become increasingly important in the critical care environment in the management of cranial diabetes insipidus, bleeding abnormalities, esophageal variceal hemorrhage, asystolic cardiac arrest and septic shock. After 10 years of ongoing research, vasopressin has grown to a potential component as a vasopressor agent of the anesthesiologist's armamentarium in the treatment of cardiac arrest and severe shock states. PMID:21814369
InSAR is a remote sensing tool that has applications in both geothermal exploitation and in the management of producing fields. The technique has developed rapidly in recent years and the most evolved algorithms, now capable of providing precise ground movement measurements with unprecedented spatial density over large areas, allow the monitoring of the effects of fluid injection and extraction on surface deformation and the detection of active faults. Multi-interferogram approaches have been used at several geothermal sites in different stages of development. SqueeSAR™, which represents the latest breakthrough in InSAR technology, provides a significant increase in the spatial density of measurement points by exploiting signal returns from both point-like and distributed scatterers. Furthermore, recent satellite radar sensors have a higher spatial resolution (down to 1 m), as well as a higher temporal frequency of image acquisitions (down to a few days). The coupling of the new algorithm with this new generation of satellites provides a valuable tool for monitoring the different phases of geothermal production and in support of the decision making process. Some examples from the US are presented here: the first case study involves the use of InSAR within a suite of tools for exploration of the San Emidio geothermal field in Nevada. This project aimed to develop geophysical techniques to identify and map large aperture fractures for the placement of new production/exploration wells. The second and third examples examine two zones in California: the Salton Sea area, where multi-interferogram InSAR provided an overview of surface deformation at a producing geothermal reservoir. Surface deformation in this area was complex, and the added detail provided insight into the interplay of tectonics and production activities. Additional InSAR studies have also been carried out at the Geysers field in order to evaluate the behavior of an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) in response to high rates of water injection, with a strong interest in researching induced seismicity and ground deformation. These studies, along with the continuing developments in radar satellite technology and in the field of InSAR, show considerable promise for the future monitoring of geothermal production facilities.
Bellotti, F.; Falorni, G.; Morgan, J.; Rucci, A.; Ferretti, A.
The papers presented in this issue are focused on developing and validating procedures to improve the overall quality of sterile fruit flies for use in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. The group was coordinated and partially funded by the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, under a five-year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Quality Assurance in Mass-Reared and Released Fruit Flies for Use in SIT Programmes'. Participants in the CRP from 16 countries came from both basic and applied fields of expertise to ensure that appropriate and relevant procedures were developed. A variety of studies was undertaken to develop protocols to assess strain compatibility and to improve colonization procedures and strain management. Specific studies addressed issues related to insect nutrition, irradiation protocols, field dispersal and survival, field cage behavior assessments, and enhancement of mating competitiveness. The main objective was to increase the efficiency of operational fruit fly programs using sterile insects and to reduce their cost. Many of the protocols developed or improved during the CRP will be incorporated into the international quality control manual for sterile tephritid fruit flies, standardizing key components of the production, sterilization, shipment, handling, and release of sterile insects. (author) [Spanish] Los articulos presentados en este numero se enfocan en el desarrollo y la validacion de procedimientos para mejorar la calidad total de moscas de las frutas esteriles para su uso en programas de manejo integrado de plagas en donde la tecnica del insecto esteril (TIE) es uno de los componentes clave. El grupo fue coordinado y parcialmente financiado por la Division Conjunta de Tecnicas Nucleares para la Alimentacion y la Agricultura de la FAO/OIEA, Viena, Austria, por un periodo de cinco anos bajo el proyecto de Investigacion Coordinada (PIC) sobre 'el Aseguramiento de la Calidad de Moscas de las Frutas Criadas y Liberadas para su Uso en Programas de TIE'. Los participantes en el PIC representan 16 paises con experiencia en campos de investigacion basica y aplicada. Para asegurar que los procedimientos desarrollados fueran apropiados y pertinentes, se realizaron una variedad de estudios para el desarrollo de protocolos para evaluar la compatibilidad y para mejorar los procedimientos de colonizacion y manejo de cepas salvajes. Estudios especificos trataron asuntos relacionados con la nutricion de insectos, los protocolos de irradiacion, la dispersion y supervivencia en el campo, evaluacion del comportamiento en jaulas de campo, y el mejoramiento de la competitividad sexual. Los objetivos fundamentales fueron el aumentar la eficiencia y reducir los costos de los programas operacionales de control de moscas de las frutas donde TIE es utilizada. Muchos de los protocolos desarrollados o mejorados durante el PIC seran incorporados en el Manual Internacional de Control de Calidad para Moscas Estriles de la familia Tephritidae, para estandarizar componentes claves como la produccion, esterilizacion, envio, manejo y liberacion de insectos esteriles. (author)
Caceres, C.; Robinson, A. [Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency's Laboratories, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); McInnis, D. [USDA-ARS USPBARC, 2727 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96720 (United States); Shelly, T. [USDA/APHIS/CPHST, 41-650 Ahiki St. Waimanalo, HI 96795 (United States); Jang, E. [USDA-ARS USPBARC, P.O. Box 4459, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Hendrichs, J. [Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramerstrasse 5. P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)
AIM: To evaluate the results of hemorrhagic radiation proctopathy treatment with a 4% formalin application. METHODS: A prospective study was performed. Over a three-year period, 38 patients underwent 4% formalin application under perianal anesthetic infiltration for hemorrhagic radiation proctopathy. All patients included in the study were irradiated for prostate cancer. The patients ranged in age from 56-77 years (average 70 ± 5 years). All of the patients were referred for formalin therapy after noninvasive management had failed. Twenty-four (63.2%) patients underwent a single application, 10 (26.3%) patients underwent 2 applications, and 4 (10.5%) patients underwent 3 applications. RESULTS: Two to 36 mo (average 12 ± 3 mo) following treatment, 34 patients were interviewed (four were lost to follow-up). Twenty (58.8%) subjects reported complete cure, 8 (23.5%) subjects reported significant improvement, and 6 (17.7%) subjects reported no change. One patient (who underwent a colostomy at a regional hospital with no specialized services available for previous bleeding episodes from radiation proctopathy) was cured, and the colostomy was closed. One patient (2.6%) developed rectal mucosal damage after the second application. CONCLUSION: A 4-min application of 4% formalin for hemorrhagic radiation-induced proctopathy under perianal anesthetic infiltration in patients who have received external radial radiation therapy for prostate cancer is simple, reasonably safe, inexpensive, generally well tolerated, and effective. PMID:23946599
Samalavicius, Narimantas Evaldas; Dulskas, Audrius; Kilius, Alfredas; Petrulis, Kestutis; Norkus, Darius; Burneckis, Arvydas; Valuckas, Konstantinas Povilas
Background Frontal sinus fractures, particularly anterior sinus fractures, are relatively common facial fractures. Many agree on the general principles of frontal fracture management; however, the optimal methods of reduction are still controversial. In this article, we suggest a simple reduction method using a subbrow incision as a treatment for isolated anterior sinus fractures. Methods Between March 2011 and March 2014, 13 patients with isolated frontal sinus fractures were treated by open reduction and internal fixation through a subbrow incision. The subbrow incision line was designed to be precisely at the lower margin of the brow in order to obtain an inconspicuous scar. A periosteal incision was made at 3 mm above the superior orbital rim. The fracture site of the frontal bone was reduced, and bone fixation was performed using an absorbable plate and screws. Results Contour deformities were completely restored in all patients, and all patients were satisfied with the results. Scars were barely visible in the long-term follow-up. No complications related to the procedure, such as infection, uncontrolled sinus bleeding, hematoma, paresthesia, mucocele, or posterior wall and brain injury were observed. Conclusions The subbrow approach allowed for an accurate reduction and internal fixation of the fractures in the anterior table of the frontal sinus by providing a direct visualization of the fracture. Considering the surgical success of the reduction and the rigid fixation, patient satisfaction, and aesthetic problems, this transcutaneous approach through a subbrow incision is concluded to be superior to the other reduction techniques used in the case of an anterior table frontal sinus fracture.
Lee, Yewon; Shin, Dong Hyeok; Uhm, Ki Il; Kim, Soon Heum; Kim, Cheol Keun; Jo, Dong In
Background Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the basal ganglia, thalamus, and insula are considered inoperable given their depth, eloquence, and limited surgical exposure. While many neurosurgeons opt for radiosurgery or observation, others have challenged the belief that deep AVMs are inoperable. Further discussion of patient selection, technique, and multimodality management is needed. Objective To describe and discuss the technical considerations of microsurgical resection for deep-seated AVMs. Methods Patients with deep AVMs who underwent surgery during a 14-year period were reviewed using a prospective AVM registry. Results Microsurgery was performed in 48 patients with AVMs in the basal ganglia (n=10), thalamus (n=13), or insula (n=25). The most common Spetzler-Martin grade was III- (68%). Surgical approaches included transsylvian (67%), transcallosal (19%), and transcortical (15%). Complete resection was achieved in 34 patients (71%), and patients with incomplete resection were treated with radiosurgery. Forty-five patients (94%) were improved or unchanged (mean follow-up 1.6 years). Conclusion This experience advances the notion that select deep AVMs may be operable lesions. Patients were highly selected for small size, hemorrhagic presentation, young age, and compactness – factors embodied in the Spetzler-Martin and Supplementary grading systems. Overall, 10 different approaches were used, exploiting direct, transcortical corridors created by hemorrhage or maximizing anatomical corridors through subarachnoid spaces and ventricles that minimize brain transgression. The same cautious attitude exercised in selecting patients for surgery was also exercised in deciding extent of resection, opting for incomplete resection and radiosurgery more than with other AVMs to prioritize neurological outcomes. PMID:23728451
Potts, Matthew B.; Young, William L.; Lawton, Michael T.
The history of complete denture impression procedures has been influenced largely by the development of impression materials from which new techniques and ideas arose. The purpose of this study was to compare the retention of complete dentures made by using different impression techniques like conventional, admixed, all green, and functional techniques. The results showed that there was significant difference in retention between the six techniques where functional technique showed the highest mean value of retention followed by elastomeric, all green, and admixed, while cocktail and green stick compound showed the lowest mean value. However, on clinical examination, the retention produced by the six techniques was satisfactory. PMID:25180105
Komatsu et al have recently written that the use of etomidate as an anesthetic induction agent for surgery is associated with increased 30-day mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, compared with propofol. Etomidate has long been recognized as suppressing adrenocortical function and, as an infusion over days, has been indicted in increasing intensive care unit patient mortality. Even in single doses, etomidate causes a reduction in cortisol production, although recovery from single-dose suppression is generally prompt. In prospectively evaluating etomidate as an anesthetic for electroconvulsive therapy, Lebowitz et al, in a pilot study, found that 3 times per week, etomidate did not cause adrenocortical suppression that lasted until the following treatment. The steroid responses did not differ from those of methohexital, and no patient demonstrated evidence of cortisol deficiency. Consequently, concerns raised by Komatsu et al about etomidate's safety seem unwarranted when used for electroconvulsive therapy, and their study's conclusions likely relate to issues with their retrospective methodology. PMID:25010029
Since several clinical data have suggested that the incidence of neurological deficit after aortic surgery has not changed appreciably over the last 50 years, anesthesiologists as well as vascular surgeons have attempted to resolve this clinically important issue by employing various strategies to prevent ischemic spinal cord injury. With respect to inhalational anesthetics, it is thought that isoflurane as well as sevoflurane preconditioning might provide neuroprotective effects against spinal ischemia via activation of TWIK-related K channels-1 or the potassium ATP channel. Glutamate receptor antagonists, including ketamine, could also potentially provide some neuroprotection against spinal ischemia. However, it seems likely that decreased glutamate release could produce more neuroprotective effects against spinal ischemia than a blockade of the glutamate receptor. Although barbiturate alone failed to protect the spinal cord, a controversial issue has been the possible neuroprotective effects associated with local anesthetics including tetracaine, lidocaine and bupivacaine. Clinical cases and experimental studies have indicated that neuraxial opioids might be capable of exacerbating neurological deficits even after a non-injurious interval of spinal ischemia. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) therapy (40-80ppm), a common treatment for pulmonary hypertension, has been reported to prevent ischemic brain injury in animal studies by selective dilation of collateral arterioles. The vasodilating effects of iNO on the central nervous system might enhance the "collateral network" in the spinal cord during aortic cross-clamp, potentially protecting the spinal cord. In conclusion, some anesthetics, especially inhalational anesthetics, may provide neuroprotective effects against spinal cord ischemia, but administration of neuraxial opioid after spinal cord ischemia might exacerbate neurological dysfunction. PMID:24502573
Many additives to local anesthetics to prolong the duration of analgesia for peripheral nerve blocks have been studied. In this review, the authors focus on the more commonly described additives, including epinephrine, clonidine, dexmedetomidine, buprenorphine, dexamethasone, tramadol, sodium bicarbonate, and midazolam. While the primary focus of this review is the effect of the additive on the duration of analgesia, neurotoxicity and other safety concerns are also discussed. PMID:21956081
Objectives. To determine the analgesic efficacy of local anesthetics injected lateral to the seminal vesicles before prostate biopsy, during and immediately after the procedure, because pain is a common side effect of transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy.Methods. Patients were randomized to receive 5 mL of either 1% lidocaine or sterile normal saline injected (under ultrasound guidance) lateral to the seminal vesicles
Christopher L Wu; H. Ballentine Carter; Mohammad Naqibuddin; Lee A Fleisher
Several different approaches to Strategic Management Accounting (SMA) can be found in the literature of management ac counting since Simmonds (1981) coined the term. However, there is a little survey research about SMA practice, with the exception of the studies of Guilding et al. (2000) and Cravens & Guilding (2001). The paper aims to enrich the fragmented knowledge on t
Prepared as part of a project to help managers and supervisors develop practical, up-to-date managerial skills in a relatively short time, this instructional workbook provides information and exercises applicable to on-the-job situations encountered by public administrators. Unit I focuses on leadership, management theories, time and stress…
The result of a project to develop short courses to help health care administrators and supervisors in developing practical, up-to-date management skills, this instructional workbook provides information and exercises applicable to on-the-job situations. Unit I covers the following leadership considerations: self-awareness, time management,…
Local anesthetics are frequently used in fine-needle aspiration of thyroid lesions and locoregional control of persistent or recurrent thyroid cancer. Recent evidence suggests that local anesthetics have a broad spectrum of effects including inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in neuronal and other types of cells. In this study, we demonstrated that treatment with lidocaine and bupivacaine resulted in decreased cell viability and colony formation of both 8505C and K1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Lidocaine and bupivacaine induced apoptosis, and necrosis in high concentrations, as determined by flow cytometry. Lidocaine and bupivacaine caused disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c, accompanied by activation of caspase 3 and 7, PARP cleavage, and induction of a higher ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Based on microarray and pathway analysis, apoptosis is the prominent transcriptional change common to lidocaine and bupivacaine treatment. Furthermore, lidocaine and bupivacaine attenuated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activity and induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-jun N-terminal kinase. Pharmacological inhibitors of MAPK/ERK kinase and p38 MAPK suppressed caspase 3 activation and PARP cleavage. Taken together, our results for the first time demonstrate the cytotoxic effects of local anesthetics on thyroid cancer cells and implicate the MAPK pathways as an important mechanism. Our findings have potential clinical relevance in that the use of local anesthetics may confer previously unrecognized benefits in the management of patients with thyroid cancer. PMID:24586874
The thermodynamic parameters that characterize the inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase activity, in rat liver submitochondrial particles, by n-butanol, tetracaine, and dibucaine were obtained. Three equilibria were assumed in order to account for the data: for the interaction of inhibitor with the native state of the enzyme, for the interaction of inhibitor with the thermally (reversibly) denatured state, and for the change between the native and thermally denatured states. Inhibition results from interaction with both the native and denatured states but, because the interaction is stronger with the denatured than with the native state, the native/denatured equilibrium is shifted to the right by the anesthetics. The enthalpies of interaction are -2.3, -4.7, and 3.7 kcal/mol (1 cal = 4.18 J) for the native state and -10, -6, and -14 kcal/mol for the denatured state, for n-butanol, tetracaine, and dibucaine, respectively. These values are much smaller than the previous estimates obtained by using the assumption that anesthetics interact only with the thermally denatured state of enzymes (e.g., -81 kcal/mol for tetracaine inhibition of luciferase). Our results suggest that local anesthetics inhibit enzyme activity by causing a reversible perturbation of protein conformation. The magnitude of the perturbation is much smaller (in energetic terms) than that which accompanies thermal denaturation.
The ideal sedative–hypnotic drug would be a rapidly titratable intravenous agent with a high therapeutic index and minimal side effects. The current efforts to develop such agents are primarily focused on modifying the structures of existing drugs to improve their pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties. Drugs currently under development using this rational design approach include analogues of midazolam, propofol, and etomidate, such as remimazolam, PF0713, and cyclopropyl methoxycarbonyl-etomidate (MOC-etomidate), respectively. An alternative approach involves the rapid screening of large libraries of molecules for activity in structural or phenotypic assays that approximate anesthetic and target receptor interactions. Such high-throughput screening offers the potential for identifying completely novel classes of drugs. Anesthetic drug development is experiencing a resurgence of interest because there are new demands on our clinical practice that can be met, at least in part, with better agents. The goal of this review is to provide the reader with a glimpse of the novel anesthetic drugs and new developmental approaches that lie on the horizon. PMID:23653886
Chitilian, Hovig V.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.; Raines, Douglas E.
Change in physical and chemical properties of bio-membranes is of great interest for understanding the mechanism of anesthetic action on membranes. Hypothetically the anesthetic alters the lipid membrane structure (promoting pore formation across membranes or at least switching transmembrane channels) and therefore the biophysical properties of the membrane. We have used neutron spin echo (NSE) spectroscopy to study the effect of anesthetic molecule, lidocaine, on the bending elasticity (BE) of lipid membranes. BE of lipid bilayers made of (1,2-Dimyristoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphocholine) DMPC and 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphocholine (DPPC) have been measured at different temperatures and different in the fluid (L?) phase. Using Zilman-Granek theory the BE were obtained from the decay of the NSE intermediate scattering function. We have found that in the presence of lidocaine the BE of DMPC and DPPC bilayers increases. The results were correlated with those from differential scanning calorimetry. Increase in the lidocaine concentration leads to decrease in the liquid/crystalline transition temperature.
This observational case report describes the development of bilateral Mooren-like ulcers in a patient with anesthetic keratopathy. A 42-year-old man with a recent history of minor eye trauma and pain self-treated with tetracaine eye drops presented with complaints of acutely worsening vision and severe pain bilaterally. His visual acuity at presentation was limited to hand motion. Slit-lamp examination revealed bilateral epithelial defects at the center of the cornea, and an area of stromal infiltration and thinning with an undermining leading edge resembling a Mooren's ulcer in both eyes. Corneal haze and hypopyon were visible. Anesthetic use was halted immediately and the patient was started on prednisolone and mycophenolate mofetil (Cellcept(®)), after which visual acuity gradually improved and pain decreased. Despite improvement of symptoms, residual epithelial defects remained, and the patient was ultimately treated with keratoplasty for recovery of vision. We suggest that anesthetic keratopathy should be included in the differential diagnosis for any patient presenting with ring-shaped stromal infiltrates or nonhealing epithelial defects. PMID:23118524
Khakshoor, Hamid; Moshirfar, Majid; Simpson, Rachel G; Gharaee, Hamid; Vejdani, Amir H; Christiansen, Steven M; Edmonds, Jason N; Behunin, Nicholas L
This observational case report describes the development of bilateral Mooren-like ulcers in a patient with anesthetic keratopathy. A 42-year-old man with a recent history of minor eye trauma and pain self-treated with tetracaine eye drops presented with complaints of acutely worsening vision and severe pain bilaterally. His visual acuity at presentation was limited to hand motion. Slit-lamp examination revealed bilateral epithelial defects at the center of the cornea, and an area of stromal infiltration and thinning with an undermining leading edge resembling a Mooren’s ulcer in both eyes. Corneal haze and hypopyon were visible. Anesthetic use was halted immediately and the patient was started on prednisolone and mycophenolate mofetil (Cellcept®), after which visual acuity gradually improved and pain decreased. Despite improvement of symptoms, residual epithelial defects remained, and the patient was ultimately treated with keratoplasty for recovery of vision. We suggest that anesthetic keratopathy should be included in the differential diagnosis for any patient presenting with ring-shaped stromal infiltrates or nonhealing epithelial defects. PMID:23118524
Khakshoor, Hamid; Moshirfar, Majid; Simpson, Rachel G; Gharaee, Hamid; Vejdani, Amir H; Christiansen, Steven M; Edmonds, Jason N; Behunin, Nicholas L
Local anesthetics and related drugs block ionic currents of Na+, K+ and Ca2+ conducted across the cell membrane by voltage-dependent ion channels. Many of these drugs bind in the permeation pathway, occlude the pore and stop ion movement. However channel-blocking drugs have also been associated with decreased membrane stability of certain tetrameric K+ channels, similar to the destabilization of channel function observed at low extracellular K+ concentration. Such drug-dependent stability may result from electrostatic repulsion of K+ from the selectivity filter by a cationic drug molecule bound in the central cavity of the channel. In this study we used the pore domain of the KcsA K+ channel protein to test this hypothesis experimentally with a biochemical assay of tetramer stability and theoretically by computational simulation of local anesthetic docking to the central cavity. We find that two common local anesthetics, lidocaine and tetracaine, promote thermal dissociation of the KcsA tetramer in a K+-dependent fashion. Docking simulations of these drugs with open, open-inactivated and closed crystal structures of KcsA yield many energetically favorable drug-channel complexes characterized by nonbonded attraction to pore-lining residues and electrostatic repulsion of K+. The results suggest that binding of cationic drugs to the inner cavity can reduce tetramer stability of K+ channels. PMID:23545989
Gray, Noel W.; Zhorov, Boris S.; Moczydlowski, Edward G.
Brain development is a complex phenomenon in which several stages of production, maturation, and organization of neural cells in a network succeed each other. Various environmental factors can disrupt these stages. During the last decade, numerous in vitro and in vivo experimental studies in newborn animal models have established the neurotoxic effects of most anesthetic and sedative drugs used in pediatrics. These effects are essentially responsible for neuronal apoptosis and have been associated with learning disorders in adulthood. This neurotoxicity is time-varying: there is a vulnerability period during synaptogenesis. These toxic effects were attributed to agonist properties on GABA receptors or antagonist properties on NMDA receptors, which are characteristics of all implicated anesthetics. Excessive activation of the GABA pathway and/or excessive inhibition of the NMDA pathway activate cellular mechanisms leading to apoptosis. The intensity of neurotoxic effects is dose- and time-exposure-dependent. These numerous experimental data must be interpreted with caution with regard to their validity in humans, mainly because of interspecies differences as well as differences between experimental conditions and clinical practice. Today, these data are insufficient to change our practices, taking into account the indisputable benefits of the use of anesthetics and sedative drugs. However, progress in experimental research will help us identify the safest therapeutic strategies and neuroprotective treatments. PMID:23891553
Patkai, J; Zana-Taieb, E; Didier, C; Jarreau, P-H; Lopez, E
Bovine serum albumin (BSA) labeled with /sup 131/I was injected intravenously in chronically prepared, unanesthetized rats and into pentobarbital-anesthetized rats that had received 2 ml 5% BSA to help sustain plasma volume. Initial uptake rates (clearances) in skin, skeletal muscles, diaphragm, and heart (left ventricle) were measured over 1 h. BSA labeled with /sup 125/I was injected terminally to correct for intravascular /sup 131/I-BSA. Observed clearances were in the following order in both groups of animals: heart much greater than diaphragm approximately equal to skin greater than resting skeletal muscles. Differences between unanesthetized and anesthetized animals were small and inconsistently directed. Our results suggest that the lower albumin clearances reported in the literature for anesthetized rats are not the result of their immobility or any direct effect of anesthesia on albumin transport in these tissues. The lower transport rates appear to result indirectly from changes produced by anesthesia and/or surgery in controllable parameters such as plasma volume and intravascular protein mass.
Renkin, E.M.; Joyner, W.L.; Gustafson-Sgro, M.; Plopper, G.; Sibley, L.
The cytoskeleton is essential to cell morphology, cargo trafficking, and cell division. As the neuronal cytoskeleton is extremely complex, it is no wonder that a startling number of neurodegenerative disorders (including but not limited to Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease) share the common feature of a dysfunctional neuronal cytoskeleton. Recently, concern has been raised about a possible link between anesthesia, post-operative cognitive dysfunction, and the exacerbation of neurodegenerative disorders. Experimental investigations suggest that anesthetics bind to and affect cytoskeletal microtubules, and that anesthesia-related cognitive dysfunction involves microtubule instability, hyper-phosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau, and tau separation from microtubules. However, exact mechanisms are yet to be identified. In this paper the interaction of anesthetics with the microtubule subunit protein tubulin is investigated using computer-modeling methods. Homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulations and surface geometry techniques were used to determine putative binding sites for volatile anesthetics on tubulin. This was followed by free energy based docking calculations for halothane (2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane) on the tubulin body, and C-terminal regions for specific tubulin isotypes. Locations of the putative binding sites, halothane binding energies and the relation to cytoskeleton function are reported in this paper. PMID:22761654
Craddock, Travis J. A.; St. George, Marc; Freedman, Holly; Barakat, Khaled H.; Damaraju, Sambasivarao; Hameroff, Stuart; Tuszynski, Jack A.
A low-power digital signal processor (DSP) is the key component for battery-driven mobile phone equipment since a vast amount of data needs to be processed for multimedia use. Reduced supply voltage is a direct approach to power reduction. This 1 V DSPLSI with 26 MOPS and 1.1 mW\\/MOPS performance adopts a multi-threshold-voltage CMOS (MTCMOS) technique. A small embedded power-management processor
S. Mutoh; S. Shigematsu; Y. Matsuya; H. Fukuda; J. Yamada
Managing multiple ideas, candidate initiatives and in-flight projects across diverse business units is a large challenge for major organizations. Overseeing global demand for projects as well as resource needs, risks, ...
systems. Shang et al. proposed a run-time distributed mechanism to monitor power dissipation on interconnect links to maintain peak power constraints . Even though there has been lot of work for providing an efficient slack management scheme, very... systems. Shang et al. proposed a run-time distributed mechanism to monitor power dissipation on interconnect links to maintain peak power constraints . Even though there has been lot of work for providing an efficient slack management scheme, very...
The rodent vibrissa system is a widely used experimental model of active sensation and motor control. Vibrissa-based touch in rodents involves stereotypic, rhythmic sweeping of the vibrissae as the animal explores its environment. Although pharmacologically induced rhythmic movements have long been used to understand the neural circuitry that underlies a variety of rhythmic behaviors, including locomotion, digestion and ingestion, these techniques have not been available for active sensory movements such as whisking. However, recent work that delineated the location of the central pattern generator for whisking has enabled pharmacological control over this behavior. Here we specify a protocol for the pharmacological induction of rhythmic vibrissa movements that mimic exploratory whisking. The rhythmic vibrissa movements are induced by local injection of a glutamatergic agonist, kainic acid. This protocol produces coordinated rhythmic vibrissa movements that are sustained for several hours in the anesthetized mouse or rat and thus provides unprecedented experimental control in studies related to vibrissa-based neuronal circuitry. PMID:24992095
Moore, Jeffrey D; Deschênes, Martin; Kurnikova, Anastasia; Kleinfeld, David
Inhalation anesthetics have been in clinical use for over 160 years, but the molecular mechanisms of action continue to be investigated. Direct interactions with ion channels received much attention after it was found that anesthetics do not change the structure of homogeneous model membranes. However, it was recently found that halothane, a prototypical anesthetic, changes domain structure of a binary lipid membrane. The noble gas xenon is an excellent anesthetic and provides a pivotal test of the generality of this finding, extended to ternary lipid raft mixtures. We report that xenon and conventional anesthetics change the domain equilibrium in two canonical ternary lipid raft mixtures. These findings demonstrate a membrane-mediated mechanism whereby inhalation anesthetics can affect the lipid environment of transmembrane proteins. PMID:24299622
In-source pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS), in combination with complementary elemental, wet-chemical,\\u000a biochemical, and microbiological data, has been used to characterize humus composition and dynamics in soil samples from several\\u000a field plots that have been cultivated in long-term experiments under different management conditions.\\u000a \\u000a Thermograms and Py-FI mass spectra of whole-soil samples from field plots that under very different management show
Introduction The use of intravenous lipid emulsion (IVLE) has been proposed as a new potential treatment for local anesthetic toxicity.\\u000a Local anesthetics work through reversible binding at sodium channels, and signs and symptoms of toxicity include central nervous\\u000a system and cardiovascular effects. Cardiovascular collapse is a potential result of local anesthetic toxicity, and is generally\\u000a resistant to resuscitation efforts with standard
Environmental impacts of salmon cage aquaculture resulting from deposition of organic-rich particulate matter to the sea bottom have been thought to be a function of the local environmental conditions and management practices. However, testing of these suppositions have been limited by (1) widely varying monitoring methods employed, and (2) lack of data comparability resulting from the absence of standardized national
Michael L Carroll; Sabine Cochrane; Reinhold Fieler; Roger Velvin; Patrick White
An organization tends to seek out the best set of practices in order to achieve project success. Many organizations are implementing a Project Management Office (PMO) to serve as a central post for organizing and disseminating best practices. The PMO responsibilities in part is to examine all practices, old and new, to best determine which…
This paper will study some of the problems associated with case studies and make recommendations using standard and innovative methodologies effectively. Human resource management (HRM) and resource development cases provide context for analysis and decision-making designs in different industries. In most HRM development and training courses…
Maxwell, James R.; Gilberti, Anthony F.; Mupinga, Davison M.
The process of project management is illustrated through application to one activity, development of a new brochure, within the admissions program of a fictional college. The project life cycle is described, and a work responsibility schedule, project completion schedule, and critical path chart are used as planning and implementation tools. (MSE)
Delta abstractions are introduced as a mechanism for managing database states during the execution of active database rules. Delta abstractions build upon the use of object deltas, capturing changes to individual objects through a system-supported, collapsible type structure. The object delta structure is implemented using object-oriented concepts such as encapsulation and inheritance so that all database objects inherit the ability
Susan Darling Urban; Taoufik Ben Abdellatif; Suzanne W. Dietrich; Amy Sundermier
Student retention is an essential part of many enrollment management systems. It affects university rankings, school reputation, and financial wellbeing. Student retention has become one of the most important priorities for decision makers in higher education institutions. Improving student retention starts with a thorough understanding of the reasons behind the attrition. Such an understanding is the basis for accurately predicting
Each day millions of people suffer from pain whether they are in the hospital, their homes, or assisted living facilities. The experience of pain negatively influences their daily lives. As nurses and physicians interact with patients and families, they assess and treat their pain. Nurses and physicians attitudes and knowledge of pain management can affect their patient's treatment options. Most
This paper presents a project management concept for programming and designing workplaces in relation to facility user's strategy and operations. The concept includes the target costing product model that defines the life cycle costs basing on spaces needed and workplace planning product model which links spaces to business operations. They enable the definition and costing of working environment in client
The major concerns for the availability of climate and agrometeorological data as we move into the 21st century continue to be in areas of data collection and data base management. New technologies have advanced our ability to address these issues but the solutions may require the commitment of resources that may yet be outside the reach of developing countries. This
P. C. Doraiswamy; P. A. Pasteris; K. C. Jones; R. P. Motha; P. Nejedlik
An effective management of the rapidly dwindling marine fish resources is of great ecological, economic and social importance for the future. An over-development of commercial fisheries has brought about a multitude of negative environmental impacts, such as an accelerated exploitation of stocks or a decrease of marine biodiversity, and furthermore, a profound structural change in fish industry. However, the main
Introduction The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate whether volatile anesthetics used for postoperative sedation have any beneficial effects on myocardial injury in cardiac surgery patients after on-pump valve replacement. Methods Anesthesia was performed with propofol. After arrival in the intensive care unit (ICU), 117 patients were randomized to be sedated for at least 4 hours with either propofol or sevoflurane. Sevoflurane was administered by using the anesthetic-conserving device. Troponin T, creatine kinase, creatine kinase from heart muscle tissue, myoglobin, and oxygenation index were determined on arrival at the ICU, 4 hours after sedation, and in the morning of the first postoperative day (POD1). Primary end points were cardiac injury markers on POD1. As secondary end points oxygenation, postoperative pulmonary complications, and ICU and hospital stay were documented. Results Fifty-six patients were analyzed in the propofol arm, and 46 patients in the sevoflurane arm. Treatment groups were comparable with regard to patient demographics and intraoperative characteristics. Concentration of troponin T as the most sensitive marker for myocardial injury at POD1 was significantly lower in the sevoflurane group compared with the propofol group (unadjusted difference, -0.4; 95% CI, -0.7 to -0.1; P < 0.01; adjusted difference, -0.2; 95% CI, -0.4 to -0.02; P = 0.03, respectively). Conclusions The data presented in this investigation indicate that late postconditioning with the volatile anesthetic sevoflurane might mediate cardiac protection, even with a late, brief, and low-dose application. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00924222. PMID:23062276
Context: During induction of general anesthesia hypertension and tachycardia caused by tracheal intubation may lead to cardiac ischemia and arrhythmias. Dexmedetomidine attenuates the hemodynamic response to endotracheal intubation and reduces anesthetic requirement. Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single pre-induction intravenous dose of dexmedetomidine 1 ?g/kg on cardiovascular response resulting from laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation and need for anesthetic agent. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients scheduled for elective major surgery were randomized into two groups each having twenty five patients-dexmedetomidine group (Group 1) and control group (Group 2). Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and Ramsay sedation score were recorded at 1, 2 and 5 min after completion of administration of study drug. Fentanyl 2 ?g/kg was administered to all patients and propofol was given until loss of verbal contact. Intubation was facilitated with vecuronium 0.1 mg/kg i.v. Anesthesia was maintained with oxygen (O2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) 33%: 67% and isoflurane. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was noted at 1 min, 2 min and 5 min after intubation. Statistical Analysis Used: For statistical analysis of the clinical data obtained, the analysis of variances (ANOVA) with paired t-test was used. Results: Pretreatment with dexmedetomidine 1 ug/kg attenuated, but did not totally abolish the cardiovascular and catecholamine responses to tracheal intubation after induction of anesthesia. In our present study, HR, SBP, DBP all increased after intubation at 1, 2, 3 and 5 min in both the groups, but the rise was significantly less in the dexmedetomidine group. Requirement of propofol was significantly less in the dexmedetomidine group. Conclusions: Preoperative administration of a single dose of dexmedetomidine blunted the hemodynamic responses during laryngoscopy, and reduced anesthetic requirements.
Studies suggest that acupuncture is more effective when induced before induction of general anesthesia than afterwards. We tested the hypothesis that electro-acupuncture initiated 30 minutes before induction reduces anesthetic requirement more than acupuncture initiated after induction. Seven volunteers were each anesthetized with desflurane on 3 study days. Needles were inserted percutaneously at 4 acupuncture points thought to produce analgesia in the upper abdominal area and provide generalized sedative and analgesic effects: Zusanli (St36), Sanyinjiao (Sp6), Liangqiu (St34), and Hegu (LI4). Needles were stimulated at 2-Hz and 10-Hz, with frequencies alternating at two-second intervals. On Preinduction day, electro-acupuncture was started 30 minutes before induction of anesthesia and maintained throughout the study. On At-induction day, needles were positioned before induction of anesthesia, but electro-acupuncture stimulation was not initiated until after induction. On Control day, electrodes were positioned near the acupoints, but needles were not inserted. Noxious electrical stimulation was administered via 25-G needles on the upper abdomen (70 mA, 100 Hz, 10 seconds). Desflurane concentration was increased 0.5% when movement occurred and decreased 0.5% when it did not. These up-and-down sequences continued until volunteers crossed from movement to no-movement 4 times. The P50 of logistic regression identified desflurane requirement. Desflurane requirement was similar on the Control (5.2±0.6%, mean±SD), Preinduction (5.0±0.8%), and At-induction (4.7±0.3%, P=0.125) days. This type of acupuncture is thus unlikely to facilitate general anesthesia or decrease the need for anesthetic drugs. PMID:15673863
Chernyak, Grigory; Sengupta, Papiya; Lenhardt, Rainer; Liem, Edwin; Doufas, Anthony G.; Sessler, Daniel I.; Akca, Ozan
Brain uptake of local anesthetics under steady-state plasma condition and/or following intravenous bolus administration was investigated in rats. All ester-type anesthetics examined such as ethyl (Et), propyl (Pr), butyl (Bu) esters of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), and procaine disappeared rapidly from plasma in a dose-dependent manner. Plasma profiles of these compounds were well explained by a 2-compartment model with a Michaelis-Menten type elimination process from a central compartment. On the other hand, lidocaine, amide-type anesthetic, showed a linear pharmacokinetic characteristic and its half life in the elimination phase was far longer than those of ester type agents. Extents of brain uptake (brain-to-plasma partition coefficient, Kp value) of these drugs were determined at 3 different steady-state plasma concentrations (1-15 microM). The Kp value of each drug was similar under the three different steady-state plasma concentrations. The Kp value increased in the following order; procaine (1.1) less than PABA-Et (1.9) less than lidocaine (2.2) less than PABA-Pr (2.7) less than PABA-Bu (3.6). A linear relationship was observed between the Kp value and the logarithmic value of the partition coefficient obtained in n-heptane/water or n-octanol/water partition system. The value of PABA-Et and PABA-Bu following intravenous bolus administration were varied with time elapsed but the mean values were almost same with those obtained under steady-state plasma conditions. PMID:1808237
Numerous small molecules exhibit drug-like properties by low-affinity binding to proteins. Such binding is known to be influenced by water, the detailed picture of which, however, remains unclear. One particular example is the controversial role of water in the binding of general anesthetics to proteins as an essential step in general anesthesia. Here we demonstrate that a critical amount of hydration water is a prerequisite for anesthetic-protein binding. Using nuclear magnetic resonance, the concurrent adsorption of hydration water and bound anesthetics on model proteins are simultaneously measured. Halothane binding on proteins can only take place after protein hydration reaches a threshold hydration level of ?0.31 g of water/g of proteins at the relative water vapor pressure of ?0.95. Similar dependence on hydration is also observed for several other anesthetics. The ratio of anesthetic partial pressures at which two different anesthetics reach the same fractional load is correlated with the anesthetic potency. The binding of nonimmobilizers, which are structurally similar to known anesthetics but unable to produce anesthesia, does not occur even after the proteins are fully hydrated. Our results provide the first unambiguous experimental evidence that water is absolutely required to enable anesthetic-protein interactions, shedding new light on the general mechanism of molecular recognition and binding. PMID:24050264
We report two cases of newborns who developed marked local edema after application of a eutectic mixture of local anesthetic (EMLA) topical anesthetic cream for neonatal male circumcision (NMC). Although local edema and erythema are known potential side effects of EMLA cream, a common anesthetic used for NMC, the loss of landmarks precluding safe NMC has not previously been reported, and is described here. Although we cannot recommend an alternate local anesthetic for neonates with this reaction to EMLA, based on a review of the published data we think that serious systemic adverse events related to EMLA are extremely rare. PMID:23102766
Plank, Rebeca M.; Kubiak, David W.; Abdullahi, Rasak Bamidele; Ndubuka, Nnamdi; Nkgau, Maggie M.; Dapaah-Siakwan, Fredrick; Powis, Kathleen M.; Lockman, Shahin
Local anesthetics are known to inhibit neuronal fast anterograde axoplasmic transport (FAAT) in a reversible and dose-dependent manner, but the precise mechanism has not been determined. FAAT is powered by kinesin superfamily proteins, which transport membranous organelles, vesicles, or protein complexes along microtubules. We investigated the direct effect of local anesthetics on kinesin, using both in vitro motility and single-molecule motility assays. In the modified in vitro motility assay, local anesthetics immediately and reversibly stopped the kinesin-based microtubule movement in an all-or-none fashion without lowering kinesin ATPase activity. QX-314, a permanently charged derivative of lidocaine, exerted an effect similar to that of lidocaine, suggesting that the effect of anesthetics is due to the charged form of the anesthetics. In the single-molecule motility assay, the local anesthetic tetracaine inhibited the motility of individual kinesin molecules in a dose-dependent manner. The concentrations of the anesthetics that inhibited the motility of kinesin correlated well with those blocking FAAT. We conclude that the charged form of local anesthetics directly and reversibly inhibits kinesin motility in a dose-dependent manner, and it is the major cause of the inhibition of FAAT by local anesthetics. PMID:10653806
Miyamoto, Y; Muto, E; Mashimo, T; Iwane, A H; Yoshiya, I; Yanagida, T
Background: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of stress management training through cognitive-behavioral techniques on stress, social adaptability and depression in women with depression disorders. Materials and Methods: In this study, 40 patients diagnosed with depression who had referred to psychiatry and consultation clinics of Isfahan were randomly selected and assigned to intervention and control groups (20 patients in each group). The intervention group received eight 90-min sessions of stress training through cognitive–behavioral techniques. Data collection tools included Cooper's stress questionnaire, Bell's social adaptability questionnaire and Hamilton's depression scale questionnaire. The participants completed the questionnaires before the intervention and 1 month after the same. Data analysis was performed using covariance analysis. Results: Based on the results, considering variables of stress, social adaptability and depression, the equal variance hypothesis was confirmed. The relationship between pre- and post-test scores on stress, social adaptability and depression was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The modified mean difference was F = 12.45, P < 0.001 on stress; F = 6.88, P < 0.01 on social adaptability; and F = 5.36, P < 0.02 on depression, all of which were significant. Conclusion: Stress management training through cognitive behavioral techniques can play a main role in depression reduction and development of social adaptability through modifying inappropriate social information-processing patterns. PMID:25077163
Purpose To test the hypotheses that deliberate elevation of PaCO2 increases cerebral tissue oxygen tension (PBrO2) by augmenting PaO2 and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Anesthetized rats were exposed to increasing levels of inspired oxygen (O2) or carbon dioxide (CO2; 5%, 10% and 15%,n = 6). Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), PBrO2 and rCBF were measured continuously. Blood gas analysis and
Gregory M. T. Hare; Brian P. Kavanagh; C. David Mazer; Kathryn M. Hum; Steve Y. Kim; Carla Coackley; Aiala Barr; Andrew J. Baker
A number of lipophilic amines of diverse chemical structure, including antihistaminics, local anesthetics, and chloroquine, were found to exhibit similar kinetics in inhibiting the infection of BHK cells by vesicular stomatitis virus. The inhibition occurred prior to both primary and secondary RNA transcription but following transfer from the cell surface to an intracellular site, presumed to be the lysosomes. A similar inhibition, by these agents, of infection by Sendai, influenza strain WSN, and Semliki Forest viruses suggested a lysosomal involvement in infection by these viruses as well. PMID:6115382
The aim of this work is to describe a new arthroscopic technique for the treatment of femoroacetabular impingement that allows a complete articular joint view with maximum protection of the capsuloligamentous complex. This arthroscopic technique avoids injury to the capsuloligamentous complex, preventing the risk of postoperative instability. The diagnosis of femoroacetabular impingement was based on clinical and radiographic grounds. An alpha angle greater than 50° was considered pathologic. In this technique, the use of intra-articular devices (retractors) allows us to separate the capsular tissue from the femoral head-neck junction and mobilize the capsule, achieving an adequate joint view without performing a capsulotomy and, consequently, avoiding the complications of capsular damage.
?-Aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors are an important target for general anesthetics in the central nervous system. Site-directed mutagenesis techniques have identified amino acid residues that are important for the positive modulation of GABAA receptors by general anesthetics. In the present study, we investigate the role of an amino acid residue in transmembrane (TM) domain 3 of the GABAA receptor ?2 subunit for modulation by the general anesthetic 2,6-diisopropylphenol (propofol). Mutation of methionine 286 to tryptophan (M286W) in the ?2 subunit abolished potentiation of GABA responses by propofol but did not affect direct receptor activation by propofol in the absence of GABA. In contrast, substitution of methionine 286 by alanine, cysteine, glutamate, lysine, phenylalanine, serine, or tyrosine was permissive for potentiation of GABA responses and direct activation by propofol. Using propofol analogs of varying molecular size, we show that the ?2(M286W) mutation resulted in a decrease in the ‘cut-off’ volume for propofol analog molecules to enhance GABA responses at GABAA?1?2?2s receptors. This suggests that mutation of M286 in the GABAA ?2 subunit alters the dimensions of a ‘binding pocket’ for propofol and related alkylphenol general anesthetics. PMID:11747900
This research project was designed as part of a larger effort to help Human Factors (HF) implementers, and others in the aviation maintenance community, understand, evaluate, and validate the impact of Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) training programs, and other MRM interventions; on participant attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and ultimately on enhanced safety performance. It includes research and development of evaluation methodology as well as examination of psychological constructs and correlates of maintainer performance. In particular, during 2001, three issues were addressed. First a prototype process for measuring performance was developed and used. Second an automated calculator was developed to aid the HF implementer user in analyzing and evaluating local survey data. These results include being automatically compared with the experience from all MRM programs studied since 1991. Third the core survey (the Maintenance Resource Management Technical Operations Questionnaire, or 'MRM/TOQ') was further developed and tested to include topics of added relevance to the industry.
Aims: The current surgical management of peptic ulcer disease and its outcome have been reviewed. Results: Today, surgery for peptic ulcer disease is largely restricted to the treatment of complications. In peptic ulcer perforation,\\u000a a conservative treatment trial can be given in selected cases. If laparotomy is necessary, simple closure is sufficient in\\u000a the large majority of cases, and definitive
\\u000a Traditional process-oriented knowledge management (KM) approaches are inadequate for highly dynamic and volatile processes,\\u000a whose steps cannot be planned in advance, and during which new, unanticipated “knowledge needs” frequently arise: such processes\\u000a handle mostly informal documents and rely on face-to-face communication between participants. During the workshop, practitioners\\u000a and researchers presented novel approaches for decision support within agile processes, agile process
Harald Holz; Heiko Maus; Naoyuki Nomura; Martin Schaaf
Local anesthetics play an important role in postoperative pain management in orthopedic joint procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an intraoperative extra-articular injection of poly(DL-lactic acid co castor oil 3:7), p(DLLA:CO) 3:7 loaded with 15% bupivacaine, for postoperative analgesia following knee arthroplasty. Prolonged release local anesthetic formulation was synthesized by mixing p(DLLA:CO) 3:7 with bupivacaine base. Under anesthesia, the knee joint of Sprague-Dawley rats was exposed, a hole drilled in the femoral trochlea. 0.2 mL of either 15% polymer-bupivacaine formulation or plain bupivacaine (control) was injected locally and compared with a nonsurgery control group. Mechanical hyperalgesia was determined by counting the vocalizations and leg withdrawal after joint squeezing. Behavioral assessments over a day postoperative period revealed a reduction in rearing and ambulation in an open-field apparatus in animals of both experimental groups compared with the nonsurgery control. The vocalizations during the hyperalgesia test increased compared with the control at 24 h. At 48 h, 3.667 ± 0.5138, p = 0.0076 vocalizations were recorded for the plain bupivacaine group versus 1.417 ± 0.5138, p < 0.0001 in the 15% polymer-bupivacaine formulation. Bupivacaine encapsulated in p(DLLA:CO) 3:7 extended the duration of the analgesia compared with plain drug in rats and could represent effective postoperative analgesic in orthopedic joint procedures. PMID:24258384
Ickowicz, Diana E; Golovanevski, Ludmila; Haze, Amir; Domb, Abraham J; Weiniger, Carolyn F
The usual Randomized Clinical Trials (RCT) management using an anachronic procedure involving a flowsheet exchange between the remote centers and the coordinating center presents a number of inadequacies. Eligibility criteria are not always verified by the coordinating center before inclusion in the trial and randomization. Laboratory tests and therapeutic adjustments are frequently decided from memory by the clinician which often leads to data oversight and variability of therapeutic decisions. This results in protocol deviations and alteration of the efficiency of the RCT. HICREN is a medical consultation system designed to take into account the different difficulties encountered during RCT driving. The system integrates a clinical database with artificial intelligence technics to manage clinical trial data on non-expensive and widely available Minitel® terminals. Randomization is then possible, after eligibility criteria are satisfied, anytime and anywhere in France through the national telematic network. HICREN also includes an intuitive graphic interface to increase physician's compliance: a user friendly dialogue manager supports on line data entry with multi-windowing facilities and pull down menus. Interactive data validation is achieved through an interface to dedicated C programs. Patient follow up is achieved by an expert system that proposes appropriate dose of treatment according to the rules defined in the trial. At present, HICREN is implemented on the CISARC system for conducting three randomized clinical trials and one epidemiologic study.
The role of surgery in the management of gestational trophoblastic neoplasms has changed over the years and warrants continuous re-evaluation. Surgical removal of the bulk of the disease in an attempt to shorten the hospital course and decrease the amount of chemotherapy required appears to be of value. This approach to therapy should therefore be considered in most patients with nonmetastatic disease without regard to the histologic diagnosis if they have completed their families. "Debulking" of primary uterine disease in the presence of metastases may decrease the chemotherapy necessary for cure and removes a potential source of resistant disease. Pulmonary surgery improves survival rates for patients with a solitary, resistant lung tumor and is advisable under the circumstances outlined herein. Craniotomy is rarely of value in the management of tumor in the brain but may be necessary in emergency situations caused by intracerebral hemorrhage. Surgery to control complications of the disease has been proved to be safe with acceptable morbidity even if performed during chemotherapy. Thus, although chemotherapy has replaced surgery as the primary management of patients with gestational trophoblastic disease, there remain a significant number of patients in whom surgery plays a significant role. PMID:2852335
Early childhood caries presents unique treatment challenges that often require advanced behavior managementtechniques, such as general anesthesia or procedural sedation. In some cases, use of these pharmacologic adjuncts is undesirable or not possible. The interim therapeutic restoration is a treatment method that, while sometimes employed in such cases, can often produce unsatisfactory results in primary anterior teeth. This is often due to insufficient bulk of material and lack of retention. The purpose of this report was to describe a simple alternative technique (resin modified glass ionomer strip crowns) that may be employed to deliver esthetic anterior restorations to marginally cooperative children in the dental clinic setting and to report on two cases in which it was successfully used. \\\\\\Department of Pediatric Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash., USA. firstname.lastname@example.org PMID:23930627
A digital compensation scheme based on a perturbation theory for mitigation of cross-phase modulation (XPM) distortions is developed for dispersion-managed fiber-optic communication systems. It is a receiver-side scheme that uses a hard-decision unit to estimate data for the calculation of XPM fields using the perturbation technique. The intra-channel nonlinear distortions are removed by intra-channel digital backward propagation (DBP) based on split-step Fourier scheme before the hard-decision unit. The perturbation technique is shown to be effective in mitigating XPM distortions. However, wrong estimations in the hard-decision unit result in performance degradation. A hard-decision correction method is proposed to correct the wrong estimations. Numerical simulations show that the hybrid compensation scheme with DBP for dispersion and intra-channel nonlinear impairments compensation and the perturbation technique for XPM compensation brings up to 3.7 dBQ and 1.7 dBQ improvements as compared with the schemes of linear compensation only and intra-channel DBP, respectively. The perturbation technique for XPM compensation requires only one-stage (or two-stage when hard-decision correction is applied) compensation and symbol-rate signal processing. PMID:25321268
Liang, Xiaojun; Kumar, Shiva; Shao, Jing; Malekiha, Mahdi; Plant, David V
Mebeverine hydrochloride, a spasmolytic agent on GIT smooth muscles, was reported to have a local anesthetic effect. Thus, it was desired in this study to formulate mebeverine HCl into a gel that could be used locally in the treatment of different oral painful conditions. Poloxamer 407 (P-407) was used as the base for this gel. Different additives were used to enhance drug release from the preparation while others were used to enhance the residence time for the preparation. Different formulae were characterized in terms of drug release and mucoadhesion. The formula which has shown the best compromise between the aforementioned parameters was selected for clinical evaluation in comparison to Lidocaine HCl gel and rheologically examined. The best drug release enhancer was cetrimide (0.005%, w/w), while hydroxypropylcellulose (0.5%, w/w) as a mucoadhesive additive has shown the best compromise between fast drug release and mucoadhesion. The gel formula (G) has shown a better pain reduction efficiency (p=0.0078) and longer duration (p=0.0313) than Lidocaine HCl gel. Histopathological examination has shown no change in the inflammatory cells count of rat oral mucosa. Therefore, it could be concluded that (G) is very promising as a local anesthetic preparation for the treatment of different oral painful conditions. PMID:16935442
Abdel-Hamid, Sameh M; Abdel-Hady, S E; El-Shamy, A A; El-Dessouky, H F
The Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetics (EMLA) is a topical application, which has proved to be a useful medication for providing pain relief among children. It is an emulsion containing a 1:1 mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine. The high concentration of the uncharged anesthetic base in the microdroplets of the emulsion ensure effective skin penetration. In the pediatric population EMLA has been shown to be efficacious when it is used prior to venipuncture, cannulation, lumbar puncture, laser treatment of port wine stains, curettage of molluscum contagiosum or vaccination. For several of these indications, the efficacy has been documented by double blind controlled trials, that have used objective and quasi-objective scales for assessing pain relief. The dose of EMLA is between 0.5 to 1 gram, and the cream should be applied half to one hour prior to the procedure. Local side effects are very mild, and the only systemic side effect of importance is the risk of methemoglobinemia in young infants. The literature has conflicting reports about the safety of EMLA in neonates. PMID:10798132
We reported that the forebrain is responsible for a significant component (38%) of inferior cardiac postganglionic sympathetic nerve discharge (SND) in baroreceptor-denervated cats anesthetized with alpha-chloralose [Huang et al., Am. J. Physiol. 252 (Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol. 21): R645-R652, 1987]. The current study was initiated to assess the contribution of various diencephalic regions to the forebrain-dependent component of SND in this preparation. For this purpose, the reductions in inferior cardiac SND and blood pressure produced acutely by midbrain transection at stereotaxic plane A3 in nonlesioned control cats were compared with those in cats in which diencephalic lesions were made with radio-frequency current. Lesions of the anterior medial hypothalamus including the paraventricular nucleus failed to attenuate the decreases in SND and blood pressure produced by midbrain transection. In contrast, the effects of midbrain transection were significantly attenuated by lesions of the lateral hypothalamus (including medial forebrain bundle), posterior medial hypothalamus, or the medial thalamus. We conclude that both the hypothalamus and medial thalamus contribute to SND in anesthetized cats. PMID:3344835
The present study aimed to identify changes in atrial gene expression induced by sevoflurane and propofol using DNA microarray. The expression profiles of GSE4386 in atrial samples, obtained from patients who had received either the anesthetic gas sevoflurane or the intravenous anesthetic propofol prior to and following off?pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the sevoflurane and the propofol groups were then identified and compared. Subsequently, a functional enrichment analysis was performed for the DEGs. The interactive functional modules for common, sevoflurane?specific and propofol?specific DEGs were then constructed for analysis of the biological processes. The percentages of common DEGs were 31.3 (275/879) and 94.8% (275/290) in the sevoflurane group and propofol groups, respectively. The functional categories for the common, sevoflurane?specific and propofol?specific DEGs were similar. Overall, two, one, and one functional modules were identified for the common DEGs, propofol specific DEGs and sevoflurane specific DEGs, respectively. DEGs in the modules were involved in cellular processes, including the 'regulation of transcription' and 'regulation of cellular process', which were similar to the functional annotations for the DEGs. Therefore, sevoflurane and propofol may synergistically reduce myocardial reperfusion injury in patients undergoing off?pump CABG surgery. PMID:25323983
The hydrophobic amino acyl amide-linked local anesthetics (e.g., lidocaine and bupivacaine) impose potent cardiac toxicity and direct mitochondrial dysfunction. To investigate these adverse events, an in vitro system was employed to measure their effects on O2 consumption (cellular respiration) by murine myocardium. Specimens were collected from the ventricular myocardium and immediately immersed in ice-cold Krebs-Henseleit buffer saturated with 95 % O2:5 % CO2. O2 concentration was determined as a function of time from the phosphorescence decay rates of Pd(II)-meso-tetra-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-tetrabenzoporphyrin. Myocardial O2 consumption was linear with time (zero-order kinetics); its rate (k, in ?M O2 min(-1)), thus, was the negative of the slope of [O2] vs. time. Cyanide inhibited O2 consumption, confirming the oxidation occurred in the respiratory chain. Lidocaine and bupivacaine produced immediate and sustained inhibition of cellular respiration at plasma concentrations of the drugs (low micromolar range). Bupivacaine was twice as potent as lidocaine. The inhibition was dose-dependent, saturating at concentrations ?30 ?M. At saturating doses, lidocaine produced ~20 % inhibition and bupivacaine ~40 % inhibition. Cellular ATP was also decreased in the presence of 30 ?M lidocaine or bupivacaine. The studied amines inhibited myocardial cellular respiration. This effect is consistent with their known adverse events on mitochondrial function. The described approach allows accurate assessments and comparisons of the toxic effects of local anesthetics on heart tissue bioenergetics. PMID:24254523
Hospital employees who work in hospital operating and recovery rooms are often exposed to a number of anesthetic gases. There is evidence to support the belief that such exposures have led to higher rates of miscarriages and spontaneous abortions of pregnancies among women directly exposed to these gases than among women not exposed. Most of the studies assessing exposure levels were conducted prior to the widespread use of scavenging systems. Air sampling was conducted in hospital operatories and recovery rooms of three large hospitals to assess the current exposure levels in these areas and determine the effectiveness of these systems in reducing exposures to fluoride-containing anesthetic gases. It was determined that recovery-room personnel are exposed to levels of anesthesia gases that often approach and exceed the recommended Threshold Limit Value-Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) of 2.0 ppm. Recovery-room personnel do not have the protection from exposure provided by scavenging systems in operating rooms. Operating-room personnel were exposed to anesthesia gas levels above the TLV-TWA only when patients were masked, or connected and disconnected from the scavenging systems. Recovery-room personnel also need to be protected from exposure to anesthesia gases by a scavenging system.
The effects of local anesthetics and a divalent cation, Ca2+, on the function of rhodopsin were estimated from the measurements of light-induced proton uptake. The light-induced proton uptake by rhodopsin in the rod outer segment disk membrane was enhanced at lower pH (4) but depressed at higher pHs (6 to 8) by the tertiary amine local anesthetics lidocaine, bupivacaine, tetracaine, and dibucaine. The order of local anesthetic-induced depression of the proton uptake followed that of their clinical anesthetic potencies. The depression of the proton uptake versus the concentration of the uncharged form of local anesthetic nearly describes the same curve for small and large dose of added anesthetic. Furthermore, a neutral local anesthetic, benzocaine, depressed the proton uptake at all pHs between 4 and 7. These results indicate that the depression of the proton uptake is due to the effect of only the uncharged form. It is hypothesized that the uncharged form of local anesthetics interacts hydrophobically with the rhodopsin in the disk membrane. The dual effect of local anesthetics on the proton uptake, on the other hand, suggests that the activation of the function of rhodopsin may be caused by the charged form. There was no significant change in the light-induced proton uptake by rhodopsin when 1 mM of Ca2+ was introduced into the disk membrane at varying pHs in the absence or presence of local anesthetics. This fact indicates that Ca2+ ion does not influence the diprotonating process of metarhodopsin; neither does it interfere with the local anesthetic-induced changes in the rhodopsin molecule.
Information explosion and globalization make great demands on keeping pace with the new trends in the healthcare sector. The contemporary level of computer and information literacy among most health care professionals in the Teaching Hospital Olomouc (Czech Republic) is not satisfactory for efficient exploitation of modern information technology in diagnostics, therapy and nursing. The present contribution describes the application of two basic problem solving techniques (brainstorming, SWOT analysis) to develop a project aimed at information literacy enhancement. PMID:15034614
Sedlár, Drahomír; Potomková, Jarmila; Rehorová, Jarmila; Seckár, Pavel; Sukopová, Vera
The discipline programs of the Space and Terrestrial (S&T) Applications Program are described and examples of research areas of current interest are given. Application of space techniques to improve conditions on earth are summarized. Discipline programs discussed include: resource observations; environmental observations; communications; materials processing in space; and applications systems/information systems. Format information on submission of unsolicited proposals for research related to the S&T Applications Program are given.
Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys, photogrammetric aerotriangulation and compilation procedures, computer-aided image analyses, and conventional air photointerpretation techniques were employed to construct a geographic information system database for Sapelo Island and its bordering marshlands. This database includes 1:5000-scale topographic maps, 1:24,000-scale thematic maps, and digital elevation models in digital format, and covers a 40-year period from 1953 to 1993. It
Relaxation techniques positively affect the psychosomatic pattern of patients undergoing surgical treatment. Among these techniques guided imaging (GI) has been reported to improve outcome following colorectal surgery. This study assessed the effects of GI on the postoperative course in proctological patients. We carried out a prospective randomized trial in a group of patients operated on for anorectal diseases in our coloproctology unit. Patients were randomized into group 1 (n = 43) with standard care and group 2 (n = 43) with relaxation techniques; they listened to a GI tape with music and relaxing text before, during, and after surgery. The following parameters were evaluated by a questionnaire (a) postoperative pain measured by visual analogue score, (b) the quality of sleep measured by a similar score, and (c) the nature of first micturition, evaluated as normal or difficult. Groups were similar in age and sex distribution, type of disease, and operation performed. The pain score was 3.2 +/- 1.4 in GI patients and 4.1 +/- 2.1 in controls (P = 0.07). The quality of sleep score was 4.8 +/- 2.9 in GI patients and 6.4 +/- 2.7 in controls (P = 0.01). The first micturition was painful in 10.3% of GI patients and in 27.3% of controls (P = 0.09). Perioperative relaxation techniques thus showed a trend to reducing pain following anorectal surgery and significantly improving the quality of sleep; a decrease in anxiety and a consequent muscle relaxation may be involved. Therefore GI, a low cost and noninvasive procedure, can be recommended as an helpful tool in this type of surgery. PMID:11151436
The continuous flow furrow irrigation (COFFI), surge flow furrow irrigation (SUFFI), cutback flow furrow irrigation (CUFFI),\\u000a variable alternate flow furrow irrigation (VAFFI), and tail water reuse system furrow (TWRSF) techniques with the same inflow\\u000a rate of 0.072 m3 min?1 were compared in relation to the cotton yield and water use efficiency at a 3-year field study conducted on cotton (Gossypium spp.) in
Mustafa Ünlü; R?za Kanber; Sermet Onder; Metin Sezen; Kenan Diker; Bulent Ozekici; Mustafa Oylu
\\u000a To ensure the correctness of IPv6\\/IPsec implementations, it is very necessary to introduce the technique of “protocol testing”.\\u000a Secure IPsec protocol on IPv6 are possible through proper use of the Encapsulating Security Payload(ESP) header and the Authenticated Header(AH). IPv6\\/IPsec test tools must be able to perform a wide variety of functions to adequately test its conformance on standard\\u000a and validate
Hyung-woo Lee; Sung-hyun Yun; Jae-sung Kim; Oh Nam-ho; Do-hyung Kim
Introduction. Sternal osteomyelitis with or without mediastinal infection is a severe and rare complication of median sternotomy. In this paper, an alternative technique for the reconstruction of sternal defects with the use of bilateral pectoralis major pedicled muscle flaps is presented. Case presentation. A 70-year-old man with the diagnosis of poststernotomy osteomyelitis underwent reconstruction of his sternal defect with the use of bilateral pectoralis major muscle flaps. The patient had an uneventful recovery, and the physical examination revealed a normal range of motion for both upper limbs and sternal stability. Conclusion. The proposed technique incorporates a simple mobilization of the two pectoralis major muscles to be used as flaps to fill the sternal defect without the need for humeral detachment or a second cutaneous incision. Using this technique, a muscular implant is made that seals the dead space, which has no tension due to the presence of a second layer. Postoperative results are excellent, not only regarding infection and functionality but also from an aesthetic point of view. PMID:23533913
Introduction. Sternal osteomyelitis with or without mediastinal infection is a severe and rare complication of median sternotomy. In this paper, an alternative technique for the reconstruction of sternal defects with the use of bilateral pectoralis major pedicled muscle flaps is presented. Case presentation. A 70-year-old man with the diagnosis of poststernotomy osteomyelitis underwent reconstruction of his sternal defect with the use of bilateral pectoralis major muscle flaps. The patient had an uneventful recovery, and the physical examination revealed a normal range of motion for both upper limbs and sternal stability. Conclusion. The proposed technique incorporates a simple mobilization of the two pectoralis major muscles to be used as flaps to fill the sternal defect without the need for humeral detachment or a second cutaneous incision. Using this technique, a muscular implant is made that seals the dead space, which has no tension due to the presence of a second layer