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Sample records for aneurinibacillus migulanus bacillus

  1. Direct surfactin-gramicidin S antagonism supports detoxification in mixed producer cultures of Bacillus subtilis and Aneurinibacillus migulanus.

    PubMed

    Rautenbach, Marina; Eyéghé-Bickong, Hans André; Vlok, Nicolas Maré; Stander, Marietjie; de Beer, Abré

    2012-12-01

    Antibiotic production as a defence mechanism is a characteristic of a wide variety of organisms. In natural evolutionary adaptation, cellular events such as sporulation, biofilm formation and resistance to antibiotics enable some micro-organisms to survive environmental and antibiotic stress conditions. The two antimicrobial cyclic peptides in this study, gramicidin S (GS) from Aneurinibacillus migulanus and the lipopeptide surfactin (Srf) from Bacillus subtilis, have been shown to affect both membrane and intercellular components of target organisms. Many functions, other than that of antimicrobial activity, have been assigned to Srf. We present evidence that an additional function may exist for Srf, namely that of a detoxifying agent that protects its producer from the lytic activity of GS. We observed that Srf producers were more resistant to GS and could be co-cultured with the GS producer. Furthermore, exogenous Srf antagonized the activity of GS against both Srf-producing and non-producing bacterial strains. A molecular interaction between the anionic Srf and the cationic GS was observed with circular dichroism and electrospray MS. Our results indicate that the formation of an inactive complex between GS and Srf supports resistance towards GS, with the anionic Srf forming a chemical barrier to protect its producer. This direct detoxification combined with the induction of protective stress responses in B. subtilis by Srf confers resistance toward GS from A. migulanus and allows survival in mixed cultures. PMID:23103974

  2. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Aneurinibacillus migulanus ATCC 9999T (DSM 2895), a Gramicidin S-Producing Bacterium Isolated from Garden Soil

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie-ping; Liu, Guo-hong; Ge, Ci-bin; Xiao, Rong-feng; Zheng, Xue-fang; Shi, Huai

    2015-01-01

    Aneurinibacillus migulanus ATCC 9999T (DSM 2895) is a Gram-positive, round-spore-forming, and gramicidin S-producing bacterium. Here, we report the 6.35-Mb high-quality draft genome sequence of A. migulanus ATCC 9999T, which will provide useful information for the genomic taxonomy and phylogenomics of Bacillus-like bacteria. PMID:26494674

  3. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Aneurinibacillus migulanus ATCC 9999T (DSM 2895), a Gramicidin S-Producing Bacterium Isolated from Garden Soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie-Ping; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guo-Hong; Ge, Ci-Bin; Xiao, Rong-Feng; Zheng, Xue-Fang; Shi, Huai

    2015-01-01

    Aneurinibacillus migulanus ATCC 9999(T) (DSM 2895) is a Gram-positive, round-spore-forming, and gramicidin S-producing bacterium. Here, we report the 6.35-Mb high-quality draft genome sequence of A. migulanus ATCC 9999(T), which will provide useful information for the genomic taxonomy and phylogenomics of Bacillus-like bacteria. PMID:26494674

  4. Strain-level diversity of secondary metabolism in the biocontrol species Aneurinibacillus migulanus.

    PubMed

    Alenezi, Faizah N; Rekik, Imen; Bełka, Marta; Ibrahim, Abrar F; Luptakova, Lenka; Jaspars, Marcel; Woodward, Steve; Belbahri, Lassaad

    2016-01-01

    Aneurinibacillus migulanus strains Nagano and NCTC 7096 show potential in biocontrol against fungal and fungus-like plant pathogens, including a wide range of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Oomycetes. Differences in terms of the range of pathogens that each strain inhibits, however, suggested that production of a single antibiotic cyclic peptide, gramicidin S (GS), by the two strains, is not the sole mechanism of inhibition. The availability of four sequenced genomes of Aneurinibacillus prompted us to apply genome mining techniques to identify the bioactive potential of A. migulanus and to provide insights into the secondary metabolite arsenal of the genus Aneurinibacillus. Up to eleven secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters were present in the three Aneurinibacillus species. Biosynthetic gene clusters specifying bacteriocins, microcins, non-ribosomal peptides, polyketides, terpenes, phosphonates, lasso peptides and linaridins were identified. Chitinolytic potential and iron metabolism regulation were also investigated. With increasing numbers of biocontrol bacterial genomes being sequenced and mined, the use of approaches similar to those described in this paper will lead to an increase in the numbers of environmentally friendly natural products available to use against plant diseases. PMID:26686620

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Aneurinibacillus migulanus E1, a Gramicidin S- and d-Phenylalanyl-l-Propyl Diketopiperazine-Deficient Mutant.

    PubMed

    Belbahri, Lassaad; Alenezi, Faizah N; Luptakova, Lenka; Rateb, Mostafa E; Woodward, Steve

    2015-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of the Aneurinibacillus migulanus E1 mutant deficient in gramicidin S (GS) and d-phenylalanyl-l-propyl diketopiperazine (DKP) formation. The genome consists of a circular chromosome (6,301,904 bp, 43.20% G+C content) without any plasmid. The complete genome sequence enables further investigation of the biosynthetic mechanism and the biological function of gramicidin S. PMID:26679577

  6. Aneurinibacillus humi sp. nov., Isolated from Soil Collected in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kalam; Lee, Sang Seob

    2016-02-01

    A novel bacterium, designated U33(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected in Mykhailyky, Poltavs'ka oblast, Ukraine. The bacterium was aerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming, and consists of motile rods. The taxonomic position of strain U33(T) was studied by a polyphasic approach, and the results clearly showed that the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties are consistent with those of the genus Aneurinibacillus. The phylogenic analysis with 16S rRNA gene sequence of strains U33(T) showed the highest sequence similarity to those of Aneurinibacillus aneuriniticus ATCC 12856(T) (96.7 %), Aneurinibacillus migulanus DSM 2895(T) (96.7 %), Aneurinibacillus danicus NCIMB 13288(T) (95.8 %), and lower sequence similarity with other members of the genus Aneurinibacillus. Growth was observed at 20-55 °C (optimum, 37 °C) at pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7) and with 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2 % NaCl). The predominant menaquinone was MK-7 and the cell wall peptidoglycan consist of meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major cellular fatty acids are iso-C15:0 (58.0 %) and anteiso-C15:0 (13.2 %). The DNA G+C content of the strain U33(T) was 45.8 %. The physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics distinguish strain U33(T) from the validly published species of genus Aneurinibacillus, and therefore, we consider this strain to represent a novel species of the genus Aneurinibacillus. The name Aneurinibaciilus humi sp. nov. is proposed with strain U33(T) (= KEMC7305-119(T) = JCM19865(T)) as the type strain. PMID:26542530

  7. Aneurinibacillus tyrosinisolvens sp. nov., a tyrosine-dissolving bacterium isolated from organics- and methane-rich seafloor sediment.

    PubMed

    Tsubouchi, Taishi; Mori, Kozue; Miyamoto, Norio; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Kawato, Masaru; Shimane, Yasuhiro; Usui, Keiko; Tokuda, Maki; Uemura, Moeka; Tame, Akihiro; Uematsu, Katsuyuki; Maruyama, Tadashi; Hatada, Yuji

    2015-06-01

    A novel Gram-positive-staining, strictly aerobic and heterotrophic bacterium, designated strain LL-002T, was isolated from organics- and methane-rich seafloor sediment at a depth of 100 m in Kagoshima Bay, Kagoshima, Japan. Colonies were lustreless and translucent white in colour. The temperature, pH and salt concentration ranges for growth were 10-30 °C, pH 6.0-6.5 and 0-1 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that strain LL-002T belongs to the genus Aneurinibacillus of the family Paenibacillaceae. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between strain LL-002T and the type strains of species of the genus Aneurinibacillus were 92.8-95.7 %; the highest sequence identity was with the type strain of Aneurinibacillus migulanus. The DNA G+C content of strain LL-002T was 46.2 mol%. MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0, and the cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and glutamic acid, glycine and alanine in addition to muramic acid and glucosamine. The peptidoglycan type was A1γ. In DNA-DNA hybridization assays between strain LL-002T and the type strains of the other species of the genus Aneurinibacillus, the level of hybridization was 6.3-30.1 %. On the basis of its biological features and the 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison presented here, strain LL-002T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Aneurinibacillus, for which the name Aneurinibacillus tyrosinisolvens sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is LL-002T ( = NBRC 110097T = CECT 8536T). PMID:25813364

  8. Complete genome sequence of the novel thermophilic polyhydroxyalkanoates producer Aneurinibacillus sp. XH2 isolated from Gudao oilfield in China.

    PubMed

    Xi, Lijun; Zhang, Zhenchong; Qiao, Nenghu; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jing; Zhao, Jing-Yi; Xiao, Zijun

    2016-06-10

    Aneurinibacillus sp. XH2 (CGMCC 1.15535) was isolated from Gudao oilfield in China. It is able to use simple carbon resources to accumulate Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) in a thermophilic fashion. Here, we describe the genomic features of this strain. The total genome size of Aneurinibacillus sp. XH2 is 3,664,835bp and contains 3441 coding sequences and 114 tRNAs. The annotated genome sequence of this strain provides the genetic basis for revealing its role as a themophilic PHAs producing bacterium. PMID:27046067

  9. Thermophilic production of polyhydroxyalkanoates by a novel Aneurinibacillus strain isolated from Gudao oilfield, China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zijun; Zhang, Yu; Xi, Lijun; Huo, Fangfang; Zhao, Jing-yi; Li, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are usually biosynthesized using mesophilic strains, but the fermentation processes often suffer from bacterial contamination. This work reports the screening of thermophilic bacteria capable of producing PHAs under elevated temperatures to reduce the contamination risk. Strain XH2 was isolated from an oilfield and identified as Aneurinibacillus sp. by morphology, physiological-biochemical characterization, and 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis. This strain can produce PHA granules, which was detected by Nile red staining and transmission electron microscopic imaging. At 55 °C, 111.6 mg l(-1) of PHA was produced in a fermentation medium containing glucose, peptone, and yeast extract. If peptone was removed from the medium, the yield of PHA would be enhanced by 2.4 times. The main monomers of the PHA product were identified to be 3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxyvalerate with a molar ratio of 17.2:1 by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. Two minor homologues, 3-hydroxyoctanoate, and 3-hydroxy-4-phenylbutanoate, were tentatively identified by GC-MS as well. This is the first report of thermophilic PHA bacterial producer from the Firmicutes phylum. PMID:25832555

  10. Bacillus coagulans

    MedlinePlus

    ... bacteria. Helicobacter pylori infection, which causes stomach ulcers. Respiratory infections. Cancer prevention. Immune system strengthening. As an agent added to vaccines to improve their effectiveness. More evidence is needed to rate Bacillus coagulans for these uses. There has been ...

  11. Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, R C

    2003-01-01

    The events of 11 September 2001 and the subsequent anthrax outbreaks have shown that the West needs to be prepared for an increasing number of terrorist attacks, which may include the use of biological warfare. Bacillus anthracis has long been considered a potential biological warfare agent, and this review will discuss the history of its use as such. It will also cover the biology of this organism and the clinical features of the three disease forms that it can produce: cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and inhalation anthrax. In addition, treatment and vaccination strategies will be reviewed. PMID:12610093

  12. Genomics of Bacillus Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Økstad, Ole Andreas; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    Members of the genus Bacillus are rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes, the low G+C gram-positive bacteria. The Bacillus genus was first described and classified by Ferdinand Cohn in Cohn (1872), and Bacillus subtilis was defined as the type species (Soule, 1932). Several Bacilli may be linked to opportunistic infections. However, pathogenicity among Bacillus spp. is mainly a feature of bacteria belonging to the Bacillus cereus group, including B. cereus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus thuringiensis. Here we review the genomics of B. cereus group bacteria in relation to their roles as etiological agents of two food poisoning syndromes (emetic and diarrhoeal).

  13. Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Amuguni, Hellen; Tzipori, Saul

    2012-01-01

    Most pathogens enter the body through mucosal surfaces. Mucosal immunization, a non-invasive needle-free route, often stimulates a mucosal immune response that is both effective against mucosal and systemic pathogens. The development of mucosally administered heat-stable vaccines with long shelf life would therefore significantly enhance immunization programs in developing countries by avoiding the need for a cold chain or systemic injections. Currently, recombinant vaccine carriers are being used for antigen delivery. Engineering Bacillus subtilis for use as a non-invasive and heat stable antigen delivery system has proven successful. Bacterial spores protected by multiple layers of protein are known to be robust and resistant to desiccation. Stable constructs have been created by integration into the bacterial chromosome of immunogens. The spore coat has been used as a vehicle for heterologous antigen presentation and protective immunization. Sublingual (SL) and intranasal (IN) routes have recently received attention as delivery routes for therapeutic drugs and vaccines and recent attempts by several investigators, including our group, to develop vaccines that can be delivered intranasally and sublingually have met with a lot of success. As discussed in this Review, the use of Bacillus subtilis to express antigens that can be administered either intranasally or sublingually is providing new insights in the area of mucosal vaccines. In our work, we evaluated the efficacy of SL and IN immunizations with B. subtilis engineered to express tetanus toxin fragment C (TTFC) in mice and piglets. These bacteria engineered to express heterologous antigen either on the spore surface or within the vegetative cell have been used for oral, IN and SL delivery of antigens. A Bacillus subtilis spore coat protein, CotC was used as a fusion partner to express the tetanus fragment C. B. subtilis spores known to be highly stable and safe are also easy to purify making this spore

  14. Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Griko, Natalya; Junker, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a unique bacterium in that it shares a common place with a number of chemical compounds which are used commercially to control insects important to agriculture and public health. Although other bacteria, including B. popilliae and B. sphaericus, are used as microbial insecticides, their spectrum of insecticidal activity is quite limited compared to Bt. Importantly, Bt is safe for humans and is the most widely used environmentally compatible biopesticide worldwide. Furthermore, insecticidal Bt genes have been incorporated into several major crops, rendering them insect resistant, and thus providing a model for genetic engineering in agriculture. This review highlights what the authors consider the most relevant issues and topics pertaining to the genomics and proteomics of Bt. At least one of the authors (L.A.B.) has spent most of his professional life studying different aspects of this bacterium with the goal in mind of determining the mechanism(s) by which it kills insects. The other authors have a much shorter experience with Bt but their intellect and personal insight have greatly enriched our understanding of what makes Bt distinctive in the microbial world. Obviously, there is personal interest and bias reflected in this article notwithstanding oversight of a number of published studies. This review contains some material not published elsewhere although several ideas and concepts were developed from a broad base of scientific literature up to 2010. PMID:21327125

  15. Bacillus herbersteinensis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Monika; Worliczek, Hanna; Kämpfer, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2005-09-01

    Two bacterial strains, designated D-1,5a(T) and D-1,5b, were isolated from a medieval wall painting in the chapel of Castle Herberstein, Styria (Austria). The Gram-positive, heterotrophic, aerobic, spore-forming rods showed nearly identical whole-cell protein patterns, identical genomic fingerprints and identical physiological profiles, demonstrating their relationship at the species level. Both strains contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in their peptidoglycan, possessed a quinone system comprising menaquinone MK-7 and had fatty acid profiles in which C(15:0) iso and C(15:0) anteiso were predominant. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of D-1,5a(T) showed the highest similarity (99.5%) to the sequence of Bacillus sp. LMG 20243, and Bacillus flexus IFO 15715(T) was the next most closely related established species (96.5%). Other type strains, such as Bacillus fastidiosus DSM 91(T), Bacillus indicus SD/3(T), Bacillus cibi JG-30(T), Bacillus megaterium IAM 13418(T), Bacillus cohnii DSM 6308(T), Bacillus bataviensis LMG 21833(T) and Bacillus soli LMG 21838(T), shared 96.0-96.1% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with D-1,5a(T). The combination of physiological and chemotaxonomic traits distinguishes the two strains from those species sharing the highest sequence similarities (96.0-96.5%). On the basis of these characteristics and the phylogenetic position of strain D-1,5a(T) (=DSM 16534(T)=CCM 7228(T)), this strain is assigned as the type strain of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus herbersteinensis sp. nov. is proposed. PMID:16166719

  16. Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus sphaericus biopesticides production.

    PubMed

    el-Bendary, Magda A

    2006-01-01

    The long residual action and toxicity of the chemical insecticides have brought about serious environmental problems such as the emergence and spread of insecticide resistance in many species of vectors, mammalian toxicity, and accumulation of pesticide residues in the food chain. All these problems have highlighted the need for alternative biological control agents. Entomo-pathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and Bacillus sphaericus (Bs) are two safe biological control agents. They have attracted considerable interest as possible replacements for the chemical insecticides. Although microbial insecticides based on Bt and Bs are available for use, their high cost makes large-scale application impracticable in developing countries. This review focuses on the economic production of these two microorganisms by submerged fermentation and solid state fermentation using agro-industrial by-products and other wastes. PMID:16598830

  17. Bacillus odysseyi isolate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri (Inventor); La Duc, Myron Thomas (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus odysseyi isolate with high adherence and sterilization resistant properties. B. odysseyi is a round spore forming Bacillus species that produces an exosporium. This novel species has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus and the type strain is 34hs-1.sup.T (=ATCC PTA-4993.sup.T=NRRL B-30641.sup.T=NBRC 100172.sup.T). The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of strain 34hs-1.sup.T is AF526913.

  18. Bacillus velezensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Bacillus methylotrophicus, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp plantarum and ‘Bacillus oryzicola’ are later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rhizosphere isolated bacteria belonging to the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and Bacillus methylotrophicus clades are an important group of strains that are used as plant growth promoters and antagonists of plant pathogens. These properties have made these strains the focus of comm...

  19. [Variant of Bacillus anthracoides].

    PubMed

    Galanina, L A; Bekhtereva, M N; Kraĭnova, O A

    1979-01-01

    A comparative study of the Bacillus anthracoides culture and its variant has shown that the latter differs drastically from the parent culture in the shape and consistence of colonies, the size of spores and vegetative cells, the rate of spore germination in MPB, and the resistence to steam treatment and chloroactive disinfectants. PMID:423806

  20. Bacillus cereus endogenous panophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Bouza, E; Grant, S; Jordan, C; Yook, R H; Sulit, H L

    1979-03-01

    A case of severe suppurative endogenous panophthalmitis caused by Bacillus cereus resulted from intravenously administered medications. This is the first, to our knowledge, well-documented case of endogenous endophthalmitis associated with this organism. It is recommended that if on Gram's stain of the anterior chamber fluid, Gram-positive rods are seen, chloramphenicol should be administered in addition to penicillin because of the possibility of B cereus infection. PMID:105693

  1. Microbial genotyping and differentiating between Bacillus mojavensis and Bacillus subtilis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus mojavensis, a specie recently distinguished from its previous Bacillus subtilis classification, was discovered in corn kernels and later determined to possess endophytic character. The bacterium was also determined to have biocontrol potential due to its growth inhibition of the maize mycot...

  2. Genome analysis shows Bacillus axarquiensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mojavensis; reclassification of Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans as heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus axarquiensis.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Bowman, Michael J; Schisler, David A; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis were previously reported to be later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis, based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced draft genomes of Bacillus axarquiensis NRRL B-41617T and Bacillus malacitensis NRRL B-41618T. Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that while Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis are synonymous with each other, they are not synonymous with Bacillus mojavensis. In addition, a draft genome was completed for Brevibacterium halotolerans, a strain long suspected of being a Bacillus subtilis group member based on 16S rRNA similarities (99.8 % with Bacillus mojavensis). Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that Brevibacterium halotolerans is synonymous with Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis. The pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons between the three conspecific strains were all greater than 92 %, which is well above the standard species threshold of 70 %. While the pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons of the three conspecific strains with Bacillus mojavensis were all less than 65 %. The combined results of our genotype and phenotype studies showed that Bacillus axarquiensis, Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans are conspecific and distinct from Bacillus mojavensis. Because the valid publication of the name Bacillus axarquiensis predates the publication of the name Bacillus malacitensis, we propose that Bacillus malacitensis be reclassified as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. In addition, we propose to reclassify Brevibacterium halotolerans as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. An amended description of Bacillus axarquiensis is provided. PMID:27030978

  3. Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate with UV sterilization resistant properties. This novel strain has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus. The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of the Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate is AY167879.

  4. Bacillus species infections in neonates.

    PubMed

    Patrick, C C; Langston, C; Baker, C J

    1989-01-01

    A case of neonatal meningitis due to Bacillus cereus is presented. Postmortem histopathologic examination revealed an invasive disease involving the brain parenchyma, with a cellular composition consistent with an indolent process indicative of possible perinatally acquired infection. One other neonate from our institution with systemic disease due to a nonanthrax bacillus is described, and a review of the English-language literature since 1900 reveals four additional neonates infected with these unusual pathogens. Such Bacillus species infections are rare but should be suspected when gram-positive bacilli are noted on gram stain, especially in an immunocompromised host. PMID:2505353

  5. Transformation of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Zhou; You, Chun; Zhang, Yi-Heng Percival

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis has tremendous applications in both academic research and industrial production. However, molecular cloning and transformation of B. subtilis are not as easy as those of Escherichia coli. Here we developed a simple protocol based on super-competent cells prepared from the recombinant B. subtilis strain SCK6 and multimeric plasmids generated by prolonged overlap extension-PCR. Super-competent B. subtilis SCK6 cells were prepared by overexpression of the competence master regulator ComK that was induced by adding xylose. This new protocol is simple (e.g., restriction enzyme, phosphatase, and ligase free), fast, and highly efficient (i.e., ~10(7) or ~10(4) transformants per μg of multimeric plasmid or ligated plasmid DNA, respectively). Shuttle vectors for E. coli-B. subtilis are not required. PMID:24838881

  6. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a natural bacteria found all over the Earth, has a fairly novel way of getting rid of unwanted insects. Bt forms a protein substance (shown on the right) that is not harmful to humans, birds, fish or other vertebrates. When eaten by insect larvae the protein causes a fatal loss of appetite. For over 25 years agricultural chemical companies have relied heavily upon safe Bt pesticides. New space based research promises to give the insecticide a new dimension in effectiveness and applicability. Researchers from the Consortium for Materials Development in Space along with industrial affiliates such as Abott Labs and Pern State University flew Bt on a Space Shuttle mission in the fall of 1996. Researchers expect that the Shuttle's microgravity environment will reveal new information about the protein that will make it more effective against a wider variety of pests.

  7. CHLORINE INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ENDOSPORES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The possibility of a bioterrorism event resulting in the release of Bacillus anthracis endospores into a drinking water distribution system necessitates research into means by which these endospores can be inactivated. This study was designed to determine the chlorine resistance...

  8. Protein secretion in Bacillus species.

    PubMed Central

    Simonen, M; Palva, I

    1993-01-01

    Bacilli secrete numerous proteins into the environment. Many of the secretory proteins, their export signals, and their processing steps during secretion have been characterized in detail. In contrast, the molecular mechanisms of protein secretion have been relatively poorly characterized. However, several components of the protein secretion machinery have been identified and cloned recently, which is likely to lead to rapid expansion of the knowledge of the protein secretion mechanism in Bacillus species. Comparison of the presently known export components of Bacillus species with those of Escherichia coli suggests that the mechanism of protein translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane is conserved among gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria differences are found in steps preceding and following the translocation process. Many of the secretory proteins of bacilli are produced industrially, but several problems have been encountered in the production of Bacillus heterologous secretory proteins. In the final section we discuss these problems and point out some possibilities to overcome them. PMID:8464403

  9. Aminopeptidases of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Desmond, E P; Starnes, W L; Behal, F J

    1975-01-01

    Three enzymes with L- and one enzyme with D-aminopeptidase (EC 3.4.11; alpha-aminoacyl peptide hydrolase) activity have been separated from each other and partially purified from Bacillus subtilis 168 W.T., distinguished with respect to their molecular weights and catalytic properties, and studied in relation to the physiology of this bacterium. One L-aminopeptidase, designated aminopeptidase I, has a molecular weight of 210,000 +/- 20,000, is produced early in growth, and hydrolyzes L-alanyl-beta-naphthylamide most rapidly. Another, designated aminopeptidase II, molecular weight 67,000 +/- 10,000, is also produced early in growth and hydrolyzes L-lysyl-beta-naphthylamide most rapidly. A third, aminopeptidase III, molecular weight 228,000 +/- 20,000, is produced predominantly in early stationary phase and most efficiently utilizes L-alpha-aspartyl-beta-naphthylamide as substrate. The synthesis of aminopeptidase III in early stationary phase suggests that selective catabolism of peptides occurs at this time, perhaps related to the cessation of growth or the onset of early sporulation-associated events. A D-aminopeptidase which hydrolyzes the carboxyl-blocked dipeptide D-alanyl-D-alanyl-beta-naphthylamide (as well as D-alanyl-beta-naphthylamide and D-alanyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine) has also been identified, separated from aminopeptidase II, and purified 170-fold. D-Aminopeptidase, molecular weight 220,000 +/- 20,000, is localized predominantly in the cell wall and periplasm of the organism. This evidence and the variation of the activity during the growth cycle suggest an important function in cell wall or peptide antibiotic metabolism. PMID:240808

  10. Phages Preying on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis: Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, Annika; Mahillon, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Many bacteriophages (phages) have been widely studied due to their major role in virulence evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, less attention has been paid to phages preying on bacteria from the Bacillus cereus group and their contribution to the bacterial genetic pool has been disregarded. Therefore, this review brings together the main information for the B. cereus group phages, from their discovery to their modern biotechnological applications. A special focus is given to phages infecting Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. These phages belong to the Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae and Tectiviridae families. For the sake of clarity, several phage categories have been made according to significant characteristics such as lifestyles and lysogenic states. The main categories comprise the transducing phages, phages with a chromosomal or plasmidial prophage state, γ-like phages and jumbo-phages. The current genomic characterization of some of these phages is also addressed throughout this work and some promising applications are discussed here. PMID:25010767

  11. Phages preying on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Annika; Mahillon, Jacques

    2014-07-01

    Many bacteriophages (phages) have been widely studied due to their major role in virulence evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, less attention has been paid to phages preying on bacteria from the Bacillus cereus group and their contribution to the bacterial genetic pool has been disregarded. Therefore, this review brings together the main information for the B. cereus group phages, from their discovery to their modern biotechnological applications. A special focus is given to phages infecting Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. These phages belong to the Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae and Tectiviridae families. For the sake of clarity, several phage categories have been made according to significant characteristics such as lifestyles and lysogenic states. The main categories comprise the transducing phages, phages with a chromosomal or plasmidial prophage state, γ-like phages and jumbo-phages. The current genomic characterization of some of these phages is also addressed throughout this work and some promising applications are discussed here. PMID:25010767

  12. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Plant Probiotic Bacillus Strains.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Park, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Soo-Keun

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the whole-genome sequences of four Bacillus strains that exhibit plant probiotic activities. Three of them are the type strains of Bacillus endophyticus, "Bacillus gaemokensis," and Bacillus trypoxylicola, and the other, Bacillus sp. strain KCTC 13219, should be reclassified into a species belonging to the genus Lysinibacillus. PMID:27174273

  13. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Plant Probiotic Bacillus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the whole-genome sequences of four Bacillus strains that exhibit plant probiotic activities. Three of them are the type strains of Bacillus endophyticus, “Bacillus gaemokensis,” and Bacillus trypoxylicola, and the other, Bacillus sp. strain KCTC 13219, should be reclassified into a species belonging to the genus Lysinibacillus. PMID:27174273

  14. FORMALDEHYDE GAS INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACE MATERIALS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research evaluated the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface material using formaldehyde gas. Spores were dried on seven types of indoor surfaces and exposed to 1100 ppm formaldehyde gas for 10 hr. Fo...

  15. Environmental Persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis Spores

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Joseph P.; Meyer, Kathryn M.; Kelly, Thomas J.; Choi, Young W.; Rogers, James V.; Riggs, Karen B.; Willenberg, Zachary J.

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of data for how the viability of biological agents may degrade over time in different environments. In this study, experiments were conducted to determine the persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis spores on outdoor materials with and without exposure to simulated sunlight, using ultraviolet (UV)-A/B radiation. Spores were inoculated onto glass, wood, concrete, and topsoil and recovered after periods of 2, 14, 28, and 56 days. Recovery and inactivation kinetics for the two species were assessed for each surface material and UV exposure condition. Results suggest that with exposure to UV, decay of spore viability for both Bacillus species occurs in two phases, with an initial rapid decay, followed by a slower inactivation period. The exception was with topsoil, in which there was minimal loss of spore viability in soil over 56 days, with or without UV exposure. The greatest loss in viable spore recovery occurred on glass with UV exposure, with nearly a four log10 reduction after just two days. In most cases, B. subtilis had a slower rate of decay than B. anthracis, although less B. subtilis was recovered initially. PMID:26372011

  16. Environmental Persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis Spores.

    PubMed

    Wood, Joseph P; Meyer, Kathryn M; Kelly, Thomas J; Choi, Young W; Rogers, James V; Riggs, Karen B; Willenberg, Zachary J

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of data for how the viability of biological agents may degrade over time in different environments. In this study, experiments were conducted to determine the persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis spores on outdoor materials with and without exposure to simulated sunlight, using ultraviolet (UV)-A/B radiation. Spores were inoculated onto glass, wood, concrete, and topsoil and recovered after periods of 2, 14, 28, and 56 days. Recovery and inactivation kinetics for the two species were assessed for each surface material and UV exposure condition. Results suggest that with exposure to UV, decay of spore viability for both Bacillus species occurs in two phases, with an initial rapid decay, followed by a slower inactivation period. The exception was with topsoil, in which there was minimal loss of spore viability in soil over 56 days, with or without UV exposure. The greatest loss in viable spore recovery occurred on glass with UV exposure, with nearly a four log10 reduction after just two days. In most cases, B. subtilis had a slower rate of decay than B. anthracis, although less B. subtilis was recovered initially. PMID:26372011

  17. Proteomic Profiling and Identification of Immunodominant Spore Antigens of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis‡

    PubMed Central

    DelVecchio, Vito G.; Connolly, Joseph P.; Alefantis, Timothy G.; Walz, Alexander; Quan, Marian A.; Patra, Guy; Ashton, John M.; Whittington, Jessica T.; Chafin, Ryan D.; Liang, Xudong; Grewal, Paul; Khan, Akbar S.; Mujer, Cesar V.

    2006-01-01

    Differentially expressed and immunogenic spore proteins of the Bacillus cereus group of bacteria, which includes Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis, were identified. Comparative proteomic profiling of their spore proteins distinguished the three species from each other as well as the virulent from the avirulent strains. A total of 458 proteins encoded by 232 open reading frames were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis for all the species. A number of highly expressed proteins, including elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), elongation factor G, 60-kDa chaperonin, enolase, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, and others exist as charge variants on two-dimensional gels. These charge variants have similar masses but different isoelectric points. The majority of identified proteins have cellular roles associated with energy production, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, amino acid transport and metabolism, posttranslational modifications, and translation. Novel vaccine candidate proteins were identified using B. anthracis polyclonal antisera from humans postinfected with cutaneous anthrax. Fifteen immunoreactive proteins were identified in B. anthracis spores, whereas 7, 14, and 7 immunoreactive proteins were identified for B. cereus and in the virulent and avirulent strains of B. thuringiensis spores, respectively. Some of the immunodominant antigens include charge variants of EF-Tu, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase, Δ-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, and a dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase. Alanine racemase and neutral protease were uniquely immunogenic to B. anthracis. Comparative analysis of the spore immunome will be of significance for further nucleic acid- and immuno-based detection systems as well as next-generation vaccine development. PMID:16957262

  18. Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Karen K.; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Okinaka, Richard T.; Asay, Michelle; Blair, Heather; Bliss, Katherine A.; Laker, Mariam; Pardington, Paige E.; Richardson, Amber P.; Tonks, Melinda; Beecher, Douglas J.; Kemp, John D.; Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Wong, Amy C. Lee; Keim, Paul; Jackson, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    DNA from over 300 Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus anthracis isolates was analyzed by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). B. thuringiensis and B. cereus isolates were from diverse sources and locations, including soil, clinical isolates and food products causing diarrheal and emetic outbreaks, and type strains from the American Type Culture Collection, and over 200 B. thuringiensis isolates representing 36 serovars or subspecies were from the U.S. Department of Agriculture collection. Twenty-four diverse B. anthracis isolates were also included. Phylogenetic analysis of AFLP data revealed extensive diversity within B. thuringiensis and B. cereus compared to the monomorphic nature of B. anthracis. All of the B. anthracis strains were more closely related to each other than to any other Bacillus isolate, while B. cereus and B. thuringiensis strains populated the entire tree. Ten distinct branches were defined, with many branches containing both B. cereus and B. thuringiensis isolates. A single branch contained all the B. anthracis isolates plus an unusual B. thuringiensis isolate that is pathogenic in mice. In contrast, B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (ATCC 33679) and other isolates used to prepare insecticides mapped distal to the B. anthracis isolates. The interspersion of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis isolates within the phylogenetic tree suggests that phenotypic traits used to distinguish between these two species do not reflect the genomic content of the different isolates and that horizontal gene transfer plays an important role in establishing the phenotype of each of these microbes. B. thuringiensis isolates of a particular subspecies tended to cluster together. PMID:14766590

  19. Susceptibilities of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and avirulent Bacillus anthracis spores to liquid biocides.

    PubMed

    Hilgren, J; Swanson, K M J; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Cords, B

    2009-02-01

    The susceptibility of spores of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and avirulent Bacillus anthracis to treatment with hydrogen peroxide, peroxyacetic acid, a peroxy-fatty acid mixture, sodium hypochlorite, and acidified sodium chlorite was investigated. Results indicated that B. cereus spores may be reasonable predictors of B. anthracis spore inactivation by peroxyacetic acid-based biocides. However, B. cereus was not a reliable predictor of B. anthracis inactivation by the other biocides. In studies comparing B. cereus and B. subtilis, B. cereus spores were more resistant (by 1.5 to 2.5 log CFU) than B. subtilis spores to peroxyacetic acid, the peroxy-fatty acid mixture, and acidified sodium chlorite. Conversely, B. subtilis spores were more resistant than B. cereus spores to hydrogen peroxide. These findings indicated the relevance of side-by-side testing of target organisms and potential surrogates against categories of biocides to determine whether both have similar properties and to validate the use of the surrogate microorganisms. PMID:19350981

  20. Pathogenomic Sequence Analysis of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates Closely Related to Bacillus anthracis†

    PubMed Central

    Han, Cliff S.; Xie, Gary; Challacombe, Jean F.; Altherr, Michael R.; Bhotika, Smriti S.; Bruce, David; Campbell, Connie S.; Campbell, Mary L.; Chen, Jin; Chertkov, Olga; Cleland, Cathy; Dimitrijevic, Mira; Doggett, Norman A.; Fawcett, John J.; Glavina, Tijana; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Hill, Karen K.; Hitchcock, Penny; Jackson, Paul J.; Keim, Paul; Kewalramani, Avinash Ramesh; Longmire, Jon; Lucas, Susan; Malfatti, Stephanie; McMurry, Kim; Meincke, Linda J.; Misra, Monica; Moseman, Bernice L.; Mundt, Mark; Munk, A. Christine; Okinaka, Richard T.; Parson-Quintana, B.; Reilly, Lee Philip; Richardson, Paul; Robinson, Donna L.; Rubin, Eddy; Saunders, Elizabeth; Tapia, Roxanne; Tesmer, Judith G.; Thayer, Nina; Thompson, Linda S.; Tice, Hope; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Wills, Patti L.; Brettin, Thomas S.; Gilna, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis are closely related gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria of the B. cereus sensu lato group. While independently derived strains of B. anthracis reveal conspicuous sequence homogeneity, environmental isolates of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis exhibit extensive genetic diversity. Here we report the sequencing and comparative analysis of the genomes of two members of the B. cereus group, B. thuringiensis 97-27 subsp. konkukian serotype H34, isolated from a necrotic human wound, and B. cereus E33L, which was isolated from a swab of a zebra carcass in Namibia. These two strains, when analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism within a collection of over 300 of B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. anthracis isolates, appear closely related to B. anthracis. The B. cereus E33L isolate appears to be the nearest relative to B. anthracis identified thus far. Whole-genome sequencing of B. thuringiensis 97-27and B. cereus E33L was undertaken to identify shared and unique genes among these isolates in comparison to the genomes of pathogenic strains B. anthracis Ames and B. cereus G9241 and nonpathogenic strains B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Comparison of these genomes revealed differences in terms of virulence, metabolic competence, structural components, and regulatory mechanisms. PMID:16621833

  1. On the fate of ingested Bacillus spores.

    PubMed

    Spinosa, M R; Braccini, T; Ricca, E; De Felice, M; Morelli, L; Pozzi, G; Oggioni, M R

    2000-06-01

    Spores of various Bacillus species, including B. subtilis, B. cereus and B. clausii, are used as probiotics, although they are generally absent from the normal microflora of man. We used two nonpathogenic Bacillus species, B. subtilis and B. clausii, to follow the fate of spores inoculated intragastrically in mice. We did not find detectable amounts of vegetative cells in intestinal samples, probably because of high toxicity of the conjugated bile salt taurodeoxycholic acid against Bacillus species. Both spores and cells were detected in the lymph nodes and spleen of one mouse. Our results indicate that Bacillus is present in the intestinal tract solely as spores and that nonpathogenic Bacillus spores may germinate in lymphoid organs, a finding reminiscent of B. anthracis germination in macrophages. These results indicate that any claimed probiotic effect of B. subtilis should be due to spores or, alternatively, to vegetative growth outside the intestine. PMID:10919516

  2. What sets Bacillus anthracis apart from other Bacillus species?

    PubMed

    Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Tourasse, Nicolas J; Økstad, Ole Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is the cause of anthrax, and two large plasmids are essential for toxicity: pXO1, which contains the toxin genes, and pXO2, which encodes a capsule. B. anthracis forms a highly monomorphic lineage within the B. cereus group, but strains of Bacillus thuringiensis and B. cereus exist that are genetically closely related to the B. anthracis cluster. During the past five years B. cereus strains that contain the pXO1 virulence plasmid were discovered, and strains with both pXO1 and pXO2 have been isolated from great apes in Africa. Therefore, the presence of pXO1 and pXO2 no longer principally separates B. anthracis from other Bacilli. The B. anthracis lineage carries a specific mutation in the global regulator PlcR, which controls the transcription of secreted virulence factors in B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. Coevolution of the B. anthracis chromosome with its plasmids may be the basis for the successful development and uniqueness of the B. anthracis lineage. PMID:19514852

  3. Bacillus cereus and related species.

    PubMed Central

    Drobniewski, F A

    1993-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic spore-forming rod. It is a cause of food poisoning, which is frequently associated with the consumption of rice-based dishes. The organism produces an emetic or diarrheal syndrome induced by an emetic toxin and enterotoxin, respectively. Other toxins are produced during growth, including phospholipases, proteases, and hemolysins, one of which, cereolysin, is a thiol-activated hemolysin. These toxins may contribute to the pathogenicity of B. cereus in nongastrointestinal disease. B. cereus isolated from clinical material other than feces or vomitus was commonly dismissed as a contaminant, but increasingly it is being recognized as a species with pathogenic potential. It is now recognized as an infrequent cause of serious nongastrointestinal infection, particularly in drug addicts, the immunosuppressed, neonates, and postsurgical patients, especially when prosthetic implants such as ventricular shunts are inserted. Ocular infections are the commonest types of severe infection, including endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis, and keratitis, usually with the characteristic formation of corneal ring abscesses. Even with prompt surgical and antimicrobial agent treatment, enucleation of the eye and blindness are common sequelae. Septicemia, meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections are other manifestations of severe disease. B. cereus produces beta-lactamases, unlike Bacillus anthracis, and so is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics; it is usually susceptible to treatment with clindamycin, vancomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. Simultaneous therapy via multiple routes may be required. PMID:8269390

  4. The Bacillus subtilis sin Operon

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Christopher A.; Wolf, Denise M.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2005-01-01

    The strategy of combining genes from a regulatory protein and its antagonist within the same operon, but controlling their activities differentially, can lead to diverse regulatory functions. This protein-antagonist motif is ubiquitous and present in evolutionarily unrelated regulatory pathways. Using the sin operon from the Bacillus subtilis sporulation pathway as a model system, we built a theoretical model, parameterized it using data from the literature, and used bifurcation analyses to determine the circuit functions it could encode. The model demonstrated that this motif can generate a bistable switch with tunable control over the switching threshold and the degree of population heterogeneity. Further, the model predicted that a small perturbation of a single critical parameter can bias this architecture into functioning like a graded response, a bistable switch, an oscillator, or a pulse generator. By mapping the parameters of the model to specific DNA regions and comparing the genomic sequences of Bacillus species, we showed that phylogenetic variation tends to occur in those regions that tune the switch threshold without disturbing the circuit function. The dynamical plasticity of the protein-antagonist operon motif suggests that it is an evolutionarily convergent design selected not only for particular immediate function but also for its evolvability. PMID:15466432

  5. Bacillus anthracis physiology and genetics.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Theresa M

    2009-12-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a member of the Bacillus cereus group species (also known as the "group 1 bacilli"), a collection of Gram-positive spore-forming soil bacteria that are non-fastidious facultative anaerobes with very similar growth characteristics and natural genetic exchange systems. Despite their close physiology and genetics, the B. cereus group species exhibit certain species-specific phenotypes, some of which are related to pathogenicity. B. anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax. Vegetative cells of B. anthracis produce anthrax toxin proteins and a poly-d-glutamic acid capsule during infection of mammalian hosts and when cultured in conditions considered to mimic the host environment. The genes associated with toxin and capsule synthesis are located on the B. anthracis plasmids, pXO1 and pXO2, respectively. Although plasmid content is considered a defining feature of the species, pXO1- and pXO2-like plasmids have been identified in strains that more closely resemble other members of the B. cereus group. The developmental nature of B. anthracis and its pathogenic (mammalian host) and environmental (soil) lifestyles of make it an interesting model for study of niche-specific bacterial gene expression and physiology. PMID:19654018

  6. Effect of ultrasonic waves on the heat resistance of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis spores.

    PubMed

    Burgos, J; Ordóñez, J A; Sala, F

    1972-09-01

    Heat resistance of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis spores in quarter-strength Ringer solution decreases markedly after ultrasonic treatments which are unable to kill a significant proportion of the spore population. This effect does not seem to be caused by a loss of Ca(2+) or dipicolinic acid. The use of ultrasonics to eliminate vegetative cells or to break aggregates in Bacillus spore suspensions to be used subsequently in heat resistance experiments appears to be unadvisable. PMID:4627969

  7. Neonatal meningoencephalitis caused by Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Manickam, Nisha; Knorr, Aimee; Muldrew, Kenneth L

    2008-09-01

    The classic organisms associated with central nervous system infection in the neonate are herpes simplex, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus agalactiae; we describe an unusual case of neonatal meningoencephalitis caused by Bacillus cereus. PMID:18679155

  8. Protoplast transformation of Bacillus licheniformis MC14.

    PubMed

    Jensen, K K; Hulett, F M

    1989-08-01

    A protoplast transformation system has been developed for Bacillus licheniformis MC14. Optimum regeneration conditions were achieved by raising the incubation temperature of the regeneration plates to 46 degrees C. Regenerated transformed colonies could be isolated in 3 to 5 d under these conditions. Plasmids introduced by this method were stably maintained by B. licheniformis MC14 and could be recovered and used to transform Bacillus subtilis. PMID:2634084

  9. Narrow terahertz attenuation signatures in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weidong; Brown, Elliott R; Viveros, Leamon; Burris, Kellie P; Stewart, C Neal

    2014-10-01

    Terahertz absorption signatures from culture-cultivated Bacillus thuringiensis were measured with a THz photomixing spectrometer operating from 400 to 1200 GHz. We observe two distinct signatures centered at ∼955 and 1015 GHz, and attribute them to the optically coupled particle vibrational resonance (surface phonon-polariton) of Bacillus spores. This demonstrates the potential of the THz attenuation signatures as "fingerprints" for label-free biomolecular detection. PMID:23821459

  10. Phylogenomic analysis shows that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum is a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus methylotrophicus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rhizosphere isolated bacteria belonging to the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and Bacillus methylotrophicus clades are an important group of strains that are used as plant growth promoters and antagonists of plant pathogens. These properties have made these strains the focus of comm...

  11. Bacillus infantis sp. nov. and Bacillus idriensis sp. nov., isolated from a patient with neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kwan Soo; Oh, Won Sup; Lee, Mi Young; Lee, Jang Ho; Lee, Hyuck; Peck, Kyong Ran; Lee, Nam Yong; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2006-11-01

    Two Gram-positive bacilli, designated as strains SMC 4352-1T and SMC 4352-2T, were isolated sequentially from the blood of a newborn child with sepsis. They could not be identified by using conventional clinical microbiological methods. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that both strains belonged to the genus Bacillus but clearly diverged from known Bacillus species. Strain SMC 4352-1T and strain SMC 4352-2T were found to be closely related to Bacillus firmus NCIMB 9366T (98.2% sequence similarity) and Bacillus cibi JG-30T (97.1% sequence similarity), respectively. They also displayed low DNA-DNA reassociation values (less than 40%) with respect to the most closely related Bacillus species. On the basis of their polyphasic characteristics, strain SMC 4352-1T and strain SMC 4352-2T represent two novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the names Bacillus infantis sp. nov. (type strain SMC 4352-1T=KCCM 90025T=JCM 13438T) and Bacillus idriensis sp. nov. (type strain SMC 4352-2T=KCCM 90024T=JCM 13437T) are proposed. PMID:17082387

  12. Tryptophan catabolism in Bacillus megaterium.

    PubMed Central

    Bouknight, R R; Sadoff, H L

    1975-01-01

    Bacillus megaterium grows in a medium containing L-tryptophan as the sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. Kynurenine, anthranilic acid, and catechol are metabolic intermediates, suggesting that this organism used the anthranilic acid pathway for tryptophan degradation. Cells that grow on L-tryptophan oxidize kynurenine, alanine, and anthranilic acid and the presence of tryptophan oxygenase (EC 1.13.1.12), kynureninase (EC 3.7.1.3), and catechol oxygenase (EC 1.13.1.1) in cell extracts provide additional evidence for the degradative pathway in B. megaterium. Tryptophan oxygenase is inhibited by sodium azide, potassium cyanide, and hydroxylamine, indicating that the enzyme has a functional heme group. D-Tryptophan is not a substrate for tryptophan oxygenase, and the D-isomer does not inhibit this enzyme. Formamidase (EC 3.5.1.9) and anthranilate hydroxylase are not detectable in extracts. Tryptophan catabolism is inducible in B megaterium and is subject to catabolite repression by glucose and glutamate. Arginine does not cause repression, and kynurenine induces both tryptophan oxygenase and kynureninase. PMID:803956

  13. Hydrazine vapor inactivates Bacillus spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Wayne W.; Engler, Diane L.; Beaudet, Robert A.

    2016-05-01

    NASA policy restricts the total number of bacterial spores that can remain on a spacecraft traveling to any planetary body which might harbor life or have evidence of past life. Hydrazine, N2H4, is commonly used as a propellant on spacecraft. Hydrazine as a liquid is known to inactivate bacterial spores. We have now verified that hydrazine vapor also inactivates bacterial spores. After Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 9372 spores deposited on stainless steel coupons were exposed to saturated hydrazine vapor in closed containers, the spores were recovered from the coupons, serially diluted, pour plated and the surviving bacterial colonies were counted. The exposure times required to reduce the spore population by a factor of ten, known as the D-value, were 4.70 ± 0.50 h at 25 °C and 2.85 ± 0.13 h at 35 °C. These inactivation rates are short enough to ensure that the bioburden of the surfaces and volumes would be negligible after prolonged exposure to hydrazine vapor. Thus, all the propellant tubing and internal tank surfaces exposed to hydrazine vapor do not contribute to the total spore count.

  14. Diversity and applications of Bacillus bacteriocins.

    PubMed

    Abriouel, Hikmate; Franz, Charles M A P; Ben Omar, Nabil; Gálvez, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Members of the genus Bacillus are known to produce a wide arsenal of antimicrobial substances, including peptide and lipopeptide antibiotics, and bacteriocins. Many of the Bacillus bacteriocins belong to the lantibiotics, a category of post-translationally modified peptides widely disseminated among different bacterial clades. Lantibiotics are among the best-characterized antimicrobial peptides at the levels of peptide structure, genetic determinants and biosynthesis mechanisms. Members of the genus Bacillus also produce many other nonmodified bacteriocins, some of which resemble the pediocin-like bacteriocins of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB), while others show completely novel peptide sequences. Bacillus bacteriocins are increasingly becoming more important due to their sometimes broader spectra of inhibition (as compared with most LAB bacteriocins), which may include Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts or fungi, in addition to Gram-positive species, some of which are known to be pathogenic to humans and/or animals. The present review provides a general overview of Bacillus bacteriocins, including primary structure, biochemical and genetic characterization, classification and potential applications in food preservation as natural preservatives and in human and animal health as alternatives to conventional antibiotics. Furthermore, it addresses their environmental applications, such as bioprotection against the pre- and post-harvest decay of vegetables, or as plant growth promoters. PMID:20695901

  15. Determination of the most closely related bacillus isolates to Bacillus anthracis by multilocus sequence typing.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kijeong; Cheon, Eunhee; Wheeler, Katherine E.; Youn, Youngchul; Leighton, Terrance J.; Park, Chulmin; Kim, Wonyong; Chung, Sang-In

    2005-01-01

    There have been many efforts to develop Bacillus anthracis detection assays, but the problem of false-positive results has often been encountered. Therefore, to validate an assay for B. anthracis detection, it is critical to examine its specificity with the most closely related Bacillus isolates that are available. To define the most closely related Bacillus isolates to B. anthracis in our Bacillus collections, we analyzed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) the phylogeny of 77 closely related Bacillus isolates selected from 264 Bacillus isolates. The selection includes all the Bacillus isolates that have been shown in our previous studies to produce false-positive results by some anthrax-detection assays. The MLST phylogenetic analyses revealed that 27 of the non-B. anthracis isolates clustered within the B. anthracis clade, and four of them (three sequence types, STs) had the highest degree of genetic relatedness with B. anthracis, 18 (11 STs) had the second highest, and five (five STs) had the third highest. We anticipate that the inclusion of the 19 ST isolates when analyzing B. anthracis detection assays will prove to be useful for screening for their specificity to detect B. anthracis. PMID:16197725

  16. DECONTAMINATION ASSESSMENT OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS, AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACTS USING A HYDROGEN PERIOXIDE GAS GENERATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aims: To evaluate the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface materials using hydrogen peroxide gas. Methods and Results: B. anthracis, B. subtilis, and G. Stearothermophilus spores were dried on seven...

  17. Carotenoids present in halotolerant Bacillus spore formers.

    PubMed

    Duc, Le H; Fraser, Paul D; Tam, Nguyen K M; Cutting, Simon M

    2006-02-01

    Six isolates of pigmented spore-forming bacteria were recovered from human faeces from subjects in Vietnam. 16S rRNA analysis demonstrated close association with known pigmented Bacillus species. All isolates were able to tolerate growth on 8% NaCl and were resistant to arsenate, characteristics that make them most related to Bacillus indicus. Two visible pigments were apparent, a yellow pigment found in vegetative cells and an orange pigment found only in spores. We used high-performance liquid chromatography to characterize and quantify these pigments and found them to be carotenoids. The biosynthetic pathway that generates them branches with one that could lead to the spore-associated orange pigmentation. Although these bacteria were found in faeces, the seafood-rich diet of Vietnam and the recovery of other pigmented Bacillus species from seafood and marine environments makes it highly probable that the true origin of these bacteria is from ingested seafood. PMID:16448498

  18. [Bacillus thuringiensis: a biotechnology model].

    PubMed

    Sanchis, V; Lereclus, D

    1999-01-01

    This paper is on the different biotechnological approaches that have been used to improve Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) for the control of agricultural insect pests and have contributed to the successful use of this biological control agent; it describes how a better knowledge of the high diversity of Bt strains and toxins genes together with the development of efficient host-vector systems has made it possible to overcome a number of the problems associated with Bt based insect control measures. First we present an overview of the biology of Bt and of the mode of action of its insecticidal toxins. We then describe some of the progress that has been made in furthering our knowledge of the genetics of Bt and of its insecticidal toxin genes and in the understanding of their regulation. The paper then deals with the use of recombinant DNA technology to develop new Bt strains for more effective pest control or to introduce the genes encoding partial-endotoxins directly into plants to produce insect-resistant trangenic plants. Several examples describing how biotechnology has been used to increase the production of insecticidal proteins in Bt or their persistence in the field by protecting them against UV degradation are presented and discussed. Finally, based on our knowledge of the mechanism of transposition of the Bt transposon Tn4430, we describe the construction of a new generation of recombinant strains of Bt, from which antibiotic resistance genes and other non-Bt DNA sequences were selectively eliminated, using a new generation of site-specific recombination vectors. In the future, continuing improvement of first generation products and research into new sources of resistance is essential to ensure the long-term control of insect pests. Chimeric toxins could also be produced so as to increase toxin activity or direct resistance towards a particular type of insect. The search for new insecticidal toxins, in Bt or other microorganisms, may also provide new weapons

  19. Pressure Inactivation of Bacillus Endospores

    PubMed Central

    Margosch, Dirk; Gänzle, Michael G.; Ehrmann, Matthias A.; Vogel, Rudi F.

    2004-01-01

    The inactivation of bacterial endospores by hydrostatic pressure requires the combined application of heat and pressure. We have determined the resistance of spores of 14 food isolates and 5 laboratory strains of Bacillus subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, and B. licheniformis to treatments with pressure and temperature (200 to 800 MPa and 60 to 80°C) in mashed carrots. A large variation in the pressure resistance of spores was observed, and their reduction by treatments with 800 MPa and 70°C for 4 min ranged from more than 6 log units to no reduction. The sporulation conditions further influenced their pressure resistance. The loss of dipicolinic acid (DPA) from spores that varied in their pressure resistance was determined, and spore sublethal injury was assessed by determination of the detection times for individual spores. Treatment of spores with pressure and temperature resulted in DPA-free, phase-bright spores. These spores were sensitive to moderate heat and exhibited strongly increased detection times as judged by the time required for single spores to grow to visible turbidity of the growth medium. The role of DPA in heat and pressure resistance was further substantiated by the use of the DPA-deficient mutant strain B. subtilis CIP 76.26. Taken together, these results indicate that inactivation of spores by combined pressure and temperature processing is achieved by a two-stage mechanism that does not involve germination. At a pressure between 600 and 800 MPa and a temperature greater than 60°C, DPA is released predominantly by a physicochemical rather than a physiological process, and the DPA-free spores are inactivated by moderate heat independent of the pressure level. Relevant target organisms for pressure and temperature treatment of foods are proposed, namely, strains of B. amyloliquefaciens, which form highly pressure-resistant spores. PMID:15574932

  20. BOOK REVIEW – BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS: A CORNERSTONE OF MODERN AGRICULTURE BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are you interested in the technical issues surrounding the use of Bacillus thuringiensis pesticidal traits as sprays and as plant incorporated protectants (transgenic crops)? Should the dimensions of human health, ecology, entomology, risk assessment, resistance management, and d...

  1. Evaluation of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus metabolites for anthelmintic activity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, M. L. Vijaya; Thippeswamy, B.; Kuppust, I. L.; Naveenkumar, K. J.; Shivakumar, C. K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the anthelmintic acivity of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus metabolites. Materials and Methods: The successive solvent extractions with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol. The solvent extracts were tested for anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma at 20 mg/ml concentration. The time of paralysis and time of death of the worms was determined for all the extracts. Albendazole was taken as a standard reference and sterile water as a control. Results: All the sample extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity in paralyzing the worms comparable with that of the standard drug. The time of death exhibited by BP metabolites was close to the time exhibited by standard. Conclusion: The study indicates both bacteria Bacillus cereus and Bacillus pumilus have anthelmintic activity indicating potential metabolites in them. PMID:25598639

  2. Genetic competence in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Dubnau, D

    1991-01-01

    Genetic competence may be defined as a physiological state enabling a bacterial culture to bind and take up high-molecular-weight exogenous DNA (transformation). In Bacillus subtilis, competence develops postexponentially and only in certain media. In addition, only a minority of the cells in a competent culture become competent, and these are physiologically distinct. Thus, competence is subject to three regulatory modalities: growth stage specific, nutritionally responsive, and cell type specific. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning competence in B. subtilis. The study of genes required for transformability has permitted their classification into two broad categories. Late competence genes are expressed under competence control and specify products required for the binding, uptake, and processing of transforming DNA. Regulatory genes specify products that are needed for the expression of the late genes. Several of the late competence gene products have been shown to be membrane localized, and others are predicted to be membrane associated on the basis of amino acid sequence data. Several of these predicted protein sequences show a striking resemblance to gene products that are involved in the export and/or assembly of extracellular proteins and structures in gram-negative organisms. This observation is consistent with the idea that the late products are directly involved in transport of DNA and is equally consistent with the notion that they play a morphogenetic role in the assembly of a transport apparatus. The competence regulatory apparatus constitutes an elaborate signal transduction system that senses and interprets environmental information and passes this information to the competence-specific transcriptional machinery. Many of the regulatory gene products have been identified and partially characterized, and their interactions have been studied genetically and in some cases biochemically as well. These include several

  3. Comparative genome analysis of Bacillus cereus group genomes withBacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iain; Sorokin, Alexei; Kapatral, Vinayak; Reznik, Gary; Bhattacharya, Anamitra; Mikhailova, Natalia; Burd, Henry; Joukov, Victor; Kaznadzey, Denis; Walunas, Theresa; D'Souza, Mark; Larsen, Niels; Pusch,Gordon; Liolios, Konstantinos; Grechkin, Yuri; Lapidus, Alla; Goltsman,Eugene; Chu, Lien; Fonstein, Michael; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Overbeek, Ross; Kyrpides, Nikos; Ivanova, Natalia

    2005-09-14

    Genome features of the Bacillus cereus group genomes (representative strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis sub spp israelensis) were analyzed and compared with the Bacillus subtilis genome. A core set of 1,381 protein families among the four Bacillus genomes, with an additional set of 933 families common to the B. cereus group, was identified. Differences in signal transduction pathways, membrane transporters, cell surface structures, cell wall, and S-layer proteins suggesting differences in their phenotype were identified. The B. cereus group has signal transduction systems including a tyrosine kinase related to two-component system histidine kinases from B. subtilis. A model for regulation of the stress responsive sigma factor sigmaB in the B. cereus group different from the well studied regulation in B. subtilis has been proposed. Despite a high degree of chromosomal synteny among these genomes, significant differences in cell wall and spore coat proteins that contribute to the survival and adaptation in specific hosts has been identified.

  4. Twenty Whole-Genome Bacillus sp. Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Daligault, H E; Davenport, K W; Minogue, T D; Bishop-Lilly, K A; Broomall, S M; Bruce, D C; Chain, P S; Coyne, S R; Frey, K G; Gibbons, H S; Jaissle, J; Koroleva, G I; Ladner, J T; Lo, C-C; Munk, C; Palacios, G F; Redden, C L; Rosenzweig, C N; Scholz, M B; Johnson, S L

    2014-01-01

    Bacilli are genetically and physiologically diverse, ranging from innocuous to highly pathogenic. Here, we present annotated genome assemblies for 20 strains belonging to Bacillus anthracis, B. atrophaeus, B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. macerans, B. megaterium, B. mycoides, and B. subtilis. PMID:25301645

  5. Twenty Whole-Genome Bacillus sp. Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Daligault, H. E.; Davenport, K. W.; Minogue, T. D.; Bishop-Lilly, K. A.; Broomall, S. M.; Bruce, D. C.; Chain, P. S.; Coyne, S. R.; Frey, K. G.; Gibbons, H. S.; Jaissle, J.; Koroleva, G. I.; Ladner, J. T.; Lo, C.-C.; Munk, C.; Palacios, G. F.; Redden, C. L.; Rosenzweig, C. N.; Scholz, M. B.

    2014-01-01

    Bacilli are genetically and physiologically diverse, ranging from innocuous to highly pathogenic. Here, we present annotated genome assemblies for 20 strains belonging to Bacillus anthracis, B. atrophaeus, B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. macerans, B. megaterium, B. mycoides, and B. subtilis. PMID:25301645

  6. MOBILE LABORATORY FOR BACILLUS ANTHRACIS DETECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In response to a bioterrorism event in the Washington, DC area in October 2001 a mobile laboratory (ML) was set up in the city to conduct rapid molecular tests on environmental samples for the detection of Bacillus anthracis spores. The ML contained two Class I laminar flow hoods, a small autoclave,...

  7. Fatal outcome of Bacillus cereus septicaemia.

    PubMed

    Lede, I; Vlaar, A; Roosendaal, R; Geerlings, S; Spanjaard, L

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous environmental micro-organism which is often a contaminant of clinical cultures. Infections due to B. cereus are described, but mostly in immunocompromised patients. We report a fatal outcome of B. cereus septicaemia in an immunocompetent patient with a mechanical mitral valve. PMID:22173364

  8. Surfactin production by strains of Bacillus mojavensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus mojavensis, RRC101 is an endophytic bacterium patented for control of fungal diseases in maize and other plants. DNA fingerprint analysis of the rep-PCR fragments of 35 B. mojavensis and 4 B. subtilis strains using the Diversilab genotyping system revealed genotypic distinctive strains alon...

  9. Distribution of phenotypes among Bacillus thuringiensis strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extensive collection of Bacillus thuringiensis isolates from around the world were phenotypically profiled using standard biochemical tests. Six phenotypic traits occurred in 20-86% of the isolates and were useful in distinguishing isolates: production of urease (U; 20.5% of isolates), hydrolysis...

  10. Routine Markerless Gene Replacement in Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Janes, Brian K.; Stibitz, Scott

    2006-01-01

    An improved genetic tool suitable for routine markerless allelic exchange in Bacillus anthracis has been constructed. Its utility was demonstrated by the introduction of insertions, deletions, and missense mutations on the chromosome and plasmid pXO1 of the Sterne strain of B. anthracis. PMID:16495572

  11. Methyl Iodide Fumigation of Bacillus anthracis Spores.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Mark; Kane, Staci R; Wollard, Jessica R

    2015-09-01

    Fumigation techniques such as chlorine dioxide, vaporous hydrogen peroxide, and paraformaldehyde previously used to decontaminate items, rooms, and buildings following contamination with Bacillus anthracis spores are often incompatible with materials (e.g., porous surfaces, organics, and metals), causing damage or residue. Alternative fumigation with methyl bromide is subject to U.S. and international restrictions due to its ozone-depleting properties. Methyl iodide, however, does not pose a risk to the ozone layer and has previously been demonstrated as a fumigant for fungi, insects, and nematodes. Until now, methyl iodide has not been evaluated against Bacillus anthracis. Sterne strain Bacillus anthracis spores were subjected to methyl iodide fumigation at room temperature and at 550C. Efficacy was measured on a log-scale with a 6-log reduction in CFUs being considered successful compared to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency biocide standard. Such efficacies were obtained after just one hour at 55 °C and after 12 hours at room temperature. No detrimental effects were observed on glassware, PTFE O-rings, or stainless steel. This is the first reported efficacy of methyl iodide in the reduction of Bacillus anthracis spore contamination at ambient and elevated temperatures. PMID:26502561

  12. Phylogenomic analysis shows that ‘Bacillus vanillea’ is a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus siamensis.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Christopher A

    2015-10-01

    Bacillus vanillea’ XY18 ( = CGMCC 8629 = NCCB 100507) was isolated from cured vanilla beans and involved in the formation of vanilla aroma compounds. A draft genome of this strain was assembled and yielded a length of 3.71 Mbp with a DNA G+C content of 46.3 mol%. Comparative genomic analysis with its nearest relatives showed only minor differences between this strain and the genome of the Bacillus siamensis KCTC 13613T ( = BCC 22614T = KACC 16244T), with a calculated DNA–DNA hybridization (DDH) value of 91.2 % and an average nucleotide identity (ANI) of 98.9 %. This DDH value is well above the recommended 70 % threshold for species delineation, as well as the ANI threshold of 95 %. In addition, the results of morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the type strains of these two taxa are highly similar with phenotype coherence. A core genome multi-locus sequencing analysis was conducted for the strains and the results show that ‘Bacillus vanillea’ XY18 clusters closely to the type strain of Bacillus siamensis. Therefore, it is proposed that the species ‘Bacillus vanillea’ XY18 ( = CGMCC 8629 = NCCB 100507) should be reclassified as a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus siamensis KCTC 13613T ( = BCC 22614T = KACC 16244T). An emended description of Bacillus siamensis is provided. PMID:26296875

  13. Bacillus odysseyi sp. nov., a round-spore-forming bacillus isolated from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    La Duc, Myron T.; Satomi, Masataka; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2004-01-01

    A round-spore-forming Bacillus species that produces an exosporium was isolated from the surface of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. This novel species has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus and is a Gram-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, endospore-forming eubacterium. Ultrathin sections of the spores showed the presence of an exosporium, spore coat, cortex and core. 16S rDNA sequence similarities between this strain, Bacillus fusiformis and Bacillus silvestris were approximately 96% and DNA-DNA reassociation values with these two bacilli were 23 and 17%, respectively. Spores of the novel species were resistant to desiccation, H2O2 and UV and gamma radiation. Of all strains tested, the spores of this strain were the most consistently resistant and survived all of the challenges posed, i.e. exposure to conditions of desiccation (100% survival), H2O2 (26% survival), UV radiation (10% survival at 660 J m(-2)) and gamma radiation (0.4% survival). The name proposed for this novel bacterium is Bacillus odysseyi sp. nov.; the type strain is 34hs-1T (=ATCC PTA-4993T=NRRL B-30641T=NBRC 100172T).

  14. Comparative Genomics Within the Bacillus Genus Reveal the Singularities of Two Robust Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Biocontrol Strains.

    PubMed

    Magno-Pérez-Bryan, M C; Martínez-García, P M; Hierrezuelo, J; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, P; Arrebola, E; Ramos, C; de Vicente, A; Pérez-García, A; Romero, D

    2015-10-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 8237 and CECT 8238, formerly known as Bacillus subtilis UMAF6639 and UMAF6614, respectively, contribute to plant health by facing microbial pathogens or inducing the plant's defense mechanisms. We sequenced their genomes and developed a set of ad hoc scripts that allowed us to search for the features implicated in their beneficial interaction with plants. We define a core set of genes that should ideally be found in any beneficial Bacillus strain, including the production of secondary metabolites, volatile compounds, metabolic plasticity, cell-to-cell communication systems, and biofilm formation. We experimentally prove that some of these genetic elements are active, such as i) the production of known secondary metabolites or ii) acetoin and 2-3-butanediol, compounds that stimulate plant growth and host defense responses. A comparison with other Bacillus genomes permits us to find differences in the cell-to-cell communication system and biofilm formation and to hypothesize variations in their persistence and resistance ability in diverse environmental conditions. In addition, the major protection provided by CECT 8237 and CECT 8238, which is different from other Bacillus strains against bacterial and fungal melon diseases, permits us to propose a correlation with their singular genetic background and determine the need to search for additional blind biocontrol-related features. PMID:26035127

  15. A Multiple-Labeling Strategy for Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases Using Active-Site-Directed Proteomic Probes for Adenylation Domains.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Fumihiro; Suzuki, Takehiro; Dohmae, Naoshi; Kakeya, Hideaki

    2015-12-01

    Genetic approaches have greatly contributed to our understanding of nonribosomal peptide biosynthetic machinery; however, proteomic investigations are limited. Here, we developed a highly sensitive detection strategy for multidomain nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) by using a multiple-labeling technique with active-site-directed probes for adenylation domains. When applied to gramicidin S-producing and -nonproducing strains of Aneurinibacillus migulanus (DSM 5759 and DSM 2895, respectively), the multiple technique sensitively detected an active multidomain NRPS (GrsB) in lysates obtained from the organisms. This functional proteomics method revealed an unknown inactive precursor (or other inactive form) of GrsB in the nonproducing strain. This method provides a new option for the direct detection, functional analysis, and high-resolution identification of low-abundance active NRPS enzymes in native proteomic environments. PMID:26467472

  16. Survival of Bacillus megaterium strains in water.

    PubMed

    Palmada, F M; Sanchez-Rivas, C

    1996-01-01

    Cultures of Bacillus megaterium strains, producers or not of poly-beta-hydroxy-butyrate (PHB+ and PHB-) were submitted to several shift-downs: nutritional (one hundred fold dilution in saline water S or artificial fresh water ADA) or nutritional and osmotic (one hundred fold dilution in water or W). In all conditions tested, the wild type strain survived, duplicated five times and sporulated. However, the PHB- mutant strain showed a drastic loss of viability in water (< 0.1%) not observed when the shift was only nutritional (S or ADA). Discussion was focused on the advantages of the potential use of Bacillus megaterium as host for delivering bio-insecticides in waters instead of natural hosts such as B. thuringiensis strains. PMID:9017852

  17. Computational based functional analysis of Bacillus phytases.

    PubMed

    Verma, Anukriti; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Gaur, Smriti

    2016-02-01

    Phytase is an enzyme which catalyzes the total hydrolysis of phytate to less phosphorylated myo-inositol derivatives and inorganic phosphate and digests the undigestable phytate part present in seeds and grains and therefore provides digestible phosphorus, calcium and other mineral nutrients. Phytases are frequently added to the feed of monogastric animals so that bioavailability of phytic acid-bound phosphate increases, ultimately enhancing the nutritional value of diets. The Bacillus phytase is very suitable to be used in animal feed because of its optimum pH with excellent thermal stability. Present study is aimed to perform an in silico comparative characterization and functional analysis of phytases from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens to explore physico-chemical properties using various bio-computational tools. All proteins are acidic and thermostable and can be used as suitable candidates in the feed industry. PMID:26672917

  18. Refractory Bacillus cereus infection in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Tuladhar, R; Patole, S K; Koh, T H; Norton, R; Whitehall, J S

    2000-06-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic spore-forming rod, which usually causes food poisoning. Its recognition as a pathogen in neonates has increased over the past two decades. The clinical course of a neonate (gestation 24 weeks) with B. cereus infection refractory to therapy is described. Death occurred after withdrawal of support following persistently positive blood and bone marrow cultures despite therapy with vancomycin, gentamicin, imipenum, clindamycin, ciprofloxacillin, immunoglobulin and granulocyte colony stimulating factor over a period of 49 days. No obvious focus of sepsis was identified. Contamination from the environment into the hospital and clinics occurs because of the ubiquitous presence of B. cereus. Combination therapy with vancomycin and gentamycin is appropriate for meningitis/severe systemic infections related to most bacillus species. The significance of repeated isolation of B. cereus in neonates with compromised host defences is emphasised. PMID:10954966

  19. Biodegradation of exploded cotton stalk by Bacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lianshuang; Han, Xiaofang; Du, Yumin

    2003-10-01

    The exploded bast, branch and stem of cotton stalk were degraded by alkalophilic Bacillus NT-19, with weight losses of 24%, 20% and 14%, respectively, after 14 d. Compared with a white-rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium), Bacillus NT- 19 preferentially degraded the non-cellulose components of cotton stem. The relative degree of crystallinity of bast fibers decreased by 8% and the middle lamella was partially removed from the fiber bundle by the Bacillus. PMID:14626420

  20. Bacillus cereus Biofilms-Same, Only Different.

    PubMed

    Majed, Racha; Faille, Christine; Kallassy, Mireille; Gohar, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus displays a high diversity of lifestyles and ecological niches and include beneficial as well as pathogenic strains. These strains are widespread in the environment, are found on inert as well as on living surfaces and contaminate persistently the production lines of the food industry. Biofilms are suspected to play a key role in this ubiquitous distribution and in this persistency. Indeed, B. cereus produces a variety of biofilms which differ in their architecture and mechanism of formation, possibly reflecting an adaptation to various environments. Depending on the strain, B. cereus has the ability to grow as immersed or floating biofilms, and to secrete within the biofilm a vast array of metabolites, surfactants, bacteriocins, enzymes, and toxins, all compounds susceptible to act on the biofilm itself and/or on its environment. Within the biofilm, B. cereus exists in different physiological states and is able to generate highly resistant and adhesive spores, which themselves will increase the resistance of the bacterium to antimicrobials or to cleaning procedures. Current researches show that, despite similarities with the regulation processes and effector molecules involved in the initiation and maturation of the extensively studied Bacillus subtilis biofilm, important differences exists between the two species. The present review summarizes the up to date knowledge on biofilms produced by B. cereus and by two closely related pathogens, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis. Economic issues caused by B. cereus biofilms and management strategies implemented to control these biofilms are included in this review, which also discuss the ecological and functional roles of biofilms in the lifecycle of these bacterial species and explore future developments in this important research area. PMID:27458448

  1. Bacillus cereus Biofilms—Same, Only Different

    PubMed Central

    Majed, Racha; Faille, Christine; Kallassy, Mireille; Gohar, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus displays a high diversity of lifestyles and ecological niches and include beneficial as well as pathogenic strains. These strains are widespread in the environment, are found on inert as well as on living surfaces and contaminate persistently the production lines of the food industry. Biofilms are suspected to play a key role in this ubiquitous distribution and in this persistency. Indeed, B. cereus produces a variety of biofilms which differ in their architecture and mechanism of formation, possibly reflecting an adaptation to various environments. Depending on the strain, B. cereus has the ability to grow as immersed or floating biofilms, and to secrete within the biofilm a vast array of metabolites, surfactants, bacteriocins, enzymes, and toxins, all compounds susceptible to act on the biofilm itself and/or on its environment. Within the biofilm, B. cereus exists in different physiological states and is able to generate highly resistant and adhesive spores, which themselves will increase the resistance of the bacterium to antimicrobials or to cleaning procedures. Current researches show that, despite similarities with the regulation processes and effector molecules involved in the initiation and maturation of the extensively studied Bacillus subtilis biofilm, important differences exists between the two species. The present review summarizes the up to date knowledge on biofilms produced by B. cereus and by two closely related pathogens, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis. Economic issues caused by B. cereus biofilms and management strategies implemented to control these biofilms are included in this review, which also discuss the ecological and functional roles of biofilms in the lifecycle of these bacterial species and explore future developments in this important research area. PMID:27458448

  2. Diagnostic Oligonucleotide Microarray Fingerprinting of Bacillus Isolates

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, Darrell P.; Alferov, Oleg; Chernov, Boris; Daly, Don S.; Golova, Julia; Perov, Alexander N.; Protic, Miroslava; Robison, Richard; Shipma, Matthew; White, Amanda M.; Willse, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    A diagnostic, genome-independent microbial fingerprinting method using DNA oligonucleotide microarrays was used for high-resolution differentiation between closely related Bacillus strains, including two strains of Bacillus anthracis that are monomorphic (indistinguishable) via amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting techniques. Replicated hybridizations on 391-probe nonamer arrays were used to construct a prototype fingerprint library for quantitative comparisons. Descriptive analysis of the fingerprints, including phylogenetic reconstruction, is consistent with previous taxonomic organization of the genus. Newly developed statistical analysis methods were used to quantitatively compare and objectively confirm apparent differences in microarray fingerprints with the statistical rigor required for microbial forensics and clinical diagnostics. These data suggest that a relatively simple fingerprinting microarray and statistical analysis method can differentiate between species in the Bacillus cereus complex, and between strains of B. anthracis. A synthetic DNA standard was used to understand underlying microarray and process-level variability, leading to specific recommendations for the development of a standard operating procedure and/or continued technology enhancements for microbial forensics and diagnostics.

  3. The genome and variation of Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Keim, Paul; Gruendike, Jeffrey M; Klevytska, Alexandra M; Schupp, James M; Challacombe, Jean; Okinaka, Richard

    2009-12-01

    The Bacillus anthracis genome reflects its close genetic ties to Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis but has been shaped by its own unique biology and evolutionary forces. The genome is comprised of a chromosome and two large virulence plasmids, pXO1 and pXO2. The chromosome is mostly co-linear among B. anthracis strains and even with the closest near neighbor strains. An exception to this pattern has been observed in a large inversion in an attenuated strain suggesting that chromosome co-linearity is important to the natural biology of this pathogen. In general, there are few polymorphic nucleotides among B. anthracis strains reflecting the short evolutionary time since its derivation from a B. cereus-like ancestor. The exceptions to this lack of diversity are the variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci that exist in genic and non genic regions of the chromosome and both plasmids. Their variation is associated with high mutability that is driven by rapid insertion and deletion of the repeats within an array. A notable example is found in the vrrC locus which is homologous to known DNA translocase genes from other bacteria. PMID:19729033

  4. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Ramya, T. N. C.; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions. PMID:27258038

  5. Genetic transformation of Bacillus strains close to bacillus subtilis and isolated from the soil

    SciTech Connect

    Van, C.K.; Kuzin, Yu.Yu.; Kozlovskii, Yu.E.; Prozorov, A.A.

    1986-06-01

    Chromosomal and plasmid transformation was found in five out of 118 Bacillus strains, close or identical to Bacillus subtilis, and isolated from soil in Moscow or in the Moscow district. The efficiency of transformation in these strains was lower than that in derivatives of Bac. subtilis strain 168. In these strains the ability to undergo transformation was dependent on the rate of sporulation and the presence of restrictases. As in the case of Bac. subtilis 168 the strains isolated may be used as models in genetic transformation studies on Bac. subtilis.

  6. Bacillus luteus sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Subhash, Y; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2014-05-01

    Two bacterial strains (JC167T and JC168) were isolated from a soil sample collected from Mandpam, Tamilnadu, India. Colonies of both strains were orange and cells Gram-stain-positive. Cells were small rods, and formed terminal endospores of ellipsoidal to oval shape. Both strains were positive for catalase, oxidase and hydrolysis of starch/gelatin, and negative for chitin hydrolysis, H2S production, indole production and nitrate reduction activity. Major fatty acids of both strains (>5%) were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, iso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0, iso-C14:0 and C16:0 with minor (<5 but >1%) amounts of iso-C17:0, anteiso-C17:0 B/iso-C17:0 I and C16:1ω11c. Diphosphatydilglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol were the major polar lipids of both strains. Cell wall amino acids were L-alanine, D-alanine, D-glutamic acid and meso-diaminopimelic acid. β-Carotene and five unidentified carotenoids were present in both strains. Mean genomic DNA G+C content was 53.4±1 mol% and the two strains were closely related (mean DNA-DNA hybridization>90%). 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons of both strains indicated that they represent species of the genus Bacillus within the family Bacillaceae of the phylum Firmicutes. Both strains had a sequence similarity of 97.6% with Bacillus saliphilus 6AGT and <96.8% with other members of the genus Bacillus. Sequence similarity between strain JC167T and 168 was 100%. Strain JC167T showed 25.8±1% reassociation (based on DNA-DNA hybridization) with B. saliphilus DSM 15402T (=6AGT). Distinct morphological, physiological and genotypic differences from previously described taxa support the classification of strain JC167T as a representative of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus luteus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC167T (=KCTC 33100T=LMG 27257T). PMID:24478212

  7. Detection of Anthrax Simulants with Microcalorimetric Spectroscopy: Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus Spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, Edward T.; Lavrik, Nickolay V.; Datskos, Panos G.

    2003-04-01

    Recent advances in the development of ultrasensitive micromechanical thermal detectors have led to the advent of novel subfemtojoule microcalorimetric spectroscopy (CalSpec). On the basis of principles of photothermal IR spectroscopy combined with efficient thermomechanical transduction, CalSpec provides acquisition of vibrational spectra of microscopic samples and absorbates. We use CalSpec as a method of identifying nanogram quantities of biological micro-organisms. Our studies focus on Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus spores as simulants for Bacillus anthracis spores. Using CalSpec, we measured IR spectra of B. subtilis and B. cereus spores present on surfaces in nanogram quantities (approximately 100 -1000 spores). The spectra acquired in the wavelength range of 690 -4000 cm-1 (2.5 -14.5 μm) contain information-rich vibrational signatures that reflect the different ratios of biochemical makeup of the micro-organisms. The distinctive features in the spectra obtained for the two types of micro-organism can be used to distinguish between the spores of the Bacillus family. As compared with conventional IR and Fourier-transform IR microscopic spectroscopy techniques, the advantages of the present technique include significantly improved sensitivity (at least a full order of magnitude), absence of expensive IR detectors, and excellent potential for miniaturization.

  8. Phylogenomic analysis shows that ‘Bacillus vanillea’ is a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus siamensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus vanillea’ XY18T (=CGMCC 8629 T =NCCB 100507 T) was isolated from cured vanilla beans and involved in the formation of vanilla aroma compounds. A draft genome of this type strain was assembled and yielded a length of 3.72 Mbp and a GC content of 46.3%. Comparative genomic analysis with its ...

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus megaterium Siphophage Silence

    PubMed Central

    Solis, Jonathan A.; Farmer, Nicholas G.; Cahill, Jesse L.; Rasche, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Silence is a newly isolated siphophage that infects Bacillus megaterium, a soil bacterium that is used readily in research and commercial applications. A study of B. megaterium phage Silence will enhance our knowledge of the diversity of Bacillus phages. Here, we describe the complete genome sequence and annotated features of Silence. PMID:26450722

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus megaterium Siphophage Silence.

    PubMed

    Solis, Jonathan A; Farmer, Nicholas G; Cahill, Jesse L; Rasche, Eric S; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F

    2015-01-01

    Silence is a newly isolated siphophage that infects Bacillus megaterium, a soil bacterium that is used readily in research and commercial applications. A study of B. megaterium phage Silence will enhance our knowledge of the diversity of Bacillus phages. Here, we describe the complete genome sequence and annotated features of Silence. PMID:26450722

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis Bacteriophage Smudge.

    PubMed

    Cornell, Jessica L; Breslin, Eileen; Schuhmacher, Zachary; Himelright, Madison; Berluti, Cassandra; Boyd, Charles; Carson, Rachel; Del Gallo, Elle; Giessler, Caris; Gilliam, Benjamin; Heatherly, Catherine; Nevin, Julius; Nguyen, Bryan; Nguyen, Justin; Parada, Jocelyn; Sutterfield, Blake; Tukruni, Muruj; Temple, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Smudge, a bacteriophage enriched from soil using Bacillus thuringiensis DSM-350 as the host, had its complete genome sequenced. Smudge is a myovirus with a genome consisting of 292 genes and was identified as belonging to the C1 cluster of Bacillus phages. PMID:27540049

  12. Genetic map of the Bacillus stearothermophilus NUB36 chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    Vallier, H.; Welker, N.E. )

    1990-02-01

    A circular genetic map of Bacillus stearothermophilus NUB36 was constructed by transduction with bacteriophage TP-42C and protoplast fusion. Sixty-four genes were tentatively assigned a cognate Bacillus subtilis gene based on growth response to intermediates or end products of metabolism, cross-feeding, accumulation of intermediates, or their relative order in a linkage group. Although the relative position of many genes on the Bacillus subtilis genetic map appears to be similar, some differences were detected. The tentative order of the genes in the Bacillus stearothermophilus aro region is aspB-aroBAFEC-tyra-hisH-(trp), whereas it is aspB-aroE-tyrA-hisH-(trp)-aroHBF in Bacillus subtilis. The aroA, aroC, and aroG genes in Bacillus subtilis are located in another region. The tentative order of genes in the trp operon of Bacillus stearothermophilus is trpFCDABE, whereas it is trpABFCDE in Bacillus subtilis.

  13. Genome Sequence of Bacillus anthracis Strain Tangail-1 from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Rume, Farzana Islam; Braun, Peter; Biswas, Paritosh Kumar; Yasmin, Mahmuda; Grass, Gregor; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Hanczaruk, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Soil was collected in July 2013 at a site where a cow infected with anthrax had been the month before. Selective culturing yielded Bacillus anthracis strain Tangail-1. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this Bacillus anthracis isolate that belongs to the canonical A.Br.001/002 clade. PMID:27469968

  14. Genome Sequence of Bacillus anthracis Strain Tangail-1 from Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rume, Farzana Islam; Antwerpen, Markus; Braun, Peter; Biswas, Paritosh Kumar; Yasmin, Mahmuda; Grass, Gregor; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Hanczaruk, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Soil was collected in July 2013 at a site where a cow infected with anthrax had been the month before. Selective culturing yielded Bacillus anthracis strain Tangail-1. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this Bacillus anthracis isolate that belongs to the canonical A.Br.001/002 clade. PMID:27469968

  15. Role of fatty acids in Bacillus environmental adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Diomandé, Sara E.; Nguyen-The, Christophe; Guinebretière, Marie-Hélène; Broussolle, Véronique; Brillard, Julien

    2015-01-01

    The large bacterial genus Bacillus is widely distributed in the environment and is able to colonize highly diverse niches. Some Bacillus species harbor pathogenic characteristics. The fatty acid (FA) composition is among the essential criteria used to define Bacillus species. Some elements of the FA pattern composition are common to Bacillus species, whereas others are specific and can be categorized in relation to the ecological niches of the species. Bacillus species are able to modify their FA patterns to adapt to a wide range of environmental changes, including changes in the growth medium, temperature, food processing conditions, and pH. Like many other Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus strains display a well-defined FA synthesis II system that is equilibrated with a FA degradation pathway and regulated to efficiently respond to the needs of the cell. Like endogenous FAs, exogenous FAs may positively or negatively affect the survival of Bacillus vegetative cells and the spore germination ability in a given environment. Some of these exogenous FAs may provide a powerful strategy for preserving food against contamination by the Bacillus pathogenic strains responsible for foodborne illness. PMID:26300876

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus tequilensis Strain FJAT-14262a

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qian-Qian; Liu, Guo-hong; Wang, Jie-ping; Che, Jian-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus tequilensis FJAT-14262a is a Gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium. Here, we report the 4,038,551-bp genome sequence of B. tequilensis FJAT-14262a, which will provide useful information for genomic taxonomy and phylogenomics of Bacillus. PMID:26564040

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis Bacteriophage Smudge

    PubMed Central

    Cornell, Jessica L.; Breslin, Eileen; Schuhmacher, Zachary; Himelright, Madison; Berluti, Cassandra; Boyd, Charles; Carson, Rachel; Del Gallo, Elle; Giessler, Caris; Gilliam, Benjamin; Heatherly, Catherine; Nevin, Julius; Nguyen, Bryan; Nguyen, Justin; Parada, Jocelyn; Sutterfield, Blake; Tukruni, Muruj

    2016-01-01

    Smudge, a bacteriophage enriched from soil using Bacillus thuringiensis DSM-350 as the host, had its complete genome sequenced. Smudge is a myovirus with a genome consisting of 292 genes and was identified as belonging to the C1 cluster of Bacillus phages. PMID:27540049

  18. Bacillus pervagus sp. nov. and Bacillus andreesenii sp. nov., isolated from a composting reactor.

    PubMed

    Kosowski, Kornelia; Schmidt, Marie; Pukall, Rüdiger; Hause, Gerd; Kämpfer, Peter; Lechner, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Two strains, 8-4-E12(T) and 8-4-E13(T), were isolated from a biowaste composting reactor. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, both strains belong to the genus Bacillus. Strain 8-4-E12(T) was most closely related to the type strains of Bacillus shackletonii, B. acidicola, B. sporothermodurans and B. oleronius (96.4, 96.3, 96.0 and 95.6 % 16S rRNA gene similarity, respectively), whereas strain 8-4-E13(T) was most closely related to the type strain of Bacillus humi (96.5 % sequence similarity). Strains 8-4-E12(T) and 8-4-E13(T) shared 94 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The fatty acid profile of strain 8-4-E12(T) was dominated by saturated iso- and anteiso-branched fatty acids (iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0), and also contained considerable amounts of C16 : 0. The fatty acid profile of strain 8-4-E13(T) showed a predominance of iso-C15 : 0 (65 %), with smaller amounts of other saturated branched-chain fatty acids along with an unsaturated alcohol. Both strains contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine as major polar lipids. Additionally, strain 8-4-E12(T) contained an unknown lipid and strain 8-4-E13(T) two unknown (amino-)phospholipids. The diagnostic diamino acid found in the cell-wall peptidoglycan of 8-4-E12(T) and 8-4-E13(T) was meso-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7. The results of physiological and biochemical tests also allowed phenotypic differentiation of the two strains from each other and from related Bacillus species. On the basis of their phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties, strains 8-4-E12(T) and 8-4-E13(T) represent novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the names Bacillus pervagus sp. nov. (type strain 8-4-E12(T) = DSM 23947(T) = LMG 27601(T)) and Bacillus andreesenii sp. nov. (type strain 8-4-E13(T) = DSM 23948(T) = LMG 27602(T)) are proposed. PMID:24021730

  19. Acquisition of Iron by Alkaliphilic Bacillus Species▿

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Duncan G. G.; Velasquez, Imelda; Nunn, Brook L.; Goodlett, David R.; Hunter, Keith A.; Lamont, Iain; Sander, Sylvia G.; Cook, Gregory M.

    2010-01-01

    The biochemical and molecular mechanisms used by alkaliphilic bacteria to acquire iron are unknown. We demonstrate that alkaliphilic (pH > 9) Bacillus species are sensitive to artificial iron (Fe3+) chelators and produce iron-chelating molecules. These alkaliphilic siderophores contain catechol and hydroxamate moieties, and their synthesis is stimulated by manganese(II) salts and suppressed by FeCl3 addition. Purification and mass spectrometric characterization of the siderophore produced by Caldalkalibacillus thermarum failed to identify any matches to previously observed fragmentation spectra of known siderophores, suggesting a novel structure. PMID:20802068

  20. A Love Affair with Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Losick, Richard

    2015-01-01

    My career in science was launched when I was an undergraduate at Princeton University and reinforced by graduate training at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. However, it was only after I moved to Harvard University as a junior fellow that my affections were captured by a seemingly mundane soil bacterium. What Bacillus subtilis offered was endless fascinating biological problems (alternative sigma factors, sporulation, swarming, biofilm formation, stochastic cell fate switching) embedded in a uniquely powerful genetic system. Along the way, my career in science became inseparably interwoven with teaching and mentoring, which proved to be as rewarding as the thrill of discovery. PMID:25533458

  1. Features of Bacillus cereus swarm cells.

    PubMed

    Senesi, Sonia; Salvetti, Sara; Celandroni, Francesco; Ghelardi, Emilia

    2010-11-01

    When propagated on solid surfaces, Bacillus cereus can produce differentiated swarm cells under a wide range of growth conditions. This behavioural versatility is ecologically relevant, since it allows this bacterium to adapt swarming to environmental changes. Swarming by B. cereus is medically important: swarm cells are more virulent and particularly prone to invade host tissues. Characterisation of swarming-deficient mutants highlights that flagellar genes as well as genes governing different metabolic pathways are involved in swarm-cell differentiation. In this review, the environmental and genetic requirements for swarming and the role played by swarm cells in the virulence this pathogen exerts will be outlined. PMID:21035546

  2. Bacillus cereus responses to acid stress.

    PubMed

    Mols, Maarten; Abee, Tjakko

    2011-11-01

    Coping with acid environments is one of the prerequisites for the soil saprophytic and human pathogenic lifestyle of Bacillus cereus. This minireview highlights novel insights in the responses displayed by vegetative cells and germinating spores of B. cereus upon exposure to low pH as well as organic acids, including acetic acid, lactic acid and sorbic acid. Insights regarding the possible acid-inflicted damage, physiological responses and protective mechanisms have been compiled based on single cell fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and transcriptome analyses. PMID:21554514

  3. Draft Genome Sequences of Supercritical CO2-Tolerant Bacteria Bacillus subterraneus MITOT1 and Bacillus cereus MIT0214

    PubMed Central

    Peet, Kyle C.

    2015-01-01

    We report draft genome sequences of Bacillus subterraneus MITOT1 and Bacillus cereus MIT0214 isolated through enrichment of samples from geologic sequestration sites in pressurized bioreactors containing a supercritical (sc) CO2 headspace. Their genome sequences expand the phylogenetic range of sequenced bacilli and allow characterization of molecular mechanisms of scCO2 tolerance. PMID:25858826

  4. Rapid targeted gene disruption in Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anthrax is a zoonotic disease recognized to affect herbivores since Biblical times and has the widest range of susceptible host species of any known pathogen. The ease with which the bacterium can be weaponized and its recent deliberate use as an agent of terror, have highlighted the importance of gaining a deeper understanding and effective countermeasures for this important pathogen. High quality sequence data has opened the possibility of systematic dissection of how genes distributed on both the bacterial chromosome and associated plasmids have made it such a successful pathogen. However, low transformation efficiency and relatively few genetic tools for chromosomal manipulation have hampered full interrogation of its genome. Results Group II introns have been developed into an efficient tool for site-specific gene inactivation in several organisms. We have adapted group II intron targeting technology for application in Bacillus anthracis and generated vectors that permit gene inactivation through group II intron insertion. The vectors developed permit screening for the desired insertion through PCR or direct selection of intron insertions using a selection scheme that activates a kanamycin resistance marker upon successful intron insertion. Conclusions The design and vector construction described here provides a useful tool for high throughput experimental interrogation of the Bacillus anthracis genome and will benefit efforts to develop improved vaccines and therapeutics. PMID:24047152

  5. Fast Neutron Radiation Effects on Bacillus Subtili

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Ren, Zhenglong; Zhang, Jianguo; Zheng, Chun; Tan, Bisheng; Yang, Chengde; Chu, Shijin

    2009-06-01

    To examine the sterilizing effect and mechanism of neutron radiation, Bacillus subtilis var. niger. strain (ATCC 9372) spores were irradiated with the fast neutron from the Chinese fast burst reactor II(CFBR-II). The plate-count results indicated that the D10 value was 384.6 Gy with a neutron radiation dose rate of 7.4 Gy/min. The rudimental catalase activity of the spores declined obviously with the increase in the radiation dose. Meanwhile, under the scanning electron microscope, no visible influence of the neutron radiation on the spore configuration was detected even if the dose was increased to 4 kGy. The content and distribution of DNA double-strand breaks induced by neutron radiation at different doses were measured and quantified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Further analysis of the DNA release percentage (PR), the DNA breakage level (L), and the average molecular weight, indicated that DNA fragments were obviously distributed around the 5 kb regions at different radiation doses, which suggests that some points in the DNA molecule were sensitive to neutron radiation. Both PR and L varied regularly to some extent with the increase in radiation dose. Thus neutron radiation has a high sterilization power, and can induce falling enzyme activity and DNA breakage in Bacillus subtilis spores

  6. The Phylogeny of Bacillus cereus sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Okinaka, Richard T; Keim, Paul

    2016-02-01

    The three main species of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. anthracis, were recognized and established by the early 1900 s because they each exhibited distinct phenotypic traits. B. thuringiensis isolates and their parasporal crystal proteins have long been established as a natural pesticide and insect pathogen. B. anthracis, the etiological agent for anthrax, was used by Robert Koch in the 19th century as a model to develop the germ theory of disease, and B. cereus, a common soil organism, is also an occasional opportunistic pathogen of humans. In addition to these three historical species designations, are three less-recognized and -understood species: B. mycoides, B. weihenstephanensis, and B. pseudomycoides. All of these "species" combined comprise the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group. Despite these apparently clear phenotypic definitions, early molecular approaches to separate the first three by various DNA hybridization and 16S/23S ribosomal sequence analyses led to some "confusion" because there were limited differences to differentiate between these species. These and other results have led to frequent suggestions that a taxonomic change was warranted to reclassify this group to a single species. But the pathogenic properties of B. anthracis and the biopesticide applications of B. thuringiensis appear to "have outweighed pure taxonomic considerations" and the separate species categories are still being maintained. B. cereus sensu lato represents a classic example of a now common bacterial species taxonomic quandary. PMID:26999390

  7. Disinfection of Bacillus spores with acidified nitrite.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Jeffrey G; Adcock, Noreen J; Rice, Eugene W

    2014-10-01

    Disinfecting water generated from a bioterrorism contamination event will require large amounts of disinfectant since the volume of water flushed from a drinking water distribution system or wash water collected from a contaminated outdoor area can accumulate quickly. Commonly used disinfectants may be unavailable in the necessary amounts, so evaluation of alternative disinfectants is needed. This study focuses on disinfection of Bacillus spores in water using acidified nitrite. The effect of varying pH (2 or 3), temperature (5°C or 24°C), nitrite concentration (0.01 or 0.1M), buffer (Butterfields or Phosphate Buffered Saline, PBS) and Bacillus species (B. globigii and B. anthracis Sterne) was evaluated. B. globigii was more resistant to disinfection under all water quality conditions. Disinfection was more effective for B. globigii and B. anthracis Sterne at 0.1M nitrite, pH 2, and 24°C. Disinfection of B. anthracis Sterne was enhanced in low ionic strength Butterfields buffer compared to PBS. PMID:25065806

  8. Analysis of Bacillus globigii spores by CE.

    PubMed

    Chichester, Kimberly D; Silcott, David B; Colyer, Christa L

    2008-02-01

    It is imperative in today's world that harmful airborne or solution-based microbes can be detected quickly and efficiently. Bacillus globigii (Bg) spores are used as a simulant for Bacillus anthracis (Ba) due to their similar shape, size, and cellular makeup. The utility of CE to separate and detect low levels of Bg spore concentrations will be evaluated. To differentiate spores from background particulates, several dyes, including fluorescamine, C-10, NN-127, Red-1c, and indocyanine green (ICG), were utilized as noncovalent labels for proteins on the Bg spore surface, as well as for HSA and homoserine standards. On-column labeling, with dye present in the running buffer, was utilized to obtain greater sensitivity and better separation. CE with LIF detection enables interactions between the dye and spore surface proteins to be observed, with enhanced fluorescence occurring upon binding of the dye to surface protein. Resulting electropherograms showed unique fingerprints for each dye with Bg spores. Migration times were under 10 min for all dye-spore complexes, with net mobilities ranging from 3.5x10(-4) to 6.9x10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), and calibration curves yielded correlation coefficients of 0.98 or better for four of the dyes studied. PMID:18203249

  9. Bacillus and relatives in foodborne illness.

    PubMed

    Logan, N A

    2012-03-01

    Species of Bacillus and related genera have long been troublesome to food producers on account of their resistant endospores. These organisms have undergone huge taxonomic changes in the last 30 years, with numbers of genera and species now standing at 56 and over 545, respectively. Despite this expansion, relatively few new species have been isolated from infections, few are associated with food and no important new agents of foodborne illness have been reported. What has changed is our knowledge of the established agents. Bacillus cereus is well known as a cause of food poisoning, and much more is now understood about its toxins and their involvement in infections and intoxications. Also, although B. licheniformis, B. subtilis and B. pumilus have occasionally been isolated from cases of food-associated illness, their roles were usually uncertain. Much more is now known about the toxins that strains of these species may produce, so that their significances in such episodes are clearer; however, it is still unclear why such cases are so rarely reported. Another important development is the use of aerobic endosporeformers as probiotics, as the potentials of such organisms to cause illness or to be sources of antibiotic resistance need to be borne in mind. PMID:22121830

  10. Identification of strains Bacillus aerophilus MTCC 7304T as Bacillus altitudinis and Bacillus stratosphericus MTCC 7305T as a Proteus sp. and the status of the species Bacillus aeriusShivaji et al. 2006. Request for an Opinion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Ramesh Kumar, N; Lai, Qiliang; Du, Juan; Dobritsa, Anatoly P; Samadpour, Mansour; Shao, Zongze

    2015-09-01

    On the basis of 16S rRNA, rpoB, gyrB and pycA gene sequence analyses, characterization of biochemical features and other phenotypic traits and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) fingerprinting, it was ascertained that strains Bacillus aerius MTCC 7303T, Bacillus aerophilus MTCC 7304(T) and Bacillus stratosphericus MTCC 7305(T) do not conform to the descriptions of the type strains of the respective species. Strains MTCC 7303(T) and MTCC 7304(T) were indistinguishable from Bacillus altitudinis DSM 21631(T), while strain MTCC 7305(T) should be classified as a representative of a Proteus sp. Our attempts to find other deposits of the type strains of these species were unsuccessful. Therefore, the results support the Request for an Opinion on the status of the species Bacillus aerophilus and Bacillus stratosphericus by Branquinho et al. [Branquinho, R., Klein, G., Kämpfer, P. & Peixe, L. V. (2015). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 65, 1101]. It is also proposed that the Judicial Commission should place the name Bacillus aerius on the list of rejected names if a suitable replacement type strain cannot be found or a neotype is not proposed within two years following the publication of this Request (Rule 18c). PMID:26297145

  11. Bacillus lehensis sp. nov., an alkalitolerant bacterium isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, A; Bhardwaj, M; Satyanarayana, T; Khurana, M; Mayilraj, S; Jain, R K

    2007-02-01

    A Gram-positive, endospore-forming, alkalitolerant bacterial strain, designated MLB2T, was isolated from soil from Leh, India, and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. The strain exhibited phenotypic properties that included chemotaxonomic characteristics consistent with its classification in the genus Bacillus. Growth was observed at pH 7.0-11.0, but not at pH 6.0. The DNA G+C content was 41.4 mol%. The highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was with Bacillus oshimensis JCM 12663T (98.8 %). However, DNA-DNA hybridization experiments indicated low levels of genomic relatedness with the type strains of B. oshimensis (62 %), Bacillus patagoniensis (55 %), Bacillus clausii (51 %) and Bacillus gibsonii (34 %), the species with which strain MLB2T formed a coherent cluster (based on the results of the phylogenetic analysis). On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and genotypic distinctiveness of strain MLB2T, it should be classified within a novel species of Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus lehensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MLB2T (=MTCC 7633T=JCM 13820T). PMID:17267957

  12. ssp genes and spore osmotolerance in Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus.

    PubMed

    Cucchi, A; Sanchez de Rivas, C

    1995-10-01

    It was shown previously that spores and vegetative cells of Bacillus sphaericus (Bf) and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) are very sensitive to osmotic variations. Since spore osmotolerance has been associated with their SASP (small acid soluble spore proteins) content coded by ssp genes, hybridization assays were performed with sspE and sspA genes from B. subtilis as probes and showed that Bti and Bf strains could lack an sspE-like gene. The B. subtilis sspE gene was then introduced into Bti 4Q2 strain; spores were obtained and showed a 65 to 650 times higher level of osmotolerance to NaCl, without affecting other important properties: hypoosmotic resistance in vegetative cells, spore UV resistance, and larvicidal activity against diptera larvae. PMID:7549769

  13. An Optical Biosensor for Bacillus Cereus Spore Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengquan; Tom, Harry W. K.

    2005-03-01

    We demonstrate a new transduction scheme for optical biosensing. Bacillus cereus is a pathogen that may be found in food and dairy products and is able to produce toxins and cause food poisoning. It is related to Bacillus anthracis (anthrax). A CCD array covered with micro-structured glass coverslip is used to detect the optical resonant shift due to the binding of the antigen (bacillus cereus spore) to the antibody (polyclonal antibody). This novel optical biosensor scheme has the potential for detecting 10˜100 bioagents in a single device as well as the potential to test for antigens with multiple antibody tests to avoid ``false positives.''

  14. Peptidoglycan N-acetylglucosamine deacetylases from Bacillus cereus, highly conserved proteins in Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Psylinakis, Emmanuel; Boneca, Ivo G; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Deli, Alexandra; Hayhurst, Emma; Foster, Simon J; Vårum, Kjell M; Bouriotis, Vassilis

    2005-09-01

    The genomes of Bacillus cereus and its closest relative Bacillus anthracis contain 10 polysaccharide deacetylase homologues. Six of these homologues have been proposed to be peptidoglycan N-acetylglucosamine deacetylases. Two of these genes, namely bc1960 and bc3618, have been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant enzymes have been purified to homogeneity and further characterized. Both enzymes were effective in deacetylating cell wall peptidoglycan from the Gram(+) Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis and the Gram(-) Helicobacter pylori as well as soluble chitin substrates and N-acetylchitooligomers. However, the enzymes were not active on acetylated xylan. These results provide insight into the substrate specificity of carbohydrate esterase family 4 enzymes. It was revealed that both enzymes deacetylated only the GlcNAc residue of the synthetic muropeptide N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-(beta-1,4)-N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine-D-isoglutamine. Analysis of the constituent muropeptides of peptidoglycan from B. subtilis and H. pylori resulting from incubation of the enzymes BC1960 and BC3618 with these polymers and subsequent hydrolysis by Cellosyl and mutanolysin, respectively, similarly revealed that both enzymes deacetylate GlcNAc residues of peptidoglycan. Kinetic analysis toward GlcNAc(2-6) revealed that GlcNAc4 was the favorable substrate for both enzymes. Identification of the sequence of N-acetychitooligosaccharides (GlcNAc(2-4)) following enzymatic deacetylation by using 1H NMR revealed that both enzymes deacetylate all GlcNAc residues of the oligomers except the reducing end ones. Enzymatic deacetylation of chemically acetylated vegetative peptidoglycan from B. cereus by BC1960 and BC3618 resulted in increased resistance to lysozyme digestion. This is the first biochemical study of bacterial peptidoglycan N-acetylglucosamine deacetylases. PMID:15961396

  15. Genetic differentiation between sympatric populations of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Vilas-Boas, Gislayne; Sanchis, Vincent; Lereclus, Didier; Lemos, Manoel Victor F; Bourguet, Denis

    2002-03-01

    Little is known about genetic exchanges in natural populations of bacteria of the spore-forming Bacillus cereus group, because no population genetics studies have been performed with local sympatric populations. We isolated strains of Bacillus thuringiensis and B. cereus from small samples of soil collected at the same time from two separate geographical sites, one within the forest and the other at the edge of the forest. A total of 100 B. cereus and 98 B. thuringiensis strains were isolated and characterized by electrophoresis to determine allelic composition at nine enzymatic loci. We observed genetic differentiation between populations of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. Populations of a given Bacillus species--B. thuringiensis or B. cereus--were genetically more similar to each other than to populations of the other Bacillus species. Hemolytic activity provided further evidence of this genetic divergence, which remained evident even if putative clones were removed from the data set. Our results suggest that the rate of gene flow was higher between strains of the same species, but that exchanges between B. cereus and B. thuringiensis were nonetheless possible. Linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed sufficient recombination for B. cereus populations to be considered panmictic units. In B. thuringiensis, the balance between clonal proliferation and recombination seemed to depend on location. Overall, our data indicate that it is not important for risk assessment purposes to determine whether B. cereus and B. thuringiensis belong to a single or two species. Assessment of the biosafety of pest control based on B. thuringiensis requires evaluation of the extent of genetic exchange between strains in realistic natural conditions. PMID:11872495

  16. Genetic Differentiation between Sympatric Populations of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    Vilas-Boas, Gislayne; Sanchis, Vincent; Lereclus, Didier; Lemos, Manoel Victor F.; Bourguet, Denis

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about genetic exchanges in natural populations of bacteria of the spore-forming Bacillus cereus group, because no population genetics studies have been performed with local sympatric populations. We isolated strains of Bacillus thuringiensis and B. cereus from small samples of soil collected at the same time from two separate geographical sites, one within the forest and the other at the edge of the forest. A total of 100 B. cereus and 98 B. thuringiensis strains were isolated and characterized by electrophoresis to determine allelic composition at nine enzymatic loci. We observed genetic differentiation between populations of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. Populations of a given Bacillus species—B. thuringiensis or B. cereus—were genetically more similar to each other than to populations of the other Bacillus species. Hemolytic activity provided further evidence of this genetic divergence, which remained evident even if putative clones were removed from the data set. Our results suggest that the rate of gene flow was higher between strains of the same species, but that exchanges between B. cereus and B. thuringiensis were nonetheless possible. Linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed sufficient recombination for B. cereus populations to be considered panmictic units. In B. thuringiensis, the balance between clonal proliferation and recombination seemed to depend on location. Overall, our data indicate that it is not important for risk assessment purposes to determine whether B. cereus and B. thuringiensis belong to a single or two species. Assessment of the biosafety of pest control based on B. thuringiensis requires evaluation of the extent of genetic exchange between strains in realistic natural conditions. PMID:11872495

  17. Bacillus thuringiensis as a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis in aerosol research.

    PubMed

    Tufts, Jenia A M; Calfee, M Worth; Lee, Sang Don; Ryan, Shawn P

    2014-05-01

    Characterization of candidate surrogate spores prior to experimental use is critical to confirm that the surrogate characteristics are as closely similar as possible to those of the pathogenic agent of interest. This review compares the physical properties inherent to spores of Bacillus anthracis (Ba) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that impact their movement in air and interaction with surfaces, including size, shape, density, surface morphology, structure and hydrophobicity. Also evaluated is the impact of irradiation on the physical properties of both Bacillus species. Many physical features of Bt and Ba have been found to be similar and, while Bt is considered typically non-pathogenic, it is in the B. cereus group, as is Ba. When cultured and sporulated under similar conditions, both microorganisms share a similar cylindrical pellet shape, an aerodynamic diameter of approximately 1 μm (in the respirable size range), have an exosporium with a hairy nap, and have higher relative hydrophobicities than other Bacillus species. While spore size, morphology, and other physical properties can vary among strains of the same species, the variations can be due to growth/sporulation conditions and may, therefore, be controlled. Growth and sporulation conditions are likely among the most important factors that influence the representativeness of one species, or preparation, to another. All Bt spores may, therefore, not be representative of all Ba spores. Irradiated spores do not appear to be a good surrogate to predict the behavior of non-irradiated spores due to structural damage caused by the irradiation. While the use of Bt as a surrogate for Ba in aerosol testing appears to be well supported, this review does not attempt to narrow selection between Bt strains. Comparative studies should be performed to test the hypothesis that viable Ba and Bt spores will behave similarly when suspended in the air (as an aerosol) and to compare the known microscale characteristics

  18. Construction of novel shuttle expression vectors for gene expression in Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus.

    PubMed

    Shao, Huanhuan; Cao, Qinghua; Zhao, Hongyan; Tan, Xuemei; Feng, Hong

    2015-01-01

    A native plasmid (pSU01) was detected by genome sequencing of Bacillus subtilis strain S1-4. Two pSU01-based shuttle expression vectors pSU02-AP and pSU03-AP were constructed enabling stable replication in B. subtilis WB600. These vectors contained the reporter gene aprE, encoding an alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus BA06. The expression vector pSU03-AP only possessed the minimal replication elements (rep, SSO, DSO) and exhibited more stability on structure, suggesting that the rest of the genes in pSU01 (ORF1, ORF2, mob, hsp) were unessential for the structural stability of plasmid in B. subtilis. In addition, recombinant production of the alkaline protease was achieved more efficiently with pSU03-AP whose copy number was estimated to be more than 100 per chromosome. Furthermore, pSU03-AP could also be used to transform and replicate in B. pumilus BA06 under selective pressure. In conclusion, pSU03-AP is expected to be a useful tool for gene expression in Bacillus subtilis and B. pumilus. PMID:26377132

  19. Localization of new peptidoglycan at poles in Bacillus mycoides, a member of the Bacillus cereus group.

    PubMed

    Turchi, Luana; Santini, Tiziana; Beccari, Elena; Di Franco, Carmen

    2012-10-01

    Bacillus mycoides is a sporogenic Gram-positive soil bacillus of the B. cereus group. This bacillus, which forms hyphal colonies, is composed of cells connected in filaments that make up bundles and turn clock- or counterclockwise depending on the strain. A thick peptidoglycan wall gives the rod cells of these bacilli strength and shape. One approach used to study peptidoglycan neoformation in Gram positives exploits the binding properties of antibiotics such as vancomycin and ramoplanin to nascent peptidoglycan, whose localization in the cell is monitored by means of a fluorescent tag. When we treated B. mycoides strains with BODIPY-vancomycin, we found the expected accumulation of fluorescence at the midcell septa and localization along the cell sidewall in small foci distributed quite uniformly. Intense fluorescence was also observed at the poles of many cells, more clearly visible at the outer edges of the cell chains. The unusual abundance of peptidoglycan intermediates at the cell poles after cell separation suggests that the construction process of this structure is different from that of B. subtilis, in which the free poles are rarely reactive to vancomycin. PMID:22773111

  20. Microbiological efficacy of superheated steam. I. Communication: results with spores of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus stearothermophilus and with spore earth.

    PubMed

    Spicher, G; Peters, J; Borchers, U

    1999-02-01

    For the spores of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus stearothermophilus as well as for spore earth (acc. DIN 58,946 Part 4 of August 1982), the dependence of resistance on the superheating of the steam used to kill germs was determined. A material (glass fibre fleece) was used as the germ carrier which does not superheat on contact with steam. The temperature of the saturated steam was 100 degrees C (B. subtilis) and 120 degrees C (B. stearothermophilus and spore earth). The yardstick for the resistance of the spores or bioindicators was the exposure period of the saturated or superheated steam at which 50% of the treated test objects no longer showed any viable test germs. The spores of Bacillus subtilis were far more sensitive to superheating of steam and reacted far more than the spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus and the germs in the spore earth. When superheating by 4 Kelvin the spores of Bacillus subtilis were approximately 2.5 times more resistant than they were to saturated steam. The resistance of Bacillus stearothermophilus and spore earth was only slightly higher up to superheating by 10 Kelvin. The spores of Bacillus subtilis had the highest resistance during superheating by 29 Kelvin; they were 119 times more resistant than they were to saturated steam. The resistance maximum of the spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus was at an superheating by around 22 Kelvin. However, the spores were only 4.1 times more resistant than they were to saturated steam. When using steam to kill germs, we must expect superheated steam. This raises the question whether the spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus, with their weaker reaction to the superheating of steam, are suitable as test germs for sterilisation with steam in all cases. PMID:10084207

  1. Bacillus circulans exopolysaccharide: Production, characterization and bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Vidhyalakshmi, R; Valli, Nachiyar C; Narendra Kumar, G; Sunkar, Swetha

    2016-06-01

    A bacterium with the ability to produce appreciable amount of exopolysaccharide was isolated from slimy layer of coconut. 16S rDNA analysis identified the organism as Bacillus circulans. EPS production was observed at all stages of culture growth and reached maximum of 0.065mg/ml by 96h, which on further incubation started to decrease. Response Surface Methodology using Box Behnken design has shown the influence of sucrose which was found to be directly proportional to exopolysaccharide production with production reaching 1.09mg/ml. HPLC analysis identified the presence of glucose, mannose, fructose and verbascose and NMR analysis confirmed the presence of glucose, mannose and galactose. Even though the extracted B. circulans EPS did not show appreciable anti-bacterial or anti-fungal activity, it exhibited appreciable antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activity. PMID:26902891

  2. Bacillus anthracis Bioterrorism Incident, Kameido, Tokyo, 1993

    PubMed Central

    Keim, Paul; Kaufmann, Arnold F.; Keys, Christine; Smith, Kimothy L.; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Inouye, Sakae; Kurata, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    In July 1993, a liquid suspension of Bacillus anthracis was aerosolized from the roof of an eight-story building in Kameido, Tokyo, Japan, by the religious group Aum Shinrikyo. During 1999 to 2001, microbiologic tests were conducted on a liquid environmental sample originally collected during the 1993 incident. Nonencapsulated isolates of B. anthracis were cultured from the liquid. Multiple-locus, variable-number tandem repeat analysis found all isolates to be identical to a strain used in Japan to vaccinate animals against anthrax, which was consistent with the Aum Shinrikyo members’ testimony about the strain source. In 1999, a retrospective case-detection survey was conducted to identify potential human anthrax cases associated with the incident, but none were found. The use of an attenuated B. anthracis strain, low spore concentrations, ineffective dispersal, a clogged spray device, and inactivation of the spores by sunlight are all likely contributing factors to the lack of human cases. PMID:15112666

  3. Enumeration of Bacillus cereus in Foods

    PubMed Central

    Mossel, D. A. A.; Koopman, M. J.; Jongerius, E.

    1967-01-01

    For the enumeration of vegetative cells and spores of Bacillus cereus in foods, a mannitol-egg yolk-phenol red-agar has been developed which exploits the failure of B. cereus to dissimilate mannitol, and the ability of most strains to produce phospholipase C. When a high degree of selectivity was required, polymyxin B sulfate in a concentration of 10 ppm appeared to be the most effective selective additive. Useful characteristics for the identification of presumptive isolates of B. cereus were found to be: morphology, dissimilation of glucose mostly to acetyl methyl carbinol under anaerobic conditions, hydrolysis of starch and gelatin, reduction of nitrate, and growth on 0.25% chloral hydrate agar. PMID:4291956

  4. Contamination of hospital linen by Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed Central

    Barrie, D.; Hoffman, P. N.; Wilson, J. A.; Kramer, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    An investigation into two cases of post-operative Bacillus cereus meningitis revealed that hospital linen laundered by a batch continuous washing machine was heavily contaminated by B. cereus spores. The washing machine, detergents, other chemical additives and the water supply were eliminated as the source of contamination. It was found that the linen introduced into the washing machine had a high B. cereus spore content and that this was still present after the wash process. The spores were not killed by either the heat disinfection stage of the wash or the addition of chemical disinfectants and were not removed by the dilution in the process. The multiplication of B. cereus was thought to have occurred on used, damp linen stored in plastic bags, particularly when ambient temperatures were high. An increase in the water flow through the washing machine was the only measure associated with a decrease in B. cereus on laundered linen. PMID:7925667

  5. Sludge based Bacillus thuringiensis biopesticides: viscosity impacts.

    PubMed

    Brar, S K; Verma, M; Tyagi, R D; Valéro, J R; Surampalli, R Y

    2005-08-01

    Viscosity studies were performed on raw, pre-treated (sterilised and thermal alkaline hydrolysed or both types of treatment) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) fermented sludges at different solids concentration (10-40 g/L) for production of biopesticides. Correlations were established among rheological parameter (viscosity), solids (total and dissolved) concentration and entomotoxicity (Tx) of Bt fermented sludges. Exponential and power laws were preferentially followed by hydrolysed fermented compared to raw fermented sludge. Soluble chemical oxygen demand variation corroborated with increase in dissolved solids concentration on pre-treatments, contributing to changes in viscosity. Moreover, Tx was higher for hydrolysed fermented sludge in comparison to raw fermented sludge owing to increased availability of nutrients and lower viscosity that improved oxygen transfer. The shake flask results were reproducible in fermenter. This study will have major impact on selecting fermentation, harvesting and formulation techniques of Bt fermented sludges for biopesticide production. PMID:15979118

  6. Extracellular signaling and multicellularity in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Shank, Elizabeth Anne; Kolter, Roberto

    2011-12-01

    Bacillus subtilis regulates its ability to differentiate into distinct, co-existing cell types in response to extracellular signaling molecules produced either by itself, or present in its environment. The production of molecules by B. subtilis cells, as well as their response to these signals, is not uniform across the population. There is specificity and heterogeneity both within genetically identical populations as well as at the strain-level and species-level. This review will discuss how extracellular signaling compounds influence B. subtilis multicellularity with regard to matrix-producing cannibal differentiation, germination, and swarming behavior, as well as the specificity of the quorum-sensing peptides ComX and CSF. It will also highlight how imaging mass spectrometry can aid in identifying signaling compounds and contribute to our understanding of the functional relationship between such compounds and multicellular behavior. PMID:22024380

  7. Extracellular signaling and multicellularity in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Anne Shank, Elizabeth; Kolter, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Summary Bacillus subtilis regulates its ability to differentiate into distinct, co-existing cell types in response to extracellular signaling molecules produced either by itself, or present in its environment. The production of molecules by B. subtilis cells, as well as their response to these signals, is not uniform across the population. There is specificity and heterogeneity both within genetically identical populations as well as at the strain- and species-levels. This review will discuss how extracellular signaling compounds influence B. subtilis multicellularity with regard to matrix-producing cannibal differentiation, germination, and swarming behavior, as well as the specificity of the quorum-sensing peptides ComX and CSF. It will also highlight how imaging mass spectrometry can aid in identifying signaling compounds and contribute to our understanding of the functional relationship between such compounds and multicellular behavior. PMID:22024380

  8. Biodegradation of Xanthan Gum by Bacillus sp

    PubMed Central

    Cadmus, Martin C.; Jackson, Linda K.; Burton, Kermit A.; Plattner, Ronald D.; Slodki, Morey E.

    1982-01-01

    Strains tentatively identified as Bacillus sp. were isolated from sewage sludge and soil and shown to elaborate extracellular enzymes that degrade the extracellular polysaccharide (xanthan gum, polysaccharide B-1459) of Xanthomonas campestris NRRL B-1459. Enzyme production by one strain was greatly enhanced when the strain was incubated in a mixed culture. Products of degradation were identified as d-glucuronic acid, d-mannose, pyruvylated mannose, 6-O-acetyl d-mannose, and a (1→4)-linked glucan. These products correlate with the known structure of the gum. The complexity of the product mixture indicated that the xanthanase was a mixture of carbohydrases. The xanthanase complexes were similar to one another in temperature stability, pH and temperature optima, degree of substrate degradation, and enzymolysis products. Differences in pH stability, salt tolerance, recoverability, and yields of enzyme were observed. PMID:16346068

  9. Bacillus phytases: Current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Borgi, Mohamed Ali; Boudebbouze, Samira; Mkaouar, Héla; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Rhimi, Moez

    2015-01-01

    Phytases catalyze the hydrolysis of phytic acid in a stepwise manner to lower inositol phosphates, myo-inositol (having important role in metabolism and signal transduction pathways), and inorganic phosphate. These enzymes have been widely used in animal feed in order to improve phosphorus nutrition and to decrease pollution in animal waste. Compared to previously described phytases, the phytase (PhyL) from Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580 has attractive biochemical properties which can increase the profitability of several biotechnological procedures (animal nutrition, humain health…etc). Due to its amino acid sequence with critical substitutions, the PhyL could be a model to enhance other phytases features, in terms of thermal stability and high activity. Otherwise, an engineered PhyL, with low pH optimum, will represent a challenge within the class of β- propeller phytases. PMID:25946551

  10. Bacillus phytases: Current status and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Borgi, Mohamed Ali; Boudebbouze, Samira; Mkaouar, Héla; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Rhimi, Moez

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Phytases catalyze the hydrolysis of phytic acid in a stepwise manner to lower inositol phosphates, myo-inositol (having important role in metabolism and signal transduction pathways), and inorganic phosphate. These enzymes have been widely used in animal feed in order to improve phosphorus nutrition and to decrease pollution in animal waste. Compared to previously described phytases, the phytase (PhyL) from Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580 has attractive biochemical properties which can increase the profitability of several biotechnological procedures (animal nutrition, humain health…etc). Due to its amino acid sequence with critical substitutions, the PhyL could be a model to enhance other phytases features, in terms of thermal stability and high activity. Otherwise, an engineered PhyL, with low pH optimum, will represent a challenge within the class of β- propeller phytases. PMID:25946551

  11. Bacillus subtilis as potential producer for polyhydroxyalkanoates

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mamtesh; Patel, Sanjay KS; Kalia, Vipin C

    2009-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable polymers produced by microbes to overcome environmental stress. Commercial production of PHAs is limited by the high cost of production compared to conventional plastics. Another hindrance is the brittle nature and low strength of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), the most widely studied PHA. The needs are to produce PHAs, which have better elastomeric properties suitable for biomedical applications, preferably from inexpensive renewable sources to reduce cost. Certain unique properties of Bacillus subtilis such as lack of the toxic lipo-polysaccharides, expression of self-lysing genes on completion of PHA biosynthetic process – for easy and timely recovery, usage of biowastes as feed enable it to compete as potential candidate for commercial production of PHA. PMID:19619289

  12. EPS forces in Bacillus subtilis biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenbo; Angelini, Thomas; Tsai, Shih-Ming; Nixon, Ryan

    2014-03-01

    Bacteria have evolved to congregate in complex communities known as biofilms. The structure that holds a biofilm together is a matrix called extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). It has been observed in previous studies that EPS up-regulation occurs when the nutrient levels fall below a threshold concentration; this increase in EPS concentration produces an osmotic pressure that forces the colony to spread outward. This osmotic pressure may drive nutrient uptake, but the stresses generated by the EPS matrix has never been measured. Here we present measurements of the forces exerted by a biofilm on its supporting substrate and on its fluid nutrients. In our experiments, we use a technique analogous to traction force microscopy to measure strain in agar nutrient substrates imposed by Bacillus subtilis biofilms. By running additional test to measure the permeability and elastic modulus of the agar, we can estimate the pressure generated by the biofilm.

  13. Studies on the physiology of Bacillus fastidiosus.

    PubMed

    Kaltwasser, H

    1971-09-01

    Bacillus fastidiosus was grown in a minimal medium that contained uric acid or allantoin, aerated by vigorous stirring. A constant, optimum pH of 7.4 was maintained by controlled addition of sulfuric acid. Washed cells converted both urate and allantoin into carbon dioxide and ammonia, simultaneously assimilating part of the available carbon and nitrogen. Urate oxidase (formerly called uricase) was present in extracts from urate-grown but not allantoin-grown cells. The formation of urate oxidase was apparently induced by urate. Urea was detected as an intermediate in some but not all of these experiments. However, the high urease activity observed in cell-free extracts may have prevented accumulation of urea in many of the experiments. The presence of glyoxylate carboligase and tartronic semialdehyde reductase activities indicates that the glycerate pathway may be involved in urate and allantoin catabolism in this organism. PMID:5095289

  14. Bacillus thuringiensis and Its Pesticidal Crystal Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Schnepf, E.; Crickmore, N.; Van Rie, J.; Lereclus, D.; Baum, J.; Feitelson, J.; Zeigler, D. R.; Dean, D. H.

    1998-01-01

    During the past decade the pesticidal bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis has been the subject of intensive research. These efforts have yielded considerable data about the complex relationships between the structure, mechanism of action, and genetics of the organism’s pesticidal crystal proteins, and a coherent picture of these relationships is beginning to emerge. Other studies have focused on the ecological role of the B. thuringiensis crystal proteins, their performance in agricultural and other natural settings, and the evolution of resistance mechanisms in target pests. Armed with this knowledge base and with the tools of modern biotechnology, researchers are now reporting promising results in engineering more-useful toxins and formulations, in creating transgenic plants that express pesticidal activity, and in constructing integrated management strategies to insure that these products are utilized with maximum efficiency and benefit. PMID:9729609

  15. Primary and secondary oxidative stress in Bacillus.

    PubMed

    Mols, Maarten; Abee, Tjakko

    2011-06-01

    Coping with oxidative stress originating from oxidizing compounds or reactive oxygen species (ROS), associated with the exposure to agents that cause environmental stresses, is one of the prerequisites for an aerobic lifestyle of Bacillus spp. such as B. subtilis, B. cereus and B. anthracis. This minireview highlights novel insights in the primary oxidative stress response caused by oxidizing compounds including hydrogen peroxide and the secondary oxidative stress responses apparent upon exposure to a range of agents and conditions leading to environmental stresses such as antibiotics, heat and acid. Insights in the pathways and damaging radicals involved have been compiled based among others on transcriptome studies, network analyses and fluorescence techniques for detection of ROS at single cell level. Exploitation of the current knowledge for the control of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria is discussed. PMID:21352461

  16. Growth kinetics of Bacillus stearothermophilus BR219

    SciTech Connect

    Worden, R.M.; Subramanian, R.; Bly, M.J.; Winter, S.; Aronson, C.L.

    1991-12-31

    Bacillus stearothermophilus BR219, a phenol-resistant thermophile, can convert phenol to the specialty chemical catechol. The growth kinetics of this organism were studied in batch, continuous, and immobilized-cell culture. Batch growth was insensitive to pH between 6.0 and 8.0, but little growth occurred at 5.5. In continuous culture on a dilute medium supplemented with 10 mM phenol, several steady states were achieved between dilution rates of 0.25 and 1.3 h{sup -1}. Phenol degradation was found to be uncoupled from growth. Immobilized cells grew rapidly in a rich medium, but cell viability plummeted following a switch to a dilute medium supplemented with 5 mM phenol.

  17. Ribonucleic acid and ribosomes of Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Saunders, G F; Campbell, L L

    1966-01-01

    Saunders, Grady F. (University of Illinois, Urbana), and L. Leon Campbell. Ribonucleic acid and ribosomes of Bacillus stearothermophilus. J. Bacteriol. 91:332-339. 1966.-The ability of some thermophilic bacteria to grow at temperatures as high as 76 C emphasizes the remarkable thermal stability of their crucial macromolecules. An investigation of the ribonucleic acid (RNA) and ribosomes of Bacillus stearothermophilus was conducted. Washed log-phase cells were disrupted either by sonic treatment or by alumina grinding in 10(-2)m MgCl(2)-10(-2)m tris-(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane buffer, pH 7.4 (TM buffer). Ultracentrifugal analysis revealed peaks at 72.5S, 101S, and 135S, with the 101S peak being the most prominent. By lowering the Mg(++) concentration to 10(-3)m, the ribosome preparation was dissociated to give 40S, 31S, and 54S peaks. These in turn were reassociated in the presence of 10(-2)m Mg(++) to give the larger 73S and 135S particles. When heated in TM buffer, Escherichia coli ribosomes began a gradual dissociation at 58 C, and at 70 C underwent a large hyperchromic shift with a T(m) at 72.8 C. In contrast, B. stearothermophilus ribosomes did not show a hyperchromic shift below 70 C; they had a T(m) of 77.9 C. The thermal denaturation curves of the 4S, 16S, and 23S RNA from both organisms were virtually identical. The gross amino acid composition of B. stearothermophilus ribosomes showed no marked differences from that reported for E. coli ribosomes. These data suggest that the unusual thermal stability of B. stearothermophilus ribosomes may reflect either an unusual packing arrangement of the protein to the RNA or differences in the primary structure of the ribosomal proteins. PMID:5903099

  18. Characterization of Bacillus anthracis Persistence In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Sarah A.; Xu, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary exposure to Bacillus anthracis spores initiates inhalational anthrax, a life-threatening infection. It is known that dormant spores can be recovered from the lungs of infected animals months after the initial spore exposure. Consequently, a 60-day course antibiotic treatment is recommended for exposed individuals. However, there has been little information regarding details or mechanisms of spore persistence in vivo. In this study, we investigated spore persistence in a mouse model. The results indicated that weeks after intranasal inoculation with B. anthracis spores, substantial amounts of spores could be recovered from the mouse lung. Moreover, spores of B. anthracis were significantly better at persisting in the lung than spores of a non-pathogenic Bacillus subtilis strain. The majority of B. anthracis spores in the lung were tightly associated with the lung tissue, as they could not be readily removed by lavage. Immunofluorescence staining of lung sections showed that spores associated with the alveolar and airway epithelium. Confocal analysis indicated that some of the spores were inside epithelial cells. This was further confirmed by differential immunofluorescence staining of lung cells harvested from the infected lungs, suggesting that association with lung epithelial cells may provide an advantage to spore persistence in the lung. There was no or very mild inflammation in the infected lungs. Furthermore, spores were present in the lung tissue as single spores rather than in clusters. We also showed that the anthrax toxins did not play a role in persistence. Together, the results suggest that B. anthracis spores have special properties that promote their persistence in the lung, and that there may be multiple mechanisms contributing to spore persistence. PMID:23750280

  19. The Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis AlHakam

    SciTech Connect

    Challacombe, Jean F.; Altherr, Michael R.; Xie, Gary; Bhotika,Smriti S.; Brown, Nancy; Bruce, David; Campbell, Connie S.; Campbell,Mary L.; Chen, Jin; Chertkov, Olga; Cleland, Cathy; Dimitrijevic, Mira; Doggett, Norman A.; Fawcett, John J.; Glavina, Tijana; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Green, Lance D.; Han, Cliff S.; Hill, Karen K.; Hitchcock, Penny; Jackson, Paul J.; Keim, Paul; Kewalramani, Avinash Ramesh; Longmire, Jon; Lucas, Susan; Malfatti, Stephanie; Martinez, Diego; McMurry, Kim; Meincke, Linda J.; Misra, Monica; Moseman, Bernice L.; Mundt, Mark; Munk,A. Christine; Okinaka, Richard T.; Parson-Quintana, B.; Reilly, LeePhilip; Richardson, Paul; Robinson, Donna L.; Rubin, Eddy; Saunders,Elizabeth; Tapia, Roxanne; Tesmer, Judith G.; Thayer, Nina; Thompson,Linda S.; Tice, Hope; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Wills, Patti L.; Gilna, Paul; Brettin, Thomas S.

    2007-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an insect pathogen that is widelyused as a biopesticide (3). Here we report the finished, annotated genomesequence of B. thuringiensis Al Hakam, which was collected in Iraq by theUnited Nations Special Commission (2).

  20. BOOK REVIEW: BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS: A CORNERSTONE OF MODERN AGRICULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are you interested in the technical issues surrounding the use of Bacillus thuringiensis pesticidal traits as sprays and as plant incorporated protectants (transgenic crops)? Should the dimensions of human health, ecology, entomology, risk assessment, resistance management, and d...

  1. Comparison of Bacillus monooxygenase genes for unique fatty acid production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews Bacillus genes encoding monooxygenase enzymes producing unique fatty acid metabolites. Specifically, it examines standard monooxygenase electron transfer schemes and related domain structures of these fused domain enzymes on route to understanding the observed oxygenase activiti...

  2. AFB (Acid-Fast Bacillus) Smear and Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mycobacteria Smear; Mycobacteria Culture; TB NAAT Formal name: Acid-Fast Bacillus Smear and Culture and Sensitivity; Mycobacteria tuberculosis Nucleic Acid Amplification Test Related tests: TB Screening Tests ; Bacterial ...

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PARASPORAL INCLUSION OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS VAR. KYUSHUENSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacillus thuringiensis var. kyushuensis synthesizes an irregularly shaped parasporal inclusion during sporulation. lectron microscopy revealed that the inclusions are composed of a relatively homogeneous appearing center surrounded by a thick, electron dense coating. urified incl...

  4. Storage stability of Bacillus subtilis ethylene oxide biological indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Reich, R R

    1980-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis biological indicators, stored at ambient and freezer conditions for 24 months, demonstrated no statistical difference in ethylene oxide resistance and spore viability from initial production levels. PMID:6766701

  5. Genome-based reclassification of Bacillus cibi as a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus indicus and emended description of Bacillus indicus.

    PubMed

    Stropko, Samantha J; Pipes, Shannon E; Newman, Jeffrey D

    2014-11-01

    While characterizing a related strain, it was noted that there was little difference between the 16S rRNA gene sequences of Bacillus indicus LMG 22858(T) and Bacillus cibi DSM 16189(T). Phenotypic characterization revealed differences only in the utilization of mannose and galactose and slight variation in pigmentation. Whole genome shotgun sequencing and comparative genomics were used to calculate established phylogenomic metrics and explain phenotypic differences. The full, genome-derived 16S rRNA gene sequences were 99.74% similar. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) of the two strains was 98.0%, the average amino acid identity (AAI) was 98.3%, and the estimated DNA-DNA hybridization determined by the genome-genome distance calculator was 80.3%. These values are higher than the species thresholds for these metrics, which are 95%, 95% and 70%, respectively, suggesting that these two strains should be classified as members of the same species. We propose reclassification of Bacillus cibi as a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus indicus and an emended description of Bacillus indicus. PMID:25142211

  6. Bacillus anthracis: current knowledge in relation to contamination of food.

    PubMed

    Erickson, M C; Kornacki, J L

    2003-04-01

    In this article, information related to anthrax and its etiologic agent, Bacillus anthracis, in food is reviewed. The major topics discussed include the taxonomic relationship of B. anthracis to other Bacillus species, methods used for the recovery of the organism from surfaces and foods, routes of infection, the pathogenesis of the organism, the microbial ecology of the vegetative cell and spore in foods and the environment, chemical and physical treatments for spore inactivation, and the control of the disease in animals. PMID:12696699

  7. Identification of Bacillus Strains for Biological Control of Catfish Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Chao; Carrias, Abel; Williams, Malachi A.; Capps, Nancy; Dan, Bui C. T.; Newton, Joseph C.; Kloepper, Joseph W.; Ooi, Ei L.; Browdy, Craig L.; Terhune, Jeffery S.; Liles, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS), respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Flavobacterium columnare, and/or the oomycete Saprolegnia ferax. Survival of the 21 Bacillus strains in the intestine of catfish was determined as Bacillus CFU/g of intestinal tissue of catfish after feeding Bacillus spore-supplemented feed for seven days followed by normal feed for three days. Five Bacillus strains that showed good antimicrobial activity and intestinal survival were incorporated into feed in spore form at a dose of 8×107 CFU/g and fed to channel catfish for 14 days before they were challenged by E. ictaluri in replicate. Two Bacillus subtilis strains conferred significant benefit in reducing catfish mortality (P<0.05). A similar challenge experiment conducted in Vietnam with four of the five Bacillus strains also showed protective effects against E. ictaluri in striped catfish. Safety of the four strains exhibiting the strongest biological control in vivo was also investigated in terms of whether the strains contain plasmids or express resistance to clinically important antibiotics. The Bacillus strains identified from this study have good potential to mediate disease control as probiotic feed additives for catfish aquaculture. PMID:23029244

  8. Resistance of Bacillus Endospores to Extreme Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Environments

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Wayne L.; Munakata, Nobuo; Horneck, Gerda; Melosh, Henry J.; Setlow, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Endospores of Bacillus spp., especially Bacillus subtilis, have served as experimental models for exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of spores and their resistance to environmental insults. In this review we summarize the molecular laboratory model of spore resistance mechanisms and attempt to use the model as a basis for exploration of the resistance of spores to environmental extremes both on Earth and during postulated interplanetary transfer through space as a result of natural impact processes. PMID:10974126

  9. Regulation of cry gene expression in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chao; Peng, Qi; Song, Fuping; Lereclus, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis differs from the closely related Bacillus cereus group species by its ability to produce crystalline inclusions. The production of these crystals mainly results from the expression of the cry genes, from the stability of their transcripts and from the synthesis, accumulation and crystallization of large amounts of insecticidal Cry proteins. This process normally coincides with sporulation and is regulated by various factors operating at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, metabolic and post-translational levels. PMID:25055802

  10. Glutamate Racemase Mutants of Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Oh, So-Young; Richter, Stefan G.; Missiakas, Dominique M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT d-Glutamate is an essential component of bacterial peptidoglycan and a building block of the poly-γ-d-glutamic acid (PDGA) capsule of Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. Earlier work suggested that two glutamate racemases, encoded by racE1 and racE2, are each essential for growth of B. anthracis, supplying d-glutamic acid for the synthesis of peptidoglycan and PDGA capsule. Earlier work could not explain, however, why two enzymes that catalyze the same reaction may be needed for bacterial growth. Here, we report that deletion of racE1 or racE2 did not prevent growth of B. anthracis Sterne (pXO1+ pXO2−), the noncapsulating vaccine strain, or of B. anthracis Ames (pXO1+ pXO2+), a fully virulent, capsulating isolate. While mutants with deletions in racE1 and racE2 were not viable, racE2 deletion delayed vegetative growth of B. anthracis following spore germination and caused aberrant cell shapes, phenotypes that were partially restored by exogenous d-glutamate. Deletion of racE1 or racE2 from B. anthracis Ames did not affect the production or stereochemical composition of the PDGA capsule. A model is presented whereby B. anthracis, similar to Bacillus subtilis, utilizes two functionally redundant racemase enzymes to synthesize d-glutamic acid for peptidoglycan synthesis. IMPORTANCE Glutamate racemases, enzymes that convert l-glutamate to d-glutamate, are targeted for antibiotic development. Glutamate racemase inhibitors may be useful for the treatment of bacterial infections such as anthrax, where the causative agent, B. anthracis, requires d-glutamate for the synthesis of peptidoglycan and poly-γ-d-glutamic acid (PDGA) capsule. Here we show that B. anthracis possesses two glutamate racemase genes that can be deleted without abolishing either bacterial growth or PDGA synthesis. These data indicate that drug candidates must inhibit both glutamate racemases, RacE1 and RacE2, in order to block B. anthracis growth and achieve therapeutic

  11. Bacillus nakamurai sp. nov., a black-pigment-producing strain.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Saunders, Lauren P; Schisler, David A; Leathers, Timothy D; Naeem, Naveed; Cohan, Frederick M; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2016-08-01

    Two isolates of a Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, motile, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium were identified during a survey of the Bacillus diversity of the Agriculture Research Service Culture Collection. These strains were originally isolated from soil and have a phenotype of producing a dark pigment on tryptic soy agar. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that these strains were related most closely to Bacillus subtilis subsp. inaquosorum (99.7 % similarity) and Bacillus axarquiensis (99.7 %). In phenotypic characterization, the novel strains were found to grow between 17 and 50 °C and can tolerate up to 9 % (w/v) NaCl. Furthermore, the strains grew in media of pH 5.5-10 (optimal growth at pH 7.0-8.0). The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 (34.8 %) and iso-C15 : 0 (21.9 %). The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. A draft genome of both strains was completed. The DNA G+C content was 43.8 mol%. A phylogenomic analysis on the core genome of these two new strains and all members of the Bacillus subtilis group revealed these two strains formed a distinct monophyletic clade with the nearest neighbour Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. DNA-DNA relatedness studies using in silico DNA-DNA hybridizations showed the two strains were conspecific (93.8 %), while values with all other species (<31.5 %) were well below the species threshold of 70 %. Based on the consensus of phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses, these strains are considered to represent a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus nakamurai sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain NRRL B-41091T (=CCUG 68786T). PMID:27150918

  12. Comparative sequence analyses on the 16S rRNA (rDNA) of Bacillus acidocaldarius, Bacillus acidoterrestris, and Bacillus cycloheptanicus and proposal for creation of a new genus, Alicyclobacillus gen. nov

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wisotzkey, J. D.; Jurtshuk, P. Jr; Fox, G. E.; Deinhard, G.; Poralla, K.

    1992-01-01

    Comparative 16S rRNA (rDNA) sequence analyses performed on the thermophilic Bacillus species Bacillus acidocaldarius, Bacillus acidoterrestris, and Bacillus cycloheptanicus revealed that these organisms are sufficiently different from the traditional Bacillus species to warrant reclassification in a new genus, Alicyclobacillus gen. nov. An analysis of 16S rRNA sequences established that these three thermoacidophiles cluster in a group that differs markedly from both the obligately thermophilic organisms Bacillus stearothermophilus and the facultatively thermophilic organism Bacillus coagulans, as well as many other common mesophilic and thermophilic Bacillus species. The thermoacidophilic Bacillus species B. acidocaldarius, B. acidoterrestris, and B. cycloheptanicus also are unique in that they possess omega-alicylic fatty acid as the major natural membranous lipid component, which is a rare phenotype that has not been found in any other Bacillus species characterized to date. This phenotype, along with the 16S rRNA sequence data, suggests that these thermoacidophiles are biochemically and genetically unique and supports the proposal that they should be reclassified in the new genus Alicyclobacillus.

  13. Kin discrimination between sympatric Bacillus subtilis isolates.

    PubMed

    Stefanic, Polonca; Kraigher, Barbara; Lyons, Nicholas Anthony; Kolter, Roberto; Mandic-Mulec, Ines

    2015-11-10

    Kin discrimination, broadly defined as differential treatment of conspecifics according to their relatedness, could help biological systems direct cooperative behavior toward their relatives. Here we investigated the ability of the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis to discriminate kin from nonkin in the context of swarming, a cooperative multicellular behavior. We tested a collection of sympatric conspecifics from soil in pairwise combinations and found that despite their history of coexistence, the vast majority formed distinct boundaries when the swarms met. Some swarms did merge, and most interestingly, this behavior was only seen in the most highly related strain pairs. Overall the swarm interaction phenotype strongly correlated with phylogenetic relatedness, indicative of kin discrimination. Using a subset of strains, we examined cocolonization patterns on plant roots. Pairs of kin strains were able to cocolonize roots and formed a mixed-strain biofilm. In contrast, inoculating roots with pairs of nonkin strains resulted in biofilms consisting primarily of one strain, suggestive of an antagonistic interaction among nonkin strains. This study firmly establishes kin discrimination in a bacterial multicellular setting and suggests its potential effect on ecological interactions. PMID:26438858

  14. Bacillus thuringiensis: a genomics and proteomics perspective.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Griko, Natalya; Junker, Matthew; Bulla, Lee A

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a unique bacterium in that it shares a common place with a number of chemical compounds which are used commercially to control insects important to agriculture and public health. Although other bacteria, including B. popilliae and B. sphaericus, are used as microbial insecticides, their spectrum of insecticidal activity is quite limited compared to Bt. Importantly, Bt is safe for humans and is the most widely used environmentally compatible biopesticide worldwide. Furthermore, insecticidal Bt genes have been incorporated into several major crops, rendering them insect resistant, and thus providing a model for genetic engineering in agriculture.This review highlights what the authors consider the most relevant issues and topics pertaining to the genomics and proteomics of Bt. At least one of the authors (L.A.B.) has spent most of his professional life studying different aspects of this bacterium with the goal in mind of determining the mechanism(s) by which it kills insects. The other authors have a much shorter experience with Bt but their intellect and personal insight have greatly enriched our understanding of what makes Bt distinctive in the microbial world. Obviously, there is personal interest and bias reflected in this article notwithstanding oversight of a number of published studies. This review contains some material not published elsewhere although several ideas and concepts were developed from a broad base of scientific literature up to 2010. PMID:21327125

  15. Characteristics of some psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus isolates.

    PubMed

    Dufrenne, J; Bijwaard, M; te Giffel, M; Beumer, R; Notermans, S

    1995-10-01

    Twelve strains of Bacillus cereus isolated from different food products and foodborne disease outbreaks, and able to grow at temperatures < 7 degrees C, were characterised. Generation times at 7 degrees C varied from 9.4 h up to 75 h. Lag phase of the vegetative cells at 7 degrees C was strongly influenced by the previous temperature history of the cells. Preincubation at 37 degrees C increased the duration of the lag phase drastically. The heat resistance at 90 degrees C (D90 degrees C-values in min) for spores produced at 30 degrees C varied from 2.2 to 9.2 min for 11 strains. One strain, however, showed a D90 degrees C-value of > 100 min. Germination of spores in milk was delayed compared to those grown in brain heart infusion broth (BHI). All strains showed production of the diarrheal type enterotoxin in BHI. Addition of 50 IU of nisin to skim milk resulted in a decrease of numbers for 9 of the 12 strains tested. At a nisin concentration of 250 IU, a decrease in bacterial numbers was observed for all strains tested. PMID:8579988

  16. Cannibalism enhances biofilm development in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    López, Daniel; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2009-11-01

    Cannibalism is a mechanism to delay sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. Cannibal cells express the skf and sdp toxin systems to lyse a fraction of their sensitive siblings. The lysed cells release nutrients that serve to feed the community, effectively delaying spore formation. Here we provide evidence that the subpopulation of cells that differentiates into cannibals is the same subpopulation that produces the extracellular matrix that holds cells together in biofilms. Cannibalism and matrix formation are both triggered in response to the signalling molecule surfactin. Nutrients released by the cannibalized cells are preferentially used by matrix-producing cells, as they are the only cells expressing resistance to the Skf and Sdp toxins. As a result this subpopulation increases in number and matrix production is enhanced when cannibalism toxins are produced. The cannibal/matrix-producing subpopulation is also generated in response to antimicrobials produced by other microorganisms and may thus constitute a defense mechanism to protect B. subtilis from the action of antibiotics in natural settings. PMID:19775247

  17. Bacillus cereus, a Volatile Human Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Bottone, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, motile, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that is widely distributed environmentally. While B. cereus is associated mainly with food poisoning, it is being increasingly reported to be a cause of serious and potentially fatal non-gastrointestinal-tract infections. The pathogenicity of B. cereus, whether intestinal or nonintestinal, is intimately associated with the production of tissue-destructive exoenzymes. Among these secreted toxins are four hemolysins, three distinct phospholipases, an emesis-inducing toxin, and proteases. The major hurdle in evaluating B. cereus when isolated from a clinical specimen is overcoming its stigma as an insignificant contaminant. Outside its notoriety in association with food poisoning and severe eye infections, this bacterium has been incriminated in a multitude of other clinical conditions such as anthrax-like progressive pneumonia, fulminant sepsis, and devastating central nervous system infections, particularly in immunosuppressed individuals, intravenous drug abusers, and neonates. Its role in nosocomial acquired bacteremia and wound infections in postsurgical patients has also been well defined, especially when intravascular devices such as catheters are inserted. Primary cutaneous infections mimicking clostridial gas gangrene induced subsequent to trauma have also been well documented. B. cereus produces a potent β-lactamase conferring marked resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Antimicrobials noted to be effective in the empirical management of a B. cereus infection while awaiting antimicrobial susceptibility results for the isolate include ciprofloxacin and vancomycin. PMID:20375358

  18. Cannibalism stress response in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Höfler, Carolin; Heckmann, Judith; Fritsch, Anne; Popp, Philipp; Gebhard, Susanne; Fritz, Georg; Mascher, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    When faced with carbon source limitation, the Gram-positive soil organism Bacillus subtilis initiates a survival strategy called sporulation, which leads to the formation of highly resistant endospores that allow B. subtilis to survive even long periods of starvation. In order to avoid commitment to this energy-demanding and irreversible process, B. subtilis employs another strategy called 'cannibalism' to delay sporulation as long as possible. Cannibalism involves the production and secretion of two cannibalism toxins, sporulation delaying protein (SDP) and sporulation killing factor (SKF), which are able to lyse sensitive siblings. The lysed cells are thought to then provide nutrients for the cannibals to slow down or even prevent them from entering sporulation. In this study, we uncovered the role of the cell envelope stress response (CESR), especially the Bce-like antimicrobial peptide detoxification modules, in the cannibalism stress response during the stationary phase. SDP and SKF specifically induce Bce-like systems and some extracytoplasmic function σ factors in stationary-phase cultures, but only the latter provide some degree of protection. A full Bce response is only triggered by mature toxins, and not by toxin precursors. Our study provides insights into the close relationship between stationary-phase survival and the CESR of B. subtilis. PMID:26364265

  19. A pangenomic study of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yongjun; Li, Zhaolong; Liu, Jiucheng; Shu, Changlong; Wang, Xumin; Zhang, Xiaowei; Yu, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Duojun; Liu, Guiming; Hu, Songnian; Zhang, Jie; Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim; Yu, Jun

    2011-12-20

    Bacillus thuringiensis (B. thuringiensis) is a soil-dwelling Gram-positive bacterium and its plasmid-encoded toxins (Cry) are commonly used as biological alternatives to pesticides. In a pangenomic study, we sequenced seven B. thuringiensis isolates in both high coverage and base-quality using the next-generation sequencing platform. The B. thuringiensis pangenome was extrapolated to have 4196 core genes and an asymptotic value of 558 unique genes when a new genome is added. Compared to the pangenomes of its closely related species of the same genus, B. thuringiensis pangenome shows an open characteristic, similar to B. cereus but not to B. anthracis; the latter has a closed pangenome. We also found extensive divergence among the seven B. thuringiensis genome assemblies, which harbor ample repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The identities among orthologous genes are greater than 84.5% and the hotspots for the genome variations were discovered in genomic regions of 2.3-2.8Mb and 5.0-5.6Mb. We concluded that high-coverage sequence assemblies from multiple strains, before all the gaps are closed, are very useful for pangenomic studies. PMID:22196399

  20. Mechanical Behavior of a Bacillus subtilis Pellicle.

    PubMed

    Hollenbeck, Emily C; Douarche, Carine; Allain, Jean-Marc; Roger, Philippe; Regeard, Christophe; Cegelski, Lynette; Fuller, Gerald G; Raspaud, Eric

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial biofilms consist of a complex network of biopolymers embedded with microorganisms, and together these components form a physically robust structure that enables bacteria to grow in a protected environment. This structure can help unwanted biofilms persist in situations ranging from chronic infection to the biofouling of industrial equipment, but under certain circumstances it can allow the biofilm to disperse and colonize new niches. Mechanical properties are therefore a key aspect of biofilm life. In light of the recently discovered growth-induced compressive stress present within a biofilm, we studied the mechanical behavior of Bacillus subtilis pellicles, or biofilms at the air-liquid interface, and tracked simultaneously the force response and macroscopic structural changes during elongational deformations. We observed that pellicles behaved viscoelastically in response to small deformations, such that the growth-induced compressive stress was still present, and viscoplastically at large deformations, when the pellicles were under tension. In addition, by using particle imaging velocimetry we found that the pellicle deformations were nonaffine, indicating heterogeneous mechanical properties with the pellicle being more pliable near attachment surfaces. Overall, our results indicate that we must consider not only the viscoelastic but also the viscoplastic and mechanically heterogeneous nature of these structures to understand biofilm dispersal and removal. PMID:27046510

  1. Capsule depolymerase overexpression reduces Bacillus anthracis virulence.

    PubMed

    Scorpio, Angelo; Chabot, Donald J; Day, William A; Hoover, Timothy A; Friedlander, Arthur M

    2010-05-01

    Capsule depolymerase (CapD) is a gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and a product of the Bacillus anthracis capsule biosynthesis operon. In this study, we examined the effect of modulating capD expression on B. anthracis capsule phenotype, interaction with phagocytic cells and virulence in guinea pigs. Transcriptional fusions of capD were made to the genes encoding heat-shock protein 60 (hsp60) and elongation factor Tu (EFTu), and to capA, a B. anthracis capsule biosynthesis gene. Translation signals were altered to improve expression of capD, including replacing the putative ribosome-binding site with a consensus sequence and the TTG start codon with ATG. CapD was not detected by immunoblotting in lysates from wild-type B. anthracis Ames but was detected in strains engineered with a consensus ribosome-binding site for capD. Strains overexpressing capD at amounts detected by immunoblotting were found to have less surface-associated capsule and released primarily lower-molecular-mass capsule into culture supernatants. Overexpression of capD increased susceptibility to neutrophil phagocytic killing and adherence to macrophages and resulted in reduced fitness in a guinea pig model of infection. These data suggest that B. anthracis may have evolved weak capD expression resulting in optimized capsule-mediated virulence. PMID:20110296

  2. Protection of Bacillus pumilus spores by catalases.

    PubMed

    Checinska, Aleksandra; Burbank, Malcolm; Paszczynski, Andrzej J

    2012-09-01

    Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032, isolated at spacecraft assembly facilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is difficult to kill by the sterilization method of choice, which uses liquid or vapor hydrogen peroxide. We identified two manganese catalases, YjqC and BPUM_1305, in spore protein extracts of several B. pumilus strains by using PAGE and mass spectrometric analyses. While the BPUM_1305 catalase was present in six of the B. pumilus strains tested, YjqC was not detected in ATCC 7061 and BG-B79. Furthermore, both catalases were localized in the spore coat layer along with laccase and superoxide dismutase. Although the initial catalase activity in ATCC 7061 spores was higher, it was less stable over time than the SAFR-032 enzyme. We propose that synergistic activity of YjqC and BPUM_1305, along with other coat oxidoreductases, contributes to the enhanced resistance of B. pumilus spores to hydrogen peroxide. We observed that the product of the catalase reaction, gaseous oxygen, forms expanding vesicles on the spore surface, affecting the mechanical integrity of the coat layer, resulting in aggregation of the spores. The accumulation of oxygen gas and aggregations may play a crucial role in limiting further exposure of Bacilli spore surfaces to hydrogen peroxide or other toxic chemicals when water is present. PMID:22752169

  3. Comparison of different Bacillus subtilis expression systems.

    PubMed

    Vavrová, Ludmila; Muchová, Katarína; Barák, Imrich

    2010-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis is considered to have great potential as a host for the production and secretion of recombinant proteins. Many different expression systems have been developed for B. subtilis. Here we compare two widely used expression systems, the IPTG-inducible derivative of spac system (hyper-spank) and the xylose-inducible (xyl) to the SURE (subtilin-regulated gene expression) system. Western blot analysis of the membrane protein SpoIISA together with its protein partner SpoIISB showed that the highest expression level of this complex is obtained using the SURE system. Measurement of β-galactosidase activities of the promoter-lacZ fusions in individual expression systems confirmed that the P(spaS) promoter of the SURE system is the strongest of those compared, although the induction/repression ratio reached only 1.84. Based on these results, we conclude that the SURE system is the most efficient of these three B. subtilis expression systems in terms of the amount of expressed product. Remarkably, the yield of the SpoIISA-SpoIISB complex obtained from B. subtilis was comparable to that normally obtained from the Escherichia coli arabinose-inducible expression system. PMID:20863884

  4. Bacillus subtilis Spore Inner Membrane Proteome.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Linli; Abhyankar, Wishwas; Ouwerling, Natasja; Dekker, Henk L; van Veen, Henk; van der Wel, Nicole N; Roseboom, Winfried; de Koning, Leo J; Brul, Stanley; de Koster, Chris G

    2016-02-01

    The endospore is the dormant form of Bacillus subtilis and many other Firmicutes. By sporulation, these spore formers can survive very harsh physical and chemical conditions. Yet, they need to go through germination to return to their growing form. The spore inner membrane (IM) has been shown to play an essential role in triggering the initiation of germination. In this study, we isolated the IM of bacterial spores, in parallel with the isolation of the membrane of vegetative cells. With the use of GeLC-MS/MS, over 900 proteins were identified from the B. subtilis spore IM preparations. By bioinformatics-based membrane protein predictions, ca. one-third could be predicted to be membrane-localized. A large number of unique proteins as well as proteins common to the two membrane proteomes were identified. In addition to previously known IM proteins, a number of IM proteins were newly identified, at least some of which are likely to provide new insights into IM physiology, unveiling proteins putatively involved in spore germination machinery and hence putative germination inhibition targets. PMID:26731423

  5. Inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Ryo; Yonetamari, Kenta; Tokumitsu, Yusuke; Yonemori, Seiya; Yasuda, Hachiro; Mizuno, Akira

    2016-08-01

    The inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals is measured. This study aims to evaluate the bactericidal effects of OH radicals produced by atmospheric-pressure nonthermal plasma widely used for plasma medicine; however, in this study, OH radicals are produced by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis of water vapor instead of plasma to allow the production of OH radicals with almost no other reactive species. A 172 nm VUV light from a Xe2 excimer lamp irradiates a He–H2O mixture flowing in a quartz tube to photodissociate H2O to produce OH, H, O, HO2, H2O2, and O3. The produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) flow out of the quartz tube nozzle to the bacteria on an agar plate and cause inactivation. The inactivation by OH radicals among the six ROS is observed by properly setting the experimental conditions with the help of simulations calculating the ROS densities. A 30 s treatment with approximately 0.1 ppm OH radicals causes visible inactivation.

  6. Bacillus thuringiensis Conjugation in Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuls, Elise; van Houdt, Rob; Leys, Natalie; Dijkstra, Camelia; Larkin, Oliver; Mahillon, Jacques

    2009-10-01

    Spaceflight experiments have suggested a possible effect of microgravity on the plasmid transfer among strains of the Gram-positive Bacillus thuringiensis, as opposed to no effect recorded for Gram-negative conjugation. To investigate these potential effects in a more affordable experimental setup, three ground-based microgravity simulators were tested: the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV), the Random Positioning Machine (RPM), and a superconducting magnet. The bacterial conjugative system consisted in biparental matings between two B. thuringiensis strains, where the transfer frequencies of the conjugative plasmid pAW63 and its ability to mobilize the nonconjugative plasmid pUB110 were assessed. Specifically, potential plasmid transfers in a 0-g position (simulated microgravity) were compared to those obtained under 1-g (normal gravity) condition in each device. Statistical analyses revealed no significant difference in the conjugative and mobilizable transfer frequencies between the three different simulated microgravitational conditions and our standard laboratory condition. These important ground-based observations emphasize the fact that, though no stimulation of plasmid transfer was observed, no inhibition was observed either. In the case of Gram-positive bacteria, this ability to exchange plasmids in weightlessness, as occurs under Earth's conditions, should be seen as particularly relevant in the scope of spread of antibiotic resistances and bacterial virulence.

  7. Protein profile of Bacillus subtilis spore.

    PubMed

    Mao, Langyong; Jiang, Shantong; Wang, Bin; Chen, Liang; Yao, Qin; Chen, Keping

    2011-08-01

    Natural wild-type strains of Bacillus subtilis spore is regarded as a non-pathogenic for both human and animal, and has been classified as a novel food which is currently being used as probiotics added in the consumption. To identify B. subtilis spore proteins, we have accomplished a preliminary proteomic analysis of B. subtilis spore, with a combination of two-dimensional electrophoretic separations and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). In this article, we presented a reference map of 158 B. subtilis spore proteins with an isoelectric point (pI) between 4 and 7. Followed by mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, we identified 71 B. subtilis spore proteins with high level of confidence. Database searches, combined with hydropathy analysis and GO analysis revealed that most of the B. subtilis spore proteins were hydrophilic proteins related to catalytic function. These results should accelerate efforts to understand the resistance of spore to harsh conditions. PMID:21667307

  8. Thermal injury and recovery of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Miller, L L; Ordal, Z J

    1972-12-01

    Exposure of Bacillus subtilis NCTC 8236 to sublethal temperatures produced a change in the sensitivity of the organism to salt and polymyxin. After 30 min at 47 C, 90% of the population was unable to grow on a modified sulfite polymyxin sulfadiazine agar containing an added 1% NaCl, 1% glucose, and 1% asparagine. The data presented demonstrate that thermal injury results in degradation of both 16S and 23S ribonucleic acid (RNA) and in damage to the cell membrane, suggested by leakage into the heating mestruum of material absorbing at 260 nm. When the cells were placed in a recovery medium (Trypticase soy broth), complete recovery, indicated by a returned tolerance to salt and polymyxin, occurred within 2 hr. The presence of a protein inhibitor (chloramphenicol) and cell wall inhibitors (vancomycin and penicillin) during recovery had no effect, whereas the presence of an RNA inhibitor (actinomycin D) effectively inhibited recovery. Further data demonstrated that the injured cells were able to resynthesize both species of ribosomal RNA during recovery by using the fragments which resulted from the injury process. Also, precursor 16S and precursor 23S particles accumulated during recovery. The maturation of the precursor particles during recovery was not affected by the presence of chloramphenicol in the recovery medium. PMID:4346627

  9. Cell wall peptidoglycan architecture in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Hayhurst, Emma J.; Kailas, Lekshmi; Hobbs, Jamie K.; Foster, Simon J.

    2008-01-01

    The bacterial cell wall is essential for viability and shape determination. Cell wall structural dynamics allowing growth and division, while maintaining integrity is a basic problem governing the life of bacteria. The polymer peptidoglycan is the main structural component for most bacteria and is made up of glycan strands that are cross-linked by peptide side chains. Despite study and speculation over many years, peptidoglycan architecture has remained largely elusive. Here, we show that the model rod-shaped bacterium Bacillus subtilis has glycan strands up to 5 μm, longer than the cell itself and 50 times longer than previously proposed. Atomic force microscopy revealed the glycan strands to be part of a peptidoglycan architecture allowing cell growth and division. The inner surface of the cell wall has a regular macrostructure with ≈50 nm-wide peptidoglycan cables [average 53 ± 12 nm (n = 91)] running basically across the short axis of the cell. Cross striations with an average periodicity of 25 ± 9 nm (n = 96) along each cable are also present. The fundamental cabling architecture is also maintained during septal development as part of cell division. We propose a coiled-coil model for peptidoglycan architecture encompassing our data and recent evidence concerning the biosynthetic machinery for this essential polymer. PMID:18784364

  10. Bacillus cereus infection outbreak in captive psittacines.

    PubMed

    Godoy, S N; Matushima, E R; Chaves, J Q; Cavados, C F G; Rabinovitch, L; Teixeira, R H F; Nunes, A L V; Melville, P; Gattamorta, M A; Vivoni, A M

    2012-12-28

    This study reports an uncommon epizootic outbreak of Bacillus cereus that caused the sudden death of 12 psittacines belonging to the species Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (1 individual), Diopsittaca nobilis (1 individual), Ara severa (1 individual) and Ara ararauna (9 individuals) in a Brazilian zoo. Post-mortem examination of the animals reveled extensive areas of lung hemorrhage, hepatic congestion, hemorrhagic enteritis and cardiac congestion. Histopathological examination of the organs showed the presence of multiple foci of vegetative cells of Gram-positive bacilli associated with discrete and moderate mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate. Seventeen B. cereus strains isolated from blood and sterile organs of nine A. ararauna were analyzed in order to investigate the genetic diversity (assessed by Rep-PCR) and toxigenic profiles (presence of hblA, hblC and hblD; nheA, nheB and nheC as well as cytK, ces and entFM genes) of such strains. Amplification of genomic DNA by Rep-PCR of B. cereus strains generated two closely related profiles (Rep-PCR types A and B) with three bands of difference. All strains were classified as belonging to the toxigenic profile I which contained HBL and NHE gene complexes, entFM and cytK genes. Altogether, microbiological and histopathological findings and the evidence provided by the success of the antibiotic prophylaxis, corroborate that B. cereus was the causative agent of the infection that killed the birds. PMID:22902190

  11. Alanylated lipoteichoic acid primer in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Lipoteichoic acid is a major lipid-anchored polymer in Gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis. This polymer typically consists of repeating phosphate-containing units and therefore has a predominant negative charge. The repeating units are attached to a glycolipid anchor which has a diacylglycerol (DAG) moiety attached to a dihexopyranose head group. D-alanylation is known as the major modification of type I and type IV lipoteichoic acids, which partially neutralizes the polymer and plays important roles in bacterial survival and resistance to the host immune system. The biosynthesis pathways of the glycolipid anchor and lipoteichoic acid have been fully characterized. However, the exact mechanism of D-alanyl transfer from the cytosol to cell surface lipoteichoic acid remains unclear. Here I report the use of mass spectrometry in the identification of possible intermediate species in the biosynthesis and D-alanylation of lipoteichoic acid: the glycolipid anchor, nascent lipoteichoic acid primer with one phosphoglycerol unit, as well as mono- and di-alanylated forms of the lipoteichoic acid primer. Monitoring these species as well as the recently reported D-alanyl-phosphatidyl glycerol should aid in shedding light on the mechanism of the D-alanylation pathway of lipoteichoic acid. PMID:27134729

  12. Regulation of Leucine Biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Jonathan B.; Zahler, Stanley A.

    1973-01-01

    The biosynthesis of α-isopropylmalate (αIPM) synthetase, IPM isomerase, and βIPM dehydrogenase in Bacillus subtilis can be derepressed in leucine auxotrophs by limiting them for leucine. The derepression of the three enzymes is apparently coordinate. A class of mutants resistant to 4-azaleucine excretes leucine and has derepressed levels of all three enzymes. The azaleucine-resistance mutations may lie in a gene (azlA) encoding a repressor. Efforts to find mutations characteristic of a constitutive operator have been unsuccessful. No polar mutations have been found among nine leucine auxotrophs that have characteristics of frameshift mutations. The enzyme catalyzing the first step in leucine biosynthesis, αIPM synthetase, is sensitive to feedback inhibition by leucine. We conclude that leucine biosynthesis is controlled by the inhibition of the activity of the first biosynthetic enzyme by leucine, and by the repression of the synthesis of the first three biosynthetic enzymes by leucine. The repression of the three enzymes may be under the control of a single repressor and a single operator, or of a single repressor and a separate operator for each structural gene. PMID:4200854

  13. Isomers of glucosaminylphosphatidylglycerol in Bacillus megaterium

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, J. C.; Phizackerley, P. J. R.

    1969-01-01

    1. The lipids of Bacillus megaterium were extracted and three lipids containing glucosamine were identified. One of these is not a phospholipid, but the other two, which differ in their chromatographic behaviour, contain phosphorus, glycerol, fatty acid and d-glucosamine in the molar proportions 1:2:2:1. 2. In both phosphoglycolipids, the fatty acids are bound in ester linkage, and both yield 2,5-anhydromannose and 3-sn-phosphatidyl-1′-sn-glycerol on treatment with sodium nitrite. 3. Both phosphoglycolipids were N-acetylated and, after removal of fatty acids by mild alkaline hydrolysis, in both cases N-acetylglucosamine was quantitatively released by β-N-acetylhexosaminidase. 4. The glucosaminylglycerols derived from the two phosphoglycolipids by partial acid hydrolysis differ in their behaviour towards periodate. In one case 1 mole of periodate is rapidly consumed/mole of glucosaminylglycerol, but in the other case under identical conditions the consumption of periodate is negligible. 5. The phosphoglycolipids were identified as 1′-(1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoryl)-3′-O-β-(2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol and as 1′-(1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoryl)-2′-O-β-(2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucopyranosyl)-sn-glycerol. 6. Both phosphoglycolipids are good substrates for phospholipase A: neither is a substrate for phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens, and only the 3′-glucosaminide is a substrate for phospholipase D. PMID:4309309

  14. Protonmotive force and motility of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Shioi, J I; Imae, Y; Oosawa, F

    1978-01-01

    Motility of Bacillus subtilis was inhibited within a few minutes by a combination of valinomycin and a high concentration of potassium ions in the medium at neutral pH. Motility was restored by lowering the concentration of valinomycin or potassium ions. The valinomycin concentration necessary for motility inhibition was determined at various concentrations of potassium ions and various pH's. At pH 7.5, valinomycin of any concentration did not inhibit the motility, when the potassium ion concentration was lower than 9 mM. In the presence of 230 mM potassium ion, the motility inhibition by valinomycin was not detected at pH lower than 6.1. These results are easily explained by the idea that the motility of B. subtilis is supported by the electrochemical potential difference of the proton across the membrane, or the protonmotive force. The electrochemical potential difference necessary for motility was estimated to be about -90 mV. PMID:25261

  15. Bacillus cereus, a volatile human pathogen.

    PubMed

    Bottone, Edward J

    2010-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, motile, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that is widely distributed environmentally. While B. cereus is associated mainly with food poisoning, it is being increasingly reported to be a cause of serious and potentially fatal non-gastrointestinal-tract infections. The pathogenicity of B. cereus, whether intestinal or nonintestinal, is intimately associated with the production of tissue-destructive exoenzymes. Among these secreted toxins are four hemolysins, three distinct phospholipases, an emesis-inducing toxin, and proteases. The major hurdle in evaluating B. cereus when isolated from a clinical specimen is overcoming its stigma as an insignificant contaminant. Outside its notoriety in association with food poisoning and severe eye infections, this bacterium has been incriminated in a multitude of other clinical conditions such as anthrax-like progressive pneumonia, fulminant sepsis, and devastating central nervous system infections, particularly in immunosuppressed individuals, intravenous drug abusers, and neonates. Its role in nosocomial acquired bacteremia and wound infections in postsurgical patients has also been well defined, especially when intravascular devices such as catheters are inserted. Primary cutaneous infections mimicking clostridial gas gangrene induced subsequent to trauma have also been well documented. B. cereus produces a potent beta-lactamase conferring marked resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Antimicrobials noted to be effective in the empirical management of a B. cereus infection while awaiting antimicrobial susceptibility results for the isolate include ciprofloxacin and vancomycin. PMID:20375358

  16. Cell wall peptidoglycan architecture in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Hayhurst, Emma J; Kailas, Lekshmi; Hobbs, Jamie K; Foster, Simon J

    2008-09-23

    The bacterial cell wall is essential for viability and shape determination. Cell wall structural dynamics allowing growth and division, while maintaining integrity is a basic problem governing the life of bacteria. The polymer peptidoglycan is the main structural component for most bacteria and is made up of glycan strands that are cross-linked by peptide side chains. Despite study and speculation over many years, peptidoglycan architecture has remained largely elusive. Here, we show that the model rod-shaped bacterium Bacillus subtilis has glycan strands up to 5 microm, longer than the cell itself and 50 times longer than previously proposed. Atomic force microscopy revealed the glycan strands to be part of a peptidoglycan architecture allowing cell growth and division. The inner surface of the cell wall has a regular macrostructure with approximately 50 nm-wide peptidoglycan cables [average 53 +/- 12 nm (n = 91)] running basically across the short axis of the cell. Cross striations with an average periodicity of 25 +/- 9 nm (n = 96) along each cable are also present. The fundamental cabling architecture is also maintained during septal development as part of cell division. We propose a coiled-coil model for peptidoglycan architecture encompassing our data and recent evidence concerning the biosynthetic machinery for this essential polymer. PMID:18784364

  17. THE BEHAVIOR OF BACILLUS LEPRAE IN COLD-BLOODED ANIMALS.

    PubMed

    Couret, M

    1911-05-01

    Before proceeding to a discussion of the experiments upon cold-blooded animals, it is necessary to review briefly some of the work recently done with the bacillus of leprosy. The appearance of the bacillus in man and its behavior under artificial cultivation, and in the tissues of lower animals, should be considered in order that comparisons may be drawn. In their studies with the organism under cultivation, Duval and Gurd pointed out that the long, slender, and beaded appearance of the leprosy bacillus described by Hansen, in 1872, is lost when removed for several generations from the parent stem, and under artificial cultivation the organism becomes unbeaded, short, and coccoid. Duval also noted that these changes in morphology were always followed by rapid multiplication of the organism. Duval argues, a priori, that the bacillus is not in a favorable environment in the human tissues. If these deductions are correct, the morphology of the leprosy bacillus should vary according to the resistance offered by the tissues of different animals. The resistance of the human host to the leprosy bacillus becomes more evident in the light of the clinical aspect of the disease. The long period of incubation, the duration of the disease, and the disappearance of the bacilli preceding the healing of the infected foci show that the resistance offered to the bacillus by the human tissues is not to be overestimated. This opinion is confirmed when the behavior of the leprosy bacillus under cultivation and in the tissues of various mammals is compared. When cats, rabbits, bats, guinea pigs, and rats are inoculated either below the skin or into the peritoneal cavity with large quantities of Bacillus leprae, a slight local reaction follows within twenty-four to forty-eight hours, but no definite lesions are produced and the bacilli soon disappear. The resistance of some animals to Bacillus leprae is well illustrated by two cats which were inoculated subcutaneously and

  18. Genome Sequence of Bacillus endophyticus and Analysis of Its Companion Mechanism in the Ketogulonigenium vulgare-Bacillus Strain Consortium.

    PubMed

    Jia, Nan; Du, Jin; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus strains have been widely used as the companion strain of Ketogulonigenium vulgare in the process of vitamin C fermentation. Different Bacillus strains generate different effects on the growth of K. vulgare and ultimately influence the productivity. First, we identified that Bacillus endophyticus Hbe603 was an appropriate strain to cooperate with K. vulgare and the product conversion rate exceeded 90% in industrial vitamin C fermentation. Here, we report the genome sequencing of the B. endophyticus Hbe603 industrial companion strain and speculate its possible advantage in the consortium. The circular chromosome of B. endophyticus Hbe603 has a size of 4.87 Mb with GC content of 36.64% and has the highest similarity with that of Bacillus megaterium among all the bacteria with complete genomes. By comparing the distribution of COGs with that of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus and B. megaterium, B. endophyticus has less genes related to cell envelope biogenesis and signal transduction mechanisms, and more genes related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, as well as lipid transport and metabolism. Genome-based functional studies revealed the specific capability of B. endophyticus in sporulation, transcription regulation, environmental resistance, membrane transportation, extracellular proteins and nutrients synthesis, which would be beneficial for K. vulgare. In particular, B. endophyticus lacks the Rap-Phr signal cascade system and, in part, spore coat related proteins. In addition, it has specific pathways for vitamin B12 synthesis and sorbitol metabolism. The genome analysis of the industrial B. endophyticus will help us understand its cooperative mechanism in the K. vulgare-Bacillus strain consortium to improve the fermentation of vitamin C. PMID:26248285

  19. Genome Sequence of Bacillus endophyticus and Analysis of Its Companion Mechanism in the Ketogulonigenium vulgare-Bacillus Strain Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Nan; Du, Jin; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus strains have been widely used as the companion strain of Ketogulonigenium vulgare in the process of vitamin C fermentation. Different Bacillus strains generate different effects on the growth of K. vulgare and ultimately influence the productivity. First, we identified that Bacillus endophyticus Hbe603 was an appropriate strain to cooperate with K. vulgare and the product conversion rate exceeded 90% in industrial vitamin C fermentation. Here, we report the genome sequencing of the B. endophyticus Hbe603 industrial companion strain and speculate its possible advantage in the consortium. The circular chromosome of B. endophyticus Hbe603 has a size of 4.87 Mb with GC content of 36.64% and has the highest similarity with that of Bacillus megaterium among all the bacteria with complete genomes. By comparing the distribution of COGs with that of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus and B. megaterium, B. endophyticus has less genes related to cell envelope biogenesis and signal transduction mechanisms, and more genes related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, as well as lipid transport and metabolism. Genome-based functional studies revealed the specific capability of B. endophyticus in sporulation, transcription regulation, environmental resistance, membrane transportation, extracellular proteins and nutrients synthesis, which would be beneficial for K. vulgare. In particular, B. endophyticus lacks the Rap-Phr signal cascade system and, in part, spore coat related proteins. In addition, it has specific pathways for vitamin B12 synthesis and sorbitol metabolism. The genome analysis of the industrial B. endophyticus will help us understand its cooperative mechanism in the K. vulgare-Bacillus strain consortium to improve the fermentation of vitamin C. PMID:26248285

  20. Architecture and High-Resolution Structure of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus Spore Coat Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Plomp, M; Leighton, T; Wheeler, K; Malkin, A

    2005-02-18

    We have utilized atomic force microscopy (AFM) to visualize the native surface topology and ultrastructure of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus spores in water and in air. AFM was able to resolve the nanostructure of the exosporium and three distinctive classes of appendages. Removal of the exosporium exposed either a hexagonal honeycomb layer (B. thuringiensis) or a rodlet outer spore coat layer (B. cereus). Removal of the rodlet structure from B. cereus spores revealed an underlying honeycomb layer similar to that observed with B. thuringiensis spores. The periodicity of the rodlet structure on the outer spore coat of B. cereus was {approx}8 nm, and the length of the rodlets was limited to the cross-patched domain structure of this layer to {approx}200 nm. The lattice constant of the honeycomb structures was {approx}9 nm for both B. cereus and B. thuringiensis spores. Both honeycomb structures were composed of multiple, disoriented domains with distinct boundaries. Our results demonstrate that variations in storage and preparation procedures result in architectural changes in individual spore surfaces, which establish AFM as a useful tool for evaluation of preparation and processing ''fingerprints'' of bacterial spores. These results establish that high-resolution AFM has the capacity to reveal species-specific assembly and nanometer scale structure of spore surfaces. These species-specific spore surface structural variations are correlated with sequence divergences in a spore core structural protein SspE.

  1. Characterization of the sacQ genes from Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Amory, A; Kunst, F; Aubert, E; Klier, A; Rapoport, G

    1987-01-01

    The sacQ gene from Bacillus licheniformis was cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis. Deletion analysis shows that it encodes a 46-amino-acid polypeptide homologous to the B. subtilis sacQ gene product. The polypeptide, when it is overexpressed, activates the expression of a number of target genes in B. subtilis, all encoding secreted enzymes: alkaline protease, levansucrase, beta-glucanase(s), xylanase, and alpha-amylase. The maximum stimulations measured for alkaline protease and levansucrase were by a factor of 70 and 50, respectively, when the sacQ gene from B. licheniformis was present on a multicopy plasmid in B. subtilis. The sacQ genes from B. subtilis and B. licheniformis, cloned in the same multicopy plasmid, were compared under the same conditions. The sacQ gene from B. licheniformis was more efficient than the sacQ gene from B. subtilis in producing the hypersecretion phenotype. The sacQ structural genes from B. subtilis and B. licheniformis were placed under the control of the same inducible promoter. Hypersecretion was specifically obtained under conditions of full induction of the promoter. The target site of levansucrase regulation by sacQ was identified as a 440-base-pair fragment located in the 5' noncoding region of sacB, suggesting transcriptional control. Images PMID:3098732

  2. Extended genetic analysis of Brazilian isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    Zahner, Viviane; Silva, Ana Carolina Telles de Carvalho e; de Moraes, Gabriela Pinhel; McIntosh, Douglas; de Filippis, Ivano

    2013-01-01

    Multiple locus sequence typing (MLST) was undertaken to extend the genetic characterization of 29 isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis previously characterized in terms of presence/absence of sequences encoding virulence factors and via variable number tandem repeat (VNTR). Additional analysis involved polymerase chain reaction for the presence of sequences (be, cytK, inA, pag, lef, cya and cap), encoding putative virulence factors, not investigated in the earlier study. MLST analysis ascribed novel and unique sequence types to each of the isolates. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from a single sequence of 2,838 bp of concatenated loci sequences. The strains were not monophyletic by analysis of any specific housekeeping gene or virulence characteristic. No clear association in relation to source of isolation or to genotypic profile based on the presence or absence of putative virulence genes could be identified. Comparison of VNTR profiling with MLST data suggested a correlation between these two methods of genetic analysis. In common with the majority of previous studies, MLST was unable to provide clarification of the basis for pathogenicity among members of the B. cereus complex. Nevertheless, our application of MLST served to reinforce the notion that B. cereus and B. thuringiensis should be considered as the same species. PMID:23440117

  3. Occurrence of Toxigenic Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in Doenjang, a Korean Fermented Soybean Paste.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung Min; Kim, Hyun Jung; Jeong, Moon Cheol; Koo, Minseon

    2016-04-01

    This study determined the prevalence and toxin profile of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in doenjang, a fermented soybean food, made using both traditional and commercial methods. The 51 doenjang samples tested were broadly contaminated with B. cereus; in contrast, only one sample was positive for B. thuringiensis. All B. cereus isolates from doenjang were positive for diarrheal toxin genes. The frequencies of nheABC and hblACD in traditional samples were 22.7 and 0%, respectively, whereas 5.1 and 5.1% of B. cereus isolates from commercial samples possessed nheABC and hblACD, respectively. The detection rate of ces gene was 10.8%. The predominant toxin profile among isolates from enterotoxigenic B. cereus in doenjang was profile 4 (entFM-bceT-cytK). The major enterotoxin genes in emetic B. cereus were cytK, entFM, and nheA genes. The B. thuringiensis isolate was of the diarrheagenic type. These results provide a better understanding of the epidemiology of the enterotoxigenic and emetic B. cereus groups in Korean fermented soybean products. PMID:27052865

  4. The Bacillus anthracis Exosporium: What's the Big "Hairy" Deal?

    PubMed

    Bozue, Joel A; Welkos, Susan; Cote, Christopher K

    2015-10-01

    In some Bacillus species, including Bacillus subtilis, the coat is the outermost layer of the spore. In others, such as the Bacillus cereus family, there is an additional layer that envelops the coat, called the exosporium. In the case of Bacillus anthracis, a series of fine hair-like projections, also referred to as a "hairy" nap, extends from the exosporium basal layer. The exact role of the exosporium in B. anthracis, or for any of the Bacillus species possessing this structure, remains unclear. However, it has been assumed that the exosporium would play some role in infection for B. anthracis, because it is the outermost structure of the spore and would make initial contact with host and immune cells during infection. Therefore, the exosporium has been a topic of great interest, and over the past decade much progress has been made to understand its composition, biosynthesis, and potential roles. Several key aspects of this spore structure, however, are still debated and remain undetermined. Although insights have been gained on the interaction of exosporium with the host during infection, the exact role and significance of this complex structure remain to be determined. Furthermore, because the exosporium is a highly antigenic structure, future strategies for the next-generation anthrax vaccine should pursue its inclusion as a component to provide protection against the spore itself during the initial stages of anthrax. PMID:26542035

  5. Bacillus as a potential diagnostic marker for yellow tongue coating.

    PubMed

    Ye, Juan; Cai, Xueting; Yang, Jie; Sun, Xiaoyan; Hu, Chunping; Xia, Junquan; Shen, Jianping; Su, Kelei; Yan, Huaijiang; Xu, Yuehua; Zhang, Yiyan; Zhang, Sujie; Yang, Lijun; Zhi, Hao; Gao, Sizhi Paul; Yu, Qiang; Hu, Jingqing; Cao, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Observation of tongue coating, a foundation for clinical diagnosis and treatment in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is a major indicator of the occurrence, development, and prognosis of disease. The biological basis of tongue diagnosis and relationship between the types and microorganisms of tongue coating remain elusive. Thirteen chronic erosive gastritis (CEG) patients with typical yellow tongue coating (YTC) and ten healthy volunteers with thin white tongue coating (WTC) were included in this study. Patients were provided a 2-course targeted treatment of a herbal medicine Ban Xia Xie Xin decoction, traditionally prescribed for CEG patients with YTC, to evaluate the relationship between tongue coating microbiota and diagnosis of CEG with typical YTC. The tongue coating segregation structure was determined using Illumina Miseq sequencing of the V4-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Bacillus was significantly observed only in CEG patients with YTC, but not in patients who received the decoction. YTC (n = 22) and WTC (n = 29) samples were collected for bacterial culturing to illustrate the relationship between Bacillus and YTC. The Bacillus positivity rate of YTC samples was 72.7%; Bacillus was not observed in WTC samples. In conclusion, Bacillus was strongly associated with YTC. PMID:27578261

  6. Bacillus anthracis Lethal Toxin Reduces Human Alveolar Epithelial Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Marybeth; Duggan, Elizabeth Stewart; Booth, John Leland; Patel, Vineet Indrajit; Zander, Ryan A.; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Ramani, Vijay; Veres, Tibor Zoltan; Prenzler, Frauke; Sewald, Katherina; Williams, Daniel M.; Coggeshall, Kenneth Mark; Awasthi, Shanjana; Lupu, Florea; Burian, Dennis; Ballard, Jimmy Dale; Braun, Armin

    2012-01-01

    The lung is the site of entry for Bacillus anthracis in inhalation anthrax, the deadliest form of the disease. Bacillus anthracis produces virulence toxins required for disease. Alveolar macrophages were considered the primary target of the Bacillus anthracis virulence factor lethal toxin because lethal toxin inhibits mouse macrophages through cleavage of MEK signaling pathway components, but we have reported that human alveolar macrophages are not a target of lethal toxin. Our current results suggest that, unlike human alveolar macrophages, the cells lining the respiratory units of the lung, alveolar epithelial cells, are a target of lethal toxin in humans. Alveolar epithelial cells expressed lethal toxin receptor protein, bound the protective antigen component of lethal toxin, and were subject to lethal-toxin-induced cleavage of multiple MEKs. These findings suggest that human alveolar epithelial cells are a target of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin. Further, no reduction in alveolar epithelial cell viability was observed, but lethal toxin caused actin rearrangement and impaired desmosome formation, consistent with impaired barrier function as well as reduced surfactant production. Therefore, by compromising epithelial barrier function, lethal toxin may play a role in the pathogenesis of inhalation anthrax by facilitating the dissemination of Bacillus anthracis from the lung in early disease and promoting edema in late stages of the illness. PMID:23027535

  7. Characterization of Bacillus Probiotics Available for Human Use

    PubMed Central

    Duc, Le H.; Hong, Huynh A.; Barbosa, Teresa M.; Henriques, Adriano O.; Cutting, Simon M.

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus species (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus clausii, Bacillus pumilus) carried in five commercial probiotic products consisting of bacterial spores were characterized for potential attributes (colonization, immunostimulation, and antimicrobial activity) that could account for their claimed probiotic properties. Three B. cereus strains were shown to persist in the mouse gastrointestinal tract for up to 18 days postadministration, demonstrating that these organisms have some ability to colonize. Spores of one B. cereus strain were extremely sensitive to simulated gastric conditions and simulated intestinal fluids. Spores of all strains were immunogenic when they were given orally to mice, but the B. pumilus strain was found to generate particularly high anti-spore immunoglobulin G titers. Spores of B. pumilus and of a laboratory strain of B. subtilis were found to induce the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in a cultured macrophage cell line, and in vivo, spores of B. pumilus and B. subtilis induced the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha and the Th1 cytokine gamma interferon. The B. pumilus strain and one B. cereus strain (B. cereus var. vietnami) were found to produce a bacteriocin-like activity against other Bacillus species. The results that provided evidence of colonization, immunostimulation, and antimicrobial activity support the hypothesis that the organisms have a potential probiotic effect. However, the three B. cereus strains were also found to produce the Hbl and Nhe enterotoxins, which makes them unsafe for human use. PMID:15066809

  8. Bacillus as a potential diagnostic marker for yellow tongue coating

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Juan; Cai, Xueting; Yang, Jie; Sun, Xiaoyan; Hu, Chunping; Xia, Junquan; Shen, Jianping; Su, Kelei; Yan, Huaijiang; Xu, Yuehua; Zhang, Yiyan; Zhang, Sujie; Yang, Lijun; Zhi, Hao; Gao, Sizhi Paul; Yu, Qiang; Hu, Jingqing; Cao, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Observation of tongue coating, a foundation for clinical diagnosis and treatment in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is a major indicator of the occurrence, development, and prognosis of disease. The biological basis of tongue diagnosis and relationship between the types and microorganisms of tongue coating remain elusive. Thirteen chronic erosive gastritis (CEG) patients with typical yellow tongue coating (YTC) and ten healthy volunteers with thin white tongue coating (WTC) were included in this study. Patients were provided a 2-course targeted treatment of a herbal medicine Ban Xia Xie Xin decoction, traditionally prescribed for CEG patients with YTC, to evaluate the relationship between tongue coating microbiota and diagnosis of CEG with typical YTC. The tongue coating segregation structure was determined using Illumina Miseq sequencing of the V4–V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Bacillus was significantly observed only in CEG patients with YTC, but not in patients who received the decoction. YTC (n = 22) and WTC (n = 29) samples were collected for bacterial culturing to illustrate the relationship between Bacillus and YTC. The Bacillus positivity rate of YTC samples was 72.7%; Bacillus was not observed in WTC samples. In conclusion, Bacillus was strongly associated with YTC. PMID:27578261

  9. Induction of natural competence in Bacillus cereus ATCC14579

    PubMed Central

    Mirończuk, Aleksandra M.; Kovács, Ákos T.; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Natural competence is the ability of certain microbes to take up exogenous DNA from the environment and integrate it in their genome. Competence development has been described for a variety of bacteria, but has so far not been shown to occur in Bacillus cereus. However, orthologues of most proteins involved in natural DNA uptake in Bacillus subtiliscould be identified in B. cereus. Here, we report that B. cereus ATCC14579 can become naturally competent. When expressing the B. subtilis ComK protein using an IPTG‐inducible system in B. cereus ATCC14579, cells grown in minimal medium displayed natural competence, as either genomic DNA or plasmid DNA was shown to be taken up by the cells and integrated into the genome or stably maintained respectively. This work proves that a sufficient structural system for DNA uptake exists in B. cereus. Bacillus cereus can be employed as a model system to investigate the mechanism of DNA uptake in related bacteria such as Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis. Moreover, natural competence provides an important tool for biotechnology, as it will allow more efficient transformation of B. cereus and related organisms, e.g. to knockout genes in a high‐throughput way. PMID:21261842

  10. Characterization of Bacillus probiotics available for human use.

    PubMed

    Duc, Le H; Hong, Huynh A; Barbosa, Teresa M; Henriques, Adriano O; Cutting, Simon M

    2004-04-01

    Bacillus species (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus clausii, Bacillus pumilus) carried in five commercial probiotic products consisting of bacterial spores were characterized for potential attributes (colonization, immunostimulation, and antimicrobial activity) that could account for their claimed probiotic properties. Three B. cereus strains were shown to persist in the mouse gastrointestinal tract for up to 18 days postadministration, demonstrating that these organisms have some ability to colonize. Spores of one B. cereus strain were extremely sensitive to simulated gastric conditions and simulated intestinal fluids. Spores of all strains were immunogenic when they were given orally to mice, but the B. pumilus strain was found to generate particularly high anti-spore immunoglobulin G titers. Spores of B. pumilus and of a laboratory strain of B. subtilis were found to induce the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 in a cultured macrophage cell line, and in vivo, spores of B. pumilus and B. subtilis induced the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha and the Th1 cytokine gamma interferon. The B. pumilus strain and one B. cereus strain (B. cereus var. vietnami) were found to produce a bacteriocin-like activity against other Bacillus species. The results that provided evidence of colonization, immunostimulation, and antimicrobial activity support the hypothesis that the organisms have a potential probiotic effect. However, the three B. cereus strains were also found to produce the Hbl and Nhe enterotoxins, which makes them unsafe for human use. PMID:15066809

  11. 40 CFR 180.1128 - Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1128 Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of... biofungicide Bacillus subtilis MBI 600 in or on all food commodities, including residues resulting from...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1128 - Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1128 Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of... biofungicide Bacillus subtilis MBI 600 in or on all food commodities, including residues resulting from...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1128 - Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1128 Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of... biofungicide Bacillus subtilis MBI 600 in or on all food commodities, including residues resulting from...

  14. Characterization of endophytic strains of Bacillus mojavensis and their production of surfactin isomers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus subtilis consists of a large collection of strains from which several cryptic species have been delineated, and most of these along with strains within the species are important biocontrol agents. Bacillus mojavensis, a species recently distinguished from this broad Bacillus subtilis grou...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1111 - Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1111 Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biofungicide Bacillus subtilis GB03 is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1128 - Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1128 Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of... biofungicide Bacillus subtilis MBI 600 in or on all food commodities, including residues resulting from...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1111 - Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1111 Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biofungicide Bacillus subtilis GB03 is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1128 - Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1128 Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of... biofungicide Bacillus subtilis MBI 600 in or on all food commodities, including residues resulting from...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1202 - Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1202 Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticides, Bacillus sphaericus when used in or on all food crops....

  20. 40 CFR 180.1224 - Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1224 Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticide Bacillus pumilus GB34 when used as a seed treatment in or on all food commodities. An exemption...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1282 - Bacillus firmus I-1582; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus firmus I-1582; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1282 Bacillus firmus I-1582; exemption from the requirement of a..., for residues of Bacillus firmus I-1582 when used as a soil application or seed treatment....

  2. 40 CFR 180.1269 - Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1269 Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Bacillus mycoides isolate J is temporarily exempt from the requirement of a...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1202 - Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1202 Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticides, Bacillus sphaericus when used in or on all food crops....

  4. 40 CFR 180.1224 - Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1224 Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticide Bacillus pumilus GB34 when used as a seed treatment in or on all food commodities. An exemption...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1282 - Bacillus firmus I-1582; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus firmus I-1582; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1282 Bacillus firmus I-1582; exemption from the requirement of a..., for residues of Bacillus firmus I-1582 when used as a soil application or seed treatment....

  6. 40 CFR 180.1269 - Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1269 Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Bacillus mycoides isolate J is temporarily exempt from the requirement of a...

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus cereus Group Phage TsarBomba

    PubMed Central

    Erill, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus group bacteriophage TsarBomba, a double-stranded DNA Myoviridae, was isolated from soil collected in Saratov, Russia. TsarBomba was found to be similar to Bacillus phages BCP78 and BCU4, and to have a wide host range among Bacillus cereus group species. PMID:26472830

  8. Genome Sequence of Antibiotic-Producing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain KCTC 13012

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    We report the 4.0-Mb draft genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (syn. Bacillus velezensis) KCTC 13012, which exhibits a broad spectrum of antagonistic activity against bacteria and fungi and promotes plant growth as well. The genome contains an array of biosynthetic gene clusters for secondary metabolites that are comparable to those in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42T. PMID:26430040

  9. Bacillus Strains Most Closely Related to Bacillus nealsonii Are Not Effectively Circumscribed within the Taxonomic Species Definition.

    PubMed

    Peak, K Kealy; Duncan, Kathleen E; Luna, Vicki A; King, Debra S; McCarthy, Peter J; Cannons, Andrew C

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus strains with >99.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity were characterized with DNA:DNA hybridization, cellular fatty acid (CFA) analysis, and testing of 100 phenotypic traits. When paired with the most closely related type strain, percent DNA:DNA similarities (% S) for six Bacillus strains were all far below the recommended 70% threshold value for species circumscription with Bacillus nealsonii. An apparent genomic group of four Bacillus strain pairings with 94%-70% S was contradicted by the failure of the strains to cluster in CFA- and phenotype-based dendrograms as well as by their differentiation with 9-13 species level discriminators such as nitrate reduction, temperature range, and acid production from carbohydrates. The novel Bacillus strains were monophyletic and very closely related based on 16S rRNA gene sequence. Coherent genomic groups were not however supported by similarly organized phenotypic clusters. Therefore, the strains were not effectively circumscribed within the taxonomic species definition. PMID:22046187

  10. Bacillus Strains Most Closely Related to Bacillus nealsonii Are Not Effectively Circumscribed within the Taxonomic Species Definition

    PubMed Central

    Peak, K. Kealy; Duncan, Kathleen E.; Luna, Vicki A.; King, Debra S.; McCarthy, Peter J.; Cannons, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus strains with >99.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity were characterized with DNA:DNA hybridization, cellular fatty acid (CFA) analysis, and testing of 100 phenotypic traits. When paired with the most closely related type strain, percent DNA:DNA similarities (% S) for six Bacillus strains were all far below the recommended 70% threshold value for species circumscription with Bacillus nealsonii. An apparent genomic group of four Bacillus strain pairings with 94%–70% S was contradicted by the failure of the strains to cluster in CFA- and phenotype-based dendrograms as well as by their differentiation with 9–13 species level discriminators such as nitrate reduction, temperature range, and acid production from carbohydrates. The novel Bacillus strains were monophyletic and very closely related based on 16S rRNA gene sequence. Coherent genomic groups were not however supported by similarly organized phenotypic clusters. Therefore, the strains were not effectively circumscribed within the taxonomic species definition. PMID:22046187

  11. Bacillus atrophaeus: main characteristics and biotechnological applications - a review.

    PubMed

    Sella, Sandra R B R; Vandenberghe, Luciana P S; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The genus Bacillus includes a great diversity of industrially important strains, including Bacillus atrophaeus (formerly Bacillus subtilis var. niger). This spore-forming bacterium has been established as industrial bacteria in the production of biological indicators for sterilization, in studies of biodefense and astrobiology methods as well as disinfection agents, in treatment evaluation and as potential adjuvants or vehicles for vaccines, among other applications. This review covers an overview of the fundamental aspects of the B. atrophaeus that have been studied to date. Although the emphasis is placed on recent findings, basic information's such as multicellularity and growth characteristics, spore structure and lifecycle are described. The wide biotechnological application of B. atrophaeus spores, including vegetative cells, is briefly demonstrated, highlighting their use as a biological indicator of sterilization or disinfection. PMID:24963702

  12. Class I and Class II Lanthipeptides Produced by Bacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Joana; Caetano, Tânia; Mendo, Sónia

    2015-11-25

    The increasing number of multidrug-resistant pathogens, along with the small number of new antimicrobials under development, leads to an increased need for novel alternatives. Class I and class II lanthipeptides (also known as lantibiotics) have been considered promising alternatives to classical antibiotics. In addition to their relevant medical applications, they are used as probiotics, prophylactics, preservatives, and additives in cosmetics and personal-care products. The genus Bacillus is a prolific source of bioactive compounds including ribosomally and nonribosomally synthesized antibacterial peptides. Accordingly, there is significant interest in the biotechnological potential of members of the genus Bacillus as producers of antimicrobial lanthipeptides. The present review focuses on aspects of the biosynthesis, gene cluster organization, structure, antibacterial spectrum, and bioengineering approaches of lanthipeptides produced by Bacillus strains. Their efficacy and potency against some clinically relevant strains, including MRSA and VRE, are also discussed. Although no lanthipeptides are currently in clinical use, the information herein highlights the potential of these compounds. PMID:26448102

  13. Bacillus cereus food poisoning: international and Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Anita; Abdullah, Swaid

    2015-05-01

    Food borne illnesses result from eating food or drinking beverages that are contaminated with chemical matter, heavy metals, parasites, fungi, viruses and Bacteria. Bacillus cereus is one of the food-borne disease causing Bacteria. Species of Bacillus and related genera have long been troublesome to food producers on account of their resistant endospores. Their spores may be present on various types of raw and cooked foods, and their ability to survive high cooking temperatures requires that cooked foods be served hot or cooled rapidly to prevent the growth of this bacteria. Bacillus cereus is well known as a cause of food poisoning, and much more is now known about the toxins produced by various strains of this species, so that its significance in such episodes are clearer. However, it is still unclear why such cases are so rarely reported worldwide. PMID:25892750

  14. Whole Genome Phylogeny of Bacillus by Feature Frequency Profiles (FFP)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Aisuo; Ash, Gavin J.

    2015-01-01

    Fifty complete Bacillus genome sequences and associated plasmids were compared using the “feature frequency profile” (FFP) method. The resulting whole-genome phylogeny supports the placement of three Bacillus species (B. thuringiensis, B. anthracis and B. cereus) as a single clade. The monophyletic status of B. anthracis was strongly supported by the analysis. FFP proved to be more effective in inferring the phylogeny of Bacillus than methods based on single gene sequences [16s rRNA gene, GryB (gyrase subunit B) and AroE (shikimate-5-dehydrogenase)] analyses. The findings of FFP analysis were verified using kSNP v2 (alignment-free sequence analysis method) and Harvest suite (core genome sequence alignment method).

  15. Identification and Pathogenic Potential of Clinical Bacillus and Paenibacillus Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Celandroni, Francesco; Salvetti, Sara; Gueye, Sokhna Aissatou; Mazzantini, Diletta; Lupetti, Antonella; Senesi, Sonia; Ghelardi, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    The soil-related Bacillus and Paenibacillus species have increasingly been implicated in various human diseases. Nevertheless, their identification still poses problems in the clinical microbiology laboratory and, with the exception of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, little is known on their pathogenicity for humans. In this study, we evaluated the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption—ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in the identification of clinical isolates of these genera and conducted genotypic and phenotypic analyses to highlight specific virulence properties. Seventy-five clinical isolates were subjected to biochemical and MALDI-TOF MS identification. 16S rDNA sequencing and supplemental tests were used to solve any discrepancies or failures in the identification results. MALDI-TOF MS significantly outperformed classical biochemical testing for correct species identification and no misidentification was obtained. One third of the collected strains belonged to the B. cereus species, but also Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated at high rate. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that all the B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. simplex, B. mycoides, Paenibacillus glucanolyticus and Paenibacillus lautus isolates are resistant to penicillin. The evaluation of toxin/enzyme secretion, toxin-encoding genes, motility, and biofilm formation revealed that B. cereus displays the highest virulence potential. However, although generally considered nonpathogenic, most of the other species were shown to swim, swarm, produce biofilms, and secrete proteases that can have a role in bacterial virulence. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS appears useful for fast and accurate identification of Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains whose virulence properties make them of increasing clinical relevance. PMID:27031639

  16. Identification and Pathogenic Potential of Clinical Bacillus and Paenibacillus Isolates.

    PubMed

    Celandroni, Francesco; Salvetti, Sara; Gueye, Sokhna Aissatou; Mazzantini, Diletta; Lupetti, Antonella; Senesi, Sonia; Ghelardi, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    The soil-related Bacillus and Paenibacillus species have increasingly been implicated in various human diseases. Nevertheless, their identification still poses problems in the clinical microbiology laboratory and, with the exception of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, little is known on their pathogenicity for humans. In this study, we evaluated the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in the identification of clinical isolates of these genera and conducted genotypic and phenotypic analyses to highlight specific virulence properties. Seventy-five clinical isolates were subjected to biochemical and MALDI-TOF MS identification. 16S rDNA sequencing and supplemental tests were used to solve any discrepancies or failures in the identification results. MALDI-TOF MS significantly outperformed classical biochemical testing for correct species identification and no misidentification was obtained. One third of the collected strains belonged to the B. cereus species, but also Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated at high rate. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that all the B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. simplex, B. mycoides, Paenibacillus glucanolyticus and Paenibacillus lautus isolates are resistant to penicillin. The evaluation of toxin/enzyme secretion, toxin-encoding genes, motility, and biofilm formation revealed that B. cereus displays the highest virulence potential. However, although generally considered nonpathogenic, most of the other species were shown to swim, swarm, produce biofilms, and secrete proteases that can have a role in bacterial virulence. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS appears useful for fast and accurate identification of Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains whose virulence properties make them of increasing clinical relevance. PMID:27031639

  17. The sigma factors of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Haldenwang, W G

    1995-01-01

    The specificity of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase for target promotes is largely due to the replaceable sigma subunit that it carries. Multiple sigma proteins, each conferring a unique promoter preference on RNA polymerase, are likely to be present in all bacteria; however, their abundance and diversity have been best characterized in Bacillus subtilis, the bacterium in which multiple sigma factors were first discovered. The 10 sigma factors thus far identified in B. subtilis directly contribute to the bacterium's ability to control gene expression. These proteins are not merely necessary for the expression of those operons whose promoters they recognize; in many instances, their appearance within the cell is sufficient to activate these operons. This review describes the discovery of each of the known B. subtilis sigma factors, their characteristics, the regulons they direct, and the complex restrictions placed on their synthesis and activities. These controls include the anticipated transcriptional regulation that modulates the expression of the sigma factor structural genes but, in the case of several of the B. subtilis sigma factors, go beyond this, adding novel posttranslational restraints on sigma factor activity. Two of the sigma factors (sigma E and sigma K) are, for example, synthesized as inactive precursor proteins. Their activities are kept in check by "pro-protein" sequences which are cleaved from the precursor molecules in response to intercellular cues. Other sigma factors (sigma B, sigma F, and sigma G) are inhibited by "anti-sigma factor" proteins that sequester them into complexes which block their ability to form RNA polymerase holoenzymes. The anti-sigma factors are, in turn, opposed by additional proteins which participate in the sigma factors' release. The devices used to control sigma factor activity in B, subtilis may prove to be as widespread as multiple sigma factors themselves, providing ways of coupling sigma factor activation to

  18. The Fnr Regulon of Bacillus subtilis†

    PubMed Central

    Reents, Heike; Münch, Richard; Dammeyer, Thorben; Jahn, Dieter; Härtig, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis transcriptional regulator Fnr is an integral part of the regulatory cascade required for the adaptation of the bacterium to low oxygen tension. The B. subtilis Fnr regulon was defined via transcriptomic analysis in combination with bioinformatic-based binding site prediction. Four distinct groups of Fnr-dependent genes were observed. Group 1 genes (narKfnr, narGHJI, and arfM) are generally induced by Fnr under anaerobic conditions. All corresponding promoters contain an essential Fnr-binding site centered −41.5/−40.5 bp upstream of the transcriptional start point, suggesting their induction by direct Fnr interaction. Group 2 genes (alsSD, ldh lctP, ywcJ, and cydABCD) are characterized by anaerobic repression in the presence of nitrate. Mutational analysis of the Fnr-binding sites found in three of the corresponding promoters excluded their function in Fnr-mediated repression. Genetic evidence showing that group 2 genes are anaerobically repressed by nitrate reductase formation was accumulated. A possible role of the redox regulator YdiH in the regulation of group 2 genes was initially investigated. Group 3 genes are characterized by their Fnr-dependent activation in the presence of nitrate and the lack of an Fnr-binding site in their promoters. The analysis of Group 3 gene transcription (ykuNOP and ydbN) indicated that Fnr induces nitrate reductase production, which leads to the formation of the regulatory compound nitrite from nitrate. Finally, the group 4 operon acoABCL, lacking an Fnr-binding site, requires Fnr-dependent nitrate reductase formation for its general anaerobic induction. A regulatory model for the observed complex Fnr-mediated gene expression was deduced. PMID:16428414

  19. Study of the Bacillus flora of Nigerian spices.

    PubMed

    Antai, S P

    1988-05-01

    Bacteriological examination of 230 samples of five different unprocessed spices (aligator pepper, red pepper, black pepper, thyme and curry powder) collected randomly from Port Harcourt main markets revealed that the spices were highly contaminated, with bacterial counts ranging from 1.8 x 10(4) to 1.1 x 10(8) per gram. Bacillus cereus was isolated in high numbers in the majority of the 230 samples examined. It was also observed that other Bacillus spp. including B. subtilis, B. polymyxa and B. coagulans occurred in significant numbers. PMID:3275301

  20. Developments in the use of Bacillus species for industrial production.

    PubMed

    Schallmey, Marcus; Singh, Ajay; Ward, Owen P

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus species continue to be dominant bacterial workhorses in microbial fermentations. Bacillus subtilis (natto) is the key microbial participant in the ongoing production of the soya-based traditional natto fermentation, and some Bacillus species are on the Food and Drug Administration's GRAS (generally regarded as safe) list. The capacity of selected Bacillus strains to produce and secrete large quantities (20-25 g/L) of extracellular enzymes has placed them among the most important industrial enzyme producers. The ability of different species to ferment in the acid, neutral, and alkaline pH ranges, combined with the presence of thermophiles in the genus, has lead to the development of a variety of new commercial enzyme products with the desired temperature, pH activity, and stability properties to address a variety of specific applications. Classical mutation and (or) selection techniques, together with advanced cloning and protein engineering strategies, have been exploited to develop these products. Efforts to produce and secrete high yields of foreign recombinant proteins in Bacillus hosts initially appeared to be hampered by the degradation of the products by the host proteases. Recent studies have revealed that the slow folding of heterologous proteins at the membrane-cell wall interface of Gram-positive bacteria renders them vulnerable to attack by wall-associated proteases. In addition, the presence of thiol-disulphide oxidoreductases in B. subtilis may be beneficial in the secretion of disulphide-bond-containing proteins. Such developments from our understanding of the complex protein translocation machinery of Gram-positive bacteria should allow the resolution of current secretion challenges and make Bacillus species preeminent hosts for heterologous protein production. Bacillus strains have also been developed and engineered as industrial producers of nucleotides, the vitamin riboflavin, the flavor agent ribose, and the supplement poly

  1. Phenotypic characterization of food waste degrading Bacillus strains isolated from aerobic bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria Teresa Saraiva Lopes da; Espírito Santo, Fátima; Pereira, Pablo Tavares; Roseiro, José Carlos Pereira

    2006-01-01

    A phenotypic characterization of seventeen Bacillus strains isolated from aerobic thermophilic bioreactors of a food waste processing company was carried out, using fatty acid and enzymatic activity profiles. It was observed that each species possessed a typical fatty acid and enzymatic production profile. Bacillus licheniformis strains exhibited the most significant enzyme production. Numerical analyses (principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses) revealed that Bacillus licheniformis strains were homogeneous regarding their fatty acid profiles whilst B. subtilis and Bacillus pumilus strains showed some phenotypic differences. However, enzymatic activities numerical analyses indicated that these three Bacillus species were more homogeneous regarding this phenotypic characteristic. PMID:16463317

  2. Effect of oral administration of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9 strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Lopamudra; Gandhi, D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of oral administration of two Bacillus strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model. Materials and Methods: An in vivo experiment was conducted for 49-day period on 36 adult male albino Wister rats divided equally into to four groups. After 7-day adaptation period, one group (T1) was fed on sterile skim milk along with basal diet for the next 28 days. Second (T2) and (T3) groups received spore biomass of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9, respectively, suspended in sterilized skim milk at 8-9 log colony-forming units/ml plus basal diet for 28 days, while control group (T4) was supplied with clean water along with basal diet. There was a 14-day post-treatment period. A total of 288 fecal samples (8 fecal collections per rat) were collected at every 7-day interval starting from 0 to 49 days and subjected to the enumeration of the counts of coliforms and lactobacilli and Bacillus spores using respective agar media. In vitro acid and bile tolerance tests on both the strains were performed. Results: The rats those (T2 and T3) received either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 spore along with non-fermented skim milk showed decrease (p<0.01) in fecal coliform counts and increase (p<0.05) in both fecal lactobacilli and Bacillus spore counts as compared to the control group (T4) and the group fed only skim milk (T1). In vitro study indicated that both the strains were found to survive at pH 2.0 and 3.0 even up to 3 h and tolerate bile up to 2.0% concentration even after 12 h of exposure. Conclusions: This study revealed that oral administration of either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 strains might be useful in reducing coliform counts accompanied by concurrent increase in lactobacilli counts in the intestinal flora in rats. PMID:27536040

  3. Taxonomic description and genome sequence of Bacillus campisalis sp. nov., a member of the genus Bacillus isolated from a solar saltern.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajendran Mathan; Kaur, Gurwinder; Kumar, Anand; Bala, Monu; Singh, Nitin Kumar; Kaur, Navjot; Kumar, Narender; Mayilraj, Shanmugam

    2015-10-01

    The taxonomic position of a Gram-stain positive bacterium isolated from a solar saltern sample collected from Kanyakumari, coastal region of the Bay of Bengal, India, was analysed by using a polyphasic approach. The isolated strain, designated SA2-6T, had phenotypic characteristics that matched those of the genus Bacillus. The 16S rRNA gene sequence (1493 bases) of the novel strain was compared with those of previously studied Bacillus type strains and confirmed that the strain belongs to the genus Bacillus and was moderately closely related to the type strain of Bacillus foraminis at 97.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, followed by those of Bacillus thioparans (96.9 %), Bacillus subterraneus (96.8 %), Bacillus jeotgali (96.6 %), Bacillus selenatarsenatis (96.6 %) and Bacillus boroniphilus (96.6 %). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain SA2-6T differs from all other species of the genus Bacillus by at least 2.5 %. It contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone, meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic cell-wall diamino acid, and iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0 as major fatty acids. Major lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Based on data from this polyphasic study, strain SA2-6T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus campisalis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SA2-6T ( = MTCC 11848T = DSM 28801T). The draft genome of strain SA2-6T consisted of 5 183 363 bp with G+C content of 45.44 mol%, 5352 predicted coding sequences, 191 RNAs and 479 subsystems. PMID:26296567

  4. Differentiation of Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus safensis Using MALDI-TOF-MS

    PubMed Central

    Branquinho, Raquel; Sousa, Clara; Lopes, João; Pintado, Manuela E.; Peixe, Luísa V.; Osório, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) despite being increasingly used as a method for microbial identification, still present limitations in which concerns the differentiation of closely related species. Bacillus pumillus and Bacillus safensis, are species of biotechnological and pharmaceutical significance, difficult to differentiate by conventional methodologies. In this study, using a well-characterized collection of B. pumillus and B. safensis isolates, we demonstrated the suitability of MALDI-TOF-MS combined with chemometrics to accurately and rapidly identify them. Moreover, characteristic species-specific ion masses were tentatively assigned, using UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and UniProtKB/TrEMBL databases and primary literature. Delineation of B. pumilus (ions at m/z 5271 and 6122) and B. safensis (ions at m/z 5288, 5568 and 6413) species were supported by a congruent characteristic protein pattern. Moreover, using a chemometric approach, the score plot created by partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA) of mass spectra demonstrated the presence of two individualized clusters, each one enclosing isolates belonging to a species-specific spectral group. The generated pool of species-specific proteins comprised mostly ribosomal and SASPs proteins. Therefore, in B. pumilus the specific ion at m/z 5271 was associated with a small acid-soluble spore protein (SASP O) or with 50S protein L35, whereas in B. safensis specific ions at m/z 5288 and 5568 were associated with SASP J and P, respectively, and an ion at m/z 6413 with 50S protein L32. Thus, the resulting unique protein profile combined with chemometric analysis, proved to be valuable tools for B. pumilus and B. safensis discrimination, allowing their reliable, reproducible and rapid identification. PMID:25314655

  5. Endotrophic Calcium, Strontium, and Barium Spores of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus cereus1

    PubMed Central

    Foerster, Harold F.; Foster, J. W.

    1966-01-01

    Foerster, Harold F. (The University of Texas, Austin), and J. W. Foster. Endotrophic calcium, strontium, and barium spores of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus cereus. J. Bacteriol. 91:1333–1345. 1966.—Spores were produced by washed vegetative cells suspended in deionized water supplemented with CaCl2, SrCl2, or BaCl2. Normal, refractile spores were produced in each case; a portion of the barium spores lost refractility and darkened. Thin-section electron micrographs revealed no apparent anatomical differences among the three types of spores. Analyses revealed that the different spore types were enriched specifically in the metal to which they were exposed during sporogenesis. The calcium content of the strontium and the barium spores was very small. From binary equimolar mixtures of the metal salts, endotrophic spores accumulated both metals to nearly the same extent. Viability of the barium spores was considerably less than that of the other two types. Strontium and barium spores were heat-resistant; however, calcium was essential for maximal heat resistance. Significant differences existed in the rates of germination; calcium spores germinated fastest, strontium spores were slower, and barium spores were slowest. Calcium-barium and calcium-strontium spores germinated readily. Endotrophic calcium and strontium spores germinated without the prior heat activation essential for growth spores. Chemical germination of the different metal-type spores with n-dodecylamine took place at the same relative rates as physiological germination. Heat-induced release of dipicolinic acid occurred much faster with barium and strontium spores than with calcium spores. The washed “coat fraction” from disrupted spores contained little of the spore calcium but most of the spore barium. The metal in this fraction was released by dilute acid. The demineralized coats reabsorbed calcium and barium at neutral pH. Images PMID:4956334

  6. Molecular cloning of a thermostable neutral protease gene from Bacillus stearothermophilus in a vector plasmid and its expression in Bacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, M; Takagi, M; Imanaka, T; Aiba, S

    1983-01-01

    The structural gene for a thermostable protease from Bacillus stearothermophilus was cloned in plasmid pTB90. It is expressed in both B. stearothermophilus and Bacillus subtilis. B. stearothermophilus carrying the recombinant plasmid produced about 15-fold more protease (310 U/mg of cell dry weight) than did the wild-type strain of B. stearothermophilus. Some properties of the proteases that have been purified from the transformants of B. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis were examined. No significant difference was observed among the enzyme properties studied here despite the difference in host cells. We found that the protease, neutral in pH characteristics and with a molecular weight of 36,000, retained about 80% of its activity even after treatment of 65 degrees C for 30 min. Images PMID:6302083

  7. Binding Affinity of Glycoconjugates to BACILLUS Spores and Toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasol, Aveen; Eassa, Souzan; Tarasenko, Olga

    2010-04-01

    Early recognition of Bacillus cereus group species is important since they can cause food-borne illnesses and deadly diseases in humans. Glycoconjugates (GCs) are carbohydrates covalently linked to non-sugar moieties including lipids, proteins or other entities. GCs are involved in recognition and signaling processes intrinsic to biochemical functions in cells. They also stimulate cell-cell adhesion and subsequent recognition and activation of receptors. We have demonstrated that GCs are involved in Bacillus cereus spore recognition. In the present study, we have investigated whether GCs possess the ability to bind and recognize B. cereus spores and Bacillus anthracis recombinant single toxins (sTX) and complex toxins (cTX). The affinity of GCs to spores + sTX and spores + cTX toxins was studied in the binding essay. Our results demonstrated that GC9 and GC10 were able to selectively bind to B. cereus spores and B. anthracis toxins. Different binding affinities for GCs were found toward Bacillus cereus spores + sTX and spores + cTX. Dilution of GCs does not impede the recognition and binding. Developed method provides a tool for simultaneous recognition and targeting of spores, bacteria toxins, and/or other entities.

  8. Impact of Entomopathogens on Pest Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adaptation by pest insects to the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can alter their susceptibility to other pathogens. As the number of acres planted in crops engineered to produce Bt toxin increases, many key agricultural pests undergo strong selection to evolve resistance to Bt. In conjuncti...

  9. Effect of Phenol on Bacillus subtilis Spores at Elevated Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Russell, A. D.; Loosemore, Muriel

    1964-01-01

    The nature of the recovery medium is shown to influence the number of Bacillus subtilis spores which, after exposure to 2.5 or 5% phenol at high temperatures, can produce a visible colony. Higher survivor counts were obtained in nutrient agar containing L-alanine and D-glucose than in plain nutrient agar. PMID:14215968

  10. Cyclic diguanylate regulation of Bacillus cereus group biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Fagerlund, Annette; Smith, Veronika; Røhr, Åsmund K; Lindbäck, Toril; Parmer, Marthe P; Andersson, K Kristoffer; Reubsaet, Leon; Økstad, Ole Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Biofilm formation can be considered a bacterial virulence mechanism. In a range of Gram-negatives, increased levels of the second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) promotes biofilm formation and reduces motility. Other bacterial processes known to be regulated by c-di-GMP include cell division, differentiation and virulence. Among Gram-positive bacteria, where the function of c-di-GMP signalling is less well characterized, c-di-GMP was reported to regulate swarming motility in Bacillus subtilis while having very limited or no effect on biofilm formation. In contrast, we show that in the Bacillus cereus group c-di-GMP signalling is linked to biofilm formation, and to several other phenotypes important to the lifestyle of these bacteria. The Bacillus thuringiensis 407 genome encodes eleven predicted proteins containing domains (GGDEF/EAL) related to c-di-GMP synthesis or breakdown, ten of which are conserved through the majority of clades of the B. cereus group, including Bacillus anthracis. Several of the genes were shown to affect biofilm formation, motility, enterotoxin synthesis and/or sporulation. Among these, cdgF appeared to encode a master diguanylate cyclase essential for biofilm formation in an oxygenated environment. Only two cdg genes (cdgA, cdgJ) had orthologs in B. subtilis, highlighting differences in c-di-GMP signalling between B. subtilis and B. cereus group bacteria. PMID:27116468

  11. Purification and characterization of two polyhydroxyalcanoates from Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Zribi-Maaloul, Emna; Trabelsi, Imen; Elleuch, Lobna; Chouayekh, Hichem; Ben Salah, Riadh

    2013-10-01

    This work aimed to study the potential of 155 strains of Bacillus sp., isolated from a collection of Tunisian microorganisms, for polyhydroxyalcanoates production. The strains were submitted to a battery of standard tests commonly used for determining bioplastic properties. The findings revealed that two of the isolates, namely Bacillus US 163 and US 177, provided red excitations at a wavelength of approximately 543 nm. The polyhydroxyalcanoates produced by the two strains were purified. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) were used to characterize the two biopolymers. Bacillus US 163 was noted to produce a poly methyl-3-hydroxy tetradecanoic acid (P-3HTD) with an average molecular weight of 455 kDa, a completely amorphous homopolymer without crystallinity. The US 177 strain produced a homopolymer of methyl-3-hydroxy octadecanoic acid (P3-HOD) with an average molecular weight of 555 kDa. Exhibiting the highest performance, US 163 and US 177 were submitted to 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the results revealed that they belonged to the Bacillus cereus species. Overall, the findings indicated that the Bacilli from petroleum soil have a number of promising properties that make them promising candidates for bioplastic production. PMID:23850680

  12. Electrotransformation of Bacillus mojavensis with fluorescent protein markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gram-positive endophytic bacteria are difficult to transform. To study endophytic interactions between Bacillus mojavensis and maize, a method was developed to transform this species by electroporation with three fluorescent protein expressing integrative plasmids: pSG1154, pSG1192, and pSG1193. The...

  13. Contribution of Membrane-Damaging Toxins to Bacillus Endophthalmitis Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Callegan, Michelle C.; Cochran, Daniel C.; Kane, Scott T.; Gilmore, Michael S.; Gominet, Myriam; Lereclus, Didier

    2002-01-01

    Membrane-damaging toxins are thought to be responsible for the explosive clinical course of Bacillus endophthalmitis. This study analyzed the contribution of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) and phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) to the pathogenesis of experimental Bacillus endophthalmitis. Isogenic mutants were constructed by insertion of lacZ into Bacillus thuringiensis genes encoding PI-PLC (plcA) and PC-PLC (plcB). Rabbit eyes were injected intravitreally with 2 log10 CFU of strain BT407 (wild type), the PI-PLC mutant (BTplcA::lacZ), or the PC-PLC mutant (BTplcB::lacZ). The rates of decrease in retinal responses of eyes infected with the isogenic mutants were similar to that of wild type, with all infections resulting in elimination of retinal function by 18 h. Strain BT407 caused a significant increase in the latency of retinal responses at 6 h, but strains BTplcA::lacZ and BTplcB::lacZ did not. All strains elicited significant inflammatory cell influx into the anterior chamber by 12 h. Histologically, eyes infected with each strain were indistinguishable throughout the infection course. In this model, neither PI-PLC nor PC-PLC had an effect on the course or severity of experimental Bacillus endophthalmitis. Alterations in retinal responses early in infection may mark the beginnings of specific photoreceptor or glial cell dysfunction. PMID:12228262

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus megaterium Podophage Pavlov

    PubMed Central

    Burgos, Roberto W.; Mash, Scott J.; Cahill, Jesse L.; Rasche, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus megaterium is a large spore-forming bacterium found widely in the environment. Phages infecting B. megaterium can be used as genetic tools to expand the array of uses of B. megaterium in research and industry. Here, we present the complete genome of Pavlov, a podophage infecting B. megaterium. PMID:26337888

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus megaterium Podophage Pavlov.

    PubMed

    Burgos, Roberto W; Mash, Scott J; Cahill, Jesse L; Rasche, Eric S; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus megaterium is a large spore-forming bacterium found widely in the environment. Phages infecting B. megaterium can be used as genetic tools to expand the array of uses of B. megaterium in research and industry. Here, we present the complete genome of Pavlov, a podophage infecting B. megaterium. PMID:26337888

  16. Production of amino acids using auxotrophic mutants of methylotrophic bacillus

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, Richard S.; Flickinger, Michael C.; Schendel, Frederick J.; Guettler, Michael V.

    2001-07-17

    A method of producing amino acids by culturing an amino acid auxotroph of a biologically pure strain of a type I methylotrophic bacterium of the genus Bacillus which exhibits sustained growth at 50.degree. C. using methanol as a carbon and energy source and requiring vitamin B.sub.12 and biotin is provided.

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis Bacteriophage BMBtp2.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhaoxia; Peng, Donghai; Wang, Yueying; Zhu, Lei; Ruan, Lifang; Sun, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an insect pathogen which has been widely used for biocontrol. During B. thuringiensis fermentation, lysogenic bacteriophages cause severe losses of yield. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of a bacteriophage, BMBtp2, which is induced from B. thuringiensis strain YBT-1765, which may be helpful to clarify the mechanism involved in bacteriophage contamination. PMID:23405296

  18. Mastitis caused by Bacillus anthracis in a beef cow.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Ross; Pederson, Eldon; Ngeleka, Musangu

    2008-09-01

    A mixed-breed beef cow was presented with swelling of the front and hind left quarters of the mammary gland and mild depression. Direct examination and culture of the serosanguinous-like milk samples collected from these quarters were consistent with Bacillus anthracis infection. PMID:19043486

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis strain KATMIRA1933

    PubMed Central

    Melnikov, Vyacheslav G.; Chikindas, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we present a draft sequence of Bacillus subtilis KATMIRA1933. Previous studies demonstrated probiotic properties of this strain partially attributed to production of an antibacterial compound, subtilosin. Comparative analysis of this strain’s genome with that of a commercial probiotic strain, B. subtilis Natto, is presented. PMID:24948771

  20. Bacillusin A, an antibacterial macrodiolide from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the organic extracts of a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain (AP183) led to the discovery of a new macrocyclic polyene antibiotic, bacillusin A (1). Its structure was assigned by interpretation of NMR and MS spectroscopic data as a novel macrodiolide composed of dimer...

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus megaterium Bacteriophage Eldridge

    PubMed Central

    Reveille, Alexandra M.; Eldridge, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study the complete genome sequence of the unique bacteriophage Eldridge, isolated from soil using Bacillus megaterium as the host organism, was determined. Eldridge is a myovirus with a genome consisting of 242 genes and is unique when compared to phage sequences in GenBank. PMID:27103735

  2. INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS GLOBIGII BY CHLORINATION: A HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent events where spores of Bacillus anthracis have been used as a bioterrorist weapon have prompted interest in determining the resistance of this organism to commonly used disinfectants, such as chlorine, chlorine dioxide and ozone. This work was undertaken to study ...

  3. Parallel Evolution of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Resistance in Lepidoptera

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Simon W.; Badenes-Pérez, Francisco R.; Morrison, Anna; Vogel, Heiko; Crickmore, Neil; Kain, Wendy; Wang, Ping; Heckel, David G.; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the prominent and worldwide use of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal toxins in agriculture, knowledge of the mechanism by which they kill pests remains incomplete. Here we report genetic mapping of a membrane transporter (ABCC2) to a locus controlling Bt Cry1Ac toxin resistance in two lepidopterans, implying that this protein plays a critical role in Bt function. PMID:21840855

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Biocontrol Agent Bacillus cereus UW85

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, Gabriel L.; Holt, Jonathan; Rasko, David A.; Thomas, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus UW85 was isolated from a root of a field-grown alfalfa plant from Arlington, WI, and identified for its ability to suppress damping off, a disease caused by Phytophthora megasperma f. sp. medicaginis on alfalfa. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. cereus UW85, obtained by a combination of Sanger and Illumina sequencing. PMID:27587823

  5. Complete Genome Sequences of Nine Bacillus cereus Group Phages

    PubMed Central

    Foltz, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    We report the sequences of nine novel Bacillus cereus group bacteriophages: DIGNKC, Juglone, Nemo, Nigalana, NotTheCreek, Phrodo, SageFayge, Vinny, and Zuko. These bacteriophages are double-stranded DNA-containing Myoviridae isolated from soil samples using B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki as the host bacterium. PMID:27417827

  6. Complete Genome Sequences of Nine Bacillus cereus Group Phages.

    PubMed

    Foltz, Samantha; Johnson, Allison A

    2016-01-01

    We report the sequences of nine novel Bacillus cereus group bacteriophages: DIGNKC, Juglone, Nemo, Nigalana, NotTheCreek, Phrodo, SageFayge, Vinny, and Zuko. These bacteriophages are double-stranded DNA-containing Myoviridae isolated from soil samples using B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki as the host bacterium. PMID:27417827

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Biocontrol Agent Bacillus cereus UW85.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Gabriel L; Holt, Jonathan; Ravel, Jacques; Rasko, David A; Thomas, Michael G; Handelsman, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus UW85 was isolated from a root of a field-grown alfalfa plant from Arlington, WI, and identified for its ability to suppress damping off, a disease caused by Phytophthora megasperma f. sp. medicaginis on alfalfa. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. cereus UW85, obtained by a combination of Sanger and Illumina sequencing. PMID:27587823

  8. Interactions of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crops with spiders (Araneae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetically modified crops expressing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have dramatically increased in acreage since their introduction in the mid-1990’s. Although the insecticidal mechanisms of Bt target specific pests, concerns persist regarding direct and indirect effects on...

  9. Transformation of Bacillus mojavensis with GFP and its endophytic localization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current studies on the use of bacterial endophytes for disease control and mycotoxin reduction in maize require the in planta localization and interaction of the intended biocontrol agent. Bacillus mojavensis, an endophytic species that has a phenotypic similarity to B. subtilis, has the potential...

  10. TRANSGENIC PLANTS EXPRESSING BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS DELTA-ENDOTOXINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial varieties of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) plants have been developed in many countries to control target pests. Initially, the expression of native Bt genes in plants was low due to mRNA instability, improper splicing, and post-translation modifications. Subsequently, modificati...