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1

Fahr's Disease Presenting with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Fahr's disease is a rare disorder of slowly progressive cognitive, psychiatric, and motor decline associated with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) and widespread calcification in the brain and cerebellum. Acute presentation of IBGC is most often as a seizure disorder; however, we present a case of an acute IBCG presentation in which the cause of the deterioration was an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22754741

Al-Jehani, Hosam; Ajlan, Abdulrazag; Sinclair, David

2012-01-01

2

Fahr's Disease Presenting with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Fahr's disease is a rare disorder of slowly progressive cognitive, psychiatric, and motor decline associated with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) and widespread calcification in the brain and cerebellum. Acute presentation of IBGC is most often as a seizure disorder; however, we present a case of an acute IBCG presentation in which the cause of the deterioration was an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22754741

Al-Jehani, Hosam; Ajlan, Abdulrazag; Sinclair, David

2012-01-01

3

Early events after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

The first 72 h after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a critical period for the patient. Most of the deaths in the SAH patient population occur during this time, and a number of key events activate and trigger mechanisms that not only contribute to early brain injury but evolve over time and participate in the delayed complications. This review highlights the contribution of key events to the early brain injury and to overall outcome after SAH. PMID:25366594

Sehba, Fatima A; Friedrich, Victor

2015-01-01

4

Principles of neuroanesthesia in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is associated with high mortality. Understanding of the underlying pathophysiology is important as early intervention can improve outcome. Increasing age, altered sensorium and poor Hunt and Hess grade are independent predictors of adverse outcome. Early operative interventions imposes an onus on anesthesiologists to provide brain relaxation. Coiling and clipping are the two treatment options with increasing trends toward coiling. Intraoperatively, tight control of blood pressure and adequate brain relaxation is desirable, so that accidental aneurysm rupture can be averted. Patients with poor grades tolerate higher blood pressures, but are prone to ischemia whereas patients with lower grades tolerate lower blood pressure, but are prone to aneurysm rupture if blood pressure increases. Patients with Hunt and Hess Grade I or II with uneventful intraoperative course are extubated in operation theater, whereas, higher grades are kept electively ventilated. Postoperative management includes attention toward fluid status and early management of vasospasm. PMID:25190938

Kundra, Sandeep; Mahendru, Vidhi; Gupta, Vishnu; Choudhary, Ashwani Kumar

2014-01-01

5

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage with concomitant posterior communicating artery fenestration.  

PubMed

Fenestrations of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) are extremely rare. Associated aneurysms have only been documented three times in the literature, and none associated with a subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe a 52-year-old female who presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to a ruptured saccular aneurysm at the proximal limb of a fenestrated right PCoA. The patient was also found to have bilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms. Surgical management included surmising the etiology of the subarachnoid hemorrhage with subsequent clipping of both the right PCoA and MCA aneurysm. The potential embryological mechanisms leading to a PCoA fenestration are discussed. PMID:24761761

Weiner, Gregory M; Grandhi, Ramesh; Zwagerman, Nathan T; Agarwal, Nitin; Friedlander, Robert M

2015-02-01

6

Critical care of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: state of the art.  

PubMed

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a ruptured aneurysm is a very complex disease. The brain can be injured from the immediate effects of the acute bleeding, but can also be threatened by secondary insults hours and days later. Early and delayed systemic complications are common and can be very serious. This brief paper summarizes key practical concepts regarding the neurocritical care of patients with aneurysmal SAH (aSAH). It proposes as a framework the division of the time course of the disease into a first phase (from aneurysm rupture to aneurysm treatment) of resuscitation and stabilization and a second phase (from aneurysm treatment to the end of the acute hospitalization) of prevention and treatment of secondary insults. The main mechanisms of cerebral injury and the principal systemic complications are discussed and diagnostic and therapeutic advice is provided based on a combination of available evidence and clinical experience. PMID:25366630

Rabinstein, Alejandro A

2015-01-01

7

Intracranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage: Clinical studies on diagnosis and treatment.  

E-print Network

??abstractComputerized tomography angiography (CTA) can be performed quicker, safer and cheaper than digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, DSA… (more)

M. van der Jagt (Mathieu)

2006-01-01

8

Plasma gelsolin levels and outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Introduction Lower gelsolin levels have been associated with the severity and poor outcome of critical illness. Nevertheless, their link with clinical outcomes of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relationship between plasma gelsolin levels and clinical outcomes in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods A total of 262 consecutive patients and 150 healthy subjects were included. Plasma gelsolin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mortality and poor long-term outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 1-3) at 6 months were recorded. Results Plasma gelsolin levels on admission were substantially lower in patients than in healthy controls (66.9 (26.4) mg/L vs. 126.4 (35.4) mg/L, P < 0.001), and negatively associated with World Federation of Neurological Surgeons score (r = -0.554, P < 0.001) and Fisher score (r = -0.538, P < 0.001), and identified as an independent predictor of poor functional outcome (odds ratio, 0.957; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.933-0.983; P = 0.001) and death (odds ratio, 0.953; 95% CI, 0.917-0.990; P = 0.003) after 6 months. The areas under the ROC curve of gelsolin for functional outcome and mortality were similar to those of World Federation of Neurological Surgeons score and Fisher score (all P > 0.05). Gelsolin improved the predictive values of World Federation of Neurological Surgeons score and Fisher score for functional outcome (both P < 0.05), but not for mortality (both P > 0.05). Conclusions Gelsolin levels are a useful, complementary tool to predict functional outcome and mortality 6 months after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:23880145

2013-01-01

9

Effect of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage on Word Generation  

PubMed Central

Background. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) survivors commonly exhibit impairment on phonemic and semantic fluency tests; however, it is unclear which of the contributing cognitive processes are compromised in aSAH patients. One method of disentangling these processes is to compare initial word production, which is a rapid, semiautomatic, frontal-executive process, and late phase word production, which is dependent on more effortful retrieval and lexical size and requires a more distributed neural network. Methods. Seventy-two individuals with aSAH and twenty-five control subjects were tested on a cognitive battery including the phonemic and semantic fluency task. Demographic and clinical information was also collected. Results. Compared to control subjects, patients with aSAH were treated by clipping and those with multiple aneurysms were impaired across the duration of the phonemic test. Among patients treated by coiling, those with anterior communicating artery aneurysms or a neurological complication (intraventricular hemorrhage, vasospasm, and edema) showed worse output only in the last 45 seconds of the phonemic test. Patients performed comparably to control subjects on the semantic test. Conclusions. These results support a “diffuse damage” hypothesis of aSAH, indicated by late phase phonemic fluency impairment. Overall, the phonemic and semantic tests represent a viable, rapid clinical screening tool in the postoperative assessment of patients with aSAH. PMID:24803729

Ladowski, Daniella; Qian, Winnie; Kapadia, Anish N.; Macdonald, R. Loch; Schweizer, Tom A.

2014-01-01

10

The Incidence of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Youngdong District, Korea  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate the incidence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in Youngdong district for 10 years. Methods From Jan. 1997 to Dec. 2006, 732 patients (327 males, 405 females, mean age: 54.8±13.1 years) with spontaneous SAH were admitted to our hospital. We reviewed the medical records and radiological findings regarding to the ictus of SAH, location and size of the ruptured aneurysms, Hunt-Hess grade and Fisher grade on admission, personal details such as address, age, and sex, and previous history of medical diseases. Results In these 732 patients, 672 cases were confirmed as aneurysmal SAH. Among them, 611 patients (262 males, 349 females, mean age: 54.9±13.2 years) came from Youngdong district. The average crude annual incidence of aneurysmal SAH for men, women, and both sexes combined in Youngdong district was 7.8±1.7, 10.5±2.7, and 9.1±2.1 per 100,000 population, respectively. Because of the problems related to the observation period and geographical confinement, it was suspected that the representative incidence of aneurysmal SAH in Youngdong district should be made during the later eight years in six coastal regions. Therefore, the average age-adjusted annual incidence for men, women, and both sexes combined was 8.8±1.4, 11.2±1.3 and 10.0±1.0, respectively in the coastal regions of Youngdong district from 1999 to 2006. Conclusion In overall, our results on the incidence of aneurysmal SAH was not very different from previous observations from other studies. PMID:19096553

Lee, Hyoung Soo; Kim, Young June; Jang, Yeon Gyu; Rhee, Woo Tack; Lee, Sang Youl

2007-01-01

11

Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Models: Do They Need a Fix?  

PubMed Central

The discovery of tissue plasminogen activator to treat acute stroke is a success story of research on preventing brain injury following transient cerebral ischemia (TGI). That this discovery depended upon development of embolic animal model reiterates that proper stroke modeling is the key to develop new treatments. In contrast to TGI, despite extensive research, prevention or treatment of brain injury following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) has not been achieved. A lack of adequate aSAH disease model may have contributed to this failure. TGI is an important component of aSAH and shares mechanism of injury with it. We hypothesized that modifying aSAH model using experience acquired from TGI modeling may facilitate development of treatment for aSAH and its complications. This review focuses on similarities and dissimilarities between TGI and aSAH, discusses the existing TGI and aSAH animal models, and presents a modified aSAH model which effectively mimics the disease and has a potential of becoming a better resource for studying the brain injury mechanisms and developing a treatment. PMID:23878760

Sehba, Fatima A.; Pluta, Ryszard M.

2013-01-01

12

Prevalence and Determinants of Cognitive Complaints after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To investigate the prevalence of cognitive complaints after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and the relationships between cognitive complaints and cognitive impairments, disability and emotional problems. Methods: Cognitive complaints were assessed with the Checklist for Cognitive and Emotional Consequences following stroke (CLCE-24) in 111 persons who visited our outpatient clinic 3 months after SAH. Associations between cognitive complaints and cognitive functioning,

P. E. C. A. Passier; J. M. A. Visser-Meily; M. J. E. van Zandvoort; M. W. M. Post; G. J. E. Rinkel; C. van Heugten

2010-01-01

13

Risk of Recurrent Subarachnoid Hemorrhage After Complete Obliteration of Cerebral Aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—The neck clipping of cerebral aneurysms is a well-established treatment for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by aneurysmal rupture. However, it is still unclear how great a risk of recurrence patients with a successfully treated aneurysm carry over a long-term period. Methods—Of 425 patients with SAH surgically treated in Aizu Chuou Hospital from 1976 to 1994, 220 cases meeting

K. Tsutsumi; K. Ueki; M. Usui; S. Kwak; T. Kirino

14

Life satisfaction and return to work after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to investigate life satisfaction and employment status after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and to explain the associations between life satisfaction and demographic, disease-related, psychological, and personality characteristics. Subjects with SAH (n = 141) living at home 2-4 years after the SAH responded to a mailed questionnaire. Outcomes were life satisfaction, as measured with the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire 9 (LiSat-9), and employment status. Determinants in multiple regression analysis were demographic and SAH characteristics, subjective complaints (eg, mood disorder, fatigue, cognitive complaints), and personality characteristics (eg, neuroticism, passive coping style). Of the 141 subjects, 64 (46.7%) had a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of V (good outcome) at discharge. Mean subject age was 51.4 ± 12.3 years, and mean time after SAH was 36.1 ± 7.9 months. Of the 88 subjects who were working at the time of the SAH, 54 (61.4%) returned to work, but only 31 (35.2%) resumed their work completely. The subjects were least satisfied with their vocational situation (51.9% satisfied) and sexual life (51.7%) and were most satisfied with their relationships (75.2%-88.7%) and self-care ability (88.6%). Age (? value = 0.17), return to work after SAH (0.19), disability at hospital discharge (0.25), worsened mood (-0.37), and passive coping (-0.25) together accounted for 47.2% of the life satisfaction scores. Our data indicate that return to work is a major issue for individuals who survive an SAH. Not returning to work, disability, depression, and passive coping are associated with reduced life satisfaction. Thus, vocational reintegration after SAH merits more attention during rehabilitation. PMID:20656515

Passier, Patricia E C A; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Lindeman, Eline; Post, Marcel W M

2011-01-01

15

Vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Thrombocytopenia a marker  

PubMed Central

Background: Symptomatic vasospasm (SV) is often seen after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The pathophysiology suggests that platelets initiate the process and are consumed. This is likely to result in thrombocytopenia. The objective of this study was to find out if thrombocytopenia preceded or followed SV and to analyze the relationship between the two. Materials and Methods: The platelet counts of 74 patients were studied on day 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 14 following aSAH. Clinical symptoms and raised velocities on transcranial Doppler were studied on the same days to determine SV. The relationship of platelet counts and SV were analyzed. Results: Thirty-nine (52.7%) patients developed SV. Platelet counts dropped on postictal day (PID) 3-7 and SV was commonly seen on PID 5-9. The median platelet counts were significantly lower in patients with SV when compared to those without SV. Platelet count <150,000/mm3 on PID 1 and 7 had statistically significant association (P < 0.001) with SV. The odds ratio was 5.1, 6.9, and 5.1 on PID 5, 7, and 9, respectively, for patients with relative thrombocytopenia (P < 0.001). Conclusions: There is a strong correlation between thrombocytopenia and SV. A platelet count < 150,000/mm3 on PID 1 and 7 predicts presence of SV. The relative risk of developing SV is >5 times for a patient with relative thrombocytopenia especially on PID 5-9. Additionally, it appears that thrombocytopenia precedes vasospasm and may be an independent predictor. However, this requires further studies for validation. PMID:24250155

Aggarwal, Ashish; Salunke, Pravin; Singh, Harnarayan; Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Chhabra, Rajesh; Singla, Navneet; Sachdeva, Ashwani Kumar

2013-01-01

16

Subarachnoid hemorrhage  

MedlinePLUS

... snapping feeling in the head. Other symptoms: Decreased consciousness and alertness Eye discomfort in bright light ( photophobia ) ... time, the outlook is much worse. Changes in consciousness and alertness due to a subarachnoid hemorrhage may ...

17

Intraoperative aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage after rupture of a previously undiagnosed intracranial aneurysm during Chiari decompression.  

PubMed

A type I Chiari malformation occurs when caudal displacement of the cerebellar tonsils below the level of the foramen magnum obstructs the normal flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between the cranial and spinal spaces, a condition that often needs surgical decompression to restore normal CSF circulation. Abrupt changes in CSF flow dynamics after Chiari decompression can affect the intracranial CSF dynamics to the extent that a previously undiagnosed intracranial aneurysm remote from the site can rupture. The authors describe the development of an intraoperative aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage that occurred as a result of spontaneous rupture of a previously undiagnosed right distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery in a 57-year-old woman with type I Chiari malformation who was undergoing surgical decompression. The mechanism of the aneurysmal rupture appears to be related to the changes of CSF flow dynamics during surgical decompression. Normally, pressure equilibrium between the two sides of the aneurysmal wall prevents its rupture, but factors that significantly affect this equilibrium, such as systemic hypertension, can cause the aneurysm to rupture. To our knowledge, the concept of spontaneous intraoperative rupture of intracranial aneurysm remote from the site of surgery has been described twice previously but under different scenarios. This scenario, to our knowledge, has not been previously described. PMID:24113160

Sorour, Mohammad; Bowers, Christian A; Couldwell, William T

2014-03-01

18

Simvastatin Reduces Vasospasm After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Results of a Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Cerebral vasospasm remains a major source of morbidity after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We demonstrate that simvastatin reduces serum markers of brain injury and attenuates vasospasm after SAH. Methods—Patients with angiographically documented aneurysmal SAH were randomized within 48 hours of symptom onset to receive either simvastatin (80 mg daily; n19) or placebo (n20) for 14 days. Plasma alanine

John R. Lynch; Haichen Wang; Matthew J. McGirt; James Floyd; Allan H. Friedman; Alexander L. Coon; Robert Blessing; Michael J. Alexander; Carmelo Graffagnino; David S. Warner; Daniel T. Laskowitz

2005-01-01

19

The utility of cone beam volume CT in the evaluation of thrombosed intracranial aneurysms in subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Thrombosed aneurysms are difficult to visualize with digital subtraction angiography. We report a case of subarachnoid hemorrhage from a thrombosed ruptured aneurysm which was undetected on digital subtraction angiography but was visualized with cone beam volume CT. To our knowledge, this is the first report highlighting the utility of cone beam volume CT in identifying such aneurysms. PMID:23314882

Shah, Shreyansh; Murthy, Santosh B; Hannawi, Yousef; Rao, Chethan P Venkatasubba

2013-01-01

20

The utility of cone beam volume CT in the evaluation of thrombosed intracranial aneurysms in subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Thrombosed aneurysms are difficult to visualize with digital subtraction angiography. We report a case of subarachnoid hemorrhage from a thrombosed ruptured aneurysm which was undetected on digital subtraction angiography but was visualized with cone beam volume CT. To our knowledge, this is the first report highlighting the utility of cone beam volume CT in identifying such aneurysms. PMID:23314882

Shah, Shreyansh; Murthy, Santosh B; Hannawi, Yousef; Rao, Chethan P Venkatasubba

2013-01-01

21

The utility of cone beam volume CT in the evaluation of thrombosed intracranial aneurysms in subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Thrombosed aneurysms are difficult to visualize with digital subtraction angiography. We report a case of subarachnoid hemorrhage from a thrombosed ruptured aneurysm which was undetected on digital subtraction angiography but was visualized with cone beam volume CT. To our knowledge, this is the first report highlighting the utility of cone beam volume CT in identifying such aneurysms. PMID:23345628

Shah, Shreyansh; Murthy, Santosh B; Hannawi, Yousef; Rao, Chethan P Venkatasubba

2013-11-01

22

Spontaneous resolution of an isolated cervical anterior spinal artery aneurysm after subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background: Isolated cervical anterior spinal artery aneurysms are extremely rare. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) secondary to such lesions have been described only in six cases to the best of our knowledge. Case Description: We describe an unusual clinical picture of SAH due to rupture of anterior spinal artery aneurysm in a patient with previous normal angiogram. Due to the location of the aneurysm and clinical status of the patient, conservative management was proposed, and she was discharged to further follow-up. Monthly routine angiograms revealed resolution of the aneurysm 90 days after bleeding, which was highly suggestive of vascular dissection. Conclusion: We highlight the need to consider these aneurysms in the differential diagnosis of SAH, especially when occurring in the posterior fossa and when angiography findings are inconclusive. PMID:25317354

Pahl, Felix Hendrik; de Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes; Rotta, Marcus Alexandre Cavalcanti; Dias, Guilherme Marcos Soares; Rezende, André Luiz; Rotta, José Marcus

2014-01-01

23

Endovascular treatment of vasospasm related to acute subarachnoid hemorrhage from ruptured aneurysms.  

PubMed

In the first 2 weeks after subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by a ruptured aneurysm, 30-35 % of surviving patients treated with conservative nonoperative therapy experience rebleeding. This is fatal in 60-90 % of cases and leads to significant disability in 17-20 % of cases. A major factor for this poor outcome is thought to be the vasospasm that occurs in up to 38.7 % by the third day, 46.3 % by the ninth day, and eventually in up to 70 % of patients. Endovascular treatment of aneurysms associated with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage has the potential to decrease the occurrence of rebleeding and therefore decrease the high mortality and morbidity associated with this disease. Treatment of vasospasm, if it does occur, has the potential to further improve patient outcomes. We describe the outcomes of 174 of our patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by a ruptured aneurysm who were treated with endovascular techniques. Overall, the majority of our patients experienced a good or excellent outcome. PMID:25366628

Scheglov, Dmitry V; Polischuk, Mykola E; Scheglov, Viktor I; Mamonova, Maryna Y; Monsein, Lee H

2015-01-01

24

Familial perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage: two case reports  

PubMed Central

Introduction Non-aneurysmal spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage is characterized by an accumulation of a limited amount of subarachnoid hemorrhage, predominantly around the midbrain, and a lack of blood in the brain parenchyma or ventricular system. It represents 5% of all spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage cases. In spite of extensive investigation, understanding of the mechanisms leading to perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage remains incompletely defined. A growing body of evidence has supported a familial predisposition for non-aneurysmal spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. Case presentation A 39-year-old Caucasian man presented with sudden onset headache associated with diplopia. His computed tomography scan revealed perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage. A cerebral angiogram showed no apparent source of bleeding. He was treated conservatively and discharged after 1 week without any neurological deficits. The older brother of the first case, a 44-year-old Caucasian man, presented 1.5 years later with acute onset of headache and his computed tomography scan also showed perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. He was discharged home with normal neurological examination 1 week later. Follow-up angiograms did not reveal any source of bleeding in either patient. Conclusions We report the cases of two siblings with perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, which may further suggest a familial predisposition of non-aneurysmal spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and may also point out the possible higher risk of perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the first-degree relatives of patients with perimesencephalic non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:25416614

2014-01-01

25

Ischemic optic neuropathy associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage after rupture of anterior communicating artery aneurysm.  

PubMed

Two clinical cases in which ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) occurred after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are reported. Hemorrhage in the proximity of the optic chiasm was confirmed in 2 cases following rupture of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. Optic disk atrophy with excavation and permanent visual field defect (altitudinal superior hemianopia) occurred in both cases. ION seems to occur in association with the optic nerve coincidental with the hyperdensity side of SAH on head CT scan. The incidence of ION appears to be attributable to an insufficient blood supply to arteries distributed in the posterior part of the optic nerve as a result of SAH. PMID:12566879

Hara, Naoto; Mukuno, Kazuo; Ohtaka, Hironori; Shimizu, Kimiya

2003-01-01

26

Ocular Ultrasound as an Easy Applicable Tool for Detection of Terson's Syndrome after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Introduction Intraocular hemorrhage in patients suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is known as Terson's syndrome and is an underestimated but common pathology. We therefore designed a prospective single-blinded study to evaluate the validity of ocular ultrasound compared to the gold standard indirect funduscopy in the diagnosis of Terson's syndrome. Material and Methods Fifty-two patients (104 eyes in total) suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were enrolled in this study. Two investigators independently performed a single-blinded ocular ultrasound using a standard intensive care ultrasound system to detect an intraocular hemorrhage. Indirect funduscopy following iatrogenic mydriasis served as the gold standard for confirmation or exclusion of an intraocular hemorrhage. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the method as well as the learning curve of ocular ultrasound. Results Indirect funduscopy detected Terson's syndrome in 11 of 52 (21.2%) respectively in 21 of 104 (20.2%) eyes in patients suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage. Sensitivity and specificity increased with the number of ocular ultrasound examinations for both investigators, reaching 81.8% and 100% respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were different for both investigators (63.6% vs. 100% positive and 100% vs. 95.7% negative) but were both correlated to the amount of intraocular hemorrhage. A low Glasgow Coma scale (p?=?0.015) and high Hunt & Hess grade (p?=?0.003) was associated with a higher rate of Terson's syndrome. Conclusions Ocular ultrasound using standard ultrasound equipment has been confirmed as a reliable, easy-to-handle bedside screening tool for detecting Terson's syndrome. Nevertheless funduscopy remains the gold standard to detect Terson's syndrome. PMID:25502695

Knospe, Volker; Richard, Gisbert; Vettorazzi, Eik; Wagenfeld, Lars; Westphal, Manfred; Regelsberger, Jan; Skevas, Christos

2014-01-01

27

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

MedlinePLUS

Brain Aneurysm Basics Warning Signs/Symptoms Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History Early Detection and Screening Unruptured Brain Aneurysms ...

28

Solitary ruptured aneurysm of the spinal artery of adamkiewicz with subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to solitary spinal aneurysm is extremely rare. A 45-year-old female patient visited the emergency department with severe headache and back pain. Imaging studies showed cerebral SAH in parietal lobe and spinal SAH in thoracolumbar level. Spinal angiography revealed a small pearl and string-like aneurysm of the Adamkiewicz artery at the T12 level. One month after onset, her back pain aggravated, and follow-up imaging study showed arachnoiditis. Two months after onset, her symptoms improved, and follow-up imaging study showed resolution of SAH. The present case of spinal SAH due to rupture of dissecting aneurysm of the Adamkiewicz artery underwent subsequent spontaneous resolution, indicating that the wait-and-see strategy may provide adequate treatment option. PMID:24044082

Son, Seong; Lee, Sang-Gu; Park, Cheol-Wan

2013-07-01

29

Compressive Cervicothoracic Adhesive Arachnoiditis following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Report and Literature Review.  

PubMed

We present the case of a 55-year-old woman with diffuse adhesive arachnoiditis in the posterior fossa and cervicothoracic spine following posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). She underwent aneurysm clipping with subsequent gradual neurologic decline associated with sensory disturbances, gait ataxia, and spastic paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse adhesive arachnoiditis in the posterior fossa and cervicothoracic spine, syringobulbia, and multiple arachnoid cysts in the cervicothoracic spine along with syringohydromyelia. Early surgical intervention with microlysis of the adhesions and duraplasty at the clinically relevant levels resulted in clinical improvement. Although adhesive arachnoiditis, secondary arachnoid cysts, and cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities resulting in syrinx are rare following aneurysmal SAH, early recognition and appropriate intervention lead to good clinical outcomes. PMID:25083391

Rahmathulla, Gazanfar; Kamian, Kambiz

2014-08-01

30

Compressive Cervicothoracic Adhesive Arachnoiditis following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

We present the case of a 55-year-old woman with diffuse adhesive arachnoiditis in the posterior fossa and cervicothoracic spine following posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). She underwent aneurysm clipping with subsequent gradual neurologic decline associated with sensory disturbances, gait ataxia, and spastic paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse adhesive arachnoiditis in the posterior fossa and cervicothoracic spine, syringobulbia, and multiple arachnoid cysts in the cervicothoracic spine along with syringohydromyelia. Early surgical intervention with microlysis of the adhesions and duraplasty at the clinically relevant levels resulted in clinical improvement. Although adhesive arachnoiditis, secondary arachnoid cysts, and cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities resulting in syrinx are rare following aneurysmal SAH, early recognition and appropriate intervention lead to good clinical outcomes. PMID:25083391

Rahmathulla, Gazanfar; Kamian, Kambiz

2014-01-01

31

Phenotypic transformation of smooth muscle in vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Differentiated smooth muscle cells (SMC) control vasoconstriction and vasodilation, but they can undergo transformation, proliferate, secret cytokines, and migrate into the subendotherial layer with adverse consequences. In this review, we discuss the phenotypic transformation of SMC in cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Phenotypic transformation starts with an insult as caused by aneurysm rupture: Elevation of intracranial and blood pressure, secretion of norepinephrine, and mechanical force on an artery are factors that can cause aneurysm. The phenotypic transformation of SMC is accelerated by inflammation, thrombin, and growth factors. A wide variety of cytokines (e.g., interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-33, matrix metalloproteinases, nitric oxidase synthases, endothelins, thromboxane A2, mitogen-activated protein kinase, platelet-derived vascular growth factors, and vascular endothelial factor) all play roles in cerebral vasospasm (CVS). We summarize the correlations between various factors and the phenotypic transformation of SMC. A new target of this study is the transient receptor potential channel in CVS. Statin together with fasdil prevents phenotypic transformation of SMC in an animal model. Clazosentan prevents CVS and improves outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in a dose-dependent manner. Clinical trials of cilostazol for the prevention of phenotypic transformation of SMC have been reported, along with requisite experimental evidence. To conquer CVS in its complexity, we will ultimately need to elucidate its general, underlying mechanism. PMID:24323729

Shimamura, Norihito; Ohkuma, Hiroki

2014-06-01

32

[Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage].  

PubMed

The diagnosis, management and long-term implications of non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage continue to be a multidisciplinary challenge. Often, the patients present to emergency or primary care physicians not particularly experienced in the differential diagnosis of headache. In most cases of a proven hemorrhage (aneurysm rupture in 85%), further treatment will require the discussion between experienced neurosurgeons and neuroradiologists whether to "clip or coil". Thus, subarachnoid hemorrhage is the first cerebrovascular disorder where a multidisciplinary approach has become the evidence-based standard of care. Patients with this condition are relatively young, and the survivors have a good life expectancy. Their neurologic, cognitive and psychiatric morbidity, risk of recurrent bleeding and elevated risk of other vascular diseases remain underestimated tasks for long-term care. PMID:22349626

Steinmetz, H

2012-06-01

33

Treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage from intracranial aneurysm rupture presents with sudden severe headache. Initial treatment focuses on airway management, blood pressure control, and extraventricular drain for hydrocephalus. After identifying the aneurysm, they may be clipped surgically or endovascularly coiled. Nimodipine is administered to maintain a euvolemic state and prevent delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Patients may receive anticonvulsants. Monitoring includes serial neurologic assessments, transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomography perfusion, and angiographic studies. Treatment includes augmentation of blood pressure and cardiac output, cerebral angioplasty, and intra-arterial infusions of vasodilators. Although early mortality is high, about one half of survivors recover with little disability. PMID:25257737

Raya, Amanda K; Diringer, Michael N

2014-10-01

34

Possible role of Eptifibatide drip in-patient with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in vasospasm prevention  

PubMed Central

Objective Approximately 18,000 patients suffer from a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in the United States annually. SAH is a form of stroke and comprises 1%–5% of all strokes. Nearly 50% of all SAH cases end in fatality within 30 days of presentation; one of eight patients die before reaching a hospital. Those who survive often have neurological or cognitive impairment. Methods This case report describes the course of two patients who presented to the emergency department with aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage and received external ventricular drainage and endovascular treatment of their aneurysm. Results Both patients required treatment with Eptifibatide drip after endovascular approach and their SAH in the basal cisterns resolved by day 5. Neither patient developed signs of clinical or subclinical vasospasm. Comments Eptifibatide drip facilitated resolution of the thick clot in the subarachnoid space early enough to eliminate the direct toxicity of oxyhemoglobin on the cerebral arteries and arachnoid granulations, thus preventing vasospasm and eliminating the necessity for a long-term shunt. PMID:25298852

Dababneh, Haitham; Guerrero, Waldo; Mehta, Siddhart; Moussavi, Mohammad; Kirmani, Jawad F

2014-01-01

35

Effects of diltiazem on sympathetic activity in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effect of diltiazem, a calcium antagonist, on sympathetic activity in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) during the hyperacute stage. Of patients with aneurysmal SAH who underwent aneurysm repair between August 2008 and June 2011, 119 consecutive patients were enrolled in this prospective study. On admission, patients were assigned to an antihypertensive treatment receiving continuous infusion of diltiazem (67 patients) or nicardipine (52 patients). Plasma levels of adrenaline (AD), noradrenaline (NA), and dopamine (DP) were repeatedly measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). There were no significant differences in patient characteristics or aneurysm topography between the two groups. In all patients, acute surge of catecholamines was observed with mutual correlation. However, patients receiving diltiazem exhibited a significantly lower plasma concentration of DP than those receiving nicardipine, 3 and 6 h after admission. A similar trend was observed for NA, but the difference was not significant at 6 h. Conversely, the concentration of AD was similar between the two groups. Diltiazem may suppress sympathetic activity in the hyperacute stage of aneurysmal SAH. Further studies are needed to verify the beneficial effect of diltiazem in patients with SAH. PMID:25366598

Ogura, Takeshi; Takeda, Ririko; Ooigawa, Hidetoshi; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Kurita, Hiroki

2015-01-01

36

Copeptin as a Marker for Severity and Prognosis of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background Grading of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is often confounded by seizure, hydrocephalus or sedation and the prediction of prognosis remains difficult. Recently, copeptin has been identified as a serum marker for outcomes in acute ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We investigated whether copeptin might serve as a marker for severity and prognosis in aSAH. Methods Eighteen consecutive patients with aSAH had plasma copeptin levels measured with a validated chemiluminescence sandwich immunoassay. The primary endpoint was the association of copeptin levels at admission with the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) grade score after resuscitation. Levels of copeptin were compared across clinical and radiological scores as well as between patients with ICH, intraventricular hemorrhage, hydrocephalus, vasospasm and ischemia. Results Copeptin levels were significantly associated with the severity of aSAH measured by WFNS grade (P?=?0.006), the amount of subarachnoid blood (P?=?0.03) and the occurrence of ICH (P?=?0.02). There was also a trend between copeptin levels and functional clinical outcome at 6-months (P?=?0.054). No other clinical outcomes showed any statistically significant association. Conclusions Copeptin may indicate clinical severity of the initial bleeding and may therefore help in guiding treatment decisions in the setting of aSAH. These initial results show that copeptin might also have prognostic value for clinical outcome in aSAH. PMID:23326397

Fung, Christian; De Marchis, Gian Marco; Katan, Mira; Seiler, Marleen; Arnold, Marcel; Gralla, Jan; Raabe, Andreas; Beck, Jürgen

2013-01-01

37

The Biochemical Basis of Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors as Neuroprotective Agents in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has the highest morbidity and mortality rates of all types of stroke. Many aneurysmal SAH patients continue to suffer from significant neurological morbidity and mortality directly related to delayed cerebral ischemia. Pilot clinical studies of the use of Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (statins) in aneurysmal SAH patients have reported a reduction in delayed cerebral ischemia and better clinical outcomes. We review the biochemical effects of statins on endothelium vascular function, glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity, inflammatory changes, and oxidative injuries, with reference to their possible neuroprotective effects in aneurysmal SAH.

Wong, George Kwok Chu; Poon, Wai Sang

2010-01-01

38

Predictors and outcomes of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in patients with aneurysmal sub-arachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background Hydrocephalus following spontaneous aneurysmal sub-arachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is often associated with unfavorable outcome. This study aimed to determine the potential risk factors and outcomes of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in aneurysmal SAH patients but without hydrocephalus upon arrival at the hospital. Methods One hundred and sixty-eight aneurysmal SAH patients were evaluated. Using functional scores, those without hydrocephalus upon arrival at the hospital were compared to those already with hydrocephalus on admission, those who developed it during hospitalization, and those who did not develop it throughout their hospital stay. The Glasgow Coma Score, modified Fisher SAH grade, and World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade were determined at the emergency room. Therapeutic outcomes immediately after discharge and 18?months after were assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Score. Results Hydrocephalus accounted for 61.9% (104/168) of all episodes, including 82 with initial hydrocephalus on admission and 22 with subsequent hydrocephalus. Both the presence of intra-ventricular hemorrhage on admission and post-operative intra-cerebral hemorrhage were independently associated with shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in patients without hydrocephalus on admission. After a minimum 1.5?years of follow-up, the mean Glasgow outcome score was 3.33?±?1.40 for patients with shunt-dependent hydrocephalus and 4.21?±?1.19 for those without. Conclusions The presence of intra-ventricular hemorrhage, lower mean Glasgow Coma Scale score, and higher mean scores of the modified Fisher SAH and World Federation of Neurosurgical grading on admission imply risk of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in patients without initial hydrocephalus. These patients have worse short- and long-term outcomes and longer hospitalization. PMID:22765765

2012-01-01

39

Therapeutic Implications of Estrogen for Cerebral Vasospasm and Delayed Cerebral Ischemia Induced by Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Cerebral vasospasm (CV) remains the leading cause of delayed morbidity and mortality following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, increasing evidence supports etiologies of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) other than CV. Estrogen, specifically 17?-estradiol (E2), has potential therapeutic implications for ameliorating the delayed neurological deterioration which follows aneurysmal SAH. We review the causes of CV and DCI and examine the evidence for E2-mediated vasodilation and neuroprotection. E2 potentiates vasodilation by activating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), preventing increased inducible NOS (iNOS) activity caused by SAH, and decreasing endothelin-1 production. E2 provides neuroprotection by increasing thioredoxin expression, decreasing c-Jun N-terminal kinase activity, increasing neuroglobin levels, preventing SAH-induced suppression of the Akt signaling pathway, and upregulating the expression of adenosine A2a receptor. The net effect of E2 modulation of these various effectors is the promotion of neuronal survival, inhibition of apoptosis, and decreased oxidative damage and inflammation. E2 is a potentially potent therapeutic tool for improving outcomes related to post-SAH CV and DCI. However, clinical evidence supporting its benefits remains lacking. Given the promising preclinical data available, further studies utilizing E2 for the treatment of patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms appear warranted. PMID:24724095

Starke, Robert M.; Dumont, Aaron S.; Owens, Gary K.; Hasan, David M.

2014-01-01

40

Neuroprotection in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Despite advances in aneurysm ablation and the initial management of patients presenting with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), delayed cerebral ischemia remains a significant source of morbidity. Traditionally, delayed cerebral ischemia was felt to be a result of vasospasm of the proximal intracranial vessels, and clinical trials have relied largely on radiographic evidence of vasospasm as a surrogate for functional outcome. However, a number of trials have demonstrated a dissociation between angiographic vasospasm and outcome, and more recent data suggests that other mechanisms of injury, such as microvascular dysfunction and complex neuronal-glial interactions may influence the development of delayed ischemic deficit following aSAH. Our evolving understanding of the pathophysiology of delayed cerebral ischemia may offer the opportunity to test new therapeutic strategies in this area and improve clinical trial design. PMID:20876512

Laskowitz, Daniel T.; Kolls, Brad J.

2010-01-01

41

Syringomyelia and spinal arachnoiditis resulting from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Report of two cases and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Syringomyelia resulting from arachnoiditis secondary to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is an extremely rare clinical entity with few cases reported in the literature. The presentation, management, and pathogenesis of syringomyelia in this setting is poorly understood. We describe the presentation, radiology, management, and outcomes in two patients with syringomyelia resulting from arachnoiditis secondary to aneurysmal SAH and review the literature on this rare condition. Case number 1 was treated successfully with syrinx-subarachnoid shunt after extensive lysis of adhesions. Case number 2 was treated with syringoperitoneal shunt. Both patients had radiographic decreased syrinx size postoperatively. These patients add to the small literature on syringomyelia occurring secondary to SAH-associated arachnoiditis. The radiographic outcomes demonstrate that in the appropriately selected patient, syrinx-subarachnoid or syringoperitoneal shunting are viable options. PMID:25013348

Abel, Taylor J; Howard, Matthew A; Menezes, Arnold

2014-01-01

42

Syringomyelia and spinal arachnoiditis resulting from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Report of two cases and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Syringomyelia resulting from arachnoiditis secondary to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is an extremely rare clinical entity with few cases reported in the literature. The presentation, management, and pathogenesis of syringomyelia in this setting is poorly understood. We describe the presentation, radiology, management, and outcomes in two patients with syringomyelia resulting from arachnoiditis secondary to aneurysmal SAH and review the literature on this rare condition. Case number 1 was treated successfully with syrinx-subarachnoid shunt after extensive lysis of adhesions. Case number 2 was treated with syringoperitoneal shunt. Both patients had radiographic decreased syrinx size postoperatively. These patients add to the small literature on syringomyelia occurring secondary to SAH-associated arachnoiditis. The radiographic outcomes demonstrate that in the appropriately selected patient, syrinx-subarachnoid or syringoperitoneal shunting are viable options. PMID:25013348

Abel, Taylor J.; Howard, Matthew A.; Menezes, Arnold

2014-01-01

43

Two Cases of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage from Spontaneous Anterior Cerebral Artery Dissection : A Case of Simultaneous Hemorrhage and Ischemia Without Aneurysmal Formation and Another Case of Hemorrhage with Aneurysmal Formation  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous anterior cerebral artery (ACA) dissection, although extremely rare, is often associated with severe morbidity and mortality. It could lead to cerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, or, rarely, combination of hemorrhage and ischemia due to hemodynamic changes. Prompt and accurate diagnosis is essential for determining the appropriate management. However, the optimal treatment for ACA dissection remains controversial. Herein, we report on two rare cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by ACA dissection; a case presenting with simultaneous SAH and infarction without aneurysmal formation and another case presenting with SAH with fusiform aneurysmal formation. A review of the related literature is provided, and optimal treatments for each type of dissection are suggested. PMID:25045652

Im, Tae-Seop; Suh, Sang-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Ryu, Kee-Young; Kang, Dong-Gee

2014-01-01

44

Intracranial vascular calcification is protective from vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage was noted in some studies to be less frequent and less severe in older age. One hypothesis is that atherosclerosis makes arteries too stiff to spasm. The objective of this study was to assess the association between intracranial calcification, a marker for atherosclerosis, and vasospasm. Charts and nonenhanced computed tomography scans of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage were retrospectively reviewed. Transcranial Doppler studies were used to categorize vasospasm using mean flow velocity: mild vasospasm 120-199 cm/second and severe ? 200 cm/second. Calcification of the intracranial internal carotid artery was quantified by calculating the volume and density of the calcified lesions. A total of 172 patients met study criteria (mean age, 54 ± 13 years; 88 women). Patients who had calcification (n = 90; 52%) were significantly older (61 ± 12 years vs. 46 ± 10 years; P < .0001). Mean calcification score was 532 ± 853. Calcification score was directly associated with age (P < .0001) and inversely associated with mean flow velocity (P = .0027). Only the highest tertile was independently associated with less vasospasm (odds ratio, .34; 95% confidence interval, .12-.93). There was an interaction between calcification score and age in which age greater than 65 years was only protective of vasospasm when combined with the highest calcification tertile. We conclude that intracranial calcification is associated with lower rates of vasospasm. The amount of visualized calcification inversely influences the severity of vasospasm. Calcification, and the underlying presumed atherosclerosis, maybe 1 mechanism by which vasospasm has lower frequency and severity in older age. PMID:25307431

Hussein, Haitham M; Zacharatos, Haralabos; Cordina, Steve; Lakshminarayan, Kamakshi; Ezzeddine, Mustapha A

2014-01-01

45

The association between cortisol dynamics and the course of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Context: One of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage complication is delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND). It is postulated that cortisol dynamics might be associated with the severity of this complication. Aims: The goal of the study is to investigate whether the peak of morning serum cortisol levels are associated with the severity of its complication during the course of the disease. Settings and Design: This is a prospective cohort study conducted from January 2009 to June 2011, at our institution. Materials and Methods: The study follows a consecutive cohort of patients for 14 days after the aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Serum cortisols, cortisol binding globulin, adenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) were measured pre operatively and then on post operative days (POD) 2, 4, 7, and 10. Blood was drawn to coincide with peak cortisol levels between 08.00-09.00 hours. Neurological examinations were conducted at least twice daily and patient outcome were graded according to modified Ranklin Scale. DIND was defined by a decrease in the Glasgow Coma Scale of two or more points compared to the status on POD 1. Statistical Analysis: All the results were analyzed using statistical software, Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS v61; SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL). Logistic regression analysis was used to compare the relationship between the variables. Results: Thirty six consecutive patients are collected, but only 28 patients (12 M and 16 F) were eligible for the cohort analysis. Average patient age is 50.75 years old (50.75±12.27), and more than 50% (15/28) arrived with World Federation of Neurologic Surgeons grade 3 or better. Elevated total cortisol levels of more than 24 mg/dl on day 2, 4, and 10 were associated with DIND, and the most significant being on day 4 (P=0.011). These patients also had a higher grade on the modified Ranklin scale of disability. Conclusions: This study shows that the elevated levels of morning total cortisol in the serum are associated with the onset of DIND during the disease course, and it's also associated with bad outcomes. PMID:22347329

July, Julius; As’ad, Suryani; Suhadi, Budhianto; Islam, Andi Asadul

2011-01-01

46

Grading scales used in the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a critical review.  

PubMed

The use of grading scales to predict clinical outcomes following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is commonplace. In recent times management of aSAH patients has developed such that surgical intervention is taking place earlier in the course of the illness. Given the complex and multifactoral clinical picture of these patients, there is an increased impetus to examine and reevaluate the relative merits and predictive characteristics of grading scales. The measurement characteristics and predictive power of the following instruments were reviewed: Fisher Scale (FS), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS), Hunt and Hess (HH) Scale, Karnovsky Performance Scale (KPS), and the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) Scale. No uniformly conclusive findings were found when the HH Scale, GCS, and WFNS Scale were used to predict clinical outcomes. No instrument consistently outperformed any other across age or severity. Contradictory findings were reported. Difficulties were encountered in comparing instruments because of administration, scoring schemes, timing of assessments, and psychometric properties, such as interrater reliability. Reports on newly developed instruments often lacked the replication data necessary to effectively compare measures currently in use. The timing of measurements and the use of serial measures emerged as important factors in the prediction of clinical outcomes. Assessments taken close to the time of surgical intervention were found to have superior predictive abilities. PMID:12506811

Cavanagh, Stephen J; Gordon, Vickie L

2002-12-01

47

Crohns disease with central nervous system vasculitis causing subarachnoid hemorrhage due to aneurysm and cerebral ischemic stroke.  

PubMed

Cerebral vasculitis secondary to Crohn's disease (CD) seems to be a very rare phenomenon. We report a 39-year-old male who presented with headache, vomiting, and left-sided weakness in the known case of CD. Cross-sectional imaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging,) showed right gangliocapsular acute infarct with supraclinoid cistern subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Cerebral digital substraction angiography (DSA) showed dilatation and narrowing of right distal internal carotid artery (ICA). Left ICA was chronically occluded. His inflammatory markers were significantly raised. Imaging features are suggestive of cerebral vasculitis. Arterial and venous infarcts due to thrombosis are known in CD. Our case presented with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage in supraclinoid cistern due to rupture of tiny aneurysm of perforator arteries causing SAH and infarction in right basal ganglia. Patient was treated conservatively with immunosuppression along with medical management of SAH. PMID:25506170

Garge, Shaileshkumar S; Vyas, Pooja D; Modi, Pranav D; Ghatge, Sharad

2014-10-01

48

Bilobed Wide Neck Posterior Cerebral Artery Aneurysm Associated with Fusiform Basilar Aneurysm, Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Chronic Renal Failure  

PubMed Central

Summary A 56 year-old woman presented with a ruptured bilobed wide neck aneurysm of the P2 segment of the PCA, atherosclerotic fusiform basilar artery aneurysm, subarachnoid bleeding with negative CT scan and chronic renal failure. She was managed by a cooperative approach involving neurosurgeons, neuroradiologist, neurointensivist, emergency room physicians, nurses and technicians. She underwent operation by proximal clipping for the aneurysm of the PCA. Postoperative neurological deficits include homonymous hemianopsia and ipsilateral third nerve palsy. The operation was performed through asubtemporal approach. At surgery, the aneurysm was located in the distal of the P2 segment of PCA, bilobed up and down, no definitive neck with small distal branches, and was treated by proximal clipping of the PCA aneurysm. The fusiform basilar artery aneurysm was severely atherosclerotic and left untouched. This is a rare case which required a high index of suspicion to detect subarachnoid bleeding from ruptured posterior fossa aneurysm, accurate prediction of the site of bleeding and the location of aneurysm location by conventional angiogram, MRI and MRA, and careful planned surgical strategy with the right approach for the P2 segment of the PCA aneurysm, complicated post operative care with airway management, triple H therapy, nutrition, additional measures and multiple hemodialysis. PMID:20591269

Siauw Koan, Tan

2003-01-01

49

Impairment of cardiac metabolism and sympathetic innervation after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a nuclear medicine imaging study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Although aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is often complicated by myocardial injury, whether this neurogenic cardiomyopathy is associated with the modification of cardiac metabolism is unknown. This study sought to explore, by positron emission tomography/computed tomography, the presence of altered cardiac glucose metabolism after SAH. Methods During a 16-month period, 30 SAH acute phase patients underwent myocardial 18?F- fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDGPET), 99mTc-tetrofosmin and 123I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (123I-mIBG) scintigraphy, respectively, assessing glucose metabolism, cardiac perfusion, and sympathetic innervation. Patients with initial abnormalities were followed monthly for two months for 18F-FDG, and six months later for 123I-mIBG. Results In this SAH population, acute cardiac metabolic disturbance was observed in 83% of patients (n?=?25), and sympathetic innervation disturbance affected 90% (n?=?27). Myocardial perfusion was normal for all patients. The topography and extent of metabolic defects and innervation abnormalities largely overlapped. Follow-up showed rapid improvement of glucose metabolism in one or two months. Normalization of sympathetic innervation was slower; only 27% of patients (n?=?8) exhibited normal 123I-mIBG scintigraphy after six months. Presence of initial altered cardiac metabolism was not associated with more unfavorable cardiac or neurological outcomes. Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis of neurogenic myocardial stunning after SAH. In hemodynamically stable acute phase SAH patients, cardiomyopathy is characterized by diffuse and heterogeneous 18F-FDG and 123I-mIBG uptake defect. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01218191. Registered 6 October 2010. PMID:24964817

2014-01-01

50

Endothelin-1 gene polymorphisms influence cerebrospinal fluid endothelin-1 levels following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a type of stroke with high morbidity and mortality. Increased endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels have been associated with increased risk of cerebral vasospasm, which is associated with increased morbidity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between ET-1 genotypes and ET-1 protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) measured 72 hr before angiographic vasospasm measurement in subjects at high risk of cerebral vasospasm. Specifically, this study evaluated the differences between variant positive and variant negative groups of nine different ET-1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in relationship with the ET-1 protein exposure rate. The CSF ET-1 protein levels were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. One functional SNP and eight ET-1 tagging SNPs were selected because they represent genetic variability in the entire ET-1 gene. The variant negative group of SNP rs2070699 was associated with a significantly higher ET-1 exposure rate than the variant positive group (p = 0.004), while the variant positive group of the rs5370 group showed a trend toward association with a higher ET-1 exposure rate (p = 0.051). Other SNPs were not informative. This is the first study to show differences in ET-1 exposure rate 72 hr before angiography in relation to ET-1 genotypes. These exploratory findings need to be replicated in a larger study; if replicated, these differences in genotypes may be a way to inform clinicians of those patients at a higher risk of increased ET-1 protein levels, which may lead to a higher risk of angiographic vasospasm. PMID:24852947

Gallek, Matthew J; Alexander, Sheila A; Crago, Elizabeth; Sherwood, Paula R; Klamerus, Megan; Horowitz, Michael B; Poloyac, Samuel M; Conley, Yvette

2015-03-01

51

Cortisol dynamics are associated with electrocardiographic abnormalities following the aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Context: Electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities are common following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). It probably represents cardiovascular stress after SAH. Aims: The purpose of this study was to assess cortisol dynamics in relation to the ECG abnormality and disease course of SAH. Settings and Design: The study follows a consecutive cohort of aneurysmal SAH patients, who underwent surgery within 72 hours of onset, and they were followed up for 10 days. Materials and Methods: Serum cortisols, cortisol-binding globulin (CGB), adenocorticotropic hormone were measured (between 08.00-09.00 hours) preoperatively and then on postoperative days (PODs) 2, 4, 7, and 10. Electrocardiographs (ECG) were recorded on initial assessment and after surgery on daily basis in ICU. ECG abnormalities will be followed up by measurement of cardiac troponin T to quantify the myocyte necrosis. Statistical Analysis Used: Logistic regression analysis using commercial available software STATA 9. Results: A total of 44 patients (20 M and 24 F) were eligible for the cohort analysis. Average patient age is 52.02 years (52.02 ± 11.23), and 86% (6/44) arrived with World Federation of Neurosurgical Society Scale grade 3 or better. The ECG abnormality was found in 10 cases (22.7%), but the abnormal TnT (>1 ?g/l) were found in eight cases, and two cases contribute to the mortality. The ECG abnormalities are significantly associated with total cortisol on day 4 (P < 0.05) and free cortisol on day 2 (P = 0.0065). Conclusions: Elevated levels of morning cortisol within the first four days after surgery are associated with the ECG abnormality. PMID:23233777

July, Julius; As’ad, Suryani; Suhadi, F. X. Budhianto; Islam, Andi A.

2012-01-01

52

Differential Regulation of Matrix-Metalloproteinases and Their Tissue Inhibitors in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) are involved in vascular remodeling, (neuro)inflammation, blood-brain barrier breakdown and neuronal apoptosis. Proinflammatory mechanisms are suggested to play an important role during early brain injury and cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study aimed to analyze MMP-3, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 in patients with SAH and their respective association with cerebral vasospasm (CVS). Methods Blood samples were collected in 20 SAH patients on days 1 to 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15 and 20 healthy age and gender matched volunteers. Serum MMPs and TIMPs were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Doppler sonographic CVS was defined as a mean blood flow velocity above 120 cm/sec in the middle cerebral artery. When discharged from hospital and at 6 month follow-up neurological outcome was evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Score and the modified Rankin Scale. Results MMP-9 was higher in SAH patients compared to healthy controls (p<0.001). Patients with CVS (n?=?11) had elevated MMP-9 serum levels compared to patients without CVS (n?=?9, p<0.05). Higher MMP-9 was observed in the presence of cerebral ischemia associated with cerebral vasospasm (p<0.05). TIMP-1 was increased in patients with SAH on day 4 (p<0.05). There was an imbalance of the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in favor of MMP-9 in SAH patients, in particular those with CVS (p<0.001). MMP-3 and TIMP-3 were significantly lower in SAH patients throughout day 4 and day 7, respectively (p<0.05). We did not find an association between MMP-, TIMP levels and neurological outcome after 6 months. Conclusions MMP-3 and -9 are differentially regulated in SAH patients with both enzymes showing peak levels correlating with the development of CVS. The inhibitors TIMP-1 and -3 were low during the acute phase after SAH and increased later on which might suggest a preponderance of pro-inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:23555845

Fischer, Marlene; Dietmann, Anelia; Beer, Ronny; Broessner, Gregor; Helbok, Raimund; Pfausler, Bettina; Schmutzhard, Erich; Lackner, Peter

2013-01-01

53

Time-dependent changes in cerebrospinal fluid metal ions following aneurysm subarachnoid hemorrhage and their association with cerebral vasospasm.  

PubMed

Aneurysm subarachnoid hemorrhage affects 10 in 100,000 people annually, 40 % of whom will develop neurological deficits from ischemic stroke caused by cerebral vasospasm. Currently, the underlying mechanisms are uncertain. Metal ions are important modulators of neuronal electrophysiological conduction and smooth muscle cell activity, thereby potentially contributing to vasospasm. We hypothesized that metal ion concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after aneurysm rupture would change over time and be associated with vasospasm. To test this hypothesis, for 21 days, we collected CSF from patients with aneurysmal rupture and subjected it to spectrometry to detect metals. A repeated measures analysis was performed to analyze concentration changes over time. Six of the seven patients with aneurysmal rupture experienced vasospasm, all resolving by day 14. Changes in Fe(2+) and Zn(2+) concentrations in the CSF paralleled the incidence of vasospasm in this study population. Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Cu(2+) concentrations exhibited no statistically significant changes over time. In conclusion, Fe(2+) concentration in the CSF was significantly elevated during days 7-10, whereas Zn(2+) concentrations spiked shortly thereafter, during days 11-14. This suggests that Fe(2+) may be related to the induction of vasospasm and Zn(2+) may be a marker of early brain injury secondary to ischemic injury and inflammation. PMID:25366601

Singla, Amit; Villwock, Mark R; Riordan, Margaret A; Padalino, David J; Deshaies, Eric M

2015-01-01

54

Intrathecal Application of the Nimodipine Slow-Release Microparticle System EG-1962 for Prevention of Delayed Cerebral Ischemia and Improvement of Outcome After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.  

PubMed

The effective reduction of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), a main contributor for poor outcome following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), remains challenging. Previous clinical trials on systemic pharmaceutical treatment of SAH mostly failed to improve outcome, probably because of insensitive pharmaceutical targets and outcome measures, small sample size, insufficient subarachnoid drug concentrations and also detrimental, systemic effects of the experimental treatment per se. Interestingly, in studies that are more recent, intrathecal administration of nicardipine pellets following surgical aneurysm repair was suggested to have a beneficial effect on DCI and neurological outcome. However, this positive effect remained restricted to patients who were treated surgically for a ruptured aneurysm. Because of the favorable results of the preclinical data on DCI and neurological outcome in the absence of neurotoxicity or systemic side effects, we are initiating clinical trials. The PROMISE (Prolonged Release nimOdipine MIcro particles after Subarachnoid hemorrhage) trial is designed as an unblinded, nonrandomized, single-center, single-dose, dose-escalation safety and tolerability phase 1 study in patients surgically treated for aSAH and will investigate the effect of intracisternal EG-1962 administration. The NEWTON (Nimodipine microparticles to Enhance recovery While reducing TOxicity after subarachNoid hemorrhage) trial is a phase 1/2a multicenter, controlled, randomized, open-label, dose-escalation, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic study comparing EG-1962 and nimodipine in patients with aneurysmal SAH. PMID:25366637

Etminan, Nima; Macdonald, R Loch; Davis, Cara; Burton, Kevin; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel

2015-01-01

55

Higher brain extracellular potassium is associated with brain metabolic distress and poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Introduction Elevated brain potassium levels ([K+]) are associated with neuronal damage in experimental models. The role of brain extracellular [K+] in patients with poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and its association with hemorrhage load, metabolic dysfunction and outcome has not been studied so far. Methods Cerebral microdialysis (CMD) samples from 28 poor grade aSAH patients were analyzed for CMD [K+] for 12 consecutive days after ictus, and time-matched to brain metabolic and hemodynamic parameters as well as corresponding plasma [K+]. Statistical analysis was performed using a generalized estimating equation with an autoregressive function to handle repeated observations of an individual patient. Results CMD [K+] did not correlate with plasma [K+] (Spearman’s ??=?0.114, P?=?0.109). Higher CMD [K+] was associated with the presence of intracerebral hematoma on admission head computed tomography, CMD lactate/pyruvate ratio >40 and CMD lactate >4 mmol/L (P?

2014-01-01

56

Intravenous Flat-Detector Computed Tomography Angiography for Symptomatic Cerebral Vasospasm following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

The study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of intravenous flat-detector computed tomography (IV FDCT) angiography in assessing hemodynamically significant cerebral vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the reference. DSA and IV FDCT were conducted concurrently in patients suspected of having symptomatic cerebral vasospasm postoperatively. The presence and severity of vasospasm were estimated according to location (proximal versus distal). Vasospasm >50% was defined as having hemodynamic significance. Vasospasms <30% were excluded from this analysis to avoid spectrum bias. Twenty-nine patients (311 vessel segments) were measured. The intra- and interobserver agreements were excellent for depicting vasospasm (k = 0.84 and 0.74, resp.). IV FDCT showed a sensitivity of 95.7%, specificity of 92.3%, positive predictive value of 93.6%, and negative predictive value of 94.7% for detecting vasospasm (>50%) with DSA as the reference. Bland-Altman plots revealed good agreement of assessing vasospasm between the two tests. The discrepancy of vasospasm severity was more noted in the distal location with high-severity. However, it was not statistically significant (Spearman's rank test; r = 0.15, P = 0.35). Therefore, IV FDCT could be a feasible noninvasive test to evaluate suspected significant vasospasm in SAH. PMID:25383367

Jeon, Jin Pyeong; Sheen, Seung Hun; Cho, Yong-Jun

2014-01-01

57

Risk of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage After Surgical Treatment of Unruptured Cerebral Aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Recent progress in noninvasive imaging techniques has resulted in increased detection of unruptured aneurysms. Although many neurosurgeons advocate surgical intervention for such unruptured aneurysms, the long-term results of surgery for unruptured aneurysms have not been carefully investigated. Methods—We analyzed 173 consecutive patients who had unruptured intracranial saccular aneurysm(s) detected by angiography that was performed for reasons other than

K. Tsutsumi; K. Ueki; M. Usui; S. Kwak; T. Kirino

58

Haptoglobin phenotype predicts the development of focal and global cerebral vasospasm and may influence outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Cerebral vasospasm (CV) and the resulting delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) significantly contribute to poor outcomes following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Free hemoglobin (Hb) within the subarachnoid space has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CV. Haptoglobin (Hp) binds free pro-oxidant Hb, thereby modulating its harmful effects. Humans can be of three Hp phenotypes: Hp1-1, Hp2-1, or Hp2-2. In several disease states, the Hp2-2 protein has been associated with reduced ability to protect against toxic free Hb. We hypothesized that individuals with the Hp2-2 phenotype would have more CV, DCI, mortality, and worse functional outcomes after aSAH. In a sample of 74 aSAH patients, Hp2-2 phenotype was significantly associated with increased focal moderate (P = 0.014) and severe (P = 0.008) CV and more global CV (P = 0.014) after controlling for covariates. Strong trends toward increased mortality (P = 0.079) and worse functional outcomes were seen for the Hp2-2 patients with modified Rankin scale at 6 wk (P = 0.076) and at 1 y (P = 0.051) and with Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended at discharge (P = 0.091) and at 1 y (P = 0.055). In conclusion, Hp2-2 phenotype is an independent risk factor for the development of both focal and global CV and also predicts poor functional outcomes and mortality after aSAH. Hp phenotyping may serve as a clinically useful tool in the critical care management of aSAH patients by allowing for early prediction of those patients who require increased vigilance due to their inherent genetic risk for the development of CV and resulting DCI and poor outcomes. PMID:25583472

Leclerc, Jenna L; Blackburn, Spiros; Neal, Dan; Mendez, Nicholas V; Wharton, Jeffrey A; Waters, Michael F; Doré, Sylvain

2015-01-27

59

Effects of statins-use for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.  

PubMed

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH)-induced cerebral vasospasm and delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND) are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with aSAH. The effects of statins-use for patients with aSAH remain controversial. Here,a total of 249 patients from six randomized controlled trials(RCTs) were subjected to meta-analysis. No significant decrease was found in the incidence of vasospasm(RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.54-1.17), with substantial heterogeneity (I(2) = 49%, P = 0.08), which was verified by the further sensitivity analysis and subgroup meta-analysis. Furthermore, no significant difference was presented in the incidence of poor neurological outcome(RR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.77-1.16), and potential side effects(RR, 2.49; 95% CI, 0.75-8.33). Nevertheless, significant difference was reported in the occurrence of DIND(RR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37-0.92) and mortality(RR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.14-0.64). At present, although statins-use in the patients with aSAH should not be considered standard care at present, statins-use may have the potential effects in the prevention of mortality in patients with aSAH. PMID:24763190

Su, Shao-Hua; Xu, Wei; Hai, Jian; Wu, Yi-Fang; Yu, Fei

2014-01-01

60

Artifact quantification and tractography from 3T MRI after placement of aneurysm clips in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients  

PubMed Central

Background The application of advanced 3T MRI imaging techniques to study recovery after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is complicated by the presence of image artifacts produced by implanted aneurysm clips. To characterize the effect of these artifacts on image quality, we sought to: 1) quantify extent of image artifact in SAH patients with implanted aneurysm clips across a range of MR sequences typically used in studies of volumetry, blood oxygen level dependent signal change (BOLD-fMRI), and diffusion-weighted imaging (DW-MRI) and 2) to explore the ability to reconstruct white matter pathways in these patients. Methods T1- and T2-weighted structural, BOLD-fMRI, and DW-MRI scans were acquired at 3T in two patients with titanium alloy clips in ACOM and left ACA respectively. Intensity-based planimetric contouring was performed on aligned image volumes to define each artifact. Artifact volumes were quantified by artifact/clip length and artifact/brain volume ratios and analyzed by two-way (scan-by-rater) ANOVAs. Tractography pathways were reconstructed from DW-MRI at varying distances from the artifacts using deterministic methods. Results Artifact volume varied by MR sequence for length (p = 0.007) and volume (p < 0.001) ratios: it was smallest for structural images, larger for DW-MRI acquisitions, and largest on fMRI images. Inter-rater reliability was high (r = 0.9626, p < 0.0001), and reconstruction of white matter connectivity characteristics increased with distance from the artifact border. In both patients, reconstructed white matter pathways of the uncinate fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus were clearly visible within 2 mm of the artifact border. Conclusions Advanced 3T MR can successfully image brain tissue around implanted titanium aneurysm clips at different spatial ranges depending on sequence type. White matter pathways near clip artifacts can be reconstructed and visualized. These findings provide a reference for designing functional and structural neuroimaging studies of recovery in aSAH patients after clip placement. PMID:21970560

2011-01-01

61

Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Patients with Hunt and Hess Grade 4 or 5: Treatment Using the Guglielmi Detachable Coil System  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients in poor clinical condition (Hunt and Hess grade 4 or 5) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have historically fared poorly and many often were excluded from aggressive treatment. Early aggressive surgical treatment of SAH can produce good-quality survival for a higher percentage of patients than previously reported. We assessed the outcome of patients with Hunt and Hess

Raymond U. Weir; Mary L. Marcellus; Huy M. Do; Gary K. Steinberg; Michael P. Marks

62

Current Options for the Management of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Induced Cerebral Vasospasm: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Objectives Cerebral vasospasm is one of the leading causes of morbi-mortality following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The aim of this article is to discuss the current status of vasospasm therapy with emphasis on endovascular treatment. Methods A comprehensive review of the literature obtained by a PubMed search. The most relevant articles related to medical, endovascular and alternative therapies were selected for discussion. Results Current accepted medical options include the oral nimodipine and ‘triple-H’ therapy (hypertension, hypervolemia and hemodilution). Nimodipine remains the only modality proven to reduce the incidence of infarction. Although widely used, ‘triple-H’ therapy has not been demonstrated to significantly change overall outcome after cerebral vasospasm. Indeed, both induced hypervolemia and hemodilution may have deleterious effects, and more recent physiologic data favor normovolemia with induced hypertension or optimization of cardiac output. Endovascular options include percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTA) and intra-arterial (IA) infusion of vasodilators. Multiple case reports and case series have been encountered in the literature using different drug regimens with diverse mechanisms of action. Compared with PTA, IA drug infusion has the advantages of distal penetration and a better safety profile. Its main disadvantages are the more frequent need for repeat treatments and its systemic hemodynamic repercussions. Alternative options using intraventricular/cisternal drug therapy and flow augmentation strategies have also shown possible benefits; however, their use is not yet as well established. Conclusion Blood pressure or cardiac output optimization should be the mainstay of hyperdynamic therapy. Endovascular treatment appears to have a positive impact on neurological outcome compared with the natural history of the disease. The role of intraventricular therapy and flow augmentation strategies in association with medical and endovascular treatment may, in the future, play a growing role in the management of patients with severe refractory vasospasm. PMID:25187783

Dabus, Guilherme; Nogueira, Raul G.

2013-01-01

63

Influence of Lamina Terminalis Fenestration on the Occurrence of the Shunt-Dependent Hydrocephalus in Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Recently, it was reported that fenestration of the lamina terminalis (LT) may reduce the incidence of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The authors investigated the efficacy of the LT opening on the incidence of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in the ruptured anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms. The data of 71-ruptured ACoA aneurysm patients who underwent aneurysmal clipping in acute stage were reviewed retrospectively. Group I (n=36) included the patients with microsurgical fenestration of LT during surgery, Group II (n=35) consisted of patients in whom fenestration of LT was not feasible. The rate of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus was compared between two groups by logistic regression to control for confounding factors. Ventriculo-peritoneal shunts were performed after aneurysmal obliteration in 18 patients (25.4%). The conversion rates from acute hydrocephalus on admission to chronic hydrocephalus in each group were 29.6% (Group I) and 58.8% (Group II), respectively. However, there was no significant correlation between the microsurgical fenestration and the rate of occurrence of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus (p>0.05). Surgeons should carefully decide the concomitant use of LT fenestration during surgery for the ruptured ACoA aneurysms because of the microsurgical fenestration of LT can play a negative role in reducing the incidence of chronic hydrocephalus. PMID:16479076

Jeon, Ji Young; Kim, Jae Hoon; Cheong, Jin Hwan; Bak, Koang Hum; Kim, Choong Hyun; Yi, Hyeong Joong; Kim, Kwang Myung

2006-01-01

64

Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to nonbranching aneurysm of the middle cerebral artery in a young adult with a history of Kawasaki disease  

PubMed Central

Background: The incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in young adults is relatively rare. Kawasaki disease is a systemic vasculopathy that is known to cause coronary artery aneurysms; however, its effect on cerebral arteries remains largely unclear. Case Description: We report the case of a 20-year-old male with a history of Kawasaki disease who presented with SAH caused by the rupture of a nonbranching middle cerebral artery aneurysm. This is the third report of SAH associated with Kawasaki disease. Preoperative echocardiography of the patient rejected the presence of bacterial endocarditis and other heart abnormalities. An emergency craniotomy and clip occlusion of the aneurysm was successfully performed without obstructing the parent artery. Two weeks later, the patient was discharged without any apparent neurological deficit. We also performed a circumstantial pathological study on specimens obtained from the aneurysm wall. Our histological findings suggest that the elastic lamina and tunica intima were completely destroyed during the acute vasculitis phase of Kawasaki disease, which possibly led to the aneurysmal formation. Conclusions: Lack of active inflammatory changes and atherosclerotic lesions may explain the chronic feature of Kawasaki disease, not a typical aneurysmal formation. PMID:24575320

Ishida, Atsushi; Matsuo, Seigo; Kawamura, Shunji; Nishikawa, Toshio

2014-01-01

65

Fusiform aneurysm of a persistent trigeminal artery associated with rare intracranial arterial variations and subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

The trigeminal artery is one of four primitive anastomoses between the internal carotid artery and vertebrobasilar system that regresses in the sixth week of fetal development. A persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is generally an incidental finding but may also be associated with intracranial vascular pathologies such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and cranial nerve compression syndromes. We present an extremely rare case of a right PTA with an associated bleeding fusiform aneurysm located in the carotidian (lateral) part of the PTA. In addition, this rare anatomic variation was associated with bilateral absence of the posterior communicating arteries, a left posterior cerebral artery originating from the left internal carotid artery, and agenesis of the A1 segment of the left anterior cerebral artery. PMID:25053265

Kimball, David; Ples, Horia; Kimball, Heather; Miclaus, Gratian D; Matusz, Petru; Loukas, Marios

2015-01-01

66

Parenteral diclofenac infusion significantly decreases brain-tissue oxygen tension in patients with poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Introduction Diclofenac, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, is commonly used as antipyretic therapy in intensive care. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of parenteral diclofenac infusion on brain homeostasis, including brain-tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2) and brain metabolism after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Methods We conducted a prospective, observational study with retrospective analysis of 21 consecutive aSAH patients with multimodal neuromonitoring. Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), intracranial pressure (ICP), body temperature, and PbtO2 were analyzed after parenteral diclofenac infusion administered over a 34-minute period (20 to 45 IQR). Data are given as mean ± standard error of mean and median with interquartile range (IQR), as appropriate. Time-series data were analyzed by using a general linear model extended by generalized estimation equations (GEEs). Results One-hundred twenty-three interventions were analyzed. Body temperature decreased from 38.3°C ± 0.05°C by 0.8°C ± 0.06°C (P < 0.001). A 10% decrease in MAP and CPP (P < 0.001) necessitated an increase of vasopressors in 26% (n = 32), colloids in 33% (n = 41), and crystalloids in 5% (n = 7) of interventions. PbtO2 decreased by 13% from a baseline value of 28.1 ± 2.2 mm Hg, resulting in brain-tissue hypoxia (PbtO2 <20 mm Hg) in 38% (n = 8) of patients and 35% (n = 43) of interventions. PbtO2 <30 mm Hg before intervention was associated with brain-tissue hypoxia after parenteral diclofenac infusion (likelihood ratio, 40; AUC, 93%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 87% to 99%; P < 0.001). Cerebral metabolism showed no significant changes after parenteral diclofenac infusion. Conclusions Parenteral diclofenac infusion after aSAH effectively reduces body temperature, but may lead to CPP decrease and brain-tissue hypoxia, which were both associated with poor outcome after aSAH. PMID:23663770

2013-01-01

67

Rescue Therapy for Refractory Vasospasm after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia remain to be the common causes of increased morbidity and mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The majority of clinical vasospasm responds to hemodynamic augmentation and direct vascular intervention; however, a percentage of patients continue to have symptoms and neurological decline. Despite suboptimal evidence, clinicians have several options in treating refractory vasospasm in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), including cerebral blood flow enhancement, intra-arterial manipulations, and intra-arterial and intrathecal infusions. This review addresses standard treatments as well as emerging novel therapies aimed at improving cerebral perfusion and ameliorating the neurologic deterioration associated with vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia. PMID:25501582

Durrant, Julia C.; Hinson, Holly E.

2014-01-01

68

An autopsy case of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured cerebral aneurysm associated with polycystic kidney disease caused by a novel PKD1 mutation.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common genetic disorders and is characterized by the development and progressive enlargement of cysts in the kidneys. ADPKD is caused by mutations of either PKD1 or PKD2. The prevalence of brain aneurysm in patients with ADPKD is increased, and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a ruptured intracranial aneurysm is one of the frequent complications. We describe an autopsy case of death of a 31-year-old woman by aneurysmal SAH. ADPKD as an underlining disease was suggested by the autopsy findings. Sequence analysis of the PKD1 and PKD2 genes revealed deletion of a guanine at position 8019 in PKD1 (8019delG) in a heterozygous state resulting in a shift in the reading frame and generation of a premature termination codon at amino acid 2684 (G2673fs12X). This mutation is novel and highly suspected as the causal mutation of ADPKD of this case. PMID:25022697

Soejima, Mikiko; Sugita, Yasuo; Koda, Yoshiro

2014-09-01

69

Treatment of Intracranial Vasospasm Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Vasospasm has been a long known source of delayed morbidity and mortality in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Delayed ischemic neurologic deficits associated with vasospasm may account for as high as 50% of the deaths in patients who survive the initial period after aneurysm rupture and its treatment. The diagnosis and treatment of vasospasm has still been met with some controversy. It is clear that subarachnoid hemorrhage is best cared for in tertiary care centers with modern resources and access to cerebral angiography. Ultimately, a high degree of suspicion for vasospasm must be kept during ICU care, and any signs or symptoms must be investigated and treated immediately to avoid permanent stroke and neurologic deficit. Treatment for vasospasm can occur through both ICU intervention and endovascular administration of intra-arterial vasodilators and balloon angioplasty. The best outcomes are often attained when these methods are used in conjunction. The following article reviews the literature on cerebral vasospasm and its treatment and provides the authors’ approach to treatment of these patients. PMID:24904517

Bauer, Andrew M.; Rasmussen, Peter A.

2014-01-01

70

Non-aneurysmal non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage: patient characteristics, clinical outcome and prognostic factors based on a single-center experience in 125 patients  

PubMed Central

Background Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is mainly caused by ruptured cerebral aneurysms but in up to 15% of patients with SAH no bleeding source could be identified. Our objective was to analyze patient characteristics, clinical outcome and prognostic factors in patients suffering from non-aneurysmal SAH. Methods From 1999 to 2009, data of 125 patients with non-aneurysmal SAH were prospectively entered into a database. All patients underwent repetitive cerebral angiography. Outcome was assessed according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) (mRS 0–2 favorable vs. 3–6 unfavorable). Also, patients were divided in two groups according to the distribution of blood in the CT scan (perimesencephalic and non-perimesencephalic SAH). Results 106 of the 125 patients were in good WFNS grade (I-III) at admission (85%). Overall, favorable outcome was achieved in 104 of 125 patients (83%). Favorable outcome was associated with younger age (P?aneurysmal SAH have better prognosis compared to aneurysm related SAH and poor admission status was the only independent predictor of unfavorable outcome in the multivariate analysis. Patients with a non-perimesencephalic SAH have an increased risk of a worse neurological outcome. These patients should be monitored attentively. PMID:24986457

2014-01-01

71

Decompressive Surgery in Patients with Poor-grade Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Clipping with Simultaneous Decompression Versus Coil Embolization Followed by Decompression  

PubMed Central

Objective In addition to obliterating the aneurysm using clipping or coiling, decompressive surgery for control of rising intracranial pressure (ICP) is thought to be crucial to prevention of adverse outcomes in patients with poor grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). We evaluated the clinical characteristics of patients with poor-grade aSAH, and compared outcomes of aneurysmal clipping with simultaneous decompressive surgery to those of coil embolization followed by decompression. Materials and Methods In 591 patients with aSAH, 70 patients with H-H grade IV and V underwent decompressive surgery including craniectomy, lobectomy, and hematoma removal. We divided the patients into two groups according to clipping vs. coil embolization (clip group vs. coil group), and analyzed outcomes and mortality. Results Aneurysmal clipping was performed in 40 patients and coil embolization was performed in 30 patients. No significant differences in demographics were observed between the two groups. Middle cerebral artery and posterior circulation aneurysms were more frequent in the clip group. Among 70 patients, mortality occurred in 29 patients (41.4%) and 61 patients (87.1%) had a poor score on the Glasgow outcome scale (scores I-III). No significant difference in mortality was observed between the two groups, but a favorable outcome was more frequent in the coil group (p < 0.05). Conclusion In this study, despite aggressive surgical and endovascular management for elevated ICP, there were high rates of adverse outcomes and mortality in poor-grade aSAH. Despite poor outcomes overall, early coil embolization followed by decompression surgery could lead to more favorable outcomes in patients with poor-grade aSAH. PMID:25340028

Hwang, Ui Seung; Lee, Seung Hwan; Koh, Jun Seok

2014-01-01

72

Cerebral Vasospasm in Critically III Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Does the Evidence Support the Ever-Growing List of Potential Pharmacotherapy Interventions?  

PubMed

The occurrence of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a significant event resulting in decreased cerebral blood flow and oxygen delivery. Prevention and treatment of cerebral vasospasm is vital to avert neurological damage and reduced functional outcomes. A variety of pharmacotherapy interventions for the prevention and treatment of cerebral vasospasm have been evaluated. Unfortunately, very few large randomized trials exist to date, making it difficult to make clear recommendations regarding the efficacy and safety of most pharmacologic interventions. Considerable debate exists regarding the efficacy and safety of hypervolemia, hemodilution, and hypertension (triple-H therapy), and the implementation of each component varies substantially amongst institutions. There is a new focus on euvolemic-induced hypertension as a potentially preferred mechanism of hemodynamic augmentation. Nimodipine is the one pharmacologic intervention that has demonstrated favorable effects on patient outcomes and should be routinely administered unless contraindications are present. Intravenous nicardipine may offer an alternative to oral nimodipine. The addition of high-dose magnesium or statin therapy has shown promise, but results of ongoing large prospective studies are needed before they can be routinely recommended. Tirilazad and clazosentan offer new pharmacologic mechanisms, but clinical outcome results from prospective randomized studies have largely been unfavorable. Locally administered pharmacotherapy provides a targeted approach to the treatment of cerebral vasospasm. However, the paucity of data makes it challenging to determine the most appropriate therapy and implementation strategy. Further studies are needed for most pharmacologic therapies to determine whether meaningful efficacy exists. PMID:25477565

Kiser, Tyree H

2014-11-01

73

Communicating Hydrocephalus Accompanied by Arachnoid Cyst in Aneurismal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

The authors describe a case of communicating hydrocephalus accompanied by an arachnoid cyst in an aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 69-year-old female was referred to our clinic due to the sudden onset of a headache. A head computed tomography scan demonstrated an arachnoid cyst in the right middle fossa with a mass effect and diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. Digital subtraction angiography then revealed a left internal carotid-posterior communicating artery aneurysm. The neck of the aneurysm was clipped successfully and the post-operative period was uneventful. However, two months after discharge, the patient reported that her mental status had declined over previous weeks. A cranial computed tomography scan revealed an interval increase in the size of the ventricle and arachnoid cyst causing a midline shift. Simultaneous navigation guided ventriculoperitoneal shunt and cystoperitoneal shunt placement resulted in remarkable radiological and clinical improvements. PMID:24729958

Choi, Jae Young; Cha, Seung Heon; Cho, Won Ho

2013-01-01

74

Time trends in outcome of subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background: Treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has changed substantially over the last 25 years but there is a lack of reliable population-based data on whether case-fatality or functional outcomes have improved. Methods: We determined changes in the standardized incidence and outcome of SAH in the same population between 1981 and 1986 (Oxford Community Stroke Project) and 2002 and 2008 (Oxford Vascular Study). In a meta-analysis with other population-based studies, we used linear regression to determine time trends in outcome. Results: There were no reductions in incidence of SAH (RR = 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48–1.29, p = 0.34) and in 30-day case-fatality (RR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.39–1.13, p = 0.14) in the Oxford Vascular Study vs Oxford Community Stroke Project, but there was a decrease in overall mortality (RR = 0.47, 0.23–0.97, p = 0.04). Following adjustment for age and baseline SAH severity, patients surviving to hospital had reduced risk of death or dependency (modified Rankin score > 3) at 12 months in the Oxford Vascular Study (RR = 0.51, 0.29–0.88, p = 0.01). Among 32 studies covering 39 study periods from 1980 to 2005, 7 studied time trends within single populations. Unadjusted case-fatality fell by 0.9% per annum (0.3–1.5, p = 0.007) in a meta-analysis of data from all studies, and by 0.9% per annum (0.2–1.6%, p = 0.01) within the 7 population studies. Conclusion: Mortality due to subarachnoid hemorrhage fell by about 50% in our study population over the last 2 decades, due mainly to improved outcomes in cases surviving to reach hospital. This improvement is consistent with a significant decrease in case-fatality over the last 25 years in our pooled analysis of other similar population-based studies. GLOSSARY CI = confidence interval; mRS = modified Rankin score; OCSP = Oxford Community Stroke Project; OXVASC = Oxford Vascular Study; SAH = subarachnoid hemorrhage; WFNS = World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies. PMID:20375310

Lovelock, C.E.; Rinkel, G.J.E.; Rothwell, P.M.

2010-01-01

75

CSF leukotriene C4 following subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Leukotrienes derive from arachidonic acid metabolism via the lipoxygenase pathway and modulate several cellular events. In the central nervous system, leukotrienes are mainly synthesized in the gray matter and in vascular tissues. Their production is enhanced in ischemic conditions and in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Previous studies have indicated the ability of the leukotrienes C4 and D4 to constrict arterial vessels in vivo and in vitro and have suggested their involvement in the pathogenesis of cerebral arterial spasm. In the present study, the authors measured lumbar and cisternal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of leukotriene C4 in 48 patients who had suffered aneurysmal SAH. In 12 of the cases, symptomatic and radiological spasm was evident. The mean lumbar CSF level of immunoreactive-like activity of leukotriene C4 (i-LTC4) was significantly higher (p less than 0.005) than in control cases, while the cisternal CSF level was higher than the lumbar mean concentration (p less than 0.005). Patients presenting with vasospasm had significantly higher levels of i-LTC4 compared to patients without symptomatic vasospasm. This is the first report concerning monitoring of i-LTC4 levels in the CSF after SAH. The results of this study suggest that: 1) metabolism of arachidonic acid via the lipoxygenase pathway is enhanced after SAH; 2) the higher cisternal CSF levels of i-LTC4 may be part of the biological response in the perianeurysmal subarachnoid cisterns after the hemorrhage; and 3) the higher CSF levels of i-LTC4 in patients presenting with vasospasm suggest that a relationship exists between this compound and arterial spasm and/or reflect the development of cerebral ischemic damage. PMID:3418380

Paoletti, P; Gaetani, P; Grignani, G; Pacchiarini, L; Silvani, V; Rodriguez y Baena, R

1988-10-01

76

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Secondary to Forceful Sneeze  

PubMed Central

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a relatively less common but important neurological condition comprising 5% of all the cerebrovascular accidents. In most populations the reported incidence is 6-7 per 100,000 person-years and one-third of survivors become dependent. It is a serious but potentially treatable cause of neurological morbidity. Multiple authors have identified the most unusual novel associations and triggers of subarachnoid bleeds over the past decade. We herein report a rare case of subarachnoid hemorrhage leading to focal neurological deficit in a middle aged man secondary to forceful sneeze.

Nomani, Ali Zohair; Rajput, Haris Majid; Iqbal, Mansoor; Jan, Zakir; Irshad, Muhammad; Badshah, Mazhar; Khan, Rao Sohail Yasin

2015-01-01

77

Progressive Manifestations of Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome Presenting with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Intracerebral Hemorrhage, and Cerebral Infarction  

PubMed Central

Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by sudden-onset headache with focal neurologic deficit and prolonged but reversible multifocal narrowing of the distal cerebral arteries. Stroke, either hemorrhagic or ischemic, is a relatively frequent presentation in RCVS, but progressive manifestations of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral infarction in a patient is seldom described. We report a rare case of a 56-year-old woman with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome consecutively presenting as cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and cerebral infarction. When she complained of severe headache with subtle cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, her angiography was non-specific. But, computed tomographic angiography showed typical angiographic features of this syndrome after four days. Day 12, she suffered mental deterioration and hemiplegia due to contralateral intracerebral hematoma, and she was surgically treated. For recurrent attacks of headache, medical management with calcium channel blockers has been instituted. Normalized angiographic features were documented after 8 weeks. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome should be considered as differential diagnosis of non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and repeated angiography is recommended for the diagnosis of this under-recognized syndrome.

Choi, Kyu-Sun

2014-01-01

78

Correlation between plasma total nitric oxide levels and cerebral vasospasm and clinical outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in Indian population  

PubMed Central

Context: Cerebral vasospasm remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide has been associated with the development of cerebral vasospasm after aSAH. Such data is not available in Indian population. Aims: The objective of the study was to measure the plasma total nitric oxide (nitrite and nitrate-NOx) level in aSAH patients and healthy controls treated at a tertiary hospital in India and to investigate a possible association between plasma total nitric oxide level and cerebral vasospasm and clinical outcome following treatment in patients with aSAH. Settings and Design: A case-control study of aSAH patients was conducted. Plasma total NOx levels were estimated in aSAH patients with and without vasospasm and compared the results with NOx levels in healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: aSAH in patients was diagnosed on the basis of clinical and neuro-imaging findings. Plasma total NOx levels in different subject groups were determined by Griess assay. Results: Plasma total NOx level was found to be significantly decreased in patients with aSAH when compared to controls. Plasma total NOx level in the poor-grade SAH group was lower than that in the good-grade SAH group. Plasma total NOx level further reduced in patients with angiographic (P < 0.05) and clinical vasospasm. Conclusions: Reduced plasma NOx level is seen in aSAH patients as compared to normal individuals. In aSAH patients reduced levels are associated with increased incidence of cerebral vasospasm and poor outcome. Plasma total NOx level could be used as a candidate biomarker for predicting vasospasm and outcome for this pathology.

Ramesh, Shruthi Shimoga; Prasanthi, Aripirala; Bhat, Dhananjaya Ishwar; Devi, Bhagavatula Indira; Cristopher, Rita; Philip, Mariamma

2014-01-01

79

Effect of nimodipine on arachidonic acid metabolites after subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Arachidonic acid metabolites are under investigation as possible vasoactive agents involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Prostaglandins, as well as other vasoactive compounds, activate contractile proteins through utilization of extracellular bound Ca++ to the intracytoplasmic free fraction. Recently, calcium-antagonists, mainly Nimodipine, have been proposed for the prophylaxis and/or reversal of the ischemic damage caused by vasospasm. Nimodipine failed to reduce vasospasm incidence in a series of 30 patients admitted with diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage from ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Nimodipine failed to reduce level of four arachidonate metabolites measured (prostaglandin D2, prostacyclin, thromboxane B2 and leukotriene C4) in lumbar and cisternal CSF. After subarachnoid hemorrhage there is a significant increase of CSF levels of arachidonate metabolites; in perianeurysmic cisterns level of prostaglandin D2, thromboxane B2 and leukotriene C4 are significantly higher than lumbar CSF levels. Moreover, cisternal CSF level of prostaglandin D2 and leukotriene C4 are significantly higher in patients with symptomatic vasospasm. Nimodipine did not significantly modify CFS level of arachidonate metabolites: this suggests that Nimodipine treatment, which definitely improves long-term results of patients for intracranial aneurysms, could exert its pharmacological action reducing Ca++ intake from the extracellular compartment and preventing a direct toxic effect of calcium, without a direct action against the release of vasoactive compounds. PMID:3120489

Rodriguez, R; Baena, Y; Gaetani, P; Grignani, G; Pacchiarini, L

1987-10-01

80

Subarachnoid hemorrhage in Kashmir: Causes, risk factors, and outcome  

PubMed Central

Context: Kashmir, a snow bound and mountain locked valley, is populated by about 7 million ethnic and non-migratory Kashmiris who have specific dietary and social habits than rest of the world. The neurological disorders are common in Kashmiri population. Aims: To study the prevalence and outcome of spontaneous intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in Kashmir compared withother parts of the world. Settings and Design: A retrospective and hospital based study from 1982 to 2010 in the single and only Neurosurgical Centre of the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Materials and Methods: A hospital based study, in which, information concerning all Kashmiri patients was collected from the case sheets, patient files, discharge certificates, death certificates, and telephonic conversations with the help of Medical Records Department and Central Admission Register of Sher–i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Kashmir India. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance and students T-test were used at occasions. Results: Incidence of SAH in Kashmiris is about 13/100,000 persons per year. SAH comprises 31.02% of total strokes and aneurysmal ruptures are cause of 54.35% SAHs. The female suffers 1.78 times more than the male. Total mortality of 36.60% was recorded against a good recovery of 14.99%. The familial SAHs and multiple aneurysms were also common. Intra-operative finding of larger aneurysmal size than recorded on pre-operative computed tomography (CT) angiogram of same patients was noteworthy. In 493 patients of SAH, the angiography revealed 705 aneurysms. Conclusion: Spontaneous intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage, due to aneurysmal rupture, is common in Kashmir, with worst outcome. Food habits like “salt-tea twice a day”, group-smoking of wet tobacco like “Jejeer”, winter season, female gender, hypertension, and inhalation of “Kangri” smoke are special risk factorsof SAH, in Kashmiris. The plain CT brain and CT angiography are best diagnostic tools. The preventive measures for aneurysmal formation and rupture seems most promising management of future. The detachable endovascular aneurysmal occupying video assisted micro-camera capsules or plugs may be future treatment. PMID:22347326

Bhat, Abdul Rashid; AfzalWani, Mohammed; Kirmani, Altaf R.

2011-01-01

81

Delayed subarachnoid hemorrhage following failed odontoid screw fixation.  

PubMed

Iatrogenic vascular injury is a rare but potentially devastating complication of cervical spine instrumentation. The authors report on a patient who developed an anterior spinal artery pseudoaneurysm associated with delayed subarachnoid hemorrhage after undergoing odontoid screw placement 14 months earlier. This 86-year-old man presented with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (Fisher Grade 4) and full motor strength on neurological examination. Imaging demonstrated pseudarthrosis of the odontoid process, extension of the odontoid screw beyond the posterior cortex of the dens, and a pseudoaneurysm arising from an adjacent branch of the anterior spinal artery. Due to the aneurysm's location and lack of active extravasation, endovascular treatment was not attempted. Posterior C1-2 fusion was performed to treat radiographic and clinical instability of the C1-2 joint. Postoperatively, the patient's motor function remained intact. Almost all cases of vascular injury related to cervical spine instrumentation are recognized at surgery. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of delayed vascular injury following an uncomplicated cervical fixation. This case further suggests that the risk of this phenomenon may be elevated in cases of failed fusion. PMID:21395399

Wilson, David A; Fusco, David J; Theodore, Nicholas

2011-06-01

82

Clinical review: Prevention and therapy of vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Vasospasm is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Radiographic vasospasm usually develops between 5 and 15 days after the initial hemorrhage, and is associated with clinically apparent delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DID) in one-third of patients. The pathophysiology of this reversible vasculopathy is not fully understood but appears to involve structural changes and biochemical alterations at the levels of the vascular endothelium and smooth muscle cells. Blood in the subarachnoid space is believed to trigger these changes. In addition, cerebral perfusion may be concurrently impaired by hypovolemia and impaired cerebral autoregulatory function. The combined effects of these processes can lead to reduction in cerebral blood flow so severe as to cause ischemia leading to infarction. Diagnosis is made by some combination of clinical, cerebral angiographic, and transcranial doppler ultrasonographic factors. Nimodipine, a calcium channel antagonist, is so far the only available therapy with proven benefit for reducing the impact of DID. Aggressive therapy combining hemodynamic augmentation, transluminal balloon angioplasty, and intra-arterial infusion of vasodilator drugs is, to varying degrees, usually implemented. A panoply of drugs, with different mechanisms of action, has been studied in SAH related vasospasm. Currently, the most promising are magnesium sulfate, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors, nitric oxide donors and endothelin-1 antagonists. This paper reviews established and emerging therapies for vasospasm. PMID:17705883

Keyrouz, Salah G; Diringer, Michael N

2007-01-01

83

Blood Clot Placement Model of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Non-human Primates.  

PubMed

Despite ongoing extensive and promising research to prevent and treat cerebrovascular vasospasm and delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), clinical outcomes remain unsatisfying. Neuroprotective strategies developed in basic science research laboratories need to be translated from bench-to-bedside using appropriate animal models. While a primate model is widely accepted as the best animal model mimicking development of delayed cerebral vasospasm after aSAH, its worldwide usage has dramatically decreased because of ethical and financial limitations. However, the use of primate models of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains a recommended bridge for translation of early preclinical studies in rodents to human clinical trials. This paper discusses the technical aspects as well as advantages and disadvantages of a blood clot placement model of subarachnoid hemorrhage in non-human primates. PMID:25366649

Fathi, Ali Reza; Bakhtian, Kamran D; Marbacher, Serge; Fandino, Javier; Pluta, Ryszard M

2015-01-01

84

Cauda equina syndrome resulting from lumbar arachnoiditis after intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report.  

PubMed

Spinal arachnoiditis is a known but very rare late complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Since 1943, 17 cases of spinal arachnoiditis after intracranial hemorrhage have been reported internationally. The vast majority of these cases were related to aneurysmal SAH. All previously published cases have involved spinal arachnoiditis at the cervical and thoracic levels. In this report, we present an adult woman with lumbar spinal arachnoiditis causing cauda equina syndrome as a result of posterior circulation aneurysmal SAH. We believe this is the first reported case of this specific condition causing cauda equina syndrome. PMID:23790823

Whetstone, Kirk E; Crane, Deborah A

2013-06-01

85

Molecular alterations in the hippocampus after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) frequently have deficits in learning and memory that may or may not be associated with detectable brain lesions. We examined mediators of long-term potentiation after SAH in rats to determine what processes might be involved. There was a reduction in synapses in the dendritic layer of the CA1 region on transmission electron microscopy as well as reduced colocalization of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and synaptophysin. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced staining for GluR1 and calmodulin kinase 2 and increased staining for GluR2. Myelin basic protein staining was decreased as well. There was no detectable neuronal injury by Fluoro-Jade B, TUNEL, or activated caspase-3 staining. Vasospasm of the large arteries of the circle of Willis was mild to moderate in severity. Nitric oxide was increased and superoxide anion radical was decreased in hippocampal tissue. Cerebral blood flow, measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and cerebral glucose metabolism, measured by positron emission tomography, were no different in SAH compared with control groups. The results suggest that the etiology of loss of LTP after SAH is not cerebral ischemia but may be mediated by effects of subarachnoid blood such as oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:24064494

Han, Sang Myung; Wan, Hoyee; Kudo, Gen; Foltz, Warren D; Vines, Douglass C; Green, David E; Zoerle, Tommaso; Tariq, Asma; Brathwaite, Shakira; D'Abbondanza, Josephine; Ai, Jinglu; Macdonald, R Loch

2014-01-01

86

Molecular alterations in the hippocampus after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) frequently have deficits in learning and memory that may or may not be associated with detectable brain lesions. We examined mediators of long-term potentiation after SAH in rats to determine what processes might be involved. There was a reduction in synapses in the dendritic layer of the CA1 region on transmission electron microscopy as well as reduced colocalization of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and synaptophysin. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced staining for GluR1 and calmodulin kinase 2 and increased staining for GluR2. Myelin basic protein staining was decreased as well. There was no detectable neuronal injury by Fluoro-Jade B, TUNEL, or activated caspase-3 staining. Vasospasm of the large arteries of the circle of Willis was mild to moderate in severity. Nitric oxide was increased and superoxide anion radical was decreased in hippocampal tissue. Cerebral blood flow, measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and cerebral glucose metabolism, measured by positron emission tomography, were no different in SAH compared with control groups. The results suggest that the etiology of loss of LTP after SAH is not cerebral ischemia but may be mediated by effects of subarachnoid blood such as oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:24064494

Han, Sang Myung; Wan, Hoyee; Kudo, Gen; Foltz, Warren D; Vines, Douglass C; Green, David E; Zoerle, Tommaso; Tariq, Asma; Brathwaite, Shakira; D'Abbondanza, Josephine; Ai, Jinglu; Macdonald, R Loch

2014-01-01

87

Magnesium sulfate administration in subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Magnesium offers theoretic vascular and neuroprotective benefits for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. An electronic literature search was conducted to identify original research studies describing intravenous magnesium treatment in patients with SAH published in English between January 1990 and October 2010. Seventeen articles were identified and reviewed, including one phase III randomized-controlled clinical trial and six phase II randomized-controlled trials. Study quality was low for most of the included studies, with the phase III trial considered to be of moderate quality. Due to inconsistently reported benefits and the occurrence of side effects, phase II data suggested that intravenous magnesium for SAH provided either no overall net benefit or uncertain trade-offs. Benefit was likewise not supported in the single phase III clinical trial. PMID:21748496

Suarez, Jose I

2011-09-01

88

Metamorphosis of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Research: from Delayed Vasospasm to Early Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed vasospasm that develops 3–7 days after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has traditionally been considered\\u000a the most important determinant of delayed ischemic injury and poor outcome. Consequently, most therapies against delayed ischemic\\u000a injury are directed towards reducing the incidence of vasospasm. The clinical trials based on this strategy, however, have\\u000a so far claimed limited success; the incidence of vasospasm is reduced

Fatima A. Sehba; Ryszard M. Pluta; John H. Zhang

2011-01-01

89

Unfractionated Heparin: Multitargeted Therapy for Delayed Neurological Deficits Induced by Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with numerous “delayed neurological deficits” (DNDs) that have been\\u000a attributed to multiple pathophysiological mechanisms, including ischemia, microthrombosis, free radical damage, inflammation,\\u000a and vascular remodeling. To date, effective prophylactic therapy for SAH-induced DNDs has been elusive, due perhaps to the\\u000a multiplicity of mechanisms involved that render typical, single-agent therapy seemingly futile. We hypothesized that heparin,

J. Marc SimardDavid Schreibman; David Schreibman; E. Francois Aldrich; Bernadette Stallmeyer; Brian Le; Robert F. James; Narlin Beaty

2010-01-01

90

Early Brain Injury, an Evolving Frontier in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Research  

PubMed Central

Summary Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), predominantly caused by a ruptured aneurysm, is a devastating neurological disease that has a morbidity and mortality rate higher than 50%. Most of the traditional in vivo research has focused on the pathophysiological or morphological changes of large-arteries after intracisternal blood injection. This was due to a widely held assumption that delayed vasospasm following SAH was the major cause of delayed cerebral ischemia and poor outcome. However, the results of the CONSCIOUS-1 trial implicated some other pathophysiological factors, independent of angiographic vasospasm, in contributing to the poor clinical outcome. The term early brain injury (EBI) has been coined and describes the immediate injury to the brain after SAH, before onset of delayed vasospasm. During the EBI period, a ruptured aneurysm brings on many physiological derangements such as increasing intracranial pressure (ICP), decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF), and global cerebral ischemia. These events initiate secondary injuries such as blood-brain barrier disruption, inflammation, and oxidative cascades that all ultimately lead to cell death. Given the fact that the reversal of vasospasm does not appear to improve patient outcome, it could be argued that the treatment of EBI may successfully attenuate some of the devastating secondary injuries and improve the outcome of patients with SAH. In this review, we provide an overview of the major advances in EBI after SAH research. PMID:23894255

Fujii, Mutsumi; Yan, Junhao; Rolland, William B.; Soejima, Yoshiteru; Caner, Basak; Zhang, John H.

2013-01-01

91

[Subarachnoidal hemorrhage and multiple vascular cerebral abnormalities in ?-thalassemia major].  

PubMed

?-thalassemia is a genetic hemoglobinopathy, which can cause hypercoagulability, vessel wall damages and thromboembolic events. Spontaneous subarachnoidal hemorrhages are not commonly described in this affection. We report subarachnoidal hemorrhage, observed during the post-partum period in a 27-year-old woman suffering from ?-thalassemia major. Brain MRI revealed complex vascular abnormalities: intracranial carotid occlusion, carotid micro-aneurisms, abnormally developed deep perforators and cortical arteries. PMID:23394851

Svahn, J; Cho, T-H; Derex, L; Mechtouff, L; Nighoghossian, N

2013-03-01

92

To Look Beyond Vasospasm in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Delayed cerebral vasospasm has classically been considered the most important and treatable cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Secondary ischemia (or delayed ischemic neurological deficit, DIND) has been shown to be the leading determinant of poor clinical outcome in patients with aSAH surviving the early phase and cerebral vasospasm has been attributed to being primarily responsible. Recently, various clinical trials aimed at treating vasospasm have produced disappointing results. DIND seems to have a multifactorial etiology and vasospasm may simply represent one contributing factor and not the major determinant. Increasing evidence shows that a series of early secondary cerebral insults may occur following aneurysm rupture (the so-called early brain injury). This further aggravates the initial insult and actually determines the functional outcome. A better understanding of these mechanisms and their prevention in the very early phase is needed to improve the prognosis. The aim of this review is to summarize the existing literature on this topic and so to illustrate how the presence of cerebral vasospasm may not necessarily be a prerequisite for DIND development. The various factors determining DIND that worsen functional outcome and prognosis are then discussed. PMID:24967389

Messerer, Mahmoud; Oddo, Mauro; Daniel, Roy Thomas

2014-01-01

93

Canine double hemorrhage model of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Several animal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) models have been proposed for the investigation of cerebral vasospasm. We describe the experimental procedures of a canine double-SAH model and also examine the model based on the canine physiological parameters and occurrence of angiographic delayed cerebral vasospasm using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and digital subtraction angiography. Autologous blood was injected twice on days 1 and 3 in 36 beagles. All animals showed delayed angiographic vasospasm in the vertebrobasilar arteries on day 7. The degree of vasospasm was 29-42 % of the arterial caliber. MR imaging did not show any ischemic change. This animal model can produce definite delayed vasospasm without detectable cerebral infarction on MR imaging. The canine SAH model is suitable for the quantitative and chronological study of delayed angiographic vasospasm, but not for investigating early brain injury and delayed cerebral ischemia. PMID:25366650

Mori, Kentaro; Fujii, Kazuya; Tomura, Satosi; Ueno, Hideaki; Wada, Kojiro; Otani, Naoki; Osada, Hideo; Tomiyama, Arata

2015-01-01

94

The Importance of Early Brain Injury after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a medical emergency that accounts for 5% of all stroke cases. Individuals affected are typically in the prime of their lives (mean age 50 years). Approximately 12% of patients die before receiving medical attention, 33% within 48 hours and 50% within 30 days of aSAH. Of the survivors 50% suffer from permanent disability with an estimated lifetime cost more than double that of an ischemic stroke. Traditionally, spasm that develops in large cerebral arteries 3-7 days after aneurysm rupture is considered the most important determinant of brain injury and outcome after aSAH. However, recent studies show that prevention of delayed vasospasm does not improve outcome in aSAH patients. This finding has finally brought in focus the influence of early brain injury on outcome of aSAH. A substantial amount of evidence indicates that brain injury begins at the aneurysm rupture, evolves with time and plays an important role in patients’ outcome. In this manuscript we review early brain injury after aSAH. Due to the early nature, most of the information on this injury comes from animals and few only from autopsy of patients who died within days after aSAH. Consequently, we began with a review of animal models of early brain injury, next we review the mechanisms of brain injury according to the sequence of their temporal appearance and finally we discuss the failure of clinical translation of therapies successful in animal models of aSAH. PMID:22414893

Sehba, Fatima A.; Hou, Jack; Pluta, Ryszard M.; Zhang, John H.

2012-01-01

95

Application of lumbar drainage in vasospasm after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and prevention of late cerebral infarction.  

PubMed

Cerebral vasospasm, especially delayed cerebral ischemia following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is the most important complication that effects mortality and morbidity of patients with intracranial aneurysms. The presence of cerebral vasospasm has been correlated with an increase in mortality in the first 2 weeks after SAH. Despite clinical studies and research, the etiopathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm is not understood exactly and there is not yet an effective therapy. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of application of lumber drainage on vasospasm and delayed cerebral infarction following SAH and to examine the incidence of complications. Patient groups were determined by retrospective screening of 70 patients who underwent a surgical operation at the Osmangazi University Medical Faculty Department of Neurosurgery between 2009 and 2013 after a diagnosis of ruptured aneurysmal SAH. After the application of lumbar drainage, the complications and mortality after aneurysm surgery was significantly decreased and correlated with the amount of hemorrhagic cerebrospinal fluid drainage. PMID:25366633

Aydin, Hasan Emre; Ozbek, Zühtü; Aydin, Nevin; Bolluk, Ozge; Vural, Murat; Arslantas, Ali; Atasoy, Metin Ant

2015-01-01

96

Anemia and transfusion after subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may be affected by a number of factors, including cerebral blood flow and oxygen delivery. Anemia affects about half of patients with SAH and is associated with worse outcome. Anemia also may contribute to the development of or exacerbate delayed cerebral ischemia. This review was designed to examine the prevalence and impact of anemia in patients with SAH and to evaluate the effects of transfusion. A literature search was made to identify original research on anemia and transfusion in SAH patients. A total of 27 articles were identified that addressed the effects of red blood cell transfusion (RBCT) on brain physiology, anemia in SAH, and clinical management with RBCT or erythropoietin. Most studies provided retrospectively analyzed data of very low-quality according to the GRADE criteria. While RBCT can have beneficial effects on brain physiology, RBCT may be associated with medical complications, infection, vasospasm, and poor outcome after SAH. The effects may vary with disease severity or the presence of vasospasm, but it remains unclear whether RBCTs are a marker of disease severity or a cause of worse outcome. Erythropoietin data are limited. The literature review further suggests that the results of the Transfusion Requirements in Critical Care Trial and subsequent observational studies on RBCT in general critical care do not apply to SAH patients and that randomized trials to address the role of RBCT in SAH are required. PMID:21769459

Le Roux, Peter D

2011-09-01

97

Spontaneous Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage from Adrenal Artery Aneurysm  

SciTech Connect

Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is a very rare but serious disorder of the adrenal gland that can require emergent treatment. We report on a 42-year-old man who underwent selective angiography for diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal hemorrhage from small adrenal artery aneurysm. This case gives further details about the value of transluminal artery embolization in the management of visceral aneurysm rupture.

Gonzalez Valverde, F.M., E-mail: migova@terra.es; Balsalobre, M.; Torregrosa, N.; Molto, M. [Hospital General Vega Baja, Department of Surgery (Spain); Gomez Ramos, M.J. [Hospital General Vega Baja, Intensive Care Unit (Spain); Vazquez Rojas, J.L. [Hospital General Vega Baja, Department of Surgery (Spain)

2007-04-15

98

Everyday Memory in Microsurgically Treated Patients After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background Memory declines measured by traditional tests in patients after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are well documented. Classic examinations of memory problems sometimes do not significantly correlate with memory functions in everyday life. The objective of the study was to assess the specific type of everyday memory loss in patients after microsurgical treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysm causing SAH. Methods The prospective controlled, randomized study was conducted using the specific tests for everyday memory measure with high ecological validity. All patients were operated on by the same neurosurgeon (KD). Preoperatively, patients were in a good grade (Hunt-Hess I or II), with no neurological deficit and no hydrocephalus postoperatively. Patients were tested at two phases: 15 and 45 days after microsurgery with the Rivermead behavioral memory test (RBMT) and the cognitive failure questionnaire (CFQ). Results We compared the results of the tests administered in subjects that underwent microdiscectomy surgery for SAH to a control group that underwent surgery for lumbar disc herniation (DH). Conclusion Neuropsychological assessment of operated patients who sustained SAH showed a decline, compared to the DH group, in everyday memory function. Also, we found failures in perception and motor function in operated SAH patients with a trend of cognitive recovery as time progresses.

Koso, Maida; Dizdarevic, Kemal; Sose-Selimotic, Jasmina

2015-01-01

99

Cerebellar hemorrhage after embolization of ruptured vertebral dissecting aneurysm proximal to PICA including parent artery  

PubMed Central

Background: Some complications related to vertebral artery occlusion by endovascular technique have been reported. However, cerebellar hemorrhage after vertebral artery occlusion in subacute phase is rare. In this report, we describe a patient who showed cerebellar hemorrhage during hypertensive therapy for vasospasm after embolization of a vertebral dissecting aneurysm. Case Description: A 56-year-old female with a ruptured vertebral dissecting aneurysm proximal to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery developed cerebellar hemorrhage 15 days after embolization of the vertebral artery, including the dissected site. In this patient, the preserved posterior inferior cerebellar artery fed by retrograde blood flow might have been hemodynamically stressed during hypertensive and antiplatelet therapies for subarachnoid hemorrhage, resulting in cerebellar hemorrhage. Conclusion: Although cerebellar hemorrhage is not prone to occur in the nonacute stage of embolization of the vertebral artery, it should be taken into consideration that cerebellar hemorrhage may occur during hypertensive treatment. PMID:24872921

Tamase, Akira; Kamide, Tomoya; Mori, Kentaro; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Shima, Hiroshi; Seki, Shunsuke; Nomura, Motohiro

2014-01-01

100

The Subarachnoid Hemorrhage International Trialists (SAHIT) Repository: advancing clinical research in subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Researchers and other stakeholders continue to express concern about the failure of randomized clinical trials (RCT) in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) to show efficacy of new treatments. Pooled data may be particularly useful to generate hypotheses about causes of poor outcomes and reasons for failure of RCT in SAH, and strategies to improve them. Investigators conducting SAH research collaborated to share data with the intent to develop a large repository of pooled individual patient data for exploratory analysis and testing of new hypotheses relevant to improved trial design and analysis in SAH. This repository currently contains information on 11,443 SAH patients from 14 clinical databases, of which 9 are datasets of recent RCTs and 5 are datasets of prospective observational studies and hospital registries. Most patients were managed in the last 15 years. Data validation and quality checks have been conducted and are satisfactory. Data is available on demographic, clinical, neuroimaging, and laboratory results and various outcome measures. We have compiled the largest known dataset of patients with SAH. The SAHIT repository may be an important resource for advancing clinical research in SAH and will benefit from contributions of additional datasets. PMID:24865271

Jaja, Blessing N R; Attalla, Daniel; Macdonald, R Loch; Schweizer, Tom A; Cusimano, Michael D; Etminan, Nima; Hanggi, Daniel; Hasan, David; Johnston, S Claiborne; Le Roux, Peter; Lo, Benjamin; Louffat-Olivares, Ada; Mayer, Stephan; Molyneux, Andrew; Noble, Adam; Quinn, Audrey; Schenk, Thomas; Spears, Julian; Singh, Jeffrey; Todd, Michael; Torner, James; Tseng, Ming; van den Bergh, William; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Wong, George K C

2014-12-01

101

Rat cisterna magna double-injection model of subarachnoid hemorrhage - background, advantages/limitations, technical considerations, modifications, and outcome measures.  

PubMed

The pathophysiological changes following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are commonly divided into early consequences (developing shortly after the bleeding) and delayed consequences of the bleeding. The development of delayed injury mechanisms, e.g., reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) caused by cerebral vasospasm (CVS) or development of delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND), seem mainly to depend on the amount and duration of the subarachnoid blood clot. CVS may progress to cerebral ischemia and infarction, and therefore lead to delayed neurological deterioration. The rat double-hemorrhage model reproduces the time course of the delayed pathophysiological consequences of CVS, which imitates the clinical setting more precisely than other rodent models. Furthermore, this model is adjustable via various technical considerations or modifications. Therefore, the double-hemorrhage model is predisposed to be used to mimic the delayed effects of SAH and to investigate the use of drugs on morphological ischemic, functional, and vasospastic effects. PMID:25366646

Güresir, Erdem; Schuss, Patrick; Borger, Valeri; Vatter, Hartmut

2015-01-01

102

The rat endovascular perforation model of subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

The rat endovascular perforation model is considered the closest replica of human condition. Since its development, this model has been extensively used to study early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, like any other animal model, it has advantages and limitations. The following is a brief review of the rat endovascular perforation SAH model. One section is dedicated to technical considerations that can be used to overcome the model limitations. PMID:25366645

Sehba, Fatima A

2015-01-01

103

SAHIT Investigators--on the outcome of some subarachnoid hemorrhage clinical trials.  

PubMed

Outcome of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has improved over the last decades. Yet, case fatality remains nearly 40% and survivors often have permanent neurological, cognitive and/or behavioural sequelae. Other than nimodipine drug or clinical trials have not consistently improved outcome. We formed a collaboration of SAH investigators to create a resource for prognostic analysis and for studies aimed at optimizing the design and analysis of phase 3 trials in aneurysmal SAH. We identified investigators with data from randomized, clinical trials of patients with aneurysmal SAH or prospectively collected single- or multicentre databases of aneurysmal SAH patients. Data are being collected and proposals to use the data and to design future phase 3 clinical trials are being discussed. This paper reviews some issues discussed at the first meeting of the SAH international trialists (SAHIT) repository meeting. Investigators contributed or have agreed to contribute data from several phase 3 trials including the tirilazad trials, intraoperative hypothermia for aneurysmal SAH trial, nicardipine clinical trials, international subarachnoid aneurysm trial, intravenous magnesium sulphate for aneurysmal SAH, magnesium for aneurysmal SAH and from prospectively-collected data from four institutions. The number of patients should reach 15,000. Some industry investigators refused to provide data and others reported that their institutional research ethics boards would not permit even deidentified or anonymized data to be included. Others reported conflict of interest that prevented them from submitting data. The problems with merging data were related to lack of common definitions and coding of variables, differences in outcome scales used, and times of assessment. Some questions for investigation that arose are discussed. SAHIT demonstrates the possibility of SAH investigators to contribute data for collaborative research. The problems are similar to those already documented in other similar collaborative efforts such as in head injury research. We encourage clinical trial and registry investigators to contact us and participate in SAHIT. Key issues moving forward will be to use common definitions (common data elements), outcomes analysis, and to prioritize research questions, among others. PMID:24323299

Macdonald, R Loch; Jaja, Blessing; Cusimano, Michael D; Etminan, Nima; Hanggi, Daniel; Hasan, David; Ilodigwe, Don; Lantigua, Hector; Le Roux, Peter; Lo, Benjamin; Louffat-Olivares, Ada; Mayer, Stephan; Molyneux, Andrew; Quinn, Audrey; Schweizer, Tom A; Schenk, Thomas; Spears, Julian; Todd, Michael; Torner, James; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Wong, George K C; Singh, Jeff

2013-06-01

104

THE ALBUMIN IN SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE (ALISAH) MULTICENTER PILOT CLINICAL TRIAL: SAFETY AND NEUROLOGIC OUTCOMES  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Human albumin has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in animal models of cerebral ischemia and humans with various intracranial pathologies. We investigated the safety and tolerability of 25% human albumin (ALB) in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods The ALISAH (Albumin in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage) Pilot Clinical Trial was an open-label, dose-escalation study. We intended to study 4 different dosages of ALB of increasing magnitude (0.625 g/kg: tier 1; 1.25 g/kg: tier 2; 1.875 g/kg: tier 3; and 2.5 g/kg: tier 4). Each dosage was to be given to 20 adult patients. Treatment was administered daily for 7 days. We investigated the maximum tolerated dose of ALB based on the rate of severe-to-life-threatening heart failure and anaphylactic reaction, and functional outcome at 3 months. Results We treated 47 adult subjects: 20 in tier 1; 20 in tier 2; and 7 in tier 3. We found that doses ranging up to 1.25 g/kg/day × 7 days were tolerated by patients without major dose-limiting complications. We also found that outcomes trended towards better responses in those subjects enrolled in tier 2 compared to tier 1 (OR: 3.0513; CI: 0.6586 – 14.1367) and to the International Intra-operative Hypothermia for Aneurysm Surgery Trial cohort (OR: 3.1462; CI: 0.9158 – 10.8089). Conclusions ALB in doses ranging up to 1.25 g/Kg/day × 7 days was tolerated by patients with SAH without major complications and may be neuroprotective. Based on these results, planning of the ALISAH II, a Phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to test the efficacy of ALB is underway. Clinical Trial Registration Information: NCT00283400 (clinicaltrials.gov) http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00283400?term=subarachnoid+hemorrhage+houston&rank=1 PMID:22267829

Suarez, Jose I; Martin, Renee H.; Calvillo, Eusebia; Dillon, Catherine; Bershad, Eric M; MacDonald, R Loch; Wong, John; Harbaugh, Robert

2012-01-01

105

Cerebral Venous Thrombosis with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Report.  

PubMed

Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) presenting as subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is infrequent. We present a man with CVT of right transverse sinus who presented a SAH in right parietal sinus. In the study we found a hyperhomocysteinemia in a heterozygous patient for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C667T mutation. Our report highlights the value of an early diagnosis of CVT, the importance to identify possible causes that could be reversed with an appropriate treatment and the controversy about the moment of starting anticoagulant therapy in such cases. PMID:25380613

Arévalo-Lorido, José Carlos; Carretero-Gómez, Juana

2014-11-01

106

A rabbit cisterna magna double-injection subarachnoid hemorrhage model.  

PubMed

In recent years, the shift of research interest in the pathological condition after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from delayed cerebral vasospasm to early brain injury and the development of molecular genetic approaches in animal experiments has resulted in a diversification of animal SAH models. The properties of each animal SAH model thus need to be validated and the purpose of using each animal model should be clarified. This study presents the settings and technical procedures for a rabbit cisterna magna double-injection SAH model and discusses the advantages and limitations of using this model. PMID:25366647

Kikkawa, Yuichiro

2015-01-01

107

Is there a role for heparin in the management of complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage?  

PubMed

Proven effective therapy to prevent ischemic deficits and other complications after subarachnoid hemorrhage is lacking despite extensive research efforts. A literature review documented both clinical and experimental evidence suggesting that heparin may be effective in preventing ischemic deficits after subarachnoid hemorrhage by reversing vasospasm, improving blood flow through narrowed vessels, and preventing the development of a proliferative angiopathy. Additional evidence suggests that heparinization of the cerebrospinal fluid following subarachnoid hemorrhage may prevent the development of hydrocephalus. In the only clinical trial using heparin after subarachnoid hemorrhage, the incidence of rebleeding in the heparinized patients was no higher than in the control group. We conclude that the existing preliminary data concerning a role for heparin in the management of the complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage is promising, but further controlled studies are needed prior to clinical application. PMID:3318003

Chimowitz, M I; Pessin, M S

1987-01-01

108

Spreading depolarization: a possible new culprit in the delayed cerebral ischemia of subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating disease with a high mortality and morbidity rate. Gradual improvements have been made in the reduction of mortality rates associated with the disease during the last 30 years. However, delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), the major delayed complication of SAH, remains a significant contributor to mortality and morbidity despite substantial research and clinical efforts. During the last several years, the predominant role of cerebral vasospasm, the long-accepted etiologic factor behind DCI, has been questioned. It is now becoming increasingly clear that the pathophysiology underlying DCI is multifactorial. Cortical spreading depression is emerging as a likely factor in this complex web of pathologic changes after SAH. Understanding its role after SAH and its relationship with the other pathologic processes such as vasospasm, microcirculatory dysfunction, and microemboli will be vital to the development of new therapeutic approaches to reduce DCI and improve the clinical outcome of the disease. PMID:20837823

Leng, Lewis Z; Fink, Matthew E; Iadecola, Costantino

2011-01-01

109

Acute subarachnoid hemorrhage in posterior condylar canal dural arteriovenous fistula: imaging features with endovascular management.  

PubMed

A 43-year-old man presented with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. He was investigated and found to have a rare posterior condylar canal dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF). DAVFs of the posterior condylar canal are rare. Venous drainage of the DAVF was through a long, tortuous, and aneurysmal bridging vein. We describe the clinical presentation, cross sectional imaging, angiographic features, and endovascular management of this patient. The patient was treated by transarterial embolization of the fistula through the ascending pharyngeal artery. This is the first report of an acutely bled posterior condylar canal DAVF treated by transarterial Onyx embolization with balloon protection in the vertebral artery. The patient recovered without any neurological deficit and had an excellent outcome. On 6 month follow-up angiogram, there was stable occlusion of the dural fistula. PMID:24990846

Mondel, Prabath Kumar; Saraf, Rashmi; Limaye, Uday S

2014-01-01

110

Acute subarachnoid hemorrhage in posterior condylar canal dural arteriovenous fistula: imaging features with endovascular management.  

PubMed

A 43-year-old man presented with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. He was investigated and found to have a rare posterior condylar canal dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF). DAVFs of the posterior condylar canal are rare. Venous drainage of the DAVF was through a long, tortuous, and aneurysmal bridging vein. We describe the clinical presentation, cross sectional imaging, angiographic features, and endovascular management of this patient. The patient was treated by transarterial embolization of the fistula through the ascending pharyngeal artery. This is the first report of an acutely bled posterior condylar canal DAVF treated by transarterial Onyx embolization with balloon protection in the vertebral artery. The patient recovered without any neurological deficit and had an excellent outcome. On 6 month follow-up angiogram, there was stable occlusion of the dural fistula. PMID:25006042

Mondel, Prabath Kumar; Saraf, Rashmi; Limaye, Uday S

2014-07-01

111

Uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

We studied whether endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is upregulated and uncoupled in large cerebral arteries after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and also whether this causes cerebral vasospasm in a mouse model of anterior circulation SAH. Control animals underwent injection of saline instead of blood (n=16 SAH and n=16 controls). There was significant vasospasm of the middle cerebral artery 2 days after SAH (lumen radius/wall thickness ratio 4.3 ± 1.3 for SAH, 23.2 ± 2.1 for saline, P<0.001). Subarachnoid hemorrhage was associated with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling, cleaved caspase-3, and Fluoro-Jade-positive neurons in the cortex and with CA1 and dentate regions in the hippocampus. There were multiple fibrinogen-positive microthromboemboli in the cortex and hippocampus after SAH. Transgenic mice expressing lacZ under control of the eNOS promoter had increased X-gal staining in large arteries after SAH, and this was confirmed by the increased eNOS protein on western blotting. Evidence that eNOS was uncoupled was found in that nitric oxide availability was decreased, and superoxide and peroxynitrite concentrations were increased in the brains of mice with SAH. This study suggests that artery constriction by SAH upregulates eNOS but that it is uncoupled and produces peroxynitrite that may generate microemboli that travel distally and contribute to brain injury. PMID:20517322

Sabri, Mohammed; Ai, Jinglu; Knight, Britta; Tariq, Asma; Jeon, Hyojin; Shang, Xueyuan; Marsden, Philip Anthony; Loch Macdonald, Robert

2011-01-01

112

[Timing of helicopter transportation for patients presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage on isolated islands].  

PubMed

Cerebral aneurysm re-rupture following subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH)is a serious problem that is related with poor outcome. It is generally said that re-rupture occurs within 6 hours of the initial SAH;in the acute stage, strict management is needed even in the period before hospitalization. The aim of this study was to confirm whether patients on isolated islands should be transferred by helicopter > 6 hours after the initial SAH. Here we reviewed 125 cases of SAH in the isolated islands of Nagasaki prefecture between January 2007 and December 2012 who were transferred to Nagasaki Medical Center by helicopter as a result of consultation via TeleStroke(41 men, 84 women;mean age, 65.76 years). Re-rupture was observed in seven patients(5.6%), five of whom were diagnosed with re-rupture in a prior hospital on the isolated island. No patients demonstrated clinical deterioration during transport. Early helicopter transportation under adequate sedation and control of blood pressure within 6 hours is safe, and patients should be transferred as quickly as possible during the day. On the other hand, at night, flight safety must first be considered. Patients in stable clinical condition may be transferred the next day. We should pay special attention to patients with SAH and intracerebral hemorrhage, severe SAH, or vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm because their condition may gradually become more serious even if initially stable. PMID:24920741

Kawahara, Ichiro; Matsunaga, Yuki; Tsutsumi, Keisuke; Takahata, Hideaki; Ono, Tomonori; Toda, Keisuke; Baba, Hiroshi

2014-06-01

113

Anterior circulation model of subarachnoid hemorrhage in mice.  

PubMed

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains one of the most morbid subtypes of stroke around the world and has been the focus of hemorrhagic stroke research for longer than five decades. Animal models have been instrumental in shaping the progress and advancement of SAH research, particularly models that allow for transgenic manipulation. The anterior circulation mouse model provides the research community with a rodent model that depicts very similar clinical findings of SAH; from the location of the hemorrhages to the secondary complications that arise after the hemorrhagic insult. The model allows for the recreation of clinically relevant findings such as large vessel vasospasm, oxidative stress, microcirculatory spasm and microthrombosis, and delayed neuronal injury - all of which appear in human cases of SAH. The model is also not technically demanding, is highly reproducible, and allows for an array of transgenic manipulation, which is essential for mechanistic investigations of the pathogenesis of SAH. The anterior circulation mouse model of SAH is one of a few models that are currently used in mice, and provides the research community with a relatively easy, reliable, and clinically relevant model of SAH - one that could be effectively be used to test for early brain injury (EBI) and delayed neurological injury after SAH. PMID:25366643

Attia, Mohammed Sabri; Macdonald, R Loch

2015-01-01

114

Deaths from cerebrovascular diseases correlated to month of birth: elevated risk of death from subarachnoid hemorrhage among summer-born  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested that maternal nutrition, and fetal and infant growth have an important effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease in adult life. We investigated the population-based distribution of deaths from cerebrovascular diseases (ICD9 codes 430, 431, or 434) in Japan in 1986-1994 as a function of birth month, by examining death-certificate records. For a total of 853 981 people born in the years 1900-1959, the distribution of the number of deaths according to the month of birth was compared with the distribution expected from the monthly numbers of all births for each sex and for the corresponding birth decade. For those born between 1920 and 1949, there were significant discrepancies between the actual numbers of deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage (ICD9 430) and the numbers expected, and these differences were related to the month of birth. Those born in summer, June-September, consistently had an elevated risk of death, particularly men, where the excess risk was 8%-23%. This tendency was also observed, less distinctly but significantly, for deaths from intracerebral hemorrhage (ICD9 431), but was not observed for those dying from occlusion of the cerebral arteries (ICD9 434). The observation that the risk of dying from subarachnoid hemorrhage was more than 10% higher among those born in the summer implies that at least one in ten deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage has its origin at a perinatal stage. Although variations in hypertension in later life, which could possibly be ''programmed'' during the intra-uterine stages, could be an explanation for this observation, the disease-specific nature of the observation suggests the involvement of aneurysm formation, which is a predominant cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Nonaka, K.; Imaizumi, Y.

115

Endothelin and aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a study of subarachnoid cisternal cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed Central

Endothelin (ET) is considered one of the most potent vasoconstrictor polypeptides; several experimental studies have suggested its possible role in the pathogenesis of arterial vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Previously reported data on plasma and CSF levels of endothelin in patients with a diagnosis of SAH have been controversial. Cisternal endothelin CSF levels and the possibility that they could be related to vasospasm and other clinical patterns of SAH were investigated. CSF samples were obtained from 55 patients admitted after angiographic diagnosis of intracranial aneurysm. Levels of ET-1 and ET-3 were measured through radio-immunoassay technique. Twelve patients who had operations for unruptured aneurysms were considered control cases; 43 patients with SAH were classified according to: Hunt and Hess grading at admission, vasospasm grading, CT classification and timing of surgery. In all 55 patients ET-1 was measured, while positive levels of ET-3 were found only in 17 cases of 48. No linear correlation was found between cisternal CSF ET-1 levels when considering time of surgery, CT classification, Hunt and Hess grading at admission, and vasospasm grading. The results of ET-3 assay should be considered with great caution because of the low percentage of positive cases. Cisternal CSF levels of ET-1 and ET-3 are not directly related to the occurrence of arterial vasospasm after the aneurysm rupture, or to other major clinical patterns of SAH; however, ET-1 expression occurs either in paraphysiological (unruptured aneurysm) or in pathological conditions (SAH). It is suggested that ET may potentiate, or may be potentiated by, other factors playing a consistent pathophysiological role in the development of vasospasm. PMID:8301307

Gaetani, P; Rodriguez y Baena, R; Grignani, G; Spanu, G; Pacchiarini, L; Paoletti, P

1994-01-01

116

Interference of apoptosis in the pathophysiology of subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Programmed cell death is crucial for the correct development of the organism and the clearance of harmful cells like tumor cells or autoreactive immune cells. Apoptosis is initiated by the activation of cell death receptors and in most cases it is associated with the activation of the cysteine proteases, which lead to apoptotic cell death. Cells shrink, chromatin clumps and forms a large, sharply demarcated, crescent-shaped or round mass; the nucleus condenses, apoptotic bodies are formed and eventually dead cells are engulfed by a neighboring cell or cleared by phagocytosis. The authors have summarized the most important data concerning apoptosis in subarachnoid hemorrhage that have been issued in the medical literature in the last 20 years. PMID:24049554

Palade, C.; Ciurea, Alexandru V.; Nica, D. A.; Savu, R.; Moisa, Horatiu Alexandru

2013-01-01

117

Demonstration of Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage from the Anterior Choroidal Artery  

PubMed Central

We present a case of angiographically confirmed transection of the cisternal segment of the anterior choroidal artery (AChA) associated with a severe head trauma in a 15-year old boy. The initial brain computed tomography scan revealed a diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and pneumocephalus with multiple skull fractures. Subsequent cerebral angiography clearly demonstrated a complete transection of the AChA at its origin with a massive extravasation of contrast medium as a jet trajectory creating a plume. We speculate that severe blunt traumatic force stretched and tore the left AChA between the internal carotid artery and the optic tract. In a simulation of the patient's brain using a fresh-frozen male cadaver, the AChA is shown to be vulnerable to stretching injury as the ipsilateral optic tract is retracted. We conclude that the arterial injury like an AChA rupture should be considered in the differential diagnosis of severe traumatic SAH.

Sim, Ki-Bum; Choi, H. Alex; Kim, Daniel H.

2014-01-01

118

Multimodality Monitoring, Inflammation, and Neuroregeneration in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Stroke, including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The mortality rate of poor-grade SAH ranges from 34% to 52%. In an attempt to improve SAH outcomes, clinical research on multimodality monitoring has been performed, as has basic science research on inflammation and neuroregeneration (which can occur due to injury-induced neurogenesis). Nevertheless, the current literature does not focus on the integrated study of these fields. Multimodality monitoring corresponds to physiological data obtained during clinical management by both noninvasive and invasive methods. Regarding inflammation and neuroregeneration, evidence suggests that, in all types of stroke, a proinflammatory phase and an anti-inflammatory phase occur consecutively; these phases affect neurogenesis, which is also influenced by other pathophysiological features of stroke, such as ischemia, seizures, and spreading depression. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether injury-induced neurogenesis is a prognostic factor in poor-grade SAH that can be monitored and modulated. METHODS: We propose a protocol for multimodality monitoring-guided hypothermia in poor-grade SAH in which cellular and molecular markers of inflammation and neuroregeneration can be monitored in parallel with clinical and multimodal data. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: This study may reveal correlations between markers of inflammation and neurogenesis in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, based on clinical and multimodality monitoring parameters. DISCUSSION: This protocol has the potential to lead to new therapies for acute, diffuse, and severe brain diseases. ABBREVIATIONS: BBB, blood-brain barrier CPP, cerebral perfusion pressure EEG, electroencephalography ICP, intracranial pressure IL, interleukin MCA, middle cerebral artery SAH, subarachnoid hemorrhage SD, spreading depression SGZ, subgranular zone SVZ, subventricular zone TCD, transcranial Doppler PMID:25050583

Nogueira, Ariel B.; Esteves Veiga, José C.; Teixeira, Manoel J.

2014-01-01

119

Arachidonic acid metabolism and pathophysiologic aspects of subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.  

PubMed

We studied the ex vivo production of prostaglandin D2, prostaglandin E2, 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha, and leukotriene C4 in the brain tissue of rats subjected to experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage. The ex vivo method allows the study of arachidonic acid metabolites released from brain slices at different times after subarachnoid hemorrhage induction and reflects the residual capacity for arachidonic acid metabolism after the pathologic event. The rats were sacrificed 30 minutes, 1 and 6 hours, and 2 days after subarachnoid hemorrhage was induced by the injection of 0.30 ml autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magna. Concentration of prostaglandin D2 and 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha was increased significantly relative to control 2 days after induction. The concentration of prostaglandin E2 was increased significantly 6 hours after induction, while ex vivo production of leukotriene C4 was increased significantly at 1 and 6 hours and 2 days. The correlation between these results and the occurrence of vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage is discussed. The results obtained from the ex vivo incubation of brain tissue slices after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage suggest that after the hemorrhage there is a significant modification of brain eicosanoid metabolism, which could be of great importance in interpreting the pathogenesis of subarachnoid hemorrhage-related neuronal impairment. PMID:2106176

Gaetani, P; Marzatico, F; Rodriguez y Baena, R; Pacchiarini, L; Viganò, T; Grignani, G; Crivellari, M T; Benzi, G

1990-02-01

120

The Role of Microclot Formation in an Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Model in the Rabbit  

PubMed Central

Background. Microvascular dysfunction and microthrombi formation are believed to contribute to development of early brain injury (EBI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Objective. This study aimed to determine (i) extent of microthrombus formation and neuronal apoptosis in the brain parenchyma using a blood shunt SAH model in rabbits; (ii) correlation of structural changes in microvessels with EBI characteristics. Methods. Acute SAH was induced using a rabbit shunt cisterna magna model. Extent of microthrombosis was detected 24?h post-SAH (n = 8) by fibrinogen immunostaining, compared to controls (n = 4). We assessed apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling (TUNEL) in cortex and hippocampus. Results. Our results showed significantly more TUNEL-positive cells (SAH: 115 ± 13; controls: 58 ± 10; P = 0.016) and fibrinogen-positive microthromboemboli (SAH: 9 ± 2; controls: 2 ± 1; P = 0.03) in the hippocampus after aneurysmal SAH. Conclusions. We found clear evidence of early microclot formation in a rabbit model of acute SAH. The extent of microthrombosis did not correlate with early apoptosis or CPP depletion after SAH; however, the total number of TUNEL positive cells in the cortex and the hippocampus significantly correlated with mean CPP reduction during the phase of maximum depletion after SAH induction. Both microthrombosis and neuronal apoptosis may contribute to EBI and subsequent DCI. PMID:25110658

Andereggen, Lukas; Neuschmelting, Volker; Widmer, Hans Rudolf; Fandino, Javier; Marbacher, Serge

2014-01-01

121

Subarachnoid hemorrhage: tests of association with apolipoprotein E and elastin genes  

PubMed Central

Background Apolipoprotein E (APOE) and elastin (ELN) are plausible candidate genes involved in the pathogenesis of stroke. We tested for association of variants in APOE and ELN with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in a population-based study. We genotyped 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on APOE and 10 SNPs on ELN in a sample of 309 Caucasian individuals, of whom 107 are SAH cases and 202 are age-, race-, and gender-matched controls from the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky region. Associations were tested at genotype, allele, and haplotype levels. A genomic control analysis was performed to check for spurious associations resulting from population substructure. Results At the APOE locus, no individual SNP was associated with SAH after correction for multiple comparisons. Haplotype analysis revealed significant association of the major haplotype (Hap1) in APOE with SAH (p = 0.001). The association stemmed from both the 5' promoter and the 3' region of the APOE gene. APOE ?2 and ? 4 were not significantly associated with SAH. No association was observed for ELN at genotype, allele, or haplotype level and our study failed to confirm previous reports of ELN association with aneurysmal SAH. Conclusion This study suggests a role of the APOE gene in the etiology of aneurysmal SAH. PMID:17672902

Kaushal, Ritesh; Woo, Daniel; Pal, Prodipto; Haverbusch, Mary; Xi, Huifeng; Moomaw, Charles; Sekar, Padmini; Kissela, Brett; Kleindorfer, Dawn; Flaherty, Matthew; Sauerbeck, Laura; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Broderick, Joseph; Deka, Ranjan

2007-01-01

122

Partly reversible central auditory dysfunction induced by cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

The authors describe a rare case of central auditory dysfunction induced by cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A 55-year-old woman who was admitted after aneurysmal SAH developed cerebral vasospasm on Day 3 affecting mainly the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) and partly the left MCA. The vasospasm became refractory to conventional therapy and was ultimately improved by intraarterial infusion of nimodipine in the right MCA and angioplasty. Severe auditory dysfunction was apparent from Day 10 as the patient was not reactive to speech or environmental sounds. Brain MRI on Day 17 demonstrated infarcted areas mainly in the right hippocampus, medial occipital lobe, and thalamus. The patient underwent further examination using audiometry, speech testing, auditory evoked potentials, functional MRI, and cerebral PET. The initial diagnosis was extended nonverbal agnosia and total pure word deafness. The central auditory dysfunction improved over 6 months, with persisting hyperacusis, tinnitus, and amusia. Central auditory dysfunction is a rare complication after SAH. While cortical deafness may be associated with bilateral lesions of the temporal cortex, partly reversible central auditory dysfunction was observed in this patient after prominently unilateral right temporal lesions. The role of the interthalamic connections can be discussed, as well as the possibility that a less severe vasospasm on the left MCA could have transiently impaired the left thalamocortical auditory pathways. PMID:23971951

Ponzetto, Ester; Vinetti, Marco; Grandin, Cécile; Duprez, Thierry; van Pesch, Vincent; Deggouj, Naïma; Lhommel, Renaud; Hantson, Philippe

2013-11-01

123

Ventriculocisternal drainage via endoscopic third ventriculostomy after endovascular embolization for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coil embolization is a favoured method of treating acutely ruptured aneurysms. However, subarachnoid clots cannot be removed with endovascular treatment, which is disadvantageous from the view point of preventing vasospasm. The authors report intrathecal fibrinolytic therapy via a ventricular drainage tube instituted after endoscopic third ventriculostomy for effective prevention of vasospasm after coil embolization. Two cases of poor grade aneurysmal

Hisashi Nagashima; Hiroshi Okudera; Shigeaki Kobayashi; Yoshiki Ichinose

1999-01-01

124

Expression of synaptosomal-associated protein-25 in the rat brain after subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Synaptosomal-associated protein-25 is an important factor for synaptic functions and cognition. In this study, subarachnoid hemorrhage models with spatial learning disorder were established through a blood injection into the chiasmatic cistern. Immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis results showed that synaptosomal-associated protein-25 expression in the temporal lobe, hippocampus, and cerebellum significantly lower at days 1 and 3 following subarachnoid morrhage. Our findings indicate that synaptosomal-associated protein-25 expression was down-regulated in the rat brain after subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:25206580

Chen, Gang; Hu, Tong; Li, Qi; Li, Jianke; Jia, Yang; Wang, Zhong

2013-01-01

125

Unsustainable hospital charges are incurred in the treatment of Medicare beneficiaries admitted with subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Introduction Rising medical care expenditures and the unchanging Medicare reimbursements have placed restraints on the health care delivery system. Objective The goal of this study is to identify the magnitude and determinants of discrepancy between hospitalization charges and Medicare re-imbursement observed in the management of Medicare beneficiaries admitted with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the United States. Methods Patients entered in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample between 2002 and 2010, with a ruptured intracranial aneurysm who underwent either surgical or endovascular treatment were included in the study. Factors associated with higher discrepancy between hospitalization charges and Medicare re-imbursement were identified. Results Discrepancies in hospital charges and Medicare reimbursement associated with endovascular and surgical treatment have increased over the decade. The median discrepancy per patient for Medicare patients aged 65 years and older treated surgically or endovascularly for a ruptured aneurysm from 2009 to 2010 was $177,380. The predictors of higher than median discrepancy(charges versus reimbursement), included Hispanic ethnicity (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1–3.9, p = 0.02), urinary tract infection (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.4–2.8, p = <0.001), pneumonia (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.8–4.8, p = <0.001), deep vein thrombosis (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2–5.2, p = 0.02), and pulmonary embolism (OR 18, 95% CI 2.0–169, pp = 0.01). Conclusions There is a growing gap between hospital charges and Medicare reimbursement. If hospitals continue to be reimbursed at significantly lower rates than charges incurred, this current system may be unsustainable due to losses incurred by hospitals. Abbreviations AHRQ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality CMS Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services NIS Nationwide Inpatient Sample PMID:25566343

Kainth, Daraspreet S; Adil, Malik M; Kainth, Hunar S; Dhaliwal, Jaspreet K; Qureshi, Adnan I

2014-01-01

126

Acute management of poor condition subarachnoid hemorrhage patients  

PubMed Central

Poor condition subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients present a high mortality and morbidity. In this study, we reviewed the acute interventional (surgical and endovascular) management of 109 SAH-poor condition patients, who were treated as early as logistically possible after confirming stable circulation parameters. Patients over the age of 70 years, without clinical response to painful stimulation were excluded. We recognized at least 3 different postinterventional therapeutic approaches: (1) Norm- or hypovolemic, normotensive hemodilution in 30 patients with space-occupying intracranial hematomas as well as in 31 cases with acute cerebro-spinal-fluid obstruction. (2) Normovolemic, hypertensive hemodilution after unilateral decompressive craniotomy in 23 surgical- and 2 endovascular-treated patients with focalized space occupying lesions and reduced cerebral perfusion. (3) Hypovolemic, normo-, or hypertensive hemodilution after bilateral decompressive craniotomy in 23 cases with massive brain-swelling. We observed a reduced mortality (21%). The overall late outcome was favorable in 56% and unfavorable in 23%. Selective aggressive treatment adapted to increase the cerebral perfusion, seems to be an effective therapy to improve the survival and outcome of several poor condition SAH-patients. PMID:18200827

Eleftherios, Archavlis; Carvi y Nievas, Mario Nazareno

2007-01-01

127

Inflammation, Vasospasm, and Brain Injury after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can lead to devastating neurological outcomes, and there are few pharmacologic treatments available for treating this condition. Both animal and human studies provide evidence of inflammation being a driving force behind the pathology of SAH, leading to both direct brain injury and vasospasm, which in turn leads to ischemic brain injury. Several inflammatory mediators that are elevated after SAH have been studied in detail. While there is promising data indicating that blocking these factors might benefit patients after SAH, there has been little success in clinical trials. One of the key factors that complicates clinical trials of SAH is the variability of the initial injury and subsequent inflammatory response. It is likely that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the variability of patients' post-SAH inflammatory response and that this confounds trials of anti-inflammatory therapies. Additionally, systemic inflammation from other conditions that affect patients with SAH could contribute to brain injury and vasospasm after SAH. Continuing work on biomarkers of inflammation after SAH may lead to development of patient-specific anti-inflammatory therapies to improve outcome after SAH. PMID:25105123

Miller, Brandon A.

2014-01-01

128

[The mechanism of cardiorespiratory arrest due to subarachnoid hemorrhage].  

PubMed

This report describes the clinical course of patients with sudden cardiorespiratory arrest (CRA) due to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We have seen fifteen patients of SAH that presented initially as CRA. All of them were diagnosed as SAH by CT scan. The patients were divided into two groups; one group (early DOA group) included 11 patients, who had been recognized as CRA within 60 minutes from the onset of SAH, the other group (late DOA group) consisted of 4 patients, who developed CRA more than 60 minutes after the initial onset. The major mechanism leading to delayed CRA in the late DOA group appeared to have been from brain stem herniation, but another mechanism appeared to be involved in sudden CRA in the early DOA group. Sixty percent of our patients with CRA due to SAH had a low serum potassium concentration, though hypokalemia was observed in only 4 out of 100 patients with CRA due to diseases other than SAH. These facts suggest that sympathetic hyperstimulation might result not only from stress but also from a disorder of the central autonomic nervous system. We speculate that the mechanism leading to early CRA after SAH appears to result from a disorder of the central autonomic nerve system. PMID:7637838

Kanemoto, Y; Kamada, K; Sasaoka, Y; Nishimura, A; Sakitani, H

1995-07-01

129

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Mimicking Leakage of Contrast Media After Coronary Angiography  

PubMed Central

We report a patient who developed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) just after coronary angiography (CAG) with non-ionic contrast media (CM) and minimal dose of heparin. The 55-year-old man had a history of acute ST elevation myocardial infarction that had been treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and was admitted for a follow-up CAG. The CAG was performed by the transradial approach, using 1000 U of unfractionated heparin for the luminal coating and 70 mL of iodixanol. At the end of CAG, he complained of nausea and rapidly became stuporous. Brain CT showed a diffusely increased Hounsfield unit (HU) in the cisternal space, similar to leakage of CM. The maximal HU was 65 in the cisternal space. No vascular malformations were detected on cerebral angiography. The patient partially recovered his mental status and motor weakness after 2 days. Two weeks later, subacute SAH was evident on magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was discharged after 28 days. PMID:22493615

Oh, Min Seok; Kwon, Jee Eun; Kim, Kyung Jun; Jo, Joon Hwan; Min, Yun Ju; Byun, Jun Soo; Kim, Kyung Tae; Kim, Sang Wook

2012-01-01

130

Neurovascular events after subarachnoid hemorrhage: focusing on subcellular organelles.  

PubMed

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating condition with high morbidity and mortality rates due to the lack of effective therapy. Early brain injury (EBI) and cerebral vasospasm (CVS) are the two most important pathophysiological mechanisms for brain injury and poor outcomes for patients with SAH. CVS has traditionally been considered the sole cause of delayed ischemic neurological deficits after SAH. However, the failure of antivasospastic therapy in patients with SAH supported changing the research target from CVS to other mechanisms. Currently, more attention has been focused on global brain injury within 3 days after ictus, designated as EBI. The dysfunction of subcellular organelles, such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial failure, and autophagy-lysosomal system activation, has developed during EBI and delayed brain injury after SAH. To our knowledge, there is a lack of review articles addressing the direction of organelle dysfunction after SAH. In this review, we discuss the roles of organelle dysfunction in the pathogenesis of SAH and present the opportunity to develop novel therapeutic strategies of SAH via modulating the functions of organelles. PMID:25366597

Chen, Sheng; Wu, Haijian; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, Jianmin; Zhang, John H

2015-01-01

131

Upregulation of Relaxin after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rabbits  

PubMed Central

Background. Although relaxin causes vasodilatation in systemic arteries, little is known about its role in cerebral arteries. We investigated the expression and role of relaxin in basilar arteries after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rabbits. Methods. Microarray analysis with rabbit basilar artery RNA was performed. Messenger RNA expression of relaxin-1 and relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) was investigated with quantitative RT-PCR. RXFP1 expression in the basilar artery was investigated with immunohistochemistry. Relaxin concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum were investigated with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Using human brain vascular smooth muscle cells (HBVSMC) preincubated with relaxin, myosin light chain phosphorylation (MLC) was investigated with immunoblotting after endothelin-1 stimulation. Results. After SAH, RXFP1 mRNA and protein were significantly downregulated on day 3, whereas relaxin-1 mRNA was significantly upregulated on day 7. The relaxin concentration in CSF was significantly elevated on days 5 and 7. Pretreatment with relaxin reduced sustained MLC phosphorylation induced by endothelin-1 in HBVSMC. Conclusion. Upregulation of relaxin and downregulation of RXFP1 after SAH may participate in development of cerebral vasospasm. Downregulation of RXFP1 may induce a functional decrease in relaxin activity during vasospasm. Understanding the role of relaxin may provide further insight into the mechanisms of cerebral vasospasm. PMID:25133183

Kikkawa, Yuichiro; Matsuo, Satoshi; Kurogi, Ryota; Nakamizo, Akira; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Sasaki, Tomio

2014-01-01

132

Migrating lumbar intrathecal catheter fragment associated with intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Intrathecal catheter placement into the lumbar cistern has varied indications, including drug delivery and CSF diversion. These Silastic catheters are elastic and durable; however, catheter-associated malfunctions are well reported in the literature. Fractured catheters are managed with some variability, but entirely intradural retained fragments are often managed conservatively with observation. The authors describe a case of a 70-year-old man with an implanted intrathecal morphine pump for failed back surgery syndrome who presented to an outside hospital with a history of headache, neck pain, nausea, and photophobia of 3 days' duration. He also described mild weakness and intermittent numbness of both legs. Unenhanced head CT demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A right C-5 hemilaminectomy was performed. This case is unique in that there was no indication that the lumbar intrathecal catheter had fractured prior to the patient's presentation with SAH. This case demonstrates that intrathecal catheter fragments are mobile and can precipitate intracranial morbidity. Extrication of known fragments is safe and should be attempted to prevent further neurosurgical morbidity. PMID:25360531

Hnenny, Luke; Sabry, Hatem A; Raskin, Jeffrey S; Liu, Jesse J; Roundy, Neil E; Dogan, Aclan

2015-01-01

133

Early fatal hemorrhage after endovascular cerebral aneurysm treatment with a flow diverter (SILK-Stent): do we need to rethink our concepts?  

PubMed

A 69-year-old woman presenting with short lasting recent episodes of visual impairment was treated uneventfully with a flow diverter covering the neck of a large paraophthalmic aneurysm. As angiography showed immediate flow reduction we abstained from additional coiling which was initially planned. Eleven days later CT demonstrated nearly complete thrombosis of the aneurysm. Twenty days after treatment the patient suffered a lethal subarachnoid hemorrhage after rupture of the aneurysm. All available data were reviewed and beside hemodynamic factors instability of the intra-aneurysmal thrombus is discussed as a possible cofactor leading to this disastrous event. PMID:20339842

Turowski, Bernd; Macht, Stephan; Kulcsár, Zolt; Hänggi, Daniel; Stummer, Walter

2011-01-01

134

Identification of preferred collagen orientations for cerebral saccular aneurysms  

E-print Network

Cerebral saccular aneurysms are likely harbored by 3 to 5% of the population of the United States. Rupture of cerebral aneurysms is the leading cause of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage, which claims 35 to 50% of its victims and leaves many...

Ryan, John

2012-06-07

135

Loss of long-term potentiation in the hippocampus after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.  

PubMed

Survivors of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) often suffer from cognitive impairment such as memory loss. However, the underlying mechanisms of these impairments are not known. Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synapses in the hippocampus is generally regarded as a molecular substrate of memory. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of SAH on LTP in the hippocampal Schaffer collateral (CA3-CA1) pathway in a rat model of SAH. We found SAH caused significant vasospasm of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) compared to saline injected or sham controls (P<0.001). Basic neurotransmission quantified as excitatory post synaptic and spike response from animals with SAH were significantly decreased as compared to naive controls (P<0.05). However, sham operated and saline injected controls showed similar amplitude as naive controls. This suggests that reduction in basic neurotransmission is due to blood in the subarachnoid space. Similarly, analysis of LTP demonstrated that naive, sham and saline controls have a 92+/-16%, 69+/-27% and 71+/-14% increase over the baseline in the average spike amplitude following high frequency stimulation (HFS), respectively. This indicates the presence of LTP (P<0.05). In contrast, the spike amplitude in animals of SAH returned to baseline level within 60 min post HFS indicating the absence of LTP. We conclude that SAH caused vasospasm of the MCA that was associated with disrupted basic neurotransmission and plasticity at CA3-CA1 synapses. These changes might be accountable for the memory loss in humans with SAH. PMID:19854243

Tariq, A; Ai, J; Chen, G; Sabri, M; Jeon, H; Shang, X; Macdonald, R L

2010-01-20

136

Pathobiology of healing response after endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms - Paradigm shift from lumen to wall oriented therapy.  

E-print Network

??Background and Purpose: Subarachnoid hemorrhage attributable to saccular intracranial aneurysm (IA) rupture is a devastating disease leading to stroke, permanent neurological damage and death. Despite… (more)

Marbacher, Serge

2014-01-01

137

Ultra-early tranexamic acid after subarachnoid hemorrhage (ULTRA): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background A frequent complication in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is recurrent bleeding from the aneurysm. The risk is highest within the first 6 hours after the initial hemorrhage. Securing the aneurysm within this timeframe is difficult owing to logistical delays. The rate of recurrent bleeding can also be reduced by ultra-early administration of antifibrinolytics, which probably improves functional outcome. The aim of this study is to investigate whether ultra-early and short-term administration of the antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid (TXA), as add-on to standard SAH management, leads to better functional outcome. Methods/Design This is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label trial with blinded endpoint (PROBE) assessment. Adult patients with the diagnosis of non-traumatic SAH, as proven by computed tomography (CT) within 24 hours after the onset of headache, will be randomly assigned to the treatment group or the control group. Patients in the treatment group will receive standard treatment with the addition of a bolus of TXA (1 g intravenously) immediately after randomization, followed by continuous infusion of 1 g per 8 hours until the start of aneurysm treatment, or a maximum of 24 hours after the start of medication. Patients in the control group will receive standard treatment without TXA. The primary outcome measure is favorable functional outcome, defined as a score of 0 to 3 on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), at 6 months after SAH. Primary outcome will be determined by a trial nurse blinded for treatment allocation. We aim to include 950 patients in 3 years. Discussion The strengths of this study are: 1. the ultra-early and short-term administration of TXA, resulting in a lower dose as compared to previous studies, which should reduce the risk for delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), an important risk factor in the long-term treatment with antifibrinolytics; 2. the power calculation is based on functional outcome and calculated with use of recent study results of our own population, supported by data from prominent studies; and 3. the participation of several specialized SAH centers, and their referring hospitals, in the Netherlands with comparative treatment protocols. Trial registration Nederlands Trial Register (Dutch Trial Registry) number NTR3272 PMID:23680226

2013-01-01

138

Subarachnoid hemorrhage with transient ischemic attack: another masquerader in cerebral venous thrombosis.  

PubMed

Cerebral venous thrombosis has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that may mimic many other neurological disorders and lead to frequent misdiagnoses or delay in diagnosis. The most frequent symptoms and signs are headache, seizures, focal deficits, and papilledema. A number of rare atypical manifestations have been described. Cerebral venous thrombosis may present with an isolated intracranial hypertension type picture, thunderclap headache, attacks of migraine with aura, isolated psychiatric disturbances, pulsatile tinnitus, isolated or multiple cranial nerve involvement, and occasionally as subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) or transient ischemic attack. Our patient presented with thunderclap headache and transient ischemic attack like episode with obvious SAH on CT scan. Acute SAH suggests the presence of a vascular lesion, such as ruptured aneurysm, and CVT is not generally considered in the diagnostic workup of SAH. The case emphasizes the importance of cerebral venous study in nonaneurysmal cases of SAH. It is important to have a high index of suspicion in such atypical cases to avoid delay in diagnosis. PMID:22466498

Sharma, Bhawna; Satija, Vipin; Dubey, Parul; Panagariya, Ashok

2010-02-01

139

The role of the microcirculation in delayed cerebral ischemia and chronic degenerative changes after subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

The mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is 50%, and most survivors suffer severe functional and cognitive deficits. Half of SAH patients deteriorate 5 to 14 days after the initial bleeding, so-called delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Although often attributed to vasospasms, DCI may develop in the absence of angiographic vasospasms, and therapeutic reversal of angiographic vasospasms fails to improve patient outcome. The etiology of chronic neurodegenerative changes after SAH remains poorly understood. Brain oxygenation depends on both cerebral blood flow (CBF) and its microscopic distribution, the so-called capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH). In theory, increased CTH can therefore lead to tissue hypoxia in the absence of severe CBF reductions, whereas reductions in CBF, paradoxically, improve brain oxygenation if CTH is critically elevated. We review potential sources of elevated CTH after SAH. Pericyte constrictions in relation to the initial ischemic episode and subsequent oxidative stress, nitric oxide depletion during the pericapillary clearance of oxyhemoglobin, vasogenic edema, leukocytosis, and astrocytic endfeet swelling are identified as potential sources of elevated CTH, and hence of metabolic derangement, after SAH. Irreversible changes in capillary morphology and function are predicted to contribute to long-term relative tissue hypoxia, inflammation, and neurodegeneration. We discuss diagnostic and therapeutic implications of these predictions. PMID:24064495

Østergaard, Leif; Aamand, Rasmus; Karabegovic, Sanja; Tietze, Anna; Blicher, Jakob Udby; Mikkelsen, Irene Klærke; Iversen, Nina Kerting; Secher, Niels; Engedal, Thorbjørn Søndergaard; Anzabi, Mariam; Jimenez, Eugenio Gutierrez; Cai, Changsi; Koch, Klaus Ulrik; Næss-Schmidt, Erhard Trillingsgaard; Obel, Annette; Juul, Niels; Rasmussen, Mads; Sørensen, Jens Christian Hedemann

2013-01-01

140

Impact of clipping versus coiling on postoperative hemodynamics and pulmonary edema after subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Volume management is critical for assessment of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This multicenter prospective cohort study compared the impact of surgical clipping versus endovascular coiling on postoperative hemodynamics and pulmonary edema in patients with SAH. Hemodynamic parameters were measured for 14 days using a transpulmonary thermodilution system. The study included 202 patients, including 160 who underwent clipping and 42 who underwent coiling. There were no differences in global ejection fraction (GEF), cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance index, or global end-diastolic volume index between the clipping and coiling groups in the early period. However, extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI) were significantly higher in the clipping group in the vasospasm period. Postoperative C-reactive protein (CRP) level was higher in the clipping group and was significantly correlated with postoperative brain natriuretic peptide level. Multivariate analysis found that PVPI and GEF were independently associated with high EVLWI in the early period, suggesting cardiogenic edema, and that CRP and PVPI, but not GEF, were independently associated with high EVLWI in the vasospasm period, suggesting noncardiogenic edema. In conclusion, clipping affects postoperative CRP level and may thereby increase noncardiogenic pulmonary edema in the vasospasm period. His trial is registered with University Hospital Medical Information Network UMIN000003794. PMID:24818154

Horie, Nobutaka; Iwaasa, Mitsutoshi; Isotani, Eiji; Ishizaka, Shunsuke; Inoue, Tooru; Nagata, Izumi

2014-01-01

141

Unfractionated Heparin: Multitargeted Therapy for Delayed Neurological Deficits Induced by Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with numerous “delayed neurological deficits” (DNDs) that have been attributed to multiple pathophysiological mechanisms, including ischemia, microthrombosis, free radical damage, inflammation, and vascular remodeling. To date, effective prophylactic therapy for SAH-induced DNDs has been elusive, due perhaps to the multiplicity of mechanisms involved that render typical, single-agent therapy seemingly futile. We hypothesized that heparin, which has multiple underappreciated salutary effects, might be useful as a multitargeted prophylactic agent against SAH-induced DNDs. We performed a comprehensive review of the literature to evaluate the potential utility of heparin in targeting the multiple pathophysiological mechanisms that have been identified as contributing to SAH-induced DNDs. Our literature review revealed that unfractionated heparin can potentially antagonize essentially all of the pathophysiological mechanisms known to be activated following SAH. Heparin binds >100 proteins, including plasma proteins, proteins released from platelets, cytokines, and chemokines. Also, heparin complexes with oxyhemoglobin, blocks the activity of free radicals including reactive oxygen species, antagonizes endothelin-mediated vasoconstriction, smooth muscle depolarization, and inflammatory, growth and fibrogenic responses. Our review suggests that the use of prophylactic heparin following SAH may warrant formal study. PMID:20809188

Schreibman, David; Aldrich, E. Francois; Stallmeyer, Bernadette; Le, Brian; James, Robert F.; Beaty, Narlin

2010-01-01

142

Recombinant Osteopontin in Cerebral Vasospasm After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Objective Osteopontin (OPN), a pleiotropic extracellular matrix glycoprotein, has been reported to be protective against ischemic lesions, but effects of OPN on vascular functions have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess whether recombinant OPN (r-OPN) could prevent cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rats. Methods r-OPN was administered intraventricularly to rats undergoing SAH by the endovascular perforation, and its protective effects were evaluated by measuring the diameter of cerebral arteries and neurobehavioral testing. Western blotting and immunofluorescence were performed to explore the underlying mechanisms. An integrin receptor antagonist GRGDSP or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase (MKP)-1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) was also administered to r-OPN-treated SAH rats, and those effects were evaluated. Results Pre-SAH administration of r-OPN prevented vasospasm and neurological impairments at 24–72 hours post-SAH. r-OPN enhanced an endogenous MAPK inhibitor, MKP-1, and suppressed the phosphorylation of MAPKs, caldesmon and heat shock protein 27 in the spastic cerebral arteries at 24 hours post-SAH. Immunofluorescence revealed that MKP-1 was induced in the arterial smooth muscle layer. GRGDSP prevented r-OPN-induced MKP-1 upregulation, and MKP-1 siRNA abolished both MAPK inactivation and anti-vasospastic effects by r-OPN. Post-SAH r-OPN treatment also prevented vasospasm. Interpretation r-OPN induced MKP-1 in the spastic cerebral arteries via binding to L-arginyl-glycyl-L-aspartate-dependent integrin receptors and prevented vasospasm after SAH. Therapeutic induction of MKP-1 may be a novel approach for the prevention and treatment of cerebral vasospasm. PMID:21031580

Suzuki, Hidenori; Hasegawa, Yu; Chen, Wanqiu; Kanamaru, Kenji; Zhang, John H.

2010-01-01

143

Long-term outcome and quality of life after nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is an uncommon form of SAH. As nonaneurysmal SAH is often concentrated around\\u000a the pons and midbrain, the term perimesencephalic SAH (pmSAH) is widely accepted to describe this entity, though there are\\u000a patients with a more widespread distribution of subarachnoid blood (non-pmSAH). The outcome of pmSAH is commonly regarded\\u000a as good, although often outcome is not

Kerim Beseoglu; Silke Pannes; Hans J. Steiger; Daniel Hänggi

2010-01-01

144

Accumulation of intimal platelets in cerebral arteries following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in cats  

SciTech Connect

From 2 hours to 23 days following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage, the accumulation of indium-111-labeled platelets on the intimal surface of the middle cerebral artery was studied in 23 cats. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was produced by transorbital rupture of the right middle cerebral artery. Of the 23 cats, 17 exhibited right middle cerebral artery/left middle cerebral artery radioactivity ratios of greater than 1.25. When these results were compared with those of 12 control cats, 0.001 less than p less than 0.005 (chi2 test). Thus, the results from the control and experimental groups are significantly different and indicate early (after 2 hours) preferential accumulation of intimal platelets in the ruptured right middle cerebral artery compared with the unruptured left middle cerebral artery and new platelet deposition continuing for up to 23 days. However, the experimental group did not reveal a clear pattern for platelet accumulation following subarachnoid hemorrhage. There was no simple correlation between the magnitude of the radioactivity ratios and the time after hemorrhage when the cats were killed although the ratios for 2 hours to 7 days seemed greater than those for 8 to 23 days. Assuming the pivotal role of platelets in the angiopathy of subarachnoid hemorrhage, the administration of antiplatelet agents as soon as possible following its occurrence may be of value.

Haining, J.L.; Clower, B.R.; Honma, Y.; Smith, R.R.

1988-07-01

145

Early Brain Injury: A Common Mechanism in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Global Cerebral Ischemia  

PubMed Central

Early brain injury (EBI) has become an area of extreme interest in the recent years and seems to be a common denominator in the pathophysiology of global transient ischemia and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In this paper, we highlight the importance of cerebral hypoperfusion and other mechanisms that occur in tandem in both pathologies and underline their possible roles in triggering brain injury after hemorrhagic or ischemic strokes. PMID:23533958

Macdonald, R. Loch

2013-01-01

146

Calcium and Potassium Channels in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Transient Global Ischemia  

PubMed Central

Healthy cerebrovascular myocytes express members of several different ion channel families which regulate resting membrane potential, vascular diameter, and vascular tone and are involved in cerebral autoregulation. In animal models, in response to subarachnoid blood, a dynamic transition of ion channel expression and function is initiated, with acute and long-term effects differing from each other. Initial hypoperfusion after exposure of cerebral vessels to oxyhemoglobin correlates with a suppression of voltage-gated potassium channel activity, whereas delayed cerebral vasospasm involves changes in other potassium channel and voltage-gated calcium channels expression and function. Furthermore, expression patterns and function of ion channels appear to differ between main and small peripheral vessels, which may be key in understanding mechanisms behind subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced vasospasm. Here, changes in calcium and potassium channel expression and function in animal models of subarachnoid hemorrhage and transient global ischemia are systematically reviewed and their clinical significance discussed. PMID:23251831

Kamp, Marcel A.; Dibué, Maxine; Schneider, Toni; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel

2012-01-01

147

Nitric oxide-loaded echogenic liposomes for treatment of vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Delayed cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage causes severe ischemic neurologic deficits leading to permanent neurologic dysfunction or death. Reduced intravascular and perivascular nitric oxide (NO) availability is a primary pathophysiology of cerebral vasospasm. In this study, we evaluated NO-loaded echogenic liposomes (NO-ELIP) for ultrasound-facilitated NO delivery to produce vasodilation for treatment of vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. We investigated the vasodilative effects of NO released from NO-ELIP both ex vivo and in vivo. Liposomes containing phospholipids and cholesterol were prepared, and NO was encapsulated. The encapsulation and release of NO from NO-ELIP were determined by the syringe/vacuum method and ultrasound imaging. The ex vivo vasodilative effect of NO-ELIP was investigated using rabbit carotid arteries. Arterial vasodilation was clearly observed with NO-ELIP exposed to Doppler ultrasound whereas there was little vasodilative effect without exposure to Doppler ultrasound in the presence of red blood cells. Penetration of NO into the arterial wall was determined by fluorescent microscopy. The vasodilative effects of intravenously administered NO-ELIP in vivo were determined in a rat subarachnoid hemorrhage model. NO-ELIP with ultrasound activation over the carotid artery demonstrated effective arterial vasodilation in vivo resulting in improved neurologic function. This novel methodology for ultrasound-controlled delivery of NO has the potential for therapeutic treatment of vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. This ultrasound-controlled release strategy provides a new avenue for targeted bioactive gas and therapeutic delivery for improved stroke treatment. PMID:24379666

Kim, Hyunggun; Britton, George L; Peng, Tao; Holland, Christy K; McPherson, David D; Huang, Shao-Ling

2014-01-01

148

Ventricular assist devices as rescue therapy in cardiogenic shock after subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

We review the journey to myocardial and neurologic recovery of a 42-year-old mother with severe acute cardiogenic shock and multiorgan failure after extensive subarachnoid hemorrhage, who was salvaged successfully using a CentriMag short-term biventricular assist device. PMID:24694427

Al-Adhami, Ahmed; Macfie, Alistair; Mathieson, Calan; Quasim, Isma; Smith, Robyn; Craig, Stewart; Gardner, Roy; Payne, John; Petrie, Mark; Haj-Yahia, Saleem

2014-04-01

149

Perioperative measures to improve outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage-revisiting the concept of secondary brain injury.  

PubMed

Progress in the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is reflected most clearly in a continuously decreasing case fatality rate over the last decades. The purpose of the present review is to identify the relevant factors responsible for this progress and to outline future possibilities of improvement. Although data on intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke are less homogeneous, the respective data suggest that reduction of case fatalities could also be achieved with these types of stroke. Therefore, advances of general neurocritical care may be the common denominator responsible for the decreasing case fatality rates. Additionally, a change in practice with regard to treatment of elderly patients that is more active may also be a factor. Regarding SAH, the majority of unfavorable outcomes is still related to early or delayed cerebral injury. Therefore, efforts to pharmacologically prevent secondary neuronal damage are likely to play a certain role in achieving improvement in overall outcome. However, the data from previous randomized clinical trials conducted during the last three decades does not strongly support this. A clear benefit has only been proven for oral nimodipine, whereas other calcium antagonists and the rho-kinase inhibitors were not conclusively shown to have a significant effect on functional outcome, and all other tested substances disappointed in clinical trials. Regarding ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury, intensive clinical research has also been conducted during the last 30 years to improve outcome and to minimize secondary neuronal injury. For ischemic stroke, treatment focusing on reversal of the primary pathomechanism, such as thrombolysis, proved effective, but none of the pharmacological neuroprotective concepts resulted in any benefit. To date, decompressive hemicraniectomy has been the only effective effort focused at reducing secondary damage that resulted in a clear reduction of mortality. In the case of traumatic brain injury, none of the pharmacological or other efforts to limit secondary damage met our hopes. In summary, although limited, pharmacotherapy to limit delayed neuronal injury is more effective for SAH than for ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. The disappointing results of most trials addressing secondary damage force one to question the general concept of mechanisms of secondary damage that do not also have a positive side in the natural course of the disease. For example, in the case of SAH, the data from the Cooperative Study from the 1960s showed that vasospasm to some degree protects against rerupture of unsecured aneurysms. Thus, one could argue from an evolutionary standpoint that the purpose of vasospasm was not exclusively a detrimental or suicide pathomechanism, but an attempt to protect against life-threating aneurysm rerupture. Because of the above-discussed arguments, SAH may indeed differ from ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury with regard to the usefulness of blocking secondary mechanisms pharmacologically. Further efforts to limit vasospasm should therefore be made, and the most promising drugs, calcium antagonists, deserve further development. Because, with various drugs, systemic side effects counteracted the local beneficial effect, future efforts should focus on topical administration of drugs instead of systemic administration. Furthermore, efforts for a better understanding of the variations of the calcium channels and the interplay between the different types of calcium channels should be made. PMID:25366626

Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Beez, Thomas; Beseoglu, Kerim; Hänggi, Daniel; Kamp, Marcel A

2015-01-01

150

Gene Transfer of Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Prevents Vasoconstriction After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to determine whether adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in vivo of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a potent vasodilator, ameliorates cerebral vasoconstriction after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Arterial blood was injected into the cisterna magna of rabbits to mimic SAH 5 days after injection of AdRSVCGRP (83108 pfu), AdRSVbgal (control virus), or vehicle. After injection of AdRSVCGRP, there was a 400-fold

Kazunori Toyoda; Frank M. Faraci; Yoshimasa Watanabe; Toshihiro Ueda; Jon J. Andresen; Yi Chu; Shoichiro Otake; Donald D. Heistad

151

[A case of moyamoya disease with a subarachnoid hemorrhage treated with endovascular technique].  

PubMed

We report a case of a moyamoya disease presenting with subarachonoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to a ruptured aneurysm. A 40-year-old woman presented with sudden onset of headache and vomiting. Computed tomography (CT) showed diffuse thick SAH localized around basal cistern. 3D-CT Angiography (3D-CTA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) demonstrated a saccular aneurysm at the bifurcation of the left superior cerebellar artery and basilar artery. In addition, the both carotid arteries were occluded at the terminal portion and the territory of both middle cerebral arteries were perfused by abnormal moyamoya vessels. The aneurysm was completely embolized by endovascular embolization. The SAH due to a ruptured aneurysm associated with moyamoya disease is rare. We think endovascular therapy is safe and effective. However, a vasospasm of the catheter technique occurred during the operation. This fact is very important to consider when we treat diseases such as this in the future. PMID:25351798

Wada, Kentaro; Hattori, Kenichi; Araki, Yoshio; Noda, Tomoyuki; Maki, Hideki; Oyama, Hirofumi; Kito, Akira; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

2014-11-01

152

Cerebrospinal Fluid Catecholamine Levels as Predictors of Outcome in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Objective Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with marked sympathetic activation at the time of ictus. The purpose of this study is to determine whether early central catecholamine levels measured from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) relate to outcome in patients with SAH. Methods Observational study of consecutive SAH grade 3–5 patients who underwent ventriculostomy placement, but did not undergo open craniotomy for aneurysm obliteration. CSF samples were obtained during the first 48 h following symptom onset and assayed for catecholamine levels. Statistical analyses were performed to determine whether the levels predicted mortality by day 15 or mortality/disability by day 30. Results For the 102 patients included, mean age was 58, and 73% were female ? 21% experienced day-15 mortality, and 32% experienced mortality/disability by day 30. Early mortality was related to Hunt-Hess (H/H) grade (p < 0.001), neurogenic cardiomyopathy (NC) (p = 0.003), cerebral infarction (p = 0.001), elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) (p = 0.029), epinephrine (EPI) level (p = 0.002) and norepinephrine/3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (NE/DHPG) ratio (p = 0.003). Mortality/disability was related to H/H grade (p < 0.001), NC (p = 0.018), infarction (p < 0.001), elevated ICP (p = 0.002), EPI (p = 0.004) and NE/DHPG (p = 0.014). Logistic regression identified age [OR 1.09 (95% CI 1.01–1.17)], H/H grade [9.52 (1.19–77)], infarction [10.87 (1.22–100)], ICP elevation [32.26 (2–500)], EPI [1.06 (1.01–1.10)], and (inversely) DHPG [0.99 (0.99–1.00)] as independent predictors of early mortality. For mortality/disability, H/H grade [OR 21.74 (95% CI 5.62?83)], ICP elevation [18.52 (1.93–166)], and EPI [1.05 (1.02–1.09)] emerged as independent predictors. Proportional-hazards analysis revealed age [HR 1.041 (95% CI 1.003–1.08)], H/H grade [6.9 (1.54–31.25)], NC [4.31 (1.5–12.35)], and EPI [1.032 (1.009–1.054)] independently predicted early mortality. Conclusions CSF catecholamine levels are elevated in SAH patients who experience early mortality or disability. EPI may potentially serve as useful index of outcome in this population of patients with SAH. PMID:22222551

Moussouttas, Michael; Huynh, Thanh T.; Khoury, John; Lai, Edwin W.; Dombrowski, Keith; Pello, Scott; Pacak, Karel

2012-01-01

153

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy secondary to intracranial hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Patients suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage often present with electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities that mimic cardiac ischemia, but documented left ventricular regional wall-motion dysfunction has rarely been reported. This report is intended to raise the awareness of possible ECG changes secondary to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We cared for a 55-year-old female with an acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, whose evaluation was delayed and complicated by the presence of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM). Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage may induce Takotsubo cardiomyopathy that can present as an acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Physicians need to be aware of this possibility since it can lead to significant delays and treatment options for the patient. PMID:25635193

2014-01-01

154

The Contribution of Chemoreceptor-Network Injury to the Development of Respiratory Arrest Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Objective: Respiratory arrest following brainstem herniation has been attributed to injuries resulting from compression of the respiratory centers. While it is widely perceived that the chemoreceptor network, consisting of the glossopharyngeal nerve and carotid body (GPN-CB), is essential for the modulation of respiration, its contribution to the development of respiratory arrest has not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether injury to the GPN-CB occurs in animals with respiratory arrest caused by experimentally-induced subarachnoid hemorrhage. Materials and Methods: Eighteen hybrid rabbits were used in this study. Four rabbits (n=4) were used to determine the normal structure of the GPN-CB. The remaining rabbits (n=14) received an autologous blood injection into the cisterna magna to produce a subarachnoid hemorrhage, after which they were observed for 20 days. The number of axons and the neuron density in the glossopharyngeal nerve and carotid body, respectively, were counted by stereological methods. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the results. Results: Six of 14 rabbits died within the first week, likely due to brain swelling and crushing injuries that were observed in the brain stem and related structures. In control rabbits, the average neuronal density of the carotid body was 4250 ±1250/mm3, while the axonal density in the glossopharyngeal nerve was 18000±5100 mm2. Conversely, in the dead rabbits, the degenerated neuron density of the carotid body was 2100±500/mm3, while the degenerated axon density in the glossopharyngeal nerve was 8500±2550 mm2. In addition, histopathological lesions were more severe in the dead rabbits in terms of their glossopharyngeal nerve and carotid body. Conclusion: There is an important relationship between neurodegeneration in the GPN-CB and mortality rates following experimentally-induced hemorrhage. This relationship suggests that injury to the GPN-CB network disrupts the breathing reflex and results in respiratory arrest following a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).

Aydin, Mehmet Dumlu; Eroglu, Atilla; Turkyilmaz, Atila; Erdem, Ali Fuat; Al?c?, Hac? Ahmet; Aydin, Nazan; Altas, Sare; Unal, Bunyami

2010-01-01

155

Mechanical and radiographic properties of a shape memory polymer composite for intracranial aneurysm coils  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intracranial aneurysm can be a serious condition that can go undetected until the aneurysm ruptures, causing hemorrhaging within the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain. The typical treatment for large aneurysms is by embolization using platinum coils. However, in about 15% of the cases treated by platinum coils, the aneurysm eventually re-opens as a result of the bio-inertness of platinum.

Janet M. Hampikian; Brian C. Heaton; Frank C. Tong; Zhuqing Zhang; C. P. Wong

2006-01-01

156

Glycyrrhizic acid confers neuroprotection after subarachnoid hemorrhage via inhibition of high mobility group box-1 protein: a hypothesis for novel therapy of subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Subarachnoid hemorrhage usually results in poor clinical outcome and devastating neurological deficits. The early brain injury and delayed vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are involved in the poor prognosis to the patients, while the mechanisms have not been well elucidated. Previous studies found an up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), inflammatory factors and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in the cortex after SAH. Increased inflammatory response contributes to the early brain injury and delayed vasospasm after SAH. Moreover, we found that the inflammatory response could be induced and amplified following recombinant HMGB1 (rHMGB1) addition in cultured neurons. Based on the latest researches in this field, we raised a hypothesis that HMGB1, a prototypical member of damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) family, could be passively released from the damaged neuroglia cells and hemotocyte lysis after SAH. Extracellular HMGB1 initiated the inflammation through its receptors. The inflammatory mediators then acted on the neurocytes to make them actively release HMGB1 continuously, manifesting an double phases. HMGB1 might be the key factor to induce sterile inflammation, and thus be one of the origin of early brain injury and delayed vasospasm after SAH. Inhibition of extracellular HMGB1 activities might be a novel therapeutic target for SAH to reduce the damaging inflammatory response. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) which was extracted from liquorice and confirmed as a nature inhibitor of HMGB1 with little side-effects could inhibit extracellular HMGB1 cytokine activities and reduce the level of inflammatory response, thus alleviating early brain injury and cerebrovasospasm. GA might be a new novel therapy of SAH for better outcomes. PMID:23932051

Sun, Qing; Wang, Fan; Li, Wei; Li, Weide; Hu, Yang-chun; Li, Song; Zhu, Jian-hong; Zhou, Mengliang; Hang, Chun-hua

2013-10-01

157

Intracranial Biodegradable Silica-Based Nimodipine Drug Release Implant for Treating Vasospasm in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in an Experimental Healthy Pig and Dog Model  

PubMed Central

Nimodipine is a widely used medication for treating delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage. When administrated orally or intravenously, systemic hypotension is an undesirable side effect. Intracranial subarachnoid delivery of nimodipine during aneurysm clipping may be more efficient way of preventing vasospasm and DCI due to higher concentration of nimodipine in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The risk of systemic hypotension may also be decreased with intracranial delivery. We used animal models to evaluate the feasibility of surgically implanting a silica-based nimodipine releasing implant into the subarachnoid space through a frontotemporal craniotomy. Concentrations of released nimodipine were measured from plasma samples and CSF samples. Implant degradation was followed using CT imaging. After completing the recovery period, full histological examination was performed on the brain and meninges. The in vitro characteristics of the implant were determined. Our results show that the biodegradable silica-based implant can be used for an intracranial drug delivery system and no major histopathological foreign body reactions were observed. CT imaging is a feasible method for determining the degradation of silica implants in vivo. The sustained release profiles of nimodipine in CSF were achieved. Compared to a traditional treatment, higher nimodipine CSF/plasma ratios can be obtained with the implant. PMID:25685803

Koskimäki, Janne; Tarkia, Miikka; Ahtola-Sätilä, Tuula; Saloranta, Lasse; Laakso, Aki; Frantzén, Janek

2015-01-01

158

Clot-clearance rate in the sylvian cistern is associated with the severity of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Rapid clot removal and clearance has been proposed as an effective tool for preventing cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We examined the relationship between clot-clearance rate and the severity of cerebral vasospasm in 110 consecutive patients with aneurysmal SAH. We measured clot-clearance rates per day in the basal and Sylvian cisterns, and evaluated the presence of symptomatic vasospasm based on changes in clinical symptoms and the appearance of a new low-density area on a computed tomography (CT) scan. The severity of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm was associated with age and the SAH grade on admission; however, we observed no significant difference between these variables in patients with urokinase irrigation or fasudil hydrochloride treatment. The mean clot-clearance rates per day for patients with asymptomatic and permanent delayed ischemic neurological deficit were 41.9 and 41.5 %, respectively, in the basal cistern (P?=?0.7358) and 37.7 and 23.9 %, respectively, in the Sylvian cistern (P?=?0.0021). The reduced clot-clearance rate in the Sylvian cistern increased the risk of vasospasm-related infarction (P?=?0.0093) and markedly reduced unfavorable outcomes (P?=?0.0115). PMID:25366636

Toyoda, Tomikatsu; Yonekura, Ichiro; Iijima, Akira; Shinozaki, Munehisa; Tanishima, Takeo

2015-01-01

159

Association between elevated plasma norepinephrine levels and cardiac wall motion abnormality in poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.  

PubMed

Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are frequently complicated by acute cardiac dysfunctions, including cardiac wall motion abnormality (WMA). Massive release of catecholamine into the systemic circulation after aneurysmal rupture is believed to result in WMA, and poor-grade SAH seems to be the most important risk factor. However, plasma catecholamine levels have rarely been measured in SAH patients with WMA, and previous studies indicated that the elevated levels might not necessarily predict WMA. The objective of this study is (1) to evaluate relationship between WMA and plasma catecholamine levels in poor-grade SAH patients in the acute phase and (2) to clarify clinical characteristics of SAH patients with WMA. Among 142 poor-grade (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grades IV and V) SAH patients, 48 underwent both transthoracic ultrasound and measurement of plasma catecholamine levels within 24 h of SAH onset. They were divided into WMA+ (n?=?23) and WMA- (n?=?25) groups, and intergroup comparison was made on demographics, plasma catecholamine levels, and outcomes. Plasma norepinephrine levels were significantly higher in WMA+ group than in WMA- group (2,098.4?±?1,773.4 vs. 962.9?±?838.9 pg/mL, p?=?0.02), and the former showed significantly worse outcomes 90 days after admission. There were no intergroup differences in the plasma levels of epinephrine. Plasma norepinephrine levels were inversely correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that increased plasma norepinephrine levels were predictive of WMA, although age, female sex, and grade V SAH were not. This retrospective study highlights the role of norepinephrine in pathogenesis of SAH-induced WMA. PMID:22936520

Sugimoto, Keiko; Inamasu, Joji; Kato, Yoko; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Ganaha, Tsukasa; Oheda, Motoki; Hattori, Natsuki; Watanabe, Eiichi; Ozaki, Yukio; Hirose, Yuichi

2013-04-01

160

Endoscopic third ventriculostomy for hydrocephalus after perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage: initial experience in three patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  To review the outcome after endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) for symptomatic, persistent hydrocephalus in three patients\\u000a with perimesencephalic angiographically negative subarachnoid hemorrhage (PNH) who were dependent on an external ventricular\\u000a drain (EVD).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  All patients initially presented with severe headache, nuchal rigidity, confusion and lethargy (Hunt-Hess Grade II or III),\\u000a and persistent, EVD-dependent hydrocephalus. Cranial CT images in each revealed acute

Walter Grand; Andrea J. Chamczuk; Jody Leonardo; Kenneth V. Snyder

161

Mouse model of subarachnoid hemorrhage: technical note on the filament perforation model.  

PubMed

Experiments using genetically engineered mice are regarded as indispensable to gaining a better understanding of the molecular pathophysiology in neuronal injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Therefore, mouse SAH models are becoming increasingly important. The circle of Willis perforation (cWp) model is the most frequently used mouse SAH model. We report and discuss the technical surgical approach, results, and difficulties associated with the cWp model, with reference to the existing literature. Our results largely confirmed previously published results. This model may be the first choice at present, because important pathologies can be reproduced in this model and most findings in the literature are based on it. PMID:25366644

Muroi, Carl; Fujioka, Masayuki; Marbacher, Serge; Fandino, Javier; Keller, Emanuela; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Mishima, Kenichi

2015-01-01

162

Cerebral venous thrombosis as a rare cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage: case report and literature review.  

PubMed

We report a 48-year-old woman presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) as the first manifestation of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. In a literature review of 73 cases, SAH associated with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) was usually seen at the cerebral convexities. SAH was adjacent to thrombosed venous structures; therefore, the most possible explanation seems to be the rupture of cortical veins due to extension of thrombosis. Computed tomography (CT) was effective for diagnosis of CVT in only 32% of the cases. CVT should be considered when SAH is limited to cerebral convexities and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with MR venography should be performed. PMID:24746346

Sahin, Neslin; Solak, Aynur; Genc, Berhan; Bilgic, Nalan

2014-01-01

163

Metabolic Pattern of the Acute Phase of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in a Novel Porcine Model: Studies with Cerebral Microdialysis with High Temporal Resolution  

PubMed Central

Background Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may produce cerebral ischemia and systemic responses including stress. To study immediate cerebral and systemic changes in response to aneurysm rupture, animal models are needed. Objective To study early cerebral energy changes in an animal model. Methods Experimental SAH was induced in 11 pigs by autologous blood injection to the anterior skull base, with simultaneous control of intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures. Intracerebral microdialysis was used to monitor concentrations of glucose, pyruvate and lactate. Results In nine of the pigs, a pattern of transient ischemia was produced, with a dramatic reduction of cerebral perfusion pressure soon after blood injection, associated with a quick glucose and pyruvate decrease. This was followed by a lactate increase and a delayed pyruvate increase, producing a marked but short elevation of the lactate/pyruvate ratio. Glucose, pyruvate, lactate and lactate/pyruvate ratio thereafter returned toward baseline. The two remaining pigs had a more severe metabolic reaction with glucose and pyruvate rapidly decreasing to undetectable levels while lactate increased and remained elevated, suggesting persisting ischemia. Conclusion The animal model simulates the conditions of SAH not only by deposition of blood in the basal cisterns, but also creating the transient global ischemic impact of aneurysmal SAH. The metabolic cerebral changes suggest immediate transient substrate failure followed by hypermetabolism of glucose upon reperfusion. The model has features that resemble spontaneous bleeding, and is suitable for future research of the early cerebral and systemic responses to SAH that are difficult to study in humans. PMID:24940881

Nyberg, Christoffer; Karlsson, Torbjörn; Hillered, Lars; Engström, Elisabeth Ronne

2014-01-01

164

Clinical relevance of cortical spreading depression in neurological disorders: migraine, malignant stroke, subarachnoid and intracranial hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cortical spreading depression (CSD) and depolarization waves are associated with dramatic failure of brain ion homeostasis, efflux of excitatory amino acids from nerve cells, increased energy metabolism and changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF). There is strong clinical and experimental evidence to suggest that CSD is involved in the mechanism of migraine, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury. The

Martin Lauritzen; Jens Peter Dreier; Martin Fabricius; Jed A Hartings; Rudolf Graf; Anthony John Strong

2011-01-01

165

Use of 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to Study the Effect of Cortical Magnesium and Energy Metabolism after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Flow metabolism coupling ensures adequate cerebral oxygenation. When subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) occurs, the flow metabolism coupling lost its balance and results in cerebral ischemia and infarction second to cortical magnesium and energy metabolism alternation. During chronic vasospasm, change in cortical energy metabolism is coupled with change in cerebral blood flow after SAH. Methods: What kind of noninvasive technique can

Heping Yang; Xiangqi Tang; Lihua Tan; Liuwang Zeng; Zhiping Hu

2008-01-01

166

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

MedlinePLUS

... left with physical limitations or problems with their thinking. In those cases, long periods of rehabilitation are ... one dedicated to the care of patients with critical brain disease. Patients with SAH may need a ...

167

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

MedlinePLUS

... Trials News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Patients & Families About Stroke Stroke Diagnosis ... UT Southwestern Medical Center. Copyright © 1997-2015 - The Internet Stroke Center. All rights reserved. The information contained ...

168

Monitoring of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism Bedside in Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage – A Xenon-CT and Microdialysis Study  

PubMed Central

Cerebral ischemia is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Although 70% of the patients show angiographic vasospasm only 30% develop symptomatic vasospasm defined as delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Early detection and management of reversible ischemia is of critical importance in patients with SAH. Using a bedside Xenon enhanced computerized tomography (Xenon-CT) scanner makes it possible to measure quantitative regional Cerebral blood flow (CBF) bedside in the neurointensive care setting and intracerebral microdialysis (MD) is a method that offers the possibility to monitor the metabolic state of the brain continuously. Here, we present results from nine SAH patients with both MD monitoring and bedside Xenon-CT measurements. CBF measurements were performed within the first 72?h following bleeding. Six out of nine patients developed DCI at a later stage. Five out of six patients who developed DCI had initial global CBF below 26?ml/100?g/min whereas one had 53?ml/100?g/min. The three patients who did not develop clinical vasospasm all had initial global CBF above 27?ml/100?g/min. High lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio was associated with lower CBF values in the area surrounding the catheter. Five out of nine patients had L/P ratio ?25 and four of these patients had CBF???22?ml/100?g/min. These preliminary results suggest that patients with initially low global CBF on Xenon-CT may be more likely to develop DCI. Initially low global CBF was accompanied with metabolic disturbances determined by the MD. Most importantly, pathological findings on the Xenon-CT and MD could be observed before any clinical signs of DCI. Combining bedside Xenon-CT and MD was found to be useful and feasible. Further studies are needed to evaluate if DCI can be detected before any other signs of DCI to prevent progress to infarction. PMID:24917850

Rostami, Elham; Engquist, Henrik; Johnson, Ulf; Howells, Timothy; Ronne-Engström, Elisabeth; Nilsson, Pelle; Hillered, Lars; Lewén, Anders; Enblad, Per

2014-01-01

169

A Hypothesis: Hydrogen Sulfide Might Be Neuroprotective against Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Induced Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Gases such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) play important roles both in normal physiology and in disease. Recent studies have shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) protects neurons against oxidative stress and ischemia-reperfusion injury and attenuates lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced neuroinflammation in microglia, exhibiting anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic activities. The gas H2S is emerging as a novel regulator of important physiologic functions such as arterial diameter, blood flow, and leukocyte adhesion. It has been known that multiple factors, including oxidative stress, free radicals, and neuronal nitric oxide synthesis as well as abnormal inflammatory responses, are involved in the mechanism underlying the brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Based on the multiple physiologic functions of H2S, we speculate that it might be a promising, effective, and specific therapy for brain injury after SAH. PMID:24707204

Yu, Yong-Peng; Chi, Xiang-Lin; Liu, Li-Jun

2014-01-01

170

[Electrocardiographic and arterial pressure changes in the acute phase of subarachnoid hemorrhage].  

PubMed

A prospective study was made of 30 patients, admitted to the neurology ward with subarachnoidal hemorrhage (SAH), at its onset. The diagnosis was established on the basis of anamnesis, clinical examination, spinal puncture, anatomopathological examination. The patients with other cerebrovascular affections or with antecedents of ischaemic cardiac affections were excluded. ECG tracings, serum ionogram, AT and VA at the onset and in evolution, and their modifications were followed and assessed in all the patients. The conclusion is reached that SAH in acute phase is associated with transitory ECG and pressure anomalies which become elements of unfavourable prognosis when persistent and deeply altered. They are valuable, at hand, elements in the differential diagnosis, and in the opportune therapeutical intervention. PMID:2575277

Popescu, M; Nu??, G; Toma, D

1989-01-01

171

Insurance Status Is Associated with Treatment Allocation and Outcomes after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Objective Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a particularly devastating type of stroke which is responsible for one third of all stroke-related years of potential life lost before age 65. Surgical treatment has been shown to decrease both morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage. We hypothesized that payer status other than private insurance is associated with lower allocation to surgical treatment for patients with SAH and worse outcomes. Design We examined the association between insurance type and surgical treatment allocation and outcomes for patients with SAH while adjusting for a wide range of patient and hospital factors. We analyzed the Nationwide Inpatient Sample hospital discharge database using survey procedures to produce weighted estimates representative of the United States population. Patients We studied 21047 discharges, representing a weighted estimate of 102595 patients age 18 and above with a discharge diagnosis of SAH between 2003 and 2008. Measurements Multivariable logistic and generalized linear regression analyses were used to assess for any associations between insurance status and surgery allocation and outcomes. Main Results Despite the benefits of surgery 66% of SAH patients did not undergo surgical treatment to prevent rebleeding. Mortality was more than twice as likely for patients with no surgical treatment compared to those who received surgery. Medicare patients were significantly less likely to receive surgical treatment. Conclusions Nearly two thirds of patients with SAH don't receive operative care, and Medicare patients were significantly less likely to receive surgical treatment than other patients. Bias against the elderly and those with chronic illness and disability may play a part in these findings. A system of regionalized care for patients presenting with SAH may reduce disparities and improve appropriate allocation to surgical care and deserves prospective study. PMID:25141303

Hobson, Charles; Dortch, John; Ozrazgat Baslanti, Tezcan; Layon, Daniel R.; Roche, Alina; Rioux, Alison; Harman, Jeffrey S.; Fahy, Brenda; Bihorac, Azra

2014-01-01

172

The role of erythropoietin in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: from bench to bedside.  

PubMed

Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) caused by a ruptured aneurysm accounts for only 5 % of strokes, but occurs at a fairly young age and carries a poor prognosis. Delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI) is an important cause of death and dependence after aneurysmal SAH. The current mainstay of preventing DCI is nimodipine and maintenance of normovolemia, but even with this strategy DCI occurs in a considerable proportion of patients.Several drugs have been developed that have the potential to limit cerebral vasospasm and delayed ischaemic neurologic deficit, thus improving outcome for patients. However, although numerous agents can prevent arterial narrowing and/or block the excitatory cascade of events leading to ischaemic neuronal death in experimental conditions, there is still no pharmacologic agent that has been shown conclusively to improve the outcome in clinical practice.Erythropoietin (EPO) is a well-known erythropoietic hormone recently found to exert neuroprotective properties and has been shown to reduce cerebral vasospasm and infarct volume after experimental SAH. In humans, although EPO treatment did not impact the overall incidence of vasospasm, it significantly reduced the incidence of severe vasospasm, the incidence of delayed ischaemic deficits with new cerebral infarcts, and the duration of impaired autoregulation. The current study provides new evidence for the potential benefit and relative safety of EPO for the treatment of SAH in humans. Future clinical trials will hopefully provide definite evidence whether EPO treatment is beneficial in SAH patients. PMID:25366603

Grasso, Giovanni; Buemi, Michele; Giambartino, Filippo

2015-01-01

173

Self-perceived health status following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of the study was to assess the long-term self-reported health status and quality of life (QoL) of patients following an aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (ASAH) using a self-completed questionnaire booklet. Design A two-cohort study. Setting A regional tertiary neurosurgical centre. Participants 2 cohorts of patients with ASAH treated between 1998 and 2008 and followed up at approximately 1?year. Interventions Routine care. Primary and secondary outcomes A range of standardised scales included: AKC Short Sentences Test, the Barthel Index, the Self-Report Dysexecutive Questionnaire, the Everyday Memory Questionnaire, Stroke Symptom Checklist, Wimbledon Self-Report Scale, Modified Rankin Score (MRS) and a new Stroke-QoL. The data from summated scales were fit to the Rasch measurement model to validate the summed score. Results 214 patients (48%) returned the questionnaires; the majority (76%) had a World Federation of Neurosurgeons grade of 1 or 2. The most frequent aneurysm type was that of the anterior communicating artery (28%) with approximately 90% of aneurysms of the anterior circulation. Of those previously in full or part-time employment, 48.9% were unemployed at follow-up. All summated scales satisfied the Rasch measurement model requirements, such that their summed scores were a sufficient statistic. Given this, one-third of patients were noted to have a significant mood disorder and 25% had significant dysexecutive function. Patients with an MRS of 3, 4 or 5 had significantly worse scores on most outcome measures, but a significant minority of those with a score of zero had failed to return to work and displayed significant mood disorder. Conclusions A range of self-reported cognitive and physical deficits have been highlighted in a cohort of patients with ASAH. While the MRS has been shown to provide a reasonable indication of outcome, in routine clinical follow-up it requires supplementation by instruments assessing dysexecutive function, memory and mood. PMID:24699459

Quinn, Audrey C; Bhargava, Deepti; Al-Tamimi, Yahia Z; Clark, Matthew J; Ross, Stuart A; Tennant, Alan

2014-01-01

174

Mouse genetic background is associated with variation in secondary complications after subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a form of hemorrhagic stroke that accounts for approximately 7 % of all strokes worldwide and is associated with mortality in approximately 35 % of cases and morbidity in many of the survivors. Studies have suggested that genetic variations may affect the pathophysiology of SAH. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of mouse genetic background on brain injury and large artery vasospasm after SAH. SAH was induced in seven inbred strains of mice, and the degree of large artery vasospasm and brain injury was assessed. After 48 h, SAH mice showed a significant reduction in middle cerebral artery diameter and increased neuronal injury in the cerebral cortex compared with sham-operated controls. Mouse strains also demonstrated variable degrees of vasospasm and brain injury. This data suggests that different genetic factors influence how much brain injury and vasospasm occur after SAH. Future investigations may provide insight into the causes of these differences between strains and into which genetic contributors may be responsible for vasospasm and brain injury after SAH. PMID:25366595

D'Abbondanza, Josephine A; Lass, Elliot; Ai, Jinglu; Macdonald, R Loch

2015-01-01

175

Rupture of giant vertebrobasilar aneurysm following flow diversion: mechanical stretch as a potential mechanism for early aneurysm rupture.  

PubMed

A patient with a giant symptomatic vertebrobasilar aneurysm was treated by endoscopic third ventriculostomy for obstructive hydrocephalus followed by treatment of the aneurysm by flow diversion using a Pipeline Embolization Device. After an uneventful procedure and initial periprocedural period, the patient experienced an unexpected fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage 1?week later. Autopsy demonstrated extensive subarachnoid hemorrhage and aneurysm rupture (linear whole wall rupture). The patent Pipeline Embolization Device was in its intended location, as was the persistent coil occlusion of the distal left vertebral artery. The aneurysm appeared to rupture in a linear manner and contained a thick large expansile clot that seemed to disrupt or rupture the thin aneurysm wall directly opposite the basilar artery/Pipeline Embolization Device. We feel the pattern of aneurysm rupture in our patient supports the idea that the combination of flow diversion and the resulting growing intra-aneurysmal thrombus can create a mechanical force with the potential to cause aneurysm rupture. PMID:25355741

Fox, Benjamin; Humphries, William Edward; Doss, Vinodh T; Hoit, Daniel; Elijovich, Lucas; Arthur, Adam S

2014-01-01

176

Rupture of giant vertebrobasilar aneurysm following flow diversion: mechanical stretch as a potential mechanism for early aneurysm rupture.  

PubMed

A patient with a giant symptomatic vertebrobasilar aneurysm was treated by endoscopic third ventriculostomy for obstructive hydrocephalus followed by treatment of the aneurysm by flow diversion using a Pipeline Embolization Device. After an uneventful procedure and initial periprocedural period, the patient experienced an unexpected fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage 1?week later. Autopsy demonstrated extensive subarachnoid hemorrhage and aneurysm rupture (linear whole wall rupture). The patent Pipeline Embolization Device was in its intended location, as was the persistent coil occlusion of the distal left vertebral artery. The aneurysm appeared to rupture in a linear manner and contained a thick large expansile clot that seemed to disrupt or rupture the thin aneurysm wall directly opposite the basilar artery/Pipeline Embolization Device. We feel the pattern of aneurysm rupture in our patient supports the idea that the combination of flow diversion and the resulting growing intra-aneurysmal thrombus can create a mechanical force with the potential to cause aneurysm rupture. PMID:25361560

Fox, Benjamin; Humphries, William Edward; Doss, Vinodh T; Hoit, Daniel; Elijovich, Lucas; Arthur, Adam S

2014-10-31

177

Stroke in patients with fusiform vertebrobasilar aneurysms.  

PubMed

We studied seven patients with brainstem infarction and large fusiform vertebrobasilar (VB) aneurysms to clarify the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features. All presented with pontine infarcts; one also had a cerebellar infarct. VB TIAs preceded brainstem infarction in four patients. Angiography and CT documented VB fusiform aneurysmal dilatation. Four had intraluminal thrombi and one had severe basilar artery stenosis. Two distinct clinical pictures emerged: unilateral pontine infarcts with favorable outcome, presumably related to obstruction of a pontine penetrating artery at its origin from the posterior wall of the aneurysmal basilar artery, and major fatal bilateral pontine infarcts from basilar artery occlusion. Two patients came to autopsy. One had thrombus in the dilated basilar artery and a posterior cerebral artery branch embolus with hemorrhagic occipital infarction; the other had basilar artery thrombus with aneurysmal rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Fusiform VB aneurysms caused brainstem stroke by intraluminal thrombus, local embolism, atherostenosis, and obstruction of paramedian penetrating arteries. Subarachnoid hemorrhage is an uncommon complication. PMID:2909908

Pessin, M S; Chimowitz, M I; Levine, S R; Kwan, E S; Adelman, L S; Earnest, M P; Clark, D M; Chason, J; Ausman, J I; Caplan, L R

1989-01-01

178

Inhibition of the Sur1-Trpm4 Channel Reduces Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Impairment in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can leave patients with memory impairments that may not recover fully. Molecular mechanisms are poorly understood, and no treatment is available. The sulfonylurea receptor 1–transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (Sur1-Trpm4) channel plays an important role in acute central nervous system injury. We evaluated upregulation of Sur1-Trpm4 in humans with SAH and, in rat models of SAH, we examined Sur1- Trpm4 upregulation, its role in barrier dysfunction and neuroinflammation, and its consequences on spatial learning. Methods We used Förster resonance energy transfer to detect coassociated Sur1 and Trpm4 in human autopsy brains with SAH. We studied rat models of SAH involving filament puncture of the internal carotid artery or injection of blood into the subarachnoid space of the entorhinal cortex. In rats, we used Förster resonance energy transfer and coimmunoprecipitation to detect coassociated Sur1 and Trpm4, we measured immunoglobulin G extravasation and tumor necrosis ? overexpression as measures of barrier dysfunction and neuroinflammation, and we assessed spatial learning and memory on days 7 to 19. Results Sur1-Trpm4 channels were upregulated in humans and rats with SAH. In rats, inhibiting Sur1 using antisense or the selective Sur1 inhibitor glibenclamide reduced SAH-induced immunoglobulin G extravasation and tumor necrosis ? overexpression. In models with entorhinal SAH, rats treated with glibenclamide for 7 days after SAH exhibited better platform search strategies and better performance on incremental and rapid spatial learning than vehicle-treated controls. Conclusions Sur1-Trpm4 channels are upregulated in humans and rats with SAH. Channel inhibition with glibenclamide may reduce neuroinflammation and the severity of cognitive deficits after SAH. PMID:24114458

Tosun, Cigdem; Kurland, David B.; Mehta, Rupal; Castellani, Rudy J.; deJong, Joyce L.; Kwon, Min Seong; Woo, Seung Kyoon; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J. Marc

2013-01-01

179

Evaluation of the Circle of Willis with Three-dimensional CT Angiography in Patients with Suspected Intracranial Aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To determine the usefulness of CT angiography in the setting of suspected acute subarachnoid hemorrhage or intracranial aneurysm. METHODS: We prospectively studied 68 patients suspected of having subarachnoid hemorrhage or an intracranial aneurysm with noncon- trast CT of the head followed immediately by contrast-enhanced helical CT of the circle of Willis with three-dimensional reconstruction. Twenty-seven patients with CT findings

Ronald A. Alberico; Mahendra Patel; Sean Casey; Betsy Jacobs; William Maguire; Robert Decker

180

[Case report: Aneurysmatic subarachnoid hemorrhage - Complicated course due to coincidental manifestation of an inverted Tako-Tsubo-cardiomyopathy].  

PubMed

We report the case of a patient who suffered a serious subarachnoid hemorrhage with a cardialaffection and development of an inverted Tako-Tsubo-cardiomyopathy. To avoid apparent cerebral ischemia due to severe cerebral vasospasm after exhaustion of conservative therapeutic options a temporarily endovascular therapy with continuous intra-arterial application of Nimodipine was necessary. In the overall protracted and complicated course the special challenge were the therapeutic efforts to avoid apparent cerebral ischemia in context to the significant cardial affection. PMID:25137200

Zech, Nina; Kieninger, Martin; Seemann, Milena; Künzig, Holger; Bele, Sylvia; Dietl, Alexander

2014-07-01

181

Impact of early-onset seizures on grading and outcome in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

OBJECT After subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), seizure occurs in up to 26% of patients. The impact of seizure on outcome has been studied, yet its impact on grading is unknown. The authors evaluated the impact of early-onset seizures (EOS) on grading of spontaneous SAH and on outcome. METHODS This retrospective analysis included consecutive patients with SAH who were treated at the NeuroCenter, Inselspital, University Hospital Bern, Switzerland, between January 2005 and December 2010. Demographic data, clinical data, and reports of EOS were recorded. The EOS were defined as seizures occurring within 24 hours after ictus. Patients were graded according to the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) scale pre- and postresuscitation and dichotomized into good (WFNS I-III) and poor (WFNS IV-V) grades. Outcome was assessed at 6 months by using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS); an mRS score of 0-3 was considered a good outcome and an mRS score of 4-6 was considered a poor outcome. RESULTS Forty-one of 425 patients with SAH had EOS. Twenty-seven of those 41 patients (65.9%) had a poor WFNS grade. Twenty-eight (68.3%) achieved a good outcome, 11 (26.8%) had a poor outcome, and 2 (4.9%) were lost to followup. Early-onset seizures were proven in 9 of 16 electroencephalograms. The EOS were associated with poor WFNS grade (OR 2.81, 97.5% CI 1.14-7.46; p = 0.03) and good outcome (OR 4.01, 97.5% CI 1.63-10.53; p = 0.03). Increasing age, hydrocephalus, intracerebral hemorrhage, and intraventricular hemorrhage were associated with poor WFNS grade, whereas only age, intracerebral hemorrhage (p < 0.001), and poor WFNS grade (p < 0.001) were associated with poor outcome. CONCLUSIONS Patients with EOS were classified significantly more often in a poor grade initially, but then they significantly more often achieved a good outcome. The authors conclude that EOS can negatively influence grading. This might influence decision making for the care of patients with SAH, so grading of patients with EOS should be interpreted with caution. PMID:25479126

Fung, Christian; Balmer, Mathias; Murek, Michael; Z'Graggen, Werner J; Abu-Isa, Janine; Ozdoba, Christoph; Haenggi, Matthias; Jakob, Stephan M; Raabe, Andreas; Beck, Jürgen

2015-02-01

182

Complications and outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a prospective hospital based cohort study in The Netherlands  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—The aim of this study was to investigate prospectively in an unselected series of patients with an aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage what at present the complications are, what the outcome is, how many of these patients have "modern treatment"—that is, early obliteration of the aneurysm and treatment with calcium antagonists—what factors cause a delay in surgical or endovascular treatment, and what the estimated effect on outcome will be of improved treatment.?METHODS—A prospective, observational cohort study of all patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage in the hospitals of a specified region in The Netherlands. The condition on admission, diagnostic procedures, and treatments were recorded. If a patient had a clinical deterioration, the change in Glasgow coma score (GCS), the presence of focal neurological signs, the results of additional investigations, and the final diagnosed cause of the deterioration were recorded.? Clinical outcome was assessed with the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) at 3 month follow up. In patients with poor outcome at follow up, the cause was diagnosed.?RESULTS—Of the 110 patients, 47 (43%) had a poor outcome. Cerebral ischaemia, 31 patients (28%), was the most often occurring complication. Major causes of poor outcome were the effects of the initial haemorrhage and rebleeding in 34% and 30% of the patients with poor outcome respectively. Of all patients 102 (93%) were treated with calcium antagonists and 45 (41%) patients had early treatment to obliterate the aneurysm. The major causes of delay of treatment were a poor condition on admission or deterioration shortly after admission, in 31% and 23% respectively.?CONCLUSIONS—In two thirds of the patients with poor outcome the causes of poor outcome are the effects of the initial bleeding and rebleeding. Improved treatment of delayed or postoperative ischaemia will have only minor effects on the outcome of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage.?? PMID:10675216

Roos, Y; de Haan, R J; Beenen, L; Groen, R; Albrecht, K; Vermeulen, M

2000-01-01

183

Long-Term Functional Consequences and Ongoing Cerebral Inflammation after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in the Rat  

PubMed Central

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) represents a considerable health problem with an incidence of 6–7 per 100.000 individuals per year in Western society. We investigated the long-term consequences of SAH on behavior, neuroinflammation and gray- and white-matter damage using an endovascular puncture model in Wistar rats. Rats were divided into a mild or severe SAH group based on their acute neurological score at 24 h post-SAH. The degree of hemorrhage determined in post-mortem brains at 48 h strongly correlated with the acute neurological score. Severe SAH induced increased TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-10, MCP-1, MIP2, CINC-1 mRNA expression and cortical neutrophil influx at 48 h post-insult. Neuroinflammation after SAH was very long-lasting and still present at day 21 as determined by Iba-1 staining (microglia/macrophages) and GFAP (astrocytes). Long-term neuroinflammation was strongly associated with the degree of severity of SAH. Cerebral damage to gray- and white-matter was visualized by immunohistochemistry for MAP2 and MBP at 21 days after SAH. Severe SAH induced significant gray- and white-matter damage. MAP2 loss at day 21 correlated significantly with the acute neurological score determined at 24 h post-SAH. Sensorimotor behavior, determined by the adhesive removal task and von Frey test, was affected after severe SAH at day 21. In conclusion, we are the first to show that SAH induces ongoing cortical inflammation. Moreover, SAH induces mainly cortical long-term brain damage, which is associated with long-term sensorimotor damage. PMID:24603553

Kooijman, Elke; Nijboer, Cora H.; van Velthoven, Cindy T. J.; Mol, Wouter; Dijkhuizen, Rick M.; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Heijnen, Cobi J.

2014-01-01

184

The rodent endovascular puncture model of subarachnoid hemorrhage: mechanisms of brain damage and therapeutic strategies  

PubMed Central

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) represents a considerable health problem. To date, limited therapeutic options are available. In order to develop effective therapeutic strategies for SAH, the mechanisms involved in SAH brain damage should be fully explored. Here we review the mechanisms of SAH brain damage induced by the experimental endovascular puncture model. We have included a description of similarities and distinctions between experimental SAH in animals and human SAH pathology. Moreover, several novel treatment options to diminish SAH brain damage are discussed. SAH is accompanied by cerebral inflammation as demonstrated by an influx of inflammatory cells into the cerebral parenchyma, upregulation of inflammatory transcriptional pathways and increased expression of cytokines and chemokines. Additionally, various cell death pathways including cerebral apoptosis, necrosis, necroptosis and autophagy are involved in neuronal damage caused by SAH. Treatment strategies aiming at inhibition of inflammatory or cell death pathways demonstrate the importance of these mechanisms for survival after experimental SAH. Moreover, neuroregenerative therapies using stem cells are discussed as a possible strategy to repair the brain after SAH since this therapy may extend the window of treatment considerably. We propose the endovascular puncture model as a suitable animal model which resembles the human pathology of SAH and which could be applied to investigate novel therapeutic therapies to combat this debilitating insult. PMID:24386932

2014-01-01

185

Detection of intracranial internal carotid artery and middle cerebral artery vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Little is known about the accuracy of transcranial Doppler (TCD) sonography in detecting intracranial internal carotid artery (IICA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) vasospasm. TCD was performed in 49 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage to evaluate 90 IICAs and 87 MCAs during the vasospasm period. When a mean velocity of at least 90 cm/sec was used to indicate IICA vasospasm, there were 11 positive, 42 negative, 4 false-positive, and 33 false-negative results. Sensitivity was 25% and specificity was 93%. When a mean velocity of at least 120 cm/sec was used to indicate MCA vasospasm, there were 15 positive, 45 negative, 3 false-positive, and 24 false-negative results (15 operator errors). Sensitivity was 38.5% and specificity was 93.7%. When the diagnostic criterion was changed to at least 130 cm/sec, specificities were 100% (IICA) and 96% (MCA) and positive predictive values were 100% (IICA) and 87% (MCA). The authors conclude that TCD accurately detects IICA and MCA vasospasm when flow velocities are at least 130 cm/sec. However, its sensitivity may be underestimated and the importance of operator error, overestimated. PMID:8555669

Burch, C M; Wozniak, M A; Sloan, M A; Rothman, M I; Rigamonti, D; Permutt, T; Numaguchi, Y

1996-01-01

186

Simvastatin Re-Couples Dysfunctional Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function has been linked to secondary complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We previously found that there is increased eNOS function after SAH but that it is uncoupled, leading to secondary complications such as vasospasm, microthromboembolism and neuronal apoptosis. Here we test the hypothesis that recoupling eNOS with simvastatin can prevent these complications. SAH was created in mice that were treated with vehicle or simvastatin starting 2 weeks before or 30 minutes after SAH. SAH increased phosphorylated eNOS which was prevented by pre- or post-treatment with simvastatin. Simvastatin pre-treatment also prevented the increase in eNOS monomer formation that was associated with SAH, decreased superoxide anion radical production and increased NO. These changes were associated with decreased vasospasm, microthromboemboli and neuronal injury. The data suggest that simvastatin re-couples eNOS after SAH, leading to decreased secondary complications such as vasospasm, microthromboemboli and neuronal injury. PMID:21373645

Sabri, Mohammed; Ai, Jinglu; Marsden, Philip A.; Macdonald, R. Loch

2011-01-01

187

Aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage in a Chilean population, with emphasis on risk factors  

PubMed Central

Background Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) is caused principally by the rupture of intracranial aneurisms. Important risk factors have been described such as age, sex, hypertension (HT) and season of the year, among others. The objective is to investigate the demographic characteristics and possible risk factors in a population of Chilean patients. Methods This retrospective study was based on the analysis of 244 clinical records of patients diagnosed with aneurismal SAH who were discharged from the Instituto de Neurocirugía ASENJO in Santiago, Chile. Results The mean age of patients was 49.85 years and the male:female ratio was 1:2.7. The signs and symptoms were not different between sexes; cephalea (85.7%) was predominant, followed by loss of consciousness, vomiting/nausea and meningeal signs. Risk factors included sex, age and HT. Concordant with other reports, the incidence of SAH was greatest in spring. Conclusions The demographic characteristics and risk factors observed in patients with aneurismal SAH treated in ASENJO were comparable to those of other populations. We were not able to conclude that tobacco and alcohol consumption were risk factors for this population. PMID:22035203

2011-01-01

188

Subarachnoid hemorrhage and death following coingestion of MDMA with other drugs.  

PubMed

Ecstasy, the popular name for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), is a synthetic amphetamine derivative. It stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, producing serious adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. We present a 20-year-old female patient, who developed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and death following MDMA and coingestion with other drugs. She suffered from severe headache followed by vomiting, and conscious change 5 hours after an intake of 1 tablet MDMA and other drugs at a dance club. Her blood pressure was 226/164 mmHg, pulse rate 164/min, respiratory rate 30/min on arrival at our emergency department. Diffuse rales were heard over both lung fields. Both pupils' sizes were 4 mm, with sluggish reaction to light. A 12 lead electrocardiograph showed sinus tachycardia, ST depression in the inferior leads and V4 to V6 precordial leads. Laboratory findings revealed normal except a slightly raised white cell count and glucose. Arterial blood gas analysis showed pH was 7.333, with PaCO2 24.6 mmHg, PaO2 151.7 mmHg and HCO3 12.8 mmol/L. Chest x-ray revealed acute pulmonary edema. Urgent computerized tomography scanning of the head demonstrated SAH. Her condition continued to deteriorate, and went to deep coma and shock status. She expired on the second day although we treated aggressively. PMID:15779490

Ho, Min-Po; Tsai, Jen-Lieu; Wong, Yin-Kin

2004-12-01

189

Glibenclamide reduces inflammation, vasogenic edema, and caspase-3 activation after subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes secondary brain injury due to vasospasm and inflammation. Here, we studied a rat model of mild-to-moderate SAH intended to minimize ischemia/hypoxia to examine the role of sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) in the inflammatory response induced by SAH. mRNA for Abcc8, which encodes SUR1, and SUR1 protein were abundantly upregulated in cortex adjacent to SAH, where tumor-necrosis factor-? (TNF?) and nuclear factor (NF)?B signaling were prominent. In vitro experiments confirmed that Abcc8 transcription is stimulated by TNF?. To investigate the functional consequences of SUR1 expression after SAH, we studied the effect of the potent, selective SUR1 inhibitor, glibenclamide. We examined barrier permeability (immunoglobulin G, IgG extravasation), and its correlate, the localization of the tight junction protein, zona occludens 1 (ZO-1). SAH caused a large increase in barrier permeability and disrupted the normal junctional localization of ZO-1, with glibenclamide significantly reducing both effects. In addition, SAH caused large increases in markers of inflammation, including TNF? and NF?B, and markers of cell injury or cell death, including IgG endocytosis and caspase-3 activation, with glibenclamide significantly reducing these effects. We conclude that block of SUR1 by glibenclamide may ameliorate several pathologic effects associated with inflammation that lead to cortical dysfunction after SAH. PMID:18854840

Simard, J Marc; Geng, Zhihua; Woo, S Kyoon; Ivanova, Svetlana; Tosun, Cigdem; Melnichenko, Ludmila; Gerzanich, Volodymyr

2009-01-01

190

Significance of apolipoprotein E in subarachnoid hemorrhage: neuronal injury, repair, and therapeutic perspectives--a review.  

PubMed

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) strikes individuals at a young age with devastating neurologic consequences. Classic formulations that correlate complications and outcome with clinical variables do not explain all the heterogeneity that is usually found in clinical practice. The role of genetic predisposition has recently been investigated. Particular attention has been paid to the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype that encodes for a polymorphic protein existing as 3 isoforms (apoE2, apoE3, apoE4), products of alleles E2, E3, and E4 at a single gene locus. ApoE is produced by astrocytes and exerts complex neuroprotective functions that make it a hub of the biochemical network of SAH. The neuroprotective effectiveness of the apoE4 isoform is reduced with respect to the others and this has made the E4 allele a risk factor candidate. Recently published observational studies and meta-analyses suggested that the APOE genotype may strongly improve the usual predictive model with the possibility of optimizing clinical decisions according to the individual's needs. Furthermore, the clinical results, together with new biological insights, suggest that SAH may be a possible candidate for the ongoing research on apoE-based neuroprotective therapy. This article reviews the clinical studies, analyzes their methodology, and surveys the biological links between the physiopathology of SAH and apoE and the possible prospects. PMID:19251187

Lanterna, Luigi A L; Biroli, F

2009-01-01

191

Changes in responsiveness of the canine basilar artery to endothelin-1 after subarachnoid hemorrhage  

SciTech Connect

The effect of endothelin-1 (ET-1) on the basilar arteries from control and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) dogs were examined. The maximal contraction of the basilar artery in response to ET-1 was markedly decreased in the SAH group. Treatment with 10{sup {minus}8}M phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) reduced the contractile responses to ET-1 in the basilar arteries from control dogs. ET-1-induced contractions of the basilar arteries from control dogs were similar to those in strips from SAH dogs by the treatment with 10{sup {minus}8}M PMA. Ca{sup 2+}-induced contraction of the basilar arteries which were depolarized with isotonic K{sup +} were significantly attenuated in SAH dogs. Treatment with PMA also reduced the contractile responses to Ca{sup 2+} in the basilar arteries from control dogs. These results indicate that decreased contractile responses of the basilar arteries to ET-1 and Ca{sup 2+} in the SAH group may be related to changes in the activity of the protein kinase C in vascular smooth muscle.

Kamata, Katsuo; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Kasuya, Yutaka (Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan)); Miyata, Noriyuki (Hoshi Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

1991-01-01

192

Blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter prevents iron accumulation in a model of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown that iron accumulation is involved in the pathogenesis of brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and chelation of iron reduced mortality and oxidative DNA damage. We previously reported that blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) provided benefit in the early brain injury after experimental SAH. This study was undertaken to identify whether blockage of MCU could ameliorate iron accumulation-associated brain injury following SAH. Therefore, we used two reagents ruthenium red (RR) and spermine (Sper) to inhibit MCU. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups including sham, SAH, SAH+RR, and SAH+Sper. Biochemical analysis and histological assays were performed. The results confirmed the iron accumulation in temporal lobe after SAH. Interestingly, blockage of MCU dramatically reduced the iron accumulation in this area. The mechanism was revealed that inhibition of MCU reversed the down-regulation of iron regulatory protein (IRP) 1/2 and increase of ferritin. Iron-sulfur cluster dependent-aconitase activity was partially conserved when MCU was blocked. In consistence with this and previous report, ROS levels were notably reduced and ATP supply was rescued; levels of cleaved caspase-3 dropped; and integrity of neurons in temporal lobe was protected. Taken together, our results indicated that blockage of MCU could alleviate iron accumulation and the associated injury following SAH. These findings suggest that the alteration of calcium and iron homeostasis be coupled and MCU be considered to be a therapeutic target for patients suffering from SAH. PMID:25529443

Yan, Huiying; Hao, Shuangying; Sun, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Dingding; Gao, Xin; Yu, Zhuang; Li, Kuanyu; Hang, Chun-Hua

2015-01-24

193

Inhibition of Rho kinase by Hydroxyfasudil Attenuates Brain Edema after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats  

PubMed Central

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and brain edema are important pathophysiologies of early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study is to evaluate whether Rho kinase (Rock) enhances BBB permeability via disruption of tight junction proteins during early brain injury. Adult male rats were assigned to five groups; sham-operated, SAH treated with saline, a Rock inhibitor hydroxyfasudil (HF) (10mg/kg) treatment at 0.5 hours after SAH, HF treatment at 0.5 and 6 hours (10mg/kg, each) after SAH, and another Rock inhibitor Y27632 (10mg/kg) treatment at 0.5 hrs after SAH. The perforation model of SAH was performed and neurological score and brain water content were evaluated 24 and 72 hours after surgery. Evans blue extravasation, Rock activity assay, and Western blotting analyses were evaluated 24 hours after surgery. Treatment of HF significantly improved neurological scores 24 hours after SAH. Single treatment with HF and Y27632, and two treatments with HF reduced brain water content in the ipsilateral hemisphere. HF reduced Evans blue extravasation in the ipsilateral hemisphere after SAH. Rock activity increased 24 hours after SAH, and HF reversed the activity. SAH significantly decreased the levels of tight junction proteins, occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), and HF preserved the levels of occluding and ZO-1 in ipsilateral hemisphere. In conclusion, HF attenuated BBB permeability after SAH, possibly by protection of tight junction proteins. PMID:22226843

Fujii, Mutsumi; Duris, Kamil; Altay, Orhan; Soejima, Yoshiteru; Sherchan, Prativa; Zhang, John H.

2012-01-01

194

Neuroprotective Effect of Tea Polyphenols on Oxyhemoglobin Induced Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Mice  

PubMed Central

Tea polyphenols are of great benefit to the treatment of several neurodegenerative diseases. In order to explore the neuroprotective effects of tea polyphenols and their potential mechanisms, an established in vivo subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) model was used and alterations of mitochondrial function, ATP content, and cytochrome c (cyt c) in cerebral cortex were detected. This study showed that the alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential was an early event in SAH progression. The trend of ATP production was similar to that of mitochondrial membrane potential, indicating that the lower the mitochondrial membrane potential, lesser the ATP produced. Due to mitochondrial dysfunction, more cyt c was released in the SAH group. Interestingly, the preadministration of tea polyphenols significantly rescued the mitochondrial membrane potential to basal level, as well as the ATP content and the cyt c level in the brain cortex 12?h after SAH. After pretreatment with tea polyphenols, the neurological outcome was also improved. The results provide strong evidence that tea polyphenols enhance neuroprotective effects by inhibiting polarization of mitochondrial membrane potential, increasing ATP content, and blocking cyt c release. PMID:23840920

Mo, Haizhen; Chen, Ying; Huang, Liyong; Zhang, Hao; Li, Juxiang; Zhou, Wenke

2013-01-01

195

Imatinib preserves blood-brain barrier integrity following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.  

PubMed

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and consequent edema formation contribute to the development of early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Various cerebrovascular insults result in increased platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-? stimulation, which has been linked to BBB breakdown and edema formation. This study examines whether imatinib, a PDGFR inhibitor, can preserve BBB integrity in a rat endovascular perforation SAH model. Imatinib (40 or 120 mg/kg) or a vehicle was administered intraperitoneally at 1 hr after SAH induction. BBB leakage, brain edema, and neurological deficits were evaluated. Total and phosphorylated protein expressions of PDGFR-?, c-Src, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and c-Jun were measured, and enzymatic activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 were determined in the injured brain. Imatinib treatment significantly ameliorated BBB leakage and edema formation 24 hr after SAH, which was paralleled by improved neurological functions. Decreased brain expressions of phosphorylated PDGFR-?, c-Src, JNK, and c-Jun as well as reduced MMP-9 activities were found in treated animals. PDGFR-? inhibition preserved BBB integrity following experimental SAH; however, the protective mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Targeting PDGFR-? signaling might be advantageous to ameliorate early brain injury following SAH. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25196554

Zhan, Yan; Krafft, Paul R; Lekic, Tim; Ma, Qingyi; Souvenir, Rhonda; Zhang, John H; Tang, Jiping

2015-01-01

196

Relationship between angiographic vasospasm, cerebral blood flow, and cerebral infarction after subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and cerebral infarction are major contributors to poor functional recovery after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Cerebral vasospasm, the narrowing of proximal intracranial arteries after SAH, has long been assumed to be the primary cause of DCI, and has therefore been the primary therapeutic target in attempts to diminish disability after SAH. However, emerging evidence has questioned the strength and causality of the relationship between vasospasm and DCI. To address this fundamental question, we performed two parallel studies assessing the relationship between the presence of vasospasm in a vascular territory and both regional reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and development of cerebral infarction.In a cohort of SAH patients at high-risk for DCI, we identified regions of hypoperfusion using positron emission tomography (PET) and compared their distribution with territories exhibiting vasospasm on concurrent angiography. We found that regional hypoperfusion was common in the absence of proximal vasospasm and that some patients without any significant vasospasm still could have hypoperfused brain regions. Similarly, our parallel study demonstrated that both patients and brain territories without vasospasm could develop delayed cerebral infarction, and that such vasospasm-independent infarcts account for more than a quarter of the infarct burden from DCI. These findings suggest that other processes, perhaps at a microvascular level, contribute at least part of the burden of DCI and future interventions should also address these other pathophysiologic processes. PMID:25366617

Dhar, Rajat; Diringer, Michael N

2015-01-01

197

A decade after International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial: Coiling as a first choice treatment in the management of intracranial aneurysms - Technical feasibility and early management outcomes  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The technique of coiling has evolved in the last decade with evolution in both equipment and material. The preferable treatment of intracranial aneurysms at our center is endovascular coiling. We discuss the technical and management outcomes of consecutive patients treated with this approach and compare our results with a decade old International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial. Materials and Methods: Between January 2006 and November 2011, a total of 324 aneurysms in 304 consecutive patients were treated. Endovascular treatment was done in 308 aneurysms (95.0%) in 288 patients while 16 patients (5%) underwent surgical clipping. Of the 308 aneurysms treated endovascularly, 269 (87.3%) were ruptured, and 39 (12.7%) were unruptured aneurysms. Results: The endovascular coiling was feasible in all (99.6%) but 1 case. The immediate postoperative occlusion status was complete occlusion in 240 aneurysms (77.9%), neck remnant in 57 aneurysms (18.5%), and aneurysm remnant in 11 aneurysms (3.6%). Technical issues – with or without clinical effect–were encountered in 20 patients (6.9%). They included 18 thromboembolic events (6.2%) and intraprocedural aneurysmal rupture in 2 cases (0.7%). In “good grade” patients, H and H grade 1-3, a good outcome (modified Rankin score [mRS] 0-2) was in 87.6% patients while the bad outcome (mRS 3-5) was in 10.2% patients and mortality of 2.2%. In “bad grade” patients, H and H grade 3-5, a good outcome was in 29.2%, and bad outcome was in 41.7% patients with mortality was 29.1%. In the unruptured aneurysm group, the good outcome was seen in 97.7% and bad outcome in 2.3% with no mortality. Conclusions: In the current era, the favorable results of coiling demonstrated in previous studies may be applicable to the larger proportion of patients. In our series of consecutively treated patients using latest advances, such as three-dimensional imaging and the interventional material, endovascular management as first choice was feasible in 95% of patients with good technical and management outcomes.

Goel, Gaurav; Gupta, Vipul; Chinchure, Swati; Gupta, Aditya; Kaur, Gurmeen; Jha, Ajaya N.

2014-01-01

198

Burden of disease and costs of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) in the United Kingdom  

PubMed Central

Background To estimate life years and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) lost and the economic burden of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) in the United Kingdom including healthcare and non-healthcare costs from a societal perspective. Methods All UK residents in 2005 with aSAH (International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10) code I60). Sex and age-specific abridged life tables were generated for a general population and aSAH cohorts. QALYs in each cohort were calculated adjusting the life tables with health-related quality of life (HRQL) data. Healthcare costs included hospital expenditure, cerebrovascular rehabilitation, primary care and community health and social services. Non-healthcare costs included informal care and productivity losses arising from morbidity and premature death. Results A total of 80,356 life years and 74,807 quality-adjusted life years were estimated to be lost due to aSAH in the UK in 2005. aSAH costs the National Health Service (NHS) £168.2 million annually with hospital inpatient admissions accounting for 59%, community health and social services for 18%, aSAH-related operations for 15% and cerebrovascular rehabilitation for 6% of the total NHS estimated costs. The average per patient cost for the NHS was estimated to be £23,294. The total economic burden (including informal care and using the human capital method to estimate production losses) of a SAH in the United Kingdom was estimated to be £510 million annually. Conclusion The economic and disease burden of aSAH in the United Kingdom is reported in this study. Decision-makers can use these results to complement other information when informing prevention policies in this field and to relate health care expenditures to disease categories. PMID:20423472

2010-01-01

199

Classification of Non-Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage: CT Correlation to the Clinical Outcome.  

PubMed

To propose a new computed tomography (CT)-based classification system for nonaneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), which predicts patients' discharge clinical outcome and helps to prioritize appropriate patient management. A 5-year, retrospective, two-centre study was carried out involving 1486 patients presenting with SAH. One hundred and ninety patients with nonaneurysmal SAH were included in the study. Initial cranial CT findings at admission were correlated with the patients' discharge outcomes measured using the Modified Rankin Scale (MRS). A CT-based classification system (type 1 e 4) was devised based on the topography of the initial haemorrhage pattern. Seventy-five percent of the patients had type 1 haemorrhage and all these patients had a good clinical outcome with a discharge MRS of 1. Eight percent of the patients presented with type 2 haemorrhage, 62% of which were discharged with MRS of 1 and 12% of patients had MRS 3 or 4. Type 3 haemorrhage was found in 10%, of which 16% had good clinical outcome, but 53% had moderate to severe disability (MRS 3 and 4) and 5% were discharged with severe disability (MRS 5). Six percent of patients presented with type 4 haemorrhage of which 42% of the patients had moderate to severe disability (MRS 3 and 4), 42% had severe disability and one-sixth of the patients died. Highly significant differences were found between type 1 (1a and 1b) and type 2 (p¼ 0.003); type 2 and type 3 (p ¼ 0.002); type 3 and type 4 (p ¼ 0.001). Haemorrhages of the type 1 category are usually benign and do not warrant an extensive battery of clinical and radiological investigations. Type 2 haemorrhages have a varying prognosis and need to be investigated and managed along similar lines as that of an aneurysmal haemorrhage with emphasis towards radiological investigation. Type 3 and type 4 haemorrhages need to be extensively investigated to find an underlying cause. PMID:24059766

Nayak, S; Kunz, A B; Kieslinger, K; Ladurner, G; Killer, M

2011-10-31

200

Intracranial vasospasm with subsequent stroke after traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage in a 22-month-old child.  

PubMed

Clinical and radiographic evidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-related vasospasm is rare in children and has not been reported in infants. In this report the authors present the case of a 22-month-old child who developed clinically symptomatic, radiographically identifiable vasospasm after traumatic SAH. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of vasospasm associated with SAH in a child this young. This 22-month-old boy fell and had a dense SAH. He had a history of surgically corrected craniosynostosis and nonsymptomatic ventriculomegaly. The boy was evaluated for occult vascular lesions using imaging; none were found and normal vessel caliber was noted. Ten days later, the child developed left-sided weakness and a right middle cerebral artery infarct was identified. Evaluation disclosed significant intracranial vasospasm. This diagnosis was supported by findings on CT angiography, transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, MR imaging, and conventional angiography. The child was treated using intraarterial verapamil with a good result, as well as with conventional intensive care measures to reduce vasospasm. This report documents the first known case of intracranial vasospasm with stroke after SAH in a patient under the age of 2 years. This finding is important because it demonstrates that the entity of SAH-associated vasospasm can affect the very young, widening the spectrum of ages susceptible to this condition. This case is also important because it demonstrates that even very young children can respond to conventional therapeutic interventions such as intraarterial verapamil. Thus, clinicians need to be alert to the possibility of vasospasm as a potential diagnosis when evaluating young children with SAH. PMID:19338410

Nahed, Brian V; Ferreira, Manuel; Naunheim, Matthew R; Kahle, Kristopher T; Proctor, Mark R; Smith, Edward R

2009-04-01

201

Effects of nicardipine on the ex vivo release of eicosanoids after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

The activation of lipid peroxidation and the enhancement of arachidonic acid metabolism have been demonstrated as indicators of brain damage after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Meanwhile, the final common pathway of neuronal damage seems to be related to the impaired homeostasis of Ca++. The present study evaluated the effect of the calcium-antagonist nicardipine on arachidonate metabolism after experimental induction of SAH. The ex vivo release of four eicosanoids (prostaglandin (PG)D2, PGE2, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and leukotriene (LT)C4) was measured at different intervals after SAH induction. Rats were separated into the following three groups: a sham-operated group, an SAH group (rats were injected with 0.3 ml autologous arterial blood), and an SAH-treated group (after SAH induction, rats were treated with nicardipine 1.2 mg/kg intraperitoneally). Nicardipine significantly decreased the ex vivo release of PGD2 at 48 hours after SAH (p less than 0.01). The release of PGE2 was significantly enhanced at 6 hours after SAH, while in the nicardipine-treated group PGE2 release is significantly reduced. Nicardipine also affects the lipoxygenase pathway, reducing the release of LTC4 at 1, 6, and 48 hours after SAH induction. The results of the present study show that nicardipine treatment exerts an inhibitory effect on both biochemical pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism; aside from vascular effects, nicardipine could exert a protective role against the release of arachidonate metabolites, which could play a significant role in the pathogenesis of brain damage after SAH. PMID:2585083

Rodriguez y Baena, R; Gaetani, P; Marzatico, F; Benzi, G; Pacchiarini, L; Paoletti, P

1989-12-01

202

Role of HCN channels in neuronal hyperexcitability after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.  

PubMed

Disruption of ionic homeostasis and neuronal hyperexcitability contribute to early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The hyperpolarization-activated/cyclic nucleotide (HCN)-gated channels play critical role in the regulation of neuronal excitability in hippocampus CA1 region and neocortex, in which the abnormal neuronal activities are more readily provoked. This study was to investigate the interactions between HCN channels and hyperneuronal activity after experimental SAH. The present results from whole-cell recordings in rat brain slices indicated that (1) perfusion of hemoglobin (Hb)-containing artificial CSF produced neuronal hyperexcitability and inhibited HCN currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons, (2) nitric oxide/Spermine (NO/Sp), a controlled releaser of nitric oxide, attenuated neuronal excitability and enhanced HCN currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons, while L-nitroarginine (L-NNA), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, reduced the HCN currents; and (3) the inhibitory action of Hb on HCN currents was reversed by application of NO/Sp, which also reduced neuronal hyperexcitability; conversely, L-NNA enhanced inhibitory action of Hb on HCN currents. Additionally, Hb perfusion scavenged the production of nitric oxide and decreased the expression of HCN1 subunits in CA1 region. In the rat SAH model, the expression of HCN1, both at mRNA and protein level, decreased in hippocampus CA1 region at 24 h and more pronounced at 72 h after SAH. These observations demonstrated a reduction of HCN channels expression after SAH and Hb reduced HCN currents in hippocampus CA1 pyramidal neurons. Inhibition of HCN channels by Hb may be a novel pathway for inducing the hyperneuronal excitability after SAH. PMID:22378889

Li, Bo; Luo, Chunxia; Tang, Weihua; Chen, Zhi; Li, Qiang; Hu, Bo; Lin, Jiangkai; Zhu, Gang; Zhang, John H; Feng, Hua

2012-02-29

203

Impact of Admission Month on Outcomes in Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Evidence Against the March Effect  

PubMed Central

Objective We attempted to identify the presence of a so called 'March effect (or phenomenon)' (which had long been known as a 'July effect' in western countries), a transient increase in adverse outcomes during an unskilled period for new interns and residents in a teaching hospital, among a cohort of patients with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (sSAH). Methods A total of 455 consecutive patients with sSAH from our department database from 2008 to 2010 were enrolled retrospectively and the admission month, patient demographics and clinical characteristics, treatment modalities and discharge outcomes were analyzed. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine whether unfavorable discharge and in-hospital mortality showed a significant increase during the unskilled months for new interns and residents (from March to May) in a pattern suggestive of a "March effect". Results Among 455 patients with sSAH, 113 patients were treated during the unskilled period (from March to May) and the remaining 342 patients were treated during the skilled period (from June until February of the next year). No statistically significant difference in demographics and clinical characteristics was observed between patients treated during these periods. In addition, the mortality and unfavorable discharge rates of the un-skilled period were 16.8% and 29.7% and those of the skilled period were 15.5% and 27.2%, respectively. However, no statistically significant difference was observed between them. Conclusions Findings of our study suggest that there was no 'March effect' on the mortality rate and unfavorable discharge rate among patients with sSAH in our hospital during the study period. PMID:23844350

Kim, Hyun Su; Yoo, Chan Jong; Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Young Bo; Kim, Woo Kyung

2013-01-01

204

Ischemia modified albumin increase indicating cardiac damage after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiac complications are often developed after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and may cause sudden death of the patient. There are reports in the literature addressing ischemia modified albumin (IMA) as an early and useful marker in the diagnosis of ischemic heart events. The aim of this study is to evaluate serum IMA by using the albumin cobalt binding (ACB) test in the first, second, and seventh days of experimental SAH in rats. Twenty-eight Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups each consisting of seven animals. These were classified as control group, 1st, 2nd and 7th day SAH groups. SAH was done by transclival basilar artery puncture. Blood samples were collected under anesthesia from the left ventricles of the heart using the cardiac puncture method for IMA measurement. Histopathological examinations were performed on the heart and lung tissues. Albumin with by colorimetric, creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined on an automatic analyser using the enzymatic method. IMA using by ACB test was detected with spectrophotometer. Results Serum IMA (p?=?0.044) in seventh day of SAH were higher compared to the control group. Total injury scores of heart and lung tissue, also myocytolysis at day 7 were significantly higher than control group (p?=?0.001, p?=?0.001, p?=?0.001), day 1 (p?=?0.001, p?=?0.001, p?=?0.001) and day 2 (p?=?0.001, p?=?0.007, p?=?0.001). A positive correlation between IMA - myocytolysis (r?=?0.48, p?=?0.008), and between IMA – heart tissue total injury score (r?=?0.41, p?=?0.029) was found. Conclusion The results revealed that increased serum IMA may be related to myocardial stress after SAH. PMID:24564759

2014-01-01

205

Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibition Attenuates Cerebral Vasospasm and Improves Functional Recovery after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background Cerebral vasospasm is an independent predictor of poor outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The nitric oxide-cyclic GMP (NO-cGMP) vasodilatory pathway is strongly implicated in its pathophysiology. Preliminary studies suggest that phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) – an enzyme that degrades cGMP – may play a role, as the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil was found to reduce vasospasm after SAH. However, several questions that are critical when considering translational studies remain unanswered. Objective To elucidate the mechanism of action of sildenafil against vasospasm, and to assess whether sildenafil attenuates SAH-induced neuronal cell death, improves functional outcome after SAH, or causes significant physiological side effects when administered at therapeutically relevant doses. Methods SAH was induced via endovascular perforation in male C57BL6 mice. Beginning two hours later, mice received sildenafil citrate (0.7, 2 or 5mg/kg P.O. BID) or vehicle. Neurological outcome was assessed daily. Vasospasm was determined on post-SAH Day 3. Brain PDE5 expression and activity, cGMP content, neuronal cell death, arterial blood pressure (BP), and intracranial pressure (ICP) were examined. Results We found that PDE5 activity (but not expression) is increased after SAH, leading to decreased cGMP levels. Sildenafil attenuates this increase in PDE5 activity and restores cGMP levels after SAH. Post-SAH initiation of sildenafil was found to reduce vasospasm, decrease neuronal cell death, and markedly improve neurological outcome, without causing significant physiological side effects. Conclusion Sildenafil–an FDA-approved drug with a proven track record of safety in humans –is a promising new therapy for vasospasm and neurological deficits following SAH. PMID:21796010

Han, Byung Hee; Vellimana, Ananth Kesav; Zhou, Meng-Liang; Milner, Eric; Zipfel, Gregory Joseph

2014-01-01

206

Multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy as a tool for assisting intra-arterial fasudil therapy for diffuse vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background: Diffuse cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) refractory to medical management can be treated with intra-arterial administration of vasodilators, but valid bedside monitoring for the diagnosis and therapeutic assessment is poorly available. We demonstrate the successful application of regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) monitoring with multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in assisting intra-arterial infusions of fasudil hydrochloride to a patient suffering from post-SAH vasospasm in the distal vascular territories. Case Description: A 63-year-old man presented with SAH and intracerebral hematoma due to ruptured right middle cerebral artery aneurysm developed aphasia and right-sided weakness on day 9 after SAH onset. Delayed cerebral ischemia attributable to diffuse vasospasm in the distal territories of the left anterior and middle cerebral arteries was suspected. Since the symptoms persisted despite maximal hyperdynamic therapy with dobutamine, intra-arterial fasudil treatment in the setting of rSO2 monitoring including the spasm-affected vascular territory with four-channel flexible NIRS sensors was subsequently performed. Decreased and fluctuating rSO2 in angiographically documented vasospastic territories increased immediately after intra-arterial fasudil infusion in accordance with relief of vasospasm that correlated with neurological improvement. The procedure was repeated on day 11 since the effect was transient and neurological deterioration and reduction of rSO2 recurred. The deficits resolved accompanied by uptake and maintenance of rSO 2 following the intra-arterial fasudil, resulting in favorable functional outcome. Conclusion: Continuous rSO2 monitoring with multichannel NIRS is a feasible strategy to assist intraarterial fasudil therapy for detecting and treating the focal ischemic area exposed to diffuse vasospasm. PMID:21697982

Mutoh, Tatsushi; Kobayashi, Shinya; Tamakawa, Noriyuki; Ishikawa, Tatsuya

2011-01-01

207

Feasibility and methodology of optical coherence tomography imaging of human intracranial aneurysms: ex vivo pilot study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rupture of intracranial aneurysm is a common cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. An aneurysm may undergo microscopic morphological changes or remodeling of the vessel wall prior to rupture, which could potentially be imaged. In this study we present methods of tissue sample preparation of intracranial aneurysms and correlation between optical coherence tomography imaging and routine histology. OCT has a potential future in the assessment of microscopic features of aneurysms, which may correlate to the risk of rupture.

Vuong, Barry; Sun, Cuiru; Khiel, Tim-Rasmus; Gardecki, Joseph A.; Standish, Beau A.; da Costa, Leodante; de Morais, Josaphat; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Yang, Victor X. D.

2012-02-01

208

Cardiovascular crisis after small dose local infiltration of epinephrine in patient with asymptomatic subarachnoid hemorrhage -A case report-.  

PubMed

The infiltration of dilute epinephrine solution has been used for many years to provide hemostasis. However, epinephrine has adverse cardiovascular effects, such as arrhythmia, pulmonary edema, and even cardiac arrest. We have experienced epinephrine-induced cardiovascular crisis, with severe hypertension, tachycardia, and cardiac arrest after subcutaneous infiltration of a 2% lidocaine and 1 : 200,000 epinephrine solution in a patient with an asymptomatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. We provided successfully advanced cardiac life support in the operating room and cardioverted the patient back into a sinus rhythm with no untoward effects. The patient recovered without any apparent sequelae after intensive care. PMID:21286460

Bae, Ji Young; Woo, Chul-Ho; Kim, Sung Hoon; Kwak, In-Suk; Mun, Sung Ha; Kim, Kwang-Min

2010-12-01

209

Hemodynamics of small aneurysm pairs at the internal carotid artery.  

PubMed

Cerebral aneurysms carry significant risks because rupture-related subarachnoid hemorrhage leads to serious and often fatal consequences. The rupture risk increases considerably for multiple aneurysms. Multiple aneurysms can grow from the same location of an artery, and the interaction between these aneurysms raises the rupture risk even higher. Four aneurysm pair cases at the internal carotid artery are investigated for their hemodynamic behaviors using patient-specific modeling. For each case, aneurysms are separated from the parent artery and three models are reconstructed, one with two aneurysms and the other two models with only one of the two aneurysms. Results show that the relative anatomic location of one aneurysm to the other may determine the hemodynamic environment of an aneurysm. The presence of a proximal aneurysm reduces the intra-aneurysmal flow into the distal aneurysm; the proximal aneurysm and larger aneurysm have a greater area under low wall shear stress. The average intra-aneurysmal inflow ratio ranges from 16% to 41%, and reduction of the inflow ratio by an aneurysm pair varies from 6% to 15%. The maximum wall shear stress increases for serial aneurysms, but decreases for parallel aneurysms. Interaction between parallel aneurysms is not significant; however, the proximal aneurysm in serial aneurysms may be subject to a greater rupture risk. PMID:22410434

Jou, Liang-Der; Morsi, Hesham; Shaltoni, Hashem M; Mawad, Michel E

2012-12-01

210

Fatal Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage due to Acute Rebleeding of a Pseudoaneurysm Arising from the Distal Basilar Artery  

PubMed Central

Isolated traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the basilar artery are extremely rare but often fatal resulting in a mortality rate as high as 50%. A 51-year-old man presented with craniofacial injury after blunt trauma. A brain computed tomography (CT) scan showed thick basal subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with multiple craniofacial fractures, while CT angiography revealed contrast extravasation at the distal basilar artery with pseudoaneurysm formation. After this primary survey, the condition of the patient suddenly deteriorated. Conventional angiography confirmed the contrast extravasation resulted from pseudoaneurysm formation, which was successfully treated with endovascular coil embolization. Decompressive craniectomy and coma therapy with propofol were also performed. However, the patient died on the 7th hospital day because of the poor initial clinical condition. The current case is the first report of acute pseudoaneurysm rupture arising from the basilar artery within the first day after trauma. Our findings suggest the possibility that pseudoaneurysm rupture should be considered if brain CT shows thick traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage on the basal cistern with a basal skull fracture.

Kim, Byung Chul; Lee, Jae Il; Cho, Won Ho

2014-01-01

211

Spectrophotometric Quantification of Bilirubin in Hemorrhagic Spinal Fluid using an Innovative Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annually, approximately 30,000 people suffer from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in the United States. In an estimated 5% of these patients, the hemorrhage is difficult to diagnose using conventional methods. Clini- cians must rely upon a combination of clinical history, Computerized Tomography (CT) scan evidence and lumbar punc- ture results to diagnose and differentiate SAH from a traumatic spinal tap

Prashant R. Bhadri; Vasant A. Salgaonkar; Gail J. Pyne-Geithman; James J. Caffery Jr; Rakesh Shukla; Fred R. Beyette Jr; Joseph F. Clark

2007-01-01

212

Redefining secondary injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in light of multimodal advanced neuroimaging, intracranial and transcranial neuromonitoring: beyond vasospasm.  

PubMed

The classic idea that arterial narrowing, called vasospasm (VSP), represents the hallmark of secondary injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage, has been challenged. The more complex and pleiotropic pathophysiological repercussions from the irruption of arterial blood into the subarachnoid layers go beyond the ascribed VSP. Putting adjectives in front of this term, such as "symptomatic," "microdialytic," or "angiographic" VSP, is misleading. Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a better term but remains restrictive to severe hypoperfusive injury and neglects oligemia, edema, and metabolic nonischemic injuries. In recognition of these issues, the international conference on VSP integrated "neurovascular events" into its name ( www.vasospasm2013.com ) and a multidisciplinary research group was formed in 2010 to study subgroups of DCI/VSP and their respective significance.In three parts, this tiered article provides a broader definitional envelope for DCI and secondary neurovascular insults after SAH, with a rubric for each subtype of delayed neuronal dysfunction. First, it pinpoints the need for nosologic precision and covers current terminological inconsistency. Then, it highlights the input of neuroimaging and neuromonitoring in defining secondary injurious processes. Finally, a new categorization of deteriorating patients is proposed, going beyond a hierarchical or dichotomized definition of VSP/DCI, and common data elements are suggested for future trials. PMID:25366634

Kapinos, Gregory

2015-01-01

213

Pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage from a pulmonary artery false aneurysm after Swan-Ganz catheterization in a thoracic aortic aneurysm patient: a case report  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary artery (PA) rupture caused by a PA Swan-Ganz catheter is a rare complication but remains fatal in almost 50% of cases. False aneurysm of the PA is a rare presentation of PA rupture and should be considered as a possible diagnosis in a patient with a new lung mass after PA catheterization. We present a case of sudden-onset pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage during cardiovascular surgery due to a traumatic PA false aneurysm. The Swan-Ganz catheter might have been displaced by the thoracic aortic aneurysm with displacement of the catheter causing the false aneurysm and bleeding. PMID:25473465

Ikeno, Shigeo; Tsuchihashi, Tetsuya; Yokota, Shigeru; Ina, Hiroaki; Kono, Tetsuya; Yamashita, Kunihiko; Kawamata, Mikito

2014-01-01

214

Pleiotropic effects of the rho-kinase inhibitor fasudil after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a review of preclinical and clinical studies.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence that Rho-kinase contributes to cardiovascular disease, which has made Rho-kinase a target for the treatment of human diseases. To date, the only Rho-kinase inhibitor employed clinically in humans is fasudil, which has been used for the prevention of cerebral vasospasm and subsequent ischemic injury after surgery for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A number of pathological processes, in particular hemodynamic dysfunctions and inflammatory reactions, are thought to be related in the pathogenesis of delayed cerebral vasospasm and subsequent ischemic injury after SAH. This review focuses on fasudil's pleiotropic therapeutic effects: amelioration of hemodynamic dysfunction and inflammation, and discusses in detail the clinical studies on fasudil administered after the occurrence of SAH. PMID:24923440

Satoh, Shin-ichi; Ikegaki, Ichiro; Kawasaki, Koh; Asano, Toshio; Shibuya, Masato

2014-01-01

215

Endoplasmic reticulum stress is associated with neuroprotection against apoptosis via autophagy activation in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress might play an important role in a range of neurological diseases; however, this phenomenon's role in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains unclear. In this study, we explored the potential role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in early brain injury following SAH.84 rats were used for an endovascular perforation-induced subarachnoid hemorrhage model. The rats were intraperitoneally pretreated with the ER stress inducer tunicamycin (Tm) or with the inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) before SAH onset. An intracerebral ventricular infusion of autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was also used to determine the relation between autophagy and ER stress in early brain injury following SAH. At 24h, rats were neurologically evaluated, and their brains were extracted for molecular biological and histological studies. ER stress was activated in rats after 24h of SAH. Enhanced ER stress via Tm pretreatment significantly improved neurological deficits, attenuated the expression of pro-apoptotic molecules of caspase-3 and reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells. In contrast, the ER stress inhibitor TUDCA aggravated neurological deficits and apoptotic cell death. Western blot analysis revealed that levels of the autophagic protein Beclin 1 and the ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I were both increased by Tm infusion and reduced by TUDCA administration. The suppression of autophagic activity with 3-MA attenuated Tm-induced anti-apoptotic effects. Our study indicates that ER stress alleviates early brain injury following SAH via inhibiting apoptosis. This neuroprotective effect is most likely exerted by autophagy activation. PMID:24513235

Yan, Feng; Li, Jianru; Chen, Jingyin; Hu, Qiang; Gu, Chi; Lin, Wang; Chen, Gao

2014-03-20

216

Delayed post-traumatic saccular aneurysm of PICA in an adolescent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed traumatic intracranial aneurysms of the posterior circulation caused by nonpenetrating head injury are rare, especially\\u000a in pediatric patients. The true incidence and natural history of these aneurysms are poorly understood. We report a case of\\u000a a 15-year-old boy who initially presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage of the posterior fossa without any evidence of associated\\u000a aneurysm. On a routine computed tomography

Mandy J. Binning; Tricia B. Hauschild; Amin Amini; Joel D. MacDonald

2009-01-01

217

Selective endovascular treatment of a traumatic basilar aneurysm after endoscopic third ventriculostomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 4-year-old girl suffered intraventricular and subarachnoid hemorrhage during endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Cerebral\\u000a angiography revealed a traumatic basilar aneurysm secondary to basilar artery injury. The aneurysm was treated with selective\\u000a endovascular embolization using Guglielmi detachable coils. We review some therapeutic features of traumatic basilar aneurysms\\u000a after endoscopic third ventriculostomy and describe the feasibility of endovascular selective therapy to manage these

Marco Túlio Salles Rezende; Laurent Spelle; Michel Piotin; Charbel Mounayer; César de Paula Lucas; Daniel Giansante Abud; Jacques Moret

2008-01-01

218

Effect of oral nimodipine on cerebral infarction and outcome after subarachnoid haemorrhage: British aneurysm nimodipine trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine the efficacy of oral nimodipine in reducing cerebral infarction and poor outcomes (death and severe disability) after subarachnoid haemorrhage. DESIGN--Double blind, placebo controlled, randomised trial with three months of follow up and intention to treat analysis. To have an 80% chance with a significance level of 0.05 of detecting a 50% reduction in an incidence of cerebral infarction

J. D. Pickard; G. D. Murray; R. Illingworth; M. D. Shaw; G. M. Teasdale; P. M. Foy; P. R. Humphrey; D. A. Lang; R. Nelson; P. Richards

1989-01-01

219

Recurrent Meningitis and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Due to Salmonella in an HIV+ Patient: Case Report and Mini-Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Meningitis due to non-typhi salmonella is infrequent in HIV-positive adults. We report a case of a patient with >300 CD4+ cells/mm3 who presented with five episodes of recurrent meningitis, focal subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral vasculitis ultimately attributed to Salmonella choleraesuis infection. Even within the cART era invasive salmonellosis can occur in unusual ways in HIV-infected patients. PMID:21772932

Belloso, Waldo H; Romano, Marina; Greco, Graciela S; Davey, Richard T; Perelsztein, Ariel G; Sánchez, Marisa L; Ajzenszlos, Martín R; Otegui, Inés M

2011-01-01

220

Risk of Aneurysm Recurrence in Patients With Clipped Cerebral Aneurysms Results of Long-Term Follow-Up Angiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—With many patients living long after microsurgical aneurysm clipping for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and with the evolution of intravascular procedures as less invasive alternatives, knowledge of the long-term results of clipping is becoming important. Methods—Of 412 patients who underwent clipping of ruptured or unruptured cerebral aneurysms at our institution between 1976 and 1994 and who survived .3 years

K. Tsutsumi; Keisuke Ueki; Akio Morita; Masaaki Usui; Takaaki Kirino

2010-01-01

221

Treatment of ruptured intracranial dissecting aneurysms in Hong Kong  

PubMed Central

Background: Data suggests that hemorrhagic presentations occur in 20% of internal carotid artery dissections and 50% of vertebral artery dissections. A Finnish study has reported favorable outcomes in only 32% of patients. We aimed to review the epidemiology and management outcomes in a Chinese population. Methods: We reviewed the aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage registry of patients who presented with intracranial dissecting aneurysms at a neurosurgical center in Hong Kong over a five-year period. Results: A total of 23 patients with intracranial dissecting aneurysms were identified, accounting for 8% of all spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Forty-eight percent of the patients identified were treated by main trunk occlusion and 39% were treated by embolization or stent-assisted embolization or stent alone. Thirteen percent were managed by craniotomy and trapping or wrapping. Favorable outcomes at six months were achieved in 67%. Conclusions: Patients with intracranial dissecting aneurysms account for a significant proportion of the cases of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage in our population. Carefully selected endovascular and microsurgical treatments can lead to management outcomes similar to patients with saccular aneurysms. PMID:21206536

Wong, George Kwok Chu; Tang, Hoi Bun; Poon, Wai Sang; Yu, Simon Chun Ho

2010-01-01

222

The effect of formal training on the clinical utility of transcranial Doppler ultrasound monitoring in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that the clinical utility of transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound monitoring for vasospasm in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, as performed by untrained operators in a busy neurosurgical unit, is questionable, despite the recommendations for its use in the literature. We determined if formal training improved the utility of TCD. Twelve untrained operators and one trained operator performed a total of 206 TCD examinations. There was poor agreement of results between trained and untrained operators. For the left middle cerebral artery (MCA), right MCA, left anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and right ACA, the blood flow velocities (BFV) recorded by the trained operator were greater than those recorded by the untrained operators by a mean (95% confidence interval) of 27.7 (25.0-30.4), 24.3 (21.4-27.1), 28.2 (25.6-30.9) and 28.1 (24.9-31.1) cm/s, respectively (p<0.001 for all vessels). Greater sensitivity was observed in TCD measurements from the trained operator (100%) compared to untrained operators (40%). To improve the utility of TCD, operators should be provided with training or a professional sonographer employed. PMID:22727749

Bhuiyan, M Rasin; Deb, Smita; Mitchell, Ruth A; Teddy, Peter J; Drummond, Katharine J

2012-09-01

223

Does Isolated Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Merit a Lower Intensity Level of Observation Than Other Traumatic Brain Injury?  

PubMed Central

Abstract Evidence is emerging that isolated traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (ITSAH) may be a milder form of traumatic brain injury (TBI). If true, ITSAH may not benefit from intensive care unit (ICU) admission, which would, in turn, decrease resource utilization. We conducted a retrospective review of all TBI admissions to our institution between February 2010 and November 2012 to compare the presentation and clinical course of subjects with ITSAH to all other TBI. We then performed descriptive statistics on the subset of ITSAH subjects presenting with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 13–15. Of 698 subjects, 102 had ITSAH and 596 had any other intracranial hemorrhage pattern. Compared to all other TBI, ITSAH had significantly lower injury severity scores (p<0.0001), lower head abbreviated injury scores (p<0.0001), higher emergency department GCS (p<0.0001), shorter ICU stays (p=0.007), higher discharge GCS (p=0.005), lower mortality (p=0.003), and significantly fewer head computed tomography scans (p<0.0001). Of those ITSAH subjects presenting with a GCS of 13–15 (n=77), none underwent placement of an intracranial monitor or craniotomy. One subject (1.3%) demonstrated a change in exam (worsened headache and dizziness) concomitant with a progression of his intracranial injury. His symptoms resolved with readmission to the ICU and continued observation. Our results suggest that ITSAH are less-severe brain injuries than other TBI. ITSAH patients with GCS scores of 13–15 demonstrate low rates of clinical progression, and when progression occurs, it resolves without further intervention. This subset of TBI patients does not appear to benefit from ICU admission. PMID:24926612

Richter, Adam A.; Scott, William W.; Pruitt, Jeffrey H.; Madden, Christopher J.; Rickert, Kim L.; Wolf, Steven E.

2014-01-01

224

Comparison of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers between idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced chronic hydrocephalus: A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background We examined the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced and idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) to investigate the pathophysiology and mechanism of communicating hydrocephalus compared to obstructive hydrocephalus. Material/Methods We obtained CSF samples from 8 INPH, 10 SAH-induced hydrocephalus, and 6 unmatched patients with non-hemorrhagic obstructive hydrocephalus during their ventriculoperitoneal shunt operations. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and total tau in the CSF were analyzed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results The mean VEGF levels in the CSF of patients with SAH-induced hydrocephalus, INPH, and obstructive hydrocephalus were 239±131, 239±75, and 163±122 pg/mL, respectively. The total tau concentrations in the CSF of the groups were 1139±1900, 325±325, and 1550±2886 pg/mL, respectively. TNF-? values were 114±34, 134±38, and 55±16 pg/mL, respectively. TGF-?1 values were 953±430, 869±447, and 136±63 pg/mL, respectively. A significant difference in TNF-? and TGF-?1 levels was observed only between SAH-induced and chronic obstructive hydrocephalus, and between INPH and chronic obstructive hydrocephalus (p<0.01). Conclusions No significant differences in the 4 CSF biomarker levels were observed between INPH and SAH-induced hydrocephalus, whereas CSF TNF-? and TGF-?1 levels were increased compared to those in patients with chronic obstructive hydrocephalus. Post-SAH hydrocephalus and INPH are probably more destructive to neural tissues, and then stimulate the inflammatory reaction and healing process, compared with obstructive hydrocephalus. PMID:23197244

Lee, Jeong-Hyun; Park, Dong-Hyuk; Back, Dong-Bin; Lee, Jea-Young; Lee, Chang-In; Park, Kyung-Jae; Kang, Shin-Hyuk; Cho, Tai-Hyoung; Chung, Yong-Gu

2012-01-01

225

Changes in trace elements of cerebrospinal fluid after subarachnoid hemorrhage, and effects of trace elements on vasospasm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various causal factors have been proposed for cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), such as serotonin, acetylcholine, angiotensin, thrombin and thromboxane A2. However, none of them explain the whole pathomechanism of vasospasm. To evaluate the role of trace elements on vasospasm, we have examined these sequential changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after SAH by PIXE, and have investigated the relation between trace elements and vasospasm. We obtained the CSF samples from cisternal drainage in patients with SAH who underwent radical surgery within 48 h from the onset. The drainage was placed into basal cisterns at the end of the operation. Three sampling times (3-5, 7-9 and 12-14 days from the onset) has been scheduled because vasospasm is likely to occur from day 4 to day 14 after the onset. In this study, we focused on the levels of Mg, Ca, Mn, Al, Zn, P, Pb, Sr, Br, Co, Cu, Si, Ti, Mn,Co, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Mo and Pb, and we found a significantly lower level of Mg in the CSF of patients with vasospasm on days 7-9 after the onset. These results suggest that Mg in the CSF may ameliorate vasoconstriction due to Ca in the pathomechanism of vasospasm.

Sato, N.; Kuroda, K.; Suzuki, M.; Ogawa, A.; Sera, K.

1999-04-01

226

Astaxanthin alleviates early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats: possible involvement of Akt/bad signaling.  

PubMed

Apoptosis has been proven to play a crucial role in early brain injury pathogenesis and to represent a target for the treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Previously, we demonstrated that astaxanthin (ATX) administration markedly reduced neuronal apoptosis in the early period after SAH. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure. In the present study, we tried to investigate whether ATX administration is associated with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway, which can play an important role in the signaling of apoptosis. Our results showed that post-SAH treatment with ATX could cause a significant increase of phosphorylated Akt and Bad levels, along with a significant decrease of cleaved caspase-3 levels in the cortex after SAH. In addition to the reduced neuronal apoptosis, treatment with ATX could also significantly reduce secondary brain injury characterized by neurological dysfunction, cerebral edema and blood-brain barrier disruption. In contrast, the PI3K/Akt inhibitor, LY294002, could partially reverse the neuroprotection of ATX in the early period after SAH by downregulating ATX-induced activation of Akt/Bad and upregulating cleaved caspase-3 levels. These results provided the evidence that ATX could attenuate apoptosis in a rat SAH model, potentially, in part, through modulating the Akt/Bad pathway. PMID:25072152

Zhang, Xiang-Sheng; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Qi; Li, Wei; Zhang, Qing-Rong; Wang, Chun-Xi; Zhou, Xiao-Ming; Li, Hua; Shi, Ji-Xin; Zhou, Meng-Liang

2014-08-01

227

Cyclosporin A ameliorates early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage through inhibition of a Nur77 dependent apoptosis pathway.  

PubMed

Nur77 is a potent pro-apoptotic member of the orphan nuclear receptor superfamily. It has been demonstrated that can mediate apoptosis in many system cells in response to extracellular stimuli. Our previous study revealed Nur77-mediated apoptotic also involved in early brain injury (EBI) after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). CsA, a Nur77 inhibitor, can abolish DNA binding activity of Nur77, further inhibit the Nur77 dependent apoptosis pathway. CsA has the neuroprotective effects and has been demonstrated in ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. Hence, in this study was designed to explore the neuroprotective effects of CsA in EBI after SAH. Adult male SD rats were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) control group (n = 24); (2) SAH (n = 24); (3) SAH+DMSO group (n = 24); and (4) SAH+CsA (n = 24), 10 mg/kg of CsA or same volume of DMSO was administered by femoral vein injection at 15 min before SAH. CsA markedly decreased expressions of Nur77, p-Nur77, Bcl-2 and cyto C, and inhibited apoptosis.Improvement of neurological deficit, alleviation of brain edema and amelioration of EBI were obtained after prophylactic use of CsA. TUNEL-positive cells were reduced markedly in brain cortex by CsA. These findings suggest that neuroprotective effects of CsA during early peroid after SAH may be related to its inhibition of Nur77 dependent apoptosis pathway. PMID:24508908

Dai, Yuxiang; Sun, Qing; Zhang, Xing; Hu, Yangchun; Zhou, Mengliang; Shi, Jixin

2014-03-27

228

Comparative Efficacy of Meloxicam and Placebo in Vasospasm of Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Cerebral vasospasm considered to be a serious cause of morbidity and mortality following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH).Despite several available therapeutic options, current protocols do not prevent major consequences of vasospasm. Inflammation is believed to play an important role in post-haemorrhagic vasospasm. Meloxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of meloxicam versus placebo on vasospasm in patients with SAH. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, SAH patients randomly received 7.5 mg meloxicam or placebo twice daily for 7 days. End points were, middle cerebral artery velocity obtained with transcranial doppler, in-hospital mortality, hospital stay and discharge Glasgow Outcome Scale. Eighty-one patients enrolled in the study. (40 received meloxicam, 41 received placebo). Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. There were no differences in length of hospitalization (17.4 ± 3.1 vs 18.6 ± 4.2 days; p = 0.145), in-hospital mortality rate (15 vs 22%; p-value=0.569), or GOS (p = 0.972) between the two groups. MCA velocity were slightly less in patients who had received meloxicam, but not to a significant degree (p-value=0. 564(. No side effect has been detected for meloxicam. This study did not prove meloxicam efficacy in vasospasm of SAH patients. But it demonstrated that clinical trial of meloxicam in these patients is feasible and probably safe. The effectiveness of meloxicam on cerebral vasospasm has to be studied in larger trials. PMID:25561918

Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad; Mohebbi, Niayesh; Naderi, Soheil; Anbarloie, Mousareza; Aoude, Ahmad; Habibi Pasdar, Seyed Sohail

2015-01-01

229

Comparative efficacy of meloxicam and placebo in vasospasm of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Cerebral vasospasm considered to be a serious cause of morbidity and mortality following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH).Despite several available therapeutic options, current protocols do not prevent major consequences of vasospasm. Inflammation is believed to play an important role in post-haemorrhagic vasospasm. Meloxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of meloxicam versus placebo on vasospasm in patients with SAH. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, SAH patients randomly received 7.5 mg meloxicam or placebo twice daily for 7 days. End points were, middle cerebral artery velocity obtained with transcranial doppler, in-hospital mortality, hospital stay and discharge Glasgow Outcome Scale. Eighty-one patients enrolled in the study. (40 received meloxicam, 41 received placebo). Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. There were no differences in length of hospitalization (17.4 ± 3.1 vs 18.6 ± 4.2 days; p = 0.145), in-hospital mortality rate (15 vs 22%; p-value=0.569), or GOS (p = 0.972) between the two groups. MCA velocity were slightly less in patients who had received meloxicam, but not to a significant degree (p-value=0. 564(. No side effect has been detected for meloxicam. This study did not prove meloxicam efficacy in vasospasm of SAH patients. But it demonstrated that clinical trial of meloxicam in these patients is feasible and probably safe. The effectiveness of meloxicam on cerebral vasospasm has to be studied in larger trials. PMID:25561918

Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad; Mohebbi, Niayesh; Naderi, Soheil; Anbarloie, Mousareza; Aoude, Ahmad; Habibi Pasdar, Seyed Sohail

2015-01-01

230

Giant berry aneurysms in a forensic setting: a series of 14 cases.  

PubMed

This is a series reviewing 14 cases of giant saccular aneurysms diagnosed at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of New York City collected over an 11-year period. Data collected on all 14 cases included neuropathological findings, comorbidities, and toxicological findings. Of these 14 cases, 8 were in women, and the ages ranged from 3 to 79 years, with a mean and a median of 50 years. Women were overrepresented in the sixth through eighth decades. Of the 14 cases described, 11 presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage; 3, no hemorrhage; 2, subdural hemorrhage; 8, intraventricular hemorrhage; 2, intracerebral hemorrhage; and 8, more than 1 hemorrhage type. Location of the aneurysms varied with 6 in the left side of the brain, 6 present in the right side of the brain, and 2 at the midline. We described the clinical, pathological, and toxicological findings associated with these giant aneurysms. PMID:21119327

Davis, Neil L; Horan, Patrick M; Romich, Tarin; Roman, Jennifer L; Lacy, J Matthew; Catanese, Charles A

2010-12-01

231

Coil Embolization for Intracranial Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective To determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of coil embolization compared with surgical clipping to treat intracranial aneurysms. The Technology Endovascular coil embolization is a percutaneous approach to treat an intracranial aneurysm from within the blood vessel without the need of a craniotomy. In this procedure, a microcatheter is inserted into the femoral artery near the groin and navigated to the site of the aneurysm. Small helical platinum coils are deployed through the microcatheter to fill the aneurysm, and prevent it from further expansion and rupture. Health Canada has approved numerous types of coils and coil delivery systems to treat intracranial aneurysms. The most favoured are controlled detachable coils. Coil embolization may be used with other adjunct endovascular devices such as stents and balloons. Background Intracranial Aneurysms Intracranial aneurysms are the dilation or ballooning of part of a blood vessel in the brain. Intracranial aneurysms range in size from small (<12 mm in diameter) to large (12–25 mm), and to giant (>25 mm). There are 3 main types of aneurysms. Fusiform aneurysms involve the entire circumference of the artery; saccular aneurysms have outpouchings; and dissecting aneurysms have tears in the arterial wall. Berry aneurysms are saccular aneurysms with well-defined necks. Intracranial aneurysms may occur in any blood vessel of the brain; however, they are most commonly found at the branch points of large arteries that form the circle of Willis at the base of the brain. In 85% to 95% of patients, they are found in the anterior circulation. Aneurysms in the posterior circulation are less frequent, and are more difficult to treat surgically due to inaccessibility. Most intracranial aneurysms are small and asymptomatic. Large aneurysms may have a mass effect, causing compression on the brain and cranial nerves and neurological deficits. When an intracranial aneurysm ruptures and bleeds, resulting in a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the mortality rate can be 40% to 50%, with severe morbidity of 10% to 20%. The reported overall risk of rupture is 1.9% per year and is higher for women, cigarette smokers, and cocaine users, and in aneurysms that are symptomatic, greater than 10 mm in diameter, or located in the posterior circulation. If left untreated, there is a considerable risk of repeat hemorrhage in a ruptured aneurysm that results in increased mortality. In Ontario, intracranial aneurysms occur in about 1% to 4% of the population, and the annual incidence of SAH is about 10 cases per 100,000 people. In 2004-2005, about 660 intracranial aneurysm repairs were performed in Ontario. Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms Treatment of an unruptured aneurysm attempts to prevent the aneurysm from rupturing. The treatment of a ruptured intracranial aneurysm aims to prevent further hemorrhage. There are 3 approaches to treating an intracranial aneurysm. Small, asymptomatic aneurysms less than 10 mm in diameter may be monitored without any intervention other than treatment for underlying risk factors such as hypertension. Open surgical clipping, involves craniotomy, brain retraction, and placement of a silver clip across the neck of the aneurysm while a patient is under general anesthesia. This procedure is associated with surgical risks and neurological deficits. Endovascular coil embolization, introduced in the 1990s, is the health technology under review. Literature Review Methods The Medical Advisory Secretariat searched the International Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) Database and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify relevant systematic reviews. OVID Medline, Medline In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, and Embase were searched for English-language journal articles that reported primary data on the effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of treatments for intracranial aneurysms, obtained in a clinical setting or analyses of primary data maintained in registers or institutional databases. Internet searches of Me

2006-01-01

232

Targeted over-expression of endothelin-1 in astrocytes leads to more severe brain damage and vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor, and astrocytic ET-1 is reported to play a role in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemic injury and cytotoxic edema. However, it is still unknown whether astrocytic ET-1 also contributes to vasogenic edema and vasospasm during subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In the present study, transgenic mice with astrocytic endothelin-1 over-expression (GET-1 mice) were used to investigate the pathophysiological role of ET-1 in SAH pathogenesis. Results The GET-1 mice experienced a higher mortality rate and significantly more severe neurological deficits, blood–brain barrier breakdown and vasogenic edema compared to the non-transgenic (Ntg) mice following SAH. Oral administration of vasopressin V1a receptor antagonist, SR 49059, significantly reduced the cerebral water content in the GET-1 mice. Furthermore, the GET-1 mice showed significantly more pronounced middle cerebral arterial (MCA) constriction after SAH. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that the calcium-activated potassium channels and the phospho-eNOS were significantly downregulated, whereas PKC-? expression was significantly upregulated in the MCA of the GET-1 mice when compared to Ntg mice after SAH. Administration of ABT-627 (ETA receptor antagonist) significantly down-regulated PKC-? expression in the MCA of the GET-1 mice following SAH. Conclusions The present study suggests that astrocytic ET-1 involves in SAH-induced cerebral injury, edema and vasospasm, through ETA receptor and PKC-mediated potassium channel dysfunction. Administration of ABT-627 (ETA receptor antagonist) and SR 49059 (vasopressin V1a receptor antagonist) resulted in amelioration of edema and vasospasm in mice following SAH. These data provide a strong rationale to investigate SR 49059 and ABT-627 as therapeutic drugs for the treatment of SAH patients. PMID:24156724

2013-01-01

233

Effect of 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid on cerebral vasospasm caused by asymmetric dimethylarginine after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.  

PubMed

Objectives: Cerebral vasospasm (CVS) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is characterized by the severe constriction of an artery, which often leads to unfavorable outcomes. CVS after SAH is closely associated with asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and connexin. The effect of 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid (18?-GA), an inhibitor of gap junction, on ADMA, connexin, and CVS after SAH were investigated. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats (n ?=? 120), weighing 300-350 g, were divided into the control group, sham, SAH, and SAH + 18?-GA groups. In the SAH group, blood was injected into the prechiasmatic cistern of the rats, and 18?-GA (10 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected. The neurological score, basilar artery diameter, ADMA, and connexin protein contents (Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45) were measured using Kaoutzanis scoring system, pressure myograph, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kit, and Western blot, respectively, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days after SAH. Results: The neurological score significantly decreased 3, 5, 7, and 14 days after SAH. The basilar artery diameter significantly decreased, and the ADMA level in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) significantly increased at all time points. The level of Cx40 significantly decreased on days 3, 5, 7, and 14, and the level of Cx43 and Cx45 significantly increased at all time points. ADMA and Cx43 are positively correlated. However, the upregulated level of ADMA, Cx43, and Cx45 were attenuated. The neurology result significantly improved in the SAH + 18?-GA group. Conclusions: Treatment with 18?-GA in SAH rats decreases Cx43 and Cx45 in basilar artery and ADMA in CSF. ADMA is probably involved in the pathophysiological events of CVS after SAH by altering connexin proteins. The mechanism of connexin protein changes caused by ADMA needs to be further studied. PMID:25475507

Zhao, Dong; Liu, Qi; Ji, Yunxiang; Wang, Ganggang; He, Xuejun; Tian, Weidong; Xu, Hui; Lei, Ting; Wang, Yezhong

2014-12-01

234

Mean hemoglobin concentration after acute subarachnoid hemorrhage and the relation to outcome, mortality, vasospasm, and brain infarction.  

PubMed

Lower mean hemoglobin (HGB) levels are associated with unfavorable outcome after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Currently, there is no cutoff level for mean HGB levels associated with unfavorable outcome. This study was conducted to evaluate a threshold for mean HGB concentrations after SAH, and to observe the relation to outcome. The medical records of 702 patients with spontaneous SAH were reviewed. Predictors of outcome were proved by univariate analysis. Predictors with p<0.1 were included in a multivariate binary logistic regression model. Cutoff points for mean HGB levels were calculated by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Mean HGB was 11.9g/dl (±standard deviation [SD] 1.7g/dl) in patients with favorable outcome compared to 10.8g/dl (±SD 1.1g/dl) in patients with unfavorable outcome (p<0.001). The highest Youden's index value was found for a HGB cutoff at 11.1g/dl. In a binary logistic regression model, predictors of unfavorable outcome were identified as an initially high Hunt-Hess grade (odds ratio [OR]: 7.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.4-13.4; p<0.001), cerebral infarction on a CT scan during hospital stay (OR: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.0-7.3; p<0.001), rebleeding during the hospital stay (OR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.6-8.0; p=0.002), mean HGB concentration <11.1g/dl (OR: 3.3; 95% CI: 2.0-5.3; p<0.001), and hydrocephalus (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.4-3.7; p=0.001). In conclusion, a mean HGB concentration <11.1g/dl during the hospital stay was associated with unfavorable outcome after acute SAH. PMID:25533213

Stein, Marco; Brokmeier, Lisa; Herrmann, Johannes; Scharbrodt, Wolfram; Schreiber, Vanessa; Bender, Michael; Oertel, Matthias F

2015-03-01

235

Cannabinoid type 2 receptor stimulation attenuates brain edema by reducing cerebral leukocyte infiltration following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.  

PubMed

Early brain injury (EBI), following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), comprises blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and consequent edema formation. Peripheral leukocytes can infiltrate the injured brain, thereby aggravating BBB leakage and neuroinflammation. Thus, anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapies may ameliorate EBI and provide neuroprotection after SAH. Cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2R) agonism has been shown to reduce neuroinflammation; however, the precise protective mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate whether the selective CB2R agonist, JWH133 can ameliorate EBI by reducing brain-infiltrated leukocytes after SAH. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: sham-operated, SAH with vehicle, SAH with JWH133 (1.0mg/kg), or SAH with a co-administration of JWH133 and selective CB2R antagonist SR144528 (3.0mg/kg). SAH was induced by endovascular perforation, and JWH133 was administered 1h after surgery. Neurological deficits, brain water content, Evans blue dye extravasation, and Western blot assays were evaluated at 24h after surgery. JWH133 improved neurological scores and reduced brain water content; however, SR144528 reversed these treatment effects. JWH133 reduced Evans blue dye extravasation after SAH. Furthermore, JWH133 treatment significantly increased TGF-?1 expression and prevented an SAH-induced increase in E-selectin and myeloperoxidase. Lastly, SAH resulted in a decreased expression of the tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1); however, JWH133 treatment increased the ZO-1 expression. We suggest that CB2R stimulation attenuates neurological outcome and brain edema, by suppressing leukocyte infiltration into the brain through TGF-?1 up-regulation and E-selectin reduction, resulting in protection of the BBB after SAH. PMID:24819918

Fujii, Mutsumi; Sherchan, Prativa; Krafft, Paul R; Rolland, William B; Soejima, Yoshiteru; Zhang, John H

2014-07-15

236

Arterial fenestrations and their association with cerebral aneurysms.  

PubMed

Fenestrations of intracranial arteries and associated aneurysms are rare. The significance of these fenestrations in relation to aneurysms remains unclear. We present four patients with fenestration-associated aneurysms and a comprehensive review of associations with aneurysms and other vascular lesions. A PubMed search of the literature was conducted from 1970-2012 reporting cases of intracranial aneurysms associated with arterial fenestration or duplications. Data were collected on patient presentation, sex, age, aneurysm and fenestration location, aneurysm treatment, and presence of other vascular lesions. We performed a retrospective review of four patients with intracranial fenestrations associated with aneurysms at our institution from 2012-2013. There were 59 cases of fenestrations and associated aneurysms in the literature. Aneurysms were reported as either arising from (n=50) or adjacent to but distinct from (n=13) fenestrations. The most common single fenestration location was at the basilar artery (n=23, 36.5%); however the majority of fenestrations were in the carotid circulation (n=34, 54.0%). The majority of patients with aneurysms and fenestrations at all locations except those at the anterior communicating artery (70.5%) presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Patients with aneurysms arising from a fenestration or adjacent to a fenestration presented with an additional intracranial vascular lesion in 38% and 31% of cases, respectively. The majority of all aneurysms were treated with microsurgical clipping. Aneurysms associated with cerebral arterial fenestrations are most commonly discovered after subarachnoid hemorrhage and are most often located in the carotid circulation. A high index of suspicion must be maintained for an associated vascular lesion if an intracranial fenestration is discovered. PMID:25150765

Patel, Mira A; Caplan, Justin M; Yang, Wuyang; Colby, Geoffrey P; Coon, Alexander L; Tamargo, Rafael J; Huang, Judy

2014-12-01

237

B-type natriuretic peptide release and left ventricular filling pressure assessed by echocardiographic study after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a prospective study in non-cardiac patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Serum B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is frequently elevated after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), but whether this high BNP\\u000a level is related to transient elevation of left ventricular filling pressure (LVFP) is unknown. However, in patients with\\u000a preexistent cardiac pathologies, it is impossible to differentiate between BNP elevation caused by chronic cardiac abnormalities\\u000a and BNP related to acute neurocardiac injury.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  All adult

Eric Meaudre; Christophe Jego; Nadia Kenane; Ambroise Montcriol; Henry Boret; Philippe Goutorbe; Gilbert Habib; Bruno Palmier

2009-01-01

238

Posterior spinal artery aneurysm rupture after 'Ecstasy' abuse.  

PubMed

Posterior spinal artery (PSA) aneurysms are a rare cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The commonly abused street drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or 'Ecstasy' has been linked to both systemic and neurological complications. A teenager presented with neck stiffness, headaches and nausea after ingesting 'Ecstasy'. A brain CT was negative for SAH but a CT angiogram suggested cerebral vasculitis. A lumbar puncture showed SAH but a cerebral angiogram was negative. After a spinal MR angiogram identified abnormalities on the dorsal surface of the cervical spinal cord, a spinal angiogram demonstrated a left PSA 2?mm fusiform aneurysm. The patient underwent surgery and the aneurysmal portion of the PSA was excised without postoperative neurological sequelae. 'Ecstasy' can lead to neurovascular inflammation, intracranial hemorrhage, SAH and potentially even de novo aneurysm formation and subsequent rupture. PSA aneurysms may be treated by endovascular proximal vessel occlusion or open surgical excision. PMID:24994748

Johnson, Jeremiah; Patel, Shnehal; Saraf-Lavi, Efrat; Aziz-Sultan, Mohammad Ali; Yavagal, Dileep R

2014-01-01

239

Posterior spinal artery aneurysm rupture after 'Ecstasy' abuse.  

PubMed

Posterior spinal artery (PSA) aneurysms are a rare cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The commonly abused street drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or 'Ecstasy' has been linked to both systemic and neurological complications. A teenager presented with neck stiffness, headaches and nausea after ingesting 'Ecstasy'. A brain CT was negative for SAH but a CT angiogram suggested cerebral vasculitis. A lumbar puncture showed SAH but a cerebral angiogram was negative. After a spinal MR angiogram identified abnormalities on the dorsal surface of the cervical spinal cord, a spinal angiogram demonstrated a left PSA 2?mm fusiform aneurysm. The patient underwent surgery and the aneurysmal portion of the PSA was excised without postoperative neurological sequelae. 'Ecstasy' can lead to neurovascular inflammation, intracranial hemorrhage, SAH and potentially even de novo aneurysm formation and subsequent rupture. PSA aneurysms may be treated by endovascular proximal vessel occlusion or open surgical excision. PMID:25006043

Johnson, Jeremiah; Patel, Shnehal; Saraf-Lavi, Efrat; Aziz-Sultan, Mohammad Ali; Yavagal, Dileep R

2014-07-01

240

Traumatic Aneurysm of the Callosomarginal Artery-Cortical Artery Junction from Penetrating Injury by Scissors  

PubMed Central

Traumatic intracranial aneurysms (TICAs) are rare and are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. TICAs usually result from head injuries caused by traffic accidents, industrial accidents, or gunshots. We report a traumatic aneurysm of the callosomarginal artery-cortical artery junction arising from a penetrating injury by scissors. A 51-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital after suffering a penetrating injury caused by scissors. Computed tomography (CT) and CT-angiography demonstrated a right orbital roof fracture, subarachnoid hemorrhage, frontal lobe hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, and a traumatic aneurysm of the right callosomarginal artery-cortical artery junction. We trapped the traumatic aneurysm and repositioned a galeal flap. Postoperative CT showed a small infarction in the left frontal lobe. Follow-up angiography two months later showed no residual aneurysm. We suggest that an aggressive surgical intervention be performed whenever TICA is diagnosed. PMID:25024829

Sim, Sook Young

2014-01-01

241

Nuances of middle cerebral artery aneurysm microsurgery.  

PubMed

Middle cerebral artery aneurysms, a common source of subarachnoid hemorrhage, occur predominantly at the main bifurcation of the middle cerebral artery. Microsurgical clipping is the most effective treatment of these aneurysms because of their peripheral location, wide necks, and straightforward surgical anatomy. Despite the moderate technical requirements of this type of surgery, patients with ruptured aneurysms often have poor outcomes because of the high incidence of intracerebral hematomas. Although several different surgical approaches can be used, we favor a lateral-to-medial transsylvian approach for most aneurysms. This description of our surgical technique stresses minimizing retraction to avoid injury to the brain and preparing broad-based middle cerebral artery aneurysms for clipping. Management of outcomes when using these techniques also is presented. PMID:11220377

Chyatte, D; Porterfield, R

2001-02-01

242

Trends over time in the management of 2253 patients with cerebral aneurysms: A single practice experience  

PubMed Central

Background: To better understand the longitudinal trend in the proportion of techniques employed for cerebral aneurysm treatment, we reviewed our experience with 2253 patients over the last 11 years. Methods: We reviewed data in our prospective aneurysm database for all consecutive patients treated from January 1998 through December 2009. Data regarding age, sex, aneurysm location, presence or absence of hemorrhage, Fisher grade, clinical grade, treatment methods, length of hospitalization, and mortality rates by the time of discharge were retrieved and retrospectively analyzed. The most common aneurysm types were subsequently classified and analyzed separately. Results: The patient population included 663 males (29%) and 1590 females (71%). A total of 2253 patients presented with 3413 aneurysms; 1523 (63%) of the aneurysms were diagnosed as aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A total of 2411 (71%) aneurysms were treated. Overall, 645 (27%) of the 2411 aneurysms underwent endosaccular coiling and 1766 (73%) underwent clip ligation; 69 (3%) of these aneurysms required both treatment modalities. The percentage of all aneurysms treated by endosaccular coiling increased from 8% (21) in 1998 to 28% (87) in 2009. There was no statistical difference between the average length of hospitalization for patients who underwent endosaccular coiling and clip ligation for their ruptured (P = 0.19) and unruptured (P = 0.80) aneurysms during this time period. Conclusions: In our practice, endovascular treatment has continued to be more frequently employed to treat cerebral aneurysms. This technique has had the greatest proportional increase in the treatment of posterior circulation aneurysms. PMID:21886883

Payner, Troy D.; Melamed, Itay; Ansari, Shaheryar; Leipzig, Thomas J.; Scott, John A.; DeNardo, Andrew J.; Horner, Terry G.; Redelman, Kathleen; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A.

2011-01-01

243

Aneurysm  

MedlinePLUS

... aorta is called a thoracic (tho-RAS-ik) aortic aneurysm. An aneurysm that occurs in the abdominal portion of the aorta is called an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Aneurysms also can occur in other arteries, but ...

244

Aneurysm  

MedlinePLUS

... wall of the blood vessel. See also: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Cerebral aneurysm Thoracic aortic aneurysm ... is thought to play a role in abdominal aortic aneurysms. Atherosclerotic disease (cholesterol buildup in arteries) may also ...

245

Coil embolization of ruptured frontopolar artery aneurysm: case report.  

PubMed

Distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysms are infrequent. The most common location is at the bifurcation of the pericallosal and callosomarginal arteries. Cerebral artery anomalies can sometimes, at least partially, explain aneurysm formation in less common locations in relation to hemodynamic stress caused on the vascular wall. We report a very rare case of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured frontopolar artery aneurysm as a part of an anomalous anterior cerebral artery complex that was, for the first time, treated with endovascular coiling. PMID:23731558

Castaño-Leon, Ana M; Cicuendez, Marta; Paredes, Igor; Alen, Jose F; Navia, Pedro; Lagares, Alfonso

2014-01-01

246

Predicting long-term outcome in poor grade aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage patients utilising the Glasgow Coma Scale.  

PubMed

The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is the most universally accepted system for grading level of consciousness. Predicting outcome is particularly difficult in poor grade aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) patients. We hypothesised that the GCS and individual examination components would correlate with long-term outcome and have varying prognostic value depending on assessment time points. GCS scores of 160 aSAH patients presenting in stupor or coma were prospectively recorded on admission and each subsequent day until hospital day 14. Early treatment was planned for each patient unless the patient's family refused aggressive intervention or the patient died before surgery. Outcomes were assessed by the modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 14 days, 3 months, and one year. All patients who did not receive surgical treatment died within one year. Of the 104 patients who received surgical treatment, 13.5% of them had a favourable outcome at 14 days, 38.5% at 3 months, and 51% at one year (p<0.0001). Admission GCS scores significantly correlated with outcome (Spearman rank test, rs=0.472, p<0.0001). On admission, motor examination correlated best with one-year outcome (rs=0.533, p<0.0001). Each point increase in motor examination predicted a 1.8-fold increased odds of favourable long-term outcome (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-2.3). At discharge, eye examination (rs=0.760, p<0.0001) correlated best with one-year outcome, and a one point increase in eye examination predicted a 3.1-fold increased odds of favourable outcome (95% CI, 1.8-5.4). During hospitalisation, the best eye exam (rs=0.738, p<0.0001) and worst motor exam (rs=0.612, p<0.0001) were the most highly correlated with the one-year outcome. Long-term follow-up is necessary when evaluating recovery after aSAH, as outcomes improve significantly during the first year. The GCS and its individual components correlate well with long-term outcome. Admission motor examination and spontaneous eye opening during hospitalisation are most predictive of favourable recovery. PMID:19008104

Starke, Robert M; Komotar, Ricardo J; Otten, Marc L; Schmidt, J Michael; Fernandez, Luis D; Rincon, Fred; Gordon, Errol; Badjatia, Neeraj; Mayer, Stephan A; Connolly, E Sander

2009-01-01

247

Remote cerebellar hemorrhage after unruptured cerebral aneurysm surgery: two cases report  

PubMed Central

Remote cerebellar hemorrhage (RCH) occurring distant to the site of original surgery, such as supratentorial or spinal surgery, is rare but potentially fatal. Because the pathophysiology of RCH is thought to be excessive cerebrospinal fluid drainage during the perioperative periods, its diagnosis usually depends on the occurrence of unexpected neurologic disturbances and/or postoperative brain computerized tomography imaging. Because of its rarity, RCH-associated neurologic disturbances such as delayed awakening or nausea and vomiting may often be misdiagnosed as the effects of residual anesthetics or the effect of postoperative analgesic agents unless radiologic images are taken. Treatment for RCH ranges from conservative treatment to decompressive craniectomy, with prognoses ranging from complete resolution to fatality. Here, we report two cases of RCH after surgical clipping of an unruptured cerebral aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery and review anesthetic considerations. PMID:25302099

Ha, Sang Hee; Kim, Eun Mi; Ju, Hyang Mi; Lee, Woo Kyung

2014-01-01

248

Non-invasive diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms.  

PubMed

Patients need to be examined for intracranial aneurysms if they have had a subarachnoid hemorrhage. The preferred technique in this situation is CT angiography. Screening can be done for familial forms or for elastic tissue disorders, for which the first line investigation is magnetic resonance angiography. These non-invasive methods have now taken over from conventional angiography that was reserved for the pretreatment phase. A good technical knowledge of these imaging methods, their artifacts and misleading images enables reliable detection of intracranial aneurysms and for an accurate report to be returned to clinicians. PMID:25465118

Rodriguez-Régent, C; Edjlali-Goujon, M; Trystram, D; Boulouis, G; Ben Hassen, W; Godon-Hardy, S; Nataf, F; Machet, A; Legrand, L; Ladoux, A; Mellerio, C; Souillard-Scemama, R; Oppenheim, C; Meder, J-F; Naggara, O

2014-12-01

249

Aneurysm of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery caused by a traumatic perforating artery tear-out mechanism in a child  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic posterior circulation aneurysms in the absence of fractures and penetrating wounds are extremely uncommon, especially\\u000a in children. To our knowledge this is the first traumatic posterior inferior cerebellar artery(PICA) aneurysm reported that\\u000a cannot be related to a skull fracture or a trauma caused by the edge of a rigid meningeal structure. In the present case,\\u000a the initial subarachnoid hemorrhage

U. Sure; Ralf Becker; Michael Petermeyer; Helmut Bertalanffy

1999-01-01

250

A review of the management of posterior communicating artery aneurysms in the modern era  

PubMed Central

Background: Technical advancements have significantly improved surgical and endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms. In this paper, we review the literature with regard to treatment of one of the most common intra-cranial aneurysms encountered by neurosurgeons and interventional radiologists. Conclusions: Anterior clinoidectomy, temporary clipping, adenosine-induced cardiac arrest, and intraoperative angiography are useful adjuncts during surgical clipping of these aneurysms. Coil embolization is also an effective treatment alternative particularly in the elderly population. However, coiled posterior communicating artery aneurysms have a particularly high risk of recurrence and must be followed closely. Posterior communicating artery aneurysms with an elongated fundus, true posterior communicating artery aneurysms, and aneurysms associated with a fetal posterior communicating artery may have better outcome with surgical clipping in terms of completeness of occlusion and preservation of the posterior communicating artery. However, as endovascular technology improves, endovascular treatment of posterior communicating artery aneurysms may become equivalent or preferable in the near future. One in five patients with a posterior communicating artery aneurysm present with occulomotor nerve palsy with or without subarachnoid hemorrhage. Factors associated with a higher likelihood of recovery include time to treatment, partial third nerve deficit, and presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Both surgical and endovascular therapy offer a reasonable chance of recovery. Based on level 2 evidence, clipping appears to offer a higher chance of occulomotor nerve palsy recovery; however, coiling will remain as an option particularly in elderly patients or patients with significant comorbidity. PMID:21206898

Golshani, Kiarash; Ferrell, Andrew; Zomorodi, Ali; Smith, Tony P.; Britz, Gavin W.

2010-01-01

251

Endovascular management of distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms: Report of two cases and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background: Aneurysms of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), especially those located in the distal portion of the AICA, are rare. There are few reported cases treated with surgery or endovascular embolization. Case Description: We report two cases of fusiform distal AICA aneurysms presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Parent artery occlusion with coils and n-butyl cyanoacrilate (n-BCA) resulted in complete aneurysm occlusion and prevented rebleeding. Both patients presented postprocedure neurological deficits, but have made a good recovery at 4 and 10 months, respectively. Conclusion: Occlusion of the parent artery for the treatment of ruptured fusiform distal AICA aneurysms is effective but has significant neurological risks. PMID:21748047

Santillan, Alejandro; Gobin, Y. Pierre; Patsalides, Athos; Riina, Howard A.; Rosengart, Axel; Stieg, Philip E.

2011-01-01

252

Intracerebral hemorrhage (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Intracerebral hemorrhage may be caused by trauma (brain injury) or abnormalities of the blood vessels (aneurysm or angioma). When ... commonly associated with high blood pressure (hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage).

253

International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) of neurosurgical clipping versus endovascular coiling in 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms: a randomised trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Endovascular detachable coil treatment is being increasingly used as an alternative to craniotomy and clipping for some ruptured intracranial aneurysms, although the relative benefits of these two approaches have yet to be established. We undertook a randomised, multicentre trial to compare the safety and efficacy of endovascular coiling with standard neurosurgical clipping for such aneurysms judged to be

Andrew Molyneux

2002-01-01

254

Giant intracranial aneurysms: rapid sequential computed tomography  

SciTech Connect

Giant intracranial aneurysms often present as mass lesions rather than with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Routine computed tomographic (CT) scans with contrast material will generally detect them, but erroneous diagnosis of basal meningioma is possible. Rapid sequential scanning (dynamic CT) after bolus injection of 40 ml of Renografin-76 can conclusively demonstrate an intracranial aneurysm, differentiating it from other lesions by transit-time analysis of the passage of contrast medium. In five patients, the dynamics of contrast bolus transit in aneurysms were consistently different from the dynamics in pituitary tumors, craniopharyngiomas, and meningiomas, thereby allowing a specific diagnosis. Dynamic CT was also useful after treatment of the aneurysms by carotid artery ligation and may be used as an alternative to angiographic evaluation in determining luminal patency or thrombosis.

Pinto, R.S. (New York Univ. Medical Center, New York); Cohen, W.A.; Kricheff, I.I.; Redington, R.W.; Berninger, W.H.

1982-11-01

255

Subarachnoid hemorrhage in the rat: cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism after selective lesions of the catecholamine systems in the brainstem  

SciTech Connect

A double-isotope autoradiographic technique was used to evaluate CBF and glucose metabolism 2 days after a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rats with lesions in the lower brainstem. Lesioning in the mesencephalon of the ascending catecholamine pathways from locus ceruleus and from the A1 and A2 nuclei, or lesioning in the medulla oblongata of the ascending fibers from A1 and A2, prevents the development of the global changes in flow and metabolism seen in normal animals post SAH. Also the focal low-flow areas with markedly elevated deoxyglucose uptake, which can develop in normal animals 2 days post SAH, were not seen in the lesioned animals after the SAH. The findings indicate that the A1 and A2 nuclei, which project to the hypothalamus-pituitary, are essential for the flow and metabolic changes after an SAH. The lesions per se did not change baseline flow and metabolism as compared with sham-lesioned animals.

Delgado, T.J.; Diemer, N.H.; Svendgaard, N.A.

1986-10-01

256

Upper thoracic intradural-extramedullary cavernous malformation presenting as subarachnoid hemorrhage without spinal dysfunction: a case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

A 45-year-old man had subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) which was confirmed by lumbar puncture, since it was negative on head computed tomography. The result of neurological examination was normal. Following pan-cerebral angiography and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) failed to find out the cause of bleeding. The whole spinal MRI revealed an intradural-extramedullary mass lesion at the upper thoracic level which was consistent with cavernous malformation after surgery. When patients presented with SAH of no spinal symptoms, the diagnosis of an intradural-extramedullary cavernous malformation is challenging. A whole spinal workup should be considered in a patient with spontaneous SAH when bleeding from intracranial origin is carefully excluded. PMID:24878074

Tao, Chuan-Yuan; He, Min; Zhang, Yue-Kang; You, Chao

2014-12-01

257

Recommendations for the Management of Patients With Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association  

Microsoft Academic Search

neurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has a 30- day mortality rate of 45%, with approximately half the survivors sustaining irreversible brain damage. 1 On the basis of an annual incidence of 6 per 100 000, '15 000 Americans will have an aneurysmal SAH each year. Population-based incidence rates vary considerably from 6 to 16 per 100 000, with the highest rates

Joshua B. Bederson; Issam A. Awad; David O. Wiebers; David Piepgras; E. Clarke; Thomas Brott; George Hademenos; Douglas Chyatte; Robert Rosenwasser; Cynthia Caroselli

2010-01-01

258

Gender Differences in Cerebral Aneurysm Location  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: A limited number of studies consisting predominantly of ruptured aneurysms have looked at differences in anatomical distribution of aneurysms between male and females. Unlike all other causes of stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH) occur more often in women and are thought to be a result of both hormonal influences and variation in wall shear stress. This paper retrospectively looks at a cohort of largely unruptured intracranial aneurysms to determine if there exists a gender discrepancy in the anatomic distribution of cerebral aneurysms. Methods: A retrospective review of consecutive patients with ruptured and unruptured intradural saccular cerebral aneurysms treated endovascularly was performed. Results: Six hundred eighty-two aneurysms were treated. Seventy-two percentage of the patients were women and 27% of patients presented with SAH. Among women, most aneurysms were located along the ICA (54%) while men the ACA (29%, compared to 15% in women), a discrepancy evident in both unruptured and ruptured groups. Females tended to present later in life (59 vs. 55?years), with multiple aneurysms (11 vs. 6% in men), and with SAH (28 vs. 23% in men) – the majority of these ruptured aneurysms were located at the ICA (42%), while men at the ACA (47%). Additionally, the majority (68%) of ruptured ICA aneurysms were PCOM. Conclusion: Understanding the natural history of aneurysms is imperative in treating incidentally found aneurysms. Significant differences exist between the genders in relation to aneurysm location, the most pronounced at the ICA and ACA. Previously described hormonal and hemodynamic theories behind cerebral aneurysm pathogenesis seem like plausible reasons to explain these differences. PMID:22661965

Ghods, Ali J.; Lopes, Demetrius; Chen, Michael

2012-01-01

259

Early release of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) from neurons in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in vivo and in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Translocation of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) from nucleus could trigger inflammation. Extracellular HMGB1 up-regulates inflammatory response in sepsis as a late mediator. However, little was known about its role in subarachnoid hemorrhage-inducible inflammation, especially in the early stage. This study aims to identify whether HMGB1 translocation occurred early after SAH and also to clarify the potential role of HMGB1 in brain injury following SAH. Methods Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into sham group and SAH groups at 2 h, 12 h and on day 1, day 2. SAH groups suffered experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage by injection of 0.3 ml autoblood into the pre-chiasmatic cistern. Rats injected by recombinant HMGB1(rHMGB1) solution were divided into four groups according to different time points. Cultured neurons were assigned into control group and four hemoglobin (Hb) incubated groups. Mixed glial cells were cultured and stimulated in medium from neurons incubated by Hb. HMGB1 expression is measured by western blot analysis, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Downstream nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) subunit P65 and inflammatory factor Interleukin 1? (IL-1?) were measured by western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Brain injury was evaluated by cleaved caspase-3 staining. Results Our results demonstrated HMGB1 translocation occurred as early as 2 h after experimental SAH with mRNA and protein level increased. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence results indicated cytosolic HMGB1 was mainly located in neurons while translocated HMGB1 could also be found in some microglia. After subarachnoid injection of rHMGB1, NF-?B, downstream inflammatory response and cleaved caspase-3 were up-regulated in the cortex compared to the saline control group. In-vitro, after Hb incubation, HMGB1 was also rapidly released from neurons to medium. Incubation with medium from neurons up-regulated IL-1? in mixed glial cells. This effect could be inhibited by HMGB1 specific inhibitor glycyrrhizic acid (GA) treatment. Conclusion HMGB1 was released from neurons early after SAH onset and might trigger inflammation as an upstream inflammatory mediator. Extracellular HMGB1 contributed to the brain injury after SAH. These results might have important implications during the administration of specific HMGB1 antagonists early in order to prevent or reduce inflammatory response following SAH. PMID:24924349

2014-01-01

260

Cerebral Aneurysm  

MedlinePLUS

... hospital outpatient setting. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses computer-generated radio waves and a powerful magnetic field to ... have suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage often need rehabilitative, speech, and occupational therapy to regain lost function and ...

261

Time evolution and hemodynamics of cerebral aneurysms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cerebral aneurysm rupture is a leading cause of hemorrhagic strokes. Because they are being more frequently diagnosed before rupture and the prognosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage is poor, clinicians are often required to judge which aneurysms are prone to progression and rupture. Unfortunately, the processes of aneurysm initiation, growth and rupture are not well understood. Multiple factors associated to these processes have been identified. Our goal is to investigate two of them, arterial hemodynamics (using computational fluid dynamics) and the peri-aneurysmal environment, by studying a group of growing cerebral aneurysms that are followed longitudinally in time. Six patients with unruptured untreated brain aneurysms which exhibited growth during the observation period were selected for the study. Vascular models of each aneurysm at each observation time were constructed from the corresponding computed tomography angiography (CTA) images. Subsequently, models were aligned, and geometrical differences quantified. Blood flow was modeled with the 3D unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equation for a Newtonian fluid, and wall shear stress distribution and flow patterns were calculated and visualized. Analysis of the simulations and changes in geometry revealed asymmetric growth patterns and suggests that areas subject to vigorous flows, i.e. relative high wall shear stress and concentrated streamlines patterns; correspond to regions of aneurysm growth. Furthermore, in some cases the geometrical evolution of aneurysms is clearly affected by contacts with bone structures and calcifications in the wall, and as a consequence the hemodynamics is greatly modified. Thus, in these cases the peri-aneurysmal environment must be considered when analyzing aneurysm evolution.

Sforza, Daniel M.; Putman, Christopher; Tateshima, Satoshi; Viñuela, Fernando; Cebral, Juan

2011-03-01

262

Coil Embolization in Ruptured Inferior Thyroid Artery Aneurysm with Active Bleeding  

PubMed Central

We present a unique experience of urgent parent arterial embolization for treatment of an aneurysm of the inferior thyroid artery (ITA) that bled during tracheostomy. The event happened to a 69-year-old female patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage and hospital-acquired pneumonia that required tracheostomy. Abrupt and massive bleeding developed during the procedure, and the source could not be identified. Under manual compression, angiography revealed an 8-mm aneurysm that arose from the inferior thyroid artery. The superselected parent artery of the aneurysm was successfully occluded with a single pushable coil. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:25371788

Lee, Sung Ho; Yang, Jin Seo; Cho, Yong Jun

2014-01-01

263

Aneurysms  

MedlinePLUS

... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Aneurysms Basic Facts & Information Fill a balloon too full ... of what can happen when you have an aneurysm. Medically, when an artery “balloons,” or widens, it ...

264

Risk of Hemorrhage in Combined Neuroform Stenting and Coil Embolization of Acutely Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Summary Stenting as adjuvant therapy for the coiling of acutely ruptured aneurysms remains controversial due to the necessity of anticoagulation and antiplatelet medications. We report our experience using the Neuroform stent in the management of 41 aneurysms in 40 patients over a period of three years. For aneurysms whose open surgical risk remains excessive with a morphology that would preclude complete embolization, the risks of stenting may be warranted. PMID:20557738

Jankowitz, B.; Thomas, A.J.; Vora, N.; Gupta, R.; Levy, E.; Yamamoto, J.; Kassam, A.; Gologorsky, Y.; Panapitiya, N.; Sandhu, E.; Crago, E.; Hricik, A.; Lee, K.; Gallek, M.; Jovin, T.; Horowitz, M.

2008-01-01

265

Administration of a PTEN inhibitor BPV(pic) attenuates early brain injury via modulating AMPA receptor subunits after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) inhibitor dipotassium bisperoxo(pyridine-2-carboxyl) oxovanadate (BPV(pic)) attenuates early brain injury by modulating ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxa-zolep-propionate (AMPA) receptor subunits after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A standard intravascular perforation model was used to produce the experimental SAH in Sprague-Dawley rats. BPV(pic) treatment (0.2mg/kg) was evaluated for effects on neurological score, brain water content, Evans blue extravasation, hippocampal neuronal death and AMPA receptor subunits alterations after SAH. We found that BPV(pic) is effective in attenuating BBB disruption, lowering edema, reducing hippocampal neural death and improving neurological outcomes. In addition, the AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 protein expression at cytomembrane was downregulated, whereas the expression of GluR2 and GluR3 was upregulated after BPV(pic) treatment. Our results suggest that PTEN inhibited by BPV(pic) plays a neuroprotective role in SAH pathophysiology, possibly by alterations in glutamate AMPA receptor subunits. PMID:25575796

Chen, Yujie; Luo, Chunxia; Zhao, Mingyue; Li, Qiang; Hu, Rong; Zhang, John H; Liu, Zhi; Feng, Hua

2015-02-19

266

Cannabinoid receptor type 2 agonist attenuates apoptosis by activation of phosphorylated CREB-Bcl-2 pathway after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.  

PubMed

Early brain injury (EBI) which comprises of vasogenic edema and apoptotic cell death is an important component of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) pathophysiology. This study evaluated whether cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) agonist, JWH133, attenuates EBI after SAH and whether CB2R stimulation reduces pro-apoptotic caspase-3 via up-regulation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-Bcl-2 signaling pathway. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=123) were subjected to SAH by endovascular perforation. Rats received vehicle or JWH133 at 1h after SAH. Neurological deficits and brain water content were evaluated at 24h after SAH. Western blot was performed to quantify phosphorylated CREB (pCREB), Bcl-2, and cleaved caspase-3 levels. Neuronal cell death was evaluated with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine 5'-triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling staining. Additionally, CREB siRNA was administered to manipulate the proposed pathway. JWH133 (1.0mg/kg) improved neurological deficits and reduced brain water content in left hemisphere 24h after SAH. JWH133 significantly increased activated CREB (pCREB) and Bcl-2 levels and significantly decreased cleaved caspase-3 levels in left hemisphere 24h after SAH. CREB siRNA reversed the effects of treatment. TUNEL positive neurons in the cortex were reduced with JWH133 treatment. Thus, CB2R stimulation attenuated EBI after SAH possibly through activation of pCREB-Bcl-2 pathway. PMID:25058046

Fujii, Mutsumi; Sherchan, Prativa; Soejima, Yoshiteru; Hasegawa, Yu; Flores, Jerry; Doycheva, Desislava; Zhang, John H

2014-11-01

267

Attenuation of early brain injury and learning deficits following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to Cystatin C: possible involvement of the autophagy pathway.  

PubMed

Cystatin C (CysC) is a cysteine protease inhibitor and previous studies have demonstrated that increasing endogenous CysC expression has therapeutic implications on brain ischemia, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders. Our previous reports have demonstrated that the autophagy pathway was activated in the brain after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and it may play a beneficial role in early brain injury (EBI). This study investigated the effects of exogenous CysC on EBI, cognitive dysfunction, and the autophagy pathway following experimental SAH. All SAH animals were subjected to injections of 0.3 ml fresh arterial, nonheparinized blood into the prechiasmatic cistern in 20 s. As a result, treatment with CysC with low and medial concentrations significantly ameliorated the degree of EBI when compared with vehicle-treated SAH rats. Microtubule-associated protein light chain-3 (LC3), a biomarker of autophagosomes, and beclin-1, a Bcl-2-interacting protein required for autophagy, were significantly increased in the cortex 48 h after SAH and were further up-regulated after CysC therapy. By ultrastructural observation, there was a marked increase in autophagosomes and autolysosomes in neurons of CysC-treated rats. Learning deficits induced by SAH were markedly alleviated after CysC treatment with medial doses. In conclusion, pre-SAH CysC administration may attenuate EBI and neurobehavioral dysfunction in this SAH model, possibly through activating autophagy pathway. PMID:24203677

Liu, Yizhi; Li, Jianke; Wang, Zhong; Yu, Zhengquan; Chen, Gang

2014-04-01

268

Baincalein alleviates early brain injury after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats: Possible involvement of TLR4/NF-?B-mediated inflammatory pathway.  

PubMed

Early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) largely contributes to unfavorable outcomes. Hence, effective therapeutic strategies targeting on EBI have recently become a major goal in the treatment of SAH patients. Baicalein is a flavonoid that has been shown to offer neuroprotection in kinds of brain injury models. This study investigated the effects of baicalein on EBI in rats following SAH. SAH was inducted in male Sprauge-Dawley rats by injection of fresh non-heparinized arterial blood into the prechiasmatic cistern. Baicalein (30 or 100mg/kg) or vehicle were administrated 30min after injury. Neurological deficit, brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and neural cell apoptosis were assessed. To explore the further mechanisms, the change of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) signaling pathway and the levels of apoptosis associated proteins were also examined. Our study showed that treatment with baicalein (30mg/kg) significantly improved neurological function at 24h after SAH and reduced brain edema at both 24h and 72h after SAH. Baicalein also significantly reduced neural cell death, BBB permeability. These changes were associated with the remarkable reductions of TLR4 expression, I?B-? degradation, NF-?B translocation to nucleus, as well as the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-9, tight junctions protein, interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor- ?. These findings suggest that baicalein may ameliorate EBI after SAH potentially via inhibition of inflammation-related pathway. PMID:25451085

Wang, Chun-Xi; Xie, Guang-Bin; Zhou, Chen-Hui; Zhang, Xiang-Sheng; Li, Tao; Xu, Jian-Guo; Li, Ning; Ding, Ke; Hang, Chun-Hua; Shi, Ji-Xin; Zhou, Meng-Liang

2015-01-12

269

Use of the Sundt Clip Graft in a Previously Coiled Internal Carotid Artery Blister-Like Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Owing to the focal wall defect covered with thin fibrous tissues, an aneurysm arising from the dorsal wall of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is difficult to manage either surgically or endovascularly and is often associated with high morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, the definitive treatment modality of such highly risky aneurysm has not yet been demonstrated. Upon encountering the complex intracranial pathophysiology of such a highly precarious aneurysm, a neurosurgeon would be faced with a challenge to decide on an optimal approach. This is a case of multiple paraclinoid aneurysms including the ICA dorsal wall aneurysm, presented with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. With respect to treatment, direct clipping with a Sundt graft clip was performed after multiple endovascular interventions had failed. This surgical approach can be a treatment modality for a blood blister-like aneurysm after failed endovascular intervention(s).

Cho, Jae Ik

2014-01-01

270

Critical role of TNF-? in cerebral aneurysm formation and progression to rupture  

PubMed Central

Background Alterations in TNF-? expression have been associated with cerebral aneurysms, but a direct role in formation, progression, and rupture has not been established. Methods Cerebral aneurysms were induced through hypertension and a single stereotactic injection of elastase into the basal cistern in mice. To test the role of TNF-? in aneurysm formation, aneurysms were induced in TNF-? knockout mice and mice pretreated with the synthesized TNF-? inhibitor 3,6?dithiothalidomide (DTH). To assess the role of TNF-? in aneurysm progression and rupture, DTH was started 6 days after aneurysm induction. TNF-? expression was assessed through real-time PCR and immunofluorescence staining. Results TNF-? knockout mice and those pre-treated with DTH had significantly decreased incidence of aneurysm formation and rupture as compared to sham mice. As compared with sham mice, TNF-? protein and mRNA expression was not significantly different in TNF-? knockout mice or those pre-treated with DTH, but was elevated in unruptured and furthermore in ruptured aneurysms. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) occurred between 7 and 21 days following aneurysm induction. To ensure aneurysm formation preceded rupture, additional mice underwent induction and sacrifice after 7 days. Seventy-five percent had aneurysm formation without evidence of SAH. Initiation of DTH treatment 6 days after aneurysm induction did not alter the incidence of aneurysm formation, but resulted in aneurysmal stabilization and a significant decrease in rupture. Conclusions These data suggest a critical role of TNF-? in the formation and rupture of aneurysms in a model of cerebral aneurysm formation. Inhibitors of TNF-? could be beneficial in preventing aneurysmal progression and rupture. PMID:24739142

2014-01-01

271

Endovascular cerebral aneurysm treatment : one year radiological and 4-year clinical outcomes.  

E-print Network

??Endovascula treatment has established itself as the treatment of choice for intracranial "berry" aneurysms. This was established by thr International Subarachnoid aneurysm Trial (6). Subsequenctly… (more)

Le Feuvre, David Edmond John

2008-01-01

272

Ginsenoside Rbeta1 reduces neurologic damage, is anti-apoptotic, and down-regulates p53 and BAX in subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide and the number one cause of adult disability in the United States and Europe. A subtype of stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), accounts for 7% of all strokes each year and claims one of the highest mortalities and morbidities. Many therapeutic interventions have been used to treat brain injury following SAH but none have reached the level of effectiveness needed to clinically reduce mortality. Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1), a major component of the Chinese traditional medicine Panax Ginseng, has been shown to reduce ischemic brain injury and myocardial injury via anti-apoptotic pathways. In the present study, we investigated the use of GRb1 on SAH induced brain injury in rats. Four groups were used: sham, vehicle (SAH), low dose treatment (SAH+ 5mg/kg GRb1), and high dose treatment (SAH+ 20mg/kg GRb1). Post assessment included wall thickness and mean cross-section area of basilar artery were measured for evaluating cerebral vasospasm, Evans blue extravasations to assess blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability, immunohistochemistry and Western Blot analysis looking for specific pro-apoptotic markers, and tunnel staining for cell death assessment. In addition, mortality, neurological function and brain edema were investigated. The results showed that high dose GRb1 treatment significantly enlarged mean cross-sectional area and decreased wall thickness of basilar artery, reduced neurological deficits, brain edema, BBB disruption, and TUNEL positive cell expression. Same time, we found that the proteins expression of P53, Bax and Caspase-3 were significantly reduced, whereas the expression of bcl-2 was up-regulated in Rb1 treatment. The results of this study suggest that GRb1 could relieve cerebral vasospasm and potentially provide neuroprotection in SAH victims. The underlying mechanisms may be partly related to inhibition of P53 and Bax dependent proapoptosis pathway. More studies will be needed to confirm these results and determine its potential as a long term agent. PMID:20353383

Li, Yingbo; Tang, Jiping; Khatibi, Nikan H; Zhu, Mei; Chen, Di; Zheng, Weiping; Wang, Shali

2010-05-01

273

Possible Role of Raf-1 Kinase in the Development of Cerebral Vasospasm and Early Brain Injury After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats.  

PubMed

This study aims to clarify the potential role of Raf-1 kinase in cerebral vasospasm (CVS) and early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Two experimental SAH models in rats, including cisterna magna double injection model for CVS study and prechiasmatic cistern single injection model for EBI study, were performed in this research. As a specific inhibitor of Raf-1, BAY 43-9006 was used in this study. In CVS study, time course study showed that the basilar artery exhibited vasospasm after SAH and became most severe at day 5, and the phosphorylation of Raf-1 had the same trends, while both vasospasm and the phosphorylation of Raf-1 induced by SAH were inhibited by BAY 43-9006 treatment. In addition, BAY 43-9006 treatment significantly reversed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and the activation of NF-?B induced by SAH and decreased the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of IL-6 and IL-1?. In EBI study, BAY 43-9006 treatment significantly suppressed the brain injury induced by SAH. Besides, BAY 43-9006 inhibited the phosphorylation of Raf-1 and ERK1/2; decreased the protein levels of COX-2, VEGF, and MMP-9; and reversed the activation of NF-?B induced by SAH. These results demonstrate that Raf-1 kinase contributes to CVS and EBI after SAH by enhancing the activation of the Raf-1/ERK1/2 and Raf-1/NF-?B signaling pathways, and that the inhibition of these pathways might offer new treatment strategies for CVS and EBI. PMID:25367879

Zhang, Jian; Xu, Xiang; Zhou, Dai; Li, Haiying; You, Wanchun; Wang, Zhong; Chen, Gang

2014-11-01

274

Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist PNU-282987 attenuates early brain injury in a perforation model of subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Early brain injury is an important pathological process following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The goal of this study was to evaluate whether the Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (?7nAChR) agonist PNU-282987 attenuates early brain injury after SAH and whether ?7nAChR stimulation is associated with down regulation of caspase activity via PI3K-Akt signaling. Methods The perforation model of SAH was performed and neurological score, body-weight loss and brain water content were evaluated 24 and 72 hours after surgery. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were used for quantification and localization of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and Cleaved Caspase-3 (CC3). Neuronal cell death was quantified with TUNEL staining. ?7nAChR antagonist Methylcaconitine and PI3K inhibitor Wortmannin were used to manipulate the proposed pathway and results were quantified with western blot. Results PNU-282987 improved neurological deficits both 24 and 72 hours after surgery and reduced brain water content in left hemispheres 24 hours after surgery. PNU-282987 significantly increased p-Akt levels and significantly decreased CC3 levels in ipsilateral hemispheres after SAH. Methylcaconitine and Wortmannin reversed effects of treatment. P-Akt and CC3 were co-localized to neurons in the ipsilateral basal cortex. P-Akt was mainly localized in TUNEL negative cells. PNU-282987 significantly reduced neuronal cell death in ipsilateral basal cortex. Conclusion ?7nAChR stimulation decreased neuronal cell death, brain edema and improved neurological status in a rat perforation model of SAH. ?7nAChR stimulation is associated with increasing phosphorylation of Akt and decreasing cleaved caspase-3 levels in neurons. PMID:21960575

Duris, Kamil; Manaenko, Anatol; Suzuki, Hidenori; Rolland, William B.; Krafft, Paul R.; Zhang, John H.

2011-01-01

275

Alteration of Basilar Artery Rho-Kinase and Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase Protein Expression in a Rat Model of Cerebral Vasospasm following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose. The vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Previous results showed that CGS 26303, an endothelin converting enzyme (ECE) inhibitor, effectively prevented and reversed arterial narrowing in animal models of SAH. In the present study, we assessed the effect of CGS 26303 on neurological deficits in SAH rats. The involvement of vasoactive pathways downstream of ET-1 signaling in SAH was also investigated. Methods. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups (n = 6/group): (1) normal control, (2) SAH, (3) SAH+vehicle, (4) SAH+CGS 26303 (prevention), and (5) SAH+CGS 26303 (reversal). SAH was induced by injecting autologous blood into cisterna magna. CGS 26303 (10?mg/kg) was injected intravenously at 1 and 24?hr after the initiation of SAH in the prevention and reversal protocols, respectively. Behavioral changes were assessed at 48?hr after SAH. Protein expression was analyzed by Western blots. Results. Deficits in motor function were obvious in the SAH rats, and CGS 26303 significantly improved the rate of paraplegia. Expressions of rho-kinase-II and membrane-bound protein kinase C-? and rhoA were significantly increased, while those of soluble guanylyl cyclase ?1 and ?1 as well as protein kinase G were significantly decreased in the basilar artery of SAH rats. Treatment with CGS 26303 nearly normalized these effects. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that the rhoA/rho-kinase and sGC/cGMP/PKG pathways play pivotal roles in cerebral vasospasm after SAH. It also shows that ECE inhibition is an effective strategy for the treatment of this disease. PMID:24982890

Wang, Chih-Jen; Lee, Pei-Yu; Wu, Bin-Nan; Wu, Shu-Chuan; Loh, Joon-Khim; Tsai, Hung-Pei; Kassell, Neal F.; Kwan, Aij-Lie

2014-01-01

276

Tert-Butylhydroquinone Alleviates Early Brain Injury and Cognitive Dysfunction after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Role of Keap1/Nrf2/ARE Pathway  

PubMed Central

Tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), an Nrf2 activator, has demonstrated neuroprotection against brain trauma and ischemic stroke in vivo. However, little work has been done with respect to its effect on early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). At the same time, as an oral medication, it may have extensive clinical applications for the treatment of SAH-induced cognitive dysfunction. This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of tBHQ on EBI, secondary deficits of learning and memory, and the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway in a rat SAH model. SD rats were divided into four groups: (1) Control group (n?=?40); (2) SAH group (n?=?40); (3) SAH+vehicle group (n?=?40); and (4) SAH+tBHQ group (n?=?40). All SAH animals were subjected to injection of autologous blood into the prechiasmatic cistern once in 20 s. In SAH+tBHQ group, tBHQ was administered via oral gavage at a dose of 12.5 mg/kg at 2 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 36 h after SAH. In the first set of experiments, brain samples were extracted and evaluated 48 h after SAH. In the second set of experiments, changes in cognition and memory were investigated in a Morris water maze. Results shows that administration of tBHQ after SAH significantly ameliorated EBI-related problems, such as brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment, clinical behavior deficits, cortical apoptosis, and neurodegeneration. Learning deficits induced by SAH was markedly alleviated after tBHQ therapy. Treatment with tBHQ markedly up-regulated the expression of Keap1, Nrf2, HO-1, NQO1, and GST?1 after SAH. In conclusion, the administration of tBHQ abated the development of EBI and cognitive dysfunction in this SAH model. Its action was probably mediated by activation of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. PMID:24848277

Wu, Lingyun; Qiu, Jiaoxue; Li, Qi; Shao, Zhong; Chen, Gang

2014-01-01

277

Achieved serum magnesium concentrations and occurrence of delayed cerebral ischaemia and poor outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background Magnesium therapy probably reduces the frequency of delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI) in subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) but uncertainty remains about the optimal serum magnesium concentration. We assessed the relationship between serum magnesium concentrations achieved with magnesium sulphate therapy 64?mmol/day and the occurrence of DCI and poor outcome in patients with SAH. Methods Differences in magnesium concentrations between patients with and without DCI and with and without poor outcome were calculated. Quartiles of last serum magnesium concentrations before the onset of DCI, or before the median day of DCI in patients without DCI, were related to the occurrence of DCI and poor outcome at 3?months using logistic regression. Results Compared with the lowest quartile of serum magnesium concentration (1.10–1.28?mmol/l), the risk of DCI was decreased in each of the higher three quartiles (adjusted odds ratio (OR) in each quartile 0.2; lower 95% CI 0.0 to 0.1; upper limit 0.8 to 0.9). The OR for poor outcome was 1.8 (95% CI 0.5 to 6.9) in the second quartile, 1.0 (95% CI 0.2 to 4.5) in the third quartile and 4.9 (95% CI 1.2 to 19.7) in the highest quartile. Discussion Magnesium sulphate 64?mmol/day results in a stable risk reduction of DCI over a broad range of achieved serum magnesium concentrations, and strict titration of the dosage therefore does not seem necessary. However, concentrations ?1.28?mmol/l could decrease the effect on DCI while concentrations ?1.62 might have a negative effect on clinical outcome. PMID:17135457

Mees, Sanne M Dorhout; van den Bergh, Walter M; Algra, Ale; Rinkel, Gabriel J E

2007-01-01

278

Ruptured aneurysm of the PICA communicating artery: a case report.  

PubMed

A 47-year-old man presented with a rare aneurysm arising from the posterior inferior cerebellar artery communicating artery (PICA com A), manifesting as subarachnoid with intraventricular hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography showed a defect of the left PICA, and the left PICA region was supplied by a communicating artery formed by the fusion of branches from the right PICA and right vertebral artery. Aneurysms arose in the communicating artery, and a small, unruptured fusiform aneurysm was observed adjacent to a ruptured aneurysm. Trapping was performed for the 2 aneurysms with occipital artery (OA)-PICA bypass. Six cases of aneurysms occurring in this vessel including ours have been reported, and hemodynamic factors and congenital fragility of the arterial wall have been suggested as causative factors. Ours is the first case in which a ruptured aneurysm of this vessel was treated surgically with concurrent vascular reconstruction. If the aneurysm has a shape that is difficult to clip, the affected vessel is difficult to preserve, and collateral blood flow to the affected PICA region is considered insufficient, trapping with OA-PICA bypass is recommended. PMID:24119627

Haga, Daisuke; Kuroki, Takao; Andoh, Shunpei; Nemoto, Masaaki; Sugo, Nobuo; Nagao, Takeki

2014-01-01

279

Intracranial Aneurysms: Review of Current Treatment Options and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Intracranial aneurysms are present in roughly 5% of the population, yet most are often asymptomatic and never detected. Development of an aneurysm typically occurs during adulthood, while formation and growth are associated with risk factors such as age, hypertension, pre-existing familial conditions, and smoking. Subarachnoid hemorrhage, the most common presentation due to aneurysm rupture, represents a serious medical condition often leading to severe neurological deficit or death. Recent technological advances in imaging modalities, along with increased understanding of natural history and prevalence of aneurysms, have increased detection of asymptomatic unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA). Studies reporting on the risk of rupture and outcomes have provided much insight, but the debate remains of how and when unruptured aneurysms should be managed. Treatment methods include two major intervention options: clipping of the aneurysm and endovascular methods such as coiling, stent-assisted coiling, and flow diversion stents. The studies reviewed here support the generalized notion that endovascular treatment of UIA provides a safe and effective alternative to surgical treatment. The risks associated with endovascular repair are lower and incur shorter hospital stays for appropriately selected patients. The endovascular treatment option should be considered based on factors such as aneurysm size, location, patient medical history, and operator experience. PMID:21779274

Seibert, Brad; Tummala, Ramachandra P.; Chow, Ricky; Faridar, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed A.; Divani, Afshin A.

2011-01-01

280

[Gastrointestinal hemorrhage after operation for dissecting aneurysm of the thoracic aorta].  

PubMed

We present the case of a 45-year-old man who underwent surgical repair of a dissecting aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta. 25 days postoperatively, the patient unexpectedly developed hematemesis and hypovolemic shock. Emergency gastroscopy was performed and a suspected aortoesophageal fistula was diagnosed. Unfortunately, the patient died prior to emergency surgery. Aneurysms of the aorta or of aortic grafts occasionally lead to the development of fistulae to the upper gastrointestinal tract. Once this rare, but life-threatening complication is suspected, endoscopy must be performed immediately. Emergency surgery is associated with a high risk, but represents the only possibly chance of survival for the patient. PMID:9553205

Kirchgatterer, A; Punzengruber, C; Zisch, R; Balon, R; Knoflach, P

1998-02-13

281

Endovascular Treatment of an Adolescent Patient with a Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm – Case Report and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The occurence of aneurysms in young patients, under 18 years of age, is estimated at 0.5–2% of all diagnosed aneurysms. Case Report We reported on a case of a 16-year-old patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage diagnosed due to a ruptured cerebral vessel aneurysm. The angio-CT revealed an aneurysm of the middle cerebral artery, in its distal branch. An ad hoc coil embolization was performed with angiographic success. After 6 months following the ictus, the patient underwent a control angiography which confirmed total occlusion of the aneurysm with no residual inflow. Clinical examination revealed no neurological deficits and the patient was rated 0 in mRS (modified Rankin Scale). Conclusions In experienced departments of interventional neuroradiology the endovascular treatment should be the treatment of choice. PMID:25574249

Juszkat, Robert; Jo?czyk-Potoczna, Katarzyna; Stanis?awska, Katarzyna; Bartkowska-?niatkowska, Alicja; Rosada-Kurasi?ska, Jowita; Liebert, W?odziemierz; Moskal, Jakub

2015-01-01

282

Isolated, Contralateral Trochlear Nerve Palsy Associated with a Ruptured Right Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Trochlear nerve palsy associated with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is known to be a rare malady. We report here on a patient who suffered with left trochlear nerve palsy following rupture of a right posterior communicating artery aneurysm. A 56-year-woman visited our emergency department with stuporous mental change. Her Hunt-and-Hess grade was 3 and the Fisher grade was 4. Cerebral angiography revealed a ruptured aneurysm of the right posterior communicating artery. The aneurysm was clipped via a right pterional approach on the day of admission. The patient complained of diplopia when she gazed to the left side, and the ophthalmologist found limited left inferolateral side gazing due to left superior oblique muscle palsy on day 3. Elevated intracranial pressure, intraventricular hemorrhage or a dense clot in the basal cisterns might have caused this trochlear nerve palsy. PMID:20539802

Son, Seong; Yoo, Chan Jong; Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Jae Myoung

2010-01-01

283

Fatal traumatic aneurysm of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery with delayed rupture.  

PubMed

Traumatic aneurysms of intracranial arteries are rare, forming less than 1% of all intracranial arteries. They may be associated with penetrating and non-penetrating trauma. Most cases are associated with fracturing of the skull. Rupture of traumatic aneurysms occur in up to 50% of cases and are typically delayed from days to weeks following the initiating trauma. We report a case of a 22-year-old man who was punched to the head. He was rendered unconscious but recovered and had a GCS of 14 on admission. CT scans showed subarachnoid hemorrhage. An initial angiogram was negative but on day 7 following the incident he was noted to have a 1mm aneurysm of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery on CT angiogram. On day 9 he collapsed and was found to have new subarachnoid hemorrhage and to have a 4.0mm×3.7mm. He did not recover and was declared brain dead on day 12. At autopsy, there was a 4.0mm aneurysm of the left PICA just after the origin of the artery. Histological examination confirmed the presence of a traumatic false aneurysm in the left PICA. This case study shows sequential radiological imaging with pathologiocal correlation. PMID:25549847

Purgina, Bibianna; Milroy, Christopher Mark

2015-02-01

284

International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) of Neurosurgical Clipping Versus Endovascular Coiling in 2143 Patients With Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms: A Randomised Comparison of Effects on Survival, Dependency, Seizures, Rebleeding, Subgroups, and Aneurysm Occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Two types of treatment are being used for patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms: endovascular detachable-coil treatment or craniotomy and clipping. We undertook a randomised, multicentre trial to compare these treatments in patients who were suitable for either treatment because the relative safety and efficacy of these approaches had not been established. Here we present clinical outcomes 1 year

A. J. Molyneux; R. S. C. Kerr; L.-Y. Yu

2005-01-01

285

Controversies in the Anesthetic Management of Intraoperative Rupture of Intracranial Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Despite great advancements in the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), outcomes following SAH rupture have remained relatively unchanged. In addition, little data exists to guide the anesthetic management of intraoperative aneurysm rupture (IAR), though intraoperative management may have a significant effect on overall neurological outcomes. This review highlights the various controversies related to different anesthetic management related to aneurysm rupture. The first controversy relates to management of preexisting factors that affect risk of IAR. The second controversy relates to diagnostic techniques, particularly neurophysiological monitoring. The third controversy pertains to hemodynamic goals. The neuroprotective effects of various factors, including hypothermia, various anesthetic/pharmacologic agents, and burst suppression, remain poorly understood and have yet to be further elucidated. Different management strategies for IAR during aneurysmal clipping versus coiling also need further attention. PMID:24723946

Petropolis, Andrea; Wilkinson, Marshall; Sandu, Nora; Cappellani, Ronald B.

2014-01-01

286

Moyamoya disease associated with asymptomatic mosaic Turner syndrome: a rare cause of hemorrhagic stroke.  

PubMed

Moyamoya disease is a rare cerebrovascular anomaly involving the intracranial carotid arteries that can present clinically with either ischemic or hemorrhagic disease. Moyamoya syndrome, indistinguishable from moyamoya disease at presentation, is associated with multiple clinical conditions including neurofibromatosis type 1, autoimmune disease, prior radiation therapy, Down syndrome, and Turner syndrome. We present the first reported case of an adult patient with previously unrecognized mosaic Turner syndrome with acute subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage as the initial manifestation of moyamoya syndrome. A 52-year-old woman was admitted with a subarachnoid hemorrhage with associated flame-shaped intracerebral hemorrhage in the left frontal lobe. Physical examination revealed short stature, pectus excavatum, small fingers, micrognathia, and mild facial dysmorphism. Cerebral angiography showed features consistent with bilateral moyamoya disease, aberrant intrathoracic vessels, and an unruptured 4-mm right superior hypophyseal aneurysm. Genetic analysis confirmed a diagnosis of mosaic Turner syndrome. Our case report is the first documented presentation of adult moyamoya syndrome with subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage as the initial presentation of mosaic Turner syndrome. It illustrates the utility of genetic evaluation in patients with cerebrovascular disease and dysmorphism. PMID:24103673

Manjila, Sunil; Miller, Benjamin R; Rao-Frisch, Anitha; Otvos, Balint; Mitchell, Anna; Bambakidis, Nicholas C; De Georgia, Michael A

2014-01-01

287

Perianeurysmal edema as a predictive sign of aneurysmal rupture.  

PubMed

Subarachnoid hemorrhage following intracranial aneurysmal rupture is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Several factors may affect the probability of rupture, such as tobacco and alcohol use; size, shape, and location of the aneurysm; presence of intraluminal thrombus; and even the sex of the patient. However, few data correlate such findings with the timing of aneurysmal rupture. The authors report 2 cases of middle-age women with headache and MRI findings of incidental aneurysms. Magnetic resonance imaging showed evidence of surrounding parenchymal edema, and in one case there was a clear increase in edema during follow-up, suggesting a progressive inflammatory process that culminated with rupture. These findings raise the possibility that bleb formation and an enlargement of a cerebral aneurysm might be associated with an inflammatory reaction of the aneurysm wall resulting in perianeurysmal edema and subsequent aneurysmal rupture. There may be a temporal link between higher degree of edema and higher risk for rupture, including risk for immediate rupture. PMID:25036206

Pahl, Felix Hendrik; de Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes; Ferreira, Nelson Paes Fortes Diniz; de Macedo, Leonardo Lopes; Brock, Roger Schmidt; de Souza, Valéria Cardoso

2014-11-01

288

Endovascular Treatment for Ruptured Distal Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

A 42-year-old woman presented with Hunt and Hess grade (HHG) III subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by a ruptured left distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) aneurysm. Computed tomography showed a thin SAH on the cerebellopontine angle cistern, and small vermian intracerebral hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage in the fourth ventricle. Digital subtraction angiography revealed the aneurysm on the postmeatal segment of left distal AICA, a branching point of rostrolateral and caudomedial branch of the left distal AICA. Despite thin caliber, tortuous running course and far distal location, the AICA aneurysm was obliterated successfully with endovascular coils without compromising AICA flow. However, the patient developed left side sensorineural hearing loss postoperatively, in spite of definite patency of distal AICA on the final angiogram. She was discharged home without neurologic sequela except hearing loss and tinnitus. Endovascular treatment of distal AICA aneurysm, beyond the meatal loop, is feasible while preserving the AICA flow. However, because the cochlear hair cell is vulnerable to ischemia, unilateral hearing loss can occur, possibly caused by the temporary occlusion of AICA flow by microcatheter during endovascular treatment. PMID:24765609

Oh, Jae-Sang; Shim, Jai-Joon; Bae, Hack-Gun; Yoon, Il-Gyu

2014-01-01

289

Superficial Siderosis of the Central Nervous System Induced by a Single-Episode of Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Study Using MRI-Enhanced Gradient Echo T2 Star-Weighted Angiography  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine whether a single episode of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) could cause superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (SS-CNS).This study was approved by the local ethics committee. Thirty-two patients with a history of a single episode of tSAH were enrolled in the study. An episode of tSAH was confirmed in patients based on a CT scan or a lumbar puncture, and a follow-up examination was conducted at least six weeks after the brain trauma. A follow-up MRI examination was performed, using enhanced gradient echo T2 star-weighted angiography (ESWAN) to detect hemosiderin deposition on the cortical surface. The extent to which hemosiderin deposition was associated with several clinical factors was investigated. Various degrees of hemosiderin deposition were detected in 31 of 32 (96.9%) single-episode tSAH patients. Analysis of contingency tables revealed an association between the regions of subarachnoid bleeding based on CT images and the regions of hemosiderin deposition based on ESWAN images (?2 = 17.73, P<0.05). SS-CNS was determined to be a common consequence after a single episode of tSAH. The extent of hemosiderin deposition is closely correlated with the initial bleeding sites and bleeding volume. PMID:25647424

Zhao, Hongwei; Wang, Jin; Lu, Zhonglie; Wu, Qingjie; Lv, Haijuan; Liu, Hu; Gong, Xiangyang

2015-01-01

290

Superficial Siderosis of the Central Nervous System Induced by a Single-Episode of Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Study Using MRI-Enhanced Gradient Echo T2 Star-Weighted Angiography.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine whether a single episode of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) could cause superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (SS-CNS).This study was approved by the local ethics committee. Thirty-two patients with a history of a single episode of tSAH were enrolled in the study. An episode of tSAH was confirmed in patients based on a CT scan or a lumbar puncture, and a follow-up examination was conducted at least six weeks after the brain trauma. A follow-up MRI examination was performed, using enhanced gradient echo T2 star-weighted angiography (ESWAN) to detect hemosiderin deposition on the cortical surface. The extent to which hemosiderin deposition was associated with several clinical factors was investigated. Various degrees of hemosiderin deposition were detected in 31 of 32 (96.9%) single-episode tSAH patients. Analysis of contingency tables revealed an association between the regions of subarachnoid bleeding based on CT images and the regions of hemosiderin deposition based on ESWAN images (?2 = 17.73, P<0.05). SS-CNS was determined to be a common consequence after a single episode of tSAH. The extent of hemosiderin deposition is closely correlated with the initial bleeding sites and bleeding volume. PMID:25647424

Zhao, Hongwei; Wang, Jin; Lu, Zhonglie; Wu, Qingjie; Lv, Haijuan; Liu, Hu; Gong, Xiangyang

2015-01-01

291

Extracranial aneurysm of the distal PICA presenting as isolated fourth ventricular hemorrhage: case report and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms are relatively uncommon, comprising only 0.5–3% of all intracranial\\u000a aneurysms. Distal PICA aneurysms are much more uncommon, with more than 200 cases being reported in the literature. The finding\\u000a of an extracranially located aneurysm of distal PICA is considered a true rarity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and discussion   A rare case of extracranially located PICA aneurysm presenting

Mohamad Shirani; Ali Abdoli; Maysam Alimohamadi; Mehdi Ketabchi

2010-01-01

292

Simultaneous Endovascular Treatment of Ruptured Cerebral Aneurysms and Vasospasm  

PubMed Central

Objective The management of patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysms and severe vasospasm is subject to considerable controversy. We intended to describe herein an endovascular technique for the simultaneous treatment of aneurysms and vasospasm. Materials and Methods A series of 11 patients undergoing simultaneous endovascular treatment of ruptured aneurysms and vasospasm were reviewed. After placement of a guiding catheter within the proximal internal carotid artery for coil embolization, an infusion line of nimodipine was wired to one hub, and of a microcatheter was advanced through another hub (to select and deliver detachable coils). Nimodipine was then infused continuously during the coil embolization. Results This technique was applied to 11 ruptured aneurysms accompanied by vasospasm (anterior communicating artery, 6 patients; internal carotid artery, 2 patients; posterior communicating and middle cerebral arteries, 1 patient each). Aneurysmal occlusion by coils and nimodipine-induced angioplasty were simultaneously achieved, resulting in excellent outcomes for all patients, and there were no procedure-related complications. Eight patients required repeated nimodipine infusions. Conclusion Our small series of patients suggests that the simultaneous endovascular management of ruptured cerebral aneurysms and vasospasm is a viable approach in patients presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage and severe vasospasm.

Cho, Young Dae; Ahn, Jun Hyong; Jung, Seung Chai; Kim, Chang Hun; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Jeong Eun; Lim, Jeong Wook

2015-01-01

293

Recanalization of a ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm after occlusion of the dilated segment only  

PubMed Central

Background: Internal trapping in which the dissecting aneurysm is occluded represents reliable treatment to prevent rebleeding of ruptured vertebral artery (VA) dissecting aneurysms. Various methods of internal trapping are available, but which is most appropriate for preventing both recanalization of the VA and procedural complications is unclear. Case Description: A 61-year-old male presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by rupture of a left VA dissecting aneurysm. Only the dilated segment of the aneurysm was occluded by coil embolization. Sixteen days after embolization, angiography showed recanalization of the treated left VA with blood supplying the dilated segment of the aneurysm, which showed morphological change between just proximal to the coil mesh and just distal to a coil, and antegrade blood flow through this part. Pathological examination showed that the rupture site that had appeared to be the most dilated area on angiography was located just above the orifice of the entrance. However, we think that this case of ruptured aneurysm had an entrance into a pseudolumen that existed proximal to the dilated segment, with antegrade recanalization occurring through the pseudolumen with morphological change because of insufficient coil obliteration of the entrance in the first therapy. Conclusions: This case suggests that occlusion of both the proximal and dilated segments of a VA dissecting aneurysm will prevent recanalization, by ensuring that any entrance to a pseudolumen of the aneurysm is completely closed. Careful follow-up after internal trapping is important, since antegrade recanalization via a pseudolumen may occur in the acute stage. PMID:25396072

Tanabe, Jun; Moroi, Junta; Yoshioka, Shotaro; Ishikawa, Tatsuya

2014-01-01

294

Endovascular treatment of fusiform A2 aneurysm with parent artery occlusion  

PubMed Central

Background: A2 aneurysms are rare with a reported incidence of <1% of the intracranial aneurysms. These aneurysms are located between the anterior communicating artery and genu of the corpus callosum. Fusiform aneurysms in this location are even rarer and we present one such case of fusiform A2 aneurysm treated with endovascular technique. Case Description: In this report, we present a case of ruptured fusiform A2 or proximal pericallosal artery aneurysm in a middle-aged female who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. She subsequently underwent endovascular parent artery occlusion, and post-procedure angiogram showed good pial collaterals filling the distal territory. She developed transient lower limb weakness which improved over the next 24 h with supportive inotrope management to maintain adequate cerebral flow. Conclusion: We report a rare unique case of ruptured fusiform proximal pericallosal artery aneurysm. Endovascular treatment of this type of aneurysm is a feasible method and can be considered as an effective alternative to surgical technique. PMID:25184100

Alurkar, Anand; Karanam, Lakshmi Sudha Prasanna; Oak, Sagar; Nayak, Suresh

2014-01-01

295

Pathological examination of a ruptured fusiform aneurysm of the middle cerebral artery  

PubMed Central

Background: Little is known about the pathogenesis and clinical course of fusiform compared with saccular aneurysms. The case of a ruptured fusiform aneurysm accompanied by dissection at the M2 portion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is reported, along with pathological findings. Case Description: A 41-year-old female presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage was revealed to have a ruptured fusiform aneurysm at the M2 portion of the right MCA on angiography. She was treated with superficial temporal artery-MCA anastomosis and trapping of the aneurysm. The aneurysm consisted of a whitish fusiform dilatation with a thickened wall of the MCA and two red protrusions on it. Pathological examinations revealed disruption and fragmentation of the internal elastic lamina and intimal thickening in the fusiform lesion. There were two aneurysmal protrusions on the main fusiform dilatation. In one protruded lesion, a dissection of the intima was observed. Conclusion: We propose that a dissection and saccular aneurysm additionally developed on the wall of a preexisting segmental ectasia of the MCA in our case. In this report, we discuss the etiology of fusiform aneurysms of the MCA. PMID:25422790

Kinoshita, Masashi; Kida, Shinya; Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Yamashita, Junkoh; Nomura, Motohiro

2014-01-01

296

Factors Predicting the Oculomotor Nerve Palsy following Surgical Clipping of Distal Vertebrobasilar Aneurysms: A Single-Institution Experience.  

PubMed

Background?The aim of our study was to identify various clinical and radiologic factors that correlate with the oculomotor nerve palsy following clipping of distal vertebrobasilar aneurysms. Methods?A total of 48 patients with 51 aneurysms were included in this retrospective study . Patient's age, gender, size, location, and projection of the aneurysm, preoperative Hunt and Hess (H&H) grade, presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), temporary clipping, preoperative third nerve palsy, and Glasgow Outcome Scale were included in the model for analysis. Results?A total of 15 patients (31.25%) developed oculomotor nerve palsy following clipping of basilar apex aneurysms. 38 patients (79.2%) presented with SAH and 35 patients (72.9%) had poor H&H grades at presentation. The size of the aneurysm (p?=?0.03), preoperative H&H grade (p?=?0.04), preoperative oculomotor nerve dysfunction (p?=?0.007), and projection of an aneurysm (p?=?0.004) had shown a significant correlation with the oculomotor nerve palsy. The size of the aneurysm (p?=?0.030, odds ratio: 0.381; 95% confidence interval, 0.175-0.827] was an independent predictor of postoperative nerve dysfunction. Conclusion?The size of the aneurysm, clinical grade at presentation, and projection of the aneurysm correlated with the oculomotor nerve dysfunction following clipping. These clinical and radiologic parameters can be used to predict the oculomotor nerve outcome. PMID:25093149

Sharma, Mayur; Ahmed, Osama; Ambekar, Sudheer; Sonig, Ashish; Nanda, Anil

2014-08-01

297

Intraoperative 3D rotational angiography: an emergency tool for the diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms.  

PubMed

It was the objective of this report to present a case of recurrent aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in which an MCA aneurysm was detected by 3D rotational fluoroscopy in an emergency situation. A 44-year-old woman was admitted from an external department after repeated SAH and temporal ICH. Due to progressive anisocoria and cardiocirculatory instability, she was transferred to the operating room without angiography. After a 3D rotational fluoroscopy baseline scan, another scan with 50 ml of iodine contrast agent was performed. The Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data sets were subtracted and reconstructed using the OsiriX® free imaging software. No adverse effect was observed during and after the administration of the contrast agent. The entire procedure from positioning of the fluoroscope to the production of utilizable 3D images was completely integrated into the surgical workflow with an image acquisition time of 2?×?24 s. The configuration of the aneurysm, the aneurysm-carrying vessel, and the distal vessel anatomy were well assessable. This technique quickly supplies images at adequate quality to assess the configuration of an intracranial aneurysm and is a useful diagnostic tool if the patient's critical condition prohibits aneurysm diagnostics by angiography or CT angiography. PMID:24989477

Westermaier, Thomas; Willner, Nadine; Vince, Giles H; Linsenmann, Thomas; Ernestus, Ralf-Ingo; Stetter, Christian

2015-02-01

298

Treatment with Ginsenoside Rb1, A Component of Panax Ginseng , Provides Neuroprotection in Rats Subjected to Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Induced Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Objective: Recent trials have shown Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1), an active component of a well known Chinese medicine Panax Ginseng, plays a significant role in improving the complications seen after an ischemic brain event. In the present study, we investigated\\u000a the use of GRb1 as a treatment modality to reduce brain edema, reduce arterial vasospasm, and improve neurobehavioral function\\u000a after subarachnoid

Yingbo Li; Jiping Tang; Nikan H. Khatibi; Mei Zhu; Di Chen; Liu Tu; Li Chen; Shali Wang

299

Rapid aneurysm growth and rupture in systemic lupus erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Background: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to intracranial aneurysm rupture is a major neurosurgical emergency associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Rapid aneurysm growth is associated with rupture. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-system autoimmune disorder whose complications can include cerebral vasculitis and vasculopathy. Intracranial aneurysms are not known to occur more frequently in SLE patients than the general population; however, aneurysm growth rates have not been studied in SLE. Case Description: We present a 43-year-old female with SLE on prednisone, hydroxychloroquine, and azathioprine with moderate disease activity who presented with severe, acute-onset headache and was found to have Hunt and Hess grade II SAH due to rupture of an 8 mm saccular anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysm. The patient developed severe vasospasm, re-ruptured, and was taken for angiography and embolization, which was challenging due to a high degree of vasospasm and arterial stenosis. Review of imaging from less than 2 years prior demonstrated a normal ACoA complex without evidence of an aneurysm. Conclusion: We review the literature and discuss the risk factors and pathophysiology of rapid aneurysm growth and rupture, as well as the pathologic vascular changes associated with SLE. Although SLE patients do not develop intracranial aneurysm at an increased rate, these changes may predispose them to higher incidence of growth and rupture. This possibility-coupled with increased morbidity and mortality of SAH in SLE-suggests that SAH should be considered in SLE patients presenting with headache, and advocates for more aggressive treatment of SLE patients with unruptured aneurysms.

Graffeo, Christopher S.; Tanweer, Omar; Nieves, Cesar Fors; Belmont, H. Michael; Izmirly, Peter M.; Becske, Tibor; Huang, Paul P.

2015-01-01

300

Ruptured intracranial aneurysms in the elderly: epidemiology, diagnosis, and management.  

PubMed

Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is often a devastating condition and a significant cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Because the percentage of senior citizens is increasing in many countries and because of the increased incidence of SAH in elderly patients, ruptured intracranial aneurysm is an increasingly frequent pathology in western countries. Twenty years ago, older people were considered to have such a poor prognosis that they were frequently excluded from active treatment on the unique basis of their advanced age. Improving results published in recent studies showed that the classic fatalistic attitude associated with age and intracranial aneurysm (IA) should be reconsidered. Therefore, because of improvements in surgical results and neuro-intensive care, the appearance of interventional neuroradiology, and more aggressive rehabilitation programs, the management of ruptured IA in the elderly is changing. This article aims to review epidemiology, emphasize the specific aspects of the disease in the elderly, and present the current management of SAH in an elderly population. PMID:16159053

Sedat, Jacques; Dib, Mustapha; Rasendrarijao, David; Fontaine, Denys; Lonjon, Michel; Paquis, Philippe

2005-01-01

301

Endovascular Treatment of Internal Carotid and Vertebral Artery Aneurysms Using a Novel Pericardium Covered Stent  

PubMed Central

Summary Intracranial aneurysm is a fairly common (often asymptomatic) condition. Subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with aneurysmal rupture is a potentially lethal event with a mortality rate as high as 50 percent and a high rate of disability among those who survive the initial hemorrhage, such that recently published guidelines support treatment of intracerebral aneurysms. The current treatment options include surgical clipping and endovascular treatment, but these are not without significant problems. Despite the trend toward endovascular treatment the rate of recurrence and complications is high. Current published evidence of the use of covered stent is limited to stents covered with polytetrafluoroethylene. It is now recognized that mammalian extracellular matrix represents an excellent scaffold material suitable for many therapeutic applications and glutaraldehyde treated pericardium has been widely used for many years due to its desirable features such as low immunogenicity and durability. This report describes the first published experience with the Aneugraft Pericardium Covered Stent (ITGI Medical, OR Akiva, Israel) in the treatment of internal carotid and vertebral artery aneurysms in three patients. In all three cases, the implantation of this novel device has resulted in successful closure of aneurysms. PMID:22681731

Vulev, I.; Klepanec, A.; Bazik, R.; Balazs, T.; Illes, R.; Steno, J.

2012-01-01

302

Use of the pipeline embolization device to treat recently ruptured dissecting cerebral aneurysms.  

PubMed

The Pipeline embolization device (PED) is one of the flow-diverting stents approved for the treatment of unruptured large or wide-necked cerebral aneurysms in 2011(1). Its use has now been extended to the treatment of recently ruptured dissecting cerebral aneurysm, carotid pseudoaneurysm from radiation injury, and blister aneurysms(2,3). We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of utilizing the PED as a primary treatment for ruptured dissecting intracranial aneurysms. A single center retrospective review was conducted for all patients primarily treated with PED for acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from ruptured dissecting cerebral aneurysms between December 2010 and February 2013. Patients were followed up with CT angiogram (CTA) or digital subtraction angiogram (DSA). Eight patients with a total of eight dissecting aneurysms were identified. The mean duration from SAH to treatment was 2.5 days. Six of the aneurysms arose from vertebral arteries and two from the basilar artery. Immediate check-DSA confirmed satisfactory contrast stasis in all eight cases, and complete aneurysmal obliteration was achieved at six months. There were two (25%) procedure-related complications, but no major procedure-related complications, such as thromboembolic events or rebleeding from aneurysm were encountered. The PED is a feasible treatment option for ruptured dissecting cerebral aneurysms in acute phase. According to our experience, using PED as flow-diverters in acute SAH does not significantly increase the complication risks or mortality rate if the antiplatelet regime is carefully monitored. Future studies shall evaluate the optimal antiplatelet regimen for using the PED in the acute phase. PMID:25207906

Chan, Robert S K; Mak, Calvin H K; Wong, Alain K S; Chan, Kwong Yau; Leung, Kar Ming

2014-09-15

303

Seasonal fluctuation in the incidence of intracranial aneurysm rupture and its relationship to changing climatic conditions.  

PubMed

Seasonal and climatic variations have been linked to the occurrence of some types of cerebrovascular disease; however, the conditions that lead to intracranial aneurysm rupture are not known. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether seasonal and climatic conditions are related to intracranial aneurysm rupture. Data provided by the Connecticut Health Information Management and Exchange were analyzed for all patients with a primary diagnosis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) for the fiscal years 1981, 1983, 1985, 1987, 1988, and 1989. Patient records were correlated with climatic conditions for the years 1981 to 1989 obtained from the National Climatic Data Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Environmental Satellite Data, and Information Service. During the time periods studied, 1487 patients with a primary diagnosis of aneurysmal SAH were treated by reporting hospitals. Seasonal variation in the incidence of aneurysmal SAH and admission clustering were observed but differed significantly between men and women. Men showed a single large peak in late fall (Roger's r = 11.5, p < 0.005), whereas women had an annual peak occurring in late spring (Roger's r = 10.3, p < 0.01). Substantial climatic change occurred during the 72 hours prior to 10 of the 14 clusters of men who were admitted (p < 0.01, Yates' corrected chi-square 7.33, df = 1). In contrast, clusters of women admitted were not related to preceding climatic change (p > 0.25, Yates' corrected chi-square 0.06, df = 1). Hospital admissions for aneurysmal SAH display seasonal fluctuation, with women showing a different seasonal pattern from men. Changing climatic conditions precede aneurysm rupture in men but not in women, which suggests that weather is causally related to aneurysm rupture in men, and that factors that lead to aneurysm rupture in women may be different from those in men. These data do not explain why weather fronts or gradients are associated with aneurysm rupture in men. PMID:7931585

Chyatte, D; Chen, T L; Bronstein, K; Brass, L M

1994-10-01

304

Astaxanthin Activates Nuclear Factor Erythroid-Related Factor 2 and the Antioxidant Responsive Element (Nrf2-ARE) Pathway in the Brain after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats and Attenuates Early Brain Injury.  

PubMed

Astaxanthin (ATX) has been proven to ameliorate early brain injury (EBI) after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by modulating cerebral oxidative stress. This study was performed to assess the effect of ATX on the Nrf2-ARE pathway and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of antioxidant properties of ATX in EBI after SAH. A total of 96 male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups. Autologous blood was injected into the prechiasmatic cistern of the rat to induce an experimental SAH model. Rats in each group were sacrificed at 24 h after SAH. Expressions of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were measured by Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis. The mRNA levels of HO-1, NAD (P) H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1), and glutathione S-transferase-?1 (GST-?1) were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was observed that administration of ATX post-SAH could up-regulate the cortical expression of these agents, mediated in the Nrf2-ARE pathway at both pretranscriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Meanwhile, oxidative damage was reduced. Furthermore, ATX treatment significantly attenuated brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, cellular apoptosis, and neurological dysfunction in SAH models. This study demonstrated that ATX treatment alleviated EBI in SAH model, possibly through activating the Nrf2-ARE pathway by inducing antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. PMID:25528957

Wu, Qi; Zhang, Xiang-Sheng; Wang, Han-Dong; Zhang, Xin; Yu, Qing; Li, Wei; Zhou, Meng-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Liang

2014-12-01

305

Astaxanthin Activates Nuclear Factor Erythroid-Related Factor 2 and the Antioxidant Responsive Element (Nrf2-ARE) Pathway in the Brain after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats and Attenuates Early Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Astaxanthin (ATX) has been proven to ameliorate early brain injury (EBI) after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by modulating cerebral oxidative stress. This study was performed to assess the effect of ATX on the Nrf2-ARE pathway and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of antioxidant properties of ATX in EBI after SAH. A total of 96 male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups. Autologous blood was injected into the prechiasmatic cistern of the rat to induce an experimental SAH model. Rats in each group were sacrificed at 24 h after SAH. Expressions of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were measured by Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis. The mRNA levels of HO-1, NAD (P) H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1), and glutathione S-transferase-?1 (GST-?1) were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was observed that administration of ATX post-SAH could up-regulate the cortical expression of these agents, mediated in the Nrf2-ARE pathway at both pretranscriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Meanwhile, oxidative damage was reduced. Furthermore, ATX treatment significantly attenuated brain edema, blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption, cellular apoptosis, and neurological dysfunction in SAH models. This study demonstrated that ATX treatment alleviated EBI in SAH model, possibly through activating the Nrf2-ARE pathway by inducing antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. PMID:25528957

Wu, Qi; Zhang, Xiang-Sheng; Wang, Han-Dong; Zhang, Xin; Yu, Qing; Li, Wei; Zhou, Meng-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Liang

2014-01-01

306

Benefit of Cone-Beam CT Angiography in Visualizing Aneurysm Shape and Identification of Exact Rupture Site.  

PubMed

While high-resolution cone-beam computational tomographic (CBCT) angiography has gained use in intracranial vascular imaging, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and 3-dimensional-rotational angiography (3D-RA) remain the preferred acquisition modalities for intracranial aneurysm imaging. This case report highlights the utility of the greater spatial resolution afforded by CBCT for cerebral aneurysm imaging. A 54-year-old man presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage was confirmed to harbor a ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm by conventional angiography. Due to varying contrast opacification captured by different acquisition methods, dramatic aneurysm shape difference was observed between 2- and 3-dimensional-angiographic and CBCT models. The greater resolution of CBCT revealed in an unequivocal fashion the exact site of rupture on the aneurysm dome, visualized as a discrete irregular and elongated bleb that was not seen on either 3D-RA or DSA. High-resolution CBCT visualized the shape of the target aneurysm in greater detail than the more conventional 2D-DSA and 3D-RA, enabling more precise computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Given that aneurysms most likely change shape either prior to rupture or upon rupture, future studies evaluating fluid dynamics using computer reconstructions should be cognizant of the differences in resolution provided by various imaging modalities. PMID:24707990

Lauric, Alexandra; Heller, Robert S; Schimansky, Sarah; Malek, Adel M

2015-01-01

307

Fusiform superior cerebellar artery aneurysm treated with STA-SCA bypass and trapping  

PubMed Central

Background: Fusiform aneurysms of cerebellar arteries are rare. Different surgical techniques to address these challenging lesions have been described, and their application depends on whether the goal is to maintain the flow in the parent vessel or to occlude it. Case Description: The authors reported a case of a fusiform aneurysm located in the lateral pontomesencephalic segment of the superior cerebellar artery (SCA) in a 32-year-old man who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. The patient was subjected to aneurysm trapping followed by a bypass between the superficial temporal artery (STA) and SCA and had an uneventful recovery. Conclusions: Although only a few cases of fusiform aneurysms in the supracerebellar artery have been reported in the literature, the treatment strategies adopted were diverse. In selected cases of patients in good neurological condition with ruptured fusiform aneurysms at the proximal segments of SCA and who have poor evidence of collateral supply, the possibility of a STA-SCA bypass with aneurysm trapping must be considered. A review of the current treatment modalities of this pathology is also presented. PMID:25071936

Lamis, Fabricio C.; De Paiva Neto, Manoel A.; Cavalheiro, Sergio

2014-01-01

308

Endovascular Treatment of the Distal Internal Carotid Artery Large Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Objective According to the development of endovascular technique and devices, larger aneurysms on the distal internal carotid artery (ICA) can be treated using a less invasive method. The authors report on clinical and angiographic outcomes of these aneurysms treated using an endovascular technique. Materials and Methods Data on 21 patients with large aneurysms at distal ICA treated by endovascular method between January 2005 and December 2012 were included in this retrospective analysis. Results Clinical outcome of patients showed strong correlation with the initial neurologic status (p < 0.05). Aneurysm morphology showed saccular, fusiform, and wide-neck in 12, six and three patients. Six patients underwent stent assisted coiling and the other 15 patients underwent simple coiling. Aneurysm occlusion was performed immediately after embolization with near-complete (Raymond class 1-2) in 20 patients (95.2%) and incomplete (Raymond class 3) in one patient (4.8%). Delayed thrombotic occlusion occurred in two patients and their clinical result was fatal. Another five patients died in the hospital, from massive brain edema and/or increased intracranial pressure due to initial subarachnoid hemorrhage. Overall mortality was 30% (seven out of 21). Fatal complication related to the endovascular procedure occurred in two patients with thrombosis at middle cerebral artery (one with stent, the other without it). Conclusion Recent developed endovascular device and technique is safe enough and a less invasive method for distal large or giant aneurysms. Based on our analysis of the study, we suspect that coil embolization of large distal ICA aneurysms (with or without stenting) is effective and safe. PMID:25340021

Bae, Hong-Ju; Huh, Pil-Woo; Lee, Tae-Gyu; Cho, Kyoung-Suok; Lee, Sang-Bok

2014-01-01

309

Immediate and follow-up results for 44 consecutive cases of small (<10 mm) internal carotid artery aneurysms treated with the pipeline embolization device  

PubMed Central

Background: The pipeline embolization device (PED) provides effective, durable and safe endovascular reconstruction of large and giant intracranial aneurysms. However, 80% of all cerebral aneurysms found in the general population are less than 10 mm in size. Treatment of small aneurysms (<10 mm) with flow diverters may be advantageous over endosaccular modalities that carry risks of procedural rupture during aneurysm access or coil placement. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed a prospective, single-center aneurysm database to identify all patients with small (<10 mm) internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms who underwent endovascular treatment using the PED. Patient demographics, aneurysm characteristics, procedural details, complications, and technical and clinical outcomes were analyzed. Results: Forty-four cases were performed in 41 patients (age range 31-78 years). PED was successfully implanted in 42 cases. A single PED was used in 37/42 (88%) cases. Mean postprocedure hospital stay was 1.7 ± 0.3 days and 98% of patients were discharged home. Major complication occurred in one patient (2.3%), who died of early subarachnoid hemorrhage. Transient neurological deficit, delayed intracerebral hemorrhage (asymptomatic), and delayed groin infection occurred in one patient each. Follow-up rate was 91.8% (45 aneurysms in 35 patients) with a mean follow-up of 4.0 ± 1.9 months. By 6 months post-PED implantation, angiographic success (complete or near complete aneurysm occlusion) was observed in 80%. Mild (<50%), asymptomatic, nonflow limiting in-stent stenosis was observed in 5.4% (2/37 cases). All the 35 patients with follow-up remained at preprocedure neurological baseline. Conclusion: Small (<10 mm) ICA aneurysm treatment with PED implantation is safe and carries a high rate of early angiographic success. PMID:24083050

Lin, Li-Mei; Colby, Geoffrey P.; Kim, Jennifer E.; Huang, Judy; Tamargo, Rafael J.; Coon, Alexander L.

2013-01-01

310

Stent-Grafts in the Management of Hemorrhagic Complications Related to Hemostatic Closure Devices: Report of Two Cases  

SciTech Connect

We report 2 cases of hemorrhagic complications related to use of the Angio-Seal hemostatic closure device that were successfully managed with stent-grafts. Two patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage were referred to our departments for endovascular treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. The treatment was performed through a femoral access; the sheaths were removed immediately after the procedures, and the punctures sites closed by Angio-Seals. Both patients presented clinical signs of hypovolemic shock after treatment. The diagnosis of active bleeding through the puncture site was made by emergency digital subtraction angiography. The lesions were managed with stent-grafts. The use of stent-grafts proved to be efficient in the management of these life-threatening hemorrhagic complications following the use of the Angio-Seal hemostatic closure device.

Giansante Abud, Daniel; Mounayer, Charbel [Fondation Rothschild, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (France); Saint-Maurice, Jean Pierre [Hopital Lariboisiere, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (France); Salles Rezende, Marco Tulio [Fondation Rothschild, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (France); Houdart, Emmanuel [Hopital Lariboisiere, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (France); Moret, Jacques [Fondation Rothschild, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (France)], E-mail: jmoret@fo-rothschild.fr

2007-02-15

311

What You Should Know about Cerebral Aneurysms  

MedlinePLUS

... complications caused by the hemorrhage. What are the potential complications of aneurysm treatment? Until the aneurysm is ... kidneys from the X-ray dye and other potential problems. All these risks need to be carefully ...

312

The Expanding Realm of Endovascular Neurosurgery: Flow Diversion for Cerebral Aneurysm Management  

PubMed Central

The worldwide prevalence of intracranial aneurysms is estimated to be between 5% and 10%, with some demographic variance. Subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to ruptured intracranial aneurysm results in devastating neurological outcomes, leaving the majority of victims dead or disabled. Surgical clipping of intracranial aneurysms remained the definitive mode of treatment until Guglielmi detachable coils were introduced in the 1990s. This revolutionary innovation led to the recognition of neurointervention/neuroendovascular surgery as a bona fide option for intracranial aneurysms. Constant evolution of endovascular devices and techniques supported by several prospective randomized trials has catapulted the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms to its current status as the preferred treatment modality for most ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms. We are slowly transitioning from the era of coils to the era of flow diverters. Flow-diversion technology and techniques have revolutionized the treatment of wide-necked, giant, and fusiform aneurysms, where the results of microsurgery or conventional neuroendovascular strategies have traditionally been dismal. Although the Pipeline™ Embolization Device (ev3-Covidien, Irvine, CA) is the only flow-diversion device approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States, others are commercially available in Europe and South America, including the Silk (Balt Extrusion, Montmorency, France), Flow-Redirection Endoluminal Device (FRED; MicroVention, Tustin, CA), Surpass (Stryker, Kalamazoo, MI), and p64 (Phenox, Bochum, Germany). Improvements in technology and operator experience and the encouraging results of clinical trials have led to broader acceptance for the use of these devices in cerebral aneurysm management. Continued innovation and refinement of endovascular devices and techniques will inevitably improve technical success rates, reduce procedure-related complications, and broaden the endovascular therapeutic spectrum for varied aneurysm morphology.

Krishna, Chandan; Sonig, Ashish; Natarajan, Sabareesh K.; Siddiqui, Adnan H.

2014-01-01

313

Endovascular Treatment of a Ruptured Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Aneurysm during Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) during pregnancy is quite rare, however it has a high maternal mortality rate. A pregnant woman in the 16th gestational week was admitted to our hospital with a drowsy level of consciousness. A brain magnetic resonance (MR) image showed hemorrhage on the prepontine cistern, and both sylvian fissures, and MR angiography and cerebral digital subtraction angiography demonstrated an aneurysm at the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). We performed endovascular coil embolization attempting to minimize radiation exposure. She was discharged with no neurologic deficit and delivered a healthy baby by cesarean section at the 38th week of gestation. This case study reported the shortest gestational period and this is the first report on an aneurysmal rupture arising from PICA which was treated using an endovascular method. Using an appropriate technique for reduced radiation exposure to the fetus and limited alterations in maternal-fetal physiology, endovascular coil embolization could guarantee good results in treatment of aneurysmal SAH in pregnant women. PMID:25132934

Kim, Ki Dae; Chang, Chul Hoon; Choi, Byung Yon

2014-01-01

314

Endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms by interventional neurologists: first year single-center experience  

PubMed Central

Background Endovascular embolization of ruptured intracranial aneurysms provides an adequate treatment and long-term results with less morbidity and mortality (M&M) compared with surgical treatment. Since the last decade more and more ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms (IA) undergo endovascular embolization in the United States. We present our experience of the initial one year periprocedural M&M at Paul L. Foster School of Medicine (PLFSM), Texas Tech Health Science Center (TTUHSC) in El Paso, Texas. Methods Demographics, technical aspects of the endovascular procedure and clinical assessment, including several commonly used scales to assess the severity in case of subarachnoid hemorrhage were collected. Perioperative complications were classified as minor and major. All data is prospectively collected in a local database. Only endovascular treated aneurysms were included in the study Results During the first year of opening of the interventional neurology program at our school of medicine (March 2011 and March 2012), a total 45 ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms were treated with endovascular embolization. Two thirds of the patients (n = 27) presented with a ruptured IA. Within those with a ruptured aneurysm, the most median Hunt and Hess grade was 3. By large the vast majority of treated IA were in the anterior circulation and more than half measured 7–12 mm. Only three unruptured IA were <7 mm (average 5.5 mm). Complications occurred in seven patients (15%), four of them were minor without any clinical sequelae. The remaining three included; intracranial dissection and aneurysmal rupture resulting in both hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke and death in only one patient. Conclusion The first year experience of interventional neurology services at Paul L. Foster School of Medicine in El Paso, Texas demonstrates successful treatments with comparable national rates of morbidity and mortality. Abbreviations ACA Anterior cerebral artery Acomm Anterior communicating artery ESN Endovascular surgical neuroradiology H&H Hunt and Hess scale IA Intracranial aneurysm ICA Internal carotid artery MCA Middle cerebral artery M&M Morbidity and mortality SAH Subarachnoid hemorrhage Pcomm Posterior communicating artery PLFSM Paul L. Foster School of Medicine TTUHSC Texas Tech University Health Science Center VA Vertebral artery PMID:25132904

Maud, Alberto; Rodriguez, Gustavo J; Barboza, Miguel A

2014-01-01

315

Bilateral anterior cerebral artery aneurysm due to mucormycosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

True mycotic aneurysms are extremely rare cerebrovascular lesions with a dismal prognosis. They mostly follow fungal meningitis or septicaemia and herald their presence with the development of subarachnoid haemorrhage. The authors report an extremely rare occurrence of bilateral anterior cerebral artery aneurysms caused by mucormycosis. The infection was diagnosed after investigation of prolonged fever following transsphenoidal surgery. The aneurysm was

Manish K. Kasliwal; Vemuru Sunil K. Reddy; Sumit Sinha; Bhawani S. Sharma; Prasenjit Das; Vaishali Suri

2009-01-01

316

The TEAM trial: Safety and efficacy of endovascular treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms in the prevention of aneurysmal hemorrhages: A randomized comparison with indefinite deferral of treatment in 2002 patients followed for 10 years  

PubMed Central

The management of patients with unruptured aneurysms remains controversial. Patients with unruptured aneurysms may suffer intracranial haemorrhage, but the incidence of this event is still debated; endovascular treatment may prevent rupture, but involves immediate risks. Hence, the balance of risks and benefits of endovascular treatment is uncertain. Here, we report the design of the TEAM trial, the first international, randomized, controlled trial comparing conservative management with endovascular treatment. Primary endpoint is mortality and morbidity (modified Rankin Score ? 3) from intracranial haemorrhage or treatment. Secondary endpoints include incidence of hemorrhagic events, morbidity related to endovascular coiling, morphological results, overall clinical outcome and quality of life. Statistical tests compare between probabilities at 5- and 10-years of 1/mortality from haemorrhage related to the lesion, excluding per-operative complications; 2/mortality from haemorrhage or from complications of treatment; 3/combined disease or treatment related mortality and morbidity in the absence of other causes of death or disability. The study will be conducted in 60 international centres and will enrol 2,002 patients equally divided between the two groups, a size sufficient to achieve 80% power at a 0.0167 significance to detect differences in 1) disease or treatment-related poor outcomes from 7–9% to 3–5%; 2) overall mortality from 16 to 11%. Duration of the study is 14 years, the first three years being for patient recruitment plus a minimum of 10 years of follow-up. The TEAM trial thus offers a means to reconcile the introduction of a new approach with the necessity to acknowledge uncertainties. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN62758344 PMID:18631395

Raymond, Jean; Molyneux, Andrew J; Fox, Allan J; Johnston, S Claiborne; Collet, Jean-Paul; Rouleau, Isabelle

2008-01-01

317

Case report: Intra-procedural aneurysm rupture during endovascular treatment causing immediate, transient angiographic vasospasm  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cerebral vasospasm is a major cause of delayed ischemic cerebral injury, typically occurring 3–14 days after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Ultra-early vasospasm is defined as angiographic vasospasm observed within 48 h of SAH onset. Immediate vasospasm at the time of aneurysmal rupture has been suspected, but has not been previously reported. We describe a case of immediate, transient vasospasm following intra-procedural aneurysmal rupture. Methods A 55-year-old woman presented with SAH from a ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm. Subsequent coil embolization was complicated by an intra-procedural rupture following placement of the initial coil. A follow-up angiogram obtained after 9 min demonstrated moderate-to-severe vasospasm in the A2 segments of both anterior cerebral arteries. Results A repeat angiogram 20 min later demonstrated complete resolution of the vasospasm. The aneurysm was successfully obliterated with coil embolization. Post-procedure, the patient manifested no clinical vasospasm and made a good neurological recovery. Conclusion We document a case of ultra-early cerebral vasospasm that occurred immediately after an intra-procedural aneurysmal rupture. Catheter-induced vasospasm from mechanical manipulation of extracranial vasculature is well described. However, immediate vasospasm related to extravascular blood has never before been reported. This finding suggests that extravascular blood can have a local direct effect (presumably mechanical) on cerebral blood vessels, and may be an important mechanism for vasospasm. PMID:25132903

Zhang, Zoe; Siddiq, Farhan; Tekle, Wondwossen G; Hassan, Ameer E; Qureshi, Adnan I

2014-01-01

318

Surgical clipping of a basilar perforator artery aneurysm: a case of avoiding perforator sacrifice.  

PubMed

Background?Aneurysms arising from basilar perforator arteries are very rare. A primary goal of surgery is always preservation of perforator flow. However, in most surgically managed cases in the literature, sacrifice of the perforator was reported. It is important for the literature to demonstrate that patency of the perforator is an achievable goal. Objective?To present the second reported case of perforator flow preservation in the surgical management of basilar perforator artery aneurysms. Clinical Presentation?A 45-year-old woman presented with World Federation of Neurologic Surgeons grade 1 subarachnoid hemorrhage. Digital subtraction angiography ultimately revealed a 2-mm aneurysm of the basilar artery arising from a perforator after an initially negative angiogram. Clipping was performed with perforator patency confirmed on direct inspection and intraoperative angiography. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no evidence of brainstem stroke. Conclusion?Although patency of the perforator is a rather obvious goal of cerebrovascular surgery, the current literature does not reflect an ability to do so in the case of basilar perforator aneurysms. We present only the second reported case of maintenance of perforator flow after clipping of a basilar perforator artery aneurysm. PMID:25111793

Sivakanthan, Sananthan; Carlson, Andrew P; van Loveren, Harry; Agazzi, Siviero

2015-01-01

319

Case series of 64 slice computed tomography-computed tomographic angiography with 3D reconstruction to diagnose symptomatic cerebral aneurysms: new standard of care?  

PubMed

CT angiography (CTA) has improved significantly over the past few years such that the reconstructed images of the cerebral arteries may now be equivalent to conventional digital angiography. The new technology of 64 slice multi-detector CTA can reconstruct detailed images that can reliably identify small cerebral aneurysms, even those <3mm. In addition, it is estimated that CT followed by lumbar puncture (LP) misses up to 4% of symptomatic aneurysms. We present a series of cases that illustrates how CT followed by CTA may be replacing CT-LP as the standard of care in working up patients for symptomatic cerebral aneurysms and the importance of performing three dimensional (3D) reconstructions. A series of seven cases of symptomatic cerebral aneurysms were identified that illustrate the sensitivity of CT-CTA versus CT-LP and the importance of 3D reconstruction in identifying these aneurysms. Surgical treatment was recommended for 6 of the 7 patients with aneurysms and strict hypertension control was recommended for the seventh patient. Some of these patients demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage on presentation while others had negative LPs. A number of these patients with negative LPs were clearly symptomatic from their aneurysms. At least one of these cerebral aneurysms was not apparent on CTA without 3D reconstruction. 3D reconstruction of CTA is crucial to adequately identify cerebral aneurysms. This case series helps reinforce the importance of 3D reconstruction. There is some data to suggest that 64 slice CT-CTA may be equivalent or superior to CT-LP in the detection of symptomatic cerebral aneurysms. PMID:22593806

Jehle, Dietrich; Chae, Floria; Wai, Jonathan; Cloud, Sam; Pierce, David; Meyer, Michael

2012-01-01

320

[Intracranial arterial aneurysm in children. A cooperative study. Apropos of 43 cases].  

PubMed

This joint study describes 43 cases of intracranial arterial aneurysms in children diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms. In the pediatric age group, this malformation is notable because of the marked sex predilection in males (70%) and an unequal topographic incidence in the circle of Willis, where carotid artery (39.3%) and anterior communicating artery lesions (30%) predominate. The most frequent clinical sign was subarachnoid hemorrhage (81%), although symptoms caused by compression revealed the abnormality in 2.3% of patients. In this series, 11% of the patients suffered a head injury at the time of the hemorrhagic accident; this finding has been reported previously in the literature. Today, treatment is always surgical, consisting in removal of the aneurysmal sac. Surgical results are encouraging; all grade lesions considered together, 63.4% of the children were cured without any sequelae, 19.5% lost one school year but were able to lead a normal life, and 4.8% remained severely handicapped; overall postoperative mortality was 12.3%. Cerebral plasticity and tolerance of spasm in children are fundamental features of this aneurysmal pathology which partially explain the favorable results obtained with surgery. PMID:3059206

Roche, J L; Choux, M; Czorny, A; Dhellemmes, P; Fast, M; Frerebeau, P; Lapras, C; Sautreaux, J L

1988-01-01

321

A ruptured aneurysm arising at the leptomeningeal collateral circulation from the extracranial vertebral artery to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery associated with bilateral vertebral artery occlusion.  

PubMed

We report an extremely rare case of a small ruptured aneurysm of the leptomeningeal collateral circulation from the vertebral artery (VA) to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA); this aneurysm was associated with bilateral VA occlusion. A 72-year-old woman with sudden headache, nausea, and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was admitted to our hospital. On admission, no evidence of cerebral signs or cranial nerve palsy was found. Computed tomography imaging showed SAH predominantly in the posterior fossa, and digital subtraction angiography revealed bilateral VA occlusion and the left VA aneurysm located proximal to the VA union. In addition, a small aneurysm was observed at the leptomeningeal collateral circulation located between the extracranial left VA and the left PICA. The patient underwent radical surgery on the day of the onset of the symptoms associated with SAH. However, the VA aneurysm was unruptured and surgically trapped. The small aneurysm arising at the leptomeningeal collateral circulation was ruptured during the surgery and was electrocoagulated; the collateral circulation was preserved, and no neurologic deficits were observed. The postoperative course was uneventful. SAH with the occlusion of major vessels should be diagnosed with utmost caution to allow preoperative neurologic and radiological assessments. PMID:24321776

Chonan, Masashi; Nishimura, Shinjitu; Kimura, Naoto; Ezura, Masayuki; Uenohara, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Teiji

2014-02-01

322

Combined extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery with stent-assisted coil embolization for moyamoya disease with a ruptured wide-necked basilar trunk aneurysm: a case report.  

PubMed

A ruptured wide-necked basilar trunk aneurysm is uncommon in patients with moyamoya disease. The optimal treatment is unclear. We report a safe and beneficial treatment modality for moyamoya disease with aneurysms located in the posterior circulation. A 37-year-old man presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage was admitted to our hospital. Emergent cerebral angiography demonstrated moyamoya disease associated with a wide-necked basilar trunk aneurysm. We performed bilateral extracranial-intracranial bypass surgeries prior to stent-assisted coil embolization of the aneurysm after the acute phase. No complication occurred and the patient was discharged with no neurological deficit. Follow-up digital subtraction angiography (DSA) performed 6 months after the surgery showed that all the anastomosises were patent and bilateral collateral vascular compensation was fully established with no recanalization of the basilar trunk aneurysm post embolization.We also found that high-flow bypass did not contribute to cerebral revascularization as imagined despite the good patency. Combined extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery with endovascular treatment proved to be an efficient therapeutic modality for moyamoya disease with aneurysms located in the posterior circulation. High-flow bypass surgery was not essential due to the inefficiency and the high risk of postoperative cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome. PMID:25640568

Jiang, Hanqiang; Ni, Wei; Lei, Yu; Li, Yanjiang; Gu, Yuxiang

2015-01-01

323

Blister-like aneurysms of middle cerebral artery: a multicenter retrospective review of diagnosis and treatment in three patients.  

PubMed

Blood blister-like aneurysms (BBA) were described for the first time in the 1990s, as small hemispherical bulges arising from a very fragile arterial wall. Until 2008, it was thought that this type of aneurysm almost exclusively affected the internal carotid artery, in particular, its dorsal portion. Subsequently, it was discovered that a BBA may also be present on the anterior communicating artery and on the vessels of the posterior cranial fossa. However, we found no reports in English-language literature of BBA arising from the middle cerebral artery (MCA). In this article, we present three cases of MCA BBA and discuss the unique diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this vascular lesion. In our retrospective, multicenter review of 1330 patients with non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage admitted to our services from 2000 to 2013, we found three cases (all in men) of MCA BBA. The patients' outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin scale. All three patients underwent angio-computed tomography, which did not reveal any aneurysms. Digital subtraction angiography performed within 24-48 h after admission, in all cases, demonstrated a very small aneurysm (<2 mm), with a triangular shape and abroad base, at non-branching sites of MCA. All the aneurysms were treated: one by wrapping + clipping, one by wrapping + flow-diverter stent, and one with coils. At the time of surgery, the aneurysms appeared on the surface of the parent artery without any involvement of the branches. All presented as blister-like aneurysms that were thin-walled and lacked a surgical neck. At the time of discharge, the outcome was good in one patient and poor in the other two. Our cases demonstrate that BBA can also arise from the MCA, despite the lack of previous reports of this occurrence; a BBA should be suspected, particularly in cases of non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage in which the presence of a MCA aneurysm is suspected but not revealed by digital subtraction angiography or angio-computed tomography. PMID:25323097

Peschillo, Simone; Missori, P; Piano, M; Cannizzaro, D; Guidetti, G; Santoro, A; Cenzato, M

2015-01-01

324

Life-threatening allergic vasculitis after clipping an unruptured aneurysm: Case report, weighing the risk of nickel allergy  

PubMed Central

Background: This case report represents one of the estimated 17,000 aneurysms clipped annually in the United States, often with nickel-containing clips. The authors highlight the development of life-threatening allergic vasculitis in a 33-year-old woman after aneurysm clipping. Case Description: After suffering subarachnoid hemorrhage, the patient had coil embolization at another facility for rupture of a right internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm. An incidental finding, an unruptured left posterior communicating artery aneurysm unamenable to coiling, was then successfully clipped via a left pterional craniotomy. Arriving in our emergency department 11 days later, she progressively declined during the next weeks, facing deteriorating clinical status (i.e. seizures) and additional infarctions in the left frontal lobe, midline shift, and new infarctions in the bilateral frontal lobe, right sylvian, right insular regions, and posterior cerebral artery distribution. During decompressive surgery, biopsy findings raised the possibility of lymphocytic vasculitis; consultations with rheumatology, allergy, and immunology specialists identified that our patient had a nickel allergy. After reoperation to replace the nickel-containing clip with one of a titanium alloy, the patient had an uncomplicated postoperative course and was discharged 6 days later to a rehabilitation facility. Conclusions: Nickel-related allergies are more common than appreciated, affecting up to 10% of patients. Fortunately, severe reactions are rare; nevertheless, vascular neurosurgeons should be aware of this potential complication when using cobalt alloy aneurysms clips. The use of titanium alloy clips eliminates this risk. PMID:25071940

Grande, Andrew; Grewal, Sanjeet; Tackla, Ryan; Ringer, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

325

[Application of intraoperative microvascular dopplerography in surgical treatment of arterial aneurysm of the brain].  

PubMed

The possibilities and results of the intraoperative microvascular dopplerography application in microsurgical exclusion of the brain arterial aneurysm (BAA) were estimated. The investigation was conducted during operative intervention in 30 patients, suffering hemorrhagic type of the brain acute blood flow disorder as a consequence of the BAA rupture. In an acute period (the first-14th day) 23 patients were operated, in the early restoration period (after 30th day)--7. Intraoperative express estimation of the blood flow have permitted to diagnose and to correct timely some typical technical complications, in particular, noncomplete BAA exclusion from the blood flow, the arterial lumen, containing the clipped aneurysm, stenosing; to reveal the arterial segments vasospasm objectively in the patients, operated on in an acute period of hemorrhage, and to diagnose a reactive spasm during manipulations on the arteries. All the patients, operated on in the early restoration period and 82.6% of patients, operated on in an acute period of subarachnoidal hemorrhage, have had reconvalesced. Application of the microvascular dopplerography secures objectivization, simplifies intraoperative estimation of the BAA radicality and the according arterial segments passability in the operative intervention zone, what promotes reduction of the ischemic complications rate and positively impacts the results of treatment. PMID:24501963

Hloba, M V; Lytvak, S O

2013-10-01

326

Ruptured distal middle cerebral artery aneurysm: Case report?  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION This report describes a rare case of a distal middle cerebral artery (dMCA) aneurysm. PRESENTATION OF CASE That developed a right intracerebral haematoma and subarachnoid haemorrhage. It was treated by surgical exploration and clipping via pterional approach. DISCUSSION Clinical findings and surgical approaches of dMCA aneurysm are different from proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms. Microneurosurgical clipping is the most effective treatment of dMCA aneurysm. CONCLUSION We comprehensively review the literature related to these rare aneurysms within the temporal lobe, surgical anatomy of the dMCA aneurysm. PMID:23959413

Y?lmaz, Murat; Yurt, Alaattin; Kalemci, Orhan; Yuksel, Zafer K.; Yücesoy, Kemal

2013-01-01

327

Smoking is not associated with recurrence and retreatment of intracranial aneurysms after endovascular coiling.  

PubMed

OBJECT Tobacco smoking is one of the most important risk factors for the formation of intracranial aneurysms and for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages. Smoking has also been suggested to contribute to the recurrence of aneurysms after endovascular coiling. To improve the understanding of the impact of smoking on long-term outcomes after coil embolization of intracranial aneurysms, the authors studied a consecutive contemporary series of patients treated at their institution. The aims of this study were to determine whether smoking is an independent risk factor for aneurysm recurrence and retreatment after endovascular coiling. METHODS All patients who had received an intrasaccular coil embolization of an intracranial aneurysm, who had undergone a follow-up imaging exam at least 6 months later, and whose smoking history had been recorded from January 2005 through December 2012 were included in this study. Patients were stratified according to smoking status into 3 groups: 1) never a smoker, 2) current smoker (smoked at the time of treatment), and 3) former smoker (quit smoking before treatment). The 2 primary outcomes studied were aneurysm recurrence and aneurysm retreatment after treatment for endovascular aneurysms. Kruskal-Wallis and chi-square tests were used to test statistical significance of differences in the rates of aneurysm recurrence, retreatment, or of both among the 3 groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis controlling for smoking status and for several characteristics of the aneurysm was also performed. RESULTS In total, 384 patients with a combined total of 411 aneurysms were included in this study. The aneurysm recurrence rate was not significantly associated with smoking: both former smokers (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.61-1.65; p = 0.99) and current smokers (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.31-1.09; p = 0.09) had odds of recurrence that were similar to those who were never smokers. Former smokers (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.46-1.35; p = 0.38) had odds of retreatment similar to those of never smokers, and current smokers had a lower odds of undergoing retreatment (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21-0.91; p = 0.03) than never smokers. Moreover, an analysis adjusting for aneurysm rupture, diameter, and initial occlusion showed that former smokers (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.33-1.28; p = 0.21) and current smokers (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.60-1.81; p = 0.88) had odds of aneurysm recurrence similar to those who were never smokers. Adjusting the analysis for aneurysm rupture, diameter, and occlusion showed that both former smokers (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.23-1.05; p = 0.07) and current smokers (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.46-1.46; p = 0.50) had odds of retreatment similar to those of patients who were never smokers. CONCLUSIONS The results show that smoking was not an independent risk factor for aneurysm recurrence and aneurysm retreatment among patients receiving endovascular treatment for intracranial aneurysms at the authors' institution. Nonetheless, patients with intracranial aneurysms should continue to be counseled about the risks of tobacco smoking. PMID:25380112

Brinjikji, Waleed; Lingineni, Ravi K; Gu, Chris N; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Cloft, Harry J; Ulsh, Lauren; Koeller, Kristen; Kallmes, David F

2015-01-01

328

Spontaneous thrombosis in giant intracranial aneurysms.  

PubMed Central

Twelve patients in a series of 22 with giant intracranial aneurysms demonstrated neuroradiological features of partial or total spontaneous intra-aneurysmal thrombosis. The presence of this intra-aneurysmal clot significantly altered the computed tomographic appearance of the giant aneurysm. Massive intra-aneurysmal thrombosis did not protect against subarachnoid haemorrhage and the likelihood of rupture of a clot containing giant aneurysm was not significantly different from that of a non-thrombosed giant aneurysm. Although parent artery occlusion from a thrombosed giant aneurysm, and massive aneurysmal thrombosis leading to the formation of giant serpentine aneurysm were documented, these are rare epiphenomena. The risk of embolisation from a partially thrombosed giant aneurysm, which was documented in one case, would appear to be greater than that from a non-thrombosed giant aneurysm. The findings in this series, and a review of literature, suggest that the presence of intra-aneurysmal clot in giant intracranial aneurysms has little prognostic significance and does not alter the management or outcome after treatment. Images PMID:7175528

Whittle, I R; Dorsch, N W; Besser, M

1982-01-01

329

Endovascular treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms in patients 70 years of age and older  

PubMed Central

Background: An increasing number of elderly patients present with intracranial aneurysms. In addition to female gender, an older age is associated with a higher risk of developing a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and these patients often fare poorly in terms of long-term outcome. It is often thought that elderly patients would especially benefit from endovascular aneurysm treatment. We assessed the clinical outcomes in elderly patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms (RIAs) who were treated by endovascular procedures. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of a prospective database of elderly patients treated with coil embolization for RIAs. The clinical outcomes were assessed using the modified Glasgow Outcome Scale. The rates of procedural complications and adverse events were also recorded. Results: During a period of 5 years, 162 patients with 183 intracranial aneurysms were treated in our hospital by means of an endovascular approach. Among them, 51 patients (31.5%) with a ruptured aneurysm were aged 70 years or older. These patients aged 70-91 years (mean age, 74 years) were treated by coil embolization for RIAs. Among them, seven had a Hunt and Hess (HH) grade of I or II, 42 had an HH grade of III or IV, and 2 had an HH grade of V. Endovascular treatment resulted in 32 complete occlusions (62.7%), 15 neck remnants (22%), and 4 body fillings (7.9%). Procedural complications occurred in five patients (9.8%). The outcomes were good or excellent in 17 patients (33.3%). Three patients (5.8%) who died had an HH grade of IV or V. Rebleeding occurred during follow-up in one patient (1.9%). Conclusions: Coil embolization of intracranial aneurysms is safe and effective in the elderly. However, the morbidity and mortality rates are higher in patients with high HH grades. This finding suggests that the timing of treatment should be based on the patient's initial clinical status. PMID:25101199

Watanabe, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Takao; Koyama, Shunichi; Ohashi, H. Tomoo; Okada, Hirohumi; Ichimasu, Norio; Kohno, Michihiro

2014-01-01

330

Intracranial aneurysms: a review of endovascular and surgical treatment in 248 patients.  

PubMed

We reviewed the medium-term results of endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms and compared patient selection and results with those of open surgery. Between January 1992 and December 1995, a total of 248 consecutive patients were treated for 297 aneurysms (61 unruptured and 236 ruptured). 162 aneurysms in 142 patients (mean age, 48.5 years) were treated microsurgically and 134 aneurysms in 106 patients (mean age, 54.2 years) were treated by endovascular embolization with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDC). The mean follow-up was 2.6 years (range, 1.5 to 4.5 years). There was no significant difference in patient population and selection in terms of age, sex or location of aneurysms between both methods. Both modalities achieved excellent results (defined as no neurological deficit) in patients with unruptured aneurysms and with no or minor deficits after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) between 71% and 88%. Patients with moderate deficits after SAH had excellent outcomes in 49% after open surgery, and 47% after embolization. Poor grade patients had, equally, as well an acceptable as a pour outcome, between 0% and 50%. There was no significant difference between the outcome of surgical or endovascular patients. We conclude that GDC embolization is not associated with a higher risk of morbidity and mortality than open surgery. This risk may even be lower for lesions in surgically unfavorable locations. The GDC technique is a less invasive, effective option to prevent re-bleeding in early stage, even in poor-grade patients. However, these encouraging medium-term results have to be confirmed by a longer observation period. PMID:9651916

Leber, K A; Klein, G E; Trummer, M; Eder, H G

1998-06-01

331

Acute Aneurismal Bilateral Subdural Haematoma without Subarachnoid Haemorrhage: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.  

PubMed

Spontaneous pure acute bilateral subdural haematoma (ASDH) without intraparenchymal or subarachnoid haemorrhage caused by a ruptured cerebral aneurysm is extremely rare. It can follow rupture of different aneurysms specially located in anterior incisural space; the most frequently encountered location is the PcoA aneurysms as demonstrated in the present case. We present a case report of a PcoA aneurysm presenting as pure bilateral ASDH. A high level of suspicion for bleeding of arterial origin should be maintained in all cases of acute subdural haematoma without history of trauma. The neurological status on admission dictates the appropriate timing and methodology of the neuroradiological investigations. PMID:25045554

Mansour, Ossama; Hassen, Tamer; Fathy, Sameh

2014-01-01

332

Acute Aneurismal Bilateral Subdural Haematoma without Subarachnoid Haemorrhage: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous pure acute bilateral subdural haematoma (ASDH) without intraparenchymal or subarachnoid haemorrhage caused by a ruptured cerebral aneurysm is extremely rare. It can follow rupture of different aneurysms specially located in anterior incisural space; the most frequently encountered location is the PcoA aneurysms as demonstrated in the present case. We present a case report of a PcoA aneurysm presenting as pure bilateral ASDH. A high level of suspicion for bleeding of arterial origin should be maintained in all cases of acute subdural haematoma without history of trauma. The neurological status on admission dictates the appropriate timing and methodology of the neuroradiological investigations. PMID:25045554

Mansour, Ossama; Hassen, Tamer; Fathy, Sameh

2014-01-01

333

Cerebral Aneurysm  

MedlinePLUS

... aneurysm, where it is used to insert metal coils that induce clot formation within the aneurysm. What ... aneurysms and other vascular lesions of the nervous system. The Familial Intracranial Aneurysm study seeks to identify ...

334

Molecular basis for intracranial aneurysm formation.  

PubMed

Intracranial aneurysm (IA) is a socially important disease both because it has a high prevalence and because of the severity of resultant subarachnoid hemorrhages after IA rupture. The major concern of current IA treatment is the lack medical therapies that are less invasive than surgical procedures for many patients. The current situation is mostly caused by a lack of knowledge regarding the regulating mechanisms of IA formation. Hemodynamic stress, especially high wall shear stress, loaded on arterial bifurcation sites is recognized as a trigger of IA formation from studies performed in the field of fluid dynamics. On the other hand, many studies using human specimens have also revealed the presence of active inflammatory responses, such as the infiltration of macrophages, in the pathogenesis of IA. Because of these findings, recent experimental studies, mainly using animal models of IA, have revealed some of the molecular mechanisms linking hemodynamic stress and long-lasting inflammation in IA walls. Currently, we propose that IA is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by a positive feedback loop consisting of the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 - prostaglandin (PG) E2 - prostaglandin E receptor 2 (EP2) - nuclear factor (NF)-?B signaling pathway triggered under hemodynamic stress and macrophage infiltration via NF-?B-mediated monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 induction. These findings indicate future directions for the development of therapeutic drugs for IAs. PMID:25366592

Fukuda, Miyuki; Aoki, Tomohiro

2015-01-01

335

Extra-Arachnoid and Extracranial Aneurysms of the Carotid Artery: Diagnosis and Management  

PubMed Central

Extra-arachnoid and extracranial aneurysms of the carotid arteries are uncommon disorders, but not rare. They are unlike their intracranial counterparts in that rupture of these lesions is uncommon and does not result in the classical picture of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage, but rather in massive epistaxis or hemoptysis or in the picture of a carotid cavernous fistula. These lesions have diverse causes and protean manifestations and may occur anywhere on the carotid artery, from its bifurcation in the neck up to the cavernous sinus at the base of the skull. Hypertension, atherosclerosis, and trauma, diseases endemic to the inner city, are their most frequent causes. The location of the lesion and the type of tissues which surround it, as well as the nature of adjacent neural structures, determine the size and configuration of these aneurysms and their attendant symptom complex. Neurological catastrophes are the common sequelae of these disorders if they are unrecognized and untreated. Arteriography is the only reliable method of definitive diagnosis and should be considered early in the diagnostic workup of patients suspected of harboring these lesions. In most cases these aneurysms are remediable, and surgery appears to be the treatment of choice. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15

Countee, Roger W.; Vijayanathan, Thurairasah

1982-01-01

336

Delayed progressive bilateral supraclinoid internal carotid artery stenosis in a patient with a ruptured basilar artery aneurysm.  

PubMed

Cerebral vasospasm is a common radiographic and clinical diagnosis after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Conventional treatments include medical hypertension, hypervolemia, and modest hemodilution. When medical treatments fail in severe vasospasm cases, intra-arterial vasodilation and balloon angioplasty may be useful. We present a 47-year-old woman with a ruptured basilar artery aneurysm who developed severe bilateral internal carotid artery vasospasm requiring bilateral balloon angioplasty. Prior to discharge, the patient's bilateral stenosis had improved. Three months post-discharge, severe restenosis in her bilateral internal carotid arteries occurred; a rare event. Balloon angioplasty has been demonstrated to histologically tear and stretch collagen fibers in the vessel wall and overexpansion of vessels may lead to a neo-intimal reaction that is similar to the one seen after stent placement in the intracranial circulation. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of delayed and progressive stenosis in vessels treated with angioplasty. Follow-up vascular imaging is necessary after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Future study is required on the treatment paradigms necessary for this delayed restenosis. PMID:25304439

Safain, Mina G; Malek, Adel M

2015-02-01

337

Association of Versican (VCAN) gene polymorphisms rs251124 and rs2287926 (G428D), with intracranial aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Intracranial aneurysm (IA) accounts for 85% of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) and is mainly caused due to the weakening of arterial wall. The structural integrity of the intracranial arteries is mainly influenced by the extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. The Proteoglycan Versican plays an important role in extracellular matrix assembly and plays a major role in the pathogenesis of IA. The linkage studies also indicated VCAN as a putative candidate gene for IA in the 5q22–31 region. Using a case–control study design, we tested the hypothesis whether the variants in VCAN gene, nonsynonymous variants in the coding region of Glycosaminoglycan ? (GAG-?) and GAG-? and two reported SNPs involved in splicing rs251124 and rs173686 can increase the risk of aSAH among South Indian patients, either independently, or by interacting with other risk factors of the disease. We selected 200 radiologically confirmed aneurysmal cases and 250 ethnically, age and sex matched controls from the Dravidian Malayalam speaking population of South India. The present study reiterated the earlier association of rs251124 with intracranial aneurysm (P = 0.0002) and also found a novel association with rs2287926 (G428D) in exon 7 coding for GAG-? with intracranial aneurysm (P = 0.0015). Interestingly, both these SNPs contributed to higher risk for aneurysm in males. In-silico analysis predicted this SNP to have the highest functional relevance in the gene which might have a potentially altered regulatory role in transcription and splicing. Using meta-analysis with available literature rs251124 was found to be the strongest intracranial aneurysm marker for global ethnicities. This study with a novel functional SNP rs2287926 (G428D) further substantiates the potential role of VCAN in the pathogenesis of IA. PMID:25606449

Sathyan, Sanish; Koshy, Linda V.; Balan, Shabeesh; Easwer, H.V.; Premkumar, S.; Nair, Suresh; Bhattacharya, R.N.; Alapatt, Jacob P.; Banerjee, Moinak

2014-01-01

338

Rescue Stenting in Endovascular Treatment of Acutely Ruptured Cerebral Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Summary Thromboembolic events and major artery occlusion following cerebral aneurysm coiling may lead to serious complications and even death if not treated. The use of an intracranial stent in the setting of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is risky due to the need for antiplatelet therapy. However in some conditions it could be an effective solution for this major problem. This study describes a revascularization technique using a Solitaire stent for treatment of anterior cerebral artery (ACA) occlusion following coiling of anterior communicating artery (Acom) aneurysms. Three cases of ruptured Acom aneurysms treated during the course of SAH underwent unplanned deployment of an intracranial stent. Complete occlusion of the ACA at the origin of the A2 segment developed during or shortly after coiling. Emergent CT brain scan was done in two cases to exclude rebleeding. Follow-up CT or MRI scans were performed 24 hours after stenting. Technical success was achieved in all cases. Complete revascularization of the Acom was achieved post stent deployment (TIMI grade 3). Time from onset of symptoms to full revascularization in the three cases was 35 minutes, one hour 50 minutes and two hours 40 minutes respectively. No intracranial bleeding occurred in any case following the procedure. No neurological changes occurred in case 1; mild neurological and radiological changes occurred in cases 2 and 3. Deployment of an intracranial stent achieved complete revascularization of the occluded Acom. Its use in a context of SAH is relatively risky but the technique resulted in a significant improvement of symptoms following flow restoration and probably helped prevent symptoms worsening, major disability or even death. A study on a larger patient sample with long-term follow-up will be of value. PMID:23472719

Mahmoud, M.

2013-01-01

339

Intracranial Extension of Spinal Subarachnoid Hematoma Causing Severe Cerebral Vasospasm  

PubMed Central

Spinal subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH) can extend into the intracranial subarachnoid space, but, severe cerebral vasospasm is rare complication of the extension of intracranial SAH from a spinal subarachnoid hematoma. A 67-year-old woman started anticoagulant therapy for unstable angina. The next day, she developed severe back pain and paraplegia. MRI showed intradural and extramedullar low signal intensity at the T2-3, consistent with intradural hematoma. High signal intensity was also noted in the spinal cord from C5 to T4. We removed subarachnoid hematoma compressing the spinal cord. The following day, the patient complained of severe headache. Brain CT revealed SAH around both parietal lobes. Three days later, her consciousness decreased and left hemiplegia also developed. Brain MRI demonstrated multiple cerebral infarctions, mainly in the right posterior cerebral artery territory, left parietal lobe and right watershed area. Conventional cerebral angiography confirmed diffuse severe vasospasm of the cerebral arteries. After intensive care for a month, the patient was transferred to the rehabilitation department. After 6 months, neurologic deterioration improved partially. We speculate that surgeons should anticipate possible delayed neurological complications due to cerebral vasospasm if intracranial SAH is detected after spinal subarachnoid hematoma.

Nam, Kyoung Hyup; Lee, Jae Il; Choi, Byung Kwan

2014-01-01

340

Inverted (Reverse) Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy following Cerebellar Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background. First described in 2005, inverted takotsubo is one of the four stress-induced cardiomyopathy patterns. It is rarely associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage but was not previously reported after intraparenchymal bleeding. Purpose. We reported a symptomatic case of inverted takotsubo pattern following a cerebellar hemorrhage. Case Report. A 26-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with sudden headache and hemorrhage of the posterior fossa was diagnosed, probably caused by a vascular malformation. Several hours later, she developed acute pulmonary edema due to acute heart failure. Echocardiography showed left ventricular dysfunction with hypokinetic basal segments and hyperkinetic apex corresponding to inverted takotsubo. Outcome was spontaneously favorable within a few days. Conclusion. Inverted takotsubo pattern is a stress-induced cardiomyopathy that could be encountered in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage and is generally of good prognosis. We described the first case following a cerebellar hematoma. PMID:24826313

Piérard, Sophie; Vinetti, Marco

2014-01-01

341

Aneurysm Repair  

MedlinePLUS

... to other parts of the body (the aorta). Aortic aneurysms can occur in the area below the stomach ( ... or in the chest (thoracic aneurysms). An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is usually located below the kidneys. In ...

342

Endovascular Embolization of a Ruptured Distal Lenticulostriate Artery Aneurysm in Patients with Moyamoya Disease  

PubMed Central

A ruptured distal lenticulostriate artery (LSA) aneurysm is detected occasionally in moyamoya disease (MMD) patients presented with intracerebral hemorrhage. If the aneurysm is detected in hemorrhage site on angiographic evaluation, its obliteration could be considered, because it rebleeds frequently, and is associated with poorer outcome and mortality in MMD related hemorrhage. In this case report, the authors present two MMD cases with ruptured distal LSA aneurysm treated by endovascular embolization.

Hwang, Kihwan; Kwon, O-Ki

2014-01-01

343

Endovascular embolization of a ruptured distal lenticulostriate artery aneurysm in patients with moyamoya disease.  

PubMed

A ruptured distal lenticulostriate artery (LSA) aneurysm is detected occasionally in moyamoya disease (MMD) patients presented with intracerebral hemorrhage. If the aneurysm is detected in hemorrhage site on angiographic evaluation, its obliteration could be considered, because it rebleeds frequently, and is associated with poorer outcome and mortality in MMD related hemorrhage. In this case report, the authors present two MMD cases with ruptured distal LSA aneurysm treated by endovascular embolization. PMID:25628809

Hwang, Kihwan; Hwang, Gyojun; Kwon, O-Ki

2014-12-01

344

Splinter hemorrhages  

MedlinePLUS

Fingernail hemorrhage ... Splinter hemorrhages look like thin, red to reddish-brown lines of blood under the nails. They run in the direction of nail growth. They are named splinter hemorrhages because they look like a splinter under the ...

345

Intracranial Non-traumatic Aneurysms in Children and Adolescents.  

PubMed

An intracranial aneurysm in a child or adolescent is a rare, but potentially devastating condition. As little as approximately 1200 cases are reported between 1939 and 2011, with many of the reports presenting diverting results. There is consensus, though, in that pediatric aneurysms represent a pathophysiological entity different from their adult counterparts. In children, there is a male predominance. About two-thirds of pediatric intracranial aneurysms become symptomatic with hemorrhage and the rate of re-hemorrhage is higher than in adults. The rate of hemorrhage from an intracranial aneurysm peaks in girls around menarche. The most common aneurysm site in children is the internal carotid artery, in particular at its terminal ending. Aneurysms in the posterior circulation are more common in children than adults. Children more often develop giant aneurysms, and may become symptomatic from the mass effect of the aneurysm (tumorlike symptoms). The more complex nature of pediatric aneurysms poses a larger challenge to treatment alongside with higher demands to the durability of treatment. Outcome and mortality are similar in children and adults, but long-term outcome in the pediatric population is influenced by the high rate of aneurysm recurrences and de novo formation of intracranial aneurysms. This urges the need for life-long follow-up and screening protocols. PMID:24696670

Sorteberg, Angelika; Dahlberg, Daniel

2013-11-01

346

Deficits in decision-making in patients with aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) secondary to ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms (ACoA) often suffer from neuropsychological sequelae including personality and behavioural changes. In this study, 31 patients with ruptured aneurysms of the ACoA resulting in SAH (mean age 50.9 years, NART (National Adult Reading Test) IQ 108.7) were compared with a group of 29 normal controls (mean

N. Mavaddat; P. J. Kirkpatrick; R. D. Rogers; B. J. Sahakian

2000-01-01

347

Are Blood Blister-Like Aneurysms a Specific Type of Dissection? A Comparative Study of Blood Blister-Like Aneurysms and Ruptured Mizutani Type 4 Vertebral Artery Dissections  

PubMed Central

Objective Blood blister-like aneurysms (BBAs) resemble arterial dissections. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between these two disease entities and highlight commonalities and distinct features. Methods Among 871 consecutive patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, 11 BBAs of internal carotid artery and seven vertebral artery dissections (VADs) with a short segmental eccentric dilatation (Mizutani type 4), which is morphologically similar to a BBA, were selected. The following clinical factors were studied in each group : age, gender, risk factors, Hunt and Hess grade (HHG), Fisher grade (FG), vasospasms, hydrocephalus, perioperative rebleeding rate, and treatment outcome. Results The mean age was 47.9 years in the BBAs group and 46.4 years in the type 4 VADs group. All the BBA patients were female, whereas there was a slight male predominance in the type 4 VAD group (male : female ratio of 4 : 3). In the BBA and type 4 VAD groups that underwent less aggressive treatment to save the parent artery, 29% (n=2/7) and 66.6% (n=2/3), respectively, eventually required retreatment. Perioperative rebleeding occurred in 72.7% (n=8) and 28.6% (n=2) of patients in the BBA and type 4 VAD groups, respectively. There was no statistical difference in the other clinical factors in both groups, except for the male dominancy in the type 4 VAD group (p=0.011). Conclusion BBAs and ruptured type 4 VADs have a similar morphological appearance but there is a distinct clinical feature in gender and perioperative rebleeding rates. Complete isolation of an aneurysm from the parent artery might be the most important discipline for the treatment of these diseases.

Sim, Sook Young; Chung, Joonho

2014-01-01

348

Intracranial Hemorrhage in Patient Treated with Rivaroxaban  

PubMed Central

Rivaroxaban is an oral factor Xa inhibitor used for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. There are currently no evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of hemorrhagic side effects of factor Xa inhibitors. We report a case of a thalamic hemorrhage in an 84 year-old right-handed female on rivaroxaban for treatment of atrial fibrillation. The patient had fallen down steps and became unresponsive. She was found to have diffuse scattered acute subarachnoid hemorrhage as well as intraventricular hemorrhage. Neurosurgical intervention was not required in this case, but controversy over decision making to pursue pro-coagulant therapy in the setting of worsening hemorrhage requiring emergent surgery is discussed. PMID:24711920

Molina, Michelle; Hillard, Virany H.; Fekete, Robert

2014-01-01

349

Update in Intracerebral Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous, nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is defined as bleeding within the brain parenchyma. Intracranial hemorrhage includes bleeding within the cranial vault and encompasses ICH, subdural hematoma, epidural bleeds, and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This review will focus only on ICH. This stroke subtype accounts for about 10% of all strokes. The hematoma locations are deep or ganglionic, lobar, cerebellar, and brain stem in descending order of frequency. Intracerebral hemorrhage occurs twice as common as SAH and is equally as deadly. Risk factors for ICH include hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, advanced age, antithrombotic therapy and history of cerebrovascular disease. The clinical presentation is “stroke like” with sudden onset of focal neurological deficits. Noncontrast head computerized tomography (CT) scan is the standard diagnostic tool. However, newer neuroimaging techniques have improved the diagnostic yield in terms of underlying pathophysiology and may aid in prognosis. Intracerebral hemorrhage is a neurological emergency. Medical care begins with stabilization of airway, breathing function, and circulation (ABCs), followed by specific measures aimed to decrease secondary neurological damage and to prevent both medical and neurological complications. Reversal of coagulopathy when present is of the essence. Blood pressure management can be key and continues as an area of debate and ongoing research. Surgical evacuation of ICH is of unproven benefit though a subset of well-selected patients may have improved outcomes. Ventriculostomy and intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring are interventions also used in this patient population. To date, hemostatic medications and neuroprotectants have failed to result in clinical improvement. A multidisciplinary approach is recommended, with participation of vascular neurology, vascular neurosurgery, critical care, and rehabilitation medicine as the main players. PMID:23983850

Aguilar, Maria I.; Brott, Thomas G.

2011-01-01

350

Renal artery aneurysm formation secondary to pseudoxanthoma elasticum.  

PubMed

This report describes a patient with pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) who presented with an incidental finding of a renal artery aneurysm. PXE is a rare genetic condition. It is associated with calcification of elastin fibers and is characterized by skin, eye, and cardiovascular complications. Our patient was previously treated for retinal and gastrointestinal hemorrhage and coronary artery disease, and is under surveillance for cerebral aneurysms. Five reports in the published literature have described aneurysms in patients with PXE, but, to our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with PXE and renal artery aneurysm. The literature on PXE and aneurysms is reviewed. PMID:23218412

Zimmo, Lyn; Rudarakanchana, Nung; Thompson, Mary; Hamady, Mohamad S; Cheshire, Nicholas J W; Bicknell, Colin D

2013-03-01

351

Leber's miliary aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Leber's disease is a form of primary retinal telangiectasia characterized by the presence of abnormalities in the retinal vasculature. It is an idiopathic, unilateral condition with male predilection. It is not associated with any other systemic or ocular disease. The disease has a very slow progression and can be complicated by vascular dilatations, neovascularizations, thromboses, retrovitreal hemorrhages, and macular changes. We present a case of Leber's miliary aneurysms in an asymptomatic 22-year-old male patient. His fundus examination showed aneurysmal dilatations with lipid exudation. Intravenous fluorescein angiography showed early and late leakage as well as capillary dropout with late hypofluorescence. In this case, the patient was treated with laser photocoagulation of the retina. PMID:24082673

Alturkistany, Walaa; Waheeb, Saad

2013-01-01

352

Leber's miliary aneurysms.  

PubMed

Leber's disease is a form of primary retinal telangiectasia characterized by the presence of abnormalities in the retinal vasculature. It is an idiopathic, unilateral condition with male predilection. It is not associated with any other systemic or ocular disease. The disease has a very slow progression and can be complicated by vascular dilatations, neovascularizations, thromboses, retrovitreal hemorrhages, and macular changes. We present a case of Leber's miliary aneurysms in an asymptomatic 22-year-old male patient. His fundus examination showed aneurysmal dilatations with lipid exudation. Intravenous fluorescein angiography showed early and late leakage as well as capillary dropout with late hypofluorescence. In this case, the patient was treated with laser photocoagulation of the retina. PMID:24082673

Alturkistany, Walaa; Waheeb, Saad

2013-05-01

353

Brain Aneurysm: Treatment Options  

MedlinePLUS

Brain Aneurysm Basics Warning Signs/Symptoms Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History Early Detection and Screening Unruptured Brain Aneurysms ...

354

Subconjunctival hemorrhage  

MedlinePLUS

Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a bright red patch appearing in the white of the eye. This condition is one of ... clear tissue called the bulbar conjunctiva . A subconjunctival hemorrhage occurs when a small blood vessel breaks open ...

355

Aneurysm Complications  

MedlinePLUS

... describes too much fluid building up within the spaces inside the brain (also known as ventricles). This ... of CSF within the ventricular system or subarachnoid space (noncommunicating hydrocephalus) either due to intraventricular mass lesions ...

356

Subarachnoid-subarachnoid bypass for spinal adhesive arachnoiditis.  

PubMed

The authors report a case of adhesive arachnoiditis (AA) and arachnoid cyst successfully treated by subarachnoid to subarachnoid bypass (S-S bypass). Arachnoid cysts or syringes sometimes compress the spinal cord and cause compressive myelopathy that requires surgical treatment. However, surgical treatment for AA is challenging. A 57-year-old woman developed leg pain and gait disturbance. A dorsal arachnoid cyst compressed the spinal cord at T7-9, the spinal cord was swollen, and a small syrinx was present at T9-10. An S-S bypass was performed from T6-7 to T11-12. The patient's gait disturbance resolved immediately after surgery. Two years later, a small arachnoid cyst developed. However, there was no neurological deterioration. The myelopathy associated with thoracic spinal AA, subarachnoid cyst, and syrinx improved after S-S bypass. PMID:25170651

Tachibana, Toshiya; Moriyama, Tokuhide; Maruo, Keishi; Inoue, Shinichi; Arizumi, Fumihiro; Yoshiya, Shinichi

2014-11-01

357

Flow Diverters for Intracranial Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Flow diverters (pipeline embolization device, Silk flow diverter, and Surpass flow diverter) have been developed to treat intracranial aneurysms. These endovascular devices are placed within the parent artery rather than the aneurysm sac. They take advantage of altering hemodynamics at the aneurysm/parent vessel interface, resulting in gradual thrombosis of the aneurysm occurring over time. Subsequent inflammatory response, healing, and endothelial growth shrink the aneurysm and reconstruct the parent artery lumen while preserving perforators and side branches in most cases. Flow diverters have already allowed treatment of previously untreatable wide neck and giant aneurysms. There are risks with flow diverters including in-stent thrombosis, perianeurysmal edema, distant and delayed hemorrhages, and perforator occlusions. Comparative efficacy and safety against other therapies are being studied in ongoing trials. Antiplatelet therapy is mandatory with flow diverters, which has highlighted the need for better evidence for monitoring and tailoring antiplatelet therapy. In this paper we review the devices, their uses, associated complications, evidence base, and ongoing studies. PMID:24967131

Alderazi, Yazan J.; Kass-Hout, Tareq; Prestigiacomo, Charles J.; Gandhi, Chirag D.

2014-01-01

358

Flow diverters for intracranial aneurysms.  

PubMed

Flow diverters (pipeline embolization device, Silk flow diverter, and Surpass flow diverter) have been developed to treat intracranial aneurysms. These endovascular devices are placed within the parent artery rather than the aneurysm sac. They take advantage of altering hemodynamics at the aneurysm/parent vessel interface, resulting in gradual thrombosis of the aneurysm occurring over time. Subsequent inflammatory response, healing, and endothelial growth shrink the aneurysm and reconstruct the parent artery lumen while preserving perforators and side branches in most cases. Flow diverters have already allowed treatment of previously untreatable wide neck and giant aneurysms. There are risks with flow diverters including in-stent thrombosis, perianeurysmal edema, distant and delayed hemorrhages, and perforator occlusions. Comparative efficacy and safety against other therapies are being studied in ongoing trials. Antiplatelet therapy is mandatory with flow diverters, which has highlighted the need for better evidence for monitoring and tailoring antiplatelet therapy. In this paper we review the devices, their uses, associated complications, evidence base, and ongoing studies. PMID:24967131

Alderazi, Yazan J; Shastri, Darshan; Kass-Hout, Tareq; Prestigiacomo, Charles J; Gandhi, Chirag D

2014-01-01

359

Endovascular exclusion of the anterior communicating artery with flow-diverter stents as an emergency treatment for blister-like intracranial aneurysms. A case report.  

PubMed

Blood blister-like aneurysms (BLAs) are rare lesions, associated with diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). BLAs tend to rebleed quickly after first bleeding and must be treated as an emergency. Acute treatment is challenging using surgical and endovascular approaches due to the fragile aneurysm wall and small sac. Flow-diverter stents (FDSs) may offer a new option for the treatment of difficult small aneurysms. We describe a case of a ruptured BLA on the anterior communicating artery (AComA) treated in the acute phase of SAH by endovascular exclusion of the AComA with deployment of two FDSs in the A1/A2 junctions of both anterior cerebral arteries (ACAs). A 61-year-old man was admitted for diffuse SAH with a focal interhemispheric hematoma. Angiography revealed multiple arterial wall irregularities on the AComA and both ACAs. We performed an endovascular shunt of the AComA by deploying two FDSs in both A1/A2 junctions. Immediate control injections confirmed flow diversion in the A1/A2 segments of the ACAs with decreased blood flow in the AComA. The patient's course in hospital was uneventful. A three-month follow-up angiogram confirmed complete exclusion of the aneurysms, complete exclusion of the AComA, and patency of the two ACAs without any persistent arterial wall irregularity. Endovascular bypass using an FDS for a ruptured BLA has never been described. It establishes a new therapeutic option despite the need for antiplatelet therapy. Endovascular AComA exclusion using an FDS may be a solution when no other treatment is available for a ruptured BLA. PMID:24355152

Rouchaud, Aymeric; Saleme, Suzana; Gory, Benjamin; Ayoub, David; Mounayer, Charbel

2013-12-01

360

[Transient cortical blindness and convulsion mimicking a hemorrhagic complication during embolization of the cerebellar AVM].  

PubMed

We report a case of transient cortical blindness and convulsions during embolization of the cerebellar AVM. A 29-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography showed the right cerebellar AVM fed by the right superior cerebellar artery. Preoperative embolization of the AVM was performed. During embolization, the patient lost consciousness suddenly and appeared to be in a decerebrate posture. About 15 minutes later, the patient came around and complained of total blindness. Cerebral angiography revealed the disappearance of the aneurysm and AVM. There were no abnormal findings in the vertebrobasilar system. Computed tomography obtained just after the procedure, showed considerable contrast enhancement of the occipital lobes. Two hours later, a repeat computed tomography showed clearance of contrast enhancement. Magnetic resonance imaging obtained 12 hours after the procedure, showed no evidence of infarction in the occipital lobes. Two days after, the patient's sight gradually returned. Seven days after the procedure, the patient recovered completely. We speculated that these clinical features might be convulsions due to contrast material. In the reported cases, convulsions and transient cortical blindness due to non-ionic low osmolar contrast materials is a rare complication. This case suggested disruption of the blood-brain barrier demonstrated by the computed tomography appearance of contrast enhancement in the occipital lobes. PMID:10190160

Nakai, Y; Hyodo, A; Okazaki, M; Shibata, Y; Matsumaru, Y; Nose, T

1999-03-01

361

[Non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema induced by non-ionic radiographic contrast media during the coil embolization for a ruptured cerebral aneurysm].  

PubMed

We describe a 48(correction of 44) year-old woman, who presents a non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema caused by non-ionic radiographic contrast medium. She suffered from subarachnoid hemorrhage due to dissecting aneurysm of right vertebral artery. Cerebral angiography followed by coil embolization for the aneurysm was performed. During the interventional procedure, saturation of blood oxygen suddenly declined and chest X-ray photography obviously revealed pulmonary edema. At first we dealt with it as neurogenic phenomenon but subsequently interpreted it to non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema induced by radiographic contrast medium, since intra-arterial injection of contrast medium at follow-up angiography led the symptoms into more fulminant status. Intensive care including endotracheal intubation and continuous positive airway pressure ventilation consequently achieved complete remission and the patient discharged without any sequelae. Although low osmolar, non-ionic contrast medium has been regarded as relatively safe, severe reaction such as dyspnea, hypotension and cardiac arrest could emerge at certain intervals. We must perceive the adverse effects of it because the usage of contrast medium will dramatically increase with development of diagnostic radiographical methodology and interventional neurosurgery. PMID:16001811

Nakajima, Takeshi; Takahashi, Toshie; Umezawa, Kunihiko; Shimizu, Keiki; Okada, Hitoshi; Kaneko, Uichi

2005-07-01

362

Dengue hemorrhagic fever  

MedlinePLUS

Hemorrhagic dengue; Dengue shock syndrome; Philippine hemorrhagic fever; Thai hemorrhagic fever; Singapore hemorrhagic fever ... Yellow Fever, Dengue, Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Japanese ... Encephalitis, St. Louis Encephalitis, Tick-Borne Encephalitis). ...

363

Intracranial hypotension as a complication of lumbar puncture prior to elective aneurysm clipping  

PubMed Central

Background: Lumbar dural defects are an uncommon but important cause of persistent intracranial hypotension in the neurosurgical population. We present a case of intracranial hypotension after elective craniotomy due to a lumbar puncture performed 3 weeks earlier. Case Description: A 55-year-old female underwent uneventful craniotomy for clipping of an unruptured left middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysm. Postoperatively, the patient showed a gaze deviation and failed to wake up. Computed tomography demonstrated significant postoperative pneumocephalus. Family members indicated that the patient underwent a lumbar puncture 3 weeks prior to surgery to rule out a subarachnoid hemorrhage. The excessive pneumocephalus was initially interpreted as a result of spinal cerebrospinal fluid leak, and the patient was placed in the Trendelenburg position. This positioning resulted in some improvement in her mental status, although she was unable to tolerate any subsequent elevation in the head of her bed. Magnetic resonance imaging analysis of her spinal axis did not demonstrate any evidence of cerebrospinal fluid leak, but a subsequent lumbar blood patch resulted in rapid and dramatic improvement in the patient's status. She was subsequently discharged after an uneventful hospital stay. Conclusion: Although uncommon, persistent intracranial hypotension caused by lumbar dural defects must be considered in patients who have recently undergone procedures that compromise the lumbar dura because prompt intervention can significantly improve the patient's condition. PMID:25324976

Guan, Jian; Couldwell, William T.; Taussky, Philipp

2014-01-01

364

Aortic Aneurysm  

MedlinePLUS

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... and empower Americans to make heart-healthy choices. Web Sites with More Information About Aortic Aneurysm For ...

365

Functional outcome and quality of life after angiography and operation for unruptured intracranial aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo assess outcome after elective treatment for unruptured intracranial aneurysms.METHODSOf 193 consecutive patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage 626 first degree relatives (parents, siblings, children) were screened with magnetic resonance angiography. Subsequently, 18 relatives underwent elective angiography and operation. Outcome was assessed in terms of impairments (neurological examination), disabilities (Barthel index), handicaps (Rankin scale), and quality of life (sickness impact profile (SIP)

Theodora W M Raaymakers

2000-01-01

366

Sudden headache, third nerve palsy and visual deficit: thinking outside the subarachnoid haemorrhage box.  

PubMed

A 75-year-old lady presented with sudden severe headache and vomiting. Examination was normal, and CT and lumbar puncture not convincing for subarachnoid haemorrhage. Shortly thereafter, she developed painless diplopia. Examination confirmed right third cranial nerve palsy plus homonymous left inferior quadrantanopia. Urgent cerebral MRI with angiography was requested to assess for a possible posterior communicating artery aneurysm, but revealed an unsuspected pituitary mass. Pituitary adenoma with pituitary apoplexy was diagnosed. Pituitary apopolexy is a syndrome comprising sudden headache, meningism, visual and/or oculomotor deficits, with an intrasellar mass. It is commonly due to haemorrhage or infarction within a pituitary adenoma. Treatment includes prompt steroid administration, and potentially surgical decompression. While subarachnoid haemorrhage is an important, well-recognised cause of sudden severe headache, other aetiologies, including pituitary apoplexy, should be considered and sought. PMID:23913476

Ní Chróinín, Danielle; Lambert, John

2013-11-01

367

A rare cause of intraabdominal hematoma: rupture of mesenteric artery branch aneurysm.  

PubMed

Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) aneurysm is the third most common splanchnic artery aneurysm. Unlike other splanchnic artery aneurysm, isolated aneurysms of the SMA branches are rare. They are usually asymptomatic and difficult to detect until they rupture and cause abdominal pain and hypovolemic shock. Thus, most cases are diagnosed after the occurrence of complications. In this report, we described a 76-year-old woman who had two saccular aneurysms in the superior mesenteric arterial branch(es). One of them was ruptured and partly thrombosed. The patient had acute renal failure secondary to massive intraabdominal hemorrhage. PMID:24617176

Gunduz, Y; Sipahi, S; Kara, R; Tamer, A

2013-01-01

368

Head trauma and distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysm: potential role of an adhesion to the falx.  

PubMed

Proximity of the distal anterior cerebral artery (dACA) and the edge of the falx has been hypothetically implicated in the pathogenesis of traumatic dACA aneurysms. A 57-year-old patient presented with posttraumatic intracranial hemorrhage and an A3-bifurcation aneurysm that increased in size over the following 2 weeks. Because of higher endovascular risk, surgical clipping was preferred. Surgery revealed a fibrous adhesion between the falx and the dACA at the aneurysm site. This adhesion could provide an anatomical reason for the formation of a traumatic dACA aneurysm at the edge of the falx or rupture of a preexisting aneurysm. PMID:24971683

Scholtes, Felix; Henroteaux, Adrienne; Otto, Bernard; Martin, Didier

2015-01-01

369

Controlled release of stromal cell-derived factor-1? from silk fibroin-coated coils accelerates intra-aneurysmal organization and occlusion of neck remnant by recruiting endothelial progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

This study is to test the efficacy of stromal cell-derived factor-1? (SDF-1?)-coated coils together with endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) transplantation in occluding aneurysms. Bone marrow-derived EPC surface markers were analyzed using flow cytometry. The migratory function of EPCs in response to SDF-1? was evaluated using a modified Boyden chamber assay. Capillary-like tube formation was assessed using Matrigel gel. Coil morphologies before and after coating with SDF-1? were observed under a scanning electron microscope. The level of SDF-1? in supernatants was measured by ELISA. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into five groups. Histological analysis was performed on days 14 and 28 after coil implantation. The bone marrow-EPCs could express CD133, CD34, and VEGFR-2 and form tubule-like structures in vitro. Migratory ability of EPCs in the presence of SDF-1?-coated coils was similar to that in the presence of 5 ng/ml SDF-1? gradient. Sustained release of SDF-1? was achieved using silk fibroin as a carrier. In SDF-1?-coated coils + EPCs transplantation group, a well-organized fibrous tissue bridging the orifice of aneurysms was shown on days 14 and 28. On day 28, tissue organization was greater in the SDF-1?-coated coils group than in the unmodified coils group. Immunofluorescence showed ?-smooth muscle actin-positive cells in organized tissue in sacs. Combined treatment with SDF-1?-coated coils and EPCs transplantation is a safe and effective treatment for rat aneurysms. This may provide a new strategy for endovascular therapy following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Gao, Yuyuan; Wang, Qiujing; Cui, Xubo; Liu, Yaqi; Zheng, Tao; Chen, Chengwei; Sun, Chengmei; Huang, Shuyun; Wang, Xin; Liu, Yanchao; Jiang, Xiaodan; Zeng, Chi; Quan, Daping

2014-01-01

370

Multifocal Cerebral Fusiform Aneurysms in Children with Immune Deficiencies Report of Four Cases  

PubMed Central

Summary We describe three children infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV 1), and one child suffering from familial mucocutaneous candidiasis; who all had multiple, fusiform subarachnoid intracranial aneurysms. Because infectious causative agents were never detected at the level of the lesions, a classical “mycotic” origin of these aneurysms seemed unlikely. Despite the fact that these aneurysms have the same angiographic appearance, they have different etiologies (immune and infectious). These data open the discussion on the reciprocal role of an infectious or immune initial trigger acting on a vascular (endothelial) target. The specificities of the target in terms of location and response enhance specific topographic characteristics (phenotypes) of the cerebral vasculature. PMID:20670504

Sedat, J.; Alvarez, H.; Rodesch, G.; Lasjaunias, P.

1999-01-01

371

Intraoperative microvascular Doppler ultrasonography in cerebral aneurysm surgery  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Outcome of surgical treatment of cerebral aneurysms may be severely compromised by local cerebral ischaemia or infarction resulting from the inadvertent occlusion of an adjacent vessel by the aneurysm clip, or by incomplete aneurysm closure. It is therefore mandatory to optimise clip placement in situ to reduce the complication rate. The present study was performed to investigate the reliability of intraoperative microvascular Doppler ultrasonography (MDU) in cerebral aneurysm surgery, and to assess the impact of this method on the surgical procedure itself.?METHODS—Seventy five patients (19 men, 56 women, mean age 54.8 years, range 22-84 years) with 90 saccular cerebral aneurysms were evaluated. Blood flow velocities in the aneurysmal sac and in the adjacent vessels were determined by MDU before and after aneurysm clipping. The findings of MDU were analysed and compared with those of visual inspection of the surgical site and of postoperative angiography. Analysis was also made of the cases in which the clip was repositioned due to MDU findings.?RESULTS—A relevant stenosis of an adjacent vessel induced by clip positioning that had escaped detection by visual inspection was identified by Doppler ultrasonography in 17 out of 90 (18.9%) aneurysms. In addition, Doppler ultrasound demonstrated a primarily unoccluded aneurysm in 11 out of 90 (12.2%) patients. The aneurysm clip was repositioned on the basis of the MDU findings in 26 out of 90 (28.8%) cases. In middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms, the MDU results were relevant to the surgical procedure in 17out of 44 (38.6%) cases. Whereas with aneurysms of the anterior cerebral artery significant findings occurred in only five of 32cases (15.6%; p<0.05). The clip was repositioned on the basis of the MDU results in 18 out of 50 (36%) aneurysms in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) grade I-V compared with only eight out of 40 (20%) aneurysms in patients without SAH (p<0.05).?CONCLUSIONS—MDU should be used routinely in cerebral aneurysm surgery, especially in cases of MCA aneurysms and after SAH. Present data show that a postoperative angiography becomes superfluous whenever there is good visualisation of the "working site" and MDU findings are clear.?? PMID:10601397

Stendel, R.; Pietila, T.; Al, H; Schilling, A.; Brock, M.

2000-01-01

372

Traumatic subarachnoid-pleural fistula  

SciTech Connect

Traumatic subarachnoid-pleural fistulas are rare. The authors found nine cases reported since 1959. Seven have been secondary to trauma and two following thoracotomy. One patient's death is thought to be directly related to the fistula. The diagnosis should be suspected in patients with a pleural effusion and associated vertebral trauma. The diagnosis can usually be confirmed with contrast or radioisotopic myelography. Successful closure of the fistula will usually occur spontaneously with closed tube drainage and antibiotics; occasionally, thoracotomy is necessary to close the rent in the dura.

Brown, W.H.; Stothert, J.C. Jr.

1985-11-01

373

Left Gastric Artery Aneurysm: Successful Embolization with Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx)  

SciTech Connect

Patients with left gastric artery aneurysms present with hemorrhagic shock due to rupture or occasionally it is an incidental finding on abdominal CT examinations. Due to the increased morbidity and mortality from this condition, adequate diagnosis and treatment are essential. In this article we present a patient with a left gastric artery aneurysm treated with a new embolization agent, ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx)

Vargas, Hebert Alberto, E-mail: alberto.vargas@addenbrookes.nhs.uk; Cousins, Claire; Higgins, J. Nicholas; See, Teik Choon [Addenbroke's Hospital, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2008-03-15

374

Abdominal aortic aneurysm  

MedlinePLUS

Aneurysm - aortic; AAA ... pressure Male gender Genetic factors An abdominal aortic aneurysm is most often seen in males over age ... one or more risk factors. The larger the aneurysm, the more likely it is to break open. ...

375

Taiwan Aneurysm Registry: Multivariate Analysis of Two-Month, One-Year, and Two-Year Outcomes after Endovascular and Microsurgical Treatment of Ruptured Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Summary We compared the outcomes of endovascular coiling with microsurgical clipping of aneurysms in a Taiwanese population. In an ambi-directional cohort design, patient baseline characteristics and clinical course after treatment for ruptured subarachnoid aneurysm were abstracted from medical records from three hospitals to examine and compare differences in post-operative outcomes between those treated with endovascular coiling and those treated with microsurgical clipping. Outcomes were measured, using the modified Rankin scale, two months, one year and two years postoperatively. Of the 642 patients enrolled in the study, 281 underwent endovascular treatment and 361 underwent neurosurgery. The demographics and baseline characteristics of two groups were comparable except for a larger maximum target aneurysm lumen size (p=0.02) in the endovascular group. Patients who underwent the endovascular procedure tended to have a better quality of life than those who had neurosurgery (p<0.01). When the severity of symptom data was pooled into two groups (Rankin values 0-2 and 3-6) a statistically significant relationship was found between the severity of symptoms and age, Hunt and Hess grade, number of target aneurysms detected, and log of maximum target aneurysm lumen size (all p?0.01). After controlling for potential confounding factors and using the lumped Rankin outcome data, no significant difference in outcome was found between the two procedures at either time point. Our study indicated that endovascular coiling achieves results comparable to surgical clipping for patients with ruptured subarachnoid aneurysms in a Taiwanese population. PMID:23472721

Liu, H-M.; Wong, H-F.; Lee, K-W.; Tu, Y-K.; Yeh, Y-S.; Chou, Y-S.; Wang, Y-H.; Chen, Y-L.; Lo, Y-L.; Hsieh, T-C.; Wang, Y-C.; Lin, T-K.; Lai, D-M.; Chen, W-L.; Tseng, H-M.; Li, C-W.

2013-01-01

376

Treatment of a Vertebral Dissecting Aneurysm with a Balloon-Expandable Stent and Guglielmi Detachable Coils  

PubMed Central

Summary A 43-year-old man with dissecting vertebral artery aneurysm presented with subarachnoid haemorrhage. The vertebral angiography showed a fusiform dilatation at the right intracranial vertebral artery between the origin of posterior inferior cerebellar artery and the vertebral union. After failing conservative therapy, a balloon-expandable stent was placed at intracranial vertebral artery; in a manner such that the entire dissecting aneurysm was covered. On follow-up angiogram, we recognized regrowth of theresidual aneurysm and stent deformation. The parent artery was occluded completely with several Guglielmi detachable coils. Brainstem dysfunction or rebleeding of the aneurysm were not encountered. Recently stenting therapy was deployed for a patient with dissecting aneurysm of the extracranial carotid or vertebral artery who was not a candidate for surgical treatment. We discuss the feasibilities and limitations of stent therapy. PMID:20670508

Nakahara, T.; Kurisu, K.; Yano, T.; Sakoda, K.

1999-01-01

377

A new murine model of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair.  

PubMed

Endovascular aneurysm exclusion is a validated technique to prevent aneurysm rupture. Long-term results highlight technique limitations and new aspects of Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) pathophysiology. There is no abdominal aortic aneurysm endograft exclusion model cheap and reproducible, which would allow deep investigations of AAA before and after treatment. We hereby describe how to induce, and then to exclude with a covered coronary stentgraft an abdominal aortic aneurysm in a rat. The well known elastase induced AAA model was first reported in 1990(1) in a rat, then described in mice(2). Elastin degradation leads to dilation of the aorta with inflammatory infiltration of the abdominal wall and intra luminal thrombus, matching with human AAA. Endovascular exclusion with small covered stentgraft is then performed, excluding any interactions between circulating blood and the aneurysm thrombus. Appropriate exclusion and stentgraft patency is confirmed before euthanasia by an angiography thought the left carotid artery. Partial control of elastase diffusion makes aneurysm shape different for each animal. It is difficult to create an aneurysm, which will allow an appropriate length of aorta below the aneurysm for an easy stentgraft introduction, and with adequate proximal and distal neck to prevent endoleaks. Lots of failure can result to stentgraft introduction which sometimes lead to aorta tear with pain and troubles to stitch it, and endothelial damage with post op aorta thrombosis. Giving aspirin to rats before stentgraft implantation decreases failure rate without major hemorrhage. Clamping time activates neutrophils, endothelium and platelets, and may interfere with biological analysis. PMID:23851958

Rouer, Martin; Meilhac, Olivier; Delbosc, Sandrine; Louedec, Liliane; Pavon-Djavid, Graciela; Cross, Jane; Legagneux, Josette; Bouilliant-Linet, Maxime; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Alsac, Jean-Marc

2013-01-01

378

Undertanding Brain Aneurysm Videos  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

BAF Publications Webinars Videos Articles Web Resources Books Publications on BAF Funded Research Projects Glossary GTranslate Educational Resources : Video Brain Aneurysm Symptoms - Early Detection of Brain Aneurysms ...

379

Left ventricular submitral aneurysms.  

E-print Network

??Retrospective institutional review of the pathology, aetiology classification and surgical management of left ventricular submitral aneurysms (LVSMA). These aneurysms are a well recognized but relatively… (more)

Du Toit, Henning

2007-01-01

380

Ruptured spontaneous splenic artery aneurysm: A case report and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Splenic artery aneurysm is a rare condition, however, potentially fatal. The importance of splenic artery aneurysm lies in the risk for rupture and life threatening hemorrhage. PRESENTATION OF CASE This is a case of a ruptured splenic artery aneurysm in a 58-year-old lady. She presented with hypovolemic shock and intra-peritoneal bleeding. Diagnosis was confirmed by CT angiography and she was managed by operative ligation of the aneurysm with splenectomy and distal pancreatectomy. DISCUSSION The literature pointed the presence of some risk factors correlating to the development of splenic artery aneurysm. In this article we discuss a rare case of spontaneous (idiopathic) splenic artery aneurysm and review the literature of this challenging surgical condition. CONCLUSION Splenic artery aneurysm needs prompt diagnosis and management to achieve a favorable outcome, high index of suspicion is needed to make the diagnosis in the absence of known risk factors. PMID:25240215

Abdulrahman, Aisha; Shabkah, Alaa; Hassanain, Mazen; Aljiffry, Murad

2014-01-01

381

Clinical presentation and surgical management of dissecting posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms: 2 case reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracranial dissection presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) most commonly involves the vertebral artery. The natural history of this lesion suggests frequent early rehemorrhage and need for urgent treatment. Isolated dissection of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) is very rare.We present 2 cases of isolated PICA dissections presenting with SAH. Both patients were middle-aged men who presented with transient loss

Nicholas M. Wetjen; Michael J. Link; Ronald Reimer; Douglas A. Nichols; Caterina Giannini

2005-01-01

382

Splenic artery aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cause of splenic artery aneurysms and the indications for their treatment remain controversial. Splenic artery aneurysms occur more frequently in women and are associated with pregnancy and multiparity. Whether arteriosclerosis is the cause of the aneurysm or is a secondary phenomenon is unknown. Patients not treated do well, especially if the aneurysm is less than 2 cm in diameter.

Victor F. Trastek; Peter C. Pairolero; Philip E. Bernatz

1985-01-01

383

Aneurysm of the Posterior Meningeal Artery Embedded Within a Dorsal Exophytic Medullary Hemangioblastoma: Surgical Management and Review of Literature  

PubMed Central

Hemangioblastomas are World Health Organization (WHO) Grade I neoplasms of the hindbrain and spinal cord, whose management can be complicated by preoperative hemorrhage. We report on a case of a young female in extremis with posterior fossa hemorrhage following rupture of a fusiform posterior meningeal artery aneurysm embedded within a medullary hemangioblastoma. We discuss management options, including operative staging and embolization, and review similar cases of hemangioblastoma associated with aneurysm. PMID:25340034

Raygor, Kunal P.; Rowland, Nathan C.; Cooke, Daniel L.; Solomon, David A.

2014-01-01

384

Late Recurrence of a Hepatic Artery Aneurysm After Treatment Using an Endovascular Stent  

SciTech Connect

Endovascular stent placement and coil embolization have become established options in the treatment of visceral arterial aneurysms. In this article we report the case of an 83-year-old presenting with gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to a recurrent hepatic arterial aneurysm occurring 12 years after treatment with an endovascular stent. The recurrent aneurysm had resulted from stent fracture and was successfully treated by coil embolization. To our knowledge, stent fracture complicating the endovascular treatment of a visceral artery aneurysm has not been described in the published literature. With the increasing use of metallic endoprostheses in interventional radiology, recognizing and reporting device failure are of critical importance.

Downer, Jonathan; Choji, Kiyoshi, E-mail: drchoji@hotmail.co [Milton Keynes Foundation Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

2008-11-15

385

How Is an Aneurysm Treated?  

MedlinePLUS

... NHLBI on Twitter. How Is an Aneurysm Treated? Aortic aneurysms are treated with medicines and surgery. Small aneurysms ... doing your normal daily activities Treatment for an aortic aneurysm is based on its size. Your doctor may ...

386

A Case of Ruptured Splenic Artery Aneurysm in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background. Rupture of a splenic artery aneurysm is rare complication of pregnancy that is associated with a significant maternal and fetal mortality. Case. A multiparous female presented in the third trimester with hypotension, tachycardia, and altered mental status. A ruptured splenic artery aneurysm was discovered at the time of laparotomy and cesarean delivery. The patient made a full recovery following resection of the aneurysm. The neonate survived but suffered severe neurologic impairment. Conclusion. The diagnosis of ruptured splenic artery aneurysm should be considered in a pregnant woman presenting with signs of intra-abdominal hemorrhage. Early intervention by a multidisciplinary surgical team is key to preserving the life of the mother and fetus. PMID:25574408

Corey, Elizabeth K.; Harvey, Scott A.; Sauvage, Lynnae M.; Bohrer, Justin C.

2014-01-01

387

The rabbit blood shunt subarachnoid haemorrhage model.  

PubMed

The recently introduced rabbit blood shunt subarachnoid haemorrhage model is based on the two standard procedures of subclavian artery cannulation and transcutaneous cisterna magna puncture. An extracorporeal shunt placed in between the arterial system and the subarachnoid space allows examiner-independent SAH in a closed cranium. Despite its straightforwardness, it is worth examining some specific features and characteristics of the model. We outline technical considerations to successfully perform the model with minimal mortality and morbidity. In addition, we discuss outcome measures, advantages and limitations, and the applicability of the model for the study of early brain injury and delayed cerebral vasospasm after SAH. PMID:25366648

Marbacher, Serge; Fathi, Ali Reza; Muroi, Carl; Coluccia, Daniel; Andereggen, Lukas; Neuschmelting, Volker; Widmer, Hans Rudolf; Jakob, Stephan M; Fandino, Javier

2015-01-01

388

Cerebral aneurysm (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... loss of nerve function may indicate that an aneurysm may be causing pressure on adjacent brain tissue. ... changes or other neurological changes can indicate the aneurysm has ruptured and is bleeding into the brain. ...

389

Peripheral ophthalmic artery aneurysm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally speaking, the term “ophthalmic aneurysms” refers to carotid-ophthalmic aneurysms, which arise from the internal\\u000a carotid artery (ICA) wall at or around the origin of the ophthalmic artery (OA). In contrast, aneurysms arising from the OA\\u000a stem or its branches, separate from the ICA are called peripheral OA aneurysms (POAAs). POAAs are a rare entity, which clinical\\u000a features and natural

Liang Qiao; Handong Wang; Lei Mao; Suihua Chen; Wei Xie; Qi Wu

2011-01-01

390

Brain Aneurysm: Recovery  

MedlinePLUS

... a webinar on brain aneurysms and the recovery process in "The Care of Cerebral Aneurysms: What the patient needs to know for improved recovery" presented by Dr. Aaron Cohen-Gadol. ©2015 Brain Aneurysm Foundation Footer menu Site Map Disclaimer Contact: office @bafound.org (888) 272-4602 ...

391

Antioxidants prevent focal rat brain injury as assessed by induction of heat shock proteins (HSP70, HO1\\/HSP32, HSP47) following subarachnoid injections of lysed blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial aim of this study was to determine if the HSP70 (the main inducible heat shock protein), HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1, HSP32) and HSP47 (a collagen chaperone) stress proteins were induced in the same focal regions of rat brain following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The next objective was to determine whether anti-oxidants prevented the stress gene expression in the focal

Christopher P Turner; S. Scott Panter; Frank R Sharp

1999-01-01

392

Idiopathic pulmonary calcification and ossification in an elderly woman with a missed diagnosis of subarachnoid haemorrhage.  

PubMed

This is a case of idiopathic pulmonary calcification and ossification in a 70 year old with long-standing diabetes and hypertension. Thirteen years prior to her demise, she was first noticed to have multiple calcific deposits in her lungs on a chest X-ray film. She had no risk factors for soft tissue calcification and ossification. Histology of tissue from autopsy showed intraparenchymal pulmonary calcification and ossification with marrow elements. Idiopathic pulmonary calcification and ossification is rare. At autopsy, she was also found to have had bilateral subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), a diagnosis missed during clinical evaluation. We highlight the pertinent details in our patient's management that could have helped to prevent a missed diagnosis of SAH. Even though SAH occurs most commonly following head trauma, the more familiar medical use of SAH is for non-traumatic SAH occurring following a ruptured cerebral aneurysm. This patient had notable risk factors for cerebral aneurysm formation but an aneurysm was not identified at autopsy. The location of the blood high on the cerebral convexities further suggests a traumatic origin rather than a ruptured aneurysm. Heterotopic calcification and ossification (HO) is known to occur in the setting of severe neurologic disorders such as traumatic brain injury but the fact that the lung calcification in our patient predated the brain injury by over 10 years makes it unlikely for the HO to have been due to the brain trauma. Other organ pathologies found at autopsy include chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, renal papillary necrosis, lymphocytic thyroiditis, and seborrheic keratosis. PMID:24391231

Odubanjo, M O; Abdulkareem, F B; Banjo, A; Ekwere, T E; Awelimobor, D I

2013-09-01

393

Endovascular Repair of a Primary Iliac-Cecal Fistula Presenting with Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage  

SciTech Connect

We report a case of an arterio-enteric fistula between an external iliac artery aneurysm and otherwise healthy cecum, presenting with torrential hemorrhage per rectum in an 85-year-old patient. Whilst fistulization to the aorta and common iliac arteries has been reported, to our knowledge no previous cases of primary fistulization between an external iliac aneurysm and normal cecum have been. Successful endovascular exclusion of the aneurysm was undertaken with a Wallgraft covered stent and the patient remains well at 1 year.

Whittaker, Charlotte Sara, E-mail: c_whittaker1@yahoo.co.uk; Ananthakrishnan, Ganapathy; DeNunzio, Mario Cosimo; Quarmby, John Winston; Bungay, Peter Mark [Derbyshire Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom)

2008-07-15

394