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1

Timing of surgery for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Despite the many studies about timing for surgery in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the optimum time is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the results of early and late surgery for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. In this cross-sectional study we evaluated the results of 70 consecutive surgery for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in in Firuzgar hospital from 2005 to 2008. Surgery was performed in 50 cases (71.4%) in early period after SAH (first 4 days) and in 20 cases (28.6%) in at least 7 days after SAH. Statitical analysis was done by SPSS software, using Chi-square and t-test. Mean age of patients was 48.54 ± 13.4 years. 41.4% of patients were male and 58.6% were female. Most (77.2%) of patients had clinical grade I or II. 92.9% of aneurysms were single. Hypertension was the most common associated disease (34.3%). The most common site of aneurysms was anterior communicating artery (41.4%), followed by middle cerebral artery (35.7%). The outcome of surgery was favorable in 70% and unfavorable in 30%. Mortality rate was 24.3%. Outcome was favorable in 66% of early surgeries and 80% of late surgeries. There was no statistically significant difference between early and late surgery in terms of complications and outcome. Mean hospital stay of patients in the early surgery group was significantly lower than late group (16.46 ± 9.36 vs. 22.5 ± 7.97 days; P=0.01). The results of early and late surgery for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is similar and decision making for timing of surgery should be based on each patient individual clinical conditions, age, size and site of aneurysm. PMID:21960072

Hashemi, Seyed Mahmoud Ramak; Golchin, Navid; Nejad, Enayatollah Abbas; Noormohamadi, Shabnam

2011-01-01

2

Surgical management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a common and often devastating condition that requires prompt neurosurgical evaluation and intervention. Modern management of aSAH involves a multidisciplinary team of subspecialists, including vascular neurosurgeons, neurocritical care specialists and, frequently, neurointerventional radiologists. This team is responsible for stabilizing the patient on presentation, diagnosing the offending ruptured aneurysm, securing the aneurysm, and managing the patient through a typically prolonged and complicated hospital course. Surgical intervention has remained a definitive treatment for ruptured cerebral aneurysms since the early 1900s. Over the subsequent decades, many innovations in microsurgical technique, adjuvant maneuvers, and intraoperative and perioperative medical therapies have advanced the care of patients with aSAH. This report focuses on the modern surgical management of patients with aSAH. Following a brief historical perspective on the origin of aneurysm surgery, the topics discussed include the timing of surgical intervention after aSAH, commonly used surgical approaches and craniotomies, fenestration of the lamina terminalis, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, intraoperative digital subtraction and fluorescent angiography, temporary clipping, deep hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, management of acute hydrocephalus, cerebral revascularization, and novel clip configurations and microsurgical techniques. Many of the topics highlighted in this report represent some of the more debated techniques in vascular neurosurgery. The popularity of such techniques is constantly evolving as new studies are performed and data about their utility become available. PMID:20380967

Colby, Geoffrey P; Coon, Alexander L; Tamargo, Rafael J

2010-04-01

3

Non-Aneurysm Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Objective: The incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in the young is increasing recently. Among the young patients, some of them\\u000a do not have detectable aneurysms, so the cause of the disease may be non-aneurysmal. In this study, we analyzed some clinical\\u000a cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage in young adults and discussed the possible causes other than present aneurysm and arteriovenous\\u000a malformation

Tianzhu Wang; John H. Zhang; Xinyue Qin

4

Subarachnoid hemorrhage  

MedlinePLUS

... injury leading to subarachnoid hemorrhage is motor vehicle crashes. Risks include: Aneurysm in other blood vessels Fibromuscular ... lumbar puncture ( spinal tap ) must be done. Other tests that may be done include: Cerebral angiography of ...

5

Delayed rebleeding of a spontaneously thrombosed aneurysm after subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background: This report provides a rare documentation of spontaneous thrombosis of a ruptured aneurysm followed by delayed recanalization and subsequent rerupture. Case Description: A 47-year-old female presented with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Four aneurysms were identified on CT angiogram including a basilar apex aneurysm, considered source of bleeding. Cerebral angiogram on postbleed day (PBD) #1 showed spontaneous thrombosis of basilar apex aneurysm. The patient was discharged to a nursing home on PBD #18 after two subsequent studies showed no recanalization of the basilar aneurysm. The patient returned on PBD #26 with a second episode of spontaneous SAH. The previously thrombosed basilar aneurysm had recanalized and reruptured, which was now treated with coil embolization. Conclusion: We are not aware of a previous report of saccular cerebral aneurysm documenting spontaneous thrombosis after SAH and recanalization with second hemorrhage. This occurrence presents a dilemma regarding the timing and frequency of subsequent cerebrovascular imaging and treatment.

Chohan, Muhammad Omar; Westhout, Franklin D.; Taylor, Christopher L.

2014-01-01

6

Subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by a ruptured anterior spinal artery aneurysm.  

PubMed

A 51-year-old man presented with an extremely rare case of intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by rupture of an anterior spinal artery aneurysm manifesting as disturbance of consciousness following sudden onset of neck pain and numbness of the extremities. Cranial computed tomography revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage, mainly in the posterior fossa. Cerebral angiography studies on admission and on the 4th day demonstrated no definite abnormality as a bleeding source. A ventricular catheter was inserted to treat the acute hydrocephalus, and conservative management was continued during the acute period. Third angiography on the 18th day demonstrated an anterior spinal artery aneurysm at the C1 level which was considered to be the bleeding site. After conservative treatment, the patient was discharged without neurological deficits. Fourth angiography on the 108 th day disclosed spontaneous disappearance of the aneurysm, which was confirmed by the fifth angiography on the 269 th day. If subarachnoid hemorrhage of unknown etiology is encountered, spinal artery aneurysm should be considered as the bleeding source. Despite the controversy concerning the treatment strategy, ruptured spinal artery aneurysms can be treated conservatively because of the possibility of spontaneous regression. Follow-up angiography is required to evaluate the natural course of the lesion. PMID:21123989

Karakama, Jun; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Maehara, Taketoshi; Ohno, Kikuo

2010-01-01

7

Intravenous Magnesium Sulfate After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Current Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Delayed ischemic neurological deficit or clinical vasospasm remained a major cause for delayed neurological morbidity and\\u000a mortality for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Magnesium is a cerebral vasodilator. In experimental\\u000a model of drug or SAH-induced vasospasm, magnesium blocks voltage-dependent calcium channels and reverses cerebral vasoconstriction.\\u000a Furthermore, its antagonistic action on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in the brain prevents glutamate stimulation and

George Kwok Chu Wong; Matthew Tai Vai Chan; Tony Gin; Wai Sang Poon

8

Evaluation of angiographic findings in spontaneous aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.  

PubMed

This paper describes the angiographic findings of spontaneous aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients, including frequency, anatomic location and multiplicity of cerebral aneurysms. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 796 SAH patients at our university affiliated hospital. After confirming SAH by lumbar puncture or CT scan, all patients underwent digital subtraction angiography to find the definite anatomic location. The male to Female ratio in SAH patients was 9:10. The mean (SD) age of all patients with SAH was 47.9±14.7 years. The mean (SD) age of men with SAH was 46.6 ±15.6 years and women with SAH was 49.3±13.5 years (P=0.015). 357 (44.8%) patients had aneurysms. The mean (SD) age of aneurysmal patients was 49.8±14.3 years. The mean (SD) age of men with aneurysm was 47.8 ±15.9 years and women with aneurysm was 51.3±12.9 years (P= 0.03). The male to female ratio in aneurysms was 0.72:1. The most common aneurysm location was in the anterior communicating artery (N=166, 39%). The second most common anatomic location was the middle cerebral artery bifurcation (66 left, 60 right). The total number of patients with single aneurysms was 303 (84.9%) while 54 (15.1%) patients had multiple aneurysms. Among these patients, 49 had two aneurysms, three had three aneurysms and two had four aneurysms. In all, 418 aneurysms were detected. Of 357 patients with aneurysms 150 (42%) had vasospasm during angiography. In conclusion, the most common aneurysm location was the anterior communicating artery and the rate of multiplicity was also higher in our patients. PMID:24148598

Firouznia, K; Ghanaati, H; Rahmat Sadeghi, S; Shakiba, M; Jalali, A H

2010-06-01

9

Plasma gelsolin levels and outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Introduction Lower gelsolin levels have been associated with the severity and poor outcome of critical illness. Nevertheless, their link with clinical outcomes of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relationship between plasma gelsolin levels and clinical outcomes in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods A total of 262 consecutive patients and 150 healthy subjects were included. Plasma gelsolin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mortality and poor long-term outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 1-3) at 6 months were recorded. Results Plasma gelsolin levels on admission were substantially lower in patients than in healthy controls (66.9 (26.4) mg/L vs. 126.4 (35.4) mg/L, P < 0.001), and negatively associated with World Federation of Neurological Surgeons score (r = -0.554, P < 0.001) and Fisher score (r = -0.538, P < 0.001), and identified as an independent predictor of poor functional outcome (odds ratio, 0.957; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.933-0.983; P = 0.001) and death (odds ratio, 0.953; 95% CI, 0.917-0.990; P = 0.003) after 6 months. The areas under the ROC curve of gelsolin for functional outcome and mortality were similar to those of World Federation of Neurological Surgeons score and Fisher score (all P > 0.05). Gelsolin improved the predictive values of World Federation of Neurological Surgeons score and Fisher score for functional outcome (both P < 0.05), but not for mortality (both P > 0.05). Conclusions Gelsolin levels are a useful, complementary tool to predict functional outcome and mortality 6 months after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

2013-01-01

10

APOE genotype and functional outcome following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Apolipoprotein E (apoE), the major apolipoprotein in the central nervous system, has been shown to influence neurologic disease progression and response to neurologic injury in a gene-specific manner. Presence of the APOE4 allele is associated with poorer response to traumatic brain injury and ischemic stroke, but the association between APOE genotype and outcome following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains unclear. The purpose of this project was to investigate the association between APOE genotype and outcome after SAH. We also explored the association of APOE4 genotype and cerebral vasospasm (CV) presence in a subsample of our population with available angiographic data. A sample of 206 aneurysmal SAH participants had APOE genotyping performed, Glasgow outcome scores (GOS) and modified Rankin scores (MRS) collected at 3 and 6 months after aneurysm rupture. No significant association was found between the presence of the APOE4 genotype and functional outcomes controlling for age, race, size of hemorrhage (Fisher grade), and severity of injury (Hunt & Hess grade). However when controlling for CV and the covariates listed above, individuals with the APOE4 allele had worse functional outcomes at both time points. The presence of the APOE2 allele was not associated with functional outcomes even when considering presence of CV. There was no difference in mortality associated with APOE4 presence, APOE2 presence, or presence of CV. These findings suggest APOE4 allele is associated with poor outcome after aneurysmal SAH. PMID:19017669

Gallek, Matthew J; Conley, Yvette P; Sherwood, Paula R; Horowitz, Michael B; Kassam, Amin; Alexander, Sheila A

2009-01-01

11

Effect of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage on Word Generation  

PubMed Central

Background. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) survivors commonly exhibit impairment on phonemic and semantic fluency tests; however, it is unclear which of the contributing cognitive processes are compromised in aSAH patients. One method of disentangling these processes is to compare initial word production, which is a rapid, semiautomatic, frontal-executive process, and late phase word production, which is dependent on more effortful retrieval and lexical size and requires a more distributed neural network. Methods. Seventy-two individuals with aSAH and twenty-five control subjects were tested on a cognitive battery including the phonemic and semantic fluency task. Demographic and clinical information was also collected. Results. Compared to control subjects, patients with aSAH were treated by clipping and those with multiple aneurysms were impaired across the duration of the phonemic test. Among patients treated by coiling, those with anterior communicating artery aneurysms or a neurological complication (intraventricular hemorrhage, vasospasm, and edema) showed worse output only in the last 45 seconds of the phonemic test. Patients performed comparably to control subjects on the semantic test. Conclusions. These results support a “diffuse damage” hypothesis of aSAH, indicated by late phase phonemic fluency impairment. Overall, the phonemic and semantic tests represent a viable, rapid clinical screening tool in the postoperative assessment of patients with aSAH.

Ladowski, Daniella; Qian, Winnie; Kapadia, Anish N.; Macdonald, R. Loch; Schweizer, Tom A.

2014-01-01

12

Biomarkers of vasospasm development and outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a neurologic emergency caused by a brain aneurysm burst, resulting in a bleeding into the subarachnoid space. Its incidence is estimated between 4 and 28/10,000 inhabitants and it is the main cause of sudden death from stroke. The prognosis of patients with SAH is directly related to neurological status on admission, to the magnitude of the initial bleeding, as well as to the development of cerebral vasospasm (CVS). Numerous researchers have studied the role of different biomarkers in CVS development. These biomarkers form part of the metabolic cascade that is triggered as a result of the SAH. Hence, among these metabolites we found biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation biomarkers, indicators of brain damage, and markers of vascular pathology. However, to the author knowledge, none of these biomarkers has been demonstrated as a useful tool for predicting neither CVS development nor outcome after SAH. In order to reach success on future researches, firstly it should be stated which pathophysiological process is mainly responsible for CVS development. Once this process has been determined, the temporal course of this pathophysiologic cascade should be characterized, and then, perform further studies on biomarkers already analyzed, as well as on new biomarkers not yet studied in the SAH pathology, focusing attention on the temporal course of the diverse metabolites and the sampling time for its quantification. PMID:24811975

Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Ana; Egea-Guerrero, Juan José; Ruiz de Azúa-López, Zaida; Murillo-Cabezas, Francisco

2014-06-15

13

Cerebral aneurysm exclusion by CT angiography based on subarachnoid hemorrhage pattern: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background To identify patients with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage for whom CT angiography alone can exclude ruptured aneurysms. Methods An observational retrospective review was carried out of all consecutive patients with non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage who underwent both CT angiography and catheter angiography to exclude an aneurysm. CT angiography negative cases (no aneurysm) were classified according to their CT hemorrhage pattern as "aneurismal", "perimesencephalic" or as "no-hemorrhage." Results Two hundred and forty-one patients were included. A CT angiography aneurysm detection sensitivity and specificity of 96.4% and 96.0% were observed. All 35 cases of perimesencephalic or no-hemorrhage out of 78 CT angiography negatives also had negative angiography findings. Conclusions CT angiography is self-reliant to exclude ruptured aneurysms when either a perimesencephalic hemorrhage or no-hemorrhage pattern is identified on the CT within a week of symptom onset.

2011-01-01

14

Risk Factors Associated with Cerebral Vasospasm following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.  

PubMed

We studied the risk factors associated with cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The subjects were 370 patients with ruptured aneurysms who fulfilled all of the following criteria: admission by day 2 after onset, operation performed by day 3 by the same surgeon (T.I.), Hunt-Hess grade I-IV, availability of bilateral carotid angiograms acquired by day 2 and repeated between days 7 and 9. The demographic, clinical, radiographic, surgical, laboratory, and electrocardiographic data were analyzed for angiographic vasospasm (AV), symptomatic vasospasm (SV), and cerebral infarction on computed tomography (CT) scan. Both CT-evident SAH and AV were graded as 0-IV. Among the 370 patients, AV grade III-IV, SV, and cerebral infarction occurred in 26%, 24%, and 20%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that Hunt-Hess grade III-IV, SAH grade III-IV, intracerebral or/and intraventricular hemorrhage, rebleeding, cigarette smoking, hypertension, alcohol intake, leukocytosis, hyperglycemia, and electrocardiographic QTc prolongation, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and ST depression were significantly related to at least one of AV grade III-IV, SV, or cerebral infarction. Multivariate analysis showed that SAH grade III-IV was the most important risk factor for vasospasm followed by LVH on electrocardiogram, cigarette smoking, and hypertension. AV grade III-IV, SV, and cerebral infarction occurred in 57%, 54%, and 39% of the 46 smokers with LVH, and in 43%, 49%, and 35% of the 68 patients who had both LVH and hypertension, respectively. CT-evident SAH, LVH, cigarette smoking, and hypertension are associated with vasospasm. In smokers or hypertensive patients, premorbid LVH appears to predict much more severe vasospasm. PMID:24670311

Inagawa, Tetsuji; Yahara, Kaita; Ohbayashi, Naohiko

2014-06-17

15

Hyponatremia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Implications and outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality seen in patients with aneurysmal SAH. Clinically significant hyponatremia (Serum Sodium <131 mEq/L) which needs treatment, has been redefined recently and there is a paucity of outcome studies based on this. This study aims to identify the mean Serum Sodium (S.Na+) level and its duration among inpatients with SAH and to identify the relationship between hyponatremia and the outcome status of patients undergoing surgery for SAH. Materials and Methods: This outcome study is undertaken in the department of neurosurgery, The Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala. Medical records of all patients with SAH from 1st January to 31st July 2010 were reviewed. Preoperative status was assessed using World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grading system. Discharge status was calculated using the Glasgow outcome score scale. Results: Fifty nine patients were included in the study and 53 (89.8%) of them have undergone surgical treatment. Hyponatremia was observed in 22 of 59 patients (37%). The mean Sodium level of hyponatremic patients was 126.97 mEq/L for a median duration of two days. Glasgow outcome score was good in 89.8% of patients. We lost two patients, one of whom had hyponatremia and vasospasm. Conclusion: Hyponatremia is significantly associated with poor outcome in patients with SAH. Anticipate hyponatremia in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, timely detect and appropriately treat it to improve outcome. It is more common in patients who are more than 50 years old and whose aneurysm is in the anterior communicating artery. Our comprehensive monitoring ensured early detection and efficient surgical and nursing management reduced morbidity and mortality.

Saramma, PP; Menon, R Girish; Srivastava, Adesh; Sarma, P Sankara

2013-01-01

16

Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Models: Do They Need a Fix?  

PubMed Central

The discovery of tissue plasminogen activator to treat acute stroke is a success story of research on preventing brain injury following transient cerebral ischemia (TGI). That this discovery depended upon development of embolic animal model reiterates that proper stroke modeling is the key to develop new treatments. In contrast to TGI, despite extensive research, prevention or treatment of brain injury following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) has not been achieved. A lack of adequate aSAH disease model may have contributed to this failure. TGI is an important component of aSAH and shares mechanism of injury with it. We hypothesized that modifying aSAH model using experience acquired from TGI modeling may facilitate development of treatment for aSAH and its complications. This review focuses on similarities and dissimilarities between TGI and aSAH, discusses the existing TGI and aSAH animal models, and presents a modified aSAH model which effectively mimics the disease and has a potential of becoming a better resource for studying the brain injury mechanisms and developing a treatment.

Sehba, Fatima A.; Pluta, Ryszard M.

2013-01-01

17

A Case of Cerebral Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Fabry's Disease  

PubMed Central

We report an unusual case of cerebral aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrage (SAH) with Fabry's disease. A 42-year-old woman presented with aneurysmal SAH originated from a saccular aneurysm of the right posterior communicating artery. The patient was treated by an endovascular coil embolization of aneurysm. Postoperatively the patient recovered favorably without any neurological deficit. During her admission, the patient had a sign of proteinuria in urine analysis. The pathologic findings of kidney needle biopsy implied nephrosialidosis (mucolipidosis of lysosomal stroage disease), which is consistent with a Fabry's disease. It is uncommon that Fabry's disease is presented with aneurysmal SAH, especially in middle-aged patients, but could be a clinical concern. Further investigations are needed to reveal risk factors, vascular anatomy, and causative mechanisms of Fabry's disease with aneurysmal SAH.

Chang, Youn Hyuk

2013-01-01

18

A Case of Cerebral Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Fabry's Disease.  

PubMed

We report an unusual case of cerebral aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrage (SAH) with Fabry's disease. A 42-year-old woman presented with aneurysmal SAH originated from a saccular aneurysm of the right posterior communicating artery. The patient was treated by an endovascular coil embolization of aneurysm. Postoperatively the patient recovered favorably without any neurological deficit. During her admission, the patient had a sign of proteinuria in urine analysis. The pathologic findings of kidney needle biopsy implied nephrosialidosis (mucolipidosis of lysosomal stroage disease), which is consistent with a Fabry's disease. It is uncommon that Fabry's disease is presented with aneurysmal SAH, especially in middle-aged patients, but could be a clinical concern. Further investigations are needed to reveal risk factors, vascular anatomy, and causative mechanisms of Fabry's disease with aneurysmal SAH. PMID:23634271

Chang, Youn Hyuk; Hwang, Sung-Kyun

2013-03-01

19

Neuropsychological assessments in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, perimesencephalic SAH, and incidental aneurysms.  

PubMed

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is known to be associated with long-term cognitive deficits. Neurosurgical manipulation on the brain itself has been reported to have influence on neuropsychological sequelae. The following is a comparative study on perimesencephalic and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients as well as elective aneurysm patients that was carried out to determine the isolated and combined impact of surgical manipulation and hemorrhage, respectively, on long-term neuropsychological outcome. Inclusion criteria were good neurological recovery at discharge (modified Rankin Scale 0 or 1) without focal neurological deficit. Standardized psychological testing covered attention, memory, executive functions, and mood. Thirteen aneurysmal SAH patients, 15 patients undergoing elective clipping, and 14 patients with perimesencephalic SAH were analyzed. Standardized neuropsychological testing and social/professional history questionnaires were performed 2 years (mean) after discharge. Memory impairment and slower cognitive processing were found in the aneurysmal and perimesencephalic SAH groups, while elective aneurysm patients showed signs of impaired attention. However, compared with norm data for age-matched healthy controls, all groups showed no significant test results. In contrast, signs of clinical depression were seen in 9/42 patients, 45 % of all patients complained of stress disorders and 55 % of patients were unable to work in their previous professions. Nearly normal neuropsychological test results on long-term follow-up in SAH patients were unexpected. However, a 50 % rate of unemployment accompanied with stress disorders and depression manifests insufficient social and workplace reintegration. Therefore, even more specific rehabilitation programs are required following inpatient treatment to attain full recovery. PMID:23949148

Krajewski, Kara; Dombek, Susanne; Martens, Tobias; Köppen, Johannes; Westphal, Manfred; Regelsberger, Jan

2014-01-01

20

Factors influencing return to work after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Background: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a type of stroke that affects women and men with a mean age of 50 years. Return to work (RTW) has been cited as a strategic goal of patients after injury; however, success rates are low in multiple studies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing RTW after aSAH. The study design was a cross-sectional design at 1-2 years after injury to assess work status in 134 patients who were treated for aSAH. Participants were recruited at one hospital setting via mailed invitations. They were interviewed over the telephone after consent was obtained for chart review and to participate in the study. Eligible participants were asked to complete the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire and the Functional Status Questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using univariate analysis and logistic regression with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Results: There was a moderate negative correlation between illness perception and RTW. Illness perception was found to significantly predict failure to RTW, whereas marital status improved the prediction model to significantly predict successful RTW. Conclusions: This study addressed a gap in the literature regarding work status after aSAH and has provided direction for further investigation. Addressing issues surrounding patients' perception of illness may serve as an important conduit to remove barriers to RTW. Recognition of these barriers to RTW in assessing a person's illness perception may be the key to the development of interventions in the recovery process. PMID:24992146

Harris, Catherine

2014-08-01

21

Intraoperative aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage after rupture of a previously undiagnosed intracranial aneurysm during Chiari decompression.  

PubMed

A type I Chiari malformation occurs when caudal displacement of the cerebellar tonsils below the level of the foramen magnum obstructs the normal flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between the cranial and spinal spaces, a condition that often needs surgical decompression to restore normal CSF circulation. Abrupt changes in CSF flow dynamics after Chiari decompression can affect the intracranial CSF dynamics to the extent that a previously undiagnosed intracranial aneurysm remote from the site can rupture. The authors describe the development of an intraoperative aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage that occurred as a result of spontaneous rupture of a previously undiagnosed right distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery in a 57-year-old woman with type I Chiari malformation who was undergoing surgical decompression. The mechanism of the aneurysmal rupture appears to be related to the changes of CSF flow dynamics during surgical decompression. Normally, pressure equilibrium between the two sides of the aneurysmal wall prevents its rupture, but factors that significantly affect this equilibrium, such as systemic hypertension, can cause the aneurysm to rupture. To our knowledge, the concept of spontaneous intraoperative rupture of intracranial aneurysm remote from the site of surgery has been described twice previously but under different scenarios. This scenario, to our knowledge, has not been previously described. PMID:24113160

Sorour, Mohammad; Bowers, Christian A; Couldwell, William T

2014-03-01

22

CHRONIC CEREBRAL PARAGONIMIASIS COMBINED WITH ANEURYSMAL SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 67-year-old Korean woman attended our hospital complaining of a severe headache. A brain computed tomography scan showed conglomerated, high-density, calcified nodules in the left temporo-occipito-parietal area and high-density subarachnoid hemorrhage in the basal cisterns. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain shows multiple conglomerated iso- or low-signal intensity round nodules with peripheral rim enhancement. She underwent craniotomies to clip the

JUK-DONG CHOO; BUMN-SUK SUH; HYUN-SUNG LEE; JONG-SOO LEE; CHANG-JUNE SONG; DAE-WHAN SHIN; YOUNG-HA LEE

23

Giant intrasellar aneurysm presenting with panhypopituitarism and subarachnoid hemorrhage: case report and literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 52-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage, left ophthalmoplegia, and right hemiparesis. Previous symptoms and signs suggested the presence of panhypopituitarism. A giant intracranial aneurysm of the internal carotid artery, diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging, showed the characteristic flow void phenomenon with black appearance. Analysis of endocrine function disclosed panhypopituitarism and hyperprolactinemia. After proximal balloon

J. M. Fernandez-Real; M. Fernández-Castañer; C. Villabona; E. Sagarra; J. M. Gómez-Sáez; J. Soler

1994-01-01

24

Intravenous magnesium sulphate for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: an updated systemic review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Previous meta-analyses of magnesium sulphate infusion in the treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have become outdated due to recently published clinical trials. Our aim was thus to perform an up-to-date systemic review and meta-analysis of published data on the use of magnesium sulphate infusion in aneurysmal SAH patients. METHODS: A systemic review and meta-analysis of the literature was

George KC Wong; Ronald Boet; Wai S Poon; Matthew TV Chan; Tony Gin; Benny CY Zee

2011-01-01

25

Risk Factors for Rebleeding of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Rebleeding is a serious complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhaging. To date, there are conflicting data regarding the factors contributing to rebleeding and their significance. Methods A systematic review of PubMed and Embase databases was conducted for studies pertaining to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and rebleeding in order to assess the associated risk factors. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from fourteen studies comprised of a total of 5693 patients that met the inclusion criteria. Results Higher rebleeding rates were observed < 6 h after the initial aSAH (OR ?=?3.22, 95% CI ?=?1.46–7.12), and were associated with high systolic blood pressure (OR ?=?1.93, 95% CI ?=?1.31–2.83), poor Hunt-Hess grade (III–IV) (OR ?=?3.43, 95% CI ?=?2.33–5.05), intracerebral or intraventricular hematomas (OR ?=?1.65, 95% CI ?=?1.33–2.05), posterior circulation aneurysms (OR ?=?2.15, 95% CI ?=?1.32–3.49), and aneurysms >10 mm in size (OR ?=?1.70, 95% CI ?=?1.35–2.14). Conclusions Aneurysmal rebleeding occurs more frequently within the first 6 hours after the initial aSAH. Risk factors associated with rebleeding include high systolic pressure, the presence of an intracerebral or intraventricular hematoma, poor Hunt-Hess grade (III-IV), aneurysms in the posterior circulation, and an aneurysm >10 mm in size.

Tang, Chao; Zhang, Tian-Song; Zhou, Liang-Fu

2014-01-01

26

Clinical Outcome Prediction in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Using Bayesian Neural Networks with Fuzzy Logic Inferences  

PubMed Central

Objective. The novel clinical prediction approach of Bayesian neural networks with fuzzy logic inferences is created and applied to derive prognostic decision rules in cerebral aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Methods. The approach of Bayesian neural networks with fuzzy logic inferences was applied to data from five trials of Tirilazad for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (3551 patients). Results. Bayesian meta-analyses of observational studies on aSAH prognostic factors gave generalizable posterior distributions of population mean log odd ratios (ORs). Similar trends were noted in Bayesian and linear regression ORs. Significant outcome predictors include normal motor response, cerebral infarction, history of myocardial infarction, cerebral edema, history of diabetes mellitus, fever on day 8, prior subarachnoid hemorrhage, admission angiographic vasospasm, neurological grade, intraventricular hemorrhage, ruptured aneurysm size, history of hypertension, vasospasm day, age and mean arterial pressure. Heteroscedasticity was present in the nontransformed dataset. Artificial neural networks found nonlinear relationships with 11 hidden variables in 1 layer, using the multilayer perceptron model. Fuzzy logic decision rules (centroid defuzzification technique) denoted cut-off points for poor prognosis at greater than 2.5 clusters. Discussion. This aSAH prognostic system makes use of existing knowledge, recognizes unknown areas, incorporates one's clinical reasoning, and compensates for uncertainty in prognostication.

Lo, Benjamin W. Y.; Macdonald, R. Loch; Baker, Andrew; Levine, Mitchell A. H.

2013-01-01

27

Magnesium in subarachnoid hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this thesis was to determine the role of serum magnesium\\u000ain the pathophysiology after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and to assess \\u000athe effect of magnesium treatment in reducing cerebral ischemia in experimental \\u000aSAH and in improving clinical outcome in patients with aneurysmal SAH. \\u000aIn Chapter 2 we reviewed the potentials of magnesium treatment in subarachnoid \\u000ahemorrhage by

W. M. van den Bergh

2004-01-01

28

Take care when taking care of fever after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Fever is prevalent in the majority of patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and is associated with worse outcome. Treatment of fever is highly recommended, but with low-grade evidence in current guidelines. The analysis by Schiefecker and colleagues reveals that the situation may be more complicated than at first glance and careless treatment may introduce further harm. The importance of this study lies in analyzing real-world multimodal neuromonitoring data, showing a pitfall in incautiously applied treatment paradigms.

2013-01-01

29

Extracerebral organ dysfunction in the acute stage after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), secondary complications are an important cause of morbidity and\\u000a case fatality. Delayed cerebral ischemia and hydrocephalus are important intracranial secondary complications. Potentially\\u000a treatable extracranial complications are also frequently observed, and some are related to the occurrence of delayed cerebral\\u000a ischemia and outcome. In addition to the occurrence of an inflammatory response and metabolic

Wouter J. Schuiling; Paul J. W. Dennesen; Gabriël J. E. Rinkel

2005-01-01

30

Reduced ADAMTS13 activity in delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenesis of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains unknown. Besides vasospasm, microthrombosis might have an important function. As in patients with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura an A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease with ThromboSpondin repeats-13 (ADAMTS13) deficiency leads to higher concentrations of large von Willebrand factor (vWF) multimers resulting in microthrombosis, our purpose was to compare ADAMTS13 and

Mervyn DI Vergouwen; Kamran Bakhtiari; Nan van Geloven; Marinus Vermeulen; Yvo BWEM Roos; Joost CM Meijers; MDI Vergouwen

2009-01-01

31

Serum magnesium levels as related to symptomatic vasospasm and outcome following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Recent evidence suggests that magnesium may be neuroprotective in the setting of cerebral ischemia, and therapeutic magnesium\\u000a infusion has been proposed for prophylaxis and treatment of delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND) resulting from vasospasm\\u000a in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We studied the association between serum magnesium levels, the\\u000a development of DIND, and the outcomes of patients with

Frederic P. Collignon; Jonathan A. Friedman; David G. Piepgras; Mark A. Pichelmann; Jon I. McIver; L. Gerard Toussaint III; Robyn L. McClelland

2004-01-01

32

Management of agitation following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: is there a role for Beta-blockers?  

PubMed

Introduction. Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the United States. About 20% of the stroke is hemorrhagic and about 50% of these is due to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A troublesome neuropsychiatric complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage is agitation/aggression. Case Presentation. A 45-year-old man with no prior psychiatric history, sustained subarachnoid hemorrhage. After initial stabilization for 2 days, he underwent craniotomy and clipping of anterior cerebral communicating artery aneurysm. Treatment was continued with labetalol, nimodipine, and levetiracetam. Beginning postoperative day 4, patient developed episodes of confusion and agitation/aggression. Switching of Levetiracetam to valproate did not show any improvement. Psychiatry team tried to manage him with intense nursing intervention and different medications like olanzapine, valproate, lorazepam, and haloperidol. However, patient continued to be agitated and aggressive. Switching from labetalol to metoprolol resulted in dramatic improvement within 3 days. Discussion. Antipsychotics and benzodiazepines are often not sufficiently effective in the control of agitation/aggression in patients with traumatic brain injury and similar conditions. Our case report and the literature review including a cochrane review suggests that beta-blockers may be helpful in this situation. PMID:22937415

Ibrahim, Fayaz; Viswanathan, Ramaswamy

2012-01-01

33

Specific TNF-alpha inhibition in cerebral aneurysm formation and subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

The signal transduction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is complex and regulated via a vast number of interconnecting pathways. The TNF-alpha signaling pathway plays a major role in the pathogenesis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The advent of molecular mimicry has provided a number of opportunities to tackle disease with improved specificity. Here we review the mechanisms of their action and the potential for TNF-alpha inhibitors as a treatment for subarachnoid hemorrhage. Searches were performed using PubMed with the search terms "subarachnoid haemorrhage", "TNF alpha", "novel drugs" TNF alpha inhibition", "management", "cerebral aneurysm", and "vasospasm" from 1970 to February, 2012. Articles were also identified through searches of the Cochrane library and searches of the authors' own files. Only papers published in English were reviewed. In conclusion, there is considerable theoretical evidence for the potential of TNF-alpha inhibitors to impact on the pathogenesis of aneurismal SAH. Such indications demonstrate the potential for specific targeting of molecular signaling pathways to prevent the growth and rupture of cerebral aneurysm. PMID:22950379

Young, Adam M H; Karri, Surya K; You, Wanchun; Ogilvy, Christopher S

2012-07-01

34

Phenotypic transformation of smooth muscle in vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Differentiated smooth muscle cells (SMC) control vasoconstriction and vasodilation, but they can undergo transformation, proliferate, secret cytokines, and migrate into the subendotherial layer with adverse consequences. In this review, we discuss the phenotypic transformation of SMC in cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Phenotypic transformation starts with an insult as caused by aneurysm rupture: Elevation of intracranial and blood pressure, secretion of norepinephrine, and mechanical force on an artery are factors that can cause aneurysm. The phenotypic transformation of SMC is accelerated by inflammation, thrombin, and growth factors. A wide variety of cytokines (e.g., interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-33, matrix metalloproteinases, nitric oxidase synthases, endothelins, thromboxane A2, mitogen-activated protein kinase, platelet-derived vascular growth factors, and vascular endothelial factor) all play roles in cerebral vasospasm (CVS). We summarize the correlations between various factors and the phenotypic transformation of SMC. A new target of this study is the transient receptor potential channel in CVS. Statin together with fasdil prevents phenotypic transformation of SMC in an animal model. Clazosentan prevents CVS and improves outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in a dose-dependent manner. Clinical trials of cilostazol for the prevention of phenotypic transformation of SMC have been reported, along with requisite experimental evidence. To conquer CVS in its complexity, we will ultimately need to elucidate its general, underlying mechanism. PMID:24323729

Shimamura, Norihito; Ohkuma, Hiroki

2014-06-01

35

Comparison of Incidence and Risk Factors for Shunt-dependent Hydrocephalus in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of ventricular shunt placement for shunt-dependent hydrocephalus (SDHC) after clipping versus coiling of ruptured aneurysms. Materials and Methods A retrospective review was conducted in 215 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who underwent surgical clipping or endovascular coiling during the period from May 2008 to December 2011. Relevant clinical and radiographic data were analyzed with regard to the incidence of hydrocephalus and ventriculo-peritoneal shunt (VPS). Patients treated with clipping were assigned to Group A, while those treated with coiling were assigned to Group B. Results Of 215 patients (157 clipping, 58 coiling), no significant difference in the incidence of final VPS was observed between treatment modalities (15.3% vs. 10.3%) (p = 0.35). Independent risk factors for VPS for treatment of chronic hydrocephalus were as follows: (1) older than 65 years, (2) poorer Hunt-Hess grade IV and V, (3) Fisher grade III and IV, and (4) particularly initial presence of an intraventricular hemorrhage. Conclusion In this study comparing two modalities for treatment of aneurysm, there was no difference in the incidence of chronic hydrocephalus requiring VPS. A significantly higher rate of shunt dependency was observed for age older than 65 years, poor initial neurological status, and thick SAH with presence of initial intraventricular hemorrhage. By understanding these factors related to development of SDHC and results, it is expected that management of aneurysmal SAH will result in a better prognosis.

Bae, In-Seok; Choi, Kyu-Sun; Chun, Hyoung-Joon

2014-01-01

36

Decompressive Craniectomy in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Relation to Cerebral Perfusion Pressure and Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Outcome is poor in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients with intracranial hypertension. As one treatment option\\u000a for increased intracranial pressure (ICP), decompressive craniectomy (DC) is discussed. Its impact on cerebral metabolism\\u000a and outcome in SAH patients is evaluated in this pilot study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A prospectively collected database of cerebral metabolism in SAH patients was analyzed retrospectively for individuals developing\\u000a high ICP

Alexandra Nagel; Daniela Graetz; Peter Vajkoczy; Asita S. Sarrafzadeh

2009-01-01

37

Magnesium sulphate for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: why, how, and current controversy.  

PubMed

The neuroprotective effect of magnesium sulphate infusion has been confirmed in experimental models. Pilot clinical trials using magnesium sulphate in patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have reported a trend toward a reduction in clinical deterioration due to delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and an improvement in clinical outcomes. However, our recent multicenter trials and systemic review failed to confirm benefit in neurological outcome. In post hoc analysis, data also did not support that a higher dose of magnesium sulphate infusion might improve clinical outcome. We here review the current literature, highlight these discrepancies, and explore alternatives. PMID:22890642

Wong, George Kwok Chu; Poon, Wai Sang

2013-01-01

38

Genetic determinants of cerebral vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia, and outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Despite extensive effort to elucidate the cellular and molecular bases for delayed cerebral injury after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), the pathophysiology of these events remains poorly understood. Recently, much work has focused on evaluating the genetic underpinnings of various diseases in an effort to delineate the contribution of specific molecular pathways as well as to uncover novel mechanisms. The majority of subarachnoid hemorrhage genetic research has focused on gene expression and linkage studies of these markers as they relate to the development of intracranial aneurysms and their subsequent rupture. Far less work has centered on the genetic determinants of cerebral vasospasm, the predisposition to delayed cerebral injury, and the determinants of ensuing functional outcome after aSAH. The suspected genes are diverse and encompass multiple functional systems including fibrinolysis, inflammation, vascular reactivity, and neuronal repair. To this end, we present a systematic review of 21 studies suggesting a genetic basis for clinical outcome after aSAH, with a special emphasis on the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia. In addition, we highlight potential pitfalls in the interpretation of genetic association studies, and call for uniformity of design of larger multicenter studies in the future.

Ducruet, Andrew F; Gigante, Paul R; Hickman, Zachary L; Zacharia, Brad E; Arias, Eric J; Grobelny, Bartosz T; Gorski, Justin W; Mayer, Stephan A; Connolly, E Sander

2010-01-01

39

The Biochemical Basis of Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors as Neuroprotective Agents in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has the highest morbidity and mortality rates of all types of stroke. Many aneurysmal SAH patients continue to suffer from significant neurological morbidity and mortality directly related to delayed cerebral ischemia. Pilot clinical studies of the use of Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (statins) in aneurysmal SAH patients have reported a reduction in delayed cerebral ischemia and better clinical outcomes. We review the biochemical effects of statins on endothelium vascular function, glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity, inflammatory changes, and oxidative injuries, with reference to their possible neuroprotective effects in aneurysmal SAH.

Wong, George Kwok Chu; Poon, Wai Sang

2010-01-01

40

Seizures and Epilepsy following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage : Incidence and Risk Factors  

PubMed Central

Objective Although prophylactic antiepileptic drug (AED) use in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a common practice, lack of uniform definitions and guidelines for seizures and AEDs rendered this prescription more habitual instead of evidence-based manner. We herein evaluated the incidence and predictive factors of seizure and complications about AED use. Methods From July 1999 to June 2007, data of a total of 547 patients with aneurysmal SAH who underwent operative treatments were reviewed. For these, the incidence and risk factors of seizures and epilepsy were assessed, in addition to complications of AEDs. Results Eighty-three patients (15.2%) had at least one seizure following SAH. Forty-three patients (7.9%) had onset seizures, 34 (6.2%) had perioperative seizures, and 17 (3.1%) had late epilepsy. Younger age (< 40 years), poor clinical grade, thick hemorrhage, acute hydrocephalus, and rebleeding were related to the occurrence of onset seizures. Cortical infarction and thick hemorrhage were independent risk factors for the occurrence of late epilepsy. Onset seizures were not predictive of late epilepsy. Moreover, adverse drug effects were identified in 128 patients (23.4%) with AEDs. Conclusion Perioperative seizures are not significant predictors for late epilepsy. Instead, initial amount of SAH and surgery-induced cortical damage should be seriously considered as risk factors for late epilepsy. Because AEDs can not prevent early postoperative seizures (< 1 week) and potentially cause unexpected side effects, long-term use should be readjusted in high-risk patients.

Choi, Kyu-Sun; Chun, Hyoung-Joon; Ko, Yong; Kim, Young-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min

2009-01-01

41

Detection of Circle of Willis Aneurysms in Patients with Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Comparison of CT Angiography and Digital Subtraction Angiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

POBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to compare CT angiography with dig- ital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the detection and measurement of intracranial aneurysms in patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. Thirty consecutive patients with recent subarachnoid hemorrhage shown by unenhanced CT scanning or lumbar puncture were studied with CT angiography and DSA. Using a shaded surface

Pedro T. Vieco; William P. Shuman; Cordell E. Gross

42

Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI) Overall Scale for patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

The Quality of Life after Brain Injury Overall Scale (QOLIBRI-OS) is a recently developed instrument that provides a brief summary measure of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in domains typically affected by brain injury. This study examined the application of the six item QOLIBRI-OS in patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Hong Kong Chinese aSAH patients were evaluated prospectively within the chronic phase of 1 year after aSAH in this multi-center observational study. Cronbach's ? was 0.88, and correlations were satisfactory for all six items. QOLIBRI-OS demonstrated good criterion validity with other 1 year outcome assessments. In conclusion, QOLIBRI-OS can be used as a brief index for disease-specific HRQoL assessment after aSAH. Further validation in another population of aSAH patients is recommended. PMID:24373816

Wong, George Kwok Chu; Lam, Sandy Wai; Ngai, Karine; Wong, Adrian; Mok, Vincent; Poon, Wai Sang

2014-06-01

43

Circulating levels of neuropeptide proenkephalin A predict outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

High plasma proenkephalin A level has been associated with ischemic stroke severity and clinical outcomes. This study aimed to assess the relationship between proenkephalin A and disease severity as well as to investigate its ability to predict long-term clinical outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Plasma proenkephalin A concentrations of one hundred and eighty patients and 180 sex- and age-matched healthy controls were measured by chemoluminescence sandwich immunoassay. Plasma proenkephalin A level was substantially higher in patients than in healthy controls (205.5±41.6pmol/L vs. 90.8±21.1pmol/L, P<0.001), was highly associated with World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) score (r=0.470, P<0.001) and Fisher score (r=0.488, P<0.001), was an independent predictor for 6-month mortality [odds ratio (OR), 1.183; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.067-1.339; P=0.004] and unfavorable outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 1-3) (OR, 1.119; 95% CI, 1.046-1.332; P=0.005) using multivariate analysis, and had high area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for prediction of 6-month mortality (AUC, 0.831; 95% CI, 0.768-0.883) and unfavorable outcome (AUC, 0.821; 95% CI, 0.757-0.874). The predictive value of the plasma proenkephalin A concentration was also similar to those of WFNS score and Fisher score (both P>0.05). In a combined logistic-regression model, proenkephalin A improved the AUCs of WFNS score and Fisher score, but the differences were not significant (both P>0.05). Thus, proenkephalin A level may be a useful, complementary tool to predict mortality and functional outcome at 6 months after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:24727154

Chen, Xiang-Lin; Yu, Bing-Jian; Chen, Mao-Hua

2014-06-01

44

Therapeutic Implications of Estrogen for Cerebral Vasospasm and Delayed Cerebral Ischemia Induced by Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Cerebral vasospasm (CV) remains the leading cause of delayed morbidity and mortality following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, increasing evidence supports etiologies of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) other than CV. Estrogen, specifically 17?-estradiol (E2), has potential therapeutic implications for ameliorating the delayed neurological deterioration which follows aneurysmal SAH. We review the causes of CV and DCI and examine the evidence for E2-mediated vasodilation and neuroprotection. E2 potentiates vasodilation by activating endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), preventing increased inducible NOS (iNOS) activity caused by SAH, and decreasing endothelin-1 production. E2 provides neuroprotection by increasing thioredoxin expression, decreasing c-Jun N-terminal kinase activity, increasing neuroglobin levels, preventing SAH-induced suppression of the Akt signaling pathway, and upregulating the expression of adenosine A2a receptor. The net effect of E2 modulation of these various effectors is the promotion of neuronal survival, inhibition of apoptosis, and decreased oxidative damage and inflammation. E2 is a potentially potent therapeutic tool for improving outcomes related to post-SAH CV and DCI. However, clinical evidence supporting its benefits remains lacking. Given the promising preclinical data available, further studies utilizing E2 for the treatment of patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms appear warranted.

Starke, Robert M.; Dumont, Aaron S.; Owens, Gary K.; Hasan, David M.

2014-01-01

45

Effect of Cisternal Drainage on the Shunt Dependency Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Objective Shunt-dependent chronic hydrocephalus (SDCH) is known to be a major complication associated with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Old age is known to be one of numerous factors related to the development of SDCH. This study investigated whether postoperative cisternal drainage affects the incidence of SDCH and clinical outcome in elderly patients with aSAH. Methods Fifty-nine patients participated in this study. All patients underwent aneurysmal clipping with cisternal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage. Clinical variables relevant to the study included age, sex, location of ruptured aneurysm, CT finding and clinical state on admission, clinical outcome, and CSF drainage. We first divided patients into two groups according to age (<70 years of age and ?70 years of age) and compared the two groups. Secondly, we analyzed variables to find factors associated with SDCH in both groups (<70 years of age and ?70 years of age). Results Of 59 patients, SDCH was observed in 20 patients (33.9 %), who underwent shunt placement for treatment of hydrocephalus. Forty seven percent of cases of acute hydrocephalus developed SDCH. In the elderly group (?70 years of age), the duration and amount of CSF drainage did not affect the development of chronic hydrocephalus. Conclusion In elderly patients, although the incidence of SDCH was significantly higher, clinical outcome was acceptable. The duration and the amount of cisternal drainage did not seem to be related to subsequent development of chronic hydrocephalus within elderly patients aged 70 or older.

Kim, Sung Hun; Chung, Pil-Wook; Kwon, Young Joon; Shin, Hyun Chul; Choi, Chun Sik

2012-01-01

46

Syringomyelia and spinal arachnoiditis resulting from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Report of two cases and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Syringomyelia resulting from arachnoiditis secondary to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is an extremely rare clinical entity with few cases reported in the literature. The presentation, management, and pathogenesis of syringomyelia in this setting is poorly understood. We describe the presentation, radiology, management, and outcomes in two patients with syringomyelia resulting from arachnoiditis secondary to aneurysmal SAH and review the literature on this rare condition. Case number 1 was treated successfully with syrinx-subarachnoid shunt after extensive lysis of adhesions. Case number 2 was treated with syringoperitoneal shunt. Both patients had radiographic decreased syrinx size postoperatively. These patients add to the small literature on syringomyelia occurring secondary to SAH-associated arachnoiditis. The radiographic outcomes demonstrate that in the appropriately selected patient, syrinx-subarachnoid or syringoperitoneal shunting are viable options.

Abel, Taylor J.; Howard, Matthew A.; Menezes, Arnold

2014-01-01

47

Effect of cilostazol in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Previous studies with small sample size have shown that cilostazol can reduce the risk of cerebral vasospasm in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The purpose of this study was to determine whether cilostazol is effective in patients with aneurysmal SAH. Studies investigating the effect of cilostazol in patients with aneurysmal SAH were identified using Embase.com without language or publication-type restrictions. We used the random-effect model to combine data. Pooled risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Two randomized controlled trials and two quasi-randomized controlled trials with a total of 340 patients were included. The incidence of symptomatic vasospasm (RR=0.47; 95% CI, 0.31-0.72; p<0.001), severe vasospasm (RR=0.48; 95% CI, 0.28-0.82; p=0.007), vasospasm-related new cerebral infarctions (RR=0.38; 95% CI, 0.22-0.67; p=0.001), and poor outcome (RR=0.57; 95% CI, 0.37-0.88; p=0.011) were significantly lower in the cilostazol group. The numbers needed to treat for these outcomes were 6.4, 6.3, 5.7, and 5.4, respectively. Mortality rate differences between the two groups were insignificant. No statistical heterogeneity was found for all outcomes. These results show that cilostazol can decrease the incidence of symptomatic vasospasm, severe vasospasm, vasospasm-related new cerebral infarctions, and poor outcome in patients with aneurysmal SAH. PMID:24211059

Niu, Peng-Peng; Yang, Ge; Xing, Ying-Qi; Guo, Zhen-Ni; Yang, Yi

2014-01-15

48

Two cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage from spontaneous anterior cerebral artery dissection : a case of simultaneous hemorrhage and ischemia without aneurysmal formation and another case of hemorrhage with aneurysmal formation.  

PubMed

Spontaneous anterior cerebral artery (ACA) dissection, although extremely rare, is often associated with severe morbidity and mortality. It could lead to cerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, or, rarely, combination of hemorrhage and ischemia due to hemodynamic changes. Prompt and accurate diagnosis is essential for determining the appropriate management. However, the optimal treatment for ACA dissection remains controversial. Herein, we report on two rare cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by ACA dissection; a case presenting with simultaneous SAH and infarction without aneurysmal formation and another case presenting with SAH with fusiform aneurysmal formation. A review of the related literature is provided, and optimal treatments for each type of dissection are suggested. PMID:25045652

Im, Tae-Seop; Lee, Yoon-Soo; Suh, Sang-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Ryu, Kee-Young; Kang, Dong-Gee

2014-06-01

49

Two Cases of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage from Spontaneous Anterior Cerebral Artery Dissection : A Case of Simultaneous Hemorrhage and Ischemia Without Aneurysmal Formation and Another Case of Hemorrhage with Aneurysmal Formation  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous anterior cerebral artery (ACA) dissection, although extremely rare, is often associated with severe morbidity and mortality. It could lead to cerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, or, rarely, combination of hemorrhage and ischemia due to hemodynamic changes. Prompt and accurate diagnosis is essential for determining the appropriate management. However, the optimal treatment for ACA dissection remains controversial. Herein, we report on two rare cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by ACA dissection; a case presenting with simultaneous SAH and infarction without aneurysmal formation and another case presenting with SAH with fusiform aneurysmal formation. A review of the related literature is provided, and optimal treatments for each type of dissection are suggested.

Im, Tae-Seop; Suh, Sang-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Ryu, Kee-Young; Kang, Dong-Gee

2014-01-01

50

Utilization Guidelines for Reducing Radiation Exposure in the Evaluation of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Practice Quality Improvement Project  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to reduce the cumulative radiation exposure from CT of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. MATERIALS AND METHODS Baseline data on 30 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were collected retrospectively for all CT examinations of the head performed throughout the hospital course. Radiation exposure estimates were obtained by recording dose–length products for each examination. As a departmental practice quality improvement project, an imaging protocol was implemented that included utilization guidelines to reduce radiation exposure in CTA and CT perfusion examinations performed to detect vasospasm in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Ten months after implementation of this protocol, data on 30 additional patients were analyzed. Means, medians, and SD estimates were compared for cumulative radiation exposure and absolute numbers of each examination. RESULTS Sixty patients were included in the study: 30 patients at baseline and 30 patients after implementation of the quality improvement plan. These patients underwent 435 CT examinations: 248 examinations at baseline and 187 examinations with the new protocol. With the new algorithm, the mean number of CT examinations per patient was 5.8 compared with 7.8 at baseline, representing a decrease of 25.6%. The number of CT perfusion examinations per patient decreased 32.1%. Overall, there was a 12.1% decrease in cumulative radiation exposure (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION With the structured imaging algorithm, the cumulative radiation exposure and number of CT examinations of the head decreased among patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage because utilization guidelines defined the appropriate imaging time points for detection of vasospasm. Application of these methods to other patient populations with high use of CT may reduce cumulative radiation exposure while the clinical benefits of imaging are maintained.

Loftus, Michael L.; Minkowitz, Shlomo; Tsiouris, A. John; Min, Robert J.; Sanelli, Pina C.

2011-01-01

51

Multiple non-branching dissecting aneurysms of the mid-basilar trunk presenting with sequential subarachnoid hemorrhages  

PubMed Central

Objective: We describe a rare case of a patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to a ventral dissecting mid-basilar aneurysm that was treated surgically. One week after surgery, the patient experienced sudden deterioration due to a new SAH caused by the development of a new aneurysm of the basilar trunk distinct from the previously clipped aneurysm. Case Description: A 54-year-old woman with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage was found to have a small, broad-based aneurysm arising from the ventral aspect of the mid-basilar artery. This complicated lesion was treated with a microsurgical clipping via a translabyrinthine pre-sigmoidal sub-temporal approach. One week postoperatively, the patient suffered a new SAH and was found to have developed a distinct basilar artery aneurysm. The patient was returned to the Operating Room for microsurgical clipping via the previous craniotomy. After surgery, the patient made a slow, but steady, recovery. She underwent repeated angiographic imaging, demonstrating a stable appearance. Two years post surgery, the patient had returned to work and had no obvious neurological deficit, with the exception of unilateral iatrogenic hearing loss. Conclusion: We describe a rare case of multiple aneurysms originating in relation to a mid-basilar dissection, resulting in multiple episodes of SAH. These are difficult and dangerous lesions that can be treated with open microsurgical reconstruction or possibly via an endovascular approach. The intricate location of the lesions poses a particular challenge to neurosurgeons attempting to directly treat mid-basilar lesions.

Defillo, Archie; Nussbaum, Eric S.; Zelensky, Andrea; Nussbaum, Leslie

2011-01-01

52

A Multicenter prospective study of poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (AMPAS): observational registry study  

PubMed Central

Background Poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is associated with very high mortality and morbidity. Our limited knowledge on predictors of long-term outcome in poor-grade patients with aSAH definitively managed comes from retrospective and prospective studies of small case series of patients in single center. The purpose of the AMPAS is to determine the long-term outcomes in poor-grade patients with different managements within different time after aSAH, and identify the independent predictors of the outcome that help guide the decision on definitive management. Methods/design The AMPAS study is a prospective, multicenter, observational registry of consecutive hospitalized patients with poor grade aSAH (WFNS grade IV and V). The aim is to enroll at least 226 poor-grade patients in 11 high-volume medical centers (eg, >150 aSAH cases per year) affiliated to different universities in China. This study will describe poor grade patients and aneurysm characteristics, treatment strategies (modality and time of definitive management), hospitalization complications and outcomes evolve over time. The definitive management is ruptured aneurysm treatment. Outcomes at 3, 6, 12 months after the management were measured using the Glasgow Outcome Scale and the Modified Rankin Scale. Discussion The AMPAS is the first prospective, multicenter, observational registry of poor grade aSAH with any management. This study will contribute to a better understanding of significant predictors of outcome in poor grade patients and help guide future treatment of the worst patients after aSAH. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TNRC-10001041.

2014-01-01

53

A Rare Case of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage due to Rupture of Isolated Anterior Spinal Artery Aneurysm in a Patient with Polycystic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Only a very few cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to isolated anterior spinal artery aneurysms have been reported in the literature. We report a case of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to anterior spinal artery aneurysm rupture in a renal transplant patient at our institution. A 47-year-old male had abrupt onset of left lower extremity weakness with bowel and bladder disturbances which prompted emergent surgical evacuation of the clot and hence immediate diagnostic angiography was not performed. However, follow-up serial intracranial arterial ultrasound studies showed only vasospasm of the basilar artery. Repeat MRI of the thoracic spine showed persistence of subarachnoid blood products, but no larger foci compared to previous imaging. When spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage is present in the appropriate clinical setting, isolated anterior spinal artery aneurysm should be considered as a possible, treatable cause.

Seerangan, Geetha; Narayanan, Mohanram

2012-01-01

54

EARLYDRAIN- outcome after early lumbar CSF-drainage in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may be complicated by delayed cerebral ischemia, which is a major cause of unfavorable clinical outcome and death in SAH-patients. Delayed cerebral ischemia is presumably related to the development of vasospasm triggered by the presence of blood in the basal cisterns. To date, oral application of the calcium antagonist nimodipine is the only prophylactic treatment for vasospasm recognized under international guidelines. In retrospective trials lumbar drainage of cerebrospinal fluid has been shown to be a safe and feasible measure to remove the blood from the basal cisterns and decrease the incidence of delayed cerebral ischemia and vasospasm in the respective study populations. However, the efficacy of lumbar drainage has not been evaluated prospectively in a randomized controlled trial yet. Methods/Design This is a protocol for a 2-arm randomized controlled trial to compare an intervention group receiving early continuous lumbar CSF-drainage and standard neurointensive care to a control group receiving standard neurointensive care only. Adults suffering from a first aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage whose aneurysm has been secured by means of coiling or clipping are eligible for trial participation. The effect of early CSF drainage (starting < 72 h after securing the aneurysm) will be measured in the following ways: the primary endpoint will be disability after 6 months, assessed by a blinded investigator during a personal visit or standardized telephone interview using the modified Rankin Scale. Secondary endpoints include mortality after 6 months, angiographic vasospasm, transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) mean flow velocity in both middle cerebral arteries and rate of shunt insertion at 6 months after hospital discharge. Discussion Here, we present the study design of a multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial to investigate whether early application of a lumbar drainage improves clinical outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Trial registration www.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01258257

2011-01-01

55

Significance of C-Reactive Protein and Transcranial Doppler in Cerebral Vasospasm Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Objective Cerebral vasospasm is a common and potentially devastating complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Inflammatory processes seem to play a major role in the pathogenesis of vasospasm. C-reactive protein (CRP) constitutes a highly sensitive inflammatory marker. Elevation of serum CRP levels has been demonstrated in patients with aSAH. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the possible relationship between CRP levels in the serum and transcranial Doppler (TCD) and the development of vasospasm in patients with aSAH. Methods A total of 61 adult patients in whom aSAH was diagnosed were included in the study from November 2008 to May 2011. The patients' demographics, Hunt and Hess grade, Fisher grade, CT scans, digital subtraction angiography studies, and daily neurological examinations were recorded. Serial serum CRP measurements were obtained on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13 and TCD was measured on days 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13. All patients underwent either surgical or endovascular treatment within 24 hours of their hemorrhagic attacks. Results Serum CRP levels peaked on the 3rd postoperative day. There were significant differences between the vasospasm group and the non-vasospasm group on the 1st, 3rd and 5th day. There were significant differences between the vasospasm group and the non-vasospasm group on the 3rd day in the mean middle cerebral artery velocities on TCD. Conclusion Patients with high levels of CRP on the 1st postoperative day and high velocity of mean TCD on the 3rd postoperative day may require closer observation to monitor for the development of vasospasm.

Hwang, Sung-Hwan; Kwon, Jeong-Taik; Nam, Taek-Kyun; Hwang, Sung-Nam; Kang, Hyun

2013-01-01

56

Spinal syringomyelia following subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Subarachnoid blood has been reported as a cause of chronic spinal arachnoiditis. Although syringomyelia has been thought to be caused by spinal arachnoiditis, reports of syringomyelia following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are very rare. We describe two patients with syringomyelia associated with chronic spinal arachnoiditis following SAH. From January 2001 to December 2010, 198 patients with aneurysmal SAH were treated at Kinki University School of Medicine. Two of the 198 patients had syringomyelia following aneurysmal SAH; thus the rate of syringomyelia associated with aneurysmal SAH was 1.0%. Patient 1 was a 54-year-old woman who presented with back pain, back numbness and gait disturbance 20 months after SAH. Her MRI revealed syringomyelia of the spinal cord from C2 to T10. She underwent shunting of the syrinx to the subarachnoid space. Patient 2 was a 49-year-old man, who was admitted to the hospital with headache, diplopia, hoarseness, dysphagia and ataxia five months after SAH. MRI revealed syringomyelia from the medulla oblongata to C6, and an enlargement of the lateral and fourth ventricles. After foramen magnum decompression and C1 laminectomy, a fourth ventricle-subarachnoid shunt was placed by insertion of a catheter. Spinal arachnoiditis and spinal syringomyelia are rare but important chronic complications after SAH. PMID:22285478

Nakanishi, Kinya; Uchiyama, Takuya; Nakano, Naoki; Fukawa, Norihito; Yamada, Kimito; Yabuuchi, Tomonari; Kato, Amami

2012-04-01

57

INTRACRANIAL AND BLOOD PRESSURE VARIABILITY AND LONG-TERM OUTCOME AFTER ANEURYSMAL SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE  

PubMed Central

Background Care of individuals in the intensive care unit (ICU) with brain injury traditionally focuses on maintaining ABP and ICP within prescribed ranges. However research suggests that the dynamic variability of these pressure signals provides additional information about physiologic functioning and may reflect adaptive capacity. Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the ability to predict long-term outcome from arterial blood pressure (ABP) and intracranial pressure (ICP) variability in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods ABP and ICP were monitored continuously for four days in 90 patients (74% female; mean age 53 years) in an ICU following SAH. Variability of ABP and ICP signals was calculated at four time scales (24-hour, hourly, 5-minute, and difference of sequential 5second averages). Long-term functional outcome was assessed 6 months post-SAH using the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale. Results Pressure (ABP, ICP) variability indices were better predictors of 6-month functional outcome than mean pressure levels. Indices reflecting faster variability (particularly 5-second) were positively associated with better long-term outcome (typical p<0.001), while greater 24-hour variability was related to poorer outcomes (typical p <0.001), controlling for initial neurologic condition. Conclusions Beyond the measurement of ABP and ICP levels in acutely ill patients with SAH, simple measures of variability of these signals provide prognostic information regarding long-term functional outcome. The relationship between outcome and ICP and ABP variability in SAH 2 variability was dependent on the time scale at which the variability was measured. Given its positive association with better outcome, greater faster variability may reflect better physiologic adaptive capacity.

Kirkness, Catherine J.; Burr, Robert L.; Mitchell, Pamela H.

2009-01-01

58

Impaired Blood Dendritic Cell Numbers and Functions after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Previous Presentation Portions of this study were presented at the Annual Congress of Société Française d’Anesthésie et de Réanimation in Paris, September 2012. Background Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists are promising therapy for the prevention of nosocomial infections in critical ill patients. We aimed to analyze the TLR-reactivity of circulating dendritic cells (DC) as assessed by cytokine production after an ex vivo challenge with TLR agonists in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. Methods and Findings A single-center prospective observational study took place in one intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. Blood samples were harvested on days 2, 5 and 10 in 21 severe SAH patients requiring mechanical ventilation and 17 healthy controls. DC production of cytokines (Tumour Necrosis Factor, TNF-?; Interleukin, IL-12; and Interferon, IFN-?) was assessed by intracellular immunostaining on TLR-3, 4, 7/8 and 9 stimulations. SAH patients had decreased numbers of blood myeloid (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) on days 2, 5 and 10. Compared with the healthy controls, the frequency of mDCs producing TNF-? after TLR-3 stimulation was decreased in the SAH patients. The frequency of myeloid DCs producing IL-12 after TLR-3 and 4 stimulations was also decreased in the SAH patients. In contrast, the mDCs response to TLR-7/8 was not impaired in the SAH patients. The frequency of pDCs producing TNF-?+ and IFN-?+ on TLR-7/8 stimulation were reduced at all of the tested times in the SAH patients, whereas reactivity to TLR-9 was preserved. On day 2, the pDCs from non-survivor patients (n?=?8) had a decreased ability to produce IFN-? on TLR-9 stimulation compared with the survivors. Conclusions These data suggest functional abnormalities of circulating pDCs and mDCs that could be important for immunomodulation after SAH.

Cinotti, Raphael; Dumonte, Erwan; Motreul, Remi; Josien, Regis; Asehnoune, Karim

2013-01-01

59

Using quantitative CT perfusion for evaluation of delayed cerebral ischemia following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CT perfusion (CTP) and determine a quantitative threshold for delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods SAH patients were prospectively enrolled in an IRB approved protocol. CTP was performed during the typical time-period for DCI, between days 6–8 following SAH. Quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and mean transit time (MTT) values were obtained using standard region-of-interest placement sampling gray matter. The reference standard for DCI is controversial and consisted of clinical and imaging criteria in this study. In a subanalysis of vasospasm, digital subtraction angiography was used as the reference standard. Receiver operating characteristic curves determined diagnostic accuracy using area under the curve. Optimal threshold values were calculated using patient population utility method. Results Ninety-seven patients were included; 41% (40/97) had DCI. Overall diagnostic accuracy was 93% CBF, 88% MTT and 72% CBV. Optimal threshold values were 35mL/100gm/min (90% sensitivity,68% specificity) for CBF and 5.5sec (73% sensitivity,79% specificity) for MTT. In the subanalysis (n=57), 63% (36/57) had vasospasm. Overall diagnostic accuracy was 94% CBF, 85% MTT and 72% CBV. Optimal threshold values were 36.5 mL/100gm/min (95% sensitivity,70% specificity) for CBF and 5.4 sec (78% sensitivity,70% specificity) for MTT. Conclusion CBF and MTT have the highest overall diagnostic accuracy. Threshold values of 35mL/100gm/min CBF and 5.5sec MTT are suggested for DCI based on patient population utility method. Absolute threshold values may not be generalizable due to differences in scanner equipment and post-processing methods.

Sanelli, Pina C.; Ugorec, Igor; Johnson, Carl E.; Tan, Jessica; Segal, Alan Z.; Fink, Matthew; Heier, Linda A.; Tsiouris, Apostolos J.; Comunale, Joseph P.; John, Majnu; Stieg, Philip E.; Zimmerman, Robert D.; Mushlin, Alvin I.

2011-01-01

60

The Role of Bone Subtraction Computed Tomographic Angiography in Determining Intracranial Aneurysms in Non-Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background: The presence of blood in the subarachnoid space is an acute pathology with a serious risk of death and complications. The most common etiology (approximately 80%) is intracranial aneurysm. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the role of bone subtracted computed tomographic angiography (BSCTA), a novel and noninvasive method for determining and characterizing intracranial aneurysms. Patients and Methods: Sixty consecutive patients with clinically suspected non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were considered to enter the study. The subtraction quality was inadequate in ten patients; thus, they were excluded, leaving 50 patients (84.4%) in the study. Bone subtracted and non-subtracted 3D images were obtained from the BSCTA raw data sets. All images obtained by digital subtraction angiography (DSA), BSCTA, and computed tomographic angiography (CTA) were evaluated for the presence or absence of an aneurysm and the location, minimal sac diameter, and neck size ratio of the aneurysm. DSA was considered as the gold standard during the evaluation of the data. Results: Of the 50 patients who participated in this study, 11 had no aneurysms as determined by both CTA and DSA. Examination of the remaining 39 patients revealed the presence of 51 aneurysms. While 3D-CTA could not detect six aneurysms that were located in the base of the skull, 3D-BSCTA easily detected them. Moreover, five aneurysms were only partially detected by 3D-CTA. According to this data, the sensitivity of 3D-BSCTA and 3D-CTA was calculated as 98% and 86.3%, respectively; the specificity was calculated as 100% and 90.9%, respectively, per aneurysm; and the sensitivity of 100% for 3D-BSCTA and 98% for 3D-CTA was achieved by using combined images with multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) and maximum intensity projection (MIP). BSCTA detected and characterized the aneurysms as well as DSA, and BSCTA and DSA gave concordant results in detecting aneurysms. Conclusions: BSCTA is easily accessible, less time consuming, and most importantly, a non-invasive technique for detecting intracranial aneurysms. It is also suitable for patients who have been referred to emergency services. Therefore, it can be used in emergency conditions and as a first-line diagnostic method in patients with non-traumatic SAH.

Kayhan, Aysegul; Koc, Osman; Keskin, Suat; Keskin, Fatih

2014-01-01

61

Continuous Selective Intra-Arterial Application of Nimodipine in Refractory Cerebral Vasospasm due to Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background. Cerebral vasospasm is one of the leading courses for disability in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Effective treatment of vasospasm is therefore one of the main priorities for these patients. We report about a case series of continuous intra-arterial infusion of the calcium channel antagonist nimodipine for 1–5 days on the intensive care unit. Methods. In thirty patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and refractory vasospasm continuous infusion of nimodipine was started on the neurosurgical intensive care unit. The effect of nimodipine on brain perfusion, cerebral blood flow, brain tissue oxygenation, and blood flow velocity in cerebral arteries was monitored. Results. Based on Hunt & Hess grades on admission, 83% survived in a good clinical condition and 23% recovered without an apparent neurological deficit. Persistent ischemic areas were seen in 100% of patients with GOS 1–3 and in 69% of GOS 4-5 patients. Regional cerebral blood flow and computed tomography perfusion scanning showed adequate correlation with nimodipine application and angiographic vasospasm. Transcranial Doppler turned out to be unreliable with interexaminer variance and failure of detecting vasospasm or missing the improvement. Conclusion. Local continuous intra-arterial nimodipine treatment for refractory cerebral vasospasm after aSAH can be recommended as a low-risk treatment in addition to established endovascular therapies.

Ott, Stephanie; Jedlicka, Sheila; Wolf, Stefan; Peter, Mozes; Pudenz, Christine; Merker, Patrick; Schurer, Ludwig; Lumenta, Christianto Benjamin

2014-01-01

62

Differential Regulation of Matrix-Metalloproteinases and Their Tissue Inhibitors in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) are involved in vascular remodeling, (neuro)inflammation, blood-brain barrier breakdown and neuronal apoptosis. Proinflammatory mechanisms are suggested to play an important role during early brain injury and cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study aimed to analyze MMP-3, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 in patients with SAH and their respective association with cerebral vasospasm (CVS). Methods Blood samples were collected in 20 SAH patients on days 1 to 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15 and 20 healthy age and gender matched volunteers. Serum MMPs and TIMPs were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Doppler sonographic CVS was defined as a mean blood flow velocity above 120 cm/sec in the middle cerebral artery. When discharged from hospital and at 6 month follow-up neurological outcome was evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Score and the modified Rankin Scale. Results MMP-9 was higher in SAH patients compared to healthy controls (p<0.001). Patients with CVS (n?=?11) had elevated MMP-9 serum levels compared to patients without CVS (n?=?9, p<0.05). Higher MMP-9 was observed in the presence of cerebral ischemia associated with cerebral vasospasm (p<0.05). TIMP-1 was increased in patients with SAH on day 4 (p<0.05). There was an imbalance of the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in favor of MMP-9 in SAH patients, in particular those with CVS (p<0.001). MMP-3 and TIMP-3 were significantly lower in SAH patients throughout day 4 and day 7, respectively (p<0.05). We did not find an association between MMP-, TIMP levels and neurological outcome after 6 months. Conclusions MMP-3 and -9 are differentially regulated in SAH patients with both enzymes showing peak levels correlating with the development of CVS. The inhibitors TIMP-1 and -3 were low during the acute phase after SAH and increased later on which might suggest a preponderance of pro-inflammatory mechanisms.

Fischer, Marlene; Dietmann, Anelia; Beer, Ronny; Broessner, Gregor; Helbok, Raimund; Pfausler, Bettina; Schmutzhard, Erich; Lackner, Peter

2013-01-01

63

Three-dimensional volume rendering digital subtraction angiography in comparison with two-dimensional digital subtraction angiography and rotational angiography for detecting aneurysms and their morphological properties in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveSubarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which can cause mortality and severe morbidity, is a serious condition whose underlying cause must be determined. We aimed to compare 2D digital subtraction angiography (2DDSA), rotational angiography (RA) and 3D volume rendering digital subtraction angiography (3DVRDSA) for detecting aneurysms and their morphological properties in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Fahrettin Kucukay; R. Sarper Okten; Ayhan Tekiner; Mustafa Dagli; Cevdet Gocek; Mehmet Akif Bayar; Turhan Cumhur

64

Inter-observer variability in diagnosing radiological features of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage; a preliminary single centre study comparing observers from different specialties and levels of training  

PubMed Central

Background: A noncontrast computed tomography (CT) scan remains the initial radiological investigation of choice for a patient with suspected aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). This initial scan may be used to derive key information about the underlying aneurysm which may aid in further management. The interpretation, however, is subject to the skill and experience of the interpreting individual. The authors here evaluate the interpretation of such CT scans by different individuals at different levels of training, and in two different specialties (Radiology and Neurosurgery). Methods: Initial nonontrast CT scan of 35 patients with aSAH was evaluated independently by four different observers. The observers selected for the study included two from Radiology and two from Neurosurgery at different levels of training; a resident currently in mid training and a resident who had recently graduated from training of each specialty. Measured variables included interpreter's suspicion of presence of subarachnoid blood, side of the subarachnoid hemorrhage, location of the aneurysm, the aneurysm's proximity to vessel bifurcation, number of aneurysm(s), contour of aneurysm(s), presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), infarction, hydrocephalus and midline shift. To determine the inter-observer variability (IOV), weighted kappa values were calculated. Results: There was moderate agreement on most of the CT scan findings among all observers. Substantial agreement was found amongst all observers for hydrocephalus, IVH, and ICH. Lowest agreement rates were seen in the location of aneurysm being supra or infra tentorial. There were, however, some noteworthy exceptions. There was substantial to almost perfect agreement between the radiology graduate and radiology resident on most CT findings. The lowest agreement was found between the neurosurgery graduate and the radiology graduate. Conclusion: Our study suggests that although agreements were seen in the interpretation of some of the radiological features of aSAH, there is still considerable IOV in the interpretation of most features among physicians belonging to different levels of training and different specialties. Whether these might affect management or outcome is unclear.

Siddiqui, Usman T.; Khan, Anjum F.; Shamim, Muhammad Shahzad; Hamid, Rana Shoaib; Alam, Muhammad Mehboob; Emaduddin, Muhammad

2014-01-01

65

Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms Presenting with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Treated by Staged Coil Trapping and Covered Stents Graft  

PubMed Central

The treatment of bilateral vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is still challenging. The authors report a rare case of bilateral VADA treated with coil trapping of ruptured VADA and covered stents implantation after multiple unsuccessful stent assisted coiling of the contralateral unruptured VADA. A 44-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of severe headache and sudden stuporous consciousness. Brain CT showed thick SAH and intraventricular hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography demonstrated bilateral VADA. Based on the SAH pattern and aneurysm configurations, the right VADA was considered ruptured. This was trapped with endovascular coils without difficulty. One month later, the contralateral unruptured VADA was protected using a stent-within-a-stent technique, but marked enlargement of the left VADA was detected by 8-months follow-up angiography. Subsequently two times coil packing for pseudosacs resulted in near complete occlusion of left VADA. However, it continued to grow. Covered stents graft below the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) origin and a coronary stent implantation across the origin of the PICA resulted in near complete obliteration of the VADA. Covered stent graft can be used as a last therapeutic option for the management of VADA, which requires absolute preservation of VA flow.

Shim, Jai-Joon; Kim, Sung-Ho; Chang, Jae-Chil

2012-01-01

66

Nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral infarction associated with moyamoya disease.  

PubMed

Moyamoya disease patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral infarction are rare, especially when the subarachnoid hemorrhage is nonaneurysmal. Here, we present one 48-year-old male patient with moyamoya disease identified with digital subtraction angiography. His initial symptoms are associated with increased intracranial pressure. Subsequent computed tomography demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral infarction. Digital subtraction angiography showed no obvious aneurysms. We assume that subarachnoid hemorrhage is associated with the rupture of the moyamoya vessels and transdural anastomotic vessels. The cerebral infarction can be also explained by hemodynamic mechanisms. We should pay more attention to the recurrent hemorrhagic stroke. PMID:25006946

Wu, Hui; Song, Shaoli; Zhang, Xiaohua; Jin, Yichao

2014-07-01

67

Statins in the Management of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: An Overview of Animal Research, Observational Studies, Randomized Controlled Trials and Meta-analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Background: The pathophysiology of delayed neurological deficits (DNDs) following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is complex,\\u000a and is not limited to arterial narrowing (vasospasm) and classical ischemia. Thus, combined drug approaches, or therapies\\u000a with multiple effects, may have the greatest potential for benefit. Statins are known to have pleiotropic vascular effects,\\u000a some of which may interrupt the pathogenesis of DNDs. Based

Andreas H. Kramer

68

Outcome following intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage account for almost 20% of all stroke cases. Both forms of stroke are associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate. The incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage increases with the age and certain ethnical groups are more affected. Subarachnoid hemorrhage tends to occur in a much younger population than other types of strokes. Outcome predictors for intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage have been extensively discussed in the literature. Based on the current literature, we review the morbidity and mortality rates and predictors of outcome for these two life-threatening diseases. Initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, hematoma volume, and presence of ventricular blood are the most prominent predictors of outcome following intracerebral hemorrhage. Age and initial severity of neurologic deficits on presentation, measured by GCS, Hunt and Hess Scale or the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons Scale, are the most important predictors of outcome following subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:12074438

Hanel, Ricardo A; Xavier, Andrew R; Mohammad, Yousef; Kirmani, Jawad F; Yahia, Abutaher M; Qureshi, Adnan I

2002-01-01

69

Effects of statins-use for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.  

PubMed

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH)-induced cerebral vasospasm and delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND) are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with aSAH. The effects of statins-use for patients with aSAH remain controversial. Here,a total of 249 patients from six randomized controlled trials(RCTs) were subjected to meta-analysis. No significant decrease was found in the incidence of vasospasm(RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.54-1.17), with substantial heterogeneity (I(2) = 49%, P = 0.08), which was verified by the further sensitivity analysis and subgroup meta-analysis. Furthermore, no significant difference was presented in the incidence of poor neurological outcome(RR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.77-1.16), and potential side effects(RR, 2.49; 95% CI, 0.75-8.33). Nevertheless, significant difference was reported in the occurrence of DIND(RR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37-0.92) and mortality(RR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.14-0.64). At present, although statins-use in the patients with aSAH should not be considered standard care at present, statins-use may have the potential effects in the prevention of mortality in patients with aSAH. PMID:24763190

Su, Shao-Hua; Xu, Wei; Hai, Jian; Wu, Yi-Fang; Yu, Fei

2014-01-01

70

Medical Management of Cerebral Vasospasm following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Review of Current and Emerging Therapeutic Interventions  

PubMed Central

Cerebral vasospasm is a major source of morbidity and mortality in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Evidence suggests a multifactorial etiology and this concept remains supported by the assortment of therapeutic modalities under investigation. The authors provide an updated review of the literature for previous and recent clinical trials evaluating medical treatments in patients with cerebral vasospasm secondary to aSAH. Currently, the strongest evidence supports use of prophylactic oral nimodipine and initiation of triple-H therapy for patients in cerebral vasospasm. Other agents presented in this report include magnesium, statins, endothelin receptor antagonists, nitric oxide promoters, free radical scavengers, thromboxane inhibitors, thrombolysis, anti-inflammatory agents and neuroprotectants. Although promising data is beginning to emerge for several treatments, few prospective randomized clinical trials are presently available. Additionally, future investigational efforts will need to resolve discrepant definitions and outcome measures for cerebral vasospasm in order to permit adequate study comparisons. Until then, definitive recommendations cannot be made regarding the safety and efficacy for each of these therapeutic strategies and medical management practices will continue to be implemented in a wide-ranging manner.

Adamczyk, Peter; Amar, Arun Paul; Mack, William J.

2013-01-01

71

Subarachnoid hemorrhage after an ischemic attack due to a bacterial middle cerebral artery dissecting aneurysm: case report and literature review.  

PubMed

A 78-year-old woman suffered sudden-onset left hemiparesis. There were no remarkable infectious findings. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a low-intensity area supplied by the right middle cerebral artery (MCA). The diagnosis was cerebral ischemia and she was conservatively treated with hyperosmotic fluids. Two days after the ischemic stroke she suddenly became comatose. CT showed diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in the basal cistern associated with a right intra-Sylvian and a right frontal subcortical hematoma. Three-dimensional (3D)-CT angiography demonstrated occlusion of the M2 portion of the right MCA. Four days after the ischemic onset she died of brain herniation. Autopsy revealed arterial dissection in the intermediate membrane of the right MCA bifurcation and occlusion of the M2 portion of the thrombosed right MCA. Gram staining showed remarkable bacterial infection in the thrombus. SAH after an ischemic attack due to MCA dissection is extremely rare. We suspect that bacterial infection was involved in the formation of her fragile dissecting aneurysm. PMID:24140774

Saito, Atsushi; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Hori, Emiko; Kanamori, Masayuki; Nishimura, Shinjitsu; Sannohe, Seiya; Kaimori, Mitsuomi; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Nishijima, Michiharu

2014-01-01

72

Triggers for Aggressive Interventions in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ischemia is a common cause of secondary neuronal injury after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. An electronic literature\\u000a search was conducted to identify clinical signs and laboratory data that could serve as predictors for delayed cerebral ischemia\\u000a and define triggers for additional diagnostic testing or more aggressive intervention. Fifteen articles describing original\\u000a research that included some discussion of triggers were identified and

Nino Stocchetti; Daryl Gress; J. Claude Hemphill; Brian Hoh; Giuseppe Lanzino; David Menon; Alejandro Rabinstein; Lori Shutter; Jose Suarez; Mervyn Vergouwen; Paul Vespa; Gregory J. Zipfel; Neuroscience ICU

73

Spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage accompanied with intraventricular hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Spinal hematoma is a rare and usually severe neurological disorder that, without adequate treatment, often leads to death or permanent neurological deficit. Epidural as well as subdural and subarachnoid hematomas have been investigated in some studies. A 66-year-old man referred to our hospital because of acute onset paraplegia and incontinency started 3 h before admission. With impression of spinal hemorrhage, emergent cervicothoracic spinal MRI performed. On magnetic resonance imagination (MRI) mixed hyper/iso intense lesion in anterior subarachnoid space from C7 to T5 was seen. On brain A computerised tomography (CT) scan, subarachnoid hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage in posterior parts of brain was seen. Unfortunately, the patient died 10 days later. About our patient, severe back pain accompanying by immediate paraplegia, sphincter disturbances, sensory level, and prominent meningeal signs guided us clinically to spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Further brain CT scan revealed diffusion of blood to brain subarachnoid space and ventricles. An outstanding finding on brain CT was the presence of blood only in posterior horn of lateral ventricles and dorsal fissures of brain supporting our theory that blood has diffused from spinal subarachnoid space to dorsal subarachnoid space of brain because of supine position of patient. In this patient anticoagulation may be the only sinister factor for developing complications. PMID:23961296

Fatehi, Farzad; Basiri, Keivan; Ghorbani, Askar

2013-03-01

74

Spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage accompanied with intraventricular hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Spinal hematoma is a rare and usually severe neurological disorder that, without adequate treatment, often leads to death or permanent neurological deficit. Epidural as well as subdural and subarachnoid hematomas have been investigated in some studies. A 66-year-old man referred to our hospital because of acute onset paraplegia and incontinency started 3 h before admission. With impression of spinal hemorrhage, emergent cervicothoracic spinal MRI performed. On magnetic resonance imagination (MRI) mixed hyper/iso intense lesion in anterior subarachnoid space from C7 to T5 was seen. On brain A computerised tomography (CT) scan, subarachnoid hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage in posterior parts of brain was seen. Unfortunately, the patient died 10 days later. About our patient, severe back pain accompanying by immediate paraplegia, sphincter disturbances, sensory level, and prominent meningeal signs guided us clinically to spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Further brain CT scan revealed diffusion of blood to brain subarachnoid space and ventricles. An outstanding finding on brain CT was the presence of blood only in posterior horn of lateral ventricles and dorsal fissures of brain supporting our theory that blood has diffused from spinal subarachnoid space to dorsal subarachnoid space of brain because of supine position of patient. In this patient anticoagulation may be the only sinister factor for developing complications.

Fatehi, Farzad; Basiri, Keivan; Ghorbani, Askar

2013-01-01

75

Parenteral diclofenac infusion significantly decreases brain-tissue oxygen tension in patients with poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Introduction Diclofenac, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, is commonly used as antipyretic therapy in intensive care. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of parenteral diclofenac infusion on brain homeostasis, including brain-tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2) and brain metabolism after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Methods We conducted a prospective, observational study with retrospective analysis of 21 consecutive aSAH patients with multimodal neuromonitoring. Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), intracranial pressure (ICP), body temperature, and PbtO2 were analyzed after parenteral diclofenac infusion administered over a 34-minute period (20 to 45 IQR). Data are given as mean ± standard error of mean and median with interquartile range (IQR), as appropriate. Time-series data were analyzed by using a general linear model extended by generalized estimation equations (GEEs). Results One-hundred twenty-three interventions were analyzed. Body temperature decreased from 38.3°C ± 0.05°C by 0.8°C ± 0.06°C (P < 0.001). A 10% decrease in MAP and CPP (P < 0.001) necessitated an increase of vasopressors in 26% (n = 32), colloids in 33% (n = 41), and crystalloids in 5% (n = 7) of interventions. PbtO2 decreased by 13% from a baseline value of 28.1 ± 2.2 mm Hg, resulting in brain-tissue hypoxia (PbtO2 <20 mm Hg) in 38% (n = 8) of patients and 35% (n = 43) of interventions. PbtO2 <30 mm Hg before intervention was associated with brain-tissue hypoxia after parenteral diclofenac infusion (likelihood ratio, 40; AUC, 93%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 87% to 99%; P < 0.001). Cerebral metabolism showed no significant changes after parenteral diclofenac infusion. Conclusions Parenteral diclofenac infusion after aSAH effectively reduces body temperature, but may lead to CPP decrease and brain-tissue hypoxia, which were both associated with poor outcome after aSAH.

2013-01-01

76

Influence of lamina terminalis fenestration on the occurrence of the shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in anterior communicating artery aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Recently, it was reported that fenestration of the lamina terminalis (LT) may reduce the incidence of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The authors investigated the efficacy of the LT opening on the incidence of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in the ruptured anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms. The data of 71-ruptured ACoA aneurysm patients who underwent aneurysmal clipping in acute stage were reviewed retrospectively. Group I (n=36) included the patients with microsurgical fenestration of LT during surgery, Group II (n=35) consisted of patients in whom fenestration of LT was not feasible. The rate of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus was compared between two groups by logistic regression to control for confounding factors. Ventriculo-peritoneal shunts were performed after aneurysmal obliteration in 18 patients (25.4%). The conversion rates from acute hydrocephalus on admission to chronic hydrocephalus in each group were 29.6% (Group I) and 58.8% (Group II), respectively. However, there was no significant correlation between the microsurgical fenestration and the rate of occurrence of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus (p>0.05). Surgeons should carefully decide the concomitant use of LT fenestration during surgery for the ruptured ACoA aneurysms because of the microsurgical fenestration of LT can play a negative role in reducing the incidence of chronic hydrocephalus. PMID:16479076

Kim, Jae Min; Jeon, Ji Young; Kim, Jae Hoon; Cheong, Jin Hwan; Bak, Koang Hum; Kim, Choong Hyun; Yi, Hyeong Joong; Kim, Kwang Myung

2006-02-01

77

Influence of Lamina Terminalis Fenestration on the Occurrence of the Shunt-Dependent Hydrocephalus in Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Recently, it was reported that fenestration of the lamina terminalis (LT) may reduce the incidence of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The authors investigated the efficacy of the LT opening on the incidence of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in the ruptured anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms. The data of 71-ruptured ACoA aneurysm patients who underwent aneurysmal clipping in acute stage were reviewed retrospectively. Group I (n=36) included the patients with microsurgical fenestration of LT during surgery, Group II (n=35) consisted of patients in whom fenestration of LT was not feasible. The rate of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus was compared between two groups by logistic regression to control for confounding factors. Ventriculo-peritoneal shunts were performed after aneurysmal obliteration in 18 patients (25.4%). The conversion rates from acute hydrocephalus on admission to chronic hydrocephalus in each group were 29.6% (Group I) and 58.8% (Group II), respectively. However, there was no significant correlation between the microsurgical fenestration and the rate of occurrence of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus (p>0.05). Surgeons should carefully decide the concomitant use of LT fenestration during surgery for the ruptured ACoA aneurysms because of the microsurgical fenestration of LT can play a negative role in reducing the incidence of chronic hydrocephalus.

Jeon, Ji Young; Kim, Jae Hoon; Cheong, Jin Hwan; Bak, Koang Hum; Kim, Choong Hyun; Yi, Hyeong Joong; Kim, Kwang Myung

2006-01-01

78

Bow hunter's syndrome unmasked after contralateral vertebral artery sacrifice for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Bow hunter's syndrome (BHS), or positional vertebrobasilar insufficiency, is a rare disorder characterized by positional stenosis or occlusion of the dominant vertebral artery (VA) with concordant signs and symptoms of brainstem ischemia. Many etiologies have been described, with the most common level of obstruction occurring at the craniocervical junction. The authors report acquired BHS after the patient's contralateral VA was sacrificed for ruptured aneurysm. A 44-year-old man was referred to our institution for years of continued positional tinnitus, vertigo, and nausea. This symptomatology began 5 years prior, immediately after the patient's right VA was endovascularly sacrificed to treat a ruptured VA aneurysm. From the time of treatment, right head turning caused instantaneous symptoms consistent with brainstem ischemia. Evaluations performed during the 5 year interim before referral included computed tomography angiography, MRI, and diagnostic cerebral angiography (DCA). All failed to identify a causal etiology. A diagnosis of BHS was made with dynamic DCA. With the patient's head turned to the right, angiography of the left VA demonstrated a positional block. The patient underwent left VA decompression. Intraoperative dynamic DCA was utilized to demonstrate adequacy of decompression. The patient tolerated the procedure without complication. Symptomatology immediately completely subsided and remained absent at his 3 month follow-up. An acquired BHS should be recognized as a possible complication if VA sacrifice is considered for an unclippable or uncoilable aneurysm. PMID:24308952

Ikeda, Daniel S; Villelli, Nicolas; Shaw, Andrew; Powers, Ciarán

2014-06-01

79

Triggers for aggressive interventions in subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Ischemia is a common cause of secondary neuronal injury after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. An electronic literature search was conducted to identify clinical signs and laboratory data that could serve as predictors for delayed cerebral ischemia and define triggers for additional diagnostic testing or more aggressive intervention. Fifteen articles describing original research that included some discussion of triggers were identified and reviewed. Quality of evidence was considered very low to moderate for included studies. Using data from these studies and expert opinion, a variety of clinical signs and monitoring data were identified as potentially useful triggers for additional tests or aggressive treatments. These data were used to develop a sequence that might be employed in the clinical management of subarachnoid hemorrhage to determine which patients need additional attention, testing, or interventions to reduce/prevent ischemia caused by vasospasm. PMID:21748498

Stocchetti, Nino

2011-09-01

80

Management of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.  

PubMed

Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) occurs as a result of rupture of an intracranial aneurysm and affects a younger population compared with ischaemic stroke or intracerebral haemorrhage. Although it makes up only about 5% of all cerebrovascular events, it accounts for over a quarter of the productive life-years lost to stroke. Its surgical and medical treatment represents a multidisciplinary effort. We herein provide an overview of current management options for aSAH. PMID:24782062

Schattlo, Bawarjan; Fathi, Ali-Reza; Fandino, Javier

2014-01-01

81

Magnesium and the inflammatory response: potential pathophysiological implications in the management of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage?  

PubMed

Cerebral vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia remain an unsolved problem in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In theory, high-dose magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) therapy offers vascular and neuroprotective benefits and is therefore currently under evaluation. The intensity of the inflammatory response after SAH is associated with the outcome. The aim of the current study was to evaluate a possible link between the inflammatory response and MgSO(4) therapy, since magnesium (Mg(2+)) has anti-inflammatory properties. In 15 patients with SAH, inflammatory cytokine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and peripheral blood were determined daily using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay between day 4 and day 12. Eight patients were treated with standard therapy alone (group 1) and seven patients were treated with an additional, high-dose of MgSO(4) (group 2). Serum Mg(2+) levels in group 2 were significantly higher compared to group 1: 1.48 ± 0.04 mmol/L versus 0.90 ± 0.01 mmol/L, ?<0.001. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the CSF was significantly lower in group 2 compared to group 1: 6680 ± 989 vs.11079 ± 1277 pg/mL, ? = 0.021. A trend towards lower systemic IL-6 levels was found in group 2: 58 ± 7 versus 104 ± 21 pg/mL, ? = 0.052. Systemic IL-1? levels were significantly lower in group 2: 0.66 ± 0.11 and 0.15 ± 0.01 pg/mL (?<0.001), while the CSF levels did not differ. Tumor necrosis factor-? levels did not differ between the two groups. Although there were more patients with favorable outcome in group 2, the difference was not statistically significant. This was probably due to the small sample size. The results indicate a suppression of inflammatory cytokine release, in particular IL-6, in patients treated with high-dose MgSO(4). These results call for further studies of the effect of Mg(2+) on the inflammatory signaling pathway with regard to delayed cerebral ischemia following SAH. PMID:22966500

Muroi, Carl; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Hugelshofer, Michael; Seule, Martin; Mishima, Kenichi; Keller, Emanuela

2012-07-01

82

Effects of Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction Program on Depression, Anxiety and Stress in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Objective In this study, the Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program was applied to patients presenting with depression and anxiety after surgery from spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and the effects were assessed. Methods The subjects were patients admitted for cerebral aneurysm rupture and treated by means of surgery from March to December, 2007. More than 6 months had passed after surgery, without any special lesions showing up on computed tomography (CT), and the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) was 5 points. Among patients with anxiety and depression symptoms, 11 patients completed the program. The MBSR program was conducted once a week, 2.5 hours each, for 8 weeks. The evaluation criteria were : 1) the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI): it measures the type and level of depression, 2) the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory : the anxiety state of normal adults without mental disorder, and 3) Heart Rate Variability (HRV) : the influence of the autonomous nervous system on the sinoarterial node varies continuously in response to the change of the internal/external environment. Results The BDI value was decreased from 18.5 ± 10.9 to 9.5 ± 7.1 (p = 0.013) : it was statistically significant, and the depression level of patients was lowered. The state anxiety was decreased from 51.3 ± 13.9 to 42.3 ± 15.2; the trait anxiety was reduced from 50.9 ± 12.3 to 41.3 ± 12.8, and a borderline significant difference was shown (p = 0.091, p = 0.056). In other words, after the treatment, although it was not statistically significant, a decreased tendency in anxiety was shown. In the HRV measurement, standard deviation normal to normal (SDNN), square root of the square root of the mean sum of squared differences between adjacent normal to normal intervals (RMSSD), and total power (TP) showed significant increase, Physical Stress Index (PSI) showed a significant reduction, and thus an improvement in the homeostatic control mechanism of the autonomic nervous system was ween. Conclusion The MBSR program was applied to the patients showing anxiety and depression reaction after SAH treatment, and a reduction in depression symptoms and physiological reactions were observed. The application of the MBSR program may be considered as a new tool in improving the quality of life for patients after surgery.

Joo, Hye Myung; Lee, Sung Jae; Chung, Yong Gu

2010-01-01

83

Evaluating CT perfusion using outcome measures of delayed cerebral ischemia in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate CTP in aneurysmal SAH using outcome measures of DCI. Materials and Methods Retrospective study of consecutive SAH patients enrolled in a prospective IRB-approved clinical accuracy trial. Qualitative CTP deficits were determined by two neuroradiologists blinded to clinical and imaging data. Quantitative CTP was performed using standardized protocol with ROI placement sampling cortex. Primary outcome measures were permanent neurologic deficits and infarction. Secondary outcome measure was DCI, defined as clinical deterioration. CTP test characteristics (95% CI) were determined for each outcome measure. Statistical significance was calculated using Fisher’s exact and Student’s t-test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine accuracy and threshold analysis. Results Ninety-six patients were included. Permanent neurologic deficits developed in 33%(32/96). CTP deficits were seen in 78%(25/32) of those who developed permanent neurologic deficits and 34%(22/64) without(p<0.0001). CTP deficits had 78%(61–89%) sensitivity, 66%(53–76%) specificity, 53%(39–67%) positive and 86%(73–93%) negative predictive values. Infarction occurred in 18%(17/96). CTP deficits were seen in 88%(15/17) who developed infarction and 41%(32/79) without(p=0.0004). CTP deficits had 88%(66–97%) sensitivity, 59%(48–70%) specificity, 32%(20–46%) positive and 96%(86–99%) negative predictive values. DCI was diagnosed in 50%(48/96). CTP deficits were seen in 81%(39/48) of DCI patients and 17%(8/48) without(p<0.0001). CTP deficits had 81%(68–90%) sensitivity, 83%(70–91%) specificity, 83%(70–91%) positive and 82%(69–90%) negative predictive values. Quantitative CTP revealed significantly reduced CBF and prolonged MTT for DCI, permanent neurologic deficits, and infarction. ROC analysis showed that CBF and MTT had the highest accuracy. Conclusion CTP may add prognostic information regarding DCI and poor outcomes in aneurysmal SAH.

Sanelli, P.C.; Anumula, N.; Johnson, C.E.; Comunale, J.P.; Tsiouris, A.J.; Riina, H.; Segal, A.Z.; Stieg, P.E.; Zimmerman, R.D.; Mushlin, A.I.

2014-01-01

84

Endovascular Treatment of Medically Refractory Cerebral Vasospasm Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE CV following aneurysmal SAH is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. We review our experiences using PTA and IA verapamil infusion for treating medically refractory cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS We performed a retrospective review of patients with SAH admitted from July 2003 to January 2008. RESULTS Of 546 patients admitted within 72 hours of symptom onset, 231 patients (42%) developed symptomatic CV and 189 patients (35%) required endovascular therapy. A total of 346 endovascular sessions were performed consisting of 1 single angioplasty, 286 IA verapamil infusions, and 59 combined treatments. PTA was performed on 151 vessel segments, and IA verapamil was infused in 720 vessel segments. IA verapamil doses ranged from 2.0 to 30.0 mg per vessel segment and from 3.0 to 55.0 mg per treatment session. Repeat treatments were necessary in 102 patients (54%) for persistent, recurrent, or worsening CV. There were 6 treatment-related complications, of which 2 resulted in clinical worsening. No deaths were attributable to endovascular therapy. At follow-up, 115 patients (61%) had a good outcome and 55 patients (29%) had a poor outcome. Sixteen patients died from causes related to SAH, while 3 died from other medical complications. CONCLUSIONS Endovascular treatments are an integral part of managing patients with medically refractory CV. In our experience, PTA and IA verapamil are safe, with a low complication rate, but further studies are required to determine appropriate patient selection and treatment efficacy.

Jun, P.; Ko, N.U.; English, J.D.; Dowd, C.F.; Halbach, V.V.; Higashida, R.T.; Lawton, M.T.; Hetts, S.W.

2014-01-01

85

Effectiveness of papaverine cisternal irrigation for cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and measurement of biomarkers.  

PubMed

Cisternal irrigation with thrombolytic agents was used to prevent post-SAH vasospasm, but its role remained inconclusive. To verify effectiveness of papaverine (PPV) in preventing vasospasm, we studied relationship between inflammatory biologic markers and vasospasm. This prospective study included 121 patients with clipped anterior circulation aneurysms that had ruptured, and 372 control patients. Patients were divided into three groups according to cisternal irrigation method: simple drain, papaverine group, and urokinase (UK) group. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were determined in CSF and serum on days 3 and 7 after SAH. The PPV group showed similar incidence of vasospasm with UK group, but lower incidence than the simple drain group. The levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were significantly higher in the SAH group than in the control group. CSF and serum levels were more elevated on day 7 than day 3, and the degree of elevation were more marked when measured in the CSF than in the serum. However, there was no statistical difference between measured levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, and vasospasm development. PPV cisternal irrigation was similarly effective as UK at preventing vasospasm. Although neither PPV nor UK irrigation could reduce the concentration of adhesion molecules compared with simple drain, we found levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were specifically elevated in the CSF. Therefore, further research should focus on anti-inflammation as a therapeutic target against cerebral vasospasm and on the CSF as the optimum place where such inflammatory action practically brought about. PMID:24297765

Kim, Jae Hoon; Yi, Hyeong-Joong; Ko, Yong; Kim, Young-Soo; Kim, Dong-Won; Kim, Jae-Min

2014-05-01

86

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage International Trialists data repository (SAHIT).  

PubMed

The outcome of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has improved slowly over the past 25 years. This improvement may be due to early aneurysm repair by endovascular or open means, use of nimodipine, and better critical care management. Despite this improvement, mortality remains at about 40%, and many survivors have permanent neurologic, cognitive, and neuropsychologic deficits. Randomized clinical trials have tested pharmacologic therapies, but few have been successful. There are numerous explanations for the failure of these trials, including ineffective interventions, inadequate sample size, treatment side effects, and insensitive or inappropriate outcome measures. Outcome often is evaluated on a good-bad dichotomous scale that was developed for traumatic brain injury 40 years ago. To address these issues, we established the Subarachnoid Hemorrhage International Trialists (SAHIT) data repository. The primary aim of the SAHIT data repository is to provide a unique resource for prognostic analysis and for studies aimed at optimizing the design and analysis of phase III trials in aneurysmal SAH. With this aim in mind, we convened a multinational investigator meeting to explore merging individual patient data from multiple clinical trials and observational databases of patients with SAH and to create an agreement under which such a group of investigators could submit data and collaborate. We welcome collaboration with other investigators. PMID:23295631

Macdonald, R Loch; Cusimano, Michael D; Etminan, Nima; Hanggi, Daniel; Hasan, David; Ilodigwe, Don; Jaja, Blessing; Lantigua, Hector; Le Roux, Peter; Lo, Benjamin; Louffat-Olivares, Ada; Mayer, Stephan; Molyneux, Andrew; Quinn, Audrey; Schweizer, Tom A; Schenk, Thomas; Spears, Julian; Todd, Michael; Torner, James; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Wong, George K C

2013-01-01

87

Brain monitoring after subarachnoid hemorrhage: lessons learned.  

PubMed

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a serious condition with a high morbidity and mortality rate despite advances in neurocritical care. Intraparenchymal monitors providing continuous bedside physiological data have been introduced into the care of the neurocritically ill and are the focus of clinical research. We review the available technology for bedside brain monitoring and the knowledge that has been gathered and its clinical utility by organizing it into 3 main areas: detecting vasospasm early, establishing end points to resuscitation in the management of cerebral vasospasm, and developing insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Finally, we discuss its implications for the field and future directions. PMID:21508881

Spiotta, Alejandro M; Provencio, J Javier; Rasmussen, Peter A; Manno, Edward

2011-10-01

88

Spinal vascular malformations in non-perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective\\u000a   In patients with non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and no evidence for a cerebral aneurysm on angiography, a frequent\\u000a cause of the hemorrhage is perimesencephalic hemorrhage or other cerebral vascular pathology. In some patients no cause is\\u000a found. The exact incidence of a spinal vascular malformation (SVM) as the origin for the SAH is not known. We assessed the\\u000a occurrence

M. R. Germans; F. A. Pennings; M. E. S. Sprengers; W. P. Vandertop

2008-01-01

89

Treatment of Intracranial Vasospasm Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Vasospasm has been a long known source of delayed morbidity and mortality in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Delayed ischemic neurologic deficits associated with vasospasm may account for as high as 50% of the deaths in patients who survive the initial period after aneurysm rupture and its treatment. The diagnosis and treatment of vasospasm has still been met with some controversy. It is clear that subarachnoid hemorrhage is best cared for in tertiary care centers with modern resources and access to cerebral angiography. Ultimately, a high degree of suspicion for vasospasm must be kept during ICU care, and any signs or symptoms must be investigated and treated immediately to avoid permanent stroke and neurologic deficit. Treatment for vasospasm can occur through both ICU intervention and endovascular administration of intra-arterial vasodilators and balloon angioplasty. The best outcomes are often attained when these methods are used in conjunction. The following article reviews the literature on cerebral vasospasm and its treatment and provides the authors’ approach to treatment of these patients.

Bauer, Andrew M.; Rasmussen, Peter A.

2014-01-01

90

Non-aneurysmal non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage: patient characteristics, clinical outcome and prognostic factors based on a single-center experience in 125 patients  

PubMed Central

Background Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is mainly caused by ruptured cerebral aneurysms but in up to 15% of patients with SAH no bleeding source could be identified. Our objective was to analyze patient characteristics, clinical outcome and prognostic factors in patients suffering from non-aneurysmal SAH. Methods From 1999 to 2009, data of 125 patients with non-aneurysmal SAH were prospectively entered into a database. All patients underwent repetitive cerebral angiography. Outcome was assessed according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) (mRS 0–2 favorable vs. 3–6 unfavorable). Also, patients were divided in two groups according to the distribution of blood in the CT scan (perimesencephalic and non-perimesencephalic SAH). Results 106 of the 125 patients were in good WFNS grade (I-III) at admission (85%). Overall, favorable outcome was achieved in 104 of 125 patients (83%). Favorable outcome was associated with younger age (P?aneurysmal SAH have better prognosis compared to aneurysm related SAH and poor admission status was the only independent predictor of unfavorable outcome in the multivariate analysis. Patients with a non-perimesencephalic SAH have an increased risk of a worse neurological outcome. These patients should be monitored attentively.

2014-01-01

91

Subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral vasospasm - literature review.  

PubMed

Subarachnoid hemorrhage represents a serious disease with high mortality and morbidity. Two important areas are becoming the central research interest of subarachnoid hemorrhage: cerebral vasospasm and early brain injury. The authors have reviewed the major contributions in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage documented in the medical literature in the past 5 years. Treatments interfering with nitric oxide - or endothelin-pathways continue to show antispasmotic effects in experimental models of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Inflammation and oxidative stress play a vital role in the pathophysiology of cerebral vasospasm. Apoptosis, a relevant cause of early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage, also underline the etiology of cerebral vasospasm. Future research studies will continue to elucidate the pathophysiological pathways and treatment modalities targeting cerebral vasospasm and early brain injury, enabling an improvement in outcome for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:23904869

Ciurea, A V; Palade, C; Voinescu, D; Nica, D A

2013-06-15

92

17-? Estradiol Can Reduce Secondary Ischemic Damage and Mortality of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a unique disorder commonly occurring when an aneurysm ruptures, leading to bleeding and clot formation, with a higher incidence in females. To evaluate the influence of 17-? estradiol (E2) in the outcome of subarachnoid hemorrhage, SAH was induced by endovascular puncture of the intracranial segment of internal carotid artery in 15 intact females (INT), 19 ovariectomized

Shao-Hua Yang; Zhen He; Samuel S. Wu; Yun-Ju He; Jason Cutright; William J. Millard; Arthur L. Day; James W. Simpkins

2001-01-01

93

Imaging of hypoxic-ischemic penumbra with 18F-fluoromisonidazole PET/CT and measurement of related cerebral metabolism in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to characterize hypoxic, but salvageable, tissue imaged by 18F-fluoromisonidazole (18F-FMISO), combining with perfusion-computed tomography (PCT) for regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurement and metabolism by microdialysis (MD) in aneurysmal subarachnoidal hemorrhage (SAH) patients. 18F-FMISO positron-emission tomography (PET)/CT was performed within the period of possible vasospasm (day 6.8±3 after SAH) in seven SAH patients. In parallel, rCBF was determined within the MD region of interest (MD-ROI) (n=5). The MD catheter was inserted into the brain parenchyma with highest risk for ischemia; extracellular levels of glutamate and energy metabolites were registered at time of PET and hourly for 10 days. Twelve-month outcome was evaluated. In asymptomatic patients (n=3) no hypoxia was detected and glutamate levels were low (<10?mmol/L), whereas symptomatic patients had higher glutamate concentrations (P<0.001). Increased 18F-FMISO uptake within the MD-ROI (n=3) was related to higher glutamate levels, while rCBF was above the ischemic range. Hypoxia (increased 18F-FMISO uptake) was present in symptomatic patients and associated with relevant metabolic derangement of extracellular glutamate levels, whereas energy metabolism and rCBF were preserved. This technique has the potential to improve our understanding of the role of cellular hypoxia in aneurysmal SAH.

Sarrafzadeh, Asita S; Nagel, Alexandra; Czabanka, Marcus; Denecke, Timm; Vajkoczy, Peter; Plotkin, Michail

2010-01-01

94

CT perfusion and delayed cerebral ischemia in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is at presentation a diagnosis per exclusionem, and can only be confirmed with follow-up imaging. For treatment of DCI a diagnostic tool is needed. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the value of CT perfusion (CTP) in the prediction and diagnosis of DCI. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases to identify studies on the relationship between CTP and DCI. Eleven studies totaling 570 patients were included. On admission, cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT), and time-to-peak (TTP) did not differ between patients who did and did not develop DCI. In the DCI time-window (4 to 14 days after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)), DCI was associated with a decreased CBF (pooled mean difference -11.9?mL/100?g per minute (95% confidence interval (CI): -15.2 to -8.6)) and an increased MTT (pooled mean difference 1.5?seconds (0.9-2.2)). Cerebral blood volume did not differ and TTP was rarely reported. Perfusion thresholds reported in studies were comparable, although the corresponding test characteristics were moderate and differed between studies. We conclude that CTP can be used in the diagnosis but not in the prediction of DCI. A need exists to standardize the method for measuring perfusion with CTP after SAH, and optimize and validate perfusion thresholds. PMID:24281744

Cremers, Charlotte H P; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Wensink, Emerens; Greving, Jacoba P; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I

2014-02-01

95

Communicating Hydrocephalus Accompanied by Arachnoid Cyst in Aneurismal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

The authors describe a case of communicating hydrocephalus accompanied by an arachnoid cyst in an aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 69-year-old female was referred to our clinic due to the sudden onset of a headache. A head computed tomography scan demonstrated an arachnoid cyst in the right middle fossa with a mass effect and diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. Digital subtraction angiography then revealed a left internal carotid-posterior communicating artery aneurysm. The neck of the aneurysm was clipped successfully and the post-operative period was uneventful. However, two months after discharge, the patient reported that her mental status had declined over previous weeks. A cranial computed tomography scan revealed an interval increase in the size of the ventricle and arachnoid cyst causing a midline shift. Simultaneous navigation guided ventriculoperitoneal shunt and cystoperitoneal shunt placement resulted in remarkable radiological and clinical improvements.

Choi, Jae Young; Cha, Seung Heon; Cho, Won Ho

2013-01-01

96

Systemic hypovolemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Two patients who had suffered subrachnoid hemorrhage were subjected to intensive monitoring of parameters of circulating blood flow, cardiovascular dynamics, and fluid and electrolyte balance. Among the parameters studied were red cell volume, plasma volume, and total blood volume, cardiac output, and central venous and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures. Both patients experienced acute neurological deterioration during the study. Red cell volume fell in a premonitory fashion prior to neurological deterioration in both, and in one patient plasma volume and total blood volume decreased by almost 50% in the 5 days prior to neurological deterioration. Central venous and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures fell initially but did not predict the deterioration. Systemic vascular resistance fell prior to clinical deterioration in one patient following ventriculoperitoneal shunting, and in the other following craniotomy and subarachnoid drainage. The falls in systemic vascular resistance may have caused shunting of cardiac output away from the compromised cerebral circulation, thereby triggering neurological deterioration. PMID:15815316

Brazenor, G A; Chamberlain, M J; Gelb, A W

1990-03-01

97

Outcome of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in a hospital population: a prospective study including early operation, intravenous nimodipine, and transcranial Doppler ultrasound.  

PubMed

A total of 153 consecutive patients with proven aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAHs) admitted immediately after diagnosis regardless of clinical condition were managed according to the same protocol. The initial evaluation included computed tomography (CT), transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD), angiography-CT, and/or angiography. Intravenous nimodipine (2 mg/hour) was started after confirmation of the diagnosis. The timing of operation was determined individually according to age, clinical course, and CT and TCD findings. Twenty-one Grade V patients treated with intensive care and ventriculostomy died or did not improve within 24 hours after SAH. Three patients with life-threatening intracerebral hematomas underwent emergency operation. Operation was early in 55 good risk patients and late in 57 patients because of poor initial grade, late admission, or logistic reasons. Seventeen patients had no operation because of old age, persistent poor clinical condition, medical complication, or lethal rebleeding before operation. In the total series, 90 patients (59%) made a full recovery, the overall morbidity rate was 14% (21 of 153 cases), and the mortality rate was 27% (42 of 153). Postoperative mortality including emergency evacuation of hematomas was 7.8% and mortality after elective operation was 6.2%. The causes of disability and death were the initial effect of the hemorrhage in 25 patients (16.3%), rebleeding in 15 (9.8%), delayed cerebral infarction in 8 (5.2%), surgical complications in 7 (4.5%), hydrocephalus in 4 (2.6%), and medical complications in 4 (2.6%). PMID:3059218

Seiler, R W; Reulen, H J; Huber, P; Grolimund, P; Ebeling, U; Steiger, H J

1988-11-01

98

Cerebral Energy Metabolism after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) on cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxidative metabolism. Average total hemispheric flow was measured utilizing a polarographic technique and the metabolic consumption...

J. M. Fein

1975-01-01

99

Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage in Pregnancy: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Summary Pregnancy is a recognized risk factor for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Headache is very frequent in normal pregnancy and it is a common sign shared between several intracranial diseases. We present a case series of 10 women in the third trimester of pregnancy admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) with neurological signs and symptoms. 4 of these patients were diagnosed with SAH. Data in this study suggest that a timely diagnosis and an appropriate treatment is crucial for mother and baby.

Guida, Maurizio; Altieri, Roberto; Palatucci, Valeria; Visconti, Federica; Pascale, Renato; Marra, Marialuisa; Locatelli, Giampiero; Saponiero, Renato; Tufano, Rosalba; Bifulco, Francesca; Piazza, Ornella

2012-01-01

100

Review of the literature regarding the relationship of rebleeding and external ventricular drainage in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage of aneurysmal origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute hydrocephalus is a well-documented complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage. The insertion of external ventricular drainage (EVD) has been the standard of care in the management of this complication, aiming primarily at immediate improvement of the clinical condition of these patients, making them more suitable candidates for surgical or endovascular intervention. In our current communication, we review the pertinent literature regarding

K. N. Fountas; E. Z. Kapsalaki; T. Machinis; I. Karampelas; H. F. Smisson; J. S. Robinson

2006-01-01

101

The clinical profile, management, and overall outcome of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage at the neurosurgical unit of a tertiary care center in India  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: Several studies report good outcomes in selected patients of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The purpose of our study is to project the clinical characteristics, management, and overall outcome of patients with aSAH presenting to a tertiary care center in India. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted over a period of 10 months and all patients presenting with aSAH were studied. Patients presenting in all grades and managed with any type of intervention or managed conservatively were included to characterize their clinical and radiological profile at admission, during management, and at discharge. Outcome was assessed with the Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) at 3 months follow-up. Results: Out of the 482 patients [mean age: 51.3 (±13.5); M: F = 1:1], 330 patients were fit to be taken up for intervention of the ruptured aneurysm, while 152 patients were unfit for any intervention. At 3 months follow-up, good outcome (GOS 4 and 5) was observed in 159 (33%), poor outcome (GOS 2 and 3) in 53 (11%), and death in 219 (45.4%) patients, while 51 patients (10.6%) were lost to follow-up. Most (95%) of the patients in the non-intervention group expired, and hence the high mortality rate, as we have analyzed the results of all patients of all grades, regardless of the treatment given. The predictors of poor outcome (GOS 1, 2, and 3) at 3 months follow-up, using multinomial regression model, were: World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) grade IV and V (at admission and after adequate resuscitation) [odds ratio (OR): 35.1, 95% confidence interval (CI): 10.8-114.7] and presence of hypertension as a co-morbid illness [OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.6-5.6]. All patients showing acute infarction on computed tomography scan at presentation had a poor outcome. Conclusions: Despite recent advances in the treatment of patients with aSAH, the morbidity and mortality rates have failed to improve significantly in unselected patients and natural cohorts. This may be attributed to the natural history of aSAH, and calls for new strategies to diagnose and treat such patients before the catastrophe strikes.

Sodhi, Harsimrat Bir Singh; Savardekar, Amey R.; Mohindra, Sandeep; Chhabra, Rajesh; Gupta, Vivek; Gupta, Sunil K.

2014-01-01

102

Cell death starts early after subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Brain injury begins early after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Although cell death via apoptosis and necrosis is known to be present in brain 24 hours after SAH, it is not known how soon after SAH cell death begins. We have previously described structural changes in rat brain microvessels 10 minutes after induction of SAH by endovascular puncture. This study examined brain for evidence of cell death beginning 10 minutes after induction of SAH. Cleaved caspase-3 (cl-caspase-3) staining was evident in vascular and parenchymal cells at 10 minutes after SAH and was significantly greater than in time-matched, sham-operated controls. The number of cl-caspase-3 positive cells was increased further at 24 hour after SAH. TUNEL assay revealed apoptotic cells present at 10 minutes, with substantially more at 24 hours after SAH. Scattered Fluoro-Jade positive neurons appeared at 1 hour after SAH and their number increased with time. At 1 hour Fluoro-Jade positive neurons were present in cortical and subcortical regions but not in hippocampus; at 24 hours they were also present in hippocampus and were significantly greater in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the vascular puncture. No Fluoro-Jade staining was present in shams. These data demonstrate an early activation of endothelial and parenchymal cells apoptosis and neuronal necrosis after SAH and identifies endpoints that can be targeted to reduce early brain injury after SAH.

Friedrich, Victor; Flores, Rowena; Sehba, Fatima A.

2012-01-01

103

Worst Headache of Life: Evaluation of Nontraumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

While the 'worst headache of life' has a differential diagnosis, acute subarachnoid hemorrhage must be the primary diagnostic consideration. Approximately l%-4% of patients presenting to the emergency department with severe headache have subarachnoid hemo...

P. M. Sherman

2005-01-01

104

Cerebrospinal Fluid Adrenomedullin Concentration Correlates with Hyponatremia and Delayed Ischemic Neurological Deficits after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Adrenomedullin (AM), a vasorelaxant peptide, is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the choroid plexus and can exert natriuretic effects in the kidney. CSF AM concentration is elevated 7–10 days after the onset of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of the present study was to determine whether CSF AM concentrations correlate with hyponatremia and delayed ischemic neurological

Yoshitaka Kubo; Kuniaki Ogasawara; Shunsuke Kakino; Hiroshi Kashimura; Kenji Yoshida; Akira Ogawa

2008-01-01

105

Magnesium Sulfate Administration in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium offers theoretic vascular and neuroprotective benefits for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. An electronic\\u000a literature search was conducted to identify original research studies describing intravenous magnesium treatment in patients\\u000a with SAH published in English between January 1990 and October 2010. Seventeen articles were identified and reviewed, including\\u000a one phase III randomized-controlled clinical trial and six phase II randomized-controlled trials. Study

Jose I. Suarez; Daryl Gress; J. Claude Hemphill; Brian Hoh; Giuseppe Lanzino; David Menon; Alejandro Rabinstein; Lori Shutter; Nino Stocchetti; Mervyn Vergouwen; Paul Vespa; Gregory J. Zipfel

106

Subarachnoid hemorrhage in Kashmir: Causes, risk factors, and outcome  

PubMed Central

Context: Kashmir, a snow bound and mountain locked valley, is populated by about 7 million ethnic and non-migratory Kashmiris who have specific dietary and social habits than rest of the world. The neurological disorders are common in Kashmiri population. Aims: To study the prevalence and outcome of spontaneous intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in Kashmir compared withother parts of the world. Settings and Design: A retrospective and hospital based study from 1982 to 2010 in the single and only Neurosurgical Centre of the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Materials and Methods: A hospital based study, in which, information concerning all Kashmiri patients was collected from the case sheets, patient files, discharge certificates, death certificates, and telephonic conversations with the help of Medical Records Department and Central Admission Register of Sher–i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Kashmir India. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance and students T-test were used at occasions. Results: Incidence of SAH in Kashmiris is about 13/100,000 persons per year. SAH comprises 31.02% of total strokes and aneurysmal ruptures are cause of 54.35% SAHs. The female suffers 1.78 times more than the male. Total mortality of 36.60% was recorded against a good recovery of 14.99%. The familial SAHs and multiple aneurysms were also common. Intra-operative finding of larger aneurysmal size than recorded on pre-operative computed tomography (CT) angiogram of same patients was noteworthy. In 493 patients of SAH, the angiography revealed 705 aneurysms. Conclusion: Spontaneous intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage, due to aneurysmal rupture, is common in Kashmir, with worst outcome. Food habits like “salt-tea twice a day”, group-smoking of wet tobacco like “Jejeer”, winter season, female gender, hypertension, and inhalation of “Kangri” smoke are special risk factorsof SAH, in Kashmiris. The plain CT brain and CT angiography are best diagnostic tools. The preventive measures for aneurysmal formation and rupture seems most promising management of future. The detachable endovascular aneurysmal occupying video assisted micro-camera capsules or plugs may be future treatment.

Bhat, Abdul Rashid; AfzalWani, Mohammed; Kirmani, Altaf R.

2011-01-01

107

Traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage suspected to have been caused by contrecoup cerebellar contusions: a case report.  

PubMed

Traumatic cerebellar hemorrhagic contusions are infrequent, and the pathogenic mechanism involves a coup injury that is associated with motor vehicle accidents in most cases. Traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage (TBSAH) is commonly reported after blunt trauma to the neck or unrestricted movement of the head, and the source of the hemorrhage is most frequently identified in the vertebrobasilar arteries. A 55-year-old woman who was addicted to alcohol was found dead in her bed. She had a bruise on the left side of her posterior parietal region, and autopsy revealed massive subarachnoid hemorrhage at the base of the brain; the hematoma was strongly attached to the right lower surface of the cerebellar hemisphere. No ruptured cerebral aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations or vertebrobasilar artery leakage were detected. Hemorrhagic cerebellar contusions were regarded as the source of the TBSAH. This is the first report of TBSAH suspected to have been caused by contrecoup cerebellar contusions. PMID:24411402

Sato, Takako; Tsuboi, Kento; Nomura, Masakatsu; Iwata, Misa; Abe, Shuntaro; Tamura, Akiyoshi; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi; Nishio, Hajime; Suzuki, Koichi

2014-03-01

108

Prognosis and treatment of acute hydrocephalus following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the rate of acute hydrocephalus in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and evaluate its clinical prognosis and treatment options. We recruited 152 patients who had cerebral aneurysms between 2006 and 2010. Sequential CT scans were performed 24–72hours after haemorrhage to examine the development of acute hydrocephalus following aneurysmal SAH. If hydrocephalus

Jingjing Lu; Nan Ji; Zhonghua Yang; Xingquan Zhao

109

Exploring the use of estrogen & progesterone replacement therapy in subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

The hypothesis that alterations in hormone levels can impact on subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is rapidly gaining momentum. Specifically, the concept that post-menopausal women are more susceptible to the condition has convinced many of the protective roles of estrogen and progesterone. Here we review the mechanisms of their actions and the potential for estrogen and progesterone replacement therapy in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Searches were performed using PubMed with the search terms "subarachnoid hemorrhage", "estrogen", "progesterone "treatment", "management", "cerebral aneurysm", and "vasospasm" from 1970 to February, 2012. Articles were also identified through searches of the Cochrane library and searches of the authors' own files. Only papers published in English were reviewed. In conclusion, there is significant theoretical evidence for the potential role of estrogen and progesterone use in altering the pathogenesis of SAH. Nevertheless, this has received mixed reviews in both case controlled studies and cohort analysis within the literature. PMID:22950381

Young, Adam M H; Karri, Surya K; Ogilvy, Christopher S

2012-07-01

110

Brain aneurysm repair  

MedlinePLUS

... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened up. A metal clip is placed ...

111

Brain interstitial fluid TNF-? after subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Objective: TNF-? is an inflammatory cytokine that plays a central role in promoting the cascade of events leading to an inflammatory response. Recent studies have suggested that TNF-? may play a key role in the formation and rupture of cerebral aneurysms, and that the underlying cerebral inflammatory response is a major determinate of outcome following subrarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods: We studied 14 comatose SAH patients who underwent multimodality neuromonitoring with intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral microdialysis as part of their clinical care. Continuous physiological variables were time-locked every 8 hours and recorded at the same point that brain interstitial fluid TNF-? was measured in brain microdialysis samples. Significant associations were determined using generalized estimation equations. Results: Each patient had a mean of 9 brain tissue TNF-? measurements obtained over an average of 72 hours of monitoring. TNF-? levels rose progressively over time. Predictors of elevated brain interstitial TNF-? included higher brain interstitial fluid glucose levels (?=0.066, P<0.02), intraventricular hemorrhage (?=0.085, P<0.021), and aneurysm size >6 mm (?=0.14, p<0.001). There was no relationship between TNF-? levels and the burden of cisternal SAH; concurrent measurements of serum glucose, or lactate-pyruvate ratio. Interpretation: Brain interstitial TNF-? levels are elevated after SAH, and are associated with large aneurysm size, the burden of intraventricular blood, and elevation brain interstitial glucose levels.

Hanafy, Khalid A.; Grobelny, Bartosz; Fernandez, Luis; Kurtz, Pedro; Connolly, ES; Mayer, Stephan A.; Schindler, Christian; Badjatia, Neeraj

2010-01-01

112

Molecular alterations in the hippocampus after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) frequently have deficits in learning and memory that may or may not be associated with detectable brain lesions. We examined mediators of long-term potentiation after SAH in rats to determine what processes might be involved. There was a reduction in synapses in the dendritic layer of the CA1 region on transmission electron microscopy as well as reduced colocalization of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and synaptophysin. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced staining for GluR1 and calmodulin kinase 2 and increased staining for GluR2. Myelin basic protein staining was decreased as well. There was no detectable neuronal injury by Fluoro-Jade B, TUNEL, or activated caspase-3 staining. Vasospasm of the large arteries of the circle of Willis was mild to moderate in severity. Nitric oxide was increased and superoxide anion radical was decreased in hippocampal tissue. Cerebral blood flow, measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and cerebral glucose metabolism, measured by positron emission tomography, were no different in SAH compared with control groups. The results suggest that the etiology of loss of LTP after SAH is not cerebral ischemia but may be mediated by effects of subarachnoid blood such as oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:24064494

Han, Sang Myung; Wan, Hoyee; Kudo, Gen; Foltz, Warren D; Vines, Douglass C; Green, David E; Zoerle, Tommaso; Tariq, Asma; Brathwaite, Shakira; D'Abbondanza, Josephine; Ai, Jinglu; Macdonald, R Loch

2014-01-01

113

Magnesium sulfate administration in subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Magnesium offers theoretic vascular and neuroprotective benefits for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. An electronic literature search was conducted to identify original research studies describing intravenous magnesium treatment in patients with SAH published in English between January 1990 and October 2010. Seventeen articles were identified and reviewed, including one phase III randomized-controlled clinical trial and six phase II randomized-controlled trials. Study quality was low for most of the included studies, with the phase III trial considered to be of moderate quality. Due to inconsistently reported benefits and the occurrence of side effects, phase II data suggested that intravenous magnesium for SAH provided either no overall net benefit or uncertain trade-offs. Benefit was likewise not supported in the single phase III clinical trial. PMID:21748496

Suarez, Jose I

2011-09-01

114

Metamorphosis of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Research: from Delayed Vasospasm to Early Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed vasospasm that develops 3–7 days after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has traditionally been considered\\u000a the most important determinant of delayed ischemic injury and poor outcome. Consequently, most therapies against delayed ischemic\\u000a injury are directed towards reducing the incidence of vasospasm. The clinical trials based on this strategy, however, have\\u000a so far claimed limited success; the incidence of vasospasm is reduced

Fatima A. Sehba; Ryszard M. Pluta; John H. Zhang

2011-01-01

115

Intracranial hypotension in the setting of concurrent perineural cyst rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Although most patients with intracranial hypotension typically present with headaches, the rest of the clinical spectrum is characteristically non-specific and often quite variable. In a patient with concurrent pathologies that can produce a similar clinical picture, a high index of suspicion must be maintained to achieve the correct diagnosis. The authors report a patient with intracranial hypotension in the setting of concurrent perineural cyst rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 63-year-old woman with a family history of ruptured intracranial aneurysms presented after a sudden thunderclap headache and was found to have diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. Imaging revealed anterior communicating and superior hypophyseal artery aneurysms. Following the uneventful clipping of both aneurysms, the patient experienced a delayed return to her neurological baseline. After it was noted that the patient had an improved neurological examination when she was placed supine, further investigation confirmed intracranial hypotension from perineural cyst rupture. The patient improved and returned to her neurological baseline after undergoing a high-volume blood patch and remained neurologically intact at postoperative follow-up. Although intracranial hypotension is known to be commonly associated with cerebrospinal fluid leak, its causal and temporal relationship with subarachnoid hemorrhage has yet to be elucidated. PMID:24314847

Sivakumar, Walavan; Ravindra, Vijay M; Cutler, Aaron; Couldwell, William T

2014-06-01

116

Long-term consequences of subarachnoid hemorrhage: examining working memory.  

PubMed

Working memory impairments are prevalent among survivors of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), but few studies have examined specifically these impairments. Such an examination is important because working memory processes are vital for daily cognitive functioning. In the current study, patients with SAH and healthy control participants were administered the word-span and alpha-span test - experimental tests of working memory. In the word-span test, participants recalled increasingly longer word-lists, requiring the maintenance of information in mind. In the alpha-span test, participants recalled the word-lists in alphabetical order, requiring both the maintenance and manipulation of information. Patients with SAH were no different from healthy controls on a battery of standard neuropsychological measures or on the word-span test. They were, however, significantly impaired on the alpha-span test, suggesting a deficit in the manipulation components of working memory. That is, impairment resulting from SAH is present when a working memory task requires additional executive processing demands. This deficit in patients with SAH does not appear to be influenced by aneurysm location, suggesting that some of the effects of SAH on cognition are from diffuse rather than focal pathology; however, a larger sample size is needed to reinforce this claim. PMID:23871092

Sheldon, Signy; Macdonald, R Loch; Cusimano, Michael; Spears, Julian; Schweizer, Tom A

2013-09-15

117

[Subarachnoidal hemorrhage and multiple vascular cerebral abnormalities in ?-thalassemia major].  

PubMed

?-thalassemia is a genetic hemoglobinopathy, which can cause hypercoagulability, vessel wall damages and thromboembolic events. Spontaneous subarachnoidal hemorrhages are not commonly described in this affection. We report subarachnoidal hemorrhage, observed during the post-partum period in a 27-year-old woman suffering from ?-thalassemia major. Brain MRI revealed complex vascular abnormalities: intracranial carotid occlusion, carotid micro-aneurisms, abnormally developed deep perforators and cortical arteries. PMID:23394851

Svahn, J; Cho, T-H; Derex, L; Mechtouff, L; Nighoghossian, N

2013-03-01

118

To Look Beyond Vasospasm in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Delayed cerebral vasospasm has classically been considered the most important and treatable cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Secondary ischemia (or delayed ischemic neurological deficit, DIND) has been shown to be the leading determinant of poor clinical outcome in patients with aSAH surviving the early phase and cerebral vasospasm has been attributed to being primarily responsible. Recently, various clinical trials aimed at treating vasospasm have produced disappointing results. DIND seems to have a multifactorial etiology and vasospasm may simply represent one contributing factor and not the major determinant. Increasing evidence shows that a series of early secondary cerebral insults may occur following aneurysm rupture (the so-called early brain injury). This further aggravates the initial insult and actually determines the functional outcome. A better understanding of these mechanisms and their prevention in the very early phase is needed to improve the prognosis. The aim of this review is to summarize the existing literature on this topic and so to illustrate how the presence of cerebral vasospasm may not necessarily be a prerequisite for DIND development. The various factors determining DIND that worsen functional outcome and prognosis are then discussed.

Messerer, Mahmoud; Oddo, Mauro; Daniel, Roy Thomas

2014-01-01

119

Statins and Anti-Inflammatory Therapies for Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Opinion Statement Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage induces a potent inflammatory cascade that contributes to endothelial dysfunction, imbalance of vasoactive substances (excess endothelin, depletion of nitric oxide) and arterial vasospasm. This process results in delayed cerebral ischemia, a major cause of neurological disability in those surviving the initial hemorrhage. The only therapy shown to be effective in improving neurologic outcomes after SAH is the calcium-channel antagonist, nimodipine (although it achieved this without reducing vasospasm). A number of novel therapies have been explored to inhibit the development of vasospasm and reduce the burden of ischemia and cerebral infarction. Statins are promising candidates, as they block multiple aspects of the inflammatory pathway that contributes to ischemic brain injury. Early clinical trials, however, have produced conflicting results and adoption of their use in clinical practice should await the results of larger more definitive studies. While endothelin-receptor antagonists showed promise in significantly reducing vasospasm in preliminary trials, their failure to improve clinical outcomes in phase III studies has been disappointing, highlighting the complex link between vasospasm and ischemia. Future directions in the quest to improve outcomes of patients with SAH may need to approach ischemia as a multifactorial process with inflammatory, vasoactive, and ionic/metabolic components.

Dhar, Rajat; Diringer, Michael

2013-01-01

120

Brainstem control of cerebral blood flow and application to acute vasospasm following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Symptomatic ischemia following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is common but poorly understood and inadequately treated. Severe constriction of the major arteries at the base of the brain, termed vasospasm, traditionally has been thought to be a proximal event underlying these ischemias, although microvascular changes also have been described. The vast majority of studies aimed at understanding the pathogenesis of ischemic deficits and vasospasm have focused on the interaction of the “spasmogen” of the extravasated blood with the smooth muscle and endothelium of the arteries. This has led to a comparative neglect of the contribution of the central nervous system to the maintenance of cerebral perfusion. In the present study, we focused on the role of the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) in modulating cerebral perfusion at rest and following an experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in the rat. Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry and three-dimensional optical microangiography. Focal application of a GABAA receptor agonist and antagonist were used to respectively inactivate and activate the RVM. We show here that the RVM modulates cerebral blood flow under resting conditions, and further, contributes to restoration of cerebral perfusion following a high-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage. Failure of this brainstem compensatory mechanism could be significant for acute perfusion deficits seen in patients following subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Cetas, Justin S.; Lee, Delaina R.; Alkayed, Nabil J.; Wang, Ruikang; Iliff, Jeffrey J.; Heinricher, Mary M.

2009-01-01

121

Anemia and transfusion after subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may be affected by a number of factors, including cerebral blood flow and oxygen delivery. Anemia affects about half of patients with SAH and is associated with worse outcome. Anemia also may contribute to the development of or exacerbate delayed cerebral ischemia. This review was designed to examine the prevalence and impact of anemia in patients with SAH and to evaluate the effects of transfusion. A literature search was made to identify original research on anemia and transfusion in SAH patients. A total of 27 articles were identified that addressed the effects of red blood cell transfusion (RBCT) on brain physiology, anemia in SAH, and clinical management with RBCT or erythropoietin. Most studies provided retrospectively analyzed data of very low-quality according to the GRADE criteria. While RBCT can have beneficial effects on brain physiology, RBCT may be associated with medical complications, infection, vasospasm, and poor outcome after SAH. The effects may vary with disease severity or the presence of vasospasm, but it remains unclear whether RBCTs are a marker of disease severity or a cause of worse outcome. Erythropoietin data are limited. The literature review further suggests that the results of the Transfusion Requirements in Critical Care Trial and subsequent observational studies on RBCT in general critical care do not apply to SAH patients and that randomized trials to address the role of RBCT in SAH are required. PMID:21769459

Le Roux, Peter D

2011-09-01

122

[Cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous shunt presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage and acute subdural hematoma: a case report].  

PubMed

Cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous shunt (CdAVS) usually presents with exophthalmos, conjunctival chemosis, ophthalmoplegia, headache, bruit, or pulsatile tinnitus. Intracranial hemorrhage associated with CdAVS is rare. We describe a patient with CdAVS presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage and acute subdural hematoma. A 65-year-old woman presented headache and temporary loss of consciousness and was transferred to our hospital. On admission, the patient was alert and complained of a left-sided temporal headache. There were no ocular symptoms. A CT scan revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage and left acute subdural hematoma. When we prepared for cerebral angiography, the patient presented loss of consciousness following sudden onset of severe headache. Urgent angiography revealed left CdAVS, which was fed by both the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery and drained only into ipsilateral (left) vein of the sylvian fissure. Aneurysmal dilatation of the draining veins and leptomeningeal drainage were present. No cerebral aneurysms were detected. After the angiography, a CT scan showed enlarged subdural hematoma, so left fronto-temporo-parietal craniotomy was immediately performed. On opening the dura mater, arterial bleeding from Sylvian fissure appeared and was uncontrollable. Unfortunately, the patient died 3 days after the operation. We concluded that subarachnoid hemorrhage and subdural hematoma were due to the rupture of engorged cortical veins. Our case report suggests that CdAVS with angiographic findings such as aneurysmal dilatation of the draining veins and leptomeningeal drainage should be treated urgently because of the high risk of the life-threatening complications resulting from a surgically uncontrollable hemorrhage. PMID:11449719

Kagawa, K; Nishimura, S; Seki, K

2001-05-01

123

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs used as a treatment modality in subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most frequently prescribed therapies worldwide. Meta-analysis data indicate the potential for myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular incident, heart failure, renal failure and arterial hypertension. Here we review the mechanisms of their actions and the potential for therapeutic use in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Searches were performed using PubMed with the search terms "subarachnoid hemorrhage", "NSAID", "treatment", "management", "cerebral aneurysm", and "vasospasm" from 1970 to February, 2012. Articles were also identified through searches of the Cochrane library and searches of the authors' own files. Only papers published in English were reviewed.There are considerably mixed views on the potential impact of NSAIDs on the treatment and prevention of SAH. Whilst theoretically, the potential for positive intervention in the condition is huge, little effect appears to be measurable in clinical practice. PMID:22950380

Young, Adam M H; Karri, Surya K; Ogilvy, Christopher S

2012-07-01

124

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Spreading Depolarizations and Impaired Neurovascular Coupling  

PubMed Central

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has devastating consequences on brain function including profound effects on communication between neurons and the vasculature leading to cerebral ischemia. Physiologically, neurovascular coupling represents a focal increase in cerebral blood flow to meet increased metabolic demand of neurons within active regions of the brain. Neurovascular coupling is an ongoing process involving coordinated activity of the neurovascular unit—neurons, astrocytes, and parenchymal arterioles. Neuronal activity can also influence cerebral blood flow on a larger scale. Spreading depolarizations (SD) are self-propagating waves of neuronal depolarization and are observed during migraine, traumatic brain injury, and stroke. Typically, SD is associated with increased cerebral blood flow. Emerging evidence indicates that SAH causes inversion of neurovascular communication on both the local and global level. In contrast to other events causing SD, SAH-induced SD decreases rather than increases cerebral blood flow. Further, at the level of the neurovascular unit, SAH causes an inversion of neurovascular coupling from vasodilation to vasoconstriction. Global ischemia can also adversely affect the neurovascular response. Here, we summarize current knowledge regarding the impact of SAH and global ischemia on neurovascular communication. A mechanistic understanding of these events should provide novel strategies to treat these neurovascular disorders.

Koide, Masayo; Sukhotinsky, Inna; Ayata, Cenk; Wellman, George C.

2013-01-01

125

Chronic Hydrocephalus after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Chronic communicating hydrocephalus is a significant health problem affecting up to 20% of survivors of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The development of new treatment strategies is hampered by the lack of well characterized disease models. This study investigated the incidence of chronic hydrocephalus by evaluating the temporal profile of intracranial pressure (ICP) elevation after SAH, induced by endovascular perforation in rats. Twenty-five adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (260–320g) were subjected to either endovascular perforation or sham surgery. Five animals died after SAH induction. At 7, 14 and 21 days after surgery ICP was measured by stereotaxic puncture of the cisterna magna in SAH (n=10) and SHAM (n=10) animals. On day 21 T-maze test was performed and the number of alterations and latency to decision was recorded. On day 23, samples were processed for histological analyses. The relative ventricle area was evaluated in coronal Nissl stained sections. On day 7 after surgery all animals showed normal ICP. The absolute ICP values were significantly higher in SAH compared to SHAM animals on day 21 (8.26±4.53 mmHg versus 4.38±0.95 mmHg) but not on day 14. Observing an ICP of 10mmHg as cut-off, 3 animals showed elevated ICP on day 14 and another animal on day 21. The overall incidence of ICP elevation was 40% in SAH animals. On day 21, results of T-maze testing were significantly correlated with ICP values, i.e. animals with elevated ICP showed a lower number of alterations and a delayed decision. Histology yielded a significantly higher (3.59 fold increased) relative ventricle area in SAH animals with ICP elevation compared to SAH animals without ICP elevation. In conclusion, the current study shows that experimental SAH leads to chronic hydrocephalus, which is associated with ICP elevation, behavioral alterations and ventricular dilation in about 40% of SAH animals.

Lackner, Peter; Vahmjanin, Alexander; Hu, Qin; Krafft, Paul R.; Rolland, William; Zhang, John H.

2013-01-01

126

Comprehensive assessment of isolated traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Abstract Recent studies have shown that isolated traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) in the setting of a high Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score (13-15) is a relatively less severe finding not likely to require operative neurosurgical intervention. This study sought to provide a more comprehensive assessment of isolated tSAH among patients with any GCS score, and to expand the analysis to examine the potential need for aggressive medical, endovascular, or open surgical interventions in these patients. By undertaking a retrospective review of all patients admitted to our trauma center from 2003-2012, we identified 661 patients with isolated tSAH. Only four patients (0.61%) underwent any sort of aggressive neurosurgical, medical, or endovascular intervention, regardless of GCS score. Most tSAH patients without additional systemic injury were discharged home (68%), including 53% of patients with a GCS score of 3-8. However, older patients were more likely to be discharged to a rehabilitation facility (p<0.01). There were six (1.7%) in-hospital deaths, and five patients of these patients were older than 80 years old. We conclude that isolated tSAH, regardless of admission GCS score, is a less severe intracranial injury that is highly unlikely to require aggressive operative, medical, or endovascular intervention, and is unlikely to be associated with major neurologic morbidity or mortality, except perhaps in elderly patients. Based upon our findings, we argue that impaired consciousness in the setting of isolated tSAH should strongly compel a consideration of non-traumatic factors in the etiology of the altered neurological status. PMID:24224706

Lee, Jonathan J; Segar, David J; Asaad, Wael F

2014-04-01

127

Does treatment modality affect vasospasm distribution in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: differential use of intra-arterial interventions for cerebral vasospasm in surgical clipping and endovascular coiling populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectEndovascular treatment of cerebral vasospasm consists primarily of transluminal balloon angioplasty (TBA) and intra-arterial (IA) vasodilator administration, the former restricted to use within the distal internal carotid and proximal intracerebral arteries. Our objective was to characterize clinical and angiographic features of those patients undergoing TBA and IA vasodilator treatments, particularly as it related to the aneurysm treatment modality.MethodsRetrospective analysis of

Daniel Cooke; Douglas Seiler; Danial Hallam; Louis Kim; Jeffrey G Jarvik; Laligam Sekhar; Basavaraj Ghodke

2010-01-01

128

The distribution of intravenous nicardipine in rat brain after subarachnoid hemorrhage  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of intravenously injected nicardipine in rat brain was investigated, as well as the influence of subarachnoid hemorrhage on its distribution. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated the accumulation of {sup 3}H-nicardipine only in the ventricles and subarachnoid spaces around pial vessels in normal brains. Thirty minutes after subarachnoid hemorrhage, the concentration of {sup 3}H-nicardipine was higher in the ventricles and in the subarachnoid space than that found in normal brains. It is concluded that nicardipine penetrates into the subarachnoid spaces and ventricles from pial vessels and/or choroid plexus, and that subarachnoid hemorrhage increases the penetration of nicardipine from vessels into the subarachnoid space.

Tsukahara, T.; Arista, A.; Kassell, N.F. (Univ. of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville (USA))

1989-09-01

129

Cerebellar hemorrhage after embolization of ruptured vertebral dissecting aneurysm proximal to PICA including parent artery  

PubMed Central

Background: Some complications related to vertebral artery occlusion by endovascular technique have been reported. However, cerebellar hemorrhage after vertebral artery occlusion in subacute phase is rare. In this report, we describe a patient who showed cerebellar hemorrhage during hypertensive therapy for vasospasm after embolization of a vertebral dissecting aneurysm. Case Description: A 56-year-old female with a ruptured vertebral dissecting aneurysm proximal to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery developed cerebellar hemorrhage 15 days after embolization of the vertebral artery, including the dissected site. In this patient, the preserved posterior inferior cerebellar artery fed by retrograde blood flow might have been hemodynamically stressed during hypertensive and antiplatelet therapies for subarachnoid hemorrhage, resulting in cerebellar hemorrhage. Conclusion: Although cerebellar hemorrhage is not prone to occur in the nonacute stage of embolization of the vertebral artery, it should be taken into consideration that cerebellar hemorrhage may occur during hypertensive treatment.

Tamase, Akira; Kamide, Tomoya; Mori, Kentaro; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Shima, Hiroshi; Seki, Shunsuke; Nomura, Motohiro

2014-01-01

130

Pseudo-Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Potential Imaging Pitfall Associated with Diffuse Cerebral Edema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We report CT findings in seven patients with diffuse cerebral edema and increased attenuation in the basilar cisterns resembling subarachnoid hemorrhage. On the basis of autopsy (three cases) and lumbar puncture (four cases) findings, true subarachnoid hemorrhage was reasonably excluded. Pathophysiologic changes that occur with diffuse cerebral edema are explored, with proposed explanations for the appearance of a pseudo-subarachnoid

Curtis A. Given II; Jonathan H. Burdette; Allen D. Elster; Daniel W. Williams

131

Cerebral vasospasm evaluated by transcranial ultrasound correlated with clinical grade and CT-visualized subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

In 39 patients with a proven subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the clinical status, the amount of subarachnoid blood on a computerized tomography scan obtained within 5 days after SAH, and the flow velocities (FV's) in both middle cerebral arteries (MCA's) measured by transcranial Doppler sonography were recorded daily and correlated. All patients had pathological FV's over 80 cm/sec between Day 4 and Day 10 after SAH. The side of the ruptured aneurysm showed higher FV's than did the unaffected side in cases of laterally localized aneurysms. Increase in FV preceded clinical manifestation of ischemia. A step early increase of FV's portended severe ischemia and impending infarction. Maximum FV's in the range of 120 to 140 cm/sec were not critical and in no case led to brain infarction. Maximum FV's over 200 cm/sec were associated with a tendency for ischemia, but the patients may remain clinically asymptomatic. In cases of no or only a little blood in the basal cisterns, mean FV's in both MCA's increased only moderately whereas, with thick clots of subarachnoid blood, there was a steeper and higher increase of mean FV's. PMID:3512799

Seiler, R W; Grolimund, P; Aaslid, R; Huber, P; Nornes, H

1986-04-01

132

Spontaneous Anterior Cerebral Artery Dissection Presenting with Simultaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Cerebral Infarction in a Patient with Multiple Extracranial Arterial Dissections  

PubMed Central

Simultaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and infarction is a quite rare presentation in a patient with a spontaneous dissecting aneurysm of the anterior cerebral artery. Identifying relevant radiographic features and serial angiographic surveillance as well as mode of clinical manifestation, either hemorrhage or infarction, could sufficiently determine appropriate treatment. Enlargement of ruptured aneurysm and progressing arterial stenosis around the aneurysm indicates impending risk of subsequent stroke. In this setting, prompt treatment with stent-assisted endovascular embolization can be a reliable alternative to direct surgery. When multiple arterial dissections are coexistent, management strategy often became complicated. However, satisfactory clinical results can be obtained by acknowledging responsible arterial site with careful radiographic inspection and antiplatelet medication.

Park, Yung Ki; Lee, Young Jun; Kim, Young-Seo

2013-01-01

133

[A case of Churg-Strauss syndrome with subarachnoid hemorrhage].  

PubMed

Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a vasculitis syndromes and is only rarely complicated by subarachnoid hemorrhage. In the current report, we describe a case of CSS with subarachnoid hemorrhage, which showed a favorable outcome following conservative treatment. A 68-year-old man with CSS on maintenance steroid therapy underwent MRI/A during tinnitus aggravation, and showed dilation of the left middle cerebral artery and stenosis of the peripheral area of the right vertebral artery. After 2 months, he presented sudden pain in the occipitocervical area, and CT revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage. Intracranial 3D CT-A and MRI/A showed the development of a protrusion at the base of the left anterior cerebral artery. Although both findings suggested cerebral artery dissection, the source of hemorrhage could not be identified. The 2009 Japanese Guidelines for the Management of Stroke recommends early diagnosis and treatment of hemorrhagic cerebral artery dissection because of the high risk of re-bleeding. However, considering the risks of vasculitis aggravation, development of systemic complications, and recurrence, conservative treatment was selected. In addition, owing to the risk of complications associated with the frequent use of iodinated contrast agents and angiography procedures, patient was followed up using MRI. His course was favorable, and he was discharged despite mild right abducens paralysis. When patients with hemorrhagic cerebral artery dissection have a history of allergic diseases, CCS should be considered; conservative treatment consisting of rest, strict blood pressure control, and steroid therapy may be the most appropriate option for certain patients. PMID:24607952

Ito, Miiko; Kato, Naoki; Su, Ching-Chan; Kayama, Takamasa

2014-03-01

134

Disorders of Sleep and Wake in Patients After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—To determine the frequency and severity of disorders of sleep and wake and their relation to the quality of life (QoL) in patients who have survived an episode of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods—In a prospectively collected, consecutive series of 89 patients, 83 patients completed validated and frequently used questionnaires for the assessment of disorders of sleep and wake

Wouter J. Schuiling; Gabriel J. E. Rinkel; Rob Walchenbach; Al W. de Weerd

2010-01-01

135

Subarachnoid hemorrhage and vasospastic stroke after self-enucleation.  

PubMed

A 31-year-old intoxicated woman self-enucleated her left eye during an acute psychotic episode. CT revealed avulsion of the intracranial optic nerve, chiasmal edema, and adjacent subarachnoid hemorrhage. Exploration via transconjunctival orbitotomy was performed, and the globe and 4.8 cm of contiguous optic nerve were removed. The patient developed postoperative contralateral visual loss followed by middle cerebral artery vasospasm and bilateral cortical infarcts. PMID:17882004

Kotlus, Brett S; Lo, Mikel W

2007-01-01

136

Prognosis and treatment of acute hydrocephalus following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the rate of acute hydrocephalus in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and evaluate its clinical prognosis and treatment options. We recruited 152 patients who had ruptured cerebral aneurysms between 2006 and 2010. Sequential CT scans were performed 24-72 hours after haemorrhage to examine the development of acute hydrocephalus following aneurysmal SAH. If hydrocephalus was present but the patient's condition was stable, the patient was closely monitored for 48 hours before undergoing a repeat CT scan to evaluate ventricular changes. To exclude aneurysm rebleeding, repeat CT scans were performed frequently in patients who continued to deteriorate clinically, and external ventricular drainage was performed if the deterioration was due to worsening hydrocephalus. In clinically stable patients with persistent hydrocephalus and patients with external ventricular drainage, lamina terminalis fenestration was performed during aneurysm clipping, and the procedure's therapeutic efficacy was evaluated at the postoperative follow-up. The overall incidence of acute hydrocephalus following aneurysmal SAH was 17.8% (27/152). Of these patients, 29.6% (eight of 27) recovered spontaneously within 48 hours of hydrocephalus development, 37.0% (10/27) required external ventricular drainage, and 33.3% (nine of 27) remained clinically stable with persistent hydrocephalus during the observational period. Hydrocephalus was significantly alleviated in eight of 11 patients who underwent lamina terminalis fenestration, and no related complications were observed during follow-up. Three patients, for whom intraoperative fenestration was ineffective, underwent shunt surgery. Our results showed approximately 30% of patients with acute hydrocephalus following aneurysmal SAH recover spontaneously. In the majority of patients with persistent hydrocephalus, lamina terminalis fenestration performed during aneurysm clipping is effective. Ventriculoperitoneal shunting can be considered in the remaining patients. PMID:22361252

Lu, Jingjing; Ji, Nan; Yang, Zhonghua; Zhao, Xingquan

2012-05-01

137

The effect of irrigation of intracisternal papaverine on cerebral blood flow in subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background: Despite different treatments, cerebral vasospasm is still the most important cause of death in patients after subarachnoid hemorrhage. This study was conducted to explore the effect of intracisternal washing with papaverine on cerebral blood flow. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 40 patients and totally 120 arteries in 2010. Then, variations in cerebral blood flow before and after washing with papaverine were measured and analyzed. Results: Twenty (20) patients with aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery (ACOM) and 20 patients with aneurysm of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) were assessed. Mean blood flow before aneurysm and before washing in ACOM and MCA was 70.68 ± 14.8 cm/s and 65.66 ± 9.3 cm/s, respectively, which reached 23.25 ± 5.17 cm/s and 34.1 ± 4.7 cm/s, respectively after washing (P value = 0.016 and 0.024). Mean blood flow after aneurysm and before washing in ACOM and MCA was 95.12 ± 13.9 cm/s and 67.44 ± 15.16 cm/s, respectively, which reached 35.69 ± 6.2 cm/s and 38.01 ± 8.28 cm/s, respectively after washing (P value = 0.001 and 0.01). Conclusion: Washing with papaverine significantly reduces cerebral blood flow and relieves vasospasm.

Sabouri, Masih; Rahmani, Paiman; Rezvani, Majid; Nikbakht, Hossein; Rafiee, Ahmadreza; Torkashvand, Mostaffa; Eshraghi, Noorollah; Nourian, Nahalossadat; Moradi, Mehran

2013-01-01

138

SAHIT Investigators--on the outcome of some subarachnoid hemorrhage clinical trials.  

PubMed

Outcome of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has improved over the last decades. Yet, case fatality remains nearly 40% and survivors often have permanent neurological, cognitive and/or behavioural sequelae. Other than nimodipine drug or clinical trials have not consistently improved outcome. We formed a collaboration of SAH investigators to create a resource for prognostic analysis and for studies aimed at optimizing the design and analysis of phase 3 trials in aneurysmal SAH. We identified investigators with data from randomized, clinical trials of patients with aneurysmal SAH or prospectively collected single- or multicentre databases of aneurysmal SAH patients. Data are being collected and proposals to use the data and to design future phase 3 clinical trials are being discussed. This paper reviews some issues discussed at the first meeting of the SAH international trialists (SAHIT) repository meeting. Investigators contributed or have agreed to contribute data from several phase 3 trials including the tirilazad trials, intraoperative hypothermia for aneurysmal SAH trial, nicardipine clinical trials, international subarachnoid aneurysm trial, intravenous magnesium sulphate for aneurysmal SAH, magnesium for aneurysmal SAH and from prospectively-collected data from four institutions. The number of patients should reach 15,000. Some industry investigators refused to provide data and others reported that their institutional research ethics boards would not permit even deidentified or anonymized data to be included. Others reported conflict of interest that prevented them from submitting data. The problems with merging data were related to lack of common definitions and coding of variables, differences in outcome scales used, and times of assessment. Some questions for investigation that arose are discussed. SAHIT demonstrates the possibility of SAH investigators to contribute data for collaborative research. The problems are similar to those already documented in other similar collaborative efforts such as in head injury research. We encourage clinical trial and registry investigators to contact us and participate in SAHIT. Key issues moving forward will be to use common definitions (common data elements), outcomes analysis, and to prioritize research questions, among others. PMID:24323299

Macdonald, R Loch; Jaja, Blessing; Cusimano, Michael D; Etminan, Nima; Hanggi, Daniel; Hasan, David; Ilodigwe, Don; Lantigua, Hector; Le Roux, Peter; Lo, Benjamin; Louffat-Olivares, Ada; Mayer, Stephan; Molyneux, Andrew; Quinn, Audrey; Schweizer, Tom A; Schenk, Thomas; Spears, Julian; Todd, Michael; Torner, James; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Wong, George K C; Singh, Jeff

2013-06-01

139

Prolonged paroxysmal sympathetic storming associated with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Paroxysmal sympathetic storming (PSS) is a rare disorder characterized by acute onset of nonstimulated tachycardia, hypertension, tachypnea, hyperthermia, external posturing, and diaphoresis. It is most frequently associated with severe traumatic brain injuries and has been reported in intracranial tumors, hydrocephalous, severe hypoxic brain injury, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Although excessive release of catecholamine and therefore increased sympathetic activities have been reported in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), there is no descriptive report of PSS primarily caused by spontaneous SAH up to date. Here, we report a case of prolonged PSS in a patient with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and consequent vasospasm. The sympathetic storming started shortly after patient was rewarmed from hypothermia protocol and symptoms responded to Labetalol, but intermittent recurrence did not resolve until 3 weeks later with treatment involving Midazolam, Fentanyl, Dexmedetomidine, Propofol, Bromocriptine, and minimizing frequency of neurological and vital checks. In conclusion, prolonged sympathetic storming can also be caused by spontaneous SAH. In this case, vasospasm might be a precipitating factor. Paralytics and hypothermia could mask the manifestations of PSS. The treatment of the refractory case will need both timely adjustment of medications and minimization of exogenous stressors or stimuli. PMID:23476663

Liu, Yan; Jolly, Suneil; Pokala, Krishna

2013-01-01

140

Intravenous magnesium sulfate administration in a patient with refractory vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Magnesium sulfate is being investigated for the prevention or treatment of vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Patient A 45-year-old woman suffered subarachnoid hemorrhage and developed after 8 days symptomatic vasospasm in the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) while she was receiving nimodipine prophylactically. Methods and results Transcranial Doppler monitoring was performed. Cerebral autoregulation was abolished in the left MCA. Despite this

Maria Barile; Françoise van de Wyngaert; Jean-Jacques Essama Mbia; Mijael Jativa; Cécile Grandin; Herbert Rooijakkers; Philippe Hantson

2003-01-01

141

An analysis of 88 patients with diffuse and "benign" perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Background and Study Aims?Perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage (PMSAH) was previously defined as a variant of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) associated with a relatively benign clinical presentation and better outcomes than aneurysmal SAH. However, several prior studies have shown complications associated with PMSAH including vasospasm and hydrocephalus, and the need for follow-up imaging. We therefore reviewed our experience to further characterize the clinical consequences of PMSAH. Materials and Methods?Eighty-eight consecutive patients who sustained spontaneous intracranial SAH and whose cerebral angiograms did not show any obvious source for SAH were retrospectively studied to characterize their prognosis and outcome based on SAH pattern. Glasgow Coma Scale and Hunt-Hess scores on admission, the incidence of vasospasm or hydrocephalus, the need for an external ventricular drain, and shunt dependence, along with Glasgow outcome score (GOS) at discharge and follow-up, were used to draw comparisons between perimesencephalic and diffuse SAH patient populations. Results?Patients with perimesencephalic SAH differed statistically (p?

Patel, Neal B; Patel, Amrita D; Wilkinson, Jared; Gianaris, Nicholas G; Payner, Troy D; Leipzig, Thomas J; Ansari, Shaheryar; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

2014-07-01

142

Severe hypokalemia in a patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Hypokalemia is a common electrolyte disorder in the intensive care unit. Its cause often is complex, involving both potassium losses from the body and shifts of potassium into cells. We present a case of severe hypokalemia of sudden onset in a patient being treated for subarachnoid hemorrhage in the surgical intensive care unit in order to illustrate the diagnosis and management of severe hypokalemia of unclear cause. Our patient received agents that promote renal potassium losses and treatments associated with a shift of potassium into cells. We outline the steps in diagnosis and management, focusing on the factors regulating the transcellular distribution of potassium in the body. PMID:23972266

Ybanez, Neil; Agrawal, Varun; Tranmer, Bruce I; Gennari, F John

2014-03-01

143

[Case of pineocytoma causing repetitive subarachnoid hemorrhage for 43 years].  

PubMed

A 61-year-old woman had suffered from severe headache and nausea over 20 times during the last 43 years. An subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was detected by spinal puncture in some other hospitals, but the source of hemorrhage remained unknown in spite of repeated angiography. At the age of 61, she was diagnosed as having normal pressure hydrocephalus, and received a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. She suffered from sudden headache 12 days after surgery. A CT scan showed a SAH and enlargement of the pineal mass. The tumor was totally removed via the occipital interhemispheric transtentorial approach and was diagnosed histologically as a pineocytoma. She has been free from SAH for three years since removal of the tumor. Pineal apoplexy should be considered as a cause of SAH. PMID:18341015

Ogiwara, Toshihiro; Kakizawa, Yukinari; Yomo, Shoji; Wada, Naomichi; Goto, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Hongo, Kazuhiro; Kaneko, Tomoki

2008-03-01

144

[Timing of helicopter transportation for patients presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage on isolated islands].  

PubMed

Cerebral aneurysm re-rupture following subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH)is a serious problem that is related with poor outcome. It is generally said that re-rupture occurs within 6 hours of the initial SAH;in the acute stage, strict management is needed even in the period before hospitalization. The aim of this study was to confirm whether patients on isolated islands should be transferred by helicopter > 6 hours after the initial SAH. Here we reviewed 125 cases of SAH in the isolated islands of Nagasaki prefecture between January 2007 and December 2012 who were transferred to Nagasaki Medical Center by helicopter as a result of consultation via TeleStroke(41 men, 84 women;mean age, 65.76 years). Re-rupture was observed in seven patients(5.6%), five of whom were diagnosed with re-rupture in a prior hospital on the isolated island. No patients demonstrated clinical deterioration during transport. Early helicopter transportation under adequate sedation and control of blood pressure within 6 hours is safe, and patients should be transferred as quickly as possible during the day. On the other hand, at night, flight safety must first be considered. Patients in stable clinical condition may be transferred the next day. We should pay special attention to patients with SAH and intracerebral hemorrhage, severe SAH, or vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm because their condition may gradually become more serious even if initially stable. PMID:24920741

Kawahara, Ichiro; Matsunaga, Yuki; Tsutsumi, Keisuke; Takahata, Hideaki; Ono, Tomonori; Toda, Keisuke; Baba, Hiroshi

2014-06-01

145

Deaths from cerebrovascular diseases correlated to month of birth: elevated risk of death from subarachnoid hemorrhage among summer-born  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been suggested that maternal nutrition, and fetal and infant growth have an important effect on the risk of cardiovascular disease in adult life. We investigated the population-based distribution of deaths from cerebrovascular diseases (ICD9 codes 430, 431, or 434) in Japan in 1986-1994 as a function of birth month, by examining death-certificate records. For a total of 853 981 people born in the years 1900-1959, the distribution of the number of deaths according to the month of birth was compared with the distribution expected from the monthly numbers of all births for each sex and for the corresponding birth decade. For those born between 1920 and 1949, there were significant discrepancies between the actual numbers of deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage (ICD9 430) and the numbers expected, and these differences were related to the month of birth. Those born in summer, June-September, consistently had an elevated risk of death, particularly men, where the excess risk was 8%-23%. This tendency was also observed, less distinctly but significantly, for deaths from intracerebral hemorrhage (ICD9 431), but was not observed for those dying from occlusion of the cerebral arteries (ICD9 434). The observation that the risk of dying from subarachnoid hemorrhage was more than 10% higher among those born in the summer implies that at least one in ten deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage has its origin at a perinatal stage. Although variations in hypertension in later life, which could possibly be ''programmed'' during the intra-uterine stages, could be an explanation for this observation, the disease-specific nature of the observation suggests the involvement of aneurysm formation, which is a predominant cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Nonaka, K.; Imaizumi, Y.

146

A novel apoE-derived therapeutic reduces vasospasm and improves outcome in a murine model of subarachnoid hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Recent clinical observations demonstrate that the APOE4 genotype increases the development of delayed ischemic deficit and\\u000a worsens prognosis following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In the current study, we use targeted replacement mice\\u000a expressing only human apoE3 or apoE4 to model the isoform-specific effects of apoE following SAH. We then test the hypothesis\\u000a that an apoE-derived therapeutic peptide reduces vasospasm and

Junling Gao; Haichen Wang; Huaxin Sheng; John R. Lynch; David S. Warner; Lori Durham; Michael P. Vitek; Daniel T. Laskowitz

2006-01-01

147

Endothelin and aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a study of subarachnoid cisternal cerebrospinal fluid.  

PubMed Central

Endothelin (ET) is considered one of the most potent vasoconstrictor polypeptides; several experimental studies have suggested its possible role in the pathogenesis of arterial vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Previously reported data on plasma and CSF levels of endothelin in patients with a diagnosis of SAH have been controversial. Cisternal endothelin CSF levels and the possibility that they could be related to vasospasm and other clinical patterns of SAH were investigated. CSF samples were obtained from 55 patients admitted after angiographic diagnosis of intracranial aneurysm. Levels of ET-1 and ET-3 were measured through radio-immunoassay technique. Twelve patients who had operations for unruptured aneurysms were considered control cases; 43 patients with SAH were classified according to: Hunt and Hess grading at admission, vasospasm grading, CT classification and timing of surgery. In all 55 patients ET-1 was measured, while positive levels of ET-3 were found only in 17 cases of 48. No linear correlation was found between cisternal CSF ET-1 levels when considering time of surgery, CT classification, Hunt and Hess grading at admission, and vasospasm grading. The results of ET-3 assay should be considered with great caution because of the low percentage of positive cases. Cisternal CSF levels of ET-1 and ET-3 are not directly related to the occurrence of arterial vasospasm after the aneurysm rupture, or to other major clinical patterns of SAH; however, ET-1 expression occurs either in paraphysiological (unruptured aneurysm) or in pathological conditions (SAH). It is suggested that ET may potentiate, or may be potentiated by, other factors playing a consistent pathophysiological role in the development of vasospasm.

Gaetani, P; Rodriguez y Baena, R; Grignani, G; Spanu, G; Pacchiarini, L; Paoletti, P

1994-01-01

148

Escape of intraluminal platelets into brain parenchyma after subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Platelet aggregates are present in parenchymal vessels as early as 10 minutes after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Structural injury to parenchymal vessel walls and depletion of collagen-IV (the major protein of basal lamina) occur in a similar time frame. Since platelets upon activation release enzymes which can digest collagen-IV, we investigated the topographical relationship between platelet aggregates, endothelium, and basal lamina after SAH produced by endovascular perforation, using triple immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy with deconvolution. The location of platelet aggregates in relation to zymography-detected active collagenase was also examined. As reported previously, most cerebral vessels profiles contained platelets aggregates at 10 minutes after SAH. High-resolution three-dimensional image analysis placed many platelets at the ab-luminal (basal) side of endothelium at 10 minutes, and others either within the vascular basal lamina or in nearby parenchyma. By 24 hours post-hemorrhage, large numbers of platelets had entered the brain parenchyma. The vascular sites of platelet movement were devoid of endothelium and collagen IV. Collagenase activity colocalized with vascular platelet aggregates. Our data demonstrate that parenchymal entry of platelets into brain parenchyma begins within minutes after hemorrhage. Three-dimensional analysis suggests that platelet aggregates initiate or stimulate local disruption of endothelium and destruction of adjacent basal lamina after SAH.

Friedrich, Victor; Flores, Rowena; Muller, Artur; Sehba, Fatima A.

2009-01-01

149

Interference of apoptosis in the pathophysiology of subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Programmed cell death is crucial for the correct development of the organism and the clearance of harmful cells like tumor cells or autoreactive immune cells. Apoptosis is initiated by the activation of cell death receptors and in most cases it is associated with the activation of the cysteine proteases, which lead to apoptotic cell death. Cells shrink, chromatin clumps and forms a large, sharply demarcated, crescent-shaped or round mass; the nucleus condenses, apoptotic bodies are formed and eventually dead cells are engulfed by a neighboring cell or cleared by phagocytosis. The authors have summarized the most important data concerning apoptosis in subarachnoid hemorrhage that have been issued in the medical literature in the last 20 years.

Palade, C.; Ciurea, Alexandru V.; Nica, D. A.; Savu, R.; Moisa, Horatiu Alexandru

2013-01-01

150

Interference of apoptosis in the pathophysiology of subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Programmed cell death is crucial for the correct development of the organism and the clearance of harmful cells like tumor cells or autoreactive immune cells. Apoptosis is initiated by the activation of cell death receptors and in most cases it is associated with the activation of the cysteine proteases, which lead to apoptotic cell death. Cells shrink, chromatin clumps and forms a large, sharply demarcated, crescent-shaped or round mass; the nucleus condenses, apoptotic bodies are formed and eventually dead cells are engulfed by a neighboring cell or cleared by phagocytosis. The authors have summarized the most important data concerning apoptosis in subarachnoid hemorrhage that have been issued in the medical literature in the last 20 years. PMID:24049554

Palade, C; Ciurea, Alexandru V; Nica, D A; Savu, R; Moisa, Horatiu Alexandru

2013-04-01

151

Cerebellar contusions as a possible cause of traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage: A case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage (TBSAH) is infrequent but of forensic neuropathological importance because of its high mortality and complex causal mechanisms. The source of the hemorrhage is most frequently identified in the vertebro-basilar arteries but often cannot be identified in these arteries. We present a case of TBSAH possibly originating from hemorrhagic cerebellar contusions due to fist blows to the

Jian-Hua Chen; Takaki Ishikawa; Tomomi Michiue; Hitoshi Maeda

2010-01-01

152

Can CT angiography rule out aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage in CT scan-negative subarachnoid haemorrhage patients?  

PubMed

Current management guidelines for CT scan-negative subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) patients recommend cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA). We aimed to investigate the utility of CT angiography (CTA) as a substitute for DSA in these patients. We included patients who presented with SAH confirmed by spectrophotometric xanthochromia analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) whereby the CT scan was negative. Electronic records were reviewed to collect data on non-contrast CT scan, CTA and DSA results. Patients without DSA or with other explanations for CSF xanthochromia were excluded. Sixty-three patients with CT scan-negative SAH were included. The diagnosis of SAH was confirmed by CSF analysis. All 63 patients underwent both DSA and CTA. Using DSA as the benchmark, CTA demonstrated a negative predictive value, positive predictive value, sensitivity and specificity of 98%, 82%, 90% and 96%, respectively, for the detection of intracranial aneurysms. CTA correctly identified patients in whom there were no underlying aneurysms responsible for SAH, with one patient with suspected dissection referred for further evaluation using MRI and DSA. PMID:23954458

Lim, Lee Kai; Dowling, Richard J; Yan, Bernard; Mitchell, Peter J

2014-01-01

153

[Ruptured dissecting aneurysm of the vertebral artery concurrent with contralateral intracerebellar hemorrhage].  

PubMed

A case of a dissecting vertebral aneurysm concurrent with contralateral cerebellar hemorrhage is reported. A 69-year-old man was referred to our hospital for treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). On admission, CT scanning showed SAH and left cerebellar hematoma. Angiography was performed and it revealed a dissecting aneurysm of the right vertebral artery. Proximal clipping of the right vertebral dissecting artery was performed through right suboccipital craniotomy. During the operation, the cerebellar hemisphere gradually became firm, but the operation was finished without any complications. After the operation, the patient's consciousness level decreased from somnolence to semicomatose for a period of 2 hours 30 min. CT scanning showed the left cerebellar hematoma expanding. The cerebellar hematoma was evacuated immediately by midline suboccipital craniectomy, and the patient's consciousness level improved. In such a case, care must be taken to discover the cause of the expansion and to prevent concurrent hematoma during the operation. Through this case, discussion was held concerning the pitfalls of treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage concurrent with intracerebral hematoma in the remote region. PMID:11260895

Ochiai, H; Yamakawa, Y; Kawasoe, T

2001-02-01

154

Partly reversible central auditory dysfunction induced by cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

The authors describe a rare case of central auditory dysfunction induced by cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A 55-year-old woman who was admitted after aneurysmal SAH developed cerebral vasospasm on Day 3 affecting mainly the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) and partly the left MCA. The vasospasm became refractory to conventional therapy and was ultimately improved by intraarterial infusion of nimodipine in the right MCA and angioplasty. Severe auditory dysfunction was apparent from Day 10 as the patient was not reactive to speech or environmental sounds. Brain MRI on Day 17 demonstrated infarcted areas mainly in the right hippocampus, medial occipital lobe, and thalamus. The patient underwent further examination using audiometry, speech testing, auditory evoked potentials, functional MRI, and cerebral PET. The initial diagnosis was extended nonverbal agnosia and total pure word deafness. The central auditory dysfunction improved over 6 months, with persisting hyperacusis, tinnitus, and amusia. Central auditory dysfunction is a rare complication after SAH. While cortical deafness may be associated with bilateral lesions of the temporal cortex, partly reversible central auditory dysfunction was observed in this patient after prominently unilateral right temporal lesions. The role of the interthalamic connections can be discussed, as well as the possibility that a less severe vasospasm on the left MCA could have transiently impaired the left thalamocortical auditory pathways. PMID:23971951

Ponzetto, Ester; Vinetti, Marco; Grandin, Cécile; Duprez, Thierry; van Pesch, Vincent; Deggouj, Naïma; Lhommel, Renaud; Hantson, Philippe

2013-11-01

155

Case of unusual presentation of fusiform aneurysm of the basilar artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe a case of a fusiform aneurysm of the basilar artery presented as a pontine infarct and 2 days later as a subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by the rupture of the same aneurysm. Design: Case report. Setting: Tertiary-care hospital. Background: Fusiform aneurysm of cerebral vessels is a rare pathology that presents with ischemic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or mass effect.

Sophia R. Sharfstein; Elizabeth Wu

2001-01-01

156

The burden of the systemic inflammatory response predicts vasospasm and outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can trigger immune activation sufficient to induce the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). This may promote both extra-cerebral organ dysfunction and delayed cerebral ischemia, contributing to worse outcome. We ascertained the frequency and predictors of SIRS after spontaneous SAH, and determined whether degree of early systemic inflammation predicted the occurrence of vasospasm and clinical outcome. Methods: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on 276 consecutive patients admitted to a neurosciences intensive care unit with acute, non-traumatic SAH between 2002 and 2005. A daily SIRS score was derived by summing the number of variables meeting standard criteria (HR >90, RR >20, Temperature >38°C or <36°C, WBC count <4,000 or >12,000). SIRS was considered present if two or more criteria were met, while SIRS burden over the first four days was calculated by averaging daily scores. Regression modeling was used to determine the relationship between SIRS burden (after controlling for confounders including infection, surgery, and corticosteroid use), symptomatic vasospasm, and outcome, determined by hospital disposition. Results: SIRS was present in over half the patients on admission and developed in 85% within the first four days. Factors associated with SIRS included poor clinical grade, thick cisternal blood, larger aneurysm size, higher admission blood pressure, and surgery for aneurysm clipping. Higher SIRS burden was independently associated with death or discharge to nursing home (OR 2.20/point, 95% CI 1.27-3.81). All of those developing clinical vasospasm had evidence of SIRS, with greater SIRS burden predicting increased risk for delayed ischemic neurological deficits (OR 1.77/point, 95% CI 1.12-2.80). Conclusions: Systemic inflammatory activation is common after SAH even in the absence of infection; it is more frequent in those with more severe hemorrhage and in those who undergo surgical clipping. Higher burden of SIRS in the initial four days independently predicts symptomatic vasospasm and is associated with worse outcome.

Dhar, Rajat; Diringer, Michael N.

2008-01-01

157

Clevidipine for acute hypertension in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Purpose: Clevidipine is a novel, ultra-short acting dihydropyridine. We hypothesized that clevidipine would rapidly control elevated blood pressure (BP) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Materials and Methods: This prospective open-label pilot study evaluated the efficacy and safety of clevidipine in reducing blood pressure (BP) to a pre-specified range and within 30 min before or after clipping or coiling of the aneurysm. Results: We enrolled five patients who received eight clevidipine infusions, including 1587 systolic or diastolic BP data points. The mean SBP upper and lower goals were set at 154 and 122 mmHg. The primary end point of achieving SBP control within <30 min was reached in all patients within 14.2 ± 6.4 min at an infusion rate of 10.8 ± 9.1 mg/h. The mean pre-infusion, during infusion and post-infusion SBP measurements were 165.5 ± 2.55, 146.4 ± 2.48 and 159.3 ± 11.5 mmHg (?p < 0.05 for pre- vs infusion comparison), respectively. After reaching the primary end point and during the clevidipine infusion, 17.5% and 11.8% of SBP readings were above the upper and below the lower goals, respectively. No patients re-bled. In one patient, the infusion had to be stopped temporarily three times due to SBP decrease below the lower goal. Conclusion: Clevidipine controlled SBP in all patients with aneurysmal SAH in <22 min and kept it within the elective range 70% of the time without major complications. PMID:24007334

Varelas, Panayiotis N; Abdelhak, Tamer; Corry, Jesse J; James, Elysia; Rehman, Mohammed F; Schultz, Lonni; Mays-Wilson, Kathleen; Mitsias, Panayiotis

2014-03-01

158

Fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage after endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Case report.  

PubMed

In recent years, endoscopic third ventriculostomy has become a well-established procedure for the treatment of various forms of noncommunicating hydrocephalus. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy is considered to be an easy and safe procedure. Complications have rarely been reported in the literature. The authors present a case in which the patient suffered a fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after endoscopic third ventriculostomy. This 63-year-old man presented with confusion and drowsiness and was admitted in to the hospital in poor general condition. Computerized tomography scanning revealed an obstructive hydrocephalus caused by a tumor located in the cerebellopontine angle. An endoscopic third ventriculostomy was performed with the aid of a Fogarty balloon catheter. Some hours postoperatively, the patient became comatose. Computerized tomography scanning revealed a severe perimesencephalic-peripontine SAH and progressive hydrocephalus. Despite emergency external ventricular drainage, the patient died a few hours later. Although endoscopic third ventriculostomy is considered to be a simple and safe procedure, one should be aware that severe and sometimes fatal complications may occur. To avoid vascular injury, perforation of the floor of the third ventricle should be performed in the midline, halfway between the infundibular recess and the mammillary bodies, just behind the dorsum sellae. PMID:10413171

Schroeder, H W; Warzok, R W; Assaf, J A; Gaab, M R

1999-01-01

159

Plasticity of cerebrovascular smooth muscle cells after subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is most often followed by a delayed phase of cerebral ischemia which is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. The causes underlying this delayed phase are still unsettled, but are believed to include cerebral vasospasm, cortical spreading depression, inflammatory reactions, and microthrombosis. Additionally, a large body of evidence indicates that vascular plasticity plays an important role in SAH pathophysiology, and this review aims to summarize our current knowledge on the phenotypic changes of vascular smooth muscle cells of the cerebral vasculature following SAH. In light of the emerging view that the whole cerebral vasculature and the cells of the brain parenchyma should be viewed as one integrated neurovascular network, phenotypical changes are discussed both for the cerebral arteries and the microvasculature. Furthermore, the intracellular signaling involved in the vascular plasticity is discussed with a focus on the Raf-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway which seems to play a crucial role in SAH pathology. PMID:24449486

Edvinsson, Lars; Larsen, Stine Schmidt; Maddahi, Aida; Nielsen, Janne

2014-06-01

160

Subarachnoid and Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Patients with Churg-Strauss Syndrome: Two Case Reports  

PubMed Central

Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis of the small and medium vessels, associated with extravascular eosinophilic granulomas, peripheral eosinophilia, and asthma. The exact etiology of CSS is unknown. This syndrome commonly affects the lungs, peripheral nerves, skin, heart, and gastrointestinal tract, but rarely the central nervous system. Subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage in CSS patients is extremely rare; however, clinicians should consider that CSS may be a cause of intracranial hemorrhage and its high rate of mortality and morbidity. The authors report on two cases of subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage with CSS and discuss a brief review of CSS.

Go, Myeong Hoon; Park, Jeong Un; Kang, Jae Gyu

2012-01-01

161

Detection of CT occult aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage using a novel spectrophotometric analysis of cerebral spinal fluid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In North America, approximately 30,000 people annually suffer an aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Using computerized tomography (CT), the blood is generally not visible after 12 hours. Currently lumbar puncture (LP) results are equivocal for diagnosing SAH largely because of technical limitations in performing a quick and objective evaluation. Having ruptured once, an aneurysm is statistically more likely to rupture again. Therefore, for those individuals with a sentinel (or warning) hemorrhage, detection within the first 12 hours is paramount. We present a diagnostic technology based on visible spectroscopy to quickly and objectively assess low-blood volume SAH from a diagnostic spinal tap. This technology provides clinicians, with the resources necessary for assessing patients with suspected aneurismal SAH beyond the current 12-hour limitation imposed by CT scans. This aids in the improvement of patient care and results in rapid and appropriate treatment of the patient. To perform this diagnosis, we quantify bilirubin and hemoglobin in human CSF over a range of concentrations. Because the bilirubin and hemoglobin spectra overlap quantification is problematic. To solve this problem, two algorithmic approaches are presented: a statistical or a random stochastic component known as Partial Least Square (PLS) and a control theory based mathematical model. These algorithms account for the noise and distortion from blood in CSF leading to the quantification of bilirubin and methemoglobin spectroscopically. The configurations for a hardware platform is introduced, that is portable and user-friendly composed of specific components designed to have the sensitivity and specificity required. This aids in measuring bilirubin in CSF, hemorrhagic-CSF and CSF-like solutions. The prototype uses purpose built algorithms contained within the platform, such that physicians can use it in the hospital and lab as a point of care diagnostic test.

Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Bhadri, Prashant R.; Huang, Jian; Kumar, Alla S.; Pyne, Gail J.; Caffery, James, Jr.; Clark, Joseph F.; Shukla, Rakesh; Beyette, Fred R., Jr.

2005-04-01

162

Early fatal hemorrhage after endovascular cerebral aneurysm treatment with a flow diverter (SILK-Stent): do we need to rethink our concepts?  

PubMed

A 69-year-old woman presenting with short lasting recent episodes of visual impairment was treated uneventfully with a flow diverter covering the neck of a large paraophthalmic aneurysm. As angiography showed immediate flow reduction we abstained from additional coiling which was initially planned. Eleven days later CT demonstrated nearly complete thrombosis of the aneurysm. Twenty days after treatment the patient suffered a lethal subarachnoid hemorrhage after rupture of the aneurysm. All available data were reviewed and beside hemodynamic factors instability of the intra-aneurysmal thrombus is discussed as a possible cofactor leading to this disastrous event. PMID:20339842

Turowski, Bernd; Macht, Stephan; Kulcsár, Zolt; Hänggi, Daniel; Stummer, Walter

2011-01-01

163

Ultra-early tranexamic acid after subarachnoid hemorrhage (ULTRA): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background A frequent complication in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is recurrent bleeding from the aneurysm. The risk is highest within the first 6 hours after the initial hemorrhage. Securing the aneurysm within this timeframe is difficult owing to logistical delays. The rate of recurrent bleeding can also be reduced by ultra-early administration of antifibrinolytics, which probably improves functional outcome. The aim of this study is to investigate whether ultra-early and short-term administration of the antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid (TXA), as add-on to standard SAH management, leads to better functional outcome. Methods/Design This is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label trial with blinded endpoint (PROBE) assessment. Adult patients with the diagnosis of non-traumatic SAH, as proven by computed tomography (CT) within 24 hours after the onset of headache, will be randomly assigned to the treatment group or the control group. Patients in the treatment group will receive standard treatment with the addition of a bolus of TXA (1 g intravenously) immediately after randomization, followed by continuous infusion of 1 g per 8 hours until the start of aneurysm treatment, or a maximum of 24 hours after the start of medication. Patients in the control group will receive standard treatment without TXA. The primary outcome measure is favorable functional outcome, defined as a score of 0 to 3 on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), at 6 months after SAH. Primary outcome will be determined by a trial nurse blinded for treatment allocation. We aim to include 950 patients in 3 years. Discussion The strengths of this study are: 1. the ultra-early and short-term administration of TXA, resulting in a lower dose as compared to previous studies, which should reduce the risk for delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), an important risk factor in the long-term treatment with antifibrinolytics; 2. the power calculation is based on functional outcome and calculated with use of recent study results of our own population, supported by data from prominent studies; and 3. the participation of several specialized SAH centers, and their referring hospitals, in the Netherlands with comparative treatment protocols. Trial registration Nederlands Trial Register (Dutch Trial Registry) number NTR3272

2013-01-01

164

The role of the microcirculation in delayed cerebral ischemia and chronic degenerative changes after subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

The mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is 50%, and most survivors suffer severe functional and cognitive deficits. Half of SAH patients deteriorate 5 to 14 days after the initial bleeding, so-called delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Although often attributed to vasospasms, DCI may develop in the absence of angiographic vasospasms, and therapeutic reversal of angiographic vasospasms fails to improve patient outcome. The etiology of chronic neurodegenerative changes after SAH remains poorly understood. Brain oxygenation depends on both cerebral blood flow (CBF) and its microscopic distribution, the so-called capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH). In theory, increased CTH can therefore lead to tissue hypoxia in the absence of severe CBF reductions, whereas reductions in CBF, paradoxically, improve brain oxygenation if CTH is critically elevated. We review potential sources of elevated CTH after SAH. Pericyte constrictions in relation to the initial ischemic episode and subsequent oxidative stress, nitric oxide depletion during the pericapillary clearance of oxyhemoglobin, vasogenic edema, leukocytosis, and astrocytic endfeet swelling are identified as potential sources of elevated CTH, and hence of metabolic derangement, after SAH. Irreversible changes in capillary morphology and function are predicted to contribute to long-term relative tissue hypoxia, inflammation, and neurodegeneration. We discuss diagnostic and therapeutic implications of these predictions. PMID:24064495

Østergaard, Leif; Aamand, Rasmus; Karabegovic, Sanja; Tietze, Anna; Blicher, Jakob Udby; Mikkelsen, Irene Klaerke; Iversen, Nina Kerting; Secher, Niels; Engedal, Thorbjørn Søndergaard; Anzabi, Mariam; Jimenez, Eugenio Gutierrez; Cai, Changsi; Koch, Klaus Ulrik; Naess-Schmidt, Erhard Trillingsgaard; Obel, Annette; Juul, Niels; Rasmussen, Mads; Sørensen, Jens Christian Hedemann

2013-12-01

165

Hydrocephalus Onset after Microsurgical or Endovascular Treatment for Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Retrospective Italian Multicenter Study  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic shunt-dependent hydrocephalus is a complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Its incidence and risk factors have been described while the hydrocephalus onset in terms of days after treatment (microsurgical or endovascular) has not been yet analyzed. Materials and Methods 45 patients, treated for aSAH in 4 Italian Neurosurgical Departments, were retrospectively analyzed. It was calculated the time that elapses between treatment and hydrocephalus onset in 36 patients. Results Of the 45 shunted patients, 15 (33.3%) were included in the microsurgical group (group A) and 30 (66.6%) were in the endovascular one (group B). There was no difference of the hydrocephalus onset between the two groups (24,1 days, group A vs. 27,7 days, group B). The presence of intracerebral hematoma (ICH) caused a delay in the hydrocephalus onset after endovascular treatment in terms of 11,5 days compared to microsurgical group as well the absence of vasospasm determined a delay of 13,7 days (not statistically significant). Conclusion No difference in terms of hydrocephalus onset after microsurgical or endovascular treatment has been demonstrated. Only the presence of ICH or the absence of vasospasm can cause a slight delay in the time of hydrocephalus onset in the endovascular series (not statistically significant). Long-term follow-up studies involving higher numbers of subjects are needed to better demonstrate this issue.

Gangemi, Michelangelo; Cavallo, Luigi Maria; Di Somma, Alberto; Mazzucco, Grazia Marina; Bono, Paolo Sebastiano; Ghetti, Giovanni; Zambon, Giampaolo

2014-01-01

166

Metamorphosis of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Research: from Delayed Vasospasm to Early Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Delayed vasospasm that develops 3–7 days after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has traditionally been considered the most important determinant of delayed ischemic injury and poor outcome. Consequently, most therapies against delayed ischemic injury are directed towards reducing the incidence of vasospasm. The clinical trials based on this strategy, however, have so far claimed limited success; the incidence of vasospasm is reduced without reduction in delayed ischemic injury or improvement in the long-term outcome. This fact has shifted research interest to the early brain injury (first 72 h) evoked by SAH. In recent years, several pathological mechanisms that activate within minutes after the initial bleed and lead to early brain injury are identified. In addition, it is found that many of these mechanisms evolve with time and participate in the pathogenesis of delayed ischemic injury and poor outcome. Therefore, a therapy or therapies focused on these early mechanisms may not only prevent the early brain injury but may also help reduce the intensity of later developing neurological complications. This manuscript reviews the pathological mechanisms of early brain injury after SAH and summarizes the status of current therapies.

Pluta, Ryszard M.; Zhang, John H.

2010-01-01

167

Diagnostic value of a ghrelin test for the diagnosis of GH deficiency after subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the diagnostic value of a ghrelin test in the diagnosis of GH deficiency (GHD) shortly after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Design Prospective single-center observational cohort study. Methods A ghrelin test was assessed after the acute phase of SAH and a GH-releasing hormone (GHRH)–arginine test 6 months post SAH. Primary outcome was the diagnostic value of a ghrelin test compared with the GHRH–arginine test in the diagnosis of GHD. The secondary outcome was to assess the safety of the ghrelin test, including patients' comfort, adverse events, and idiosyncratic reactions. Results Forty-three survivors of SAH were included (15 males, 35%, mean age 56.6±11.7). Six out of 43 (14%) SAH survivors were diagnosed with GHD by GHRH–arginine test. In GHD subjects, median GH peak during ghrelin test was significantly lower than that of non-GHD subjects (5.4 vs 16.6, P=0.002). Receiver operating characteristics analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.869. A cutoff limit of a GH peak of 15??g/l corresponded with a sensitivity of 100% and a false-positive rate of 40%. No adverse events or idiosyncratic reactions were observed in subjects undergoing a ghrelin test, except for one subject who reported flushing shortly after ghrelin infusion. Conclusion Owing to its convenience, validity, and safety, the ghrelin test might be a valuable GH provocative test, especially in the early phase of SAH.

Blijdorp, K; Khajeh, L; Ribbers, G M; Sneekes, E M; Heijenbrok-Kal, M H; van den Berg-Emons, H J G; van der Lely, A J; van Kooten, F; Neggers, S J C M M

2013-01-01

168

Impact of Clipping versus Coiling on Postoperative Hemodynamics and Pulmonary Edema after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Volume management is critical for assessment of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This multicenter prospective cohort study compared the impact of surgical clipping versus endovascular coiling on postoperative hemodynamics and pulmonary edema in patients with SAH. Hemodynamic parameters were measured for 14 days using a transpulmonary thermodilution system. The study included 202 patients, including 160 who underwent clipping and 42 who underwent coiling. There were no differences in global ejection fraction (GEF), cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance index, or global end-diastolic volume index between the clipping and coiling groups in the early period. However, extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI) were significantly higher in the clipping group in the vasospasm period. Postoperative C-reactive protein (CRP) level was higher in the clipping group and was significantly correlated with postoperative brain natriuretic peptide level. Multivariate analysis found that PVPI and GEF were independently associated with high EVLWI in the early period, suggesting cardiogenic edema, and that CRP and PVPI, but not GEF, were independently associated with high EVLWI in the vasospasm period, suggesting noncardiogenic edema. In conclusion, clipping affects postoperative CRP level and may thereby increase noncardiogenic pulmonary edema in the vasospasm period. His trial is registered with University Hospital Medical Information Network UMIN000003794.

Horie, Nobutaka; Iwaasa, Mitsutoshi; Ishizaka, Shunsuke; Inoue, Tooru; Nagata, Izumi

2014-01-01

169

fMRI of Working Memory Impairment after Recovery from Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Recovery from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is often incomplete and accompanied by subtle but persistent cognitive deficits. Previous neuropsychological reports indicate these deficits include most prominently memory impairment, with working memory particularly affected. The neural basis of these memory deficits remains unknown and unexplored by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In the present study, patients who experienced (SAH) underwent fMRI during the performance of a verbal working memory paradigm. Behavioral results indicated a subtle but statistically significant impairment relative to healthy subjects in working memory performance accuracy, which was accompanied by relatively increased blood-oxygen level dependent signal in widespread left and right hemisphere cortical areas during periods of encoding, maintenance, and retrieval. Activity increases remained after factoring out inter-individual differences in age and task performance, and included most notably left hemisphere regions associated with phonological loop processing, bilateral sensorimotor regions, and right hemisphere dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We conclude that deficits in verbal working memory following recovery from (SAH) are accompanied by widespread differences in hemodynamic correlates of neural activity. These differences are discussed with respect to the immediate and delayed focal and global brain damage that can occur following (SAH), and the possibility that this damage induces subcortical disconnection and subsequent decreased efficiency in neural processing.

Ellmore, Timothy M.; Rohlffs, Fiona; Khursheed, Faraz

2013-01-01

170

Cerebellar contusions as a possible cause of traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report.  

PubMed

Traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage (TBSAH) is infrequent but of forensic neuropathological importance because of its high mortality and complex causal mechanisms. The source of the hemorrhage is most frequently identified in the vertebro-basilar arteries but often cannot be identified in these arteries. We present a case of TBSAH possibly originating from hemorrhagic cerebellar contusions due to fist blows to the neck. A 35-year-old woman, who was punched on the right side of the neck, became unconscious about 20 min later and died. Autopsy demonstrated a massive subarachnoid hemorrhage at the base of the brain, with blood clots attached to the right lower surface of the cerebellum. No tear was detected in the vertebro-basilar vessels, but there were hemorrhagic cerebellar contusions beneath the blood clots as a possible source of TBSAH. The site of impact to the neck suggested the cerebellar contusions to be a coup injury due to hard blows. PMID:20122864

Chen, Jian-Hua; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Maeda, Hitoshi

2010-03-01

171

Amelioration of oxidative stress and protection against early brain injury by astaxanthin after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Object Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes devastating rates of mortality and morbidity. Accumulating studies indicate that early brain injury (EBI) greatly contributes to poor outcomes after SAH and that oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of EBI following SAH. Astaxanthin (ATX), one of the most common carotenoids, has a powerful antioxidative property. However, the potential role of ATX in protecting against EBI after SAH remains obscure. The goal of this study was to assess whether ATX can attenuate SAH-induced brain edema, blood-brain barrier permeability, neural cell death, and neurological deficits, and to elucidate whether the mechanisms of ATX against EBI are related to its powerful antioxidant property. Methods Two experimental SAH models were established, including a prechiasmatic cistern SAH model in rats and a one-hemorrhage SAH model in rabbits. Both intracerebroventricular injection and oral administration of ATX were evaluated in this experiment. Posttreatment assessments included neurological scores, body weight loss, brain edema, Evans blue extravasation, Western blot analysis, histopathological study, and biochemical estimation. Results It was observed that an ATX intracerebroventricular injection 30 minutes post-SAH could significantly attenuate EBI (including brain edema, blood-brain barrier disruption, neural cell apoptosis, and neurological dysfunction) after SAH in rats. Meanwhile, delayed treatment with ATX 3 hours post-SAH by oral administration was also neuroprotective in both rats and rabbits. In addition, the authors found that ATX treatment could prevent oxidative damage and upregulate the endogenous antioxidant levels in the rat cerebral cortex following SAH. Conclusions These results suggest that ATX administration could alleviate EBI after SAH, potentially through its powerful antioxidant property. The authors conclude that ATX might be a promising therapeutic agent for EBI following SAH. PMID:24724856

Zhang, Xiang-Sheng; Zhang, Xin; Zhou, Meng-Liang; Zhou, Xiao-Ming; Li, Ning; Li, Wei; Cong, Zi-Xiang; Sun, Qing; Zhuang, Zong; Wang, Chun-Xi; Shi, Ji-Xin

2014-07-01

172

Observer variability in assessment of angiographic vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In clinical practice and in many reported studies about incidences and time courses of vasospasm the angiographic spasms are judged by eye without clear definition of vessel narrowings. To evaluate the reliability of this diagnostic method two experienced neuroradiologists and two experienced neurosurgeons independently in two sessions, examined 30 carotid angiograms performed after an aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. The intra-

V. Eskesen; A. Karle; A. Kruse; Chr Kruse-Larsen; J. Præstholm; K. Schmidt

1987-01-01

173

Accumulation of intimal platelets in cerebral arteries following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in cats  

SciTech Connect

From 2 hours to 23 days following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage, the accumulation of indium-111-labeled platelets on the intimal surface of the middle cerebral artery was studied in 23 cats. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was produced by transorbital rupture of the right middle cerebral artery. Of the 23 cats, 17 exhibited right middle cerebral artery/left middle cerebral artery radioactivity ratios of greater than 1.25. When these results were compared with those of 12 control cats, 0.001 less than p less than 0.005 (chi2 test). Thus, the results from the control and experimental groups are significantly different and indicate early (after 2 hours) preferential accumulation of intimal platelets in the ruptured right middle cerebral artery compared with the unruptured left middle cerebral artery and new platelet deposition continuing for up to 23 days. However, the experimental group did not reveal a clear pattern for platelet accumulation following subarachnoid hemorrhage. There was no simple correlation between the magnitude of the radioactivity ratios and the time after hemorrhage when the cats were killed although the ratios for 2 hours to 7 days seemed greater than those for 8 to 23 days. Assuming the pivotal role of platelets in the angiopathy of subarachnoid hemorrhage, the administration of antiplatelet agents as soon as possible following its occurrence may be of value.

Haining, J.L.; Clower, B.R.; Honma, Y.; Smith, R.R.

1988-07-01

174

Magnesium for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (MASH-2): a randomised placebo-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Magnesium sulphate is a neuroprotective agent that might improve outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage by reducing the occurrence or improving the outcome of delayed cerebral ischaemia. We did a trial to test whether magnesium therapy improves outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Methods We did this phase 3 randomised, placebo-controlled trial in eight centres in Europe and South America. We randomly assigned (with computer-generated random numbers, with permuted blocks of four, stratified by centre) patients aged 18 years or older with an aneurysmal pattern of subarachnoid haemorrhage on brain imaging who were admitted to hospital within 4 days of haemorrhage, to receive intravenous magnesium sulphate, 64 mmol/day, or placebo. We excluded patients with renal failure or bodyweight lower than 50 kg. Patients, treating physicians, and investigators assessing outcomes and analysing data were masked to the allocation. The primary outcome was poor outcome—defined as a score of 4–5 on the modified Rankin Scale—3 months after subarachnoid haemorrhage, or death. We analysed results by intention to treat. We also updated a previous meta-analysis of trials of magnesium treatment for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. This study is registered with controlled-trials.com (ISRCTN 68742385) and the EU Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT 2006-003523-36). Findings 1204 patients were enrolled, one of whom had his treatment allocation lost. 606 patients were assigned to the magnesium group (two lost to follow-up), 597 to the placebo (one lost to follow-up). 158 patients (26·2%) had poor outcome in the magnesium group compared with 151 (25·3%) in the placebo group (risk ratio [RR] 1·03, 95% CI 0·85–1·25). Our updated meta-analysis of seven randomised trials involving 2047 patients shows that magnesium is not superior to placebo for reduction of poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (RR 0·96, 95% CI 0·86–1·08). Interpretation Intravenous magnesium sulphate does not improve clinical outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, therefore routine administration of magnesium cannot be recommended. Funding Netherlands Heart Foundation, UK Medical Research Council.

Mees, Sanne M Dorhout; Algra, Ale; Vandertop, W Peter; van Kooten, Fop; Kuijsten, Hans AJM; Boiten, Jelis; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J; Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi; Lavados, Pablo M; Rinkel, Gabriel JE; van den Bergh, Walter M

2012-01-01

175

Predicting the Outcome of Patients With Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Using Machine Learning Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Outcome prediction for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) helps guide care and compare global management strategies. Logistic regression models for outcome prediction may be cumbersome to apply in clinical practice. Objective: To use machine learning techniques to build a model of outcome prediction that makes the knowledge discovered from the data explicit and communicable to domain experts. Material and methods: A

Paula de Toledo; Pablo M. Rios; Agapito Ledezma; Araceli Sanchís; Jose F. Alen; Alfonso Lagares

2009-01-01

176

Vertebrobasilar dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage: a retrospective study of 29 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have reviewed initial diagnostic features, treatment, and outcome in 29 patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage due to non-traumatic vertebrobasilar artery dissection diagnosed in our hospital between 1993 and 2003. The dissections occurred in the vertebral artery in 19 patients, the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) in two patients, the basilar artery in four patients, and in the vertebral artery

B Ramgren; M Cronqvist; B Romner; L Brandt; S Holtås; E-M Larsson

2005-01-01

177

Platelet-derived growth factor-? expression in rabbit models of cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), one of the serious types of stroke incurred by bleeding into the space surrounding the brain, occurs when brains are deprived of oxygen by various factors, particularly an interruption to the blood supply or a ruptured aneurysm. Cerebral vasospasm (CVS) is one of the most common complications of SAH. It has been proposed that platelet?derived growth factor (PDGF) is involved in CVS. The aim of the present study was to analyze expression of PDGF in rabbit models of CVS. Post-SAH CVS rabbit models were created using endovascular puncture and employed to analyze the expression patterns of PDGF by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that the creation of the rabbit model of CVS induced using endovascular puncture was successful and demonstrated the double phase changes observed in human CVS. The acute stage started at 12 h post-SAH with narrowing of the vascular lumen diameter. This narrowing appeared again on the seventh day in delayed CVS alongside increased thickness of vessel walls. PDGF-? expression was observed in vascular smooth muscle cells of the rabbit models. PDGF-? was expressed as early as 3 h post-SAH, it was evident after 1 day and reached a peak in 7 days, suggesting that PDGF-? is involved in the early stages of CVS. In the current study, it was confirmed that PDGF-? expression was present in the rabbit models of CVS, which may aid the elucidation of the pathogenesis of CVS, and also provide useful information for diagnosis and treatment of CVS. PMID:24969827

Cui, Hong-Kai; Yan, Rui-Fang; Ding, Xiao-Li; Zhao, Peng; Wu, Qing-Wu; Wang, Hong-Po; Qin, Hai-Xia; Tu, Jian-Fei; Yang, Rui-Min

2014-09-01

178

The Effect of Phosphodiesterase Inhibitor Tadalafil on Vasospasm Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in an Experimental Rabbit Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Background: Despite the years of study on it, cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage is still an important cause of mortality\\u000a and morbidity. The presented study was undertaken to show whether phosphodiesterase inhibitor tadalafil can attenuate the\\u000a vasospasm process following subarachnoid bleeding.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method: In this study, 20 male New Zealand White rabbits weighing 2,500–3,000 g were randomly assigned to four groups.

Firat Narin; Burcak Bilginer; Ahmet Ilkay Isikay; Mehmet Bülent Onal; Figen Soylemezoglu; Nejat Akalan

179

Appetite loss may be induced by lower serum ghrelin and higher serum leptin concentrations in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.  

PubMed

Background Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) typically develop appetite loss. However, the mechanisms regulating appetite are not understood. Ghrelin and leptin, both of which signal nutritional status and energy storage levels to the hypothalamus, are essential elements of the appetite system. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between appetite and ghrelin and leptin concentrations in patients with SAH. Methods Blood plasma or serum profiles and appetite status were measured in 19 patients with SAH who underwent aneurysmal clipping within 48 hours of SAH onset. Appetite status was measured using dietary oral calorie intake. All outcome variables were measured at an early (day 3) and late (day 8) time point after SAH onset (day 0). Results Of the 19 patients studied, 6 (31.6%) showed lower dietary oral calorie intake at the late time point than at the early time point. In these patients with appetite loss, plasma hemoglobin (P < 0.02), albumin (P < 0.01), glucose (P < 0.01), plasma insulin (P < 0.04), and serum ghrelin (P < 0.03) concentrations were lower at the late time point than at the early time point. Serum leptin was higher at the late time point than at the early time point (P < 0.02). Conclusion In SAH patients, appetite loss may be induced by lower serum ghrelin and higher serum leptin concentrations resulting from high plasma glucose and insulin levels due to a catecholamine surge following SAH. PMID:24075245

Kubo, Yoshitaka; Koji, Takahiro; Kashimura, Hiroshi; Otawara, Yasunari; Ogawa, Akira; Ogasawara, Kuniaki

2014-09-01

180

Late epilepsy following open surgery for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Design: Subgroup analysis of the East Anglian regional audit of SAH (1994–2000; n = 872) with 12 month follow up. Prophylactic anticonvulsants were not routinely prescribed unless there was a perioperative seizure. Subjects: 472 patients with aneurysmal SAH undergoing surgical clipping of the aneurysm were studied. Patients presenting in WFNS grade V, with space occupying haematomas requiring emergency surgery, or with posterior circulation aneurysms, rebleeds, and surgery after 21 days were excluded. Results: Late epilepsy occurred in 23 patients (4.9%). There was a correlation between the incidence of late epilepsy and both the presenting WFNS grade (p<0.05) (grade 1, 1.4%; grade 2, 3.8%; grade 3, 9.6%; grade 4, 12.5%) and the Glasgow outcome score at discharge (p<0.01) (good recovery, 2.2%; moderate disability, 5.0%; severe disability, 15.5%). There was no relation between the incidence of late epilepsy and sex or the site of the aneurysm. Conclusions: The low incidence of late epilepsy following open surgery for aneurysmal SAH supports the withholding of prophylactic anticonvulsants. Patients with poor WFNS grade and poor recovery after surgery are at increased risk and should be closely monitored.

Buczacki, S; Kirkpatrick, P; Seeley, H; Hutchinson, P

2004-01-01

181

A Novel Intravital Method to Evaluate Cerebral Vasospasm in Rat Models of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Study with Synchrotron Radiation Angiography  

PubMed Central

Precise in vivo evaluation of cerebral vasospasm caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage has remained a critical but unsolved issue in experimental small animal models. In this study, we used synchrotron radiation angiography to study the vasospasm of anterior circulation arteries in two subarachnoid hemorrhage models in rats. Synchrotron radiation angiography, laser Doppler flowmetry-cerebral blood flow measurement, [125I]N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine cerebral blood flow measurement and terminal examinations were applied to evaluate the changes of anterior circulation arteries in two subarachnoid hemorrhage models made by blood injection into cisterna magna and prechiasmatic cistern. Using synchrotron radiation angiography technique, we detected cerebral vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage rats compared to the controls (p<0.05). We also identified two interesting findings: 1) both middle cerebral artery and anterior cerebral artery shrunk the most at day 3 after subarachnoid hemorrhage; 2) the diameter of anterior cerebral artery in the prechiasmatic cistern injection group was smaller than that in the cisterna magna injection group (p<0.05), but not for middle cerebral artery. We concluded that synchrotron radiation angiography provided a novel technique, which could directly evaluate cerebral vasospasm in small animal experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage models. The courses of vasospasm in these two injection models are similar; however, the model produced by prechiasmatic cistern injection is more suitable for study of anterior circulation vasospasm.

Yuan, Falei; Chen, Lujia; He, Chuan; Bao, Yuhai; Chen, Zuoquan; Lou, Meiqing; Xia, Weiliang; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Ling, Feng

2012-01-01

182

Progesterone Attenuates Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage-Induced Vasospasm by Upregulation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase via Akt Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

Cerebral vasospasm is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, the mechanism and adequate treatment of vasospasm are still elusive. In the present study, we evaluate the effect and possible mechanism of progesterone on SAH-induced vasospasm in a two-hemorrhage rodent model of SAH. Progesterone (8?mg/kg) was subcutaneously injected in ovariectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats one hour after SAH induction. The degree of vasospasm was determined by averaging the cross-sectional areas of basilar artery 7 days after first SAH. Expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and phosphorylated Akt (phospho-Akt) in basilar arteries were evaluated. Prior to perfusion fixation, there were no significant differences among the control and treated groups in physiological parameters recorded. Progesterone treatment significantly (P < 0.01) attenuated SAH-induced vasospasm. The SAH-induced suppression of eNOS protein and phospho-Akt were relieved by progesterone treatment. This result further confirmed that progesterone is effective in preventing SAH-induced vasospasm. The beneficial effect of progesterone might be in part related to upregulation of expression of eNOS via Akt signaling pathway after SAH. Progesterone holds therapeutic promise in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm following SAH.

Chang, Chia-Mao; Su, Yu-Feng; Chang, Chih-Zen; Tsai, Yee-Jean; Loh, Joon-Khim

2014-01-01

183

Role of Autophagy in Early Brain Injury after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autophagy is a self-degradative process and it plays a housekeeping role in removing misfolded or aggregated proteins, clearing\\u000a damaged organelles, and eliminating intracellular pathogens. Previous studies have demonstrated that autophagy pathway was\\u000a activated in brain after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH); however, the role of autophagy in the pathogenesis of\\u000a early brain injury (EBI) following SAH remains unknown. Experiment 1 aimed to

Zhong Wang; Xiao-Yong Shi; Jia Yin; Gang Zuo; Jian Zhang; Gang Chen

184

[Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to autonomic dysreflexia: rare consequence of sexual stimulation in a paraplegic].  

PubMed

Nearly all men with spinal cord injury suffer from neurogenic sexual dysfunction which is often treated with phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitors. We describe a case of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to autonomic dysreflexia (AD) caused by sexual stimulation. Nitrates are frequently used for acute treatment of AD; however, the use of these drugs in combination with PDE5 inhibitors is contraindicated. Therefore, meticulous information from patients and relatives on the risk of AD and possible drug interactions is of vital importance. PMID:23784679

Galiart, E; Baumberger, M; Pannek, J

2013-11-01

185

Predictors of left ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Cardiac abnormalities that have been reported after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) include the release of cardiac biomarkers,\\u000a electrocardiographic changes, and left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. The mechanisms of cardiac dysfunction after\\u000a SAH remain controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of LV regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA)\\u000a after SAH and to quantify the independent effects of specific

Avinash Kothavale; Nader M. Banki; Alexander Kopelnik; Sirisha Yarlagadda; Michael T. Lawton; Nerissa Ko; Wade S. Smith; Barbara Drew; Elyse Foster; Jonathan G. Zaroff

2006-01-01

186

Role of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase on Cerebral Vasospasm After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Inflammatory cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study was conducted to examine the role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the development of vasospasm and cytokine production. Methods—We measured the expression levels of genes and proteins related to inflammation in human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs) treated with hemolysate

Toshiyuki Sasaki; Hidetoshi Kasuya; Hideaki Onda; Atsushi Sasahara; Shin Goto; Tomokatsu Hori; Ituro Inoue

2010-01-01

187

Alpha Lipoic Acid Alleviates Oxidative Stress and Preserves Blood Brain Permeability in Rats with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neuroprotective effect of alpha lipoic acid (ALA; 100 mg\\/kg, po), a dithiol antioxidant, on experimentally induced subarachnoid\\u000a hemorrhage (SAH) was assessed in Wistar albino rats. Neurological examination scores recorded at the 48th h of SAH induction\\u000a were increased in SAH groups, which were accompanied with significant increases in the formation of reactive oxygen species,\\u000a DNA fragmentation ratios, malondialdehyde levels and myeloperoxidase

Mehmet ErsahinHale; Hale Z. Toklu; ?ule Çetinel; Meral Yüksel; Can Erzik; M. Zafer Berkman; Berrak Ç. Ye?en; Göksel ?ener

2010-01-01

188

Heme-oxygenase-1 induction in glia throughout rat brain following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heme released following subarachnoid hemorrhage is metabolized by heme-oxygenase (HO) to biliverdin and carbon monoxide (CO) with the release of iron. The HO reaction is important since heme may contribute to vasospasm and increase oxidative stress in cells. HO is comprised of at least two isozymes, HO-2 and HO-1. HO-1, also known as heat shock protein HSP32, is inducible

Paul Matz; Christopher Turner; Philip R. Weinstein; Stephen M. Massa; S. Scott Panter; Frank R. Sharp

1996-01-01

189

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Intracerebral Hematoma due to Sildenafil Ingestion in a Young Adult  

PubMed Central

Sildenafil citrate (Viagra®; Pfeizer US Pharmaceutical Group, New York, NY, USA) is a potent vasodilating agent to treat male erectile dysfunction. Among its adverse effects, hemorrhagic stroke has not been widely reported yet. We present a case of a 33-year-old healthy man who ingested 50 mg sildenafil a half hour before onset of headache, nervousness and speech disturbance. Head computed tomogram of this stuporous man showed huge intracerebral hemorrhage and thick subarachnoid hemorrhage, but angiography failed to disclose any vascular anomalies. Subsequent surgical procedure was followed, and rehabilitation was provided thereafter. Sildenafil seems to act by redistributing arterial blood flow, and concurrent sympathetic hyperactivity, which lead to such hemorrhagic presentation. Extreme caution should be paid on even in a young adult male patient wven without known risk factors.

Byoun, Hyoung-Soo; Lee, Young-Joon

2010-01-01

190

Rapid ventricular pacing assisted hypotension in the management of sudden intraoperative hemorrhage during cerebral aneurysm clipping  

PubMed Central

Sudden intraoperative hemorrhage during intracranial aneurysm surgery from vascular injury or aneurysmal rupture has been known to dramatically increase the associated morbidity and mortality. We describe the first reported use of rapid ventricular pacing (RVP) assisted hypotension to control sudden intraoperative hemorrhage during intracranial aneurysm surgery where temporary arterial occlusion was not achievable.

Khan, Shariq Ali; Berger, Miles; Agrawal, Abhishek; Huang, Mary; Karikari, Isaac; Nimjee, Shahid M.; Zomorodi, Ali R.; McDonagh, David L.

2014-01-01

191

Cerebrospinal Fluid Catecholamine Levels as Predictors of Outcome in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Objective Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with marked sympathetic activation at the time of ictus. The purpose of this study is to determine whether early central catecholamine levels measured from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) relate to outcome in patients with SAH. Methods Observational study of consecutive SAH grade 3–5 patients who underwent ventriculostomy placement, but did not undergo open craniotomy for aneurysm obliteration. CSF samples were obtained during the first 48 h following symptom onset and assayed for catecholamine levels. Statistical analyses were performed to determine whether the levels predicted mortality by day 15 or mortality/disability by day 30. Results For the 102 patients included, mean age was 58, and 73% were female ? 21% experienced day-15 mortality, and 32% experienced mortality/disability by day 30. Early mortality was related to Hunt-Hess (H/H) grade (p < 0.001), neurogenic cardiomyopathy (NC) (p = 0.003), cerebral infarction (p = 0.001), elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) (p = 0.029), epinephrine (EPI) level (p = 0.002) and norepinephrine/3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (NE/DHPG) ratio (p = 0.003). Mortality/disability was related to H/H grade (p < 0.001), NC (p = 0.018), infarction (p < 0.001), elevated ICP (p = 0.002), EPI (p = 0.004) and NE/DHPG (p = 0.014). Logistic regression identified age [OR 1.09 (95% CI 1.01–1.17)], H/H grade [9.52 (1.19–77)], infarction [10.87 (1.22–100)], ICP elevation [32.26 (2–500)], EPI [1.06 (1.01–1.10)], and (inversely) DHPG [0.99 (0.99–1.00)] as independent predictors of early mortality. For mortality/disability, H/H grade [OR 21.74 (95% CI 5.62?83)], ICP elevation [18.52 (1.93–166)], and EPI [1.05 (1.02–1.09)] emerged as independent predictors. Proportional-hazards analysis revealed age [HR 1.041 (95% CI 1.003–1.08)], H/H grade [6.9 (1.54–31.25)], NC [4.31 (1.5–12.35)], and EPI [1.032 (1.009–1.054)] independently predicted early mortality. Conclusions CSF catecholamine levels are elevated in SAH patients who experience early mortality or disability. EPI may potentially serve as useful index of outcome in this population of patients with SAH.

Moussouttas, Michael; Huynh, Thanh T.; Khoury, John; Lai, Edwin W.; Dombrowski, Keith; Pello, Scott; Pacak, Karel

2012-01-01

192

Cerebral Hemodynamic Changes Induced by a Lumbar Puncture in Good-Grade Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with good-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are those without initial neurological deficit. However, they can die or present severe deficit due to secondary insult leading to brain ischemia. After SAH, in a known context of energy crisis, vasospasm, hydrocephalus and intracranial hypertension contribute to unfavorable outcome. Lumbar puncture (LP) is sometimes performed in an attempt to reduce intracranial pressure (ICP) and release headaches. We hypothesize that in good-grade SAH patients, a 20-ml LP releases headaches, reduces ICP and improves cerebral blood flow (CBF) as measured with O15 PET scan. Methods Six good-grade (WFNS grade 1or 2) SAH patients (mean age 48 years, 2 women, 4 men) were prospectively included. All aneurysms (4 anterior communicating artery and 2 right middle cerebral artery) were coiled at day 1. Patients were managed according to our local protocol. LP was performed for severe headache (VAS >7) despite maximal painkiller treatment. Patients were included when the LP was clinically needed. The 20-ml LP was done in the PET scan (mean delay between SAH and LP: 3.5 days). LP allows hydrostatic measurement of ICP. Arterial blood pressure (ABP) was noninvasively gauged with photoplethysmography. Every signal was monitored and analyzed off-line. Regional CBF (rCBF) was measured semiquantitatively with O15 PET before and after LP. Then we calculated the difference between baseline and post-LP condition for each area: positive value means augmentation of rCBF after the LP, negative value means reduction of rCBF. Individual descriptive analysis of CBF was first performed for each patient; then a statistical group analysis was done with SPM for all voxels using t statistics converted to Z scores (p < 0.01, Z score >3.2). Results A 20-ml LP yielded a reduction in pain (–4), a drop in ICP (24.3 ± 12.5 to 6.9 ± 4.7 mm Hg), but no change in ABP. Descriptive and statistical image analysis showed a heterogeneous and biphasic change in cerebral hemodynamics: rCBF was not kept constant and either augmented or decreased after the drop in ICP. Hence, cerebrovascular reactivity was spatially heterogeneous within the brain. rCBF seems to augment in the brain region roughly close to the bleed and to be reduced in the rest of the brain, with a rough plane of symmetry. Conclusions In good-grade SAH, LP releases headaches and lowers ICP. LP and the drop in ICP have a heterogeneous and biphasic effect on rCBF, suggesting that cerebrovascular reactivity is not spatially homogeneous within the brain.

Schmidt, Eric A.; Silva, Stein; Albucher, Jean Francois; Luzi, Aymeric; Loubinoux, Isabelle; Januel, Anne Christine; Cognard, Christophe; Payoux, Pierre; Chollet, Francois

2012-01-01

193

Digoxin-like immunoreactive substance in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.  

PubMed Central

Digoxin was measured by radioimmunoassay in the plasma of 25 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage who had not received digoxin treatment. After heating the plasma an endogenous substance cross reacting with antibodies to digoxin was identified in 18 cases. The presence of this substance was significantly related to the total amount of blood and to the presence of blood in the frontal interhemispheric fissure and could not be explained by hypertension or intake of water and sodium. A negative sodium balance and volume depletion occurred more often in patients who were positive for digoxin, but this relation did not reach statistical significance. It is concluded that a digoxin-like natriuretic factor is released in response to a subarachnoid haemorrhage, probably as a result of hypothalamic damage. Images FIG. 2

Wijdicks, E F; Vermeulen, M; van Brummelen, P; den Boer, N C; van Gijn, J

1987-01-01

194

Acute thrombosis and recanalization of a ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 35-year-old man sustained a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to the rupture of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. A second angiogram taken 8 hours later demonstrated that the ruptured aneurysm had thrombosed spontaneously with a small residual aneurysm stump at the neck. CT scans and conventional angiograms taken 2 days later demonstrated recanalization of the aneurysm, which was successfully treated by

Thung-Ming Su; Shih-Wei Hsu; Wu-Fu Chen; Tao-Chen Lee; Ching-Hsiao Cheng

2009-01-01

195

[Aneurysm of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery: case report].  

PubMed

The intracranial aneurysms of the posterior circulation have been reported between 5 and 10% of all cerebral aneurysms and the aneurysms of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) are considered rare, can cause cerebello pontine angle (CPA) syndrome with or without subarachnoid hemorrhage. Since 1948 few cases were described in the literature. We report on a 33 year-old female patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to sacular aneurysm of the left AICA. She was submitted to clipage of the aneurysm without complications. PMID:12563400

Adorno, Juan Oscar Alarcón; de Andrade, Guilherme Cabral

2002-12-01

196

Arachnoid cell involvement in the mechanism of coagulation-initiated inflammation in the subarachnoid space after subarachnoid hemorrhage*  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess if arachnoid cells have the capability to present antigen and activate T-lymphocytes after stimulation by bloody cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and to illuminate the mechanism of coagulation-initiated inflammation in the subarachnoid space after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods: Arachnoid cells were cultured, characterized, and examined by immunofluorescence for the basal expression of human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR). Expression of HLA-DR, after co-culturing arachnoid cells in vitro with bloody CSF, was investigated by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry (FCM). The variation of arachnoid cells’ ultrastructure was observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Arachnoid cells were co-cultured with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The content of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2r) in culture medium was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: (1) Arachnoid cells were successfully cultured for many passages. The immunofluorescent staining was positive for HLA-DR in over 95% of the human arachnoid cells. The punctate HLA-DR was distributed in cytoplasm and not in the karyon. (2) After co-culturing arachnoid cells in vitro with bloody CSF, numerous particles with strong fluorescence appeared in the cytoplasm on Day 6. On Day 8, the quantity of particles and fluorescent intensity were maximal. FCM showed that the percentage of HLA-DR expressing cells was (2.5±0.4)% at the first 5 d, increasing to (60.8±3.6)% on Day 7. (3) After co-culturing arachnoid cells in vitro with bloody CSF, many lysosome and secondary lysosome particles were present in the cytoplasm. Hyperplasia of rough endoplasmic reticulum and enlarged cysts were observed, with numerous phagocytizing vesicles also observed at the edge of the arachnoid cells. (4) Arachnoid cells stimulated by bloody CSF were co-cultured in vitro with PBMCs. The content of sIL-2r in the culture medium, having been maintained at around 1.30 ng/ml during the first 3 d, had increased by Day 4. The content of sIL-2r peaked 7.53 ng/ml on Day 7 and then reduced gradually. Conclusions: (1) Basic HLA-DR expression is present in arachnoid cells. (2) After stimulation by bloody CSF, arachnoid cells have the potential to serve as antigen presenting cells (APCs) and the ability to activate T-lymphocytes, indicating that arachnoid cells are involved in the mechanism of coagulation-initiated inflammation in the subarachnoid space after SAH.

Xin, Zhao-liang; Wu, Xiao-kang; Xu, Jian-rong; Li, Xi

2010-01-01

197

Association between elevated plasma norepinephrine levels and cardiac wall motion abnormality in poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.  

PubMed

Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are frequently complicated by acute cardiac dysfunctions, including cardiac wall motion abnormality (WMA). Massive release of catecholamine into the systemic circulation after aneurysmal rupture is believed to result in WMA, and poor-grade SAH seems to be the most important risk factor. However, plasma catecholamine levels have rarely been measured in SAH patients with WMA, and previous studies indicated that the elevated levels might not necessarily predict WMA. The objective of this study is (1) to evaluate relationship between WMA and plasma catecholamine levels in poor-grade SAH patients in the acute phase and (2) to clarify clinical characteristics of SAH patients with WMA. Among 142 poor-grade (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grades IV and V) SAH patients, 48 underwent both transthoracic ultrasound and measurement of plasma catecholamine levels within 24 h of SAH onset. They were divided into WMA+ (n?=?23) and WMA- (n?=?25) groups, and intergroup comparison was made on demographics, plasma catecholamine levels, and outcomes. Plasma norepinephrine levels were significantly higher in WMA+ group than in WMA- group (2,098.4?±?1,773.4 vs. 962.9?±?838.9 pg/mL, p?=?0.02), and the former showed significantly worse outcomes 90 days after admission. There were no intergroup differences in the plasma levels of epinephrine. Plasma norepinephrine levels were inversely correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that increased plasma norepinephrine levels were predictive of WMA, although age, female sex, and grade V SAH were not. This retrospective study highlights the role of norepinephrine in pathogenesis of SAH-induced WMA. PMID:22936520

Sugimoto, Keiko; Inamasu, Joji; Kato, Yoko; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Ganaha, Tsukasa; Oheda, Motoki; Hattori, Natsuki; Watanabe, Eiichi; Ozaki, Yukio; Hirose, Yuichi

2013-04-01

198

Systemic glucose variability predicts cerebral metabolic distress and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a retrospective observational study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cerebral glucose metabolism and energy production are affected by serum glucose levels. Systemic glucose variability has been shown to be associated with poor outcome in critically ill patients. The objective of this study was to assess whether glucose variability is associated with cerebral metabolic distress and outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods A total of 28 consecutive comatose patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, who underwent cerebral microdialysis and intracranial pressure monitoring, were studied. Metabolic distress was defined as lactate/pyruvate ratio (LPR) >40. The relationship between daily glucose variability, the development of cerebral metabolic distress and hospital outcome was analyzed using a multivariable general linear model with a logistic link function for dichotomized outcomes. Results Daily serum glucose variability was expressed as the standard deviation (SD) of all serum glucose measurements. General linear models were used to relate this predictor variable to cerebral metabolic distress and mortality at hospital discharge. A total of 3,139 neuromonitoring hours and 181 days were analyzed. After adjustment for Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores and brain glucose, SD was independently associated with higher risk of cerebral metabolic distress (adjusted odds ratio?=?1.5 (1.1 to 2.1), P?=?0.02). Increased variability was also independently associated with in hospital mortality after adjusting for age, Hunt Hess, daily GCS and symptomatic vasospasm (P?=?0.03). Conclusions Increased systemic glucose variability is associated with cerebral metabolic distress and increased hospital mortality. Therapeutic approaches that reduce glucose variability may impact on brain metabolism and outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

2014-01-01

199

The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT): A Position Statement from the Executive Committee of the American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology and the American Society of Neuroradiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent publication of the initial data from the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) represents a landmark in the evolution of the treat- ment of cerebral aneurysms (1). Endovascular treat- ment of ruptured cerebral aneurysms with detachable coils was proven superior to surgical clipping as de- fined by the proportion of patients dead or disabled at 1 year in a

Randall T. Higashida

200

Prognostic significance of continuous EEG monitoring in patients with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Predicting outcome in patients with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may help guide therapy and assist in family discussions.\\u000a The objective of this study was to determine if continuous electroencephalogram (cEEG) monitoring results are predictive of\\u000a 3-month outcome in critically ill patients with SAH.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We prospectively studied 756 patients with SAH over a 7-year period. Functional outcome was assessed at 3

Jan Claassen; Lawrence J. Hirsch; Jennifer A. Frontera; Andres Fernandez; Michael Schmidt; Gregory Kapinos; John Wittman; E. Sander Connolly; Ronald G. Emerson; Stephan A. Mayer

2006-01-01

201

Kissing aneurysms of the distal anterior cerebral artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kissing aneurysms, a particular type of multiple aneurysm are rare. A kissing aneurysms was identified at the distal anterior cerebral artery (ACA) in a 59-year-old male patient diagnosed with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The use of three-dimensional intracranial CT angiograms revealed that kissing aneurysms (that is, an aneurysm with a bilateral symmetrical mirror image) were located at the distal ACA and

Chan-Young Choi; Seong-Rok Han; Gi-Taek Yee; Chae-Heuck Lee

2011-01-01

202

Metabolic Pattern of the Acute Phase of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in a Novel Porcine Model: Studies with Cerebral Microdialysis with High Temporal Resolution  

PubMed Central

Background Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may produce cerebral ischemia and systemic responses including stress. To study immediate cerebral and systemic changes in response to aneurysm rupture, animal models are needed. Objective To study early cerebral energy changes in an animal model. Methods Experimental SAH was induced in 11 pigs by autologous blood injection to the anterior skull base, with simultaneous control of intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures. Intracerebral microdialysis was used to monitor concentrations of glucose, pyruvate and lactate. Results In nine of the pigs, a pattern of transient ischemia was produced, with a dramatic reduction of cerebral perfusion pressure soon after blood injection, associated with a quick glucose and pyruvate decrease. This was followed by a lactate increase and a delayed pyruvate increase, producing a marked but short elevation of the lactate/pyruvate ratio. Glucose, pyruvate, lactate and lactate/pyruvate ratio thereafter returned toward baseline. The two remaining pigs had a more severe metabolic reaction with glucose and pyruvate rapidly decreasing to undetectable levels while lactate increased and remained elevated, suggesting persisting ischemia. Conclusion The animal model simulates the conditions of SAH not only by deposition of blood in the basal cisterns, but also creating the transient global ischemic impact of aneurysmal SAH. The metabolic cerebral changes suggest immediate transient substrate failure followed by hypermetabolism of glucose upon reperfusion. The model has features that resemble spontaneous bleeding, and is suitable for future research of the early cerebral and systemic responses to SAH that are difficult to study in humans.

Nyberg, Christoffer; Karlsson, Torbjorn; Hillered, Lars; Engstrom, Elisabeth Ronne

2014-01-01

203

Timing of surgery for supratentorial aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: report of a prospective study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The debate on the timing of aneurysm surgery after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) pivots on the balance of the temporal risk for fatal rebleeding versus the risk of surgical morbidity when operating early on an acutely injured brain. By following a strict management protocol for SAH, the hypothesis has been tested that in the modern arena of treatment for aneurysmal SAH the timing of surgery to secure supratentorial aneurysms does not affect surgical outcome. Methods: Over a 6 year period, patients admitted with a diagnosis of SAH to a regional neurosurgical unit have been prospectively studied. All have been on a management protocol in which early transfer and resuscitation has been followed regardless of age and clinical condition. Angiographic investigation and surgery have been pursued in those who have been able to at least flex to pain. A total of 1168 patients (60.7% female, mean age 54.3) with proved SAH were received on median day 1 (86.4% arrived within 3 days) of the ictus. Of these, 784 (67.1%) showed aneurysms on angiography and were prepared for surgery. Those who received surgery for a supratentorial aneurysm within 21 days of the ictus were included in the final analysis (n=550). Patients with an initial negative angiogram, with posterior circulation aneurysms, or aneurysms treated by endovascular means, with aneurysms requiring emergency surgery for space occupying haematomas, with aneurysms which re-bled before surgery, and those who received very late surgery (after 21 days from ictus) were excluded. Surgical outcomes at hospital discharge and after 6 months were assessed using the Glasgow outcome score (GOS). Discharge destination and duration of stay in a neurosurgical ward were also documented. The influence of the timing of surgery (early group day 1–3 postictus, intermediate group day 4–10, or late group day 11–21) was analysed prospectively. Results: 60.2% of cases fell into the early surgery group, 32.4% into the intermediate group, and 7.5% into the late operated group. Late surgery was due to delays in diagnosis, transfer, and logistic factors, but not clinical decision. The demographic characteristics, site of aneurysm, and clinical condition of the patients at the time of initial medical assessment were balanced in the three surgical timing groups. There was no significant difference in GOS between the surgical timing groups at 6 months (favourable GOS score 4 and 5: 83.2%, 80.5%, and 83.8% respectively; p=0.47, Kruskal-Wallis test). Outcome was favourable in 84% of patients under 65 years, and 70% in those over 65. The discharge destinations (home, referring hospital, nursing home, rehabilitation centre) showed no significant difference between surgical timing groups. There was no significant difference in mean time to discharge after admission to this hospital from the referring hospital (16.2, 16.2, and 14.6 days for early, intermediate, and late groups respectively; p=0.789, Analysis of variance (ANOVA)). As a result, there was reduction in the mean duration of total hospital inpatient stay in favour of the earliest operated patients (mean time 18.1, 22.0, and 28.3 days respectively; p=0.001. ANOVA showed that besides age, the only determinant of surgical outcome and duration of stay was presenting clinical grade (p<0.0005). Conclusion: The current management of patients presenting with SAH from anterior circulation aneurysms allows early surgery to be followed safely regardless of age. The only independent variables affecting outcome are age and clinical grade at presentation. The timing of surgery did not significantly affect surgical outcome, promoting a policy for early surgery that avoids the known risks of rebleeding and reduces inpatient stay.

Ross, N; Hutchinson, P; Seeley, H; Kirkpatrick, P

2002-01-01

204

Monitoring of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism Bedside in Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage - A Xenon-CT and Microdialysis Study.  

PubMed

Cerebral ischemia is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Although 70% of the patients show angiographic vasospasm only 30% develop symptomatic vasospasm defined as delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Early detection and management of reversible ischemia is of critical importance in patients with SAH. Using a bedside Xenon enhanced computerized tomography (Xenon-CT) scanner makes it possible to measure quantitative regional Cerebral blood flow (CBF) bedside in the neurointensive care setting and intracerebral microdialysis (MD) is a method that offers the possibility to monitor the metabolic state of the brain continuously. Here, we present results from nine SAH patients with both MD monitoring and bedside Xenon-CT measurements. CBF measurements were performed within the first 72?h following bleeding. Six out of nine patients developed DCI at a later stage. Five out of six patients who developed DCI had initial global CBF below 26?ml/100?g/min whereas one had 53?ml/100?g/min. The three patients who did not develop clinical vasospasm all had initial global CBF above 27?ml/100?g/min. High lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio was associated with lower CBF values in the area surrounding the catheter. Five out of nine patients had L/P ratio ?25 and four of these patients had CBF???22?ml/100?g/min. These preliminary results suggest that patients with initially low global CBF on Xenon-CT may be more likely to develop DCI. Initially low global CBF was accompanied with metabolic disturbances determined by the MD. Most importantly, pathological findings on the Xenon-CT and MD could be observed before any clinical signs of DCI. Combining bedside Xenon-CT and MD was found to be useful and feasible. Further studies are needed to evaluate if DCI can be detected before any other signs of DCI to prevent progress to infarction. PMID:24917850

Rostami, Elham; Engquist, Henrik; Johnson, Ulf; Howells, Timothy; Ronne-Engström, Elisabeth; Nilsson, Pelle; Hillered, Lars; Lewén, Anders; Enblad, Per

2014-01-01

205

Monitoring of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism Bedside in Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage - A Xenon-CT and Microdialysis Study  

PubMed Central

Cerebral ischemia is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Although 70% of the patients show angiographic vasospasm only 30% develop symptomatic vasospasm defined as delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Early detection and management of reversible ischemia is of critical importance in patients with SAH. Using a bedside Xenon enhanced computerized tomography (Xenon-CT) scanner makes it possible to measure quantitative regional Cerebral blood flow (CBF) bedside in the neurointensive care setting and intracerebral microdialysis (MD) is a method that offers the possibility to monitor the metabolic state of the brain continuously. Here, we present results from nine SAH patients with both MD monitoring and bedside Xenon-CT measurements. CBF measurements were performed within the first 72?h following bleeding. Six out of nine patients developed DCI at a later stage. Five out of six patients who developed DCI had initial global CBF below 26?ml/100?g/min whereas one had 53?ml/100?g/min. The three patients who did not develop clinical vasospasm all had initial global CBF above 27?ml/100?g/min. High lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio was associated with lower CBF values in the area surrounding the catheter. Five out of nine patients had L/P ratio ?25 and four of these patients had CBF???22?ml/100?g/min. These preliminary results suggest that patients with initially low global CBF on Xenon-CT may be more likely to develop DCI. Initially low global CBF was accompanied with metabolic disturbances determined by the MD. Most importantly, pathological findings on the Xenon-CT and MD could be observed before any clinical signs of DCI. Combining bedside Xenon-CT and MD was found to be useful and feasible. Further studies are needed to evaluate if DCI can be detected before any other signs of DCI to prevent progress to infarction.

Rostami, Elham; Engquist, Henrik; Johnson, Ulf; Howells, Timothy; Ronne-Engstrom, Elisabeth; Nilsson, Pelle; Hillered, Lars; Lewen, Anders; Enblad, Per

2014-01-01

206

Cerebral microdialysis in traumatic brain injury and subarachnoid hemorrhage: state of the art.  

PubMed

Cerebral microdialysis (CMD) is a laboratory tool that provides on-line analysis of brain biochemistry via a thin, fenestrated, double-lumen dialysis catheter that is inserted into the interstitium of the brain. A solute is slowly infused into the catheter at a constant velocity. The fenestrated membranes at the tip of the catheter permit free diffusion of molecules between the brain interstitium and the perfusate, which is subsequently collected for laboratory analysis. The major molecules studied using this method are glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, and glycerol. The collected substances provide insight into the neurochemical features of secondary injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and valuable information about changes in brain metabolism within a short time frame. In this review, the authors detail the CMD technique and its associated markers and then describe pertinent findings from the literature about the clinical application of CMD in TBI and SAH. PMID:24072457

de Lima Oliveira, Marcelo; Kairalla, Ana Carolina; Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Martinez, Raquel Chacon Ruiz; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

2014-08-01

207

Role of unphosphorylated transcription factor STAT3 in late cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Molecular mechanisms behind increased cerebral vasospasm and local inflammation in late cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are poorly elucidated. Using system biology tools and experimental SAH models, we have identified signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) transcription factor as a possible major regulatory molecule. On the basis of the presence of transcription factor binding sequence in the promoters of differentially regulated genes (significant enrichment PE: 6 × 10(5)) and the consistent expression of STAT3 (mRNA, P=0.0159 and Protein, P=0.0467), we hypothesize that unphosphorylated STAT3 may directly DNA bind and probably affect the genes that are involved in inflammation and late cerebral ischemia to influence the pathologic progression of SAH. PMID:24517975

Samraj, Ajoy K; Müller, Anne H; Grell, Anne-Sofie; Edvinsson, Lars

2014-05-01

208

[Electrocardiographic and arterial pressure changes in the acute phase of subarachnoid hemorrhage].  

PubMed

A prospective study was made of 30 patients, admitted to the neurology ward with subarachnoidal hemorrhage (SAH), at its onset. The diagnosis was established on the basis of anamnesis, clinical examination, spinal puncture, anatomopathological examination. The patients with other cerebrovascular affections or with antecedents of ischaemic cardiac affections were excluded. ECG tracings, serum ionogram, AT and VA at the onset and in evolution, and their modifications were followed and assessed in all the patients. The conclusion is reached that SAH in acute phase is associated with transitory ECG and pressure anomalies which become elements of unfavourable prognosis when persistent and deeply altered. They are valuable, at hand, elements in the differential diagnosis, and in the opportune therapeutical intervention. PMID:2575277

Popescu, M; Nu??, G; Toma, D

1989-01-01

209

A Hypothesis: Hydrogen Sulfide Might Be Neuroprotective against Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Induced Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Gases such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) play important roles both in normal physiology and in disease. Recent studies have shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) protects neurons against oxidative stress and ischemia-reperfusion injury and attenuates lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induced neuroinflammation in microglia, exhibiting anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic activities. The gas H2S is emerging as a novel regulator of important physiologic functions such as arterial diameter, blood flow, and leukocyte adhesion. It has been known that multiple factors, including oxidative stress, free radicals, and neuronal nitric oxide synthesis as well as abnormal inflammatory responses, are involved in the mechanism underlying the brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Based on the multiple physiologic functions of H2S, we speculate that it might be a promising, effective, and specific therapy for brain injury after SAH.

Yu, Yong-Peng; Chi, Xiang-Lin; Liu, Li-Jun

2014-01-01

210

Does Treatment Modality of Intracranial Ruptured Aneurysms Influence the Incidence of Cerebral Vasospasm and Clinical Outcome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cerebral vasospasm is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study is designed to determine whether the incidence of symptomatic vasospasm and the overall clinical outcome differ between patients treated with surgical clipping compared with endovascular obliteration of aneurysms. Methods: In this prospective study, 98 patients with aneurysmal SAH were treated. Seventy-two

Amir R. Dehdashti; Bernadette Mermillod; Daniel A. Rufenacht; Alain Reverdin; Nicolas de Tribolet

2004-01-01

211

Self-perceived health status following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of the study was to assess the long-term self-reported health status and quality of life (QoL) of patients following an aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (ASAH) using a self-completed questionnaire booklet. Design A two-cohort study. Setting A regional tertiary neurosurgical centre. Participants 2 cohorts of patients with ASAH treated between 1998 and 2008 and followed up at approximately 1?year. Interventions Routine care. Primary and secondary outcomes A range of standardised scales included: AKC Short Sentences Test, the Barthel Index, the Self-Report Dysexecutive Questionnaire, the Everyday Memory Questionnaire, Stroke Symptom Checklist, Wimbledon Self-Report Scale, Modified Rankin Score (MRS) and a new Stroke-QoL. The data from summated scales were fit to the Rasch measurement model to validate the summed score. Results 214 patients (48%) returned the questionnaires; the majority (76%) had a World Federation of Neurosurgeons grade of 1 or 2. The most frequent aneurysm type was that of the anterior communicating artery (28%) with approximately 90% of aneurysms of the anterior circulation. Of those previously in full or part-time employment, 48.9% were unemployed at follow-up. All summated scales satisfied the Rasch measurement model requirements, such that their summed scores were a sufficient statistic. Given this, one-third of patients were noted to have a significant mood disorder and 25% had significant dysexecutive function. Patients with an MRS of 3, 4 or 5 had significantly worse scores on most outcome measures, but a significant minority of those with a score of zero had failed to return to work and displayed significant mood disorder. Conclusions A range of self-reported cognitive and physical deficits have been highlighted in a cohort of patients with ASAH. While the MRS has been shown to provide a reasonable indication of outcome, in routine clinical follow-up it requires supplementation by instruments assessing dysexecutive function, memory and mood.

Quinn, Audrey C; Bhargava, Deepti; Al-Tamimi, Yahia Z; Clark, Matthew J; Ross, Stuart A; Tennant, Alan

2014-01-01

212

The Impact of Experimental Preconditioning Using Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Stroke and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulating angiogenesis was shown to be a potential novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of ischemic vascular diseases. The goal of the present study was to examine whether transfection of VEGF before occurrence of major stroke (part I) and cerebral vasospasm after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH; part II) develops neuroprotective qualities. A total of 25 (part I) and 26 (part II) brains were analyzed, respectively. In part one, a significant reduction of infarct volume in the VEGF-treated stroke animals (43% reduction, P < 0.05) could be detected. In part two, significant vasospasm was induced in all hemorrhage groups (P < 0.02). Analyzing microperfusion, a significant higher amount of perfused vessels could be detected (P < 0.01), whereas no significant effect could be detected towards macroperfusion. Histologically, no infarctions were observed in the VEGF-treated SAH group and the sham-operated group. Minor infarction in terms of vasospasm-induced small lesions could be detected in the control vector transduced group (P = 0.05) and saline-treated group (P = 0.09). The present study demonstrates the preconditioning impact of systemic intramuscular VEGF injection in animals after major stroke and induced severe vasospasm after SAH.

Eicker, Sven Oliver; Hoppe, Moritz; Etminan, Nima; Macht, Stephan; Perrin, Jason; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hanggi, Daniel

2013-01-01

213

The impact of experimental preconditioning using vascular endothelial growth factor in stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulating angiogenesis was shown to be a potential novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of ischemic vascular diseases. The goal of the present study was to examine whether transfection of VEGF before occurrence of major stroke (part I) and cerebral vasospasm after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH; part II) develops neuroprotective qualities. A total of 25 (part I) and 26 (part II) brains were analyzed, respectively. In part one, a significant reduction of infarct volume in the VEGF-treated stroke animals (43% reduction, P < 0.05) could be detected. In part two, significant vasospasm was induced in all hemorrhage groups (P < 0.02). Analyzing microperfusion, a significant higher amount of perfused vessels could be detected (P < 0.01), whereas no significant effect could be detected towards macroperfusion. Histologically, no infarctions were observed in the VEGF-treated SAH group and the sham-operated group. Minor infarction in terms of vasospasm-induced small lesions could be detected in the control vector transduced group (P = 0.05) and saline-treated group (P = 0.09). The present study demonstrates the preconditioning impact of systemic intramuscular VEGF injection in animals after major stroke and induced severe vasospasm after SAH. PMID:23634319

Eicker, Sven Oliver; Hoppe, Moritz; Etminan, Nima; Macht, Stephan; Perrin, Jason; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel

2013-01-01

214

Suppression of the Rho/Rho-kinase pathway and prevention of cerebral vasospasm by combination treatment with statin and fasudil after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rabbit.  

PubMed

The Rho/Rho-kinase pathway is considered important in the pathogenesis of sustained smooth muscle cell contraction during cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aims of this study were to investigate whether combination treatment, with pitavastatin as an inhibitor of RhoA and fasudil as an inhibitor of Rho-kinase, prevents the cerebral vasospasm. SAH was simulated using the double-hemorrhage rabbit model, and pitavastatin, or fasudil, or both (combination treatment) were administrated. The basilar artery (BA) cross-sectional area only in the combination treatment group was statistically larger than in the SAH group (p<0.05). BA Rho-kinase, as measured by ELISA, was statistically reduced only in the combination treatment group compared with the SAH group (p<0.05). In the other two treatment groups, pitavastatin or fasudil treatment group showed larger BA cross-sectional areas and lower value for BA Rho-kinase, but there were no statistically significant differences compared with the SAH group. The expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), evaluated by immunohistochemistry in the pitavastatin group and the combination group, was higher than in the SAH group. Results indicate that combination treatment could extensively prevent cerebral vasospasm due to the synergic effect of combining pitavastatin and fasudil on the Rho/Rho-kinase pathway and on eNOS. PMID:23658597

Naraoka, Masato; Munakata, Akira; Matsuda, Naoya; Shimamura, Norihito; Ohkuma, Hiroki

2013-06-01

215

Management of hemorrhagic dissecting vertebral artery aneurysms involving posterior inferior artery.  

PubMed

We reported 2 cases with hemorrhagic dissecting vertebral artery (VA) aneurysms involving posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), and one was treated with aneurysm trapping and PICA-VA anastomosis, whereas another was treated with coil embolization and VA-to-PICA stent placement. We suggest both bypass surgery and VA-to-PICA stent placement are good options for PICA revascularization. PMID:24621719

Guo, Liemei; Wan, Jieqing; Qiu, Yongming; Zhang, Xiaohua

2014-03-01

216

Evaluation of the Circle of Willis with Three-dimensional CT Angiography in Patients with Suspected Intracranial Aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To determine the usefulness of CT angiography in the setting of suspected acute subarachnoid hemorrhage or intracranial aneurysm. METHODS: We prospectively studied 68 patients suspected of having subarachnoid hemorrhage or an intracranial aneurysm with noncon- trast CT of the head followed immediately by contrast-enhanced helical CT of the circle of Willis with three-dimensional reconstruction. Twenty-seven patients with CT findings

Ronald A. Alberico; Mahendra Patel; Sean Casey; Betsy Jacobs; William Maguire; Robert Decker

217

Inhibition of the Sur1-Trpm4 Channel Reduces Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Impairment in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can leave patients with memory impairments that may not recover fully. Molecular mechanisms are poorly understood, and no treatment is available. The sulfonylurea receptor 1–transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (Sur1-Trpm4) channel plays an important role in acute central nervous system injury. We evaluated upregulation of Sur1-Trpm4 in humans with SAH and, in rat models of SAH, we examined Sur1- Trpm4 upregulation, its role in barrier dysfunction and neuroinflammation, and its consequences on spatial learning. Methods We used Förster resonance energy transfer to detect coassociated Sur1 and Trpm4 in human autopsy brains with SAH. We studied rat models of SAH involving filament puncture of the internal carotid artery or injection of blood into the subarachnoid space of the entorhinal cortex. In rats, we used Förster resonance energy transfer and coimmunoprecipitation to detect coassociated Sur1 and Trpm4, we measured immunoglobulin G extravasation and tumor necrosis ? overexpression as measures of barrier dysfunction and neuroinflammation, and we assessed spatial learning and memory on days 7 to 19. Results Sur1-Trpm4 channels were upregulated in humans and rats with SAH. In rats, inhibiting Sur1 using antisense or the selective Sur1 inhibitor glibenclamide reduced SAH-induced immunoglobulin G extravasation and tumor necrosis ? overexpression. In models with entorhinal SAH, rats treated with glibenclamide for 7 days after SAH exhibited better platform search strategies and better performance on incremental and rapid spatial learning than vehicle-treated controls. Conclusions Sur1-Trpm4 channels are upregulated in humans and rats with SAH. Channel inhibition with glibenclamide may reduce neuroinflammation and the severity of cognitive deficits after SAH.

Tosun, Cigdem; Kurland, David B.; Mehta, Rupal; Castellani, Rudy J.; deJong, Joyce L.; Kwon, Min Seong; Woo, Seung Kyoon; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J. Marc

2013-01-01

218

Mild Intraoperative Hypothermia During Surgery for Intracranial Aneurysm  

Microsoft Academic Search

background Surgery for intracranial aneurysm often results in postoperative neurologic deficits. We conducted a randomized trial at 30 centers to determine whether intraoperative cool- ing during open craniotomy would improve the outcome among patients with acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. methods A total of 1001 patients with a preoperative World Federation of Neurological Surgeons score of I, II, or III (\\

Michael M. Todd; Bradley J. Hindman; William R. Clarke; J. C. Torner

2005-01-01

219

Tonic-Clonic Activity at Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Onset: Impact on Complications and Outcome  

PubMed Central

Objective Tonic-clonic activity (TCA) at onset complicates 3% to 21% of cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The impact of onset TCA on in-hospital complications, including seizures, remains unclear. One study associated onset TCA with poor clinical outcome at 6 weeks after SAH, but to our knowledge no other studies have confirmed this relationship. This study aims to assess the impact of onset TCA on in-hospital complications, poor functional outcome, mortality, and epilepsy at 3 months. Methods Analysis of a prospective study cohort of 1479 SAH patients admitted to Columbia University Medical Center between 1996 and 2012. TCA within 6 hours of hemorrhage onset was identified based on accounts of emergency care providers or family witnesses. Results TCA at onset was described in 170 patients (11%). Patients with onset TCA were younger (P?=?0.002), presented more often with poor clinical grade (55% vs. 26%, P<0.001) and had larger amounts of cisternal, intraventricular, and intracerebral blood than those without onset TCA (all, P<0.001). After adjusting for known confounders, onset TCA was significantly associated with in-hospital seizures (OR 3.80, 95%-CI: 2.43–5.96, P<0.001), in-hospital pneumonia (OR 1.56, 95%-CI: 1.06–2.31, p?=?0.02), and delayed cerebral ischemia (OR 1.77, 95%-CI: 1.21–2.58, P?=?0.003). At 3 months, however, onset TCA was not associated with poor functional outcome, mortality, and epilepsy after adjusting for age, admission clinical grade, and cisternal blood volume. Conclusions Onset TCA is not a rare event as it complicates 11% of cases of SAH. New and clinically relevant findings are the association of onset TCA with in-hospital seizures, pneumonia and delayed cerebral ischemia. Despite the increased risk of in-hospital complications, onset TCA is not associated with disability, mortality, and epilepsy at 3 months.

De Marchis, Gian Marco; Pugin, Deborah; Lantigua, Hector; Zammit, Christopher; Tadi, Prasanna; Schmidt, J. Michael; Falo, M. Cristina; Agarwal, Sachin; Mayer, Stephan A.; Claassen, Jan

2013-01-01

220

Long-Term Functional Consequences and Ongoing Cerebral Inflammation after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in the Rat  

PubMed Central

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) represents a considerable health problem with an incidence of 6–7 per 100.000 individuals per year in Western society. We investigated the long-term consequences of SAH on behavior, neuroinflammation and gray- and white-matter damage using an endovascular puncture model in Wistar rats. Rats were divided into a mild or severe SAH group based on their acute neurological score at 24 h post-SAH. The degree of hemorrhage determined in post-mortem brains at 48 h strongly correlated with the acute neurological score. Severe SAH induced increased TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-10, MCP-1, MIP2, CINC-1 mRNA expression and cortical neutrophil influx at 48 h post-insult. Neuroinflammation after SAH was very long-lasting and still present at day 21 as determined by Iba-1 staining (microglia/macrophages) and GFAP (astrocytes). Long-term neuroinflammation was strongly associated with the degree of severity of SAH. Cerebral damage to gray- and white-matter was visualized by immunohistochemistry for MAP2 and MBP at 21 days after SAH. Severe SAH induced significant gray- and white-matter damage. MAP2 loss at day 21 correlated significantly with the acute neurological score determined at 24 h post-SAH. Sensorimotor behavior, determined by the adhesive removal task and von Frey test, was affected after severe SAH at day 21. In conclusion, we are the first to show that SAH induces ongoing cortical inflammation. Moreover, SAH induces mainly cortical long-term brain damage, which is associated with long-term sensorimotor damage.

Kooijman, Elke; Nijboer, Cora H.; van Velthoven, Cindy T. J.; Mol, Wouter; Dijkhuizen, Rick M.; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Heijnen, Cobi J.

2014-01-01

221

Endothelin and subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced cerebral vasospasm: pathogenesis and treatment.  

PubMed

Endothelin (ET)-mediated vasoconstriction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of various disorders, e.g. hypertension, chronic heart failure, acute renal failure, pulmonary hypertension, and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced cerebral vasospasm. The potential involvement of ETs in cerebral vasospasm following SAH has triggered considerable interest in designing therapeutic strategies to inhibit biological effects of ET. Major approaches include: (a) reducing the levels of circulating ET- 1 by the the specific anti- ET- 1 antibodies, (b) antagonizing the ET receptors, and (c) suppressing the biosynthesis of ET-1. To date, numerous antagonists of ET(A) and/or ET(B) receptors have been discovered, and some are under clinical evaluation. Inhibitors of endothelin-converting enzymes (ECEs), which catalyze the biosynthesis of ET-1, have also been synthesized. Two types of ECE-1 inhibitors have been evaluated in various animal disease models: dual ECE-1/neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP) inhibitors and selective ECE-1 inhibitors. In this article, the effects of ET receptor antagonists and ECE-1 inhibitors on the prevention and reversal of SAH-induced cerebral vasospasm in preclinical animal models are reviewed. PMID:15279581

Lin, Chih-Lung; Jeng, Arco Y; Howng, Shen-Long; Kwan, Aij-Lie

2004-07-01

222

Hyperbaric Oxygen for Cerebral Vasospasm and Brain Injury Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

The impact of acute brain injury and delayed neurological deficits due to cerebral vasospasm (CVS) are major determinants of outcomes after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Although hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) had been used to treat patients with SAH, the supporting evidence and underlying mechanisms have not been systematically reviewed. In the present paper, the overview of studies of HBO for cerebral vasospasm is followed by a discussion of HBO molecular mechanisms involved in the protection against SAH-induced brain injury and even, as hypothesized, in attenuating vascular spasm alone. Faced with the paucity of information as to what degree HBO is capable of antagonizing vasospasm after SAH, the authors postulate that the major beneficial effects of HBO in SAH include a reduction of acute brain injury and combating brain damage caused by CVS. Consequently, authors reviewed the effects of HBO on SAH-induced hypoxic signaling and other mechanisms of neurovascular injury. Moreover, authors hypothesize that HBO administered after SAH may “precondition” the brain against the detrimental sequelae of vasospasm. In conclusion, the existing evidence speaks in favor of administering HBO in both acute and delayed phase after SAH; however, further studies are needed to understand the underlying mechanisms and to establish the optimal regimen of treatment.

Ostrowski, Robert P.

2012-01-01

223

Mesenchymal stem cells improved the ultrastructural morphology of cerebral tissues after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.  

PubMed

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes widespread disruption in the cerebral architecture.The process of SAH is complicated and many people lose their lives or become disabled after injury. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as good candidate for repair of cerebral damage. The aim was to assess the ultrastructural changes in the rat cerebral tissue after intravenous transplantation of MSCs. Female Wistar rats (8 per group) weighing 275~300 g were assigned to control (SAH+PBS) and experimental groups (SAH+MSCs).The samples from middle cerebral arterial wall and parietal cerebral tissue were prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) according to standard protocol. Fine architectures of the vessel wall, including the contraction of the inner layer, smooth muscle layer,as well as neural cells were observed after SAH. Cerebral arterial wall and cortex, including neuronal and glial cells were injured post SAH. But, administration of MSCs improved the structural integrity of cerebral tissues. Changes were much more balanced with their relative improvement in some areas. The role of MSCs for repairing the injured cerebral tissues post experimental SAH was approved by electron microscopy. PMID:24737942

Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Sadeghian-Nodoushan, Fatemeh; Fesahat, Farzaneh; Mir-Esmaeili, Seyed Mohsen; Anvari, Morteza; Hekmati-Moghadam, Seyed Hossain

2014-03-01

224

Role of Gap Junctions in Early Brain Injury Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Gap junction inhibition has been demonstrated to reverse the vascular contraction that follows experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage. This study hypothesizes that the use of established gap junction inhibitors: octonal and carbenoxolone, to interrupt cell to cell communication will provide neuroprotection against early brain injury after SAH. The filament perforation model of SAH was performed in male Sprague–Dawley rats weighing between 300 and 380g. Octanol (260.46mg or 781.38 mg/kg), carbenoxolone (100 mg/kg), or vehicles were given via intraperitoneal injection 1 hour after SAH. Neurologic deficits and cerebral apoptosis were assessed 24 and 72 hours after SAH. In addition, Western blot analysis was performed to confirm the in vivo inhibition of CNS gap junctions. The administration of octanol and carbenoxolone both failed to attenuate the neurological deficits induced by SAH, and they did not reduce neuronal apoptosis. Additionally, carbenoloxone increased post SAH mortality and exacerbated SAH induced apoptosis. Despites previous studies that show gap junction inhibitors reverse vasospasm following experimental SAH, they failed to improve clinical outcomes or provide neuroprotection in this study.

Ayer, Robert; Chen, Wanqiu; Sugawara, Takashi; Suzuki, Hidenori; Zhang, John H.

2010-01-01

225

Tenascin-C causes neuronal apoptosis after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.  

PubMed

The role of tenascin-C (TNC), a matricellular protein, in brain injury is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine if TNC causes neuronal apoptosis after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), a deadly cerebrovascular disorder, using imatinib mesylate (a selective inhibitor of platelet-derived growth factor receptor [PDGFR] that is reported to suppress TNC induction) and recombinant TNC. SAH by endovascular perforation caused caspase-dependent neuronal apoptosis in the cerebral cortex irrespective of cerebral vasospasm development at 24 and 72 h post-SAH, associated with PDGFR activation, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation, and TNC induction in rats. PDGFR inactivation by an intraperitoneal injection of imatinib mesylate prevented neuronal apoptosis, as well as MAPKs activation and TNC induction in the cerebral cortex at 24 h. A cisternal injection of recombinant TNC reactivated MAPKs and abolished anti-apoptotic effects of imatinib mesylate. The TNC injection also induced TNC itself in SAH brain, which may internally augment neuronal apoptosis after SAH. These findings suggest that TNC upregulation by PDGFR activation causes neuronal apoptosis via MAPK activation, and that the positive feedback mechanisms may exist to augment neuronal apoptosis after SAH. TNC-induced neuronal apoptosis would be a new target to improve outcome after SAH. PMID:24481545

Shiba, Masato; Fujimoto, Masashi; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Taki, Waro; Suzuki, Hidenori

2014-04-01

226

Cognitive domain deficits in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage at 1 year  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive domain deficits can occur after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) though few studies systemically evaluate its impact on 1-year outcomes. Objective We aimed to evaluate the pattern and functional outcome impact of cognitive domain deficits in aSAH patients at 1?year. Methods We carried out a prospective observational study in Hong Kong, during which, 168 aSAH patients (aged 21–75?years and had been admitted within 96?h of ictus) were recruited over a 26-month period. The cognitive function was assessed by a domain-specific neuropsychological assessment battery at 1?year after ictus. The current study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov of the US National Institutes of Health (NCT01038193). Results Prevalence of individual domain deficits varied between 7% to 15%, and 13% had two or more domain deficits. After adjusting for abbreviated National Institute of Health Stroke Scale and Geriatric Depressive Scale scores, unfavourable outcome (Modified Rankin Scale 3–5) and dependent instrumental activity of daily living (Lawton Instrumental Activity of Daily Living<15) were significantly associated with two or more domain deficits and number of cognitive domain deficits at 1?year. Two or more domain deficits was independently associated with age (OR, 1.1; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.2; p<0.001) and delayed cerebral infarction (OR, 6.1; 95% CI 1.1 to 33.5; p=0.036), after adjustment for years of school education. Interpretation In patients with aSAH, cognitive domain deficits worsened functional outcomes at 1?year. Delayed cerebral infarction was an independent risk factor for two or more domain deficits at 1?year.

Wong, George Kwok Chu; Lam, Sandy Wai; Ngai, Karine; Wong, Adrian; Siu, Deyond; Poon, Wai Sang; Mok, Vincent

2013-01-01

227

Experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage causes early and long-lasting microarterial constriction and microthrombosis: an in-vivo microscopy study  

PubMed Central

Early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is characterized by a severe, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)-independent reduction in cerebral blood flow suggesting alterations on the level of cerebral microvessels. Therefore, we aimed to use in-vivo imaging to investigate the cerebral microcirculation after experimental SAH. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was induced in C57/BL6 mice by endovascular perforation. Pial arterioles and venules (10 to 80??m diameter) were examined using in-vivo fluorescence microscopy, 3, 6, and 72?hours after SAH. Venular diameter or flow was not affected by SAH, while >70% of arterioles constricted by 22% to 33% up to 3 days after hemorrhage (P<0.05 versus sham). The smaller the investigated arterioles, the more pronounced the constriction (r2=0.92, P<0.04). Approximately 30% of constricted arterioles were occluded by microthrombi and the frequency of arteriolar microthrombosis correlated with the degree of constriction (r2=0.93, P<0.03). The current study demonstrates that SAH induces microarterial constrictions and microthrombosis in vivo. These findings may explain the early CPP-independent decrease in cerebral blood flow after SAH and may therefore serve as novel targets for the treatment of early perfusion deficits after SAH.

Friedrich, Benjamin; Muller, Frank; Feiler, Sergej; Scholler, Karsten; Plesnila, Nikolaus

2012-01-01

228

Increased cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine correlate with adverse clinical outcome in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.  

PubMed

Elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, have been found in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In addition, CSF levels of ADMA are associated with the severity of vasospasm. However, the relation between CSF ADMA levels and the clinical outcome of SAH patients is still unclear. We hypothesized that elevated ADMA levels in CSF might be related to the clinical outcome of SAH patients. CSF ADMA levels were measured in 20 SAH patients at days 3-5, days 7-9 and days 12-14 after SAH onset using high-performance liquid chromatography. Cerebral vasospasm was assessed by transcranial Doppler ultra sonography. Clinical outcome at 2year follow-up was evaluated using the Karnofsky Performance Status scale (KPS). CSF ADMA concentrations in all SAH patients were significantly increased at days 3-5 (p=0.002) after SAH, peaked on days 7-9 (p<0.001) and remained elevated until days 12-14 (p<0.001). In subgroup analysis, significant increases of CSF ADMA levels were found in patients both with and without vasospasm. The KPS scores significantly correlated with CSF levels of ADMA at days 7-9 (correlation coefficient=-0.55, p=0.012; 95% confidence interval -0.80 to -0.14). Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that higher ADMA level at days 7-9 predicted a poor clinical outcome at 2year follow-up after SAH (odds ratio=1.722, p=0.039, 95% confidence interval 1.029 to 2.882). ADMA may be directly involved in the pathological process and future adverse prognosis of SAH. PMID:24814854

Li, Hua; Wu, Wei; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Qing-Rong; Ni, Li; Hang, Chun-Hua

2014-08-01

229

Cause-specific mortality of 1-year survivors of subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess long-term, cause-specific mortality rates and rate ratios of the patients alive at 1 year after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods: The population-based, prospective, cohort study with a nested case-control design consisted of 64,349 persons (aged 25–74 years at enrollment) who participated in the National FINRISK Study between 1972 and 2007. Four hundred thirty-seven SAH cases, 233 one-year SAH survivors, and their matched intrinsic controls were identified and followed up until the end of 2009 through the nationwide Finnish Causes of Death Register. All-cause mortality rates and rate ratios of the 1-year SAH survivors and controls were the main outcome measures. Results: Eighty-eight (37.8%) of 233 one-year SAH survivors died during the total follow-up time of 2,487 person-years (median 8.6 years, range 0.1–35.8 years). The 1-year SAH survivors had a hazard ratio of 1.96 (95% confidence interval 1.57–2.47) for death compared with the matched general population with 10 controls for each SAH survivor. One-year SAH survivors had up to 31 additional deaths per 1,000 person-years compared with controls with minimal cerebrovascular risk factors. The higher long-term risk of death among SAH survivors was attributed solely to cerebrovascular diseases, and most important modifiable risk factors for death were smoking, high systolic blood pressure (?159 mm Hg), and high cholesterol levels (?7.07 mmol/L). Conclusion: One-year SAH survivors have excess mortality, which is attributed to an exceptional risk of deadly cerebrovascular events. Aggressive post-SAH cerebrovascular risk factor intervention strategies are highly warranted.

Silventoinen, Karri; Laatikainen, Tiina; Jousilahti, Pekka; Salomaa, Veikko; Kaprio, Jaakko

2013-01-01

230

Can S100B Predict Cerebral Vasospasms in Patients Suffering from Subarachnoid Hemorrhage?  

PubMed Central

Background: Protein S100B has proven to be a useful biomarker for cerebral damages. Increased levels of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) S100B have been shown in patients suffering subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), severe head injury and stroke. In patients with SAH, the course of S100B levels has been correlated with neurological deficits and outcome. Cerebral vasospasm is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the potential of S100B protein as a predictor of cerebral vasospasm in patients with severe SAH. Materials and Methods: Patients with SAH, Fisher grade 3 and 4, were included in the study. Five samples of CSF and serum S100B were collected from each patient. The first sample (baseline sample) was drawn within the first 3?days following ictus and the following four samples, once a day on days 5–8, with day of ictus defined as day 1. Clinical suspicion of cerebral vasospasm confirmed by computed tomography angiography was used to diagnose cerebral vasospasm. Results: A total of 18 patients were included. Five patients (28%) developed cerebral vasospasm, two (11%) developed ventriculitis. There were no significant differences between S100B for those with and without vasospasm. Serum S100B levels in patients with vasospasm were slightly lower within the first 5?days following ictus, compared to patients without vasospasm. Two out of five patients had elevated and increasing serum S100B prior to vasospasm. Only one showed a peak level of S100B 1?day before vasospasm could be diagnosed. Due to the low number of patients in the study, statistical significance could not be reached. Conclusion: Neither serum nor CSF S100B can be used as predictor of cerebral vasospasm in patients suffering from SAH.

Amiri, Moshgan; Astrand, Ramona; Romner, Bertil

2013-01-01

231

Role of SCH79797 in Maintaining Vascular Integrity in Rat Model of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Plasma thrombin concentration is increased following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, the role of thrombin receptor (protease activated recptor-1, PAR-1) in endothelial barrier disruption has not been studied. The aims of this study were to investigate the role of PAR-1 in orchestrating vascular permeability and assess the potential therapeutics of a PAR-1 antagonist, SCH79797, through maintaining vascular integrity. Methods SCH79797 was injected intraperitoneally into male Sprauge-Dawley rats undergoing SAH by endovascular perforation. Assessment was conducted at 24 hours after SAH for brain water content, Evans blue content, and neurobehavioral testing. To explore the role of PAR-1 activation and the specific mechanism of SCH79797’s effect after SAH, Western blot, immunoprecipitation, and immunofluorescence of hippocampus tissue were performed. A p21-activated kinase1 (PAK1) inhibitor, IPA-3, was used to explore the underlying protective mechanism of SCH79797. Results At 24 hours after SAH, animals treated with SCH79797 demonstrated a reduction in brain water content, Evans blue content, and neurobehavioral deficits. SCH79797 also attenuated PAR-1 expression and maintained the level of VE-cadherin, an important component of adherens junctions. Downstream to PAR-1, c-Src dependent activation of PAK1 led to an increased serine/threonine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin; immunoprecipitation results revealed an enhanced binding of phosphorylated VE-cadherin with endocytosis orchestrator ?-arrestin2. These pathological states were suppressed following SCH79797 treatment. Conclusions PAR-1 activation following SAH increases microvascular permeability, at least, partly through a PAR-1-c-Src-PAK1-VE-cadherin phosphorylation pathway. Through suppressing PAR-1 activity, SCH79797 plays a protective role in maintaining microvascular integrity after SAH.

Yan, Junhao; Manaenko, Anatol; Chen, Sheng; Klebe, Damon; Ma, Qingyi; Caner, Basak; Fujii, Mutsumi; Zhou, Changman; Zhang, John H.

2013-01-01

232

Early events triggering delayed vasoconstrictor receptor upregulation and cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background Upregulation of vasoconstrictor receptors in cerebral arteries, including endothelin B (ETB) and 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B (5-HT1B) receptors, has been suggested to contribute to delayed cerebral ischemia, a feared complication after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This receptor upregulation has been shown to be mediated by intracellular signalling via the mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1/2) - extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway. However, it is not known what event(s) that trigger MEK-ERK1/2 activation and vasoconstrictor receptor upregulation after SAH. We hypothesise that the drop in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and wall tension experienced by cerebral arteries in acute SAH is a key triggering event. We here investigate the importance of the duration of this acute CBF drop in a rat SAH model in which a fixed amount of blood is injected into the prechiasmatic cistern either at a high rate resulting in a short acute CBF drop or at a slower rate resulting in a prolonged acute CBF drop. Results We demonstrate that the duration of the acute CBF drop is determining for a) degree of early ERK1/2 activation in cerebral arteries, b) delayed upregulation of vasoconstrictor receptors in cerebral arteries and c) delayed CBF reduction, neurological deficits and mortality. Moreover, treatment with an inhibitor of MEK-ERK1/2 signalling during an early time window from 6 to 24 h after SAH was sufficient to completely prevent delayed vasoconstrictor receptor upregulation and improve neurological outcome several days after the SAH. Conclusions Our findings suggest a series of events where 1) the acute CBF drop triggers early MEK-ERK1/2 activation, which 2) triggers the transcriptional upregulation of vasoconstrictor receptors in cerebral arteries during the following days, where 3) the resulting enhanced cerebrovascular contractility contribute to delayed cerebral ischemia.

2013-01-01

233

Angiopoietin-1 is associated with cerebral vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia in subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and -2 (Ang-2) are keyplayers in the regulation of endothelial homeostasis and vascular proliferation. Angiopoietins may play an important role in the pathophysiology of cerebral vasospasm (CVS). Ang-1 and Ang-2 have not been investigated in this regard so far. Methods 20 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and 20 healthy controls (HC) were included in this prospective study. Blood samples were collected from days 1 to 7 and every other day thereafter. Ang-1 and Ang-2 were measured in serum samples using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Transcranial Doppler sonography was performed to monitor the occurrence of cerebral vasospasm. Results SAH patients showed a significant drop of Ang-1 levels on day 2 and 3 post SAH compared to baseline and HC. Patients, who developed Doppler sonographic CVS, showed significantly lower levels of Ang-1 with a sustained decrease in contrast to patients without Doppler sonographic CVS, whose Ang-1 levels recovered in the later course of the disease. In patients developing cerebral ischemia attributable to vasospasm significantly lower Ang-1 levels have already been observed on the day of admission. Differences of Ang-2 between SAH patients and HC or patients with and without Doppler sonographic CVS were not statistically significant. Conclusions Ang-1, but not Ang-2, is significantly altered in patients suffering from SAH and especially in those experiencing CVS and cerebral ischemia. The loss of vascular integrity, regulated by Ang-1, might be in part responsible for the development of cerebral vasospasm and subsequent cerebral ischemia.

2011-01-01

234

Ischemia modified albumin increase indicating cardiac damage after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiac complications are often developed after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and may cause sudden death of the patient. There are reports in the literature addressing ischemia modified albumin (IMA) as an early and useful marker in the diagnosis of ischemic heart events. The aim of this study is to evaluate serum IMA by using the albumin cobalt binding (ACB) test in the first, second, and seventh days of experimental SAH in rats. Twenty-eight Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups each consisting of seven animals. These were classified as control group, 1st, 2nd and 7th day SAH groups. SAH was done by transclival basilar artery puncture. Blood samples were collected under anesthesia from the left ventricles of the heart using the cardiac puncture method for IMA measurement. Histopathological examinations were performed on the heart and lung tissues. Albumin with by colorimetric, creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined on an automatic analyser using the enzymatic method. IMA using by ACB test was detected with spectrophotometer. Results Serum IMA (p?=?0.044) in seventh day of SAH were higher compared to the control group. Total injury scores of heart and lung tissue, also myocytolysis at day 7 were significantly higher than control group (p?=?0.001, p?=?0.001, p?=?0.001), day 1 (p?=?0.001, p?=?0.001, p?=?0.001) and day 2 (p?=?0.001, p?=?0.007, p?=?0.001). A positive correlation between IMA - myocytolysis (r?=?0.48, p?=?0.008), and between IMA – heart tissue total injury score (r?=?0.41, p?=?0.029) was found. Conclusion The results revealed that increased serum IMA may be related to myocardial stress after SAH.

2014-01-01

235

Potential contribution of SOCC to cerebral vasospasm after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.  

PubMed

Cerebral vasospasm (CVS) is the most treatable component of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which can be reduced by endothelin receptor antagonists. Endothelin-evoked vasospasm is considered to be mediated by Ca(2+) influx in the smooth muscle through voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel (VDCC) and nonselective cation channels (NSCC). Because VDCC antagonists such as nimodipine have been shown to be relatively less effective than the endothelin receptor antagonists, it is assumed that NSCC maybe a more important component in mediating Ca(2+) influx during CVS. In this study, we used the basilar arteries from a "two-hemorrhage" rat model of SAH to investigate expressions of transient receptor potential channel 1 (TRPC1), transient receptor potential channel 3 (TRPC3) and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), which are considered as the promising candidates constituting NSCC. To investigate the possible role of NSCC in phenotypic switching, we performed immunohistochemical staining to examine expressions of SM?-actin and PCNA, markers of smooth muscle phenotypic switching. We found that the basilar arteries exhibited vasospasm after SAH and that vasospasm became more severe on days 5 and 7 after SAH. Elevated mRNA and protein expressions of TRPC1 and STIM1 were detected after SAH and peaked on days 5 and 7, which was in a parallel time course to the development of cerebral vasospasm. The mRNA and protein expressions of TRPC3 were not changed in the SAH group when compared with those in the control. Results of immunohistochemical staining with anti-PCNA and anti-SM?-actin antibodies also showed enhanced expression of PCNA and disappearance of SM?-actin from day 1 to day 7. Taken together, the above results supported a novel mechanism that the components of store-operated calcium channels, TRPC1 and STIM1 mediated the Ca(2+) influx and phenotypic switching in smooth muscle cells, which promoted the development of vasospasm after SAH. TRPC3, which is a component of receptor-operated calcium channels, was not involved in the above-mentioned mechanism. PMID:23542055

Song, Jin-Ning; Yan, Wen-Tao; An, Ji-Yang; Hao, Guang-Shan; Guo, Xiao-Ye; Zhang, Ming; Li, Yu; Li, Dan-Dong; Sun, Peng

2013-06-23

236

Feasibility and methodology of optical coherence tomography imaging of human intracranial aneurysms: ex vivo pilot study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rupture of intracranial aneurysm is a common cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. An aneurysm may undergo microscopic morphological changes or remodeling of the vessel wall prior to rupture, which could potentially be imaged. In this study we present methods of tissue sample preparation of intracranial aneurysms and correlation between optical coherence tomography imaging and routine histology. OCT has a potential future in the assessment of microscopic features of aneurysms, which may correlate to the risk of rupture.

Vuong, Barry; Sun, Cuiru; Khiel, Tim-Rasmus; Gardecki, Joseph A.; Standish, Beau A.; da Costa, Leodante; de Morais, Josaphat; Tearney, Guillermo J.; Yang, Victor X. D.

2012-02-01

237

Gene Expression during the Development of Experimentally Induced Cerebral Aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral aneurysms are a major cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage, but the mechanism of their development remains unclear. In this study, we investigated candidate genes whose expression is significantly changed during the development of experimentally induced cerebral aneurysms using adaptor-tagged competitive polymerase chain reaction (ATAC-PCR). Twenty-four rats received sham operation (control) or the operation for the induction of experimental cerebral aneurysms.

Nobutake Sadamasa; Kazuhiko Nozaki; Hiroko Kita-Matsuo; Sakae Saito; Takuya Moriwaki; Tomohiro Aoki; Satoshi Kawarazaki; Hiroharu Kataoka; Yasushi Takagi; Masatsune Ishikawa; Nobuo Hashimoto; Kikuya Kato

2008-01-01

238

Coil Embolization of Ruptured Thrombosed Distal Superior Cerebellar Artery Aneurysm: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Distal thrombosed aneurysm of the superior cerebellar artery (SCA) is extremely rare and is often associated with cerebellar infarction or subarachnoid hemorrhage. We report herein on a case involving a patient with a ruptured thrombosed distal SCA aneurysm which was treated successfully through the endovascular approach.

Kang, Min-Cheol; Noh, Seong-Jin; Choi, Hak-Gi; Ghang, Chang-Gu

2012-01-01

239

The effect of window rooms on critically ill patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage admitted to intensive care  

PubMed Central

Introduction Clinicians and specialty societies often emphasize the potential importance of natural light for quality care of critically ill patients, but few studies have examined patient outcomes associated with exposure to natural light. We hypothesized that receiving care in an intensive care unit (ICU) room with a window might improve outcomes for critically ill patients with acute brain injury. Methods This was a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study. Seven ICU rooms had windows, and five ICU rooms did not. Admission to a room was based solely on availability. We analyzed data from 789 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) admitted to the neurological ICU at our hospital from August 1997 to April 2006. Patient information was recorded prospectively at the time of admission, and patients were followed up to 1 year to assess mortality and functional status, stratified by whether care was received in an ICU room with a window. Results Of 789 SAH patients, 455 (57.7%) received care in a window room and 334 (42.3%) received care in a nonwindow room. The two groups were balanced with regard to all patient and clinical characteristics. There was no statistical difference in modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at hospital discharge, 3 months or 1 year (44.8% with mRS scores of 0 to 3 with window rooms at hospital discharge versus 47.2% with the same scores in nonwindow rooms at hospital discharge; adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.01, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.67 to 1.50, P = 0.98; 62.7% versus 63.8% at 3 months, aOR 0.85, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.26, P = 0.42; 73.6% versus 72.5% at 1 year, aOR 0.78, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.19, P = 0.25). There were also no differences in any secondary outcomes, including length of mechanical ventilation, time until the patient was able to follow commands in the ICU, need for percutaneous gastrostomy tube or tracheotomy, ICU and hospital length of stay, and hospital, 3-month and 1-year mortality. Conclusions The presence of a window in an ICU room did not improve outcomes for critically ill patients with SAH admitted to the ICU. Further studies are needed to determine whether other groups of critically ill patients, particularly those without acute brain injury, derive benefit from natural light.

2011-01-01

240

Analysis of subarachnoid hemorrhage using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample: the NIS-SAH Severity Score and Outcome Measure.  

PubMed

Object Studies using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), a large ICD-9-based (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision) administrative database, to analyze aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have been limited by an inability to control for SAH severity and the use of unverified outcome measures. To address these limitations, the authors developed and validated a surrogate marker for SAH severity, the NIS-SAH Severity Score (NIS-SSS; akin to Hunt and Hess [HH] grade), and a dichotomous measure of SAH outcome, the NIS-SAH Outcome Measure (NIS-SOM; akin to modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score). Methods Three separate and distinct patient cohorts were used to define and then validate the NIS-SSS and NIS-SOM. A cohort (n = 148,958, the "model population") derived from the 1998-2009 NIS was used for developing the NIS-SSS and NIS-SOM models. Diagnoses most likely reflective of SAH severity were entered into a regression model predicting poor outcome; model coefficients of significant factors were used to generate the NIS-SSS. Nationwide Inpatient Sample codes most likely to reflect a poor outcome (for example, discharge disposition, tracheostomy) were used to create the NIS-SOM. Data from 716 patients with SAH (the "validation population") treated at the authors' institution were used to validate the NIS-SSS and NIS-SOM against HH grade and mRS score, respectively. Lastly, 147,395 patients (the "assessment population") from the 1998-2009 NIS, independent of the model population, were used to assess performance of the NIS-SSS in predicting outcome. The ability of the NIS-SSS to predict outcome was compared with other common measures of disease severity (All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Group [APR-DRG], All Payer Severity-adjusted DRG [APS-DRG], and DRG). Results The NIS-SSS significantly correlated with HH grade, and there was no statistical difference between the abilities of the NIS-SSS and HH grade to predict mRS-based outcomes. As compared with the APR-DRG, APSDRG, and DRG, the NIS-SSS was more accurate in predicting SAH outcome (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.69, 0.71, 0.71, and 0.79, respectively). A strong correlation between NIS-SOM and mRS was found, with an agreement and kappa statistic of 85% and 0.63, respectively, when poor outcome was defined by an mRS score > 2 and 95% and 0.84 when poor outcome was defined by an mRS score > 3. Conclusions Data in this study indicate that in the analysis of NIS data sets, the NIS-SSS is a valid measure of SAH severity that outperforms previous measures of disease severity and that the NIS-SOM is a valid measure of SAH outcome. It is critically important that outcomes research in SAH using administrative data sets incorporate the NIS-SSS and NIS-SOM to adjust for neurology-specific disease severity. PMID:24949676

Washington, Chad W; Derdeyn, Colin P; Dacey, Ralph G; Dhar, Rajat; Zipfel, Gregory J

2014-08-01

241

Spectrophotometric Quantification of Bilirubin in Hemorrhagic Spinal Fluid using an Innovative Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annually, approximately 30,000 people suffer from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in the United States. In an estimated 5% of these patients, the hemorrhage is difficult to diagnose using conventional methods. Clini- cians must rely upon a combination of clinical history, Computerized Tomography (CT) scan evidence and lumbar punc- ture results to diagnose and differentiate SAH from a traumatic spinal tap

Prashant R. Bhadri; Vasant A. Salgaonkar; Gail J. Pyne-Geithman; James J. Caffery Jr; Rakesh Shukla; Fred R. Beyette Jr; Joseph F. Clark

2007-01-01

242

Reduction in oxidative stress by superoxide dismutase overexpression attenuates acute brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage via activation of Akt\\/glycogen synthase kinase-3? survival signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have revealed that oxidative stress has detrimental effects in several models of neurodegenerative diseases, including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, how oxidative stress affects acute brain injury after SAH remains unknown. We have previously reported that overexpression of copper\\/zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) reduces oxidative stress and subsequent neuronal injury after cerebral ischemia. In this study, we investigated the relationship between

Hidenori Endo; Chikako Nito; Hiroshi Kamada; Fengshan Yu; Pak H Chan

2007-01-01

243

Coil Embolization of Intracranial Aneurysm in Polyarteritis Nodosa  

PubMed Central

Summary Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a rare multisystem disease characterized by systemic necrotizing arteritis of small and medium size arteries. The skin, joints, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract and peripheral nerves are most commonly involved. Although aneurysms are commonly seen in the visceral vessels, intracranial aneurysms are rare with 15 reported cases. The intracranial aneurysms are usually multiple and located in supra- as well as infra-tentorial compartments. Most of the cases presented with subarachnoid or parenchymal hemorrhage. The aneurysms were usually small, although large cavernous aneurysms were reported in one case. Treatment guidelines are not clear regarding the management of these cases. Most patients were treated conservatively by medical management with surgical excision performed in only two cases and coiling done in one patient with cavernous aneurysms. Repeat hemorrhages or re-bleed in spite of medical treatment have also been reported. We describe the case of a 22-year-old woman, a known case of PAN who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral angiogram showed a ruptured right middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysm along with unruptured left middle cerebral, right posterior communicating and left posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms. Her previous abdominal angiogram had revealed multiple aneurysms in visceral arteries. Successful coil embolization of the ruptured right MCA bifurcation aneurysm was performed with preservation of the parent vessel. The patient made a complete recovery and was placed on medical treatment for PAN. Follow-up MR angiography at three months revealed stable occlusion of the embolized aneurysm with no change in the unruptured aneurysms. Although rare, PAN can be associated with intracranial aneurysms which can cause subarachnoid or parenchymal hemorrhage. Selected cases can be treated safely by coil embolization.

Gupta, V.; Chinchure, S.D.; Goel, G.; Jha, A.N.; Malviya, S.; Gupta, R.

2013-01-01

244

Minimally Invasive Management of a Traumatic Artery Aneurysm Resulting from Shaken Baby Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on our review of the literature, we present the first use of coiling in an infant with a traumatic artery aneurysm that resulted from shaken baby syndrome. Computed tomography (CT) scans showed a skull fracture, hemorrhagic subdural collections, multiple parenchymal contusions, and intraventricular and subarachnoid hemorrhages in a 3-week-old infant who presented with lethargy, poor feeding, and seizure. These

Nicholas B. Levine; Tomoko Tanaka; Blaise V. Jones; Kerry R. Crone

2004-01-01

245

The lumbar sedimentation sign: spinal MRI findings in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage with no demonstrable intracranial aneurysm  

PubMed Central

We present a new MRI finding within the lumbar spine in a series of six patients admitted with CT proven subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) where cerebral angiography demonstrated no aneurysm and who had not had a lumbar puncture. A retrospective audit of 130 patients presenting to a regional neurosciences centre over a 13 month period with a suspected diagnosis of SAH was performed. Seven patients with proven SAH underwent MRI of the lumbar spine during the same admission. In six of these patients layering of haemorrhagic blood products was demonstrated within the lumbosacral spine. The process is analogous to the previously ubiquitous bedside erythrocyte sedimentation rate assay and has has been termed the “lumbar sedimentation” sign. This finding has not previously been reported in the literature in relation to SAH. While this is a small unselected group it may provide a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of SAH.

Crossley, R A; Raza, A; Adams, W M

2011-01-01

246

Aneurysms  

MedlinePLUS

... deposited in the wall of an aneurysm. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Abdominal aortic aneurysms are aneurysms that occur in ... ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are always fatal. Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms Thoracic aortic aneurysms are aneurysms in the part ...

247

Increase ICAM-1 and LFA-1 expression by cerebrospinal fluid of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients: involvement of TNF-?.  

PubMed

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a frequent occurrence in cerebrovascular accidents, and inflammation occurs in the subarachnoid space after SAH. Arachnoid cells have the capability to present antigens and active T-lymphocytes after stimulation by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, the effect of CSF on T-lymphocytes and arachnoid cell adhesion was not clearly understood. In this study, we used ELISA to detected tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) content in CSF of SAH patients. CSF or recombinant TNF-? were applied on arachnoid cells and T-lymphoctes, and RT-PCR and western blotting were performed to determine the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in arachnoid cells and Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1 (LFA-1) in T-lymphocytes, respectively. Meanwhile, the Matrix Metal Proteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in these cells was also determined. We found that the content of TNF-? in the CSF was significantly increased in the CSF of SAH patients (from 22 ± 8 pg/mL of healthy people to 436-450 pg/mL of SAH patients). Treatement with CSF could increase the expression of ICAM-1 in arachnoid cells and that of LFA-1 in T-lymphocytes, mainly through the increased levels of TNF-?. We also found that the co-culture of arachnoid cells and T-lymphocytes increased the expression of MMP-9 in both cells through the interaction of ICAM-1 of and LFA-1. All of these results suggested that arachnoid cells are involved in the T-lymphocytes invasion in the subarachnoid space after SAH. PMID:23548604

Xie, Xin; Wu, Xiaokang; Cui, Jihong; Li, Hongmin; Yan, Xingrong

2013-05-28

248

Global emergency medicine journal club: social media responses to the january 2014 online emergency medicine journal club on subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

From January 20 to 24, 2014, Annals continued a successful collaboration with an academic Web site, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM), to host another Global Emergency Medicine Journal Club session featuring the 2013 Journal of the American Medical Association article "Clinical Decision Rules to Rule Out Subarachnoid Hemorrhage for Acute Headache" by Perry et al. This online journal club used the power of rapid Twitter conversations, a live videocast with the authors, and more detailed discussions hosted on the ALiEM Web site's comment section. There were more than 1,431 individuals from 501 cities in 59 countries who viewed the blog post. During this 5-day event, 28 comments (average word count 153 words) and 206 tweets were made. This summary article details the community discussion, shared insights, and analytic data generated during this novel, multiplatform approach. PMID:24951414

Chan, Teresa M; Rosenberg, Hans; Lin, Michelle

2014-07-01

249

Spontaneous multiple arterial dissections presenting with renal infarction and subarachnoid hemorrhage in a patient under treatment for infertility.  

PubMed

A 36-year-old woman developed multiple spontaneous arterial dissections in both renal arteries, the carotid artery, superior mesenteric artery, and vertebral artery, but not the aorta, and she suffered a renal infarction and subarachnoid hemorrhage within a short period of time. She had been undergoing frequent injections of human chorionic gonadotropin and human menopausal gonadotropin, together with oral estrogen therapy, during a 5-year infertility treatment regimen. As she had no other history of any disorder affecting the arterial walls, this therapy is suspected to have caused the multiple arterial deformities. Although cases of isolated arterial dissection are occasionally reported, it is rare for multiple dissections and serious symptoms to occur simultaneously. PMID:15731548

Wakino, Shu; Tawarahara, Kei; Tsuchiya, Naoto; Kurosawa, Yoshitomo; Sugihara, Tatsuo; Ando, Koushi

2005-03-01

250

Mirror aneurysms: a reflection on natural history  

PubMed Central

Object Investigators conducting the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms, sponsored by the National Institutes of Health, sought to evaluate predictors of future hemorrhage in patients who had unruptured mirror aneurysms. These paired aneurysms in bilateral arterial positions mirror each other; their natural history is unknown. Methods Centers in the US, Canada, and Europe enrolled patients for prospective assessment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Central radiological review confirmed the presence or absence of mirror aneurysms in patients without a history of prior subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) (Group 1). Outcome at 1 and 5 years and aneurysm characteristics are compared. Results Of 3120 patients with aneurysms treated in 61 centers, 376 (12%) had mirror aneurysms, which are more common in women than men (82% [n = 308] vs 73% [n = 1992], respectively; p < 0.001) and in patients with a family history of aneurysm or SAH (p < 0.001). Compared with patients with nonmirror saccular aneurysms, a greater percentage of patients with mirror aneurysms had larger (> 10 mm) aneurysms (mean maximum diameter 11.7 vs 10.4 mm, respectively; p < 0.001). The most common distribution for mirror aneurysms was the middle cerebral artery (34% [126 patients]) followed by noncavernous internal carotid artery (32% [121]), posterior communicating artery (16% [60]), cavernous internal carotid artery (13% [48]), anterior cerebral artery/anterior communicating artery (3% [13]), and vertebrobasilar circulation (2% [8]). When these patients were compared with patients without mirror aneurysms, no statistically significant differences were found in age (mean age 54 years in both groups), blood pressure, smoking history, or cardiac disease. Aneurysm rupture rates were similar (3.0% for patients with mirror aneurysms vs 2.8% for those without). Conclusions Overall, patients with mirror aneurysms were more likely to be women, to report a family history of aneurysmal SAH, and to have larger aneurysms. The presence of a mirror aneurysm was not an independent predictor of future SAHs.

Meissner, Irene; Torner, James; Huston, John; Rajput, Michele L.; Wiebers, David O.; Jones, Lyell K.; Brown, Robert D.

2014-01-01

251

Initial hyperglycemia as an indicator of severity of the ictus in poor-grade patients with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

An association between hyperglycemia and outcome in spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has been sporadically reported. Our hypothesis was that hyperglycemia is a sign of central metabolic disturbance linked with specific appearances on computerized tomography (CT) scans reflecting different degrees of corresponding brain injury. The admission plasma glucose level, initial CT findings, and outcome after 6 months were analysed in a cohort of 99 patients with SAH in Hunt & Hess Grade IV or V. The CT scans were quantitatively assessed for subarachnoid blood, intracerebral hematoma, intraventricular hemorrhage, hydrocephalus, midline shift and compression of the perimesencephalic cisterns. These findings were combined to determine a three-point CT severity score. All patients showed elevated (>5.8 mmol/l) plasma glucose levels on admission. Mortality among 33 patients with glucose concentration below 9.0 mmol/l was 33.3%, 71.1% for the 45 patients with glucose level between 9.0 and 13.0 mmol/l, and 95.2% for the 21 patients with concentration above 13.0 mmol/l (P<0.0001). Glucose level was higher in Grade V than in Grade IV patients (mean+/-SD) (11.8+/-3.2 vs 9.8+/-2.9 mmol/l; P=0.0012). Patients with mild CT findings (n=10) had the lowest glucose level (8.9+/-1.8 mmol/l; P=0.0082), whereas patients with severe findings (n=56) had the highest glucose (11.4+/-3.5 mmol/l; P=0.011). Despite association with clinical grade and extent of CT findings, logistic multiple regression revealed the admission plasma glucose level to be an independent prognosticator of outcome. The prognostic potential of the initial plasma glucose level may be beneficial in management protocols of poor-grade SAH patients. PMID:10817893

Alberti, O; Becker, R; Benes, L; Wallenfang, T; Bertalanffy, H

2000-06-01

252

An asymmetrical fenestration of the basilar artery coexisting with two aneurysms in a patient with subarachnoid haemorrhage: case report and review of the literature.  

PubMed

The vertebrobasilar system is a part of the cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis), which forms the collateral circulation of the brain. A 75-year-old Caucasian female was admitted to hospital because of a strong headache radiating to the neck. On the basis of a neurological examination, the patient was classified into group III of the Hunt and Hess scale. Subarachnoid haemorrhage and 2 aneurysms of the cerebral arteries were diagnosed during multidetector 64-row computed tomography and angiography. An asymmetrical fenestration of the proximal part of the basilar artery was also observed. The bleeding aneurysm locating at anterior communicating artery was diagnosed and clipped surgically by right fronto-parietal craniotomy. The second aneurysm was located just after the junction of the vertebral arteries on the wall of the basilar artery. The presented case firstly illustrates the asymmetric fenestration of the proximal part of the basilar artery coexisting with subarachnoid haemorrhage and 2 aneurysms of brain arteries. Such observation should increase diagnostic attention in the detection of possible associated aneurysms and can help in preventing complications during all endovascular treatment procedures. PMID:24902104

Polguj, M; Majos, M; Topol, M; Majos, A

2014-05-01

253

Reconstruction of the MCA bifurcation after excision of a giant aneurysm. Technical note.  

PubMed

A patient with a giant aneurysm of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) presented with a history of subarachnoid hemorrhage and ischemic symptoms. When the aneurysm was explored, its base was found to be very firm and atherosclerotic. Temporary clips were applied to the MCA, the aneurysm was excised, and the MCA bifurcation was reconstructed using microsurgical techniques. Good flow in the reconstructed MCA trunk was demonstrated by intracranial Doppler ultrasonography. A description of the operative procedure is presented. PMID:3373294

Bojanowski, W M; Spetzler, R F; Carter, L P

1988-06-01

254

Low risk for subsequent subarachnoid hemorrhage for emergency department patients with headache, bloody cerebrospinal fluid, and negative findings on cerebrovascular imaging.  

PubMed

Object When patients present to the emergency department (ED) with acute headache concerning for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and a lumbar puncture (LP) shows blood in the CSF, it is difficult to distinguish the results of a traumatic LP from those of SAH. CT angiography (CTA) is often performed, but the long-term outcome for patients with a positive LP and normal neurovascular imaging remains uncertain. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether patients who presented to the ED with acute headache and had red blood cells (RBCs) in their CSF on LP but negative cerebrovascular imaging suffered subsequent SAH. Methods A case series study of consecutive adult ED patients who incurred charges for LP between 2001 and 2009 was performed from 2010 through 2011. Inclusion criteria were: headache, > 5 RBCs/mm(3) in CSF, noncontrast head CT with no evidence of hemorrhage, and cerebrovascular CTA or MRA without aneurysm or vascular lesion within 2 weeks of the ED visit. Patients with less than 6 months of available follow-up were excluded. The primary outcomes were 1) subsequent nontraumatic SAH and 2) new vascular lesion. Secondary outcomes were complications related to SAH, or LP or angiography. Results Of 4641 ED patients billed for an LP, 181 patients (mean age 42 years) were included in this study. Over a median follow-up of 53 months, 0 (0%) of 181 patients (95% CI 0%-2.0%) had a subsequent SAH or new vascular lesion identified. Although not the primary outcome, there was 1 patient who was ultimately diagnosed with vasculitis. Eighteen (9.9%) of 181 patients (95% CI 6.0%-15.3%) had an LP-related complication and 0 (0%) of 181 patients (95% CI 0%-2.0%) had an angiography-related complication. Conclusions Patients who present to the ED with acute headache concerning for SAH and have a finding of bloody CSF on LP but negative findings on cerebrovascular imaging are at low risk for subsequent SAH and thus are likely to be safe for discharge. Replacement of the CT/LP with a CT/CTA diagnostic algorithm merits further investigation. PMID:24745707

Thomas, Lisa E; Czuczman, Amanda D; Boulanger, Alyson B; Peak, David A; Miller, Emily S; Brown, David F M; Marill, Keith A

2014-07-01

255

Intracerebral hemorrhage cause by a ruptured oncotic aneurysm from choriocarcinoma metastasis  

PubMed Central

Ruptured oncotic aneurysms from choriocarcioma metastasis are very rare. One rare case of metastatic cerebral choriocarcioma with an initial presentation of intracerebral hemorrhage is reported. A 25-year-old woman initially presented with sudden onset of alteration of consciousness. The computed tomography scan showed left parietal hematoma and CT angiography showed a small aneurysm of the left middle cerebral arteries territories. Her chest X-ray showed two lung masses. A craniectomy was performed to remove the hematoma and decompression following the aneurysm excision. After surgery the patient regained consciousness and had no neurological deficit. The pathology reported metastatic choriocarcioma and her beta – HCG was 73,656 units. After recovery she received chemotherapy with an etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, and vincristine/oncovine (EMA-CO) regimen.

Wanarak, Watcharasaksilp; Songkiet, Suwansirikul

2013-01-01

256

Effect of oral nimodipine on cerebral infarction and outcome after subarachnoid haemorrhage: British aneurysm nimodipine trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine the efficacy of oral nimodipine in reducing cerebral infarction and poor outcomes (death and severe disability) after subarachnoid haemorrhage. DESIGN--Double blind, placebo controlled, randomised trial with three months of follow up and intention to treat analysis. To have an 80% chance with a significance level of 0.05 of detecting a 50% reduction in an incidence of cerebral infarction

J. D. Pickard; G. D. Murray; R. Illingworth; M. D. Shaw; G. M. Teasdale; P. M. Foy; P. R. Humphrey; D. A. Lang; R. Nelson; P. Richards

1989-01-01

257

Controversies in the surgical treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms: the First Annual J. Lawrence Pool Memorial Research Symposium--controversies in the management of cerebral aneurysms.  

PubMed

The management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage has evolved over time, including the use of the microscope for aneurysm clip application, improved imaging modalities, endovascular methods for aneurysm treatment, dedicated neurointensive care units, and more aggressive therapy for cerebral vasospasm. Although these advancements have reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, outcomes for this patient population continue to leave much room for improvement. This work highlights controversial adjuvant techniques, maneuvers, and therapies surrounding the surgical treatment of ruptured cerebral aneurysms that currently lack a consensus opinion. These treatments include centralized care in high-volume centers, as well as the use of antifibrinolytic therapy, routine cerebrospinal fluid diversion, intraoperative hypothermia, temporary clip application, neuroprotective drugs, intraoperative angiography, and decompressive hemicraniectomy. Although definitive answers will only be possible through future multicenter collaboration, we review the controversy surrounding these adjuncts and report the consensus opinion from a highly experienced audience. PMID:18382317

Komotar, Ricardo J; Zacharia, Brad E; Mocco, J; Connolly, E Sander

2008-02-01

258

Inflammatory changes in the aneurysm wall: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rupture of a saccular intracranial artery aneurysm (IA) causes subarachnoid hemorrhage, a significant cause of stroke and death. The current treatment options, endovascular coiling and clipping, are invasive and somewhat risky. Since only some IAs rupture, those IAs at risk for rupture should be identified. However, to improve the imaging of rupture-prone IAs and improve IA treatment, IA wall pathobiology

Riikka Tulamo; Juhana Frösen; Juha Hernesniemi; Mika Niemelä

2010-01-01

259

High-volume hemofiltration and prone ventilation in subarachnoid hemorrhage complicated by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and refractory septic shock  

PubMed Central

We report the successful treatment of two patients with aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage complicated by severe respiratory failure and refractory septic shock using simultaneous prone position ventilation and high-volume hemofiltration. These rescue therapies allowed the patients to overcome the critical situation without associated complications and with no detrimental effects on the intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures. Prone position ventilation is now an accepted therapy for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, and high-volume hemofiltration is a non-conventional hemodynamic support that has several potential mechanisms for improving septic shock. In this manuscript, we briefly review these therapies and the related evidence. When other conventional treatments are insufficient for providing safe limits of oxygenation and perfusion as part of basic neuroprotective care in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients, these rescue therapies should be considered on a case-by-case basis by an experienced critical care team.

Cornejo, Rodrigo; Romero, Carlos; Ugalde, Diego; Bustos, Patricio; Diaz, Gonzalo; Galvez, Ricardo; Llanos, Osvaldo; Tobar, Eduardo

2014-01-01

260

Recurrent Meningitis and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Due to Salmonella in an HIV+ Patient: Case Report and Mini-Review of the Literature.  

PubMed

Meningitis due to non-typhi salmonella is infrequent in HIV-positive adults.We report a case of a patient with >300 CD4+ cells/mm3 who presented with five episodes of recurrent meningitis, focal subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral vasculitis ultimately attributed to Salmonella choleraesuis infection. Even within the cART era invasive salmonellosis can occur in unusual ways in HIV-infected patients. PMID:21772932

Belloso, Waldo H; Romano, Marina; Greco, Graciela S; Davey, Richard T; Perelsztein, Ariel G; Sánchez, Marisa L; Ajzenszlos, Martín R; Otegui, Inés M

2011-01-01

261

Cortical petechial hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage and corticosteroid-responsive leukoencephalopathy in a patient with cerebral amyloid angiopathy.  

PubMed

We describe a 69-year-old woman who developed subacute onset cognitive decline after hitting the left side of her head. Cerebral spinal fluid showed yellowish discoloration with highly elevated protein content. FLAIR MRI revealed diffuse high signal intensity in all cortical sulci, and leptomeningeal enhancement in the left cerebral hemisphere was seen in the T1 image after contrast administration. She was treated with a corticosteroid. Consciousness disturbance was temporarily relieved but again worsened, resulting in an apathetic state due to communicating hydrocephalus. A shunt tube was placed in her right lateral ventricle. A brain biopsy disclosed multiple cortical microbleeds and heavy deposition of Abeta-immuoreactive amyloid on vascular walls. Inflammatory mononuclear cells surrounded a few leptomeningeal vessels. After the operation her condition further deteriorated and she fell into a coma. MRI showed diffuse swelling of the right cerebral white matter. She again received high-dose corticosteroid and gradually recovered during the following 2 months. On MRI the vast majority of abnormal signals in the right cerebral white matter disappeared. An initial manifestation of this patient was possibly caused by multiple microhemorrhages from fragile cortical and subarachnoid vessels with Abeta-amyloid deposition, which was triggered by head trauma. CAA-related inflammation possibly worsened this condition. Additionally, surgical intervention for communicating hydrocephalus might have induced cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)-related leukoencephalopathy in her right cerebral hemisphere. These CAA-derived manifestations are unusual and high-dose corticosteroids seems to be useful for vascular events in CAA patients. PMID:18266123

Machida, Kazuko; Tojo, Kana; Naito, Ko-Suke; Gono, Takahisa; Nakata, Yoshikazu; Ikeda, Shu-Ichi

2008-03-01

262

Cerebral aneurysm presenting with aseptic meningitis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction This case highlights the potential importance of new-onset headache, even in the absence of other worrisome features, in a patient with a cerebral aneurysm. Case presentation A 61-year-old Caucasian woman presented with nonspecific insidious onset of headache, a superior cerebellar artery aneurysm and cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis. She had a subarachnoid hemorrhage 21 days later, at which time the aneurysm had enlarged. The aneurysm was repaired endovascularly and the patient recovered with a modified Rankin score of 1. Conclusions This case suggests that new onset of chronic headache in a patient with an unruptured aneurysm may be due to aneurysm growth and can be associated with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis. Headaches are common and may occur incidentally in patients with cerebral aneurysms, but new-onset headache, even if mild, should prompt consideration for timely aneurysm repair.

2013-01-01

263

Successful treatment of growing basilar artery dissecting aneurysm by pipeline flow diversion embolization device.  

PubMed

We describe a case of successful management of a growing basilar artery dissecting aneurysm by the Pipeline flow diversion embolization device (PED). A 48-year-old woman presented with severe headache, neck pain, and altered consciousness. Computed tomography showed subarachnoid hemorrhage located in basal cisterns, with a pontine infarct shown on magnetic resonance imaging. Digital subtraction angiography showed dissecting aneurysm of the trunk of the basilar artery, with growth over time on repeated imaging. Repeated imaging demonstrated growth in size of the aneurysm. The aneurysm was treated with PED with complete obliteration of the basilar artery aneurysm. Subsequent follow-up demonstrated good clinical recovery. PMID:24389375

Gong, Dasen; Yan, Bernard; Dowling, Richard; Mitchell, Peter

2014-07-01

264

Transcranial Doppler sonography. An alternative to angiography in the evaluation of vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

With transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) the blood flow velocity (FV) in the basal cerebral arteries can be measured non-invasively. Vasospasm produces an increase of the FV in the narrowed arterial segment which can be evaluated by TCD. A clear correlation between the diameter of the artery and the increase in FV could be demonstrated in the middle cerebral artery. Vasospasm can be detected by TCD non-invasively and angiography can be avoided during the critical phase. The time course of vasospasm can be followed by TCD instead of repeated angiographies, enabling an optimal timing of aneurysm surgery. PMID:2980624

Seiler, R; Grolimund, P; Huber, P

1986-01-01

265

Cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage: time for a new world of thought  

PubMed Central

Objective Delayed cerebral vasospasm has long been recognized as an important cause of poor outcome after an otherwise successful treatment of a ruptured intracranial aneurysm, but it remains a pathophysiological enigma despite intensive research for more than half a century. Method Summarized in this review are highlights of research from North America, Europe and Asia reflecting recent advances in the understanding of delayed ischemic deficit. Result It will focus on current accepted mechanisms and on new frontiers in vasospasm research. Conclusion A key issue is the recognition of events other than arterial narrowing such as early brain injury and cortical spreading depression and of their contribution to overall mortality and morbidity.

Pluta, Ryszard M.; Hansen-Schwartz, Jacob; Dreier, Jens; Vajkoczy, Peter; Macdonald, R. Loch; Nishizawa, Shigeru; Kasuya, Hideotoshi; Wellman, George; Keller, Emanuela; Zauner, Alois; Dorsch, Nicholas; Clark, Joseph; Ono, Shigeki; Kiris, Talat; LeRoux, Peter; Zhang, John H.

2009-01-01

266

Expression and cell distribution of neuroglobin in the brain tissue after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a member of the globin superfamily expressed mainly in the nervous system and retina of vertebrates. Accumulated evidence has clearly demonstrated that Ngb has a neuro-protective role enhancing cell viability under hypoxia and other types of oxidative stress. It was suggested that oxidant stress could play an important role in neuronal injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The present study aims to examine the expression of Ngb in the temporal cortex and its cellular localization after SAH. We used a prechiasmatic cistern model of SAH. Ngb expression was examined at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after SAH by western blot analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were performed to detect the localization of Ngb. Real-time PCR demonstrated that Ngb mRNA levels increased from 3 h after SAH, peaked at 6 h. Western blot showed Ngb protein levels were significantly increased in SAH groups in the temporal cortex and reached the peak at 24 h after SAH. The immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that Ngb was weakly expressed in the cortex in the control group while the enhanced expression of Ngb could be detected in the SAH groups. In addition, immunofluorescence results revealed that the over-expressed Ngb was located in the neuronal and microglia cell cytoplasm. These findings indicated that Ngb might play an important neuro-protective effect after SAH. PMID:24281943

Li, Wei-De; Sun, Qing; Zhang, Xiang-Sheng; Wang, Chun-Xi; Li, Song; Li, Wei; Hang, Chun-Hua

2014-03-01

267

Genetic elimination of Nrf2 aggravates secondary complications except for vasospasm after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in mice.  

PubMed

Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key endogenous protective regulator in the body. This study aimed to explore the role of Nrf2 in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced secondary complications. Wild type (WT) and Nrf2 knockout (KO) mice were subjected to experimental SAH by injecting fresh autologous blood into pre-chiasmatic cistern. The absence of Nrf2 function in mice resulted in exacerbated brain injury with increased brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, neural apoptosis, and severe neurological deficits at 24h after SAH. Moreover, cerebral vasospasm was severe at 24h after SAH, but not significantly different between WT and Nrf2 KO mice after SAH. Meanwhile, Molondialdehyde (MDA) was increased and GSH/GSSG ratio was decreased in Nrf2 KO mice after SAH. Furthermore, higher expression of TNF-? and IL-1? was also found after SAH in Nrf2 KO mice. In conclusion, our results revealed that Nrf2 plays an important role in attenuating SAH-induced secondary complications by regulating excessive oxidative stress and inflammatory response. PMID:24576487

Li, Tao; Wang, Handong; Ding, Yu; Zhou, Mengliang; Zhou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Xiangshen; Ding, Ke; He, Jin; Lu, Xinyu; Xu, Jianguo; Wei, Wuting

2014-04-16

268

Prevention of cerebral vasospasm by vasodilatory peptide maxadilan following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rabbits.  

PubMed

Maxadilan is a vasodilatory peptide isolated from the blood-feeding sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Its vasodilatory activity, estimated by the formation of erythema on rabbit skin, is greater than those of calcitonin gene-related peptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP). We have recently demonstrated that maxadilan is a specific agonist for the PACAP type I receptor, which is widely distributed in brain. Therefore, we were interested in the vasodilatory effect of maxadilan on cerebral arteries and the possibility of its clinical use for the delayed cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid (SAH). In the first experiment, 10(-10) mol/kg of maxadilan (in sterile water) was injected into the cisterna magna three days after the induction of experimental SAH in rabbits (n = 6). Maxadilan dilated spastic basilar arteries within 30 min of the injection, but not at 6 h. In the second experiment, to prolong the vasodilatory effect of maxadilan, tablets containing stearic acid, hydrogenated oil, lactose, hydroxypropylcellulose and 15 mg of maxadilan were prepared. In vitro testing showed that 60% of maxadilan could be released slowly within the initial five days. In vivo experiments were performed to implant the maxadilan tablet (n = 7) and the placebo tablet (n = 6) into the cisterna magna after the induction of experimental SAH in rabbits. The spastic response of the basilar artery was maximum on day three in the placebo-treated groups. In contrast, we observed no significant change in the arterial diameter until day five in the rabbits treated with maxadilan tablet. These data suggest that maxadilan may have therapeutic potency in treating cerebral vasospasm. PMID:9685937

Kaminuma, T; Shimizu, H; Ahmad, I; Ochiai, N; Ehama, R; Ohnuma, M; Banba, T; Watabe, K; Lerner, E A; Imaizumi, S; Tajima, M; Yoshimoto, T

1998-03-01

269

Basilar Artery Aneurysm at a Persistent Trigeminal Artery Junction  

PubMed Central

Summary The trigeminal artery is an anastomosis between the embryonic precursors of the vertebrobasilar and carotid systems, and may persist into adult life. The association of the persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PTA) with cerebral aneurysm is well documented in the literature and, in general, aneurysms are located in the anterior circulation. We describe a patient who presented with a panencephalic Fisher III subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of an intracranial aneurysm. Digital arteriography showed a saccular aneurysm in the middle third of the basilar artery, adjacent to the junction with a persistent trigeminal artery. She was submitted to endovascular treatment with embolization of the basilar artery aneurysm with coils. Aneurysms at the PTA junction with the basilar artery are rare. This paper describes a case of PTA associated with an aneurysm in the basilar artery at PTA junction and briefly reviews the literature.

Aguiar, G.B.; Conti, M.L.M.; Veiga, J.C.E.; Jory, M.; Souza, R.B.

2011-01-01

270

Coil Embolization for Intracranial Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective To determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of coil embolization compared with surgical clipping to treat intracranial aneurysms. The Technology Endovascular coil embolization is a percutaneous approach to treat an intracranial aneurysm from within the blood vessel without the need of a craniotomy. In this procedure, a microcatheter is inserted into the femoral artery near the groin and navigated to the site of the aneurysm. Small helical platinum coils are deployed through the microcatheter to fill the aneurysm, and prevent it from further expansion and rupture. Health Canada has approved numerous types of coils and coil delivery systems to treat intracranial aneurysms. The most favoured are controlled detachable coils. Coil embolization may be used with other adjunct endovascular devices such as stents and balloons. Background Intracranial Aneurysms Intracranial aneurysms are the dilation or ballooning of part of a blood vessel in the brain. Intracranial aneurysms range in size from small (<12 mm in diameter) to large (12–25 mm), and to giant (>25 mm). There are 3 main types of aneurysms. Fusiform aneurysms involve the entire circumference of the artery; saccular aneurysms have outpouchings; and dissecting aneurysms have tears in the arterial wall. Berry aneurysms are saccular aneurysms with well-defined necks. Intracranial aneurysms may occur in any blood vessel of the brain; however, they are most commonly found at the branch points of large arteries that form the circle of Willis at the base of the brain. In 85% to 95% of patients, they are found in the anterior circulation. Aneurysms in the posterior circulation are less frequent, and are more difficult to treat surgically due to inaccessibility. Most intracranial aneurysms are small and asymptomatic. Large aneurysms may have a mass effect, causing compression on the brain and cranial nerves and neurological deficits. When an intracranial aneurysm ruptures and bleeds, resulting in a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the mortality rate can be 40% to 50%, with severe morbidity of 10% to 20%. The reported overall risk of rupture is 1.9% per year and is higher for women, cigarette smokers, and cocaine users, and in aneurysms that are symptomatic, greater than 10 mm in diameter, or located in the posterior circulation. If left untreated, there is a considerable risk of repeat hemorrhage in a ruptured aneurysm that results in increased mortality. In Ontario, intracranial aneurysms occur in about 1% to 4% of the population, and the annual incidence of SAH is about 10 cases per 100,000 people. In 2004-2005, about 660 intracranial aneurysm repairs were performed in Ontario. Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms Treatment of an unruptured aneurysm attempts to prevent the aneurysm from rupturing. The treatment of a ruptured intracranial aneurysm aims to prevent further hemorrhage. There are 3 approaches to treating an intracranial aneurysm. Small, asymptomatic aneurysms less than 10 mm in diameter may be monitored without any intervention other than treatment for underlying risk factors such as hypertension. Open surgical clipping, involves craniotomy, brain retraction, and placement of a silver clip across the neck of the aneurysm while a patient is under general anesthesia. This procedure is associated with surgical risks and neurological deficits. Endovascular coil embolization, introduced in the 1990s, is the health technology under review. Literature Review Methods The Medical Advisory Secretariat searched the International Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) Database and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify relevant systematic reviews. OVID Medline, Medline In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, and Embase were searched for English-language journal articles that reported primary data on the effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of treatments for intracranial aneurysms, obtained in a clinical setting or analyses of primary data maintained in registers or institutional databases. Internet searches of Me

2006-01-01

271

The effect of blood glutamate scavengers oxaloacetate and pyruvate on neurological outcome in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Blood glutamate scavengers have been shown to effectively reduce blood glutamate concentrations and improve neurological outcome after traumatic brain injury and stroke in rats. This study investigates the efficacy of blood glutamate scavengers oxaloacetate and pyruvate in the treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rats. Isotonic saline, 250 mg/kg oxaloacetate, or 125 mg/kg pyruvate was injected intravenously in 60 rats, 60 minutes after induction of SAH at a rate of 0.1 ml/100 g/min for 30 minutes. There were 20 additional rats that were used as a sham-operated group. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 90 minutes after SAH. Neurological performance was assessed at 24 h after SAH. In half of the rats, glutamate concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid were measured 24 h after SAH. For the remaining half, the blood brain barrier permeability in the frontal and parieto-occipital lobes was measured 48 h after SAH. Blood glutamate levels were reduced in rats treated with oxaloacetate or pyruvate at 90 minutes after SAH (p?

Boyko, Matthew; Melamed, Israel; Gruenbaum, Benjamin Fredrick; Gruenbaum, Shaun Evan; Ohayon, Sharon; Leibowitz, Akiva; Brotfain, Evgeny; Shapira, Yoram; Zlotnik, Alexander

2012-07-01

272

Expression and cell distribution of receptor for advanced glycation end-products in the rat cortex following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Convincing evidence indicates that inflammation contributes to the adverse prognosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Some pro-inflammatory molecules such as high mobility group protein 1, S100 family of proteins, ?-amyloid peptide, and macrophage antigen complex 1 have been involved in the damaging inflammation process following SAH. The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is a transmembrane receptor that senses these molecules and plays central role in inflammatory processes. This study aimed to determine the expression and cell distribution of RAGE in the brain cortex after SAH. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham group and SAH groups at 6 h, 12 h and on day 1, day 2 and day 3 (n=6 for each subgroup). SAH groups suffered experimental SAH by injection of 0.3 ml autologous blood into the prechiasmatic cistern. RAGE expression was measured by Western blot, real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Nuclear expression of p65 protein, the major subunit of nuclear factor kappa B, was also detected. Our data demonstrated that the expression levels of RAGE and nuclear p65 protein were both markedly increased after SAH. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between the expression of RAGE and that of p65 protein. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that RAGE was expressed by neuron and microglia rather than astrocyte after SAH. These results suggest that RAGE may be directly involved in the inflammatory response after SAH, and there might be important implications for further studies using specific RAGE antagonists to decrease inflammation-mediated brain injury following SAH. PMID:24291745

Li, Hua; Wu, Wei; Sun, Qing; Liu, Ming; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xiang-sheng; Zhou, Meng-liang; Hang, Chun-hua

2014-01-16

273

The anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of ghrelin in subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced oxidative brain damage in rats.  

PubMed

To elucidate the putative neuroprotective effects of ghrelin in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced brain injury, Wistar albino rats (n = 54) were divided into sham-operated control, saline-treated SAH, and ghrelin-treated (10 microg/kg/d IP) SAH groups. The rats were injected with blood (0.3 mL) into the cisterna magna to induce SAH, and were sacrificed 48 h after the neurological examination scores were recorded. In plasma samples, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), S-100beta protein, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta levels were evaluated, while forebrain tissue samples were taken for the measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), reactive oxygen species levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO), Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, and DNA fragmentation ratio. Brain tissue samples containing the basilar arteries were obtained for histological examination, while cerebrum and cerebellum were removed for the measurement of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and brain water content. The neurological scores were impaired at 48 h after SAH induction, and SAH caused significant decreases in brain GSH content and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, and increases in chemiluminescence, MDA levels, and MPO activity. Compared with the control group, the protein levels of NSE, S-100beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta in plasma were also increased, while ghrelin treatment prevented all SAH-induced alterations observed both biochemically and histopathologically. The results demonstrate that ghrelin alleviates SAH-induced oxidative brain damage, and exerts neuroprotection by maintaining a balance in oxidant-antioxidant status, by inhibiting proinflammatory mediators, and preventing the depletion of endogenous antioxidants evoked by SAH. PMID:20205513

Er?ahin, Mehmet; Toklu, Hale Z; Erzik, Can; Cetinel, Sule; Akakin, Dilek; Velio?lu-O?ünç, Ayliz; Tetik, Sermin; Ozdemir, Zarife N; Sener, Göksel; Ye?en, Berrak C

2010-06-01

274

Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cerebral vasospasm: a vascular morphometric study in an experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage model.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate the preventive or therapeutic effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on cerebral vasospasm following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Twenty rabbits were assigned randomly to one of four groups. Animals in Group I were not subjected to SAH or sham operation (control group, n = 5). Animals in Group II were subjected to sham operation and received no treatment after the procedure (sham group, n = 5). Animals in Group III were subjected to SAH and received no treatment after SAH induction (SAH group, n = 5). Animals in Group IV were subjected to SAH and received five sessions of HBOT at 2.4 atmospheres absolute (ATA) for 2 h (treatment group, n = 5). Animals were euthanized by perfusion and fixation 72 h after procedures. Basilar artery vasospasm indices, arterial wall thicknesses, and cross-sectional luminal areas were evaluated. Statistical comparisons were performed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Mean basilar artery vasospasm index in the treatment group was significantly smaller than in the SAH group. Mean basilar artery wall thickness in the treatment group was significantly smaller than in the SAH group. Mean basilar artery cross-sectional luminal area in the treatment group showed an increase relative to the SAH group, but this difference remained statistically insignificant. Our results demonstrated that repeated application of HBOT at 2.4 ATA for 2 h attenuated vasospastic changes such as increased vasospasm index and arterial wall thickness. HBOT is thus a promising candidate for SAH-induced vasospasm. Further studies are needed to evaluate maximal effect and optimal application regimen. PMID:24228831

Celik, Ozgür; Bay, Hüsniye Hac?o?lu; Arslanhan, Ayça; Oro?lu, Bengüsu; Bozkurt, Süheyla Uyar; Sehirli, Umit Süleyman; Ziyal, Mustafa ?brahim

2014-08-01

275

Cannabinoid type 2 receptor stimulation attenuates brain edema by reducing cerebral leukocyte infiltration following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.  

PubMed

Early brain injury (EBI), following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), comprises blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and consequent edema formation. Peripheral leukocytes can infiltrate the injured brain, thereby aggravating BBB leakage and neuroinflammation. Thus, anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapies may ameliorate EBI and provide neuroprotection after SAH. Cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2R) agonism has been shown to reduce neuroinflammation; however, the precise protective mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate whether the selective CB2R agonist, JWH133 can ameliorate EBI by reducing brain-infiltrated leukocytes after SAH. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: sham-operated, SAH with vehicle, SAH with JWH133 (1.0mg/kg), or SAH with a co-administration of JWH133 and selective CB2R antagonist SR144528 (3.0mg/kg). SAH was induced by endovascular perforation, and JWH133 was administered 1h after surgery. Neurological deficits, brain water content, Evans blue dye extravasation, and Western blot assays were evaluated at 24h after surgery. JWH133 improved neurological scores and reduced brain water content; however, SR144528 reversed these treatment effects. JWH133 reduced Evans blue dye extravasation after SAH. Furthermore, JWH133 treatment significantly increased TGF-?1 expression and prevented an SAH-induced increase in E-selectin and myeloperoxidase. Lastly, SAH resulted in a decreased expression of the tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1); however, JWH133 treatment increased the ZO-1 expression. We suggest that CB2R stimulation attenuates neurological outcome and brain edema, by suppressing leukocyte infiltration into the brain through TGF-?1 up-regulation and E-selectin reduction, resulting in protection of the BBB after SAH. PMID:24819918

Fujii, Mutsumi; Sherchan, Prativa; Krafft, Paul R; Rolland, William B; Soejima, Yoshiteru; Zhang, John H

2014-07-15

276

Minocycline Improves Functional Outcomes, Memory Deficits, and Histopathology after Endovascular Perforation-Induced Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats  

PubMed Central

Abstract Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) results in significant long-lasting cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, evaluating acute and long-term outcomes after therapeutic intervention is important for clinical translation. The aim of this study was to use minocycline, a known neuroprotectant agent, to evaluate the long-term benefits in terms of neurobehavior and neuropathology after experimental SAH in rats, and to determine which neurobehavioral test would be effective for long-term evaluation. SAH was induced by endovascular perforation in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=118). The animals were treated with intraperitoneal injection of minocycline (45?mg/kg or 135?mg/kg) or vehicle 1?h after SAH induction. In the short-term, animals were euthanized at 24 and 72?h for evaluation of neurobehavior, brain water content, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. In the long-term, neurobehavior was evaluated at days 21–28 post-SAH, and histopathological analysis was done at day 28. High-dose but not low-dose minocycline reduced brain water content at 24?h, and therefore only the high-dose regimen was used for further evaluation, which reduced MMP-9 activity at 24?h. Further, high-dose minocycline improved spatial memory and attenuated neuronal loss in the hippocampus and cortex. The rotarod, T-maze, and water maze tests, but not the inclined plane test, detected neurobehavioral deficits in SAH rats at days 21–28. This study demonstrates that minocycline attenuates long-term functional and morphological outcomes after endovascular perforation-induced SAH. Long-term neurobehavioral assessments using the rotarod, T-maze, and water maze tests could be useful to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic intervention after experimental SAH.

Sherchan, Prativa; Lekic, Tim; Suzuki, Hidenori; Hasegawa, Yu; Rolland, William; Duris, Kamil; Zhan, Yan; Tang, Jiping

2011-01-01

277

[A case of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage associated with cerebral arteriovenous malformation and aneurysm (author's transl)].  

PubMed

A 45-year-old man suddenly developed right hemiparesis and aphasia during work and lost conciousness next day, when he was admitted to us. Lumbar puncture showed bloody C.S.F. with the initial pressure of 220 mm H2O. Physical examination revealed hypertension and arteriosclerosis. Cerebral angiogram revealed an arteriovenous malformation in the left frontoparietal-parasagittal region and a saccular aneurysm at the left internal carotid-posterior communicating artery junction. In addition, the existence of putaminal hematoma was suspected on account of the displacement of the left anterior cerebral artery and the left lenticulostriate arteries. On the fourth day after admission his consciousness returned and the right hemiparesis gradually improved. One month later the disappearance of the displacement of the anterior cerebral artery was demonstrated by cerebral angiogram. A frontoparietal craniotomy was done and no hematoma was found around the arteriovenous malformation and the basis of the aneurysm did not adhere to the temporal lobe. Taking these findings into consideration, it is presumed that the hematoma in putaminal region was due to neither arteriovenous malformation nor aneurysm but was a hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. PMID:557734

Yamaguchi, K; Nishizaka, T; Tanji, H; Higa, K; Furukawa, F

1977-02-01

278

The Meaning of the Prognostic Factors in Ruptured Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm with Intracerebral Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Objective This study analyzed the relationship between prognosis and multiple clinical factors of ruptured middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), to aid in predicting the results of surgical treatment. Methods Enrolled subjects were 41 patients with ruptured MCA aneurysm with ICH who were treated with surgical clipping. Clinical factors such as gender, age, and initial Glasgow coma scale were assessed while radiological factors such as the volume and location of hematoma, the degree of a midline shift, and aneurysm size were considered retrospectively. Prognosis was evaluated postoperatively by Glasgow outcome scale. Results Age and prognosis were correlated only in the groups with ICH over 31 mL or ICH at the frontal lobe or sylvian fissure. When initial mental status was good, only patients with ICH on the temporal lobe had a better prognosis. If the midline shift was less than 4.5 mm, the probability of better prognosis was 95.5% (21 of 22). If the midline shift was more than 4.5 mm, the probability of poor prognosis was 42.1% (8 of 19). Patients with ICH less than 31 mL had higher survival rates, whereas if the ICH was more than 31 mL, 41.2% (7 of 17) had a poor clinical pathway. Conclusion Even if the initial clinical condition of the patient was not promising, by carefully examining and taking into account all factors, neurosurgeons can confidently recommend surgical treatment for these patients.

Oh, Ji Woong; Lee, Ji-Yong; Lee, Myeong Sub; Jung, Hyen-Ho

2012-01-01

279

Posterior spinal artery aneurysm rupture after 'Ecstasy' abuse.  

PubMed

Posterior spinal artery (PSA) aneurysms are a rare cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The commonly abused street drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or 'Ecstasy' has been linked to both systemic and neurological complications. A teenager presented with neck stiffness, headaches and nausea after ingesting 'Ecstasy'. A brain CT was negative for SAH but a CT angiogram suggested cerebral vasculitis. A lumbar puncture showed SAH but a cerebral angiogram was negative. After a spinal MR angiogram identified abnormalities on the dorsal surface of the cervical spinal cord, a spinal angiogram demonstrated a left PSA 2?mm fusiform aneurysm. The patient underwent surgery and the aneurysmal portion of the PSA was excised without postoperative neurological sequelae. 'Ecstasy' can lead to neurovascular inflammation, intracranial hemorrhage, SAH and potentially even de novo aneurysm formation and subsequent rupture. PSA aneurysms may be treated by endovascular proximal vessel occlusion or open surgical excision. PMID:24994748

Johnson, Jeremiah; Patel, Shnehal; Saraf-Lavi, Efrat; Aziz-Sultan, Mohammad Ali; Yavagal, Dileep R

2014-01-01

280

Estrogen protects against intracranial aneurysm rupture in ovariectomized mice.  

PubMed

Clinical observations suggest that postmenopausal women have a higher incidence of aneurysmal rupture than premenopausal women. We hypothesize that a relative deficiency in estrogen may increase the risks of aneurysmal growth and subarachnoid hemorrhage in postmenopausal women. We assessed the effects of estrogen and selective estrogen receptor subtype agonists on the development of aneurysmal rupture in ovariectomized female mice. We used an intracranial aneurysm mouse model that recapitulates the key features of human intracranial aneurysms, including spontaneous rupture. Ten- to 12-week-old ovariectomized female mice received treatment with estrogen, nonselective estrogen receptor antagonist, estrogen receptor-? agonist, or estrogen receptor-? agonist starting 6 days after aneurysm induction so that the treatments affected the development of aneurysmal rupture without affecting aneurysmal formation. Estrogen significantly reduced the incidence of ruptured aneurysms and rupture rates in ovariectomized mice. Nonselective estrogen receptor antagonist abolished the protective effect of estrogen. Although estrogen receptor-? agonist did not affect the incidence of ruptured aneurysms or rupture rates, estrogen receptor-? agonist prevented aneurysmal rupture without affecting the formation of aneurysms. The protective role of estrogen receptor-? agonist was abolished by the inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. We showed that estrogen prevented aneurysmal rupture in ovariectomized female mice. The protective effect of estrogen seemed to occur through the activation of estrogen receptor-?, a predominant subtype of estrogen receptor in human intracranial aneurysms and cerebral arteries. PMID:24732889

Tada, Yoshiteru; Wada, Kosuke; Shimada, Kenji; Makino, Hiroshi; Liang, Elena I; Murakami, Shoko; Kudo, Mari; Shikata, Fumiaki; Pena Silva, Ricardo A; Kitazato, Keiko T; Hasan, David M; Kanematsu, Yasuhisa; Nagahiro, Shinji; Hashimoto, Tomoki

2014-06-01

281

Ruptured intracranial aneurysms in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is often a devastating condition and a significant cause of worldwide morbidity\\u000a and mortality. Because the percentage of senior citizens is increasing in many countries and because of the increased incidence\\u000a of SAH in elderly patients, ruptured intracranial aneurysm is an increasingly frequent pathology in western countries. Twenty\\u000a years ago, older people were considered to have

Jacques Sedat; Mustapha Dib; David Rasendrarijao; Denys Fontaine; Michel Lonjon; Philippe Paquis

2005-01-01

282

Spontaneous healing and complete disappearance of a ruptured posterior inferior cerebellar artery dissecting aneurysm.  

PubMed

A 7-month-old baby presented with a 4-day history of drowsiness and vomiting after a falling accident. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, and variable stages of subdural hematoma in bilateral occipital and left temporal subdural spaces. A partially thrombosed aneurysm was noted in the right craniocervical junction. Ophthalmological examination revealed bilateral retinal petechial hemorrhages. Conventional cerebral angiography revealed a dissecting aneurysm in the right posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). Endovascular embolization was suggested, but the family refused. After conservative treatment, follow-up MRI revealed that the PICA aneurysm had remodeled and ultimately disappeared completely at the 10th month. This case illustrates the relatively plastic nature of intracranial aneurysms in pediatric patients. More studies are necessary to clarify the natural history of spontaneously thrombosed aneurysms to assist in their overall management. PMID:24580645

Su, Tsung-Ming; Cheng, Ching-Hsiao; Chen, Wu-Fu; Hsu, Shih-Wei

2014-05-01

283

Traumatic Aneurysm of the Callosomarginal Artery-Cortical Artery Junction from Penetrating Injury by Scissors  

PubMed Central

Traumatic intracranial aneurysms (TICAs) are rare and are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. TICAs usually result from head injuries caused by traffic accidents, industrial accidents, or gunshots. We report a traumatic aneurysm of the callosomarginal artery-cortical artery junction arising from a penetrating injury by scissors. A 51-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital after suffering a penetrating injury caused by scissors. Computed tomography (CT) and CT-angiography demonstrated a right orbital roof fracture, subarachnoid hemorrhage, frontal lobe hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, and a traumatic aneurysm of the right callosomarginal artery-cortical artery junction. We trapped the traumatic aneurysm and repositioned a galeal flap. Postoperative CT showed a small infarction in the left frontal lobe. Follow-up angiography two months later showed no residual aneurysm. We suggest that an aggressive surgical intervention be performed whenever TICA is diagnosed.

Sim, Sook Young

2014-01-01

284

Aneurysm  

MedlinePLUS

... wall of the blood vessel. See also: Abdominal aortic aneurysm Cerebral aneurysm Thoracic aortic aneurysm ... is thought to play a role in abdominal aortic aneurysms. Atherosclerotic disease (cholesterol buildup in arteries) may also ...

285

Aneurysm  

MedlinePLUS

... aorta is called a thoracic (tho-RAS-ik) aortic aneurysm. An aneurysm that occurs in the abdominal portion of the aorta is called an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Aneurysms also can occur in other arteries, but ...

286

De novo formation and rupture of an azygos pericallosal artery aneurysm. Case report.  

PubMed

An azygos pericallosal artery (APCA) aneurysm is a rare anomaly that is closely associated with saccular aneurysms. This is the earliest report to document de novo formation and rupture of an aneurysm at the bifurcation of an unpaired pericallosal trunk. The authors report the case of a woman who presented at the age of 52 years with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from the rupture of a newly formed APCA bifurcation aneurysm, 7 years after she had undergone surgery to clip a ruptured anterior cerebral artery aneurysm. De novo formation of aneurysms after SAH rarely occurs and certain risk factors like multiple and familial aneurysms, arterial hypertension, or smoking have been postulated. Late follow-up examination with angiography to detect de novo aneurysms should be considered in patients with this vascular anomaly after SAH. PMID:11117851

Dietrich, W; Reinprecht, A; Gruber, A; Czech, T

2000-12-01

287

Evaluation of the calcium-antagonist nimodipine for the prevention of vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. A prospective transcranial Doppler ultrasound study.  

PubMed

70 consecutive patients admitted within four days after the first aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) were evaluated by daily transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) measurement of the blood flow velocities (BFVs) of both middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) and by daily recordings of their clinical grade (Hunt and Hess). Patients with no or only little subarachnoid blood in the first CT after admission were classified as low-risk for the development of symptomatic vasospasm (VSP), and patients with big subarachnoid clots or thick layers of subarachnoid blood were graded as high-risk patients for symptomatic VSP. The first series of 33 patients received no nimodipine whereas the second series of 37 patients were treated with nimodipine 2 mg/h intravenously, starting within 24 hours after the SAH in the majority of patients. 7-14 days postoperatively, the intravenous dose was changed to oral nimodipine 60 mg/q4h for one week and then discontinued. A mean BFV curve of the side with the higher flow velocities correlated with the mean clinical status (Hunt and Hess) was calculated by computer analysis for the patients treated without nimodipine and for those receiving nimodipine in each risk group. The mean BFV curves of the same risk groups were compared in order to evaluate the effect of nimodipine for the prevention of vasospasm following SAH. The delayed neurological deficits (DIND) and the functional outcome six months after the SAH were recorded in each group and compared. Nimodipine given within four days after the SAH did not prevent vasospasm evaluated by TCD, but it significantly reduced the severity of the vasoconstriction, especially in high-risk patients. It reduced significantly the incidence of DIND in high-risk patients and improved their functional outcome. Although nimodipine may have a reduced efficacy in preventing vasospasm after early operation of high-risk patients, it probably protects the brain by increasing its tolerance to focal ischaemia. PMID:2955675

Seiler, R W; Grolimund, P; Zurbruegg, H R

1987-01-01

288

Coil embolization of ruptured frontopolar artery aneurysm: case report.  

PubMed

Distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysms are infrequent. The most common location is at the bifurcation of the pericallosal and callosomarginal arteries. Cerebral artery anomalies can sometimes, at least partially, explain aneurysm formation in less common locations in relation to hemodynamic stress caused on the vascular wall. We report a very rare case of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured frontopolar artery aneurysm as a part of an anomalous anterior cerebral artery complex that was, for the first time, treated with endovascular coiling. PMID:23731558

Castaño-Leon, Ana M; Cicuendez, Marta; Paredes, Igor; Alen, Jose F; Navia, Pedro; Lagares, Alfonso

2014-01-01

289

Endovascular coil embolization of unruptured posterior communicating artery aneurysm.  

PubMed

The patient is a 60-year-old woman who presented to her primary care physician with new onset of headache. She was neurologically intact without cranial nerve deficit. An outpatient CT angiogram (CTA) revealed no subarachnoid hemorrhage, but showed a right-sided posterior communicating artery aneurysm measuring 11 mm by 10 mm. Digitally subtracted cerebral angiography confirmed these measurements and showed that the aneurysm was amenable to endovascular coil embolization. The patient underwent aneurysm coiling without complication and was discharged to home on postoperative Day 1. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/MjOc3Zpv2K8 . PMID:24983726

Binning, Mandy; Hakma, Zakaria; Veznedaroglu, Erol

2014-07-01

290

Relative changes in transcranial Doppler velocities are inferior to absolute thresholds in prediction of symptomatic vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

The absolute transcranial Doppler (TCD) velocity threshold has been validated as a screening tool for vasospasm after subarchnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We assessed whether relative changes in velocity were superior to absolute TCD thresholds in the detection of symptomatic vasospasm. We reviewed consecutive patients with aneurysmal SAH who underwent serial TCD monitoring and survived at least 7 days. We recorded initial flow velocity (IFV) and maximal flow velocity (MFV) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) serially up to 14 days from admission. We calculated relative flow velocity changes (MFV/IFV) and maximum change in mean flow velocity (FVmean) over any consecutive 2 days in addition to standard absolute measures of Lindegaard ratio (LR) and FVmean. We calculated receiver operating characteristic curve and area under curve (AUC) values, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive and negative predictive values for these parameters, optimal cutpoints, and various combinations. Forty-eight of 211 patients (23%) developed symptomatic MCA vasospasm. AUC values for various TCD parameters were 0.80 for MCA MFV >175 cm/s, 0.71 for LR >6, 0.64 for MFV/IFV >2, and 0.64 for >70% change in MFV over 2 days. The best characteristics were observed for the combination of MFV >175 cm/s and/or maximal LR >6 (AUC 0.81). Our data suggest that absolute thresholds of TCD FVmean provide the most accurate prediction of symptomatic MCA vasospasm after SAH. Other thresholds, including relative change from baseline and day-to-day changes, are inferior to established absolute thresholds. PMID:22959107

Malhotra, Konark; Conners, James J; Lee, Vivien H; Prabhakaran, Shyam

2014-01-01

291

A dynamic nonlinear relationship between the static and pulsatile components of intracranial pressure in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Object In the search for optimal monitoring and predictive tools in neurocritical care, the relationship of the pulsatile component of intracranial pressure (ICP) and the pressure itself has long been of great interest. Higher pressure often correlates with a higher pulsatile response to the heartbeat, interpreted as a type of compliance curve. Various mathematical approaches have been used, but regardless of the formula used, it is implicitly assumed that a reproducible curve exists. The authors investigated the stability of the correlation between static and pulsatile ICPs in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) who were observed for several hours by using data sets large enough to allow such calculations to be made. Methods The ICP recordings were obtained in 39 patients with SAH and were parsed into 6-second time windows (1,998,944 windows in 197 recordings). The ICP parameters were computed for each window as follows: static ICP was defined as the mean ICP, and pulsatile ICP was characterized by mean ICP wave amplitude, rise time, and rise time coefficient. Results The mean ICP and ICP wave amplitudes were simultaneously high or low (the expected correlation) in only ~ 60% of observations. Furthermore, static and pulsatile ICP correlated well only over short intervals; the degree of correlation weakened over periods of hours and was inconsistent across patients and within individual patients over time. Decorrelation originated with abrupt shifting and gradual drifting of mean ICP and ICP wave amplitude over several hours. Conclusions The relationship between the static and pulsatile components of ICPs changes over time. It evolves, even in individual patients, over a number of hours. This can be one reason the observation of high pulsatile ICP (indicative of reduced intracranial compliance) despite normal mean ICP that is seen in some patients with SAH. The meaning and potential clinical usefulness of such changes in the curves is uncertain, but it implies that clinical events result not only from moving further out on a compliance curve; in practice, the curve, and the biological system that underlies the curve, may itself change.

Eide, Per K.; Rapoport, Benjamin I.; Gormley, William B.; Madsen, Joseph R.

2014-01-01

292

Systemic administration of an inhibitor of endothelin-converting enzyme for attenuation of cerebral vasospasm following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.  

PubMed

The potent vasoconstrictor peptide, endothelin-1 (ET-1), has been implicated in the pathophysiology of cerebral vasospasm that occurs after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This peptide is synthesized as a large prepropeptide that requires a series of modifying steps for its activation. The last of these steps involves the proteolytic conversion of a relatively inactive propeptide, Big ET-1, to its active, 21-amino acid peptide form. The enzyme responsible for converting Big ET-1 to ET-1 is a metalloprotease called endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE). In the present study the authors examined the effects of a newly developed inhibitor of ECE on responses to ET peptides in the normal basilar artery and on pathophysiological constriction in the spastic basilar artery after SAH. In the first series of experiments the authors examined normal basilar arteries in the rabbit, which were exposed transclivally and measured on-line using videomicroscopy. Intravenous administration or topical application of an active inhibitor of ECE, CGS 26303, blocked vasoconstrictor responses to topically applied Big ET-1 but not to ET-1. In contrast, topical application of a structurally related compound that does not inhibit ECE, CGS 24592, was ineffective in blocking vasoconstriction that was elicited by a topical application of Big ET-1. These findings indicate that CGS 26303 when administered systemically is capable of blocking the conversion of Big ET-1 to ET-1 in the basilar artery without affecting the ability of the vessel to respond to ET-1. In the second series of experiments the authors examined the effects of the ECE inhibitor on cerebral vasospasm after experimental SAH. Intraperitoneal administration of CGS 26303 via osmotic minipumps significantly attenuated the delayed spastic response of the basilar artery to an intracisternal injection of autologous blood. This study provides the first evidence that systemic administration of an inhibitor of ECE is capable of preventing cerebral vasospasm after SAH. The results reinforce a growing body of evidence that ETs play a critical role in the development of spastic constriction after SAH. Moreover, the findings indicate that blocking the conversion of Big ET-1 to its active ET-1 form using CGS 26303 may represent a feasible strategy for ameliorating cerebral vasospasm. PMID:8893732

Caner, H H; Kwan, A L; Arthur, A; Jeng, A Y; Lappe, R W; Kassell, N F; Lee, K S

1996-11-01

293

A case of unilateral moyamoya disease suffered from intracerebral hemorrhage due to the rupture of cerebral aneurysm, which appeared seven years later  

PubMed Central

Background: Whether unilateral moyamoya disease (MMD), confirmed by steno-occlusive lesion at the terminal portion of internal carotid artery with formation of moyamoya vessels unilaterally and normal or equivocal findings contralaterally, is an early form of definite (bilateral) MMD remains controversial. It is well-known that adult patients with MMD tend to suffer from cerebral hemorrhage, occasionally due to the rupture of aneurysm arising from moyamoya vessel. Case Description: A 61-year-old woman was diagnosed as unilateral MMD incidentally and followed by magnetic resonance imaging annually. Seven years after the diagnosis, cerebral aneurysm appeared on the moyamoya vessel. Before further examination, the aneurysm ruptured and resulted in massive cerebral hemorrhage. Conclusion: Even in the unilateral MMD, cerebral hemorrhage may occur due to the rupture of cerebral aneurysm. Careful follow-up is recommended and early treatment is required once cerebral aneurysm is detected.

Hayashi, Kentaro; Horie, Nobutaka; Nagata, Izumi

2013-01-01

294

Onyx Embolization of Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm Associated with Behçet's Disease.  

PubMed

Introduction. Intracranial aneurysms associated with Behçet's disease (BD) are a rare occurrence. They are fragile, thin-walled pseudoaneurysms, which have high tendency to rupture and present a therapeutic challenge. Case Presentation. We report a 26-year-old male with BD presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysm. Additionally, two unruptured aneurysms were identified. He underwent endovascular embolization using Onyx with successful obliteration of the ruptured aneurysm. Medical therapy resulted in regression of one and resolution of the other aneurysms. Conclusion. We describe the first report of the application of Onyx for obliteration of ruptured cerebral aneurysm in BD as a feasible and safe therapeutic option for patients who are not candidates for other techniques. PMID:24224110

Kurdi, Maher; Baeesa, Saleh; Bin-Mahfoodh, Mohammed; Kurdi, Khalil

2013-01-01

295

Concurrent basilar artery double fenestration with aneurysm and vertebral artery dissection: case report and literature review of rare cerebrovascular abnormalities.  

PubMed

Many disorders can cause aneurysm and/or dissection of the cerebral arteries, including fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD), connective tissue disorders, cerebral vasculitis, infection, and vascular malformations. Arterial fenestration is a rare congenital finding that can also cause aneurysms, and can rarely dissect and bleed. Treatment of aneurysm and dissection with subarachnoid hemorrhage can be very complicated, and requires case-by-case analysis of the risks and benefits of antithrombotic therapy. To the authors' knowledge, no case of double fenestration of the basilar artery has been reported. This report presents a case of concurring vertebral artery dissection and double fenestration of the basilar artery with aneurysm. The fenestration and FMD are considered possible main contributing causes of this presentation. A literature review of cerebrovascular fenestration and FMD is provided and the relationship between the 2 is considered. Lastly, the use of antithrombotic therapy in the setting of subarachnoid hemorrhage, dissection, and stent placement is discussed. PMID:23548267

Stark, Madeline M; Skeik, Nedaa; Delgado Almandoz, Josser E; Crandall, Benjamin M; Tubman, David E

2013-05-01

296

Parent Artery Occlusion for Intracranial Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Summary Peripheral cerebral aneurysms are difficult to treat with preservation of the parent arteries. We report the clinical and angiographic outcome of 12 patients with cerebral aneurysms located peripherally. In the past five years, 12 patients, six females and six males, presented at our institution with intracranial aneurysms distal to the circle of Willis and were treated endovascularly. The age of our patients ranged from four to 58 years with a mean age of 37 years. Seven of the 12 patients had subarachnoid and/or intracerebral hemorrhage upon presentation. Two patients with P2 dissecting aneurysms presented with mild hemiparesis and hypoesthesia, one patient with a large dissecting aneurysm complained of headaches and two patients with M3 dissecting aneurysms had mild hemiparesis and hypoesthesia of the right arm. Locations of the aneurysms were as follows: posterior cerebral artery in seven patients, anterior inferior cerebellar artery in two, posterior inferior cerebellar artery in one, middle cerebral artery in two. Twelve patients with peripheral cerebral aneurysms underwent parent artery occlusion (PAO). PAO was performed with detachable coils. No patient developed neurologic deficits. Distally located cerebral aneurysms can be treated with parent artery occlusion when selective embolization of the aneurysmal sac with detachable platinum coils or surgical clipping cannot be achieved.

Cui, Lishan; Peng, Qiang; Ha, Wenbo; Zhou, Dexiang; Xu, Yang

2009-01-01

297

A review of the management of posterior communicating artery aneurysms in the modern era  

PubMed Central

Background: Technical advancements have significantly improved surgical and endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms. In this paper, we review the literature with regard to treatment of one of the most common intra-cranial aneurysms encountered by neurosurgeons and interventional radiologists. Conclusions: Anterior clinoidectomy, temporary clipping, adenosine-induced cardiac arrest, and intraoperative angiography are useful adjuncts during surgical clipping of these aneurysms. Coil embolization is also an effective treatment alternative particularly in the elderly population. However, coiled posterior communicating artery aneurysms have a particularly high risk of recurrence and must be followed closely. Posterior communicating artery aneurysms with an elongated fundus, true posterior communicating artery aneurysms, and aneurysms associated with a fetal posterior communicating artery may have better outcome with surgical clipping in terms of completeness of occlusion and preservation of the posterior communicating artery. However, as endovascular technology improves, endovascular treatment of posterior communicating artery aneurysms may become equivalent or preferable in the near future. One in five patients with a posterior communicating artery aneurysm present with occulomotor nerve palsy with or without subarachnoid hemorrhage. Factors associated with a higher likelihood of recovery include time to treatment, partial third nerve deficit, and presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Both surgical and endovascular therapy offer a reasonable chance of recovery. Based on level 2 evidence, clipping appears to offer a higher chance of occulomotor nerve palsy recovery; however, coiling will remain as an option particularly in elderly patients or patients with significant comorbidity.

Golshani, Kiarash; Ferrell, Andrew; Zomorodi, Ali; Smith, Tony P.; Britz, Gavin W.

2010-01-01

298

Endovascular management for p2 aneurysms of the posterior cerebral artery. Experience on proximal occlusion of the p2 segmen.  

PubMed

Summary: This study evaluated the outcomes of endovascular management for P2-segment aneurysms. From 2003 to 2008, 14 consecutive patients with P2 aneurysms were treated endovascularly by proximal P2 segment occlusion at our institution. The aneurysms included 12 P2a and two P2p aneurysms. Presenting symptoms were caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in six patients, stroke in five, and isolated headaches in three. Mean follow-up was 14 months. Twelve aneurysms were treated with proximal P2 segment occlusion without parent artery revascularization. Twelve aneurysms were at the P2a and two aneurysms at the P2p. Two patients developed hemianopsia after the procedure and one recovered completely within six months follow-up with one still persistent at 22-month follow-up. Proximal parent vessel occlusion was a relatively safe, effective treatment for P2 aneurysms that posed low risk for early or delayed ischemia or infarction. PMID:20465919

Lv, X; Li, Y; Jiang, C; Wu, Z

2009-09-01

299

Endovascular management of distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms: Report of two cases and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background: Aneurysms of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), especially those located in the distal portion of the AICA, are rare. There are few reported cases treated with surgery or endovascular embolization. Case Description: We report two cases of fusiform distal AICA aneurysms presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Parent artery occlusion with coils and n-butyl cyanoacrilate (n-BCA) resulted in complete aneurysm occlusion and prevented rebleeding. Both patients presented postprocedure neurological deficits, but have made a good recovery at 4 and 10 months, respectively. Conclusion: Occlusion of the parent artery for the treatment of ruptured fusiform distal AICA aneurysms is effective but has significant neurological risks.

Santillan, Alejandro; Gobin, Y. Pierre; Patsalides, Athos; Riina, Howard A.; Rosengart, Axel; Stieg, Philip E.

2011-01-01

300

Management of Patients Presenting with Acute Subdural Hematoma due to Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Acute subdural hematoma is a rare presentation of ruptured aneurysms. The rarity of the disease makes it difficult to establish reliable clinical guidelines. Many patients present comatose and differential diagnosis is complicated due to aneurysm rupture results in or mimics traumatic brain injury. Fast decision-making is required to treat this life-threatening condition. Determining initial diagnostic studies, as well as making treatment decisions, can be complicated by rapid deterioration of the patient, and the mixture of symptoms due to the subarachnoid hemorrhage or mass effect of the hematoma. This paper reviews initial clinical and radiological findings, diagnostic approaches, treatment modalities, and outcome of patients presenting with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage complicated by acute subdural hematoma. Clinical strategies used by several authors over the past 20 years are discussed and summarized in a proposed treatment flowchart.

Marbacher, Serge; Tomasi, Ottavio; Fandino, Javier

2012-01-01

301

Intracranial aneurysm following cranial radiation therapy.  

PubMed

We report herein a case of a radiation-induced aneurysm. A 69-year-old woman presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Eight years previously, she had undergone cranial radiation therapy (total dose of 59.4 Gy) as adjuvant therapy after surgical resection for a chondrosarcoma that was destroying her sphenoid sinus. The patient underwent catheter angiography, which revealed an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery and luminal narrowing and irregularity in the petrous and lacerum segments of the right internal carotid artery. We attempted surgical clipping of the aneurysm, but there was repeated bleeding. Finally the aneurysm was treated with endovascular trapping. Potentially fatal bleeding also occurred from her internal carotid artery, which had also been irradiated during the previous cranial radiation therapy. We stopped the bleeding with endovascular coil embolization. Because of diffuse vascular changes of the cerebral vessels within irradiated fields, special attention must be paid to their treatment. PMID:23346546

Huh, Won; Bang, Jae Seung; Oh, Chang Wan; Kwon, O-Ki; Hwang, Gyojun

2012-12-01

302

Early release of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) from neurons in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in vivo and in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Translocation of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) from nucleus could trigger inflammation. Extracellular HMGB1 up-regulates inflammatory response in sepsis as a late mediator. However, little was known about its role in subarachnoid hemorrhage-inducible inflammation, especially in the early stage. This study aims to identify whether HMGB1 translocation occurred early after SAH and also to clarify the potential role of HMGB1 in brain injury following SAH. Methods Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into sham group and SAH groups at 2 h, 12 h and on day 1, day 2. SAH groups suffered experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage by injection of 0.3 ml autoblood into the pre-chiasmatic cistern. Rats injected by recombinant HMGB1(rHMGB1) solution were divided into four groups according to different time points. Cultured neurons were assigned into control group and four hemoglobin (Hb) incubated groups. Mixed glial cells were cultured and stimulated in medium from neurons incubated by Hb. HMGB1 expression is measured by western blot analysis, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Downstream nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) subunit P65 and inflammatory factor Interleukin 1? (IL-1?) were measured by western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Brain injury was evaluated by cleaved caspase-3 staining. Results Our results demonstrated HMGB1 translocation occurred as early as 2 h after experimental SAH with mRNA and protein level increased. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence results indicated cytosolic HMGB1 was mainly located in neurons while translocated HMGB1 could also be found in some microglia. After subarachnoid injection of rHMGB1, NF-?B, downstream inflammatory response and cleaved caspase-3 were up-regulated in the cortex compared to the saline control group. In-vitro, after Hb incubation, HMGB1 was also rapidly released from neurons to medium. Incubation with medium from neurons up-regulated IL-1? in mixed glial cells. This effect could be inhibited by HMGB1 specific inhibitor glycyrrhizic acid (GA) treatment. Conclusion HMGB1 was released from neurons early after SAH onset and might trigger inflammation as an upstream inflammatory mediator. Extracellular HMGB1 contributed to the brain injury after SAH. These results might have important implications during the administration of specific HMGB1 antagonists early in order to prevent or reduce inflammatory response following SAH.

2014-01-01

303

Contralateral approach to a carotid bifurcation aneurysm in a case of multiple intracranial aneurysms: a case report  

PubMed Central

Background Traditionally, surgery of the anterior circulation aneurysms of the cerebral vasculature is dictated by the site of the lesion, excluding such midline lesions as anterior communication artery aneurysms. Few reports address the issue of using a single craniotomy to obliterate multiple aneurysms located in both hemispheres. Case presentation A 51 year-old Caucasian right handed housewife lady (weight 61 kg, height 159 cm) presented with a headache of acute onset which proved to be caused by acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral computed tomographic angiography revealed multiple aneurysms. The patient underwent a right pterional craniotomy to obliterate right middle cerebral, distal basilar and left carotid bifurcation aneurysms. The post-operative course was uneventful. Conclusion Despite technical difficulties of approaching cerebral vasculature through a contralateral craniotomy, this policy is advised in selected cases in which the benefits of unilateral craniotomy outweigh the risks of brain retraction.

2009-01-01

304

Combined clinical and computational information in complex cerebral aneurysms: application to mirror cerebral aneurysms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the incidence of ruptured cerebral aneurysms is relatively small, when rupture occurs, morbidity and mortality are exceptionally high. The understanding of the pathological and physiological forces driving aneurysmal pathogenesis and progression is crucial. In this paper we analyze the occurrence of mirror cerebral aneurysms in 8 patients and speculate on the effect of haemodynamics on the localization and course of the disease. By mirror cerebral aneurysms we indicate two aneurysms in the same patient and at the same location in the cerebral vasculature but symmetrically with respect to a sagittal plane. In particular we focus on cases of mirror cerebral aneurysms where only one of the two aneurysms presented subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Anatomical information is extracted from 3D rotational angiography (3DRA) images and haemodynamic information is obtained through blood flow simulation in patientspecific anatomical models. The distribution of Wall Shear Stress (WSS) and the flow patterns through the vessels and inside the aneurysms are reported. By combining clinical observations on asymmetry of the cerebral vasculature and aneurysmal shape and size with computed information on blood flow patterns we explore the causes behind a specific localization and a different outcome of disease progression.

Radaelli, Alessandro G.; Sola Martínez, Teresa; Vivas Díaz, Elio; Mellado, Xavier; Castro, Marcelo A.; Putman, Christopher M.; Guimaraens, Leopoldo; Cebral, Juan R.; Frangi, Alejandro F.

2007-03-01

305

[Observation of de novo formation and growth of an intracranial aneurysm: a case report].  

PubMed

We observed a de novo formation and growth of an aneurysm in a 43-year-old woman who was followed up after treatment of a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In 2002, the patient, whose mother had a history of SAH, presented with SAH at the age of 36. Three-dimensional computed tomography angiography (3D-CTA) and digital subtraction angiography showed an aneurysm in the right internal carotid-posterior communicating artery. The aneurysm was clipped and postoperative course was uneventful without neurological deficit. The patient was followed up by 3D-CTA and magnetic resonance angiography every 6 months, because of an untreated small aneurysm, 3 mm in diameter, in the left middle cerebral artery (MCA). The MCA aneurysm remained unchanged but a de novo aneurysm, 1.5 mm in diameter, developed in the right anterior cerebral artery (ACA) 6 years after the first surgery. The ACA aneurysm grew to 4 mm in diameter during the following 10 months but the MCA aneurysm remained unchanged. Both aneurysms were clipped in one session. The MCA aneurysm had a smooth wall but the ACA aneurysm had an irregular and thin wall. The postoperative course was uneventful. Young female patients who have developed SAH with familial history, like this case, should receive long-term follow up to check whether a de novo aneurysm has developed. PMID:21719914

Watanabe, Shigeki; Tsuchiya, Daisuke; Kinjo, Toshihiko

2011-07-01

306

Glue Embolization of Ruptured Anterior Thalamoperforating Artery Aneurysm in Patient with Both Internal Carotid Arteries Occlusion  

PubMed Central

Thalamoperforating artery aneurysms are rarely reported in the literature. We report an extremely rare case of ruptured distal anterior thalamoperforating artery aneurysm which was treated by endovascular obliteration in a patient with occlusion of both the internal carotid arteries (ICAs) : A 72-year-old woman presented with severe headache and loss of consciousness. Initial level of consciousness at the time of admission was drowsy and the Glasgow Coma Scale score was 14. Brain computed tomography (CT) scan was performed which revealed intracerebral hemorrhage in right basal ganglia, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intraventricular hemorrhage. The location of the aneurysm was identified as within the globus pallidus on CT angiogram. Conventional cerebral angiogram demonstrated occlusion of both the ICAs just distal to the fetal type of posterior communicating artery and the aneurysm was arising from right anterior thalamoperforating artery (ATPA). A microcatheter was navigated into ATPA and the ATPA proximal to aneurysm was embolized with 20% glue. Post-procedural ICA angiogram demonstrated no contrast filling of the aneurysm sac. The patient was discharged without any neurologic deficit. Endovascular treatment of ATPA aneurysm is probably a more feasible and safe treatment modality than surgical clipping because of the deep seated location of aneurysm and the possibility of brain retraction injury during surgical operation.

Lee, Jae Il; Ko, Jun Kyeung; Lee, Tae Hong

2011-01-01

307

Ceftriaxone alleviates early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage by increasing excitatory amino acid transporter 2 expression via the PI3K/Akt/NF-?B signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is characterized by a reduction in excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) expression and severe amino acid excitotoxicity. The aim of this study was to explore the neuroprotective effect of ceftriaxone (CEF), a potent compound that up-regulates EAAT2, against EBI and the potential mechanisms using in vitro experiments and a rat model of SAH. Intracisternal treatment with CEF significantly improved neurological outcomes and alleviated extracellular glutamate accumulation after SAH. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay (TUNEL) staining and Western blot analysis of cleaved caspase 3 showed that CEF decreased hippocampal neuronal apoptosis following SAH. Immunofluorescent staining and Western blotting revealed that CEF significantly reversed the down-regulation of EAAT2 expression following SAH. In Morris water maze (MWM) tests, CEF remarkably ameliorated the SAH-induced cognitive dysfunction in spatial learning memory and reference memory. CEF promoted the nuclear translocation of p65 as well as the activation of Akt in hippocampal astrocytes in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that CEF may exert significant protective effects against EBI following SAH by modulating the PI3K/Akt/NF-?B signaling pathway. PMID:24631672

Feng, D; Wang, W; Dong, Y; Wu, L; Huang, J; Ma, Y; Zhang, Z; Wu, S; Gao, G; Qin, H

2014-05-30

308

Critical role of TNF-? in cerebral aneurysm formation and progression to rupture  

PubMed Central

Background Alterations in TNF-? expression have been associated with cerebral aneurysms, but a direct role in formation, progression, and rupture has not been established. Methods Cerebral aneurysms were induced through hypertension and a single stereotactic injection of elastase into the basal cistern in mice. To test the role of TNF-? in aneurysm formation, aneurysms were induced in TNF-? knockout mice and mice pretreated with the synthesized TNF-? inhibitor 3,6?dithiothalidomide (DTH). To assess the role of TNF-? in aneurysm progression and rupture, DTH was started 6 days after aneurysm induction. TNF-? expression was assessed through real-time PCR and immunofluorescence staining. Results TNF-? knockout mice and those pre-treated with DTH had significantly decreased incidence of aneurysm formation and rupture as compared to sham mice. As compared with sham mice, TNF-? protein and mRNA expression was not significantly different in TNF-? knockout mice or those pre-treated with DTH, but was elevated in unruptured and furthermore in ruptured aneurysms. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) occurred between 7 and 21 days following aneurysm induction. To ensure aneurysm formation preceded rupture, additional mice underwent induction and sacrifice after 7 days. Seventy-five percent had aneurysm formation without evidence of SAH. Initiation of DTH treatment 6 days after aneurysm induction did not alter the incidence of aneurysm formation, but resulted in aneurysmal stabilization and a significant decrease in rupture. Conclusions These data suggest a critical role of TNF-? in the formation and rupture of aneurysms in a model of cerebral aneurysm formation. Inhibitors of TNF-? could be beneficial in preventing aneurysmal progression and rupture.

2014-01-01

309

Correlation of Transcranial Color Doppler to N20 Somatosensory Evoked Potential Detects Ischemic Penumbra in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background: Normal subjects present interhemispheric symmetry of middle cerebral artery (MCA) mean flow velocity and N20 cortical somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP). Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) can modify this pattern, since high regional brain vascular resistances increase blood flow velocity, and impaired regional brain perfusion reduces N20 amplitude. The aim of the study is to investigate the variability of MCA resistances and N20 amplitude between hemispheres in SAH. Methods: Measurements of MCA blood flow velocity (vMCA) by transcranial color-Doppler and median nerve SSEP were bilaterally performed in sixteen patients. MCA vascular changes on the compromised hemisphere were calculated as a ratio of the reciprocal of mean flow velocity (1/vMCA) to contralateral value and correlated to the simultaneous variations of interhemispheric ratio of N20 amplitude, within each subject. Data were analysed with respect to neuroimaging of MCA supplied areas. Results: Both interhemispheric ratios of 1/vMCA and N20 amplitude were detected >0.65 (p <0,01) in patients without neuroimages of injury. Both ratios became <0.65 (p <0.01) when patients showed unilateral images of ischemic penumbra and returned >0.65 if penumbra disappeared. The two ratios no longer correlated after structural lesion developed, as N20 detected in the damaged side remained pathological (ratio <0.65), whereas 1/vMCA reverted to symmetric interhemispheric state (ratio >0.65), suggesting a luxury perfusion. Conclusion: Variations of interhemispheric ratios of MCA resistance and cortical N20 amplitude correlate closely in SAH and allow identification of the reversible ischemic penumbra threshold, when both ratios become <0.65. The correlation is lost when structural damage develops.

Di Pasquale, Piero; Zanatta, Paolo; Morghen, Ilaria; Bosco, Enrico; Forini, Elena

2011-01-01

310

[Recurrence of a giant fusiform aneurysm after neck clipping: case report].  

PubMed

The patient was a 71-year-old female. On December 20, 1995, she suddenly developed a severe headache with vomiting and was transferred to our hospital. On admission, her conciousness level was 1-2 on the Japan Coma Scale, but there was no neurological deficit except for right oculomotor palsy. Computed tomography showed subarachnoid hemorrhage which had permeated the right lateral ventricle. On cerebral angiography, a giant fusiform aneurysm in the right internal carotid artery was recognized. During the emergency operation, neither neck clipping nor carotid reconstruction was possible because of the tight adhesion of the aneurysm to the peripheral tissue. On account of this, proximal clipping of the carotid artery with external carotid-middle cerebral artery anastomosis with saphenous vein graft was selected. This patient had had an episode of subarachnoid hemorrhage owing to rupture of the right internal carotid-posterior communicating artery aneurysm ten years earlier. At that time, the aneurysmal neck was clipped with a slight residual neck and she left the hospital on foot. Five days later, when the aneurysm was found to be completely thrombosed on CT scan, antiplatelet therapy was started. Although low density areas which corresponded to the regions fed by the right anterior choroidal artery were presented, re-rupture did not occur. Follow-up angiography showed that the aneurysm was completely thrombosed and that the right middle cerebral and the anterior cerebral artery blood was circulated via the vein graft. Among recurrent cases of aneurysm after neck clipping, it is unusual for a giant fusiform aneurysm to be recognized. The growth may have been caused by sclerotic change of the arterial wall. Oculomotor palsy may have delayed the detection of the recurrence of the aneurysm. When residual neck is presented on follow-up angiography, the next angiography should be carried out within at least three years. In this case, antiplatelet therapy was effective to prevent thromboembolism from the aneurysm. PMID:8934889

Iwamuro, Y; Miyake, H; Ito, T; Kumai, J; Kuroda, T; Sugino, T

1996-04-01

311

Influence of early antioxidant supplements on clinical evolution and organ function in critically ill cardiac surgery, major trauma, and subarachnoid hemorrhage patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction Oxidative stress is involved in the development of secondary tissue damage and organ failure. Micronutrients contributing to the antioxidant (AOX) defense exhibit low plasma levels during critical illness. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of early AOX micronutrients on clinical outcome in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with conditions characterized by oxidative stress. Methods We conducted a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-center trial in patients admitted to a university hospital ICU with organ failure after complicated cardiac surgery, major trauma, or subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stratification by diagnosis was performed before randomization. The intervention was intravenous supplements for 5 days (selenium 270 ?g, zinc 30 mg, vitamin C 1.1 g, and vitamin B1 100 mg) with a double-loading dose on days 1 and 2 or placebo. Results Two hundred patients were included (102 AOX and 98 placebo). While age and gender did not differ, brain injury was more severe in the AOX trauma group (P = 0.019). Organ function endpoints did not differ: incidence of acute kidney failure and sequential organ failure assessment score decrease were similar (-3.2 ± 3.2 versus -4.2 ± 2.3 over the course of 5 days). Plasma concentrations of selenium, zinc, and glutathione peroxidase, low on admission, increased significantly to within normal values in the AOX group. C-reactive protein decreased faster in the AOX group (P = 0.039). Infectious complications did not differ. Length of hospital stay did not differ (16.5 versus 20 days), being shorter only in surviving AOX trauma patients (-10 days; P = 0.045). Conclusion The AOX intervention did not reduce early organ dysfunction but significantly reduced the inflammatory response in cardiac surgery and trauma patients, which may prove beneficial in conditions with an intense inflammation. Trials Registration Clinical Trials.gov RCT Register: NCT00515736.

Berger, Mette M; Soguel, Ludivine; Shenkin, Alan; Revelly, Jean-Pierre; Pinget, Christophe; Baines, Malcolm; Chiolero, Rene L

2008-01-01

312

Alteration of Basilar Artery Rho-Kinase and Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase Protein Expression in a Rat Model of Cerebral Vasospasm following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose. The vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Previous results showed that CGS 26303, an endothelin converting enzyme (ECE) inhibitor, effectively prevented and reversed arterial narrowing in animal models of SAH. In the present study, we assessed the effect of CGS 26303 on neurological deficits in SAH rats. The involvement of vasoactive pathways downstream of ET-1 signaling in SAH was also investigated. Methods. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups (n = 6/group): (1) normal control, (2) SAH, (3) SAH+vehicle, (4) SAH+CGS 26303 (prevention), and (5) SAH+CGS 26303 (reversal). SAH was induced by injecting autologous blood into cisterna magna. CGS 26303 (10?mg/kg) was injected intravenously at 1 and 24?hr after the initiation of SAH in the prevention and reversal protocols, respectively. Behavioral changes were assessed at 48?hr after SAH. Protein expression was analyzed by Western blots. Results. Deficits in motor function were obvious in the SAH rats, and CGS 26303 significantly improved the rate of paraplegia. Expressions of rho-kinase-II and membrane-bound protein kinase C-? and rhoA were significantly increased, while those of soluble guanylyl cyclase ?1 and ?1 as well as protein kinase G were significantly decreased in the basilar artery of SAH rats. Treatment with CGS 26303 nearly normalized these effects. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that the rhoA/rho-kinase and sGC/cGMP/PKG pathways play pivotal roles in cerebral vasospasm after SAH. It also shows that ECE inhibition is an effective strategy for the treatment of this disease.

Wang, Chih-Jen; Lee, Pei-Yu; Wu, Bin-Nan; Wu, Shu-Chuan; Loh, Joon-Khim; Tsai, Hung-Pei; Kassell, Neal F.; Kwan, Aij-Lie

2014-01-01

313

Tert-Butylhydroquinone Alleviates Early Brain Injury and Cognitive Dysfunction after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Role of Keap1/Nrf2/ARE Pathway  

PubMed Central

Tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), an Nrf2 activator, has demonstrated neuroprotection against brain trauma and ischemic stroke in vivo. However, little work has been done with respect to its effect on early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). At the same time, as an oral medication, it may have extensive clinical applications for the treatment of SAH-induced cognitive dysfunction. This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of tBHQ on EBI, secondary deficits of learning and memory, and the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway in a rat SAH model. SD rats were divided into four groups: (1) Control group (n?=?40); (2) SAH group (n?=?40); (3) SAH+vehicle group (n?=?40); and (4) SAH+tBHQ group (n?=?40). All SAH animals were subjected to injection of autologous blood into the prechiasmatic cistern once in 20 s. In SAH+tBHQ group, tBHQ was administered via oral gavage at a dose of 12.5 mg/kg at 2 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 36 h after SAH. In the first set of experiments, brain samples were extracted and evaluated 48 h after SAH. In the second set of experiments, changes in cognition and memory were investigated in a Morris water maze. Results shows that administration of tBHQ after SAH significantly ameliorated EBI-related problems, such as brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment, clinical behavior deficits, cortical apoptosis, and neurodegeneration. Learning deficits induced by SAH was markedly alleviated after tBHQ therapy. Treatment with tBHQ markedly up-regulated the expression of Keap1, Nrf2, HO-1, NQO1, and GST?1 after SAH. In conclusion, the administration of tBHQ abated the development of EBI and cognitive dysfunction in this SAH model. Its action was probably mediated by activation of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway.

Wu, Lingyun; Qiu, Jiaoxue; Li, Qi; Shao, Zhong; Chen, Gang

2014-01-01

314

Activation of Nuclear Factor-?B in the Brain after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and Its Potential Role in Delayed Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

It has been reported that inflammation is involved in brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) is a key transcriptional regulator of inflammatory genes. Here, we used pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate(PDTC), an inhibitor of NF-?B, through intracisternal injection to study the role of NF-?B in delayed brain injury after SAH. A total of 55 rabbits were randomly divided into five groups: the control group; the SAH groups including Day-3, 5, and 7 SAH groups (the rabbits in these groups were sacrificed at 3, 5, 7 days after SAH, respectively); and the PDTC group (n?=?11 for each group). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was performed to detect NF-?B DNA-binding activity. The mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, interleukin (IL)-1?, and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 were evaluated by RT-PCR analysis. Deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation was detected by TUNEL and p65 immunoactivity was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Our results showed the activation of NF-?B after SAH, especially at day 3 and 5. The activated p65 was detected in neurons. NF-?B DNA-binding activity was suppressed by intracisternal administration of PDTC. Increased levels of the TNF-?, IL-1?, and ICAM-1 mRNA were found in the brain at day 5 after SAH, and which were suppressed in the PDTC group. The number of TUNEL-positive cells also decreased significantly in the PDTC group compared with that in the Day-5 SAH group. These results demonstrated that the activated NF-?B in neurons after SAH plays an important role in regulating the expressions of inflammatory genes in the brain, and ultimately contributes to delayed brain injury.

You, Wan-Chun; Wang, Chun-xi; Pan, Yun-xi; Zhang, Xin; Zhou, Xiao-ming; Zhang, Xiang-sheng; Shi, Ji-xin; Zhou, Meng-liang

2013-01-01

315

Tert-Butylhydroquinone Alleviates Early Brain Injury and Cognitive Dysfunction after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Role of Keap1/Nrf2/ARE Pathway.  

PubMed

Tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), an Nrf2 activator, has demonstrated neuroprotection against brain trauma and ischemic stroke in vivo. However, little work has been done with respect to its effect on early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). At the same time, as an oral medication, it may have extensive clinical applications for the treatment of SAH-induced cognitive dysfunction. This study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of tBHQ on EBI, secondary deficits of learning and memory, and the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway in a rat SAH model. SD rats were divided into four groups: (1) Control group (n?=?40); (2) SAH group (n?=?40); (3) SAH+vehicle group (n?=?40); and (4) SAH+tBHQ group (n?=?40). All SAH animals were subjected to injection of autologous blood into the prechiasmatic cistern once in 20 s. In SAH+tBHQ group, tBHQ was administered via oral gavage at a dose of 12.5 mg/kg at 2 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 36 h after SAH. In the first set of experiments, brain samples were extracted and evaluated 48 h after SAH. In the second set of experiments, changes in cognition and memory were investigated in a Morris water maze. Results shows that administration of tBHQ after SAH significantly ameliorated EBI-related problems, such as brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment, clinical behavior deficits, cortical apoptosis, and neurodegeneration. Learning deficits induced by SAH was markedly alleviated after tBHQ therapy. Treatment with tBHQ markedly up-regulated the expression of Keap1, Nrf2, HO-1, NQO1, and GST?1 after SAH. In conclusion, the administration of tBHQ abated the development of EBI and cognitive dysfunction in this SAH model. Its action was probably mediated by activation of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. PMID:24848277

Wang, Zhong; Ji, Chengyuan; Wu, Lingyun; Qiu, Jiaoxue; Li, Qi; Shao, Zhong; Chen, Gang

2014-01-01

316

Expression of synaptic cell adhesion molecule 1 (SynCAM 1) in different brain regions in a rat subarachnoid hemorrhage model.  

PubMed

Synapses, the junctions between nerve cells through which they communicate, are formed by the coordinated assembly and tight attachment of pre- and postsynaptic specializations. Synaptic cell adhesion molecule 1 (SynCAM 1) has been proved to be an important factor for synapse function and behavior cognition. The current research aimed to investigate the expression of the SynCAM 1 in the brain after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rats. A total of 42 rats were randomly divided into seven groups: control group, sham group, day 1, day 3, day 5, day 7, and day 14 groups. Day 1, day 3, day 5, day 7, and day 14 groups were all SAH groups in which the rats were killed on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14, respectively. The rat SAH model was induced by injection of 0.3 ml fresh arterial, non-heparinized blood into the prechiasmatic cistern in 20 s. Immunostaining and immunoblotting experiments were performed to detect the expression of SynCAM 1 protein. The clinical behavior scale was measured on day 14 after SAH. The expression of SynCAM 1 protein was decreased remarkably in SAH groups compared with the sham group. The down-regulated expression of SynCAM 1 was detected after SAH and the low ebb was on days 1-3. The immunohistochemical staining demonstrated expression of SynCAM 1 was present mainly in the neurons in all of the three different regions such as cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. The clinical behavior scale was significantly decreased compared with sham rats. Our results indicate that SynCAM 1 expression is down-regulated in the brain after experimental SAH. These finding suggests that decreased SynCAM 1 expression may facilitate the development of cognitive dysfunction after SAH. PMID:23179183

Wang, Zhong; Hu, Tong; Feng, Dongxia; Chen, Gang

2013-08-01

317

Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) promote mitophagy to protect neuron from death in an early brain injury following a subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.  

PubMed

The term mitophagy is coined to describe the selective removal of mitochondria by autophagy but the process itself is still contentious, especially in the early period following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In the present study, we investigated the role of mitophagy following 48h after SAH injury in rats. Specifically evaluating whether mitophagy, through voltage dependant anion channels (VDACs) interacting with microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3, could orchestrate the induction of apoptotic and necrotic cell death in neurons, a VDAC1siRNA and an activitor Rapamycian (RAPA), were engaged. One hundred and twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: Sham, SAH, SAH+VDAC1siRNA, and SAH+RAPA. Outcomes measured included mortality rate, brain edema, BBB disruption, and neurobehavioral testing. We also used western blotting techniques to analyze the expressions of key mitophagic/autophagic proteins and pro-apoptotic protein such as ROS, VDAC1, LC-3II and Caspase-3. Rapamycin treatment significantly improved the mortality rate, cerebral edema, and neurobehavioral deficits; apoptotic and necrotic cell death in neurons were reduced by Rapamycin following SAH injury. However, VDAC1siRNA worsened the brain injury following SAH. Immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis demonstrated a decreased expression of VDAC1, LC3II, and an increase of ROS and Caspase-3 followed by VDAC1siRNA administration. In conclusion, mitophagy induced by VDAC1 following SAH injury may in fact play a significant role in neuroprotection, the mechanism which may be through the attenuation of the apoptosic and necrosic molecular pathways. This translates a preservation of functional integrity and an improvement in mortality. PMID:24880016

Li, Jian; Lu, Jianfei; Mi, Yongjie; Shi, Zhao; Chen, Chunhua; Riley, John; Zhou, Changman

2014-07-21

318

Intracranial aneurysms: review of current treatment options and outcomes.  

PubMed

Intracranial aneurysms are present in roughly 5% of the population, yet most are often asymptomatic and never detected. Development of an aneurysm typically occurs during adulthood, while formation and growth are associated with risk factors such as age, hypertension, pre-existing familial conditions, and smoking. Subarachnoid hemorrhage, the most common presentation due to aneurysm rupture, represents a serious medical condition often leading to severe neurological deficit or death. Recent technological advances in imaging modalities, along with increased understanding of natural history and prevalence of aneurysms, have increased detection of asymptomatic unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA). Studies reporting on the risk of rupture and outcomes have provided much insight, but the debate remains of how and when unruptured aneurysms should be managed. Treatment methods include two major intervention options: clipping of the aneurysm and endovascular methods such as coiling, stent-assisted coiling, and flow diversion stents. The studies reviewed here support the generalized notion that endovascular treatment of UIA provides a safe and effective alternative to surgical treatment. The risks associated with endovascular repair are lower and incur shorter hospital stays for appropriately selected patients. The endovascular treatment option should be considered based on factors such as aneurysm size, location, patient medical history, and operator experience. PMID:21779274

Seibert, Brad; Tummala, Ramachandra P; Chow, Ricky; Faridar, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed A; Divani, Afshin A

2011-01-01

319

Ruptured aneurysm of the PICA communicating artery: a case report.  

PubMed

A 47-year-old man presented with a rare aneurysm arising from the posterior inferior cerebellar artery communicating artery (PICA com A), manifesting as subarachnoid with intraventricular hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography showed a defect of the left PICA, and the left PICA region was supplied by a communicating artery formed by the fusion of branches from the right PICA and right vertebral artery. Aneurysms arose in the communicating artery, and a small, unruptured fusiform aneurysm was observed adjacent to a ruptured aneurysm. Trapping was performed for the 2 aneurysms with occipital artery (OA)-PICA bypass. Six cases of aneurysms occurring in this vessel including ours have been reported, and hemodynamic factors and congenital fragility of the arterial wall have been suggested as causative factors. Ours is the first case in which a ruptured aneurysm of this vessel was treated surgically with concurrent vascular reconstruction. If the aneurysm has a shape that is difficult to clip, the affected vessel is difficult to preserve, and collateral blood flow to the affected PICA region is considered insufficient, trapping with OA-PICA bypass is recommended. PMID:24119627

Haga, Daisuke; Kuroki, Takao; Andoh, Shunpei; Nemoto, Masaaki; Sugo, Nobuo; Nagao, Takeki

2014-01-01

320

Intracranial Aneurysms: Review of Current Treatment Options and Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Intracranial aneurysms are present in roughly 5% of the population, yet most are often asymptomatic and never detected. Development of an aneurysm typically occurs during adulthood, while formation and growth are associated with risk factors such as age, hypertension, pre-existing familial conditions, and smoking. Subarachnoid hemorrhage, the most common presentation due to aneurysm rupture, represents a serious medical condition often leading to severe neurological deficit or death. Recent technological advances in imaging modalities, along with increased understanding of natural history and prevalence of aneurysms, have increased detection of asymptomatic unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA). Studies reporting on the risk of rupture and outcomes have provided much insight, but the debate remains of how and when unruptured aneurysms should be managed. Treatment methods include two major intervention options: clipping of the aneurysm and endovascular methods such as coiling, stent-assisted coiling, and flow diversion stents. The studies reviewed here support the generalized notion that endovascular treatment of UIA provides a safe and effective alternative to surgical treatment. The risks associated with endovascular repair are lower and incur shorter hospital stays for appropriately selected patients. The endovascular treatment option should be considered based on factors such as aneurysm size, location, patient medical history, and operator experience.

Seibert, Brad; Tummala, Ramachandra P.; Chow, Ricky; Faridar, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed A.; Divani, Afshin A.

2011-01-01

321

Revascularization and pediatric aneurysm surgery.  

PubMed

Object Aneurysms are relatively rare in the pediatric population and tend to include a greater proportion of large and giant lesions. A subset of these large and giant aneurysms are not amenable to direct surgical clipping and require complex treatment strategies and revascularization techniques. There are limited data available on the management of these lesions in the pediatric population. This study was undertaken to evaluate the outcome of treatment of large and giant aneurysms that required microsurgical revascularization and vessel sacrifice in this population. Methods The authors retrospectively identified all cases in which pediatric patients (age < 18 years) with aneurysms were treated using cerebral revascularization in combination with other treatment modalities at their institution between 1989 and 2013. Results The authors identified 27 consecutive patients (19 male and 8 female) with 29 aneurysms. The mean age of the patients at the time of treatment was 11.5 years (median 13 years, range 1-17 years). Five patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage, 11 with symptoms related to mass effect, 2 with stroke, and 3 with seizures; in 6 cases, the aneurysms were incidental findings. Aneurysms were located along the internal carotid artery (n = 7), posterior cerebral artery (PCA) (n = 2), anterior cerebral artery (n = 2), middle cerebral artery (MCA) (n = 14), basilar artery (n = 2), vertebral artery (n = 1), and at the vertebrobasilar junction (n = 1). Thirteen were giant aneurysms (45%). The majority of the aneurysms were fusiform (n = 19, 66%), followed by saccular (n = 10, 34%). Three cases were previously treated using microsurgery (n = 2) or an endovascular procedure (n = 1). A total of 28 revascularization procedures were performed, including superficial temporal artery (STA) to MCA (n = 6), STA to PCA (n = 1), occipital artery to PCA (n = 1), extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass using radial artery graft (n = 3), EC-IC using a saphenous vein graft (n = 7), STA onlay (n = 3), end-to-end anastomosis (n = 1), and in situ bypasses (n = 6). Perioperative stroke occurred in 4 patients, but only one remained dependent (Glasgow Outcome Scale [GOS] score 3). At a mean clinical follow-up of 46 months (median 14 months, range 1-232 months), 26 patients had a good outcome (GOS score 4 or 5). There were no deaths. Five patients had documented occlusion of the bypass graft. The majority of aneurysms (n = 24) were obliterated at last follow-up. There was a single case of a residual aneurysm and one case of recurrence. Angiographic follow-up was unavailable in 3 cases. Conclusions Cerebral revascularization remains an essential tool in the treatment of complex cerebral aneurysms in children. PMID:24745343

Kalani, M Yashar S; Elhadi, Ali M; Ramey, Wyatt; Nakaji, Peter; Albuquerque, Felipe C; McDougall, Cameron G; Zabramski, Joseph M; Spetzler, Robert F

2014-06-01

322

Clipping or coiling of ruptured cerebral aneurysms and shunt-dependent hydrocephalus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Hydrocephalus may develop either early in the course of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) or after the first 2 weeks.\\u000a Because the amount of SAH is a predictor of hydrocephalus, the two available aneurysmal treatments, clipping or coiling, may\\u000a lead to differences in the need for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion, as only surgery permits clot removal.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Hospital and University Hospitals Consortium

Panayiotis Varelas; Ann Helms; Grant Sinson; Marianna Spanaki; Lotfi Hacein-Bey

2006-01-01

323

Immunohistochemical analysis of a ruptured basilar top aneurysm autopsied 22?years after embolization with Guglielmi detachable coils.  

PubMed

The authors report on the histologic and immunohistochemical analyses of a cerebral aneurysm embolized with platinum coils and with the longest observation period. A 58-year-old woman presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured basilar top aneurysm was treated with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDC) 22?years ago. She was the 15th case since the GDC was introduced. After she died of unrelated causes, an autopsy and thorough histologic examination were performed. Gross examination revealed no adhesion between the aneurysm wall and the surrounding brain tissue. Histologic and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that the cavity of the aneurysm was filled with homogeneous collagenous fibrous tissue, while the neck was completely covered by a dense collagenous neointima and a smooth muscle cell layer. The unique histologic results of this case may contribute to a better understanding of the long-term evolution of the healing process in intracranial aneurysms successfully treated with the GDC. PMID:25056301

Yuki, Ichiro; Spitzer, Daniel; Guglielmi, Guido; Duckwiler, Gary; Fujimoto, Motoaki; Takao, Hiroyuki; Jahan, Reza; Tateshima, Satoshi; Murayama, Yuichi; Vinuela, Fernando

2014-01-01

324

Moyamoya disease associated with asymptomatic mosaic turner syndrome: a rare cause of hemorrhagic stroke.  

PubMed

Moyamoya disease is a rare cerebrovascular anomaly involving the intracranial carotid arteries that can present clinically with either ischemic or hemorrhagic disease. Moyamoya syndrome, indistinguishable from moyamoya disease at presentation, is associated with multiple clinical conditions including neurofibromatosis type 1, autoimmune disease, prior radiation therapy, Down syndrome, and Turner syndrome. We present the first reported case of an adult patient with previously unrecognized mosaic Turner syndrome with acute subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage as the initial manifestation of moyamoya syndrome. A 52-year-old woman was admitted with a subarachnoid hemorrhage with associated flame-shaped intracerebral hemorrhage in the left frontal lobe. Physical examination revealed short stature, pectus excavatum, small fingers, micrognathia, and mild facial dysmorphism. Cerebral angiography showed features consistent with bilateral moyamoya disease, aberrant intrathoracic vessels, and an unruptured 4-mm right superior hypophyseal aneurysm. Genetic analysis confirmed a diagnosis of mosaic Turner syndrome. Our case report is the first documented presentation of adult moyamoya syndrome with subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage as the initial presentation of mosaic Turner syndrome. It illustrates the utility of genetic evaluation in patients with cerebrovascular disease and dysmorphism. PMID:24103673

Manjila, Sunil; Miller, Benjamin R; Rao-Frisch, Anitha; Otvos, Balint; Mitchell, Anna; Bambakidis, Nicholas C; De Georgia, Michael A

2014-01-01

325

Endovascular Treatment of AICA Flow Dependent Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Summary Peripheral anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) aneurysms are rare, accounting for less than 1% of all cerebral aneurysms. To our knowledge 34 flow-related cases including the present study have been reported in the literature. Three patients harbouring four flow dependent aneurysms were referred to our institution. Two patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage, one presented with cerebellar manifestations. They were all treated by endovascular embolization of the aneurysm as well as the parent artery using liquid embolic material. Two cases were embolized using NBCA, Onyx was used in the third case. No bleeding or rebleeding were encountered during the follow-up period which ranged from five to nine months. One patient developed facial palsy, cerebellar symptoms and sensorineural hearing loss. The remaining two cases did not develop any post treatment neurological complications. Endovascular management of flow-dependent AICA aneurysms by parent artery occlusion is feasible and efficient in terms of rebleeding prevention. Post embolization neurological complications are unpredictable. This depends upon the adequacy of collaterals from other cerebellar arteries.

Mahmoud, M.; El Serwi, A.; Alaa Habib, M.; Abou Gamrah, S.

2012-01-01

326

Endovascular treatment for ruptured distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm.  

PubMed

A 42-year-old woman presented with Hunt and Hess grade (HHG) III subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by a ruptured left distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) aneurysm. Computed tomography showed a thin SAH on the cerebellopontine angle cistern, and small vermian intracerebral hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage in the fourth ventricle. Digital subtraction angiography revealed the aneurysm on the postmeatal segment of left distal AICA, a branching point of rostrolateral and caudomedial branch of the left distal AICA. Despite thin caliber, tortuous running course and far distal location, the AICA aneurysm was obliterated successfully with endovascular coils without compromising AICA flow. However, the patient developed left side sensorineural hearing loss postoperatively, in spite of definite patency of distal AICA on the final angiogram. She was discharged home without neurologic sequela except hearing loss and tinnitus. Endovascular treatment of distal AICA aneurysm, beyond the meatal loop, is feasible while preserving the AICA flow. However, because the cochlear hair cell is vulnerable to ischemia, unilateral hearing loss can occur, possibly caused by the temporary occlusion of AICA flow by microcatheter during endovascular treatment. PMID:24765609

Oh, Jae-Sang; Yoon, Seok-Mann; Shim, Jai-Joon; Bae, Hack-Gun; Yoon, Il-Gyu

2014-03-01

327

[Aneurysms of the distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery; the report of 10 cases].  

PubMed

Non mycotic and non traumatic distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms are rare, but eleven aneurysms in ten cases were reported. They all originated from subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of these aneurysms. The patients in these cases were all admitted within 5 days after the onset. The neurological state of four cases on admission was grade 4 or 5 in Hunt and Kosnik's grading system. Two patients of grade 5 died within 24 hours after the onset. The CT scan on admission revealed heavy subarachnoid hemorrhage mainly in the posterior fossa. In severe cases, ventricle hematoma, cerebellar hematoma and/or subdural hematoma were evident in the posterior fossa. The locations of these eleven aneurysms were as follows: On the bifurcation of the Telovelotonsillar segment in six cases. In the cortical segment in three cases. In the anterior medullary and tonsillomedullary segment in one case. Six saccular aneurysms were situated on bifurcations of parent arteries but three saccular aneurysms did not arise from bifurcations. Two of them were not from turning points of the arteries. One fusiform aneurysm situated on the bifurcation of telovelotonsillar segment was excised, and histologically shown to be a dissecting aneurysm with hypoplasia of elastic lamina and tunica media in the parent artery. Three cases were associated with small AVM located on the superior surface of the cerebellar vermis and fed mainly by the superior cerebellar artery (SCA) in two cases, and by SCA and PICA in one case. In these cases the hemodynamic stress on PICA did not seem to increase so remarkably.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1944776

Nishino, A; Sakurai, Y; Satoh, H; Niizuma, H; Kayama, T; Ogawa, A; Ohtoh, T

1991-10-01

328

Decision-Making Impairment on the Iowa Gambling Task After Endovascular Coiling or Neurosurgical Clipping for Ruptured Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate decision-making deficits after anterior communicating artery aneurysm (ACoA) rupture and to compare the effects of two treatments. Method: The sample included 40 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to ruptured ACoA with a favorable neurological outcome and a control group of 31 subjects matched by age, sex, and years of education. Twenty patients had surgical interventions (clipping) and

Gemma Escartin; Carme Junqué; Montserrat Juncadella; Andreu Gabarrós; Maria Angels de Miquel; Francisco Rubio

2012-01-01

329

The effects of fenestration of the interpeduncular cistern membrane arousted to the opening of lamina terminalis in patients with ruptured ACoA aneurysms: a prospective, comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Background. The incidence of chronic hydrocephalus requiring shunt placement is a well-known and common complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid\\u000a hemorrhage (aSAH). It was suggested that fenestration of the lamina terminalis (LT) during microsurgery for aSAH may be associated\\u000a with a reduced rate of shunt-dependent chronic hydrocephalus (SDCH). We analyzed that, fenestrations of the LT and Liliequist\\u000a membrane (LM) would reduce rate

M. Akyuz; R. Tuncer

2006-01-01

330

An Analysis of 1256 Cases of Sporadic Ruptured Cerebral Aneurysm in a Single Chinese Institution  

PubMed Central

Background To review the epidemiology of sporadic ruptured cerebral aneurysm. Methods This is a retrospective study of consecutive 1256 Chinese patients between January 2006 and January 2013, who were admitted to the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, China, for spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a rupture of cerebral artery aneurysm. In 288 males and 478 females, the size of aneurysms was measured by a neuroradiologist on DSA. In 123 males and 184 females, the size of the ruptured aneurysms was not measured. The remaining patients, with 61 males and 122 females, had multiple aneurysms, and the medical record could not reliably determine the specific aneurysm responsible for the rupture. Results In total there were 784 females and 472 males with a female/male ratio of 1.66. The female/male ratio was down to 0.50 for patients younger than 35 yrs. For both males and females, aneurysm rupture was most common during the age of 50–59 yrs. Ruptured aneurysms were mostly of 2 mm–5 mm in size (47.1%), followed by 5 mm–10 mm (39.7%). Ruptured single cerebral aneurysm occurred in anterior circulation in 95.0% of the cases, with 5.0% occurred in posterior circulation. Ruptured aneurysm most commonly occurred at posterior communicating artery (34.9%) and anterior communicating artery (29.5%). 183 cases (14.6%) had multiple aneurysms. Conclusions With younger patients, there is a male predominance in our series. Ninety percent of patients have ruptured aneurysms less than 10 mm in size.

Zhao, Lin; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Xiaolin; Li, Zhenzhong; Tian, Linwei; Wang, Yi-Xiang J.

2014-01-01

331

Beta-Cell Dysfunction and Insulin Resistance after Subarachnoid Haemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Hyperglycaemia is a common finding and an independent risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Although in these patients hyperglycaemia is commonly ascribed to insulin resistance, there is little understanding of underlying mechanisms. Aims: To prospectively study temporal disturbances of glucose metabolism after aneurysmal SAH in patients without known abnormalities of glucose metabolism and

N. D. Kruyt; A. Musters; G. J. Biessels; J. H. DeVries; B. A. Coert; M. D. I. Vergouwen; J. Horn; Y. B. Roos

2011-01-01

332

Cigarette Smoke and Inflammation: Role in Cerebral Aneurysm Formation and Rupture  

PubMed Central

Smoking is an established risk factor for subarachnoid hemorrhage yet the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Recent data has implicated a role of inflammation in the development of cerebral aneurysms. Inflammation accompanying cigarette smoke exposure may thus be a critical pathway underlying the development, progression, and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. Various constituents of the inflammatory response appear to be involved including adhesion molecules, cytokines, reactive oxygen species, leukocytes, matrix metalloproteinases, and vascular smooth muscle cells. Characterization of the molecular basis of the inflammatory response accompanying cigarette smoke exposure will provide a rational approach for future targeted therapy. In this paper, we review the current body of knowledge implicating cigarette smoke-induced inflammation in cerebral aneurysm formation/rupture and attempt to highlight important avenues for future investigation.

Chalouhi, Nohra; Ali, Muhammad S.; Starke, Robert M.; Jabbour, Pascal M.; Tjoumakaris, Stavropoula I.; Gonzalez, L. Fernando; Rosenwasser, Robert H.; Koch, Walter J.; Dumont, Aaron S.

2012-01-01

333

A case of ruptured peripheral aneurysm of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery associated with an arteriovenous malformation : a less invasive image-guided transcortical approach.  

PubMed

A 47-year-old man presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and right cerebellar hematoma was referred for evaluation. Cerebral angiography revealed a distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) aneurysm associated with an arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Successful obliteration and complete removal of the aneurysm and AVM were obtained using transcortical approach under the guidance of neuronavigation system. The association of a peripheral AICA aneurysm and a cerebellar AVM by the same artery is unique. The reported cases of conventional surgery for this disease complex are not common and their results are variable. Less invasive surgery using image-guided neuronavigation system would be helpful and feasible for a peripheral aneurysm combining an AVM of the posterior fossa in selective cases. PMID:20062576

Lee, Seung Hwan; Koh, Jun Seok; Bang, Jae Seung; Kim, Gook Ki

2009-12-01

334

A Case of Ruptured Peripheral Aneurysm of the Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Associated with an Arteriovenous Malformation : A Less Invasive Image-Guided Transcortical Approach  

PubMed Central

A 47-year-old man presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and right cerebellar hematoma was referred for evaluation. Cerebral angiography revealed a distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) aneurysm associated with an arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Successful obliteration and complete removal of the aneurysm and AVM were obtained using transcortical approach under the guidance of neuronavigation system. The association of a peripheral AICA aneurysm and a cerebellar AVM by the same artery is unique. The reported cases of conventional surgery for this disease complex are not common and their results are variable. Less invasive surgery using image-guided neuronavigation system would be helpful and feasible for a peripheral aneurysm combining an AVM of the posterior fossa in selective cases.

Lee, Seung Hwan; Bang, Jae Seung; Kim, Gook Ki

2009-01-01

335

Derivative spectrophotometric analysis of cerebrospinal fluid for the detection of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A cerebral aneurysm is a weakened portion of an artery in the brain. When a cerebral aneurysm ruptures, a specific type of bleeding known as a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) occurs. No test exists currently to screen people for the presence of an aneurysm. The diagnosis of a SAH is made after an aneurysm ruptures, and the literature indicates that nearly one-third of patients with a SAH are initially misdiagnosed and subjected to the risks associated with aneurysm re-rupture. For those individuals with a suspected SAH, a computerized tomography (CT) scan of the brain usually demonstrates evidence of the bleeding. However, in a considerable portion of people, the CT scan is unable to detect the blood that has escaped from the blood vessel. For circumstances when a SAH is suspected despite a normal CT scan, physicians make the diagnosis of SAH by performing a spinal tap. A spinal tap uses a needle to sample the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from the patient"s back; CSF is tainted with blood after the aneurysm ruptures. To distinguish between a common headache and a SAH, a fast and an effective solution is required. We describe the development of an effective detection system integrating hardware and a powerful software interface solution. Briefly, CSF from the patient is aspirated and excited with an appropriate wavelength of light. The software employs spectrophotometric analysis of the output spectra and lays the foundation for the development of portable and user-friendly equipment for detection of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm.

Bhadri, P. R.; Majumder, A.; Morgan, C. J.; Pyne, G. J.; Zuccarello, M.; Jauch, E.; Wagner, K. R.; Clark, J. F.; Caffery, J., Jr.; Beyette, Fred R., Jr.

2003-11-01

336

Angiotensin 1-7 reduces mortality and rupture of intracranial aneurysms in mice.  

PubMed

Angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, and formation and rupture of intracranial aneurysms in mice. Because Ang 1-7 acts on Mas receptors and generally counteracts deleterious effects of Ang II, we tested the hypothesis that Ang 1-7 attenuates formation and rupture of intracranial aneurysms. Intracranial aneurysms were induced in wild-type and Mas receptor-deficient mice using a combination of Ang II-induced hypertension and intracranial injection of elastase in the basal cistern. Mice received elastase+Ang II alone or a combination of elastase+Ang II+Ang 1-7. Aneurysm formation, prevalence of subarachnoid hemorrhage, mortality, and expression of molecules involved in vascular injury were assessed. Systolic blood pressure was similar in mice receiving elastase+Ang II (mean±SE, 148±5 mm Hg) or elastase+Ang II+Ang 1-7 (144±5 mm Hg). Aneurysm formation was also similar in mice receiving elastase+Ang II (89%) or elastase+Ang II+Ang 1-7 (84%). However, mice that received elastase+Ang II+Ang 1-7 had reduced mortality (from 64% to 36%; P<0.05) and prevalence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (from 75% to 48%; P<0.05). In cerebral arteries, expression of the inflammatory markers, Nox2 and catalase increased similarly in elastase+Ang II or elastase+Ang II+Ang 1-7 groups. Ang 1-7 increased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 induced by elastase+Ang II (P<0.05). In Mas receptor-deficient mice, systolic blood pressure, mortality, and prevalence of subarachnoid hemorrhage were similar (P>0.05) in groups treated with elastase+Ang II or elastase+Ang II+Ang 1-7. The expression of Mas receptor was detected by immunohistochemistry in samples of human intracranial arteries and aneurysms. In conclusion, without attenuating Ang II-induced hypertension, Ang 1-7 decreased mortality and rupture of intracranial aneurysms in mice through a Mas receptor-dependent pathway. PMID:24799613

Peña Silva, Ricardo A; Kung, David K; Mitchell, Ian J; Alenina, Natalia; Bader, Michael; Santos, Robson A S; Faraci, Frank M; Heistad, Donald D; Hasan, David M

2014-08-01

337

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy following subarachnoid haemorrhage.  

PubMed

A 67-year-old woman was admitted with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage and a 12-lead ECG showed ST segment elevation. Transthoracic echocardiography confirmed akinesis of the left ventricular mid-apical segment, with an ejection fraction of 26%, features characteristic of takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Five days later, we identified thrombus in the apex of the left ventricle. Sixteen days after onset, the thrombus had disappeared and wall motion improved (ejection fraction 58%) without evidence of cardioembolism. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a cause of cardiac dysfunction after stroke, including SAH. It is characterised by transiently depressed contractile function of the left mid and apical ventricle, without obstructive coronary artery disease. Clinicians should suspect takotsubo cardiomyopathy in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage who have an ECG abnormality. Echocardiography is needed to detect the distinctive regional wall motion abnormality. Despite its severity in the acute phase, takotsubo cardiomyopathy is self-limiting and its management is conservative. PMID:24101552

Maekawa, Hidetsugu; Hadeishi, Hiromu

2014-08-01

338

Endovascular Treatment of Internal Carotid and Vertebral Artery Aneurysms Using a Novel Pericardium Covered Stent  

PubMed Central

Summary Intracranial aneurysm is a fairly common (often asymptomatic) condition. Subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with aneurysmal rupture is a potentially lethal event with a mortality rate as high as 50 percent and a high rate of disability among those who survive the initial hemorrhage, such that recently published guidelines support treatment of intracerebral aneurysms. The current treatment options include surgical clipping and endovascular treatment, but these are not without significant problems. Despite the trend toward endovascular treatment the rate of recurrence and complications is high. Current published evidence of the use of covered stent is limited to stents covered with polytetrafluoroethylene. It is now recognized that mammalian extracellular matrix represents an excellent scaffold material suitable for many therapeutic applications and glutaraldehyde treated pericardium has been widely used for many years due to its desirable features such as low immunogenicity and durability. This report describes the first published experience with the Aneugraft Pericardium Covered Stent (ITGI Medical, OR Akiva, Israel) in the treatment of internal carotid and vertebral artery aneurysms in three patients. In all three cases, the implantation of this novel device has resulted in successful closure of aneurysms.

Vulev, I.; Klepanec, A.; Bazik, R.; Balazs, T.; Illes, R.; Steno, J.

2012-01-01

339

Evaluation of wall shear stress in a patient-specific model of a cerebral aneurysm using stereo PIV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is important to determine whether a particular cerebral aneurysm has a high risk of rupture or not so that it can be treated before subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs. Hemodynamic stresses, especially Wall Shear Stress (WSS), are considered to play an important role in formation, growth and rupture of the cerebral aneurysm. In this paper, we investigate WSS under the pulsatile inflow conditions in a realistic in vitro model of a cerebral aneurysm. The geometry model is constructed in a patient-specific manner using CT data. The stereo PIV measurement is conducted to obtain the velocity field in the model and to derive WSS distribution from PIV results and geometry data of lost model. The results show that overall WSS distribution in the model does not charge uniformly with time due to palsatile flow.

Bando, Yoshinori; Oishi, Masamichi; Oshima, Marie

2007-11-01

340

Association between an aplastic basilar artery, unaccompanied by a primitive carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis, and multiple aneurysms on the dominant posterior communicating artery.  

PubMed

Basilar artery (BA) aplasia when unaccompanied by a primitive carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis is exceedingly rare. The association of BA aplasia with two aneurysms on the dominant posterior communicating artery (PCoA) has not been previously reported. This 40-year-old man presented in a state of drowsiness and responded to simple commands only after being coaxed. He had complete left cranial third nerve palsy, right hemiparesis, and persisting signs of meningeal irritation. A computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage. An angiogram revealed BA aplasia. The right PCoA followed a sinuous course with multiple loops and provided the dominant supply to the posterior circulation. This vessel harbored two aneurysms, one at the origin of the PCoA from the internal carotid artery and the other at the looping segment just proximal to the brainstem. The left PCoA was extremely thin. The pterional transsylvian approach was used to clip the two aneurysms on the PCoA. The hemodynamic changes produced by the BA aplasia may have produced alterations in the cerebral vasculature leading to aneurysm formation and consequent subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:15137614

Behari, Sanjay; Krishna, Himanshu; Kumar, Marakani V Kiran; Sawlani, Vijay; Phadke, Rajendra V; Jain, Vijendra K

2004-05-01

341

What You Should Know about Cerebral Aneurysms  

MedlinePLUS

... an aneurysm ruptures, it leaks blood into the space around the brain. This is called a “subarachnoid ... Other problems may include hydrocephalus (enlargement of the spaces within the brain that produce cerebrospinal fluid), difficulty ...

342

Rupture of intracranial aneurysm during angiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of rupture of intracranial aneurysm during angiography is presented. Carotid angiograms showed extravasation of contrast medium into the subarachnoid space at the base of the brain. The literature is reviewed and possible mechanisms are briefly discussed.

Shiro Waga; Akinori Kondo; Kozo Moritake; Hajime Handa

1973-01-01

343

Fusiform superior cerebellar artery aneurysm treated with STA-SCA bypass and trapping  

PubMed Central

Background: Fusiform aneurysms of cerebellar arteries are rare. Different surgical techniques to address these challenging lesions have been described, and their application depends on whether the goal is to maintain the flow in the parent vessel or to occlude it. Case Description: The authors reported a case of a fusiform aneurysm located in the lateral pontomesencephalic segment of the superior cerebellar artery (SCA) in a 32-year-old man who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. The patient was subjected to aneurysm trapping followed by a bypass between the superficial temporal artery (STA) and SCA and had an uneventful recovery. Conclusions: Although only a few cases of fusiform aneurysms in the supracerebellar artery have been reported in the literature, the treatment strategies adopted were diverse. In selected cases of patients in good neurological condition with ruptured fusiform aneurysms at the proximal segments of SCA and who have poor evidence of collateral supply, the possibility of a STA-SCA bypass with aneurysm trapping must be considered. A review of the current treatment modalities of this pathology is also presented.

Lamis, Fabricio C.; De Paiva Neto, Manoel A.; Cavalheiro, Sergio

2014-01-01

344

Stent-Grafts in the Management of Hemorrhagic Complications Related to Hemostatic Closure Devices: Report of Two Cases  

SciTech Connect

We report 2 cases of hemorrhagic complications related to use of the Angio-Seal hemostatic closure device that were successfully managed with stent-grafts. Two patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage were referred to our departments for endovascular treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. The treatment was performed through a femoral access; the sheaths were removed immediately after the procedures, and the punctures sites closed by Angio-Seals. Both patients presented clinical signs of hypovolemic shock after treatment. The diagnosis of active bleeding through the puncture site was made by emergency digital subtraction angiography. The lesions were managed with stent-grafts. The use of stent-grafts proved to be efficient in the management of these life-threatening hemorrhagic complications following the use of the Angio-Seal hemostatic closure device.

Giansante Abud, Daniel; Mounayer, Charbel [Fondation Rothschild, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (France); Saint-Maurice, Jean Pierre [Hopital Lariboisiere, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (France); Salles Rezende, Marco Tulio [Fondation Rothschild, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (France); Houdart, Emmanuel [Hopital Lariboisiere, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (France); Moret, Jacques [Fondation Rothschild, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (France)], E-mail: jmoret@fo-rothschild.fr

2007-02-15

345

A retrospective clinical and angiographic study of the coiling outcome of ruptured intracranial aneurysms.  

PubMed

Many factors that determine the outcome of endovascular treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms are still controversial. We conducted a retrospective study of 203 patients with ruptured aneurysms treated by coiling to assess these factors. The Glasgow Outcome Scale score was used for clinical follow-up and magnetic resonance angiography for angiographic follow-up. Overall outcome and pretreatment variables predicting outcome were thoroughly analyzed. Good clinical grade on presentation was correlated with a better clinical outcome (p<0.001); however, symptomatic vasospasm (15.8% of patients) was correlated with a worse clinical outcome (p<0.001). Six patients (3%) suffered ischemic complications at the time of treatment, hemorrhagic events occurred in five patients (2.5%), permanent morbidity in five patients (2.5%) and overall mortality in 5.4%. In this series, we studied some factors currently debated in the literature and concluded that elderly patients (> or =65 years) with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage can safely be treated with endovascular therapy with a favorable outcome and that middle cerebral artery aneurysms can be safely embolized with results comparable to other locations. PMID:20080410

Melake, Mostafa Saleh; Yamamoto, Munetaka; Yoshida, Kensaku; Oishi, Hidenori; Arai, Hajime; Elwan, Mohamed; Okda, Mohamed; El-Sheikh, Wafik; Hori, Tomokatsu

2010-03-01

346

Enterprise stent for waffle-cone stent-assisted coil embolization of large wide-necked arterial bifurcation aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Background: Large wide-necked arterial bifurcation aneurysms present a unique challenge for endovascular coil embolization treatment. One technique described in the literature deploys a Neuroform stent into the neck of the aneurysm in the shape of a waffle-cone, thereby acting as a scaffold for the coil mass. This case series presents four patients with large wide-necked bifurcation aneurysms treated with the closed-cell Enterprise stent using the waffle-cone technique. Case Description: Four patients (59 ± 18 years of age) with large wide-necked arterial bifurcation aneurysms (three basilar apex and one MCA bifurcation) were treated with the waffle-cone technique using the Enterprise stent as a supporting device for stent-assisted coil embolization. Three of the patients presented with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (Hunt-Hess 2-3; Fisher Grade 3-4). There was no procedural morbidity or mortality associated with treatment itself. One aneurysm was completely obliterated, and three had small residual necks. One patient developed an area of PCA infarct and visual field cut one month after the procedure and required recoiling of the residual neck. The flared ends of the Enterprise stent remodeled the aneurysm neck by conforming to the shape of the neck without any technical difficulty, resulting in a stable scaffold holding the coils into the aneurysm. Conclusion: The closed cell construction, flexibility, and flared ends of the Enterprise stent allow it to conform to the waffle-cone configuration and provide a stable scaffold for coil embolization of large wide-necked arterial bifurcation aneurysms. We have had excellent initial results using the Enterprise stent with the waffle-cone technique. However, this technique is higher risk than standard treatment methods and therefore should be reserved for large wide-necked bifurcation aneurysms where Y stenting is needed, but not possible, and surgical clip ligation is not an option.

Padalino, David J.; Singla, Amit; Jacobsen, Walter; Deshaies, Eric M.

2013-01-01

347

[Ruptured aneurysm at the anomalous arterial wall of the distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery: a case report].  

PubMed

Distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery(AICA)aneurysms are rare, so its pathogenesis and treatment remain controversial. Here, we report the unique pathogenesis of a ruptured aneurysm in this area that was based on anomalous components as well as partial dissection of the arterial wall. A 61-year-old woman presented to our hospital with sudden headache and nausea. On admission, neurological examination revealed slight consciousness disturbance. Computed tomography(CT)of the head showed a clotted subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH)that was dominant in the right cerebellopontine and prepontine cistern. Three-dimensional CT angiography detected an irregular fusiform aneurysm 4.5×3.2mm in size in the distal portion of the AICA. The patient underwent trapping without distal vascular reconstruction by the lateral suboccipital approach. After surgery, she experienced right hearing disturbance and ipsilateral facial palsy that were considered to be caused by vasogenic edema at the cerebellar peduncle that resulted from the initial SAH damage. Pathology revealed an aneurysmal wall with anomalous components and arterial dissection in the arterial wall. To our knowledge, only one article has reported the histological findings of a distal AICA aneurysm. Based on the pathology of this case, these findings may suggest a useful treatment strategy for this rare aneurysm. PMID:24388939

Hikichi, Kentaro; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Moroi, Junta; Miyata, Hajime

2014-01-01

348

The TEAM trial: Safety and efficacy of endovascular treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms in the prevention of aneurysmal hemorrhages: A randomized comparison with indefinite deferral of treatment in 2002 patients followed for 10 years  

PubMed Central

The management of patients with unruptured aneurysms remains controversial. Patients with unruptured aneurysms may suffer intracranial haemorrhage, but the incidence of this event is still debated; endovascular treatment may prevent rupture, but involves immediate risks. Hence, the balance of risks and benefits of endovascular treatment is uncertain. Here, we report the design of the TEAM trial, the first international, randomized, controlled trial comparing conservative management with endovascular treatment. Primary endpoint is mortality and morbidity (modified Rankin Score ? 3) from intracranial haemorrhage or treatment. Secondary endpoints include incidence of hemorrhagic events, morbidity related to endovascular coiling, morphological results, overall clinical outcome and quality of life. Statistical tests compare between probabilities at 5- and 10-years of 1/mortality from haemorrhage related to the lesion, excluding per-operative complications; 2/mortality from haemorrhage or from complications of treatment; 3/combined disease or treatment related mortality and morbidity in the absence of other causes of death or disability. The study will be conducted in 60 international centres and will enrol 2,002 patients equally divided between the two groups, a size sufficient to achieve 80% power at a 0.0167 significance to detect differences in 1) disease or treatment-related poor outcomes from 7–9% to 3–5%; 2) overall mortality from 16 to 11%. Duration of the study is 14 years, the first three years being for patient recruitment plus a minimum of 10 years of follow-up. The TEAM trial thus offers a means to reconcile the introduction of a new approach with the necessity to acknowledge uncertainties. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN62758344

Raymond, Jean; Molyneux, Andrew J; Fox, Allan J; Johnston, S Claiborne; Collet, Jean-Paul; Rouleau, Isabelle

2008-01-01

349

Blister-like aneurysms--a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.  

PubMed

Blister-like internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms are known for their fragile and thin-walled morphology associated with a high risk of intraprocedural rupture. Neurosurgical and endovascular options are illustrated on three exemplary cases reviewing the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of these special aneurysms. A 49-year-old woman was admitted with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in which angiography showed a broad-based, small bulging ectasy of the terminal ICA segment. On the attempt of surgical clipping, the aneurysm ruptured leaving a tear in the ICA. After temporary clipping, the rims of the tear were approximated by sutures. Sufficient closure of the remaining leakage was achieved by circumferential wrapping which was secured by two clips. Postoperative angiography confirmed stenosis of the tightened ICA and patient recovered without neurological deficit. Surgical attempt on a second case with bulging of the C4-segment topped by a small aneurysm was fatal due to extensive laceration of the basal ICA intraoperatively. Endovascular stenting was the choice of treatment in a third SAH patient in which angiography was suspicious of a blister-like ICA aneurysm. Six-month follow-up was uneventful; the patient recovered well and further growth of bulging was not seen. Reviewing the literature, blister-like aneurysms tend to arise at uncommon sites not located at the arterial branches. Small and broad-based bulges with or without true saccular aneurysms have to be assessed as characteristic features of blister-like aneurysms. Rupture of the aneurysm involving the carrying artery has to be considered during therapeutic attempts, in which urgent strategies have to be kept in reserve preventing fatal outcome. Blister-like aneurysms is a hazardous affair for neurosurgeons and neuroradiologists as their fragile structure most likely will lead to intraoperative rupture. If endovascular treatment is not promising, wrapping and revascularization techniques come true to still be an important part of the neurosurgeons toolbox for reconstructing a vessel lumen and preserving a sufficient cerebral blood flow. PMID:21584689

Regelsberger, Jan; Matschke, Jakob; Grzyska, Ulrich; Ries, Thorsten; Fiehler, Jens; Köppen, Johannes; Westphal, Manfred

2011-10-01

350

Anterior cerebral artery bypass for complex aneurysms: an experience with intracranial-intracranial reconstruction and review of bypass options.  

PubMed

Object The authors describe their experience with intracranial-to-intracranial (IC-IC) bypasses for complex anterior cerebral artery (ACA) aneurysms with giant size, dolichoectatic morphology, or intraluminal thrombus; they determine how others have addressed the limitations of ACA bypass; and they discuss clinical indications and microsurgical technique. Methods A consecutive, single-surgeon experience with ACA aneurysms and bypasses over a 16-year period was retrospectively reviewed. Bypasses for ACA aneurysms reported in the literature were also reviewed. Results Ten patients had aneurysms that were treated with ACA bypass as part of their surgical intervention. Four patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage and 3 patients with mass effect symptoms from giant aneurysms; 1 patient with bacterial endocarditis had a mycotic aneurysm, and 1 patient's meningioma resection was complicated by an iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm. One patient had his aneurysm discovered incidentally. There were 2 precommunicating aneurysms (A1 segment of the ACA), 5 communicating aneurysms (ACoA), and 3 postcommunicating (A2-A3 segments of the ACA). In situ bypasses were used in 4 patients (A3-A3 bypass), interposition bypasses in 4 patients, reimplantation in 1 patient (pericallosal artery-to-callosomarginal artery), and reanastomosis in 1 patient (pericallosal artery). Complete aneurysm obliteration was demonstrated in 8 patients, and bypass patency was demonstrated in 8 patients. One bypass thrombosed, but 4 years later. There were no operative deaths, and permanent neurological morbidity was observed in 2 patients. At last follow-up, 8 patients (80%) were improved or unchanged. In a review of the 29 relevant reports, the A3-A3 in situ bypass was used most commonly, extracranial (EC)-IC interpositional bypasses were the second most common, and reanastomosis and reimplantation were used the least. Conclusions Anterior cerebral artery aneurysms requiring bypass are rare and can be revascularized in a variety of ways. Anterior cerebral artery aneurysms, more than any other aneurysms, require a thorough survey of patient-specific anatomy and microsurgical options before deciding on an individualized management strategy. The authors' experience demonstrates a preference for IC-IC reconstruction, but EC-IC bypasses are reported frequently in the literature. The authors conclude that ACA bypass with indirect aneurysm occlusion is a good alternative to direct clip reconstruction for complex ACA aneurysms. PMID:24745711

Abla, Adib A; Lawton, Michael T

2014-06-01

351

Treatment of cerebral aneurysms in children: analysis of the Kids' Inpatient Database.  

PubMed

Object Endovascular coiling and surgical clipping are viable treatment options of cerebral aneurysms. Outcome data of these treatments in children are limited. The objective of this study was to determine hospital mortality and complication rates associated with surgical clipping and coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms in children, and to evaluate the trend of hospitals' use of these treatments. Methods The authors identified a cohort of children admitted with the diagnoses of cerebral aneurysms and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage from the Kids' Inpatient Database for the years 1998 through 2009. Hospital-associated complications and in-hospital mortality were compared between the treatment groups and stratified by aneurysmal rupture status. A multivariate regression analysis was used to identify independent variables associated with in-hospital mortality. The Cochrane-Armitage test was used to assess the trend of hospital use of these operations. Results A total of 1120 children were included in this analysis; 200 (18%) underwent aneurysmal clipping and 920 (82%) underwent endovascular coiling. Overall in-hospital mortality was higher in the surgical clipping group compared with the coil embolization group (6.09% vs 1.65%, respectively; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.52, 95% CI 0.97-6.53, p = 0.05). The risk of postoperative stroke or hemorrhage was similar between the two treatment groups (p = 0.86). Pulmonary complications and systemic infection were higher in the surgical clipping population (p < 0.05). The rate of US hospitals' use of endovascular coiling has significantly increased over the years included in this study (p < 0.0001). Teaching hospitals were associated with a lower risk of death (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03-0.46; p = 0.001). Conclusions Although both treatments are valid, endovascular coiling was associated with fewer deaths and shorter hospital stays than clip placement. The trend of hospitals' use of coiling operations has increased in recent years. PMID:24835049

Alawi, Aws; Edgell, Randall C; Elbabaa, Samer K; Callison, R Charles; Khalili, Yasir Al; Allam, Hesham; Alshekhlee, Amer

2014-07-01

352

A Self-expanding Nitinol Stent (Enterprise) for the Treatment of Wide-necked Intracranial Aneurysms: Angiographic and Clinical Results in 40 Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Objective Self-expanding stents are increasingly used for the treatment of complex intracranial aneurysms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness and safety of a self-expanding nitinol stent (Enterprise) in the treatment of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms. Methods This was a retrospective study of 39 patients with 40 wide-necked intracranial aneurysms who were enrolled in a single-center registry of patients treated with the Enterprise between June 2009 and December 2011. Thirty patients were asymptomatic, four had cerebrovascular accident sequelae, and five had suffered subarachnoid hemorrhage. One aneurysm had reopened after prior coil embolization, while 39 had not been treated. Clinical charts, procedural data, and angiographic results, including both immediate post-procedural angiograms and follow-up imaging, were reviewed. Results The mean neck size of the aneurysms was 5.58 mm (range 3-15.1 mm). Embolization was successful in all patients. There were five procedure-related events. There were no fatalities, but one procedure-related morbidity was noted. The immediate angiographic results included eight complete occlusions (20%), six remnant necks (15%), and 26 remnant sacs (65%). At angiographic follow-up (mean: 11.3 months), out of 18 of the aneurysms treated with stent-assisted coiling, there were 13 (72.2%) complete occlusions, four (22.2%) remnant necks, and one recanalization (5.6%). Conclusion Stent-assisted coiling using the Enterprise is effective for the treatment of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms. Further angiographic and clinical follow-up investigation will be needed for evaluation of the long-term outcomes.

Kim, Sung Tae; Jeong, Young Gyun; Heo, Young Jin; Seo, Jeong Hwa; Paeng, Sung Hwa

2013-01-01

353

Neuroprotective Effect of Hydrogen-Rich Saline against Neurologic Damage and Apoptosis in Early Brain Injury following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Possible Role of the Akt/GSK3? Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds Early brain injury (EBI) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Neuronal apoptosis is involved in the pathological process of EBI. Hydrogen can inhibit neuronal apoptosis and attenuate EBI following SAH. However, the molecular mechanism underlying hydrogen-mediated anti-apoptotic effects in SAH has not been elucidated. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether hydrogen alleviates EBI after SAH, specifically neuronal apoptosis, partially via the Akt/GSK3? signaling pathway. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats (n?=?85) were randomly divided into the following groups: sham group (n?=?17), SAH group (n?=?17), SAH + saline group (n?=?17), SAH + hydrogen-rich saline (HS) group (n?=?17) and SAH + HS + Ly294002 (n?=?17) group. HS or an equal volume of physiological saline was administered immediately after surgery and repeated 8 hours later. The PI3K inhibitor, Ly294002, was applied to manipulate the proposed pathway. Neurological score and SAH grade were assessed at 24 hours after SAH. Western blot was used for the quantification of Akt, pAkt, GSK3?, pGSK3?, Bcl-2, Bax and cleaved caspase-3 proteins. Neuronal apoptosis was identified by double staining of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and NeuN, and quantified by apoptosis index. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescent double-labeling staining was performed to clarify the relationships between neuronal apoptosis and pAkt or pGSK3?. Results HS significantly reduced neuronal apoptosis and improved neurological function at 24 hours after SAH. The levels of pAkt and pGSK3?, mainly expressed in neurons, were markedly up-regulated. Additionally, Bcl-2 was significantly increased while Bax and cleaved caspase-3 was decreased by HS treatment. Double staining of pAkt and TUNEL showed few colocalization of pAkt-positive cells and TUNEL-positive cells. The inhibitor of PI3K, Ly294002, suppressed the beneficial effects of HS. Conclusions HS could attenuate neuronal apoptosis in EBI and improve the neurofunctional outcome after SAH, partially via the Akt/GSK3? pathway.

Wang, Jianfeng; Chen, Sheng; Wu, HaiJian; McBride, Devin W.; Wu, Qun; Sun, XueJun; Zhang, JianMin

2014-01-01

354

CT appearances of haematomas in the corpus callosum in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corpus callosum heamatoma is a rare feature in subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), which may result from aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery (ACoA) or pericallosal artery (PCA). In 348 patients with aneurysmal SAH, bleeding from ACoA aneurysms in 88 cases produced no abnormality on CT in 7. Blood in the cistern of the lamina terminalis was the most frequent abnormality (76\\/88);

A. Jackson; J. B. Fitzgerald; R. W. J. Hartley; A. Leonard; J. Yates

1993-01-01

355

Retroperitoneal Hematoma as a Serious Complication of Endovascular Aneurysmal Coiling  

PubMed Central

Retroperitoneal hematoma (RH) due to radiologic intervention for an intracranial lesion is relatively rare, difficult to diagnose, and can be life-threatening. We report a case of RH that developed in a patient on anticoagulant therapy following endovascular coiling of a ruptured anterior communicating artery (AcoA) aneurysm. An 82-year-old man presented with a 12-day history of headache. Computed tomography (CT) on admission demonstrated slight subarachnoid hemorrhage, and left carotid angiography revealed an AcoA aneurysm. The next day, the aneurysm was occluded with coils via the femoral approach under general anesthesia. The patient received a bolus of 5,000 units of heparin immediately following the procedure, and an infusion rate of 10,000 units/day was initiated. The patient gradually became hypotensive 25 hours after coiling. Abdominal CT showed a huge, high-density soft-tissue mass filling the right side of the retroperitoneum space. The patient eventually died of multiple organ failure five days after coiling. RH after interventional radiology for neurological disease is relatively rare and can be difficult to diagnose if consciousness is disturbed. This case demonstrates the importance of performing routine physical examinations, sequentially measuring the hematocrit and closely monitoring systemic blood pressures following interventional radiologic procedures in patients with abnormal mental status.

Adachi, Koji; Yoshida, Yoichi; Takei, Mao; Teramoto, Akira

2010-01-01

356

Memory impairment caused by cerebral hematoma in the left medial temporal lobe due to ruptured posterior cerebral artery aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive disorders, such as memory disturbances, are often observed following a subarachnoid hemorrhage. We present a very rare case where rupture of a posterior cerebral artery aneurysm caused restricted damage to the hippocampus unilaterally, and caused memory disturbances. Case presentation A 56-year-old, right-handed man, with a formal education history of 16 years and company employees was admitted to our hospital because of a consciousness disturbance. He was diagnosed as having a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a left posterior cerebral artery dissecting aneurysm, and coil embolization was performed. Subsequently, he had neither motor paresis nor sensory disturbances, but he showed disorientation, and both retrograde and anterograde amnesia. Although immediate recall and remote memory were almost intact, his recent memory was moderately impaired. Both verbal and non-verbal memories were impaired. Brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a cerebral hematoma in the left temporal lobe involving the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) demonstrated low perfusion areas in the left medial temporal lobe. Conclusions We suggest that the memory impairment was caused by local tissue destruction of Papez’s circuit in the dominant hemisphere due to the cerebral hematoma.

2014-01-01

357

A ruptured aneurysm arising at the leptomeningeal collateral circulation from the extracranial vertebral artery to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery associated with bilateral vertebral artery occlusion.  

PubMed

We report an extremely rare case of a small ruptured aneurysm of the leptomeningeal collateral circulation from the vertebral artery (VA) to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA); this aneurysm was associated with bilateral VA occlusion. A 72-year-old woman with sudden headache, nausea, and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) was admitted to our hospital. On admission, no evidence of cerebral signs or cranial nerve palsy was found. Computed tomography imaging showed SAH predominantly in the posterior fossa, and digital subtraction angiography revealed bilateral VA occlusion and the left VA aneurysm located proximal to the VA union. In addition, a small aneurysm was observed at the leptomeningeal collateral circulation located between the extracranial left VA and the left PICA. The patient underwent radical surgery on the day of the onset of the symptoms associated with SAH. However, the VA aneurysm was unruptured and surgically trapped. The small aneurysm arising at the leptomeningeal collateral circulation was ruptured during the surgery and was electrocoagulated; the collateral circulation was preserved, and no neurologic deficits were observed. The postoperative course was uneventful. SAH with the occlusion of major vessels should be diagnosed with utmost caution to allow preoperative neurologic and radiological assessments. PMID:24321776

Chonan, Masashi; Nishimura, Shinjitu; Kimura, Naoto; Ezura, Masayuki; Uenohara, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Teiji

2014-02-01

358

Microsurgical clipping of large and giant cerebral aneurysms: A single-center contemporary experience.  

PubMed

Several treatment strategies are available to manage large and giant cerebral aneurysms, including surgical, endovascular and combined approaches. We present our experience with microsurgical clipping of large and giant aneurysms. A total of 138 patients with 139 aneurysms of which 128 were large (?10mm) and 11 were giant (?25mm) were treated at our institution between 2004 and 2011. Data were collected from a prospectively maintained neurovascular database. Of 138 patients, 53 (38.4%) patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Peri-operative complications occurred in 16.7% of patients causing permanent morbidity in 4.4% and death in 0.7%. Complete occlusion, as evident on intra-operative angiography, was achieved in all clipped aneurysms (100%). Long-term follow-up angiography showed no recurrence (mean follow-up time, 43.9months; range: 1-72months). Favorable outcomes at discharge (Glasgow Outcome Scale score 4 or 5) were noted in 64.1% of SAH patients and 93% of non-SAH patients. Favorable outcomes at follow-up (mean follow up time, 42.5months) were seen in 96% of patients. In our experience, microsurgical clipping of large and giant aneurysms carries low rates of morbidity and mortality with high rates of favorable outcomes. The excellent durability of surgical treatment stands in stark contrast with the high recurrence rates observed with coiling for this subset of aneurysms. These data suggest that microsurgical clipping continues to be a viable option that can be offered for patients with large and giant aneurysms. PMID:24792725

Chalouhi, Nohra; Thakkar, Vismay; Tjoumakaris, Stavropoula; Fernando Gonzalez, L; Hasan, David; Rosenwasser, Robert; Singhal, Saurabh; Jabbour, Pascal M

2014-08-01

359

Life-threatening allergic vasculitis after clipping an unruptured aneurysm: Case report, weighing the risk of nickel allergy  

PubMed Central

Background: This case report represents one of the estimated 17,000 aneurysms clipped annually in the United States, often with nickel-containing clips. The authors highlight the development of life-threatening allergic vasculitis in a 33-year-old woman after aneurysm clipping. Case Description: After suffering subarachnoid hemorrhage, the patient had coil embolization at another facility for rupture of a right internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm. An incidental finding, an unruptured left posterior communicating artery aneurysm unamenable to coiling, was then successfully clipped via a left pterional craniotomy. Arriving in our emergency department 11 days later, she progressively declined during the next weeks, facing deteriorating clinical status (i.e. seizures) and additional infarctions in the left frontal lobe, midline shift, and new infarctions in the bilateral frontal lobe, right sylvian, right insular regions, and posterior cerebral artery distribution. During decompressive surgery, biopsy findings raised the possibility of lymphocytic vasculitis; consultations with rheumatology, allergy, and immunology specialists identified that our patient had a nickel allergy. After reoperation to replace the nickel-containing clip with one of a titanium alloy, the patient had an uncomplicated postoperative course and was discharged 6 days later to a rehabilitation facility. Conclusions: Nickel-related allergies are more common than appreciated, affecting up to 10% of patients. Fortunately, severe reactions are rare; nevertheless, vascular neurosurgeons should be aware of this potential complication when using cobalt alloy aneurysms clips. The use of titanium alloy clips eliminates this risk.

Grande, Andrew; Grewal, Sanjeet; Tackla, Ryan; Ringer, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

360

[Application of intraoperative microvascular dopplerography in surgical treatment of arterial aneurysm of the brain].  

PubMed

The possibilities and results of the intraoperative microvascular dopplerography application in microsurgical exclusion of the brain arterial aneurysm (BAA) were estimated. The investigation was conducted during operative intervention in 30 patients, suffering hemorrhagic type of the brain acute blood flow disorder as a consequence of the BAA rupture. In an acute period (the first-14th day) 23 patients were operated, in the early restoration period (after 30th day)--7. Intraoperative express estimation of the blood flow have permitted to diagnose and to correct timely some typical technical complications, in particular, noncomplete BAA exclusion from the blood flow, the arterial lumen, containing the clipped aneurysm, stenosing; to reveal the arterial segments vasospasm objectively in the patients, operated on in an acute period of hemorrhage, and to diagnose a reactive spasm during manipulations on the arteries. All the patients, operated on in the early restoration period and 82.6% of patients, operated on in an acute period of subarachnoidal hemorrhage, have had reconvalesced. Application of the microvascular dopplerography secures objectivization, simplifies intraoperative estimation of the BAA radicality and the according arterial segments passability in the operative intervention zone, what promotes reduction of the ischemic complications rate and positively impacts the results of treatment. PMID:24501963

Hloba, M V; Lytvak, S O

2013-10-01

361

Unilateral subfrontal approach to anterior communicating artery aneurysms: A review of 28 patients  

PubMed Central

Background: The pterional approach is the most common for AComm aneurysms, but we present a unilateral approach to a midline region for addressing the AComm complex. The pure subfrontal approach eliminates the lateral anatomic dissection requirements without sacrificing exposure. The subfrontal approach is not favored in the US compared to Asia and Europe. We describe our experience with the subfrontal approach for AComm aneurysms treated at a single institution. Methods: We identified 28 patients treated for AComm aneurysms through the subfrontal approach. Patient records and imaging studies were reviewed. Demographics and case data, as well as clinical outcome at 6 weeks and 1 year were collected. Results: Mean patient age was 48 (range 21–75) years and 64% suffered subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). All aneurysms were successfully clipped. Gyrus rectus was resected in 57% of cases, more commonly in ruptured cases. Intraoperative rupture occurred in 11% of cases. The average operative time was 171 minutes. There were two patient deaths. Ninety-two percent of patients had a Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) of 5 at 6 weeks. All unruptured patients had a GOS of 5. At 12 months, 96% of all patients had a GOS of 5. Conclusions: The subfrontal approach provides an efficient avenue to the AComm region, which reduces opening and closing friction but still yields a comprehensive operative window for access to the anterior communicating region.

Petraglia, Anthony L.; Srinivasan, Vasisht; Moravan, Michael J.; Coriddi, Michelle; Jahromi, Babak S.; Vates, G Edward; Maurer, Paul K.

2011-01-01

362

Spontaneous thrombosis in giant intracranial aneurysms.  

PubMed Central

Twelve patients in a series of 22 with giant intracranial aneurysms demonstrated neuroradiological features of partial or total spontaneous intra-aneurysmal thrombosis. The presence of this intra-aneurysmal clot significantly altered the computed tomographic appearance of the giant aneurysm. Massive intra-aneurysmal thrombosis did not protect against subarachnoid haemorrhage and the likelihood of rupture of a clot containing giant aneurysm was not significantly different from that of a non-thrombosed giant aneurysm. Although parent artery occlusion from a thrombosed giant aneurysm, and massive aneurysmal thrombosis leading to the formation of giant serpentine aneurysm were documented, these are rare epiphenomena. The risk of embolisation from a partially thrombosed giant aneurysm, which was documented in one case, would appear to be greater than that from a non-thrombosed giant aneurysm. The findings in this series, and a review of literature, suggest that the presence of intra-aneurysmal clot in giant intracranial aneurysms has little prognostic significance and does not alter the management or outcome after treatment. Images

Whittle, I R; Dorsch, N W; Besser, M

1982-01-01

363

Cerebral Vasospasm in Intracerebral Hemorrhage-Case Report  

PubMed Central

Background: Cerebral vasospasm is commonly seen in subarachnoid hemorrhage. However the vasospasm in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage without subarachnoid extension has not been described. Report: We report a patient who developed intracerebral hemorrhage associated with cerebral vasospasm demonstrated by conventional angiography. The vasospasm involved the superior and inferior divisions of the middle cerebral artery on the side of intracerebral hemorrhage. The vasospasm resolved in six days as documented by a repeat angiography. Conclusion: Cerebral vasospasm can be rarely seen in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Further elaboration is required to understand the pathophysiology and subsequent impact on outcome in such patients.

Khatri, Ismail A.; Verma, Navin; AlKawi, Ammar; Janjua, Nazli; Kirmani, Jawad F.

2009-01-01

364

Risk of Shunt Dependent Hydrocephalus after Treatment of Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms : Surgical Clipping versus Endovascular Coiling According to Fisher Grading System  

PubMed Central

Objective The amount of hemorrhage observed on a brain computed tomography scan, or a patient's Fisher grade (FG), is a powerful risk factor for development of shunt dependent hydrocephlaus (SDHC). However, the influence of treatment modality (clipping versus coiling) on the rate of SDHC development has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, we compared the risk of SDHC in both treatment groups according to the amount of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods We retrospectively reviewed 839 patients with aneurysmal SAH for a 5-year-period. Incidence of chronic SDHC was analyzed using each treatment modality according to the FG system. In addition, other well known risk factors for SDHC were also evaluated. Results According to our data, Hunt-Hess grade, FG, acute hydrocephalus, and intraventricular hemorrhage were significant risk factors for development of chronic SDHC. Coiling group showed lower incidence of SDHC in FG 2 patients, and clipping groups revealed a significantly lower rate in FG 4 patients. Conclusion Based on our data, treatment modality might have an influence on the incidence of SDHC. In FG 4 patients, the clipping group showed lower incidence of SDHC, and the coiling group showed lower incidence in FG 2 patients. We suggest that these findings could be a considerable factor when deciding on a treatment modality for aneurysmal SAH patients, particularly when the ruptured aneurysm can be occluded by either clipping or coiling.

Nam, Kyung-Hun; Kang, Dong-Hun; Park, Jaechan; Kim, Yong-Sun

2010-01-01

365

Traumatic Posterior Fossa SubduralHemorrhage Associated with an ArachnoidCyst in a Pediatric Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Acute subdural hematoma associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage of the posterior fossa following closed head trauma is a relatively rare entity with a high mortality rate. Most authors recommend immediate surgical intervention for acute subdural hematoma. To the best of our knowledge, concurrent acute subdural hematoma and subarachnoid hemorrhage with an arachnoid cyst at the infratentorial compartment have not been

Osman Kizilkiliç; Sait Albayram; Bengi Gurses; Taner Tanriverdi; Civan Islak; Naci Kocer

2003-01-01

366

Intracranial Hemorrhage and Vitamin K Deficiency Associated with Biliary Atresia: Summary of 15 Cases and Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biliary atresia (BA) is a rare disease, characterized by progressive and obliterative cholangiopathy, and is one of the major causes of secondary vitamin K deficiency in infancy. We describe 15 infants (10 female, 5 male) with BA, presenting with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), including 10 subdural hemorrhages, 4 subarachnoid hemorrhages, 2 intraventricular hemorrhages, and 1 intraparenchymal hemorrhage. The age at onset

Hideyuki Akiyama; Yusuke Okamura; Tatsuya Nagashima; Akiko Yokoi; Toshihiro Muraji; Yoshiyuki Uetani

2006-01-01

367

Unusual case of subarachnoid haemorrhage in patient with Fabry's disease: case report and literature review.  

PubMed

Fabry's disease is a rare, X linked recessive disease affecting 1 in 40 000 persons. The symptoms result from a lack of or a non-functioning enzyme ? galactosidase, which leads to globotriaosylceramide accumulation in the walls of blood vessels. Mortality is generally from cardiac or renal complications and death from subarachnoid haemorrhage is distinctly rare. The authors report a man with Fabry's disease who died after subarachnoid haemorrhage from a progressively enlarging fusiform basilar aneurysm. PMID:22761201

Cormican, Michael T; Paschalis, Thanasis; Viers, Angela; Alleyne, Cargill H

2012-01-01

368

Acute Aneurismal Bilateral Subdural Haematoma without Subarachnoid Haemorrhage: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous pure acute bilateral subdural haematoma (ASDH) without intraparenchymal or subarachnoid haemorrhage caused by a ruptured cerebral aneurysm is extremely rare. It can follow rupture of different aneurysms specially located in anterior incisural space; the most frequently encountered location is the PcoA aneurysms as demonstrated in the present case. We present a case report of a PcoA aneurysm presenting as pure bilateral ASDH. A high level of suspicion for bleeding of arterial origin should be maintained in all cases of acute subdural haematoma without history of trauma. The neurological status on admission dictates the appropriate timing and methodology of the neuroradiological investigations.

Mansour, Ossama; Hassen, Tamer; Fathy, Sameh

2014-01-01

369

Intracranial Hemorrhage in Patient Treated with Rivaroxaban  

PubMed Central

Rivaroxaban is an oral factor Xa inhibitor used for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. There are currently no evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of hemorrhagic side effects of factor Xa inhibitors. We report a case of a thalamic hemorrhage in an 84 year-old right-handed female on rivaroxaban for treatment of atrial fibrillation. The patient had fallen down steps and became unresponsive. She was found to have diffuse scattered acute subarachnoid hemorrhage as well as intraventricular hemorrhage. Neurosurgical intervention was not required in this case, but controversy over decision making to pursue pro-coagulant therapy in the setting of worsening hemorrhage re