Sample records for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

  1. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Stanlies

    2015-07-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a worldwide health burden with high fatality and permanent disability rates. The overall prognosis depends on the volume of the initial bleed, rebleeding, and degree of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Cardiac manifestations and neurogenic pulmonary edema indicate the severity of SAH. The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) reported a favorable neurological outcome with the endovascular coiling procedure compared with surgical clipping at the end of 1 year. The ISAT trial recruits were primarily neurologically good grade patients with smaller anterior circulation aneurysms, and therefore the results cannot be reliably extrapolated to larger aneurysms, posterior circulation aneurysms, patients presenting with complex aneurysm morphology, and poor neurological grades. The role of hypothermia is not proven to be neuroprotective according to a large randomized controlled trial, Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysms Surgery Trial (IHAST II), which recruited patients with good neurological grades. Patients in this trial were subjected to slow cooling and inadequate cooling time and were rewarmed rapidly. This methodology would have reduced the beneficial effects of hypothermia. Adenosine is found to be beneficial for transient induced hypotension in 2 retrospective analyses, without increasing the risk for cardiac and neurological morbidity. The neurological benefit of pharmacological neuroprotection and neuromonitoring is not proven in patients undergoing clipping of aneurysms. DCI is an important cause of morbidity and mortality following SAH, and the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial and not yet understood. At present, oral nimodipine has an established role in the management of DCI, along with maintenance of euvolemia and induced hypertension. Following SAH, hypernatremia, although less common than hyponatremia, is a predictor of poor neurological outcome. PMID:25272066

  2. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a worldwide health burden with high fatality and permanent disability rates. The overall prognosis depends on the volume of the initial bleed, rebleeding, and degree of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Cardiac manifestations and neurogenic pulmonary edema indicate the severity of SAH. The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) reported a favorable neurological outcome with the endovascular coiling procedure compared with surgical clipping at the end of 1 year. The ISAT trial recruits were primarily neurologically good grade patients with smaller anterior circulation aneurysms, and therefore the results cannot be reliably extrapolated to larger aneurysms, posterior circulation aneurysms, patients presenting with complex aneurysm morphology, and poor neurological grades. The role of hypothermia is not proven to be neuroprotective according to a large randomized controlled trial, Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysms Surgery Trial (IHAST II), which recruited patients with good neurological grades. Patients in this trial were subjected to slow cooling and inadequate cooling time and were rewarmed rapidly. This methodology would have reduced the beneficial effects of hypothermia. Adenosine is found to be beneficial for transient induced hypotension in 2 retrospective analyses, without increasing the risk for cardiac and neurological morbidity. The neurological benefit of pharmacological neuroprotection and neuromonitoring is not proven in patients undergoing clipping of aneurysms. DCI is an important cause of morbidity and mortality following SAH, and the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial and not yet understood. At present, oral nimodipine has an established role in the management of DCI, along with maintenance of euvolemia and induced hypertension. Following SAH, hypernatremia, although less common than hyponatremia, is a predictor of poor neurological outcome. PMID:25272066

  3. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History Early Detection and Screening Unruptured Brain Aneurysms Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Treatment Options Aneurysm Complications Post ...

  4. Principles of neuroanesthesia in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kundra, Sandeep; Mahendru, Vidhi; Gupta, Vishnu; Choudhary, Ashwani Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is associated with high mortality. Understanding of the underlying pathophysiology is important as early intervention can improve outcome. Increasing age, altered sensorium and poor Hunt and Hess grade are independent predictors of adverse outcome. Early operative interventions imposes an onus on anesthesiologists to provide brain relaxation. Coiling and clipping are the two treatment options with increasing trends toward coiling. Intraoperatively, tight control of blood pressure and adequate brain relaxation is desirable, so that accidental aneurysm rupture can be averted. Patients with poor grades tolerate higher blood pressures, but are prone to ischemia whereas patients with lower grades tolerate lower blood pressure, but are prone to aneurysm rupture if blood pressure increases. Patients with Hunt and Hess Grade I or II with uneventful intraoperative course are extubated in operation theater, whereas, higher grades are kept electively ventilated. Postoperative management includes attention toward fluid status and early management of vasospasm. PMID:25190938

  5. The Diagnostic Pitfalls of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage from Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    DeLong, W. Bradford

    1975-01-01

    The subtle manner in which subarachnoid hemorrhage frequently presents may delay appropriate treatment. The patient may deteriorate and die from aneurysmal rebleeding or from cerebral ischemia associated with vasospasm before the true nature of the disease is recognized. Five patients are described in whom subarachnoid hemorrhage was initially not recognized. Pitfalls in diagnosis are discussed, and an outline is presented for the evaluation of patients suspected of harboring ruptured intracranial aneurysms. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:1179734

  6. From intracranial aneurysm to subarachnoid hemorrhage : unraveling the genetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ynte Marije Ruigrok

    2006-01-01

    The principle aim of this thesis was to identify genes involved in intracranial aneurysms and subsequent aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) especially those implicated in the maintenance of the integrity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the arterial wall. These genes were identified using a study population with a familial preponderance of the disease. In part 1 of the thesis this

  7. Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Complications of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Bruder; Alejandro Rabinstein

    Cardiopulmonary complications after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage negatively affect overall morbidity and mortality.\\u000a An electronic literature search was performed for English-language articles focused on cardiopulmonary complications with\\u000a subarachnoid hemorrhage published through October 2010. A total of 278 citations were identified, including 72 clinical studies.\\u000a In most cases, study quality was low or very low. Cardiac injury, evidenced by an elevation in

  8. Neurogenic Stress Cardiomyopathy After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Athar N.; Gross, Bradley A.; Rosalind Lai, Pui Man; Moses, Ziev B.; Du, Rose

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy (NSC) is a known complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Detailed analyses of risk factors for its occurrence across large cohorts are relatively sparse. Methods We reviewed a consecutive group of 300 patients with aSAH, evaluating for the presence of markers of myocardial injury including EKG changes (long QT, TWI), elevated plasma troponin levels (>=0.1), and echocardiogram findings (decreased ejection fraction and wall motion abnormalities). Neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy (NSC) was defined as the presence of at least one marker of myocardial injury. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the correlation of NSC as well as individual markers of myocardial injury with age, gender, medical comorbidities, medications, current smoking status, Hunt-Hess (HH) grade, and Fisher grade. Medical comorbidities were assessed based on reported medical history or reported use of comorbidity-specific medications at the time of presentation. Results Across the cohort, 27% of patients had a plasma troponin elevation of at least 0.1, 13% a prolonged QT interval, 16% new T wave inversions, 18% a depressed ejection fraction (less than 55%), and 15% echocardiographic wall motion abnormalities. After a multivariate analysis, significant risk factors for NSC included higher HH grade on presentation (OR 2.33, p = 4.52 × 10?6), current smoking status (OR 2.00, p = 0.030), and older age (OR 1.03, p = 0.048). Hypertension was protective against NSC (OR 0.48, p = 0.031). Patient gender, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, coronary artery disease, statin usage, beta blocker usage, ACE-inhibitor usage, aspirin usage, and thicker SAH (Fisher 3) were not significant risk factors for NSC. Conclusion Higher HH grade, current smoking status, lack of hypertension and older age were the strongest predictors of neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy. PMID:25655685

  9. [Continuous EEG monitoring for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Pugin, D; Vulliemoz, S; Bijlenga, P; Gasche, Y

    2014-12-10

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) still carries a high morbidity and mortality, despite improvement in surgical and medical management. Seizures and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) secondary to vasospasm or cortical spreading depression are frequent after SAH. Continuous EEG allows early detection of non-convulsive seizures or delayed cerebral ischemia and may become a promissing tool in the monitoring of SAH patients. However, its use in clinical practice is still limited because many resources are required for recording and analyzing continuous EEG. Moreover, we require more data to confirm the relationship between aggressive treatment of non-convulsive seizure or delayed cerebral ischemia triggered by continuous EEG and outcome. PMID:25632630

  10. Differentiation between traumatic tap and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Alyahya, Bader; Sivilotti, Marco L A; Bullard, Michael J; Émond, Marcel; Sutherland, Jane; Worster, Andrew; Hohl, Corinne; Lee, Jacques S; Eisenhauer, Mary A; Pauls, Merril; Lesiuk, Howard; Wells, George A; Stiell, Ian G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the findings in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with acute headache that could distinguish subarachnoid hemorrhage from the effects of a traumatic lumbar puncture. Design A substudy of a prospective multicenter cohort study. Setting 12 Canadian academic emergency departments, from November 2000 to December 2009. Participants Alert patients aged over 15 with an acute non-traumatic headache who underwent lumbar puncture to rule out subarachnoid hemorrhage. Main outcome measure Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage requiring intervention or resulting in death. Results Of the 1739 patients enrolled, 641 (36.9%) had abnormal results on cerebrospinal fluid analysis with >1×106/L red blood cells in the final tube of cerebrospinal fluid and/or xanthochromia in one or more tubes. There were 15 (0.9%) patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage based on abnormal results of a lumbar puncture. The presence of fewer than 2000×106/L red blood cells in addition to no xanthochromia excluded the diagnosis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, with a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval 74.7% to 100%) and specificity of 91.2% (88.6% to 93.3%). Conclusion No xanthochromia and red blood cell count <2000×106/L reasonably excludes the diagnosis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Most patients with acute headache who meet this cut off will need no further investigations and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage can be excluded as a cause of their headache. PMID:25694274

  11. Perioperative critical care management for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Choi, H. Alex; Edwards, Nancy; Chang, Tiffany; Sladen, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant regional and risk factor-related variations, the overall mortality rate in patients suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains high. Compared to ischemic stroke, which is typically irreversible, hemorrhagic stroke tends to carry a higher mortality, but patients who do survive have less disability. Technologies to monitor and treat complications of SAH have advanced considerably in recent years, but good long-term functional outcome still depends on prompt diagnosis, early aggressive management, and avoidance of premature withdrawal of support. Endovascular procedures and open craniotomy to secure a ruptured aneurysm represent some of the numerous critical steps required to achieve the best possible result. In this review, we have attempted to provide a contemporary, evidence-based outline of the perioperative critical care management of patients with SAH. This is a challenging and potentially fatal disease with a wide spectrum of severity and complications and an often protracted course. The dynamic nature of this illness, especially in its most severe forms, requires considerable flexibility in clinician management, especially given the panoply of available treatment modalities. Judicious hemodynamic monitoring and adaptive therapy are essential to respond to the fluctuating nature of cerebral vasospasm and the varying oxygen demands of the injured brain that may readily induce acute or delayed cerebral ischemia. PMID:25237442

  12. Management of arterial vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Dusick, Joshua R; Gonzalez, Nestor R

    2013-11-01

    Despite recent advances, cerebral vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) still represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Although a significant portion of the morbidity and mortality associated with aSAH is related to the initial hemorrhagic ictus, cerebral vasospasm and DCI are still the leading cause of poor outcomes and death in the acute posthemorrhage period, causing long-term disability or death in more than one in five of all patients who have suffered aSAH and initially survived.Management of patients following aSAH includes four major considerations: (1) prediction of patients at highest risk for development of DCI, (2) prophylactic measures to reduce its occurrence, (3) monitoring to detect early signs of cerebral ischemia, and (4) treatments to correct vasospasm and cerebral ischemia once it occurs. The authors review the pertinent literature related to each, including both the current management guidelines supported by the literature as well as novel management strategies that are currently being investigated. PMID:24504612

  13. Neuropsychological assessments in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, perimesencephalic SAH, and incidental aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, Kara; Dombek, Susanne; Martens, Tobias; Köppen, Johannes; Westphal, Manfred; Regelsberger, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is known to be associated with long-term cognitive deficits. Neurosurgical manipulation on the brain itself has been reported to have influence on neuropsychological sequelae. The following is a comparative study on perimesencephalic and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients as well as elective aneurysm patients that was carried out to determine the isolated and combined impact of surgical manipulation and hemorrhage, respectively, on long-term neuropsychological outcome. Inclusion criteria were good neurological recovery at discharge (modified Rankin Scale 0 or 1) without focal neurological deficit. Standardized psychological testing covered attention, memory, executive functions, and mood. Thirteen aneurysmal SAH patients, 15 patients undergoing elective clipping, and 14 patients with perimesencephalic SAH were analyzed. Standardized neuropsychological testing and social/professional history questionnaires were performed 2 years (mean) after discharge. Memory impairment and slower cognitive processing were found in the aneurysmal and perimesencephalic SAH groups, while elective aneurysm patients showed signs of impaired attention. However, compared with norm data for age-matched healthy controls, all groups showed no significant test results. In contrast, signs of clinical depression were seen in 9/42 patients, 45 % of all patients complained of stress disorders and 55 % of patients were unable to work in their previous professions. Nearly normal neuropsychological test results on long-term follow-up in SAH patients were unexpected. However, a 50 % rate of unemployment accompanied with stress disorders and depression manifests insufficient social and workplace reintegration. Therefore, even more specific rehabilitation programs are required following inpatient treatment to attain full recovery. PMID:23949148

  14. CHRONIC CEREBRAL PARAGONIMIASIS COMBINED WITH ANEURYSMAL SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JUK-DONG CHOO; BUMN-SUK SUH; HYUN-SUNG LEE; JONG-SOO LEE; CHANG-JUNE SONG; DAE-WHAN SHIN; YOUNG-HA LEE

    A 67-year-old Korean woman attended our hospital complaining of a severe headache. A brain computed tomography scan showed conglomerated, high-density, calcified nodules in the left temporo-occipito-parietal area and high-density subarachnoid hemorrhage in the basal cisterns. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain shows multiple conglomerated iso- or low-signal intensity round nodules with peripheral rim enhancement. She underwent craniotomies to clip the

  15. Indications for endovascular therapy for refractory vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norberto Andaluz; Thomas A Tomsick; John M Tew; Harry R van Loveren; Hwa-Shain Yeh; Mario Zuccarello

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUNDTransluminal balloon angioplasty (TBA) and intra-arterial papaverine (IAP) appear to be valuable alternatives for the treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced vasospasm refractory to maximal medical therapy. Although widely used, guiding principles for the implementation of TBA and IAP are not yet established. Based on our retrospective analysis, we define guidelines for endovascular therapy for refractory vasospasm based on our

  16. Predictors of 1-year outcome after coiling for poor-grade subarachnoid aneurysmal hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana R. Pereira; Paola Sanchez-Peña; Alessandra Biondi; Nader Sourour; Anne L. Boch; Chantal Colonne; Lise Lejean; Lamine Abdennour; Louis Puybasset

    2007-01-01

    Objective  To describe features in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage\\u000a (SAH) and to identify predictors of 12-month outcome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a controlled observational study of 51 consecutive patients treated with endovascular coiling within 96 h of\\u000a rupture for poor-grade aneurysmal SAH (20 men and 31 women, age 54 ± 12 years). We recorded co-morbidities; initial severity;\\u000a aneurysm

  17. Cardiac Abnormalities After Aneurysmal Sub-arachnoid Hemorrhage: Effects of ?-Blockers and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Crago, Elizabeth; Kerris, Kelly; Kuo, Chien-Wen J.; Sherwood, Paula; Hravnak, Marilyn; Crippen, David; Horowitz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac abnormalities attributed to adrenergic surge are common after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Prescribed medications that block adrenergic stimulation may suppress the onset of cardiopulmonary compromise in patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Objectives To compare the incidence of early cardiac complications between patients who reported prescribed use of ?-blockers and/or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors before aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and patients who did not. Methods A retrospective review of 254 adult patients after acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage who were enrolled in an existing R01 study. Demographic data and history were obtained from patients’/proxies’ reports and charts. Cardiac enzyme levels, 12-lead electrocardiograms, and chest radiographs were obtained on admission. Holter monitoring and echocardiograms were completed as a part of the R01 study. Results Patients reporting prescribed use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or ?-blockers before aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage had more ventricular and supra-ventricular ectopy on a Holter report than did patients who did not (P < .05). When age, race, sex, and injury (Fisher grade) were controlled for, patients reporting use of ?-blockers were 8 times more likely than others to have occasional to frequent ventricular ectopy (P = .02). Conclusion No concrete evidence was found that exposure to adrenergic blockade before aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage provides protection from neurocardiac injury. PMID:24382615

  18. Unusual co-existence of dural sinus thrombosis and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in a patient with lupus.

    PubMed

    Misra, D P; Chowdhury, A C; Parida, J R; Jain, S K; Agarwal, V

    2015-08-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage and dural sinus thrombosis are important manifestations of neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus. We report the case of a woman with relapsed lupus nephritis, in partial remission, who presented with the unusual combination of dural sinus thrombosis (due to protein S functional deficiency) and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. She had a fatal outcome, as has often been reported with subarachnoid hemorrhage in the context of active lupus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such an unusual association in lupus, and highlights unique challenges in the management of intracranial hemorrhage in the context of dural sinus thrombosis. PMID:25661833

  19. Computed Tomography Angiography Spot Sign Does Not Predict Case Fatality in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage With Intraparenchymal Extension

    PubMed Central

    Brouwers, H. Bart; Backes, Daan; Kimberly, W. Taylor; Schwab, Kristin; Romero, Javier M.; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; Klijn, Catharina J.M.; Ogilvy, Christopher S.; Regli, Luca; Greenberg, Steven M.; Rosand, Jonathan; Rinkel, Gabriel J.E.; Goldstein, Joshua N.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Many patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with intraparenchymal extension develop early hematoma expansion, which is not explained by aneurysmal rerupture in half of cases. In patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage, the computed tomography angiography (CTA) spot sign predicts hematoma expansion and poor outcome. We conducted a 2-center prospective cohort study to evaluate whether CTA spot sign predicts case fatality in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage with intraparenchymal extension. Methods We studied consecutive patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage with intraparenchymal extension. Two experienced readers, blinded to clinical data, analyzed CTAs for spot sign presence. We assessed the proportion of patients with the CTA spot sign and tested its association with in-hospital and 90-day case fatality, using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Results In 32 of 236 patients (14%), we found at least 1 spot sign. Acute surgical hematoma evacuation with aneurysm occlusion occurred in 120 patients (51%). The overall in-hospital case fatality rate was 37%. The CTA spot sign was not associated with in-hospital (multivariable odds ratio, 0.51 [95% confidence interval, 0.06–3.26]) or 90-day (multivariable odds ratio, 0.59 [0.21–1.65]) case fatality. Conclusions The found frequency of CTA spot signs is lower after aneurysmal than primary intracerebral hemorrhage and is not associated with in-hospital or 90-day case fatality in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage with intraparenchymal extension. PMID:23572475

  20. Implications of Early Versus Late Bilateral Pulmonary Infiltrates in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas H. Kramer; Thomas P. Bleck; Aaron S. Dumont; Neal F. Kassell; Claire Olson; Bart Nathan

    2009-01-01

    Introduction  Bilateral pulmonary infiltrates occur frequently following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and may be associated\\u000a with worse outcomes. The etiology, natural history, and prognosis of infiltrates occurring soon after SAH may differ from\\u000a the characteristics of infiltrates developing at a later time.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We performed a retrospective cohort study involving 245 consecutive patients with a ruptured cerebral aneurysm to assess the\\u000a association

  1. De novo aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage 7 years after initial cryptogenic subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wenz, H; Al Mahdi, M-M; Ehrlich, G; Scharf, J; Schmiedek, P; Seiz, M

    2015-03-01

    Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is usually caused by a ruptured cerebral aneurysm. Despite the use of initial four-vessel cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA), 15?% of all cases remain idiopathic. According to the initial computed tomographic scan, the spontaneous SAH can be divided into a perimesencephalic group associated with a benign nature and a nonperimesencephalic group with a similar clinical course as aneurysmal SAH. We present a case of a 49-year-old man with a de novo aneurysm formation of the anterior communicating artery with SAH 7 years after initial cryptogenic nonperimesencephalic SAH. This observation suggests that in some cases, long-term angiographic studies might be justified. PMID:24384679

  2. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: relationship to solar activity in the United States, 1988-2010.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Weil, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a common condition treated by neurosurgeons. The inherent variability in the incidence and presentation of ruptured cerebral aneurysms has been investigated in association with seasonality, circadian rhythm, lunar cycle, and climate factors. We aimed to identify an association between solar activity (solar flux and sunspots) and the incidence of aneurysmal SAH, all of which appear to behave in periodic fashions over long time periods. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) provided longitudinal, retrospective data on patients hospitalized with SAH in the United States, from 1988 to 2010, who underwent aneurysmal clipping or coiling. Solar activity and SAH incidence data were modeled with the cosinor methodology and a 10-year periodic cycle length. The NIS database contained 32,281 matching hospitalizations from 1988 to 2010. The acrophase (time point in the cycle of highest amplitude) for solar flux and for sunspots were coincident. The acrophase for aneurysmal SAH incidence was out of phase with solar activity determined by non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Aneurysmal SAH incidence peaks appear to be delayed behind solar activity peaks by 64 months (95% CI; 56-73 months) when using a modeled 10-year periodic cycle. Solar activity (solar flux and sunspots) appears to be associated with the incidence of aneurysmal SAH. As solar activity reaches a relative maximum, the incidence of aneurysmal SAH reaches a relative minimum. These observations may help identify future trends in aneurysmal SAH on a population basis. PMID:24979701

  3. A review of current and future medical therapies for cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mocco, J; Zacharia, Brad E; Komotar, Ricardo J; Connolly, E Sander

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to help clarify the current state of medical therapy for cerebral vasospasm, the authors reviewed the relevant literature on the established medical therapies used for cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and they discuss burgeoning areas of investigation. Despite advances in the treatment of aneurysmal SAH, cerebral vasospasm remains a common complication and has been correlated with a 1.5- to threefold increase in death during the first 2 weeks after hemorrhage. A number of medical, pharmacological, and surgical therapies are currently in use or being investigated in an attempt to reverse cerebral vasospasm, but only a few have proven to be useful. Although much has been elucidated regarding its pathophysiology, the treatment of cerebral vasospasm remains a dilemma. Although a poor understanding of SAH-induced cerebral vasospasm pathophysiology has, to date, hampered the development of therapeutic interventions, current research efforts promise the eventual production of new medical therapies. PMID:17029348

  4. Carotid rete mirabile associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage from intracranial aneurysm: A case report and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, Eric Homero Albuquerque; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Júnior, Fernando Mendes Paschoal; Piske, Ronie Leo; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

    2015-02-01

    Carotid rete mirabile (CRM) is a rare physiological vascular network in humans that is most often found in Eastern populations. This paper describes a CRM associated with an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and discusses the details of the patient's treatment. A 28-year-old woman was admitted to our service with clinical signs and symptoms of a spontaneous aSAH. Computed tomography revealed a diffuse and extensive SAH (Fisher group IV), while an angiogram showed an abnormal collateral network in the right carotid system and a hypoplastic aspect to the internal carotid artery (ICA) on the same side. In addition, a saccular aneurysm with a diameter of 9.5?mm was present in the ophthalmic segment of the left ICA. This case is extremely uncommon. To avoid rebleeding in the patient, we successfully treated the patient by clipping the aneurysmal lesion. No procedure was performed for the CRM. PMID:25934776

  5. Phenotypic transformation of smooth muscle in vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Norihito; Ohkuma, Hiroki

    2014-06-01

    Differentiated smooth muscle cells (SMC) control vasoconstriction and vasodilation, but they can undergo transformation, proliferate, secret cytokines, and migrate into the subendotherial layer with adverse consequences. In this review, we discuss the phenotypic transformation of SMC in cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Phenotypic transformation starts with an insult as caused by aneurysm rupture: Elevation of intracranial and blood pressure, secretion of norepinephrine, and mechanical force on an artery are factors that can cause aneurysm. The phenotypic transformation of SMC is accelerated by inflammation, thrombin, and growth factors. A wide variety of cytokines (e.g., interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-33, matrix metalloproteinases, nitric oxidase synthases, endothelins, thromboxane A2, mitogen-activated protein kinase, platelet-derived vascular growth factors, and vascular endothelial factor) all play roles in cerebral vasospasm (CVS). We summarize the correlations between various factors and the phenotypic transformation of SMC. A new target of this study is the transient receptor potential channel in CVS. Statin together with fasdil prevents phenotypic transformation of SMC in an animal model. Clazosentan prevents CVS and improves outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in a dose-dependent manner. Clinical trials of cilostazol for the prevention of phenotypic transformation of SMC have been reported, along with requisite experimental evidence. To conquer CVS in its complexity, we will ultimately need to elucidate its general, underlying mechanism. PMID:24323729

  6. Incidence of and Factors Associated with Manipulation of Nimodipine Dosage in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie, Meghan; Gorman, Sean K; Doucette, Steve; Green, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a significant cause of death and disability. Nimodipine 60 mg administered enterally every 4 h improves neurologic outcomes in these patients. However, hypotension is an adverse effect of nimodipine and is believed to prompt clinicians to prescribe an unproven, nonstandard nimodipine dosing regimen. Objectives: The primary objective was to determine the prescribing incidence of a nonstandard nimodipine dosing regimen (30 mg every 2 h) after initial prescription of the standard dose (60 mg every 4 h). The secondary objective was to determine factors associated with this dosage change. Methods: This retrospective cohort study evaluated participants receiving nimodipine for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage at a tertiary care teaching hospital between October 2005 and December 2011. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with dosage manipulation. Results: A total of 166 eligible patients were identified. For all of these patients, nimodipine 60 mg every 4 h was prescribed initially. Subsequently, 81 (49%) of the patients were switched to nimodipine 30 mg every 2 h, whereas 85 (51%) continued on the original dosage (nimodipine 60 mg every 4 h) for the duration of their treatment. Multivariate analysis revealed that occurrence of vasospasm (odds ratio [OR] 5.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.08–13.47; p < 0.001) and exposure to vasopressor therapy (OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.27–8.50; p = 0.014) were associated with increased odds of receiving the nonstandard nimodipine regimen. Conclusions: Half of patients for whom nimodipine was prescribed for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were exposed to an unproven regimen. Vasospasm and exposure to vasopressor therapy were associated with higher odds of receiving the nonstandard regimen. Further research is needed to evaluate whether nimodipine 30 mg every 2 h is efficacious and safe for patients in this population. PMID:25364018

  7. Subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by a traffic accident: de novo aneurysm ruptured 30 years after surgical neck clipping.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Atsushi; Unuma, Kana; Kojima, Haruka; Uemura, Koichi

    2014-02-01

    A man, who had a medical history of surgical neck clipping 30 years previously, died of traffic accident. The medico-legal autopsy showed subarachnoid hemorrhage and ruptured aneurysm on the lateral side of the clip. Microscopic examination showed the aneurysm was not to be regeneration, but a new de novo aneurysm. We diagnosed the cause of death was traumatic aneurysmal rupture. In addition, we discussed the cause of a newly formed de novo aneurysm which may be affected by past surgical neck clipping. PMID:24485430

  8. Possible role of Eptifibatide drip in-patient with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in vasospasm prevention

    PubMed Central

    Dababneh, Haitham; Guerrero, Waldo; Mehta, Siddhart; Moussavi, Mohammad; Kirmani, Jawad F

    2014-01-01

    Objective Approximately 18,000 patients suffer from a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in the United States annually. SAH is a form of stroke and comprises 1%–5% of all strokes. Nearly 50% of all SAH cases end in fatality within 30 days of presentation; one of eight patients die before reaching a hospital. Those who survive often have neurological or cognitive impairment. Methods This case report describes the course of two patients who presented to the emergency department with aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage and received external ventricular drainage and endovascular treatment of their aneurysm. Results Both patients required treatment with Eptifibatide drip after endovascular approach and their SAH in the basal cisterns resolved by day 5. Neither patient developed signs of clinical or subclinical vasospasm. Comments Eptifibatide drip facilitated resolution of the thick clot in the subarachnoid space early enough to eliminate the direct toxicity of oxyhemoglobin on the cerebral arteries and arachnoid granulations, thus preventing vasospasm and eliminating the necessity for a long-term shunt. PMID:25298852

  9. Effects of diltiazem on sympathetic activity in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Takeshi; Takeda, Ririko; Ooigawa, Hidetoshi; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Kurita, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of diltiazem, a calcium antagonist, on sympathetic activity in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) during the hyperacute stage. Of patients with aneurysmal SAH who underwent aneurysm repair between August 2008 and June 2011, 119 consecutive patients were enrolled in this prospective study. On admission, patients were assigned to an antihypertensive treatment receiving continuous infusion of diltiazem (67 patients) or nicardipine (52 patients). Plasma levels of adrenaline (AD), noradrenaline (NA), and dopamine (DP) were repeatedly measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). There were no significant differences in patient characteristics or aneurysm topography between the two groups. In all patients, acute surge of catecholamines was observed with mutual correlation. However, patients receiving diltiazem exhibited a significantly lower plasma concentration of DP than those receiving nicardipine, 3 and 6 h after admission. A similar trend was observed for NA, but the difference was not significant at 6 h. Conversely, the concentration of AD was similar between the two groups. Diltiazem may suppress sympathetic activity in the hyperacute stage of aneurysmal SAH. Further studies are needed to verify the beneficial effect of diltiazem in patients with SAH. PMID:25366598

  10. Treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Raya, Amanda K; Diringer, Michael N

    2014-10-01

    Nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage from intracranial aneurysm rupture presents with sudden severe headache. Initial treatment focuses on airway management, blood pressure control, and extraventricular drain for hydrocephalus. After identifying the aneurysm, they may be clipped surgically or endovascularly coiled. Nimodipine is administered to maintain a euvolemic state and prevent delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Patients may receive anticonvulsants. Monitoring includes serial neurologic assessments, transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomography perfusion, and angiographic studies. Treatment includes augmentation of blood pressure and cardiac output, cerebral angioplasty, and intra-arterial infusions of vasodilators. Although early mortality is high, about one half of survivors recover with little disability. PMID:25257737

  11. Microembolic signals in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud Reza Azarpazhooh; Arash Velayati; Brian R. Chambers; Hossain Mashhadi Nejad; Payam Sasan Nejad

    2009-01-01

    Microembolic signals (MES) detected by transcranial Doppler (TCD) have been reported in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), although their origin and contribution to brain ischemia remain uncertain. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the frequency of MES among patients with SAH and to determine their origin. Twenty-seven patients with SAH, comprising 15 aneurysmal and 12 non-aneurysmal patients, participated in the study.

  12. Embolic Signals during Routine Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Paschoal, Fernando Mendes; de Almeida Lins Ronconi, Karla; de Lima Oliveira, Marcelo; Nogueira, Ricardo de Carvalho; Paschoal, Eric Homero Albuquerque; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cerebral emboli may occur in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracranial aneurysm surgery. Although embolic signs (ES) have been reported in SAH, their origin remains unclear. The aim of this study was to report the detection of ES during routine TCD monitoring in patients with aneurysmal SAH. Methods. A total of 105 patients with aneurysmal SAH were submitted to TCD evaluation. Patients were monitored almost daily (5 times per week). In each monitoring session, one experienced operator performed TCD to detect or assess vasospasm and ES in arteries of the Willis polygon. Results. Four patients out of a total of 105 patients with aneurysmal SAH were found to present spontaneous cerebral embolization during routine TCD monitoring. The average age of the 4 patients (mean ± standard deviation) was 59.5 ± 8.34 years (range 49–68?ys); female patients predominated representing 75% (3/4) of subjects. Conclusion. Although detection of ES was relatively rare in this study, rates of emboli occurrence may be higher under systematic monitoring. The detection of ES after SAH surgery reinforces the need to study the role of embolus in this condition and may be an indicator for prophylactic antithrombotic treatment. PMID:25893190

  13. Incidence and risk factors associated with in-hospital venous thromboembolism after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kshettry, Varun R; Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Seicean, Andreea; Kelly, Michael L; Schiltz, Nicholas K; Weil, Robert J

    2014-02-01

    Our purpose was to determine the incidence and risk factors associated with in-hospital venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was queried from 2002 to 2010 for hospital admissions for subarachnoid hemorrhage or intracerebral hemorrhage and either aneurysm clipping or coiling. Exclusion criteria were age <18, arteriovenous malformation/fistula diagnosis or repair, or radiosurgery. Primary outcome was VTE (deep vein thrombosis [DVT] or pulmonary embolus [PE]). Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess association between risk factors and VTE. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality, discharge disposition, length of stay and hospital charges. A total of 15,968 hospital admissions were included. Overall rates of VTE (DVT or PE), DVT, and PE were 4.4%, 3.5%, and 1.2%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, the following factors were associated with increased VTE risk: increasing age, black race, male sex, teaching hospital, congestive heart failure, coagulopathy, neurologic disorders, paralysis, fluid and electrolyte disorders, obesity, and weight loss. Patients that underwent clipping versus coiling had similar VTE rates. VTE was associated with pulmonary/cardiac complication (odds ratio [OR] 2.8), infectious complication (OR 2.8), ventriculostomy (OR 1.8), and vasospasm (OR 1.3). Patients with VTE experienced increased non-routine discharge (OR 3.3), and had nearly double the mean length of stay (p<0.001) and total inflation-adjusted hospital charges (p<0.001). To our knowledge, this is the largest study evaluating the incidence and risk factors associated with the development of VTE after aSAH. The presence of one or more of these factors may necessitate more aggressive VTE prophylaxis. PMID:24128773

  14. Update on endovascular therapies for cerebral vasospasm induced by aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sayama, Christina M; Liu, James K; Couldwell, William T

    2006-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm remains a major source of morbidity and death in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). When vasospasm becomes refractory to maximal medical management consisting of induced hypertension and hypervolemia and administration of calcium channel antagonists, endovascular therapies should be considered. The primary goal of endovascular treatment is to increase cerebral blood flow to prevent cerebral infarction. Two of the more frequently studied endovascular treatments are transluminal balloon angioplasty and intraarterial papaverine infusion. These two have been used either alone or in combination for the treatment of vasospasm. Other pharmacological vasodilating agents currently being investigated are intraarterial nimodipine, nicardipine, verapamil, and milrinone. Newer intraarterial agents, such as fasudil and colforsin daropate, have also been investigated. In this article the authors review the current options in terms of endovascular therapies for treatment of cerebral vasospasm. The mechanism of action, technique of administration, clinical effect and outcomes, and complications of each modality are discussed. PMID:17029336

  15. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Due to Rupture of an Intracavernous Carotid Artery Aneurysm Coexisting with a Prolactinoma under Cabergoline Treatment.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, Nobuyuki; Hosoda, Kohkichi; Ohta, Kohei; Tanaka, Hirotomo; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Kohmura, Eiji

    2014-08-01

    We report an unusual case of subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by intraoperative rupture of an intracavernous carotid artery aneurysm coexisting with a prolactinoma. A 58-year-old man presenting with diplopia was found to have a left intracavernous carotid artery aneurysm encased by a suprasellar tumor on magnetic resonance imaging. His serum prolactin level was 5036 ng/mL. Proximal ligation of the left internal carotid artery with a superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery anastomosis was scheduled. Because the patient's diplopia had deteriorated, we started him on cabergoline at a dose of 0.25?mg once a week. One month after administration of cabergoline, the diplopia was improved to some extent and serum prolactin was decreased to 290 ng/ml. Six weeks after starting the cabergoline, the patient underwent a left frontotemporal craniotomy to treat the aneurysm. When the dura mater was opened, abnormal brain swelling and obvious subarachnoid hemorrhage were observed. Postoperative computed tomography demonstrated a thick subarachnoid hemorrhage. This case suggests that medical therapy for a pituitary adenoma should be started after treatment for a coexisting intracavernous aneurysm is completed. PMID:25083394

  16. Association of Fisher scale and changes of language in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Souza, Moysés Loiola Ponte de

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive deficits caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after rupture of cerebral aneurysms are common, as approximately half of patients have severe, or at least striking, declines in one or more functions of the cognitive domain. The Fisher Scale is associated with the development of vasospasm and thus with the final performance of the patient after SAH. The association of this scale with language disorders in the period preceding the treatment has not been reported yet in the literature. Associate the presence of language deficits with varying degrees of the Fisher Scale in patients with SAH in the period preceding the treatment of aneurysm, as well as compare the various degrees of this scale, identifying the Fisher Scale degrees more associated with the decline of language. The database of 185 preoperative evaluations of language was studied, through the Montreal Toulouse Protocol Alpha version and verbal fluency through CERAD battery, of patients of Hospital da Restauração with aneurysmal SAH. The data relating to the Fisher Scale, the location of the aneurysm, the age and the gender of patients were obtained through review of medical records. Patients were divided according to the Fisher Scale (Fisher I, II, III or IV) and compared with a control group of individuals considered normal. Disorders in language and verbal fluency in patients with SAH in the preoperative period were evidenced. The classification of the patients according to the Fisher Scale allowed to identify differences between the sub-groups and to conclude that patients with bulkier bleeding (Fisher III and IV) have larger declines in the analyzed functions. PMID:25410466

  17. Assessment of middle cerebral artery diameter after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage by transcranial color-coded duplex sonography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Müller; Karsten Schwerdtfeger; Siegfried Zieroth

    2000-01-01

    This study examined if vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage could be visualized by middle cerebral artery (MCA) diameter changes in transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCS). Comparative measurements between mean blood velocity (MBV) and MCA diameter were carried out in 17 patients in 76 instances. At two depth ranges (proximal, 60–55 mm; distal, 50–45 mm) two observers assessed the MCA diameter

  18. Capgras syndrome with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Bouckoms, A; Martuza, R; Henderson, M

    1986-08-01

    Capgras misidentification syndrome after subarachnoid hemorrhage and the surgical repair of a right middle cerebral artery aneurysm is described. This Capgras delusional belief in an imposter assuming the form of a familiar person may result from disruption of cortical-visual-limbic pathways in the right hemisphere. PMID:3734772

  19. Hemostasis and fibrinolysis in delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Boluijt, Jacoline; Meijers, Joost C M; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I

    2015-05-01

    Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) has been associated with microthrombosis, which can result from activated hemostasis, inhibited fibrinolysis, or both. We systematically searched the PUBMED and EMBASE databases to identify hemostatic or fibrinolytic parameters that can be used for the prediction or diagnosis of DCI, or that inform on the pathogenesis of DCI and may serve as treatment targets. We included 24 studies that fulfilled predefined criteria and described 39 biomarkers. Only one study fulfilled predefined criteria for high quality. Since no parameter on admission was associated with DCI and in none of the included studies blood was drawn at the time of clinical deterioration, none of the studied parameters can presently be used for the prediction or diagnosis of DCI. Regarding the pathogenesis of DCI, it was shown that compared with patients without DCI those with DCI had higher levels of von Willebrand factor and platelet activating factor in plasma 5 to 9 days after aSAH, membrane tissue factor in cerebrospinal fluid 5 to 9 days after aSAH, and D-dimer in plasma 11 to 14 days after aSAH. Confirmation in high-quality studies is needed to investigate whether these parameters can serve as targets for new intervention studies. PMID:25690473

  20. Altered Resting-State Connectivity within Executive Networks after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Monica; Churchill, Nathan W.; de Oliveira Manoel, Airton Leonardo; Graham, Simon J.; Macdonald, R. Loch; Schweizer, Tom A.

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is associated with significant mortality rates, and most survivors experience significant cognitive deficits across multiple domains, including executive function. It is critical to determine the neural basis for executive deficits in aSAH, in order to better understand and improve patient outcomes. This study is the first examination of resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a group of aSAH patients, used to characterize changes in functional connectivity of the frontoparietal network. We scanned 14 aSAH patients and 14 healthy controls, and divided patients into “impaired” and “unimpaired” groups based on a composite executive function score. Impaired patients exhibited significantly lower quality of life and neuropsychological impairment relative to controls, across multiple domains. Seed-based functional connectivity analysis demonstrated that unimpaired patients were not significantly different from controls, but impaired patients had increased frontoparietal connectivity. Patients evidenced increased frontoparietal connectivity as a function of decreased executive function and decreased mood (i.e. quality of life). In addition, T1 morphometric analysis demonstrated that these changes are not attributable to local cortical atrophy among aSAH patients. These results establish significant, reliable changes in the endogenous brain dynamics of aSAH patients, that are related to cognitive and mood outcomes. PMID:26172281

  1. Neurofilament Light Chain Levels in Ventricular Cerebrospinal Fluid Following Acute Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Zanier, Elisa R.; Refai, Daniel; Zipfel, Gregory J.; Zoerle, Tommaso; Longhi, Luca; Esparza, Thomas J.; Spinner, Michael L.; Bateman, Randall J.; Brody, David L.; Stocchetti, Nino

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The contribution of axonal injury to brain damage following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is unknown. Neurofilament light chain (NF-L), a component of the axonal cytoskeleton, has been shown to be elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with many types of axonal injury. We hypothesized that patients with aSAH would have elevated CSF NF-L levels, and sought to explore the clinical correlates of CSF NF-L dynamics. Methods Serial ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (vCSF) samples were collected from 35 aSAH patients for up to 15 days. vCSF NF-L measurements were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. NF-L levels were analyzed in relation to acute clinical status, radiological findings, and 6-month outcomes. Results vCSF NF-L concentrations were elevated in all aSAH patients. Patients with early cerebral ischemia (ECI), defined as a CT hypodense lesion visible within the first 3 days, had higher acute vCSF NF-L levels than patients without ECI. These elevated NF-L levels were similar in patients with ECI associated with intracranial hemorrhage and ECI associated with surgical/endovascular complications. vCSF NF-L levels did not differ as a function of acute clinical status, clinical vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia, or 6-month Glasgow Outcome Scale. Conclusions Elevated vCSF NF-L levels may in part reflect increased injury to axons associated with early cerebral ischemia. However our results suggest that axonal injury following aSAH as reflected by release of NF-L into the CSF may not play a major role in either secondary adverse events or long term clinical outcomes. PMID:20571038

  2. Significance of C-Reactive Protein and Transcranial Doppler in Cerebral Vasospasm Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sung-Hwan; Kwon, Jeong-Taik; Nam, Taek-Kyun; Hwang, Sung-Nam; Kang, Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cerebral vasospasm is a common and potentially devastating complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Inflammatory processes seem to play a major role in the pathogenesis of vasospasm. C-reactive protein (CRP) constitutes a highly sensitive inflammatory marker. Elevation of serum CRP levels has been demonstrated in patients with aSAH. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the possible relationship between CRP levels in the serum and transcranial Doppler (TCD) and the development of vasospasm in patients with aSAH. Methods A total of 61 adult patients in whom aSAH was diagnosed were included in the study from November 2008 to May 2011. The patients' demographics, Hunt and Hess grade, Fisher grade, CT scans, digital subtraction angiography studies, and daily neurological examinations were recorded. Serial serum CRP measurements were obtained on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13 and TCD was measured on days 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13. All patients underwent either surgical or endovascular treatment within 24 hours of their hemorrhagic attacks. Results Serum CRP levels peaked on the 3rd postoperative day. There were significant differences between the vasospasm group and the non-vasospasm group on the 1st, 3rd and 5th day. There were significant differences between the vasospasm group and the non-vasospasm group on the 3rd day in the mean middle cerebral artery velocities on TCD. Conclusion Patients with high levels of CRP on the 1st postoperative day and high velocity of mean TCD on the 3rd postoperative day may require closer observation to monitor for the development of vasospasm. PMID:24294451

  3. Continuous Selective Intra-Arterial Application of Nimodipine in Refractory Cerebral Vasospasm due to Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Stephanie; Jedlicka, Sheila; Wolf, Stefan; Peter, Mozes; Pudenz, Christine; Merker, Patrick; Schürer, Ludwig; Lumenta, Christianto Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Background. Cerebral vasospasm is one of the leading courses for disability in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Effective treatment of vasospasm is therefore one of the main priorities for these patients. We report about a case series of continuous intra-arterial infusion of the calcium channel antagonist nimodipine for 1–5 days on the intensive care unit. Methods. In thirty patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and refractory vasospasm continuous infusion of nimodipine was started on the neurosurgical intensive care unit. The effect of nimodipine on brain perfusion, cerebral blood flow, brain tissue oxygenation, and blood flow velocity in cerebral arteries was monitored. Results. Based on Hunt & Hess grades on admission, 83% survived in a good clinical condition and 23% recovered without an apparent neurological deficit. Persistent ischemic areas were seen in 100% of patients with GOS 1–3 and in 69% of GOS 4-5 patients. Regional cerebral blood flow and computed tomography perfusion scanning showed adequate correlation with nimodipine application and angiographic vasospasm. Transcranial Doppler turned out to be unreliable with interexaminer variance and failure of detecting vasospasm or missing the improvement. Conclusion. Local continuous intra-arterial nimodipine treatment for refractory cerebral vasospasm after aSAH can be recommended as a low-risk treatment in addition to established endovascular therapies. PMID:24527461

  4. Intrathecal application of the nimodipine slow-release microparticle system eg-1962 for prevention of delayed cerebral ischemia and improvement of outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Etminan, Nima; Macdonald, R Loch; Davis, Cara; Burton, Kevin; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The effective reduction of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), a main contributor for poor outcome following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), remains challenging. Previous clinical trials on systemic pharmaceutical treatment of SAH mostly failed to improve outcome, probably because of insensitive pharmaceutical targets and outcome measures, small sample size, insufficient subarachnoid drug concentrations and also detrimental, systemic effects of the experimental treatment per se. Interestingly, in studies that are more recent, intrathecal administration of nicardipine pellets following surgical aneurysm repair was suggested to have a beneficial effect on DCI and neurological outcome. However, this positive effect remained restricted to patients who were treated surgically for a ruptured aneurysm. Because of the favorable results of the preclinical data on DCI and neurological outcome in the absence of neurotoxicity or systemic side effects, we are initiating clinical trials. The PROMISE (Prolonged Release nimOdipine MIcro particles after Subarachnoid hemorrhage) trial is designed as an unblinded, nonrandomized, single-center, single-dose, dose-escalation safety and tolerability phase 1 study in patients surgically treated for aSAH and will investigate the effect of intracisternal EG-1962 administration. The NEWTON (Nimodipine microparticles to Enhance recovery While reducing TOxicity after subarachNoid hemorrhage) trial is a phase 1/2a multicenter, controlled, randomized, open-label, dose-escalation, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic study comparing EG-1962 and nimodipine in patients with aneurysmal SAH. PMID:25366637

  5. Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms Presenting with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Treated by Staged Coil Trapping and Covered Stents Graft

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jai-Joon; Kim, Sung-Ho; Chang, Jae-Chil

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of bilateral vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is still challenging. The authors report a rare case of bilateral VADA treated with coil trapping of ruptured VADA and covered stents implantation after multiple unsuccessful stent assisted coiling of the contralateral unruptured VADA. A 44-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of severe headache and sudden stuporous consciousness. Brain CT showed thick SAH and intraventricular hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography demonstrated bilateral VADA. Based on the SAH pattern and aneurysm configurations, the right VADA was considered ruptured. This was trapped with endovascular coils without difficulty. One month later, the contralateral unruptured VADA was protected using a stent-within-a-stent technique, but marked enlargement of the left VADA was detected by 8-months follow-up angiography. Subsequently two times coil packing for pseudosacs resulted in near complete occlusion of left VADA. However, it continued to grow. Covered stents graft below the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) origin and a coronary stent implantation across the origin of the PICA resulted in near complete obliteration of the VADA. Covered stent graft can be used as a last therapeutic option for the management of VADA, which requires absolute preservation of VA flow. PMID:22639713

  6. Subarachnoid hemorrhage grading scales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Rosen; R. Loch MacDonald

    2005-01-01

    Numerous systems are reported for grading the clinical condition of patients following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The\\u000a literature was reviewed for articles pertaining to the grading of such patients, including publications on the Hunt and Hess\\u000a Scale, Fisher Scale, Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), and World Federation of Neurological Surgeons Scale. This article reviews the\\u000a advantages and limitations of these scales as

  7. Intravenous Flat-Detector Computed Tomography Angiography for Symptomatic Cerebral Vasospasm following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jin Pyeong; Sheen, Seung Hun; Cho, Yong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of intravenous flat-detector computed tomography (IV FDCT) angiography in assessing hemodynamically significant cerebral vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the reference. DSA and IV FDCT were conducted concurrently in patients suspected of having symptomatic cerebral vasospasm postoperatively. The presence and severity of vasospasm were estimated according to location (proximal versus distal). Vasospasm >50% was defined as having hemodynamic significance. Vasospasms <30% were excluded from this analysis to avoid spectrum bias. Twenty-nine patients (311 vessel segments) were measured. The intra- and interobserver agreements were excellent for depicting vasospasm (k = 0.84 and 0.74, resp.). IV FDCT showed a sensitivity of 95.7%, specificity of 92.3%, positive predictive value of 93.6%, and negative predictive value of 94.7% for detecting vasospasm (>50%) with DSA as the reference. Bland-Altman plots revealed good agreement of assessing vasospasm between the two tests. The discrepancy of vasospasm severity was more noted in the distal location with high-severity. However, it was not statistically significant (Spearman's rank test; r = 0.15, P = 0.35). Therefore, IV FDCT could be a feasible noninvasive test to evaluate suspected significant vasospasm in SAH. PMID:25383367

  8. Overall outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A prospective study from neurosurgical units in Sweden during a 1-year period.

    PubMed

    Säveland, H; Hillman, J; Brandt, L; Edner, G; Jakobsson, K E; Algers, G

    1992-05-01

    The present prospective study, with participation of five of the six neurosurgical centers in Sweden, was conducted to evaluate the overall management results in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The participating centers covered 6.93 million (81%) of Sweden's 8.59 million inhabitants. All patients with verified aneurysmal SAH admitted between June 1, 1989, and May 31, 1990, were included in this prospective study. A uniform management protocol was adopted involving ultra-early referral, earliest possible surgery, and aggressive anti-ischemic treatment. A total of 325 patients were admitted during the study period, 69% within 24 hours after hemorrhage. On admission, the patients were graded according to the scale of Hunt and Hess: 43 patients (13%) were classified in Grade I, 119 (37%) in Grade II, 53 (16%) in Grade III, 76 (23%) in Grade IV, and 34 (11%) in Grade V. Nimodipine was administered to 269 of the 325 patients: intravenously in 218, orally in 15, and intravenously followed by orally in 36. At follow-up examination 3 to 6 months after SAH, 183 patients (56%) were classified as having made a good neurological recovery, 73 patients (23%) suffered some morbidity, and 69 (21%) were dead. Surgery was performed in 276 (85%) of the patients; emergency surgery with evacuation of an associated intracerebral hematoma was carried out in 30 patients. Early surgery (within 72 hours after SAH) was performed in 170 individuals, intermediate surgery (between Days 4 and 6 post-SAH) in 29 patients, and late surgery (Day 7 or later after SAH) in 47 individuals. Of 145 patients with supratentorial aneurysms who were preoperatively in Hunt and Hess Grades I to III and who were treated within 72 hours, 81% made a good recovery; in 5.5% of patients, the unfavorable outcome was ascribed to delayed ischemia. It is concluded that, among patients with all clinical grades and aneurysmal locations, almost six of 10 SAH victims referred to a neurosurgical unit can be saved and can recover to a normal life. PMID:1564533

  9. Haptoglobin phenotype predicts the development of focal and global cerebral vasospasm and may influence outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Jenna L; Blackburn, Spiros; Neal, Dan; Mendez, Nicholas V; Wharton, Jeffrey A; Waters, Michael F; Doré, Sylvain

    2015-01-27

    Cerebral vasospasm (CV) and the resulting delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) significantly contribute to poor outcomes following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Free hemoglobin (Hb) within the subarachnoid space has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CV. Haptoglobin (Hp) binds free pro-oxidant Hb, thereby modulating its harmful effects. Humans can be of three Hp phenotypes: Hp1-1, Hp2-1, or Hp2-2. In several disease states, the Hp2-2 protein has been associated with reduced ability to protect against toxic free Hb. We hypothesized that individuals with the Hp2-2 phenotype would have more CV, DCI, mortality, and worse functional outcomes after aSAH. In a sample of 74 aSAH patients, Hp2-2 phenotype was significantly associated with increased focal moderate (P = 0.014) and severe (P = 0.008) CV and more global CV (P = 0.014) after controlling for covariates. Strong trends toward increased mortality (P = 0.079) and worse functional outcomes were seen for the Hp2-2 patients with modified Rankin scale at 6 wk (P = 0.076) and at 1 y (P = 0.051) and with Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended at discharge (P = 0.091) and at 1 y (P = 0.055). In conclusion, Hp2-2 phenotype is an independent risk factor for the development of both focal and global CV and also predicts poor functional outcomes and mortality after aSAH. Hp phenotyping may serve as a clinically useful tool in the critical care management of aSAH patients by allowing for early prediction of those patients who require increased vigilance due to their inherent genetic risk for the development of CV and resulting DCI and poor outcomes. PMID:25583472

  10. Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase scavenges biliverdin in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Inui, Takashi; Mase, Mitsuhito; Shirota, Ryoko; Nagashima, Mariko; Okada, Tetsuya; Urade, Yoshihiro

    2014-09-01

    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (L-PGDS) is the second major protein in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and belongs to the lipocalin superfamily composed of various secretory lipophilic ligand transporter proteins. However, the endogenous ligand of L-PGDS has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we purified L-PGDS from the CSF of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. Lipocalin-type PG D synthase showed absorbance spectra with major peaks at 280 and 392?nm and a minor peak at around 660?nm. The absorbance at 392?nm of L-PGDS increased from 1 to 9 days and almost disappeared at 2 months after SAH, whereas the L-PGDS activity decreased from 1 to 7 days and recovered to normal at 2 months after SAH. These results indicate that some chromophore had accumulated in the CSF after SAH and bound to L-PGDS, thus inactivating it. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of L-PGDS after digestion of it with endoproteinase Lys-C revealed that L-PGDS had covalently bound biliverdin, a by-product of heme breakdown. These results suggest that L-PGDS acted as a scavenger of biliverdin, which is a molecule not found in normal CSF. This is the first report of identification of a pathophysiologically important endogenous ligand for this lipocalin superfamily protein in humans. PMID:25005874

  11. Artifact quantification and tractography from 3T MRI after placement of aneurysm clips in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The application of advanced 3T MRI imaging techniques to study recovery after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is complicated by the presence of image artifacts produced by implanted aneurysm clips. To characterize the effect of these artifacts on image quality, we sought to: 1) quantify extent of image artifact in SAH patients with implanted aneurysm clips across a range of MR sequences typically used in studies of volumetry, blood oxygen level dependent signal change (BOLD-fMRI), and diffusion-weighted imaging (DW-MRI) and 2) to explore the ability to reconstruct white matter pathways in these patients. Methods T1- and T2-weighted structural, BOLD-fMRI, and DW-MRI scans were acquired at 3T in two patients with titanium alloy clips in ACOM and left ACA respectively. Intensity-based planimetric contouring was performed on aligned image volumes to define each artifact. Artifact volumes were quantified by artifact/clip length and artifact/brain volume ratios and analyzed by two-way (scan-by-rater) ANOVAs. Tractography pathways were reconstructed from DW-MRI at varying distances from the artifacts using deterministic methods. Results Artifact volume varied by MR sequence for length (p = 0.007) and volume (p < 0.001) ratios: it was smallest for structural images, larger for DW-MRI acquisitions, and largest on fMRI images. Inter-rater reliability was high (r = 0.9626, p < 0.0001), and reconstruction of white matter connectivity characteristics increased with distance from the artifact border. In both patients, reconstructed white matter pathways of the uncinate fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus were clearly visible within 2 mm of the artifact border. Conclusions Advanced 3T MR can successfully image brain tissue around implanted titanium aneurysm clips at different spatial ranges depending on sequence type. White matter pathways near clip artifacts can be reconstructed and visualized. These findings provide a reference for designing functional and structural neuroimaging studies of recovery in aSAH patients after clip placement. PMID:21970560

  12. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Patients with Hunt and Hess Grade 4 or 5: Treatment Using the Guglielmi Detachable Coil System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond U. Weir; Mary L. Marcellus; Huy M. Do; Gary K. Steinberg; Michael P. Marks

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients in poor clinical condition (Hunt and Hess grade 4 or 5) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have historically fared poorly and many often were excluded from aggressive treatment. Early aggressive surgical treatment of SAH can produce good-quality survival for a higher percentage of patients than previously reported. We assessed the outcome of patients with Hunt and Hess

  13. Genetic markers in the EET metabolic pathway are associated with outcomes in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Mark K; Conley, Yvette P; Crago, Elizabeth A; Ren, Dianxu; Sherwood, Paula R; Balzer, Jeffery R; Poloyac, Samuel M

    2015-02-01

    Preclinical studies show that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) regulate cerebrovascular tone and protect against cerebral ischemia. We investigated the relationship between polymorphic genes involved in EET biosynthesis/metabolism, cytochrome P450 (CYP) eicosanoid levels, and outcomes in 363 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (DHET) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels, as well as acute outcomes defined by delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) or clinical neurologic deterioration (CND), were assessed over 14 days. Long-term outcomes were defined by Modified Rankin Scale (MRS) at 3 and 12 months. CYP2C8*4 allele carriers had 44% and 36% lower mean EET and DHET CSF levels (P=0.003 and P=0.007) and were 2.2- and 2.5-fold more likely to develop DCI and CND (P=0.039 and P=0.041), respectively. EPHX2 55Arg, CYP2J2*7, CYP2C8*1B, and CYP2C8 g.36785A allele carriers had lower EET and DHET CSF levels. CYP2C8 g.25369T and CYP2C8 g.36755A allele carriers had higher EET levels. Patients with CYP2C8*2C and EPHX2 404del variants had worse long-term outcomes while those with EPHX2 287Gln, CYP2J2*7, and CYP2C9 g.816G variants had favorable outcomes. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid levels were associated with Fisher grade and unfavorable 3-month outcomes. Dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids were not associated with outcomes. No associations passed Bonferroni multiple testing correction. These are the first clinical data demonstrating the association between the EET biosynthesis/metabolic pathway and the pathophysiology of aSAH. PMID:25388680

  14. Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to nonbranching aneurysm of the middle cerebral artery in a young adult with a history of Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Atsushi; Matsuo, Seigo; Kawamura, Shunji; Nishikawa, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Background: The incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in young adults is relatively rare. Kawasaki disease is a systemic vasculopathy that is known to cause coronary artery aneurysms; however, its effect on cerebral arteries remains largely unclear. Case Description: We report the case of a 20-year-old male with a history of Kawasaki disease who presented with SAH caused by the rupture of a nonbranching middle cerebral artery aneurysm. This is the third report of SAH associated with Kawasaki disease. Preoperative echocardiography of the patient rejected the presence of bacterial endocarditis and other heart abnormalities. An emergency craniotomy and clip occlusion of the aneurysm was successfully performed without obstructing the parent artery. Two weeks later, the patient was discharged without any apparent neurological deficit. We also performed a circumstantial pathological study on specimens obtained from the aneurysm wall. Our histological findings suggest that the elastic lamina and tunica intima were completely destroyed during the acute vasculitis phase of Kawasaki disease, which possibly led to the aneurysmal formation. Conclusions: Lack of active inflammatory changes and atherosclerotic lesions may explain the chronic feature of Kawasaki disease, not a typical aneurysmal formation. PMID:24575320

  15. Pharmacologic Management of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Young, Adam M H; Karri, Surya K; Helmy, Adel; Budohoski, Karol P; Kirollos, Ramez W; Bulters, Diederik O; Kirkpatrick, Peter J; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Trivedi, Rikin A

    2015-07-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains a condition with suboptimal functional outcomes, especially in the young population. Pharmacotherapy has an accepted role in several aspects of the disease and an emerging role in several others. No preventive pharmacologic interventions for SAH currently exist. Antiplatelet medications as well as anticoagulation have been used to prevent thromboembolic events after endovascular coiling. However, the main focus of pharmacologic treatment of SAH is the prevention of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Currently the only evidence-based medical intervention is nimodipine. Other calcium channel blockers have been evaluated without convincing efficacy. Anti-inflammatory drugs such as statins have demonstrated early potential; however, they failed to provide significant evidence for the use in preventing DCI. Similar findings have been reported for magnesium, which showed potential in experimental studies and a phase 2 trial. Clazosentane, a potent endothelin receptor antagonist, did not translate to improve functional outcomes. Various other neuroprotective agents have been used to prevent DCI; however, the results have been, at best inconclusive. The prevention of DCI and improvement in functional outcome remain the goals of pharmacotherapy after the culprit lesion has been treated in aneurysmal SAH. Therefore, further research to elucidate the exact mechanisms by which DCI is propagated is clearly needed. In this article, we review the current pharmacologic approaches that have been evaluated in SAH and highlight the areas in which further research is needed. PMID:25701766

  16. Aortic dissection mimicking subarachnoidal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Nohé, Boris; Ernemann, Ulrike; Tepe, Gunnar; Ritz, Rainer; Bail, Dorothee

    2005-07-01

    In this report we describe a comatose patient with proximal aortic dissection who presented with the signs of subarachnoidal hemorrhage. Shortly before losing consciousness, the patient complained of an excruciating headache. Upon initial examination, neck stiffness and opisthotonos were present. The cardiovascular examination, chest radiograph, and cerebral computed tomography were normal. Eight hours later, the aortic dissection was verified by a thoracic computed tomography. This case shows that aortic dissection, which causes severe pain and possibly transient malperfusion of the carotid arteries, may present with the misleading signs of subarachnoidal hemorrhage but without classical symptoms of aortic syndromes. PMID:15976237

  17. Rescue Therapy for Refractory Vasospasm after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Durrant, Julia C.; Hinson, Holly E.

    2014-01-01

    Vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia remain to be the common causes of increased morbidity and mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The majority of clinical vasospasm responds to hemodynamic augmentation and direct vascular intervention; however, a percentage of patients continue to have symptoms and neurological decline. Despite suboptimal evidence, clinicians have several options in treating refractory vasospasm in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), including cerebral blood flow enhancement, intra-arterial manipulations, and intra-arterial and intrathecal infusions. This review addresses standard treatments as well as emerging novel therapies aimed at improving cerebral perfusion and ameliorating the neurologic deterioration associated with vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia. PMID:25501582

  18. The AGTR1 gene A1166C polymorphism as a risk factor and outcome predictor of primary intracerebral and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages.

    PubMed

    Adamski, Mateusz G; Golenia, Aleksandra; Turaj, Wojciech; Baird, Alison E; Moskala, Marek; Dziedzic, Tomasz; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Slowik, Agnieszka; Pera, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Associations between the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) gene A1166C polymorphism and hypertension, aortic abdominal aneurysms (as a risk factor) as well as cardiovascular disorders (as a risk factor and an outcome predictor) have been demonstrated. We aimed to investigate the role of this polymorphism as risk factors and outcome predictors in primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH) and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). We have prospectively recruited 1078 Polish participants to the study: 261 PICH patients, 392 aSAH patients, and 425 unrelated control subjects. The A1166C AGTR1 gene polymorphism was studied using the tetra-primer ARMS-PCR method. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared with other ethnically different populations. The A1166C polymorphism was not associated with the risk of PICH or aSAH. Among the aSAH patients the AA genotype was associated with a good outcome, defined by a Glasgow Outcome Scale of 4 or 5 (p<0.02). The distribution of A1166C genotypes in our cohort did not differ from other white or other populations of European descent. In conclusion, we found an association between the A1166C AGTR1 polymorphism and outcome of aSAH patients, but not with the risk of PICH or aSAH. PMID:25168322

  19. Non-aneurysmal non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage: patient characteristics, clinical outcome and prognostic factors based on a single-center experience in 125 patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is mainly caused by ruptured cerebral aneurysms but in up to 15% of patients with SAH no bleeding source could be identified. Our objective was to analyze patient characteristics, clinical outcome and prognostic factors in patients suffering from non-aneurysmal SAH. Methods From 1999 to 2009, data of 125 patients with non-aneurysmal SAH were prospectively entered into a database. All patients underwent repetitive cerebral angiography. Outcome was assessed according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) (mRS 0–2 favorable vs. 3–6 unfavorable). Also, patients were divided in two groups according to the distribution of blood in the CT scan (perimesencephalic and non-perimesencephalic SAH). Results 106 of the 125 patients were in good WFNS grade (I-III) at admission (85%). Overall, favorable outcome was achieved in 104 of 125 patients (83%). Favorable outcome was associated with younger age (P?aneurysmal SAH have better prognosis compared to aneurysm related SAH and poor admission status was the only independent predictor of unfavorable outcome in the multivariate analysis. Patients with a non-perimesencephalic SAH have an increased risk of a worse neurological outcome. These patients should be monitored attentively. PMID:24986457

  20. Symptomatic tarlov cyst following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-08-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22053232

  1. Symptomatic Tarlov Cyst Following Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Woo Keun; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-01-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22053232

  2. Treatment of Intracranial Vasospasm Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Andrew M.; Rasmussen, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Vasospasm has been a long known source of delayed morbidity and mortality in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Delayed ischemic neurologic deficits associated with vasospasm may account for as high as 50% of the deaths in patients who survive the initial period after aneurysm rupture and its treatment. The diagnosis and treatment of vasospasm has still been met with some controversy. It is clear that subarachnoid hemorrhage is best cared for in tertiary care centers with modern resources and access to cerebral angiography. Ultimately, a high degree of suspicion for vasospasm must be kept during ICU care, and any signs or symptoms must be investigated and treated immediately to avoid permanent stroke and neurologic deficit. Treatment for vasospasm can occur through both ICU intervention and endovascular administration of intra-arterial vasodilators and balloon angioplasty. The best outcomes are often attained when these methods are used in conjunction. The following article reviews the literature on cerebral vasospasm and its treatment and provides the authors’ approach to treatment of these patients. PMID:24904517

  3. Iron and early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew C Loftspring

    2010-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) affects approximately 27,000 Americans per year. Although delayed cerebral vasospasm is of high clinical significance, mortality within the first 2 days may approach 30%. In this issue of the Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Lee et al have studied the role of iron in early brain injury after experimental SAH. They found that iron

  4. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral vasospasm - literature review.

    PubMed

    Ciurea, A V; Palade, C; Voinescu, D; Nica, D A

    2013-06-15

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage represents a serious disease with high mortality and morbidity. Two important areas are becoming the central research interest of subarachnoid hemorrhage: cerebral vasospasm and early brain injury. The authors have reviewed the major contributions in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage documented in the medical literature in the past 5 years. Treatments interfering with nitric oxide - or endothelin-pathways continue to show antispasmotic effects in experimental models of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Inflammation and oxidative stress play a vital role in the pathophysiology of cerebral vasospasm. Apoptosis, a relevant cause of early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage, also underline the etiology of cerebral vasospasm. Future research studies will continue to elucidate the pathophysiological pathways and treatment modalities targeting cerebral vasospasm and early brain injury, enabling an improvement in outcome for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:23904869

  5. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral vasospasm – Literature review

    PubMed Central

    Ciurea, AV; Palade, C; Voinescu, D; Nica, DA

    2013-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage represents a serious disease with high mortality and morbidity. Two important areas are becoming the central research interest of subarachnoid hemorrhage: cerebral vasospasm and early brain injury. The authors have reviewed the major contributions in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage documented in the medical literature in the past 5 years. Treatments interfering with nitric oxide - or endothelin-pathways continue to show antispasmotic effects in experimental models of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Inflammation and oxidative stress play a vital role in the pathophysiology of cerebral vasospasm. Apoptosis, a relevant cause of early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage, also underline the etiology of cerebral vasospasm. Future research studies will continue to elucidate the pathophysiological pathways and treatment modalities targeting cerebral vasospasm and early brain injury, enabling an improvement in outcome for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:23904869

  6. Contrast Extravasation on Computed Tomography Angiography Imitating a Basilar Artery Trunk Aneurysm in Subsequent Conventional Angiogram-Negative Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Report of Two Cases with Different Clinical Courses

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won Ho; Choi, Hyuk Jin; Nam, Kyoung Hyup

    2015-01-01

    Contrast extravasation on computed tomography angiography (CTA) is rare but becoming more common, with increasing use of CTA for various cerebral vascular diseases. We report on two cases of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in which the CTA showed a saccular lesion of the upper basilar trunk suggesting a ruptured aneurysm. However, no vascular lesion was observed on immediate subsequent digital subtraction angiography (DSA). In one case, repeated follow up DSA was also negative. The patient was treated conservatively and discharged with no neurologic deficit. In the other case, the patient showed sudden mental deterioration on the third hospital day and her brain CT showed rebleeding. The immediate follow up DSA showed contrast stagnation in the vicinity of the upper basilar artery, suggestive of pseudoaneurysm. Double stent deployment at the disease segment was performed. Due to the frequent use of CTA, contrast extravasation is an increasingly common observation. Physicians should be aware that basilar artery extravasation can mimic the appearance of an aneurysm. PMID:25874181

  7. The changes of von willebrand factor/a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type I repeats-13 balance in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qi-Feng; Lu, Shi-Qi; Zhao, Yi-Ming; Qian, Jin-Xian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Von Willebrand Factor/thrombospondin type I repeats-13 (VWF/ADAMTS13) balance in aSAH. Fifty eight patients with aSAH at the First Affiliated hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China, between January 2012 and January 2014 were eligible for the study. They were divided into delayed cerebral ischemia group (DCI group) and non-delayed cerebral ischemia group (no DCI group), or cerebral vasospasm group (CVS group) and no spasm group (no CVS group), or good outcome group and poor outcome group. The control group consisted of twenty healthy people. All patients underwent CT, DSA, or (and) CTA diagnosed with intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage which is caused by aneurysm rupture. Venous blood was drawn in tubes at 3 time points: 1 day after SAH (T1), (4±1) days after SAH (T2), and (9±1) days after SAH (T3) to determine plasma concentrations of ADAMTS13, VWF, P-selectin and IL-6 via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Transcranial doppler sonography (TCD) was used to measure mean blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (VMCA). Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) was measured before discharge. Among 58 patients, 12 (20.7%) had DCI, 40 (68.9%) had TCD evidence of CVS, and 20 (34.5%) had poor outcome. The concentrations of VWF, P-selectin and IL-6 on T1, T2 and T3 after SAH were significantly higher in DCI, CVS and poor outcome groups compared with those of the control group (P < 0.05). The concentrations of VWF, P-selectin and IL-6 were significantly higher in DCI, CVS and poor outcome groups compared with those of the no DCI, no CVS and good outcome groups. The activity of ADAMTS13 was lower in DCI and poor outcome groups compared with those of the no DCI and good outcome groups (P < 0.05). The activity of ADAMTS13 showed no difference in CVS group and no CVS group (P > 0.05). The results of our study suggest that the increased VWF and decreased ADAMTS13 activity were associated with DCI and poor outcome. The balance of VWF/ADAMTS13 could be used to predict the clinical outcome. The deficiency of ADAMTS13 can not only induce DCI but also accelerate inflammatory reaction. Our results reported in this paper may provide new insights into the possible use of ADAMTS13 as a therapeutic agent in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:25785135

  8. The changes of von willebrand factor/a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type I repeats-13 balance in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qi-Feng; Lu, Shi-Qi; Zhao, Yi-Ming; Qian, Jin-Xian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Von Willebrand Factor/thrombospondin type I repeats-13 (VWF/ADAMTS13) balance in aSAH. Fifty eight patients with aSAH at the First Affiliated hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China, between January 2012 and January 2014 were eligible for the study. They were divided into delayed cerebral ischemia group (DCI group) and non-delayed cerebral ischemia group (no DCI group), or cerebral vasospasm group (CVS group) and no spasm group (no CVS group), or good outcome group and poor outcome group. The control group consisted of twenty healthy people. All patients underwent CT, DSA, or (and) CTA diagnosed with intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage which is caused by aneurysm rupture. Venous blood was drawn in tubes at 3 time points: 1 day after SAH (T1), (4±1) days after SAH (T2), and (9±1) days after SAH (T3) to determine plasma concentrations of ADAMTS13, VWF, P-selectin and IL-6 via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Transcranial doppler sonography (TCD) was used to measure mean blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (VMCA). Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) was measured before discharge. Among 58 patients, 12 (20.7%) had DCI, 40 (68.9%) had TCD evidence of CVS, and 20 (34.5%) had poor outcome. The concentrations of VWF, P-selectin and IL-6 on T1, T2 and T3 after SAH were significantly higher in DCI, CVS and poor outcome groups compared with those of the control group (P < 0.05). The concentrations of VWF, P-selectin and IL-6 were significantly higher in DCI, CVS and poor outcome groups compared with those of the no DCI, no CVS and good outcome groups. The activity of ADAMTS13 was lower in DCI and poor outcome groups compared with those of the no DCI and good outcome groups (P < 0.05). The activity of ADAMTS13 showed no difference in CVS group and no CVS group (P > 0.05). The results of our study suggest that the increased VWF and decreased ADAMTS13 activity were associated with DCI and poor outcome. The balance of VWF/ADAMTS13 could be used to predict the clinical outcome. The deficiency of ADAMTS13 can not only induce DCI but also accelerate inflammatory reaction. Our results reported in this paper may provide new insights into the possible use of ADAMTS13 as a therapeutic agent in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:25785135

  9. Diffuse Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Secondary to Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Brian; Sabat, Shyamsunder; Agarwal, Amit; Thamburaj, Krishnamoorthy

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Aneurysmal rupture accounts for the majority of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Increasingly recognized is the occurrence of nontraumatic convexity SAH unaccounted for by aneurysmal rupture. Case Report These presentations require consideration of rare but clinically significant sources of SAH. We report a patient presenting with prolonged mild headaches and acute onset of seizure like activity found to have diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage and extensive dural venous sinus thrombosis involving the superior sagittal sinus and right transverse-sigmoid sinuses. Conclusions There are few reported cases of SAH secondary to dural sinus thrombosis; however most of these are convexity hemorrhage. Sinus thrombosis presenting as diffuse SAH is extremely rare, as is showcased in this report.

  10. Critical Care Management of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Audrey C. Quinn; Simon P. Holbrook

    \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Spontaneous aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with high mortality, and is a significant cause of morbidity\\u000a including permanent functional deficit.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a A thorough clinical assessment including WFNS grading and computed tomography is vital when SAH is suspected.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a All confirmed cases should be referred to a specialist neurosurgical center early.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 4. \\u000a \\u000a Critical-care management should aim to maintain CPP

  11. Cerebral Vasospasm in Critically III Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Does the Evidence Support the Ever-Growing List of Potential Pharmacotherapy Interventions?

    PubMed

    Kiser, Tyree H

    2014-11-01

    The occurrence of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a significant event resulting in decreased cerebral blood flow and oxygen delivery. Prevention and treatment of cerebral vasospasm is vital to avert neurological damage and reduced functional outcomes. A variety of pharmacotherapy interventions for the prevention and treatment of cerebral vasospasm have been evaluated. Unfortunately, very few large randomized trials exist to date, making it difficult to make clear recommendations regarding the efficacy and safety of most pharmacologic interventions. Considerable debate exists regarding the efficacy and safety of hypervolemia, hemodilution, and hypertension (triple-H therapy), and the implementation of each component varies substantially amongst institutions. There is a new focus on euvolemic-induced hypertension as a potentially preferred mechanism of hemodynamic augmentation. Nimodipine is the one pharmacologic intervention that has demonstrated favorable effects on patient outcomes and should be routinely administered unless contraindications are present. Intravenous nicardipine may offer an alternative to oral nimodipine. The addition of high-dose magnesium or statin therapy has shown promise, but results of ongoing large prospective studies are needed before they can be routinely recommended. Tirilazad and clazosentan offer new pharmacologic mechanisms, but clinical outcome results from prospective randomized studies have largely been unfavorable. Locally administered pharmacotherapy provides a targeted approach to the treatment of cerebral vasospasm. However, the paucity of data makes it challenging to determine the most appropriate therapy and implementation strategy. Further studies are needed for most pharmacologic therapies to determine whether meaningful efficacy exists. PMID:25477565

  12. Spontaneous Spinal Subdural Hematoma with Simultaneous Cranial Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hwan-Su; Kim, Sang Woo

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma is reported at a rare level of incidence, and is frequently associated with underlying coagulopathy or those receiving anticoagulant or antiplatelet agents; some cases accompany concomitant intracranial hemorrhage. The spontaneous development of spinal subdural hemorrhage (SDH) is a neurological emergency; therefore, early diagnosis, the discontinuation of anticoagulant, and urgent surgical decompression are required to enable neurological recovery. In this report, we present a simultaneous spinal subdural hematoma and cranial subarachnoid hemorrhage, which mimicked an aneurysmal origin in a female patient who had been taking warfarin due to aortic valve replacement surgery.

  13. Outcome of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in a hospital population: a prospective study including early operation, intravenous nimodipine, and transcranial Doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Seiler, R W; Reulen, H J; Huber, P; Grolimund, P; Ebeling, U; Steiger, H J

    1988-11-01

    A total of 153 consecutive patients with proven aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAHs) admitted immediately after diagnosis regardless of clinical condition were managed according to the same protocol. The initial evaluation included computed tomography (CT), transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD), angiography-CT, and/or angiography. Intravenous nimodipine (2 mg/hour) was started after confirmation of the diagnosis. The timing of operation was determined individually according to age, clinical course, and CT and TCD findings. Twenty-one Grade V patients treated with intensive care and ventriculostomy died or did not improve within 24 hours after SAH. Three patients with life-threatening intracerebral hematomas underwent emergency operation. Operation was early in 55 good risk patients and late in 57 patients because of poor initial grade, late admission, or logistic reasons. Seventeen patients had no operation because of old age, persistent poor clinical condition, medical complication, or lethal rebleeding before operation. In the total series, 90 patients (59%) made a full recovery, the overall morbidity rate was 14% (21 of 153 cases), and the mortality rate was 27% (42 of 153). Postoperative mortality including emergency evacuation of hematomas was 7.8% and mortality after elective operation was 6.2%. The causes of disability and death were the initial effect of the hemorrhage in 25 patients (16.3%), rebleeding in 15 (9.8%), delayed cerebral infarction in 8 (5.2%), surgical complications in 7 (4.5%), hydrocephalus in 4 (2.6%), and medical complications in 4 (2.6%). PMID:3059218

  14. Correlation between plasma total nitric oxide levels and cerebral vasospasm and clinical outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Shruthi Shimoga; Prasanthi, Aripirala; Bhat, Dhananjaya Ishwar; Devi, Bhagavatula Indira; Cristopher, Rita; Philip, Mariamma

    2014-01-01

    Context: Cerebral vasospasm remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide has been associated with the development of cerebral vasospasm after aSAH. Such data is not available in Indian population. Aims: The objective of the study was to measure the plasma total nitric oxide (nitrite and nitrate-NOx) level in aSAH patients and healthy controls treated at a tertiary hospital in India and to investigate a possible association between plasma total nitric oxide level and cerebral vasospasm and clinical outcome following treatment in patients with aSAH. Settings and Design: A case-control study of aSAH patients was conducted. Plasma total NOx levels were estimated in aSAH patients with and without vasospasm and compared the results with NOx levels in healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: aSAH in patients was diagnosed on the basis of clinical and neuro-imaging findings. Plasma total NOx levels in different subject groups were determined by Griess assay. Results: Plasma total NOx level was found to be significantly decreased in patients with aSAH when compared to controls. Plasma total NOx level in the poor-grade SAH group was lower than that in the good-grade SAH group. Plasma total NOx level further reduced in patients with angiographic (P < 0.05) and clinical vasospasm. Conclusions: Reduced plasma NOx level is seen in aSAH patients as compared to normal individuals. In aSAH patients reduced levels are associated with increased incidence of cerebral vasospasm and poor outcome. Plasma total NOx level could be used as a candidate biomarker for predicting vasospasm and outcome for this pathology. PMID:25540533

  15. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Secondary to Forceful Sneeze

    PubMed Central

    Nomani, Ali Zohair; Rajput, Haris Majid; Iqbal, Mansoor; Jan, Zakir; Irshad, Muhammad; Badshah, Mazhar; Khan, Rao Sohail Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a relatively less common but important neurological condition comprising 5% of all the cerebrovascular accidents. In most populations the reported incidence is 6-7 per 100,000 person-years and one-third of survivors become dependent. It is a serious but potentially treatable cause of neurological morbidity. Multiple authors have identified the most unusual novel associations and triggers of subarachnoid bleeds over the past decade. We herein report a rare case of subarachnoid hemorrhage leading to focal neurological deficit in a middle aged man secondary to forceful sneeze. PMID:25685569

  16. Progressive Manifestations of Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome Presenting with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Intracerebral Hemorrhage, and Cerebral Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyu-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by sudden-onset headache with focal neurologic deficit and prolonged but reversible multifocal narrowing of the distal cerebral arteries. Stroke, either hemorrhagic or ischemic, is a relatively frequent presentation in RCVS, but progressive manifestations of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral infarction in a patient is seldom described. We report a rare case of a 56-year-old woman with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome consecutively presenting as cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and cerebral infarction. When she complained of severe headache with subtle cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, her angiography was non-specific. But, computed tomographic angiography showed typical angiographic features of this syndrome after four days. Day 12, she suffered mental deterioration and hemiplegia due to contralateral intracerebral hematoma, and she was surgically treated. For recurrent attacks of headache, medical management with calcium channel blockers has been instituted. Normalized angiographic features were documented after 8 weeks. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome should be considered as differential diagnosis of non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and repeated angiography is recommended for the diagnosis of this under-recognized syndrome. PMID:25535520

  17. Unruptured Brain Aneurysms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History Early Detection and Screening Unruptured Brain Aneurysms Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Treatment Options Aneurysm Complications Post ...

  18. Iron and early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Loftspring, Matthew C

    2010-11-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) affects approximately 27,000 Americans per year. Although delayed cerebral vasospasm is of high clinical significance, mortality within the first 2 days may approach 30%. In this issue of the Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Lee et al have studied the role of iron in early brain injury after experimental SAH. They found that iron chelation with deferoxamine reduced mortality and oxidative DNA damage, and lessened the induction of iron-handling proteins. Taken together, these results highlight the deleterious potential of blood breakdown products and provide an insight into future intervention. PMID:20736954

  19. The impact of the international subarachnoid aneurysm trial (ISAT) on the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage in a neurosurgical unit in the UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kanna K. Gnanalingham; Vasilis Apostolopoulos; Sinan Barazi; Kevin O’Neill

    2006-01-01

    ObjectiveTo review the changes in the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) in a single neurosurgical unit in the UK, following the publication of the international subarachnoid aneurysm trial (ISAT).

  20. Intracranial hypotension caused by cisternal irrigation for vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Vasospasm is the most common cause of complication after a subarachnoid hemorrhage and tremendous efforts have been made to prevent it. A subarachnoid clot is the cause of the vasospasm and dissolving and washing it out is considered to be the best practice. Cisternal irrigation with urokinase and ascorbic acid has been widely used due to its proven effect. Case presentation A 60-year-old Japanese male presented with a severe headache was diagnosed with a subarachnoid hemorrhage and an immediate surgical obliteration was successfully performed. After clipping the aneurysm, a cisternal drainage tube was placed in the chiasmatic cistern. In order to clear the thick subarachnoid hemorrhage, a cisternal irrigation was performed. However, his consciousness deteriorated and his left pupil became dilated on the next day. A T1 sagittal magnetic resonance imaging scan showed an evidence of marked brain sagging with mild tonsillar descent. We continued intensive hydration and head-down positioning and the brain sagging was shown to have improved in the follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scan. Conclusions We present a case in which our patient experienced brain sagging after a cisternal irrigation of a subarachnoid hemorrhage. A subdural hematoma and low intracranial pressure suggested intracranial hypotension. Sagittal magnetic resonance imaging images are useful to evaluate brain sagging and are shown sequentially here in our case report. PMID:25223331

  1. Molecular alterations in the hippocampus after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang Myung; Wan, Hoyee; Kudo, Gen; Foltz, Warren D; Vines, Douglass C; Green, David E; Zoerle, Tommaso; Tariq, Asma; Brathwaite, Shakira; D'Abbondanza, Josephine; Ai, Jinglu; Macdonald, R Loch

    2014-01-01

    Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) frequently have deficits in learning and memory that may or may not be associated with detectable brain lesions. We examined mediators of long-term potentiation after SAH in rats to determine what processes might be involved. There was a reduction in synapses in the dendritic layer of the CA1 region on transmission electron microscopy as well as reduced colocalization of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and synaptophysin. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced staining for GluR1 and calmodulin kinase 2 and increased staining for GluR2. Myelin basic protein staining was decreased as well. There was no detectable neuronal injury by Fluoro-Jade B, TUNEL, or activated caspase-3 staining. Vasospasm of the large arteries of the circle of Willis was mild to moderate in severity. Nitric oxide was increased and superoxide anion radical was decreased in hippocampal tissue. Cerebral blood flow, measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and cerebral glucose metabolism, measured by positron emission tomography, were no different in SAH compared with control groups. The results suggest that the etiology of loss of LTP after SAH is not cerebral ischemia but may be mediated by effects of subarachnoid blood such as oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:24064494

  2. Insulin like growth factor-I in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage: a prospective cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stepani Bendel; Timo Koivisto; Olli-Pekka Ryynänen; Esko Ruokonen; Jarkko Romppanen; Vesa Kiviniemi; Ari Uusaro

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Neuroendocrine deficiencies may affect recovery after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) regulates neuronal growth and apoptosis in ischemic stroke. Our study was designed to a) characterize the behavior of serum IGF-I and growth hormone (GH) in the acute and late phases after aSAH reflecting possible pituitary gland function and b) evaluate the association between IGF-I

  3. Metamorphosis of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Research: from Delayed Vasospasm to Early Brain Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatima A. Sehba; Ryszard M. Pluta; John H. Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Delayed vasospasm that develops 3–7 days after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has traditionally been considered\\u000a the most important determinant of delayed ischemic injury and poor outcome. Consequently, most therapies against delayed ischemic\\u000a injury are directed towards reducing the incidence of vasospasm. The clinical trials based on this strategy, however, have\\u000a so far claimed limited success; the incidence of vasospasm is reduced

  4. Spontaneous Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage from Adrenal Artery Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez Valverde, F.M., E-mail: migova@terra.es; Balsalobre, M.; Torregrosa, N.; Molto, M. [Hospital General Vega Baja, Department of Surgery (Spain); Gomez Ramos, M.J. [Hospital General Vega Baja, Intensive Care Unit (Spain); Vazquez Rojas, J.L. [Hospital General Vega Baja, Department of Surgery (Spain)

    2007-04-15

    Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is a very rare but serious disorder of the adrenal gland that can require emergent treatment. We report on a 42-year-old man who underwent selective angiography for diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal hemorrhage from small adrenal artery aneurysm. This case gives further details about the value of transluminal artery embolization in the management of visceral aneurysm rupture.

  5. Intracranial hypotension in the setting of concurrent perineural cyst rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Walavan; Ravindra, Vijay M; Cutler, Aaron; Couldwell, William T

    2014-06-01

    Although most patients with intracranial hypotension typically present with headaches, the rest of the clinical spectrum is characteristically non-specific and often quite variable. In a patient with concurrent pathologies that can produce a similar clinical picture, a high index of suspicion must be maintained to achieve the correct diagnosis. The authors report a patient with intracranial hypotension in the setting of concurrent perineural cyst rupture and subarachnoid hemorrhage. A 63-year-old woman with a family history of ruptured intracranial aneurysms presented after a sudden thunderclap headache and was found to have diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. Imaging revealed anterior communicating and superior hypophyseal artery aneurysms. Following the uneventful clipping of both aneurysms, the patient experienced a delayed return to her neurological baseline. After it was noted that the patient had an improved neurological examination when she was placed supine, further investigation confirmed intracranial hypotension from perineural cyst rupture. The patient improved and returned to her neurological baseline after undergoing a high-volume blood patch and remained neurologically intact at postoperative follow-up. Although intracranial hypotension is known to be commonly associated with cerebrospinal fluid leak, its causal and temporal relationship with subarachnoid hemorrhage has yet to be elucidated. PMID:24314847

  6. Experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage: double cisterna magna injection rat model-assessment of delayed pathological effects of cerebral vasospasm.

    PubMed

    Güresir, Erdem; Schuss, Patrick; Borger, Valeri; Vatter, Hartmut

    2015-06-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage comprises of an early phase after the bleeding and a late phase of delayed consequences of the bleeding. The development of delayed injury mechanisms, like the reduction of cerebral blood flow (CBF) due to cerebral vasospasm (CVS), seems mainly to depend on the amount and the duration of the subarachnoid blood clot. The reduction of CBF may lead to cerebral ischemia and delayed neurological deterioration. The rat double cisterna magna injection model reproduces the time course of the delayed consequences of CVS and imitates the clinical setting more precise than other rodent subarachnoid hemorrhage models. Therefore, the rat double cisterna magna injection model seems to be predisposed to be used to mimick the delayed consequences of subarachnoid hemorrhage. We reviewed the existing literature on this animal model and propose a standard protocol including technical considerations, as well as advantages and limitations of this model. PMID:25704340

  7. [Chronic suppurative otitis media induced subarachnoid hemorrhage: case analysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guannan; Yang, Wenqiang; Zhang, Yi

    2012-08-01

    We present a case of subarachnoid hemorrhage induced by chronic suppurative otitis media and discuss the possible mechanism here. Chronic suppurative otitis media is a common suppurative inflammation of middle ear, which can cause sorts of extracranial and intracranial complications in the situation of lower resistance or higher virulence. However, the condition of subarachnoid haemorrhage caused by chronic suppurative otitis media is quite rare. According to this case and previously published articles, we consider that meningitis may be the main reason of subarachnoid hemorrhage induced by chronic suppurative otitis media. PMID:23213763

  8. The Importance of Early Brain Injury after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Sehba, Fatima A.; Hou, Jack; Pluta, Ryszard M.; Zhang, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a medical emergency that accounts for 5% of all stroke cases. Individuals affected are typically in the prime of their lives (mean age 50 years). Approximately 12% of patients die before receiving medical attention, 33% within 48 hours and 50% within 30 days of aSAH. Of the survivors 50% suffer from permanent disability with an estimated lifetime cost more than double that of an ischemic stroke. Traditionally, spasm that develops in large cerebral arteries 3-7 days after aneurysm rupture is considered the most important determinant of brain injury and outcome after aSAH. However, recent studies show that prevention of delayed vasospasm does not improve outcome in aSAH patients. This finding has finally brought in focus the influence of early brain injury on outcome of aSAH. A substantial amount of evidence indicates that brain injury begins at the aneurysm rupture, evolves with time and plays an important role in patients’ outcome. In this manuscript we review early brain injury after aSAH. Due to the early nature, most of the information on this injury comes from animals and few only from autopsy of patients who died within days after aSAH. Consequently, we began with a review of animal models of early brain injury, next we review the mechanisms of brain injury according to the sequence of their temporal appearance and finally we discuss the failure of clinical translation of therapies successful in animal models of aSAH. PMID:22414893

  9. Reversible cerebral vasospasm, multilobular intracerebral hemorrhages, and nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: review of possible interrelationships.

    PubMed

    Hantson, Philippe; Forget, Patrice

    2010-06-01

    "Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome" (RCVS) is a recently described entity that is mainly characterized by the association of severe ("thunderclap") headaches with or without additional neurological symptoms and diffuse, multifocal, segmental narrowings involving large and medium-sized cerebral arteries. By definition, angiographic abnormalities disappear within 3 months. The clinical course is usually benign, with a higher prevalence in young women. RCVS is idiopathic in the majority of the cases. However, recent papers have outlined the role of precipitating factors, including the use of vasoactive substances. Some patients, nevertheless, have a more severe clinical course with transient or permanent ischemic events. Hemorrhagic complications appear to have been underestimated. They are usually restricted to circumscribed cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, in the absence of any ruptured cerebral aneurysm. This limited bleeding is unlikely at the origin of the diffuse vasoconstriction. The finding of an unruptured cerebral aneurysm in RCVS patients is probably incidental. An overlap is possible between RCVS and other syndromes such as posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. There is no standardized treatment regimen for RCVS patients. It appears rational to further investigate the efficacy and safety of the calcium-channel antagonist nimodipine. PMID:20425193

  10. Microglia inflict delayed brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ulf C; Davids, Anja-Maria; Brandenburg, Susan; Müller, Annett; Elke, Anna; Magrini, Salima; Atangana, Etienne; Turkowski, Kati; Finger, Tobias; Gutenberg, Angelika; Gehlhaar, Claire; Brück, Wolfgang; Heppner, Frank L; Vajkoczy, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Inflammatory changes have been postulated to contribute to secondary brain injury after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In human specimens after SAH as well as in experimental SAH using mice, we show an intracerebral accumulation of inflammatory cells between days 4 and 28 after the bleeding. Using bone marrow chimeric mice allowing tracing of all peripherally derived immune cells, we confirm a truly CNS-intrinsic, microglial origin of these immune cells, exhibiting an inflammatory state, and rule out invasion of myeloid cells from the periphery into the brain. Furthermore, we detect secondary neuro-axonal injury throughout the time course of SAH. Since neuronal cell death and microglia accumulation follow a similar time course, we addressed whether the occurrence of activated microglia and neuro-axonal injury upon SAH are causally linked by depleting microglia in vivo. Given that the amount of neuronal cell death was significantly reduced after microglia depletion, we conclude that microglia accumulation inflicts secondary brain injury after SAH. PMID:25956409

  11. The distribution of intravenous nicardipine in rat brain after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukahara, T.; Arista, A.; Kassell, N.F. (Univ. of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The distribution of intravenously injected nicardipine in rat brain was investigated, as well as the influence of subarachnoid hemorrhage on its distribution. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated the accumulation of {sup 3}H-nicardipine only in the ventricles and subarachnoid spaces around pial vessels in normal brains. Thirty minutes after subarachnoid hemorrhage, the concentration of {sup 3}H-nicardipine was higher in the ventricles and in the subarachnoid space than that found in normal brains. It is concluded that nicardipine penetrates into the subarachnoid spaces and ventricles from pial vessels and/or choroid plexus, and that subarachnoid hemorrhage increases the penetration of nicardipine from vessels into the subarachnoid space.

  12. Outcome correlates with blood distribution in subarachnoid hemorrhage of unknown origin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michal Woznica; Steffen K. Rosahl; Ansgar Berlis; Astrid Weyerbrock

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  Between 15 and 30 % of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have no bleeding source and usually have a benign clinical\\u000a course and outcome. The objectives of this study were to classify the pattern of blood distribution on initial computed tomography\\u000a (CT) and to correlate it with clinical outcome in aneurysmal (ASAH) and SAH of unknown origin (SAHuO).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We reviewed

  13. NONCONVULSIVE SEIZURES IN SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE LINK INFLAMMATION AND OUTCOME

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Jan; Albers, David; Schmidt, J. Michael; De Marchis, Gian Marco; Pugin, Deborah; Falo, Christina Maria; Mayer, Stephan A.; Cremers, Serge; Agarwal, Sachin; Elkind, Mitchell SV; Connolly, E. Sander; Dukic, Vanja; Hripcsak, George; Badjatia, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nonconvulsive seizures (NCSz) are frequent following acute brain injury and have been implicated as a cause of secondary brain injury but mechanisms that cause NCSz are controversial. Pro-inflammatory states are common after many brain injuries and inflammatory mediated changes in blood-brain-barrier permeability have experimentally been linked to seizures. Methods In this prospective observational study of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients we explored the link between the inflammatory response following SAH and in-hospital NCSz studying clinical (systemic inflammatory response syndrome,SIRS) and laboratory markers of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor receptor 1,TNF-R1; high sensitivity C-reactive protein,hsCRP). Logistic regression, cox proportional hazards regression, and mediation analyses were performed to investigate temporal and causal relationships. Results Among 479 SAH patients, 53(11%) had in-hospital NCSz. Patients with in-hospital NCSz had a more pronounced SIRS response (OR1.9 per point increase in SIRS; 95%-CI1.3-2.9), inflammatory surges were more likely immediately preceding NCSz onset, and the negative impact of SIRS on functional outcome at 3 months was mediated in part through in-hospital NCSz. In a subset with inflammatory serum biomarkers we confirmed these findings linking higher serum TNF-R1 and hsCRP to in-hospital NCSz (OR1.2 per 20 point hsCRP increase [95%-CI1.1-1.4]; OR2.5 per 100 point TNF-R1 increase [95%-CI2.1-2.9]). The association of inflammatory biomarkers with poor outcome was mediated in part through NCSz. Interpretation In-hospital NCSz were independently associated with a pro-inflammatory state following SAH reflected in clinical symptoms and serum biomarkers of inflammation. Our findings suggest that inflammation following SAH is associated with poor outcome and this effect is at least in part mediated through in-hospital NCSz. PMID:24771589

  14. Aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage: who remains for surgical treatment in the post-ISAT era?

    PubMed Central

    Czapiga, Bogdan; Jarmundowicz, W?odzimierz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although there have been a number of studies on changes and trends in the management of aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) since publication of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT), no data exist on what category of patients still remains for surgical treatment. Our goal was to investigate the changes that occurred in the characteristics of a population of aSAH patients treated surgically in the post-ISAT period in a single neurosurgical center, with limited availability of endovascular service. Material and methods The study included 402 aSAH patients treated surgically in our unit between January 2004 and December 2011. Each year, data regarding number of admissions, age, aneurysm location and size, clinical and radiological presentation, outcome and mortality rates were collected and analyzed. Results The annual number of admissions more than halved in the study period (from 69 in 2004 to 32 in 2011). There were no linear trends regarding patients’ mean age, clinical presentation and outcomes, but the number of patients in Fisher grade 4 increased and mortality slightly decreased. An unexpected, statistically significant increase occurred in the incidence of anterior communicating artery aneurysms (from 36.2% to 50%) and medium size aneurysms (from 34.7% to 56.2%) treated surgically, with a corresponding decrease in the incidence of middle cerebral artery aneurysms (from 40.5% to 34.3%) and large aneurysms (from 21.7% to 12.5%). Conclusions Unexpected trends in characteristics of aSAH patients treated surgically could be related to treatment decision modality. Trend patterns could be properly expressed in the constant availability of endovascular services.

  15. Acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. An unusual clinical presentation of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ali; Ahmad, Bakhtiar; Ahmed, Zahoor; Al-Quliti, Khalid W

    2015-01-01

    Ruptured cerebral aneurysm is the most common cause of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Rarely cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) may present initially as acute SAH, and clinically mimics aneurysmal bleed. We report 2 cases of CVST who presented with severe headache associated with neck pain and focal seizures. Non-contrast brain CT showed SAH, involving the sulci of the convexity of hemisphere (cSAH) without involving the basal cisterns. Both patients received treatment with anticoagulants and improved. Awareness of this unusual presentation of CVST is important for early diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the inclusion of vascular neuroimaging like MRI with venography or CT venography in the diagnostic workup of SAH, especially in a patient with strong clinical suspicion of CVST or in a patient where neuroimaging showed cSAH. PMID:25630784

  16. In Vitro Study of Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics in a Shaken Basal Cistern after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kertzscher, Ulrich; Schneider, Torsten; Goubergrits, Leonid; Affeld, Klaus; Hänggi, Daniel; Spuler, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Background Cerebral arterial vasospasm leads to delayed cerebral ischemia and constitutes the major delayed complication following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral vasospasm can be reduced by increased blood clearance from the subarachnoid space. Clinical pilot studies allow the hypothesis that the clearance of subarachnoid blood is facilitated by means of head shaking. A major obstacle for meaningful clinical studies is the lack of data on appropriate parameters of head shaking. Our in vitro study aims to provide these essential parameters. Methodology/Principal Findings A model of the basal cerebral cistern was derived from human magnetic resonance imaging data. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was simulated by addition of dyed experimental blood to transparent experimental cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) filling the model of the basal cerebral cistern. Effects of various head positions and head motion settings (shaking angle amplitudes and shaking frequencies) on blood clearance were investigated using the quantitative dye washout method. Blood washout can be divided into two phases: Blood/CSF mixing and clearance. The major effect of shaking consists in better mixing of blood and CSF thereby increasing clearance rate. Without shaking, blood/CSF mixing and blood clearance in the basal cerebral cistern are hampered by differences in density and viscosity of blood and CSF. Blood clearance increases with decreased shaking frequency and with increased shaking angle amplitude. Head shaking facilitates clearance by varying the direction of gravitational force. Conclusions/Significance From this in vitro study can be inferred that patient or head shaking with large shaking angles at low frequency is a promising therapeutic strategy to increase blood clearance from the subarachnoid space. PMID:22870243

  17. Aneurysm Formation after Carotid Occlusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul E. Timperman; Thomas A. Tomsick; John M. Tew; Harry R. van Loveren

    Summary: We present two cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by aneurysm development and enlargement in the ante- rior communicating artery complex. The cases occurred in a series of 58 balloon occlusions for unclippable giant aneurysms of the internal carotid artery.

  18. An impedance index in normal subjects and in subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Giller, C A; Ratcliff, B; Berger, B; Giller, A

    1996-01-01

    The impedance of a hemodynamic system is defined as the ratio of each harmonic component of blood pressure to that of flow. Calculation of impedance cures has been extensively performed in the systemic circulation, leading to the recognition of reflected pressure and flow waves and clarifying the shape of ultrasound waveforms. Impedance in the human cerebral circulation has not been measured primarily because of the relative inaccessibility of simultaneous flow and pressure data in the human cerebral circulation. We defined an impedance index using the transcranial Doppler waveform for that of flow and a noninvasive applanation measure of the carotid artery pressure waveform. Middle cerebral artery velocities and carotid artery pressure waveforms were simultaneously recorded in 16 vessels from 10 normal volunteers, 42 vessels in 14 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 14 vessels in 7 subjects during conditions of hypocapnia, normocapnia and hypercapnia. Impedance was calculated by dividing the harmonic associated with pressure divided by that of flow, and averaging 10 to 20 such calculations. Relative impedance curves were calculated by dividing by the impedance at the first harmonic. Impedance was also studied in an electrical model consisting of a Windkessel element containing inductance in series with a second Windkessel to model the large vessel and vascular bed, respectively. Model parameters were taken from the literature for these calculations. For the normal subjects, the shape of the impedance index curve was similar to those found in the systemic circulation. The impedance index curves for patients in vasospasm (middle cerebral velocity was greater than 180) showed a peak at the second or third harmonic, which appeared more frequently than the nonspasm group (p < 0.01). Furthermore, the ratio of the second harmonic to the first harmonic was significantly > 1.0 in the spasm group but significantly < 1.0 in the normal group (p < 0.05). Calculations from the electrical model replicated the appearance of these peaks at the second or third harmonic for vasospasm parameters. A statistically significant peak appeared at the second or third harmonic in the impedance index curves for patients in vasospasm, which was replicated quantitatively by our electrical model. Although such peaks can be explained in the systemic circulation by the presence of reflected waves, the distance to the reflection site is larger than expected for the cerebral circulation. This suggests the importance of the inertia of blood as a stenosis worsens and as the origin for the observed changes in the impedance index curves. PMID:8795163

  19. MR Angiography Follow-Up 10 Years after Cryptogenic Nonperimesencephalic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Wenz, Holger; Wenz, Ralf; al Mahdi, Mohamad-Motaz; Scharf, Johann; Groden, Christoph; Schmiedek, Peter; Seiz-Rosenhagen, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Long-term magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) follow-up studies regarding cryptogenic nonperimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage (nSAH) are scarce. This single-centre study identified all patients with angiographically verified cryptogenic nSAH from 1998 to 2007: The two main objectives were to prospectively assess the incidence of de novo aneurysm with 3.0-MRI years after cryptogenic nSAH in patients without evidence for further hemorrhage, and retrospectively assess patient demographics and outcome. Methods From prospectively maintained report databases all patients with angiographically verified cryptogenic nSAH were identified. 21 of 29 patients received high-resolution 3T-MRI including time-of-flight and contrast-enhanced angiography, 10.2 ± 2.8 years after cryptogenic nSAH. MRA follow-up imaging was compared with initial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and CT/MRA. Post-hemorrhage images were related to current MRI with reference to persistent lesions resulting from delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and post-hemorrhagic siderosis. Patient-based objectives were retrospectively abstracted from clinical databases. Results 29 patients were identified with cryptogenic nSAH, 17 (59%) were male. Mean age at time of hemorrhage was 52.9 ± 14.4 years (range 4 – 74 years). 21 persons were available for long-term follow-up. In these, there were 213.5 person years of MRI-follow-up. No de novo aneurysm was detected. Mean modified Rankin Scale (mRS) during discharge was 1.28. Post-hemorrhage radiographic vasospasm was found in three patients (10.3%); DCI-related lesions occurred in one patient (3.4%). Five patients (17.2%) needed temporary external ventricular drainage; long-term CSF shunt dependency was necessary only in one patient (3.4%). Initial DSA retrospectively showed a 2 x 2 mm aneurysm of the right distal ICA in one patient, which remained stable. Post-hemorrhage siderosis was detected 8.1 years after the initial bleeding in one patient (4.8%). Conclusion Patients with cryptogenic nSAH have favourable outcomes and do not exhibit higher risks for de novo aneurysms. Therefore the need for long-term follow up after cryptogenic nSAH is questionable. PMID:25688554

  20. SAHIT Investigators--on the outcome of some subarachnoid hemorrhage clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, R Loch; Jaja, Blessing; Cusimano, Michael D; Etminan, Nima; Hanggi, Daniel; Hasan, David; Ilodigwe, Don; Lantigua, Hector; Le Roux, Peter; Lo, Benjamin; Louffat-Olivares, Ada; Mayer, Stephan; Molyneux, Andrew; Quinn, Audrey; Schweizer, Tom A; Schenk, Thomas; Spears, Julian; Todd, Michael; Torner, James; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Wong, George K C; Singh, Jeff

    2013-06-01

    Outcome of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has improved over the last decades. Yet, case fatality remains nearly 40% and survivors often have permanent neurological, cognitive and/or behavioural sequelae. Other than nimodipine drug or clinical trials have not consistently improved outcome. We formed a collaboration of SAH investigators to create a resource for prognostic analysis and for studies aimed at optimizing the design and analysis of phase 3 trials in aneurysmal SAH. We identified investigators with data from randomized, clinical trials of patients with aneurysmal SAH or prospectively collected single- or multicentre databases of aneurysmal SAH patients. Data are being collected and proposals to use the data and to design future phase 3 clinical trials are being discussed. This paper reviews some issues discussed at the first meeting of the SAH international trialists (SAHIT) repository meeting. Investigators contributed or have agreed to contribute data from several phase 3 trials including the tirilazad trials, intraoperative hypothermia for aneurysmal SAH trial, nicardipine clinical trials, international subarachnoid aneurysm trial, intravenous magnesium sulphate for aneurysmal SAH, magnesium for aneurysmal SAH and from prospectively-collected data from four institutions. The number of patients should reach 15,000. Some industry investigators refused to provide data and others reported that their institutional research ethics boards would not permit even deidentified or anonymized data to be included. Others reported conflict of interest that prevented them from submitting data. The problems with merging data were related to lack of common definitions and coding of variables, differences in outcome scales used, and times of assessment. Some questions for investigation that arose are discussed. SAHIT demonstrates the possibility of SAH investigators to contribute data for collaborative research. The problems are similar to those already documented in other similar collaborative efforts such as in head injury research. We encourage clinical trial and registry investigators to contact us and participate in SAHIT. Key issues moving forward will be to use common definitions (common data elements), outcomes analysis, and to prioritize research questions, among others. PMID:24323299

  1. [A case of acoustic neurinoma presenting as subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, K; Tsuda, T; Hondo, H; Matsumoto, K

    1985-09-01

    A case of acoustic neurinoma presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage is reported. The patient, a 33-year-old female, had suffered from left hearing disturbance and tinnitus for several years prior to admission. She had sudden onset of severe headache in the left posterior auricular region, nausea and vomiting while watching a play-going. Immediately she was brought to a neighboring hospital by ambulance. Lumbar puncture demonstrated xanthochromic cerebrospinal fluid with high opening pressure of 380 mmH2O or more and she was diagnosed as having subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). As her level of consciousness was progressively lowered, she was transferred and admitted to our hospital. Findings of plain CT scan on admission suggested that she had a brainstem hemorrhage with acute obstructive hydrocephalus. After the immediate operation of ventricle drainage, she became alert. Two weeks after admission, contrast-enhanced CT scan, internal meatus tomography and vertebral angiography were performed because she complained of tinnitus and hearing loss of her left ear. A huge lt. C-P angle tumor was revealed and its total removal was carried out successfully after V-P shunt operation for her hydrocephalic condition. Histological examination showed a typical acoustic neurinoma. The postoperative course was uneventful only with a moderate facial paresis on her left side. Acute and severe subarachnoid hemorrhage of the posterior fossa in cases of acoustic neurinoma has been reported very sporadically. However, CT examination revealed such a rare case of acoustic neurinoma and lead us to a successful surgical treatment for the patient. PMID:4069313

  2. Critical appraisal of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT).

    PubMed

    Sade, B; Mohr, G

    2004-03-01

    The results of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) drew attention from both scientific and lay press, impacting the management of aneurysm patients significantly. In this review, the ISAT report was analyzed critically and the available literature was scrutinized stratifying the common criticisms as to the weak aspects of this study. The aim of ISAT was to compare the safety and efficacy of endovascular coiling with neurosurgical clipping for aneurysms, which were suitable for both treatments. The results showed a 22.5% relative and 6.9% absolute risk reduction at one year in the disability outcome of patients who were treated with coiling. However, long-term risk of re-bleeding from the treated aneurysms and the risk of repeat procedures was higher in this group also. Lack of angiographic data following the initial treatment and long-term follow-up represents one of the main flaws of this study. The outcome assessment scale, biases regarding patient selection and center participation criteria were further issues of criticism. The results of ISAT are not sufficient to provide a definitive answer as to the superiority of endovascular treatment over microsurgery, although coiling appears to produce less peri-procedural morbidity in a selected group of patients. An optimum outcome assessment should include a universally accepted scale and a detailed long-term angiographic outcome. PMID:15069236

  3. Encephalic hemodynamic phases in subarachnoid hemorrhage: how to improve the protective effect in patient prognoses

    PubMed Central

    de Lima Oliveira, Marcelo; de Azevedo, Daniel Silva; de Azevedo, Milena Krajnyk; de Carvalho Nogueira, Ricardo; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

    2015-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage is frequently associated with poor prognoses. Three different hemodynamic phases were identified during subarachnoid hemorrhage: oligemia, hyperemia, and vasospasm. Each phase is associated with brain metabolic changes. In this review, we correlated the hemodynamic phases with brain metabolism and potential treatment options in the hopes of improving patient prognoses. PMID:26109948

  4. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo-Lorido, José Carlos; Carretero-Gómez, Juana

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) presenting as subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is infrequent. We present the case of a man with CVT of the right transverse sinus who presented with a SAH in the right parietal sinus. In this case, we describe a hyper-homocysteinemia in a heterozygous patient for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C667T mutation. Our report highlights the value of an early diagnosis of CVT, the importance of identifying possible causes that could be reversed with an appropriate treatment, and the controversy about the timing for starting anticoagulation therapy in such cases. PMID:25380613

  5. CSF Catecholamine Profile in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Patients with Neurogenic Cardiomyopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael MoussouttasEdwin; Edwin W. Lai; Keith Dombrowski; Thanh T. Huynh; John Khoury; Gilberto Carmona; Matthew DeCaro; Karel Pacak

    2011-01-01

    Background  Patients experiencing apoplectic intracranial processes may develop neurogenic cardiomyopathy (NC). The purpose of this research\\u000a is to determine whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) catecholamine levels are elevated in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients\\u000a with NC when compared to those without NC.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Observational study of consecutive grades 3–5 SAH patients requiring ventriculostomy. All patients underwent CSF sampling\\u000a for catecholamine levels, and transthoracic echocardiography

  6. Biomarkers as outcome predictors in subarachnoid hemorrhage – a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Caron M.; Tosun, Cigdem; Kurland, David B.; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Schreibman, David; Simard, J. Marc

    2015-01-01

    Context Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has a high fatality rate and many suffer from delayed neurological deficits. Biomarkers may aid in the identification of high-risk patients, guide treatment/management and improve outcome. Objective The aim of this review was to summarize biomarkers of SAH associated with outcome. Methods An electronic database query was completed, including an additional review of reference lists to include all potential human studies. Results A total of 298 articles were identified; 112 were reviewed; 55 studies were included. Conclusion This review details biomarkers of SAH that correlate with outcome. It provides the basis for research investigating their possible translation into the management of SAH patients. PMID:24499240

  7. Endovascular perforation subarachnoid hemorrhage fails to cause Morris water maze deficits in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Milner, Eric; Holtzman, Jacob C; Friess, Stuart; Hartman, Richard E; Brody, David L; Han, Byung H; Zipfel, Gregory J

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is the primary driver of poor long-term outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) survivors; modeling such deficits preclinically is thus key for mechanistic and translational investigation. Although rat SAH causes long-term deficits in learning and memory, it remains unknown whether similar deficits are seen in the mouse, a species particularly amenable to powerful, targeted genetic manipulation. We thus subjected mice to endovascular perforation SAH and assessed long-term cognitive outcome via the Morris water maze (MWM), the most commonly used metric for rodent neurocognition. No significant differences in MWM performance (by either of two protocols) were seen in SAH versus sham mice. Moreover, SAH caused negligible hippocampal CA1 injury. These results undercut the potential of commonly used methods (of SAH induction and assessment of long-term neurocognitive outcome) for use in targeted molecular studies of SAH-induced cognitive deficits in the mouse. PMID:24938403

  8. Acute subarachnoid hemorrhage in posterior condylar canal dural arteriovenous fistula: imaging features with endovascular management.

    PubMed

    Mondel, Prabath Kumar; Saraf, Rashmi; Limaye, Uday S

    2015-07-01

    A 43-year-old man presented with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. He was investigated and found to have a rare posterior condylar canal dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF). DAVFs of the posterior condylar canal are rare. Venous drainage of the DAVF was through a long, tortuous, and aneurysmal bridging vein. We describe the clinical presentation, cross sectional imaging, angiographic features, and endovascular management of this patient. The patient was treated by transarterial embolization of the fistula through the ascending pharyngeal artery. This is the first report of an acutely bled posterior condylar canal DAVF treated by transarterial Onyx embolization with balloon protection in the vertebral artery. The patient recovered without any neurological deficit and had an excellent outcome. On 6 month follow-up angiogram, there was stable occlusion of the dural fistula. PMID:25006042

  9. [Timing of helicopter transportation for patients presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage on isolated islands].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Ichiro; Matsunaga, Yuki; Tsutsumi, Keisuke; Takahata, Hideaki; Ono, Tomonori; Toda, Keisuke; Baba, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Cerebral aneurysm re-rupture following subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH)is a serious problem that is related with poor outcome. It is generally said that re-rupture occurs within 6 hours of the initial SAH;in the acute stage, strict management is needed even in the period before hospitalization. The aim of this study was to confirm whether patients on isolated islands should be transferred by helicopter > 6 hours after the initial SAH. Here we reviewed 125 cases of SAH in the isolated islands of Nagasaki prefecture between January 2007 and December 2012 who were transferred to Nagasaki Medical Center by helicopter as a result of consultation via TeleStroke(41 men, 84 women;mean age, 65.76 years). Re-rupture was observed in seven patients(5.6%), five of whom were diagnosed with re-rupture in a prior hospital on the isolated island. No patients demonstrated clinical deterioration during transport. Early helicopter transportation under adequate sedation and control of blood pressure within 6 hours is safe, and patients should be transferred as quickly as possible during the day. On the other hand, at night, flight safety must first be considered. Patients in stable clinical condition may be transferred the next day. We should pay special attention to patients with SAH and intracerebral hemorrhage, severe SAH, or vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm because their condition may gradually become more serious even if initially stable. PMID:24920741

  10. Interference of apoptosis in the pathophysiology of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Palade, C; Ciurea, Alexandru V; Nica, D A; Savu, R; Moisa, Horatiu Alexandru

    2013-04-01

    Programmed cell death is crucial for the correct development of the organism and the clearance of harmful cells like tumor cells or autoreactive immune cells. Apoptosis is initiated by the activation of cell death receptors and in most cases it is associated with the activation of the cysteine proteases, which lead to apoptotic cell death. Cells shrink, chromatin clumps and forms a large, sharply demarcated, crescent-shaped or round mass; the nucleus condenses, apoptotic bodies are formed and eventually dead cells are engulfed by a neighboring cell or cleared by phagocytosis. The authors have summarized the most important data concerning apoptosis in subarachnoid hemorrhage that have been issued in the medical literature in the last 20 years. PMID:24049554

  11. Interference of apoptosis in the pathophysiology of subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Palade, C.; Ciurea, Alexandru V.; Nica, D. A.; Savu, R.; Moisa, Horatiu Alexandru

    2013-01-01

    Programmed cell death is crucial for the correct development of the organism and the clearance of harmful cells like tumor cells or autoreactive immune cells. Apoptosis is initiated by the activation of cell death receptors and in most cases it is associated with the activation of the cysteine proteases, which lead to apoptotic cell death. Cells shrink, chromatin clumps and forms a large, sharply demarcated, crescent-shaped or round mass; the nucleus condenses, apoptotic bodies are formed and eventually dead cells are engulfed by a neighboring cell or cleared by phagocytosis. The authors have summarized the most important data concerning apoptosis in subarachnoid hemorrhage that have been issued in the medical literature in the last 20 years. PMID:24049554

  12. Orbital apex syndrome due to aspergillosis with subsequent fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Chi-Man; Hsu, Shu-Shong; Liao, Wei-Chuan; Chen, Jun-Yih; Liu, Su-Hao; Chen, Chih-Hao

    2012-01-01

    Background: Orbital apex syndrome has been described previously as a syndrome involving damage to the oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), abducens nerve (VI), and ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1), in association with optic nerve dysfunction. It may be caused by inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic, iatrogenic, or vascular processes. Case Description: A 73-year-old female having hypertension and rheumatoid arthritis stage 4 under long-term corticosteroid therapy presented to us with the right side orbital apex syndrome. Her magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of orbit showed progression of a lesion at the right orbital apex and adjacent right superior orbital fissure with mild extension to the right posterior ethmoid sinus. She underwent endoscopic endonasal transethmoid approach with the removal of the lesion. The pathology showed a picture of fungal infection and the culture of the specimen proved Aspergillus fumigatus. Her postoperative course was smooth until 5 days after surgery, when she suffered a massive spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage resulting from a ruptured aneurysm, which was proven by computed tomography angiography (CTA) of brain. Unfortunately, she expired due to central failure. Conclusion: In cases of immunocompromised patients having orbital apex syndrome, fungal infection should be kept in mind. One of the most lethal but rare sequels of CNS fungal infection is intracranial aneurysms. Early diagnosis and radical resection, combined with antifungal medications is the key to save this particular group of patients. PMID:23226610

  13. Microglia regulate blood clearance in subarachnoid hemorrhage by heme oxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Schallner, Nils; Pandit, Rambhau; LeBlanc, Robert; Thomas, Ajith J; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Zuckerbraun, Brian S; Gallo, David; Otterbein, Leo E; Hanafy, Khalid A

    2015-07-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) carries a 50% mortality rate. The extravasated erythrocytes that surround the brain contain heme, which, when released from damaged red blood cells, functions as a potent danger molecule that induces sterile tissue injury and organ dysfunction. Free heme is metabolized by heme oxygenase (HO), resulting in the generation of carbon monoxide (CO), a bioactive gas with potent immunomodulatory capabilities. Here, using a murine model of SAH, we demonstrated that expression of the inducible HO isoform (HO-1, encoded by Hmox1) in microglia is necessary to attenuate neuronal cell death, vasospasm, impaired cognitive function, and clearance of cerebral blood burden. Initiation of CO inhalation after SAH rescued the absence of microglial HO-1 and reduced injury by enhancing erythrophagocytosis. Evaluation of correlative human data revealed that patients with SAH have markedly higher HO-1 activity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compared with that in patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysms. Furthermore, cisternal hematoma volume correlated with HO-1 activity and cytokine expression in the CSF of these patients. Collectively, we found that microglial HO-1 and the generation of CO are essential for effective elimination of blood and heme after SAH that otherwise leads to neuronal injury and cognitive dysfunction. Administration of CO may have potential as a therapeutic modality in patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysms. PMID:26011640

  14. Predictors and Outcomes of Suspected Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Brijesh P.; Sims, John R.; Baccin, Carlos E.; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele M.; Ogilvy, Christopher S.; Nogueira, Raul G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a dreaded complication of heparin-related products and correlates with a worse outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. Objective To study the risk factors and outcomes of SAH patients suspected of having HIT, confirmed as present or absent by the platelet factor 4 (PF4) antibody test. Methods All patients with presumed aneurysmal, nontraumatic SAH and having undergone a PF4 test were identified through our research patient database. Charts, laboratory values and images were analyzed retrospectively. Results We identified 166 patients with SAH who were tested for HIT; 42 patients (25%) had a positive antibody test. There was no difference in platelet profiles or mean platelet nadirs of HIT+ and HIT- patients (147 ± 93 vs. 153 ± 86 ×109/l, respectively). Univariate analysis identified gender, magnesium prophylaxis, Fisher group 3, clipping versus coiling, presence of angiographic vasospasm, number of vasospasm treatments, and day of HIT testing as potential risk factors associated with HIT. A multivariate analysis indicated that female gender (OR 8.2, 95% CI 2.0-33.2), greater number of vasospasm treatments (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2.0), later day of HIT testing (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3), and clipping (OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.42-10.0) were independently associated with HIT positivity. HIT+ patients showed more infarcts on CT, longer ICU and hospital stays and worse modified Rankin Scale scores on discharge. Conclusion The presence of HIT in SAH has adverse consequences and is more likely in female patients who have undergone aneurysm clipping and require multiple endovascular vasospasm treatments. PMID:25337085

  15. Unsustainable hospital charges are incurred in the treatment of Medicare beneficiaries admitted with subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kainth, Daraspreet S; Adil, Malik M; Kainth, Hunar S; Dhaliwal, Jaspreet K; Qureshi, Adnan I

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Rising medical care expenditures and the unchanging Medicare reimbursements have placed restraints on the health care delivery system. Objective The goal of this study is to identify the magnitude and determinants of discrepancy between hospitalization charges and Medicare re-imbursement observed in the management of Medicare beneficiaries admitted with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the United States. Methods Patients entered in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample between 2002 and 2010, with a ruptured intracranial aneurysm who underwent either surgical or endovascular treatment were included in the study. Factors associated with higher discrepancy between hospitalization charges and Medicare re-imbursement were identified. Results Discrepancies in hospital charges and Medicare reimbursement associated with endovascular and surgical treatment have increased over the decade. The median discrepancy per patient for Medicare patients aged 65 years and older treated surgically or endovascularly for a ruptured aneurysm from 2009 to 2010 was $177,380. The predictors of higher than median discrepancy(charges versus reimbursement), included Hispanic ethnicity (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1–3.9, p = 0.02), urinary tract infection (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.4–2.8, p = <0.001), pneumonia (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.8–4.8, p = <0.001), deep vein thrombosis (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2–5.2, p = 0.02), and pulmonary embolism (OR 18, 95% CI 2.0–169, pp = 0.01). Conclusions There is a growing gap between hospital charges and Medicare reimbursement. If hospitals continue to be reimbursed at significantly lower rates than charges incurred, this current system may be unsustainable due to losses incurred by hospitals. Abbreviations AHRQ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality CMS Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services NIS Nationwide Inpatient Sample PMID:25566343

  16. Hypotensive effect of nimodipine during treatment for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Porchet, F; Chioléro, R; de Tribolet, N

    1995-01-01

    To determine the incidence of induced systemic hypotension in patients after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and nimodipine treatment 87 consecutive cases were reviewed. The patients were managed according to the same Nimodipine treatment protocol. After confirmation of SAH the nimodipine treatment was started as a continuous intravenous perfusion at a dosage of 0.5 mg/h and gradually increased every 6 hours if haemodynamically tolerated until the maintenance dose of 2 mg/h was reached. Median systemic pressure was continuously measured and tolerated until a lowest limit of 75 mmHg. In 31 patients (36%) hypotension with values below 75 mmHg during at least 30 minutes was noted and needed Nimodipine reduction. Intravenous Nimodipine administration was responsible for hypotension in 26 cases as compared to 5 cases due to oral administration. 38% of all patients required support by vaso-active agents (Dopamine or Nor-adrenaline). There was no statistically significant difference of incidence of delayed ischaemic deterioration comparing the Nimodipine-reduction group with the normal dose group. This study demonstrates that a considerable risk exists of Nimodipine induced hypotension in intravenous administration despite gradually increasing the doses. Correction of hypotension through further induced hypervolaemia accompanied by vasoactive agents can lead to critical haemodynamic situations. We therefore recommend oral Nimodipine administration. PMID:8748871

  17. Controversies and Evolving New Mechanisms in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng; Feng, Hua; Sherchan, Prativa; Klebe, Damon; Zhao, Gang; Sun, Xiaochuan; Zhang, Jianmin; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite decades of study, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) continues to be a serious and significant health problem in the United States and worldwide. The mechanisms contributing to brain injury after SAH remain unclear. Traditionally, most in vivo research has heavily emphasized the basic mechanisms of SAH over the pathophysiological or morphological changes of delayed cerebral vasospasm after SAH. Unfortunately, the results of clinical trials based on this premise have mostly been disappointing, implicating some other pathophysiological factors, independent of vasospasm, as contributors to poor clinical outcomes. Delayed cerebral vasospasm is no longer the only culprit. In this review, we summarize recent data from both experimental and clinical studies of SAH and discuss the vast array of physiological dysfunctions following SAH that ultimately lead to cell death. Based on the progress in neurobiological understanding of SAH, the terms “early brain injury” and “delayed brain injury” are used according to the temporal progression of SAH-induced brain injury. Additionally, a new concept of the vasculo-neuronal-glia triad model for SAH study is highlighted and presents the challenges and opportunities of this model for future SAH applications. PMID:24076160

  18. Migrating lumbar intrathecal catheter fragment associated with intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Hnenny, Luke; Sabry, Hatem A; Raskin, Jeffrey S; Liu, Jesse J; Roundy, Neil E; Dogan, Aclan

    2015-01-01

    Intrathecal catheter placement into the lumbar cistern has varied indications, including drug delivery and CSF diversion. These Silastic catheters are elastic and durable; however, catheter-associated malfunctions are well reported in the literature. Fractured catheters are managed with some variability, but entirely intradural retained fragments are often managed conservatively with observation. The authors describe a case of a 70-year-old man with an implanted intrathecal morphine pump for failed back surgery syndrome who presented to an outside hospital with a history of headache, neck pain, nausea, and photophobia of 3 days' duration. He also described mild weakness and intermittent numbness of both legs. Unenhanced head CT demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A right C-5 hemilaminectomy was performed. This case is unique in that there was no indication that the lumbar intrathecal catheter had fractured prior to the patient's presentation with SAH. This case demonstrates that intrathecal catheter fragments are mobile and can precipitate intracranial morbidity. Extrication of known fragments is safe and should be attempted to prevent further neurosurgical morbidity. PMID:25360531

  19. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Mimicking Leakage of Contrast Media After Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Min Seok; Kwon, Jee Eun; Kim, Kyung Jun; Jo, Joon Hwan; Min, Yun Ju; Byun, Jun Soo; Kim, Kyung Tae; Kim, Sang Wook

    2012-01-01

    We report a patient who developed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) just after coronary angiography (CAG) with non-ionic contrast media (CM) and minimal dose of heparin. The 55-year-old man had a history of acute ST elevation myocardial infarction that had been treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and was admitted for a follow-up CAG. The CAG was performed by the transradial approach, using 1000 U of unfractionated heparin for the luminal coating and 70 mL of iodixanol. At the end of CAG, he complained of nausea and rapidly became stuporous. Brain CT showed a diffusely increased Hounsfield unit (HU) in the cisternal space, similar to leakage of CM. The maximal HU was 65 in the cisternal space. No vascular malformations were detected on cerebral angiography. The patient partially recovered his mental status and motor weakness after 2 days. Two weeks later, subacute SAH was evident on magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was discharged after 28 days. PMID:22493615

  20. Neuroprotective Effect of Radix Trichosanthis Saponins on Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Sun, Haiyan; Huang, Liyong; Li, Juxiang; Zhou, Wenke; Chang, Jingling

    2015-01-01

    Redox homeostasis has been implicated in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). As a result, antioxidants and/or free radical scavengers have become an important therapeutic modality. Considering that radix trichosanthis (RT) saponins exhibited strong antioxidant ability both in vivo and in vitro, the present study aimed to reveal whether the neuroprotective activities of RT saponins were mediated by p38/p53 signal pathway after SAH. An established SAH model was used and superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitric oxide (NO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), p-p38, and p53 activation were detected after 48?h of SAH. The results showed that RT saponins inhibited iNOS expression to restore NO to basal level. Moreover, compared with Cu/Zn-SOD, RT saponins (2?mg/kg/d dosage) significantly increased Mn-SOD activity after SAH. Accompanied with lowered NO and elevated SOD, decreased p38 phosphorylation and p53 activities were observed, especially for RT saponins at 2?mg/kg/d dosage. In this setting, the neurological outcome was also improved with less neuronal cells damage after RT saponins pretreatment. Our findings demonstrated the beneficial effects of RT saponins in enhancing neuroprotective effects by deducing iNOS activity, normalizing SOD level, and inhibiting p-p38 and p53 expression, hence offering significant therapeutic implications for SAH.

  1. The influence of race on outcome following subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Zacharia, Brad E; Grobelny, Bartosz T; Komotar, Ricardo J; Sander Connolly, E; Mocco, J

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between race and outcome following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We identified all SAH discharges in New York City during 2003. An adverse outcome was defined as in-hospital death or discharge other than to home. While correcting for age and gender, we examined the effect of race and payor status on outcome following SAH. Forty-four percent of patients with SAH were white. Being white had a significant relationship with outcome when controlled for payor status (odds ratio 0.56). Among self-pay/Medicaid patients, fewer white (52%) individuals suffered poor outcomes than non-white (66%, p=0.03). Our results establish that white patients in New York City with SAH have better outcomes than non-whites. While it is unclear whether this discrepancy is secondary to pathophysiological differences or unidentified social factors, our findings demonstrate that this effect is independent of insurance status, and emphasize the need for further investigation into racial disparities in outcome following SAH. PMID:20004103

  2. Intraventricular and Subarachnoid Hemorrhages With a Subfalcine Hernia tion in a Full-Term InfantSonographic Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Twylla Miller; Reva A. Curry

    1995-01-01

    This case stud presents ultasound findings of a full-term neonate wMth severe perinatal asphyxia. Serial examinations revealed multiple brain abnormalities including grade ill and grade IV intraventricular hemorrhags subarachnoid hemorrhages, and a subfalcie herniation.

  3. Angio negative spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage: Is repeat angiogram required in all cases?

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajan; Das, Kuntal Kanti; Sahu, Rajni K.; Sharma, Pradeep; Mehrotra, Anant; Srivastava, Arun K.; Sahu, Rabi N.; Jaiswal, Awadhesh K.; Behari, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Background: In some cases of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the cause of bleed remains obscure on initial evaluation. These patients may harbor structural lesions. We aim to determine the utility of repeat angiogram in these subsets of patients. Methods: In this prospective study, patients with SAH with a negative computed tomographic angiogram (CTA) and digital subtraction angiogram (DSA) were included. A repeat angiogram was done after 6 weeks of initial angiogram. Patients were divided into perimesencephalic SAH (PM-SAH) and diffuse classic SAH (Classic-SAH) groups. Outcome was determined by modified Rankin score (mRS). Results: A total of 22% (39/178) of all SAH were angio-negative. A total of 90% (n = 35) of these were in Hunt and Hess grade 1-3. A total of 22 patients had PM-SAH and 17 had a Classic-SAH. Repeat angiogram did not reveal any pathology in the PM-SAH group, whereas two patients with Classic-SAH were found to have aneurysms. At 6 months follow-up, 95% patients of PM-SAH and 83.3% of Classic-SAH had mRS of 0. Conclusion: Repeat angiogram is probably not necessary in patients of PM-SAH and they tend to have better outcome. Classic-SAH pattern of bleed is associated with fair chances of an underlying pathology and a repeat angiogram is recommended and these cases and they have poorer outcome. PMID:25140284

  4. Reduced Ca2+ spark activity after subarachnoid hemorrhage disables BK channel control of cerebral artery tone.

    PubMed

    Koide, Masayo; Nystoriak, Matthew A; Krishnamoorthy, Gayathri; O'Connor, Kevin P; Bonev, Adrian D; Nelson, Mark T; Wellman, George C

    2011-01-01

    Intracellular Ca(2+) release events ('Ca(2+) sparks') and transient activation of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels represent an important vasodilator pathway in the cerebral vasculature. Considering the frequent occurrence of cerebral artery constriction after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), our objective was to determine whether Ca(2+) spark and BK channel activity were reduced in cerebral artery myocytes from SAH model rabbits. Using laser scanning confocal microscopy, we observed ?50% reduction in Ca(2+) spark activity, reflecting a decrease in the number of functional Ca(2+) spark discharge sites. Patch-clamp electrophysiology showed a similar reduction in Ca(2+) spark-induced transient BK currents, without change in BK channel density or single-channel properties. Consistent with a reduction in active Ca(2+) spark sites, quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting revealed decreased expression of ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR-2) and increased expression of the RyR-2-stabilizing protein, FKBP12.6, in the cerebral arteries from SAH animals. Furthermore, inhibitors of Ca(2+) sparks (ryanodine) or BK channels (paxilline) constricted arteries from control, but not from SAH animals. This study shows that SAH-induced decreased subcellular Ca(2+) signaling events disable BK channel activity, leading to cerebral artery constriction. This phenomenon may contribute to decreased cerebral blood flow and poor outcome after aneurysmal SAH. PMID:20736958

  5. Plasma Catecholamine Profile of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Patients with Neurogenic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Moussouttas, Michael; Mearns, Elizabeth; Walters, Arthur; DeCaro, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the connection between sympathetic function and neurogenic cardiomyopathy (NC), and to determine whether NC is mediated primarily by circulating adrenal epinephrine (EPI) or neuronally transmitted norepinephrine (NE), following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods This is a prospective observational investigation of consecutive severe-grade SAH patients. All participants had transthoracic echocardiography and serological assays for catecholamine levels – dopamine (DA), NE and EPI – within 48 h of hemorrhage onset. Clinical and serological independent predictors of NC were determined using multivariate logistic regression analyses, and the accuracy of predictors was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to evaluate correlations among the catecholamines. Results The investigation included a total of 94 subjects: the mean age was 55 years, 81% were female and 57% were Caucasian. NC was identified in approximately 10% (9/94) of cases. Univariate analyses revealed associations between NC and worse clinical severity (p = 0.019), plasma DA (p = 0.018) and NE levels (p = 0.024). Plasma NE correlated with DA levels (? = 0.206, p = 0.046) and EPI levels (? = 0.392, p < 0.001), but was predicted only by plasma EPI in bivariate [parameter estimate (PE) = 1.95, p < 0.001] and multivariate (PE = 1.89, p < 0.001) linear regression models. Multivariate logistic regression analyses consistently demonstrated the predictive value of clinical grade for NC (p < 0.05 for all analyses) except in models incorporating plasma NE, where NC was independently predicted by NE level (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.55) over clinical grade (OR 4.19, 95% CI 0.874-20.1). ROC curves similarly revealed the greater accuracy of plasma NE [area under the curve (AUC) 0.727, 95% CI 0.56-0.90, p = 0.02] over clinical grade (AUC 0.704, 95% CI 0.55-0.86, p = 0.05) for identifying the presence or absence of NC. Conclusions Following SAH, the development of NC is primarily related to elevated plasma NE levels. Findings implicate a predominantly neurogenic process mediated by neuronal NE (and not adrenal EPI), but cannot exclude synergy between the catecholamines. PMID:26120322

  6. Accumulation of intimal platelets in cerebral arteries following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in cats

    SciTech Connect

    Haining, J.L.; Clower, B.R.; Honma, Y.; Smith, R.R.

    1988-07-01

    From 2 hours to 23 days following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage, the accumulation of indium-111-labeled platelets on the intimal surface of the middle cerebral artery was studied in 23 cats. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was produced by transorbital rupture of the right middle cerebral artery. Of the 23 cats, 17 exhibited right middle cerebral artery/left middle cerebral artery radioactivity ratios of greater than 1.25. When these results were compared with those of 12 control cats, 0.001 less than p less than 0.005 (chi2 test). Thus, the results from the control and experimental groups are significantly different and indicate early (after 2 hours) preferential accumulation of intimal platelets in the ruptured right middle cerebral artery compared with the unruptured left middle cerebral artery and new platelet deposition continuing for up to 23 days. However, the experimental group did not reveal a clear pattern for platelet accumulation following subarachnoid hemorrhage. There was no simple correlation between the magnitude of the radioactivity ratios and the time after hemorrhage when the cats were killed although the ratios for 2 hours to 7 days seemed greater than those for 8 to 23 days. Assuming the pivotal role of platelets in the angiopathy of subarachnoid hemorrhage, the administration of antiplatelet agents as soon as possible following its occurrence may be of value.

  7. Magnesium for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (MASH-2): a randomised placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mees, Sanne M Dorhout; Algra, Ale; Vandertop, W Peter; van Kooten, Fop; Kuijsten, Hans AJM; Boiten, Jelis; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J; Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi; Lavados, Pablo M; Rinkel, Gabriel JE; van den Bergh, Walter M

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Magnesium sulphate is a neuroprotective agent that might improve outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage by reducing the occurrence or improving the outcome of delayed cerebral ischaemia. We did a trial to test whether magnesium therapy improves outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Methods We did this phase 3 randomised, placebo-controlled trial in eight centres in Europe and South America. We randomly assigned (with computer-generated random numbers, with permuted blocks of four, stratified by centre) patients aged 18 years or older with an aneurysmal pattern of subarachnoid haemorrhage on brain imaging who were admitted to hospital within 4 days of haemorrhage, to receive intravenous magnesium sulphate, 64 mmol/day, or placebo. We excluded patients with renal failure or bodyweight lower than 50 kg. Patients, treating physicians, and investigators assessing outcomes and analysing data were masked to the allocation. The primary outcome was poor outcome—defined as a score of 4–5 on the modified Rankin Scale—3 months after subarachnoid haemorrhage, or death. We analysed results by intention to treat. We also updated a previous meta-analysis of trials of magnesium treatment for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. This study is registered with controlled-trials.com (ISRCTN 68742385) and the EU Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT 2006-003523-36). Findings 1204 patients were enrolled, one of whom had his treatment allocation lost. 606 patients were assigned to the magnesium group (two lost to follow-up), 597 to the placebo (one lost to follow-up). 158 patients (26·2%) had poor outcome in the magnesium group compared with 151 (25·3%) in the placebo group (risk ratio [RR] 1·03, 95% CI 0·85–1·25). Our updated meta-analysis of seven randomised trials involving 2047 patients shows that magnesium is not superior to placebo for reduction of poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (RR 0·96, 95% CI 0·86–1·08). Interpretation Intravenous magnesium sulphate does not improve clinical outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, therefore routine administration of magnesium cannot be recommended. Funding Netherlands Heart Foundation, UK Medical Research Council. PMID:22633825

  8. Increased brain edema in aqp4-null mice in an experimental model of subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Tait; S. Saadoun; B. A. Bell; A. S. Verkman; M. C. Papadopoulos

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the role of the glial water channel protein aquaporin-4 in brain edema in a mouse model of subarachnoid hemorrhage in which 30 ?l of blood was injected into the basal cisterns. Brain water content, intracranial pressure and neurological score were compared in wildtype and aquaporin-4 null mice. We also measured blood-brain barrier permeability, and the osmotic permeability of

  9. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related atraumatic convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage: an ARIA before the tsunami.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lizana, Eva; Carmona-Iragui, María; Alcolea, Daniel; Gómez-Choco, Manuel; Vilaplana, Eduard; Sánchez-Saudinós, María B; Clarimón, Jordi; Hernández-Guillamon, Mar; Munuera, Josep; Gelpi, Ellen; Gómez-Anson, Beatriz; de Juan-Delago, Manel; Delgado-Mederos, Raquel; Montaner, Joan; Ois, Angel; Amaro, Sergi; Blesa, Rafael; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan; Lleó, Alberto; Fortea, Juan

    2015-05-01

    Atraumatic convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage (cSAH) in elderly patients is a rare entity that has been associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and intracerebral hematomas (ICH). To characterize this entity and to study these associations, 22 patients over 60 with cSAH were included in a multicenter ambispective cohort study. Clinical data, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, APOE genotyping, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers were evaluated. Results were compared with data from healthy controls (HC), non-cSAH CAA patients (CAAo), and Alzheimer disease patients. Convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage presented with transient sensory or motor symptoms. At follow-up (median 30.7 months), 5 patients had died, 6 survivors showed functional disability (modified Rankins Scale (mRS)>2), and 12 cognitive impairment. Four patients had prior ICH and six had an ICH during follow-up. CSF-Aß40 and Aß42 levels were lower in cSAH and CAAo compared with HC. Convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage presented an APOE-?2 overrepresentation and CAAo had an APOE-?4 overrepresentation. On MRI, all patients fulfilled CAA-modified Boston criteria and 9 showed cortical ischemia in the surrounding cortex or the vicinity of superficial siderosis. The neuropathologic study, available in one patient, showed severe CAA and advanced Alzheimer-type pathology. Convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the elderly is associated with cognitive impairment and lobar ICH occurrence. Our findings support the existence of an underlying CAA pathology. PMID:25735919

  10. Nitric oxide-loaded echogenic liposomes for treatment of vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunggun; Britton, George L; Peng, Tao; Holland, Christy K; McPherson, David D; Huang, Shao-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Delayed cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage causes severe ischemic neurologic deficits leading to permanent neurologic dysfunction or death. Reduced intravascular and perivascular nitric oxide (NO) availability is a primary pathophysiology of cerebral vasospasm. In this study, we evaluated NO-loaded echogenic liposomes (NO-ELIP) for ultrasound-facilitated NO delivery to produce vasodilation for treatment of vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. We investigated the vasodilative effects of NO released from NO-ELIP both ex vivo and in vivo. Liposomes containing phospholipids and cholesterol were prepared, and NO was encapsulated. The encapsulation and release of NO from NO-ELIP were determined by the syringe/vacuum method and ultrasound imaging. The ex vivo vasodilative effect of NO-ELIP was investigated using rabbit carotid arteries. Arterial vasodilation was clearly observed with NO-ELIP exposed to Doppler ultrasound whereas there was little vasodilative effect without exposure to Doppler ultrasound in the presence of red blood cells. Penetration of NO into the arterial wall was determined by fluorescent microscopy. The vasodilative effects of intravenously administered NO-ELIP in vivo were determined in a rat subarachnoid hemorrhage model. NO-ELIP with ultrasound activation over the carotid artery demonstrated effective arterial vasodilation in vivo resulting in improved neurologic function. This novel methodology for ultrasound-controlled delivery of NO has the potential for therapeutic treatment of vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. This ultrasound-controlled release strategy provides a new avenue for targeted bioactive gas and therapeutic delivery for improved stroke treatment. PMID:24379666

  11. Nitric oxide-loaded echogenic liposomes for treatment of vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunggun; Britton, George L; Peng, Tao; Holland, Christy K; McPherson, David D; Huang, Shao-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Delayed cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage causes severe ischemic neurologic deficits leading to permanent neurologic dysfunction or death. Reduced intravascular and perivascular nitric oxide (NO) availability is a primary pathophysiology of cerebral vasospasm. In this study, we evaluated NO-loaded echogenic liposomes (NO-ELIP) for ultrasound-facilitated NO delivery to produce vasodilation for treatment of vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. We investigated the vasodilative effects of NO released from NO-ELIP both ex vivo and in vivo. Liposomes containing phospholipids and cholesterol were prepared, and NO was encapsulated. The encapsulation and release of NO from NO-ELIP were determined by the syringe/vacuum method and ultrasound imaging. The ex vivo vasodilative effect of NO-ELIP was investigated using rabbit carotid arteries. Arterial vasodilation was clearly observed with NO-ELIP exposed to Doppler ultrasound whereas there was little vasodilative effect without exposure to Doppler ultrasound in the presence of red blood cells. Penetration of NO into the arterial wall was determined by fluorescent microscopy. The vasodilative effects of intravenously administered NO-ELIP in vivo were determined in a rat subarachnoid hemorrhage model. NO-ELIP with ultrasound activation over the carotid artery demonstrated effective arterial vasodilation in vivo resulting in improved neurologic function. This novel methodology for ultrasound-controlled delivery of NO has the potential for therapeutic treatment of vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. This ultrasound-controlled release strategy provides a new avenue for targeted bioactive gas and therapeutic delivery for improved stroke treatment. PMID:24379666

  12. Effects of Induced Hypertension on Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound Velocities in Patients After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Manno; D. R. Gress; L. H. Schwamm; M. N. Diringer; C. S. Ogilvy

    Background and Purpose—Transcranial doppler ultrasound (TCD) is used after subarachnoid hemorrhage to detect cerebral vasospasm and is often treated with induced hypertension. Cerebral autoregulation, however, may be disturbed in this population, raising the possibility that TCD velocities may be elevated by induced hypertension. To study this possibility, we performed continuous TCD monitoring of the middle cerebral artery during the induction

  13. Outcome of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage following the introduction of papaverine angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Morgan, M; Halcrow, S; Sorby, W; Grinnell, V

    1996-04-01

    This is a prospective study reporting the impact of angiographic vasospasm on the outcome following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage utilising a common regimen that includes nimodipine and angioplasty. The first 100 patients suffering an aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage treated by surgery and this angioplasty driven protocol are reviewed. Angiography was performed if the Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) fell by two, a focal neurological deficit developed, hyponatraemia was detected, or routinely on days 5-7 following the subarachnoid haemorrhage. Angioplasty with papaverine was administered intra-arterially in all patients with significant angiographic vasospasm. Neurological deficits on admission were not present in 49% and associated with a GCS less than 14 in 38%. Angiographic vasospasm was detected in 48% of patients (all of whom received papaverine). Overall 3 month outcome was normal in 60%, neurological deficit but independence with regard to activities of daily living in 18%, loss of independence in 17%, and death in 5% of cases. Analysis of admission neurological condition (GCS < vs GCS > 13), presence of angiographic vasospasm, aneurysm size (less than or greater than 1.5 cm), and aneurysm circulation (anterior vs posterior) on outcome (normal vs abnormal) found that only admission neurological condition significantly influenced outcome (P < 0.0001). The results suggest that with the protocol of nimodipine and angioplasty the impact of vasospasm on outcome is far less significant than the clinical severity of the initial haemorrhage. This is in contradistinction to the experience with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage prior to this regimen (nimodipine and angioplasty) where vasospasm was the most significant determinant of a poor outcome. PMID:18638856

  14. Rapid ventricular pacing assisted hypotension in the management of sudden intraoperative hemorrhage during cerebral aneurysm clipping.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shariq Ali; Berger, Miles; Agrawal, Abhishek; Huang, Mary; Karikari, Isaac; Nimjee, Shahid M; Zomorodi, Ali R; McDonagh, David L

    2014-01-01

    Sudden intraoperative hemorrhage during intracranial aneurysm surgery from vascular injury or aneurysmal rupture has been known to dramatically increase the associated morbidity and mortality. We describe the first reported use of rapid ventricular pacing (RVP) assisted hypotension to control sudden intraoperative hemorrhage during intracranial aneurysm surgery where temporary arterial occlusion was not achievable. PMID:24891888

  15. Rapid ventricular pacing assisted hypotension in the management of sudden intraoperative hemorrhage during cerebral aneurysm clipping

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shariq Ali; Berger, Miles; Agrawal, Abhishek; Huang, Mary; Karikari, Isaac; Nimjee, Shahid M.; Zomorodi, Ali R.; McDonagh, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Sudden intraoperative hemorrhage during intracranial aneurysm surgery from vascular injury or aneurysmal rupture has been known to dramatically increase the associated morbidity and mortality. We describe the first reported use of rapid ventricular pacing (RVP) assisted hypotension to control sudden intraoperative hemorrhage during intracranial aneurysm surgery where temporary arterial occlusion was not achievable. PMID:24891888

  16. Protein biomarkers in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, vasospasm, and delayed ischemic neurological deficits.

    PubMed

    Nyquist, Paul A; Wang, Honghui; Suffredini, Anthony F

    2013-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a devastating neurological disease. It has many sequelae, including vasospasm and delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DINDs). We explored the blood proteome in patients with aSAH using transcranial Doppler (TCD) velocity as a guide to patients who are at risk for symptomatic vasospasm and DIND. Blood was drawn on all days that patients were observed in the neurocritical care unit (NCCU) after aSAH. A team of neurologists and neurosurgeons identified patients with clinical evidence of vasospasm and DIND. Serum was fractionated using protein chips and surface-enhanced laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS). We detected a pattern of protein expression associated with those at risk for elevated TCD velocities by day 8, compared with blood collected in the presymptomatic stage (days 1-3). We further analyzed serum using pooled samples from study entry to the time of elevated TCD velocities using a protein microarray that analyzed 500 human proteins thematically oriented toward inflammation. After identifying several candidates with elevated concentrations in the pooled samples, we then used reverse protein arrays to quantitate the concentration of potential candidate proteins in the individual samples. Proteins with significantly elevated concentrations included apolipoprotein-E, apolipoprotein-A, serum amyloid protein-4, and serum amyloid protein-P. Future studies in larger sample populations are needed to evaluate these biomarkers further as representative of biosystems involved in vasospasm and DIND or as potential biomarkers predictive of risk associated with disease. PMID:22890638

  17. Insulin like growth factor-I in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Neuroendocrine deficiencies may affect recovery after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) regulates neuronal growth and apoptosis in ischemic stroke. Our study was designed to a) characterize the behavior of serum IGF-I and growth hormone (GH) in the acute and late phases after aSAH reflecting possible pituitary gland function and b) evaluate the association between IGF-I and morbidity assessed by Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) and health related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with aSAH. Methods In this prospective cohort study, patients with aSAH (n = 30) were compared to patients who underwent elective aneurysm surgery (n = 16). Serum GH and IGF-I concentrations were measured daily for five (controls) or seven (aSAH) days and at three months. GOS and 15d HRQoL was measured at three months. A mixed models method was used for testing between the groups. For factors possibly affecting HRQoL in aSAH patients, we constructed a Bayesian predicting model using a P-course Bayesian classifier. Results The mean IGF-I concentrations for days one to five were 8.1 ± 3.5 nmol/l in patients with aSAH and 11.2 ± 3.1 in the control group (P = 0.01). No corresponding difference was found at three months. Serum GH concentrations were similar in both patient groups. Severity of the aSAH did not affect serum IGF-I concentrations. Patients with GOS ? 4 had lower IGF-I concentrations and lower HRQoL than patients with GOS 5 (P = 0.02 and 0.003 respectively). The 15d HRQoL was 0.81 ± 0.16 in patients with aSAH and 0.86 ± 0.09 in control patients (P = 0.24). In the Bayesian model, the use of statins prior to aSAH, hyponatremia, high maximal sequential organ specific score (SOFAmax), and low cumulative IGF-I concentrations on days one to seven were associated with poor HRQoL (accuracy 89%, sensitivity 86%, and specificity 93%). Conclusions IGF-I concentrations are low during acute aSAH, which may have an impact on morbidity. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00614887 PMID:20426845

  18. Late epilepsy following open surgery for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Buczacki, S; Kirkpatrick, P; Seeley, H; Hutchinson, P

    2004-01-01

    Design: Subgroup analysis of the East Anglian regional audit of SAH (1994–2000; n = 872) with 12 month follow up. Prophylactic anticonvulsants were not routinely prescribed unless there was a perioperative seizure. Subjects: 472 patients with aneurysmal SAH undergoing surgical clipping of the aneurysm were studied. Patients presenting in WFNS grade V, with space occupying haematomas requiring emergency surgery, or with posterior circulation aneurysms, rebleeds, and surgery after 21 days were excluded. Results: Late epilepsy occurred in 23 patients (4.9%). There was a correlation between the incidence of late epilepsy and both the presenting WFNS grade (p<0.05) (grade 1, 1.4%; grade 2, 3.8%; grade 3, 9.6%; grade 4, 12.5%) and the Glasgow outcome score at discharge (p<0.01) (good recovery, 2.2%; moderate disability, 5.0%; severe disability, 15.5%). There was no relation between the incidence of late epilepsy and sex or the site of the aneurysm. Conclusions: The low incidence of late epilepsy following open surgery for aneurysmal SAH supports the withholding of prophylactic anticonvulsants. Patients with poor WFNS grade and poor recovery after surgery are at increased risk and should be closely monitored. PMID:15489400

  19. A Novel Intravital Method to Evaluate Cerebral Vasospasm in Rat Models of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Study with Synchrotron Radiation Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Falei; Chen, Lujia; He, Chuan; Bao, Yuhai; Chen, Zuoquan; Lou, Meiqing; Xia, Weiliang; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Ling, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Precise in vivo evaluation of cerebral vasospasm caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage has remained a critical but unsolved issue in experimental small animal models. In this study, we used synchrotron radiation angiography to study the vasospasm of anterior circulation arteries in two subarachnoid hemorrhage models in rats. Synchrotron radiation angiography, laser Doppler flowmetry-cerebral blood flow measurement, [125I]N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine cerebral blood flow measurement and terminal examinations were applied to evaluate the changes of anterior circulation arteries in two subarachnoid hemorrhage models made by blood injection into cisterna magna and prechiasmatic cistern. Using synchrotron radiation angiography technique, we detected cerebral vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage rats compared to the controls (p<0.05). We also identified two interesting findings: 1) both middle cerebral artery and anterior cerebral artery shrunk the most at day 3 after subarachnoid hemorrhage; 2) the diameter of anterior cerebral artery in the prechiasmatic cistern injection group was smaller than that in the cisterna magna injection group (p<0.05), but not for middle cerebral artery. We concluded that synchrotron radiation angiography provided a novel technique, which could directly evaluate cerebral vasospasm in small animal experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage models. The courses of vasospasm in these two injection models are similar; however, the model produced by prechiasmatic cistern injection is more suitable for study of anterior circulation vasospasm. PMID:22428033

  20. Monotherapy with stenting in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after middle cerebral artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Puri, Ajit S; Gounis, Matthew J; Massari, Francesco; Howk, Mary; Weaver, John; Wakhloo, Ajay K

    2015-01-01

    Isolated middle cerebral artery dissection is a rare clinical entity, with descriptions limited to a few case reports and case series. Symptomatic dissection in the anterior circulation can present as an ischemic stroke in a young population; however, it is rarely associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe a young patient who presented with acute headache from a subarachnoid hemorrhage that was ultimately determined to be due to a vascular dissection in the middle cerebral artery. The initial angiogram showed vascular irregularities in this area with stenosis. Repeat imaging 4?days after presentation identified a pseudoaneurysm proximal to the stenosis. The patient was successfully treated with a self-expanding nitinol stent and followed up with serial angiography during postoperative recovery in the hospital; additional angiograms were performed approximately 1 and 6?months after treatment. Serial angiograms demonstrated incremental healing of the dissection. The patient was discharged and remains neurologically intact at the 6-month follow-up. PMID:25833904

  1. [Complete remission of consciousness disturbances and spasticity due to a severe subarachnoid hemorrhage after intrathecal baclofen therapy: a case report].

    PubMed

    Asahi, Takashi; Kashiwazaki, Daina; Koh, Masaki; Matsumura, Nobuhisa; Kuroda, Satoshi

    2015-03-01

    Typically, intrathecal baclofen therapy(ITB)for spasticity is continuously required because the spasticity can recur if the ITB is stopped. Thus, an infusion pump for the ITB is permanently implanted. Some sporadic cases exhibiting remarkable improvements in their spasticity and consciousness disturbances have been reported after implanting the ITB pump. We experienced a rare case involving removal of the ITB pump after the spasticity resolved and the consciousness disturbances markedly improved. A 15-year-old girl developed a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of an aneurysm in the right anterior cerebral artery. Her initial Glasgow Coma Scale score was 4(E1V1M2). Trapping of the aneurysm and decompression craniotomy were performed. Subsequently, she underwent a tracheotomy, and a percutaneous gastrostomy(PEG)tube was implanted because of persistent consciousness disturbances. Cranioplasty and lumbar-peritoneal shunt for normal pressure hydrocephalus were performed after 1 month. An ITB pump was implanted to improve the spasticity observed mainly in the lower extremities 61 days after hemorrhage onset. Right hemiparesis remained due to Kernohan's notch. After transfer to the rehabilitation hospital, her consciousness disturbances and spasticity remarkably improved(1.9 to 1.0 and 3.5 to 1.0 on the Ashworth scale for the upper and lower extremities, respectively). The tracheostomy and PEG tubes were removed, and the baclofen dose was gradually reduced. She was completely off baclofen after 7 months, and she was discharged with a short leg brace and a cane for walking. The baclofen pump was then removed. In this case, temporary ITB improved the spasticity and consciousness disturbances. PMID:25748812

  2. Mechanical and radiographic properties of a shape memory polymer composite for intracranial aneurysm coils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet M. Hampikian; Brian C. Heaton; Frank C. Tong; Zhuqing Zhang; C. P. Wong

    2006-01-01

    An intracranial aneurysm can be a serious condition that can go undetected until the aneurysm ruptures, causing hemorrhaging within the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain. The typical treatment for large aneurysms is by embolization using platinum coils. However, in about 15% of the cases treated by platinum coils, the aneurysm eventually re-opens as a result of the bio-inertness of platinum.

  3. Aggressive management of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage based on a papaverine angioplasty protocol.

    PubMed

    Morgan, M K; Jonker, B; Finfer, S; Harrington, T; Dorsch, N W

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the results of intensive therapy unit management of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage incorporating angioplasty in the protocol. Two hundred consecutive patients were treated using a detailed protocol that included nimodipine, early aneurysm repair, and surveillance angiography. Angiography was performed on days 5 to 7 (or when the clinical state suggested the presence of vasospasm). If angiographic vasospasm was identified, irrespective of whether clinical vasospasm was present or absent, papaverine was selectively administered. In patients with vasospasm blood pressure was elevated to 160-180 mmHg and selective papaverine administration was repeated daily until vasospasm resolved. In cases requiring more frequent administration of papaverine, or in whom papaverine failed to adequately reverse spasm, balloon angioplasty was considered and for clinically refractory cases barbiturate coma was introduced. 43% of patients underwent papaverine administration and of these the average number of separate papaverine procedures was four (maximum 23). 26% of patients developed neurological deficits though to be due to vasospasm whilst 17% underwent papaverine angioplasty without clinical signs of vasospasm. Twelve patients (6%) were entered into barbiturate coma. There was a 5.5% mortality and no difference in outcome between patients who developed angiographic vasospasm and those who did not. For those developing clinical vasospasm, 71% were independent and 10% were dead at follow up compared with 84% reaching independent grades and 4% dead in those not developing clinical vasospasm. These differences failed to reach a significant difference. The average Intensive Therapy Unit stay for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage patients was 13.1 days with a mean cost to the hospital of $AUD 24,379. This protocol appears to be both a clinically and cost effective method of managing aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. PMID:10938606

  4. Treatment of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage with Human Albumin: ALISAH Study. Rationale and Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose I. SuarezRenee; Renee H. Martin

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this prospective dose-finding pilot study is to demonstrate the tolerability and safety of four dosages\\u000a of 25% human albumin in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). For each dosage group, the study will enroll 20 patients\\u000a who meet the eligibility criteria. The enrolled patients will undergo follow-up for 90 days post-treatment. The primary tolerability\\u000a hypothesis is that intravenous

  5. Transient ST elevation and left ventricular asynergy associated with normal coronary artery and Tc-99m PYP Myocardial Infarct Scan in subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Chang, P C; Lee, S H; Hung, H F; Kaun, P; Cheng, J J

    1998-01-31

    A 72-year-old woman who presented with transient electrocardiographic ST segment elevation and left ventricular asynergy in an acute phase of subarachnoid hemorrhage was found to have normal coronary angiogram and normal Tc-99m PYP myocardial infarct scan. These findings suggested that noninvasive Tc-99m PYP myocardial infarct scan could substitute coronary angiogram for differentiating wall motion and electrocardiographic abnormalities secondary to subarachnoid hemorrhage from those caused by coronary artery disease in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:9510495

  6. Effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on the Na + , K + ATPase and membrane fluidity of cerebrocortical membranes after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsumi Yufu; Takehiko Itoh; Rei Edamatsu; Akitane Mori; Masahisa Hirakawa

    1993-01-01

    It is reported that CNS hemorrage causes membrane dysfunction and may exacerbate this damage as a result of secondary ischemia or hypoxia. Since hyperbaric oxygenation improves oxygen metabolism, it may reduce this membrane damage. The present study was conducted to reveal whether hyperbaric oxygenation influences membrane alteration after hemorrhage. Thirty minutes after subarachnoid hemorrhage induction, rats were treated with hyperbaric

  7. Intracranial Biodegradable Silica-Based Nimodipine Drug Release Implant for Treating Vasospasm in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in an Experimental Healthy Pig and Dog Model

    PubMed Central

    Koskimäki, Janne; Tarkia, Miikka; Ahtola-Sätilä, Tuula; Saloranta, Lasse; Laakso, Aki; Frantzén, Janek

    2015-01-01

    Nimodipine is a widely used medication for treating delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage. When administrated orally or intravenously, systemic hypotension is an undesirable side effect. Intracranial subarachnoid delivery of nimodipine during aneurysm clipping may be more efficient way of preventing vasospasm and DCI due to higher concentration of nimodipine in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The risk of systemic hypotension may also be decreased with intracranial delivery. We used animal models to evaluate the feasibility of surgically implanting a silica-based nimodipine releasing implant into the subarachnoid space through a frontotemporal craniotomy. Concentrations of released nimodipine were measured from plasma samples and CSF samples. Implant degradation was followed using CT imaging. After completing the recovery period, full histological examination was performed on the brain and meninges. The in vitro characteristics of the implant were determined. Our results show that the biodegradable silica-based implant can be used for an intracranial drug delivery system and no major histopathological foreign body reactions were observed. CT imaging is a feasible method for determining the degradation of silica implants in vivo. The sustained release profiles of nimodipine in CSF were achieved. Compared to a traditional treatment, higher nimodipine CSF/plasma ratios can be obtained with the implant. PMID:25685803

  8. Intracranial biodegradable silica-based nimodipine drug release implant for treating vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage in an experimental healthy pig and dog model.

    PubMed

    Koskimäki, Janne; Tarkia, Miikka; Ahtola-Sätilä, Tuula; Saloranta, Lasse; Simola, Outi; Forsback, Ari-Pekka; Laakso, Aki; Frantzén, Janek

    2015-01-01

    Nimodipine is a widely used medication for treating delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage. When administrated orally or intravenously, systemic hypotension is an undesirable side effect. Intracranial subarachnoid delivery of nimodipine during aneurysm clipping may be more efficient way of preventing vasospasm and DCI due to higher concentration of nimodipine in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The risk of systemic hypotension may also be decreased with intracranial delivery. We used animal models to evaluate the feasibility of surgically implanting a silica-based nimodipine releasing implant into the subarachnoid space through a frontotemporal craniotomy. Concentrations of released nimodipine were measured from plasma samples and CSF samples. Implant degradation was followed using CT imaging. After completing the recovery period, full histological examination was performed on the brain and meninges. The in vitro characteristics of the implant were determined. Our results show that the biodegradable silica-based implant can be used for an intracranial drug delivery system and no major histopathological foreign body reactions were observed. CT imaging is a feasible method for determining the degradation of silica implants in vivo. The sustained release profiles of nimodipine in CSF were achieved. Compared to a traditional treatment, higher nimodipine CSF/plasma ratios can be obtained with the implant. PMID:25685803

  9. Clot-clearance rate in the sylvian cistern is associated with the severity of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Tomikatsu; Yonekura, Ichiro; Iijima, Akira; Shinozaki, Munehisa; Tanishima, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    Rapid clot removal and clearance has been proposed as an effective tool for preventing cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We examined the relationship between clot-clearance rate and the severity of cerebral vasospasm in 110 consecutive patients with aneurysmal SAH. We measured clot-clearance rates per day in the basal and Sylvian cisterns, and evaluated the presence of symptomatic vasospasm based on changes in clinical symptoms and the appearance of a new low-density area on a computed tomography (CT) scan. The severity of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm was associated with age and the SAH grade on admission; however, we observed no significant difference between these variables in patients with urokinase irrigation or fasudil hydrochloride treatment. The mean clot-clearance rates per day for patients with asymptomatic and permanent delayed ischemic neurological deficit were 41.9 and 41.5 %, respectively, in the basal cistern (P = 0.7358) and 37.7 and 23.9 %, respectively, in the Sylvian cistern (P = 0.0021). The reduced clot-clearance rate in the Sylvian cistern increased the risk of vasospasm-related infarction (P = 0.0093) and markedly reduced unfavorable outcomes (P = 0.0115). PMID:25366636

  10. Severe Dextran-Induced Anaphylactic Shock during Induction of Hypertension-Hypervolemia-Hemodilution Therapy following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Shiratori, Tohru; Sato, Atsushi; Fukuzawa, Masao; Kondo, Naoko; Tanno, Shogo

    2015-01-01

    Dextran is a colloid effective for volume expansion; however, a possible side effect of its use is anaphylaxis. Dextran-induced anaphylactoid reaction (DIAR) is a rare but severe complication, with a small dose of dextran solution sufficient to induce anaphylaxis. An 86-year-old female who underwent clipping for a ruptured cerebral aneurysm was admitted to the intensive care unit. Prophylactic hypertension-hypervolemia-hemodilution therapy was induced for cerebral vasospasm following a subarachnoid hemorrhage. The patient went into severe shock after administration of dextran for volume expansion, and dextran administration was immediately discontinued. The volume administered at that time was only 0.8?mL at the most. After fluid resuscitation with a crystalloid solution, circulatory status began to recover. However, cerebral vasospasm occurred and the patient's neurological condition deteriorated. Five weeks after the shock, she was diagnosed with hypersensitivity to dextran by a skin test. When severe hypotension occurs after dextran administration, appropriate treatments for shock should be performed immediately with discontinuation of dextran solution. Although colloid administration is recommended in some guidelines and researches, it is necessary to consider concerning the indication for volume expansion as well as the risk of colloid administration. PMID:26171255

  11. Nicardipine in the treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a meta-analysis of published data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ren-qiang; Jiang, Fu-gang; Feng, Zi-min; Wang, Tian-yi

    2013-03-01

    Nicardipine is a dihydropyridine-type Ca(2+) channel blocker with a powerful antihypertensive activity and a unique cerebrovascular profile. Recent studies have examined nicardipine for the treatment of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), but have shown inconsistent results. In the current study, a meta-analysis was performed to assess the clinical effectiveness of nicardipine in the prevention of cerebral vasospasm in patients who had suffered from aneurysmal SAH. Medline, EMBASE, and PubMed databases were searched for the controlled trials evaluating nicardipine for treating SAH after a ruptured aneurysm, without language restrictions. Moreover, a manual search of the bibliographies of relevant articles was also conducted. Two researchers of the present study independently performed the literature search and the data extraction. The meta-analyses were performed using the software RevMan 4.2.10 (provided by the Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK). Five published manuscripts involving 1,154 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Nicardipine infusion reduced the risk of poor outcome (death, vegetative state, or dependency) and mortality, with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.58 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.37-0.90] and 0.45 (95 % CI 0.15-1.29), respectively. This meta-analysis suggests that nicardipine therapy reduces the likelihood of poor outcome and mortality in patients after aneurysmal SAH. PMID:23111775

  12. Early onset of PRES in a patient with a subarachnoid haemorrhage due to a ruptured intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Hiroki; Kashimura, Hiroshi; Murakami, Toshiyuki; Endo, Hidehiko; Mase, Tomohiko; Ogasawara, Kuniaki

    2014-12-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is rarely associated with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). We present a case involving a patient who developed PRES, prior to induction of hypertensive therapy, 2 days after the onset of a SAH due to a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. PMID:24799279

  13. Treatment of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factor deficiency and subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hai-fei; Wu, Tian-qin; Jin, Ling-juan; Tang, Jie-qing; Zhu, Jing-jing; Ge, Ying-chao; Li, Zheng-yang; Shen, Hong-shi; Qin, Long-mei; Yu, Zi-qiang; Wang, Zhao-yue

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In adults, vitamin K-dependent coagulation factor deficiency (VKCFD) increases in the recent years. We treated a VKCFD patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage, with favorable outcomes. METHODS: A 19-year-old male student with VKCFD was treated at our hospital. The initial treatment was injection of a large dose of vitamin K and fresh plasma, and then with oral high dose of vitamin K4. RESULTS: At 4 weeks after admission, the focus of hemorrhage subsided, neurological examination was normal, and the patient was discharged. CONCLUSIONS: VKCFD is rare and its diagnosis should be based on the history of the patient and the results of laboratory examinations. A large dose of vitamin K is the first choice of treatment. PMID:25214988

  14. Reactivity of cerebral arteries after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats after phosphoramidon administered.

    PubMed

    Jo?ko, J; Hendryk, S; Jedrzejowska-Szypu?ka, H; S?owi?ski, J; Gwó?d?, B; Lange, D; Harabin-S?owi?ska, M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify cerebral vasospasm in rats after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by morphometric examination of basilar artery and to evaluate the influence of Phosphoramidon on basilar artery constriction. The rat cisterna magna (CM) was cannulated and after 7 days SAH was developed by administration of 100 microliters autologic, non-heparinized blood to the CM. The sham subarachnoid hemorrhage was developed by intracisternal administration of 100 microliters of artificial cerebrospinal fluid. After 60 min and after 24 h Phosphoramidon was injected into the CM in a dose of 40 nmol diluted in 50 microliters of cerebrospinal fluid. After perfusion, the brain was removed from the skull and histological preparations of the basilar artery were made. The internal diameter and wall thickness of basilar arteries were measured by interactive morphometric method. The most severe vasospasm was found in rats after SAH and the administration of Phosphoramidon in the late phase after SAH caused the dilatation of the basilar artery. The presence of numerous infiltrations composed of neutrophils and macrophages correlated with advanced vasospasm (index of constriction 5 times lower than normal), suggesting the role of other factors participating in the late phase of vasospasms after SAH. PMID:11208441

  15. Clinical relevance of cortical spreading depression in neurological disorders: migraine, malignant stroke, subarachnoid and intracranial hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Lauritzen; Jens Peter Dreier; Martin Fabricius; Jed A Hartings; Rudolf Graf; Anthony John Strong

    2011-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) and depolarization waves are associated with dramatic failure of brain ion homeostasis, efflux of excitatory amino acids from nerve cells, increased energy metabolism and changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF). There is strong clinical and experimental evidence to suggest that CSD is involved in the mechanism of migraine, stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage and traumatic brain injury. The

  16. Dietary Intake of Key Nutrients and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Population-Based Case-Control Study in Australasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivy Shiue; Hisatomi Arima; Graeme J. Hankey; Craig S. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Background: A healthy, balanced diet can prevent stroke, but little is known about dietary risk factors for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We aimed to determine the relationship between common dietary habits and risk of SAH. Methods: In a population-based, case-control study of SAH undertaken across 4 Australasian cities, a standardized questionnaire was used to obtain information on the frequency of consumption

  17. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Trials News About Neurology Image Library Search The Internet Stroke Center Patients & Families About Stroke Stroke Diagnosis ... UT Southwestern Medical Center. Copyright © 1997-2015 - The Internet Stroke Center. All rights reserved. The information contained ...

  18. Isoflurane delays the development of early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage through sphingosine-related pathway activation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Altay, Orhan; Hasegawa, Yu; Sherchan, Prativa; Suzuki, Hidenori; Khatibi, Nikan H.; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Isoflurane, a volatile anesthetic agent, has been recognized for its potential neuroprotective properties and has antiapoptotic effects. We examined whether isoflurane posttreatment is protective against early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and determined whether this effect needs sphingosine-related pathway activation. Design Controlled in vivo laboratory study. Setting Animal research laboratory. Subjects 179 eight-week-old male CD-1 mice weighing 30 to 38 g. Interventions SAH was induced in mice by endovascular perforation. Animals were randomly assigned to sham-operated, SAH-vehicle, and SAH+2% isoflurane. Neurobehavioral function and brain edema were evaluated at 24 and 72 hours. The expression of sphingosine kinase (SphK), phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and cleaved caspase-3 was determined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Neuronal cell death was examined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine 5?-triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling staining. Effects of a SphK inhibitor DMS, or a sphingosine 1 phosphate receptor inhibitor VPC23019 on isoflurane’s protective action against post-SAH EBI were also examined. Measurements and Main Results Isoflurane significantly improved neurobehavioral function and brain edema at 24 hours but not 72 hours after SAH. At 24 hours, isoflurane attenuated neuronal cell death in the cortex, associated with an increase in SphK1 and p-Akt, and a decrease in cleaved caspase-3. The beneficial effects of isoflurane were abolished by DMS and VPC23019. Conclusions Isoflurane posttreatment delays the development of post-SAH EBI through antiapoptotic mechanisms including sphingosine-related pathway activation, implying its use for anesthesia during acute aneurysm surgery or intervention. PMID:22488000

  19. The role of erythropoietin in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Giovanni; Buemi, Michele; Giambartino, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) caused by a ruptured aneurysm accounts for only 5 % of strokes, but occurs at a fairly young age and carries a poor prognosis. Delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI) is an important cause of death and dependence after aneurysmal SAH. The current mainstay of preventing DCI is nimodipine and maintenance of normovolemia, but even with this strategy DCI occurs in a considerable proportion of patients.Several drugs have been developed that have the potential to limit cerebral vasospasm and delayed ischaemic neurologic deficit, thus improving outcome for patients. However, although numerous agents can prevent arterial narrowing and/or block the excitatory cascade of events leading to ischaemic neuronal death in experimental conditions, there is still no pharmacologic agent that has been shown conclusively to improve the outcome in clinical practice.Erythropoietin (EPO) is a well-known erythropoietic hormone recently found to exert neuroprotective properties and has been shown to reduce cerebral vasospasm and infarct volume after experimental SAH. In humans, although EPO treatment did not impact the overall incidence of vasospasm, it significantly reduced the incidence of severe vasospasm, the incidence of delayed ischaemic deficits with new cerebral infarcts, and the duration of impaired autoregulation. The current study provides new evidence for the potential benefit and relative safety of EPO for the treatment of SAH in humans. Future clinical trials will hopefully provide definite evidence whether EPO treatment is beneficial in SAH patients. PMID:25366603

  20. Internal Carotid Artery Blister-Like Aneurysm Caused by Aspergillus – Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Masaki; Sakurai, Keita; Kawaguchi, Takatsune; Naiki-Ito, Aya; Nakagawa, Motoo; Okita, Kenji; Matsukawa, Noriyuki; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Blister-like aneurysm of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) is a well-documented cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Generally, this type of aneurysm is associated with various conditions such as hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and ICA dissection. Although Aspergillus is the most common organism causing intracranial fungal aneurysmal formation, there is no report of a blister-like aneurysm caused by Aspergillus infection. Case Report An 83-year-old man received corticosteroid pulse therapy followed by oral steroid therapy for an inflammatory pseudotumor of the clivus. Two months later, the patient was transported to an emergency department due to the diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage, classified as Fisher group 4. Subsequent 3D computed tomography angiogram revealed a blister-like aneurysm at the superior wall of the left ICA. Six days later, the patient died of subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by the left ICA aneurysm rerupture. Autopsy revealed proliferation of Aspergillus hyphae in the wall of the aneurysm. Notably, that change was present more densely in the inner membrane than in the outer one. Thus, it was considered that Aspergillus hyphae caused infectious aneurysm formation in the left ICA via hematogenous seeding rather than direct invasion. Conclusions The blister-like aneurysm is a rare but important cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. This case report documents another cause of blister-like aneurysms, that is an infectious aneurysm associated with Aspergillus infection. PMID:25848441

  1. Memantine Attenuates Delayed Vasospasm after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage via Modulating Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chih-Yuan; Wang, Liang-Chao; Shan, Yan-Shen; Pan, Chia-Hsin; Tsai, Kuen-Jer

    2015-01-01

    Delayed cerebral vasospasm is an important pathological feature of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The cause of vasospasm is multifactorial. Impairs nitric oxide availability and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysfunction has been reported to underlie vasospasm. Memantine, a low-affinity uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) blocker has been proven to reduce early brain injury after SAH. This study investigated the effect of memantine on attenuation of vasospasm and restoring eNOS functionality. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350–450 g were randomly divided into three weight-matched groups, sham surgery, SAH + vehicle, and SAH + memantine groups. The effects of memantine on SAH were evaluated by assessing the severity of vasospasm and the expression of eNOS. Memantine effectively ameliorated cerebral vasospasm by restoring eNOS functionality. Memantine can prevent vasospasm in experimental SAH. Treatment strategies may help combat SAH-induced vasospasm in the future. PMID:26110388

  2. Memantine Attenuates Delayed Vasospasm after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage via Modulating Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Yuan; Wang, Liang-Chao; Shan, Yan-Shen; Pan, Chia-Hsin; Tsai, Kuen-Jer

    2015-01-01

    Delayed cerebral vasospasm is an important pathological feature of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The cause of vasospasm is multifactorial. Impairs nitric oxide availability and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysfunction has been reported to underlie vasospasm. Memantine, a low-affinity uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) blocker has been proven to reduce early brain injury after SAH. This study investigated the effect of memantine on attenuation of vasospasm and restoring eNOS functionality. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350-450 g were randomly divided into three weight-matched groups, sham surgery, SAH + vehicle, and SAH + memantine groups. The effects of memantine on SAH were evaluated by assessing the severity of vasospasm and the expression of eNOS. Memantine effectively ameliorated cerebral vasospasm by restoring eNOS functionality. Memantine can prevent vasospasm in experimental SAH. Treatment strategies may help combat SAH-induced vasospasm in the future. PMID:26110388

  3. Insurance Status Is Associated with Treatment Allocation and Outcomes after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, Charles; Dortch, John; Ozrazgat Baslanti, Tezcan; Layon, Daniel R.; Roche, Alina; Rioux, Alison; Harman, Jeffrey S.; Fahy, Brenda; Bihorac, Azra

    2014-01-01

    Objective Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a particularly devastating type of stroke which is responsible for one third of all stroke-related years of potential life lost before age 65. Surgical treatment has been shown to decrease both morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage. We hypothesized that payer status other than private insurance is associated with lower allocation to surgical treatment for patients with SAH and worse outcomes. Design We examined the association between insurance type and surgical treatment allocation and outcomes for patients with SAH while adjusting for a wide range of patient and hospital factors. We analyzed the Nationwide Inpatient Sample hospital discharge database using survey procedures to produce weighted estimates representative of the United States population. Patients We studied 21047 discharges, representing a weighted estimate of 102595 patients age 18 and above with a discharge diagnosis of SAH between 2003 and 2008. Measurements Multivariable logistic and generalized linear regression analyses were used to assess for any associations between insurance status and surgery allocation and outcomes. Main Results Despite the benefits of surgery 66% of SAH patients did not undergo surgical treatment to prevent rebleeding. Mortality was more than twice as likely for patients with no surgical treatment compared to those who received surgery. Medicare patients were significantly less likely to receive surgical treatment. Conclusions Nearly two thirds of patients with SAH don't receive operative care, and Medicare patients were significantly less likely to receive surgical treatment than other patients. Bias against the elderly and those with chronic illness and disability may play a part in these findings. A system of regionalized care for patients presenting with SAH may reduce disparities and improve appropriate allocation to surgical care and deserves prospective study. PMID:25141303

  4. The impact of experimental preconditioning using vascular endothelial growth factor in stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Eicker, Sven Oliver; Hoppe, Moritz; Etminan, Nima; Macht, Stephan; Perrin, Jason; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulating angiogenesis was shown to be a potential novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of ischemic vascular diseases. The goal of the present study was to examine whether transfection of VEGF before occurrence of major stroke (part I) and cerebral vasospasm after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH; part II) develops neuroprotective qualities. A total of 25 (part I) and 26 (part II) brains were analyzed, respectively. In part one, a significant reduction of infarct volume in the VEGF-treated stroke animals (43% reduction, P < 0.05) could be detected. In part two, significant vasospasm was induced in all hemorrhage groups (P < 0.02). Analyzing microperfusion, a significant higher amount of perfused vessels could be detected (P < 0.01), whereas no significant effect could be detected towards macroperfusion. Histologically, no infarctions were observed in the VEGF-treated SAH group and the sham-operated group. Minor infarction in terms of vasospasm-induced small lesions could be detected in the control vector transduced group (P = 0.05) and saline-treated group (P = 0.09). The present study demonstrates the preconditioning impact of systemic intramuscular VEGF injection in animals after major stroke and induced severe vasospasm after SAH. PMID:23634319

  5. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy fails to reduce hydrocephalus formation following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background & purpose Approximately 40% of hemorrhagic stroke survivors develop hydrocephalus. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) has been shown to be anti-inflammation following experimental stroke; however, its effect upon post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus formation is not known. The objective of this study is to investigate whether HBO therapy can effectively reduce hydrocephalus formation and improve neurobehavioral functions in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Method Thirty-eight male Sprague–Dawley rats (300-320 g) rats survived for 21 days from SAH by endovascular perforation or sham surgery were used. At 24 hours after SAH, HBO (3 atmospheres absolute) or normobaric oxygen (NBO) administrated for 1 hour once daily for a total of 7 days. Wire hanging and rotarod testing were conducted at 14 days after SAH, and cognitive functions were evaluated via the Morris water maze, between day 17 to day 21 after surgery. At day 21, rats were sacrificed and cerebroventricular volumes were measured histologically. Results Hydrocephalus exacerbated neurological deficits after SAH, and HBO multiple treatment tendentially improved the neurobehavioral functions. Spatial learning and memory deficits were noticed after SAH, and rats with hydrocephalus showed worse learning and memory abilities and HBO treatment showed a minor improvement. In the SAH group (room air) 4 rats showed an increased ventricular volume at day 21 after SAH-induction (n?=?10). HBO or NBO therapy did not alter the occurrence of hydrocephalus after SAH, as 4 rats in each of these groups showed an increased ventricular volume (n?=?10 per group). Conclusion Multiple HBO therapy does not ameliorate hydrocephalus formation in a rat model of SAH; however, HBO tendentially improved the neurological functions and spatial learning and memory abilities in rats with hydrocephalus. PMID:25132956

  6. Complications and outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a prospective hospital based cohort study in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Y; de Haan, R J; Beenen, L; Groen, R; Albrecht, K; Vermeulen, M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The aim of this study was to investigate prospectively in an unselected series of patients with an aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage what at present the complications are, what the outcome is, how many of these patients have "modern treatment"—that is, early obliteration of the aneurysm and treatment with calcium antagonists—what factors cause a delay in surgical or endovascular treatment, and what the estimated effect on outcome will be of improved treatment.?METHODS—A prospective, observational cohort study of all patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage in the hospitals of a specified region in The Netherlands. The condition on admission, diagnostic procedures, and treatments were recorded. If a patient had a clinical deterioration, the change in Glasgow coma score (GCS), the presence of focal neurological signs, the results of additional investigations, and the final diagnosed cause of the deterioration were recorded.? Clinical outcome was assessed with the Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) at 3 month follow up. In patients with poor outcome at follow up, the cause was diagnosed.?RESULTS—Of the 110 patients, 47 (43%) had a poor outcome. Cerebral ischaemia, 31 patients (28%), was the most often occurring complication. Major causes of poor outcome were the effects of the initial haemorrhage and rebleeding in 34% and 30% of the patients with poor outcome respectively. Of all patients 102 (93%) were treated with calcium antagonists and 45 (41%) patients had early treatment to obliterate the aneurysm. The major causes of delay of treatment were a poor condition on admission or deterioration shortly after admission, in 31% and 23% respectively.?CONCLUSIONS—In two thirds of the patients with poor outcome the causes of poor outcome are the effects of the initial bleeding and rebleeding. Improved treatment of delayed or postoperative ischaemia will have only minor effects on the outcome of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage.?? PMID:10675216

  7. Hemoglobin and iron handling in brain after subarachnoid hemorrhage and the effect of deferoxamine on early brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Yul Lee; Richard F Keep; Yangdong He; Oren Sagher; Ya Hua; Guohua Xi; J-Y Lee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate hemoglobin and iron handling after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), examine the relationship between iron and neuroglial cell changes, and determine whether deferoxamine (DFX) can reduce SAH-induced injury. The SAH was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats (n=110) using an endovascular perforation technique. Animals were treated with DFX (100 mg\\/kg) or vehicle 2 and 6 hours

  8. ?-Secretase inhibitor (GSI1) attenuates morphological cerebral vasospasm in 24 h after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaomei Yang; Chunhua Chen; Qin Hu; Junhao Yan; Changman Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Notch signaling plays an important role in the arteriogenesis. We hypothesized that the Notch inhibitor—?-secretase inhibitor (GSI1) exerted its effects on the vasospasm via regulation of NF-?B and MMP-9. In this study, 160 male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into four groups: Sham, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), SAH treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and SAH treated with GSI1. After 24h

  9. Traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and its treatment with nimodipine. German tSAH Study Group.

    PubMed

    Harders, A; Kakarieka, A; Braakman, R

    1996-07-01

    A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of nimodipine used to treat traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) was conducted in 21 German neurosurgical centers between January 1994 and April 1995. One hundred twenty-three patients with tSAH appearing on initial computerized tomography (CT) scanning were entered into the study. Requirements for inclusion included age between 16 and 70 and admission into the study within 12 hours after head injury, regardless of the patient's level of consciousness. Eligible patients received either a sequential course of intravenous and oral nimodipine or placebo treatment for 3 weeks. Patients were closely monitored using clinical neurology, computerized tomography, laboratory, and transcranial Doppler ultrasound parameters. Patients treated with nimodipine had a significantly less unfavorable outcome (death, vegetative survival, or severe disability) at 6 months than placebo-treated patients (25% vs. 46%, p = 0.02). The relative reduction in unfavorable outcome in the nimodipine-treated group was even higher (55%, p = 0.002) when only patients who complied with the protocol were considered. PMID:8683286

  10. Expression signatures of long non-coding RNAs in early brain injury following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, BINGJIE; LIU, HUAILEI; WANG, RUKE; XU, SHANCAI; LIU, YAOHUA; WANG, KAIKAI; HOU, XU; SHEN, CHEN; WU, JIANING; CHEN, XIN; WU, PEI; ZHANG, GUANG; JI, ZHIYONG; WANG, HONGYU; XIAO, YAO; HAN, JIANYI; SHI, HUAIZHANG; ZHAO, SHIGUANG

    2015-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is an important cause of mortality in stroke patients. Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have important functions in brain disease, however their expression profiles in SAH remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the expression signatures of LncRNAs and mRNAs in early brain injury (EBI) following SAH in a rat model. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into an SAH group and a sham operation group. The expression signatures of the LncRNAs and mRNAs in the temporal lobe cortex were investigated using a rat LncRNAs array following experimental SAH. The results revealed that there were 144 downregulated and 64 upregulated LncRNAs and 181 downregulated and 221 upregulated mRNAs following SAH. Additionally, two upregulated (BC092207, MRuc008hvl) and three downregulated (XR_006756, MRAK038897, MRAK017168) LncRNAs were confirmed using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The differentially expressed mRNAs were further analyzed using the Gene Ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. The pathway analysis results provided by the KEGG database indicated that eight pathways associated with inflammation were involved in EBI following SAH. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that the expression profiles of the LncRNAs and mRNAs were significantly different between the SAH-induced EBI group and the sham operation group. These differently expressed LncRNAs may be important in EBI following SAH. PMID:25777551

  11. Relationship between angiographic vasospasm, cerebral blood flow, and cerebral infarction after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Rajat; Diringer, Michael N

    2015-01-01

    Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and cerebral infarction are major contributors to poor functional recovery after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Cerebral vasospasm, the narrowing of proximal intracranial arteries after SAH, has long been assumed to be the primary cause of DCI, and has therefore been the primary therapeutic target in attempts to diminish disability after SAH. However, emerging evidence has questioned the strength and causality of the relationship between vasospasm and DCI. To address this fundamental question, we performed two parallel studies assessing the relationship between the presence of vasospasm in a vascular territory and both regional reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and development of cerebral infarction.In a cohort of SAH patients at high-risk for DCI, we identified regions of hypoperfusion using positron emission tomography (PET) and compared their distribution with territories exhibiting vasospasm on concurrent angiography. We found that regional hypoperfusion was common in the absence of proximal vasospasm and that some patients without any significant vasospasm still could have hypoperfused brain regions. Similarly, our parallel study demonstrated that both patients and brain territories without vasospasm could develop delayed cerebral infarction, and that such vasospasm-independent infarcts account for more than a quarter of the infarct burden from DCI. These findings suggest that other processes, perhaps at a microvascular level, contribute at least part of the burden of DCI and future interventions should also address these other pathophysiologic processes. PMID:25366617

  12. Changes in responsiveness of the canine basilar artery to endothelin-1 after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Kamata, Katsuo; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Kasuya, Yutaka (Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan)); Miyata, Noriyuki (Hoshi Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    The effect of endothelin-1 (ET-1) on the basilar arteries from control and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) dogs were examined. The maximal contraction of the basilar artery in response to ET-1 was markedly decreased in the SAH group. Treatment with 10{sup {minus}8}M phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) reduced the contractile responses to ET-1 in the basilar arteries from control dogs. ET-1-induced contractions of the basilar arteries from control dogs were similar to those in strips from SAH dogs by the treatment with 10{sup {minus}8}M PMA. Ca{sup 2+}-induced contraction of the basilar arteries which were depolarized with isotonic K{sup +} were significantly attenuated in SAH dogs. Treatment with PMA also reduced the contractile responses to Ca{sup 2+} in the basilar arteries from control dogs. These results indicate that decreased contractile responses of the basilar arteries to ET-1 and Ca{sup 2+} in the SAH group may be related to changes in the activity of the protein kinase C in vascular smooth muscle.

  13. Functionalized graphene oxide as a drug carrier for loading pirfenidone in treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lijun; Wang, Feng; Han, Haie; Yang, Liang; Zhang, Gengshen; Fan, Zhenzeng

    2015-05-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a life-threatening disease that causes high morbidity and mortality. Pirfenidone is a SAH drug that prevents secondary bleeding and cerebral infarction. To improve its therapeutic efficacy, this study aimed to employ a functionalized graphene oxide nanosheet (FGO) as a drug carrier loading pirfenidone to treat SAH. The graphene oxide nanosheet was introduced with transcription activator peptide (Tat), followed by functionalization with methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) and loading with pirfenidone. The pirfenidone-loaded FGO (pirfenidone-FGO) exhibits better treatment efficacy than the single pirfenidone due to more effective loading and controlled release of the drug in tissue. The introduction of Tat and mPEG onto GO nanosheet contributes to the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and the stability in blood circulation of the drug. At lower pH values, the highly efficient release of the drug from the pirfenidone-FGO exerts effective treatment to acidic inflammatory lesion after severe SAH. Besides its treatment function, FGO is also shown as a strong near infrared absorbing material which can be applied in photoacoustic imaging, allowing rapid real-time monitoring with deep resolution of brain tissues after SAH. The treatment efficacy of pirfenidone-FGO for central nervous system injuries is further demonstrated by hematoxylin and eosin staining of coronal brain slices, as well as measurements of brain water content and blood-brain barrier permeability. Our study supports the potential of FGO in clinical application in treatment of SAH. PMID:25819362

  14. IL-33 expression in the cerebral cortex following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Tian; Li, Hua; Sun, Qing; Liu, Ming; Li, Wei-De; Li, Song; Yu, Zhuang; Wei, Wu-Ting; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a pervasive and devastating condition in which inflammatory and apoptotic pathways contribute to poor outcome. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) plays a crucial role in the inflammatory and apoptotic pathways through binding of the transmembrane ST2 receptor. This study investigated the expression and cellular localization of IL-33 in the cerebral cortex after SAH in order to clarify the role of IL-33 after SAH. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham and SAH groups and evaluated 2, 6, and 12 h and 1, 2, 3, and 5 days after the surgery, with SAH animals subjected to prechiasmatic cistern SAH. IL-33 expression was measured by western blot analysis, real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. The mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and IL-1? were also assessed. The expression of IL-33, IL-1?, and TNF-? was markedly elevated in the SAH as compared to the sham group; IL-33 was mainly localized in neurons and astrocytes and not microglia after SAH. Moreover, a significant positive association was observed between IL-33 and IL-1? expression. These findings indicate that IL-33 might play an important role in the inflammatory response following SAH. PMID:25417195

  15. N-acetylcysteine suppresses oxidative stress in experimental rats with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hua; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Chen, Hui-Ling; Lin, Yi-Xing; Hang, Chun-Hua; Yin, Hong-Xia; Shi, Ji-Xin

    2009-05-01

    The neuroprotective effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a sulfhydryl-containing antioxidant, on experimentally induced subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rats was assessed. NAC was administered to rats after the induction of SAH. Neurological deficits and brain edema were investigated. The activity of antioxidant defense enzymes, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), were measured in the brain cortex by spectrophotometer. The content of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) was also analyzed. We found that NAC markedly reversed the SAH-induced neurological deficit and brain edema. We further investigated the mechanism involved in the neuroprotective effects of NAC on rat brain tissue and found that NAC significantly increased CuZn-SOD and GSH-Px activity and decreased MDA content in the SAH brain. NAC has the potential to be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of SAH, and its neuroprotective effect may be partly mediated via enhancing the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting free radical generation. PMID:19264484

  16. Isoflurane Attenuates blood-brain barrier disruption in Ipsilateral Hemisphere after subarachnoid hemorrhage in mice

    PubMed Central

    Altay, Orhan; Suzuki, Hidenori; Hasegawa, Yu; Caner, Basak; Krafft, Paul R.; Fujii, Mutsumi; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose We examined effects of isoflurane, volatile anesthetics, on blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in the endovascular perforation model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in mice. Methods Animals were assigned to sham-operated, SAH+vehicle-air, SAH+1% or 2% isoflurane groups. Neurobehavioral function, brain water content, Evans blue dye extravasation and Western blotting for sphingosine kinases (SphKs), occludin, claudin-5, junctional adhesion molecule and vascular endothelial cadherin were evaluated at 24 hours post-SAH. Effects of SphK (DMS) or sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1/3 (S1P1/3) inhibitors (VPC23019) on isoflurane's action were also examined. Results SAH aggravated neurological scores, brain edema and BBB permeability, which were prevented by 2% but not 1% isoflurane posttreatment. 2% isoflurane increased SphK1 expression and prevented a post-SAH decrease in expressions of the BBB-related proteins. Both DMS and VPC23019 abolished the beneficial effects of isoflurane. Conclusions 2% isoflurane can suppress post-SAH BBB disruption, which may be mediated by SphK1 expression and S1P1/3 activation. PMID:22773559

  17. Blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter prevents iron accumulation in a model of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huiying; Hao, Shuangying; Sun, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Dingding; Gao, Xin; Yu, Zhuang; Li, Kuanyu; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2015-01-24

    Previous studies have shown that iron accumulation is involved in the pathogenesis of brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and chelation of iron reduced mortality and oxidative DNA damage. We previously reported that blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) provided benefit in the early brain injury after experimental SAH. This study was undertaken to identify whether blockage of MCU could ameliorate iron accumulation-associated brain injury following SAH. Therefore, we used two reagents ruthenium red (RR) and spermine (Sper) to inhibit MCU. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups including sham, SAH, SAH+RR, and SAH+Sper. Biochemical analysis and histological assays were performed. The results confirmed the iron accumulation in temporal lobe after SAH. Interestingly, blockage of MCU dramatically reduced the iron accumulation in this area. The mechanism was revealed that inhibition of MCU reversed the down-regulation of iron regulatory protein (IRP) 1/2 and increase of ferritin. Iron-sulfur cluster dependent-aconitase activity was partially conserved when MCU was blocked. In consistence with this and previous report, ROS levels were notably reduced and ATP supply was rescued; levels of cleaved caspase-3 dropped; and integrity of neurons in temporal lobe was protected. Taken together, our results indicated that blockage of MCU could alleviate iron accumulation and the associated injury following SAH. These findings suggest that the alteration of calcium and iron homeostasis be coupled and MCU be considered to be a therapeutic target for patients suffering from SAH. PMID:25529443

  18. Protective effects of thrombomodulin on microvascular permeability after subarachnoid hemorrhage in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Xu, T; Zhang, W-G; Sun, J; Zhang, Y; Lu, J-F; Han, H-B; Zhou, C-M; Yan, J-H

    2015-07-23

    The enhanced vascular permeability is a major early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, its mechanism is not clear yet. In this work, we explored its potential mechanism and investigated the roles of thrombomodulin (TM) in maintaining microvascular integrity after SAH. SAH models were established in adult male ICR mice (28-32g) by endovascular perforation. TM was immediately administered by femoral vein injection following SAH. The brain water content, Evans Blue content and neurological functions were evaluated. Brain edema was also detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (T2 map). The siRNA technique, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence staining and western blotting were performed to explore the potential mechanism of TM treatment. The number of microthrombi in the hippocampus microvessels was also recorded. TM significantly decreased brain water content and Evans Blue content, alleviated brain edema and neurological deficits after SAH. The plasma concentration of activated protein C was increased after TM treatment. In addition, the levels of phospho-p38MAPK, phospho-p53, cleaved caspase-3, phospho-NF-?B (p65) were markedly decreased. Additionally, the loss of VE-cadherin and Occludin (markers of vascular integrity) and the number of microthrombi in the hippocampus were also reduced. Our results indicated that TM has protective effects on preserving microvascular integrity following SAH partly through preserving endothelial junction proteins and quenching apoptosis/inflammation in endothelial cells via blocking p38MAPK-p53/NF-?B (p65) pathway. PMID:25936678

  19. CO2 has no therapeutic effect on early microvasospasm after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Benjamin; Michalik, Radoslaw; Oniszczuk, Anna; Abubaker, Khalid; Kozniewska, Ewa; Plesnila, Nikolaus

    2014-08-01

    In addition to delayed vasospasm also early brain injury, which occurs during the first few days after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) when large cerebral arteries are still fully functional, plays an important role for the outcome after SAH. In the current study, we investigated the hypothesis that carbon dioxide (CO2), a strong cerebral vasodilator, has a therapeutic potential against early posthemorrhagic microvasospasm. C57BL/6 mice (n=36) and Sprague-Dawley rats (n=23) were subjected to sham surgery or SAH by filament perforation. The pial microcirculation in the mice was visualized 3 and 24 hours after SAH using intravital fluorescence microscopy. Partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2) was modulated by hyper- or hypoventilation or by inhalation of 10% CO2. In rats, CO2-mediated changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured at the same time points using laser Doppler fluxmetry. Increased PaCO2 caused vasodilatation in sham-operated animals. Following SAH, however, cerebral arterioles were nonreactive to CO2. This lack of microvascular CO2 reactivity was accompanied by a complete loss of CO2-induced hyperemia. Our data show that CO2 is not able to dilate spastic microvessels and to increase CBF early after SAH. Future therapeutic approaches will therefore need to address mechanisms beyond CO2. PMID:24865999

  20. Endovascular and Surgical Options for Ruptured Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysms: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Dieppa, David R.; Pannell, Jeffrey S.; Khalessi, Alexander A.

    2014-01-01

    Middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms are common entities, and those of the bifurcation are the most frequently encountered sublocation of MCA aneurysm. MCA bifurcation (MBIF) aneurysms commonly present with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), are devastating, and are often lethal. At the present time, the treatment of ruptured MBIF aneurysms entails either endovascular or open microneurosurgical methods to permanently secure the aneurysm(s). The purpose of this report is to review the current available data regarding the relative superiority of endovascular versus open microneurosurgical clipping for the treatment of ruptured middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysms. PMID:25097795

  1. Endosaccular treatment of 113 cavernous carotid artery aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armen Choulakian; Doniel Drazin; Michael J Alexander

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveCavernous carotid aneurysms (CCAs) can present with visual symptoms or with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). As surgical treatment of these aneurysms can be technically challenging, endovascular management has emerged as the preferred treatment modality.MethodsA retrospective review was conducted of 113 patients who underwent endosaccular treatment for CCAs. Presenting symptoms, aneurysm size, use of stent assistance, rate of thromboembolic complications, presence of

  2. Effect of endothelin-1 receptor antagonist BQ-123 on basilar artery diameter after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rats.

    PubMed

    Jo?ko, J; Hendryk, S; Jedrzejowska-Szypu?ka, H; S?owi?ski, J; Gwó?d?, B; Lange, D; Harabin-S?owi?ska, M

    2000-06-01

    Aim of the study was to quantify cerebral vasospasm in rats after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by morphometric examination of basilar artery and to evaluate the influence of endothelin receptor blocker BQ-123 on basilar artery constriction. The rat cisterna magna (CM) was cannulated and after 7 days SAH was developed by administration of 100 microl autologic, non-heparinized blood to the CM. The sham subarachnoid hemorrhage was developed by intracisternal administration of 100 microl of artificial cerebrospinal fluid. Endothelin receptor blocker BQ-123 was injected into the CM in a dose of 40 nmol diluted in 50 microl of cerebrospinal fluid 20 min. before SAH, and 24h and 48 h after SAH. After perfusion fixation the brains were removed from the skull and histological preparations of basilar artery were done. The internal diameter and wall thickness of basilar arteries was measured by interactive morphometric method. The most severe vasospasm was found in rats after SAH. The presence of numerous infiltrations composed of neutrophils and macrophages correlated with advanced vasospasm (index of constriction 5 times lower than in normal), suggesting the role of other factors participating in the late phase of vasospasms after SAH. Administration of BQ-123 in the late phase after SAH caused the dilatation of basilar artery. Following the administration of BQ-123 in the late phase (48 h after SAH) the basilar artery dilated, its wall became thinner, and the number of leukocyte infiltrations in the subarachnoid space decreased compared to the values after SAH alone. PMID:10898097

  3. Can S100B Predict Cerebral Vasospasms in Patients Suffering from Subarachnoid Hemorrhage?

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Moshgan; Astrand, Ramona; Romner, Bertil

    2013-01-01

    Background: Protein S100B has proven to be a useful biomarker for cerebral damages. Increased levels of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) S100B have been shown in patients suffering subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), severe head injury and stroke. In patients with SAH, the course of S100B levels has been correlated with neurological deficits and outcome. Cerebral vasospasm is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the potential of S100B protein as a predictor of cerebral vasospasm in patients with severe SAH. Materials and Methods: Patients with SAH, Fisher grade 3 and 4, were included in the study. Five samples of CSF and serum S100B were collected from each patient. The first sample (baseline sample) was drawn within the first 3?days following ictus and the following four samples, once a day on days 5–8, with day of ictus defined as day 1. Clinical suspicion of cerebral vasospasm confirmed by computed tomography angiography was used to diagnose cerebral vasospasm. Results: A total of 18 patients were included. Five patients (28%) developed cerebral vasospasm, two (11%) developed ventriculitis. There were no significant differences between S100B for those with and without vasospasm. Serum S100B levels in patients with vasospasm were slightly lower within the first 5?days following ictus, compared to patients without vasospasm. Two out of five patients had elevated and increasing serum S100B prior to vasospasm. Only one showed a peak level of S100B 1?day before vasospasm could be diagnosed. Due to the low number of patients in the study, statistical significance could not be reached. Conclusion: Neither serum nor CSF S100B can be used as predictor of cerebral vasospasm in patients suffering from SAH. PMID:23761779

  4. Expression of Cytoplasmic Gelsolin in Rat Brain After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Xie, Guang-Bin; Wang, Chun-Xi; Zhou, Chen-Hui; Li, Hua; Zhang, Xiang-Sheng; Zhou, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Li; Hang, Chun-Hua; Zhou, Meng-Liang; Shi, Ji-Xin

    2015-07-01

    Convincing evidence indicates that apoptosis contributes to the unfavorable prognosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), a significant cause of morbidity and case fatality throughout the world. Gelsolin (GSN) is a Ca(2+)-dependent actin filament severing, capping, and nucleating protein, as well as multifunctional regulator of cell structure and metabolism, including apoptosis. In the present study, we intended to investigate the expression pattern and cell distribution of GSN in rat brain after experimental SAH. GSN expression was examined in sham group and at 3, 6, 12 h, day 1 (1 day), 2, 3, 5, and 7 days after SAH by Western blot analysis as well as real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were performed to detect the localization of GSN. The level of GSN protein expression was significantly decreased in SAH group and reached a bottoming point on 1 day after SAH. GSN mRNA level was significantly decreased in SAH groups in comparison with the sham group, and reached a minimum value at 12 h after SAH. Immunohistochemistry showed that GSN was constitutively and obviously expressed in the cortex of the normal rat brain and significantly decreased in the rat cortex after SAH. In addition, immunofluorescence results revealed that GSN expression could be found in both neurons and microglias, as well as in glialfibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes. The decreased expression of GSN could mainly be found in neurons and astrocytes as well, and GSN-positive microglias showed different cell morphological characteristics. Interestingly, the protein and gene levels of GSN seemed to be constant in the rat hippocampus of sham and SAH groups. These findings suggested a potential role of GSN in the pathophysiology of the brain at the early stage of SAH. PMID:25744577

  5. Effects of isoflurane on brain inflammation after subarachnoid hemorrhage in mice

    PubMed Central

    Altay, Orhan; Suzuki, Hidenori; Hasegawa, Yu; Ostrowski, Robert P.; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Brain inflammation may play an important role in the pathophysiology of early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Our aim was to demonstrate brain inflammation development and to determine whether isoflurane, a clinically available volatile anesthetic agent, prevents brain inflammation after SAH. This study used 162 8-week-old male CD-1 mice. We induced SAH with endovascular perforation in mice and randomly assigned animals to sham-operated (n=21), SAH+vehicle-air (n=35) and SAH+2% isoflurane (n=31). In addition to evaluation of brain injury (neurological scores, brain edema and Evans blue dye extravasation), brain inflammation was evaluated by means of expression changes in markers of inflammatory cells (ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1, myeloperoxidase), cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-?, interleukin-1?), adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule [ICAM]-1, P-selectin), inducers of inflammation (cyclooxygenase-2, phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase [p-JNK]) and endothelial cell activation (von Willebrand factor) at 24 hours post-SAH. Sphingosine kinase inhibitor (N, N-dimethylsphingosine [DMS]) and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1/3 antagonist (VPC23019) were used to block isoflurane’s effects (n=22, each). SAH caused early brain injury, which was associated with inflammation so that all evaluated markers of inflammation were increased. Isoflurane significantly inhibited both brain injury (P<0.001, respectively) and inflammation (myeloperoxidase, P=0.022; interleukin-1?, P=0.002; TNF-?, P=0.015; P-selectin, P=0.010; ICAM-1, P=0.016; p-JNK, P<0.001; cyclooxygenase-2, P=0.003, respectively). This beneficial effect of isoflurane was abolished with DMS and VPC23019. Isoflurane may suppress post-SAH brain inflammation possibly via the sphingosine-related pathway. PMID:24084689

  6. Effect of remacemide hydrochloride on subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced vasospasm in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zuccarello, M; Lewis, A I; Upputuri, S; Farmer, J B; Anderson, D K

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the role of an excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptor antagonist (remacemide hydrochloride) in a rabbit model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced cerebral vasospasm. Cerebral angiograms were performed on 22 rabbits pre-SAH and 72 h post-SAH: 6 rabbits received an injection of mock cerebrospinal fluid (1 ml/kg) into the cisterna magna (group I, the control group); 6 rabbits were subjected to SAH but received no treatment (group II); autologous blood (1 ml/kg) from the central ear artery was injected into the cisterna magna of these rabbits; 6 rabbits were subjected to SAH (1 ml/kg) and treated with intraperitoneal (IP) bolus injections of remacemide hydrochloride (15 mg/kg) every 12 h beginning 30 minutes after SAH (group III); and 4 rabbits were not subjected to SAH but received IP bolus injections of remacemide hydrochloride every 12 h (group IV). Digital subtraction angiography was used to measure the diameter of the basilar artery. At 72 h post-SAH, vasospasm was evident in all untreated rabbits. The diameter of the basilar artery was reduced significantly below pre-SAH levels by 35.3 +/- 5.8% (mean +/- standard error of the mean). Treatment with remacemide hydrochloride significantly ameliorated vasospasm (27.3 +/- 5.4%, p < 0.001). These findings suggest that in this model EAAs may cooperate in the genesis of SAH-induced cerebral vasospasm and that NMDA receptor antagonism with remacemide hydrochloride can partially prevent the SAH-induced vasospasm of a large cerebral artery. PMID:7723068

  7. Investigation of bleeding focus in the intracranial vertebral artery with the use of posterior neck dissection method in traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seongho; Kim, Minjung; Lee, Bong Woo; Kim, Yu-Hoon; Choi, Young-Shik; Seo, Joong Seok

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by minor blunt trauma to the head or neck can lead to rapid collapse and death. The vertebral arteries are the vessels most commonly involved in such cases, but it is very difficult to find the bleeding focus in the vertebral arteries in routine autopsy because of the location of these vessels. Using the posterior neck dissection method, which is relatively easy and avoids artificial damage to the intracranial portion of the vertebral arteries, authors have identified tear sites in the intracranial artery in four out of five consecutive traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage cases. In this report we show that this new method is useful for cases of traumatic basal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:26165675

  8. Prediction of two month modified Rankin Scale with an ordinal prediction model in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) is a devastating event with a frequently disabling outcome. Our aim was to develop a prognostic model to predict an ordinal clinical outcome at two months in patients with aSAH. Methods We studied patients enrolled in the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT), a randomized multicentre trial to compare coiling and clipping in aSAH patients. Several models were explored to estimate a patient's outcome according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at two months after aSAH. Our final model was validated internally with bootstrapping techniques. Results The study population comprised of 2,128 patients of whom 159 patients died within 2 months (8%). Multivariable proportional odds analysis identified World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade as the most important predictor, followed by age, sex, lumen size of the aneurysm, Fisher grade, vasospasm on angiography, and treatment modality. The model discriminated moderately between those with poor and good mRS scores (c statistic = 0.65), with minor optimism according to bootstrap re-sampling (optimism corrected c statistic = 0.64). Conclusion We presented a calibrated and internally validated ordinal prognostic model to predict two month mRS in aSAH patients who survived the early stage up till a treatment decision. Although generalizability of the model is limited due to the selected population in which it was developed, this model could eventually be used to support clinical decision making after external validation. Trial Registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, Number ISRCTN49866681 PMID:20920243

  9. A case of embolic stroke imitating atherothrombotic brain infarction before massive hemorrhage from an infectious aneurysm caused by Streptococci.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Ryuichi; Shinoda, Jun; Irie, Seiichiro; Inoue, Koji; Sato, Teiko; Tsutsumi, Yutaka

    2012-11-01

    Early detection followed by treatment with antibiotics in conjunction with direct or endovascular surgery is integral in the management of patients with intracranial infectious aneurysms. These aneurysms often manifest as massive intracranial hemorrhages, which severely deteriorate the outcome. It is very important to detect infectious aneurysms before they rupture. Although usually associated with infective endocarditis, these aneurysms can occur in a variety of clinical settings. We present a case of ?-Streptococcus-provoked infectious aneurysm in a patient without infective endocarditis, initially presenting as atherothrombotic-like brain infarction, before massive intracranial hemorrhage. The present case alerts clinicians to keep in mind possible development of infectious aneurysms, even in patients who appear to be suffering from atherothrombotic stoke, especially in patients presenting with signs of infection. PMID:22133741

  10. Pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage from a pulmonary artery false aneurysm after Swan-Ganz catheterization in a thoracic aortic aneurysm patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ikeno, Shigeo; Tsuchihashi, Tetsuya; Yokota, Shigeru; Ina, Hiroaki; Kono, Tetsuya; Yamashita, Kunihiko; Kawamata, Mikito

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary artery (PA) rupture caused by a PA Swan-Ganz catheter is a rare complication but remains fatal in almost 50% of cases. False aneurysm of the PA is a rare presentation of PA rupture and should be considered as a possible diagnosis in a patient with a new lung mass after PA catheterization. We present a case of sudden-onset pulmonary alveolar hemorrhage during cardiovascular surgery due to a traumatic PA false aneurysm. The Swan-Ganz catheter might have been displaced by the thoracic aortic aneurysm with displacement of the catheter causing the false aneurysm and bleeding. PMID:25473465

  11. Perioperative Use of Recombinant Factor VII to Prevent Intraoperative Aneurysm Rupture in High Risk Patients: A Preliminary Safety Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric S. Nussbaum; Tariq M. Janjua; Archie Defillo; Penny Sinner; Andrea Zelensky

    2009-01-01

    Object  The authors present a safety evaluation of the perioperative use of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in a series\\u000a of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients undergoing microsurgical aneurysm clipping.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We performed a retrospective chart review of the records of 18 consecutive subarachnoid hemorrhage patients who underwent\\u000a craniotomy for aneurysm clipping and received an intraoperative dose of rFVIIa. In each case, the aneurysm

  12. Progesterone alleviates acute brain injury via reducing apoptosis and oxidative stress in a rat experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage model.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jing; Cao, Shenglong; Chen, Jingyin; Yan, Feng; Chen, Gao; Dai, Yuying

    2015-07-23

    This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of progesterone on acute brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Subarachnoid hemorrhage was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=72) by endovascular perforation. Progesterone (8mg/kg or 16mg/kg) was administered to rats at 1, 6, and 12h after SAH. Mortality, neurologic deficits, cell apoptosis, expression of apoptotic markers, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were assayed at 24h after experimental SAH. Mortality, cell apoptosis and the expression of caspase-3 were decreased, and improved neurological function was observed in the progesterone-treated SAH rats. Further, exploration demonstrated that progesterone significantly reduced the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and attenuated the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Progesterone also induced anti-oxidative effects by elevating the activity of SOD and decreasing MDA content after SAH. Furthermore, dose-response relationships for progesterone treatment were observed, and high doses of progesterone enhanced the neuroprotective effects. Progesterone treatment could alleviate acute brain injury after SAH by inhibiting cell apoptosis and decreasing damage due to oxidative stress. The mechanism involved in the anti-apoptotic effect was related to the mitochondrial pathway. These results indicate that progesterone possesses the potential to be a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of acute brain injury after SAH. PMID:26101829

  13. Trehalose treatment suppresses inflammation, oxidative stress, and vasospasm induced by experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) frequently results in several complications, including cerebral vasospasm, associated with high mortality. Although cerebral vasospasm is a major cause of brain damages after SAH, other factors such as inflammatory responses and oxidative stress also contribute to high mortality after SAH. Trehalose is a non-reducing disaccharide in which two glucose units are linked by ?,?-1,1-glycosidic bond, and has been shown to induce tolerance to a variety of stressors in numerous organisms. In the present study, we investigated the effect of trehalose on cerebral vasospasm, inflammatory responses, and oxidative stress induced by blood in vitro and in vivo. Methods Enzyme immunoassay for eicosanoids, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and endothelin-1, and western blotting analysis for cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and inhibitor of NF-?B were examined in macrophage-like cells treated with hemolysate. After treatment with hemolysate and hydrogen peroxide, the levels of lipid peroxide and amounts of arachidonic acid release were also analyzed. Three hours after the onset of experimental SAH, 18 Japanese White rabbits received an injection of saline, trehalose, or maltose into the cisterna magna. Angiographic and histological analyses of the basilar arteries were performed. In a separate study, the femoral arteries from 60 rats were exposed to fresh autologous blood. At 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 20?days after treatment, cryosections prepared from the femoral arteries were histologically analyzed. Results When cells were treated with hemolysate, trehalose inhibited the production of several inflammatory mediators and degradation of the inhibitor of NF-?B and also suppressed the lipid peroxidation, the reactive oxygen species-induced arachidonic acid release in vitro. In the rabbit model, trehalose produced an inhibitory effect on vasospasm after the onset of experimental SAH, while maltose had only a moderate effect. When the rat femoral arteries exposed to blood were investigated for 20?days, histological analysis revealed that trehalose suppressed vasospasm, inflammatory response, and lipid peroxidation. Conclusions These data suggest that trehalose has suppressive effects on several pathological events after SAH, including vasospasm, inflammatory responses, and lipid peroxidation. Trehalose may be a new therapeutic approach for treatment of complications after SAH. PMID:22546323

  14. Competition Between Radial Expansion and Thickening in the Enlargement of an Intracranial Saccular Aneurysm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Baek; K. R. Rajagopal; J. D. Humphrey

    2005-01-01

    Rupture of intracranial saccular aneurysms is the leading cause of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage, which results in significant\\u000a morbidity and mortality. Although many have suggested that saccular aneurysms enlarge and rupture due to mechanical instabilities,\\u000a our recent nonlinear analyses suggest that at least certain classes of aneurysms do not exhibit a quasi-static limit point\\u000a instability or dynamic instabilities in response to

  15. A Glutamate Receptor Antagonist, S-4-Carboxyphenylglycine (S-4-CPG), Inhibits Vasospasm After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Haptoglobin 2-2 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Garzon-Muvdi, Tomas; Pradilla, Gustavo; Ruzevick, Jacob J.; Bender, Matthew; Edwards, Lindsay; Grossman, Rachel; Zhao, Ming; Rudek, Michelle A.; Riggins, Gregory; M.D., Andrew Levy; Tamargo, Rafael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Vasospasm contributes to delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Glutamate concentrations increase after aSAH and correlate with vasospasm in experimental SAH. The Hp2-2 genotype is associated with higher risk of vasospasm after SAH. We tested the efficacy of S-4-CPG, a metabotropic glutamate receptor inhibitor, for treatment of vasospasm after SAH in Hp2-2 and Hp1-1 mice. Objective To evaluate the effect on vasospasm and neurobehavioral scores after SAH of systemic S-4-CPG, as well as its toxicity, and phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) in Hp 2-2 mice. Methods Western blot was used to assess changes in VASP phosphorylation in response to glutamate with and without S-4-CPG. A pharmacokinetics study was done to evaluate S-4-CPG penetration through the blood brain barrier (BBB) in vivo. Toxicity was assessed by administering escalating S-4-CPG doses. Efficacy of S-4-CPG assessed the effect of S-4-CPG on lumen patency of the basilar artery and animal behavior after SAH in Hp 1-1 and Hp 2-2 mice. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the presence of neutrophils surrounding the basilar artery after SAH. Results Exposure of human brain microvascular endothelial cells to glutamate decreased phosphorylation of VASP (p-VASP), but glutamate treatment in the presence of S-4-CPG maintains p-VASP. S-4-CPG crosses the BBB and was not toxic to mice. S-4-CPG treatment significantly prevents vasospasm after SAH. S-4-CPG administered after SAH resulted in a trend towards improvement of animal behavior. Conclusions S-4-CPG prevents vasospasm after experimental SAH in Hp2-2 mice. S-4-CPG was not toxic and is a potential therapeutic agent for vasospasm after SAH. PMID:23842553

  16. Impaired neurovascular coupling to ictal epileptic activity and spreading depolarization in a patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage: Possible link to blood–brain barrier dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Maren K. L.; Chassidim, Yoash; Lublinsky, Svetlana; Revankar, Gajanan S.; Major, Sebastian; Kang, Eun-Jeung; Oliveira-Ferreira, Ana I.; Woitzik, Johannes; Sandow, Nora; Scheel, Michael; Friedman, Alon; Dreier, Jens P.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Spreading depolarization describes a sustained neuronal and astroglial depolarization with abrupt ion translocation between intraneuronal and extracellular space leading to a cytotoxic edema and silencing of spontaneous activity. Spreading depolarizations occur abundantly in acutely injured human brain and are assumed to facilitate neuronal death through toxic effects, increased metabolic demand, and inverse neurovascular coupling. Inverse coupling describes severe hypoperfusion in response to spreading depolarization. Ictal epileptic events are less frequent than spreading depolarizations in acutely injured human brain but may also contribute to lesion progression through increased metabolic demand. Whether abnormal neurovascular coupling can occur with ictal epileptic events is unknown. Herein we describe a patient with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in whom spreading depolarizations and ictal epileptic events were measured using subdural opto-electrodes for direct current electrocorticography and regional cerebral blood flow recordings with laser-Doppler flowmetry. Simultaneously, changes in tissue partial pressure of oxygen were recorded with an intraparenchymal oxygen sensor. Isolated spreading depolarizations and clusters of recurrent spreading depolarizations with persistent depression of spontaneous activity were recorded over several days followed by a status epilepticus. Both spreading depolarizations and ictal epileptic events where accompanied by hyperemic blood flow responses at one optode but mildly hypoemic blood flow responses at another. Of note, quantitative analysis of Gadolinium-diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)–enhanced magnetic resonance imaging detected impaired blood–brain barrier integrity in the region where the optode had recorded the mildly hypoemic flow responses. The data suggest that abnormal flow responses to spreading depolarizations and ictal epileptic events, respectively, may be associated with blood–brain barrier dysfunction. PMID:23134492

  17. A modified double injection model of cisterna magna for the study of delayed cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Delayed cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a serious medical complication, characterized by constriction of cerebral arteries leading to varying degrees of cerebral ischemia. Numerous clinical and experimental studies have been performed in the last decades; however, the pathophysiologic mechanism of cerebral vasospasm after SAH still remains unclear. Among a variety of experimental SAH models, the double hemorrhage rat model involving direct injection of autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magna has been used most frequently for the study of delayed cerebral vasospasm following SAH in last years. Despite the simplicity of the technique, the second blood injection into the cisterna magna may result in brainstem injury leading to high mortality. Therefore, a modified double hemorrhage model of cisterna magna has been developed in rat recently. We describe here step by step the surgical technique to induce double SAH and compare the degree of vasospasm with other cisterna magna rat models using histological assessment of the diameter and cross-sectional area of the basilar artery. PMID:23194464

  18. An asymmetrical fenestration of the basilar artery coexisting with two aneurysms in a patient with subarachnoid haemorrhage: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Polguj, M; Majos, M; Topol, M; Majos, A

    2014-05-01

    The vertebrobasilar system is a part of the cerebral arterial circle (circle of Willis), which forms the collateral circulation of the brain. A 75-year-old Caucasian female was admitted to hospital because of a strong headache radiating to the neck. On the basis of a neurological examination, the patient was classified into group III of the Hunt and Hess scale. Subarachnoid haemorrhage and 2 aneurysms of the cerebral arteries were diagnosed during multidetector 64-row computed tomography and angiography. An asymmetrical fenestration of the proximal part of the basilar artery was also observed. The bleeding aneurysm locating at anterior communicating artery was diagnosed and clipped surgically by right fronto-parietal craniotomy. The second aneurysm was located just after the junction of the vertebral arteries on the wall of the basilar artery. The presented case firstly illustrates the asymmetric fenestration of the proximal part of the basilar artery coexisting with subarachnoid haemorrhage and 2 aneurysms of brain arteries. Such observation should increase diagnostic attention in the detection of possible associated aneurysms and can help in preventing complications during all endovascular treatment procedures. PMID:24902104

  19. Redefining secondary injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in light of multimodal advanced neuroimaging, intracranial and transcranial neuromonitoring: beyond vasospasm.

    PubMed

    Kapinos, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The classic idea that arterial narrowing, called vasospasm (VSP), represents the hallmark of secondary injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage, has been challenged. The more complex and pleiotropic pathophysiological repercussions from the irruption of arterial blood into the subarachnoid layers go beyond the ascribed VSP. Putting adjectives in front of this term, such as "symptomatic," "microdialytic," or "angiographic" VSP, is misleading. Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a better term but remains restrictive to severe hypoperfusive injury and neglects oligemia, edema, and metabolic nonischemic injuries. In recognition of these issues, the international conference on VSP integrated "neurovascular events" into its name ( www.vasospasm2013.com ) and a multidisciplinary research group was formed in 2010 to study subgroups of DCI/VSP and their respective significance.In three parts, this tiered article provides a broader definitional envelope for DCI and secondary neurovascular insults after SAH, with a rubric for each subtype of delayed neuronal dysfunction. First, it pinpoints the need for nosologic precision and covers current terminological inconsistency. Then, it highlights the input of neuroimaging and neuromonitoring in defining secondary injurious processes. Finally, a new categorization of deteriorating patients is proposed, going beyond a hierarchical or dichotomized definition of VSP/DCI, and common data elements are suggested for future trials. PMID:25366634

  20. Vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage in haptoglobin 2-2 mice can be prevented with a glutathione peroxidase mimetic.

    PubMed

    Froehler, Michael T; Kooshkabadi, Ali; Miller-Lotan, Rachel; Blum, Shany; Sher, Slava; Levy, Andrew; Tamargo, Rafael J

    2010-09-01

    Vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is attributable to inflammation and oxidative stress associated with extracellular hemoglobin (Hb). Haptoglobin (Hp) binds free Hb and the Hp-Hb complex is cleared by macrophages, and the Hp-2 isoform of Hp is associated with more oxidative stress and more severe vasospasm. We hypothesized that treatment with an anti-oxidant, the glutathione peroxidase mimetic SYI-2074, would reduce vasospasm after SAH in Hp-2 mice. We found that SAH induced significant vasospasm in Hp-2 mice (lumen patency reduced to 65.9%), but no vasospasm was seen in mice that received SYI-2074 after SAH (lumen patency of 98.7%). We conclude that vasospasm after SAH in Hp-2 mice can be prevented with SYI-2074, suggesting that oxidative stress contributes significantly to vasospasm. PMID:20541941

  1. Global emergency medicine journal club: social media responses to the January 2014 online emergency medicine journal club on subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Chan, Teresa M; Rosenberg, Hans; Lin, Michelle

    2014-07-01

    From January 20 to 24, 2014, Annals continued a successful collaboration with an academic Web site, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM), to host another Global Emergency Medicine Journal Club session featuring the 2013 Journal of the American Medical Association article "Clinical Decision Rules to Rule Out Subarachnoid Hemorrhage for Acute Headache" by Perry et al. This online journal club used the power of rapid Twitter conversations, a live videocast with the authors, and more detailed discussions hosted on the ALiEM Web site's comment section. There were more than 1,431 individuals from 501 cities in 59 countries who viewed the blog post. During this 5-day event, 28 comments (average word count 153 words) and 206 tweets were made. This summary article details the community discussion, shared insights, and analytic data generated during this novel, multiplatform approach. PMID:24951414

  2. Intrameatal aneurysm of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery.

    PubMed

    Zotta, Donato C; Stati, Giovanni; De Paulis, Danilo; Galzio, Renato J

    2011-04-01

    Aneurysms of the distal part of the anterior-inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) are rare, with an incidence of 0.1% to 0.5%. We report a 55-year-old woman suffering from a subarachnoid hemorrhage resulting from a ruptured intrameatal aneurysm of the AICA. A left retrosigmoid craniotomy was performed and the aneurysm was clipped without post-operative deficits. Follow-up angiography demonstrated exclusion of the aneurysm, confirming preservation of the distal AICA. We review the pertinent literature and discuss clinical presentation, radiological findings and surgical management of this patient. PMID:21257312

  3. Endovascular treatment for pediatric intracranial aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianli Lv; Chuhan Jiang; Youxiang Li; Xinjian Yang; Zhongxue Wu

    2009-01-01

    Introduction  The purpose of this study is to report the characteristics and outcomes of pediatric patients with intracranial aneurysms.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  From 1998 to 2005, 25 pediatric patients (aged ?17 years) with intracranial aneurysm were treated at our institute. Eleven\\u000a of 25 patients had subarachnoid hemorrhage. In ten patients, the aneurysm was an incidental finding. One patient presented\\u000a with cranial nerves dysfunction and three

  4. A case of angiographically occult, distal small anterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Hisashi; Sanada, Yasuhiro; Nagatsuka, Kazuhiro; Kato, Amami

    2015-01-01

    Background: A small aneurysm at an unusual location, such as a distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) aneurysm, may conceal as a computed tomography angiography (CTA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA)-occult aneurysm. Case Description: We herein present the case of a patient suffering from a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with two aneurysms in which the AICA aneurysm was negative by CTA and DSA. CTA demonstrated a right anterior choroidal artery aneurysm, which was revealed to be an unruptured aneurysm after surgical exploration. A small distal AICA aneurysm was detected by 3D rotational angiography (3DRA). The patient fully recovered except for left-side hearing loss four months after the second operation. Conclusion: We recommend a meticulous diagnosis by 3DRA in patients with SAH in which the distribution is not coincident with a typical aneurysmal location.

  5. Embolization of a wide neck giant basilar tip aneurysm using two coils. A case report.

    PubMed

    Derakhshani, S; Rosa, S; Kleidona, I A; Haliasos, N; Chawda, S

    2011-10-31

    Pictorial demonstration of aneurysm lumen thrombosis and diversion of flow hemodynamics with the use of a minimum number of coils in the treatment of hemorrhagic basilar tip aneurysm. We present a 62-year-old lady who underwent endovascular treatment for acute subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a giant basilar tip aneurysm and a left carotico-ophthalmic aneurysm. Following deployment of two of the longest available coils, the procedure was terminated due to a sudden change of jet flow within the aneurysm and unsustainable coil and microcatheter positions in spite of further attempts. Post-procedural follow-up angiogram on day 22, revealed an approximately 90% occlusion of the giant basilar tip aneurysm. Significant reduction in flow dynamic by minimum number of coils can achieve remarkable and near complete thrombosis and occlusion of a giant basilar tip aneurysm. PMID:24059768

  6. Coil Embolization for Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective To determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of coil embolization compared with surgical clipping to treat intracranial aneurysms. The Technology Endovascular coil embolization is a percutaneous approach to treat an intracranial aneurysm from within the blood vessel without the need of a craniotomy. In this procedure, a microcatheter is inserted into the femoral artery near the groin and navigated to the site of the aneurysm. Small helical platinum coils are deployed through the microcatheter to fill the aneurysm, and prevent it from further expansion and rupture. Health Canada has approved numerous types of coils and coil delivery systems to treat intracranial aneurysms. The most favoured are controlled detachable coils. Coil embolization may be used with other adjunct endovascular devices such as stents and balloons. Background Intracranial Aneurysms Intracranial aneurysms are the dilation or ballooning of part of a blood vessel in the brain. Intracranial aneurysms range in size from small (<12 mm in diameter) to large (12–25 mm), and to giant (>25 mm). There are 3 main types of aneurysms. Fusiform aneurysms involve the entire circumference of the artery; saccular aneurysms have outpouchings; and dissecting aneurysms have tears in the arterial wall. Berry aneurysms are saccular aneurysms with well-defined necks. Intracranial aneurysms may occur in any blood vessel of the brain; however, they are most commonly found at the branch points of large arteries that form the circle of Willis at the base of the brain. In 85% to 95% of patients, they are found in the anterior circulation. Aneurysms in the posterior circulation are less frequent, and are more difficult to treat surgically due to inaccessibility. Most intracranial aneurysms are small and asymptomatic. Large aneurysms may have a mass effect, causing compression on the brain and cranial nerves and neurological deficits. When an intracranial aneurysm ruptures and bleeds, resulting in a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the mortality rate can be 40% to 50%, with severe morbidity of 10% to 20%. The reported overall risk of rupture is 1.9% per year and is higher for women, cigarette smokers, and cocaine users, and in aneurysms that are symptomatic, greater than 10 mm in diameter, or located in the posterior circulation. If left untreated, there is a considerable risk of repeat hemorrhage in a ruptured aneurysm that results in increased mortality. In Ontario, intracranial aneurysms occur in about 1% to 4% of the population, and the annual incidence of SAH is about 10 cases per 100,000 people. In 2004-2005, about 660 intracranial aneurysm repairs were performed in Ontario. Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms Treatment of an unruptured aneurysm attempts to prevent the aneurysm from rupturing. The treatment of a ruptured intracranial aneurysm aims to prevent further hemorrhage. There are 3 approaches to treating an intracranial aneurysm. Small, asymptomatic aneurysms less than 10 mm in diameter may be monitored without any intervention other than treatment for underlying risk factors such as hypertension. Open surgical clipping, involves craniotomy, brain retraction, and placement of a silver clip across the neck of the aneurysm while a patient is under general anesthesia. This procedure is associated with surgical risks and neurological deficits. Endovascular coil embolization, introduced in the 1990s, is the health technology under review. Literature Review Methods The Medical Advisory Secretariat searched the International Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) Database and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify relevant systematic reviews. OVID Medline, Medline In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, and Embase were searched for English-language journal articles that reported primary data on the effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of treatments for intracranial aneurysms, obtained in a clinical setting or analyses of primary data maintained in registers or institutional databases. Internet searches of Me

  7. Antifibrinolyticsin aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. A retrospective comparison of two different forms of antifibrinolytic therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Spallone

    1982-01-01

    Summary The results of two different antifibrinolytic therapeutic modalities (A = AMCA 3gm daily + Aprotinin, 3–400000 K.I.U daily, B=AMCA, 6 gm daily) were compared retrospectively in a series of 137 patients harbouring recently ruptured intracranial aneurysms. The rates for rebleeding and thromboembolic complications were similar in both differently treated groups of patients, whilst that for ischaemic complications was significantly

  8. Duret hemorrhage: demonstration of ruptured paramedian pontine branches of the basilar artery on minimally invasive, whole body postmortem CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Chew, Ka Lip; Baber, Yeliena; Iles, Linda; O'Donnell, Christopher

    2012-12-01

    A 25 year old male died suddenly and unexpectedly. Postmortem CT scanning revealed marked raised intracranial pressure with brainstem compression due to subarachnoid, subdural and parenchymal hemorrhage. A hyperdense mass at the termination of the right internal carotid artery was thought to represent an aneurysm. Postmortem, whole body CT angiography failed to fill the aneurysm but did demonstrate multiple central pontine linear enhancing structures in continuity with the mid basilar artery and small foci of contrast leak into the adjacent mid pontine parenchyma. Autopsy confirmed subarachnoid hemorrhage, a thrombosed and ruptured proximal right middle cerebral artery aneurysm and Duret hemorrhages in the mid pons. This finding supports the theory that Duret hemorrhages occur as a result of perforating pontine branch of the basilar arterial rupture but does not exclude the contribution of venous congestion. PMID:22484970

  9. Does isolated traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage merit a lower intensity level of observation than other traumatic brain injury?

    PubMed

    Phelan, Herb A; Richter, Adam A; Scott, William W; Pruitt, Jeffrey H; Madden, Christopher J; Rickert, Kim L; Wolf, Steven E

    2014-10-15

    Evidence is emerging that isolated traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (ITSAH) may be a milder form of traumatic brain injury (TBI). If true, ITSAH may not benefit from intensive care unit (ICU) admission, which would, in turn, decrease resource utilization. We conducted a retrospective review of all TBI admissions to our institution between February 2010 and November 2012 to compare the presentation and clinical course of subjects with ITSAH to all other TBI. We then performed descriptive statistics on the subset of ITSAH subjects presenting with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 13-15. Of 698 subjects, 102 had ITSAH and 596 had any other intracranial hemorrhage pattern. Compared to all other TBI, ITSAH had significantly lower injury severity scores (p<0.0001), lower head abbreviated injury scores (p<0.0001), higher emergency department GCS (p<0.0001), shorter ICU stays (p=0.007), higher discharge GCS (p=0.005), lower mortality (p=0.003), and significantly fewer head computed tomography scans (p<0.0001). Of those ITSAH subjects presenting with a GCS of 13-15 (n=77), none underwent placement of an intracranial monitor or craniotomy. One subject (1.3%) demonstrated a change in exam (worsened headache and dizziness) concomitant with a progression of his intracranial injury. His symptoms resolved with readmission to the ICU and continued observation. Our results suggest that ITSAH are less-severe brain injuries than other TBI. ITSAH patients with GCS scores of 13-15 demonstrate low rates of clinical progression, and when progression occurs, it resolves without further intervention. This subset of TBI patients does not appear to benefit from ICU admission. PMID:24926612

  10. Does Isolated Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Merit a Lower Intensity Level of Observation Than Other Traumatic Brain Injury?

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Adam A.; Scott, William W.; Pruitt, Jeffrey H.; Madden, Christopher J.; Rickert, Kim L.; Wolf, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Evidence is emerging that isolated traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (ITSAH) may be a milder form of traumatic brain injury (TBI). If true, ITSAH may not benefit from intensive care unit (ICU) admission, which would, in turn, decrease resource utilization. We conducted a retrospective review of all TBI admissions to our institution between February 2010 and November 2012 to compare the presentation and clinical course of subjects with ITSAH to all other TBI. We then performed descriptive statistics on the subset of ITSAH subjects presenting with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 13–15. Of 698 subjects, 102 had ITSAH and 596 had any other intracranial hemorrhage pattern. Compared to all other TBI, ITSAH had significantly lower injury severity scores (p<0.0001), lower head abbreviated injury scores (p<0.0001), higher emergency department GCS (p<0.0001), shorter ICU stays (p=0.007), higher discharge GCS (p=0.005), lower mortality (p=0.003), and significantly fewer head computed tomography scans (p<0.0001). Of those ITSAH subjects presenting with a GCS of 13–15 (n=77), none underwent placement of an intracranial monitor or craniotomy. One subject (1.3%) demonstrated a change in exam (worsened headache and dizziness) concomitant with a progression of his intracranial injury. His symptoms resolved with readmission to the ICU and continued observation. Our results suggest that ITSAH are less-severe brain injuries than other TBI. ITSAH patients with GCS scores of 13–15 demonstrate low rates of clinical progression, and when progression occurs, it resolves without further intervention. This subset of TBI patients does not appear to benefit from ICU admission. PMID:24926612

  11. Posterior spinal artery aneurysm rupture after 'Ecstasy' abuse.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeremiah; Patel, Shnehal; Saraf-Lavi, Efrat; Aziz-Sultan, Mohammad Ali; Yavagal, Dileep R

    2015-07-01

    Posterior spinal artery (PSA) aneurysms are a rare cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The commonly abused street drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or 'Ecstasy' has been linked to both systemic and neurological complications. A teenager presented with neck stiffness, headaches and nausea after ingesting 'Ecstasy'. A brain CT was negative for SAH but a CT angiogram suggested cerebral vasculitis. A lumbar puncture showed SAH but a cerebral angiogram was negative. After a spinal MR angiogram identified abnormalities on the dorsal surface of the cervical spinal cord, a spinal angiogram demonstrated a left PSA 2?mm fusiform aneurysm. The patient underwent surgery and the aneurysmal portion of the PSA was excised without postoperative neurological sequelae. 'Ecstasy' can lead to neurovascular inflammation, intracranial hemorrhage, SAH and potentially even de novo aneurysm formation and subsequent rupture. PSA aneurysms may be treated by endovascular proximal vessel occlusion or open surgical excision. PMID:25006043

  12. Carnosine attenuates early brain injury through its antioxidative and anti-apoptotic effects in a rat experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zong-yong; Sun, Bao-liang; Yang, Ming-feng; Li, Da-wei; Fang, Jie; Zhang, Shuai

    2015-03-01

    Carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) has been demonstrated to provide antioxidative and anti-apoptotic roles in the animal of ischemic brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to examine whether carnosine prevents subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced early brain injury (EBI) in rats. We found that intraperitoneal administration of carnosine improved neurobehavioral deficits, attenuated brain edema and blood-brain barrier permeability, and decreased reactive oxygen species level at 48 h following SAH in rat models. Carnosine treatment increased tissue copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzymatic activities, and reduced post-SAH elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHDG), interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in rats. Furthermore, carnosine treatment attenuated SAH-induced microglia activation and cortical neuron apoptosis. These results indicated that administration of carnosine may provide neuroprotection in EBI following SAH in rat models. PMID:25179154

  13. Astaxanthin alleviates early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats: possible involvement of Akt/bad signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang-Sheng; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Qi; Li, Wei; Zhang, Qing-Rong; Wang, Chun-Xi; Zhou, Xiao-Ming; Li, Hua; Shi, Ji-Xin; Zhou, Meng-Liang

    2014-08-01

    Apoptosis has been proven to play a crucial role in early brain injury pathogenesis and to represent a target for the treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Previously, we demonstrated that astaxanthin (ATX) administration markedly reduced neuronal apoptosis in the early period after SAH. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure. In the present study, we tried to investigate whether ATX administration is associated with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway, which can play an important role in the signaling of apoptosis. Our results showed that post-SAH treatment with ATX could cause a significant increase of phosphorylated Akt and Bad levels, along with a significant decrease of cleaved caspase-3 levels in the cortex after SAH. In addition to the reduced neuronal apoptosis, treatment with ATX could also significantly reduce secondary brain injury characterized by neurological dysfunction, cerebral edema and blood-brain barrier disruption. In contrast, the PI3K/Akt inhibitor, LY294002, could partially reverse the neuroprotection of ATX in the early period after SAH by downregulating ATX-induced activation of Akt/Bad and upregulating cleaved caspase-3 levels. These results provided the evidence that ATX could attenuate apoptosis in a rat SAH model, potentially, in part, through modulating the Akt/Bad pathway. PMID:25072152

  14. The establishment of endovascular aneurysm coiling at a neurovascular unit: report of experience during early years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Norbäck; G. Gál; M. Johansson; S. Solander; M. Tovi; L. Persson; E. Ronne-Engström; P. Enblad

    2005-01-01

    The treatment of cerebral aneurysms is changing from surgical clipping to endovascular coiling (EVC) in many neurovascular centres. The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical results and clinical outcome at 6 months in a consecutive series of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients treated with EVC, in a situation when the EVC had been established very rapidly as the first

  15. Traumatic aneurysm of the callosomarginal artery-cortical artery junction from penetrating injury by scissors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myoung Soo; Sim, Sook Young

    2014-04-01

    Traumatic intracranial aneurysms (TICAs) are rare and are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. TICAs usually result from head injuries caused by traffic accidents, industrial accidents, or gunshots. We report a traumatic aneurysm of the callosomarginal artery-cortical artery junction arising from a penetrating injury by scissors. A 51-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital after suffering a penetrating injury caused by scissors. Computed tomography (CT) and CT-angiography demonstrated a right orbital roof fracture, subarachnoid hemorrhage, frontal lobe hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, and a traumatic aneurysm of the right callosomarginal artery-cortical artery junction. We trapped the traumatic aneurysm and repositioned a galeal flap. Postoperative CT showed a small infarction in the left frontal lobe. Follow-up angiography two months later showed no residual aneurysm. We suggest that an aggressive surgical intervention be performed whenever TICA is diagnosed. PMID:25024829

  16. Traumatic Aneurysm of the Callosomarginal Artery-Cortical Artery Junction from Penetrating Injury by Scissors

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Sook Young

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic intracranial aneurysms (TICAs) are rare and are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. TICAs usually result from head injuries caused by traffic accidents, industrial accidents, or gunshots. We report a traumatic aneurysm of the callosomarginal artery-cortical artery junction arising from a penetrating injury by scissors. A 51-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital after suffering a penetrating injury caused by scissors. Computed tomography (CT) and CT-angiography demonstrated a right orbital roof fracture, subarachnoid hemorrhage, frontal lobe hemorrhage, intraventricular hemorrhage, and a traumatic aneurysm of the right callosomarginal artery-cortical artery junction. We trapped the traumatic aneurysm and repositioned a galeal flap. Postoperative CT showed a small infarction in the left frontal lobe. Follow-up angiography two months later showed no residual aneurysm. We suggest that an aggressive surgical intervention be performed whenever TICA is diagnosed. PMID:25024829

  17. Pathogenesis of the "sentinel headache" preceding berry aneurysm rupture.

    PubMed Central

    Ball, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    Pathologic examination in a case of fatal intracerebral hemorrhage from a berry aneurysm showed that the "sentinel" or warning headache in this patient was due to the leakage of blood into the subarachnoid space through a previous small tear in the wall of her saccular aneurysm. Oribital pain, transient, dysphasia, dizziness and, later, meningismus might have prompted the performing of a lumbar puncture to determine the presence of blood in the cerebrospinal fluid. This type of event is the likely pathogenetic mechanism for the premonitory headache that may precede a lethal rupture of a saccular aneurysm. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:1109729

  18. Comparative Efficacy of Meloxicam and Placebo in Vasospasm of Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad; Mohebbi, Niayesh; Naderi, Soheil; Anbarloie, Mousareza; Aoude, Ahmad; Habibi Pasdar, Seyed Sohail

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm considered to be a serious cause of morbidity and mortality following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH).Despite several available therapeutic options, current protocols do not prevent major consequences of vasospasm. Inflammation is believed to play an important role in post-haemorrhagic vasospasm. Meloxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of meloxicam versus placebo on vasospasm in patients with SAH. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, SAH patients randomly received 7.5 mg meloxicam or placebo twice daily for 7 days. End points were, middle cerebral artery velocity obtained with transcranial doppler, in-hospital mortality, hospital stay and discharge Glasgow Outcome Scale. Eighty-one patients enrolled in the study. (40 received meloxicam, 41 received placebo). Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. There were no differences in length of hospitalization (17.4 ± 3.1 vs 18.6 ± 4.2 days; p = 0.145), in-hospital mortality rate (15 vs 22%; p-value=0.569), or GOS (p = 0.972) between the two groups. MCA velocity were slightly less in patients who had received meloxicam, but not to a significant degree (p-value=0. 564(. No side effect has been detected for meloxicam. This study did not prove meloxicam efficacy in vasospasm of SAH patients. But it demonstrated that clinical trial of meloxicam in these patients is feasible and probably safe. The effectiveness of meloxicam on cerebral vasospasm has to be studied in larger trials. PMID:25561918

  19. Comparative efficacy of meloxicam and placebo in vasospasm of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad; Mohebbi, Niayesh; Naderi, Soheil; Anbarloie, Mousareza; Aoude, Ahmad; Habibi Pasdar, Seyed Sohail

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm considered to be a serious cause of morbidity and mortality following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH).Despite several available therapeutic options, current protocols do not prevent major consequences of vasospasm. Inflammation is believed to play an important role in post-haemorrhagic vasospasm. Meloxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of meloxicam versus placebo on vasospasm in patients with SAH. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, SAH patients randomly received 7.5 mg meloxicam or placebo twice daily for 7 days. End points were, middle cerebral artery velocity obtained with transcranial doppler, in-hospital mortality, hospital stay and discharge Glasgow Outcome Scale. Eighty-one patients enrolled in the study. (40 received meloxicam, 41 received placebo). Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. There were no differences in length of hospitalization (17.4 ± 3.1 vs 18.6 ± 4.2 days; p = 0.145), in-hospital mortality rate (15 vs 22%; p-value=0.569), or GOS (p = 0.972) between the two groups. MCA velocity were slightly less in patients who had received meloxicam, but not to a significant degree (p-value=0. 564(. No side effect has been detected for meloxicam. This study did not prove meloxicam efficacy in vasospasm of SAH patients. But it demonstrated that clinical trial of meloxicam in these patients is feasible and probably safe. The effectiveness of meloxicam on cerebral vasospasm has to be studied in larger trials. PMID:25561918

  20. Importance of accessory outflow pathways in hydrocephalus after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Griebel, R.W.; Black, P.M.; Pile-Spellman, J.; Strauss, H.W.

    1989-02-01

    This study evaluated the changes in pathways of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) outflow that accompanied acute and compensated hydrocephalus in the rabbit. Intraventricularly injected 99mTc antimony sulfide was used as a tracer of outflow pathways, and specified structures were counted 12 to 24 hours after injection. Fifteen rabbits were divided into three groups: 1) an acutely hydrocephalic group in which 3 cisternal injections of blood were followed by a study of CSF pressure, ventricular size, and CSF outflow pathways 1 week after the last injection; 2) a control group treated according to the same protocol, except that sterile saline was injected instead of blood; and 3) a chronic group also treated according to the same protocol but in which the animals were maintained an average of 4 weeks after the last blood injection. Ventricular size was measured by computed digitation and expressed as an area ratio of ventricle to brain (VBR). In control animals, 11.8% of the injected colloid dosage was found in cranial perineural lymphatic channels, and 4.8% appeared in the spinal cord. The mean CSF pressure was 149 +/- 20.2 mm H20 (mean +/- SE) and the mean VBR was 0.040 +/- 0.003. In animals evaluated 1 week after subarachnoid injection, accessory cranial perineural lymphatic outflow decreased significantly to 3.4%, and spinal cord activity increased to 9.8% (P less than 0.05, two-tailed t-test). These animals were hydrocephalic and had CSF pressure of 247 +/- 25.1 mm H20 (mean +/- SE) and VBR of 0.083 +/- 0.009.

  1. Minocycline Improves Functional Outcomes, Memory Deficits, and Histopathology after Endovascular Perforation-Induced Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sherchan, Prativa; Lekic, Tim; Suzuki, Hidenori; Hasegawa, Yu; Rolland, William; Duris, Kamil; Zhan, Yan; Tang, Jiping

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) results in significant long-lasting cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, evaluating acute and long-term outcomes after therapeutic intervention is important for clinical translation. The aim of this study was to use minocycline, a known neuroprotectant agent, to evaluate the long-term benefits in terms of neurobehavior and neuropathology after experimental SAH in rats, and to determine which neurobehavioral test would be effective for long-term evaluation. SAH was induced by endovascular perforation in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=118). The animals were treated with intraperitoneal injection of minocycline (45?mg/kg or 135?mg/kg) or vehicle 1?h after SAH induction. In the short-term, animals were euthanized at 24 and 72?h for evaluation of neurobehavior, brain water content, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. In the long-term, neurobehavior was evaluated at days 21–28 post-SAH, and histopathological analysis was done at day 28. High-dose but not low-dose minocycline reduced brain water content at 24?h, and therefore only the high-dose regimen was used for further evaluation, which reduced MMP-9 activity at 24?h. Further, high-dose minocycline improved spatial memory and attenuated neuronal loss in the hippocampus and cortex. The rotarod, T-maze, and water maze tests, but not the inclined plane test, detected neurobehavioral deficits in SAH rats at days 21–28. This study demonstrates that minocycline attenuates long-term functional and morphological outcomes after endovascular perforation-induced SAH. Long-term neurobehavioral assessments using the rotarod, T-maze, and water maze tests could be useful to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic intervention after experimental SAH. PMID:22013966

  2. Recombinant osteopontin attenuates experimental cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats through an anti-apoptotic mechanism.

    PubMed

    He, Junchi; Liu, Mindi; Liu, Zhen; Luo, Liangsheng

    2015-06-22

    Cerebral vasospasm (CVS) is an important pathological process following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Osteopontin (OPN), a pleiotropic extracellular glycoprotein, has been reported to be able to induce MKP-1 in the spastic cerebral arteries and prevent vasospasm after SAH. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of recombinant OPN (r-OPN) on CVS following SAH and the underlying mechanisms associated with its anti-apoptotic effect. Eighty male Sprague Dawley rats (weighing 300-375g) were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) sham+vehicle (n=20), (2) SAH+vehicle (n=20), (3) SAH+OPN0.03 (0.03?g) (n=20), (4) SAH+OPN0.1 (0.1?g) (n=20). The double injection model of cisterna magna was performed on day 0 and 48h after the first induction. r-OPN was administered intraventricularly nearly 30min after the first SAH. After neurological score assessment, rats were sacrificed 72h after the first SAH. The cross-sectional area and thickness of basilar arteries (BA) were measured under Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining. Endothelial cell apoptosis was identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the expression of p-Akt and cleaved caspase-3 in BA. Western blot analysis was applied to evaluate the expression of p-Akt, cleaved caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 in BA. r-OPN improved neurological scores and attenuated vasospasm. r-OPN significantly reduced expression of cleaved caspase-3 and Bax in BA following SAH, and increased the level of p-Akt and Bcl-2, coupled with reduced apoptosis of endothelial cell in BA. These results demonstrate that r-OPN can attenuate vasospasm after SAH through a suppressed apoptotic response, which may provide a novel therapeutic target for cerebral vasospasm. PMID:25779039

  3. Non-invasive diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Régent, C; Edjlali-Goujon, M; Trystram, D; Boulouis, G; Ben Hassen, W; Godon-Hardy, S; Nataf, F; Machet, A; Legrand, L; Ladoux, A; Mellerio, C; Souillard-Scemama, R; Oppenheim, C; Meder, J-F; Naggara, O

    2014-12-01

    Patients need to be examined for intracranial aneurysms if they have had a subarachnoid hemorrhage. The preferred technique in this situation is CT angiography. Screening can be done for familial forms or for elastic tissue disorders, for which the first line investigation is magnetic resonance angiography. These non-invasive methods have now taken over from conventional angiography that was reserved for the pretreatment phase. A good technical knowledge of these imaging methods, their artifacts and misleading images enables reliable detection of intracranial aneurysms and for an accurate report to be returned to clinicians. PMID:25465118

  4. [Giant anterior communicating artery aneurysm (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ito, H; Shima, T; Yamamoto, S

    1975-02-01

    A case of giant aneurysm arising from the anterior communicating artery, 24 X 28 X 30 mm in diameter was found in a 30 year old man. About ten years ago he became blind and recently developed right anosmia and diencephalic seizures. No subarachnoid hemorrhage, however, was found. Radiograms and tomograms of the cranium showed a ring-like calcification, but by angiography it couldn't be recognized as a giant aneurysm. The right frontal craniotomy and partial resection, therefore, was performed. A histological study of the resected material revealed that it was a spontaneously thrombosed giant aneurysm. The inner layer of its wall had neither endothelium nor elastic lamina, but had deposits of calcium salt. The outer layer was composed of collagen fibers without cell infiltration. The aneurysm was thrombosed except for its neck but its organization occurred incompletely. We want to emphasize the importance of a correct preoperative diagnosis, as an erroneous operative procedure can result in disaster. Volume, viscosity and tension of flowing blood into the aneurysm as well as the size of its neck and dome regulate dynamic properties. These properties may determine the enlargement rate or growth of the aneurysm. The dynamic characteristics and features of the inner surface of the aneurysmal wall may regulate the formation of thrombosis in the aneurysm. The intraluminal thrombosis and strength of aneurysmal wall, for example, calcium deposits, may prohibit aneurysm from its rupture. PMID:1238924

  5. Successful surgical treatment of descending aorta interruption in a 29-year-old woman with acute paraplegia and subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shutang; Wang, Zhiheng; Zhang, Liang; Fu, Hongdu; Zhuang, Huanwei; Cao, Xianjun; Liang, Liming; Yang, Yanqi

    2015-01-01

    Interruption of the descending aorta is an extremely rare great vessel malformation. In this report, we describe a very unusual case of a 29-year-old female with a 13-year history of hypertension who was found to have an interruption of the descending aorta when she was hospitalized with a subarachnoid hemorrhage and symptoms of acute paraplegia. We successfully surgically corrected the defect using a Gore-Tex® graft to bypass the aortic interruption. The patient's blood pressure postoperatively returned to normal, and the patient recovered completely from her paraplegia by the time of her 5-month follow-up visit. PMID:26045082

  6. Elevated Baseline CRP as a Predictor of Outcome After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Data From the Simvastatin in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage (STASH) Trial

    E-print Network

    Turner, Carole; Budohoski, Karol; Smith, Christopher; Hutchinson, Peter John; Kirkpatrick, Peter John

    2015-01-01

    -neurological systemic complications which 17 often occur post SAH and which can contribute to poor outcome, including sepsis, 18 anaemia, hypertension, hypotension, hyperglycaemia, hypernatraemia, hyponatraemia, 19 hypomagnesaemia and cardiac complications2, 10. Many... patients presenting with 29 WFNS 1 and 2 were analysed, only baseline CRP was found to be an independent 30 biochemical predictor of outcome (table 5b). 31 7 A further multivariate model was applied, including sepsis, statin/placebo, white cell 1...

  7. Seven Intracranial Aneurysms in One Patient: Treatment and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kalakoti, Piyush; Hefner, Matthew; Cuellar, Hugo; Guthikonda, Bharat

    2015-01-01

    Before the advent of endovascular coiling, patients with multiple intracranial aneurysms were treated with surgical clipping; however, with the advancements in endovascular technology, intracranial aneurysms can be treated with surgical clipping and/or endovascular coiling. We describe a case of subarachnoid hemorrhage in a patient with 7 intracranial aneurysms. A 45-year-old female developed a sudden headache and left sided hemiparesis. Initial workup showed a subarachnoid hemorrhage in the right Sylvian fissure. Further angiographic workup showed 7 intracranial aneurysms (left and right middle cerebral artery bifurcation, right middle cerebral artery, anterior communicating artery, left posterior communicating artery, right posterior inferior cerebellar artery, and left superior cerebellar artery). The patient underwent two craniotomies for surgical clipping of the anterior circulation aneurysms and endovascular stent-assisted coils for the posterior circulation aneurysms. The need for anti-platelet agents for endovascular treatment of the posterior circulation aneurysms and clinical presentation warranted surgical clipping of the anterior circulation aneurysms prior to endovascular therapy. We describe a case report and decision making for a patient with multiple intracranial aneurysms treated with surgical clipping and endovascular coiling. PMID:26157691

  8. Cerebral vascular findings in PAPA syndrome: cerebral arterial vasculopathy or vasculitis and a posterior cerebral artery dissecting aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Khatibi, Kasra; Heit, Jeremy J; Telischak, Nicholas A; Elbers, Jorina M; Do, Huy M

    2015-01-01

    A young patient with PAPA (pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne) syndrome developed an unusual cerebral arterial vasculopathy/vasculitis (CAV) that resulted in subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured dissecting posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysm. This aneurysm was successfully treated by endovascular coil sacrifice of the affected segment of the PCA. The patient made an excellent recovery with no significant residual neurologic deficit. PMID:26109622

  9. Persistent Aneurysm Growth Following Pipeline Embolization Device Assisted Coiling of a Fusiform Vertebral Artery Aneurysm: A Word of Caution!

    PubMed Central

    Kerolus, Mena; Lopes, Demetrius K.

    2015-01-01

    The complex morphology of vertebrobasilar fusiform aneurysms makes them one of the most challenging lesions treated by neurointerventionists. Different management strategies in the past included parent vessel occlusion with or without extra-intracranial bypass surgery and endovascular reconstruction by conventional stents. Use of flow diversion has emerged as a promising alternative option with various studies documenting its efficacy and safety. However, there are various caveats associated with use of flow diversion in patients with fusiform vertibrobasilar aneurysms especially in patients presenting with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We report a rare case of persistent aneurysmal growth after coiling and placement of the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED; ev3, Irvine, California, USA) for SAH from a fusiform vertebral artery aneurysm. As consequences of aneurysm rupture can be devastating especially in patients with a prior SAH, the clinical relevance of recognizing and understanding such patterns of failure cannot be overemphasized as highlighted in the present case. PMID:25763295

  10. A case of ruptured intrameatal aneurysm successfully treated with coil embolization.

    PubMed

    Goto, Shunsaku; Ohshima, Tomotaka; Yamamoto, Taiki; Nishihori, Masahiro; Nishizawa, Toshihisa; Shimato, Shinji; Kato, Kyozo

    2015-02-01

    Aneurysms within the internal acoustic canal are rare. We report the case of a 71-year-old female with subarachnoid hemorrhage resulting from a ruptured distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery which was not detected on initial radiological examination. A second rupture was detected by contrast-enhanced computed tomography and successfully treated by endovascular coil embolization. The patient recovered without neurological deficits. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an intrameatal aneurysm treated by endovascular coil embolization. We suggest endovascular coil embolization as an alternative to open surgery, even in cases of deep intrameatal aneurysm. PMID:25797996

  11. A CASE OF RUPTURED INTRAMEATAL ANEURYSM SUCCESSFULLY TREATED WITH COIL EMBOLIZATION

    PubMed Central

    GOTO, SHUNSAKU; OHSHIMA, TOMOTAKA; YAMAMOTO, TAIKI; NISHIHORI, MASAHIRO; NISHIZAWA, TOSHIHISA; SHIMATO, SHINJI; KATO, KYOZO

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aneurysms within the internal acoustic canal are rare. We report the case of a 71-year-old female with subarachnoid hemorrhage resulting from a ruptured distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery which was not detected on initial radiological examination. A second rupture was detected by contrast-enhanced computed tomography and successfully treated by endovascular coil embolization. The patient recovered without neurological deficits. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an intrameatal aneurysm treated by endovascular coil embolization. We suggest endovascular coil embolization as an alternative to open surgery, even in cases of deep intrameatal aneurysm. PMID:25797996

  12. Coil embolization in ruptured inferior thyroid artery aneurysm with active bleeding.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Ho; Choi, Hyuk Jai; Yang, Jin Seo; Cho, Yong Jun

    2014-10-01

    We present a unique experience of urgent parent arterial embolization for treatment of an aneurysm of the inferior thyroid artery (ITA) that bled during tracheostomy. The event happened to a 69-year-old female patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage and hospital-acquired pneumonia that required tracheostomy. Abrupt and massive bleeding developed during the procedure, and the source could not be identified. Under manual compression, angiography revealed an 8-mm aneurysm that arose from the inferior thyroid artery. The superselected parent artery of the aneurysm was successfully occluded with a single pushable coil. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:25371788

  13. Anesthetic Management of Patients with Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Elsayed, Alaa A.; Wehby, Anthony S.; Farag, Ehab

    2014-01-01

    Background Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), a significant cause of hemorrhagic stroke, continues to have poor prognosis. Early diagnosis and treatment are key to improving outcomes. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and aSAH are often accompanied by multiple comorbidities, making anesthetic management of these patients complex. Methods This article summarizes the goals of anesthetic management of patients with cerebral aneurysm, including preoperative considerations, intraoperative management, and postoperative considerations. Results Hemodynamic monitoring is an important aspect of management. Use nicardipine, labetalol, and esmolol to avoid increases in blood pressure that may cause aneurysm rupture, and avoid low blood pressure as this may decrease cerebral perfusion pressure. Nimodipine is recommended for vasospasm prophylaxis in all patients with aSAH. The hypertension arm of Triple H therapy (hypertension, hypervolemia, hemodilution) is the most important to improve cerebral perfusion. Erythropoietin has shown some promise in lowering the incidence of vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia. Albumin is the preferred colloid. Conclusion Anesthetic management of patients with aSAH and SAH is a complex endeavor. Careful consideration of individual patient status, optimal techniques, and the safest evidence-based methods are the best options for successfully treating these life-altering conditions. PMID:25249809

  14. Molecular basis and genetic predisposition to intracranial aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Weinsheimer, Shantel; Ronkainen, Antti; Kuivaniemi, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysms, also called cerebral aneurysms, are dilatations in the arteries that supply blood to the brain. Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm leads to a subarachnoid hemorrhage, which is fatal in about 50% of the cases. Intracranial aneurysms can be repaired surgically or endovascularly, or by combining these two treatment modalities. They are relatively common with an estimated prevalence of unruptured aneurysms of 2%–6% in the adult population, and are considered a complex disease with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Known risk factors include smoking, hypertension, increasing age, and positive family history for intracranial aneurysms. Identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of intracranial aneurysms is complex. Genome-wide approaches such as DNA linkage and genetic association studies, as well as microarray-based mRNA expression studies, provide unbiased approaches to identify genetic risk factors and dissecting the molecular pathobiology of intracranial aneurysms. The ultimate goal of these studies is to use the information in clinical practice to predict an individual's risk for developing an aneurysm or monitor its growth or rupture risk. Another important goal is to design new therapies based on the information on mechanisms of disease processes to prevent the development or halt the progression of intracranial aneurysms. PMID:25117779

  15. [Evaluation of the treatment of aneurysmal meningeal hemorrhage with antifibrinolytic agents, calcium inhibitors and maintenance of effective blood volume].

    PubMed

    Gutknecht, J L; Irthum, B; Cavaroc, G; Halberstadt, J; Planchon, E; Greil, P; Berard, J P

    1990-06-01

    To prevent and treat the ischemic complications due to the vasospasm, this report suggest the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage by the association of antifibrinolytics (tranexamic acid) to lower the risk of rebleeding, calcium channel blockers (nimodipine), and the keeping of an effective total blood volume (thanks to volume expansion and dopamine). From 88 patients aged from 4 to 73, two thirds were admitted at latest 48 h after the aneurysmal rupture Emergency surgery was carried out in the case of a compressive hematoma, early surgery (between the first and the third day) on the grades I, II and III of Hunt and Hess without any signs of angiographic vasospasms (40% of this series), delayed surgery for the others (27.5%), 10% didn't undergo any surgery. Only three patients (3.4%) presented rebleeding leading to death. The features of the whole series are: 51% recovered without any after effects, 22% had mild neurological deficiency, 10% had severe neurological deficiency and 17% died after their release from hospital. This protocol allowed a decrease in the ischemic complications due to the vasospasm and in the rate of rebleeding during the waiting interval when an angiographic or a clinical vasospasm allowed no surgery. PMID:2285104

  16. Early release of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) from neurons in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Translocation of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) from nucleus could trigger inflammation. Extracellular HMGB1 up-regulates inflammatory response in sepsis as a late mediator. However, little was known about its role in subarachnoid hemorrhage-inducible inflammation, especially in the early stage. This study aims to identify whether HMGB1 translocation occurred early after SAH and also to clarify the potential role of HMGB1 in brain injury following SAH. Methods Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into sham group and SAH groups at 2 h, 12 h and on day 1, day 2. SAH groups suffered experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage by injection of 0.3 ml autoblood into the pre-chiasmatic cistern. Rats injected by recombinant HMGB1(rHMGB1) solution were divided into four groups according to different time points. Cultured neurons were assigned into control group and four hemoglobin (Hb) incubated groups. Mixed glial cells were cultured and stimulated in medium from neurons incubated by Hb. HMGB1 expression is measured by western blot analysis, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Downstream nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) subunit P65 and inflammatory factor Interleukin 1? (IL-1?) were measured by western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Brain injury was evaluated by cleaved caspase-3 staining. Results Our results demonstrated HMGB1 translocation occurred as early as 2 h after experimental SAH with mRNA and protein level increased. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence results indicated cytosolic HMGB1 was mainly located in neurons while translocated HMGB1 could also be found in some microglia. After subarachnoid injection of rHMGB1, NF-?B, downstream inflammatory response and cleaved caspase-3 were up-regulated in the cortex compared to the saline control group. In-vitro, after Hb incubation, HMGB1 was also rapidly released from neurons to medium. Incubation with medium from neurons up-regulated IL-1? in mixed glial cells. This effect could be inhibited by HMGB1 specific inhibitor glycyrrhizic acid (GA) treatment. Conclusion HMGB1 was released from neurons early after SAH onset and might trigger inflammation as an upstream inflammatory mediator. Extracellular HMGB1 contributed to the brain injury after SAH. These results might have important implications during the administration of specific HMGB1 antagonists early in order to prevent or reduce inflammatory response following SAH. PMID:24924349

  17. Upregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 contributes to restoration of the extracellular matrix in the rabbit basilar artery during cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kurogi, Ryota; Kikkawa, Yuichiro; Matsuo, Satoshi; Nakamizo, Akira; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Sasaki, Tomio

    2015-08-01

    Vascular remodeling caused by extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism contributes to the development of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The balance between tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) plays an important role in ECM remodeling. We investigated the mechanism of vascular remodeling following cerebral vasospasm in a rabbit double hemorrhage model. Rabbit basilar arteries were harvested on days 3, 5, and 7 after initial hemorrhage. TIMP-1, TIMP-2, MMP-2, and MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression were investigated with microarray analysis, quantitative real-time PCR, immunoblot analysis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression and localization of TIMP-1, TIMP-2, MMP-2, MMP-9, elastin, fibronectin, laminin, and collagens I, III, and IV were investigated with immuohistochemical staining. After SAH, TIMP-1 mRNA and protein expression were significantly increased on day 3 and then decreased to the control level on days 5 and 7. MMP-9 protein expression was significantly increased on day 7. TIMP-2 and MMP-2 mRNA and protein expression were significantly increased on day 7. Elastin, fibronectin, laminin, and collagens I, III, and IV protein expression was decreased on day 3 and then restored to control levels on day 7. Upregulation of TIMP-1 during the early phase of cerebral vasospasm may contribute to the recovery of the ECM during the late phase of cerebral vasospasm, resulting in a protective role of TIMP-1 from cerebral vasospasm. Moreover, the increase in arterial compliance by the decrease in ECM during the early phase of cerebral vasospasm may facilitate vasoconstriction of the cerebral artery. PMID:25940763

  18. Coagulation and fibrinolysis in blood and cerebrospinal fluid after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: Effect of tranexamic acid (AMCA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Fodstad; I. M. Nilsson

    1981-01-01

    Summary Serial assays of blood coagulation factors as well as of fibrin\\/fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) and plasminogen activator activity (PA) on fibrin plates in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were performed in 41 consecutive patients with recently ruptured cerebral aneurysms, 21 of whom were randomly treated with tranexamic acid (AMCA). Coagulation factors were unaffected by the drug and plasminogen and

  19. Critical role of TNF-? in cerebral aneurysm formation and progression to rupture

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alterations in TNF-? expression have been associated with cerebral aneurysms, but a direct role in formation, progression, and rupture has not been established. Methods Cerebral aneurysms were induced through hypertension and a single stereotactic injection of elastase into the basal cistern in mice. To test the role of TNF-? in aneurysm formation, aneurysms were induced in TNF-? knockout mice and mice pretreated with the synthesized TNF-? inhibitor 3,6?dithiothalidomide (DTH). To assess the role of TNF-? in aneurysm progression and rupture, DTH was started 6 days after aneurysm induction. TNF-? expression was assessed through real-time PCR and immunofluorescence staining. Results TNF-? knockout mice and those pre-treated with DTH had significantly decreased incidence of aneurysm formation and rupture as compared to sham mice. As compared with sham mice, TNF-? protein and mRNA expression was not significantly different in TNF-? knockout mice or those pre-treated with DTH, but was elevated in unruptured and furthermore in ruptured aneurysms. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) occurred between 7 and 21 days following aneurysm induction. To ensure aneurysm formation preceded rupture, additional mice underwent induction and sacrifice after 7 days. Seventy-five percent had aneurysm formation without evidence of SAH. Initiation of DTH treatment 6 days after aneurysm induction did not alter the incidence of aneurysm formation, but resulted in aneurysmal stabilization and a significant decrease in rupture. Conclusions These data suggest a critical role of TNF-? in the formation and rupture of aneurysms in a model of cerebral aneurysm formation. Inhibitors of TNF-? could be beneficial in preventing aneurysmal progression and rupture. PMID:24739142

  20. Determination of tranexamic acid (AMCA) and fibrin\\/fibrinogen degradation products in cerebrospinal fluid after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Fodstad; A. Pilbrant; M. Schannon?; S. Strömber?

    1981-01-01

    Summary Six patients with recently ruptured intracranial aneurysms were treated preoperatively with tranexamic acid (AMCA). Two patients received 6 g daily in i.v. infusion, two had 6 g daily by i.v. injection, and two patients were given AMCA 9 g daily by mouth during the first week after bleeding. Serial assays of AMCA and fibrin\\/fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) in cerebrospinal

  1. Increased ICP promotes CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation of neuronal NOS at Ser(847) in the hippocampus immediately after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Makino, Kazushige; Osuka, Koji; Watanabe, Yasuo; Usuda, Nobuteru; Hara, Masahito; Aoyama, Masahiro; Takayasu, Masakazu; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2015-08-01

    Early brain injury has recently been identified as an indicator of poor prognosis after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II? (CaMKII?) has been shown to phosphorylate neuronal NOS (nNOS) at Ser(847), resulting in a reduction in nNOS activity. In this study, we revealed chronological changes in the phosphorylation of nNOS at Ser(847) in the hippocampus and cortex immediately after SAH. In a rat single-hemorrhage model of SAH, the hippocampus and adjacent cortex were collected up to 24h after SAH. Samples from rats that were not injected with blood were used as controls. NOS was partially purified from the crude samples using ADP-agarose affinity chromatography. Western blot analysis revealed that nNOS phosphorylated (p-nNOS) at Ser(847) was significantly increased in the hippocampus, but not in the cortex, at 1h after SAH compared with that resulting from the control treatment. Immunoreactivity of p-nNOS at Ser(847) was observed in interneurons of the hippocampus at 1h after SAH. Injection of saline instead of blood also significantly induced p-nNOS at Ser(847) levels in the hippocampus at 1h after injection. The colocalization of CaMKII? and nNOS was transiently increased in the hippocampus at 0.5h after SAH. Our data suggest that immediately after SAH, an increase in intracranial pressure might induce transient cerebral ischemia, potentially promoting the phosphorylation of nNOS at Ser(847) by CaMKII? in the hippocampus. The activation of p-nNOS at Ser(847) in the hippocampus may alleviate ischemic insults immediately after SAH to exert a neuroprotective effect against early brain injury. PMID:25940762

  2. Hydrogen-rich saline alleviates early brain injury via reducing oxidative stress and brain edema following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing experimental and clinical data indicate that early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) largely contributes to unfavorable outcomes, and it has been proved that EBI following SAH is closely associated with oxidative stress and brain edema. The present study aimed to examine the effect of hydrogen, a mild and selective cytotoxic oxygen radical scavenger, on oxidative stress injury, brain edema and neurology outcome following experimental SAH in rabbits. Results The level of MDA, caspase-12/3 and brain water content increased significantly at 72 hours after experimental SAH. Correspondingly, obvious brain injury was found in the SAH group by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine 5’-triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and Nissl staining. Similar results were found in the SAH?+?saline group. In contrast, the upregulated level of MDA, caspase-12/3 and brain edema was attenuated and the brain injury was substantially alleviated in the hydrogen treated rabbits, but the improvement of neurology outcome was not obvious. Conclusion The results suggest that treatment with hydrogen in experimental SAH rabbits could alleviate brain injury via decreasing the oxidative stress injury and brain edema. Hence, we conclude that hydrogen possesses the potential to be a novel therapeutic agent for EBI after SAH. PMID:22587664

  3. Treatment with Sodium Orthovanadate Reduces Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption via Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome 10 (PTEN) Phosphorylation in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Yu; Suzuki, Hidenori; Altay, Orhan; Chen, Hank; Zhang, John H

    2012-01-01

    Attenuation of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is one of the therapeutic candidates for treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In this study, the protective effect of sodium orthovanadate (SOV) on BBB disruption was investigated in SAH using the endovascular perforation model. Fifty-five rats were randomly assigned to sham-operated, SAH treated with saline (as a vehicle) or 10mg/kg SOV groups, and evaluated for neurofunction and Evans blue dye extravasation. The phosphorylation of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), occludin, and collagen-IV were examined by Western blot analyses. Cell death on endothelial cells were revealed by immunofluorescence and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine 5?-triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining. SOV significantly improved neurofunction and reduced Evans blue dye extravasation in brains after SAH. SOV phosphorylated PTEN, decreased phospho-JNK and MMP-9, and preserved occludin expression. SOV also attenuated SAH-induced capillary endothelial cell death. The current study showed that SOV was protective against BBB disruption after SAH possibly via PTEN phosphorylation. PMID:22183833

  4. Safety and efficacy of the Pipeline Embolization Device in 100 small intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Chalouhi, Nohra; Zanaty, Mario; Whiting, Alex; Yang, Steven; Tjoumakaris, Stavropoula; Hasan, David; Starke, Robert M; Hann, Shannon; Hammer, Christine; Kung, David; Rosenwasser, Robert; Jabbour, Pascal

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT Flow diverters are increasingly used for treatment of intracranial aneurysms. In most series, the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) was used for the treatment of large, giant, complex, and fusiform aneurysms. Little is known about the use of the PED in small aneurysms. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of the PED in small aneurysms (? 7 mm). METHODS A total of 100 consecutive patients were treated with the PED at the authors' institution between May 2011 and September 2013. Data on procedural safety and efficacy were retrospectively collected. RESULTS The mean aneurysm size was 5.2 ± 1.5 mm. Seven patients (7%) had sustained a subarachnoid hemorrhage. All except 5 aneurysms (95%) arose from the anterior circulation. The number of PEDs used was 1.2 per aneurysm. Symptomatic procedure-related complications occurred in 3 patients (3%): 1 distal parenchymal hemorrhage that was managed conservatively and 2 ischemic events. At the latest follow-up (mean 6.3 months), 54 (72%) aneurysms were completely occluded (100%), 10 (13%) were nearly completely occluded (? 90%), and 11 (15%) were incompletely occluded (< 90%). Six aneurysms (8%) required further treatment. Increasing aneurysm size (OR 3.8, 95% CI 0.99-14; p = 0.05) predicted retreatment. All patients achieved a favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale Score 0-2) at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS In this study, treatment of small aneurysms with the PED was associated with low complication rates and high aneurysm occlusion rates. These findings suggest that the PED is a safe and effective alternative to conventional endovascular techniques for small aneurysms. Randomized trials with long-term follow-up are necessary to determine the optimal treatment that leads to the highest rate of obliteration and the best clinical outcomes. PMID:25635478

  5. Fatal traumatic aneurysm of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery with delayed rupture.

    PubMed

    Purgina, Bibianna; Milroy, Christopher Mark

    2015-02-01

    Traumatic aneurysms of intracranial arteries are rare, forming less than 1% of all intracranial arteries. They may be associated with penetrating and non-penetrating trauma. Most cases are associated with fracturing of the skull. Rupture of traumatic aneurysms occur in up to 50% of cases and are typically delayed from days to weeks following the initiating trauma. We report a case of a 22-year-old man who was punched to the head. He was rendered unconscious but recovered and had a GCS of 14 on admission. CT scans showed subarachnoid hemorrhage. An initial angiogram was negative but on day 7 following the incident he was noted to have a 1 mm aneurysm of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery on CT angiogram. On day 9 he collapsed and was found to have new subarachnoid hemorrhage and to have a 4.0 mm × 3.7 mm. He did not recover and was declared brain dead on day 12. At autopsy, there was a 4.0 mm aneurysm of the left PICA just after the origin of the artery. Histological examination confirmed the presence of a traumatic false aneurysm in the left PICA. This case study shows sequential radiological imaging with pathologiocal correlation. PMID:25549847

  6. Electrocardiographic alterations in subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Traugott Stober; Klaus Kunze

    1982-01-01

    In a retrospective study of 89 patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), the frequency and specificity of changes in the electrocardiogram (ECG) were determined, as well as electrocardiographically established arrhythmias. The ECG changes were correlated with neurological as well as angiographic findings (localization of the aneurysm and vascular spasm).

  7. Tamoxifen as an effective neuroprotectant against early brain injury and learning deficits induced by subarachnoid hemorrhage: possible involvement of inflammatory signaling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has successfully been used to treat several animal models of brain injury, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of tamoxifen on the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B)-related inflammatory signaling pathway and secondary brain injury in rats after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (1) control group (n?=?28); (2) SAH group (n?=?28); (3) SAH?+?vehicle group (n?=?28); and (4) SAH?+?tamoxifen group (n?=?28). All SAH animals were subjected to injection of autologous blood into the prechiasmatic cistern once on day 0. In SAH?+?tamoxifen group, tamoxifen was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 5 mg/kg at 2 h, 12 h, and 36 h after SAH. In the first set of experiments, brain samples were extracted and evaluated at 48 h after SAH. In the second set of experiments, the Morris water maze was used to investigate cognitive and memory changes. Results We found that treatment with tamoxifen markedly inhibited the protein expressions of TLR4, NF-?B and the downstream inflammatory agents, such as interleukin-1? (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Administration of tamoxifen following SAH significantly ameliorated the early brain injury (EBI), such as brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment, and clinical behavior scale. Learning deficits induced by SAH were markedly alleviated after tamoxifen treatment. Conclusions Post-SAH tamoxifen administration may attenuate TLR4/NF-kappaB-mediated inflammatory response in the rat brain and result in abatement of the development of EBI and cognitive dysfunction after SAH. PMID:24373431

  8. Correlating Cerebral (18)FDG PET-CT Patterns with Histological Analysis During Early Brain Injury in a Rat Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Model.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianping; Li, Peiliang; Chaudhary, Neeraj; Gemmete, Joseph J; Thompson, B Gregory; Xi, Guohua; Pandey, Aditya S

    2015-08-01

    Early brain injury (EBI) plays a significant role in poor outcomes for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. Further investigations are required to characterize the cellular metabolic and related histological changes that may contribute to EBI following SAH. We investigated the image patterns of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography ((18)FDG PET-CT) during EBI and correlated histopathological changes utilizing a rat SAH model. SAH was induced in six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by endovascular perforation, and animals were randomly assigned to receive (18)FDG PET-CT imaging at either 3 or 12 h post-procedure. Mean (18)FDG standard uptake value (SUV) of the brain was calculated. Animals were euthanized 48 h post-procedure, and brain samples were used for heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32) Mr 32 kDa immunohistochemistry. Rats within the SAH group had higher mean whole brain (18)FDG SUV (2.349?±?0.376 g/ml in the 3-h group and 2.453?±?0.495 g/ml in the 12-h group) compared to that of sham (n?=?3; mean SUV?=?2.030?±?0.247 g/ml; P??0.05). Regions of decreasing SUV in SAH rats correlated with neuronal death and increased expression of HO-1. Higher (18)FDG PET SUV was evident in rats post-SAH compared to sham and control groups. Regions of decreasing SUV in SAH rats correlated with neuronal death and increased HO-1 expression as evaluated by histopathology. PMID:25833084

  9. The Neuroprotection of Lysosomotropic Agents in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Probably Involving the Apoptosis Pathway Triggering by Cathepsins via Chelating Intralysosomal Iron.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Gao, Anju; Xu, Xiang; Dang, Baoqi; You, Wanchun; Li, Haiying; Yu, Zhengquan; Chen, Gang

    2014-08-12

    ?-Lipoic acid-plus (LAP), an amine derivative of ?-lipoic acid (LA), could protect cells against oxidant challenges via chelating intralysosomal iron. However, the application of LAP in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is still not well known. This study was designed to evaluate the potential neuroprotection of LAP on the early brain injury (EBI) and the underlying mechanisms in a rat model of SAH. The SAH models were induced in Sprague-Dawley rats. LA and LAP were oral administration and lasted for 72 h once a day. The brain tissue samples were obtained for assay at 72 h after SAH. In experiment 1, we found that lysosome amounts in neurons decreased significantly in SAH group, and LAP (100 mg/kg) could stabilize lysosomal membrane markedly based on lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) expression in neurons by immunofluorescence. Hence, the LAP dosages of 100 and 150 mg/kg were applied in experiment 2. Firstly, Western blot analysis showed that the protein levels of cathepsin B/D, caspase-3, Bax, ferritin, and heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) markedly increased after SAH, which were further confirmed by double immunofluorescence staining and reversed by LA and LAP treatments. In addition, LA and LAP also reduced oxidative stress and iron deposition in brain tissue. Furthermore, LA and LAP significantly ameliorated brain edema, blood-brain barrier injury, cortical apoptosis, and neurological behavior impairment induced by SAH. Finally, it is noteworthy that LAP exerted more significant effects than LA on these parameters as described above. LAP probably exerted neuroprotective effects via targeting lysosomes and chelating intralysosomal iron in EBI post-SAH in rats. PMID:25112680

  10. Long term monitoring of immunoreactive endothelin-1 and endothelin-3 in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid, plasma, and 24-h urine of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ehrenreich, H; Lange, M; Near, K A; Anneser, F; Schoeller, L A; Schmid, R; Winkler, P A; Kehrl, J H; Schmiedek, P; Goebel, F D

    1992-01-01

    Endothelins (ETs), peptides that were originally isolated from endothelial cells, have extremely potent and long-lasting vasoconstricting effects on cerebral vessels in vitro and in vivo. Observations that astrocytes produce these peptides and that their ET production can be stimulated, e.g. by thrombin, and potentiated via a self-enhancing autoregulatory mechanism may have shed new light upon the pathogenesis of cerebrovasospasm (CVS). ETs are present at low levels in normal human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Few and contradictory reports exist on ET levels in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-associated CVS. We monitored ventricular CSF, plasma, and 24-h urine levels of immunoreactive endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelin-3 (ET-3) in seven patients with SAH, who did (five) or did not (two) develop CVS in the course of their disease, as well as in two patients with different conditions (acoustic neuroma/postoperative meningitis; hydro-/hematocephalus) over 7-19 days. A distinct peak of both ET-1 and ET-3 in CSF of patients with SAH coincided with clinically documented signs of CVS and was absent in CSF of patients with SAH but no CVS. CSF levels of ET-1 and ET-3 displayed a striking parallelism in all subjects. Plasma ET-1 levels were essentially in the normal range. ET-3 was not detectable in plasma under our assay conditions. The excretion profiles of ET-1 and ET-3 in 24-h urine revealed again a predominantly parallel behavior of the two peptides. Interestingly, patients with high ET levels in CSF showed simultaneous peaks in urinary ET excretion, expressed as nanograms per gram of creatinine. Our findings support an association of ETs with the pathogenic events following SAH. The well-documented effects of these peptides on cerebral vessels suggest they are mediators rather than markers of disease. PMID:1410800

  11. Ginsenoside Rbeta1 reduces neurologic damage, is anti-apoptotic, and down-regulates p53 and BAX in subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingbo; Tang, Jiping; Khatibi, Nikan H; Zhu, Mei; Chen, Di; Zheng, Weiping; Wang, Shali

    2010-05-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide and the number one cause of adult disability in the United States and Europe. A subtype of stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), accounts for 7% of all strokes each year and claims one of the highest mortalities and morbidities. Many therapeutic interventions have been used to treat brain injury following SAH but none have reached the level of effectiveness needed to clinically reduce mortality. Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1), a major component of the Chinese traditional medicine Panax Ginseng, has been shown to reduce ischemic brain injury and myocardial injury via anti-apoptotic pathways. In the present study, we investigated the use of GRb1 on SAH induced brain injury in rats. Four groups were used: sham, vehicle (SAH), low dose treatment (SAH+ 5mg/kg GRb1), and high dose treatment (SAH+ 20mg/kg GRb1). Post assessment included wall thickness and mean cross-section area of basilar artery were measured for evaluating cerebral vasospasm, Evans blue extravasations to assess blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability, immunohistochemistry and Western Blot analysis looking for specific pro-apoptotic markers, and tunnel staining for cell death assessment. In addition, mortality, neurological function and brain edema were investigated. The results showed that high dose GRb1 treatment significantly enlarged mean cross-sectional area and decreased wall thickness of basilar artery, reduced neurological deficits, brain edema, BBB disruption, and TUNEL positive cell expression. Same time, we found that the proteins expression of P53, Bax and Caspase-3 were significantly reduced, whereas the expression of bcl-2 was up-regulated in Rb1 treatment. The results of this study suggest that GRb1 could relieve cerebral vasospasm and potentially provide neuroprotection in SAH victims. The underlying mechanisms may be partly related to inhibition of P53 and Bax dependent proapoptosis pathway. More studies will be needed to confirm these results and determine its potential as a long term agent. PMID:20353383

  12. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jung Hwa; Kim, Sung Tae; Jung, Cheol Kyu; Suh, Sang-il

    2014-01-01

    Purpose An intracranial aneurysm, with or without subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), is a relevant health problem. The rupture of an intracranial aneurysm is a critical concern for individual health; even an unruptured intracranial aneurysm is an anxious condition for the individual. The aim of this guideline is to present current and comprehensive recommendations for the management of intracranial aneurysms, with or without rupture. Materials and Methods We performed an extensive literature search, using Medline. We met in person to discuss recommendations. This document is reviewed by the Task Force Team of the Korean Society of Interventional Neuroradiology (KSIN). Results We divided the current guideline for ruptured intracranial aneurysms (RIAs) and unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). The guideline for RIAs focuses on diagnosis and treatment. And the guideline for UIAs focuses on the definition of a high-risk patient, screening, principle for treatment and selection of treatment method. Conclusion This guideline provides practical, evidence-based advice for the management of patients with an intracranial aneurysm, with or without rupture. PMID:25426300

  13. [Analysis of Rupture during Follow-up of Unruptured Aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Koyama, Shinya; Inoue, Mizuho; Uchida, Hiroki; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Saito, Atsushi; Kon, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Nishijima, Michiharu

    2015-06-01

    Object:To elucidate clinical aspects of ruptured aneurysms, we retrospectively investigated associations between risk factors and ruptured and unruptured cases during conservative management. Methods:Two hundred and twenty-nine patients with 291 unruptured cerebral aneurysms treated between 2000 and 2012 were analyzed. Mean duration of observation was 62 months(1183.4 person-years). We investigated the following six risk factors: history of subarachnoid hemorrhage;multiplicity;location of aneurysms;aneurysm size ?5mm;bleb or irregular forms;and follow-up period <1 year. Results:Twenty-two aneurysms in 22 patients(19 women;86.4%)ruptured during this study. The annual rate of rupture was 1.86%. In ruptured cases, mean age was 66.7 years. According to univariate analysis, aneurysm size?5mm(p=0.000), bleb or irregular form(p=0.006)and duration of observation<1 year(p=0.000)were significantly associated with aneurysmal rupture. In multivariate analysis of these factors, aneurysm size?5mm(p=0.0188;odds ratio(OR), 3.4;95% confidence interval(CI), 1.2-9.7)and duration of observation<1 year(p=0.006;OR, 5.0;95% CI, 1.6-14.9)represented independent risk factors for aneurysm rupture. Conclusions:The results of this study were almost the same as those of the UCAS Japan study. In addition, duration of observation <1 year was a risk factor for aneurysm rupture. When we decide on surgical treatment after considering factors such as aneurysm size, form, and surgical risk, surgery should be performed as soon as possible. PMID:26015380

  14. Endovascular treatment for ruptured distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jae-Sang; Yoon, Seok-Mann; Shim, Jai-Joon; Bae, Hack-Gun; Yoon, Il-Gyu

    2014-03-01

    A 42-year-old woman presented with Hunt and Hess grade (HHG) III subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by a ruptured left distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) aneurysm. Computed tomography showed a thin SAH on the cerebellopontine angle cistern, and small vermian intracerebral hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage in the fourth ventricle. Digital subtraction angiography revealed the aneurysm on the postmeatal segment of left distal AICA, a branching point of rostrolateral and caudomedial branch of the left distal AICA. Despite thin caliber, tortuous running course and far distal location, the AICA aneurysm was obliterated successfully with endovascular coils without compromising AICA flow. However, the patient developed left side sensorineural hearing loss postoperatively, in spite of definite patency of distal AICA on the final angiogram. She was discharged home without neurologic sequela except hearing loss and tinnitus. Endovascular treatment of distal AICA aneurysm, beyond the meatal loop, is feasible while preserving the AICA flow. However, because the cochlear hair cell is vulnerable to ischemia, unilateral hearing loss can occur, possibly caused by the temporary occlusion of AICA flow by microcatheter during endovascular treatment. PMID:24765609

  15. Endovascular Treatment for Ruptured Distal Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jae-Sang; Shim, Jai-Joon; Bae, Hack-Gun; Yoon, Il-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    A 42-year-old woman presented with Hunt and Hess grade (HHG) III subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by a ruptured left distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) aneurysm. Computed tomography showed a thin SAH on the cerebellopontine angle cistern, and small vermian intracerebral hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage in the fourth ventricle. Digital subtraction angiography revealed the aneurysm on the postmeatal segment of left distal AICA, a branching point of rostrolateral and caudomedial branch of the left distal AICA. Despite thin caliber, tortuous running course and far distal location, the AICA aneurysm was obliterated successfully with endovascular coils without compromising AICA flow. However, the patient developed left side sensorineural hearing loss postoperatively, in spite of definite patency of distal AICA on the final angiogram. She was discharged home without neurologic sequela except hearing loss and tinnitus. Endovascular treatment of distal AICA aneurysm, beyond the meatal loop, is feasible while preserving the AICA flow. However, because the cochlear hair cell is vulnerable to ischemia, unilateral hearing loss can occur, possibly caused by the temporary occlusion of AICA flow by microcatheter during endovascular treatment. PMID:24765609

  16. Cognitive impairments after surgical repair of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Argye E Hillis; Nancy Anderson; Prakesh Sampath; Daniele Rigamonti

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVESTo determine the frequency and severity of neuropsychological impairments associated with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, and associated with repair of intracerebral aneurysms.METHODSTwo groups of patients who underwent repair of intracerebral aneurysms were studied: patients with unruptured aneurysms (n=20) and patients with ruptured aneurysms (n=27). All patients were administered a battery of standardised neuropsychological tests about 3 months after surgery. A subset

  17. Moyamoya disease associated with asymptomatic mosaic Turner syndrome: a rare cause of hemorrhagic stroke.

    PubMed

    Manjila, Sunil; Miller, Benjamin R; Rao-Frisch, Anitha; Otvos, Balint; Mitchell, Anna; Bambakidis, Nicholas C; De Georgia, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is a rare cerebrovascular anomaly involving the intracranial carotid arteries that can present clinically with either ischemic or hemorrhagic disease. Moyamoya syndrome, indistinguishable from moyamoya disease at presentation, is associated with multiple clinical conditions including neurofibromatosis type 1, autoimmune disease, prior radiation therapy, Down syndrome, and Turner syndrome. We present the first reported case of an adult patient with previously unrecognized mosaic Turner syndrome with acute subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage as the initial manifestation of moyamoya syndrome. A 52-year-old woman was admitted with a subarachnoid hemorrhage with associated flame-shaped intracerebral hemorrhage in the left frontal lobe. Physical examination revealed short stature, pectus excavatum, small fingers, micrognathia, and mild facial dysmorphism. Cerebral angiography showed features consistent with bilateral moyamoya disease, aberrant intrathoracic vessels, and an unruptured 4-mm right superior hypophyseal aneurysm. Genetic analysis confirmed a diagnosis of mosaic Turner syndrome. Our case report is the first documented presentation of adult moyamoya syndrome with subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage as the initial presentation of mosaic Turner syndrome. It illustrates the utility of genetic evaluation in patients with cerebrovascular disease and dysmorphism. PMID:24103673

  18. Simultaneous Endovascular Treatment of Ruptured Cerebral Aneurysms and Vasospasm

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young Dae; Ahn, Jun Hyong; Jung, Seung Chai; Kim, Chang Hun; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Jeong Eun; Lim, Jeong Wook

    2015-01-01

    Objective The management of patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysms and severe vasospasm is subject to considerable controversy. We intended to describe herein an endovascular technique for the simultaneous treatment of aneurysms and vasospasm. Materials and Methods A series of 11 patients undergoing simultaneous endovascular treatment of ruptured aneurysms and vasospasm were reviewed. After placement of a guiding catheter within the proximal internal carotid artery for coil embolization, an infusion line of nimodipine was wired to one hub, and of a microcatheter was advanced through another hub (to select and deliver detachable coils). Nimodipine was then infused continuously during the coil embolization. Results This technique was applied to 11 ruptured aneurysms accompanied by vasospasm (anterior communicating artery, 6 patients; internal carotid artery, 2 patients; posterior communicating and middle cerebral arteries, 1 patient each). Aneurysmal occlusion by coils and nimodipine-induced angioplasty were simultaneously achieved, resulting in excellent outcomes for all patients, and there were no procedure-related complications. Eight patients required repeated nimodipine infusions. Conclusion Our small series of patients suggests that the simultaneous endovascular management of ruptured cerebral aneurysms and vasospasm is a viable approach in patients presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage and severe vasospasm. PMID:25598688

  19. Intraoperative 3D rotational angiography: an emergency tool for the diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Westermaier, Thomas; Willner, Nadine; Vince, Giles H; Linsenmann, Thomas; Ernestus, Ralf-Ingo; Stetter, Christian

    2015-02-01

    It was the objective of this report to present a case of recurrent aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in which an MCA aneurysm was detected by 3D rotational fluoroscopy in an emergency situation. A 44-year-old woman was admitted from an external department after repeated SAH and temporal ICH. Due to progressive anisocoria and cardiocirculatory instability, she was transferred to the operating room without angiography. After a 3D rotational fluoroscopy baseline scan, another scan with 50 ml of iodine contrast agent was performed. The Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data sets were subtracted and reconstructed using the OsiriX® free imaging software. No adverse effect was observed during and after the administration of the contrast agent. The entire procedure from positioning of the fluoroscope to the production of utilizable 3D images was completely integrated into the surgical workflow with an image acquisition time of 2?×?24 s. The configuration of the aneurysm, the aneurysm-carrying vessel, and the distal vessel anatomy were well assessable. This technique quickly supplies images at adequate quality to assess the configuration of an intracranial aneurysm and is a useful diagnostic tool if the patient's critical condition prohibits aneurysm diagnostics by angiography or CT angiography. PMID:24989477

  20. Rapid aneurysm growth and rupture in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Graffeo, Christopher S.; Tanweer, Omar; Nieves, Cesar Fors; Belmont, H. Michael; Izmirly, Peter M.; Becske, Tibor; Huang, Paul P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to intracranial aneurysm rupture is a major neurosurgical emergency associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Rapid aneurysm growth is associated with rupture. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-system autoimmune disorder whose complications can include cerebral vasculitis and vasculopathy. Intracranial aneurysms are not known to occur more frequently in SLE patients than the general population; however, aneurysm growth rates have not been studied in SLE. Case Description: We present a 43-year-old female with SLE on prednisone, hydroxychloroquine, and azathioprine with moderate disease activity who presented with severe, acute-onset headache and was found to have Hunt and Hess grade II SAH due to rupture of an 8 mm saccular anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysm. The patient developed severe vasospasm, re-ruptured, and was taken for angiography and embolization, which was challenging due to a high degree of vasospasm and arterial stenosis. Review of imaging from less than 2 years prior demonstrated a normal ACoA complex without evidence of an aneurysm. Conclusion: We review the literature and discuss the risk factors and pathophysiology of rapid aneurysm growth and rupture, as well as the pathologic vascular changes associated with SLE. Although SLE patients do not develop intracranial aneurysm at an increased rate, these changes may predispose them to higher incidence of growth and rupture. This possibility-coupled with increased morbidity and mortality of SAH in SLE-suggests that SAH should be considered in SLE patients presenting with headache, and advocates for more aggressive treatment of SLE patients with unruptured aneurysms. PMID:25657862

  1. Interleukin-6 as a Prognostic Biomarker in Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Hung-Wen; Kuo, Chen-Ling; Huang, Ching-Shan; Tseng, Wan-Min; Lin, Ching-Po

    2015-01-01

    Background Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a proinflammatory cytokine, was found to surge in the cerebral spinal fluid after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We hypothesized that the plasma level of IL-6 could be an independent biomarker in predicting clinical outcome of patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Methods We prospectively included 53 consecutive patients treated with platinum coil embolization of the ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Plasma IL-6 levels were measured in the blood samples at the orifices of the aneurysms and from peripheral veins. The outcome measure was the modified Rankin Scale one month after SAH. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the associations between the plasma IL-6 levels and the neurological outcome. Results Significant risk factors for the poor outcome were old age, low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) on day 0, high Fisher grades, and high aneurysmal and venous IL-6 levels in univariate analyses. Aneurysmal IL-6 levels showed modest to moderate correlations with GCS on day 0, vasospasm grade and Fisher grade. A strong correlation was found between the aneurysmal and the corresponding venous IL-6 levels (? = 0.721; P<0.001). In the multiple logistic regression models, the poor 30-day mRS was significantly associated with high aneurysmal IL-6 level (OR, 17.97; 95% CI, 1.51–214.33; P = 0.022) and marginally associated with high venous IL-6 level (OR, 12.71; 95% CI, 0.90–180.35; P = 0.022) after adjusting for dichotomized age, GCS on day 0, and vasospasm and Fisher grades. Conclusions The plasma level of IL-6 is an independent prognostic biomarker that could be used to aid in the identification of patients at high-risk of poor neurological outcome after rupture of the intracranial aneurysm. PMID:26176774

  2. Aortic Dissection Mimicking Subarachnoidal Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrike Ernemann; Gunnar Tepe; Rainer Ritz; Dorothee Bail

    2005-01-01

    Inthisreportwedescribeacomatosepatientwithprox- imal aortic dissection who presented with the signs of subarachnoidalhemorrhage.Shortlybeforelosingcon- sciousness, the patient complained of an excruciating headache. Upon initial examination, neck stiffness and opisthotonos were present. The cardiovascular exami- nation, chest radiograph, and cerebral computed to- mography were normal. Eight hours later, the aortic dissection was verified by a thoracic computed tomog- raphy. This case shows that aortic

  3. Cigarette Smoke and Inflammation: Role in Cerebral Aneurysm Formation and Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Chalouhi, Nohra; Ali, Muhammad S.; Starke, Robert M.; Jabbour, Pascal M.; Tjoumakaris, Stavropoula I.; Gonzalez, L. Fernando; Rosenwasser, Robert H.; Koch, Walter J.; Dumont, Aaron S.

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is an established risk factor for subarachnoid hemorrhage yet the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Recent data has implicated a role of inflammation in the development of cerebral aneurysms. Inflammation accompanying cigarette smoke exposure may thus be a critical pathway underlying the development, progression, and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. Various constituents of the inflammatory response appear to be involved including adhesion molecules, cytokines, reactive oxygen species, leukocytes, matrix metalloproteinases, and vascular smooth muscle cells. Characterization of the molecular basis of the inflammatory response accompanying cigarette smoke exposure will provide a rational approach for future targeted therapy. In this paper, we review the current body of knowledge implicating cigarette smoke-induced inflammation in cerebral aneurysm formation/rupture and attempt to highlight important avenues for future investigation. PMID:23316103

  4. Superficial Siderosis of the Central Nervous System Induced by a Single-Episode of Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Study Using MRI-Enhanced Gradient Echo T2 Star-Weighted Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongwei; Wang, Jin; Lu, Zhonglie; Wu, Qingjie; Lv, Haijuan; Liu, Hu; Gong, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a single episode of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) could cause superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (SS-CNS).This study was approved by the local ethics committee. Thirty-two patients with a history of a single episode of tSAH were enrolled in the study. An episode of tSAH was confirmed in patients based on a CT scan or a lumbar puncture, and a follow-up examination was conducted at least six weeks after the brain trauma. A follow-up MRI examination was performed, using enhanced gradient echo T2 star-weighted angiography (ESWAN) to detect hemosiderin deposition on the cortical surface. The extent to which hemosiderin deposition was associated with several clinical factors was investigated. Various degrees of hemosiderin deposition were detected in 31 of 32 (96.9%) single-episode tSAH patients. Analysis of contingency tables revealed an association between the regions of subarachnoid bleeding based on CT images and the regions of hemosiderin deposition based on ESWAN images (?2 = 17.73, P<0.05). SS-CNS was determined to be a common consequence after a single episode of tSAH. The extent of hemosiderin deposition is closely correlated with the initial bleeding sites and bleeding volume. PMID:25647424

  5. Ruptured intracranial aneurysm during pregnancy with false-negative computed tomography angiography findings: a case report.

    PubMed

    Goto, Yukihiro; Ebisu, Toshihiko; Mineura, Katsuyoshi

    2015-06-01

    A 34-year-old female was admitted at 34 weeks of gestation with sudden onset of a severe headache accompanied by vomiting. Neurological examination revealed neck rigidity, and computed tomography (CT) of the brain revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Although the hemorrhage was located primarily in the left Sylvian fissure, computed tomography angiography (CTA) performed immediately after CT did not reveal any obvious vascular abnormalities such as an intracranial aneurysm. An emergency cesarean section was performed, and a healthy infant was delivered. Cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed the day following surgery, which revealed a saccular aneurysm measuring 4.3 mm?×?2.4 mm in the left middle cerebral artery. Left craniotomy and clipping of the aneurysm were performed. The clot around the aneurysm was relatively solid. This case report is of significance given that initial CTA was negative for SAH during pregnancy, suggesting the requirement for immediate DSA or another CTA in such cases. There are many previous reports on false-negative CTA findings or disappearance and reappearance of aneurysms in SAH patients, and various biophysical and dynamic parameters are suggested to cause such phenomena. However, there are no reports on similar occurrences during pregnancy. Although the precise cause remains unclear, multiple factors associated with homeostasis during pregnancy were possibly associated with the transient disappearance in this patient. PMID:25732356

  6. Endovascular treatment of internal carotid and vertebral artery aneurysms using a novel pericardium covered stent.

    PubMed

    Vulev, I; Klepanec, A; Bazik, R; Balazs, T; Illes, R; Steno, J

    2012-06-01

    Intracranial aneurysm is a fairly common (often asymptomatic) condition. Subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with aneurysmal rupture is a potentially lethal event with a mortality rate as high as 50 percent and a high rate of disability among those who survive the initial hemorrhage, such that recently published guidelines support treatment of intracerebral aneurysms. The current treatment options include surgical clipping and endovascular treatment, but these are not without significant problems. Despite the trend toward endovascular treatment the rate of recurrence and complications is high. Current published evidence of the use of covered stent is limited to stents covered with polytetrafluoroethylene. It is now recognized that mammalian extracellular matrix represents an excellent scaffold material suitable for many therapeutic applications and glutaraldehyde treated pericardium has been widely used for many years due to its desirable features such as low immunogenicity and durability. This report describes the first published experience with the Aneugraft Pericardium Covered Stent (ITGI Medical, OR Akiva, Israel) in the treatment of internal carotid and vertebral artery aneurysms in three patients. In all three cases, the implantation of this novel device has resulted in successful closure of aneurysms. PMID:22681731

  7. Endovascular Treatment of Internal Carotid and Vertebral Artery Aneurysms Using a Novel Pericardium Covered Stent

    PubMed Central

    Vulev, I.; Klepanec, A.; Bazik, R.; Balazs, T.; Illes, R.; Steno, J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Intracranial aneurysm is a fairly common (often asymptomatic) condition. Subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with aneurysmal rupture is a potentially lethal event with a mortality rate as high as 50 percent and a high rate of disability among those who survive the initial hemorrhage, such that recently published guidelines support treatment of intracerebral aneurysms. The current treatment options include surgical clipping and endovascular treatment, but these are not without significant problems. Despite the trend toward endovascular treatment the rate of recurrence and complications is high. Current published evidence of the use of covered stent is limited to stents covered with polytetrafluoroethylene. It is now recognized that mammalian extracellular matrix represents an excellent scaffold material suitable for many therapeutic applications and glutaraldehyde treated pericardium has been widely used for many years due to its desirable features such as low immunogenicity and durability. This report describes the first published experience with the Aneugraft Pericardium Covered Stent (ITGI Medical, OR Akiva, Israel) in the treatment of internal carotid and vertebral artery aneurysms in three patients. In all three cases, the implantation of this novel device has resulted in successful closure of aneurysms. PMID:22681731

  8. Benefit of cone-beam CT angiography in visualizing aneurysm shape and identification of exact rupture site.

    PubMed

    Lauric, Alexandra; Heller, Robert S; Schimansky, Sarah; Malek, Adel M

    2015-01-01

    While high-resolution cone-beam computational tomographic (CBCT) angiography has gained use in intracranial vascular imaging, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and 3-dimensional-rotational angiography (3D-RA) remain the preferred acquisition modalities for intracranial aneurysm imaging. This case report highlights the utility of the greater spatial resolution afforded by CBCT for cerebral aneurysm imaging. A 54-year-old man presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage was confirmed to harbor a ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm by conventional angiography. Due to varying contrast opacification captured by different acquisition methods, dramatic aneurysm shape difference was observed between 2- and 3-dimensional-angiographic and CBCT models. The greater resolution of CBCT revealed in an unequivocal fashion the exact site of rupture on the aneurysm dome, visualized as a discrete irregular and elongated bleb that was not seen on either 3D-RA or DSA. High-resolution CBCT visualized the shape of the target aneurysm in greater detail than the more conventional 2D-DSA and 3D-RA, enabling more precise computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Given that aneurysms most likely change shape either prior to rupture or upon rupture, future studies evaluating fluid dynamics using computer reconstructions should be cognizant of the differences in resolution provided by various imaging modalities. PMID:24707990

  9. Therapeutic approaches to cerebral vasospasm complicating ruptured aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Barbarawi, Mohamed; Smith, Sarah F; Jamous, Mohamed Abu; Haboub, Hazem; Suhair, Qudsieh; Abdullah, Shboul

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm is a serious complication of ruptured aneurysm. In order to avoid short- and long-term effects of cerebral vasospasm, and as there is no single or optimal treatment modality employed, we have instituted a protocol for the prevention and treatment of vasospasm in patients suffering aneurysmal sub-arachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We then reviewed the effectiveness of this protocol in reducing the mortality and morbidity rate in our institution. In this study we present a retrospective analysis of 52 cases. Between March 2004 and December 2008 52 patients were admitted to our service with aneurysmal SAH. All patients commenced nimodipine, magnesium sulphate (MgSO(4)) and triple H therapy. Patients with significant reduction in conscious level were intubated, ventilated and sedated. Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring was used for intubated patients. Sodium thiopental coma was induced for patients with refractory high ICP; angiography was performed for diagnosis and treatment. Balloon angioplasty was performed if considered necessary. Using this protocol, only 13 patients (25%) developed clinical vasospasm. Ten of them were given barbiturates to induce coma. Three patients underwent transluminal balloon angioplasty. Four out of 52 patients (7.7%) died from severe vasospasm, 3 patients (5.8%) became severely disabled, and 39 patients (75%) were discharged in a condition considered as either normal or near to their pre-hemorrhage status. Our results confirm that the aforementioned protocol for treatment of cerebral vasospasm is effective and can be used safely. PMID:21577350

  10. Fusiform superior cerebellar artery aneurysm treated with STA-SCA bypass and trapping

    PubMed Central

    Lamis, Fabricio C.; De Paiva Neto, Manoel A.; Cavalheiro, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fusiform aneurysms of cerebellar arteries are rare. Different surgical techniques to address these challenging lesions have been described, and their application depends on whether the goal is to maintain the flow in the parent vessel or to occlude it. Case Description: The authors reported a case of a fusiform aneurysm located in the lateral pontomesencephalic segment of the superior cerebellar artery (SCA) in a 32-year-old man who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. The patient was subjected to aneurysm trapping followed by a bypass between the superficial temporal artery (STA) and SCA and had an uneventful recovery. Conclusions: Although only a few cases of fusiform aneurysms in the supracerebellar artery have been reported in the literature, the treatment strategies adopted were diverse. In selected cases of patients in good neurological condition with ruptured fusiform aneurysms at the proximal segments of SCA and who have poor evidence of collateral supply, the possibility of a STA-SCA bypass with aneurysm trapping must be considered. A review of the current treatment modalities of this pathology is also presented. PMID:25071936

  11. Neuroprotective efficacy from a lipophilic redox-modulating Mn(III) N-Hexylpyridylporphyrin, MnTnHex-2-PyP: rodent models of ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Huaxin; Spasojevic, Ivan; Tse, Hubert M; Jung, Jin Yong; Hong, Jun; Zhang, Zhiquan; Piganelli, Jon D; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Warner, David S

    2011-09-01

    Intracerebroventricular treatment with redox-regulating Mn(III) N-hexylpyridylporphyrin (MnPorphyrin) is remarkably efficacious in experimental central nervous system (CNS) injury. Clinical development has been arrested because of poor blood-brain barrier penetration. Mn(III) meso-tetrakis (N-hexylpyridinium-2-yl) porphyrin (MnTnHex-2-PyP) was synthesized to include four six-carbon (hexyl) side chains on the core MnPorphyrin structure. This has been shown to increase in vitro lipophilicity 13,500-fold relative to the hydrophilic ethyl analog Mn(III) meso-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin (MnTE-2-PyP). In normal mice, we found brain MnTnHex-2-PyP accumulation to be ?9-fold greater than MnTE-2-PyP 24 h after a single intraperitoneal dose. We then evaluated MnTnHex-2-PyP efficacy in outcome-oriented models of focal cerebral ischemia and subarachnoid hemorrhage. For focal ischemia, rats underwent 90-min middle cerebral artery occlusion. Parenteral MnTnHex-2-PyP treatment began 5 min or 6 h after reperfusion onset and continued for 7 days. Neurologic function was improved with both early (P = 0.002) and delayed (P = 0.002) treatment onset. Total infarct size was decreased with both early (P = 0.03) and delayed (P = 0.01) treatment. MnTnHex-2-PyP attenuated nuclear factor ?B nuclear DNA binding activity and suppressed tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6 expression. For subarachnoid hemorrhage, mice underwent perforation of the anterior cerebral artery and were treated with intraperitoneal MnTnHex-2-PyP or vehicle for 3 days. Neurologic function was improved (P = 0.02), and vasoconstriction of the anterior cerebral (P = 0.0005), middle cerebral (P = 0.003), and internal carotid (P = 0.015) arteries was decreased by MnTnHex-2-PyP. Side-chain elongation preserved MnPorphyrin redox activity, but improved CNS bioavailability sufficient to cause improved outcome from acute CNS injury, despite delay in parenteral treatment onset of up to 6 h. This advance now allows consideration of MnPorphyrins for treatment of cerebrovascular disease. PMID:21652782

  12. Neuroprotective Efficacy from a Lipophilic Redox-Modulating Mn(III) N-Hexylpyridylporphyrin, MnTnHex-2-PyP: Rodent Models of Ischemic Stroke and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Huaxin; Spasojevic, Ivan; Tse, Hubert M.; Jung, Jin Yong; Hong, Jun; Zhang, Zhiquan; Piganelli, Jon D.; Batinic-Haberle, Ines

    2011-01-01

    Intracerebroventricular treatment with redox-regulating Mn(III) N-hexylpyridylporphyrin (MnPorphyrin) is remarkably efficacious in experimental central nervous system (CNS) injury. Clinical development has been arrested because of poor blood-brain barrier penetration. Mn(III) meso-tetrakis (N-hexylpyridinium-2-yl) porphyrin (MnTnHex-2-PyP) was synthesized to include four six-carbon (hexyl) side chains on the core MnPorphyrin structure. This has been shown to increase in vitro lipophilicity 13,500-fold relative to the hydrophilic ethyl analog Mn(III) meso-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin (MnTE-2-PyP). In normal mice, we found brain MnTnHex-2-PyP accumulation to be ?9-fold greater than MnTE-2-PyP 24 h after a single intraperitoneal dose. We then evaluated MnTnHex-2-PyP efficacy in outcome-oriented models of focal cerebral ischemia and subarachnoid hemorrhage. For focal ischemia, rats underwent 90-min middle cerebral artery occlusion. Parenteral MnTnHex-2-PyP treatment began 5 min or 6 h after reperfusion onset and continued for 7 days. Neurologic function was improved with both early (P = 0.002) and delayed (P = 0.002) treatment onset. Total infarct size was decreased with both early (P = 0.03) and delayed (P = 0.01) treatment. MnTnHex-2-PyP attenuated nuclear factor ?B nuclear DNA binding activity and suppressed tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6 expression. For subarachnoid hemorrhage, mice underwent perforation of the anterior cerebral artery and were treated with intraperitoneal MnTnHex-2-PyP or vehicle for 3 days. Neurologic function was improved (P = 0.02), and vasoconstriction of the anterior cerebral (P = 0.0005), middle cerebral (P = 0.003), and internal carotid (P = 0.015) arteries was decreased by MnTnHex-2-PyP. Side-chain elongation preserved MnPorphyrin redox activity, but improved CNS bioavailability sufficient to cause improved outcome from acute CNS injury, despite delay in parenteral treatment onset of up to 6 h. This advance now allows consideration of MnPorphyrins for treatment of cerebrovascular disease. PMID:21652782

  13. Carotid-ophthalmic aneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, R P; Gryspeerdt, G L; Hankinson, J

    1976-01-01

    Thirty-two cases of carotid-ophthalmic aneurysms are reviewed. As with intracranial aneurysms in other positions they present mainly with subarachnoid haemorrhage but, in spite of their close proximity to the optic nerve, visual involvement is infrequent. They are more common in women, more frequent on the left side, and more prone to multiplicity. In cases of multiple aneurysms a carotid-ophthalmic aneurysm is usually an incidental finding. Detailed angiographic studies employing various projections are required before treatment can be planned. Yet angiography does not always disclose some of the technical difficulties that may be encountered during surgery. Different methods of treating these aneurysms are discussed and suggestions for safe direct surgery made. Images PMID:993805

  14. Cocaine induced intracerebral hemorrhage: Analysis of predisposing factors and mechanisms causing hemorrhagic strokes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiko Kibayashi; Angeline R Mastri; Charles S Hirsch

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed 26 autopsy cases of cocaine induced intracerebral hemorrhage and compared those findings with those of 26 autopsy cases of cocaine induced cerebral aneurysm rupture. The incidence of hypertensive cardiovascular disease (HCVD) was significantly higher in persons with intracerebral hemorrhage than in those with aneurysm rupture. Our findings suggest that HCVD predisposes to cocaine induced intracerebral hemorrhage. We propose

  15. Microsurgical clipping for the true posterior communicating artery aneurysm in the distal portion of the posterior communicating artery

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Masaru; Kashimura, Hiroshi; Chida, Kohei; Murakami, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aneurysms arising from the posterior communicating artery (PCoA) itself are rare in which aneurysms usually located in the proximal portion of the PCoA. The authors report a case of the true PCoA ruptured aneurysm in the distal portion of the PCoA. Case Description: The patient was an 83-year-old man who suffered subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography revealed a saccular aneurysm arising on the fetal type right PCoA itself in the distal portion of the PCoA. 2 days after the onset of symptoms, the patient underwent right interfascial pterional craniotomy, with anterior temporal approach. The aneurysm was successfully clipped with the preservation of both the PCoA and the thalamoperforating artery. Conclusion: We speculated that blood flow into the PCoA gradually increased after occlusion of the left vertebral artery, which induced tortuosity of the PCoA. As a result, hemodynamic stress might increase near the curvature and cause aneurysm formation. PMID:26110082

  16. Expanded endonasal approach for the clipping of a ruptured basilar aneurysm and feeding artery to a cerebellar arteriovenous malformation.

    PubMed

    Drazin, Doniel; Zhuang, Lei; Schievink, Wouter I; Mamelak, Adam N

    2012-01-01

    While endovascular techniques play a significant and expanding role in the management of basilar trunk aneurysms, open surgical clipping remains necessary in select cases. Expanded endonasal transclival approaches offer the advantage of direct access and visualization of the midline vertebrobasilar system, benefits ideally suited to a basilar trunk aneurysm. A 59-year old woman with subarachnoid hemorrhage was found to have a ruptured basilar trunk aneurysm associated with a feeding vessel to a small cerebellar arteriovenous malformation (AVM). An expanded endoscopic endonasal transclival approach was used to successfully clip the basilar trunk aneurysm and feeding AVM vessel. The patient was subsequently discharged home without any neurological deficits. Transclival clipping of basilar trunk aneurysms is technically feasible and plays an important role in management when other strategies fail. The technical benefits of this approach include proximal and distal control of the basilar artery and improved visualization of the brainstem and perforators. Endoscopic transclival approaches should be considered in the management of complex basilar trunk aneurysms. PMID:22088948

  17. Elevated Cellular Retinoic Acid Binding Protein-I in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Hemorrhagic Cerebrovascular Diseases : Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jin Pyeong; Cho, Won-Sang; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Seung-Ki; Oh, Chang Wan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Elevated cellular retinoic acid binding protein-I (CRABP-I) is thought to be related to the abnormal proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Accordingly, a higher CRABP-I level could cause disorganized vessel walls by causing immature SMC phenotypes and altering extracellular matrix proteins which could result in vulnerable arterial walls with inadequate responses to hemodynamic stress. We hypothesized that elevated CRABP-I level in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) could be related to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Moreover, we also extended this hypothesis in patients with vascular malformation according to the presence of hemorrhage. Methods We investigated the CSF of 26 patients : SAH, n=7; unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA), n=7; arteriovenous malformation (AVM), n=4; cavernous malformation (CM), n=3; control group, n=5. The optical density of CRABP-I was confirmed by Western blotting and presented as mean±standard error of the measurement. Results CRABP-I in SAH (0.33±0.09) was significantly higher than that in the UIA (0.12±0.01, p=0.033) or control group (0.10±0.01, p=0.012). Hemorrhage presenting AVM (mean 0.45, ranged 0.30-0.59) had a higher CRABP-I level than that in AVM without hemorrhage presentation (mean 0.16, ranged 0.14-0.17). The CRABP-I intensity in CM with hemorrhage was 0.21 and 0.31, and for CM without hemorrhage 0.14. Overall, the hemorrhage presenting group (n=11, 0.34±0.06) showed a significantly higher CRABP-I intensity than that of the non-hemorrhage presenting group (n=10, 0.13±0.01, p=0.001). Conclusion The results suggest that elevated CRABP-I in the CSF could be related with aneurysm rupture. Additionally, a higher CRABP-I level seems to be associated with hemorrhage development in vascular malformation. PMID:25733988

  18. Perioperative Hypothermia (33°C) Does Not Increase the Occurrence of Cardiovascular Events in Patients Undergoing Cerebral Aneurysm Surgery: Findings from the Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysm Surgery Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hoang P.; Zaroff, Jonathan G.; Bayman, Emine O.; Gelb, Adrian W.; Todd, Michael M.; Hindman, Bradley J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Perioperative hypothermia has been reported to increase the occurrence of cardiovascular complications. By increasing sympathetic nervous system activity, perioperative hypothermia also has the potential to increase cardiac injury and dysfunction associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods The Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysm Surgery Trial randomized patients undergoing cerebral aneurysm surgery to intraoperative hypothermia (n = 499, 33.3 ± 0.8°C) or normothermia (n = 501, 36.7 ± 0.5°C). Cardiovascular events (hypotension, arrhythmias, vasopressor use, myocardial infarction, etc.) were prospectively followed until 3 month follow-up and were compared between hypothermic and normothermic patients. A subset of 62 patients (hypothermia, n = 33; normothermia, n = 29) also had preoperative and postoperative (within 24 h) measurement of cardiac troponin-I and echocardiography to explore the association between perioperative hypothermia and subarachnoid hemorrhage-associated myocardial injury and left ventricular function. Results There was no difference between hypothermic and normothermic patients in the occurrence of any single cardiovascular event or in composite cardiovascular events. There was no difference in mortality (6%) between groups and there was only a single primary cardiovascular death (normothermia). There was no difference between hypothermic and normothermic patients in post- vs. preoperative left ventricular regional wall motion or ejection fraction. Compared with preoperative values, hypothermic patients had no postoperative increase in cardiac troponin-I (median change 0.00 ?g/L) whereas normothermic patients had a small postoperative increase (median change + 0.01 ?g/L, P = 0.038). Conclusion In patients undergoing cerebral aneurysm surgery, perioperative hypothermia was not associated with an increased occurrence of cardiovascular events. PMID:20571361

  19. Memory impairment caused by cerebral hematoma in the left medial temporal lobe due to ruptured posterior cerebral artery aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive disorders, such as memory disturbances, are often observed following a subarachnoid hemorrhage. We present a very rare case where rupture of a posterior cerebral artery aneurysm caused restricted damage to the hippocampus unilaterally, and caused memory disturbances. Case presentation A 56-year-old, right-handed man, with a formal education history of 16 years and company employees was admitted to our hospital because of a consciousness disturbance. He was diagnosed as having a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a left posterior cerebral artery dissecting aneurysm, and coil embolization was performed. Subsequently, he had neither motor paresis nor sensory disturbances, but he showed disorientation, and both retrograde and anterograde amnesia. Although immediate recall and remote memory were almost intact, his recent memory was moderately impaired. Both verbal and non-verbal memories were impaired. Brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a cerebral hematoma in the left temporal lobe involving the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) demonstrated low perfusion areas in the left medial temporal lobe. Conclusions We suggest that the memory impairment was caused by local tissue destruction of Papez’s circuit in the dominant hemisphere due to the cerebral hematoma. PMID:24602130

  20. Visceral artery aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jade S. Hiramoto; Louis M. Messina

    2005-01-01

    Optional statement  Visceral artery aneurysms are an uncommon form of vascular disease, yet are important to the practicing vascular surgeon because\\u000a of the potential for rupture or erosion into an adjacent viscus, resulting in life-threatening hemorrhage. Many visceral artery\\u000a aneurysms still present with rupture, which often results in the death of the patient. An aggressive approach to the diagnosis\\u000a and management

  1. Life-threatening allergic vasculitis after clipping an unruptured aneurysm: Case report, weighing the risk of nickel allergy

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Andrew; Grewal, Sanjeet; Tackla, Ryan; Ringer, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This case report represents one of the estimated 17,000 aneurysms clipped annually in the United States, often with nickel-containing clips. The authors highlight the development of life-threatening allergic vasculitis in a 33-year-old woman after aneurysm clipping. Case Description: After suffering subarachnoid hemorrhage, the patient had coil embolization at another facility for rupture of a right internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm. An incidental finding, an unruptured left posterior communicating artery aneurysm unamenable to coiling, was then successfully clipped via a left pterional craniotomy. Arriving in our emergency department 11 days later, she progressively declined during the next weeks, facing deteriorating clinical status (i.e. seizures) and additional infarctions in the left frontal lobe, midline shift, and new infarctions in the bilateral frontal lobe, right sylvian, right insular regions, and posterior cerebral artery distribution. During decompressive surgery, biopsy findings raised the possibility of lymphocytic vasculitis; consultations with rheumatology, allergy, and immunology specialists identified that our patient had a nickel allergy. After reoperation to replace the nickel-containing clip with one of a titanium alloy, the patient had an uncomplicated postoperative course and was discharged 6 days later to a rehabilitation facility. Conclusions: Nickel-related allergies are more common than appreciated, affecting up to 10% of patients. Fortunately, severe reactions are rare; nevertheless, vascular neurosurgeons should be aware of this potential complication when using cobalt alloy aneurysms clips. The use of titanium alloy clips eliminates this risk. PMID:25071940

  2. Cocaine induced intracerebral hemorrhage: analysis of predisposing factors and mechanisms causing hemorrhagic strokes.

    PubMed

    Kibayashi, K; Mastri, A R; Hirsch, C S

    1995-06-01

    We analyzed 26 autopsy cases of cocaine induced intracerebral hemorrhage and compared those findings with those of 26 autopsy cases of cocaine induced cerebral aneurysm rupture. The incidence of hypertensive cardiovascular disease (HCVD) was significantly higher in persons with intracerebral hemorrhage than in those with aneurysm rupture. Our findings suggest that HCVD predisposes to cocaine induced intracerebral hemorrhage. We propose that the foregoing relationship results from a cocaine induced alteration of cerebral autoregulation in the context of increased cerebral blood flow. PMID:7774897

  3. ESBL Escherichia coli Ventriculitis after Aneurysm Clipping: A Rare and Difficult Therapeutic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Zeiler, F. A.; Silvaggio, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) produced Escherichia coli (E. coli) ventriculitis is a rare infection of the central nervous system, with increasing rarity in the adult population. The therapeutic strategy to achieve cure may need to involve a combination of intraventricular and intravenous (IV) therapy. Objective. To describe a case of ESBL E. coli meningitis/ventriculitis in an adult and outline the antimicrobial therapy that leads to cure. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the records of a patient admitted to the neurosurgical department for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, who developed ESBL E. coli ventriculitis. Results. A 55-year-old female, admitted for a Fisher grade 3, World Federation of Neurological Surgeons grade 1, subarachnoid hemorrhage, developed ESBL E. coli ventriculitis requiring a combination of intraventricular gentamicin and high dose intravenous meropenem for clearance. Cerebrospinal fluid clearance occurred at 7 days after initiation of combined therapy. The patient remained shunt dependent. Conclusions. Meningitis and ventriculitis caused by ESBL E. coli species are rare and pose significant challenges to the treating physician. Early consideration for combined intraventricular and IV therapy should be made. PMID:26064724

  4. [Central hyperthermia suspected of malignant hyperthermia in a patient undergoing radical neck clipping for cerebral aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Murakawa, Tokuaki; Sakai, Ichiro; Matsuki, Akitomo

    2005-01-01

    A 45-year-old woman underwent radical neck clipping for cerebral aneurysm under isoflurane anesthesia. Her preoperative examination revealed elevated body temperature which had been normal on admission. Her body temperature increased up to 40.3 degrees C during anesthesia and surgery, and it showed a downward trend at the end of surgery. Malignant hyperthermia was excluded because the patient did not have metabolic acidosis, hypercarbia, hyperpotassemia or abnormal sweating anesthesia. The patient received intravenous dantrolene postoperatively since there was a suspicion of malignant hyperthermia on the basis of hyperthermia and increases in serum creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin (Mb) levels. Her body temperature and serum CK and Mb levels decreased for a while after administration of dantrolene, but they increased again thereafter. The patient was aggressively cooled with a cooling blanket and hyperthermia and increases in serum CK and Mb levels disappeared in postoperative two weeks. She was discharged on foot without any neurological deficit on the forty-third hospital day. According to the diagnostic criteria for malignant hyperthermia by Larach and his colleague, malignant hyperthermia was somewhat less than likely in our case. The clinical course of the patient also suggested that a possibility of malignant hyperthermia was considerably low. The authors conclude that perioperative hyperthermia in our case must have derived from central hyperthermia following subarachnoid hemorrhage, and that postoperative increases in serum CK and Mb levels might have resulted from acceleration of sympathetic nervous system by subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:15717469

  5. The TEAM trial: Safety and efficacy of endovascular treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms in the prevention of aneurysmal hemorrhages: A randomized comparison with indefinite deferral of treatment in 2002 patients followed for 10 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Raymond; Andrew J Molyneux; Allan J Fox; S Claiborne Johnston; Jean-Paul Collet; Isabelle Rouleau

    2008-01-01

    The management of patients with unruptured aneurysms remains controversial. Patients with unruptured aneurysms may suffer\\u000a intracranial haemorrhage, but the incidence of this event is still debated; endovascular treatment may prevent rupture, but\\u000a involves immediate risks. Hence, the balance of risks and benefits of endovascular treatment is uncertain. Here, we report\\u000a the design of the TEAM trial, the first international, randomized,

  6. Family History

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History Early Detection and Screening Unruptured Brain Aneurysms Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Treatment Options Aneurysm Complications Post ...

  7. Estimate of the maximum time interval between formation of cerebral aneurysm and rupture

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, P; Jakubowski, J

    2000-01-01

    The recent publication of the results of the international study on unruptured intracranial aneurysms highlighted a paradox: there do not seem to be enough unruptured aneurysms in the population to account for the observed incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage. Some authors have suggested that the answer to this paradox is that most aneurysms that bleed do so shortly after formation. This would mean that the bulk of subarachnoid haemorrhages come from recently formed rather than long standing aneurysms. This paradox and proposed answer are examined. The available statistics on the incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage, the prevalence of unruptured aneurysms, and the risk of bleeding from unruptured aneurysms are used to place a maximum on the time interval between aneurysm formation and rupture. For aneurysms less than 10 mm in diameter in persons with no history of subarachnoid haemorrhage, an estimate of less than 42 weeks was made. The null hypothesis that such aneurysms pose a constant risk with time is rejected with p <10?9. In larger aneurysms the risk seems to be constant with time.?? PMID:11080228

  8. Association of Versican (VCAN) gene polymorphisms rs251124 and rs2287926 (G428D), with intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Sathyan, Sanish; Koshy, Linda V; Balan, Shabeesh; Easwer, H V; Premkumar, S; Nair, Suresh; Bhattacharya, R N; Alapatt, Jacob P; Banerjee, Moinak

    2014-12-01

    Intracranial aneurysm (IA) accounts for 85% of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) and is mainly caused due to the weakening of arterial wall. The structural integrity of the intracranial arteries is mainly influenced by the extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. The Proteoglycan Versican plays an important role in extracellular matrix assembly and plays a major role in the pathogenesis of IA. The linkage studies also indicated VCAN as a putative candidate gene for IA in the 5q22-31 region. Using a case-control study design, we tested the hypothesis whether the variants in VCAN gene, nonsynonymous variants in the coding region of Glycosaminoglycan ? (GAG-?) and GAG-? and two reported SNPs involved in splicing rs251124 and rs173686 can increase the risk of aSAH among South Indian patients, either independently, or by interacting with other risk factors of the disease. We selected 200 radiologically confirmed aneurysmal cases and 250 ethnically, age and sex matched controls from the Dravidian Malayalam speaking population of South India. The present study reiterated the earlier association of rs251124 with intracranial aneurysm (P = 0.0002) and also found a novel association with rs2287926 (G428D) in exon 7 coding for GAG-? with intracranial aneurysm (P = 0.0015). Interestingly, both these SNPs contributed to higher risk for aneurysm in males. In-silico analysis predicted this SNP to have the highest functional relevance in the gene which might have a potentially altered regulatory role in transcription and splicing. Using meta-analysis with available literature rs251124 was found to be the strongest intracranial aneurysm marker for global ethnicities. This study with a novel functional SNP rs2287926 (G428D) further substantiates the potential role of VCAN in the pathogenesis of IA. PMID:25606449

  9. Association of Versican (VCAN) gene polymorphisms rs251124 and rs2287926 (G428D), with intracranial aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Sathyan, Sanish; Koshy, Linda V.; Balan, Shabeesh; Easwer, H.V.; Premkumar, S.; Nair, Suresh; Bhattacharya, R.N.; Alapatt, Jacob P.; Banerjee, Moinak

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysm (IA) accounts for 85% of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) and is mainly caused due to the weakening of arterial wall. The structural integrity of the intracranial arteries is mainly influenced by the extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. The Proteoglycan Versican plays an important role in extracellular matrix assembly and plays a major role in the pathogenesis of IA. The linkage studies also indicated VCAN as a putative candidate gene for IA in the 5q22–31 region. Using a case–control study design, we tested the hypothesis whether the variants in VCAN gene, nonsynonymous variants in the coding region of Glycosaminoglycan ? (GAG-?) and GAG-? and two reported SNPs involved in splicing rs251124 and rs173686 can increase the risk of aSAH among South Indian patients, either independently, or by interacting with other risk factors of the disease. We selected 200 radiologically confirmed aneurysmal cases and 250 ethnically, age and sex matched controls from the Dravidian Malayalam speaking population of South India. The present study reiterated the earlier association of rs251124 with intracranial aneurysm (P = 0.0002) and also found a novel association with rs2287926 (G428D) in exon 7 coding for GAG-? with intracranial aneurysm (P = 0.0015). Interestingly, both these SNPs contributed to higher risk for aneurysm in males. In-silico analysis predicted this SNP to have the highest functional relevance in the gene which might have a potentially altered regulatory role in transcription and splicing. Using meta-analysis with available literature rs251124 was found to be the strongest intracranial aneurysm marker for global ethnicities. This study with a novel functional SNP rs2287926 (G428D) further substantiates the potential role of VCAN in the pathogenesis of IA. PMID:25606449

  10. Aortic Aneurysm

    MedlinePLUS

    ... chest and abdomen. There are two types of aortic aneurysm: Thoracic aortic aneurysms - these occur in the part of the aorta running through the chest Abdominal aortic aneurysms - these occur in the part of the aorta ...

  11. Aneurysm Repair

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to other parts of the body (the aorta). Aortic aneurysms can occur in the area below the stomach ( ... or in the chest (thoracic aneurysms). An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is usually located below the kidneys. In ...

  12. Clinical Outcomes of Treatment for Intracranial Aneurysm in Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun Hee; Kim, Young Im

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical course of intracranial aneurysm in patients aged 65 years and older and the immediate outcome after its aggressive management. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective analysis using the medical records of 159 elderly patients managed at our institute from September 2008 to December 2013. Obtained clinical information included age, sex, Hunt and Hess grade (HHG), aneurysm location, Fisher grade (FG) and the treatment modality. Concomitant clinical data aside from cerebrovascular condition (hypertension, diabetes, previous medication) were evaluated to determine risk factors that might affect the functional outcomes. Results A total of 108 patients (67.9%) presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and 51 (32.1%) with unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). Coiling was performed in 101 patients and 58 patients underwent clipping. In the SAH population, 62 patients (57.4%) showed favorable outcomes, with a mortality rate of 11.3% (n = 18). In the UIAs population, 50 (98%) patients achieved 'excellent' and one (2%) achieved 'good' outcome. Factors including high-grade HHG (p < 0.001), advanced age (p = 0.014), and the presence of intraventricular hematoma (IVH) (p = 0.017) were significant predictors of poor outcome. Conclusion SAH patients with high grade HHG and IVH are associated with poor outcome with statistical significance, all the more prominent the older the patient is. Therefore, the indication for aggressive therapy should be considered more carefully in these patients. However, as the outcomes for elderly patients with UIAs were excellent regardless of the treatment modality, aggressive treatment could always be considered in UIAs cases. PMID:25340020

  13. Sonographic findings in an isolated widened fetal subarachnoid space.

    PubMed

    Tongsong, Theera; Puntachai, Pongsun; Tongprasert, Fuanglada; Srisupundit, Kasemsri; Luewan, Suchaya; Traisrisilp, Kuntharee

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this series was to describe sonographic features of an isolated widened fetal subarachnoid space with a thin cerebral mantle and possible associations. Between January 2004 and December 2013, fetuses with a prenatal diagnosis of a widened subarachnoid space were prospectively recruited and followed. Histories of medical and familial diseases, as well as other demographic data such as drug exposure and lifestyles, were assessed and prospectively recorded. The women were investigated for possible associated factors. Ten pregnant women were recruited. Their fetuses showed various degrees of a widened subarachnoid space, ranging from 5 to 20 mm. Nearly all were diagnosed in the second half of pregnancy. Four cases had normal brain structures documented at midpregnancy anomaly screening. Only 1 case had a prenatal diagnosis of a widened subarachnoid space at 20 weeks' gestation. Two fetuses had exposure to alcohol in utero; 2 were proven to have cytomegalovirus infection; 1 had subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to maternal use of warfarin; and 1 had a diagnosis of lissencephaly. Only 1 case in this series had normal postnatal development. A prenatal series of fetal widened subarachnoid spaces with possible associated factors is described. Although such relationships were not fully proven, they should be index cases for future studies. PMID:25911725

  14. Direct evidence of hypertension and the possible role of post-menopause oestrogen deficiency in the pathogenesis of berry aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Stober; S. Sen; T. Anstätt; G. Freier; K. Schimrigk

    1985-01-01

    To determine the significance of hypertension in the pathogenesis of berry aneurysms, 113 patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and verified aneurysm and 63 patients with SAH without aneurysm were compared. Of those patients with angiographically verified aneurysms, 61.9% were found to have elevated blood pressure (>160\\/95 mmHg) and 19.5% showed electrocardiographic signs of left ventricular hypertrophy (SV1+RV5 (6) >3.5 mV).

  15. Fatal rupture of a brain arteriovenous malformation flow-related aneurysm during microcatheter removal: a rare complication.

    PubMed

    Gabrieli, Joseph; Clarençon, Frédéric; Di Maria, Federico; Fahed, Robert; Boch, Anne-Laure; Degos, Vincent; Chiras, Jacques; Sourour, Nader-Antoine

    2015-04-01

    Intracranial aneurysms are relatively frequently encountered in patients with brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVMs). They may be located on the circle of Willis, on arterial feeders, or even inside the nidus. Because BAVM-associated aneurysms represent a risk factor of bleeding, the question of the timing and modality of their management remains a matter of debate in unruptured BAVMs. The authors present a case of fatal periprocedural rupture of a flow-related aneurysm (FRA) during the removal of the microcatheter after injection of a liquid embolic agent. A 40-year-old man was treated at the authors' institution for the management of a Spetzler-Martin Grade III left unruptured frontal BAVM, revealed by seizures and a focal neurological deficit attributed to flow steal phenomenon. After a multidisciplinary meeting, endovascular treatment was considered to reduce the flow of the BAVM. A proximal FRA located on the feeding internal carotid artery (ICA) was purposely left untreated because it did not meet the criteria of the authors' institution for preventative treatment (i.e., small size [2.5 mm]). During embolization, at the time of microcatheter retrieval, and after glue injection, the aneurysm unexpectedly ruptured. The aneurysm's rupture was attributed to the stress (torsion/flexion) on the ICA caused by the microcatheter removal. Despite the attempts to manage the bleeding, the patient eventually died of the acute increase of intracranial pressure related to the massive subarachnoid hemorrhage. This case highlights a previously unreported mechanism of FRA rupture during BAVM embolization: the stress transmitted to the parent artery during the removal of the microcatheter. PMID:25574569

  16. Pituitary-adrenal function in patients with acute subarachnoid haemorrhage: a prospective cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stepani Bendel; Timo Koivisto; Esko Ruokonen; Jaakko Rinne; Jarkko Romppanen; Ilkka Vauhkonen; Vesa Kiviniemi; Ari Uusaro

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) may damage the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) axis and disturb cortisol metabolism. There are no available data that relates to the response of the HPA axis in the acute phase of SAH. We aimed to characterise the behavior of serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), total cortisol, stimulated total cortisol and free cortisol concentrations in acute aneurysmal SAH. METHODS:

  17. Three-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Angiography in Four Patients with Dissecting Aneurysms of the Vertebrobasilar System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Nakatsuka; S. Mizuno

    2000-01-01

    Summary  ¶?Background. Recently, three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (CTA) has been used for the diagnosis and treatment planning\\u000a of cerebral aneurysm presenting with or without subarachnoid haemorrhage, but the diagnostic value of CTA has not been established.\\u000a This study evaluated the usefulness of CTA in patients with dissecting aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar system.\\u000a \\u000a ?Method. Four patients with acute dissecting aneurysms were examined

  18. Cerebrovascular bypass and aneurysm trapping for the treatment of an A2-segment anterior cerebral artery pseudoaneurysm and herniation through a skull base defect following trauma.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Brian P; Nahed, Brian V; Kahle, Kristopher T; Sekhar, Laligam N; Ferreira, Manuel J

    2012-01-01

    Fractures of the anterior skull base can lead to pseudoaneurysm formation as a result of direct injury to a vessel wall. Pseudoaneurysms in this location are challenging to treat, as both perforator and distal blood supply must be maintained. Additionally, traumatic skull base fractures can lead to a rare condition of cerebral blood vessel herniation through the bony defect, further complicating treatment planning. Treatment of these lesions is essential to (1) prevent the occurrence of potentially fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage and (2) prevent dissection from propagating and compromising blood flow to distal vessels, perforators, and even parent vessels. We present a unique case of a traumatic proximal anterior cerebral artery pseudoaneurysm, herniating through a skull base defect. Treatment consisted of aneurysm trapping and bypass with skull base reconstruction. PMID:22051032

  19. Cerebral Aneurysms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... chromosomes to identify aneurysm-related genes; and additional research on microsurgical clipping and endovascular surgery to treat various types of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms. NIH Patient Recruitment for Cerebral Aneurysms Clinical Trials At NIH Clinical Center Throughout the U.S. ...

  20. High-flow bypass and wrap-clipping for ruptured blood blister-like aneurysm of the internal carotid artery using intraoperative monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Yoshitaka; Koji, Takahiro; Yoshida, Kenji; Saito, Hideo; Ogawa, Akira; Ogasawara, Kuniaki

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysms at non-branching sites in the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) can be classified as “blood blister-like aneurysms” (BBAs), which have blood blister-like configurations and fragile walls. While surgical treatment for the BBA in the acute stage is recommended, the optimal surgical procedure remains controversial. In the study reported here, we describe the case of a 37-year-old woman with a ruptured BBA in the ophthalmic segment of the right ICA who underwent wrap-clipping with external carotid artery–internal carotid artery bypass by intraoperative estimation of the measurement of cortical cerebral blood flow (CoBF) using a thermal diffusion flow probe. Trapping of the ICA in the acute stage of subarachnoid hemorrhage may result in ischemic complications secondary to hemodynamic hypoperfusion or occlusion of the perforating artery, and/or delayed vasospasm, even with concomitant bypass surgery. We believe that it is important to perform scheduled external carotid artery–internal carotid artery bypass before trapping of the ICA in patients with a ruptured BBA in the acute stage of subarachnoid hemorrhage and to perform wrap-clipping rather than trapping. This would provide much more CoBF if a reduction of CoBF occurs after trapping occlusion of the ICA including a ruptured BBA according to intraoperative CoBF monitoring. As far as we are aware, the case reported here is the first report on high-flow bypass and wrap-clipping for a ruptured BBA of the ICA using intraoperative monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics.

  1. Are Blood Blister-Like Aneurysms a Specific Type of Dissection? A Comparative Study of Blood Blister-Like Aneurysms and Ruptured Mizutani Type 4 Vertebral Artery Dissections

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Sook Young; Chung, Joonho

    2014-01-01

    Objective Blood blister-like aneurysms (BBAs) resemble arterial dissections. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between these two disease entities and highlight commonalities and distinct features. Methods Among 871 consecutive patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, 11 BBAs of internal carotid artery and seven vertebral artery dissections (VADs) with a short segmental eccentric dilatation (Mizutani type 4), which is morphologically similar to a BBA, were selected. The following clinical factors were studied in each group : age, gender, risk factors, Hunt and Hess grade (HHG), Fisher grade (FG), vasospasms, hydrocephalus, perioperative rebleeding rate, and treatment outcome. Results The mean age was 47.9 years in the BBAs group and 46.4 years in the type 4 VADs group. All the BBA patients were female, whereas there was a slight male predominance in the type 4 VAD group (male : female ratio of 4 : 3). In the BBA and type 4 VAD groups that underwent less aggressive treatment to save the parent artery, 29% (n=2/7) and 66.6% (n=2/3), respectively, eventually required retreatment. Perioperative rebleeding occurred in 72.7% (n=8) and 28.6% (n=2) of patients in the BBA and type 4 VAD groups, respectively. There was no statistical difference in the other clinical factors in both groups, except for the male dominancy in the type 4 VAD group (p=0.011). Conclusion BBAs and ruptured type 4 VADs have a similar morphological appearance but there is a distinct clinical feature in gender and perioperative rebleeding rates. Complete isolation of an aneurysm from the parent artery might be the most important discipline for the treatment of these diseases. PMID:25535516

  2. Leber's miliary aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Alturkistany, Walaa; Waheeb, Saad

    2013-05-01

    Leber's disease is a form of primary retinal telangiectasia characterized by the presence of abnormalities in the retinal vasculature. It is an idiopathic, unilateral condition with male predilection. It is not associated with any other systemic or ocular disease. The disease has a very slow progression and can be complicated by vascular dilatations, neovascularizations, thromboses, retrovitreal hemorrhages, and macular changes. We present a case of Leber's miliary aneurysms in an asymptomatic 22-year-old male patient. His fundus examination showed aneurysmal dilatations with lipid exudation. Intravenous fluorescein angiography showed early and late leakage as well as capillary dropout with late hypofluorescence. In this case, the patient was treated with laser photocoagulation of the retina. PMID:24082673

  3. Mycotic Aneurysms as Lethal Complication of Brain Pseudallescheriasis in a Near-Drowned Child: A CT Demonstration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Messori; Cecilia Lanza; Maurizio De Nicola; Francesco Menichelli; Tiziana Capriotti; Letterio Morabito; Ugo Salvolini

    Summary: Intracranial true mycotic aneurysms are rare and generally lethal. We report a case of a near-drowned child with brain abscesses due to Pseudallescheria boydii ,a saprophytic fungus, who died after subarachnoid hemor- rhage occurred. CT showed contrast-enhancing lesions in- dicative of aneurysms of basilar and right posterior cere- bral arteries that could not be appreciated 2 days before. P.

  4. Update in Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Maria I.; Brott, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous, nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is defined as bleeding within the brain parenchyma. Intracranial hemorrhage includes bleeding within the cranial vault and encompasses ICH, subdural hematoma, epidural bleeds, and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This review will focus only on ICH. This stroke subtype accounts for about 10% of all strokes. The hematoma locations are deep or ganglionic, lobar, cerebellar, and brain stem in descending order of frequency. Intracerebral hemorrhage occurs twice as common as SAH and is equally as deadly. Risk factors for ICH include hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, advanced age, antithrombotic therapy and history of cerebrovascular disease. The clinical presentation is “stroke like” with sudden onset of focal neurological deficits. Noncontrast head computerized tomography (CT) scan is the standard diagnostic tool. However, newer neuroimaging techniques have improved the diagnostic yield in terms of underlying pathophysiology and may aid in prognosis. Intracerebral hemorrhage is a neurological emergency. Medical care begins with stabilization of airway, breathing function, and circulation (ABCs), followed by specific measures aimed to decrease secondary neurological damage and to prevent both medical and neurological complications. Reversal of coagulopathy when present is of the essence. Blood pressure management can be key and continues as an area of debate and ongoing research. Surgical evacuation of ICH is of unproven benefit though a subset of well-selected patients may have improved outcomes. Ventriculostomy and intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring are interventions also used in this patient population. To date, hemostatic medications and neuroprotectants have failed to result in clinical improvement. A multidisciplinary approach is recommended, with participation of vascular neurology, vascular neurosurgery, critical care, and rehabilitation medicine as the main players. PMID:23983850

  5. Flow Diverters for Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Alderazi, Yazan J.; Kass-Hout, Tareq; Prestigiacomo, Charles J.; Gandhi, Chirag D.

    2014-01-01

    Flow diverters (pipeline embolization device, Silk flow diverter, and Surpass flow diverter) have been developed to treat intracranial aneurysms. These endovascular devices are placed within the parent artery rather than the aneurysm sac. They take advantage of altering hemodynamics at the aneurysm/parent vessel interface, resulting in gradual thrombosis of the aneurysm occurring over time. Subsequent inflammatory response, healing, and endothelial growth shrink the aneurysm and reconstruct the parent artery lumen while preserving perforators and side branches in most cases. Flow diverters have already allowed treatment of previously untreatable wide neck and giant aneurysms. There are risks with flow diverters including in-stent thrombosis, perianeurysmal edema, distant and delayed hemorrhages, and perforator occlusions. Comparative efficacy and safety against other therapies are being studied in ongoing trials. Antiplatelet therapy is mandatory with flow diverters, which has highlighted the need for better evidence for monitoring and tailoring antiplatelet therapy. In this paper we review the devices, their uses, associated complications, evidence base, and ongoing studies. PMID:24967131

  6. The Subarachnoid Space: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. McLone

    1980-01-01

    A historical review of our knowledge of the subarachnoid space dates from the ancients through the modern electron microscope era. Conflicting observation resulted from various methods of tissue preservation and species variability. A comparative sub-microscopic study shows striking similarities in the ultrastructure and distribution of the subarachnoid space in mice, cats, monkeys and man. Development of the pia-arachnoid membranes in

  7. Microsurgical management of pediatric intracranial aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nader Sanai; Kurtis I. Auguste; Michael T. Lawton

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  Pediatric aneuryms are rare and have characteristics that distinguish them from their adult counterparts. There is a greater\\u000a capacity for pediatric aneurysms to arise de novo and progress rapidly.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Saccular aneurysms are rarer; fusiform\\/giant aneurysms are more common. Hemorrhage is less common at presentation than are\\u000a symptoms that result from mass effect. These patients also present with comorbidities that are

  8. [Fundus hemorrhage in patients with intracranial hemorrhage caused by cerebrovascular disease--its clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Takano, S; Saito, M; Miyasaka, Y; Yada, K; Kitahara, T; Ohwada, T; Takagi, H

    1992-01-01

    To clarify the significance of fundus hemorrhage in the acute stage of intracranial hemorrhage due to cerebrovascular disease (HCVD), the incidence of such hemorrhage (retinal, preretinal, and subhyaloid hemorrhage) was examined and its correlations with the severity of the disturbance of consciousness and the prognosis were investigated. Two hundred sixteen HCVD patients with intracranial hemorrhage were the subjects of this study, including 87 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), 60 cases of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH), 54 cases of arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and 15 cases of Moyamoya disease. Fundus hemorrhage was recognized in 41 cases of SAH (47%), 5 cases of HICH (8%), 3 cases of AVM (6%), and 2 cases of Moyamoya disease (13%). The incidence of fundus hemorrhage was significantly higher in SAH than in the other type of HCVD associated with intracranial hemorrhage. Among patients with severe disturbance of consciousness (JCS 100-300), fundus hemorrhage was recognized in 69% with SAH, 13% with HICH, 17% with AVM, and none with Moyamoya disease. Therefore, patients with both fundus hemorrhage and severe disturbance of consciousness in the acute stage are most likely to have SAH, but HICH and AVM should be also taken into consideration. In patients with slight disturbance of consciousness (JCS 0-30), fundus hemorrhage was only noted in SAH (27%) and not in other types of HCVD associated with intracranial hemorrhage. Thus, SAH is highly likely to be the primary HCVD associated with intracranial hemorrhage, if we recognize fundus hemorrhage in patients with slight disturbance of consciousness in the acute stage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1562380

  9. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Treatments

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Minimally Invasive Treatments Snapshots Multimedia Multimedia Archive Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Interventional Radiologists Treat Abdominal Aneurysms Nonsurgically Interventional radiologists ...

  10. Aneurysms: thoracic aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Chun, Kevin C; Lee, Eugene S

    2015-04-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) have many possible etiologies, including congenital heart defects (eg, bicuspid aortic valves, coarctation of the aorta), inherited connective tissue disorders (eg, Marfan, Ehlers-Danlos, Loeys-Dietz syndromes), and degenerative conditions (eg, medial necrosis, atherosclerosis of the aortic wall). Symptoms of rupture include a severe tearing pain in the chest, back, or neck, sometimes associated with cardiovascular collapse. Before rupture, TAAs may exert pressure on other thoracic structures, leading to a variety of symptoms. However, most TAAs are asymptomatic and are found incidentally during imaging for other conditions. Diagnosis is confirmed with computed tomography scan or echocardiography. Asymptomatic TAAs should be monitored with imaging at specified intervals and patients referred for repair if the TAAs are enlarging rapidly (greater than 0.5 cm in diameter over 6 months for heritable etiologies; greater than 0.5 cm over 1 year for degenerative etiologies) or reach a critical aortic diameter threshold for elective surgery (5.5 cm for TAAs due to degenerative etiologies, 5.0 cm when associated with inherited syndromes). Open surgery is used most often to treat asymptomatic TAAs in the ascending aorta and aortic arch. Asymptomatic TAAs in the descending aorta often are treated medically with aggressive blood pressure control, though recent data suggest that endovascular procedures may result in better long-term survival rates. PMID:25860136

  11. Transarterial platinum coil occlusion of ruptured intracranial aneurysms: results in 51 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. T ApSimon; M. S Khangure; N Knuckey; W McAuliffe; F. J Ives

    1998-01-01

    Fifty-one patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) due to ruptured intracranial aneurysm have been treated by the Guglielmi detachable platinum coil (GDC) treatment method; 36 patients within 28 days of the ictus. There was total body occlusion in 64.8%, subtotal body occlusion in 24.1% and failed coil placement in 11.1%. Technical success rates were highest in aneurysms with neck sizes up

  12. Gene expression profiling of blood in ruptured intracranial aneurysms: in search of biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Pera, Joanna; Korostynski, Michal; Golda, Slawomir; Piechota, Marcin; Dzbek, Jaroslaw; Krzyszkowski, Tadeusz; Dziedzic, Tomasz; Moskala, Marek; Przewlocki, Ryszard; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Slowik, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the systemic response to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from ruptured intracranial aneurysms (RAs) are not fully understood. We investigated whether the analysis of gene expression in peripheral blood could provide clinically relevant information regarding the biologic consequences of SAH. Transcriptomics were performed using Illumina HumanHT-12v4 microarrays for 43 RA patients and 18 controls (C). Differentially expressed transcripts were analyzed for overrepresented functional groups and blood cell type-specific gene expression. The set of differentially expressed transcripts was validated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in an independent group of subjects (15 RA patients and 14 C). There were 135 differentially expressed genes (false discovery rate ?1%, absolute fold change ?1.7): the abundant levels of 78 mRNAs increased and 57 mRNAs decreased. Among RA patients, transcripts specific to T lymphocyte subpopulations were downregulated, whereas those related to monocytes and neutrophils were upregulated. Expression profiles of a set of 16 genes and lymphocyte-to-monocyte-and-neutrophil gene expression ratios distinguished RA patients from C. These results indicate that SAH from RAs strongly influences the transcription profiles of blood cells. A specific pattern of these changes suggests suppression in lymphocyte response and enhancements in monocyte and neutrophil activities. This is probably related to the immunodepression observed in SAH. PMID:23512133

  13. Gene expression profiling of blood in ruptured intracranial aneurysms: in search of biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Pera, Joanna; Korostynski, Michal; Golda, Slawomir; Piechota, Marcin; Dzbek, Jaroslaw; Krzyszkowski, Tadeusz; Dziedzic, Tomasz; Moskala, Marek; Przewlocki, Ryszard; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Slowik, Agnieszka

    2013-07-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the systemic response to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from ruptured intracranial aneurysms (RAs) are not fully understood. We investigated whether the analysis of gene expression in peripheral blood could provide clinically relevant information regarding the biologic consequences of SAH. Transcriptomics were performed using Illumina HumanHT-12v4 microarrays for 43 RA patients and 18 controls (C). Differentially expressed transcripts were analyzed for overrepresented functional groups and blood cell type-specific gene expression. The set of differentially expressed transcripts was validated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in an independent group of subjects (15 RA patients and 14 C). There were 135 differentially expressed genes (false discovery rate ?1%, absolute fold change ?1.7): the abundant levels of 78 mRNAs increased and 57 mRNAs decreased. Among RA patients, transcripts specific to T lymphocyte subpopulations were downregulated, whereas those related to monocytes and neutrophils were upregulated. Expression profiles of a set of 16 genes and lymphocyte-to-monocyte-and-neutrophil gene expression ratios distinguished RA patients from C. These results indicate that SAH from RAs strongly influences the transcription profiles of blood cells. A specific pattern of these changes suggests suppression in lymphocyte response and enhancements in monocyte and neutrophil activities. This is probably related to the immunodepression observed in SAH. PMID:23512133

  14. [Role of anesthesiologist in endovascular management of intracranial aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Murselovi?, Tamara; Adani? Mikloska, Ines; Baji? Rifai, Miroslava; Majeri? Kogler, Visnja

    2008-02-01

    The aim is to give a review of the anesthesiological approach to neuroradiological endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysm in Croatia since 2004, when the first procedure was done. It took place at University Department of Radiology, Zagreb University Hospital Center. The optimal conduct of anesthesia in the neuroradiology suite requires careful planning of each individual procedure. Essential components are detailed patient evaluation and due understanding of the underlying neuropathology. An open channel of communication between the radiologist and the anesthesiologist is important for routine care but is crucial in case of disasters that may occur during the procedure. In the patient management the basic principles of neuroanesthesia cannot be avoided. This includes optimization of CBF, perfusion pressure, control of intracranial pressure (ICP) and close monitoring of blood pressure (BP), fluid status and body temperature. The choice of anesthetic agents and techniques remains in the hands of the anesthesiologist. The needs of the neuroradiologist and the procedure have to be considered. Most institutions have their protocols and some favor conscious sedation whereas others prefer general anesthesia. There is little evidence in favor of either technique. The better image quality obtained from the motionless patient during digital subtraction angiography favors the use of general anesthesia over any other technique. Since the procedure is becoming very complex, the need for precise BP control and preparation for potential catastrophic complication are considerations for general anesthesia. Aneurysm rupture during endovascular procedures is not common but remains a potential risk. The incidence ranges from 2.3% to 3% and even higher in patients with already ruptured aneurysms. The mortality rate is up to 20% in case of rupture, especially if massive subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs. Anesthesiologic treatment depends on the severity of bleeding and includes maintaining CPP, lowering ICP, reversal of anticoagulation and patient transfer to the neurosurgical operating room if immediate ventriculostomy is needed. During a six month period, 55 patients underwent endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysm at our hospital. They all were managed under general anesthesia. Since one of the critical roles of the anesthesiologist in the interventional radiology suite is to provide anticoagulation, the protocol of giving clopidogrel was followed, loading dose of 225 mg p. o. to each patient on the day of the procedure and immediately upon introducing microcatheter, heparin iv 70 IU/kg (average of 5000 IU), followed by boluses of 15 IU/kg (approx. 1000 IU) every 60 minutes. Activated clotting time was monitored for the effect of heparin. All patients except four were brought out of anesthesia at the table, immediately after the procedure for their neurological status to be assessed. None of the patients died during the procedure or within the first 24 hours. The mortality was up to 3.6% (two patients died on days 3 and 5 of the procedure). We had only one case of aneurysm rerupture during embolization with Guglielmi detachable coil, followed by cardiac arrest, but the patient (a 32-year-old woman) was resuscitated successfully and underwent standard neurosurgical procedure with full recovery in ICU after 14 days. There were 4 (7.2%) cases of vasospasm followed by ischemia, nimodipine treated, 2 with transient neurological dysfunction and another 2 with permanent hemianopsia. Interventional neuroradiology is rapidly and continually evolving, providing opportunities for the anesthesiologist to be part of this branch of medicine. It is essential to keep up-to-date in the knowledge of neuroanesthesia, neuropathology and interventional neuroradiology. In spite of the relatively non-invasive nature of the procedures, serious, even fatal complications may occur. Therefore, the role of anesthesiologist and his/her cooperation with neuroradiologist is crucial for successful results. PMID:18365504

  15. Neurogenic Cardiopulmonary Complications Associated with Spontaneous Cerebellar Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yui-Rwei Young; Chien-Chang Lee; Bor-Fuh Sheu; Shy-Shin Chang

    2007-01-01

    Introduction  Neurogenic cardiopulmonary complications associated with acute brain injury other then subarachnoid hemorrhage were seldom\\u000a reported, especially in the pediatric population. We report a child who developed cardiac arrhythmia, severe myocardial injury\\u000a and neurogenic pulmonary edema after cerebellar hemorrhage.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and results  An 11-year-old girl had abrupt onset of spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage presented with a fulminant picture of hypertension,\\u000a supraventricular tachyarrhythmia, markedly

  16. Bilateral vertebral artery balloon occlusion for giant vertebrobasilar aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sluzewski; E. H. Brilstra; W. J. van Rooij; D. Wijnalda; C. A. F. Tulleken; G. J. E. Rinkel

    2001-01-01

    We describe the clinical presentation, radiological and clinical results in six consecutive patients with a giant vertebrobasilar\\u000a aneurysm treated by bilateral vertebral artery balloon occlusion. Five patients presented with headache and signs of brain-stem\\u000a compression and one with subarachnoid haemorrhage. In all patients vertebral artery balloon occlusion was performed. In four,\\u000a this followed successful test occlusion. In one patient, who

  17. Efficacy and safety of intravenous nimodipine administration for treatment of hypertension in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuqian; Fang, Wei; Tao, Lei; Li, Min; Yang, Yanlong; Gao, Yafei; Ge, Shunnan; Gao, Li; Zhang, Bin; Li, Zhihong; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Boliang; Li, Lihong

    2015-01-01

    Background Nicardipine (NC) is the most commonly used antihypertensive drug in neurological patients with hypertension. Although nimodipine (NM) is widely used to treat cerebral vasospasm in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, trials exploring its antihypertensive effect after intravenous administration in subjects with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are scarce. Methods A retrospective study was carried out to compare the safety and efficacy of NC and NM administered intravenously in patients with ICH. Therapeutic responses were assessed by achievement of goal blood pressure (BP); use of additional medications for BP control; proportion of time spent within goal; variability in BP; time to goal BP; number of dose adjustments; variability in ICH volume, Glasgow Coma Scale score, and intracranial pressure; and drug-related complications. Results A total of 87 patients were eligible for analysis (n=46 [NC]; n=41 [NM]), and baseline characteristics between groups were similar. Both agents were effective in achieving goal BP during infusion, with 93.5% and 87.8% patients in the NC and NM groups achieving goal, respectively. Fewer additional medications were needed to control BP in the NC group. BP variability was similar and no differences were observed in the mean time to goal BP and mean numbers of dose adjustments between both groups. Interestingly, intracranial pressure declined (P=0.048) during NC administration but increased (P=0.066) after NM treatment. Finally, the incidences of hematoma expansion, neurological deterioration, and adverse drug events were similar in both groups. Conclusion NM is effective and safe for BP control in patients with ICH.

  18. [Extracorporeal liquor-corrective therapy of traumatic subarachnoidal hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Gorbachev, V I; Kovalev, V V; Khristenko, I V

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive analysis of criteria for the severity of clinical conditions in patients with craniocerebral injuries included characteristics of cerebrospinal fluid and lesions of hematoencephalic barrier (HEB). The study revealed the relationship between clinico-neurological conditions of the patients, liquor nitrite levels, and HEB permeability. An attempt was undertaken to evaluate efficiency of liquor-corrective treatment in combination with intense therapy in patients with severe cerebral injuries. PMID:20000102

  19. Incidental cerebral aneurysms in acute stroke patients: comparison of asymptomatic healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yuichi; Hirayama, Takehisa; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Ikeda, Ken

    2010-11-15

    Cerebral aneurysms (CA) are incidentally detected by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in acute stroke patients or asymptomatic volunteers. We investigated whether incidental CA influences stroke subtypes and clinical outcome of patients with acute brain infarction (BI) and hemorrhage (BH). Moreover, frequency and neuroradiological profile of incidental CA were compared between acute stroke patients and asymptomatic healthy controls. We included consecutive BI and BH patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging and MRA within 7 days from clinical onset. CA diagnosis was performed by 3-dimensional time-of-flight MRA. Demographics, risk factors, stroke subtypes, and modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 3 months after stroke were assessed. Incidental CA was detected in 18 (3.7%) of 481 stroke patients, 13 (3.5%) of 374 BI patients, 5 (4.7%) of 107 BH patients, and 146 (2.0%) of 7345 controls. Multivariate analysis showed no significant differences in CA frequency between BI, BH, and control groups. Female sex was associated independently with incidental CA in the stroke (P<0.01), BI (P<0.05), BH (P<0.05), and healthy control groups (P<0.01). No statistical differences in CA size and location between the 4 groups were found. BI subtypes and BH sites were not correlated with incidental CA. CA rupture or subarachnoid hemorrhage did not occur until 3 months after stroke. The 3-month mRS score did not differ between stroke patients with and without CA. Prevalence of incidental CA did not differ statistically among stroke, BI, BH patients and healthy asymptomatic subjects. The 3-month mRS score was not affected by incidental CA. Female sex was only an independent factor for incidental CA. Thus, we should pay more attention to incidental CA in female BI patients treated with tissue plasminogen activator. PMID:20864121

  20. [Hemorrhagic shock].

    PubMed

    Megevand, Bérangère; Celi, Julien; Niquille, Marc

    2014-08-13

    Shock is a life threatening condition. The management of an hemorrhagic shock, whether traumatic or not, requires early identification of the bleeding source and adequate hemodynamic support. The diagnosis accuracy is based on clinical, hemodynamic, radiologic and biochemical findings which also allow appraisal of the treatment efficiency. Treatment should be goal-oriented with rapid hemorrhage control by surgery, interventional radiology or drug support. Circulatory resuscitation is aimed to restore adequate tissue perfusion and oxygenation and should be closely monitored. PMID:25199225

  1. Undertanding Brain Aneurysm Videos

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    BAF Publications Webinars Videos Articles Web Resources Books Publications on BAF Funded Research Projects Glossary GTranslate Educational Resources : Video Brain Aneurysm Symptoms - Early Detection of Brain Aneurysms ...

  2. A New Murine Model of Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Rouer, Martin; Meilhac, Olivier; Delbosc, Sandrine; Louedec, Liliane; Pavon-Djavid, Graciela; Cross, Jane; Legagneux, Josette; Bouilliant-Linet, Maxime; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Alsac, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Endovascular aneurysm exclusion is a validated technique to prevent aneurysm rupture. Long-term results highlight technique limitations and new aspects of Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) pathophysiology. There is no abdominal aortic aneurysm endograft exclusion model cheap and reproducible, which would allow deep investigations of AAA before and after treatment. We hereby describe how to induce, and then to exclude with a covered coronary stentgraft an abdominal aortic aneurysm in a rat. The well known elastase induced AAA model was first reported in 19901 in a rat, then described in mice2. Elastin degradation leads to dilation of the aorta with inflammatory infiltration of the abdominal wall and intra luminal thrombus, matching with human AAA. Endovascular exclusion with small covered stentgraft is then performed, excluding any interactions between circulating blood and the aneurysm thrombus. Appropriate exclusion and stentgraft patency is confirmed before euthanasia by an angiography thought the left carotid artery. Partial control of elastase diffusion makes aneurysm shape different for each animal. It is difficult to create an aneurysm, which will allow an appropriate length of aorta below the aneurysm for an easy stentgraft introduction, and with adequate proximal and distal neck to prevent endoleaks. Lots of failure can result to stentgraft introduction which sometimes lead to aorta tear with pain and troubles to stitch it, and endothelial damage with post op aorta thrombosis. Giving aspirin to rats before stentgraft implantation decreases failure rate without major hemorrhage. Clamping time activates neutrophils, endothelium and platelets, and may interfere with biological analysis. PMID:23851958

  3. A new murine model of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Rouer, Martin; Meilhac, Olivier; Delbosc, Sandrine; Louedec, Liliane; Pavon-Djavid, Graciela; Cross, Jane; Legagneux, Josette; Bouilliant-Linet, Maxime; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Alsac, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Endovascular aneurysm exclusion is a validated technique to prevent aneurysm rupture. Long-term results highlight technique limitations and new aspects of Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) pathophysiology. There is no abdominal aortic aneurysm endograft exclusion model cheap and reproducible, which would allow deep investigations of AAA before and after treatment. We hereby describe how to induce, and then to exclude with a covered coronary stentgraft an abdominal aortic aneurysm in a rat. The well known elastase induced AAA model was first reported in 1990(1) in a rat, then described in mice(2). Elastin degradation leads to dilation of the aorta with inflammatory infiltration of the abdominal wall and intra luminal thrombus, matching with human AAA. Endovascular exclusion with small covered stentgraft is then performed, excluding any interactions between circulating blood and the aneurysm thrombus. Appropriate exclusion and stentgraft patency is confirmed before euthanasia by an angiography thought the left carotid artery. Partial control of elastase diffusion makes aneurysm shape different for each animal. It is difficult to create an aneurysm, which will allow an appropriate length of aorta below the aneurysm for an easy stentgraft introduction, and with adequate proximal and distal neck to prevent endoleaks. Lots of failure can result to stentgraft introduction which sometimes lead to aorta tear with pain and troubles to stitch it, and endothelial damage with post op aorta thrombosis. Giving aspirin to rats before stentgraft implantation decreases failure rate without major hemorrhage. Clamping time activates neutrophils, endothelium and platelets, and may interfere with biological analysis. PMID:23851958

  4. Dengue hemorrhagic fever

    MedlinePLUS

    Hemorrhagic dengue; Dengue shock syndrome; Philippine hemorrhagic fever; Thai hemorrhagic fever; Singapore hemorrhagic fever ... Endy TP, Rothman AL, Barrett AD. Flaviviruses (Dengue, Yellow ... Encephalitis, West Nile Encephalitis, St. Louis Encephalitis, ...

  5. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... two other hemorrhagic fevers, dengue hemorrhagic fever and yellow fever. How are hemorrhagic fever viruses grouped? VHFs are ... be prevented and controlled? With the exception of yellow fever and Argentine hemorrhagic fever, for which vaccines have ...

  6. Spontaneous hemomediastinum and hemothorax after dissecting bronchial artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Quero-Valenzuela, Florencio; Piedra-Fernández, Inmaculada; Sevilla-López, Sebastián; Cueto-Ladrón de Guevara, Antonio

    2011-04-01

    Spontaneous hemomediastinum is a rare pathological event due to bleeding disorders, mediastinal organ hemorrhage or idiopathic causes. It usually presents with chest pain and dyspnea, which can lead to confusion with other clinical conditions. The election diagnostic method is computed tomography and treatment depends on underlying etiology, aimed on controlling hemorrhages, if present. In this paper, we present a case of spontaneous hemomediastinum and hemothorax after bronchial artery aneurysm dissection treated with endovascular embolization and chest drainage. PMID:21228046

  7. Acute paraplegia due to spinal arteriovenous fistula in two patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alice Poisson; Ashok Vasdev; Francis Brunelle; Henri Plauchu; Sophie Dupuis-Girod

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by recurrent epistaxis, cutaneous\\u000a telangiectasia, and visceral arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Of these, spinal AVM is a rare manifestation that concerns\\u000a mainly children. In this report, we describe two cases of spinal AVM revealed by acute paraparesis due to subarachnoid hemorrhage\\u000a in children with HHT and reviewed the literature on spinal

  8. How Is an Aneurysm Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. How Is an Aneurysm Treated? Aortic aneurysms are treated with medicines and surgery. Small aneurysms ... doing your normal daily activities Treatment for an aortic aneurysm is based on its size. Your doctor may ...

  9. Postpartum Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Pope; Iris Ohel; Gershon Holcberg; Eyal Sheiner

    \\u000a Simply put, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is excessive bleeding after childbirth. It is a leading cause of maternal mortality\\u000a worldwide, but most of the deaths occur in low-income countries. Specifically, PPH is defined as blood loss of >500 ml after\\u000a vaginal delivery or >1,000 ml after cesarean delivery. “Early” PPH occurs within 24 h after delivery, and “late” PPH occurs\\u000a between

  10. Therapeutic trial of intravenous nimodipine in patients with established cerebral vasospasm after rupture of intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Jan, M; Buchheit, F; Tremoulet, M

    1988-08-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of intravenous nimodipine to treat the syndrome of delayed ischemic deterioration or vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by a ruptured aneurysm was investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study. A total of 188 patients (nimodipine (N) = 102, placebo (P) = 86) were enrolled in the study, both pre- and postoperatively, within 24 hours of clinical deterioration connected with vasospasm or within 24 hours of arteriography that identified vasospasm. After 61 patients were excluded for not meeting study criteria or for protocol violation, the results were supported by 127 validated case reports: 73 patients received intravenous treatment with nimodipine, and 54 were given placebo. Analysis of the main criterion of efficacy, the number of deaths and of patients with severe deficit related to vasospasm alone, showed a significant statistical difference (N = 8 (19%), P = 17 (49%), P = 0.01). The risk of death or disability was reduced by 66% in the treated group. Analysis of this criterion by type of inclusion (clinical or angiographic) also showed a significant reduction in the clinical group (P = 0.05), but there was no difference in the angiographic group. The risk of mortality connected with vasospasm was reduced by 82%, but analysis by group showed that there was no significant difference for those patients included on clinical criteria, whereas mortality was reduced to a much greater extent in the angiographic group. These results demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of nimodipine in reducing secondary ischemic brain damage in patients already suffering from angiographic vasospasm or delayed ischemic deterioration. PMID:3054619

  11. Genetic Variants Underlying Risk of Intracranial Aneurysms: Insights from a GWAS in Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Abrantes, Patrícia; Santos, Maria M.; Sousa, Inês; Xavier, Joana M.; Francisco, Vânia; Krug, Tiago; Sobral, João; Matos, Mafalda; Martins, Madalena; Jacinto, António

    2015-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a life-threatening event that most frequently leads to severe disability and death. Its most frequent cause is the rupture of a saccular intracranial aneurysm (IA), which is a blood vessel dilation caused by disease or weakening of the vessel wall. Although the genetic contribution to IA is well established, to date no single gene has been unequivocally identified as responsible for IA formation or rupture. We aimed to identify IA susceptibility genes in the Portuguese population through a pool-based multistage genome-wide association study. Replicate pools were allelotyped in triplicate in a discovery dataset (100 IA cases and 92 gender-matched controls) using the Affymetrix Human SNP Array 6.0. Top SNPs (absolute value of the relative allele score difference between cases and controls |RASdiff|?13.0%) were selected for technical validation by individual genotyping in the discovery dataset. From the 101 SNPs successfully genotyped, 99 SNPs were nominally associated with IA. Replication of technically validated SNPs was conducted in an independent replication dataset (100 Portuguese IA cases and 407 controls). rs4667622 (between UBR3 and MYO3B), rs6599001 (between SCN11A and WDR48), rs3932338 (214 kilobases downstream of PRDM9), and rs10943471 (96 kilobases upstream of HTR1B) were associated with IA (unadjusted allelic chi-square tests) in the datasets tested (discovery: 6.84E-04?P?1.92E-02, replication: 2.66E-04?P?2.28E-02, and combined datasets: 6.05E-05?P?5.50E-04). Additionally, we confirmed the known association with IA of rs1333040 at the 9p21.3 genomic region, thus validating our dataset. These novel findings in the Portuguese population warrant further replication in additional independent studies, and provide additional candidates to more comprehensively understand IA etiopathogenesis. PMID:26186006

  12. Aneurysm resection and vascular reconstruction for true aneurysm at the initial segment of splenic artery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Xi; Han, Li-Na; Liang, Fa-Qi; Chu, Fu-Tao; Jia, Xin

    2015-06-01

    The aneurysms at the initial segment of splenic artery are rare. This paper aimed to investigate the methods to treat the true aneurysm at the initial segment of splenic artery by aneurysmectomy plus vascular reconstruction. Retrospectively reviewed were 11 cases of true aneurysm at the initial segment of splenic artery who were treated in our hospital from January 2000 to June 2013. All cases were diagnosed by color ultrasonography, computer tomography (CT) and angiography. Upon resection of the aneurysm, the auto-vein transplantation was performed in situ between the hepatic artery and the distal part of the splenic artery in 1 case; the artificial vessel bypass was done between the infra-renal aorta and distal portion of the splenic artery in 7 cases; the splenectomy was done in 2 cases; the splenectomy in combination with ligation of multiple small aneurysms were performed in 1 case. All cases were cured and discharged from the hospital 10-14 days after operation. A 1-14 year follow-up showed that 9 cases survived, and 2 cases died, including 1 case who died of acute myocardial infarction 2 years after aorta-splenic artery bypass operation and 1 case who died of acute cerebral hemorrhage 5 years after aneurysm resection and the splenectomy. Among 6 cases receiving aorta-splenic artery bypass, 1 gradually developed stenosis at anatomosed site, which eventually progressed to complete occlusion 2 years to 6 years after operation, without suffering from splenic infarction because the spleen was supplied by the short gastric vessel and its collaterals. The other 5 cases receiving aorta-splenic artery bypass and 1 case undergoing autologous vascular transplantation did not develop stricture or pseudoaneurysm at the stoma. Our study showed that the aneurysmectomy plus vascular reconstruction is a better treatment for aneurysm at the initial segment of splenic artery. PMID:26072086

  13. Acute surgery of cerebral aneurysms and prevention of symptomatic vasospasm.

    PubMed

    Auer, L M

    1983-01-01

    A treatment protocol for a controlled open study in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) from cerebral aneurysms is presented, applying acute surgery and pharmacological prevention of symptomatic vasospasm: In patients clinically graded I-III (Hunt and Hess), operation is performed within 48 to 72 hours. After aneurysm clipping, the calcium-antagonist Nimodipine is administered 1. topically during operation, 2. intravenously until day 14 after SAH, 3. perorally until day 21 after SAH. Preliminary results in the first 31 patients show no management mortality and no severe management morbidity. Severe symptomatic vasospasm has never occurred. At 3 months follow-up investigation in 27 of the 31 patients, 5 had minimal neurological deficit; all patients are fully resocialized, working in their previous professions. PMID:6650240

  14. Left Gastric Artery Aneurysm: Successful Embolization with Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hebert Alberto Vargas; Claire Cousins; J. Nicholas Higgins; Teik Choon See

    2008-01-01

    Patients with left gastric artery aneurysms present with hemorrhagic shock due to rupture or occasionally it is an incidental\\u000a finding on abdominal CT examinations. Due to the increased morbidity and mortality from this condition, adequate diagnosis\\u000a and treatment are essential. In this article we present a patient with a left gastric artery aneurysm treated with a new embolization\\u000a agent, ethylene

  15. Gowers’ intrasyringeal hemorrhage associated with Chiari type I malformation in Noonan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuhara, Takafumi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Takeda, Masaaki; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic hemorrhage in a syrinx is a rare entity known as Gowers’ intrasyringeal hemorrhage. Bleeding confined to the syrinx cavity causes severe, sometimes acute, neurological deficits. We report a case of intrasyringeal hemorrhage into a preexisting lumbosacral syrinx associated with Chiari type I malformation. Case Description: A 39-year-old female with Noonan syndrome underwent foramen magnum decompression and a cervical syrinx-subarachnoid shunt for Chiari type I malformation-associated syringomyelia 7 years ago. She presented progressive gait deterioration and acute urinary dysfunction, indicating conus medullaris syndrome. Initial magnetic resonance imaging revealed massive hemorrhage in the intrasyringeal cavity of the conus medullaris. The patient underwent surgical removal of the intrasyringeal hematoma and her neurological symptoms improved postoperatively. Conclusion: Although Gowers’ intrasyringeal hemorrhage is rare, this entity should be taken into consideration in patients with syringomyelia showing acute neurological deterioration. PMID:24575321

  16. Giant Intracranial Aneurysms: Evolution of Management in a Contemporary Surgical Series

    PubMed Central

    Sughrue, Michael E.; Saloner, David; Rayz, Vitaliy L.; Lawton, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many significant microsurgical series of patients with giant aneurysms predate changes in practice during the endovascular era. OBJECTIVE A contemporary surgical experience is presented to examine changes in management relative to earlier reports, to establish the role of open microsurgery in the management strategy, and to quantify results for comparison with evolving endovascular therapies. METHODS During a 13-year period, 140 patients with 141 giant aneurysms were treated surgically. 100 aneurysms (71%) were located in the anterior circulation, and 41 aneurysms were located in the posterior circulation. RESULTS 108 aneurysms (77%) were completely occluded, 14 aneurysms (10%) had minimal residual aneurysm, and 16 aneurysms (11%) were incompletely occluded with reversed or diminished flow. 3 patients with calcified aneurysms were coiled after unsuccessful clipping attempts. 18 patients died in the perioperative period (surgical mortality, 13%). Bypass-related complications resulted from bypass occlusion (7 patients), aneurysm hemorrhage due to incomplete aneurysm occlusion (4 patients), or aneurysm thrombosis with perforator or branch artery occlusion (4 patients). 13 patients were worse at late follow-up (permanent neurological morbidity, 9%; mean length of follow-up, 23±1.9 months). Overall, good outcomes (GOS 5 or 4) were observed in 114 patients (81%) and 109 patients (78%) were improved or unchanged after therapy. CONCLUSION A heavy reliance on bypass techniques plus indirect giant aneurysm occlusion distinguishes this contemporary surgical experience from earlier ones, and obviates the need for hypothermic circulatory arrest. Experienced neurosurgeons can achieve excellent results with surgery as the “first-line” management approach and endovascular techniques as adjuncts to surgery. PMID:21734614

  17. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage in a neonate with cleidocranial dysostosis.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Marisa A; Li, Ben C; Wu, Yvonne W; Slavotinek, Anne M

    2012-12-01

    We present a case of intraparenchymal hemorrhage in a neonate with cleidocranial dysostosis, a skeletal dysplasia that leads to delayed skull ossification. The patient's details are reported, including neuroimaging, photographs of classic dysmorphic features, and genetic testing. After spontaneous vaginal birth, the patient was hypotonic and encephalopathic, with unusually large and boggy fontanelles. No palpable bone overlay his bilateral temporal lobes, and his facial features were multiply dysmorphic. The patient's father exhibited similar facial features and congenital absence of the right clavicle, suggesting cleidocranial dysostosis. Magnetic resonance imaging at age 4 days confirmed a large right temporal lobe intraparenchymal hemorrhage, with extensive subarachnoid hemorrhage overlying both temporal and parietal lobes. A clinical diagnosis of cleidocranial dysostosis was confirmed by testing of the RUNX2 gene, which revealed a novel sequence alteration predicted to be disease-causing. Given that no palpable bone overlay the location of brain hemorrhage, and no other cause for hemorrhage was identified, we attribute the temporal lobe hemorrhage to forces on the skull incurred during normal vaginal delivery in the setting of decreased skull ossification. PMID:23127269

  18. Endovascular Repair of a Primary Iliac-Cecal Fistula Presenting with Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, Charlotte Sara, E-mail: c_whittaker1@yahoo.co.uk; Ananthakrishnan, Ganapathy; DeNunzio, Mario Cosimo; Quarmby, John Winston; Bungay, Peter Mark [Derbyshire Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    We report a case of an arterio-enteric fistula between an external iliac artery aneurysm and otherwise healthy cecum, presenting with torrential hemorrhage per rectum in an 85-year-old patient. Whilst fistulization to the aorta and common iliac arteries has been reported, to our knowledge no previous cases of primary fistulization between an external iliac aneurysm and normal cecum have been. Successful endovascular exclusion of the aneurysm was undertaken with a Wallgraft covered stent and the patient remains well at 1 year.

  19. Subarachnoid haemorrhage in children caused by cerebral tumour.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, G; Knuckey, N W; Gubbay, S S

    1983-01-01

    Subarachnoid haemorrhage in children is uncommon. In a review of 110 children with an intracranial tumour over a 20 year period there were four patients (3.6%) who presented with the typical features of a subarachnoid haemorrhage. During the same period of time there were 15 children who presented with subarachnoid haemorrhage of which 26% were secondary to a cerebral tumour. This study suggests that cerebral tumour is a common cause of subarachnoid haemorrhage in children. PMID:6101222

  20. Giant intracranial aneurysm and fibromuscular dysplasia in an adolescent with alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Schievink, W I; Puumala, M R; Meyer, F B; Raffel, C; Katzmann, J A; Parisi, J E

    1996-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that a deficiency of alpha 1-antitrypsin may be a genetic risk factor for the development of intracranial aneurysms and arterial fibromuscular dysplasia. The authors report a 16-year-old girl with a history of lung disease who suffered a cerebral hemorrhage due to the rupture of a giant intracranial aneurysm arising from the middle cerebral artery. This fusiform aneurysm was associated with fibromuscular dysplasia of the intimal type. She was found to have an unusual alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (PiMP phenotype). This case provides further evidence of an underlying arteriopathy in alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency. PMID:8751640

  1. Clip reconstruction of giant vertebral artery aneurysm after failed flow reduction therapy.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Toshikazu; Kin, Taichi; Shojima, Masaaki; Morita, Akio

    2015-07-01

    Flow reduction therapy is sometimes utilized for difficult aneurysms, but it does not always work. A 42-year-old man presented with headache, dizziness, and slight gait disturbance due to left thrombosed giant vertebral aneurysm. Clip ligation of the VA after the PICA origin was performed for flow reduction based on the CFD analysis. Two months later, the aneurysm showed minor hemorrhage and hydrocephalus, and thrombectomy and clip reconstruction of the VA was performed. He returned to work with slight ipsilateral facial palsy (House & Brackmann grade 2). The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/-AUVk6nxefQ . PMID:26132622

  2. Treatment of cerebral aneurysms-surgical clipping or endovascular coiling: the guiding principles.

    PubMed

    Shivashankar, Ravishankar; Miller, Timothy R; Jindal, Gaurav; Simard, J Marc; Aldrich, E Francois; Gandhi, Dheeraj

    2013-11-01

    Cerebral aneurysms represent common intracranial vascular lesions encountered in neurosurgical practice. The clinical presentation is varied, ranging from asymptomatic lesions to those presenting with catastrophic intracranial hemorrhage. Aneurysm treatment has been a rapidly evolving field with numerous technical innovations, especially in the last two decades. Selecting the appropriate treatment can be a complex process that involves integration of information regarding the patient's clinical presentation, associated comorbidities, the aneurysm's morphological characteristics, safety and efficacy of the treatment options and skill and experience of available practitioners, amongst others. In this article, we review each of these factors and appraise the available scientific evidence in an effort to facilitate decision making in the treatment of cerebral aneurysms. The treatment of intracranial aneurysms is best performed at high volume centers that utilize a multidisciplinary, team-based approach. PMID:24504611

  3. Spontaneous resolution of a flow-related ophthalmic-segment aneurysm after treatment of anterior cranial fossa dural arteriovenous fistula

    PubMed Central

    Reinard, Kevin; Basheer, Azam; Pabaney, Aqueel; Marin, Horia; Malik, Ghaus

    2014-01-01

    Background: The natural history of proximal, feeding-artery aneurysms after successful obliteration of high-grade, anterior cranial fossa dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) has not been well documented. Case Description: A 52-year-old Caucasian male presented with an unruptured anterior cranial fossa (dAVF) and an associated aneurysm. Cerebral angiography revealed a large, contralateral, carotid-ophthalmic segment aneurysm, enlarged feeding ophthalmic arteries, as well as cortical venous drainage. Successful surgical obliteration of the dAVF was undertaken to eliminate the risk of hemorrhage. Conclusion: The carotid-ophthalmic aneurysm regressed significantly after surgical obliteration of the dAVF and a follow-up, planned coiling procedure to address the carotid-ophthalmic aneurysm was abandoned. This represents the first reported case of a near complete, spontaneous resolution of an unruptured carotid-ophthalmic aneurysm associated with a high-grade anterior cranial fossa dAVF. PMID:25525558

  4. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Fortner, George; Johansen, Kaj

    1984-01-01

    Aneurysms are common in our increasingly elderly population, and are a major threat to life and limb. Until the advent of vascular reconstructive techniques, aneurysm patients were subject to an overwhelming risk of death from exsanguination. The first successful repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm using an interposed arterial homograft was reported by Dubost in 1952. A milestone in the evolution of vascular surgery, this event and subsequent diagnostic, operative and prosthetic graft refinements have permitted patients with an unruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm to enjoy a better prognosis than patients with almost any other form of major systemic illness. Images PMID:6702193

  5. Nimodipine treatment in poor-grade aneurysm patients. Results of a multicenter double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Petruk, K C; West, M; Mohr, G; Weir, B K; Benoit, B G; Gentili, F; Disney, L B; Khan, M I; Grace, M; Holness, R O

    1988-04-01

    A multicenter, randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial of nimodipine in poor-grade aneurysm patients was carried out in 17 Canadian hospitals. Of 188 patients enrolled in the trial, 32 were excluded for protocol violations and two were excluded due to statistical considerations, leaving 154 patients for valid outcome analysis. Nimodipine treatment was associated with a significantly better outcome (p less than 0.001): 21 (29.2%) of 72 nimodipine-treated patients had a good outcome at 3 months after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) compared to eight (9.8%) of 82 placebo-treated patients. Delayed ischemic deficits from vasospasm alone were significantly less frequent in the nimodipine group (p less than 0.05) with permanent deficits occurring in five nimodipine-treated patients (6.9%) and in 22 placebo-treated patients (26.8%). Improvement in the good outcome rate and reduction in delayed ischemic deficits from vasospasm alone occurred in both Grade 3 and 4 patients, with no difference between nimodipine- and placebo-treated patients being found in Grade 5 patients. Repeat angiography after Day 4 was carried out in 124 patients. There was no significant difference in the incidence of moderate or severe diffuse spasm, which was seen in 64.3% of nimodipine-treated patients and 66.2% of placebo-treated patients. The authors conclude that nimodipine treatment in poor-grade patients with SAH results in an increase in the number of good outcomes and a reduction in the incidence of delayed neurological deterioration due to vasospasm. This effect occurs by a mechanism other than prevention of large-vessel spasm as visualized on angiography. PMID:3280746

  6. Antioxidants prevent focal rat brain injury as assessed by induction of heat shock proteins (HSP70, HO1\\/HSP32, HSP47) following subarachnoid injections of lysed blood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher P Turner; S. Scott Panter; Frank R Sharp

    1999-01-01

    The initial aim of this study was to determine if the HSP70 (the main inducible heat shock protein), HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1, HSP32) and HSP47 (a collagen chaperone) stress proteins were induced in the same focal regions of rat brain following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The next objective was to determine whether anti-oxidants prevented the stress gene expression in the focal

  7. Idiopathic pulmonary calcification and ossification in an elderly woman with a missed diagnosis of subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Odubanjo, M O; Abdulkareem, F B; Banjo, A; Ekwere, T E; Awelimobor, D I

    2013-09-01

    This is a case of idiopathic pulmonary calcification and ossification in a 70 year old with long-standing diabetes and hypertension. Thirteen years prior to her demise, she was first noticed to have multiple calcific deposits in her lungs on a chest X-ray film. She had no risk factors for soft tissue calcification and ossification. Histology of tissue from autopsy showed intraparenchymal pulmonary calcification and ossification with marrow elements. Idiopathic pulmonary calcification and ossification is rare. At autopsy, she was also found to have had bilateral subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), a diagnosis missed during clinical evaluation. We highlight the pertinent details in our patient's management that could have helped to prevent a missed diagnosis of SAH. Even though SAH occurs most commonly following head trauma, the more familiar medical use of SAH is for non-traumatic SAH occurring following a ruptured cerebral aneurysm. This patient had notable risk factors for cerebral aneurysm formation but an aneurysm was not identified at autopsy. The location of the blood high on the cerebral convexities further suggests a traumatic origin rather than a ruptured aneurysm. Heterotopic calcification and ossification (HO) is known to occur in the setting of severe neurologic disorders such as traumatic brain injury but the fact that the lung calcification in our patient predated the brain injury by over 10 years makes it unlikely for the HO to have been due to the brain trauma. Other organ pathologies found at autopsy include chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, renal papillary necrosis, lymphocytic thyroiditis, and seborrheic keratosis. PMID:24391231

  8. Subarachnoid haemorrhage associated with an intrathecal catheter.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, W Caleb; Miller, Brandon A; Dannenbaum, Mark J; Gross, Robert E; Barrow, Daniel L

    2012-12-01

    Although 15 to 20 percent of patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) do not have a vascular lesion on four-vessel cerebral angiography, venous injury is a potential cause. This case describes an intracranial catheter associated with nonaneurysmal SAH. It suggests that intrathecal catheters can cause vascular injury, and that nonaneurysmal perimesencephalic SAH may be due to injury of small blood vessels. PMID:22747249

  9. The pathophysiology and treatment of delayed cerebral ischaemia following subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Budohoski, Karol P; Guilfoyle, Mathew; Helmy, Adel; Huuskonen, Terhi; Czosnyka, Marek; Kirollos, Ramez; Menon, David K; Pickard, John D; Kirkpatrick, Peter J

    2014-12-01

    Cerebral vasospasm has traditionally been regarded as an important cause of delayed cerebral ischaemia (DCI) which occurs after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, and often leads to cerebral infarction and poor neurological outcome. However, data from recent studies argue against a pure focus on vasospasm as the cause of delayed ischaemic complications. Findings that marked reduction in the incidence of vasospasm does not translate to a reduction in DCI, or better outcomes has intensified research into other possible mechanisms which may promote ischaemic complications. Early brain injury and cell death, blood-brain barrier disruption and initiation of an inflammatory cascade, microvascular spasm, microthrombosis, cortical spreading depolarisations and failure of cerebral autoregulation, have all been implicated in the pathophysiology of DCI. This review summarises the current knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the development of DCI. Furthermore, it aims to describe and categorise the known pharmacological treatment options with respect to the presumed mechanism of action and its role in DCI. PMID:24847164

  10. Brain Aneurysms and Arteriovenous Malformations Advancements and Emerging Treatments in Endovascular Embolization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Italo Linfante; Ajay K. Wakhloo

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose—Brain aneurysms and vascular malformations can cause cerebral hemorrhages, with devastating consequences for the patients and their families. Since the development of microcatheters and materials used for endovascular embolization, we have witnessed a rapid advancement in the technology and in the number or patients treated with this approach. The aim of this review is to survey recent data

  11. [Two cases of acute myelogenous leukemia with Bacillus cereus bacteremia resulting in fatal intracranial hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, H; Moriyama, Y; Tatekawa, T; Tominaga, N; Teshima, H; Hiraoka, A; Masaoka, T; Yoshinaga, T

    1993-12-01

    This manuscript reports Bacillus cereus sepsis in two cases with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who suffered complications of fatal intracranial hemorrhage during remission induction therapy. The first case was 43-year-old male with AML (M0) receiving first consolidation chemotherapy who developed sudden diarrhea, abdominal pain and spiking fever. Two days later, he died of intracranial hemorrhage. The second case was 15-year-old male with AML (M5b) who was receiving first induction chemotherapy. He developed headache and vomiting following spiking fever and diarrhea. He died of subarachnoid hemorrhage the next day. In both cases, Bacillus cereus was isolated from blood culture. Fatal intracranial hemorrhage due to severe bleeding tendency caused rapid to death in both cases. These bleeding tendencies might have been induced by B. cereus sepsis. In addition, we should not overlook B. cereus as contamination, but rather consider it as a potential pathogen, when isolated from blood culture. PMID:8295331

  12. Transcatheter Embolization for Delayed Hemorrhage Caused by Blunt Splenic Trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Krohmer, Steven J., E-mail: Steven.J.Krohmer@hitchcock.org; Hoffer, Eric K., E-mail: eric.k.hoffer@hitchcock.or [Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Burchard, Kenneth W., E-mail: Kenneth.W.Burchard@hitchcock.or [Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Department of Surgery (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Although the exact benefit of adjunctive splenic artery embolization (SAE) in the nonoperative management (NOM) of patients with blunt splenic trauma has been debated, the role of transcatheter embolization in delayed splenic hemorrhage is rarely addressed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of SAE in the management of patients who presented at least 3 days after initial splenic trauma with delayed hemorrhage. During a 24-month period 4 patients (all male; ages 19-49 years) presented with acute onset of pain 5-70 days after blunt trauma to the left upper quadrant. Two had known splenic injuries that had been managed nonoperatively. All had computed axial tomography evidence of active splenic hemorrhage or false aneurysm on representation. All underwent successful SAE. Follow-up ranged from 28 to 370 days. These cases and a review of the literature indicate that SAE is safe and effective for NOM failure caused by delayed manifestations of splenic arterial injury.

  13. Hemodynamics of Cerebral Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Sforza, Daniel M.; Putman, Christopher M.; Cebral, Juan Raul

    2009-01-01

    The initiation and progression of cerebral aneurysms are degenerative processes of the arterial wall driven by a complex interaction of biological and hemodynamic factors. Endothelial cells on the artery wall respond physiologically to blood-flow patterns. In normal conditions, these responses are associated with nonpathological tissue remodeling and adaptation. The combination of abnormal blood patterns and genetics predisposition could lead to the pathological formation of aneurysms. Here, we review recent progress on the basic mechanisms of aneurysm formation and evolution, with a focus on the role of hemodynamic patterns. PMID:19784385

  14. Endovascular management of recurrent aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Mai, Jeffrey C; Hoh, Brian L

    2014-04-01

    As neuroendovascular interventions for both ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms have come to the forefront, careful follow-up and strategies for retreatment of aneurysmal recurrences have become increasingly important. Endovascular approaches have also proven to be valuable adjuncts for managing recurrent aneurysms previously treated by open microsurgical approaches. Fortunately, retreatment of recurrent aneurysms can be performed safely, and the use of stents during retreatment has increased the proportion of durably retreated aneurysms. More recently, the spectrum of recurrent aneurysms readily amenable to endovascular therapy has been expanded by the widespread introduction of flow diverters. PMID:24617933

  15. Intrasplenic Arterial Aneurysms during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Abu-khalaf, Mahmoud M. S.; Al-Ameer, Sokiyna M.; Smadi, Moath M.; Qatawneh, Ayman; Smara, Osama A.; Hadidy, Azmy T.

    2015-01-01

    Splenic artery aneurysms account for about 60% of all visceral aneurysms. Pregnancy is a risk factor for splenic artery aneurysms rupture with high maternal mortality and fetal loss. Intrasplenic arterial aneurysms are extremely rare and have not been reported to be associated with pregnancy. This report presents a 34-year-old woman during the second trimester, admitted with severe left upper quadrant and left shoulder pain. She had two uncomplicated intrasplenic aneurysms. Splenectomy was done. She delivered a full term healthy girl. This is the first report of acute abdomen during pregnancy caused by intrasplenic artery aneurysms with maternal and fetal survival. PMID:25810934

  16. Mastication induced retrobulbar hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Tran, Kimberly D; Scawn, Richard L; Whipple, Katherine M; Korn, Bobby S; Kikkawa, Don O

    2013-12-01

    Retrobulbar hemorrhage is a feared potentially sight threatening complication after orbital decompression surgery. We present a patient, 36 hours after surgery, while forcefully biting, suddenly developed a retrobulbar hemorrhage arising from the temporalis muscle causing an orbital compartment syndrome. Rapid intervention with canthotomy and cantholysis was associated with recovery of vision from absent light perception to 20/20. A mastication induced retrobulbar hemorrhage has not been previously described. PMID:23957737

  17. Aortic Aneurysm Terms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Thoracic Surgeon? Adult Cardiac Surgery What is Pediatric Heart Disease? What is Risk Adjustment? Valve Repair/Replacement Surgery Esophageal Surgery Lung/Thoracic Surgery Aneurysm Surgery Arrhythmia Surgery Other Types of Surgery Clinical ...

  18. Complications and therapy after subarachnoid haemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Dorhout Mees

    2012-01-01

    Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a subset of stroke with a poor prognosis, up to 40% of patients die. Besides the impact of the initial haemorrhage, several neurological and systemic complications contribute to a poor clinical outcome.\\u000a\\u000aThe first part of this thesis describes several complications after SAH. It is well known that SAH patients often have hyperglycaemia, and in chapter

  19. Anterior cerebral artery aneurysm associated with multiple intracranial aneurysms and abdominal aorta aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yunghwan; Min, Hyung Ki

    2013-01-01

    We found multiple aneurysms in the intracranial arteries and abdominal aorta of an 87-year-old Korean female cadaver, whose cause of death was reported as "cholangiocarcinoma." An abdominal aortic aneurysm was observed in the infrarenal aorta, where the inferior mesenteric artery arose. The intracranial aneurysms were found in the A3 segment of the anterior cerebral artery and at the bifurcation of the middle cerebral artery. This case provides an example of the very rare association of peripheral intracranial aneurysms with an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Clinicians as well as anatomists should recognize the potential association between these two aneurysm types. PMID:24179699

  20. A statistical study of autopsied cases of neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Y; Harada, K; Hashimoto, T; Fukuda, S; Okudera, T; Maruyama, H

    1990-09-01

    We have performed a statistical study of 1218 autopsies of neonates to extract the factors related to fatal neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Prematurity indicated by a short gestational period or a low birth weight was the most significant factor for IVH. Many other factors considered to be related to IVH were also related closely to prematurity. Therefore, we pose the following question throughout the study: Did the factors independently relate to IVH without any confounding effects of prematurity? To obtain the answer, we tried a statistical adjustment for gestational age to eliminate the confounding effects of prematurity. After the adjustment was made, we concluded that the following 10 items, in order, were the actual factors related to fatal IVH: prematurity, subependymal hemorrhage, subarachnoidal hemorrhage, respiratory distress syndrome, hyaline membrane disease, respiratory acidosis, intracerebral hemorrhage, cyanosis, respirator care, and low Apgar score. There were two distinctive categories in the factors that were eliminated by the adjustment. One was a group that has no significance whatsoever in any subdivided gestational groups, such as meconium aspiration syndrome, due to purely the result of the confounding effect. The other was a group that showed its statistical significance only in a certain period of gestation, such as breech presentation. PMID:2390012

  1. Endovascular Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christos Gkogkas; John Baker; Alexander M. Norbash; Kai U. Frerichs

    Endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms was first described in the early 1970s in the pioneering paper of Serbinenko.\\u000a He treated aneurysms with detachable balloons that were positioned in the parent artery or in the aneurysm lumen itself through\\u000a a microcatheter (1,2). In 1991, Guglielmi et al. (3,4) described the endovascular occlusion of intracranial aneurysms using electrolytic detachable platinum coils (Target

  2. Seizures and intracranial hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Karen L; Alexander, James M

    2013-03-01

    Seizures and intracranial hemorrhage are possible medical diseases that any obstetrician may encounter. This article reviews the cause, treatment, and medical management in pregnancy for seizures and intracranial hemorrhage, and how the two can overlap into preeclampsia or eclampsia. This article also highlights some challenging management issues from the obstetrician's perspective. PMID:23466140

  3. Putative Role of Prostaglandin Receptor in Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Shekher; Ahmad, Abdullah S.; Glushakov, Alexander V.; Chambers, Chase; Doré, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Each year, approximately 795,000 people experience a new or recurrent stroke. Of all strokes, 84% are ischemic, 13% are intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) strokes, and 3% are subarachnoid hemorrhage strokes. Despite the decreased incidence of ischemic stroke, there has been no change in the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke in the last decade. ICH is a devastating disease 37–38% of patients between the ages of 45 and 64 die within 30?days. In an effort to prevent ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes we and others have been studying the role of prostaglandins and their receptors. Prostaglandins are bioactive lipids derived from the metabolism of arachidonic acid. They sustain homeostatic functions and mediate pathogenic mechanisms, including the inflammatory response. Most prostaglandins are produced from specific enzymes and act upon cells via distinct G-protein coupled receptors. The presence of multiple prostaglandin receptors cross-reactivity and coupling to different signal transduction pathways allow differentiated cells to respond to prostaglandins in a unique manner. Due to the number of prostaglandin receptors, prostaglandin-dependent signaling can function either to promote neuronal survival or injury following acute excitotoxicity, hypoxia, and stress induced by ICH. To better understand the mechanisms of neuronal survival and neurotoxicity mediated by prostaglandin receptors, it is essential to understand downstream signaling. Several groups including ours have discovered unique roles for prostaglandin receptors in rodent models of ischemic stroke, excitotoxicity, and Alzheimer disease, highlighting the emerging role of prostaglandin receptor signaling in hemorrhagic stroke with a focus on cyclic-adenosine monophosphate and calcium (Ca2+) signaling. We review current ICH data and discuss future directions notably on prostaglandin receptors, which may lead to the development of unique therapeutic targets against hemorrhagic stroke and brain injuries alike. PMID:23097645

  4. Current pattern of in-hospital aneurysmal rebleeds. Analysis of a series treated with individually timed surgery and intravenous nimodipine.

    PubMed

    Steiger, H J; Fritschi, J; Seiler, R W

    1994-01-01

    The management of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage has recently changed considerably. Emergency admission to specialized centres and early surgery have become common practice. In addition, the use of nimodipine has gained widespread acceptance. Little data are available concerning the frequency and temporal profile of reruptures under the current policies. The case histories of 387 patients treated for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage between January 1984 and March 1992 were reviewed with regard to the incidence of in-hospital reruptures. All patients were managed according to the same protocol including a policy of individually timed early surgery and intravenous nimodipine. A total of 44 first in-hospital rebleeds were observed during the waiting period. Two percent of the patients admitted on the day of haemorrhage had a rebleed on the same day after admission to the hospital. No rebleeds were observed on the day after subarachnoid haemorrhage. Rebleed rates on day 2 and 3 were also low with 0.6 and 0.8% of the population with an unclipped aneurysm. For the following 10 days, the daily rate of rerupture increased. A further peak was observed during the 4th week. Using life-table methods, the cumulative rate of rebleeds was calculated as 23% within 2 weeks and 42% within 4 weeks. Although patients suffering rebleeds differed in several respects from patients without rebleeds, most of the differences could be identified to be a consequence of a selection bias resulting in a longer period of exposure to the risk of rerupture for certain subgroups. Only patients suffering a loss of consciousness after the initial subarachnoid haemorrhage were definitively exposed to a higher daily risk of rerupture.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7942176

  5. Embolization of spontaneous intratumoral hemorrhage with the hemodynamic characteristics of arteriovenous fistula in renal angiomyolipoma.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Nao; Kuwatsuru, Ryohei; Kyogoku, Shinsuke; Shiraishi, Akihiko; Okada, Shingo; Tsuge, Daisuke; Yamashiro, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysms within renal angiomyolipomas (AML) may rupture into the tumor or pararenal space. Transcatheter arterial embolization is the first-choice treatment to control bleeding. Here, we describe the use of coil embolization in two cases of spontaneous intratumoral hemorrhage with the hemodynamic characteristics of renal arteriovenous (AV) fistula in renal AML. In case 1, renal angiography showed several intratumoral aneurysms, one of which had ruptured into the tumor, resulting in the formation of an intratumoral hematoma. Blood flow within the hematoma was rapid and the blood was immediately returned to the systemic circulation through the left renal vein. In case 2, renal angiography showed that the rupture of an intratumoral aneurysm of a tumor-feeding artery had resulted in formation of an intratumoral hematoma and direct renal vein communication. No extratumoral hemorrhage was observed in either case. The hemodynamics of both hematomas resembled those of a high-flow renal AV fistula. The ruptured aneurysms were embolized with detachable and pushable coils (case 1) or pushable coils only (case 2). To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful embolization of AV fistula-like intratumoral hemorrhage in renal AML. PMID:25789276

  6. Embolization of Spontaneous Intratumoral Hemorrhage with the Hemodynamic Characteristics of Arteriovenous Fistula in Renal Angiomyolipoma

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Nao; Kuwatsuru, Ryohei; Kyogoku, Shinsuke; Shiraishi, Akihiko; Okada, Shingo; Tsuge, Daisuke; Yamashiro, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysms within renal angiomyolipomas (AML) may rupture into the tumor or pararenal space. Transcatheter arterial embolization is the first-choice treatment to control bleeding. Here, we describe the use of coil embolization in two cases of spontaneous intratumoral hemorrhage with the hemodynamic characteristics of renal arteriovenous (AV) fistula in renal AML. In case 1, renal angiography showed several intratumoral aneurysms, one of which had ruptured into the tumor, resulting in the formation of an intratumoral hematoma. Blood flow within the hematoma was rapid and the blood was immediately returned to the systemic circulation through the left renal vein. In case 2, renal angiography showed that the rupture of an intratumoral aneurysm of a tumor-feeding artery had resulted in formation of an intratumoral hematoma and direct renal vein communication. No extratumoral hemorrhage was observed in either case. The hemodynamics of both hematomas resembled those of a high-flow renal AV fistula. The ruptured aneurysms were embolized with detachable and pushable coils (case 1) or pushable coils only (case 2). To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful embolization of AV fistula-like intratumoral hemorrhage in renal AML. PMID:25789276

  7. Psychosocial impact of finding small aneurysms that are left untreated in patients previously operated on for ruptured aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    van der Schaaf, I C; Wermer, M J H; Velthuis, B K; Buskens, E; Bossuyt, P M M; Rinkel, G J E

    2006-01-01

    Objectives In patients with previous subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) undergoing follow up screening, the authors assessed the impact of finding but not treating very small aneurysms by comparing quality of life (QOL), anxiety, and depression between patients with a newly detected aneurysm that was left untreated (cases) and patients with a negative screening (controls) as this should be incorporated in the evaluation of effectiveness of screening. Methods In patients with previous SAH undergoing screening for new aneurysms the authors compared QOL (SF?36, EURO?QOL, and a screening related questionnaire), anxiety, and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)) between cases and controls. Differences in scores on the SF?36, EURO?QOL, and HADS were assessed with Student's t test and differences in proportions of patients with HADS scores in the pathological range and screening related changes with ?2 analysis. The authors powered the study to detect a moderate, clinically relevant difference. Results Thirty five cases and 34 controls were included. Trends for health related QOL, anxiety, depression, and consequences in daily life pointed in the same direction of a less favourable situation for cases but all effects were small, and did not reach statistical significance. On the screenings specific questionnaire, cases more often (but not statistically significant) reported changes in daily life. Conclusions The authors found no major or moderate impact on QOL, anxiety, and depression of the awareness of having an untreated aneurysm, which was detected at screening, although most items showed a trend towards more negative effects for cases. Minor effects on individual level cannot be excluded by this study. PMID:16705198

  8. Multiple Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Mont’alverne, F.; Tournade, A.; Riquelme, C.; Musacchio, M.

    2002-01-01

    Summary We evaluate endovascular treatment (EVT) as an option to deal with multiple intracranial aneurysms(MA). From 1994 to 2001,24 patients underwent EVT for 59 MA. Patients were followed-up clinically and angiographically in a period ranging from 6 to 93 months (mean time of 22.2) and from 4 to 69 months (mean time of 19.3), respectively. Ten patients (41.6%) were treated either by EVT (n=7, 29,16%) or by mixed treatment (EVT and surgery; n=3, 12.5%). Reasons for treating just ruptured aneurysms: six (25%) had aneurysms smaller than 5 mm; three (12.5%) deaths; two (8.33%) were in the subacute period; two (8.33%) lost to follow-up; one (4.17%) authorised no procedure. No rebleeding was detected at the clinical follow-up, but there were five deaths. At immediate arteriographic control: 28 (85%) aneurysms were fully occluded, four (12%) with neck flow and one (03%) with sac flow. For 20 aneurysms followed-up: stability of occlusion was reached in seven cases (35%) and repermeabilization in 13 (65%). Management of recanalization was close arteriography in seven (54%), re-embolization in five (38%) and surgery in one (08%). When treating MA, EVT is advisable either alone or in mixed therapy. As a high degree of repermeabilization was disclosed, strict arteriographic control is required. The mechanisms underlying aneurysmal formation may be also involved in the recanalization phenomenon , a possible new manifestation of the fragility of the arterial wall. PMID:20594518

  9. A morbid coexistence: thrombosed descending thoracic aorta aneurysm and aortic insufficiency with aortic diastolic reverse flow

    PubMed Central

    Boyaci, Nurefsan; Yildiz, Ali

    2014-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman presented with difficulty in speech and weakness on right arm and leg. Her medical history was remarkable only for uncontrolled hypertension for a long period. Dysarthria, right central facial paralysis, right hemiparesis and hypoactive deep tendon reflexes were noticed on neurological examination. Moderate degree aortic insufficiency with aortic diastolic reverse flow was detected on transthoracic echocardiography. Thrombosed aortic aneurysm on descending thoracic aorta, and an acute hemorrhagic infarction in the distribution of the left middle cerebral artery were depicted on thorax, and brain computed tomography scans, respectively. Cerebrovascular event was medically managed and whereas conservative management was offered for thrombosed descending thoracic aorta aneurysm. PMID:25392831

  10. [A case of newly diagnosed moyamoya disease in a pregnant patient with a ruptured aneurysm of the distal anterior choroidal artery embolized using N-butyl cyanoacrylate].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yuta; Sato, Taku; Tamura, Takamitsu; Kyozuka, Hyo; Yasuda, Shun; Nomura, Yasuhisa; Isosu, Tsuyoshi; Sakuma, Jun; Fujimori, Keiya; Saito, Kiyoshi

    2014-10-01

    Here we describe a rare case of a pregnant patient with a ruptured aneurysm of the distal anterior choroidal artery(AChA)that was embolized using n-butyl cyanoacrylate(NBCA). The 32-year-old patient was 24 weeks pregnant. She suddenly suffered from headache and vomiting. On admission, she was somnolent with left hemiparalysis and had a manual muscle test score of 1/5. Computed tomography(CT)images revealed a cerebral hemorrhage from the right temporal lobe to the lateral ventricle with intraventricular hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography showed severe stenosis at the terminal portion of the right internal carotid artery and a surrounding abnormal vascular network. She was diagnosed with unilateral moyamoya disease, and a direct surgical evacuation of the hemorrhage was performed on the same day. The following day, cerebral angiography showed enlargement of a distal AChA aneurysm that, as suspected, had caused the hemorrhage. The aneurysm was treated by the injection of 20% NBCA into the distal AChA and the aneurysm. After surgery, magnetic resonance imaging showed ischemic changes in the ventral posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus without neurological deficits. The patient became lucid, and the left hemiparalysis improved. The rest of the pregnancy was uneventful. At 37 weeks, she delivered a normal baby by elective caesarean section. When treating pregnant patients with moyamoya disease and a ruptured cerebral artery aneurysm, it is extremely important to cooperate with obstetricians to ensure a safe pregnancy and delivery. PMID:25266588

  11. Rupture of inferior thyroid artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Beal, S L; Dublin, A B; Stone, W K

    1987-08-01

    We report a case in which rupture of an aneurysm of the inferior thyroid artery caused respiratory arrest. The aneurysm was embolized successfully by an angiographic technique. Published reports of rupture of thyroid artery aneurysms are reviewed. PMID:3612969

  12. Visceral Artery Aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Chiesa; D. Astore; G. Guzzo; S. Frigerio; Y. Tshomba; R. Castellano; M. R. Liberato de Moura; G. Melissano

    2005-01-01

    Visceral artery aneurysms (VAA) frequently present as life-threatening emergencies. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with VAA treatment. Between 1988 and April 2002, 31 VAA were treated in 28 patients (14 males, 14 females) with average age of 55?±?15 years. The most common locations were the splenic artery (16) and the hepatic artery (7). Three patients

  13. Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, J.; Guillemin, F.; Proust, F.; Molyneux, A.J.; Fox, A.J.; Claiborne, J.S.; Meder, J.-F.; Rouleau, I.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The preventive treatment of unruptured aneur­ysms has been performed for decades despite the lack of evidence of a clinical benefit. Reports of observational studies such as the International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms (ISUIA) suggest that preventive treatments are rarely justified. Are these reports compelling enough to guide clinical practice? The ISUIA methods and data are reviewed and analysed in a more conventional manner. The design of the appropriate clinical research program is approached by steps, reviewing potential problems, from the formulation of the precise research question to the interpretation of subgroup analyses, including sample size, representativity, duration of observation period, blin­ding, definition of outcome events, analysis of cross-overs, losses to follow-up, and data reporting. Unruptured intracranial aneurysms observed in ISUIA ruptured at a minimal annual rate of 0.8% (0.5-1%), despite multiple methodological difficulties biased in favour of a benign natural history. Available registries do not have the power or the design capable of providing normative guidelines for clinical decisions. The appropriate method to solve the clinical dilemma is a multicentric trial comparing the incidence of a hard clinical outcome events in approximately 2000 patients randomly allocated to a treatment group and a deferred treatment group, all followed for ten years or more. Observational studies have failed to provide reliable evidence in favour or against the preventive treatment of unruptured aneurysms. A randomized trial is in order to clarify what is the role of prevention in this common clinical problem. PMID:20557790

  14. Arteriovenous fistula of the thyroid gland associated with spontaneous bleeding from a flow-induced aneurysm of the inferior thyroid artery.

    PubMed

    Klingler, P J; Freund, M C; Seelig, M H; Knudsen, J M; Martin, J K

    1999-05-01

    A case of acute, spontaneous cervical hemorrhage caused by a ruptured aneurysm of the inferior thyroid artery is described. This lesion was accompanied by an arteriovenous fistula within the thyroid gland that caused a flow-induced aneurysm. Diagnosis and treatment were successfully performed by selective angiography with endovascular occlusion and embolization. Both diagnostic and therapeutic management are discussed, and the related literature is reviewed. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an aneurysm of a thyroid artery in conjunction with an intraparenchymatous arteriovenous fistula of the thyroid gland. PMID:10319081

  15. Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization of a Wide-Neck Aneurysm at the Vertebral Artery Terminus Using a Contralateral Approach: A Technical Report

    PubMed Central

    Ibeh, Chinwe; Shah, Qaisar A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar junction (VBJ) are especially uncommon but carry a significant risk of hemorrhage and historically have been difficult to treat. In recent years, however, advancements in stent-assisted embolization have allowed better access and stabilization of complicated posterior circulation aneurysms. Methods We describe a novel approach in the treatment of a wide-neck aneurysm at the terminus of the left vertebral artery by a contralateral approach in a patient with ipsilateral subclavian artery occlusion. Results A complex, wide-neck aneurysm at the verterbrobasilar junction hindered by ipsilateral subclavian occlusion can successfully be treated with stent-assisted coil embolization using a contralateral approach. Conclusion Contralateral U-shaped stenting offers a viable endovascular option for patients with complex aneurysms of the vertebral basilar junction but should be reserved for appropriate cases with favorable anatomy when the ipsilateral approach from the subclavian artery is unobtainable. PMID:26060520

  16. Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage Image Analysis Methods: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Noel; Valdés, Jose; Guevara, Miguel; Silva, Augusto

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) account for 10-30% of all strokes and are a result of acute bleeding into the brain due to ruptures of small penetrating arteries. Despite major advancements in the management of ischemic strokes and other causes of hemorrhagic strokes, such as ruptured aneurysm, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), or cavernous angioma, during the past several decades, limited progress has been made in the treatment of ICH, and the prognosis for patients who suffer them remains poor. The societal impact of these hemorrhagic strokes is magnified by the fact that affected patients typically are a decade younger than those afflicted with ischemic strokes. The ICH continues to kill or disable most of their victims. Some studies show that those who suffer ICH have a 30-day mortality rate of 35-44% and a 6-month mortality rate approaching 50%. Approximately 700,000 new strokes occur in the United States annually and approximately 15% are hem-orrhagic strokes related to ICH. The poor outcome associated with ICH is related to the extent of brain damage. ICH produces direct destruction and compression of surrounding brain tissue. Direct compression causes poor perfusion and venous drainage to surrounding penumbra at risk, resulting in ischemia to the tissues that most need perfusion [16].

  17. Idiopathic internal mammary artery aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Heyn, Jens; Zimmermann, Hanna; Klose, Alexander; Luchting, Benjamin; Hinske, Christian; Sadeghi-Azandaryani, Mojtaba

    2014-01-01

    Aneurysms of the internal mammary artery are extremely rare, and their presentation and treatment are variable. Since these aneurysms often tend to rupture and cause haemothorax and life-threatening conditions, the knowledge of secure treatment options is indispensable. We here report the case of an idiopathic internal mammary aneurysm in a 46-year-old man. Open surgical resection of the aneurysm was performed in this case without any complications. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was in a good physical condition without any vascular or neurological abnormalities during follow-up. PMID:25452261

  18. Targeted embolization reduces hemorrhage complications in partially embolized cerebral AVM combined with gamma knife surgery.

    PubMed

    Xiaochuan, Huo; Yuhua, Jiang; Xianli, Lv; Hongchao, Yang; Yang, Zhao; Youxiang, Li

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effect and safety of targeted embolization in partially embolized cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) followed by gamma knife surgery (GKS). We retrospectively analyzed 86 AVM patients who were targeted embolized by Onyx followed by GKS for residual nidus. Embolization-related complications were collected and the clinical effect was evaluated. During targeted embolization, intranidus or hemodynamic aneurysms and AVM-related fistula were evaluated and targeted embolized. Patients with AVM-related aneurysms and fistula were divided into a targeted embolization group and non-targeted embolization group based on the retrospectively determined treatment strategy. The effect of targeted embolization on hemorrhage risk was evaluated. The overall annual hemorrhage rate was 1.66% with 2.26% for ruptured AVMs and 1.08% for unruptured lesions. The annual mortality rate was 0.4%. Only one in 16 patients with embolization-related complications had permanent neurologic deficit. Twenty-four of 29 cases with intranidus aneurysms were targeted embolized, four of five cases with hemodynamic aneurysms were targeted embolized and eight of nine cases with arteriovenous fistula were targeted embolized. Chi square results showed the hemorrhage complications in the target embolization group were significantly lower than those in the non-target embolization group (p?hemorrhage rate and improved clinical outcome with low permanent complications in partially embolized AVMs. This method could be proposed for the treatment of large brain AVMs when a single-technique treatment is not feasible. PMID:25934780

  19. Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... chronological list of known cases and outbreaks. Marburg hemorrhagic fever (Marburg HF) Topics Transmission How do people get Marburg hemorrhagic fever? Signs and Symptoms What are the signs and ...

  20. Aneurysmal coronary cameral fistula.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Gohar; Khan, Asad; Malik, Azhar; Qureshi, Anwer

    2013-01-01

    A 26-year-old asymptomatic man, being medically managed for ventricular septal defect since childhood, presented to the outpatient clinic for a second opinion. Clinically, he was well built with normal vital signs. Cardiac auscultation was significant for a diastolic murmur over the praecordium. An ECG showed non-specific ST changes, and a subsequent transthoracic echocardiography performed revealed diastolic flow from the left ventricular (LV) anteroseptal wall into the LV cavity. A diagnosis of coronary-cameral fistula was confirmed by a multidetector CT which showed a 2.5×2 cm aneurysmal left anterior descending artery fistula to the LV. In addition to starting aspirin, transcatheter closure with occlusion device was considered knowing the potential risk of thrombus formation in the aneurysm and subsequent systemic embolisation. The patient however refused any percutaneous or surgical intervention. He remains asymptomatic 1 year after returning to his home country. PMID:23737570

  1. Aneurysmal coronary cameral fistula

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Gohar; Khan, Asad; Malik, Azhar; Qureshi, Anwer

    2013-01-01

    A 26-year-old asymptomatic man, being medically managed for ventricular septal defect since childhood, presented to the outpatient clinic for a second opinion. Clinically, he was well built with normal vital signs. Cardiac auscultation was significant for a diastolic murmur over the praecordium. An ECG showed non-specific ST changes, and a subsequent transthoracic echocardiography performed revealed diastolic flow from the left ventricular (LV) anteroseptal wall into the LV cavity. A diagnosis of coronary–cameral fistula was confirmed by a multidetector CT which showed a 2.5×2?cm aneurysmal left anterior descending artery fistula to the LV. In addition to starting aspirin, transcatheter closure with occlusion device was considered knowing the potential risk of thrombus formation in the aneurysm and subsequent systemic embolisation. The patient however refused any percutaneous or surgical intervention. He remains asymptomatic 1?year after returning to his home country. PMID:23737570

  2. Traumatic intracranial aneurysms in childhood and adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. C. G. Ventureyra; M. J. Higgins

    1994-01-01

    We report four pediatric traumatic intracranial aneurysms occurring before the age of 10 years. Two of these aneurysms were the results of closed head injury. The remaining two were iatrogenic aneurysms which occurred in unusual circumstances. These four children represent 33% of the pediatric intracranial aneurysms seen at the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario from 1974 to 1992. Diagnosis of

  3. Medical Management of Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Timothy Baxter; Michael C. Terrin; Ronald L. Dalman

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a common condition that may be lethal when it is unrecognized. Current guidelines suggest repair as the aneurysm diameter reaches 5.0 to 5.5 cm. Most aortic aneurysms are detected incidentally when imaging is done for other purposes or through screening programs. Ninety percent of these aneurysms are below the threshold for intervention at the time of

  4. Circumventricular organs of rats that experimental hydrocephalus and subarachnoidal hemorrhage carried out: an anaglyphic SEM study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilkan Tatar; Gokhan Akpinar; Bektas Acikgoz; Selcuk Tunali; M. Mustafa Aldur; H. Hamdi Celik; Samet Kapakin; H. Selcuk Surucu

    It is known that circumventricular organs that are located around the ventricular system of the brain are lack of blood-brain barrier and support the body water-salt balance. They also effect many physiological events such as some neuroendocrine and reproduction mechanisms. In different pathological conditions their results and the step in which the circumventricular organs are affected are unknown. Although circumventricular

  5. Intracranial oncotic aneurysms from choriocarcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Hove; B. B. Andersen; T. M. Christiansen

    1990-01-01

    Summary  Intracranial oncotic aneurysms are very rare. Only twelve reported cases were from choriocarcinoma. We present a new case\\u000a with two aneurysms disappearing after chemotherapy, the second in the literature but the first case with persistence of all\\u000a arteries.

  6. Incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage: an Australian national hospital morbidity database analysis.

    PubMed

    Lai, Leon; Morgan, Michael Kerin

    2012-05-01

    Incidences of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) in Australia have been reported in regional studies with variable rates. We investigated the national SAH rate and evaluated the trend over the 10 years from 1998 to 2008. The crude SAH incidence, not related to trauma or arteriovenous malformation, was estimated at 10.3 cases per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.2-10.4). Females have a higher incidence of SAH (12.5 cases per 100,000; 95% CI: 12.3-12.8) compared to males (8.0 cases per 100,000; 95% CI: 7.8-8.3), with age-adjusted incidence increases with increasing age for both sexes. Less than 10% of SAH occurred in the first three decades of life. The peak age group for patients to experience SAH was between 45 years and 64 years, accounting for almost 45% of the overall annual SAH admissions. Aneurysms located in the anterior circulation were a more common source of rupture compared to those located in the posterior circulation (rate ratio 3.9; 95% CI: 3.6-4.2). Contrary to contemporary observations in the literature, we did not observe a decline in the incidence of SAH during this specified study period. PMID:22326203

  7. Bone cysts: unicameral and aneurysmal bone cyst.

    PubMed

    Mascard, E; Gomez-Brouchet, A; Lambot, K

    2015-02-01

    Simple and aneurysmal bone cysts are benign lytic bone lesions, usually encountered in children and adolescents. Simple bone cyst is a cystic, fluid-filled lesion, which may be unicameral (UBC) or partially separated. UBC can involve all bones, but usually the long bone metaphysis and otherwise primarily the proximal humerus and proximal femur. The classic aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is an expansive and hemorrhagic tumor, usually showing characteristic translocation. About 30% of ABCs are secondary, without translocation; they occur in reaction to another, usually benign, bone lesion. ABCs are metaphyseal, excentric, bulging, fluid-filled and multicameral, and may develop in all bones of the skeleton. On MRI, the fluid level is evocative. It is mandatory to distinguish ABC from UBC, as prognosis and treatment are different. UBCs resolve spontaneously between adolescence and adulthood; the main concern is the risk of pathologic fracture. Treatment in non-threatening forms consists in intracystic injection of methylprednisolone. When there is a risk of fracture, especially of the femoral neck, surgery with curettage, filling with bone substitute or graft and osteosynthesis may be required. ABCs are potentially more aggressive, with a risk of bone destruction. Diagnosis must systematically be confirmed by biopsy, identifying soft-tissue parts, as telangiectatic sarcoma can mimic ABC. Intra-lesional sclerotherapy with alcohol is an effective treatment. In spinal ABC and in aggressive lesions with a risk of fracture, surgical treatment should be preferred, possibly after preoperative embolization. The risk of malignant transformation is very low, except in case of radiation therapy. PMID:25579825

  8. Pituitary-adrenal function in patients with acute subarachnoid haemorrhage: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bendel, Stepani; Koivisto, Timo; Ruokonen, Esko; Rinne, Jaakko; Romppanen, Jarkko; Vauhkonen, Ilkka; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Uusaro, Ari

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) may damage the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) axis and disturb cortisol metabolism. There are no available data that relates to the response of the HPA axis in the acute phase of SAH. We aimed to characterise the behavior of serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), total cortisol, stimulated total cortisol and free cortisol concentrations in acute aneurysmal SAH. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted of patients with acute aneurysmal SAH (n = 30) admitted to a tertiary university hospital. Patients admitted for elective aneurysmal surgery (n = 16) served as the control group. An ACTH stimulation test was performed twice during the first week and at three months. The main outcome measure was description of the ACTH-cortisol response by calculating serum free cortisol and measuring total cortisol and ACTH concentrations. A mixed models method was used for testing between the groups, allowing heterogeneity between the groups. Results Patients with SAH had higher initial serum total cortisol (mean +/- SD; 793 +/- 312 nmol/L) and free cortisol concentrations (83 +/- 55 nmol/L) than control patients (535 +/- 193 nmol/L, p = 0.001 and 33 +/- 18 nmol/L, p < 0.001, respectively). Thereafter, there were no differences in this respect. Serum free and total cortisol concentrations correlated but were unaffected by the severity of SAH. ACTH concentrations were comparable between SAH and control groups. Patients with Hunt-Hess grades IV to V had higher ACTH concentrations at day one (10.7 +/- 7.1 pmol/l/L) and day five (8.2 +/- 7.7 pmol/L) than patients with grade I-III (day one: 3.8 +/- 2.0 pmol/L, p = 0.002; day five: 4.7 +/- 1.8 pmol/L, p = 0.04). Conclusions Calculation of serum free cortisol concentration was not helpful in identifying patients with potential hypocortisolism. SAH severity did not affect cortisol concentrations, possibly indicating relative pituitary-adrenal insufficiency in patients with more severe bleeding. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00614887. PMID:18851750

  9. Aneurysm-osteoarthritis syndrome with visceral and iliac artery aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    van der Linde, Denise; Verhagen, Hence J. M.; Moelker, Adriaan; van de Laar, Ingrid M. B. H.; Van Herzeele, Isabelle; De Backer, Julie; Dietz, Harry C.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Aneurysms-osteoarthritis syndrome (AOS), caused by SMAD3 mutations, is a recently described autosomal-dominant syndrome characterized by arterial aneurysms, tortuosity, and aortic dissections in combination with osteoarthritis. Our objective was to evaluate the AOS-related vascular consequences in the visceral and iliac arteries and raise awareness for this aggressive syndrome among vascular specialists. Methods All AOS patients were monitored regularly according to our clinical AOS protocol. The study included those with one or more visceral aneurysms or tortuosity, or both. Clinical and surgical data were obtained from record abstraction. Results The study included 17 AOS patients (47% men) aged 47 ± 13 years. A total of 73 aneurysms were encountered, of which 46 were located in the abdomen. The common iliac artery was most commonly affected (37%), followed by the superior mesenteric artery (15%), celiac trunk (11%), and splenic artery (9%). Rapid aneurysm growth ?1 year was found in three arteries (gastric, hepatic, and vertebral artery). Furthermore, arterial tortuosity was noted in 94% of patients. Four patients underwent six elective (endo) vascular interventions for aneurysms in the iliac, hepatic, gastric, or splenic artery, without major perioperative or postoperative complications. Conclusions AOS predisposes patients to widespread visceral and iliac artery aneurysms and extreme arterial tortuosity. Early elective aneurysm repair should be considered because the risk of aneurysm rupture is estimated to be very high and elective (endo) vascular interventions were not complicated by fragility of arterial tissue. Given the aggressive behavior of AOS, it is of utmost importance that vascular specialists are aware of this new syndrome. PMID:22975338

  10. Evolution of a chronic dissecting aneurysm on magnetic resonance imaging in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Yau, Ivanna; deVeber, Gabrielle; Dirks, Peter; Armstrong, Derek; Krings, Timo

    2015-02-01

    Clinical and imaging manifestations of the so-called partially thrombosed aneurysm (PTA) are different from those of the classic intracranial saccular aneurysm. Given some of their peculiar imaging features, it had been hypothesized that some PTAs occur due to repeated intramural hemorrhages. The authors present a case of PTA that evolved from an acute dissecting aneurysm as shown by serial imaging. A previously healthy 5-year-old boy had a sudden onset of left hemiparesis. Initial MRI sequences showed a perforating vessel infarction in the right basal ganglia area secondary to an acute distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) dissection as demonstrated on conventional angiography. Conservative management with close observation of this dissection was chosen, and serial MRI studies revealed layering of blood of various ages within the wall of an aneurysmal outpouching of the MCA, thereby leading to the imaging appearance of a PTA. The findings in this case indicate that some PTAs may be caused by repeated or chronic dissections, with blood entering the wall through an endothelial defect. Understanding the pathological mechanism underlying the formation of these aneurysms will help inform appropriate treatment strategies. PMID:25479578

  11. Endovascular repair of popliteal aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Cina, Claudio S

    2010-04-01

    Endovascular repair is an established modality of treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysms. It is therefore reasonable to expect its application to other less common aneurysmal conditions, including isolated iliac and popliteal artery aneurysms (PAA). There are, however, essential differences between aortic aneurysms and peripheral aneurysms: smaller arterial caliber, mobility of the arterial segment, associated occlusive disease, and devices that have not been specifically designed for peripheral applications. Due to these differences, results obtained in abdominal aortic aneurysms cannot be extrapolated to peripheral aneurysms. The attraction of the endovascular repair for PAA is its minimally invasive nature. The literature, however, provides only case reports, case series and small cohorts, and one small randomized, controlled trial. A cumulative summary of these studies provides the clinician with information upon which to base the choice of treatment on a specific patient. Endovascular repair for PAA with suitable anatomy and good run-off can be considered safe, and medium term results appear comparable with those of open repair. PMID:20045613

  12. Acute ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunction following opening of the spinal subarachnoid space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew D. Smyth

    2009-01-01

    Tubbs et al. present a case series of five patients who experienced ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunction with intraspinal subarachnoid surgical manipulation implicated as the pivotal factor in conversion of a stable, suboptimally functioning, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt system into an acutely obstructed one. They conjecture a “siphoning” effect in the subarachnoid cranial–spinal subarachnoid space as causative in proximal shunt obstruction; a

  13. Management of gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Hilsden, R. J.; Shaffer, E. A.

    1995-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a common problem that requires prompt recognition and management to prevent serious morbidity and mortality. Management goals are stabilization of the patient with vigorous fluid resuscitation followed by investigation and definitive treatment of the bleeding source. Endoscopy is often the initial diagnostic test and allows therapeutic measures to be performed at the same time. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8563510

  14. Techniques in Endovascular Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Phade, Sachin V.; Garcia-Toca, Manuel; Kibbe, Melina R.

    2011-01-01

    Endovascular repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVARs) has revolutionized the treatment of aortic aneurysms, with over half of elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repairs performed endoluminally each year. Since the first endografts were placed two decades ago, many changes have been made in graft design, operative technique, and management of complications. This paper summarizes modern endovascular grafts, considerations in preoperative planning, and EVAR techniques. Specific areas that are addressed include endograft selection, arterial access, sheath delivery, aortic branch management, graft deployment, intravascular ultrasonography, pressure sensors, management of endoleaks and compressed limbs, and exit strategies. PMID:22121487

  15. Can the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies Classification Accurately Predict Outcomes in Intracerebral Hemorrhage?

    PubMed Central

    Behrouz, Réza; Zakaria, Asma

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many scoring systems have been developed for the purpose of estimating of mortality and outcomes in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, the utility of the World Federation of Neurosurgical Society (WFNS) classification, which is routinely used in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, has never been specifically assessed in ICH. METHODS A retrospective review of the records of consecutive ICH patients admitted over a 2-year period was carried out. Collected data included ICH size, location, intraventricular hemorrhage, age, admission Glasgow Coma Scale scores, and outcomes on discharge. Linear regression was performed to confirm correlations of the WFNS scale and the ICH score separately with good outcome, poor outcome, and in-hospital mortality. Receiver–operator characteristic (ROC) curve was employed to plot WFNS and ICH scores each in relation to in-hospital mortality and poor outcome. Accuracy was estimated by calculating the area under the curves (AUC). RESULTS In this study, 128 patients were included. The overall mortality rate was 34.4%. Linear regression showed appropriate fit for both the ICH Score and the WFNS in relation to poor outcome and mortality. The ROC curves for the scales in relation to in-hospital death produced an AUC estimate 0.93 for WFNS and 0.92 for the ICH Score (p = 0.81). For poor outcome, the AUC values were 0.91 and 0.90 for the WFNS and the ICH Score, respectively (p = 0.9). For good outcome, the AUC for WFNS was 0.86 and for the ICH score, 0.85 (p = 0.74). CONCLUSION The WFNS classification is as accurate as the ICH score in predicting discharge outcomes and in-hospital mortality. It is a simple clinical scale that can be used to predict outcomes in both ICH and subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.

  16. A fatal case of pontine hemorrhage related to methamphetamine abuse.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Tomoko; Hayashi, Takahito; Ishida, Yuko; Tsuneyama, Kouichi; Kimura, Akihiko; Kondo, Toshikazu

    2007-10-01

    In this report, we describe a fatal case of pontine hemorrhage related with methamphetamine abuse. A 54-year-old male was found dead in a prone position in his parents' house, and a medico-legal autopsy was carried out to determine the cause of his death. Externally, although an injection mark-like injury with subcutaneous hemorrhage was observed in the left cubital fossa, the autopsy revealed no severe trauma leading to death. Internally, every organ was moderately congested. The brain weighed 1330 g. Macroscopically, there was no vascular abnormality such as aneurysm or malformation. In the sections of the brain stem, a massive hematoma occupied the central area of the pons. Drug screening test using Triage was weakly positive for amphetamines. Moreover, in the blood and urine samples, methamphetamine was quantitatively detected at concentrations of 0.4 and 0.6 mg/l, respectively, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Other drugs and poison were not detected in the blood and urine samples collected at autopsy. Histopathologically, necrotizing angiitis characterized by fibrinoid necrosis of the intima and media was observed with cell infiltration. Thus, the pontine hemorrhage seemingly resulted from methamphetamine-induced angiitis, with an acute elevation of blood pressure after methamphetamine abuse. PMID:17720598

  17. Infrequent Hemorrhagic Complications Following Surgical Drainage of Chronic Subdural Hematomas

    PubMed Central

    Sangiorgi, Simone; Bifone, Lidia; Balbi, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematomas mainly occur amongst elderly people and usually develop after minor head injuries. In younger patients, subdural collections may be related to hypertension, coagulopathies, vascular abnormalities, and substance abuse. Different techniques can be used for the surgical treatment of symptomatic chronic subdural hematomas : single or double burr-hole evacuation, with or without subdural drainage, twist-drill craniostomies and classical craniotomies. Failure of the brain to re-expand, pneumocephalus, incomplete evacuation, and recurrence of the fluid collection are common complications following these procedures. Acute subdural hematomas may also occur. Rarely reported hemorrhagic complications include subarachnoid, intracerebral, intraventricular, and remote cerebellar hemorrhages. The causes of such uncommon complications are difficult to explain and remain poorly understood. Overdrainage and intracranial hypotension, rapid brain decompression and shift of the intracranial contents, cerebrospinal fluid loss, vascular dysregulation and impairment of venous outflow are the main mechanisms discussed in the literature. In this article we report three cases of different post-operative intracranial bleeding and review the related literature.

  18. Extensive subarachnoid venous angiomatosis with hydrocephalus in phacomatosis pigmentovascularis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Wen; Tsai, Yi-Shan; Lee, Jung-Shun; Tu, Yi-Fang; Huang, Chao-Ching

    2013-09-10

    An 8-month-old boy with cutaneous vascular malformations and dermal melanocytosis (Mongolian spots, figure, A) on the face and trunk was diagnosed with phacomatosis pigmentovascularis type 2. He had normal neurodevelopment, but progressive macrocephaly (figure, B). Linear brain ultrasonography showed extensive venous angiomatosis in the prominent subarachnoid space (figure, C and D). MRI revealed cortical sulcal widening, prominent leptomeningeal vessels in an enlarged subarachnoid space (figure, E and F), and communicating hydrocephalus (figure, F). Neurologic involvement in phacomatosis pigmentovascularis is uncommon except in Sturge-Weber and Klippel-Trenaunay syndromes.(1,2) Communicating hydrocephalus due to subarachnoid angiomatosis may be underdiagnosed in phacomatosis pigmentovascularis, and should be considered in case of progressive macrocephaly. PMID:24019387

  19. Acute neck pain, an atypical presentation of subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Julian; Blakeley, Chris; Sakar, Ramy; Aktar, Khalida; Hashemi, Kambiz

    2007-04-01

    Subarachnoid haemorrhage can be a massively debilitating condition with long-term repercussions. The "classic" presentation of sudden-onset severe headache normally raises suspicions. However, if the presentation is atypical, the diagnosis may be missed. We report on a 52-year-old man who presented with a 1-day history of progressively worsening right-sided neck pain spreading to the chest with associated symptoms of autonomic dysfunction. After initial stabilisation, the patient's Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score declined, with subsequent CT scan showing an extensive subarachnoid haemorrhage. PMID:17384369

  20. Acute neck pain, an atypical presentation of subarachnoid haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Julian; Blakeley, Chris; Sakar, Ramy; Aktar, Khalida; Hashemi, Kambiz

    2007-01-01

    Subarachnoid haemorrhage can be a massively debilitating condition with long?term repercussions. The “classic” presentation of sudden?onset severe headache normally raises suspicions. However, if the presentation is atypical, the diagnosis may be missed. We report on a 52?year?old man who presented with a 1?day history of progressively worsening right?sided neck pain spreading to the chest with associated symptoms of autonomic dysfunction. After initial stabilisation, the patient's Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score declined, with subsequent CT scan showing an extensive subarachnoid haemorrhage. PMID:17384369

  1. Thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection.

    PubMed

    Goldfinger, Judith Z; Halperin, Jonathan L; Marin, Michael L; Stewart, Allan S; Eagle, Kim A; Fuster, Valentin

    2014-10-21

    Aortic dissection is the most devastating complication of thoracic aortic disease. In the more than 250 years since thoracic aortic dissection was first described, much has been learned about diseases of the thoracic aorta. In this review, we describe normal thoracic aortic size; risk factors for dissection, including genetic and inflammatory conditions; the underpinnings of genetic diseases associated with aneurysm and dissection, including Marfan syndrome and the role of transforming growth factor beta signaling; data on the role for medical therapies in aneurysmal disease, including beta-blockers, angiotensin receptor blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; prophylactic surgery for aneurysm; surgical techniques for the aortic root; and surgical and endovascular management of aneurysm and dissection for different aortic segments. PMID:25323262

  2. Hemodynamic Intervention of Cerebral Aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Hui

    2005-11-01

    Cerebral aneurysm is a pathological vascular response to hemodynamic stimuli. Endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms essentially alters the blood flow to stop them from continued growth and eventual rupture. Compared to surgical clipping, endovascular methods are minimally invasive and hence rapidly gaining popularity. However, they are not always effective with risks of aneurysm regrowth and various complications. We aim at developing a Virtual Intervention (VI) platform that allows: patient-specific flow calculation and risk prediction as well as recommendation of tailored intervention based on quantitative analysis. This is a lofty goal requiring advancement in three areas of research: (1). Advancement of image-based CFD; (2) Understanding the biological/pathological responses of tissue to hemodynamic factors in the context of cerebral aneurysms; and (3) Capability of designing and testing patient-specific endovascular devices. We have established CFD methodologies based on anatomical geometry obtained from 3D angiographic or CT images. To study the effect of hemodynamics on aneurysm development, we have created a canine model of a vascular bifurcation anastomosis to provide the hemodynamic environment similar to those in CA. Vascular remodeling was studied using histology and compared against the flow fields obtained from CFD. It was found that an intimal pad, similar to those frequently seen clinically, developed at the flow impingement site, bordering with an area of `groove' characteristic of an early stage of aneurysm, where the micro environment exhibits an elevated wall shear stresses. To further address the molecular mechanisms of the flow-mediated aneurysm pathology, we are also developing in vitro cell culture systems to complement the in vivo study. Our current effort in endovascular device development focuses on novel stents that alters the aneurysmal flow to promote thrombotic occlusion as well as favorable remodeling. Realization of an effective VI platform requires a strong multi-disciplinary team of engineers, biologists and clinicians.

  3. Aneurysm of the Splenic Artery

    PubMed Central

    Bedford, P. D.; Lodge, Brian

    1960-01-01

    This paper records an incidence of 10·4% of aneurysm of the splenic artery in 250 consecutive routine post-mortem examinations. Medial degeneration seemed to be the commonest cause of such aneurysms and although a number were associated with other intraabdominal pathology, including portal hypertension, the association may be fortuitous and not causal. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:13688586

  4. Changes of Flow Characteristics by Stenting in Aneurysm Models: Influence of Aneurysm Geometry and Stent Porosity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyehan Rhee; Moon Hee Han; Sang Hoon Cha

    2002-01-01

    An endovascular technique using a stent has been developed and successfully applied in the treatment of wide neck aneurysms. A stent can facilitate thrombosis in the aneurysm pouch while maintaining biocompatible passage of the parent artery. Insertion of the stent changes the flow characteristics inside the aneurysm pouch, which can affect the intra-aneurysmal embolization process. The purpose of this study

  5. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) On this Page What ... How is HFRS prevented? Suggested Reading What is hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome? Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome ( ...

  6. Aortic Aneurysm - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Aortic Aneurysm URL of this page: http://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Aortic Aneurysm - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  7. Intracranial aneurysms in infants and children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice W. Allison; Patricia C. Davis; Yutaka Sato; Charles A. James; Sofia S. Haque; Edgardo J. C. Angtuaco; Charles M. Glasier

    1998-01-01

    Background. The diagnosis and imaging of pediatric aneurysms has changed since the advent of MR and MRA. Objective. To update the literature on pediatric aneurysms and better define the appropriate work-up of childhood aneurysms in 1997.\\u000a Materials and methods. Retrospective review of 21 children (12 boys, 9 girls) with 25 aneurysms from three institutions over a 20-year period was\\u000a performed.

  8. An unusual presentation of classic polyarteritis nodosa in a child

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rezan Topaloglu; Mediha Kaz?k; Isil Saatci; Mukaddes Kalyoncu; Barbaros E. Cil; Nejat Akalan

    2005-01-01

    Classic polyarteritis nodosa (c-PAN) is a rare disease in adults and extremely rare in children. We report a 3-year-old girl with c-PAN who presented with disturbances of consciousness and hypertension. Cranial tomography showed a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage and acute ischemic lesions. Renal angiography revealed bilateral multiple aneurysms. Due to her

  9. Percutaneous treatment of subarachnoid-pleural fistula with Onyx.

    PubMed

    Knafo, Steven; Parker, Fabrice; Herbrecht, Anne; Court, Charles; Saliou, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    Subarachnoid-pleural fistula is a well-described complication after anterior surgery for thoracic disc herniation, but is difficult to treat by means of traditional chest and lumbar drains due to interference by positive ventilation pressures that may keep the fistula open and prevent proper closure. Current treatment strategies include surgical repair, which is technically challenging, and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation, which can take several weeks to be effective. In this report, the authors describe a novel treatment for subarachnoid-pleural fistula using percutaneous obliteration with Onyx. Surgery for removal of a T7-8 disc herniation associated with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament was performed in a 56-year-old woman via an anterior transthoracic transpleural approach. Ten days after surgery, she presented with diplopia due to a subarachnoid-pleural fistula that was confirmed by CT myelography. Percutaneous injection of Onyx was performed under local anesthesia. Postprocedure CT showed complete obliteration of the fistula with no adverse events. A CT scan obtained 1 month later showed complete resolution of the pleural effusion. Neurological examination at 3 months postsurgery was normal. Clinical and radiological follow-up at 1 year showed complete recovery and no sign of fistula recurrence. Percutaneous treatment for subarachnoid-pleural fistula is an easy, safe, and effective strategy and can therefore be proposed as a first-line option for this challenging complication. PMID:23432323

  10. Surgical management of peripancreatic arterial aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin Moore; Marc R Matthews; David J Minion; Rhonda Quick; Thomas H Schwarcz; Fang K Loh; Eric D Endean

    2004-01-01

    Peripancreatic artery aneurysms—gastroduodenal (GDA) and pancreaticoduodenal (PDA)—are highly unusual. We report 4 such aneurysms and have collated reports of true peripancreatic artery aneurysms based on an extensive review of the English literature. From this review, patient characteristics, clinical behavior, outcome and management strategies are assessed.

  11. Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair: current endovascular perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Nathan; Minion, David; Bobadilla, Joseph L

    2014-01-01

    Thoracoabdominal aneurysms account for roughly 3% of identified aneurysms annually in the United States. Advancements in endovascular techniques and devices have broadened their application to these complex surgical problems. This paper will focus on the current state of endovascular thoracoabdominal aneurysm repair, including specific considerations in patient selection, operative planning, and perioperative complications. Both total endovascular and hybrid options will be considered. PMID:25170271

  12. Mediastinal false aneurysm after thoracic aortic surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takahiro Katsumata; Narain Moorjani; Giuseppe Vaccari; Stephen Westaby

    2000-01-01

    Background. Postoperative mediastinal false aneurysm is associated with a substantial morbidity and mortality. Surgical treatment is mandatory, although the individual approach varies according to the type of pathologic process, infection status, and site of origin of the aneurysm.Methods. Between April 1993 and February 1999, we treated 10 patients, aged 25 to 73 years, with anastomotic mediastinal false aneurysm originating from

  13. [Ruptured tiny middle cerebral artery aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Ichiro; Tsutsumi, Keisuke; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hirose, Makoto; Shirakawa, Yasushi; Toba, Tamotsu

    2015-03-01

    With new neuroimaging techniques, the detection rate of unruptured intracranial aneurysms has increased. While most detected aneurysms are small and left untreated because of the low risk of rupture, we still encounter many cases of small aneurysm rupture. Middle cerebral artery(MCA)aneurysms have lower risk of rupture compared to those in the anterior cerebral or internal carotid-posterior communicating arteries. Identification of small aneurysms with a high risk of rupture is important to improve management of these aneurysms. We report 10 cases of ruptured tiny(<3mm)MCA aneurysms. All patients underwent clipping and nine had good outcomes. One patient had poor outcome due to the worsening of chronic heart failure and kidney failure. A tiny aneurysm can rupture if the aneurysmal wall is fragile. Therefore, the fragility of the aneurysmal wall is an important predictive factor of rupture. Presently, however, it is difficult to determine when an operation for an unruptured tiny aneurysm is indicated; new neuroimaging techniques that detect the fragility of the aneurysmal wall are needed. PMID:25748805

  14. Occipital aneurysmal bone cyst rupture following head trauma: case report.

    PubMed

    Garber, Sarah T; Riva-Cambrin, Jay K

    2015-03-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are benign, expansile, osteolytic lesions that represent 1%-2% of primary bone tumors. Cranial ABCs are even more rare and represent 3%-6% of these unique lesions. The authors describe the case of a 3-year-old girl who presented with an acute posterior fossa epidural hematoma after minor trauma. Imaging workup revealed a previously undiagnosed suboccipital ABC that appeared to have ruptured as a result of her trauma, leading to a life-threatening hemorrhage. To the authors' knowledge, a ruptured ABC has never before been presented in the pediatric literature. In this case report, the authors review the imaging findings, natural history, clinical course, and treatment of these rare lesions. PMID:25555115

  15. [Sudden decrease in the level of consciousness due to subarachnoid bleeding attack in a patient undergoing ophthalmic surgery under retrobulbar anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Adachi, H; Tashiro, T; Tashiro, T; Goto, K; Sadanaga, M; Asai, S

    1998-01-01

    We experienced a case of intraoperative subarachnoid bleeding attack under retrobulbar anesthesia in a 71 year-old female. Immediately after retrobulbar anesthesia with bupivacaine, the patient showed a sudden decrease in her level of consciousness, respiratory depression, convulsions and her blood pressure increased to 258/63 mmHg. The clinical symptoms and onset of the attack were very similar to those of acute local anesthetic intoxication, where local anesthetics reached the central nervous system through cerebrospinal fluid or via ophthalmic artery. We gave oxygen and provided ventilatory assist by bag and mask, and administered anticonvulsant and antihypertensive agents. After we confirmed recovery of consciousness and stability of hemodynamics and respiration, the extracapsular lens extraction began. The same attack reoccurred 20 minutes later, and we treated the patient with the same procedure as in the first attack and asked the surgeon to shorten the operation. After surgery the patient was diagnosed by computed tomography as having subarachnoid bleeding from a ruptured aneurysm of the anterior cerebral artery. When a patient's level of consciousness suddenly decreases under local anesthesia, we recommend terminating the surgery to clarify the cause. In such cases, serious cardio- and cerebrovascular disorders might be involved, rather than complications due to local anesthetic intoxication. PMID:9492506

  16. Anomalous Right Subclavian Artery Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Gordon C.; Codd, John E.

    1991-01-01

    During the past 2 years, 3 anomalous right subclavian artery aneurysms have been encountered at the St. Louis Heart Institute. The 1st patient, a 72-year-old woman, was found to have an asymptomatic 5-cm-diameter anomalous right subclavian artery aneurysm after surgery for suspected rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. Resection was not attempted because of her poor cardiopulmonary and renal condition. One year later, the patient remains alive with marked cardiopulmonary limitations. The 2nd patient, a 77-year-old man, experienced dysphagia and severe weight loss because of a 14-cm-diameter aneurysm. Three days after undergoing surgical repair, he required reoperation for graft occlusion with right upper-extremity ischemia. Six months after hospital discharge, he died of pulmonary insufficiency and metastatic colon cancer. The 3rd patient, a 73-year-old woman, required emergency surgical intervention because of acute rupture and hypovolemic shock. Thirteen days later, she died of aspiration, asphyxia, and cardiac arrest. On the basis of our experience and a review of the literature, we conclude that symptomatic anomalous right subclavian artery aneurysms are rare, and that surgical intervention entails a relatively high morbidity and mortality rate. If long-term survival is anticipated, associated medical illnesses should be considered before surgery is undertaken. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1991;18:209-18) Images PMID:15227483

  17. Early rebleeding in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage under intensive blood pressure management.

    PubMed

    Oheda, Motoki; Inamasu, Joji; Moriya, Shigeta; Kumai, Tadashi; Kawazoe, Yushi; Nakae, Shunsuke; Kato, Yoko; Hirose, Yuichi

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to report the frequency and clinical characteristics of early rebleeding in subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) patients who underwent intensive blood pressure (BP) management. Patients with aneurysmal SAH frequently present to the emergency department (ED) with elevated BP. Intensive BP management has been recommended to lower the risk of early rebleeding. However, few studies have reported the frequency of early rebleeding in SAH patients undergoing BP management. In our institution, SAH patients with systolic BP (SBP)>140mmHg received continuous intravenous nicardipine to maintain their SBP within 120±20mmHg after diagnosis. An attempt to implement intensive BP management was made on 309 consecutive SAH patients who presented to our ED within 48hours of SAH onset. Overall, 24 (7.8%) of the 309 patients sustained early rebleeding. Fifteen patients sustained early rebleeding before the implementation of BP management, and the other nine sustained early rebleeding after the implementation of BP management. Therefore, the frequency of early rebleeding under BP management was 3.1% (9/294). When the 309 patients were dichotomised using ED SBP of 140mmHg as a cut off (SBP>140mmHg; n=239 versus SBP?140mmHg; n=70), the latter counter-intuitively exhibited a significantly higher frequency of early rebleeding (5.9% versus 14.2%; p=0.04). This relatively low frequency of early rebleeding under BP management may be acceptable. However, early rebleeding is not eradicated even with strict BP control as factors other than elevated BP are involved. ED SBP within the target range (SBP?140mmHg) does not negate the risk of early rebleeding. Other treatment options that reduce the risk should also be explored. PMID:26077940

  18. Anesthesia with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest for giant basilar aneurysm surgery.

    PubMed

    Yu, C L; Tan, P P; Wu, C T; Hsu, J C; Chen, J F; Wang, Y L; Lee, S T

    2000-03-01

    The application of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) as an adjutant technique in anesthetic management for surgery of giant and complex cerebral aneurysm has been clinically recognized with piling up experience in many institutes. DHCA provides the advantages such as a bloodless surgical field and protection of the brain, all of which make a precise clipping of the aneurysm possible and thus it lowers the mortality rate which could be extremely high without it. Nevertheless, in application, the disadvantages of this technique includes comparatively inefficient and uneven cooling or rewarming, severe physiological change, cardiac distension and arrhythmia during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), hemorrhage from systemic heparinization and brain damage due to inadequate protection, none of which has ever been stressed. Since many giant aneurysms are found inoperable during exploration with application of DHCA, it would change the fate of the patients, and the clinical value of DHCA in such an instance becomes contradictive and disputable. We would like to present our experience in a case who, because of a giant basilar aneurysm, underwent surgical correction under DHCA retrograde cerebral perfusion (RCP) with cerebral function monitoring including electroencephalography (EEG), brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP), thermal diffusion cerebral blood flowmetry, study of the change of extracellular concentration of excitatory amino acid, glutamate and aspartate, and off-line neurochemical analysis with cerebral microdialysis technique. PMID:11000664

  19. Statins in Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Arne; Greenberg, Steven M; Gurol, M Edip

    2015-08-01

    While statins play an indisputable role in primary and secondary prevention of ischemic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, a concern exists regarding a possible association between low lipoprotein levels and statin use on the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). While these data may incline physicians to discontinue statins after ICH, an increasing amount of preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that statins might have a beneficial effect on outcome and recovery in this context that goes beyond lipid lowering effects. Different etiologies of ICH and the related risk of recurrence should also be taken into account when deciding about statin use/avoidance in patients with high risk of ICH. The problem is compounded by paucity of data from randomized controlled trials and well-designed prospective observational studies. This review will discuss the existing evidence on potential interactions between statins and risk of ICH as well as outcomes in order to provide practical recommendations for clinical decision-making. PMID:26092038

  20. First Initial community-acquired meningitis due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli complicated with multiple aortic mycotic aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We report the first case of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli community-acquired meningitis complicated with multiple aortic mycotic aneurysms. Because of the acute aneurysm expansion with possible impending rupture on 2 abdominal CT scan, the patient underwent prompt vascular surgery and broad spectrum antibiotic therapy but he died of a hemorrhagic shock. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli was identified from both blood and cerebrospinal fluid culture before vascular treatment. The present case report does not however change the guidelines of Gram negative bacteria meningitis in adults. PMID:22321435

  1. First initial community-acquired meningitis due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli complicated with multiple aortic mycotic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Weyrich, Pierre; Ettahar, Nicolas; Legout, Laurence; Meybeck, Agnes; Leroy, Olivier; Senneville, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We report the first case of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli community-acquired meningitis complicated with multiple aortic mycotic aneurysms. Because of the acute aneurysm expansion with possible impending rupture on 2 abdominal CT scan, the patient underwent prompt vascular surgery and broad spectrum antibiotic therapy but he died of a hemorrhagic shock. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli was identified from both blood and cerebrospinal fluid culture before vascular treatment. The present case report does not however change the guidelines of Gram negative bacteria meningitis in adults. PMID:22321435

  2. Abdominal aortic aneurysms: case report

    PubMed Central

    Hadida, Camille; Rajwani, Moez

    1998-01-01

    A 71-year-old male presented to a chiropractic clinic with subacute low back pain. While the pain appeared to be mechanical in nature, radiographic evaluation revealed an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which required the patient to have vascular surgery. This case report illustrates the importance of the history and physical examination in addition to a thorough knowledge of the features of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The application of spinal manipulative therapy in patients with (AAA) is also discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  3. BIOMECHANICS OF ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSM

    PubMed Central

    Vorp, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a condition whereby the terminal aorta permanently dilates to dangerous proportions, risking rupture. The biomechanics of AAA has been studied with great interest since aneurysm rupture is a mechanical failure of the degenerated aortic wall and is a significant cause of death in developed countries. In this review article, the importance of considering the biomechanics of AAA is discussed, and then the history and the state-of-the-art of this field is reviewed - including investigations into the biomechanical behavior of AAA tissues, modeling AAA wall stress and factors which influence it, and the potential clinical utility of these estimates in predicting AAA rupture. PMID:17254589

  4. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    PubMed Central

    Norwood, M G A; Lloyd, G M; Bown, M J; Fishwick, G; London, N J; Sayers, R D

    2007-01-01

    The operative mortality following conventional abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair has not fallen significantly over the past two decades. Since its inception in 1991, endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has provided an alternative to open AAA repair and perhaps an opportunity to improve operative mortality. Two recent large randomised trials have demonstrated the short and medium term benefit of EVAR over open AAA repair, although data on the long term efficacy of the technique are still lacking. This review aimed at providing an overview of EVAR and a discussion of the potential benefits and current limitations of the technique. PMID:17267674

  5. A Case of Behçet's Disease with Pericarditis, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura, Deep Vein Thrombosis and Coronary Artery Pseudo Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Chang Mo; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jin Ho; Lee, Kyu Hyung; Kim, Hyun Do; Hong, Yeong Hoon

    2006-01-01

    Behçet's disease with concomitant thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), coronary artery stenosis and coronary artery pseudo aneurysm is rare. Here we report a case of Behçet's disease with several cardiovascular complications, namely: pericarditis, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), TTP, coronary artery stenosis, and a coronary artery pseudo aneurysm. A 37-year-old female presented with sudden dyspnea and syncope at our emergency room and underwent pericardiectomy and pericardial window formation for the diagnosis of cardiac tamponade with acute hemorrhagic pericarditis. Thereafter, TTP and DVT complicated her illness. After confirmation of Behçet's disease on the basis of a history of recurrent oral and genital ulcers and erythema nodosum, remission was achieved after treatment with methylprednisolone pulse therapy, colchicine, catheter directed thrombolysis and thrombectomy. However, whilst maintaining anticoagulation therapy, a newly developed pericardial aneurysmal dilatation was noted on follow-up radiologic evaluation. Further evaluation revealed right coronary artery stenosis and a left coronary artery pseudo aneurysm; these additional problems were treated with the nonsurgical insertion of an endovascular graft stent. At the time of writing three months later after stent insertion, the aneurysm has continued to regress and no additional complications have intervened with combined immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:16646566

  6. Observation of cerebral aneurysm wall thickness using intraoperative microscopy: clinical and morphological analysis of translucent aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Song, Jihye; Park, Jung Eon; Kim, Hyoung Ryoul; Shin, Yong Sam

    2015-06-01

    Intracranial aneurysms suffer various interactions between hemodynamics and pathobiology, and rupture when this balance disrupted. Aneurysm wall morphology is a result of these interactions and reflects the quality of the maturation. However, it is a poorly documented in previous studies. The purpose of this study is to observe aneurysm wall thickness and describe the characteristics of translucent aneurysm by analyzing clinical and morphological parameters. 253 consecutive patients who underwent clipping surgery in a single institute were retrospectively analyzed. Only middle cerebral artery aneurysms (MCA) which exposed most part of the dome during surgery were included. Aneurysms were categorized based on intraoperative video findings. Aneurysms more than 90 % of super-thin dome and any aneurysms with entirely super-thin-walled daughter sac were defined as translucent aneurysm. A total of 110 consecutive patients with 116 unruptured MCA aneurysms were included. Ninety-two aneurysms (79.3 %) were assigned to the not-translucent group and 24 (20.7 %) to the translucent group. The relative proportion of translucent aneurysm in each age group was highest at ages 50-59 years and absent at ages 30-39 and 70-79 years. There was a trend that translucent aneurysms were smaller in size (p = 0.019). Multivariate logistic analysis showed that translucent aneurysm was strongly correlated with height <3 mm (p = 0.003). We demonstrated that the translucent aneurysms were smaller in size and the aneurysm height <3 mm was related. These results may provide information in determining treatment strategies in patients with small size aneurysm. PMID:25652435

  7. Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris A. Whitehouse

    2004-01-01

    Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by the arbovirus Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), which is a member of the Nairovirus genus (family Bunyaviridae). CCHF was first recognized during a large outbreak among agricultural workers in the mid-1940s in the Crimean peninsula. The disease now occurs sporadically throughout much of Africa, Asia, and Europe and results in

  8. Splenic Artery Aneurysm as an Unusual Cause of New Onset Ascites: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Goshayeshi, Ladan; Vosoghinia, Hassan; Rajabzadeh, Farnood; Ahadi, Mitra; Asadi Sakhmaresi, Tayyebeh; Farzanehfar, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Splenic artery aneurysm (SAA) is a rare and potentially life-threatening clinical entity that carries a risk of rupture and peritoneal hemorrhage. When ruptured, it typically manifests as abdominal pain with hemodynamic instability. This is a report about a 29-year-old male admitted for evaluation of recentonset ascites following the spontaneous resolution of a transient episode of severe epigastric and left upper quadrant pain with syncope the preceding day. Paracentesis revealed bloody fluid. Abdominal computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance venography (MRV) showed a three centimeter SAA. During admission, prompt exploratory laparotomy was performed that revealed excessive intraperitoneal hemorrhage due to a ruptured SAA. The pathology report confirmed that the SAA had developed secondary to atherosclerosis. Careful history taking together with appropriate imaging tests and emergent surgical intervention led to a timely diagnosis and the patient’ s survival. PMID:24829704

  9. Splenic artery aneurysm as an unusual cause of new onset ascites: a case report.

    PubMed

    Goshayeshi, Ladan; Vosoghinia, Hassan; Rajabzadeh, Farnood; Ahadi, Mitra; Asadi Sakhmaresi, Tayyebeh; Farzanehfar, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Splenic artery aneurysm (SAA) is a rare and potentially life-threatening clinical entity that carries a risk of rupture and peritoneal hemorrhage. When ruptured, it typically manifests as abdominal pain with hemodynamic instability. This is a report about a 29-year-old male admitted for evaluation of recentonset ascites following the spontaneous resolution of a transient episode of severe epigastric and left upper quadrant pain with syncope the preceding day. Paracentesis revealed bloody fluid. Abdominal computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance venography (MRV) showed a three centimeter SAA. During admission, prompt exploratory laparotomy was performed that revealed excessive intraperitoneal hemorrhage due to a ruptured SAA. The pathology report confirmed that the SAA had developed secondaryto atherosclerosis. Careful history taking together with appropriate imaging tests and emergent surgical intervention led to a timely diagnosis and the patient' ssurvival. PMID:24829704

  10. Pregnancy-related rupture of arterial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Barrett, J M; Van Hooydonk, J E; Boehm, F H

    1982-09-01

    Over 50 per cent of ruptured arterial aneurysms in women under the age of 40 are pregnancy-related. The hemodynamic and endocrine changes of pregnancy appear to be the cause of arterial alterations which may lead to new aneurysm formation and/or weakening of preexisting aneurysms. The most commonly reported arteries to have aneurysms rupture during pregnancy are the aorta, cerebral arteries, splenic artery, renal artery, coronary artery, and ovarian artery. In many instances, the rupture of an arterial aneurysm will initially simulate other less serious disease processes, thus delaying the correct diagnosis until a catastrophic event occurs. Early diagnosis and treatment of a ruptured arterial aneurysm are imperative in order to give optimal chances of survival to the mother and fetus. PMID:6752786

  11. Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Subarachnoid Haemorrhage and Vasospasm Enhances Endothelin Contraction in Rat Cerebral Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Assenzio, Barbara; Martin, Erica L.; Stankevicius, Edgaras; Civiletti, Federica; Fontanella, Marco; Boccaletti, Riccardo; Berardino, Maurizio; Mazzeo, AnnaTeresa; Ducati, Alessandro; Simonsen, Ulf; Mascia, Luciana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have suggested that cerebrospinal fluid from patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) leads to pronounced vasoconstriction in isolated arteries. We hypothesized that only cerebrospinal fluid from SAH patients with vasospasm would produce an enhanced contractile response to endothelin-1 in rat cerebral arteries, involving both endothelin ETA and ETB receptors. Methods Intact rat basilar arteries were incubated for 24 hours with cerebrospinal fluid from 1) SAH patients with vasospasm, 2) SAH patients without vasospasm, and 3) control patients. Arterial segments with and without endothelium were mounted in myographs and concentration-response curves for endothelin-1 were constructed in the absence and presence of selective and combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonists. Endothelin concentrations in culture medium and receptor expression were measured. Results Compared to the other groups, the following was observed in arteries exposed to cerebrospinal fluid from patients with vasospasm: 1) larger contractions at lower endothelin concentrations (p<0.05); 2) the increased endothelin contraction was absent in arteries without endothelium; 3) higher levels of endothelin secretion in the culture medium (p<0.05); 4) there was expression of ETA receptors and new expression of ETB receptors was apparent; 5) reduction in the enhanced response to endothelin after ETB blockade in the low range and after ETA blockade in the high range of endothelin concentrations; 6) after combined ETA and ETB blockade a complete inhibition of endothelin contraction was observed. Conclusions Our experimental findings showed that in intact rat basilar arteries exposed to cerebrospinal fluid from patients with vasospasm endothelin contraction was enhanced in an endothelium-dependent manner and was blocked by combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonism. Therefore we suggest that combined blockade of both receptors may play a role in counteracting vasospasm in patients with SAH. PMID:25629621

  12. Pulmonary artery aneurysm: review and case report.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Candales, A; Kleiger, R E; Aleman-Gomez, J; Kouchoukos, N T; Botney, M D

    1995-12-01

    Aneurysms involving the main pulmonary artery and its branches are rare. Clinical experience is limited and current knowledge is mainly derived from autopsy findings. This case report describes a patient with a pulmonary artery aneurysm associated with a previous, partially corrected stenotic pulmonary valve. The patient presented with symptoms suggestive of aneurysm dissection three decades after commissurotomy. The diagnostic approach and therapeutic intervention are emphasized with a review of the literature. PMID:8608676

  13. Pathomechanisms and treatment of pediatric aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timo Krings; Sasikhan Geibprasert; Karel G. terBrugge

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric aneurysms are rare diseases distinct from classical adult aneurysms and therefore require different treatment strategies.\\u000a Apart from saccular aneurysms that are more commonly found in older children, three major pathomechanisms may be encountered:\\u000a trauma, infection, and dissection. The posterior circulation and more distal locations are more commonly encountered in children\\u000a compared to adults, and there is an overall male

  14. Coronary anomalies: left main coronary artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Varda, Rajsekhar; Chitimilla, Santosh Kumar; Lalani, Aslam

    2012-01-01

    Coronary artery aneurysm is one of the rarest anomalies that we see in our medical practice and they are mostly associated with obstructive lesions due to atherosclerotic changes. Management of these aneurysm patients (conservative or surgical repair) usually depends on obstructive lesions and associated symptoms. We are presenting a case of left main aneurysm measuring around 14 × 28?mm with other obstructive leisons. It was treated with surgical repair in view of obstructive lesions and symptoms. PMID:24860680

  15. Possible Behçet's disease revealed by pulmonary aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Jerray, M; Benzarti, M; Rouatbi, N

    1991-05-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a multisystem disease which may affect many organ systems in addition to the originally described triple symptom complex. Pulmonary aneurysm is one of the rare complications of the disease. We report a case of bilateral pulmonary aneurysm in which usual criteria for the clinical diagnosis of BD were absent and we believe that pulmonary aneurysm could be the first appearance of the disease. PMID:2019195

  16. Bypasses and Reconstruction for Complex Brain Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Harley Brito; Messina-Lopez, Mario; Sekhar, Laligam N.

    2014-01-01

    Microsurgery for brain aneurysms is a current relevant technique, as advances in endovascular and stent-assisted coiling have not solved many of the difficulties inherent in the management of complex brain aneurysms. The following review highlights the importance of microsurgical bypass techniques for the management of complex cerebrovascular aneurysms and emphasizes, through two clinical cases, the technical difficulties and indications for bypass surgery. These cases demonstrate that in selected scenarios, bypass microsurgery still offers the only viable treatment for complex aneurysms. PMID:25624977

  17. Unruptured Cerebral Aneurysms: Evaluation and Management

    PubMed Central

    Ajiboye, Norman; Chalouhi, Nohra; Starke, Robert M.; Zanaty, Mario; Bell, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of imaging techniques and their increased use in clinical practice have led to a higher detection rate of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. The diagnosis of an unruptured intracranial aneurysm is a source of significant stress to the patient because of the concerns for aneurysmal rupture, which is associated with substantial rates of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it is important that decisions regarding optimum management are made based on the comparison of the risk of aneurysmal rupture with the risk associated with intervention. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management options for unruptured intracranial aneurysms based on the current evidence in the literature. Furthermore, the authors discuss the genetic abnormalities associated with intracranial aneurysm and current guidelines for screening in patients with a family history of intracranial aneurysms. Since there is significant controversy in the optimum management of small unruptured intracranial aneurysms, we provided a systematic approach to their management based on patient and aneurysm characteristics as well as the risks and benefits of intervention. PMID:26146657

  18. Elective Treatment of Middle Colic Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Hamasaki, Takafumi; Ota, Rikako; Ohno, Takashi; Kodama, Wataru; Uchida, Naotaka; Hayashi, Eiichi; Fukino, Syunsuke

    2014-01-01

    Middle colic artery aneurysms are rare and most have been reported with rupture or symptom. We report the successful elective treatment of a middle colic artery aneurysm without symptom, which is very rare. It failed to perform transcatheter arterial embolization for anatomical reasons, and, thus, the patient, a 77-year-old man, underwent surgical resection in spite of a history of laparotomy. Although a common cause of middle colic artery aneurysms is segmental arterial mediolysis, the present pathological findings indicated that fragmented or degenerated elastic fibers may also play an important role like aortic aneurysms. PMID:25298839

  19. Experimental subretinal hemorrhage in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Glatt, H; Machemer, R

    1982-12-01

    In order to simulate the hemorrhagic detachment stage of disciform macular degeneration, we injected fresh autologous blood into the subretinal space of albino rabbits and studied these hemorrhages clinically with the ophthalmoscope and by light and electron microscopy. One hour after injection, retinal changes were minimal and limited to occasional photoreceptor edema. At one day, there was marked damage of the photoreceptor cells characterized by edema and disintegration of the photoreceptors and pyknosis of the outer nuclear layer. Some photoreceptors had been pulled off the retina by contraction or movement of the blood clot, or both. By seven days, the photoreceptor cells were almost absent. Subretinal hemorrhage in rabbits led to irreversible retinal destruction within 24 hours. We think that the mechanism of the destruction of the overlying retina consists of a combination of a diffusion barrier by the clot, mechanical damage to the outer segments by contraction of the clot, and iron toxicity. PMID:7180915

  20. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) Topics Transmission How do people get Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever? Signs and Symptoms What are the signs and ...

  1. Hemodynamics of Cerebral Aneurysms: Computational Analyses of Aneurysm Progress and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Woowon; Rhee, Kyehan

    2012-01-01

    The progression of a cerebral aneurysm involves degenerative arterial wall remodeling. Various hemodynamic parameters are suspected to be major mechanical factors related to the genesis and progression of vascular diseases. Flow alterations caused by the insertion of coils and stents for interventional aneurysm treatment may affect the aneurysm embolization process. Therefore, knowledge of hemodynamic parameters may provide physicians with an advanced understanding of aneurysm progression and rupture, as well as the effectiveness of endovascular treatments. Progress in medical imaging and information technology has enabled the prediction of flow fields in the patient-specific blood vessels using computational analysis. In this paper, recent computational hemodynamic studies on cerebral aneurysm initiation, progress, and rupture are reviewed. State-of-the-art computational aneurysmal flow analyses after coiling and stenting are also summarized. We expect the computational analysis of hemodynamics in cerebral aneurysms to provide valuable information for planning and follow-up decisions for treatment. PMID:22454695

  2. Pantopaque simulating thrombosed intracranial aneurysms on MRI.

    PubMed

    Lidov, M W; Silvers, A R; Mosesson, R E; Stollman, A L; Som, P M

    1996-01-01

    A patient is presented in whom iophendylate (Pantopaque) within the basal cisterns closely resembled the appearance on MRI of thrombosed aneurysms of the middle cerebral arteries. The sometimes subtle differences between the appearances on MRI of Pantopaque and aneurysmal clot are discussed to permit accurate diagnosis without resorting to more invasive diagnostic tests, such as cerebral angiography. PMID:8606227

  3. A Giant Hemorrhagic Adrenal Pseudocyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Goran Stimac; Josip Katusic; Mario Sucic; Mario Ledinsky; Bozo Kruslin; Davor Trnski

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To report a rare case of a giant hemorrhagic adrenal pseudocyst and highlight the importance of this entity to clinicians. Case Presentation: A 57-year-old woman presented with a 1-year history of abdominal pain and distension. Ultrasonography and multislice computed tomography revealed a giant cystic (partially solid) mass over the left suprarenal region measuring 20 × 17 × 15 cm.

  4. Let's Talk about Hemorrhagic Stroke

    MedlinePLUS

    ... high estrogen content) excessive alcohol intake use of illegal drugs How are hemorrhagic strokes diagnosed? When someone has shown symptoms of a stroke or a TIA (transient ischemic attack), a doctor will gather information and make a diagnosis. He or she will ...

  5. Blood flow dynamics in patient-specific cerebral aneurysm models: The relationship between wall shear stress and aneurysm area index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alvaro Valencia; Hernan Morales; Rodrigo Rivera; Eduardo Bravo; Marcelo Galvez

    2008-01-01

    Hemodynamics plays an important role in the progression and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. The temporal and spatial variations in wall shear stress (WSS) within the aneurysmal sac are hypothesized to be correlated with the growth and rupture of the aneurysm. The current work describes the blood flow dynamics in 34 patient-specific models of saccular aneurysms located in the region of

  6. Aneurysms of the visceral and renal arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Panayiotopoulos, Y. P.; Assadourian, R.; Taylor, P. R.

    1996-01-01

    Visceral aneurysms represent a rare clinical entity; however, 10-20% will rupture and this is accompanied by a significant mortality rate of 20-70%, depending on the location of the aneurysm. The incidence, pathogenesis and clinical aspects of splanchnic and renal artery aneurysms are reviewed from the available literature and the problems of diagnosis and treatment are discussed. Their incidence is increasing and controversy still exists regarding their treatment. The decision for intervention has to take into account the size and the natural history of the lesion, the risk of rupture, which is high during pregnancy, and the relative risk of surgical or radiological intervention. For most asymptomatic aneurysms, expectant treatment is acceptable. For large, symptomatic or aneurysms with a high risk of rupture, surgery is advisable. An alternative treatment is the use of endovascular techniques, ie embolisation, or graft stent insertion. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8881722

  7. Cerebral aneurysms: Formation, progression and developmental chronology

    PubMed Central

    Etminan, Nima; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Dreier, Rita; Bruckner, Peter; Torner, James C.; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel; Macdonald, R. Loch

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UAIs) in the general population is up to 3%. Existing epidemiological data suggests that only a small fraction of UIAs progress towards rupture over the lifetime of an individual, but the surrogates for subsequent rupture and the natural history of UIAs are discussed very controversially at present. In case of rupture of an UIA, the case-fatality is up to 50%, which therefore continues to stimulate interest in the pathogenesis of cerebral aneurysm formation and progression. Actual data on the chronological development of cerebral aneurysm has been especially difficult to obtain and, until recently, the existing knowledge in this respect is mainly derived from animal or mathematical models or short-term observational studies. Here, we highlight the current data on cerebral aneurysm formation and progression as well as a novel approach to investigate the developmental chronology of cerebral aneurysms. PMID:24323717

  8. Mycotic aneurysms: a critical diagnosis in the emergency setting.

    PubMed

    Raman, Siva P; Fishman, Elliot K

    2014-04-01

    This pictorial essay reviews the pathophysiology and causes of mycotic aneurysms, their typical imaging appearances, mimics of mycotic aneurysms on CT, and treatment options. Correctly diagnosing mycotic aneurysms is critical for patient morbidity and mortality, as infected aneurysms are at extremely high risk of rapid growth and sudden rupture. The presence of a constellation of suggestive imaging features, as well as concerning patient symptomatology, should raise the possibility of a mycotic aneurysm. PMID:24142266

  9. The misdiagnosis of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: an ancient problem always present. Report of an atypical case.

    PubMed

    Ciardo, L F; Agresta, F; Bedin, N

    2007-05-01

    The rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm is one of the most dramatic event in the daily clinical practice. It is often easily suspected when the classical signs of hemorrhagic shock are associated with an anterior (mesogastric) abdominal pain and an expanding mass, especially in the non-obese patients. Sometimes many of these signs can lack and, as a consequence, the diagnosis might be very difficult. This may cause a fatal delay for the patients. We describe a singular case in which the rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm was simulating an acute cholecystitis: the presented symptoms, together with a negative personal medical history, were so atypical that even four experienced practitioners misdiagnosed the vascular lesion and the diagnosis was possible only at autopsy. PMID:17547788

  10. Reproducibility of haemodynamical simulations in a subject-specific stented aneurysm model--a report on the Virtual Intracranial Stenting Challenge 2007.

    PubMed

    Radaelli, A G; Augsburger, L; Cebral, J R; Ohta, M; Rüfenacht, D A; Balossino, R; Benndorf, G; Hose, D R; Marzo, A; Metcalfe, R; Mortier, P; Mut, F; Reymond, P; Socci, L; Verhegghe, B; Frangi, A F

    2008-07-19

    This paper presents the results of the Virtual Intracranial Stenting Challenge (VISC) 2007, an international initiative whose aim was to establish the reproducibility of state-of-the-art haemodynamical simulation techniques in subject-specific stented models of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). IAs are pathological dilatations of the cerebral artery walls, which are associated with high mortality and morbidity rates due to subarachnoid haemorrhage following rupture. The deployment of a stent as flow diverter has recently been indicated as a promising treatment option, which has the potential to protect the aneurysm by reducing the action of haemodynamical forces and facilitating aneurysm thrombosis. The direct assessment of changes in aneurysm haemodynamics after stent deployment is hampered by limitations in existing imaging techniques and currently requires resorting to numerical simulations. Numerical simulations also have the potential to assist in the personalized selection of an optimal stent design prior to intervention. However, from the current literature it is difficult to assess the level of technological advancement and the reproducibility of haemodynamical predictions in stented patient-specific models. The VISC 2007 initiative engaged in the development of a multicentre-controlled benchmark to analyse differences induced by diverse grid generation and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technologies. The challenge also represented an opportunity to provide a survey of available technologies currently adopted by international teams from both academic and industrial institutions for constructing computational models of stented aneurysms. The results demonstrate the ability of current strategies in consistently quantifying the performance of three commercial intracranial stents, and contribute to reinforce the confidence in haemodynamical simulation, thus taking a step forward towards the introduction of simulation tools to support diagnostics and interventional planning. PMID:18582891

  11. Large ventricular aneurysms occurring after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed Central

    Letac, B; Leroux, G; Cribier, A; Soyer, R

    1978-01-01

    We have studied 33 patients with a large ventricular aneurysm complicating an anterior myocardial infarction. The features of myocardial infarction progressing towards an aneurysm were no previous history of coronary disease, severe infarction as shown by the severity of pain and the presence of pericardial rub and heart failure, and large increase in serum levels of cardiac enzymes. A large aneurysm usually follows a large infarction resulting from the total or partial occlusion of the left anterior descending artery, which is involved alone in about half the patients and is associated with lesions of the circumflex and right coronary arteries in the other half. In most cases, standard radiography showed an abnormal cardiac configuration, but in 7 patients (21%) there was no radiological evidence of aneurysm. ST segment elevation (mean 2.7 mm) was reported in all subjects but one. Heart failure was present in most patients and was an indication for surgical treatment in one-third of the patients. A large aneurysm was not a contraindication to operation even when at angiography the aneurysm seemed to occupy almost all the left ventricle. Twenty-one patients were operated upon for resection of the aneurysm with a mortality rate of 14 per cent. PMID:656217

  12. Rasmussen's Aneurysm: A Forgotten Entity?

    SciTech Connect

    Keeling, A. N. [Beaumont Hospital, Department of Academic Radiology (Ireland); Costello, R. [Beaumont Hospital, Department of Respiratory Medicine (Ireland); Lee, M. J. [Beaumont Hospital, Department of Academic Radiology (Ireland)], E-mail: mlee@rcsi.ie

    2008-01-15

    We present the case of a rare entity which is a complication of a disease process that had almost disappeared from the Western World. With the recent resurgence in reported cases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) in Western communities, it is important to recognize complications and sequelae. A young alcoholic male with confirmed active TB suffered a cardiac arrest following massive haemoptysis. Multidetector computed tomography angiography diagnosed a Rasmussen's aneurysm, confirmed by digital subtraction angiography and then successfully embolized with glue. We outline this rare case and the embolization technique and review previously documented reports.

  13. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage: evaluation with MDCT.

    PubMed

    Soto, Jorge A; Park, Seong Ho; Fletcher, Joel G; Fidler, Jeff L

    2015-06-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common medical problem, with high associated morbidity and mortality. The clinical presentation of gastrointestinal hemorrhage varies with the location of the bleeding source, the intensity of the bleed, and the presence of comorbidities that affect the ability to tolerate blood loss. Conventional endoscopic examinations are usually the initial diagnostic tests in patients presenting with overt gastrointestinal hemorrhage. However, implementation of upper tract endoscopy and colonoscopy in the emergency setting can be challenging due to inconsistent availability of the service and difficulties in achieving adequate colonic cleansing in emergent situations. Thus, imaging tests are often relied upon to establish the location and the cause of bleeding, either for initial diagnosis or after non-revealing upper and lower tract endoscopies ("obscure" bleeding). This article discusses the imaging evaluation of patients with gastrointestinal bleeding and reviews the imaging appearance of the most common causes, taking into account the two most relevant clinical presentations: overt bleeding and obscure bleeding. PMID:25637128

  14. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masoud Mardani; Maryam Keshtkar-Jahromi

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a tick-borne viral disease reported from more than 30 countries in Africa, Asia, South-East Europe, and the Middle East. The majority of human cases are workers in livestock industry, agriculture, slaughterhouses, and veterinary practice. Nosocomial transmission is also well described. Clinical manifestations are nonspecific and symptoms typically include high fever, headache, malaise, arthralgia, myalgia, nausea, abdominal

  15. Endovascular treatment of visceral artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Banga, P; Reis De Souza, L; Oderich, G S

    2015-08-01

    Visceral artery aneurysms (VAAs) are a rare entity; however, aneurysm rupture can be a catastrophic complication, which may lead to a mortality rate up to 90%. With the advent of endovascular technology and rapid development of endovascular materials, tailored endovascular therapy including embolization and placement of stents or stent grafts according to clinical presentation, anatomy of the aneurysm, and downstream organ, has become a promising alternative to open surgery. This review article summarizes the current state-of-the-art on endovascular treatment of VAAs. PMID:25752257

  16. Endoluminal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    PubMed Central

    Ghouri, Maaz; Krajcer, Zvonimir

    2010-01-01

    Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is an attractive alternative to open surgical repair. Distal endograft migration and type 1 endoleak are recognized to be the 2 main complications of EVAR. First-generation endografts had a stronger propensity for distal migration, modular component separation, thrombosis, and loss of structural integrity. Substantial progress has been made in recent years with 2nd- and 3rd-generation devices to prevent these complications. Some of the most common predictors of endograft failure are angulated and short infrarenal necks, large-diameter necks, and thrombus in the aneurysmal sac. The purpose of this study is to describe and review our experience in using innovative techniques and a newer generation of endografts to prevent distal migration and type 1 endoleak in patients with challenging infrarenal neck anatomy. The use of these innovative EVAR techniques and the new generation of endografts in patients with challenging infrarenal neck anatomy has yielded encouraging procedural and intermediate-term results. PMID:20200623

  17. Shock Wave Lithotripsy and Renal Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Silberstein, Jonathan; Lakin, Charles M; Kellogg Parsons, J

    2008-01-01

    Although shock wave lithotripsy is a safe and efficacious treatment for nephrolithiasis, the most common acute complication is renal hemorrhage. Shock wave-induced renal hemorrhage is a potentially devastating injury if not promptly recognized and treated appropriately. The authors report a large perirenal hematoma occurring after shock wave lithotripsy and review the causes, prevention, and treatment of shock wave-induced renal hemorrhage. PMID:18836562

  18. Microcatheter Looping to Facilitate Aneurysm Selection in Coil Embolization of Paraclinoid Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young Dae; Rhim, Jong Kook; Park, Jeong Jin; Jeon, Jin Sue; Yoo, Roh-Eul; Kim, Jeong Eun; Cho, Won-Sang; Han, Moon Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objective Described herein is a microcatheter looping technique to facilitate aneurysm selection in paraclinoid aneurysms, which remains to be technically challenging due to the inherent complexity of regional anatomy. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by our Institutional Review Board, and informed consent was waived. Microcatheter looping method was employed in 59 patients with paraclinoid aneurysms between January 2012 and December 2013. In the described technique, construction of a microcatheter loop, which is steam-shaped or pre-shaped, based on the direction of aneurysms, is mandatory. The looped tip of microcatheter was advanced into distal internal carotid artery and positioned atop the target aneurysm. By steering the loop (via inner microguidewire) into the dome of aneurysm and easing tension on the microcatheter, the aneurysm was selected. Clinical and morphologic outcomes were assessed with emphasis on technical aspects of the treatment. Results Through this looping technique, a total of 59 paraclinoid aneurysms were successfully treated. After aneurysm selection as described, single microcatheter technique (n = 25) was most commonly used to facilitate coiling, followed by balloon protection (n = 21), stent protection (n = 7), multiple microcatheters (n = 3), and stent/balloon combination (n = 3). Satisfactory aneurysmal occlusion was achieved through coil embolization in 44 lesions (74.6%). During follow-up of 53 patients (mean interval, 10.9 ± 5.9 months), only one instance (1.9%) of major recanalization was observed. There were no complications related to microcatheter looping. Conclusion This microcatheter looping method facilitates safe and effective positioning of microcatheter into domes of paraclinoid aneurysms during coil embolization when other traditional microcatheter selection methods otherwise fail. PMID:26175591

  19. Coil occlusion of a subclavian mycotic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kische, Stephan; Ince, Hüseyin; Peuster, Matthias

    2010-06-01

    We report the first successful application of nonferromagnetic embolization coils for endovascular exclusion of a mycotic right subclavian artery aneurysm. A 58-year-old woman presented with acute cervical pain and a pulsatile mass in the right supraclavicular fossa under antibiotic medication for subacute infectious endocarditis. Diagnostic work-up including duplex sonography, digital subtraction angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a saccular aneurysm of the extrathoracic right subclavian artery. As an alternative to open surgery or stent-graft repair, this pathology was electively treated by transcatheter coil embolization. No neurological deficit or ischemic symptoms were noted during 9 months clinical follow-up. Multislice computed tomography scan revealed complete occlusion of the mycotic aneurysm 6 months after the interventional procedure. Transcatheter closure with Inconel embolization coils is a cost-effective and safe therapeutic option in patients with mycotic aneurysm originating from the subclavian artery. PMID:20146324

  20. Bullous Hemorrhagic Dermatosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Naveen, Kikkeri Narayanasetty; Rai, Vijetha

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of hemorrhagic bullous dermatosis occurring in areas distant from the site of injection of enoxaparin. A 88 year old woman was admitted for inter trochantric fracture. She was put enoxaparin 60mg subcutaneous 12 hrly for deep vein thrombosis. After 5 days she developed huge hemorrhagic bulla on left leg and multiple hemorrhagic bullae at other sites distant from injected site. A diagnosis of Bullous hemorrhagic dermatoses due to enoxaparin was made. Enoxaparin was stopped and started on oral heparin. Lesions started to regress. Only 9 similar cases have been reported throughout world and none from India. PMID:25071288

  1. Aneurysm Treatment – a Neuroradiologic Success Story

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Schumacher; Johannes Weber

    2008-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a   This short review portrays the treatment of cerebral aneurysms from the very early surgical beginning to current endovascular\\u000a multimodal therapy. The evolution to today’s mainly nonoperative treatment of aneurysms illustrates the enormous progress\\u000a of interventional neuroradiology, which has attained its outstanding success through the concurrence of deeper understanding\\u000a and knowledge of diseases, technical development, and endovascular manual skills.

  2. Case report: a troublesome ophthalmic artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Meling, T R; Sorteberg, W; Bakke, S J; Jacobsen, E A; Lane, P; Vajkoczy, P

    2014-12-01

    Objective and Importance?When treating large unruptured ophthalmic artery (OA) aneurysms causing progressive blindness, surgical clipping is still the preferred method because aneurysm sac decompression may relieve optic nerve compression. However, endovascular treatment of OA aneurysms has made important progress with the introduction of stents. Although this development is welcomed, it also makes the choice of treatment strategy less straightforward than in the past, with the potential of missteps. Clinical Presentation?A 56-year-old woman presented with a long history of progressive unilateral visual loss and magnetic resonance imaging showing a 20-mm left-sided OA aneurysm. Intervention?Because of her long history of very poor visual acuity, we considered her left eye to be irredeemable and opted for endovascular therapy. The OA aneurysms was treated with stent and coils but continued to grow, threatening the contralateral eye. Because she failed internal carotid artery (ICA) balloon test occlusion, we performed a high-flow extracranial-intracranial bypass with proximal ICA occlusion in the neck. However, aneurysm growth continued due to persistent circulation through reversed blood flow in distal ICA down to the OA and the cavernous portion of the ICA. Due to progressive loss of her right eye vision, we surgically occluded the ICA proximal to the posterior communicating artery and excised the coiled, now giant, OA aneurysm. This improved her right eye vision, but her left eye was permanently blind. Conclusion?This case report illustrates complications of the endovascular and surgical treatment of a large unruptured OA aneurysm. PMID:25485220

  3. Magic syndrome and true aortic aneurysm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Hidalgo-Tenorio; J. M. Sabio-Sánchez; P. J. P. Linares; L. M. Salmerón; E. Ros-Die; J. Jiménez-Alonso

    2008-01-01

    Magic syndrome is a very uncommon disease, and vascular involvement is exceptional; only one case has been reported in the\\u000a literature associated to a true aortic aneurysm. The treatment of aneurysms recommended in these patients is based on isolated\\u000a cases and includes corticosteroids, other immunosuppressant drugs, and surgery. We report a case of a patient with Magic syndrome\\u000a who developed

  4. Portal vein aneurysm in a dog.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Shingo; Washizu, Makoto; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Shibata, Sanae; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Yamazoe, Kazuaki

    2012-09-01

    Portal vein aneurysm (PVA) is a rare abnormal dilatation of the portal vein, which has not been reported in dogs. We describe the findings of ultrasound and computed tomography in a case of PVA in a young male toy poodle, with the final diagnosis established by explorative surgical observation. The dog had an aneurysmal fusiform dilatation in the extrahepatic portal vein with portal hypertension and multiple portsystemic shunts. This is the first report of canine PVA. PMID:22571895

  5. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Complicated by Intestinal Malrotation

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, Jin; Ishida, Masaru; Kodama, Akio; Mii, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal malrotation (IM) is an anomaly of fetal intestinal rotation that usually presents in the first month of life; it is rare for malrotaion to present in adulthood. Furthermore, the presentation of IM in conjunction with Abdominal aortic aneurysm is extremely rare and may require consideration with respect to the surgical approach and exposure of the abdominal aorta. We herein report a case of an abdominal aortic aneurysm complicated by intestinal malrotation. PMID:25848429

  6. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the hyoid.

    PubMed

    Shadaba, A; Zaidi, S

    1992-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst is a rare lesion usually of the long bones, well documented in the literature. It is a cystic, osteolytic vascular tumour, replete with giant cells and fibrous septa, yet devoid of endothelial lining. It has been reported in the larynx and maxillary sinus. This appears to be the first report of an aneurysmal bone cyst occurring in the hyoid bone. PMID:1541900

  7. Bronchial Artery Aneurysm Embolization with NBCA

    SciTech Connect

    Aburano, Hiroyuki, E-mail: aburano-3@r.vodafone.ne.jp; Kawamori, Yasuhiro; Horiti, Yasushi; Kitagawa, Kiyohide [Kouseiren Takaoka Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Sanada, Junichiro; Matsui, Osamu [Kanazawa University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2006-12-15

    We present a case of asymptomatic bronchial artery aneurysm that formed a fistula with part of the pulmonary artery (there was no definite fistula with the pulmonary vein). We were able to catheterize the feeding vessel but could not reach the aneurysm. We therefore injected a mixture of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA; Histoacryl, B. Braun, Melsungen, Germany) and iodized oil (Lipiodol; Guerbet, Aulnay-sous-Bois, France) from the feeding vessel. The fistula, aneurysm, and feeding vessel were almost totally occluded. After embolization, the patient coughed a little; there were no other definite side effects or complications. One and 3 months later, on chest CT, the aneurysm was almost completely occupied with hyperattenuating NBCA-Lipiodol embolization. NBCA is a liquid embolization material whose time to coagulation after injection can be controlled by diluting it with Lipiodol. It is therefore possible to embolize an aneurysm, feeding vessels, and efferent vessels (in our case, it was a fistula) by using an NBCA-Lipiodol mixture of an appropriate concentration, regardless of whether the catheter can reach the aneurysm or not.

  8. Hemodynamic Analysis of Intracranial Aneurysms with Moving Parent Arteries: Basilar Tip Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Sforza, Daniel M; Löhner, Rainald; Putman, Christopher; Cebral, Juan

    2010-01-01

    The effects of parent artery motion on the hemodynamics of basilar tip saccular aneurysms and its potential effect on aneurysm rupture were studied. The aneurysm and parent artery motions in two patients were determined from cine loops of dynamic angiographies. The oscillatory motion amplitude was quantified by registering the frames. Patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of both aneurysms were constructed from 3D rotational angiography images. Two CFD calculations were performed for each patient, corresponding to static and moving models. The motion estimated from the dynamic images was used to move the surface grid points in the moving model. Visualizations from the simulations were compared for wall shear stress (WSS), velocity profiles, and streamlines. In both patients a rigid oscillation of the aneurysm and basilar artery in the anterio-posterior direction was observed and measured. The distribution of WSS was nearly identical between the models of each patient, as well as major intra-aneurysmal flow structures, inflow jets, and regions of impingement. The motion observed in pulsating intracranial vasculature does not have a major impact on intra-aneurysmal hemodynamic variables. Parent artery motion is unlikely to be a risk factor for increased risk of aneurysmal rupture. PMID:21113271

  9. Intraventricular hemorrhage on initial computed tomography as marker of diffuse axonal injury after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Mata-Mbemba, Daddy; Mugikura, Shunji; Nakagawa, Atsuhiro; Murata, Takaki; Kato, Yumiko; Tatewaki, Yasuko; Li, Li; Takase, Kei; Ishii, Kiyoshi; Kushimoto, Shigeki; Tominaga, Teiji; Takahashi, Shoki

    2015-03-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) on initial computed tomography (CT) was reported to predict lesions of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) in the corpus callosum (CC) on subsequent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We aimed to examine the relationship between initial CT findings and DAI lesions detected on MRI as well as the relationship between the severity of IVH (IVH score) and severity of DAI (DAI staging). A consecutive 140 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who underwent MRI within 30 days after onset were revisited. We reviewed their initial CT for the following six findings: Status of basal cistern, status of mid-line shift, epidural hematoma, IVH, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and volume of hemorrhagic mass and IVH score were assigned in each patient. Based on MRI findings, patients were divided into DAI and non-DAI groups and were assigned a DAI staging. Then, to confirm that the IVH on initial CT predicts DAI lesions on MRI, we used multi-variate analysis of the six CT findings, including IVH, and examined the relationship between IVH score and DAI staging. The IVH detected on CT was the only predictor of DAI (p=0.0139). The IVH score and DAI staging showed significant positive correlation (p<0.0003). IVH score in DAI stage 3 (with DAI involving the brain stem; p=0.0025) or stage 2 (with DAI involving CC; p=0.0042) was significantly higher than that of DAI stage 0 (no DAI lesions). In conclusion, IVH on initial CT is the only marker of DAI on subsequent MRI, specifically severe DAI (stage 2 or 3). PMID:25026366

  10. Subarachnoid block with Taylor's approach for surgery of lower half of the body and lower limbs: A clinical teaching study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Kumkum; Rastogi, Bhawna; Gupta, Prashant K.; Rastogi, Avinash; Jain, Manish; Singh, V. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Subarachnoid anesthesia is used as the sole anesthetic technique for below umbilical surgeries, but patients with deformed spine represent technical difficulty for its establishment. This study was aimed to find out whether training of Taylor's approach to residents on normal spine is beneficial for establishing subarachnoid block in patients with deformed spine. Materials and Methods: The total of 174 patients of ASA I-III with normal and deformed spine of both genders scheduled for below umbilical surgeries under the subarachnoid block and met the inclusion criteria, were enrolled for this two-phased clinical teaching study. All participating residents have performed more than 100 subarachnoid block with the median and paramedian approach. Residents were randomized into two equal groups. During the first phase program, Group I was taught Taylor's approach by hands on method for the subarachnoid block while Group II kept on observation for the technique. During the second phase of program, Group II was also taught Taylor's approach for establishing the subarachnoid block. Block success was defined according to clinical efficacy. Results: The results of teaching of Taylor's approach were encouraging. Initially, the residents faced difficulty for establishing the subarachnoid block in deformed spine but after learning by observation and practical hands on, both groups had successfully performed the subarachnoid block by Taylor's approach in one or more attempts in patient with deformed spine with the acceptable failure rate of 15%. Conclusion: Taylor's approach for establishing subarachnoid block in deformed spine should be taught to residents on normal spine. PMID:25885500

  11. The effect of head orientation on subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid distribution and its implications for neurophysiological modulation and recording techniques.

    PubMed

    Bijsterbosch, Janine D; Lee, Kwang-Hyuk; Hunter, Michael D; Wilkinson, Iain D; Farrow, Tom; Barker, Anthony T; Woodruff, Peter W R

    2013-03-01

    Gravitational forces may lead to local changes in subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layer thickness, which has important implications for neurophysiological modulation and recording techniques. This study examines the effect of gravitational pull associated with different head positions on the distribution of subarachnoid CSF using structural magnetic resonance imaging. Images of seven subjects in three different positions (supine, left lateral and prone) were statistically compared. Results suggest that subarachnoid CSF volume decreases on the side of the head closest to the ground, due to downward brain movement with gravity. These findings warrant future research into currently unexplored gravitation-induced changes in regional subarachnoid CSF thickness. PMID:23400029

  12. Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a systematic review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm in comparison to open surgical repair. An abdominal aortic aneurysm [AAA] is the enlargement and weakening of the aorta (major blood artery) that may rupture and result in stroke and death. Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair [EVAR] is a procedure for repairing abdominal aortic aneurysms from within the blood vessel without open surgery. In this procedure, an aneurysm is excluded from blood circulation by an endograft (a device) delivered to the site of the aneurysm via a catheter inserted into an artery in the groin. The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this technology. The review included 44 eligible articles out of 489 citations identified through a systematic literature search. Most of the research evidence is based on non-randomized comparative studies and case series. In the short-term, EVAR appears to be safe and comparable to open surgical repair in terms of survival. It is associated with less severe hemodynamic changes, less blood transfusion and shorter stay in the intensive care and hospital. However, there is concern about a high incidence of endoleak, requiring secondary interventions, and in some cases, conversion to open surgical repair. Current evidence does not support the use of EVAR in all patients. EVAR might benefit individuals who are not fit for surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm and whose risk of rupture of the aneurysm outweighs the risk of death from EVAR. The long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of EVAR cannot be determined at this time. Further evaluation of this technology is required. OBJECTIVE The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (EVAR) in comparison to open surgical repair (OSR). BACKGROUND Clinical Need An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a localized, abnormal dilatation of the aorta greater than 3 cm or 50% of the aortic diameter at the diaphragm. (1) A true AAA involves all 3 layers of the vessel wall. If left untreated, the continuing extension and thinning of the vessel wall may eventually result in rupture of the AAA. The risk of death from ruptured AAA is 80% to 90%. (61) Heller et al. (44) analyzed information from a national hospital database in the United States. They found no significant change in the incidence rate of elective AAA repair or ruptured AAA presented to the nation’s hospitals. The investigators concluded that technologic and treatment advances over the past 19 years have not affected the outcomes of patients with AAAs, and the ability to identify and to treat patients with AAAs has not improved. Classification of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms At least 90% of the AAAs are affected by atherosclerosis, and most of these aneurysms are below the level of the renal arteries.(1) An abdominal aortic aneurysm may be symptomatic or asymptomatic. An AAA may be classified according to their sizes:(7) Small aneurysms: less than 5 cm in diameter. Medium aneurysms: 5-7cm. Large aneurysms: more than 7 cm in diameter. Small aneurysms account for approximately 50% of all clinically recognized aneurysms.(7) Aortic aneurysms may be classified according to their gross appearance as follows (1): Fusiform aneurysms affect the entire circumference of a vessel, resulting in a diffusely dilated lesion Saccular aneurysms involve only a portion of the circumference, resulting in an outpouching (protrusion) in the vessel wall. Prevalence of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms In community surveys, the prevalence of AAA is reported to be between 1% and 5.4%. (61) The prevalence is related to age and vascular risk factors. It is more common in men and in those with a positive family history. In Canada, Abdominal aortic aneurysms are the 10th leading cause of death in men 6

  13. Treatment of renal artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Peterson, L A; Corriere, M A

    2015-08-01

    Renal artery aneurysms (RAAs) represent a rare disease and are most commonly discovered as an incidental imaging finding. RAA may be associated with hypertension and are usually asymptomatic at presentation but may result in rupture, hematuria, or renal infarction. The natural history of RAA is poorly understood. Although there is general consensus that RAA that are symptomatic or identified in women at risk for pregnancy should be repaired, diameter criteria for repair of asymptomatic RAA are controversial and emerging evidence suggests that rupture incidence is low for those <2.5 cm in diameter. Options for repair of RAA have expanded over the preceding decades with expansion of both open surgical and endovascular treatments. PMID:25752256

  14. The experimental study on aneurysm with PIV system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yueshe, Wang; Xiaoqi, Ma; Di, Li

    2013-07-01

    Cerebral aneurysm, a local enlargement of an artery caused by weakness in the wall of a cerebral artery, has the high death rate and disability rate, and is a threat to public health. The forming mechanism of aneurysm is complex, which motivated many researchers to conduct studies in this field. The results indicated that increasing heart frequency can aggravate the oscillation of wall shear stress, and push The growth points of aneurysm along the aneurysm wall, thereby significantly affecting bthe growth and rupture mechanism of aneurysm. In addition, it is found that the curvature of the vessel is the key to induce the secondary vortex in the aneurysm; the secondary vortex increases the magnitude of WSS near the dome of aneurysm, which can cause the rupture of aneurysm dome. there is a linear relationship between the velocity of blood flow and the square root of hear frequency.

  15. Preliminary Experience with Intra-Arterial Nicardipine as a Treatment for Cerebral Vasospasm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neeraj Badjatia; Mehmet A. Topcuoglu; Johnny C. Pryor; James D. Rabinov; Christopher S. Ogilvy; Bob S. Carter; Guy A. Rordorf

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Papaverine is the primary intra-arterial (IA) treatment for vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH); however, is it limited in effect and by adverse effects. We prospectively studied the use of IA nicardipine as a treatment for vasospasm. METHODS: Over 12 months, all patients with SAH who required interventional treatment for vasospasm were given IA nicardipine with or

  16. Carotid artery aneurysms: Serbian multicentric study.

    PubMed

    Radak, Dorde; Davidovi?, Lazar; Vukobratov, Vladimir; Ilijevski, Nenad; Kosti?, Dusan; Maksimovi?, Zivan; Vucurevi?, Goran; Cvetkovic, Slobodan; Avramov, Svetolik

    2007-01-01

    This multicentric Serbian study presents the treatment of 91 extracranial carotid artery aneurysms in 76 patients (13 had bilateral lesions). There were 61 (80.3%) male and 15 (19.7%) female patients, with an average age of 61.4 years. The aneurysms were caused by atherosclerosis in 73 cases (80.2%), trauma in six (6.6%), previous carotid surgery in six (6.6%), tuberculosis in one (1.1%), and fibromuscular dysplasia in five (5.5%). The majority (61 cases or 67%) of the aneurysms involved the internal carotid artery, 29 (31.9%) the common carotid artery bifurcation, and one (1.1%) the external carotid artery. Forty-five (49.4%) aneurysms were fusiform, while 46 (50.6%) were saccular. Twenty-nine (31.9%) cases were totally asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis. The remainder presented with compression in 14 (15.4%) cases, stroke in 11 (12.1%) cases, transient ischemic attack in 33 (36.3%) cases, and rupture in four (4.4%) cases. In cases where the aneurysm involved the internal carotid artery, four surgical procedures were performed: aneurysmectomy with end-to-end anastomosis in 30 (33.0%) cases, aneurysmectomy with vein graft interposition in 20 (22.0%) cases, aneurysmectomy with anastomosis between external and internal carotid artery in eight (8.8%) cases, and aneurysmectomy followed by arterial ligature in three cases. One case of external carotid artery aneurysm also was treated by aneurysmectomy and ligature. Aneurysm replacement with Dacron graft was performed in 29 (31.9%) cases where common carotid artery bifurcation was involved. Two (2.2%) patients died after the operation due to a stroke. They had ruptured internal carotid artery aneurysm treated by aneurysmectomy and ligature. Including these, a total of five (5.5%) postoperative strokes occurred. In two (2.2%) cases, transient cranial nerve injuries were found. Excluding the five patients who were lost to follow-up, 69 other surviving patients were followed from 2 months to 12 years (mean 5 years and 3 months). In this period, there were no new neurological events and all reconstructed arteries were patent. Three patients died more than 5 years after the operation, due to myocardial infarction. Aneurysms of the extracranial carotid arteries are rare vascular lesions that produce a high incidence of unfavorable neurological sequelae. Because of their varied etiology, location, and extension, different vascular procedures have to be used during repair of extracranial carotid artery aneurysms. In all of these procedures, an aneurysmectomy with arterial reconstruction is necessary. PMID:17349331

  17. AntiShock Garments for Obstetric Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suellen Miller; Aderinola Ojengbede; Janet Turan; Oladosu Ojengbede; Elizabeth Butrick; Paul Hensleigh

    2007-01-01

    Annually, over 500,000 women die from complications of pregnancy and childbirth; the majority die from hemorrhage and shock. Obstetrical hemorrhage of all etiologies, such as uterine atony, ruptured uterus, and ruptured ectopic, can cause massive blood loss resulting in severe shock. Unless women can access fluid replacement, blood transfusions, and, often, surgery, the shock leads to organ failure and death.

  18. Acute Hemorrhage and Oxygen Free Radicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kailash Prasad; Jawahar Kalra; Greg Buchko

    1988-01-01

    Oxygen free radicals are known to produce cellular injury. There are various mechanisms during hemorrhagic shock that can lead to an increase in the oxy gen free radicals, which would produce a loss of membrane integrity and a decrease in cardiac function and cardiac contractility. The authors studied the effect of acute hemorrhage and reperfusion on the hemodynamics, blood lac

  19. Thrombosed giant coronary artery aneurysm presenting as an intracardiac mass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory M Hirsch; Patrick J Casey; Asma Raza-Ahmad; Robert M Miller; Kristine J Hirsch

    2000-01-01

    Giant coronary artery aneurysms are rare in adults and are usually found in association with Kawasaki’s disease arising in childhood. We report a case of a thrombosed giant right coronary artery aneurysm presenting as an intracardiac mass detected after inferior wall myocardial infarction. Histologic analysis indicated that fibromuscular dysplasia was the underlying cause of the aneurysm.

  20. Left subclavian artery aneurysm: Two cases of rare congenital etiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard D. Stahl; Peter F. Lawrence; Kiran Bhirangi

    1999-01-01

    Subclavian artery aneurysms are uncommon. The most common causes of these aneurysms are atherosclerosis and traumatic pseudoaneurysm. We report two cases of rare congenial left subclavian artery aneurysms. Diagnosis with aortography and treatment with resection with bypass grafting are the optimal approaches to avoid life-threatening and limb-threatening ischemia. (J Vasc Surg 1999;29:715-8.)

  1. Fetal Diagnosis of Left Ventricular Aneurysm: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Giacobbe, Lauren; Williams, Preston; Ramin, Kirk; Sivanandam, Shanthi

    2011-01-01

    Congenital left ventricular aneurysm is a rare but potentially lethal condition. We describe a case of isolated congenital left ventricular aneurysm diagnosed at 28 weeks' gestation. In addition to standard imaging, we utilized color-coded transthoracic tissue Doppler techniques to further evaluate the aneurysm postnatally. PMID:23705094

  2. Endovascular Treatment of Aortic Aneurysms: Techniques and Clinical Update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rabih A. Chaer; Michel S. Makaroun; Edgar G. Chedrawy; Khaled Abdelhady; Himalaya Lele; Malek G. Massad

    2008-01-01

    Open repair of abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms continues to be associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Endovascular repair of abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms has evolved over the past few years and has significantly reduced the morbidity of aortic aneurysm repair compared with the standard open surgical procedures. Several devices have been approved for clinical use for this purpose.

  3. The genetic basis for aortic aneurysmal disease.

    PubMed

    Saratzis, Athanasios; Bown, Matthew J

    2014-06-01

    Aortic aneurysms are an important cause of cardiovascular death in elderly patients. At present, little is known of the pathobiology of aneurysmal disease and this limits the ability to develop non-surgical treatments to stabilise aneurysms. Both thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) demonstrate a strong genetic component in their aetiology. Determination of the genetic variants associated with aneurysmal disease is one approach to increasing the understanding the pathways leading to aneurysmal degeneration of the aorta. In this review, we aim to summarise the current knowledge of the genetics underlying the two most common disease phenotypes, thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) and AAA. Genetically, AAA represent a multifactorial disease, with the likelihood that there are multiple variants of very low effect sizes contributing to the overall genetic disease risk. Non-syndromic TAA appears to be associated with a smaller number of risk loci with higher individual effect sizes at these loci. Candidate gene and genome-wide approaches have identified robust associations between AAA and variants in/nearby the SORT1, low-density lipoprotein receptor, DAB2IP, LRP1, ELN, CRP, TGFB and various matrix metallo-proteinase genes suggesting that aberrations of lipid metabolism and proteolytic pathways are the key contributors to disease. Some of these associations (eg, LRP1) are not associated with atherosclerosis, suggesting pathways unique to AAA. Genetic variants associated with non-syndromic TAA (ACTA2 and MYH11) are related to the TGF? pathway, strongly implicated in syndromic TAA, thus suggesting a common pathway between syndromic and non-syndromic TAA. PMID:24842835

  4. Risk factors associated with late aneurysmal sac expansion after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    PubMed Central

    Nakai, Motoki; Ikoma, Akira; Sato, Hirotatsu; Sato, Morio; Nishimura, Yoshiharu; Okamura, Yoshitaka

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to identify the risk factors associated with late aneurysmal sac expansion after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). METHODS We retrospectively reviewed contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) images of 143 patients who were followed for ?6 months after EVAR. Sac expansion was defined as an increase in sac diameter of 5 mm relative to the preoperative diameter. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify associated risk factors for late sac expansion after EVAR from the following variables: age, gender, device, endoleak, antiplatelet therapy, internal iliac artery embolization, and preprocedural variables (aneurysm diameter, proximal neck diameter, proximal neck length, suprarenal neck angulation, and infrarenal neck angulation). RESULTS Univariate analysis revealed female gender, endoleak, aneurysm diameter ?60 mm, suprarenal neck angulation >45°, and infrarenal neck angulation >60° as factors associated with sac expansion. Multivariate analysis revealed endoleak, aneurysm diameter ?60 mm, and infrarenal neck angulation >60° as independent predictors of sac expansion (P < 0.05, for all). CONCLUSION Our results suggest that patients with small abdominal aortic aneurysms (<60 mm) and infrarenal neck angulation ?60° are more favorable candidates for EVAR. Intraprocedural treatments, such as prophylactic embolization of aortic branches or intrasac embolization, may reduce the risk of sac expansion in patients with larger abdominal aortic aneurysms or greater infrarenal neck angulation. PMID:25858524

  5. Histology and Morphology of the Brain Subarachnoid Trabeculae

    PubMed Central

    Saboori, Parisa; Sadegh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The interface between the brain and the skull consists of three fibrous tissue layers, dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater, known as the meninges, and strands of collagen tissues connecting the arachnoid to the pia mater, known as trabeculae. The space between the arachnoid and the pia mater is filled with cerebrospinal fluid which stabilizes the shape and position of the brain during head movements or impacts. The histology and architecture of the subarachnoid space trabeculae in the brain are not well established in the literature. The only recognized fact about the trabeculae is that they are made of collagen fibers surrounded by fibroblast cells and they have pillar- and veil-like structures. In this work the histology and the architecture of the brain trabeculae were studied, via a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments using cadaveric and animal tissue. In the cadaveric study fluorescence and bright field microscopy were employed while scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used for the animal studies. The results of this study reveal that the trabeculae are collagen based type I, and their architecture is in the form of tree-shaped rods, pillars, and plates and, in some regions, they have a complex network morphology.

  6. Histology and Morphology of the Brain Subarachnoid Trabeculae.

    PubMed

    Saboori, Parisa; Sadegh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The interface between the brain and the skull consists of three fibrous tissue layers, dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater, known as the meninges, and strands of collagen tissues connecting the arachnoid to the pia mater, known as trabeculae. The space between the arachnoid and the pia mater is filled with cerebrospinal fluid which stabilizes the shape and position of the brain during head movements or impacts. The histology and architecture of the subarachnoid space trabeculae in the brain are not well established in the literature. The only recognized fact about the trabeculae is that they are made of collagen fibers surrounded by fibroblast cells and they have pillar- and veil-like structures. In this work the histology and the architecture of the brain trabeculae were studied, via a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments using cadaveric and animal tissue. In the cadaveric study fluorescence and bright field microscopy were employed while scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used for the animal studies. The results of this study reveal that the trabeculae are collagen based type I, and their architecture is in the form of tree-shaped rods, pillars, and plates and, in some regions, they have a complex network morphology. PMID:26090230

  7. Original surgical treatment of thoracolumbar subarachnoid cysts in six chondrodystrophic dogs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid cysts are rare conditions in veterinary medicine, associated with spinal cord dysfunction. Most of the 100 cases of subarachnoid cysts described since the first report in 1968 were apparently not true cysts. Reported cysts are usually situated in the cervical area and occur in predisposed breeds such as the Rottweiler. The purpose of this retrospective study, from May 2003 to April 2012, was to describe the distinctive features of thoracolumbar spinal subarachnoid cysts, together with their surgical treatment and outcome in 6 chondrodystrophic dogs. Results Five Pugs and 1 French Bulldog were examined. Images suggestive of a subarachnoid cyst were obtained by myelography (2/6) and computed tomography myelography (4/6), and associated disc herniation was observed in 3/6 dogs. A hemilaminectomy was performed. The protruding disc eventually found in 5/6 dogs was treated by lateral corpectomy. The ventral leptomeningeal adhesions observed in all dogs after durotomy were dissected. No or only mild post-operative neurological degradation was observed. Follow-up studies (7 months to 4 years) indicated good outcome and no recurrence. Conclusions All the thoracolumbar subarachnoid cysts described in these 6 chondrodystrophic dogs were associated with leptomeningeal adhesions. Good results seemed to be obtained by dissecting and removing these adhesions. A protruding disc, found here in 5/6 dogs, needs to be ruled out and can be treated by lateral corpectomy. PMID:24884635

  8. Deferoxamine therapy for intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Hua, Y; Keep, R F; Hoff, J T; Xi, G

    2008-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a subtype of stroke with very high mortality. Experiments have indicated that clot lysis and iron play an important role in ICH-induced brain injury. Iron overload occurs in the brain after ICH in rats. Intracerebral infusion of iron causes brain edema and neuronal death. Deferoxamine, an iron chelator, is an FDA-approved drug for the treatment of acute iron intoxication and chronic iron overload due to transfusion-dependent anemia. Deferoxamine can rapidly penetrate the blood-brain barrier and accumulate in the brain tissue in significant concentration after systemic administration. We have demonstrated that deferoxamine reduces ICH-induced brain edema, neuronal death, brain atrophy, and neurological deficits. Iron chelation with deferoxamine could be a new therapy for ICH. PMID:19066072

  9. Reversible left ventricular dysfunction associated with raised troponin I after subarachnoid haemorrhage does not preclude successful heart transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Deibert; V Aiyagari; M N Diringer

    2000-01-01

    Transient abnormalities in ECGs, echocardiograms, and cardiac enzymes have been described in the acute setting of subarachnoid haemorrhage. In addition, left ventricular dysfunction has been reported at the time of brain death. A patient with an acute subarachnoid haemorrhage who presented with raised troponin I (TnI) concentrations and diffuse left ventricular dysfunction is described. After declaration of brain death 32

  10. Single-session Coil Embolization of Multiple Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Keun

    2013-01-01

    Objective There is no clear treatment strategy for the management of multiple intracranial aneurysms because of variable anatomical distribution, difficult identification of the aneurysm ruptured, and poor overall outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of single-session coil embolization for multiple intracranial aneurysms. Methods Between September 2008 and December 2012, 209 aneurysms in 117 patients were treated at our institute. Twenty eight among the 117 patients had multiple aneurysms with a total of 71, and 60 of the 71 aneurysms underwent coil embolization in a single-session. Results A total of 60 aneurysms were treated with a single-session coil embolization, of which the most frequent locations were in the posterior communicating artery, followed by the middle cerebral artery. Immediate post-embolization angiographies showed total occlusion in 49 (81.7%) aneurysms, remnant neck in 6 (10%), and body-filling in 5 (8.3%). Procedure-related complications had developed in 2 (3.3%) of the 60 embolized aneurysms: an asymptomatic thromboembolic event, and a partial coil protrusion without a subsequent thromboembolic complication. Conclusion With careful evaluation of individual aneurysm characteristics and configuration, multiple intracranial aneurysms previously thought to require multimodality therapy can be safely treated in a single-session coil embolization. PMID:24167798

  11. Surgical treatment of digestive arteries aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Caliò, F G; Bertagni, A; Mangialardi, N; Ciulli, A; Vietri, F; Martinelli, V

    1997-01-01

    Eight patients of a mean age of 56.4 years, have been operated on for 9 digestive arteries aneurysms in a 7-years-period. Sites of aneurysmal disease included 3 splenic, 3 superior mesenteric, 2 hepatic, and 1 left gastric arteries. Five patients (62.5%) were asymptomatic, while 3 (37.5%) presented with symptoms. Three patients (37.5%) presented associated aortic lesions consisting in 2 infrarenal aneurysms and 1 aorto-iliac stenosis. Of the 9 arteries treated, 5 were revascularized. Restaurative operations included 1 reconstructive endoaneurysmorraphy, 3 retrograde by-pass grafts (2 Dacron and 1 PTFE), and 1 antegrade by-pass graft (Dacron) from the coeliac aorta. There were no post-operative deaths. Mean length of follow-up was 47.8 months. No patient presented with late intestinal or operation related problems. PMID:9444795

  12. Hepatic artery aneurysm causing obstructive jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Georgiev, Yonko

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic artery aneurysms (HAA) are rare and represent 14-20% of all visceral artery aneurysms. The vast majority of HAA are single and are located extrahepatically and nowadays about half of the HAA are iatrogenic, as a consequence of the widespread use of interventional diagnostic and therapeutic biliary procedures. Abdominal trauma, infection, inflammation and atherosclerosis are other common predisposing factors. Most of the HAA are asymptomatic, and 60-80% of the patients are diagnosed when the aneurysm has complicated with rupture and bleeding, obstructive jaundice due to external bile duct compression or rupture of the HAA into the biliary tree with clots occluding the lumen. We present a case of HAA presented with obstructive jaundice. Irrespective of clinical presentation the diagnosis of HAA is always based on imaging studies. PMID:25202666

  13. Hepatic artery aneurysm causing obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Julianov, Alexander; Georgiev, Yonko

    2014-08-01

    Hepatic artery aneurysms (HAA) are rare and represent 14-20% of all visceral artery aneurysms. The vast majority of HAA are single and are located extrahepatically and nowadays about half of the HAA are iatrogenic, as a consequence of the widespread use of interventional diagnostic and therapeutic biliary procedures. Abdominal trauma, infection, inflammation and atherosclerosis are other common predisposing factors. Most of the HAA are asymptomatic, and 60-80% of the patients are diagnosed when the aneurysm has complicated with rupture and bleeding, obstructive jaundice due to external bile duct compression or rupture of the HAA into the biliary tree with clots occluding the lumen. We present a case of HAA presented with obstructive jaundice. Irrespective of clinical presentation the diagnosis of HAA is always based on imaging studies. PMID:25202666

  14. Extra-anatomic Endovascular Repair of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with a Horseshoe Kidney Supplied by the Aneurysmal Aorta.

    PubMed

    Rey, Jorge; Golpanian, Samuel; Yang, Jane K; Moreno, Enrique; Velazquez, Omaida C; Goldstein, Lee J; Chahwala, Veer

    2015-07-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm complicated by a horseshoe kidney (HSK, fused kidney) represents a unique challenge for repair. Renal arteries arising from the aneurysmal aorta can further complicate intervention. Reports exist describing the repair of these complex anatomies using fenestrated endografts, hybrid open repairs (debranching), and open aneurysmorrhaphy with preservation of renal circulation. We describe an extra-anatomic, fully endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm with a HSK partially supplied by a renal artery arising from the aneurysm. We successfully applied aortouni-iliac endografting, femorofemoral bypass, and retrograde renal artery perfusion via the contralateral femoral artery to exclude the abdominal aortic aneurysm and preserve circulation to the HSK. PMID:25770382

  15. Coincidental aneurysms with tumours of pituitary origin.

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, J; Kendall, B

    1978-01-01

    Angiographic studies on 150 pituitary adenomas and 33 craniopharyngiomas presenting for surgical treatment are reviewed. Eleven incidental silent aneurysms (four arising from the intracavernous and four from the supraclinoid carotid artery, and three from the anterior cerebral artery complex) are shown. Intracavernous aneurysms were also present in two acromegalic patients who had been treated previously with yttrium implantation. Although encasement of vessels by these tumours is unusual, the relevance of vascular abnormalities to surgical treatment is sufficient to justify routine magnification angiography. Images PMID:712374

  16. Pediatric aneurysms and vein of Galen malformations

    PubMed Central

    Rao, V. R. K.; Mathuriya, S. N.

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric aneurysms are different from adult aneurysms – they are more rare, are giant and in the posterior circulation more frequently than in adults and may be associated with congenital disorders. Infectious and traumatic aneursyms are also seen more frequently. Vein of Galen malformations are even rarer entities. They may be of choroidal or mural type. Based on the degree of AV shunting they may present with failure to thrive, with hydrocephalus or in severe cases with heart failure. The only possible treatment is by endovascular techniques – both transarterial and transvenous routes are employed. Rarely transtorcular approach is needed. These cases should be managed by an experienced neurointerventionist. PMID:22069420

  17. [The value of a computer tomography scanner and controlled arteriography in the study of the results of aneurysm surgery. A series of 100 consecutive cases].

    PubMed

    Creissard, P; Rabehenoina, C; Sevrain, L; Freger, P; Hattab, N; Tadie, M; Clavier, E; Thiebot, J; Laissy, J P

    1990-01-01

    A total of 100 consecutive patients, (93 with ruptured aneurysms, 7 with asymptomatic aneurysms) were managed following a radio clinical investigation protocol. Preoperative evaluation included clinical grading (Hunt and Hess) (20 patients were GR I, 43 GR II, 19 GR III, 9 GR IV and 9 GR V) angiography and CTScan grading. The timing of surgery was determined according to angiographic, clinical and CTScan data: 73.2% of ruptured aneurysms were operated on between Day 0 and Day 3. Control angiography and control CT were performed 10-12 days after surgery (earlier in case of clinical deterioration). Post operative CTScan hypodensities were evaluated according to preoperative CT, preoperative angiography and post operative angiography: 32 hypodensities (8 without any symptom) were related to initial hemorrhage, vasospasm or post surgical thrombosis. In five cases the etiology was dobble. Angiographic control data showed 18 cases of vasospasm and 12 cases of post surgical thrombosis. We did not find any complication due to the control angiography. The outcome was classified according to the Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS): of 82 GR I.II.III (H & H) cases, the outcome was 73 GOS 1-2 cases, 3 GOS 3 Cases, 1 GOS 4 case and 5 GOS 5 cases. of 18 GR IV.V (H & H) cases, the outcome was 4 GOS 1-2 cases, 1 GOS 3 case, 1 GOS 4 case and 12 GOS 5 cases. In 28 GOS 2-3-4-5 cases, the cause of disability or death was under the main responsibility of the initial hemorrhage 13 times, of a thrombosis 11 times, of the vasospasm 4 times with associated non neurological problems in seven cases. When the control angiography is not performed and when the thrombosis is unrecognized sequellae or death can be erroneously attributed in many cases to the sole vasospasm or to the initial hemorrhage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2277657

  18. [Isolated, true aneurysm of the tibiofibular trunk--a rarity among peripheral aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Nahrstedt, U; Rückert, K

    1995-01-01

    A 63-year-old patient presented with an arteriosclerotic aneurysm of the tibiofibular trunk. The clinical symptoms included microembolism into the distal lower leg (pedal arteries). The surgical treatment consisted of a venous interponate between the tibiofibular trunk and the posterior tibial artery. Due to the high complication rate by microemboli, surgical treatment of peripheral aneurysms by a venous bypass is indicated. PMID:8533449

  19. Bilateral pulmonary artery aneurysms, coronary artery aneurysm, and ventricular pseudoaneurysm in Behçet disease.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ying-Rong; Hong, Jun-Mou; Liu, Zhen-Guo; Deng, Zhen-Sheng; Yeung, Sai-Ching J; Cheng, Chao

    2014-04-01

    Massive hemoptysis in Behçet disease (BD) is rare but often fatal. This report presents a 28-year-old man with recurrent massive hemoptysis. He was diagnosed with bilateral multiple pulmonary artery aneurysms (PAAs), coronary artery aneurysm, and ventricular pseudoaneurysm from BD. The patient underwent emergency right lower lobectomy with no obvious complications. No hemoptysis recurred during an 18-month follow-up. This report also reviews the occurrence of PAAs in BD, with an emphasis on the treatment approaches. PMID:24495331

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at high pressure into the thinner walled, less elastic veins. The extra pressure tends to strain and ... autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; capillaries ; cell ; chromosome ; compression ; deficiency ; elastic ; gastrointestinal ; gene ; hemorrhage ; hereditary ; incidence ; inherited ; juvenile ; oxygen ; ...