Supernovae at the Highest Angular Resolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dyk, S. Van; Weiler, K.; Sramek, R.; Panagia, N.; Lacey, C.; Montes, M.; Mercaide, J.; Lewin, W.; Fox, D.; Filippenko, A.; Peng, C.
2000-01-01
The study of supernovae (SNe) and their environments in host galaxies at the highest possible angular resolution in a number of wavelength regimes is providing vital clues to the nature of their progenitor stars.
High angular resolution coronography for adaptive optics
Fabien Malbet
1995-09-14
Recent adaptive optics systems in astronomy achieve high-angular resolution. With the extreme stability of the images, detection at very low fluxes can be reached using a coronograph at the diffraction limit of the telescopes. This paper is an overview of the issues of stellar coronography used at the diffraction limit. Image formation through such a system is illustrated by numerical simulations. The description of a coronograph implemented on the VLT adaptive optics prototype, COME-ON, is presented as well as the first observations.
Angular resolution in acousto-optic image filtering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Epikhin, V. M.
2015-08-01
Diffraction divergences of acoustic and optical beams are considered as effects determining the minimum angular size of an image element in acousto-optic filtering of object images. Simple formulas for determining this angular size in the diffraction plane and a perpendicular plane have been obtained in relation to the parameters of an acousto-optic filter. The calculated and experimental data are found to be in good agreement. Analysis of the results obtained indicates that the angular resolution can be increased, the quality of spectral images can be improved, and filters with specified asymmetry of the angular resolution can be designed. Analytical conditions for the existence of a group of acousto-optic filters with symmetric angular resolution, which is important for practical applications, are found; these filters are characterized by equal angular resolutions in two mutually perpendicular planes.
Angular resolution studies of the CYGNUS array using the shadows of the sun and moon
Shoup, A.L.; The CYGNUS Collaboration
1993-05-01
Using the cosmic ray shadows of the sun and moon, we have estimated the angular resolution of the CYGNUS extensive air shower array. With the event sample now available we estimate the angular resolution of the array to be 0.70{sub {minus}0.06}{sup {plus}0.07} degrees. The resolution depends on the total number of detected shower particles. A new parameterization of the measured shower-front timing structure and the use of counters with small pulse areas lead to a {approximately}25% improvement in the resolution. The systematic pointing error of the array is less than 0.4{degree}.
Angular resolution studies of the CYGNUS array using the shadows of the sun and moon
Shoup, A.L.
1993-01-01
Using the cosmic ray shadows of the sun and moon, we have estimated the angular resolution of the CYGNUS extensive air shower array. With the event sample now available we estimate the angular resolution of the array to be 0.70[sub [minus]0.06][sup [plus]0.07] degrees. The resolution depends on the total number of detected shower particles. A new parameterization of the measured shower-front timing structure and the use of counters with small pulse areas lead to a [approximately]25% improvement in the resolution. The systematic pointing error of the array is less than 0.4[degree].
Complex angular momentum approximation to hard-core scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nussenzveig, H. M.; Wiscombe, W. J.
1991-01-01
The complex angular momentum (CAM) approximation for nonrelativistic quantum scattering by a hard sphere - a union of the recently developed CAM uniform approximation with a semiclassical WKB-like approximation valid at large angles - is shown to be remarkably accurate over the complete range of scattering angles and down to size parameters (circumference to de Broglie wavelength ratios) of order unity. The best approximations previously derivable (Fock-type) cannot reach large scattering angles where semiclassical approximations are useful; even at angles where Fock-type approximations are valid, they are typically two or more orders of magnitude less accurate than CAM. The crucial new feature responsible for the high accuracy of the CAM approximation is the treatment of large-angle diffraction associated with (1) tunneling near the edge of the scatterer, and (2) anomalous reflection.
SHARPI: Solar High Angular Resolution Photometric Imager
D. Rabin; J. Davila; R. Keski-Kuha; S. Michael
2002-01-01
Observing the lower solar atmosphere with enough linear resolution (< 100 km) to study individual magnetic flux tubes and other features on scales comparable to the photon mean free path remains a challenging and elusive goal. Space-borne instruments based on conventional heavy optics proved to be too expensive, and adaptive optics on the ground made slow progress for many years.
Angular resolution of Pachmarhi array of Cverenkov telescopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majumdar, P.; Acharya, B. S.; Bhat, P. N.; Chitnis, V. R.; Rahman, M. A.; Singh, B. B.; Vishwanath, P. R.
2002-03-01
Pachmarhi Array of Cverenkov Telescopes (PACT), consisting of a distributed array of 25 telescopes is used to sample the atmospheric Cverenkov Photon showers. The shower front is fitted to a plane and the direction of arrival of primary particle is obtained. The accuracy in the estimation of the arrival direction of showers has been estimated to be ~ 0o.1 using 'split' array method. The angular resolution is expected to be even better when a spherical front is used for direction reconstruction or correction for the curvature of the front is applied. This is the best angular resolution among all the currently operating atmospheric Cverenkov telescopes in the world.
Angular Resolution of Pachmarhi Array of Cerenkov Telescopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majumdar, P.; Acharya, B. S.; Bhat, P. N.; Chitnis, V. R.; Rahman, M. A.; Singh, B. B.; Vishwanath, P. R.
2001-08-01
Pachmarhi Array of ?Cerenkov Telescopes(PACT), consisting of a distributed array of 25 telescopes is used to sample the atmospheric ?Cerenkov Photon showers. The shower front is fitted to a plane and the direction of arrival of primary particle is obtained. The accuracy in the estimation of the arrival direction of showers has been estimated to be ˜ 0° .1 using `split' array method. The angular resolution is expected to be even better when a spherical front is used for direction reconstruction or correction for the curvature of the front is applied. This is the best angular resolution among all the currently operating atmospheric ?Cerenkov telescopes in the world.
Genetic Analysis of High Angular Resolution Diffusion Images (HARDI)
Thompson, Paul
studies using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in twins have discovered specific genomic variations adult twins (29 identical and 29 fraternal twin pairs) with high-angular resolution diffusion imaging.g., standard FA). FATDF gave higher inter-twin correlations than standard FA, avoiding errors where fibers
Angular and range interferometry to refine weather radar resolution
Zhang, Guifu
such as the monopulse radar, Doppler Beam Sharpening (DBS), developed by Wiley in the early 1950s [Ulaby et al., 1982], are used to improve the result. However, the various optimization techniques do not work well for radarAngular and range interferometry to refine weather radar resolution Guifu Zhang School
The Angular Resolution of Space-Based Gravitational Wave Detectors
Thomas A. Moore; Ronald W. Hellings
2000-06-08
Proposed space-based gravitational wave antennas involve satellites arrayed either in an equilateral triangle around the earth in the ecliptic plane (the ecliptic-plane option) or in an equilateral triangle orbiting the sun in such a way that the plane of the triangle is tilted at 60 degrees relative to the ecliptic (the precessing-plane option). In this paper, we explore the angular resolution of these two classes of detectors for two kinds of sources (essentially monochromatic compact binaries and coalescing massive-black-hole binaries) using time-domain expressions for the gravitational waveform that are accurate to 4/2 PN order. Our results display an interesting effect not previously reported in the literature, and underline the importance of including the higher-order PN terms in the waveform when predicting the angular resolution of ecliptic-plane detector arrays.
Report on the ESO Workshop ''Astronomy at High Angular Resolution''
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boffin, H.; Schmidtobreick, L.; Hussain, G.; Berger, J.-Ph.
2015-03-01
A workshop took place in Brussels in 2000 on astrotomography, a generic term for indirect mapping techniques that can be applied to a huge variety of astrophysical systems, ranging from planets, single stars and binaries to active galactic nuclei. It appeared to be timely to revisit the topic given the many past, recent and forthcoming improvements in telescopes and instrumentation. We therefore decided to repeat the astrotomography workshop, but to put it into the much broader context of high angular resolution astronomy. Many techniques, from lucky and speckle imaging, adaptive optics to interferometry, are now widely employed to achieve high angular resolution and they have led to an amazing number of new discoveries. A summary of the workshop themes is presented.
Dusty Blue Supergiants: News from High-Angular Resolution Observations
de Wit, Willem-Jan; Vink, Jorick
2014-01-01
An overview is presented of the recent advances in understanding the B[e] phenomenon among blue supergiant stars in light of high-angular resolution observations and with an emphasis on the results obtained by means of long baseline optical stellar interferometry. The focus of the review is on the circumstellar material and evolutionary phase of B[e] supergiants, but recent results on dust production in regular blue supergiants are also highlighted.
EUSO angular resolution based on Pierre Auger Observatory reconstruction methodology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Painter, William
2015-04-01
Ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) are astro-particles with energies above 1018 eV and are a readily detected phenomena. Their origin is yet undetermined due to the exceedingly low flux, 1 particle per km2 per century at 1020 eV. The proposed Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) utilizes the bottom 20 km of the atmosphere as a detection volume resulting in a detection area of nearly 150 , 000 km2 in nadir mode. We have developed an UHECR angular reconstruction algorithm based on the methodology developed at the Pierre Auger Observatory. This algorithm shows improved angular resolution over previous EUSO methods and has been applied to simulated showers over the expected energy and zenith angle ranges. William Painter with Dr. Fred Sarazin.
High-Angular-Resolution Infrared Observations of Protoplanetary Disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukagawa, M.; Hashimoto, J.; Tamura, M.; Seeds/Hiciao/Ircs/Ao188
2013-10-01
Observations of protoplanetary disks are essential to understand planet building process since they provide realistic initial conditions as well as insights into new-born planets through disk-planet dynamical interaction. Scattered-light observations at optical and near-infrared are complementary with longer-wavelength studies as they can provide the information on smaller grains in disks, thus useful to discuss such as grain growth and dust transport that can be either the basic step toward or the consequence of planet-forming activity. As a part of Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru (SEEDS), we have observed more than 60 T Tauri and Herbig Ae/Fe stars. Our targets include transitional systems showing the dips in the mid-infrared SEDs and/or the resolved cavities in submillimeter. The technique of polarization differential imaging (PDI) was employed combined with adaptive optics for most cases in order to achieve high contrast by extracting the scattered light from the disk while suppressing the unpolarized stellar light. The PDI observations indeed enabled us to look at the inner region, as close as about 20 AU in radius typically, with the angular resolution of 0.06 arcsec, corresponding to less than 10 AU in nearby star-forming regions. As a result, the SEEDS imaging has newly uncovered rich structures such as spirals, inner holes, and gaps for transitional systems. The highlight is the discovery of two spiral arms in the submillimeter cavity for SAO 206462, and the subsequent finding of similar spirals for MWC 758, which can be explained by possible presence of giant planets. The comparable angular resolution will be achieved in submillimeter soon with ALMA, and multi-wavelength study will become more important for comprehensive understanding of disks.
Quark Orbital Angular Momentum in the Wandzura-Wilczek Approximation
Ph. Hagler; A. Mukherjee; A. Schafer
2003-12-08
We show that quark orbital angular momentum is directly related to off-forward correlation functions which include intrinsic transverse momentum corresponding to a derivative with respect to the transverse coordinates. Its possible contribution to scattering processes is therefore of higher twist and vanishes in the forward limit. The relation of OAM to other twist 2 and 3 distributions known in the literature is derived and formalized by an unintegrated sum rule.
Chen, Xuepeng; Zhang, Qizhou; Bourke, Tyler L; Launhardt, Ralf; Jorgensen, Jes K; Lee, Chin-Fee; Foster, Jonathan B; Dunham, Michael M; Pineda, Jaime E; Henning, Thomas
2013-01-01
We present high angular resolution 1.3 mm and 850 um dust continuum data obtained with the Submillimeter Array toward 33 Class 0 protostars in nearby clouds (distance < 500 pc), which represents so far the largest survey toward protostellar binary/multiple systems. The median angular resolution in the survey is 2.5 arcsec, while the median linear resolution is approximately 600 AU. Compact dust continuum emission is observed from all sources in the sample. Twenty-one sources in the sample show signatures of binarity/multiplicity, with separations ranging from 50 to 5000 AU. The numbers of singles, binaries, triples, and quadruples in the sample are 12, 14, 5, and 2, respectively. The derived multiplicity frequency (MF) and companion star fraction (CSF) for Class 0 protostars are 0.64+/-0.08 and 0.91+/-0.05, respectively, with no correction for completeness. The derived MF and CSF in this survey are approximately two times higher than the values found in the binary surveys toward Class I YSOs, and approxima...
Segmentation of High Angular Resolution Diffusion MRI Modeled as a Field of von
McGraw, Tim
angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) permits the computation of water molecule displacement probabilities over a sphere of possible displacement directions. This probability is often re- ferred
Inhomogeneous Diophantine approximation and angular recurrence for polygonal billiards
Troubetzkoy, S; Schmeling, J
2003-02-28
For a fixed rotation number we compute the Hausdorff dimension of the set of well approximable numbers. We use this result and an inhomogeneous version of Jarnik's theorem to demonstrate strong recurrence properties of the billiard flow in certain polygons.
Yuan, T.-T.; Kewley, L. J.; Rich, J.
2013-04-20
With the rapid progress in metallicity gradient studies at high redshift, it is imperative that we thoroughly understand the systematics in these measurements. This work investigates how the [N II]/H{alpha}-ratio-based metallicity gradients change with angular resolution, signal to noise (S/N), and annular binning parameters. Two approaches are used: (1) we downgrade the high angular resolution integral-field data of a gravitationally lensed galaxy and re-derive the metallicity gradients at different angular resolution; (2) we simulate high-redshift integral field spectroscopy observations under different angular resolution and S/N conditions using a local galaxy with a known gradient. We find that the measured metallicity gradient changes systematically with angular resolution and annular binning. Seeing-limited observations produce significantly flatter gradients than higher angular resolution observations. There is a critical angular resolution limit beyond which the measured metallicity gradient is substantially different to the intrinsic gradient. This critical angular resolution depends on the intrinsic gradient of the galaxy and is {<=}0.''02 for our simulated galaxy. We show that seeing-limited high-redshift metallicity gradients are likely to be strongly affected by resolution-driven gradient flattening. Annular binning with a small number of annuli produces a more flattened gradient than the intrinsic gradient due to weak line smearing. For three-annulus bins, a minimum S/N of {approx}5 on the [N II] line is required for the faintest annulus to constrain the gradients with meaningful errors.
ISMI: a classification index for high angular resolution diffusion imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Röttger, D.; Dudai, D.; Merhof, D.; Müller, S.
2012-02-01
Magnetic resonance diffusion imaging provides a unique insight into the white matter architecture of the brain in vivo. Applications include neurosurgical planning and fundamental neuroscience. Contrary to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) is able to characterize complex intra-voxel diffusion distributions and hence provides more accurate information about the true diffusion profile. Anisotropy indices aim to reduce the information of the diffusion probability function to a meaningful scalar representation that classifies the underlying diffusion and thereby the neuronal fiber configuration within a voxel. These indices can be used to answer clinical questions such as the integrity of certain neuronal pathways. Information about the underlying fiber distribution can be beneficial in tractography approaches, reconstructing neuronal pathways using local diffusion orientations. Therefore, an accurate classification of diffusion profiles is of great interest. However, the differentiation between multiple fiber orientations and isotropic diffusion is still a challenging task. In this work, we introduce ISMI, an index which successfully differentiates isotropic diffusion and single and multiple fiber populations. The classifier is based on the orientation distribution function (ODF) resulting from Q-ball imaging. We compare our results with the well-known general fractional anisotropy (GFA) index using a fiber phantom comprising challenging diffusion profiles such as crossing, fanning and kissing fiber configurations and a human brain dataset considering the centrum semiovale. Additionally, we visualize the results directly on the fibers represented by streamtubes using a heat color map.
"Halo" type sources from microwave observations with high angular resolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peterova, N. G.; Opeikina, L. V.; Topchilo, N. A.
2014-12-01
The results of a study of the fine structure of an image of a microwave radiation source, which is usually located in the solar atmosphere above active regions, are presented. The source is equal to the whole active region in size (2-5 arcmin); it is conventionally called a "halo". Observations of two active regions of different morphological types (NOAA 7123, 1992 and NOAA 11142, 2011) with a high angular resolution (2-5 arcsec) were used. According to these observations, the majority (>50%) of the halo consists of diffused optically transparent thermal plasma. A brighter underlying region shines through it; in the case of NOAA 7123, this region looks like a two-ribbon structure along the magnetic field neutral line with a radiation depression along the H? filament. In the case of NOAA 11142, the halo brightening regions are associated with regions of cluster of small sunspots and pores. The conclusion is drawn that the brighter component of the halo is due to the cyclotron radiation of coronal plasma in a relatively weak magnetic field (600-800 Gs).
A Nonparametric Riemannian Framework for Processing High Angular Resolution Diffusion Images (HARDI)
as v Dv. Even though DTI assumes a relatively simple diffusion model, it has been a successful imagingA Nonparametric Riemannian Framework for Processing High Angular Resolution Diffusion Images (HARDI@loni.ucla.edu Abstract High angular resolution diffusion imaging has become an important magnetic resonance technique
Diatomic Molecules with Large Angular Momentum in the BornOppenheimer Approximation
Diatomic Molecules with Large Angular Momentum in the BornÂOppenheimer Approximation Sharon M for a diatomic molecule yields an expansion in powers of for the bound state associated with a given electronÂOppenheimer approximation for a diatomic molecule, one fixes the kth electron energy level, the nth vibrational level
Cepheids at high angular resolution: circumstellar envelope and pulsation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallenne, Alexandre
2011-12-01
In 2005, interferometric observations with VLTI/VINCI and CHARA/FLUOR revealed the existence of a circumstellar envelope (CSE) around some Cepheids. This surrounding material is particularly interesting for two reasons: it could have an impact on the distance estimates and could be linked to a past or on-going mass loss. The use of Baade-Wesselink methods for independent distance determinations could be significantly biased by the presence of these envelopes. Although their observations are difficult because of the high contrast between the photosphere of the star and the CSE, several observation techniques have the potential to improve our knowledge about their physical properties. In this thesis, I discuss in particular high angular resolution techniques that I applied to the study of several bright Galactic Cepheids. First, I used adaptive optic observations with NACO of the Cepheid RS Puppis, in order to deduce the flux ratio between the CSE and the photosphere of the star. In addition, I could carry out a statistical study of the speckle noise and inspect a possible asymmetry. Secondly, I analysed VISIR data to study the spectral energy distribution of a sample of Cepheids. These diffraction-limited images enabled me to carry out an accurate photometry in the N band and to detect an IR excess linked to the presence of a circumstellar component. On the other hand, applying a Fourier analysis I showed that some components are resolved. I then explored the K' band with the recombination instrument FLUOR for some bright Cepheids. Thanks to new set of data of Y Oph, I improved the study of its circumstellar envelope, using a ring-like model for the CSE. For two other Cepheids, U Vul and S Sge, I applied the interferometric Baade-Wesselink method in order to estimate their distance.
Chen Xuepeng [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Arce, Hector G.; Dunham, Michael M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Zhang Qizhou; Bourke, Tyler L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Launhardt, Ralf; Henning, Thomas [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Jorgensen, Jes K. [Niels Bohr Institute and Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Copenhagen University, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Lee, Chin-Fei [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Foster, Jonathan B. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Pineda, Jaime E., E-mail: xpchen@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: xuepeng.chen@yale.edu [ESO, Karl Schwarzschild Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany)
2013-05-10
We present high angular resolution 1.3 mm and 850 {mu}m dust continuum data obtained with the Submillimeter Array toward 33 Class 0 protostars in nearby clouds (distance < 500 pc), which represents so far the largest survey toward protostellar binary/multiple systems. The median angular resolution in the survey is 2.''5, while the median linear resolution is approximately 600 AU. Compact dust continuum emission is observed from all sources in the sample. Twenty-one sources in the sample show signatures of binarity/multiplicity, with separations ranging from 50 AU to 5000 AU. The numbers of singles, binaries, triples, and quadruples in the sample are 12, 14, 5, and 2, respectively. The derived multiplicity frequency (MF) and companion star fraction (CSF) for Class 0 protostars are 0.64 {+-} 0.08 and 0.91 {+-} 0.05, respectively, with no correction for completeness. The derived MF and CSF in this survey are approximately two times higher than the values found in the binary surveys toward Class I young stellar objects, and approximately three (for MF) and four (for CSF) times larger than the values found among main-sequence stars, with a similar range of separations. Furthermore, the observed fraction of high-order multiple systems to binary systems in Class 0 protostars (0.50 {+-} 0.09) is also larger than the fractions found in Class I young stellar objects (0.31 {+-} 0.07) and main-sequence stars ({<=}0.2). These results suggest that binary properties evolve as protostars evolve, as predicted by numerical simulations. The distribution of separations for Class 0 protostellar binary/multiple systems shows a general trend in which CSF increases with decreasing companion separation. We find that 67% {+-} 8% of the protobinary systems have circumstellar mass ratios below 0.5, implying that unequal-mass systems are preferred in the process of binary star formation. We suggest an empirical sequential fragmentation picture for binary star formation, based on this work and existing lower resolution single-dish observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xuepeng; Arce, Héctor G.; Zhang, Qizhou; Bourke, Tyler L.; Launhardt, Ralf; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Lee, Chin-Fei; Foster, Jonathan B.; Dunham, Michael M.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Henning, Thomas
2013-05-01
We present high angular resolution 1.3 mm and 850 ?m dust continuum data obtained with the Submillimeter Array toward 33 Class 0 protostars in nearby clouds (distance < 500 pc), which represents so far the largest survey toward protostellar binary/multiple systems. The median angular resolution in the survey is 2.''5, while the median linear resolution is approximately 600 AU. Compact dust continuum emission is observed from all sources in the sample. Twenty-one sources in the sample show signatures of binarity/multiplicity, with separations ranging from 50 AU to 5000 AU. The numbers of singles, binaries, triples, and quadruples in the sample are 12, 14, 5, and 2, respectively. The derived multiplicity frequency (MF) and companion star fraction (CSF) for Class 0 protostars are 0.64 ± 0.08 and 0.91 ± 0.05, respectively, with no correction for completeness. The derived MF and CSF in this survey are approximately two times higher than the values found in the binary surveys toward Class I young stellar objects, and approximately three (for MF) and four (for CSF) times larger than the values found among main-sequence stars, with a similar range of separations. Furthermore, the observed fraction of high-order multiple systems to binary systems in Class 0 protostars (0.50 ± 0.09) is also larger than the fractions found in Class I young stellar objects (0.31 ± 0.07) and main-sequence stars (<=0.2). These results suggest that binary properties evolve as protostars evolve, as predicted by numerical simulations. The distribution of separations for Class 0 protostellar binary/multiple systems shows a general trend in which CSF increases with decreasing companion separation. We find that 67% ± 8% of the protobinary systems have circumstellar mass ratios below 0.5, implying that unequal-mass systems are preferred in the process of binary star formation. We suggest an empirical sequential fragmentation picture for binary star formation, based on this work and existing lower resolution single-dish observations.
Monte-Carlo studies of the angular resolution of a future Cherenkov gamma-ray telescope
Funk, S. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford, CA-94025 (United States); Hinton, J. A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)
2008-12-24
The current generation of Imaging Atmospheric telescopes (IACTs) has demonstrated the power of this observational technique, providing high sensitivity and an angular resolution of {approx}0.1 deg. per event above an energy threshold of {approx}100 GeV. Planned future arrays of IACTs such as AGIS or CTA are aiming at significantly improving the angular resolution. Preliminary results have shown that values down to {approx}1' might be achievable. Here we present the results of Monte-Carlo simulations that aim to exploring the limits of angular resolution for next generation IACTs and investigate how the resolution can be optimised by changes to array and telescope parameters such as the number of pixel in the camera, the field of view of the camera, the angular pixel size, the mirror size, and also the telescope separation.
Note on the asymptotic approximation of a double integral with an angular spectrum representation
Fei Wang
2003-07-23
In this note, we are concerned with the asymptotic approximation of a class of double integrals which can be represented as an angular spectrum superposition. These double integrals typically appear in electromagnetic scattering problems. Based on the synthetic manipulation of the method of steepest descent path, approximate expressions of the double integrals are derived in terms of the leading term of the contribution to the asymptotic expansions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, L. C.; Jokipii, J. R.
1975-01-01
The Markov approximation to the propagation of waves in an extended, irregular medium is discussed in an astrophysical context. A new derivation is presented which is simple and which shows that the assumption of Gaussian statistics used by previous authors is irrelevant. We discuss the relevance of the approximation and show that it may apply in many situations of interest, including interstellar scintillations of pulsar signals. The approximation does not require the assumption of weak scattering or Gaussian correlation functions. The Markov equation for the angular spectrum is particularly simple, and solutions are discussed for typical turbulence spectra. It is found that the equation for the angular spectrum is very nearly that used by previous authors, and the present discussion shows that these results are much more general than previously thought. A possible observational test for distinguishing between Gaussian and power-law interstellar density spectra is discussed.
High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator
Alp, Ercan E. (Bolingbrook, IL); Mooney, Timothy M. (Westmont, IL); Toellner, Thomas (Green Bay, WI)
1996-06-04
A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut (.alpha.=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5-30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the .mu.eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator.
High energy resolution, high angular acceptance crystal monochromator
Alp, E.E.; Mooney, T.M.; Toellner, T.
1996-06-04
A 4-bounce dispersive crystal monochromator reduces the bandpass of synchrotron radiation to a 10-50 meV range without sacrificing angular acceptance. The monochromator includes the combination of an asymmetrical channel-cut single crystal of lower order reflection and a symmetrical channel-cut single crystal of higher order reflection in a nested geometric configuration. In the disclosed embodiment, a highly asymmetrically cut ({alpha}=20) outer silicon crystal (4 2 2) with low order reflection is combined with a symmetrically cut inner silicon crystal (10 6 4) with high order reflection to condition a hard x-ray component (5--30 keV) of synchrotron radiation down to the {micro}eV-neV level. Each of the crystals is coupled to the combination of a positioning inchworm and angle encoder via a respective rotation stage for accurate relative positioning of the crystals and precise energy tuning of the monochromator. 7 figs.
Geometrical expression for the angular resolution of a network of gravitational-wave detectors
Wen Linqing; Chen Yanbei [International Center for Radio Astronomy Research, School of Physics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, Western Australia 6009 (Australia); Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, Caltech, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)
2010-04-15
We report for the first time general geometrical expressions for the angular resolution of an arbitrary network of interferometric gravitational-wave (GW) detectors when the arrival time of a GW is unknown. We show explicitly elements that decide the angular resolution of a GW detector network. In particular, we show the dependence of the angular resolution on areas formed by projections of pairs of detectors and how they are weighted by sensitivities of individual detectors. Numerical simulations are used to demonstrate the capabilities of the current GW detector network. We confirm that the angular resolution is poor along the plane formed by current LIGO-Virgo detectors. A factor of a few to more than ten fold improvement of the angular resolution can be achieved if the proposed new GW detectors LCGT or AIGO are added to the network. We also discuss the implications of our results for the design of a GW detector network, optimal localization methods for a given network, and electromagnetic follow-up observations.
Low power compact radio galaxies at high angular resolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giroletti, M.; Giovannini, G.; Taylor, G. B.
2005-10-01
We present sub-arcsecond resolution multi-frequency (8 and 22 GHz) VLA images of five low power compact (LPC) radio sources, and phase referenced VLBA images at 1.6 GHz of their nuclear regions. At the VLA resolution we resolve the structure and identify component positions and flux densities. The phase referenced VLBA data at 1.6 GHz reveals flat-spectrum, compact cores (down to a few milliJansky) in four of the five sources. The absolute astrometry provided by the phase referencing allows us to identify the center of activity on the VLA images. Moreover, these data reveal rich structures, including two-sided jets and secondary components. On the basis of the arcsecond scale structures and of the nuclear properties, we rule out the presence of strong relativistic effects in our LPCs, which must be intrinsically small (deprojected linear sizes ? 10 kpc). Fits of continuous injection models reveal break frequencies in the GHz domain, and ages in the range 10 5{-}107 yrs. In LPCs, the outermost edge may be advancing more slowly than in more powerful sources or could even be stationary; some LPCs might also have ceased their activity. In general, the properties of LPCs can be related to a number of reasons, including, but not limited to: youth, frustration, low kinematic power jets, and short-lived activity in the radio.
Low-power compact radio galaxies at high angular resolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giroletti, Marcello; Giovannini, G.; Taylor, G. B.
The true nature of Low-Power Compact (LPC) radio sources is not well understood. They have similar power as FR I radio galaxies but smaller linear sizes. In this contribution, we exploit phase-referenced VLBI images of five such sources to discuss the properties of their nuclear regions, as well as 8- and 22-GHz VLA data to resolve the sub-arcsecond-scale resolution structures. Our data reveal flat-spectrum, compact cores (down to a few mJy level) in four of the five sources and the absolute astrometry provided by the phase referencing allows us to identify the centre of activity in the VLA images. Based on our results, we rule out the presence of strong relativistic effects in these LPCs, so they must be intrinsically small and possibly frustrated or short lived. Fits of continuous injection models yield spectral ages in the range 105-107 yrs.
Bayesian deconvolution for angular super-resolution in forward-looking scanning radar.
Zha, Yuebo; Huang, Yulin; Sun, Zhichao; Wang, Yue; Yang, Jianyu
2015-01-01
Scanning radar is of notable importance for ground surveillance, terrain mapping and disaster rescue. However, the angular resolution of a scanning radar image is poor compared to the achievable range resolution. This paper presents a deconvolution algorithm for angular super-resolution in scanning radar based on Bayesian theory, which states that the angular super-resolution can be realized by solving the corresponding deconvolution problem with the maximum a posteriori (MAP) criterion. The algorithm considers that the noise is composed of two mutually independent parts, i.e., a Gaussian signal-independent component and a Poisson signal-dependent component. In addition, the Laplace distribution is used to represent the prior information about the targets under the assumption that the radar image of interest can be represented by the dominant scatters in the scene. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed deconvolution algorithm has higher precision for angular super-resolution compared with the conventional algorithms, such as the Tikhonov regularization algorithm, the Wiener filter and the Richardson-Lucy algorithm. PMID:25806871
Bayesian Deconvolution for Angular Super-Resolution in Forward-Looking Scanning Radar
Zha, Yuebo; Huang, Yulin; Sun, Zhichao; Wang, Yue; Yang, Jianyu
2015-01-01
Scanning radar is of notable importance for ground surveillance, terrain mapping and disaster rescue. However, the angular resolution of a scanning radar image is poor compared to the achievable range resolution. This paper presents a deconvolution algorithm for angular super-resolution in scanning radar based on Bayesian theory, which states that the angular super-resolution can be realized by solving the corresponding deconvolution problem with the maximum a posteriori (MAP) criterion. The algorithm considers that the noise is composed of two mutually independent parts, i.e., a Gaussian signal-independent component and a Poisson signal-dependent component. In addition, the Laplace distribution is used to represent the prior information about the targets under the assumption that the radar image of interest can be represented by the dominant scatters in the scene. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed deconvolution algorithm has higher precision for angular super-resolution compared with the conventional algorithms, such as the Tikhonov regularization algorithm, the Wiener filter and the Richardson–Lucy algorithm. PMID:25806871
2p-2h excitations in neutrino scattering: angular distribution and frozen approximation
I. Ruiz Simo; C. Albertus; J. E. Amaro; M. B. Barbaro; J. A. Caballero; T. W. Donnelly
2015-01-28
We study the phase-space dependence of 2p-2h excitations in neutrino scattering using the relativistic Fermi gas model. We follow a similar approach to other authors, but focusing in the phase-space properties, comparing with the non-relativistic model. A careful mathematical analysis of the angular distribution function for the outgoing nucleons is performed. Our goals are to optimize the CPU time of the 7D integral to compute the hadron tensor in neutrino scattering, and to conciliate the different relativistic and non relativistic models by describing general properties independently of the two-body current. For some emission angles the angular distribution becomes infinite in the Lab system, and we derive a method to integrate analytically around the divergence. Our results show that the frozen approximation, obtained by neglecting the momenta of the two initial nucleons inside the integral of the hadron tensor, reproduces fairly the exact response functions for constant current matrix elements.
Beating the Rayleigh limit: orbital-angular-momentum-based super-resolution diffraction tomography.
Li, Lianlin; Li, Fang
2013-09-01
This paper reports a super-resolution imaging approach based on orbital-angular-momentum diffraction tomography (OAM-DT), which makes an important breakthrough on the Rayleigh limit associated with conventional diffraction tomography (DT) technique. It is well accepted that orbital-angular momentum (OAM) provides additional electromagnetic degrees of freedom. This concept has been widely applied in science and technology. In this paper we revisit the DT problem extended with OAM, and demonstrate theoretically and numerically that there is no physical limit on imaging resolution with OAM-DT. The physical mechanism behind it is that either the near field or superoscillation of the transmitter is employed to super-resolve probed objects. This super-resolution OAM-DT imaging paradigm does not require near-field measurement, a subtle focusing lens, or complicated postprocessing, etc., thus providing an approach to realize the wave-field imaging of universal objects with subwavelength resolution. PMID:24125378
High-Angular-Resolution Microbeam X-Ray Diffraction with CCD Detector
Imai, Yasuhiko; Kimura, Shigeru; Sakaia, Akira; Sakata, Osami
2010-04-06
We have introduced a CCD-type two-dimensional X-ray detector for a microbeam X-ray diffraction system using synchrotron radiation, so that we can measure local reciprocal space maps (RSM) of samples rapidly. A local RSM of a strain-relaxed SiGe 004 grown on a Si (001) substrate was measured in higher-angular-resolution and faster than a conventional way. The measurement was achieved in 1 h 40 min. with the 2theta resolution of 80 murad and the spatial resolution of 1.4(h)x0.5(v) {mu}m{sup 2}. The introduction of the CCD enabled us to measure RSMs at many points in a sample, that is, the distribution of strain fields and lattice tilts can be revealed in high-angular- and high-spatial-resolution.
A Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman Approach to High Angular Resolution Diffusion Tractography
A Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman Approach to High Angular Resolution Diffusion Tractography Eric Pichon1 on the unit sphere. Minimum cost curves are determined by solving the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman using.): MICCAI 2005, LNCS 3749, pp. 180187, 2005. c Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005 #12;A Hamilton-Jacobi
High Angular Resolution Imaging of Solar Radio Bursts from the Lunar Surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
MacDowall, Robert J.; Lazio, Joseph; Bale, Stuart; Burns, Jack O.; Farrell, William M.; Gopalswamy, Nat; Jones, Dayton L.; Kasper, Justin Christophe; Weiler, Kurt
2012-01-01
Locating low frequency radio observatories on the lunar surface has a number of advantages, including positional stability and a very low ionospheric radio cutoff. Here, we describe the Radio Observatory on the lunar Surface for Solar studies (ROLSS), a concept for a low frequency, radio imaging interferometric array designed to study particle acceleration in the corona and inner heliosphere. ROLSS would be deployed during an early lunar sortie or by a robotic rover as part of an unmanned landing. The preferred site is on the lunar near side to simplify the data downlink to Earth. The prime science mission is to image type II and type III solar radio bursts with the aim of determining the sites at and mechanisms by which the radiating particles are accelerated. Secondary science goals include constraining the density of the lunar ionosphere by measuring the low radio frequency cutoff of the solar radio emissions or background galactic radio emission, measuring the flux, particle mass, and arrival direction of interplanetary and interstellar dust, and constraining the low energy electron population in astrophysical sources. Furthermore, ROLSS serves a pathfinder function for larger lunar radio arrays. Key design requirements on ROLSS include the operational frequency and angular resolution. The electron densities in the solar corona and inner heliosphere are such that the relevant emission occurs below 10 M Hz, essentially unobservable from Earth's surface due to the terrestrial ionospheric cutoff. Resolving the potential sites of particle acceleration requires an instrument with an angular resolution of at least 2 deg at 10 MHz, equivalent to a linear array size of approximately one kilometer. The major components of the ROLSS array are 3 antenna arms, each of 500 m length, arranged in a Y formation, with a central electronics package (CEP) at their intersection. Each antenna arm is a linear strip of polyimide film (e.g., Kapton(TradeMark)) on which 16 single polarization dipole antennas are located by depositing a conductor (e.g., silver). The arms also contain transmission lines for carrying the radio signals from the science antennas to the CEP. Operations would consist of data acquisition during the lunar day, with data downlinks to Earth one or more times every 24 hours.
On the Angular Resolution of the AGILE Gamma-Ray Imaging Detector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabatini, S.; Donnarumma, I.; Tavani, M.; Trois, A.; Bulgarelli, A.; Argan, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Chen, A.; Del Monte, E.; Fioretti, V.; Gianotti, F.; Giuliani, A.; Longo, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Morselli, A.; Pittori, C.; Verrecchia, F.; Caraveo, P.
2015-08-01
We present a study of the angular resolution of the AGILE gamma-ray imaging detector (GRID) that has been operational in space since 2007 April. The AGILE instrument is made of an array of 12 planes that are each equipped with a tungsten converter and silicon microstrip detectors, and is sensitive in the energy range 50 MeV–10 GeV. Among the space instruments devoted to gamma-ray astrophysics, AGILE uniquely exploit an analog readout system with dedicated electronics coupled with silicon detectors. We show the results of Monte Carlo simulations carried out to reproduce the gamma-ray detection by the GRID and we compare them to in-flight data. We use the Crab (pulsar + Nebula) system for discussion of real data performance, since its {E}-2 energy spectrum is representative of the majority of gamma-ray sources. For Crab-like spectrum sources, the GRID angular resolution (FWHM of ? 4^\\circ at 100 MeV; ? 0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 8 at 1 GeV; ? 0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 9 integrating the full energy band from 100 MeV to tens of GeV) is stable across a large field of view, characterized by a flat response up to 30^\\circ off-axis. A comparison of the angular resolution obtained by the two operational gamma-ray instruments, AGILE/GRID and Fermi/LAT (Large Area Telescope), is interesting in view of future gamma-ray missions, which are currently under study. The two instruments exploit different detector configurations that affect the angular resolution: the former is optimized in the readout and track reconstruction, especially in the low-energy band, the latter is optimized in terms of converter thickness and power consumption. We show that despite these differences, the angular resolution of both instruments is very similar, between 100 MeV and a few GeV.
Thompson, Paul
and connectivity in the living brain may be measured using high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI), which. There are several ongoing efforts to map the human connectome, and to detect altered patterns of connectivityATLAS-BASED FIBER CLUSTERING FOR MULTI-SUBJECT ANALYSIS OF HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION DIFFUSION
Development of a high angular resolution diffusion imaging human brain template.
Varentsova, Anna; Zhang, Shengwei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos
2014-05-01
Brain diffusion templates contain rich information about the microstructure of the brain, and are used as references in spatial normalization or in the development of brain atlases. The accuracy of diffusion templates constructed based on the diffusion tensor (DT) model is limited in regions with complex neuronal micro-architecture. High angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) overcomes limitations of the DT model and is capable of resolving intravoxel heterogeneity. However, when HARDI is combined with multiple-shot sequences to minimize image artifacts, the scan time becomes inappropriate for human brain imaging. In this work, an artifact-free HARDI template of the human brain was developed from low angular resolution multiple-shot diffusion data. The resulting HARDI template was produced in ICBM-152 space based on Turboprop diffusion data, was shown to resolve complex neuronal micro-architecture in regions with intravoxel heterogeneity, and contained fiber orientation information consistent with known human brain anatomy. PMID:24440528
Guang Cheng; Baba C. Vemuri; Paul R. Carney; Thomas H. Mareci
2009-01-01
In this paper, we present a novel algorithm for non-rigidly registering two high angular resolution diffusion weighted MRIs\\u000a (HARDI), each represented by a Gaussian mixture field (GMF). We model the non-rigid warp by a thin-plate spline and formulate\\u000a the registration problem as the minimization of the L2 distance between the two given GMFs. The key mathematical contributions\\u000a of this work
Preliminary Design of the Coronagraphic High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (CHARIS)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Groff, Tyler D.; Peters, M.; Kasdin, N. J.; McElwain, M. W.; Galvin, M.; Carr, M.; Knapp, G. R.; Janson, M.; Brandt, T.; Lupton, R.; Gunn, J. E.; Guyon, O.; Martinache, F.; Hayashi, M.; Takato, N.
2013-01-01
The Coronagraphic High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (CHARIS) is an integral field spectrograph (IFS) being built at Princeton University for the Subaru telescope. It is designed to disperse a 1.75x1.75 arcsecond field of view onto a Teledyne H2RG detector. The instrument will be located behind the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics (SCExAO) system, which will provide a coronagraphic image with adequate strehl to achieve high detection contrast levels down to angular separations of 80 milliarcseconds in H band. CHARIS is designed specifically to image and spectrally characterize exoplanets and disks under two observation modes; The low resolution, R15 mode, will disperse Y+J+H+K (0.9-2.5 microns) bands across the detector and the high resolution, R80, mode will allow us to take detailed spectra of the target in Y, J, H, or K band. Since we seek very close companions, we cannot rely on angular differential imaging to detect the planet in the presence of residual quasi-static speckles. CHARIS is thus being designed to interface directly with SCExAO to modulate and correct such speckles to detect companions up to five orders of magnitude dimmer than the parent star. The IFS is based on a lenslet design with pinholes to mitigate diffractive crosstalk between spectra. We present the preliminary design of the instrument and detail design tradeoffs and challenges associated with such a spectrograph. First light is expected to be by the end of 2015.
Method for improving the angular resolution of a neutron scatter camera
Mascarenhas, Nicholas; Marleau, Peter; Gerling, Mark; Cooper, Robert Lee; Mrowka, Stanley; Brennan, James S.
2012-12-25
An instrument that will directly image the fast fission neutrons from a special nuclear material source wherein the neutron detection efficiency is increased has been described. Instead of the previous technique that uses a time-of-flight (TOF) between 2 widely spaced fixed planes of neutron detectors to measure scatter neutron kinetic energy, we now use the recoil proton energy deposited in the second of the 2 scatter planes which can now be repositioned either much closer together or further apart. However, by doubling the separation distance between the 2 planes from 20 cm to a distance of 40 cm we improved the angular resolution of the detector from about 12.degree. to about 10.degree.. A further doubling of the separation distance to 80 cm provided an addition improvement in angular resolution of the detector to about 6.degree. without adding additional detectors or ancillary electronics. The distance between planes also may be dynamically changed using a suitable common technique such as a gear- or motor-drive to toggle between the various positions. The angular resolution of this new configuration, therefore, is increased at the expanse of detection sensitivity. However, the diminished sensitivity may be acceptable for those applications where the detector is able to interrogate a particular site for an extended period.
Angular division multiplexing in pulsed digital holography for measurements of high resolutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhai, Hongchen; Wang, Xiaolei; Yuan, Caojin; Mu, Guoguang
2008-03-01
We report on approaches of pulsed digital holographic recording and its relevant digital reconstruction based on Fourier optics for measurements of high resolution in time domain or in space domain, in which angular division multiplexing system is respectively employed to record multiple images in a single frame of a CCD. This new approach can be used to record either a series of images in an ultra-fast process with high resolution in time domain, or to record a transparent object with super-resolution in space domain. In the digital reconstruction process, Fourier transformation and frequency filtering in the Fourier plane will be employed to separate the spatial spectra of the multiple recordings, and each of the reconstructed images can be displayed individually with a time resolution of the femto-second order or fused into an image of the object with a synthetic aperture.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fymat, A. L.
1978-01-01
Consideration is given to analytical inversions in the remote sensing of particle size distributions, noting multispectral extinctions in anomalous diffraction approximation and angular and spectral scattering in diffraction approximation. A closed-form analytical inverse solution is derived in order to reconstruct the size distribution of atmospheric aerosols. The anomalous diffraction approximation to Mie's solution is used to describe the particles. Experimental data yield the geometrical area of aerosol polydispersion. Size distribution is thus found from a set of multispectral extinction measurements. In terms of the angular and spectral scattering of light in a narrow forward cone, it is shown that an analytical inverse solution may also be found for the Fraunhofer approximation to the Kirchhoff diffraction, and for an improved expression of this approximation due to Penndorf (1962) and Shifrin-Punina (1968).
Renard, Yves - Pôle de Mathématiques, Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon
Generalized Newton's methods for the approximation and resolution of frictional contact problems Newton's methods for the resolution of elastostatic frictional contact problem approximated by finite: Contact, friction, augmented Lagrangian, generalized Newton's method, Nitsche's method. 1 Introduction
Linqing Wen; Xilong Fan; Yanbei Chen
2008-06-06
We report for the first time a method-independent geometrical expression for the angular resolution of an arbitrary network of interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detectors when the arrival-time of a GW is unknown. We discuss the implications of our results on how to improve angular resolutions of a GW network and on improvements of localization methods. An example of an improvement to the null-stream localization method for GWs of unknown waveforms is demonstrated.
High Angular Resolution and Lightweight X-Ray Optics for Astronomical Missions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhang, W. W.; Biskach, M. P.; Blake, P. N.; Chan, K. W.; Evans, T. C.; Hong, M.; Jones, W. D.; Jones, W. D.; Kolos, L. D.; Mazzarella, J. M.; McClelland, R. S.; ODell, S. L.; Saha, T. T.; Sharpe, M. V.
2011-01-01
X-ray optics with both high angular resolution and lightweight is essential for further progress in x-ray astronomy. High angular resolution is important in avoiding source confusion and reducing background to enable the observation of the most distant objects of the early Universe. It is also important in enabling the use of gratings to achieve high spectral resolution to study, among other things, the myriad plasmas that exist in planetary, stellar, galactic environments, as well as interplanetary, inter-stellar, and inter-galactic media. Lightweight is important for further increase in effective photon collection area, because x-ray observations must take place on space platforms and the amount of mass that can be launched into space has always been very limited and is expected to continue to be very limited. This paper describes an x-ray optics development program and reports on its status that meets these two requirements. The objective of this program is to enable Explorer type missions in the near term and to enable flagship missions in the long term.
Next Generation X-ray Optics: High Angular Resolution, Light Weight, and Low Production Cost
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, William
2013-01-01
Since its beginning 50 years ago, X-ray astronomy has advanced by leaps and bounds, culminating in its current golden age in which three major observatories—Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku—are operating simultaneously and addressing some of the most important astronomical and astrophysical problems of our time. Building upon this success, the recent Decadal Survey of Astronomy and Astrophysics has defined objectives for x-ray astronomy whose realization requires both new optics and new detector technologies. The development of these technologies has been identified as one of the highest priorities for funding to enable future x-ray missions. X-ray optics technology based on precision glass slumping is on the verge of revolutionizing x-ray telescope making. It has shown that extremely thin (< 0.4mm) and lightweight (areal density < 1 kg/m2) true Wolter-I mirror segments with angular resolutions better than 7 arc-seconds can be fabricated consistently, efficiently, and inexpensively. In comparison with those of XMM-Newton, these mirror segments represent a factor of 10 reduction in mass while achieving slightly better angular resolution. In comparison with those of Suzaku, they represent a factor of 20 improvement in angular resolution while maintaining the same mass areal density. These advances have been demonstrated with x-ray images from aligned and bonded mirror segments. In short, this technology is approaching TRL-5 for making the mirror assemblies required for a 10 arc-second observatory. In this poster we will present the latest x-ray and environment test results obtained with technology development modules which are substantially similar to flight modules in the way they constructed and tested.
Next Generation X-ray Optics: High Angular Resolution, Light Weight, and Low Production Cost
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, William; NGXO
2014-01-01
X-ray telescopes are essential to the future of x-ray astronomy. In this talk I will describe a comprehensive program to advance the technology for x-ray telescopes well beyond the state of the art represented by the dour missions currently in operations: Chandra, XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and NuSTAR. This program will address the three key issues in making an x-ray telescope: (1) angular resolution, (2) effective area per unit mass, and (3) cost per unit effective area. The objectives of this technology program are (1) in the near term, to enable Explorer-class x-ray missions and an IXO-type mission, and (2) in the long term, to enable a flagship x-ray mission with sub-arcsecond angular resolution and multi-square-meter effective area, at an affordable cost. We pursue two approaches concurrently, emphasizing the first approach in the near term (2-5 years) and the second in the long term (4-10 years). The first approach is precision slumping of borosilicate glass sheets. By design and choice at the outset, this technique makes lightweight and low-cost mirrors. The development program will continue to improve angular resolution, to enable the production of 5-arcsecond x-ray telescopes, to support Explorer-class missions and one or more missions to supersede the original IXO mission. The second approach is precision polishing and light-weighting of single-crystal silicon mirrors. This approach benefits from two recent commercial developments: (1) the inexpensive and abundant availability of large blocks of monocrystalline silicon, and (2) revolutionary advances in deterministic, precision polishing of mirrors. By design and choice at the outset, this technique is capable of producing lightweight mirrors with sub-arcsecond angular resolution. The development program will increase the efficiency and reduce the cost of the polishing and the light-weighting processes, to enable the production of lightweight sub-arcsecond x-ray telescopes. Concurrent with the fabrication of lightweight mirror segments is the continued development and perfection of alignment and integration techniques, for incorporating individual mirror segments into a precision mirror assembly.
On the Angular Resolution of the AGILE gamma-ray imaging detector
Sabatini, S; Tavani, M; Trois, A; Bulgarelli, A; Argan, A; Barbiellini, G; Cattaneo, P W; Chen, A; Del Monte, E; Fioretti, V; Gianotti, F; Giuliani, A; Longo, F; Lucarelli, F; Morselli, A; Pittori, C; Verrecchia, F; Caraveo, P
2015-01-01
We present a study of the Angular Resolution of the AGILE gamma-ray imaging detector (GRID) that is operational in space since April 2007. The AGILE instrument is made of an array of 12 planes each equipped with a Tungsten converter and Silicon micros trip detectors and is sensitive in the energy range 50 MeV - 10 GeV. Among the space instruments devoted to gamma-ray astrophysics, AGILE uniquely exploits an analog readout system with dedicated electronics coupled with Silicon detectors. We show the results of Monte Carlo simulations carried out to reproduce the gamma-ray detection by the GRID, and we compare them to in-flight data. We use the Crab (pulsar + Nebula) system for discussion of real data performance, since its E^{-2} energy spectrum is representative of the majority of gamma-ray sources. For Crab-like spectrum sources, the GRID angular resolution (FWHM of ~4deg at 100 MeV; ~0.8deg at 1 GeV; ~0.9deg integrating the full energy band from 100 MeV to tens of GeV) is stable across a large field of view...
X-ray Interferometry with Transmissive Beam Combiners for Ultra-High Angular Resolution Astronomy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Skinner, G. K.; Krismanic, John F.
2009-01-01
Abstract Interferometry provides one of the possible routes to ultra-high angular resolution for X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy. Sub-micro-arc-second angular resolution, necessary to achieve objectives such as imaging the regions around the event horizon of a super-massive black hole at the center of an active galaxy, can be achieved if beams from parts of the incoming wavefront separated by 100s of meters can be stably and accurately brought together at small angles. One way of achieving this is by using grazing incidence mirrors. We here investigate an alternative approach in which the beams are recombined by optical elements working in transmission. It is shown that the use of diffractive elements is a particularly attractive option. We report experimental results from a simple 2-beam interferometer using a low-cost commercially available profiled film as the diffractive elements. A rotationally symmetric filled (or mostly filled) aperture variant of such an interferometer, equivalent to an X-ray axicon, is shown to offer a much wider bandpass than either a Phase Fresnel Lens (PFL) or a PFL with a refractive lens in an achromatic pair. Simulations of an example system are presented.
Majid Hamzavi; Sameer M. Ikhdair
2012-07-03
The usual approximation scheme is used to study the solution of the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau (DKP) equation for a vector Yukawa potential in the framework of the parametric Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method. The approximate energy eigenvalue equation and the corresponding wave function spinor components are calculated for arbitrary total angular momentum in closed form. Further, the approximate energy equation and wave function spinor components are also given for case. A set of parameter values is used to obtain the numerical values for the energy states with various values of quantum levels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ng, Eldon; Vasefi, Fartash; Kaminska, Bozena; Chapman, Glenn H.; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.
2010-02-01
Angular domain imaging (ADI) generates a projection image of an attenuating target within a turbid medium by employing a silicon micro-tunnel array to reject photons that have deviated from the initial propagation direction. In this imaging method, image contrast and resolution are position dependent. The objective of this work was to first characterize the contrast and resolution of the ADI system at a multitude of locations within the imaging plane. The second objective was to compare the reconstructions of different targets using filtered back projection and iterative reconstruction algorithms. The ADI system consisted of a diode laser laser (808nm, CW, ThorLabs) with a beam expander for illumination of the sample cuvette. At the opposite side of the cuvette, an Angular Filter Array (AFA) of 80 ?m x 80 ?m square-shaped tunnels 1 cm in length was used to reject the transmitted scattered light. Image-forming light exiting the AFA was detected by a linear CCD (16-bit, Mightex). Our approach was to translate two point attenuators (0.5 mm graphite rod, 0.368 mm drill bit) submerged in a 0.6% IntralipidTM dilution using a SCARA robot (Epson E2S351S) to cover a 37x37 and 45x45 matrix of grid points in the imaging plane within the 1 cm path length sample cuvette. At each grid point, a one-dimensional point-spread distribution was collected and system contrast and resolution were measured. Then, the robot was used to rotate the target to collect projection images at several projection angles of various objects, and reconstructed with a filtered back projection and an iterative reconstruction algorithm.
The mid-infrared radio correlation at high angular resolution - NGC 253
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keto, Eric; Ball, Roger; Arens, John; Jernigan, Garrett; Meixner, Margaret; Skinner, Christopher; Graham, James
1993-08-01
We present high angular resolution narrow-band images of the nucleus of NGC 253 at three wavelengths in the mid-infrared. We find that most of the mid-IR flux in the nucleus of NGC 253 derives from a very small region less than 120 pc in diameter. Within this small region there are three spatially and spectrally distinct IR components: two bright compact sources, and a surrounding envelope of low-level, diffuse emission. The mid-IR and 6 cm radio are loosely correlated in position but not in brightness. The implication is that the mid-IR-radio correlation may begin to break down on small spatial scales relevant to individual star-forming regions and large individual sources. These variations in the mid-IR spectra and in the radio-IR correlation imply that the nuclear emission is excited by more than one mechanism and source type.
HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF FOUR CANDIDATE BLAST HIGH-MASS STARLESS CORES
Olmi, Luca; Poventud, Carlos M. [Physics Department, Rio Piedras Campus, University of Puerto Rico, Box 23343, UPR Station, San Juan, Puerto Rico (United States); Araya, Esteban D. [Physics Department, Western Illinois University, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States); Chapin, Edward L.; Gibb, Andrew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Hofner, Peter [Physics Department, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Martin, Peter G., E-mail: olmi.luca@gmail.co, E-mail: olmi@arcetri.astro.i [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)
2010-06-01
We discuss high angular resolution observations of ammonia toward four candidate high-mass starless cores (HMSCs). The cores were identified by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) during its 2005 survey of the Vulpecula region where 60 compact sources were detected simultaneously at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m. Four of these cores, with no IRAS-PSC or MSX counterparts, were mapped with the NRAO Very Large Array and observed with the Effelsberg 100 m telescope in the NH{sub 3}(1,1) and (2,2) spectral lines. Our observations indicate that the four cores are cold (T {sub k} < 16 K) and show a filamentary and/or clumpy structure. They also show a significant velocity substructure within {approx}1 km s{sup -1}. The four BLAST cores appear to be colder and more quiescent than other previously observed HMSC candidates, suggesting an earlier stage of evolution.
Cheng, Guang; Carney, Paul R.; Mareci, Thomas H.
2010-01-01
In this paper, we present a novel algorithm for non-rigidly registering two high angular resolution diffusion weighted MRIs (HARDI), each represented by a Gaussian mixture field (GMF). We model the non-rigid warp by a thin-plate spline and formulate the registration problem as the minimization of the L2 distance between the two given GMFs. The key mathematical contributions of this work are, (i) a closed form expression for the derivatives of this objective function with respect to the parameters of the registration and (ii) a novel and simpler re-orientation scheme based on an extension to the “Preservation of Principle Directions” technique. We present results of our algorithm’s performance on several synthetic and real HARDI data sets. PMID:20445828
Cheng, Guang; Vemuri, Baba C; Carney, Paul R; Mareci, Thomas H
2009-01-01
In this paper, we present a novel algorithm for non-rigidly registering two high angular resolution diffusion weighted MRIs (HARDI), each represented by a Gaussian mixture field (GMF). We model the non-rigid warp by a thin-plate spline and formulate the registration problem as the minimization of the L2 distance between the two given GMFs. The key mathematical contributions of this work are, (i) a closed form expression for the derivatives of this objective function with respect to the parameters of the registration and (ii) a novel and simpler re-orientation scheme based on an extension to the "Preservation of Principle Directions" technique. We present results of our algorithm's performance on several synthetic and real HARDI data sets. PMID:20445828
Cheng, Guang; Vemuri, Baba C; Carney, Paul R; Mareci, Thomas H
2009-01-01
In this paper, we present a novel algorithm for non-rigidly registering two high angular resolution diffusion weighted MRIs (HARDI), each represented by a Gaussian mixture field (GMF). We model the non-rigid warp by a thin-plate spline and formulate the registration problem as the minimization of the L2 distance between the two given GMFs. The key mathematical contributions of this work are, (i) a closed form expression for the derivatives of this objective function with respect to the parameters of the registration and (ii) a novel and simpler re-orientation scheme based on an extension to the "Preservation of Principle Directions" technique. We present results of our algorithm's performance on several synthetic and real HARDI data sets. PMID:20425987
Aldoretta, E. J.; Gies, D. R.; Henry, T. J.; Jao, W.-C.; Norris, R. P. E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.edu E-mail: jao@chara.gsu.edu; and others
2015-01-01
We present the results of an all-sky survey made with the Fine Guidance Sensor on the Hubble Space Telescope to search for angularly resolved binary systems among massive stars. The sample of 224 stars is comprised mainly of Galactic O- and B-type stars and luminous blue variables, plus a few luminous stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The FGS TRANS mode observations are sensitive to the detection of companions with an angular separation between 0.?01 and 1.?0 and brighter than ?m=5. The FGS observations resolved 52 binary and 6 triple star systems and detected partially resolved binaries in 7 additional targets (43 of these are new detections). These numbers yield a companion detection frequency of 29% for the FGS survey. We also gathered literature results on the numbers of close spectroscopic binaries and wider astrometric binaries among the sample, and we present estimates of the frequency of multiple systems and the companion frequency for subsets of stars residing in clusters and associations, field stars, and runaway stars. These results confirm the high multiplicity fraction, especially among massive stars in clusters and associations. We show that the period distribution is approximately flat in increments of logP. We identify a number of systems of potential interest for long-term orbital determinations, and we note the importance of some of these companions for the interpretation of the radial velocities and light curves of close binaries that have third companions.
Submillimeter Array High-angular Resolution Observations of the Monoceros R2 Star Forming Cluster
Dierickx, Marion; Rivilla, Victor; Zhang, Qizhou
2015-01-01
We present the first high-angular resolution study of the MonR2 star-forming complex carried out with the Submillimeter Array at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths. We image the continuum and molecular line emission toward the young stellar objects in MonR2 at 0.85mm and 1.3mm, with resolutions ranging from 0.5" to ~3". While free-free emission dominates the IRS1 and IRS2 continuum, dust thermal emission prevails for IRS3 and IRS5, giving envelope masses of ~0.1-0.3 M_Sun. IRS5 splits into at least two sub-arcsecond scale sources, IRS5B and the more massive IRS5A. Our 12CO(2-1) images reveal 11 previously unknown molecular outflows in the MonR2 clump. Comparing these outflows with known IR sources in the IRS5 and IRS3 subclusters allows for tentative identification of driving stars. Line images of molecular species such as CH3CN or CH3OH show that, besides IRS3 (a well-known hot molecular core), IRS5 is also a chemically active source in the region. The gas excitation temperature derived from CH3CN lines toward IRS...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peters, Mary Anne; Groff, Tyler; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; McElwain, Michael W.; Galvin, Michael; Carr, Michael A.; Lupton, Robert; Gunn, James E.; Knapp, Gillian; Gong, Qian; Carlotti, Alexis; Brandt, Timothy; Janson, Markus; Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Hayashi, Masahiko; Takato, Naruhisa
2012-01-01
Recent developments in high-contrast imaging techniques now make possible both imaging and spectroscopy of planets around nearby stars. We present the conceptual design of the Coronagraphic High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (CHARIS), a lenslet-based, cryogenic integral field spectrograph (IFS) for imaging exoplanets on the Subaru telescope. The IFS will provide spectral information for 140 x 140 spatial elements over a 1.75 arcsecs x 1.75 arcsecs field of view (FOV). CHARIS will operate in the near infrared (lambda = 0.9 - 2.5 micron) and provide a spectral resolution of R = 14, 33, and 65 in three separate observing modes. Taking advantage of the adaptive optics systems and advanced coronagraphs (AO188 and SCExAO) on the Subaru telescope, CHARIS will provide sufficient contrast to obtain spectra of young self-luminous Jupiter-mass exoplanets. CHARIS is in the early design phases and is projected to have first light by the end of 2015. We report here on the current conceptual design of CHARIS and the design challenges.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peters, Mary A.; Groff, Tyler; Kasdin, N. Jeremy; McElwain, Michael W.; Galvin, Michael; Carr, Michael A.; Lupton, Robert; Gunn, James E.; Knapp, Gillian; Gong, Qian; Carlotti, Alexis; Brandt, Timothy; Janson, Markus; Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Hayashi, Masahiko; Takato, Naruhisa
2012-09-01
Recent developments in high-contrast imaging techniques now make possible both imaging and spectroscopy of planets around nearby stars. We present the conceptual design of the Coronagraphic High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrograph (CHARIS), a lenslet-based, cryogenic integral field spectrograph (IFS) for imaging exo-planets on the Subaru telescope. The IFS will provide spectral information for 140x140 spatial elements over a 1.75 arcsecs x 1.75 arcsecs field of view (FOV). CHARIS will operate in the near infrared (? = 0.9-2.5?m) and provide a spectral resolution of R = 14, 33, and 65 in three separate observing modes. Taking advantage of the adaptive optics systems and advanced coronagraphs (AO188 and SCExAO) on the Subaru telescope, CHARIS will provide sufficient contrast to obtain spectra of young self-luminous Jupiter-mass exoplanets. CHARIS is in the early design phases and is projected to have first light by the end of 2015. We report here on the current conceptual design of CHARIS and the design challenges.
PREFACE: Astronomy at High Angular Resolution 2011: The central kiloparsec in galactic nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iserlohe, Christof; Karas, Vladimir; Krips, Melanie; Eckart, Andreas; Britzen, Silke; Fischer, Sebastian
2012-07-01
We are pleased to present the proceedings from the Astronomy at High Angular Resolution 2011: The central kiloparsec in galactic nuclei conference. The conference took place in the Physikzentrum of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft (DPG), Bad Honnef, Germany, from 28 August to 2 September 2011. It was the second conference of this kind, following the Astronomy at High Angular Resolution conference held in Bad Honnef, three years earlier in 2008. The main objective of the conference was to frame the discussion of the broad range of physical processes that occur in the central 100pc of galactic nuclei. In most cases, this domain is difficult to probe through observations. This is mainly because of the lack of angular resolution, the brightness of the central engine and possible obscurations through dust and gas, which play together in the central regions of host galaxies of galactic nuclei within a broad range of activity. The presence of large amounts of molecular and atomic (both neutral and ionized) gas, dust and central engines with outflows and jets implies that the conditions for star formation in these regions are very special, and probably different from those in the disks of host galaxies. Numerous presentations covering a broad range of topics, both theoretical and experimental, those related to research on Active Galactic Nuclei and on a wide range of observed wavelengths were submitted to the Scientific Organizing Committee. Presentations have been grouped into six sessions: The nuclei of active galaxies The Galactic Center The immediate environment of Super Massive Black Holes The physics of nuclear jets and the interaction of the interstellar medium The central 100pc of the nuclear environment Star formation in that region The editors thank all participants of the AHAR 2011 conference for their enthusiasm and their numerous and vivid contributions to this conference. We would especially like to thank John Hugh Seiradakis from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in Greece for giving the dinner talk on the most astounding ancient Antikythera mechanism. We would also like to thank Victor Gomer and the staff of the Physikzentrum of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft in Bad Honnef where the conference took place. Last but not least we would like to thank all unnamed helpers, without whom the organisation of this conference would not have been possible. Financial support for this conference was granted by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) Sonderforschungsbereich project number SFB 956. We also acknowledge support from the European Community Framework Programme 7, Advanced Radio Astronomy in Europe, grant agreement no. 227290. Christof Iserlohe, Vladimir Karas, Melanie Krips, Andreas Eckart, Silke Britzen and Sebastian Fischer The Editors Conference photograph Conference Group Photo, 1 September 2011 The PDF also contains additional photographs from the conference and the Contents of the Proceedings.
Tang, Shanzhi, E-mail: shanzhit@gmail.com [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China) [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Wang, Zhao [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)] [School of Mechanical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Gao, Jianmin; Guo, Junjie [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710054 (China)] [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710054 (China)
2014-04-15
The roll angle measurement is difficult to be achieved directly using a typical commercial interferometer due to its low sensitivity in axial direction, where the axial direction is orthogonal to the plane of the roll angular displacement. A roll angle measurement method combined diffraction gratings with a laser heterodyne interferometer is discussed in this paper. The diffraction grating placed in the plane of a roll angular displacement and the interferometer arranged in the plane's orthogonal direction, constitute the measurement pattern for the roll angle with high resolution. The roll angular displacement, considered as the linear, can be tested precisely when the corresponding angle is very small. Using the proposed method, the angle roll measurement obtains the high resolution of 0.002{sup ?}. Experiment has proved its feasibility and practicability.
The Multiplicity of Massive Stars: a High Angular Resolution Survey With the Guidance Sensor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aldoretta, E. J.; Caballero-Nieves, S. M.; Gies, D. R.; Nelan, E. P.; Wallace, D. J.; Hartkopf, W. I.; Henry, T. J.; Jao, W.-C.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Mason, B. D.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Norris, R. P.; Richardson, N. D.; Williams, S. J.
2015-01-01
We present the results of an all-sky survey made with the Fine Guidance Sensor on the Hubble Space Telescope to search for angularly resolved binary systems among massive stars. The sample of 224 stars is comprised mainly of Galactic O- and B-type stars and luminous blue variables, plus a few luminous stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The FGS TRANS mode observations are sensitive to the detection of companions with an angular separation between 0.?01 and 1.?0 and brighter than \\vartriangle m=5. The FGS observations resolved 52 binary and 6 triple star systems and detected partially resolved binaries in 7 additional targets (43 of these are new detections). These numbers yield a companion detection frequency of 29% for the FGS survey. We also gathered literature results on the numbers of close spectroscopic binaries and wider astrometric binaries among the sample, and we present estimates of the frequency of multiple systems and the companion frequency for subsets of stars residing in clusters and associations, field stars, and runaway stars. These results confirm the high multiplicity fraction, especially among massive stars in clusters and associations. We show that the period distribution is approximately flat in increments of log P. We identify a number of systems of potential interest for long-term orbital determinations, and we note the importance of some of these companions for the interpretation of the radial velocities and light curves of close binaries that have third companions. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 11212, 11901, 11943, and 11944.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sagaidak, R. N.; Utyonkov, V. K.; Scarlassara, F.
2013-02-01
A Monte Carlo approach has been developed for simulations of the angular and energy distributions for heavy evaporation residues (ER) produced in heavy ion fusion-evaporation reactions. The approach uses statistical model approximations of the HIVAP code for the calculations of initial angular and energy distributions inside a target, which are determined by neutron evaporation from an excited compound nucleus. Further step in the simulation of transmission of ER heavy atoms through a target layer is performed with the TRIM code that gives final angle and energy distributions at the exit from the target. Both the simulations (neutron evaporation and transmission through solid media) have been separately considered and good agreement has been obtained between the results of simulations and available experimental data. Some applications of the approach have been also considered.
Zaluzec, N. J.
1999-03-10
Since the original observations by Duncumb in 1962, a number of studies have been conducted on the effects of electron channel on characteristic x-ray emission and microanalysis. Most of the recent studies have concentrated upon using the phenomenon to perform site specific distributions of impurity elements in ordered compounds using the ALCHEMI methodology. Very few studies have attempted to accurately measure the effect as a function of orientation and compare these results to theories. In this study, two dimensional high angular resolution studies of channeling enhance x-ray emission were performed and herein the results are compared to theoretical calculations of Allen et al. All experimental measurements presented here were conducted on a Philips EM 420T analytical electron microscope. The instrument was operated in the TEM mode, at 120 kV using an LaB6 electron source. The characteristic x-ray emission was measured using an EDAX ultra thin window Si(Li) detector having a FWHM of {approximately}145 eV at Mn Km Nominal probe sizes used during the study were 200-500 nm with beam convergence half angle defined by the Condenser apertures. Control of the relative orientation of the incident probe was accomplished via direct computer control of the beam tilt coils, after the specimen was first manually oriented to an appropriate zone axis using the specimen tilt stage. Two dimensional measurements were carried out using a 128 x 100 pixel scan corresponding to an angular range of {approximately}100 by 80 mR using customized computer program running on a EDAX 9900 microanalyzer system. Careful alignment and manual optimization/adjustments of beam tilt pivot coils, minimized probe wobble during data acquisition. The effects of this were additionally mitigated due to the relative uniformity of the specimen thickness in the analyzed zone. Typical acquisition times for a complete two dimensional scan were 18-24 hours. Essential to the success of these measurements was the stability of the probe current, minimal specimen drift, and absence of hydrocarbon contamination. The latter being accomplished using argon plasma processing of the specimen (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) which was initially prepared by mechanical tripod polishing.
Submillimeter Array High-angular Resolution Observations of the Monoceros R2 Star-forming Cluster
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dierickx, M.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Rivilla, V. M.; Zhang, Q.
2015-04-01
We present the first high-angular resolution study of the MonR2 star-forming complex carried out with the Submillimeter Array at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths. We image the continuum and molecular line emission toward the young stellar objects in MonR2 at 0.85 and 1.3 mm, with resolutions ranging from 0.? 5 to ?3?. While free–free emission dominates the IRS1 and IRS2 continuum, dust thermal emission prevails for IRS3 and IRS5, giving envelope masses of ?0.1–0.3 {{M}? }. IRS5 splits into at least two sub-arcsecond scale sources, IRS5B and the more massive IRS5A. Our 12CO(2-1) images reveal 11 previously unknown molecular outflows in the MonR2 clump. Comparing these outflows with known IR sources in the IRS5 and IRS3 subclusters allows for tentative identification of driving stars. Line images of molecular species such as CH3CN or CH3OH show that, besides IRS3 (a well-known hot molecular core), IRS5 is also a chemically active source in the region. The gas excitation temperature derived from CH3CN lines toward IRS5 is 144 ± 15 K, indicating a deeply embedded protostar at the hot-core evolutionary stage. Spectral energy distribution fitting of IRS5 gives a mass of ?7 M ? and a luminosity of 300 {{L}? } for the central source. The derived physical properties of the CO outflows suggest that they contribute to the turbulent support of the MonR2 complex and to the gas velocity dispersion in the clump’s center. The detection of a large number of CO outflows widespread across the region supports the competitive accretion scenario as origin of the MonR2 star cluster.
Southern Massive Stars at High Angular Resolution: Observational Campaign and Companion Detection
Sana, H; Lacour, S; Berger, J -P; Duvert, G; Gauchet, L; Norris, B; Olofsson, J; Pickel, D; Zins, G; Absil, O; de Koter, A; Kratter, K; Schnurr, O; Zinnecker, H
2014-01-01
Multiplicity is one of the most fundamental observable properties of massive O-type stars and offers a promising way to discriminate between massive star formation theories. Nevertheless, companions at separations between 1 and 100 mas remain mostly unknown due to intrinsic observational limitations. [...] The Southern MAssive Stars at High angular resolution survey (SMASH+) was designed to fill this gap by providing the first systematic interferometric survey of Galactic massive stars. We observed 117 O-type stars with VLTI/PIONIER and 162 O-type stars with NACO/SAM, respectively probing the separation ranges 1-45 and 30-250mas and brightness contrasts of Delta H < 4 and Delta H < 5. Taking advantage of NACO's field-of-view, we further uniformly searched for visual companions in an 8''-radius down to Delta H = 8. This paper describes the observations and data analysis, reports the discovery of almost 200 new companions in the separation range from 1mas to 8'' and presents the catalog of detections, inc...
European Extremely Large Telescope Site Characterization. II. High Angular Resolution Parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vázquez Ramió, Héctor; Vernin, Jean; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Sarazin, Marc; Varela, Antonia M.; Trinquet, Hervé; Delgado, José Miguel; Fuensalida, Jesús J.; Reyes, Marcos; Benhida, Abdelmajid; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; Lambas, Diego García; Hach, Youssef; Lazrek, M.; Lombardi, Gianluca; Navarrete, Julio; Recabarren, Pablo; Renzi, Victor; Sabil, Mohammed; Vrech, Rubén
2012-08-01
This is the second article of a series devoted to European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) site characterization. In this article we present the main properties of the parameters involved in high angular resolution observations from the data collected in the site testing campaign of the E-ELT during the design study (DS) phase. Observations were made in 2008 and 2009, in the four sites selected to shelter the future E-ELT (characterized under the ELT-DS contract): Aklim mountain in Morocco, Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM) in Spain, Macón range in Argentina, and Cerro Ventarrones in Chile. The same techniques, instruments, and acquisition procedures were taken on each site. A multiple aperture scintillation sensor (MASS) and a differential image motion monitor (DIMM) were installed at each site. Global statistics of the integrated seeing, the free atmosphere seeing, the boundary layer seeing, and the isoplanatic angle were studied for each site, and the results are presented here. In order to estimate other important parameters, such as the coherence time of the wavefront and the overall parameter "coherence étendue," additional information of vertical profiles of the wind speed was needed. Data were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) archive. Ground wind speed was measured by automatic weather stations (AWS). More aspects of the turbulence parameters, such as their seasonal trend, their nightly evolution, and their temporal stability, were also obtained and analyzed.
Chao, Yi-Ping; Cho, Kuan-Hung; Yeh, Chun-Hung; Chou, Kun-Hsien; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Lin, Ching-Po
2009-10-01
The function of the corpus callosum (CC) is to distribute perceptual, motor, cognitive, learned, and voluntary information between the two hemispheres of the brain. Accurate parcellation of the CC according to fiber composition and fiber connection is of upmost important. In this work, population-based probabilistic connection topographies of the CC, in the standard Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) space, are estimated by incorporating anatomical cytoarchitectural parcellation with high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) tractography. First, callosal fibers are extracted using multiple fiber assignment by continuous tracking algorithm based on q-ball imaging (QBI), on 12 healthy and young subjects. Then, the fiber tracts are aligned in the standard MNI coordinate system based on a tract-based transformation scheme. Next, twenty-eight Brodmann's areas on the surface of cortical cortex are registered to the MNI space to parcellate the aligned callosal fibers. Finally, the population-based topological subdivisions of the midsagittal CC to each cortical target are then mapped. And the resulting subdivisions of the CC that connect to the frontal and somatosensory associated cortex are also showed. To our knowledge, it is the first topographic subdivisions of the CC done using HARDI tractography and cytoarchitectonic information. In conclusion, this sophisticated topography of the CC may serve as a landmark to further understand the correlations between the CC, brain intercommunication, and functional cytoarchitectures. PMID:19241418
Jayachandra, M R; Rehbein, N; Herweh, C; Heiland, S
2008-11-01
The accuracy of fiber tracking on the basis of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) is affected by many parameters. To increase accuracy of the tracking algorithm, we introduce DTI with a fourth-order tensor. Tensor elements comprise information obtained by high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI). We further developed the flattened high rank tensor (FLAHRT) method and applied it to the measured fourth-order tensor. We then compared FLAHRT with: 1) the standard tracking algorithm using a second-order tensor; and 2) existing techniques involving the representation of conventional second-order tensor components as a weighted average of fourth-order tensor elements. Such techniques have been formulated in recent DT studies to link high-rank to low-rank Cartesian diffusion tensors (DTs). Diagonalization of the second-order tensor decomposes the tensor into three eigenvalues and three eigenvectors, which in turn are used to describe the diffusivity profile of a particular voxel. Diagonalization after application of the FLAHRT method reveals six eigenvalues and six eigentensors, resulting in a more accurate description of the anisotropy. We performed fiber tracking based on the eigenvalues and eigentensors calculated with the FLAHRT and standard methods. We could show that the FLAHRT technique gives more consistent and more accurate results even with a data set acquired in 15 directions only. The decomposition of the fourth-order tensor into six eigentensors has the potential to describe six different fiber orientations within a voxel. PMID:18958858
Joint 6D k-q Space Compressed Sensing for Accelerated High Angular Resolution Diffusion MRI.
Cheng, Jian; Shen, Dinggang; Basser, Peter J; Yap, Pew-Thian
2015-01-01
High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging (HARDI) avoids the Gaussian. diffusion assumption that is inherent in Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), and is capable of characterizing complex white matter micro-structure with greater precision. However, HARDI methods such as Diffusion Spectrum Imaging (DSI) typically require significantly more signal measurements than DTI, resulting in prohibitively long scanning times. One of the goals in HARDI research is therefore to improve estimation of quantities such as the Ensemble Average Propagator (EAP) and the Orientation Distribution Function (ODF) with a limited number of diffusion-weighted measurements. A popular approach to this problem, Compressed Sensing (CS), affords highly accurate signal reconstruction using significantly fewer (sub-Nyquist) data points than required traditionally. Existing approaches to CS diffusion MRI (CS-dMRI) mainly focus on applying CS in the q-space of diffusion signal measurements and fail to take into consideration information redundancy in the k-space. In this paper, we propose a framework, called 6-Dimensional Compressed Sensing diffusion MRI (6D-CS-dMRI), for reconstruction of the diffusion signal and the EAP from data sub-sampled in both 3D k-space and 3D q-space. To our knowledge, 6D-CS-dMRI is the first work that applies compressed sensing in the full 6D k-q space and reconstructs the diffusion signal in the full continuous q-space and the EAP in continuous displacement space. Experimental results on synthetic and real data demonstrate that, compared with full DSI sampling in k-q space, 6D-CS-dMRI yields excellent diffusion signal and EAP reconstruction with low root-mean-square error (RMSE) using 11 times less samples (3-fold reduction in k-space and 3.7-fold reduction in q-space). PMID:26221718
Optimizing HST's High Angular Resolution Observations with the FGS1r Interferometer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bradley, A. J.; Nelan, E.
2000-12-01
Sub-diffraction limited HST observations are conducted using the replacement Fine Guidance Sensor 1r (FGS1r) in its high angular resolution TRANS mode. This instrument was installed in HST during Servicing Mission SM2. Because of its superior performance, FGS1r was commissioned as a science instrument in June 1999, replacing FGS3 in this capacity. One of the performance parameters trended for the FGS1r is the so called the Coarse Track/Fine Lock (CT/FL) bias. It represents the difference in the position of a star's photocenter, as measured in Coarse Track, versus its interferometric position as measured in Fine Lock. In TRANS mode the FGS1r instantaneous field of view is scanned across a target so that the detailed fringe morphology and visibility can be reconstructed for scientific analysis. The starting position for the scan is offset from the Coarse Track centroid in such a way that ideally (when the bias is zero) the star is centered with respect to the scan. With a current on-orbit CT/FL bias of 0.5" in FGS1r, scans must be sufficiently long, on the order of 1.6", just to assure that the target's fringes are fully sampled. Given a constant scan rate (40 mas/sec), it is desirable that short scans can be used, so that more scans can be made during the observing window. This yields the highest possible S/N ratio (individual scans are co-added), an important objective when observing stars of faint magnitudes (V>14.5). To remove the CT/FL bias, and thereby enable shorter scan lengths, changes were made to the flight software and to the TRANS mode commands. This paper reviews the origin of the CT/FL bias error, the mechanics of the TRANS mode observing, and the software and commanding modifications implemented to remove the bias error. Results from an on-orbit test will be shown.
SOUTHERN MASSIVE STARS AT HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION: OBSERVATIONAL CAMPAIGN AND COMPANION DETECTION
Sana, H. [European Space Agency/Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Duvert, G.; Zins, G. [Université Grenoble Alpes, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Lacour, S.; Gauchet, L.; Pickel, D. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, Université Paris-Diderot, Paris Sciences et Lettres, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Berger, J.-P. [European Southern Observatory, Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Norris, B. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Olofsson, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Absil, O. [Département d'Astrophysique, Géophysique et Océanographie, Université de Liège, 17 Allée du Six Août, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); De Koter, A. [Astrophysical Institute Anton Pannekoek, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kratter, K. [JILA, 440 UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States); Schnurr, O. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Zinnecker, H., E-mail: hsana@stsci.edu [Deutsches SOFIA Instituut, SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, Mail Stop N232-12, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)
2014-11-01
Multiplicity is one of the most fundamental observable properties of massive O-type stars and offers a promising way to discriminate between massive star formation theories. Nevertheless, companions at separations between 1 and 100 milliarcsec (mas) remain mostly unknown due to intrinsic observational limitations. At a typical distance of 2 kpc, this corresponds to projected physical separations of 2-200 AU. The Southern MAssive Stars at High angular resolution survey (SMaSH+) was designed to fill this gap by providing the first systematic interferometric survey of Galactic massive stars. We observed 117 O-type stars with VLTI/PIONIER and 162 O-type stars with NACO/Sparse Aperture Masking (SAM), probing the separation ranges 1-45 and 30-250 mas and brightness contrasts of ?H < 4 and ?H < 5, respectively. Taking advantage of NACO's field of view, we further uniformly searched for visual companions in an 8'' radius down to ?H = 8. This paper describes observations and data analysis, reports the discovery of almost 200 new companions in the separation range from 1 mas to 8'' and presents a catalog of detections, including the first resolved measurements of over a dozen known long-period spectroscopic binaries. Excluding known runaway stars for which no companions are detected, 96 objects in our main sample (? < 0°; H < 7.5) were observed both with PIONIER and NACO/SAM. The fraction of these stars with at least one resolved companion within 200 mas is 0.53. Accounting for known but unresolved spectroscopic or eclipsing companions, the multiplicity fraction at separation ? < 8'' increases to f {sub m} = 0.91 ± 0.03. The fraction of luminosity class V stars that have a bound companion reaches 100% at 30 mas while their average number of physically connected companions within 8'' is f {sub c} = 2.2 ± 0.3. This demonstrates that massive stars form nearly exclusively in multiple systems. The nine non-thermal radio emitters observed by SMaSH+ are all resolved, including the newly discovered pairs HD 168112 and CPD–47°2963. This lends strong support to the universality of the wind-wind collision scenario to explain the non-thermal emission from O-type stars.
C. Goddi; L. Moscadelli; A. Sanna; R. Cesaroni; V. Minier
2006-10-16
Most previous high-angular (<0.1 arcsec) resolution studies of molecular masers in high-mass star forming regions (SFRs) have concentrated mainly on either water or methanol masers. While high-angular resolution observations have clarified that water masers originate from shocks associated with protostellar jets, different environments have been proposed in several sources to explain the origin of methanol masers. Tha aim of the paper is to investigate the nature of the methanol maser birthplace in SFRs and the association between the water and methanol maser emission in the same young stellar object. We have conducted phase-reference Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations of water and methanol masers toward two high-mass SFRs, Sh 2-255 IR and AFGL 5142. In Sh 2-255 IR water masers are aligned along a direction close to the orientation of the molecular outflow observed on angular scales of 1-10 arcsec, tracing possibly the disk-wind emerging from the disk atmosphere. In AFGL 5142 water masers trace expansion at the base of a protostellar jet, whilst methanol masers are more probably tracing infalling than outflowing gas. The results for AFGL 5142 suggest that water and methanol masers trace different kinematic structures in the circumstellar gas.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rinehart, Stephen A.
2008-01-01
Astronomical studies at infrared wavelengths have dramatically improved our understanding of the universe, and observations with Spitzer, the upcoming Herschel mission. and SOFIA will continue to provide exciting new discoveries. The comparatively low spatial resolution of these missions, however. is insufficient to resolve the physical scales on which mid- to far-infrared emission arises, resulting in source and structure ambiguities that limit our ability to answer key science questions. Interferometry enables high angular resolution at these wavelengths. We have proposed a new high altitude balloon experiment, the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII). High altitude operation makes far-infrared (30- 300micron) observations possible, and BETTII's 8-meter baseline provides unprecedented angular resolution (-0.5 arcsec) in this band. BETTII will use a double- Fourier instrument to simultaneously obtain both spatial and spectral informatioT. he spatially resolved spectroscopy provided by BETTII will address key questions about the nature of disks in young cluster stars and active galactic nuclei and the envelopes of evolved stars. BETTII will also lay the groundwork for future space interferometers.
Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC
2012-02-17
We introduce a jet shape observable defined for an ensemble of jets in terms of two-particle angular correlations and a resolution parameter R. This quantity is infrared and collinear safe and can be interpreted as a scaling exponent for the angular distribution of mass inside the jet. For small R it is close to the value 2 as a consequence of the approximately scale invariant QCD dynamics. For large R it is sensitive to non-perturbative effects. We describe the use of this correlation function for tests of QCD, for studying underlying event and pile-up effects, and for tuning Monte Carlo event generators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chua, D. H.; Korendyke, C. M.; Vourlidas, A.; Brown, C. M.; Tun-Beltran, S.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Landi, E.; Seely, J.; Davila, J. M.; Hagood, R.; Roberts, D.; Shepler, E.; Feldman, R.; Moser, J.; Shea, J.
2012-12-01
Theoretical and experimental investigations of the transition region and coronal loops point to the importance of processes occurring on small spatial scales in governing the strong dynamics and impulsive energy release in these regions. As a consequence, high spatial, temporal, and temperature resolution over a broad temperature range, and accuracy in velocity and density determinations are all critical observational parameters. Current instruments lack one or more of these properties. These observational deficiencies have created a wide array of opposing descriptions of coronal loop heating and questions such as whether or not the plasma within coronal loops is multi-thermal or isothermal. High spectral and spatial resolution spectroscopic data are absolutely required to resolve these controversies and to advance our understanding of the dynamics within the solar atmosphere. We will achieve this with the Very High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (VERIS) sounding rocket payload. VERIS consists of an off-axis paraboloid telescope feeding a very high angular resolution, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging spectrometer that will provide the first ever, simultaneous sub-arcsecond (0.16 arcsecond/pixel) spectra in bright lines needed to study plasma structures in the transition region, quiet corona, and active region core. It will do so with a spectral resolution of >5000 to allow Doppler velocity determinations to better than 3 km/s. VERIS uses a novel two-element, normal incidence optical design with highly reflective, broad wavelength coverage EUV coatings to access a spectral range with broad temperature coverage (0.03-15 MK) and density-sensitive line ratios. Combined with Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) and ground based observatories, VERIS will deliver simultaneous observations of the entire solar atmosphere from the photosphere to the multi-million degree corona at sub-arcsecond resolution for the first time ever, allowing us to understand the missing link between chromospheric structures and the corona. VERIS will be launched from White Sands Missile Range in early 2013. This paper presents a progress report on the VERIS payload and a summary of observations planned to further our understanding of the fine-scale structure of individual coronal loops and the heating mechanisms operating within them.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stewart, Paul N.; Tuthill, Peter G.; Nicholson, Philip D.; Hedman, Matthew M.; Lloyd, James P.
2015-05-01
We present an advance in the use of Cassini observations of stellar occultations by the rings of Saturn for stellar studies. Stewart et al. demonstrated the potential use of such observations for measuring stellar angular diameters. Here, we use these same observations, and tomographic imaging reconstruction techniques, to produce two-dimensional images of complex stellar systems. We detail the determination of the basic observational reference frame. A technique for recovering model-independent brightness profiles for data from each occulting edge is discussed, along with the tomographic combination of these profiles to build an image of the source star. Finally, we demonstrate the technique with recovered images of the ? Centauri binary system and the circumstellar environment of the evolved late-type giant star, Mira.
All-sky imaging at high angular resolution: An overview using lossy compression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dollet, C.; Bijaoui, A.; Mignard, F.
2004-11-01
We examine a possible extension of the Gaia mission in the form of a high-spatial resolution all-sky survey in the visible based on a scanning satellite and show that the main limitation is the amount of collected data to be transmitted. We then investigate the kind of image compression that would make it possible to carry out a complete cartography at a resolution of 0.1 arcsec, which would constitute a major advance in sky mapping. The most significant information is projected into wavelet space after the subtraction of the brighter objects that are mapped independently with the instrument point spread function and transmitted separately. The study is based on a Gaia-like instrument using a rectangular pupil and one-dimensional high resolution along scan. The difference of resolution across- and along-scan is compensated by the combination of all the observations at the end of the mission in Fourier space. A gain of 2-3 mag compared with the magnitude limit of the on-board detection could be achieved with the features of the Astro Sky Mapper of the Gaia mission.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yashima, Masatomo; Mori, Mizuki; Ali, Roushown; Tanaka, Masahiko; Mori, Takeharu
2003-04-01
We have investigated in situ a continuous transition between the orthorhombic and tetragonal phases in perovskite-structured La 0.63(Ti 0.92,Nb 0.08)O 3 by three X-ray powder diffractometers with different ? d/ d resolutions of 0.03%, 0.06% and 0.10%. The d and ? d denote the ?/(2·sin ?) and peak width where ? and ? are wavelength of X-ray and Bragg angle. Only the highest-resolution diffractometer of ? d/ d=0.03% was able to detect the peak splitting between 400 and 040 reflections in the temperature range of 327-339°C. It was found that the accuracy of the transition temperature is considerably improved with decreasing of ? d/ d value. The maximum temperature where the peak splitting between 400 and 040 reflections is detectable increases, while the transition temperature determined by a power law decreases with decreasing of ? d/ d value.
Angular Resolution of an EAS Array for Gamma Ray Astronomy at Energies Greater Than 5 x 10 (13) Ev
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Apte, A. R.; Gopalakrishnan, N. V.; Tonwar, S. C.; Uma, V.
1985-01-01
A 24 detector extensive air shower array is being operated at Ootacamund (2300 m altitude, 11.4 deg N latitude) in southern India for a study of arrival directions of showers of energies greater than 5 x 10 to the 13th power eV. Various configurations of the array of detectors have been used to estimate the accuracy in determination of arrival angle of showers with such an array. These studies show that it is possible to achieve an angular resolution of better than 2 deg with the Ooty array for search for point sources of Cosmic gamma rays at energies above 5 x 10 to the 13th power eV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moser, D. E.
2012-12-01
Kikuchi discovered electron diffraction in samples of calcite in the 1920's, and orientation of lattice planes by Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) is now routinely measured by automated camera systems at a spatial resolution of tens of nanometers using Field Emission Gun SEM. The current methodology is proving particularly powerful when measuring lattice orientation microstructure in U-Pb geochronology minerals such as zircon and baddeleyite that have experienced high temperature deformation or shock metamorphism. These are among the oldest preserved mineral phases in inner solar system materials, and we have been applying EBSD to rare samples of the Early Earth and grains from extraterrestrial environments such as the Moon and Mars. In these cases the EBSD orientation data are useful for identifying high diffusivity pathways that may have afforded isotopic and trace element disturbance, microstructural proxies for shock metamorphic pressures, as well as resolving glide plane systems in ductile zircon and shear twin mechanisms. Blanket estimates of angular resolution for automated EBSD misorientation measurements are often in the range of 0.5 degrees. In some cases strain giving rise to only a few degrees of lattice misorientation has facilitated 100% Pb-loss. In some cases, however, there is a spatial correlation between trace element or cathodoluminescence zoning in zircon and what appears to be low magnitudes misorientation close to the limits of resolution. Given the proven value of performing EBSD analysis on geochronology minerals, a more thorough exploration of the precision and accuracy of EBSD lattice misorientation measurements is warranted. In this talk the relative weighting of the factors that limit EBSD angular resolution will be investigated, focusing on U-Pb dating minerals such as zircon. These factors include; sample surface preparation, phase symmetry, pseudo-symmetry effects, degree of crystallinity, Kikuchi band contrast and indexing, solid solution effects on unit cell, dimension camera calibration and camera-sample distance, beam conditions and focussing, and general microscope operating conditions (e.g. high vacuum vs. variable pressure). An assessment of potential zircon EBSD reference materials and sample preparation protocols will be presented, along with case studies of zircon orientation microstructures from meteorites and terrestrial craters representative of different strain and thermal environments in the inner solar system.BSD lattice misorientation maps of a) crystal-plastically deformed and partly recrystallized zircon, after Rayner et al. (in prep.), and b) shock-metamorphosed lunar zircon (Darling et al., in prep.).
High Angular Resolution Mid-Infrared Imaging of Young Stars in Orion BN/KL
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greenhill, L. J.; Gezari, D. Y.; Danchi, W. C.; Najita, J.; Monnier, J. D.
2004-01-01
The authors present Keck LWS images of the Orion BN/KL star forming region obtained in the first multi-wavelength study to have 0.3--0.5 resolution from 4.7 (micro)m to 22 (micro)m. The young stellar objects designed infrared source n and radio source I are believed to dominate the BN/KL region. They have detected extended emission from a probable accretion disk around source n but infer a stellar luminosity on the order of only 2000 L(sub (center-dot)).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gneses, M. I.; Berg, D. S.
1981-01-01
Specifications for the pointing stabilization system of the large space telescope were used in an investigation of the feasibility of reducing ring laser gyro output quantization to the sub-arc-second level by the use of phase locked loops and associated electronics. Systems analysis procedures are discussed and a multioscillator laser gyro model is presented along with data on the oscillator noise. It is shown that a second order closed loop can meet the measurement noise requirements when the loop gain and time constant of the loop filter are appropriately chosen. The preliminary electrical design is discussed from the standpoint of circuit tradeoff considerations. Analog, digital, and hybrid designs are given and their applicability to the high resolution sensor is examined. the electrical design choice of a system configuration is detailed. The design and operation of the various modules is considered and system block diagrams are included. Phase 1 and 2 test results using the multioscillator laser gyro are included.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhang. W. W.; Biskach, M. P.; Blake, P. N.; Chan, K. W.; Gaskin, J. A.; Hong, M. L.; Jones, W. D.; Kolos, L. D.; Mazzarella, J. R.; McClelland, R. S.; O'Dell, S. L.; Saha, T. T.; Sharpe, M. V.
2012-01-01
X-ray astronomy depends on the availability of telescopes with high resolution and large photon collecting areas. Since x-ray observation can only be carried out above the atmosphere, these telescopes must be necessarily lightweight. Compounding the lightweight requirement is that an x-ray telescope consists of many nested concentric shells, which further require that x-ray mirrors must also be geometrically thin to achieve high packing efficiency. This double lightweight and geometrically thin requirement poses significant technical challenges in fabricating the mirrors and in integrating them into mirror assemblies. This paper reports on the approach, strategy and status of our x-ray optics development program whose objective is to meet these technical challenges at modest cost to enable future x-ray missions, including small Explorer missions in the near term, probe class missions in the medium term, and large flagship missions in the long term.
Korngut, P. M.; Dicker, S. R.; Reese, E. D.; Devlin, M. J.; Mroczkowski, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 S. 33rd St., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Mason, B. S. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Rd., Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Sarazin, C. L.; Sun, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Sievers, J., E-mail: pkorngut@physics.upenn.edu [Canadian Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada)
2011-06-10
We present resolved images of four massive clusters of galaxies through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE). These measurements, made at 90 GHz with the MUSTANG receiver on the Green Bank Telescope (GBT), reveal pressure substructure to the intracluster medium (ICM) in three of the four systems. The SZE and X-ray morphology of MACS0744.8+3927 are suggestive of the presence of a weak shock outside the cluster core. By fitting the Rankine-Hugoniot density jump conditions in a complementary SZE/X-ray analysis, we asses the feasibility of this interpretation. We conclude that a weak shock with a Mach number of M= 1.2{sup +0.2}{sub -0.2} and a shock velocity of 1827{sup +267}{sub -195} km s{sup -1} adequately describes the observed phenomenology. Deeper Chandra data are needed for confirmation. In RXJ1347.5-1145, we present a new reduction of previously reported data and confirm the presence of a southeast SZE enhancement with a significance of 13.9{sigma} when smoothed to 18'' resolution. This too is likely caused by shock-heated gas produced in a recent merger. In our highest redshift system, CL1226.9+3332, we detect substructure at a peak significance of 4.6{sigma} in the form of a ridge oriented orthogonally to the vector connecting the main mass peak and a subclump revealed by weak lensing. We also conclude that the gas distribution is elongated in a southwest direction, consistent with a previously proposed merger scenario. The SZE image of the cool core cluster A1835 is, in contrast, consistent with azimuthally symmetric signal only. This pilot study demonstrates the potential of high-resolution SZE images to complement X-ray data and probe the dynamics of galaxy clusters.
The Stellar Imager (SI): An Ultra-High Angular Resolution UV/Optical Observatory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The Stellar Imager (SI) is envisioned as a space-based, UV-optical interferometer composed of 10 or more one-meter class elements distributed with a maximum baseline of 0.5-km and providing a resolution of 60 micro-arcseconds at 1550 A. It will image stars and binaries with one hundred to one thousand resolution elements on their surface and enable long-term studies of stellar magnetic activity patterns and their evolution with time, for comparison with those on the sun. It will also sound their interiors through asteroseismology to image internal structure, differential rotation, and large-scale circulations. SI will enable us to understand the various effects of magnetic fields of stars, the dynamos that generate these fields, and the internal structure and dynamics of the stars in which these dynamos operate. The ultimate goal of the mission is to achieve the best-possible forecasting of solar activity as a driver of climate and space weather on times scales ranging from months up to decades, and an understanding of the impact of stellar magnetic activity on life in the Universe. The road to that goal will revolutionize our understanding of stars and stellar systems, the building blocks of the Universe. Fitting naturally within the NASA and ESA long-term time lines, SI complements defined missions, and with them will show us entire other solar systems, from the central star to their orbiting planets. In this paper we will describe the scientific goals of the mission, the performance requirements needed to address those goals, and the design concepts now under study.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pyo, Tae-Soo; Hayashi, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Naoto; Tokunaga, Alan T.; Terada, Hiroshi; Goto, Miwa; Takami, Hideki; Takato, Naruhisa; Gässler, Wolfgang; Oya, Shin; Hayano, Yutaka; Kamata, Yukiko; Minowa, Yosuke; Usuda, Tomonori; Iye, Masanori; Yamashita, Takuya
2005-01-01
We introduce results of the [Fe II] ?1.644 ?m spectroscopic observations toward the outflows emanating from L1551 IRS 5, DG Tau, HL Tau, and RW Aur. We resolved the region within ~±140 AU (< ±1??) from their driving sources with an angular resolution up to 0''16 achieved with the Adaptive Optics System of Subaru Telescope. We detected two distinct velocity components separated in space and velocity for all the objects. The high velocity components (HVCs) show the radial velocities |V|>250 km s-1 and is extended, while the low velocity components (LVCs) have their peak velocities of 80<|V|<150 km s-1 and is located near the driving sources. These velocities are consistent with the interpretation that the HVCs are launched from the star surface or its vicinity while the LVCs are accelerated near the inner edges of their accreting disks. We demonstrate that the [Fe II] spectroscopy at high spatial and velocity resolutions is a powerful tool to study the outflow mechanisms from YSOs with large extinctions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pyo, Tae-Soo; Hayashi, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Naoto; Tokunaga, Alan T.; Terada, Hiroshi; Goto, Miwa; Takami, Hideki; Takato, Naruhisa; Gässler, Wolfgang; Oya, Shin; Hayano, Yutaka; Kamata, Yukiko; Minowa, Yosuke; Usuda, Tomonori; Iye, Masanori; Yamashita, Takuya
We introduce results of the [Fe II] ?1.644 ?m spectroscopic observations toward the outflows emanating from L1551 IRS 5, DG Tau, HL Tau, and RW Aur. We resolved the region within ~±140 AU (< ±1'') from their driving sources with an angular resolution up to 0''16 achieved with the Adaptive Optics System of Subaru Telescope. We detected two distinct velocity components separated in space and velocity for all the objects. The high velocity components (HVCs) show the radial velocities |V|>250 km s-1 and is extended, while the low velocity components (LVCs) have their peak velocities of 80<|V|<150 km s-1 and is located near the driving sources. These velocities are consistent with the interpretation that the HVCs are launched from the star surface or its vicinity while the LVCs are accelerated near the inner edges of their accreting disks. We demonstrate that the [Fe II] spectroscopy at high spatial and velocity resolutions is a powerful tool to study the outflow mechanisms from YSOs with large extinctions.
Probe diagnostics of electron distributions in plasma with spatial and angular resolution
Demidov, V. I.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.
2014-09-15
This paper discusses the spatial resolution that is required to study inhomogeneous, low-temperature plasmas and is based on a review of low-temperature plasma electron kinetics and methods for probe measurements of electron energy distribution functions (EEDFs). It is stated that EEDFs can be extracted from probe measurements by applying an appropriate probe theory. The Druyvesteyn formula is most commonly used for this extraction and has been used in numerous publications, but more general theory can be used for a wider range of gas pressures. It is demonstrated that the Druyvesteyn formula can be obtained from the general theory as a limiting case. This paper justifies the application of wall probes in plasma studies of an energetic part of EEDFs. This justification is made for an idealized probe. We briefly review the methods for studying anisotropic plasmas and their usefulness in plasma research. It is demonstrated that to determine anisotropic electron energy distribution functions, a planar, one-sided probe is most convenient.
SMA High Angular Resolution Imaging of the Lensed Quasar APM08279+5255
M. Krips; A. B. Peck; K. Sakamoto; G. B. Petitpas; D. J. Wilner; S. Matsushita; D. Iono
2007-10-25
We present Submillimeter Array observations of the z=3.91 gravitationally lensed broad absorption line quasar APM08279+5255 which spatially resolve the 1.0mm (0.2mm rest-frame) dust continuum emission. At 0.4" resolution, the emission is separated into two components, a stronger, extended one to the northeast (46+/-5mJy) and a weaker, compact one to the southwest (15+/-2mJy). We have carried out simulations of the gravitational lensing effect responsible for the two submm components in order to constrain the intrinsic size of the submm continuum emission. Using an elliptical lens potential, the best fit lensing model yields an intrinsic (projected) diameter of ~80pc, which is not as compact as the optical/near-infrared (NIR) emission and agrees with previous size estimates of the gas and dust emission in APM08279+5255. Based on our estimate, we favor a scenario in which the 0.2mm (rest-frame) emission originates from a warm dust component (T_d=150-220K) that is mainly heated by the AGN rather than by a starburst (SB). The flux is boosted by a factor of ~90 in our model, consistent with recent estimates for APM08279+5255.
Xiahou, Chengkui; Connor, J N L
2014-06-01
This paper considers the asymptotic (semiclassical) analysis of a forward glory and a rainbow in the differential cross section (DCS) of a state-to-state chemical reaction, whose scattering amplitude is given by a Legendre partial wave series (PWS). A recent paper by C. Xiahou, J. N. L. Connor and D. H. Zhang [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011, 13, 12981] stated without proof a new asymptotic formula for the scattering amplitude, which is uniform for a glory and a rainbow in the DCS. The new formula was designated "6Hankel" because it involves six Hankel functions. This paper makes three contributions: (1) we provide a detailed derivation of the 6Hankel approximation. This is done by first generalizing a method described by G. F. Carrier [J. Fluid Mech., 1966, 24, 641] for the uniform asymptotic evaluation of an oscillating integral with two real coalescing stationary phase points, which results in the "2Hankel" approximation (it contains two Hankel functions). Application of the 2Hankel approximation to the PWS results in the 6Hankel approximation for the scattering amplitude. We also test the accuracy of the 2Hankel approximation when it is used to evaluate three oscillating integrals of the cuspoid type. (2) We investigate the properties of the 6Hankel approximation. In particular, it is shown that for angles close to the forward direction, the 6Hankel approximation reduces to the "semiclassical transitional approximation" for glory scattering derived earlier. For scattering close to the rainbow angle, the 6Hankel approximation reduces to the "transitional Airy approximation", also derived earlier. (3) Using a J-shifted Eckart parameterization for the scattering matrix, we investigate the accuracy of the 6Hankel approximation for a DCS. We also compare with angular scattering results from the "uniform Bessel", "uniform Airy" and other semiclassical approximations. PMID:24519014
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
ALMA Partnership; Brogan, C. L.; Pérez, L. M.; Hunter, T. R.; Dent, W. R. F.; Hales, A. S.; Hills, R. E.; Corder, S.; Fomalont, E. B.; Vlahakis, C.; Asaki, Y.; Barkats, D.; Hirota, A.; Hodge, J. A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Kneissl, R.; Liuzzo, E.; Lucas, R.; Marcelino, N.; Matsushita, S.; Nakanishi, K.; Phillips, N.; Richards, A. M. S.; Toledo, I.; Aladro, R.; Broguiere, D.; Cortes, J. R.; Cortes, P. C.; Espada, D.; Galarza, F.; Garcia-Appadoo, D.; Guzman-Ramirez, L.; Humphreys, E. M.; Jung, T.; Kameno, S.; Laing, R. A.; Leon, S.; Marconi, G.; Mignano, A.; Nikolic, B.; Nyman, L.-A.; Radiszcz, M.; Remijan, A.; Rodón, J. A.; Sawada, T.; Takahashi, S.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; Vila Vilaro, B.; Watson, L. C.; Wiklind, T.; Akiyama, E.; Chapillon, E.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Di Francesco, J.; Gueth, F.; Kawamura, A.; Lee, C.-F.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Mangum, J.; Pietu, V.; Sanhueza, P.; Saigo, K.; Takakuwa, S.; Ubach, C.; van Kempen, T.; Wootten, A.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Francke, H.; Gallardo, J.; Garcia, J.; Gonzalez, S.; Hill, T.; Kaminski, T.; Kurono, Y.; Liu, H.-Y.; Lopez, C.; Morales, F.; Plarre, K.; Schieven, G.; Testi, L.; Videla, L.; Villard, E.; Andreani, P.; Hibbard, J. E.; Tatematsu, K.
2015-07-01
We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations from the 2014 Long Baseline Campaign in dust continuum and spectral line emission from the HL Tau region. The continuum images at wavelengths of 2.9, 1.3, and 0.87 mm have unprecedented angular resolutions of 0.? 075 (10 AU) to 0.? 025 (3.5 AU), revealing an astonishing level of detail in the circumstellar disk surrounding the young solar analog HL Tau, with a pattern of bright and dark rings observed at all wavelengths. By fitting ellipses to the most distinct rings, we measure precise values for the disk inclination (46\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 72+/- 0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 05) and position angle (+138\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 02+/- 0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 07). We obtain a high-fidelity image of the 1.0 mm spectral index (?), which ranges from ? ? 2.0 in the optically thick central peak and two brightest rings, increasing to 2.3–3.0 in the dark rings. The dark rings are not devoid of emission, and we estimate a grain emissivity index of 0.8 for the innermost dark ring and lower for subsequent dark rings, consistent with some degree of grain growth and evolution. Additional clues that the rings arise from planet formation include an increase in their central offsets with radius and the presence of numerous orbital resonances. At a resolution of 35 AU, we resolve the molecular component of the disk in HCO+ (1-0) which exhibits a pattern over LSR velocities from 2–12 km s?1 consistent with Keplerian motion around a ?1.3 {M}? star, although complicated by absorption at low blueshifted velocities. We also serendipitously detect and resolve the nearby protostars XZ Tau (A/B) and LkH?358 at 2.9 mm. .
Pantleon, W.; Wejdemann, C.; Jakobsen, B.; Lienert, U.; Poulsen, H. F.; X-Ray Science Division; Risoe National Lab.; Technical Univ. of Denmark; Roskilde Univ.
2009-10-25
With high angular resolution three-dimensional X-ray diffraction, individual subgrains are traced in the bulk of a polycrystalline specimen and their dynamics is followed in situ during varying loading conditions. The intensity distribution of single Bragg reflections from an individual grain is analyzed in reciprocal space. It consists of sharp high-intensity peaks arising from subgrains superimposed on a cloud of lower intensity arising from dislocation walls. Individual subgrains can be distinguished by their unique combination of orientation and elastic strain. The responses of polycrystalline copper to different loading conditions are presented: during uninterrupted tensile deformation, formation of subgrains can be observed concurrently with broadening of the Bragg reflection shortly after onset of plastic deformation. With continued tensile deformation, the subgrain structure develops intermittently. When the traction is terminated, stress relaxation occurs and number, size and orientation of subgrains are found to be constant. The subgrain structure freezes and only a minor clean-up of the dislocation structure is observed. When changing the tensile direction after pre-deformation in tension, a systematic correlation between the degree of strain path change and the changes in the dislocation structure quantified by the volume fraction of the subgrains is established. For obtaining the subgrain volume fraction, a new fitting method has been developed for partitioning the contributions of subgrains and dislocation walls.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Skinner, Gerry; Arzoumanian, Z.; Cash, W.; Gehrels, N.; Gendreau, K.; Gorenstein, P.; Krizmanic, J.; Leitner, J.; Miller, M.; Reasenberg, R.; Reynolds, C.; Sambruna, R.; Streitmatter, R.; Windt, D.
2008-01-01
MASSIM, the Milli-Arc-Second Structure Imager, is a mission that has been proposed for study within the context of NASA's "Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Studies" program. It uses a set of achromatic diffractive-refractive Fresnel lenses on an optics spacecraft to focus 5-11 keV X-rays onto detectors on a second spacecraft flying in formation 1000 km away. It will have a point-source sensitivity comparable with that of the current generation of major X-ray observatories (Chandra, XMM-Newton) but an angular resolution some three orders of magnitude better. MASSIM is optimized for the study of jets and other phenomena that occur in the immediate vicinity of black holes and neutron stars. It can also be used for studying other astrophysical phenomena on the milli-arc-second scale, such as those involving proto-stars, the surfaces and surroundings of nearby active stars and interacting winds. After introducing the principle of diffractive imaging in the x-ray/gamma-ray regime, the MASSIM mission concept and baseline design will be described along with a discussion of the options and trade-offs within the X-ray optics design.
Goh, Alvina; Lenglet, Christophe; Thompson, Paul M.; Vidal, René
2011-01-01
High angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) has become an important technique for imaging complex oriented structures in the brain and other anatomical tissues. This has motivated the recent development of several methods for computing the orientation probability density function (PDF) at each voxel. However, much less work has been done on developing techniques for filtering, interpolation, averaging and principal geodesic analysis of orientation PDF fields. In this paper, we present a Riemannian framework for performing such operations. The proposed framework does not require that the orientation PDFs be represented by any fixed parameterization, such as a mixture of von Mises-Fisher distributions or a spherical harmonic expansion. Instead, we use a nonparametric representation of the orientation PDF. We exploit the fact that under the square-root re-parameterization, the space of orientation PDFs forms a Riemannian manifold: the positive orthant of the unit Hilbert sphere. We show that various orientation PDF processing operations, such as filtering, interpolation, averaging and principal geodesic analysis, may be posed as optimization problems on the Hilbert sphere, and can be solved using Riemannian gradient descent. We illustrate these concepts with numerous experiments on synthetic, phantom and real datasets. We show their application to studying left/right brain asymmetries. PMID:21292013
Ozarslan, Evren; Mareci, Thomas H
2003-11-01
A new method for mapping diffusivity profiles in tissue is presented. The Bloch-Torrey equation is modified to include a diffusion term with an arbitrary rank Cartesian tensor. This equation is solved to give the expression for the generalized Stejskal-Tanner formula quantifying diffusive attenuation in complicated geometries. This makes it possible to calculate the components of higher-rank tensors without using the computationally-difficult spherical harmonic transform. General theoretical relations between the diffusion tensor (DT) components measured by traditional (rank-2) DT imaging (DTI) and 3D distribution of diffusivities, as measured by high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) methods, are derived. Also, the spherical tensor components from HARDI are related to the rank-2 DT. The relationships between higher- and lower-rank Cartesian DTs are also presented. The inadequacy of the traditional rank-2 tensor model is demonstrated with simulations, and the method is applied to excised rat brain data collected in a spin-echo HARDI experiment. PMID:14587006
Fymat, A L
1979-01-01
Analytical inverse formulas are provided for reconstructing the size distribution of particulates whose scattering patterns can be adequately described by the Rayleigh-Gans-Born (or Shifrin) approximation. The formulas hold for arbitrary polarization states at incidence and scattering of light and for angular or spectral measurements. The particle shapes considered are spheres, spherical shells, thin disks (which may be randomly oriented), and thin rods. Circular cylinders and ellipsoids can also be encompassed by our formulas if these particles are described in terms of equivalent spheres having the same volume. PMID:20208673
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gratadour, D.; Rouan, D.; Grosset, L.; Boccaletti, A.; Clénet, Y.
2015-09-01
Aims: One of the main observational challenges for investigating the central regions of active galactic nuclei (AGN) at short wavelengths, using high angular resolution, and high contrast observations, is to directly detect the circumnuclear optically thick material hiding the central core emission when viewed edge-on. The lack of direct evidence is limiting our understanding of AGN, and several scenarios have been proposed to cope for the diverse observed aspects of activity in a unified approach. Methods: Observations in the near-infrared spectral range have shown themselves to be powerful for providing essential hints to the characterisation of the unified model ingredients because of the reduced optical depth of the obscuring material. Moreover, it is possible to trace this material through light scattered from the central engine's closest environment, so that polarimetric observations are the ideal tool for distinguishing it from purely thermal and stellar emissions. Results: Here we show strong evidence that there is an extended nuclear torus at the center of NGC 1068 thanks to new adaptive-optics-assisted polarimetric observations in the near-infrared. The orientation of the polarization vectors proves that there is a structured hourglass-shaped bicone and a compact elongated (20 × 60 pc) nuclear structure perpendicular to the bicone axis. The linearly polarized emission in the bicone is dominated by a centro-symmetric pattern, but the central compact region shows a clear deviation from the latter with linear polarization aligned perpendicular to the bicone axis. Figure 2 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgData obtained with the SPHERE an instrument designed and built by a consortium consisting of IPAG (France), MPIA (Germany), LAM (France), LESIA (France), Laboratoire Lagrange (France), INAF - Osservatorio di Padova (Italy), Observatoire de Genève (Switzerland), ETH Zurich (Switzerland), NOVA (Netherlands), ONERA (France), and ASTRON (Netherlands) in collaboration with ESO.
Fernandez-Lopez, M.; Curiel, S. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apartado Postal 70-264, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Girart, J. M. [Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-parell 2, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Ho, P. T. P. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Patel, N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gomez, Y., E-mail: manferna@gmail.com, E-mail: scuriel@astroscu.unam.mx, E-mail: girart@ieec.cat, E-mail: y.gomez@astrosmo.unam.mx [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 3-72, Morelia, Michoacan 58089 (Mexico)
2011-03-15
The GGD27 complex includes the HH 80-81-80N system, which is one of the most powerful molecular outflows associated with a high-mass star-forming region observed to date. This outflow is powered by the star associated with the source IRAS 18162-2048. Here, we report on the detection of continuum emission at subarcsec/arcsec resolution with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at 1.36 mm and 456 {mu}m, respectively. We detected dust emission arising from two compact cores, MM1 and MM2, separated by about 7'' ({approx}12,000 AU in projected distance). MM1 spatially coincides with the powerful thermal radio continuum jet that powers the very extended molecular outflow, while MM2 is associated with the protostar that drives the compact molecular outflow recently found in this region. High angular resolution observations at 1.36 mm show that MM1 is unresolved and that MM2 splits into two subcomponents separated by {approx}1''. The mass of MM1 is about 4 M{sub sun} and it has a size of {approx}<300 AU. This is consistent with MM1 being associated with a massive and dense (n(H{sub 2}) {approx}> 10{sup 9} cm{sup -3}) circumstellar dusty disk surrounding a high-mass protostar, which has not yet developed a compact H II region. On the other hand, the masses of the two separate components of MM2 are about 2 M{sub sun} each. One of these components is a compact core with an intermediate-mass young protostar inside and the other component is probably a prestellar core. MM1 is the brightest source at 1.36 mm, while MM2 dominates the emission at 456 {mu}m. These are the only (sub)millimeter sources detected in the SMA observations. Hence, it seems that both sources may contribute significantly to the bolometric luminosity of the region. Finally, we argue that the characteristics of these two sources indicate that MM2 is probably in an earlier evolutionary stage than MM1.
F. -X. Desert; A. Benoit; S. Gaertner; J. -P. Bernard; N. Coron; J. Delabrouille; P. de Marcillac; M. Giard; J. -M. Lamarre; B. Lefloch; J. -L. Puget; A. Sirbi
1998-08-24
We report on the first observation of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect with the Diabolo experiment at the IRAM 30 metre telescope. A significant brightness decrement is detected in the direction of three clusters (Abell 665, Abell 2163 and CL0016+16). With a 30 arcsecond beam and 3 arcminute beamthrow, this is the highest angular resolution observation to date of the SZ effect.
Altug Arda; Ramazan Sever
2008-10-06
The radial part of the effective mass Klein-Gordon equation for the Hulthen potential is solved by making an approximation to the centrifugal potential. The Nikiforov-Uvarov method is used in the calculations. Energy spectra and the corresponding eigenfunctions are computed. Results are also given for the case of constant mass.
Chen Zhang; Shuang Nan Zhang
2008-06-25
High angular resolution X-ray imaging is always demanded by astrophysics and solar physics, which can be realized by coded-mask imaging with very long mask-detector distance in principle. Previously the diffraction-interference effect has been thought to degrade coded-mask imaging performance dramatically at low energy end with very long mask-detector distance. In this work the diffraction-interference effect is described with numerical calculations, and the diffraction-interference cross correlation reconstruction method (DICC) is developed in order to overcome the imaging performance degradation. Based on the DICC, a super-high angular resolution principle (SHARP) for coded-mask X-ray imaging is proposed. The feasibility of coded mask imaging beyond the diffraction limit of single pinhole is demonstrated with simulations. With the specification that the mask element size of 50* 50 square micrometers and the mask-detector distance of 50 m, the achieved angular resolution is 0.32 arcsec above about 10 keV, and 0.36 arcsec at 1.24 keV where diffraction can not be neglected. The on-axis source location accuracy is better than 0.02 arcsec. Potential applications for solar observations and wide-field X-ray monitors are also shortly discussed.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Wolfgang Christian
The simulation of a rotating wheel below shows the relationship between angular position, angular velocity, and angular acceleration. Graphs of angular position and angular velocity as a function of time are shown.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gorenstein, P.; Perlman, D.; Parsignault, D.; Burns, R.
1979-01-01
A sealed position sensitive proportional counter filled with two atmospheres of 95% xenon and 5% methane, and containing a drift region of 24 atm cm, has operated in a stable manner for many months. The detector contains G-10 frames to support the anode and cathode wires. The detector was sealed successfully by a combination of vacuum baking the G-10 frames at 150 C for two weeks followed by assembly into the detector in an environment of dry nitrogen, and the use of passive internal getters. The counter is intended for use with a circumferential cylindrical collimator. Together they provide a very broad field of view detection system with the ability to locate cosmic hard X-ray and soft gamma ray sources to an angular precision of a minute of arc. A set of instruments based on this principle have been proposed for satellites to detect and precisely locate cosmic gamma ray bursts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Selkowitz, D.
2008-12-01
Increases in shrub cover have been documented across arctic Alaska and have been linked to a warming climate. This study explores the utility of several remote sensing platforms for mapping shrub cover in the arctic. A 90 km x 12 km swath of IKONOS imagery acquired on a single overpass in July 2001 and in situ measurements of shrub density acquired during the summer of 2008 were used to produce a map of shrub density with a spatial resolution of 4 m/pixel. Cross validation indicated this map had a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 2.9% and a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.88. The 4 m/pixel image was then degraded to a spatial resolution of 275 m/pixel and used as the training and validation dataset for regression tree models based on input from coarser resolution sensors. Preliminary results indicate that while a model using the six spectral bands available from a July 2000 Landsat ETM+ image reproduces the high resolution shrub density results most accurately at the 275 m spatial scale (R2 = 0.66, RMSE = 3.04), a model based on four nadir-view spectral bands and red band data from nine separate viewing angles from the MISR sensor from late June 2001 produced results only slightly less accurate (R2 =0.58, RMSE = 3.10). Using the combination of multi-spectral and multi-angular data from MISR appears to boost accuracy considerably; results from models using only the four spectral bands from the nadir view camera (R2 = 0.52, RMSE = 3.30) or only the red spectral band from all nine cameras (R2 = 0.48, RMSE = 3.5) were less accurate. A model based on a sequence of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data from MODIS from summer 2001 and 2002 produced far less accurate results (R2 = 0.25, RMSE = 4.3), although adding the EVI sequence to the MISR multi-spectral/multi-angular model did result in a very slight improvement in accuracy (R2 = 0.59, RMSE = 3.10). While Landsat has the advantage of higher spatial resolution, experience with large scale land cover mapping projects that span multiple Landsat scenes in areas where the short snow-free season coincides with persistent cloud cover has demonstrated that it is often impossible to find adjacent Landsat scenes with similar vegetation phenology. These preliminary results indicate that for large scale shrub density mapping where high spatial resolution is not required, using a combination of multi- spectral, multi-angular, and multi-temporal data may be a viable alternative to using Landsat or similar medium resolution sensors.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, Todd; Herbst, Eric; De Lucia, Frank C.
1992-01-01
The high-resolution laboratory millimeter- and submillimeter-wave spectra of C-12H(3)OH and C-13H(3)OH have been extended to include transitions involving significantly higher angular momentum quantum numbers than studied previously. For C-12H(3)OH, the data set now includes 549 A torsional substate transitions and 524 E torsional substate transitions through J is not greater than 24, exclusive of blends. For C-13H(3)OH the data set now includes 453 A torsional substate transitions and 440 E torsional substate transitions through J is not greater than 24, exclusive of blends. The extended internal axis method Hamiltonian has been used to analyze the transitions to experimental accuracy. The molecular constants determined by this approach have been used to predict accurately the frequencies of many transitions through J = 25 not measured in the laboratory.
Ramesh, R.; Kathiravan, C.; Barve, Indrajit V.; Rajalingam, M. E-mail: kathir@iiap.res.in E-mail: rajalingam@iiap.res.in
2012-01-10
We carried out radio observations of the solar corona in the frequency range 109-50 MHz during the annular eclipse of 2010 January 15 from the Gauribidanur Observatory, located about 100 km north of Bangalore in India. The radio emission in the above frequency range originates typically in the radial distance range Almost-Equal-To 1.2-1.5 R{sub Sun} in the 'undisturbed' solar atmosphere. Our analysis indicates that (1) the angular size of the smallest observable radio source (associated with a coronal mass ejection in the present case) is Almost-Equal-To 1' {+-} 0.'3, (2) the source size does not vary with radial distance, (3) the peak brightness temperature of the source corresponding to the above size at a typical frequency like 77 MHz is Almost-Equal-To 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} K, and (4) the coronal magnetic field near the source region is Almost-Equal-To 70 mG.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.; Federici, M.; Frutti, M.; Gianni, G.; Manzan, M.; Patriarca, R.; Soggiu, M. E.; Ugazio, S.
1990-11-01
Consideration is given to a new type of position-sensitive MultiWire Proportional Counter proposed as the high-energy instrument for the Spectrum X-Gamma Satellite. Two of them are based on high-throughput X-ray optics, sensitive up to about 20 keV. The third one, MART-LIME, is the high-energy instrument to cover the band 5-150 keV. This X-ray observatory-class orbiter comprises three major coaligned instruments. The scientific objective of this hard X-ray telescope is to produce sky images with arcmin angular resolution and good spectral resolution and submilliCrab sensitivity, during a typical observation time of 100,000 sec. The MART-LIME experiment is expected to produce a breakthrough in high-energy astrophysics by means of deep observations over a wide field of view. The missions are to produce a complete hard X-ray catalog, which is still nonexistent at the milliCrab sensitivity level.
Resolution of the 1D regularized Burgers equation using a spatial wavelet approximation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liandrat, J.; Tchamitchian, PH.
1990-01-01
The Burgers equation with a small viscosity term, initial and periodic boundary conditions is resolved using a spatial approximation constructed from an orthonormal basis of wavelets. The algorithm is directly derived from the notions of multiresolution analysis and tree algorithms. Before the numerical algorithm is described these notions are first recalled. The method uses extensively the localization properties of the wavelets in the physical and Fourier spaces. Moreover, the authors take advantage of the fact that the involved linear operators have constant coefficients. Finally, the algorithm can be considered as a time marching version of the tree algorithm. The most important point is that an adaptive version of the algorithm exists: it allows one to reduce in a significant way the number of degrees of freedom required for a good computation of the solution. Numerical results and description of the different elements of the algorithm are provided in combination with different mathematical comments on the method and some comparison with more classical numerical algorithms.
ANGULAR MOMENTUM L Angular Momentum
ANGULAR MOMENTUM L #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;p-6' Angular Momentum Case: A few particles Example: This example emphasizes the fact that the value of the angular momentum of a system of particles depends just for reference.). v v v 1 2 3 Calculate the vector angular momentum of the three-particle system
Ganyushin, Dmitry; Gilka, Natalie; Taylor, Peter R; Marian, Christel M; Neese, Frank
2010-04-14
In this work, the resolution of the identity (RI) approximation is developed for the calculation of the electron-electron spin-spin coupling (SSC) interaction that is a central component of the zero-field splitting (ZFS) term in the effective spin Hamiltonian. The approximated integrals are then used in large-scale multireference configuration interaction treatments of the SSC interaction. The SSC contribution to the ZFS is treated using the Breit-Pauli spin-spin Hamiltonian in conjunction with first-order perturbation theory. Test calculations on a set of diatomic molecules reveal that the error of the RI approximation does not exceed 0.01 cm(-1) even if standard auxiliary basis sets are used. This error of less than 1% is considered to be negligible compared to the presently achievable accuracy of the SSC calculations relative to experimental data. The present development allows the correlated ab initio calculation of ZFS parameters of larger systems such as linear polyenes and linear polyacenes. The basis set convergence of the calculated ZFS values was investigated, and the effect of electronic correlation on the calculated ZFS parameters is discussed. PMID:20405989
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, David T.
1991-01-01
This final report covers three years and several phases of work in which instrumentation for the Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP) were successfully developed. There were two main thrusts to this research: (1) to develop and test methods for electrostatically scanning detector field-of-views, and (2) to improve the mass resolution of plasma mass spectrometers to M/delta M approximately 25, their field-of-view (FOV) to 360 degrees, and their E-range to cover approximately 1 eV to 50 keV. Prototypes of two different approaches to electrostatic scanning were built and tested. The Isochronous time-of-flight (TOF) and the linear electric field 3D TOF devices were examined.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Voellmer, George M.; Allen, Christine A.; Amato, Michael J.; Babu, Sachidananda R.; Bartels, Arlin E.; Benford, Dominic J.; Derro, Rebecca J.; Dowell, C. Darren; Harper, D. Al; Jhabvala, Murzy D.
2002-01-01
The High resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera II (SHARC II) will use almost identical versions of an ion-implanted silicon bolometer array developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The GSFC 'Pop-up' Detectors (PUD's) use a unique folding technique to enable a 12 x 32-element close-packed array of bolometers with a filling factor greater than 95 percent. A kinematic Kevlar(trademark) suspension system isolates the 200 mK bolometers from the helium bath temperature, and GSFC - developed silicon bridge chips make electrical connection to the bolometers, while maintaining thermal isolation. The JFET preamps operate at 120 K. Providing good thermal heat sinking for these, and keeping their conduction and radiation from reaching the nearby bolometers, is one of the principal design challenges encountered. Another interesting challenge is the preparation of the silicon bolometers. They are manufactured in 32-element, planar rows using Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) semiconductor etching techniques, and then cut and folded onto a ceramic bar. Optical alignment using specialized jigs ensures their uniformity and correct placement. The rows are then stacked to create the 12 x 32-element array. Engineering results from the first light run of SHARC II at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Voellmer, George M.; Allen, Christine A.; Amato, Michael J.; Babu, Sachidananda R.; Bartels, Arlin E.; Benford, Dominic J.; Derro, Rebecca J.; Dowell, C. Darren; Harper, D. Al; Jhabvala, Murzy D.; Simpson, A. D. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The High resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera II (SHARC 11) will use almost identical versions of an ion-implanted silicon bolometer array developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The GSFC "Pop-Up" Detectors (PUD's) use a unique folding technique to enable a 12 x 32-element close-packed array of bolometers with a filling factor greater than 95 percent. A kinematic Kevlar(Registered Trademark) suspension system isolates the 200 mK bolometers from the helium bath temperature, and GSFC - developed silicon bridge chips make electrical connection to the bolometers, while maintaining thermal isolation. The JFET preamps operate at 120 K. Providing good thermal heat sinking for these, and keeping their conduction and radiation from reaching the nearby bolometers, is one of the principal design challenges encountered. Another interesting challenge is the preparation of the silicon bolometers. They are manufactured in 32-element, planar rows using Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) semiconductor etching techniques, and then cut and folded onto a ceramic bar. Optical alignment using specialized jigs ensures their uniformity and correct placement. The rows are then stacked to create the 12 x 32-element array. Engineering results from the first light run of SHARC II at the CalTech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) are presented.
Spinflation with Angular Potentials
Ruth Gregory; Dariush Kaviani
2012-05-29
We investigate in detail the cosmological consequences of realistic angular dependent potentials in the brane inflation scenario. Embedding a warped throat into a compact Calabi-Yau space with all moduli stabilized breaks the no-scale structure and induces angular dependence in the potential of the probe D3-brane. We solve the equations of motion from the DBI action in the warped deformed conifold including linearized perturbations around the imaginary self-dual solution. Our numerical solutions show that angular dependence is a next to leading order correction to the dominant radial motion of the brane, however, just as angular motion typically increases the amount of inflation (spinflation), having additional angular dependence also increases the amount of inflation. We also derive an analytic approximation for the number of e-foldings along the DBI trajectory in terms of the compactification parameters.
Caballero-Nieves, S. M.; Gies, D. R.; Jao, W.-C. E-mail: gies@chara.gsu.edu; and others
2014-02-01
We present results of a high angular resolution survey of massive OB stars in the Cygnus OB2 association that we conducted with the fine guidance sensor 1R (FGS1r) on the Hubble Space Telescope. FGS1r is able to resolve binary systems with a magnitude difference ?V < 4 down to separations as small as 0.''01. The sample includes 58 of the brighter members of Cyg OB2, one of the closest examples of an environment containing a large number of very young and massive stars. We resolved binary companions for 12 targets and confirmed the triple nature of one other target, and we offer evidence of marginally resolved companions for two additional stars. We confirm the binary nature of 11 of these systems from complementary adaptive optics imaging observations. The overall binary frequency in our study is 22% to 26% corresponding to orbital periods ranging from 20 to 20,000 yr. When combined with the known short-period spectroscopic binaries, the results support the hypothesis that the binary fraction among massive stars is >60%. One of the new discoveries is a companion to the hypergiant star MT 304 = Cyg OB2-12, and future measurements of orbital motion should provide mass estimates for this very luminous star.
Angular resolution measurements at SPring-8 of a hard X-ray optic for the New Hard X-ray Mission
Spiga, D; Furuzawa, A; Basso, S; Binda, R; Borghi, G; Cotroneo, V; Grisoni, G; Kunieda, H; Marioni, F; Matsumoto, H; Mori, H; Miyazawa, T; Negri, B; Orlandi, A; Pareschi, G; Salmaso, B; Tagliaferri, G; Uesugi, K; Valsecchi, G; Vernani, D
2015-01-01
The realization of X-ray telescopes with imaging capabilities in the hard (> 10 keV) X-ray band requires the adoption of optics with shallow (10 m shall be produced and tested. Full-illumination tests of such mirrors are usually performed with on- ground X-ray facilities, aimed at measuring their effective area and the angular resolution; however, they in general suffer from effects of the finite distance of the X-ray source, e.g. a loss of effective area for double reflection. These effects increase with the focal length of the mirror under test; hence a "partial" full-illumination measurement might not be fully representative of the in-flight performances. Indeed, a pencil beam test can be adopted to overcome this shortcoming, because a sector at a time is exposed to the X-ray flux, and the compensation of the beam divergence is achieved by tilting the optic. In this work we present the result of a hard X-ray test campaign performed at the BL20B2 beamline of the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility, aime...
Martínez-Paredes, M; Aretxaga, I; Almeida, C Ramos; Hernán-Caballero, A; González-Martín, O; Pereira-Santaella, M; Packham, C; Ramos, A Asensio; Díaz-Santos, T; Elitzur, M; Esquej, P; García-Bernete, I; Imanishi, M; Levenson, N A; Espinosa, J M Rodríguez
2015-01-01
We present an analysis of the nuclear infrared (IR, 1.6 to 18 $\\mu$m) emission of the ultraluminous IR galaxy UGC 5101 to derive the properties of its active galactic nucleus (AGN) and its obscuring material. We use new mid-IR high angular resolution ($0.3-0.5$ arcsec) imaging using the Si-2 filter ($\\lambda_{C}=8.7\\, \\mu$m) and $7.5-13$ $\\mu$m spectroscopy taken with CanariCam (CC) on the 10.4m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS. We also use archival HST/NICMOS and Subaru/COMICS imaging and Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy. We estimate the near- and mid-IR unresolved nuclear emission by modelling the imaging data with GALFIT. We decompose the Spitzer/IRS and CC spectra using a power-law component, which represents the emission due to dust heated by the AGN, and a starburst component, both affected by foreground extinction. We model the resulting unresolved near- and mid-IR, and the starburst subtracted CC spectrum with the CLUMPY torus models of Nenkova et al. The derived geometrical properties of the torus, including the lar...
Radiofrequency encoded angular-resolved light scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buckley, Brandon W.; Akbari, Najva; Diebold, Eric D.; Adam, Jost; Jalali, Bahram
2015-03-01
The sensitive, specific, and label-free classification of microscopic cells and organisms is one of the outstanding problems in biology. Today, instruments such as the flow cytometer use a combination of light scatter measurements at two distinct angles to infer the size and internal complexity of cells at rates of more than 10 000/s. However, by examining the entire angular light scattering spectrum, it is possible to classify cells with higher resolution and specificity. Current approaches to performing these angular spectrum measurements all have significant throughput limitations, making them incompatible with other state-of-the-art flow cytometers. Here, we introduce a method for performing complete angular scattering spectrum measurements at high throughput combining techniques from the field of scattering flow-cytometry and radiofrequency communications. Termed Radiofrequency Encoded Angular-resolved Light Scattering, this technique multiplexes angular light scattering in the radiofrequency domain, such that a single photodetector captures the entire scattering spectrum from a particle over approximately 100 discrete incident angles on a single shot basis. As a proof-of-principle experiment, we use this technique to perform scattering measurements over a range of 30° from a tapered optical fiber at a scan rate of 250 kHz.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tremou, Evangelia
2011-04-01
The current thesis is divided into two projects. The first part deals with studies on active galaxies hosting an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN). Specifically, an optical spectroscopic study of a nearby (z < 0.06) volume - limited sample of Low - Luminosity Quasi - Stellar Objects (LLQSOs) has been carried out. The sample has been drawn from the Hamburg/ESO QSO survey (HES), which has a well-defined flux limit of B_j < 17.3. The aim of the present project is to characterize the excitation degree of the sample, distinguish between possible star forming and Seyfert activity and to investigate the spectral characteristics of the sample. The spectroscopic data were analyzed and emission lines were fitted using a routine, which employs Levenberg - Marquardt least square minimization. The same analysis was also applied for some additional archival data from the 6 Degree Field Galaxy Survey (6dFGS). The objects of the LLQSOs sample are classified according to the classical optical diagnostic diagrams, based on optical emission lines close in wavelength, avoiding almost any impact of reddening. The diagrams provide a diagnosis of the ionizing source within a galaxy, hence activity between Hii, LINERs (Low Ionization Nuclear Emission-line Region), and Seyfert galaxies can be clearly distinguished. The classification of all members of the LLQSOs sample is shown in chapter 3. The broadness of the emission lines, cases with double components and the electron density are also analyzed. The comparison of the diagnostic diagrams between the two data sets (HES and 6DFGS) results in different classifications of most of the sources. This is due to the different spectroscopic techniques applied in the two data sets during the observations, and is sketched in chapter 4. Several galaxies at a variety of cosmological distances, with elliptical and circular morphologies, were simulated. In these simulations, different instruments (different spectroscopic techniques, i.e. slit, fiber) were applied to the galaxies, in order to ! study the instrumental effect (aperture effect). The impact of the aperture effect in local and high redshift universe is discussed in detail. The second project of the thesis focuses on the construction of an image beam combiner for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LINC - NIRVANA instrument will be operating in the near - infrared (1 - 2.4 ?m) and will provide a high angular resolution (~9 mas at 1.25 ?m) over a wide field of view (~100 arcsec at 1.25 ?m). A fundamental component of the instrument, the Fringe and Flexure Tracking System (FFTS) is responsible to ensure a complete and time-stable wavefront correction at the position of the science detector. This will allow for long integration times at interferometric angular resolutions. A historical overview and our current achievements are also discussed in chapter 5. Laboratory tests of specific parts of the FFTS are presented in chapter 6. Especially, the subparts of the Detector Positioning Unit (DPU), which has to be moved with respect to an altitude - azimuth mounting under vacuum conditions, are characterized. The tilting of the instrument as a function of elevation results in a flexure of the system that has to be corrected by an algorithm.
Minimum uncertainty measurements of angle and angular momentum
Z. Hradil; J. Rehacek; Z. Bouchal; R. Celechovsky; L. L. Sanchez-Soto
2006-05-16
The uncertainty relations for angle and angular momentum are revisited. We use the exponential of the angle instead of the angle itself and adopt dispersion as a natural measure of resolution. We find states that minimize the uncertainty product under the constraint of a given uncertainty in angle or in angular momentum. These states are described in terms of Mathieu wave functions and may be approximated by a von Mises distribution, which is the closest analogous of the Gaussian on the unit circle. We report experimental results using beam optics that confirm our predictions.
Plasmons with orbital angular momentum
Mendonca, J. T. [IPFN, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Ali, S. [IPFN, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); National Centre for Physics, Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Thide, B. [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Angstroem Laboratory, P.O. Box 537, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)
2009-11-15
Electron plasma waves carrying orbital angular momentum are investigated in an unmagnetized collisionless plasma composed of inertial electrons and static ions. For this purpose, the usual plasmon dispersion relation is employed to derive an approximate paraxial equation. The latter is analyzed with a Gaussian beam solution. For a finite angular momentum associated with the plasmon, Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) solutions are employed for solving the electrostatic potential problem which gives approximate solution and is valid for plasmon beams in the paraxial approximation. The LG potential determines the electric field components and energy flux of plasmons with finite angular momentum. Numerical illustrations show that the radial and angular mode numbers strongly modify the profiles of the LG potential.
... condition also may have problems with: Iron deficiency Vitamin B12 deficiency Folate deficiency Drooping of the corners of the mouth caused by dentures that do not adequately support the facial musculature Signs and Symptoms Angular cheilitis can be found in the corners ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shakur, Asif; Sinatra, Taylor
2013-01-01
The gyroscope in a smartphone was employed in a physics laboratory setting to verify the conservation of angular momentum and the nonconservation of rotational kinetic energy. As is well-known, smartphones are ubiquitous on college campuses. These devices have a panoply of built-in sensors. This creates a unique opportunity for a new paradigm in…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teklu, Adelheid F.; Remus, Rhea-Silvia; Dolag, Klaus; Beck, Alexander M.; Burkert, Andreas; Schmidt, Andreas S.; Schulze, Felix; Steinborn, Lisa K.
2015-10-01
The evolution and distribution of the angular momentum of dark matter (DM) halos have been discussed in several studies over the past decades. In particular, the idea arose that angular momentum conservation should allow us to infer the total angular momentum of the entire DM halo from measuring the angular momentum of the baryonic component, which is populating the center of the halo, especially for disk galaxies. To test this idea and to understand the connection between the angular momentum of the DM halo and its galaxy, we use a state-of-the-art, hydrodynamical cosmological simulation taken from the set of Magneticum Pathfinder simulations. Thanks to the inclusion of the relevant physical processes, the improved underlying numerical methods, and high spatial resolution, we successfully produce populations of spheroidal and disk galaxies self-consistently. Thus, we are able to study the dependence of galactic properties on their morphology. We find that (1) the specific angular momentum of stars in disk and spheroidal galaxies as a function of their stellar mass compares well with observational results; (2) the specific angular momentum of the stars in disk galaxies is slightly smaller compared to the specific angular momentum of the cold gas, in good agreement with observations; (3) simulations including the baryonic component show a dichotomy in the specific stellar angular momentum distribution when splitting the galaxies according to their morphological type (this dichotomy can also be seen in the spin parameter, where disk galaxies populate halos with slightly larger spin compared to spheroidal galaxies); (4) disk galaxies preferentially populate halos in which the angular momentum vector of the DM component in the central part shows a better alignment to the angular momentum vector of the entire halo; and (5) the specific angular momentum of the cold gas in disk galaxies is approximately 40% smaller than the specific angular momentum of the total DM halo and shows a significant scatter.
Wang, Shaobo; Bruel, Philippe; Frotin, Mickael; Geerebaert, Yannick; Giebels, Berrie; Gros, Philippe; Horan, Deirdre; Louzir, Marc; Poilleux, Patrick; Semeniouk, Igor; Attié, David; Calvet, Denis; Colas, Paul; Delbart, Alain; Sizun, Patrick; Götz, Diego; Amano, Sho; Kotaka, Takuya; Hashimoto, Satoshi; Minamiyama, Yasuhito; Takemoto, Akinori; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Miyamoto, Shuji; Daté, Schin; Ohkuma, Haruo
2015-01-01
A time projection chamber (TPC) can be used to measure the polarization of gamma rays with excellent angular precision and sensitivity in the MeV-GeV energy range through the conversion of photons to e+e- pairs. The Hermetic ARgon POlarimeter (HARPO) prototype was built to demonstrate this concept. It was recently tested in the polarized photon beam at the NewSUBARU facility in Japan. We present this data-taking run, which demonstrated the excellent performance of the HARPO TPC.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katouda, Michio; Nagase, Shigeru
An efficient parallel algorithm is developed for second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory with the resolution-of-identity approximation of two-electron repulsion integrals (RI-MP2) to perform MP2 energy calculations of large molecules on distributed memory processors. Benchmark calculations are carried out for taxol (C47H51NO14), valinomycin (C54H90N6O18), and two-layer nanographene sheets (C96H24)2, which show the high parallel efficiency of the developed algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shakur, Asif; Sinatra, Taylor
2013-12-01
The gyroscope in a smartphone was employed in a physics laboratory setting to verify the conservation of angular momentum and the nonconservation of rotational kinetic energy. As is well-known, smartphones are ubiquitous on college campuses. These devices have a panoply of built-in sensors. This creates a unique opportunity for a new paradigm in the physics laboratory. Many traditional physics experiments can now be performed very conveniently in a pedagogically enlightening environment while simultaneously reducing the laboratory budget substantially by using student-owned smartphones.
Massardi, M.; Ekers, R. D.; Ellis, S. C.; Maughan, B.
2010-07-20
X-ray observations of galaxy clusters at high redshift (z {approx_gt} 0.5) indicate that they are more morphologically complex and less virialized than those at low redshift. We present the first subarcminute resolution synthesis observations at 18 GHz of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect for Cl J0152-1357 using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. Cl J0152-1357 is a massive cluster at redshift z = 0.83 and has a complex structure including several merging subclumps which have been studied at optical, X-ray, and radio wavelengths. Our high-resolution observations indicate a clear displacement of the maximum SZ effect from the peak of X-ray emission for the most massive subclump. This result shows that the cluster gas within the cluster substructures is not virialized in Cl J0152-1357, and we suggest that it is still recovering from a recent merger event. A similar offset of the SZ effect has recently been seen in the 'bullet cluster' and in RX J1347-1145. This non-equilibrium situation implies that high-resolution observations are necessary to investigate galaxy cluster evolution and to extract cosmological constraints from a comparison of the SZ effect and X-ray signals.
Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Nakai, Hiromi
2015-01-30
Graphical processing units (GPUs) are emerging in computational chemistry to include Hartree-Fock (HF) methods and electron-correlation theories. However, ab initio calculations of large molecules face technical difficulties such as slow memory access between central processing unit and GPU and other shortfalls of GPU memory. The divide-and-conquer (DC) method, which is a linear-scaling scheme that divides a total system into several fragments, could avoid these bottlenecks by separately solving local equations in individual fragments. In addition, the resolution-of-the-identity (RI) approximation enables an effective reduction in computational cost with respect to the GPU memory. The present study implemented the DC-RI-HF code on GPUs using math libraries, which guarantee compatibility with future development of the GPU architecture. Numerical applications confirmed that the present code using GPUs significantly accelerated the HF calculations while maintaining accuracy. PMID:25392975
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Danchi, William
2010-01-01
Over the past twenty years the U. C. Berkeley Infrared Spatial Interferometer has observed a number of Long Period Variable stars in the mid-infrared, obtaining information on the spatial distribution of dust around these stars with resolutions of the order of a few tens of milliarcseconds. The ISI is a heterodyne interferometer operating mostly at 11.15 microns, initially with two telescopes. In the last decade, it has been taking data regularly with three telescopes, thus obtaining visibility data on three baselines and also a closure phase. Over the course of the years, the ISI has been able to measure the physical properties of the dust shells surrounding these stars, in particular the inner radii of the dust shells, as well as the temperature and density distribution. For some stars, the ISI has also made precision measurements of their diameters in the mid-infrared. Closure phase measurements have revealed asymmetries in the dust distributions around many stars. Most surprisingly the ISI data has shown evidence for substantial changes in the amount of dust on time scales of 5-10 years, rather than being directly correlated with the stellar pulsation periods, which are of the order of one year. We discuss past results and new results from the ISI that highlight the dynamic environment around these stars.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Young, Alexander H.; Mroczkowski, Tony; Romero, Charles; Sayers, Jack; Balestra, Italo; Clarke, Tracy E.; Czakon, Nicole; Devlin, Mark; Dicker, Simon R.; Ferrari, Chiara; Girardi, Marisa; Golwala, Sunil; Intema, Huib; Korngut, Phillip M.; Mason, Brian S.; Mercurio, Amata; Nonino, Mario; Reese, Erik D.; Rosati, Piero; Sarazin, Craig; Umetsu, Keiichi
2015-08-01
We present high resolution (9?) imaging of the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich Effect (SZE) toward two massive galaxy clusters, MACS J0647.7+7015 (z = 0.591) and MACS J1206.2–0847 (z = 0.439). We compare these 90 GHz measurements, taken with the Multiplexed Squid/TES Array at Ninety Gigahertz (MUSTANG ) receiver on the Green Bank Telescope, with generalized Navarro–Frenk–White (gNFW) models derived from Bolocam 140 GHz SZE data as well as maps of the thermal gas derived from Chandra X-ray observations. We adopt a serial-fitting approach, in which gNFW models are first fit to the Bolocam data and then compared to the MUSTANG data to determine an overall best-fit model. For MACS J0647.7+7015, we find a gNFW profile with core slope parameter ? = 0.9 fits the MUSTANG image with {? }{red}2=1.005 and probability to exceed (PTE) = 0.34. For MACS J1206.2–0847, we find ? =0.7, {? }{red}2=0.993, and PTE = 0.70. In addition, we find a significant (>3?) residual SZE feature in MACS J1206.2–0847 coincident with a group of galaxies identified in Very Large Telescope data and filamentary structure found in a weak-lensing mass reconstruction. We suggest the detected sub-structure may be the SZE decrement from a low mass foreground group or an infalling group. Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope measurements at 610 MHz reveal diffuse extended radio emission to the west, which we posit is either an active galactic nucleus-driven radio lobe, a bubble expanding away from disturbed gas associated with the SZE signal, or a bubble detached and perhaps re-accelerated by sloshing within the cluster. Using the spectroscopic redshifts available, we find evidence for a foreground (z = 0.423) or infalling group, coincident with the residual SZE feature.
The oceanic contribution to the Earth's seasonal angular momentum budget
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dickey, J. O.; Marcus, S. L.; Johns, C. M.; Hide, R.; Thompson, S. R.
1993-01-01
Seasonal variations in the speed of the Earth's rotation manifest themselves as fluctuations in the length of the day (LOD) with an amplitude of about 1000 microseconds. We know from previous work that at least 95% of these variations can be accounted for in terms of angular momentum exchanged between the atmosphere and the solid Earth. Here we examine the respective contributions of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and the global oceans to the Earth's seasonal angular momentum budget, using in situ data from the Drake Passage and results from both the oceanic regional model (Fine Resolution Antarctic Model -- FRAM) of Webb et al. (1991) and the global ocanic model of Maier-Reimer et al. (1993) as analyzed by Brosche et al. (1990). The estimated annual contribution of the ACC (2-4 microsec) is much smaller than the total variation in the oceanic models or the existing LOD-AAM residual (both approximately 15-20 microsec). The estimated semi-annual ACC contribution (3-8 microsec) is offset by counter-current further north in both oceanic models, which exhibit larger semi-annual variations in planetary angular momentum. Further refinements in the Earth's seasonal angular momentum budget, therefore, will require the full (planetary plus relative) contribution of the global oceans in addition to that of the ACC.
Chapman, Glenn H.
Angular distribution of quasi-ballistic light measured through turbid media using angular domain of minimally deviated quasi-ballistic photons versus multiply scattered photons in a turbid medium. The study-ballistic photons, thereby optimizing both image resolution and contrast. Keywords: Optical imaging, turbid media
Low Angular Momentum in Clumpy, Turbulent Disk Galaxies
Obreschkow, Danail; Bassett, Robert; Fisher, David B; Abraham, Roberto G; Wisnioski, Emily; Green, Andrew W; McGregor, Peter J; Damjanov, Ivana; Popping, Attila; Jorgensen, Inger
2015-01-01
We measure the stellar specific angular momentum jstar=Jstar/Mstar in four nearby (redshift z~0.1) disk galaxies that have stellar masses Mstar near the break M* of the galaxy mass function, but look like typical star-forming disks at z~2 in terms of their low stability (Q~1), clumpiness, high ionized gas dispersion (40-50 km/s), high molecular gas fraction (20-30%) and rapid star formation (~20 Msun/yr). Combining high-resolution (Keck-OSIRIS) and large-radius (Gemini-GMOS) spectroscopic maps, only available at low z, we discover that these targets have ~3 times less stellar angular momentum than typical local spiral galaxies of equal stellar mass and bulge fraction. Theoretical considerations show that this deficiency in angular momentum is the main cause of their low stability, while the high gas fraction plays a complementary role. Interestingly, the low jstar values of our targets are similar to those expected in the M*-population at higher z from the approximate theoretical scaling jstar~(1+z)^(-1/2) at...
Phonons with orbital angular momentum
Ayub, M. K. [Theoretical Plasma Physics Division, PINSTECH, P. O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics, Shahdra Valley Road, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ali, S. [National Centre for Physics, Shahdra Valley Road, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Mendonca, J. T. [IPFN, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
2011-10-15
Ion accoustic waves or phonon modes are studied with orbital angular momentum (OAM) in an unmagnetized collissionless uniform plasma, whose constituents are the Boltzmann electrons and inertial ions. For this purpose, we have employed the fluid equations to obtain a paraxial equation in terms of ion density perturbations and discussed its Gaussian beam and Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beam solutions. Furthermore, an approximate solution for the electrostatic potential problem is presented, allowing to express the components of the electric field in terms of LG potential perturbations. The energy flux due to phonons is also calculated and the corresponding OAM is derived. Numerically, it is shown that the parameters such as azimuthal angle, radial and angular mode numbers, and beam waist, strongly modify the profiles of the phonon LG potential. The present results should be helpful in understanding the phonon mode excitations produced by Brillouin backscattering of laser beams in a uniform plasma.
Partonic orbital angular momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arash, Firooz; Taghavi-Shahri, Fatemeh; Shahveh, Abolfazl
2013-04-01
Ji's decomposition of nucleon spin is used and the orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluon are calculated. We have utilized the so called valon model description of the nucleon in the next to leading order. It is found that the average orbital angular momentum of quarks is positive, but small, whereas that of gluon is negative and large. Individual quark flavor contributions are also calculated. Some regularities on the total angular momentum of the quarks and gluon are observed.
Angular Acceleration without Torque?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kaufman, Richard D.
2012-01-01
Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.
CONVERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM A rotating bicycle wheel has angular
CONVERVATION OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM A rotating bicycle wheel has angular momentum, which is a property a larger angular momentum at a given speed. Angular momentum is characterized by both size and direction momentum. This means that any change in angular momentum within the system must be accompanied by an equal
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liebe, Wolfgang
1944-01-01
In many studies, especially of nonstationary flight motion, it is necessary to determine the angular velocities at which the airplane rotates about its various axes. The three-component recorder is designed to serve this purpose. If the angular velocity for one flight attitude is known, other important quantities can be derived from its time rate of change, such as the angular acceleration by differentiations, or - by integration - the angles of position of the airplane - that is, the angles formed by the airplane axes with the axis direction presented at the instant of the beginning of the motion that is to be investigated.
Fission fragment angular distributions
Bond, P.D.
1985-01-01
Many recent papers have found that calculations with the standard angular distribution formula for fission fragments from compound nuclei do not reproduce the strong anisotropies observed in the decay of high spin systems. They conclude that a noncompound nuclear process must exist for some partial waves and postulate an ad-hoc angular distribution for this process in order to reproduce the strong anisotropies. It is the purpose of this contribtion to demonstrate that much of the data are, in fact, consistent with compound nucleus formation and to emphasize that the standard model is not a generally valid way to calculate fission fragment angular distributions from a compound nucleus.
Fourier relationship between angular position and optical orbital angular momentum
Eric Yao; Sonja Franke-Arnold; Johannes Courtial; Stephen Barnett; Miles Padgett
2006-06-15
We demonstrate the Fourier relationship between angular position and angular momentum for a light mode. In particular we measure the distribution of orbital angular momentum states of light that has passed through an aperture and verify that the orbital angular momentum distribution is given by the complex Fourier-transform of the aperture function. We use spatial light modulators, configured as diffractive optical components, to define the initial orbital angular momentum state of the beam, set the defining aperture, and measure the angular momentum spread of the resulting beam. These measurements clearly confirm the Fourier relationship between angular momentum and angular position, even at light intensities corresponding to the single photon level.
Angular velocity discrimination
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaiser, Mary K.
1990-01-01
Three experiments designed to investigate the ability of naive observers to discriminate rotational velocities of two simultaneously viewed objects are described. Rotations are constrained to occur about the x and y axes, resulting in linear two-dimensional image trajectories. The results indicate that observers can discriminate angular velocities with a competence near that for linear velocities. However, perceived angular rate is influenced by structural aspects of the stimuli.
Angular Momentum Operator Identities G I. Orbital Angular Momentum
Simons, Jack
Angular Momentum Operator Identities G I. Orbital Angular Momentum A particle moving with momentum p at a position r relative to some coordinate origin has so-called orbital angular momentum equal to L = r x p . The three components of this angular momentum vector in a cartesian coordinate system
Spin-induced angular momentum switching
Gabriel F. Calvo; Antonio Picón
2007-09-24
When light is transmitted through optically inhomogeneous and anisotropic media the spatial distribution of light can be modified according to its input polarization state. A complete analysis of this process, based on the paraxial approximation, is presented, and we show how it can be exploited to produce a spin-controlled-change in the orbital angular momentum of light beams propagating in patterned space-variant-optical-axis phase plates. We also unveil a new effect. The development of a strong modulation in the angular momentum change upon variation of the optical path through the phase plates.
Creating high-harmonic beams with controlled orbital angular momentum.
Gariepy, Genevieve; Leach, Jonathan; Kim, Kyung Taec; Hammond, T J; Frumker, E; Boyd, Robert W; Corkum, P B
2014-10-10
A beam with an angular-dependant phase ? = ?? about the beam axis carries an orbital angular momentum of ?? per photon. Such beams are exploited to provide superresolution in microscopy. Creating extreme ultraviolet or soft-x-ray beams with controllable orbital angular momentum is a critical step towards extending superresolution to much higher spatial resolution. We show that orbital angular momentum is conserved during high-harmonic generation. Experimentally, we use a fundamental beam with |?| = 1 and interferometrically determine that the harmonics each have orbital angular momentum equal to their harmonic number. Theoretically, we show how any small value of orbital angular momentum can be coupled to any harmonic in a controlled manner. Our results open a route to microscopy on the molecular, or even submolecular, scale. PMID:25375710
The Angular Momentum Dichotomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teklu, Adelheid; Remus, Rhea-Silvia; Dolag, Klaus; Burkert, Andreas
2015-02-01
In the context of the formation of spiral galaxies the evolution and distribution of the angular momentum of dark matter halos have been discussed for more than 20 years, especially the idea that the specific angular momentum of the halo can be estimated from the specific angular momentum of its disk (e.g. Fall & Efstathiou (1980), Fall (1983) and Mo et al. (1998)). We use a new set of hydrodynamic cosmological simulations called Magneticum Pathfinder which allow us to split the galaxies into spheroidal and disk galaxies via the circularity parameter ?, as commonly used (e.g. Scannapieco et al. (2008)). Here, we focus on the dimensionless spin parameter ? = J |E|1/2 / (G M5/2) (Peebles 1969, 1971), which is a measure of the rotation of the total halo and can be fitted by a lognormal distribution, e.g. Mo et al. (1998). The spin parameter allows one to compare the relative angular momentum of halos across different masses and different times. Fig. 1 reveals a dichotomy in the distribution of ? at all redshifts when the galaxies are split into spheroids (dashed) and disk galaxies (dash-dotted). The disk galaxies preferentially live in halos with slightly larger spin parameter compared to spheroidal galaxies. Thus, we see that the ? of the whole halo reflects the morphology of its central galaxy. For more details and a larger study of the angular momentum properties of disk and spheroidal galaxies, see Teklu et al. (in prep.).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esser, Marcus; Wormeester, Herbert; Poelsema, Bene
2001-06-01
We have developed a new software for spot profile analysis low energy electron diffraction experiments, which allows variation of the beam energy during a measurement. It enables following multiple diffraction peaks simultaneously. We have explored this possibility in highly accurate measurements of out-of-phase and in-phase intensity during initial growth of Si/Si(111). Under both diffraction conditions intensity oscillations have been observed, clearly demonstrating the breakdown of the usually applied simple kinematic approximation models. The effective atomic scattering factors related to atomic steps do deviate from those connected to ideal terrace sites. Our novel findings urge great caution when extracting information on the morphology of the surface either from the temporal behavior of the spot heights during growth or from the energy dependence of the central spike in the spot profile. We suggest that dynamic effects, changing upon kinetic roughening of the surface, may be important. However, additional experiments on simpler surfaces are required to fully nail down this statement.
Test of special resolution and trigger efficiency
Benhammou, Y
2015-01-01
The forthcoming luminosity upgrade of LHC to super-LHC (sLHC) will increase the expected background rate in the forward region of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer by approximately the factor of five. Some of the present Muon Spectrometer components will fail to cope with these high rates and will have to be replaced. The results of a test of a device consisting of Thin Gap Chambers (TGC) and a fast small-diameter Muon Drift Tube Chamber (sMDT) using the 180 GeV/c muons at the SPS-H8 muon beam at CERN are presented. The goal of the test was to study the combined TGC-sMDT system as tracking and triggering device in the ATLAS muon spectrometer after high-luminosity upgrades of the LHC. The analysis of the recorded data shows a very good correlation between the TGC and sMDT track position and inclination. This technology offers the combination of trigger and tracking and has good angular and spatial resolutions. The angular resolution is 0.4 mrad for each system individually. For the spatial resolution, the width of t...
Gears: Determining Angular Velocity
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2014-09-18
Students work as engineers and learn to conduct controlled experiments by changing one experimental variable at a time to study its effect on the experiment outcome. Specifically, they conduct experiments to determine the angular velocity for a gear train with varying gear ratios and lengths. Student groups assemble LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robots with variously sized gears in a gear train and then design programs using the NXT software to cause the motor to rotate all the gears in the gear train. They use the LEGO data logging program and light sensors to set up experiments. They run the program with the motor and the light sensor at the same time and analyze the resulting plot in order to determine the angular velocity using the provided physics-based equations. Finally, students manipulate the gear train with different gears and different lengths in order to analyze all these factors and figure out which manipulation has a higher angular velocity. They use the equations for circumference of a circle and angular velocity; and convert units between radians and degrees.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parker, G. W.
1978-01-01
Discusses, classically and quantum mechanically, the angular momentum induced in the bound motion of an electron by an external magnetic field. Calculates the current density and its magnetic moment, and then uses two methods to solve the first-order perturbation theory equation for the required eigenfunction. (Author/GA)
Yu, D.P.; Ren, G.; Zhang, Z. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Beijing Lab. of Electron Microscopy
1996-10-01
Structural defects were analyzed by means of high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) in a crystalline (2/1, 5/3)-type Fibonacci approximant of an Al-Pd-Mn alloy system. A kind of stacking fault is observed with a projected displacement vector R parallel to the [{minus}3 0 29] direction; its amplitude {vert_bar}R{vert_bar} = 2a sin 18 deg = 1.19 nm, and its habit plane lies in the (1 0 1) plane. Two kinds of domain boundaries have been found and the domains are related by a 180 deg rotation around the c-axis plus a displacement along the [3 0 {minus}29] or the [{minus}3 0 {minus}29] direction in a plane perpendicular to the b-axis. The domain boundary planes are the {l_brace}1 0 1{r_brace} planes.
Angular momentum of the atmosphere Variations of atmospheric relative angular
O'Gorman, Paul
Angular momentum of the atmosphere #12;Variations of atmospheric relative angular momentum OCW Schematic of dynamic angular momentum transports and surface torques #12;NCEP reanalysis imbalance -30 0 30 60 0.2 0.8 JJA DJF #12;Northward flux of momentum (m2s-2) Peixoto and Oort, Fig 11
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wormer, Paul E. S.; Paldus, Josef
Starting from the simplest possible building blocks--a ket, a bra, a time-reversed ket, and a time-reversed bra--a diagrammatic formalism is developed for angular momentum coupling problems. The formalism comprises Clebsch-Gordan coefficients as well as 3jm-symbols. The idea of constructing invariants (internal lines) by contracting contragredient pairs of quantities is emphasized throughout. The Clebsch-Gordan series, and its extension to the coupling of more than two angular momenta, is introduced algebraically and diagrammatically. Recoupling between bases obtained in different coupling schemes is introduced and the connection between recoupling coefficients and irreducible 3nj-symbols is derived diagrammatically. The well-known diagrammatic rules due to Jucys and co-workers are derived by group theoretical means and simple rules for their practical exploitation are presented.
Quantum Heuristics of Angular Momentum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levy-Leblond, Jean-Marc
1976-01-01
Discusses the quantization of angular momentum components, Heisenberg-type inequalities for their spectral dispersions, and the quantization of the angular momentum modulus, without using operators or commutation relations. (MLH)
ANGULAR MOMENTUM ACQUISITION IN GALAXY HALOS
Stewart, Kyle R.; Brooks, Alyson M.; Bullock, James S.; Maller, Ariyeh H.; Diemand, Juerg; Wadsley, James; Moustakas, Leonidas A.
2013-05-20
We use high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulations to study the angular momentum acquisition of gaseous halos around Milky-Way-sized galaxies. We find that cold mode accreted gas enters a galaxy halo with {approx}70% more specific angular momentum than dark matter averaged over cosmic time (though with a very large dispersion). In fact, we find that all matter has a higher spin parameter when measured at accretion than when averaged over the entire halo lifetime, and is well characterized by {lambda} {approx} 0.1, at accretion. Combined with the fact that cold flow gas spends a relatively short time (1-2 dynamical times) in the halo before sinking to the center, this naturally explains why cold flow halo gas has a specific angular momentum much higher than that of the halo and often forms ''cold flow disks.'' We demonstrate that the higher angular momentum of cold flow gas is related to the fact that it tends to be accreted along filaments.
Estimating energy-momentum and angular momentum near null infinity
Helfer, Adam D.
2010-04-15
The energy-momentum and angular momentum contained in a spacelike two-surface of spherical topology are estimated by joining the two-surface to null infinity via an approximate no-incoming-radiation condition. The result is a set of gauge-invariant formulas for energy-momentum and angular momentum which should be applicable to much numerical work; it also gives estimates of the finite-size effects.
Estimating Energy-Momentum and Angular Momentum Near Null Infinity
Adam D. Helfer
2010-02-19
The energy-momentum and angular momentum contained in a spacelike two-surface of spherical topology are estimated by joining the two-surface to null infinity via an approximate no-incoming-radiation condition. The result is a set of gauge-invariant formulas for energy-momentum and angular momentum which should be applicable to much numerical work; it also gives estimates of the finite-size effects.
Angular distributions in multifragmentation
Stoenner, R.W.; Klobuchar, R.L.; Haustein, P.E.; Virtes, G.J.; Cumming, J.B.; Loveland, W.
2006-04-15
Angular distributions are reported for {sup 37}Ar and {sup 127}Xe from 381-GeV {sup 28}Si+Au interactions and for products between {sup 24}Na and {sup 149}Gd from 28-GeV {sup 1}H+Au. Sideward peaking and forward deficits for multifragmentation products are significantly enhanced for heavy ions compared with protons. Projectile kinetic energy does not appear to be a satisfactory scaling variable. The data are discussed in terms of a kinetic-focusing model in which sideward peaking is due to transverse motion of the excited product from the initial projectile-target interaction.
Angular Momentum Operators from Quantized SO(3)
Ahmad Adel Abutaleb
2015-06-15
In this paper, we will assume that the structure picture of the rotation angles will be changed according to the scale of measurement (minimum measurable angle) and if we have a device with very high accuracy (high resolution) then we can notice a discrete nature of the rotations. We derived the form of the angular momentum matrices and angular momentum operators in this case and we find an indication of the need to change all quantum mechanical operators at this very small scale (high energy level). As a physical consequence, we calculated the magnetic quantum number and find that it has been shifted to a fractional multiples of h and therefore the spin of quantum particles is no longer take integer or half integer values but some fractional values between them.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garmire, G. P.
1974-01-01
The construction of a two dimensional focusing Wolter Type I mirror system for X-ray and XUV astronomical observations from an Astrobee F sounding rocket is described. The mirror design goal will have a one degree field, a 20-arc seconds resolution, an effective area of about 50 sq cm at 1 keV and 10 sq cm at 0.25 keV on axis. A star camera provides aspect data to about 15-arc seconds. Two detectors are placed at the focus with an interchange mechanism to allow a detector change during flight. The following specific developments are reported: (1) position sensitive proportional counter development; (2) channel plate multiplier development; (3) telescope mirror development and payload structure; (4) Australian rocket flight results; (5) Comet Kohoutek He I observation; and (6) Vela, Puppis A, and Gem-Mon bright patch observations.
Spatial-spectral volume holographic systems: resolution dependence on effective thickness.
Castro, Jose M; Brownlee, John; Luo, Yuan; de Leon, Erich; Barton, Jennifer K; Barbastathis, George; Kostuk, Raymond K
2011-03-01
The resolution dependence of spatial-spectral volume holographic imaging systems on angular and spectral bandwidth of nonuniform gratings is investigated. Modeling techniques include a combination of the approximate coupled-wave analysis and the transfer-matrix method for holograms recorded in absorptive media. The effective thickness of the holograms is used as an estimator of the resolution of the imaging systems. The methodology, which assists in the design and optimization of volume holographic simulation results based on our approach, are confirmed with experiments and show proof of consistency and usefulness of the proposed models. PMID:21364728
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Y. Z.; Fang, L.; Luo, J.; Yin, H.; Zhou, Z. B.
2015-09-01
The torsion pendulum is widely employed in gravitational experiments as a weak force sensitive instrument, and its resolution is limited by the thermal noise of the pendulum and detection noise of angular deflection. Different kinds of angular deflection transducers are proposed and realized to improve its resolution. A torsion pendulum combined with an electrostatic spring is proposed here in order to improve the measurement sensitivity of angular deflection. Noise analysis and demonstration experiments show that the electrostatic torsion pendulum can relax the requirement of angular deflection detection, which is useful for gravitational experiments with much higher precision requirements.
C. Scovel; D. Hush; I. Steinwart
2007-01-01
We extend the Lagrangian duality theory for convex optimization problems to incorporate approximate solutions. In particular,\\u000a we generalize well-known relationships between minimizers of a convex optimization problem, maximizers of its Lagrangian dual,\\u000a saddle points of the Lagrangian, Kuhn–Tucker vectors, and Kuhn–Tucker conditions to incorporate approximate versions. As an\\u000a application, we show how the theory can be used for convex quadratic
Localizing the angular momentum of linear gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butcher, Luke M.; Lasenby, Anthony; Hobson, Michael
2012-10-01
In a previous article [L. M. Butcher, , Phys. Rev. D 82, 104040 (2010).], we derived an energy-momentum tensor for linear gravity that exhibited positive energy density and causal energy flux. Here we extend this framework by localizing the angular momentum of the linearized gravitational field, deriving a gravitational spin tensor which possesses similarly desirable properties. By examining the local exchange of angular momentum (between matter and gravity) we find that gravitational intrinsic spin is localized, separately from “orbital” angular momentum, in terms of a gravitational spin tensor. This spin tensor is then uniquely determined by requiring that it obey two simple physically motivated algebraic conditions. Firstly, the spin of an arbitrary (harmonic-gauge) gravitational plane wave is required to flow in the direction of propagation of the wave. Secondly, the spin tensor of any transverse-traceless gravitational field is required to be traceless. (The second condition ensures that local field redefinitions suffice to cast our gravitational energy-momentum tensor and spin tensor as sources of gravity in a quadratic approximation to general relativity.) Additionally, the following properties arise in the spin tensor spontaneously: all transverse-traceless fields have purely spatial spin, and any field generated by a static distribution of matter will carry no spin at all. Following the structure of our previous paper, we then examine the (spatial) angular momentum exchanged between the gravitational field and an infinitesimal detector, and develop a microaveraging procedure that renders the process gauge-invariant. The exchange of nonspatial angular momentum (i.e., moment of energy) is also analyzed, leading us to conclude that a gravitational wave can displace the center of mass of the detector; this conclusion is also confirmed by a “first principles” treatment of the system. Finally, we discuss the spin carried by a gravitational plane wave.
Angular Diameters of ? Scorpii and ? Aquarii
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidtke, P. C.
2015-01-01
Time-series high-resolution spectra of the cool stars ? Scorpii (M1.5 Iab-Ib) and ? Aquarii (M2.5 III Fe-0.5) have been obtained during lunar occultations of these stars, with the goal of measuring the atmospheric extension of prominent photospheric lines. The observed spectral features include the Na I doublet (D lines) and Ca II near-infrared triplet. Using a circular uniform-disk model, the angular diameters within the absorption features have a relative extension, compared to the continuum values, of 55-113% for ? Sco and 16-25% for ? Aqr.
Supersensitive measurement of angular displacements using entangled photons
Jha, Anand Kumar; Boyd, Robert W.; Agarwal, Girish S.
2011-05-15
We show that the use of path-entangled states of photons, having nonzero orbital angular momentum (OAM), increases the resolution and sensitivity of angular-displacement measurements performed using an interferometer. In the ideal case of maximally path-entangled states, the resolution of angular-displacement measurements increases by a factor of Nl, while the uncertainty in the measurement of angular displacements scales as 1/Nl, where N is the number of entangled photons, half of which carry, on average, an OAM of +l({h_bar}/2{pi}) per photon and the other half carry an OAM of -l({h_bar}/2{pi}) per photon. We analyze measurement schemes for two- and four-photon entangled states produced by parametric down-conversion and, by employing a 4x4 matrix formalism to study the propagation of entangled OAM modes, obtain explicit expressions for the resolution and sensitivity in these schemes. These results constitute an improvement over what could be obtained with N nonentangled photons carrying an orbital angular momentum of |l|({h_bar}/2{pi}) per photon.
Defining Electron Backscatter Diffraction Resolution
El-Dasher, B S; Rollett, A D
2005-02-07
Automated electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) mapping systems have existed for more than 10 years [1,2], and due to their versatility in characterizing multiple aspects of microstructure, they have become an important tool in microscale crystallographic studies. Their increasingly widespread use however raises questions about their accuracy in both determining crystallographic orientations, as well as ensuring that the orientation information is spatially correct. The issue of orientation accuracy (as defined by angular resolution) has been addressed previously [3-5]. While the resolution of EBSD systems is typically quoted to be on the order of 1{sup o}, it has been shown that by increasing the pattern quality via acquisition parameter adjustment, the angular resolution can be improved to sub-degree levels. Ultimately, the resolution is dependent on how it is identified. In some cases it can be identified as the orientation relative to a known absolute, in others as the misorientation between nearest neighbor points in a scan. Naturally, the resulting values can be significantly different. Therefore, a consistent and universal definition of resolution that can be applied to characterize any EBSD system is necessary, and is the focus of the current study. In this work, a Phillips (FEI) XL-40 FEGSEM coupled to a TexSEM Laboratories OIM system was used. The pattern capturing hardware consisted of both a 512 by 512 pixel SIT CCD camera and a 1300 by 1030 pixel Peltier cooled CCD camera. Automated scans of various sizes, each consisting of 2500 points, were performed on a commercial-grade single crystal silicon wafer used for angular resolution measurements. To adequately quantify angular resolution for all possible EBSD applications we define two angular values. The first is {omega}{sub center}, the mean of the misorientation angle distribution between all scan points and the scan point coincident to the calibration source (typically the scan center). The {omega}{sub center} value is used to describe the overall system resolution, as it effectively quantifies the deviation of all orientations in the scan relative to the diffraction pattern least affected by distortions. The second is {omega}{sub max}, the largest misorientation angle possible between any pair of points in the dataset, and describes the worst possible case. Fig. 1 shows the effects of scan size and captured pattern resolution (bin size) on both angular values, illustrating that smaller scan and bin sizes have the effect of increasing angular resolution. However, it can be observed that the benefits of utilizing smaller bin sizes (and consequently slower data collection) diminish with scan size. Fig. 2 shows the effect of the number of pixels used in the Hough transform (defined as the ratio of pixels used to maximum possible pixels) on the angular values. It can be seen that the best angular resolutions are achieved at a pixel ratio of 0.80, again illustrating that the use of higher resolutions is not always beneficial. As evidenced by the results, the use of {omega}{sub center} and {omega}{sub max} not only permits the characterization of the angular resolution of an EBSD system, but they allow for a more efficient utilization of the system by identifying appropriate settings depending on the desired angular resolution [6].
Wissenschaftliches Approximation
Weinmüller, Ewa B.
' am Digitalcomputer Archimedes und die Berechnung von = 3.14159 . . . Das leidige Integral Das Einleitung: `Alles ist Zahl' am Digitalcomputer Archimedes und die Berechnung von = 3.14159 . . . Das Approximation als Sparmaßnahme Anhang Überblick Einleitung: `Alles ist Zahl' am Digitalcomputer Archimedes und
Neukirch, SÃ©bastien
In this paper, we study the bifurcation of limit cycles in Li' enard systems of the form dx dt = y \\Gamma F. By using a method introduced in a previous paper, we obtain a sequence of algebraic approximations, selfÂexcited vibrations in bridges and airplane wings, etc. In each case, there is a standard
John W. Tukey
1948-01-01
The greatest fractional increase in variance when a weighted mean is calculated with approximate weights is, quite closely, the square of the largest fractional error in an individual weight. The average increase will be about one-half this amount. The use of weights accurate to two significant figures, or even to the nearest number of the form: 10, 11, 12, 12,
Fabricating BRDFs at high spatial resolution using wave optics
Levin, Anat
Recent attempts to fabricate surfaces with custom reflectance functions boast impressive angular resolution, yet their spatial resolution is limited. In this paper we present a method to construct spatially varying reflectance ...
The angular momentum of baryons and dark matter halos revisited
Taysun Kimm; Julien Devriendt; Adrianne Slyz; Christophe Pichon; Susan A. Kassin; Yohan Dubois
2011-01-01
Recent theoretical studies have shown that galaxies at high redshift are fed by cold, dense gas filaments, suggesting angular momentum transport by gas differs from that by dark matter. Revisiting this issue using high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with adaptive mesh refinement, we find that at the time of accretion, gas and dark matter do carry a similar amount of specific
Nanofabricated quartz cylinders for angular
Cai, Long
Nanofabricated quartz cylinders for angular trapping: DNA supercoiling torque detection Christopher nanofabricated quartz cylinders well suited for torque application and detection in an angular optical trap. We made the cylinder axis perpendicular to the extraordinary axis of the quartz crystal and chemically
Intrinsic Angular Momentum of Light.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Santarelli, Vincent
1979-01-01
Derives a familiar torque-angular momentum theorem for the electromagnetic field, and includes the intrinsic torques exerted by the fields on the polarized medium. This inclusion leads to the expressions for the intrinsic angular momentum carried by the radiation traveling through a charge-free medium. (Author/MA)
2013-01-01
There is considerable interest in the structural and functional properties of the angular gyrus (AG). Located in the posterior part of the inferior parietal lobule, the AG has been shown in numerous meta-analysis reviews to be consistently activated in a variety of tasks. This review discusses the involvement of the AG in semantic processing, word reading and comprehension, number processing, default mode network, memory retrieval, attention and spatial cognition, reasoning, and social cognition. This large functional neuroimaging literature depicts a major role for the AG in processing concepts rather than percepts when interfacing perception-to-recognition-to-action. More specifically, the AG emerges as a cross-modal hub where converging multisensory information is combined and integrated to comprehend and give sense to events, manipulate mental representations, solve familiar problems, and reorient attention to relevant information. In addition, this review discusses recent findings that point to the existence of multiple subdivisions in the AG. This spatial parcellation can serve as a framework for reporting AG activations with greater definition. This review also acknowledges that the role of the AG cannot comprehensibly be identified in isolation but needs to be understood in parallel with the influence from other regions. Several interesting questions that warrant further investigations are finally emphasized. PMID:22547530
Absolute angular encoder based on optical diffraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jian; Zhou, Tingting; Yuan, Bo; Wang, Liqiang
2015-08-01
A new encoding method for absolute angular encoder based on optical diffraction was proposed in the present study. In this method, an encoder disc is specially designed that a series of elements are uniformly spaced in one circle and each element is consisted of four diffraction gratings, which are tilted in the directions of 30°, 60°, -60° and -30°, respectively. The disc is illuminated by a coherent light and the diffractive signals are received. The positions of diffractive spots are used for absolute encoding and their intensities are for subdivision, which is different from the traditional optical encoder based on transparent/opaque binary principle. Since the track's width in the disc is not limited in the diffraction pattern, it provides a new way to solve the contradiction between the size and resolution, which is good for minimization of encoder. According to the proposed principle, the diffraction pattern disc with a diameter of 40 mm was made by lithography in the glass substrate. A prototype of absolute angular encoder with a resolution of 20" was built up. Its maximum error was tested as 78" by comparing with a small angle measuring system based on laser beam deflection.
Sub-micron resolution selected area electron channeling patterns.
Guyon, J; Mansour, H; Gey, N; Crimp, M A; Chalal, S; Maloufi, N
2015-02-01
Collection of selected area channeling patterns (SACPs) on a high resolution FEG-SEM is essential to carry out quantitative electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) studies, as it facilitates accurate determination of the crystal plane normal with respect to the incident beam direction and thus allows control the electron channeling conditions. Unfortunately commercial SACP modes developed in the past were limited in spatial resolution and are often no longer offered. In this contribution we present a novel approach for collecting high resolution SACPs (HR-SACPs) developed on a Gemini column. This HR-SACP technique combines the first demonstrated sub-micron spatial resolution with high angular accuracy of about 0.1°, at a convenient working distance of 10mm. This innovative approach integrates the use of aperture alignment coils to rock the beam with a digitally calibrated beam shift procedure to ensure the rocking beam is maintained on a point of interest. Moreover a new methodology to accurately measure SACP spatial resolution is proposed. While column considerations limit the rocking angle to 4°, this range is adequate to index the HR-SACP in conjunction with the pattern simulated from the approximate orientation deduced by EBSD. This new technique facilitates Accurate ECCI (A-ECCI) studies from very fine grained and/or highly strained materials. It offers also new insights for developing HR-SACP modes on new generation high-resolution electron columns. PMID:25436927
Wolfgang Lucht
1998-01-01
This paper reports expected accuracies of bidirectional reflectance and albedo retrievals from the angular sampling provided by NASA's upcoming moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) and multiangle imaging spectroradiometer (MISR) on the EOS-AM-1 satellite platform. A numerical discrete ordinates method radiative transfer model by Myneni is used to simulate bidirectional reflectances for combined MODIS and MISR angular sampling as a function
Angular momentum & spin January 8, 2002
Landstreet, John D.
Angular momentum & spin January 8, 2002 1 Angular momentum Angular momentum appears as a very properties of this quantity. 1.1 Definitions The classical definition of the angular momentum of a particle¯h, the quantum mechanical operator for angular momentum becomes L = -i¯h(r × ), for example Lz = -i¯h(x y - y x
The angular correlation hierarchy in the quasilinear regime.
F. Bernardeau
1995-02-21
For Gaussian initial conditions the perturbation theory predicts a very specific hierarchy for the projected matter $p$-point correlation functions. In the small angle approximation and assuming a power-law spectrum I derive the exact expressions of the coefficients $s_p$ relating the averaged $p$-order angular correlation function, $\\omb_p$ to the second one, $\\omb_p=s_p\\ \\omb_2^{p-1}$. These results are valid for any selection function, but for a top-hat angular filter only. These coefficients are found to be significantly higher than their 3D counterparts, $S_p=\\xib_p/\\xib_2^{p-1}$. For the coefficient $s_3$ I discussed the accuracy of the small angle approximation by computing, for particular examples, its angular dependence with Monte-Carlo numerical integrations. It is found that the accuracy of the small angle approximation for $\\theta\\approx 1^o$ slightly depends on the selection function. Using the selection function expected for galaxy catalogues the approximation is found to be reasonably good. The measurements of the $s_p$ parameters made in the APM angular survey are found to give systematic lower values than the theoretical predictions. How significant this discrepancy is and what the implications would be for galaxy formation models is discussed in the last section.
Angular momentum effects in Michelson-Morley type experiments
Angelo Tartaglia; Matteo Luca Ruggiero
2001-01-01
The effect of the angular momentum density of a gravitational source on the times of flight of light rays in an interferometer is analyzed. The calculation is made imagining that the interferometer is at the equator of the gravity source and, as long as possible, the metric, provided it is stationary and axisymmetric, is not approximated. Finally, in order to
Detection and recognition of angular frequency patterns.
Wilson, Hugh R; Propp, Roni
2015-05-01
Previous research has extensively explored visual encoding of smoothly curved, closed contours described by sinusoidal variation of pattern radius as a function of polar angle (RF patterns). Although the contours of many biologically significant objects are curved, we also confront shapes with a more jagged and angular appearance. To study these, we introduce here a novel class of visual stimuli that deform smoothly from a circle to an equilateral polygon with N sides (AF patterns). Threshold measurements reveal that both AF and RF patterns can be discriminated from circles at the same deformation amplitude, approximately 18.0arcsec, which is in the hyperacuity range. Thresholds were slightly higher for patterns with 3.0 cycles than for those with 5.0 cycles. Discrimination between AF and RF patterns was 75% correct at an amplitude that was approximately 3.0 times the threshold amplitude, which implies that AF and RF patterns activate different neural populations. Experiments with jittered patterns in which the contour was broken into several pieces and shifted inward or outward had much less effect on AF patterns than on RF patterns. Similarly, thresholds for single angles of AF patterns showed no significant difference from thresholds for the entire AF pattern. Taken together, these results imply that the visual system incorporates angles explicitly in the representation of closed object contours, but it suggests that angular contours are represented more locally than are curved contours. PMID:25782363
Schulz, A S; Shmoys, D B; Williamson, D P
1997-11-25
Increasing global competition, rapidly changing markets, and greater consumer awareness have altered the way in which corporations do business. To become more efficient, many industries have sought to model some operational aspects by gigantic optimization problems. It is not atypical to encounter models that capture 10(6) separate "yes" or "no" decisions to be made. Although one could, in principle, try all 2(10(6)) possible solutions to find the optimal one, such a method would be impractically slow. Unfortunately, for most of these models, no algorithms are known that find optimal solutions with reasonable computation times. Typically, industry must rely on solutions of unguaranteed quality that are constructed in an ad hoc manner. Fortunately, for some of these models there are good approximation algorithms: algorithms that produce solutions quickly that are provably close to optimal. Over the past 6 years, there has been a sequence of major breakthroughs in our understanding of the design of approximation algorithms and of limits to obtaining such performance guarantees; this area has been one of the most flourishing areas of discrete mathematics and theoretical computer science. PMID:9370525
Angular Momentum Accretion onto a Gas Giant Planet
Masahiro N. Machida; Eiichiro Kokubo; Shu-ichiro Inutsuka; Tomoaki Matsumoto
2008-01-22
We investigate the accretion of angular momentum onto a protoplanet system using three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. We consider a local region around a protoplanet in a protoplanetary disk with sufficient spatial resolution. We describe the structure of the gas flow onto and around the protoplanet in detail. We find that the gas flows onto the protoplanet system in the vertical direction crossing the shock front near the Hill radius of the protoplanet, which is qualitatively different from the picture established by two-dimensional simulations. The specific angular momentum of the gas accreted by the protoplanet system increases with the protoplanet mass. At Jovian orbit, when the protoplanet mass M_p is M_p angular momentum increases as j \\propto M_p. On the other hand, it increases as j \\propto M_p^2/3 when the protoplanet mass is M_p > 1 M_J. The stronger dependence of the specific angular momentum on the protoplanet mass for M_p angular momentum of a system of a gas giant planet and a circumplanetary disk is two-orders of magnitude larger than those of the present gas giant planets in the solar system. A large fraction of the total angular momentum contributes to the formation of the circumplanetary disk. We also discuss the satellite formation from the circumplanetary disk.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raoult, M.; Jungen, Ch.
1981-03-01
Multichannel quantum defect theory has been used to calculate the effect of vibrational preionization on the total and partial oscillator strength distributions and photoelectron angular distribution in H2 for excitation between 790 and 760 Å. The total oscillator-strength distribution obtained agrees well with the high-resolution photoionization data of Dehmer and Chupka. The partial oscillator strength resonance profiles are predicted to have different shapes in different vibrational ionization channels, while their widths change little with channel. The preionization resonances are also predicted to affect the angular distribution asymmetry parameters b over a broader range than they affect the oscillator strength distribution. The gross features of the preionization resonances are discussed in terms of approximate solutions of the MQD equations.
Ultra-high angular resolution by gravitational microlensing
M. B. Bogdanov
2000-09-14
The problem of restoration of the source brightness distribution from an analysis of the stellar and AGNs microlensing light curves is investigated. In case of microlensing of stars by a point-mass lens as well as for caustic crossing events for binary lens the problem can be reduced to solution of the Fredholm integral equation of the 1st kind. Concrete form of the kernel of this equation depends on a type of the microlensing event. Assuming the circular symmetry of the stellar disk the search for radial brightness distribution can be carried out in the special compact sets of functions which correspond to the physics of the problem. These sets include the non-negative functions that are not increasing with increasing distance from the center of stellar disk and the upwards convex non-negative functions. The brightness distribution for the AGNs accretion disks is also circularly symmetric, but only in the locally co-moving frame. Therefore, the kernel of integral equation that determined the AGN microlensing light curve must take into account equally with the projection effect on picture plane the influence of relativistic effects. The search for solution of this equation can be carried out in the set of non-negative down convex functions. The results of analysis of microlensing light curves for the red giant MACHO Alert 95-30 and the A6 star MACHO 98-SMC-1 as well as the results of numerical simulations for the AGN microlensing observations are given.
Lightweight and High Angular Resolution X-Ray Optics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhang, William
2008-01-01
The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) mission requires a lightweight and high throughput spectroscopic telescope. The fabrication, alignment, and integration of this mirror assembly require breakthroughs in many areas. In this paper we report on our recent progress in all these areas, including mirror fabrication, coating, metrology, alignment, mechanical characteristics, and their integration into mirror modules. In particular, we will also outline our plan for the next few of years, showing approaches that will progress toward reaching the 5' HPD requirement.
Lightweight and High Angular Resolution X-Ray Optics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhang, William W.
2009-01-01
The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) mission requires a lightweight and high throughput spectroscopic telescope. The fabrication, alignment, and integration of this mirror assembly require breakthroughs in many areas. In this paper we report on our recent progress in all these areas, including mirror fabrication, coating, metrology, alignment, mechanical characteristics, and their integration into mirror modules. In particular, we will also outline our plan for the next few of years, showing approaches that will progress toward reaching the 5" HPD requirement.
High-angular resolution observations of the Pistol star
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martayan, Christophe; Blomme, Ronny; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Merand, Anthony; Montagnier, Guillaume; Selman, Fernando; Girard, Julien; Fox, Andrew; Baade, Dietrich; Frémat, Yves; Lobel, Alex; Martins, Fabrice; Patru, Fabien; Rivinius, Thomas; Sana, Hugues; Štefl, Stanislas; Zorec, Juan; Semaan, Thierry
2011-07-01
First results of near-IR adaptive optics (AO)-assisted imaging, interferometry, and spectroscopy of this Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) are presented. They suggest that the Pistol Star is at least double. If the association is physical, it would reinforce questions concerning the importance of multiplicity for the formation and evolution of extremely massive stars.
Transverse angular momentum of photons
Aiello, Andrea
2010-05-15
We develop the quantum theory of transverse angular momentum of light beams. The theory applies to paraxial and quasiparaxial photon beams in vacuum and reproduces the known results for classical beams when applied to coherent states of the field. Both the Poynting vector, alias the linear momentum, and the angular-momentum quantum operators of a light beam are calculated including contributions from first-order transverse derivatives. This permits a correct description of the energy flow in the beam and the natural emergence of both the spin and the angular momentum of the photons. We show that for collimated beams of light, orbital angular-momentum operators do not satisfy the standard commutation rules. Finally, we discuss the application of our theory to some concrete cases.
Transverse angular momentum of photons
Andrea Aiello; Christoph Marquardt; Gerd Leuchs
2010-03-04
We develop the quantum theory of transverse angular momentum of light beams. The theory applies to paraxial and quasi-paraxial photon beams in vacuum, and reproduces the known results for classical beams when applied to coherent states of the field. Both the Poynting vector, alias the linear momentum, and the angular momentum quantum operators of a light beam are calculated including contributions from first-order transverse derivatives. This permits a correct description of the energy flow in the beam and the natural emergence of both the spin and the angular momentum of the photons. We show that for collimated beams of light, orbital angular momentum operators do not satisfy the standard commutation rules. Finally, we discuss the application of our theory to some concrete cases.
Automated angular momentum recoupling algebra
Williams, H.T. . Dept. of Physics); Silbar, R.R. )
1990-01-01
We describe a code, RACAH, for algebraic solution of angular momentum recoupling problems. The general problem is to find an optimal path from one binary tree (representing the angular momentum coupling scheme for the reduced matrix element) to another (representing the sub-integrals and spin sums to be done). RACAH is implemented on a MS-DOS microcomputer, using the SCHEME dialect of LISP. 6 refs.
Andonian, G.; Hemsing, E.; Xiang, D.; Musumeci, P.; Murokh, A.; Tochitsky, S.; Rosenzweig, J.B.; /UCLA
2012-05-03
High-resolution measurement of the longitudinal profile of a relativistic electron beam is of utmost importance for linac based free-electron lasers and other advanced accelerator facilities that employ ultrashort bunches. In this paper, we investigate a novel scheme to measure ultrashort bunches (subpicosecond) with exceptional temporal resolution (hundreds of attoseconds) and dynamic range. The scheme employs two orthogonally oriented deflecting sections. The first imparts a short-wavelength (fast temporal resolution) horizontal angular modulation on the beam, while the second imparts a long-wavelength (slow) angular kick in the vertical dimension. Both modulations are observable on a standard downstream screen in the form of a streaked sinusoidal beam structure. We demonstrate, using scaled variables in a quasi-1D approximation, an expression for the temporal resolution of the scheme and apply it to a proof-of-concept experiment at the UCLA Neptune high-brightness injector facility. The scheme is also investigated for application at the SLAC NLCTA facility, where we show that the subfemtosecond resolution is sufficient to resolve the temporal structure of the beam used in the echo-enabled free-electron laser. We employ beam simulations to verify the effect for typical Neptune and NLCTA parameter sets and demonstrate the feasibility of the concept.
The angular momentum of condensations within elephant trunks
Lora, V; Esquivel, A
2009-01-01
The radiation from newly born stars photoevaporates their parental neutral cloud, leading to the formation of dense clumps that will eventually form stars. We present 3D simulations of the interaction of a neutral cloud with an external ionising radiation field, and compute the angular momenta of these collapsing clumps. The angular momenta of these collapsing clumps show that they have preferential orient mostly perpendicular to the direction of the incident ionising photon field. Therefore, the axes of the jet systems that will be eventually ejected (from the star + accretion disk systems that will form) will be oriented approximately perpendicular to the direction to the photoionising source.
Angular sensitivity of gated microchannel plate framing cameras
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Landen, O. L.; Lobban, A.; Tutt, T.; Bell, P. M.; Costa, R.; Hargrove, D. R.; Ze, F.
2001-01-01
Gated, microchannel-plate-based (MCP) framing cameras have been deployed worldwide for 0.2-9 keV x-ray imaging and spectroscopy of transient plasma phenomena. For a variety of spectroscopic and imaging applications, the angular sensitivity of MCPs must be known for correctly interpreting the data. We present systematic measurements of angular sensitivity at discrete relevant photon energies and arbitrary MCP gain. The results can been accurately predicted by using a simple two-dimensional approximation to the three-dimensional MCP geometry and by averaging over all possible photon ray paths.
The angular momentum of condensations within elephant trunks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lora, V.; Raga, A. C.; Esquivel, A.
2009-08-01
Aims: The radiation from newly born stars photoevaporates their parental neutral cloud, leading to the formation of dense clumps that will eventually form stars. Methods: We present 3D simulations of the interaction of a neutral cloud with an external ionising radiation field, and compute the angular momenta of these collapsing clumps. Results: The angular momenta of these collapsing clumps show that they have preferential orientations mostly perpendicular to the direction of the incident ionising photon field. Therefore, the axes of the jet systems that will be eventually ejected (from the star + accretion disk systems that will form) will be oriented approximately perpendicular to the direction to the photoionising source.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrews, David L.; Babiker, Mohamed
2012-11-01
Preface D. L. Andrews and M. Babiker; 1. Light beams carrying orbital angular momentum J. B. Götte and S. M. Barnett; 2. Vortex transformation and vortex dynamics in optical fields G. Molina-Terriza; 3. Vector beams in free space E. J. Galvez; 4. Optical beams with orbital angular momentum in nonlinear media A. S. Desyatnikov and Y. S. Kivshar; 5. Ray optics, wave optics and quantum mechanics G. Nienhuis; 6. Quantum formulation of angle and orbital angular momentum J. B. Götte and S. M. Barnett; 7. Dynamic rotational frequency shift I. Bialynicki-Birula and Z. Bialynicka-Birula; 8. Spin-orbit interactions of light in isotropic media K. Y. Bliokh, A. Aiello and M. A. Alonso; 9. Quantum electrodynamics, angular momentum and chirality D. L. Andrews and M. Babiker; 10. Trapping of charged particles by Bessel beams I. Bialynicki-Birula, Z. Bialynicka-Birula and N. Drozd; 11. Theory of atoms in twisted light M. Babiker, D. L. Andrews and V. E. Lembessis; 12. An experimentalist's introduction to orbital angular momentum for quantum optics J. Romero, D. Giovannini, S. Franke-Arnold and M. J. Padgett; 13. Measurement of light's orbital angular momentum M. P. J. Lavery, J. Courtial and M. J. Padgett; 14. Efficient generation of optical twisters using helico-conical beams V. R. Daria, D. Palima and J. Glückstad; 15. Self similar modes of coherent diffusion with orbital angular momentum O. Firstenberg, M. Shuker, R. Pugatch and N. Davidson; 16. Dimensionality of azimuthal entanglement M. van Exter, E. Eliel and H. Woerdman; Index.
Angular momentum of isolated systems
Adam D. Helfer
2007-09-07
Penrose's twistorial approach to the definition of angular momentum at null infinity is developed so that angular momenta at different cuts can be meaningfully compared. This is done by showing that the twistor spaces associated with different cuts of scri can be identified as manifolds (but not as vector spaces). The result is a well-defined, Bondi-Metzner-Sachs-invariant notion of angular momentum in a radiating space-time; the difficulties and ambiguities previously encountered are attached to attempts to express this in special-relativistic terms, and in particular to attempts to identify a single Minkowski space of origins. Unlike the special-relativistic case, the angular momentum cannot be represented by a purely j=1 quantity M_{ab}, but has higher-j contributions as well. Applying standard kinematic prescriptions, these higher-j contributions are shown to correspond precisely to the shear. Thus it appears that shear and angular momentum should be regarded as different aspects of a single unified concept.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaufmann, Tobias; Mayer, Lucio; Wadsley, James; Stadel, Joachim; Moore, Ben
2007-02-01
We perform controlled N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of disc galaxy formation by cooling a rotating gaseous mass distribution inside equilibrium cuspy spherical and triaxial dark matter haloes. We systematically study the angular momentum transport and the disc morphology as we increase the number of dark matter and gas particles from 104 to 106, and decrease the gravitational softening from 2 kpc to 50 pc. The angular momentum transport, disc morphology and radial profiles depend sensitively on force and mass resolution. At low resolution, similar to that used in most current cosmological simulations, the cold gas component has lost half of its initial angular momentum via different mechanisms. The angular momentum is transferred primarily to the hot halo component, by resolution-dependent hydrodynamical and gravitational torques; the latter arising from asymmetries in the mass distribution. In addition, disc particles can lose angular momentum while they are still in the hot phase by artificial viscosity. In the central disc, particles can transfer away over 99 per cent of their initial angular momentum due to spiral structure and/or the presence of a central bar. The strength of this transport also depends on force and mass resolution - large softening will suppress the bar instability, and low mass resolution enhances the spiral structure. This complex interplay between resolution and angular momentum transfer highlights the complexity of simulations of galaxy formation even in isolated haloes. With 106 gas and dark matter particles, disc particles lose only 10-20 per cent of their original angular momentum, yet we are unable to produce pure exponential profiles due to the steep density peak of baryons within the central kpc. We speculate that the central luminosity excess observed in many Sc-Sd galaxies may be due to star formation in gas that has been transported to the central regions by spiral patterns.
Angular momentum transport and disk morphology in SPH simulations of galaxy formation
Tobias Kaufmann; Lucio Mayer; James Wadsley; Joachim Stadel; Ben Moore
2006-11-21
We perform controlled N-Body/SPH simulations of disk galaxy formation by cooling a rotating gaseous mass distribution inside equilibrium cuspy spherical and triaxial dark matter halos. We systematically study the angular momentum transport and the disk morphology as we increase the number of dark matter and gas particles from 10^4 to 10^6, and decrease the gravitational softening from 2 kpc to 50 parsecs. The angular momentum transport, disk morphology and radial profiles depend sensitively on force and mass resolution. At low resolution, similar to that used in most current cosmological simulations, the cold gas component has lost half of its initial angular momentum via different mechanisms. The angular momentum is transferred primarily to the hot halo component, by resolution-dependent hydrodynamical and gravitational torques, the latter arising from asymmetries in the mass distribution. In addition, disk-particles can lose angular momentum while they are still in the hot phase by artificial viscosity. In the central disk, particles can transfer away over 99% of their initial angular momentum due to spiral structure and/or the presence of a central bar. The strength of this transport also depends on force and mass resolution - large softening will suppress the bar instability, low mass resolution enhances the spiral structure. This complex interplay between resolution and angular momentum transfer highlights the complexity of simulations of galaxy formation even in isolated haloes. With 10^6 gas and dark matter particles, disk particles lose only 10-20% of their original angular momentum, yet we are unable to produce pure exponential profiles.
Week 11: Chapter 11 Angular Momentum
1 Week 11: Chapter 11 Angular Momentum The Vector Product There are instances where the product i j j i i j k Angular Momentum Consider a particle of mass m located at the vector position p r F r r p r p p r Angular Momentum, cont The instantaneous angular momentum
ANGULAR MOMENTUM: AN APPROACH TO COMBINATORIAL SPACETIME
Baez, John
ANGULAR MOMENTUM: AN APPROACH TO COMBINATORIAL SPACEÂTIME ROGER PENROSE I want to describe an ideaÂtime in a very intimate way, is in angular momentum. The idea here, then, is to start with the concept of angular momentum--- here one has a discrete spectrum---and use the rules for combining angular This paper
Variations in atmospheric angular momentum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosen, R. D.; Salstein, D. A.
1981-01-01
Twice-daily values of the atmosphere's angular momentum about the polar axis during the five years from 1976 through 1980 are presented in graphs and a table. The compilation is based on a global data set, incorporating 90 percent of the mass of the atmosphere. The relationship between changes in the angular momentum of the atmosphere and changes in the length of day is described, as are the main sources of error in the data. The variability in angular momentum is revealed in a preliminary fashion by means of a spectral decomposition. The data presented should stimulate comparisons with other measures of the length of day and so provide a basis for greater understanding of Earth-atmosphere interactions.
Phenomenology of preequilibrium angular distributions
Kalbach, C.; Mann, F.M.
1980-05-01
The systematics of continuum angular distributions from a wide variety of light ion nuclear reactions have been studied. To first order, the shape of the angular distributions have been found to depend only on the energy of the outgoing particle and on the division of the cross section into multi-step direct and multi-step compound parts. The angular distributions can be described in terms of Legendre polynomials with the reduced polynomial coefficients exhibiting a simple dependence on the outgoing particle energy. Two integer and four continuous parameters with universal values are needed to describe the coefficients for outgoing energies of 2 to 60 MeV in all the reaction types studied. This parameterization combined with a modified Griffin model computer code permits the calculation of double differential cross sections for light ion continuum reactions where no data is available.
Angular-domain imaging of fluorescence sources within tissue phantoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Rongen L. K.; Tsui, Polly; Chapman, Glenn H.; Qarehbaghi, Reza; Pfeiffer, Nick
2011-03-01
Conventional fluorescence imaging often does not have a mechanism to remove the scattering effect in biological tissue. We use Angular Domain Imaging (ADI) to improve the detection of smaller structures in fluorescence layer over that can be provided by existing systems. ADI is a high resolution, ballistic imaging method that utilizes the angular spectrum of photons to filter multiple-scattered photons and accepts only photons with small angular deviation from their original trajectory. Advantages of the ADI technique are that it is insensitive to wavelength and the sources are not required to be high quality, coherent, or pulse, as with OCT or time domain. Our target is to perform fluorescence ADI at shallow tissue such as skin (~ 1mm) with a buried collagen layer. To experimentally model shallow tissue with phantoms, a thin layer of scattering medium with similar scattering characteristic (?s = 200cm-1, g = 0.85) is placed on top fluorescence plastic (415nm excitation, ~ 555-585nm emission) which is patterned by strips of non-emitting structures (200-400?m). Positioning multiple collimated arrays with acceptance angles of 5.71° on top of the scattering medium, test structures (200?m wide) can be detected at shallow scattering medium thickness (1mm). Monte Carlo simulation confirms that fluorescence ADI can image structures at shallow tissue depth by using collimator array with modest filtration angles. Results show micromachined collimator arrays provide both high spatial resolution and angular filtration on scattered photons.
Hydrogen Beyond the Classic Approximation
Scivetti, I
2003-01-01
The classical nucleus approximation is the most frequently used approach for the resolution of problems in condensed matter physics.However, there are systems in nature where it is necessary to introduce the nuclear degrees of freedom to obtain a correct description of the properties.Examples of this, are the systems with containing hydrogen.In this work, we have studied the resolution of the quantum nuclear problem for the particular case of the water molecule.The Hartree approximation has been used, i.e. we have considered that the nuclei are distinguishable particles.In addition, we have proposed a model to solve the tunneling process, which involves the resolution of the nuclear problem for configurations of the system away from its equilibrium position
Energy, angular momentum, superenergy and angular supermomentum in conformal frames
Mariusz P. Dabrowski; Janusz Garecki
2007-12-14
We find the rules of the conformal transformation for the energetic quantities such as the Einstein energy-momentum complex, the Bergmann-Thomson angular momentum complex, the superenergy tensor, and the angular supermomentum tensor of gravitation and matter. We show that the conformal transformation rules for the matter parts of both the Einstein complex and the Bergmann-Thomson complex are fairly simple, while the transformation rules for their gravitational parts are more complicated. We also find that the transformational rules of the superenergy tensor of matter and the superenergy tensor of gravity are quite complicated except for the case of a pure gravity. In such a special case the superenergy density as well as the sum of the superenergy density and the matter energy density are invariants of the conformal transformation. Besides, in that case, a conformal invariant is also the Bel-Robinson tensor which is a part of the superenergy tensor. As for the angular supermomentum tensor of gravity - it emerges that its transformational rule even for a pure gravity is quite complicated but this is not the case for the angular supermomentum tensor of matter. Having investigated some technicalities of the conformal transformations, we also find the conformal transformation rule for the curvature invariants and, in particular, for the Gauss-Bonnet invariant in a spacetime of arbitrary dimension.
Non-Colinearity of Angular Velocity and Angular Momentum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burr, A. F.
1974-01-01
Discusses the principles, construction, and operation of an apparatus which serves to demonstrate the non-colinearity of the angular velocity and momentum vectors as well as the inertial tensors. Applications of the apparatus to teaching of advanced undergraduate mechanics courses are recommended. (CC)
Higher order treatment on temporal derivative of angular flux for time-dependent MOC
Tsujita, K.; Endo, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Kamiyama, Y.; Kirimura, K.
2013-07-01
A new kinetic analysis method, whose angular dependence of temporal derivative for angular flux is accurately treated within practical memory requirement, is proposed. The method of characteristics (MOC) is being widely used for reactor analysis thanks to the advances of numerical algorithms and computer hardware. However, the computational resources, i.e., the memory capacity, can be still a crucial problem for rigorous kinetic calculations using MOC. In the straightforward approach for kinetic calculation using MOC, the segment-averaged angular fluxes should be stored on the memory in order to explicitly calculate the temporal derivative of the angular flux, which would require huge memory. Thus, in the conventional kinetic calculation code using MOC, the temporal derivative of the angular flux has been approximated as angularly isotropic in order to reduce the memory requirement (isotropic assumption). However, the approximation error caused by the conventional isotropic assumption has not been thoroughly and quantitatively investigated so far and an accurate kinetic calculation method, which can quantitatively estimate the above approximation error within practical memory storage, has not been developed. The present study tries to address this issue with a newly developed approach. Effect of the approximate treatment for the temporal derivative of angular flux is evaluated through benchmark calculations. (authors)
Measuring Angular Size and Distance
NSDL National Science Digital Library
This is an activity about measuring angular size and understanding the solar and lunar proportions that result in solar eclipses. Learners will use triangles and proportions to create a shoebox eclipse simulator. They will then apply what they learn about angular size to predict the diameter and distance of one object that can be eclipsed by another. They will also complete three journal assignments to record observations and conceptual understanding. This activity derives from those demonstrated in the NASA CONNECT television series episode, titled Path of Totality.
Optical design for laser Doppler angular encoder with sub-nanoradian sensitivity
Shu, D.; Alp, E.E.; Barraza, J.; Kuzay, T.M.; Mooney, T.
1997-09-01
A novel laser angular encoder system has been developed based on the principles of radar, the Doppler effect, optical heterodyning, and self aligning multiple reflection optics. Using this novel three dimensional multiple reflection optical path, a 10 to 20 times better resolution has been reached compared to commercially available laser Doppler displacement meters or laser interferometer systems. With the new angular encoder, sub-nanoradian resolution has been attained in the 8 degree measuring range in a compact setup about 60 mm (H) x 150 mm (W) x 370 mm (L) in size for high energy resolution applications at the Advanced Photon Source undulator beamline 3-ID.
The Angular Momentum of Baryons and Dark Matter Halos Revisited
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kimm, Taysun; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Pichon, Christophe; Kassin, Susan A.; Dubois, Yohan
2011-01-01
Recent theoretical studies have shown that galaxies at high redshift are fed by cold, dense gas filaments, suggesting angular momentum transport by gas differs from that by dark matter. Revisiting this issue using high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with adaptive-mesh refinement (AMR), we find that at the time of accretion, gas and dark matter do carry a similar amount of specific angular momentum, but that it is systematically higher than that of the dark matter halo as a whole. At high redshift, freshly accreted gas rapidly streams into the central region of the halo, directly depositing this large amount of angular momentum within a sphere of radius r = 0.1R(sub vir). In contrast, dark matter particles pass through the central region unscathed, and a fraction of them ends up populating the outer regions of the halo (r/R(sub vir) > 0.1), redistributing angular momentum in the process. As a result, large-scale motions of the cosmic web have to be considered as the origin of gas angular momentum rather than its virialised dark matter halo host. This generic result holds for halos of all masses at all redshifts, as radiative cooling ensures that a significant fraction of baryons remain trapped at the centre of the halos. Despite this injection of angular momentum enriched gas, we predict an amount for stellar discs which is in fair agreement with observations at z=0. This arises because the total specific angular momentum of the baryons (gas and stars) remains close to that of dark matter halos. Indeed, our simulations indicate that any differential loss of angular momentum amplitude between the two components is minor even though dark matter halos continuously lose between half and two-thirds of their specific angular momentum modulus as they evolve. In light of our results, a substantial revision of the standard theory of disc formation seems to be required. We propose a new scenario where gas efficiently carries the angular momentum generated by large-scale structure motions deep inside dark matter halos, redistributing it only in the vicinity of the disc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tkachenko, A. I.
1983-06-01
In an earlier paper (Tkachenko, 1982), the attitude of a velocimeter trihedron with continuously varying angular velocity was determined from information on the angular motion of another trihedron whose attitude relative to the first trihedron was unknown and constant. It was assumed that the initial attitude of the velocimeter trihedron is not given and that all measurements are ideal. A similar problem is examined here assuming that the initial attitude of the velocimeter trihedron is known approximately and that measurements of its angular velocity have a small additive error. The error is a combination of a finite number of known functions and unknown coefficients, which have to be determined along with the attitude parameters of the velocimeter trihedron.
Carter Constant and Angular Momentum
Sajal Mukherjee; Rajesh Kumble Nayak
2015-07-05
We investigate the carter like constant for a particle in a non relativistic dipolar field. This special case is a missing link between carter constant in stationary axially symmetric spacetime such as Kerr solution and its possible Newtonian counterpart. We use this system to carry over the definition of angular momentum from Newtonian mechanics to relativistic stationary axially symmetric stationary spacetime.
Unified Angular Momentum of Dyons
Shalini Dangwal; P. S. Bisht; O. P. S. Negi
2006-08-22
Unified quaternionic angular momentum for the fields of dyons and gravito-dyons has been developed and the commutation relations for dynamical variables are obtained in compact and consistent manner. Demonstrating the quaternion forms of unified fields of dyons (electromagnetic fields) and gravito-dyons (gravito-Heavisidian fields of linear gravity), corresponding quantum equations are reformulated in compact, simpler and manifestly covariant way.
MuiÃ±o, Ricardo DÃez
Energy and angular momentum transfer in the excitation of electron-hole pairs by slow dimers R. Di and angular momentum through electron-hole pair excitations for a slow dimer in an electron gas. We show approximation. We obtain the low-energy limit of the friction coeffi- cient and average angular momentum
Angular distribution of medium-induced QCD cascades
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Fister, Leonard; Mehtar-Tani, Yacine
2015-08-01
We provide a complete description of the angular distribution of gluons in a medium-induced QCD cascade. We identify two components in the distribution, a soft component dominated by soft multiple scatterings, and a hard component dominated by a few hard scatterings. The typical angle that marks the boundary between these two components is determined analytically as a function of the energy of the observed gluon and the size of the medium. We construct the complete solution (beyond the diffusion approximation) in the regime where multiple branchings dominate the dynamics of the cascade in the form of a power series in the number of collisions with the medium particles. The coefficients of this expansions are related to the moments of the distribution in the diffusion approximation and are determined analytically. The angular distribution may be useful in phenomenological studies of jet shapes in heavy-ion collisions.
Angular-Momentum-Compensating Servomechanism
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marchetto, Carl A.
1988-01-01
Servomechanism for rotating an instrumentation platform isolates supporting vehicle or stationary platform from reaction torques producedby rotations. Prevents aiming of instrument from disturbing vehicle or other instrument platforms. Rotating oppositely to instrument platform, reaction wheel, motor, and gear 1 have angular momentum equal and opposite to gear 2, output shaft, and platform. External torque reaction to rotation of platform canceled. Although spur gears appear in schematic diagram, gear train made of spline gears.
Orbital angular momentum in phase space
I. Rigas; L. L. Sanchez-Soto; A. B. Klimov; J. Rehacek; Z. Hradil
2010-11-29
A comprehensive theory of the Weyl-Wigner formalism for the canonical pair angle-angular momentum is presented. Special attention is paid to the problems linked to rotational periodicity and angular-momentum discreteness.
Angular momentum generation by parity violation
Liu, Hong
We generalize our holographic derivation of spontaneous angular momentum generation in 2 + 1 dimensions in several directions. We consider cases when a parity-violating perturbation responsible for the angular momentum ...
Paraxial Light Beams with Angular Momentum
A. Bekshaev; M. Soskin; M. Vasnetsov
2008-01-15
Fundamental and applied concepts concerning the ability of light beams to carry a certain mechanical angular momentum with respect to the propagation axis are reviewed and discussed. Following issues are included: Historical reference; Angular momentum of a paraxial beam and its constituents; Spin angular momentum and paradoxes associated with it; Orbital angular momentum; Circularly-spiral beams: examples and methods of generation; Orbital angular momentum and the intensity moments; Symmetry breakdown and decomposition of the orbital angular momentum; Mechanical models of the vortex light beams; Mechanical action of the beam angular momentum; Rotational Doppler effect, its manifestation in the image rotation; Spectrum of helical harmonics and associated problems; Non-collinear rotational Doppler effect; Properties of a beam forcedly rotating around its own axis. Research prospects and ways of practical utilization of optical beams with angular momentum.
On the quantum and quasiclassical angular distributions of photofragments
Beswick, J. Alberto; Zare, Richard N.
2008-10-28
Quantum and quasiclassical expressions for the angular distribution of photofragments from an initially polarized precursor molecule are compared under the conditions of a one-photon electric dipole transition to a repulsive state followed by prompt axial recoil into two separating fragments. The treatment is most readily applicable to diatomic molecules, but it is more general than that. It is shown that when the rotational and electronic angular momentum J{sub i} and its projection along the body-fixed z axis {omega}{sub i} are well defined in the initial state, the quantum and quasiclassical expressions are identical for any initial polarization of the molecule prior to photolysis and for all values of J{sub i} and {omega}{sub i}. For the particular case of an |J{sub i}{omega}{sub i}M{sub i}> selected state this is in agreement with a previous result [T. Seideman, Chem. Phys. Lett. 253, 279 (1996)]. Moreover, the quasiclassical expression is still a good approximation even when the initial state is a coherent superposition of |J{sub i},{omega}{sub i},M{sub i}> levels for the same {omega}{sub i}. This near identity still pertains even when {omega}{sub i} is not well defined for a parallel transition ({delta}{omega}=0) but fails for a perpendicular transition ({delta}{omega}={+-}1) if the initial state is in a coherent superposition of {omega}{sub i} states differing by {+-}2. These conclusions apply to preparation schemes employing optical excitation, static inhomogeneous and/or homogeneous electric and/or magnetic fields, as well as to molecules physisorbed on solids or clusters. We discuss the importance of these results in the interpretation of photofragment distributions when some other angular momenta are involved, such as electronic angular momentum, with and without nuclear spin, coupled to molecular rotation, asymmetric top rotational angular momentum, or internal vibrational angular momentum in polyatomics.
Angular Momentum Decomposition for an Electron
Matthias Burkardt; Hikmat BC
2008-12-09
We calculate the orbital angular momentum of the `quark' in the scalar diquark model as well as that of the electron in QED (to order $\\alpha$). We compare the orbital angular momentum obtained from the Jaffe-Manohar decomposition to that obtained from the Ji relation and estimate the importance of the vector potential in the definition of orbital angular momentum.
Angular Momentum Decomposition for an Electron
Burkardt, Matthias; BC, Hikmat
2009-01-01
We calculate the orbital angular momentum of the `quark' in the scalar diquark model as well as that of the electron in QED (to order $\\alpha$). We compare the orbital angular momentum obtained from the Jaffe-Manohar decomposition to that obtained from the Ji relation and estimate the importance of the vector potential in the definition of orbital angular momentum.
Angular momentum control in coordinated Victor Zordan
Zordan, Victor
Angular momentum control in coordinated behaviors Victor Zordan University of California, Riverside Abstract. This paper explores the many uses of angular momentum regulation and its role in the synthesis of characteristic movements that can be generated through the control of angular momentum. Keywords: Character
ZERO SPIN ANGULAR MOMENTUM CONTROL: DEFINITIONAND APPLICABILITY
Herr, Hugh
ZERO SPIN ANGULAR MOMENTUM CONTROL: DEFINITIONAND APPLICABILITY MARK0 POPOVlC Biomeckutronics Group investigationshave found that spin angular momentum is highly regulated in human standing,walking and running spin angular momentum, minimizing spin and CM torque contributionsnot only local intime but throughout
Angular momentum of optical vortex Johannes Courtial
Zambrini, Roberta
Angular momentum of optical vortex arrays Johannes Courtial Department of Physics & Astronomy-like orbital angular momentum (OAM), that is light fields with a uniform and intrinsic OAM density, we vanishes. Our results are applicable to the z component of the angular momentum of any x- and y
Spin Angular Momentum Imparted by Gravitational Waves
M Sharif
2007-01-23
Following the demonstration that gravitational waves impart linear momentum, it is argued that if they are polarized they should impart angular momentum to appropriately placed 'test rods' in their path. A general formula for this angular momentum is obtained and used to provide expressions for the angular momentum imparted by plane and cylindrical gravitational waves.
Angular momentum decomposition for an electron
Burkardt, Matthias; Hikmat, BC [Department of Physics, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003-0001 (United States)
2009-04-01
We calculate the orbital angular momentum of the 'quark' in the scalar diquark model as well as that of the electron in QED (to order {alpha}). We compare the orbital angular momentum obtained from the Jaffe-Manohar decomposition to that obtained from the Ji relation and estimate the importance of the vector potential in the definition of orbital angular momentum.
A test of galaxy evolutionary models via angular sizes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Im, Myungshin; Casertano, Stefano; Griffiths, Richard E.; Ratnatunga, Kavan U.; Tyson, J. Anthony
1995-01-01
The relationship between angular size, magnitude, and redshift of faint galaxies is explored as a potential tool to distinguish between galaxy evolutionary models. Different models, based on merging, mild luminosity evolution, and no evolution, lead to different predictions of the angular size distribution, redshift- size relation, and magnitude-size relation. The merging model predicts significantly smaller sizes for faint galaxies than the standard model, because of the requirement for more intrinsically small faint objects at high redshift. A dwarf-rich no-evolution model also predicts small sizes for faint galaxies. The mild luminosity evolution model predicts more luminous galaxies of large angular size at high redshift, as does a standard no-evolution model. Prefurbishment Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Medium Deep Survey observations of magnitudes and sizes of faint galaxies indicate an excess of small versus large faint galaxies, favoring the dwarf rich, no evolution model with respect to the merging model; the other two models are more discrepant with the data. While these results cannot yet rule out with certainty any of the proposed models, they demonstrate the potential of angular size to discriminate between models of galaxy evolution, especially with the high-resolution HST wide field/planetary camera-2 (WFPC2) data.
Low angular momentum flow model of Sgr A* activity
B. Czerny; M. Moscibrodzka
2008-08-21
Sgr A* is the closest massive black hole and can be observed with the highest angular resolution. Nevertheless, our current understanding of the accretion process in this source is very poor. The inflow is almost certainly of low radiative efficiency and it is accompanied by a strong outflow and the flow is strongly variable but the details of the dynamics are unknown. Even the amount of angular momentum in the flow is an open question. Here we argue that low angular momentum scenario is better suited to explain the flow variability. We present a new hybrid model which describes such a flow and consists of an outer spherically symmetric Bondi flow and an inner axially symmetric flow described through MHD simulations. The assumed angular momentum of the matter is low, i.e. the corresponding circularization radius in the equatorial plane of the flow is just above the innermost stable circular orbit in pseudo-Newtonian potential. We compare the radiation spectrum from such a flow to the broad band observational data for Sgr A*.
High Resolution Imaging of Circumstellar Disks at Millimeter Wavelengths
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilner, David J.
2004-01-01
We summarize progress on our program to use high angular resolution imaging of thermal dust continuum emission at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths to probe the structure of protoplanetary disks and debris disks around nearby stars.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cygorek, M.; Tamborenea, P. I.; Axt, V. M.
2015-09-01
We study the spin dynamics of carriers due to the Rashba interaction in semiconductor quantum disks and wells after excitation with light with orbital angular momentum. We find that although twisted light transfers orbital angular momentum to the excited carriers and the Rashba interaction conserves their total angular momentum, the resulting electronic spin dynamics is essentially the same for excitation with light with orbital angular momentum l =+|l | and l =-|l | . The differences between cases with different values of |l | are due to the excitation of states with slightly different energies and not to the different angular momenta per se and vanish for samples with large radii where a k -space quasicontinuum limit can be established. These findings apply not only to the Rashba interaction but also to all other envelope-function-approximation spin-orbit Hamiltonians like the Dresselhaus coupling.
Theory of Angular Momentum This chapter is concerned with a systematic treatment of angular momen-
Satija, Indu
153 CHAPTER 3 Theory of Angular Momentum This chapter is concerned with a systematic treatment of angular momen- tum and related topics. The importance of angular momentum in modern physics can hardly spectroscopy; angular-momentum considerations play an important role in scattering and collision problems
Practical formula for the radiated angular momentum
Lousto, Carlos O.; Zlochower, Yosef [Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, School of Mathematical Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, 78 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)
2007-08-15
We present a simple formula for the radiated angular momentum based on a spin-weighted spherical harmonic decomposition of the Weyl scalar {psi}{sub 4} representing outgoing radiation in the Kinnersley tetrad. We test our formula by measuring the radiated angular momentum from three simulations of nonspinning equal-mass-black-hole binaries with orbital angular momentum aligned along the x, y, and z axes, respectively. We find that the radiated angular momentum agrees with the differences in the remnant horizon spins and the initial angular momentum for each system.
Dangerous Angular KK/Glueball Relics in String Theory Cosmology
J. F. Dufaux; L. Kofman; M. Peloso
2008-07-07
The presence of Kaluza-Klein particles in the universe is a potential manifestation of string theory cosmology. In general, they can be present in the high temperature bath of the early universe. In particular examples, string theory inflation often ends with brane-antibrane annihilation followed by the energy cascading through massive closed string loops to KK modes which then decay into lighter standard model particles. However, massive KK modes in the early universe may become dangerous cosmological relics if the inner manifold contains warped throat(s) with approximate isometries. In the complimentary picture, in the AdS/CFT dual gauge theory with extra symmetries, massive glueballs of various spins become the dangerous cosmological relics. The decay of these angular KK modes/glueballs, located around the tip of the throat, is caused by isometry breaking which results from gluing the throat to the compact CY manifold. We address the problem of these angular KK particles/glueballs, studying their interactions and decay channels, from the theory side, and the resulting cosmological constraints on the warped compactification parameters, from the phenomenology side. The abundance and decay time of the long-lived non-relativistic angular KK modes depend strongly on the parameters of the warped geometry, so that observational constraints rule out a significant fraction of the parameter space. In particular, the coupling of the angular KK particles can be weaker than gravitational.
Vaughn, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Robinett, III, Rush D. (Tijeras, NM); Phelan, John R. (Albuquerque, NM); Van Zuiden, Don M. (Albuquerque, NM)
1997-01-21
A new class of coplanar two-axis angular effectors. These effectors combine a two-axis rotational joint analogous to a Cardan joint with linear actuators in a manner to produce a wider range of rotational motion about both axes defined by the joint. This new class of effectors also allows design of robotic manipulators having very high strength and efficiency. These effectors are particularly suited for remote operation in unknown surroundings, because of their extraordinary versatility. An immediate application is to the problems which arise in nuclear waste remediation.
Controlling neutron orbital angular momentum.
Clark, Charles W; Barankov, Roman; Huber, Michael G; Arif, Muhammad; Cory, David G; Pushin, Dmitry A
2015-09-24
The quantized orbital angular momentum (OAM) of photons offers an additional degree of freedom and topological protection from noise. Photonic OAM states have therefore been exploited in various applications ranging from studies of quantum entanglement and quantum information science to imaging. The OAM states of electron beams have been shown to be similarly useful, for example in rotating nanoparticles and determining the chirality of crystals. However, although neutrons--as massive, penetrating and neutral particles--are important in materials characterization, quantum information and studies of the foundations of quantum mechanics, OAM control of neutrons has yet to be achieved. Here, we demonstrate OAM control of neutrons using macroscopic spiral phase plates that apply a 'twist' to an input neutron beam. The twisted neutron beams are analysed with neutron interferometry. Our techniques, applied to spatially incoherent beams, demonstrate both the addition of quantum angular momenta along the direction of propagation, effected by multiple spiral phase plates, and the conservation of topological charge with respect to uniform phase fluctuations. Neutron-based studies of quantum information science, the foundations of quantum mechanics, and scattering and imaging of magnetic, superconducting and chiral materials have until now been limited to three degrees of freedom: spin, path and energy. The optimization of OAM control, leading to well defined values of OAM, would provide an additional quantized degree of freedom for such studies. PMID:26399831
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hale, Claudia L.; Cooks, Leda M.
1994-01-01
Focusing on the teaching of alternative dispute resolutions at universities, Claudia L. Hale and Leda M. Cooks argue that mediation should be taught primarily as a communication process that involves the joint efforts of mediator and disputants. Teachers of mediation should begin by distinguishing mediation from other forms of dispute resolution,…
Effects of Merging Histories on Angular Momentum Distribution of Dark Matter Haloes
Masahiro Nagashima; Naoteru Gouda
1998-09-29
The effects of merging histories of proto-objects on the angular momentum distributions of the present-time dark matter haloes are analysed. An analytical approach to the analysis of the angular momentum distributions assumes that the haloes are initially homogeneous ellipsoids and that the growth of the angular momentum of the haloes halts at their maximum expansion time. However, the maximum expansion time cannot be determined uniquely, because in the hierarchical clustering scenario each progenitor, or subunit, of the halo has its own maximum expansion time. Therefore the merging history of the halo may be important in estimating its angular momentum. Using the merger tree model by Rodrigues & Thomas, which takes into account the spatial correlations of the density fluctuations, we have investigated the effects of the merging histories on the angular momentum distributions of dark matter haloes. It was found that the merger effects, that is, the effects of the inhomogeneity of the maximum expansion times of the progenitors which finally merge together into a halo, do not strongly affect the final angular momentum distributions, so that the homogeneous ellipsoid approximation happens to be good for the estimation of the angular momentum distribution of dark matter haloes. This is because the effect of the different directions of the angular momenta of the progenitors cancels out the effect of the inhomogeneity of the maximum expansion times of the progenitors.
On demand generation of propagation invariant photons with orbital angular momentum
Y. Jerónimo-Moreno; R. Jáuregui
2014-08-11
We study the generation of propagation invariant photons with orbital angular momentum by spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) using a Bessel-Gauss pump beam. The angular and conditional angular spectra are calculated for an uniaxial crystal optimized for type I SPDC with standard Gaussian pump beams. It is shown that, as the mean value of the magnitude of the transverse wave vector of the pump beam increases, the emission cone is deformed into two non coaxial cones that touch each other along a line determined by the orientation of the optical axis of the nonlinear crystal. At this location, the conditional spectrum becomes maximal for a pair of photons, one of which is best described by a Gaussian-like photon with a very small transverse wave vector, and the othera Bessel-Gauss photon with a distribution of transverse wave vectors similar in amplitude to that of the incident pump beam. A detailed analysis is then performed of the angular momentum content of SPDC photons by the evaluation of the corresponding transition amplitudes. As a result, we obtain conditions for the generation of heralded single photons which are approximately propagation invariant and have orbital angular momentum. A discussion is given about the difficulties in the interpretation of the results in terms of conservation of optical orbital angular momentum along the vector normal to the crystal surface. The angular spectra and the conditional angular spectra are successfully compared with available experimental data recently reported in the literature.
Approximate Information Theory
Penny, Will
Approximate Inference Will Penny Information Theory Information Entropy Kullback-Liebler Divergence Approximate Inference Will Penny 31st March 2011 #12;Approximate Inference Will Penny Information Theory Will Penny Information Theory Information Entropy Kullback-Liebler Divergence Gaussians Asymmetry
Fast Approximate Convex Decomposition
Ghosh, Mukulika
2012-10-19
Approximate convex decomposition (ACD) is a technique that partitions an input object into "approximately convex" components. Decomposition into approximately convex pieces is both more efficient to compute than exact convex decomposition and can...
Brantley, P S
2006-08-08
The double spherical harmonics angular approximation in the lowest order, i.e. double P{sub 0} (DP{sub 0}), is developed for the solution of time-dependent non-equilibrium grey radiative transfer problems in planar geometry. Although the DP{sub 0} diffusion approximation is expected to be less accurate than the P{sub 1} diffusion approximation at and near thermodynamic equilibrium, the DP{sub 0} angular approximation can more accurately capture the complicated angular dependence near a non-equilibrium radiation wave front. In addition, the DP{sub 0} approximation should be more accurate in non-equilibrium optically thin regions where the positive and negative angular domains are largely decoupled. We develop an adaptive angular technique that locally uses either the DP{sub 0} or P{sub 1} flux-limited diffusion approximation depending on the degree to which the radiation and material fields are in thermodynamic equilibrium. Numerical results are presented for two test problems due to Su and Olson and to Ganapol and Pomraning for which semi-analytic transport solutions exist. These numerical results demonstrate that the adaptive P{sub 1}-DP{sub 0} diffusion approximation can yield improvements in accuracy over the standard P{sub 1} diffusion approximation, both without and with flux-limiting, for non-equilibrium grey radiative transfer.
Brantley, P S
2005-12-13
The double spherical harmonics angular approximation in the lowest order, i.e. double P{sub 0} (DP{sub 0}), is developed for the solution of time-dependent non-equilibrium grey radiative transfer problems in planar geometry. Although the DP{sub 0} diffusion approximation is expected to be less accurate than the P{sub 1} diffusion approximation at and near thermodynamic equilibrium, the DP{sub 0} angular approximation can more accurately capture the complicated angular dependence near a non-equilibrium radiation wave front. In addition, the DP{sub 0} approximation should be more accurate in non-equilibrium optically thin regions where the positive and negative angular domains are largely decoupled. We develop an adaptive angular technique that locally uses either the DP{sub 0} or P{sub 1} flux-limited diffusion approximation depending on the degree to which the radiation and material fields are in thermodynamic equilibrium. Numerical results are presented for two test problems due to Su and Olson and to Ganapol and Pomraning for which semi-analytic transport solutions exist. These numerical results demonstrate that the adaptive P{sub 1}-DP{sub 0} diffusion approximation can yield improvements in accuracy over the standard P{sub 1} diffusion approximation, both without and with flux-limiting, for non-equilibrium grey radiative transfer.
Depth-dependent angular distribution of sputtered atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shulga, V. I.
1999-09-01
The depth-resolved angular distribution of atoms sputtered from an amorphous Ge target under ion bombardment was calculated using the computer code OKSANA. Most simulations refer to Ar bombardment, and ion energies cover range from 0.2 to 200 keV. The distribution was registered at different stages of the collision process and approximated by a cosine function to the power n, cos n?. For a 3.9 eV planar surface barrier, the calculated values of n agree well with the experimental data. The depth dependence of n was found to be nonmonotonic with a maximum centered at x˜3 d/4, d being the distance between the nearest atoms. This is explained by the scattering of ejected recoils by near-surface atoms during the passage through the open surface atomic windows. The variations of the angular distribution of sputtered atoms with the primary ion energy and ion mass are discussed in detail.
Rapid Calculation of Theoretical CMB Angular Power Spectra
Manoj Kaplinghat; Lloyd Knox; Constantinos Skordis
2002-08-01
We have developed a fast method for predicting the angular power spectrum, C_l, of the cosmic microwave background given cosmological parameters and a primordial power spectrum of perturbations. After pre--computing the radiation temperature and gravitational potential transfer functions over a small sub--space of the total model parameter space, the rest of the model space (six or more cosmological parameters and arbitrarily many primordial power spectrum parameters) is reached via rapid analytic and semi--analytic approximations which are highly accurate on all angular scales for which linear perturbation theory applies. A single power spectrum can be calculated in ~ 1 second on a desktop computer. We discuss applications to cosmological parameter estimation.
Angular density perturbations to filled type I strong explosions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yalinewich, Almog; Sari, Re'em
2014-09-01
In this paper we extend the Sedov-Taylor-Von Neumann model for a strong explosion to account for small angular and radial variations in the density. We assume that the density profile is given by ? left(r,? ,? right)=kr^{-? }left(1+\\varepsilon left(r/r0right)qY_{lm}left(? ,? right)right), where ? ? 1 and ? le 7-? /? +1. In order to verify our results we compare them to analytical approximations and full hydrodynamic simulations. We demonstrate how this method can be used to describe arbitrary (not just self similar) angular perturbations. This work complements our previous analysis on radial, spherically symmetric perturbations, and allows one to calculate the response of an explosion to arbitrary perturbations in the upstream density. Together, they settle an age old controversy about the inner boundary conditions.
On the efficiency of angular intraprediction.
Nebot, José Prades
2014-12-01
Angular intraprediction (AIP) is a coding tool that has been incorporated into the video coding standards H.264/AVC (Advanced Audio Coding) and High Efficient Video Coding. In this paper, we study how the efficiency of AIP depends on its prediction parameters. To carry out this paper, we first theoretically analyze the variance of the error incurred when a perfectly directional signal is predicted in a certain direction. The results of this analysis are then used to study the efficiency of AIP when it is applied to a distribution of directions. To facilitate mathematical derivations, we make several assumptions about the signal and the prediction process, and we use some approximations. This allows us to obtain simple expressions for the variance of the AIP prediction error as a function of signal and prediction parameters. Finally, we compare our theoretical results with the results obtained from the prediction of images containing rectilinear edges. This comparison shows that our theoretical expressions follow the main trends of the experimental results except when AIP is performed with a very high accuracy. PMID:25398178
High-Resolution X-Ray Telescopes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
ODell, Stephen L.; Brissenden, Roger J.; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald F.; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terry; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhail V.
2010-01-01
Fundamental needs for future x-ray telescopes: a) Sharp images => excellent angular resolution. b) High throughput => large aperture areas. Generation-X optics technical challenges: a) High resolution => precision mirrors & alignment. b) Large apertures => lots of lightweight mirrors. Innovation needed for technical readiness: a) 4 top-level error terms contribute to image size. b) There are approaches to controlling those errors. Innovation needed for manufacturing readiness. Programmatic issues are comparably challenging.
Mammogram Compression Using Super-Resolution
Fuentes, Olac
Mammogram Compression Using Super-Resolution Jun Zheng1 , Olac Fuentes1 , Ming-Ying Leung1- ing super-resolution techniques after the decoding procedure to recover the original resolution image and approximately half an hour for transmission using a high-speed modem [12]. Thus compression will play
Angular structure of extragalactic radio sources at low frequencies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brazhenko, A. I.; Koshovy, V. V.; Lozynsky, A. R.; Megn, A. V.; Rashkovsky, S. L.; Shepelev, V. A.
2005-06-01
The low frequency VLBI of URAN network operated in the decameter range has been designed in Ukraine to study cosmic radio sources. The network consists of five radio telescopes making up of four interferometers with baselines range from 42 to 913 km with UTR-2 radio telescope operated as the main antenna of the interferometers. The angular resolution of the network amount to 1 arcsec at the highest frequency of the range, and its sensitivity is about 20 Jy. Regular observations of galactic and extragalactic radio sources are performed with the network. Some results of studies are presented here.
Transverse and longitudinal angular momenta of light
Bliokh, Konstantin Y
2015-01-01
We review basic physics and novel types of optical angular momentum. We start with a theoretical overview of momentum and angular momentum properties of generic optical fields, and discuss methods for their experimental measurements. In particular, we describe the well-known longitudinal (i.e., aligned with the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta in polarized vortex beams. Then, we focus on the transverse (i.e., orthogonal to the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta, which were recently actively discussed in theory and observed in experiments. First, the recently-discovered transverse spin angular momenta appear in various structured fields: evanescent waves, interference fields, and focused beams. We show that there are several kinds of transverse spin angular momentum, which differ strongly in their origins and physical properties. We describe extraordinary features of the transverse optical spins and overview recent experiments. In particular, the helicity-independent transverse spin...
Measurement of Neutron-Induced, Angular-Momentum-Dependent Fission Probabilities Direct Reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koglin, Johnathon; Jovanovic, Igor; Burke, Jason; Casperson, Robert
2015-04-01
The surrogate method has previously been used to successfully measure (n , f) cross sections of a variety of difficult to produce actinide isotopes. These measurements are inaccurate at excitation energies below 1.5 MeV where the distribution of angular momentum states populated in the compound nucleus created by neutron absorption significantly differs from that arising from direct reactions. A method to measure the fission probability of individual angular momentum states arising from 239 Pu(d , pf) and 239 Pu(? ,?' f) reactions has been developed. This method consists on charged particle detectors with 40 keV FWHM resolution at 13 angles up and downstream of the beam. An array of photovoltaic (solar) cells is used to measure the angular distribution of fission fragments with high angular resolution. This distribution uniquely identifies the populated angular momentum states. These are fit to expected distributions to determine the contribution of each state. The charged particle and fission matrix obtained from these measurements determines fission probabilities of specific angular momentum states in the transition nucleus. Development of this scheme and first results will be discussed. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security under Grant Award Number 2012-DN-130-NF0001.
Liquid Angular-Momentum Compensator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Iskenderian, Theodore C.
1989-01-01
Report discusses use of fluid-loop reaction ring as part of system orienting spacecraft. Proposed device imparts angular rotation to spacecraft by reacting against liquid contained in loop. Pump, or pumps, provide impetus to both spacecraft and fluid. Hydraulic accumulators and valves added to control flow. Technique offers better control than attitude-control thrusters. Several advantages in applications otherwise requiring large, rigid reaction wheel: Fluid loop need occupy only peripheral circulation path; does not necessarily require motor sized for maximum torque; does not require difficult-to-make bearings specified to withstand high launch-acceleration loads, provide high stiffness, operate smoothly, and exert minimal fractional torque. Unlike reaction wheel, fluid loop not balanced dynamically.
Orbital angular momentum in phase space
Rigas, I.; Sanchez-Soto, L.L.; Klimov, A.B.; Rehacek, J.; Hradil, Z.
2011-02-15
Research Highlights: > We propose a comprehensive Weyl-Wigner formalism for the canonical pair angle-angular momentum. > We present a simple and useful toolkit for the practitioner. > We derive simple evolution equations in terms of a star product in the semiclassical limit. - Abstract: A comprehensive theory of the Weyl-Wigner formalism for the canonical pair angle-angular momentum is presented. Special attention is paid to the problems linked to rotational periodicity and angular-momentum discreteness.
Quantum Formulation of Fractional Orbital Angular Momentum
J. B. Goette; S. Franke-Arnold; R. Zambrini; Stephen M. Barnett
2006-11-15
The quantum theory of rotation angles (S. M. Barnett and D. T. Pegg, Phys. Rev. A, 41, 3427-3425 (1990)) is generalised to non-integer values of the orbital angular momentum. This requires the introduction of an additional parameter, the orientation of a phase discontinuity associated with fractional values of the orbital angular momentum. We apply our formalism to the propagation of light modes with fractional orbital angular momentum in the paraxial and non-paraxial regime.
Relativistic Statistical Mechanics with Angular Momentum
Tadas K Nakamura
2011-12-09
The equilibrium distribution function of a relativistic ideal gas has been derived to include the effect of angular momentum. The result agrees with the one obtained from kinetic theory, and consistent with relativistic thermodynamics. The role of angular momentum becomes transparent in this derivation, and the equilibrium distribution can be generalized to accommodate the effect of intrinsic angular momentum. The results here is for a flat spacetime, however, same approach can be applied to static curved spacetimes.
Photoionization with orbital angular momentum beams.
Picón, A; Mompart, J; de Aldana, J R Vázquez; Plaja, L; Calvo, G F; Roso, L
2010-02-15
Intense laser ionization expands Einstein's photoelectric effect rules giving a wealth of phenomena widely studied over the last decades. In all cases, so far, photons were assumed to carry one unit of angular momentum. However it is now clear that photons can possess extra angular momentum, the orbital angular momentum (OAM), related to their spatial profile. We show a complete description of photoionization by OAM photons, including new selection rules involving more than one unit of angular momentum. We explore theoretically the interaction of a single electron atom located at the center of an intense ultraviolet beam bearing OAM, envisaging new scenarios for quantum optics. PMID:20389376
Asymptotic Diffusion-Limit Accuracy of Sn Angular Differencing Schemes
Bailey, T S; Morel, J E; Chang, J H
2009-11-05
In a previous paper, Morel and Montry used a Galerkin-based diffusion analysis to define a particular weighted diamond angular discretization for S{sub n}n calculations in curvilinear geometries. The weighting factors were chosen to ensure that the Galerkin diffusion approximation was preserved, which eliminated the discrete-ordinates flux dip. It was also shown that the step and diamond angular differencing schemes, which both suffer from the flux dip, do not preserve the diffusion approximation in the Galerkin sense. In this paper we re-derive the Morel and Montry weighted diamond scheme using a formal asymptotic diffusion-limit analysis. The asymptotic analysis yields more information than the Galerkin analysis and demonstrates that the step and diamond schemes do in fact formally preserve the diffusion limit to leading order, while the Morel and Montry weighted diamond scheme preserves it to first order, which is required for full consistency in this limit. Nonetheless, the fact that the step and diamond differencing schemes preserve the diffusion limit to leading order suggests that the flux dip should disappear as the diffusion limit is approached for these schemes. Computational results are presented that confirm this conjecture. We further conjecture that preserving the Galerkin diffusion approximation is equivalent to preserving the asymptotic diffusion limit to first order.
Single particle sizing approach using angular optical scattering distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Chizhu; Yang, Kecheng; Li, Wei; Xia, Min
2013-09-01
Sizing a small particle from its scattered field has been a long-standing problem. Popular established methods require a priori knowledge of either the refractive index of the particle, or the approximate particle size range. In this paper, the diffraction tomography (DT) theory is studied and a single particle sizing approach using angular optical scattering field is proposed. There is a Fourier relationship between the scattering amplitude in the far zone and the scattering potential of the scatterer, under the 1st-order Born approximation for weakly scattering. Based on this relationship, the distribution of scattering potential can be retrieved from angular resolved scattered field by the use of a fast Fourier transform. Single particle size is estimated from the scattering potential. Numerical simulations for spherical particles are presented and discussed. Simulation results show that in the case of low contrast, the size of the particles can be estimated accurately in the presence of moderate noise. A further variant of this algorithm based on Rytov approximation is also discussed.
Anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation on Large and Medium Angular Scales
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Houghton, Anthony; Timbie, Peter
1998-01-01
This grant has supported work at Brown University on measurements of the 2.7 K Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMB). The goal has been to characterize the spatial variations in the temperature of the CMB in order to understand the formation of large-scale structure in the universe. We have concurrently pursued two measurements using millimeter-wave telescopes carried aloft by scientific balloons. Both systems operate over a range of wavelengths, chosen to allow spectral removal of foreground sources such as the atmosphere, Galaxy, etc. The angular resolution of approx. 25 arcminutes is near the angular scale at which the most structure is predicted by current models to be visible in the CMB angular power spectrum. The main goal is to determine the angular scale of this structure; in turn we can infer the density parameter, Omega, for the universe as well as other cosmological parameters, such as the Hubble constant.
Generation and detection of neutron beams with orbital angular momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pushin, Dmitry A.; Barankov, Roman A.; Clark, Charles W.; Huber, Michael G.; Arif, Muhammad; Cory, David G.
2015-05-01
Orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of light, in which photons carry l? units of angular momentum along their direction of propagation, are of interest in a variety of applications. The Schrödinger equation for massive particles also supports OAM solutions, and OAM states have been demonstrated with ultracold atoms and electrons. Here we report the first generation and detection of OAM states of neutrons, with l up to 7. These are made using spiral phase plates (SPP), milled out of 6061 aluminum alloy dowels with a high-resolution computer-controlled milling machine. When a SPP is placed in one arm of a Mach-Zehnder neutron interferometer, the interferogram reveals the characteristic patterns of OAM states. Addition of angular momenta is effected by concatenation of SPPs with different values of l; we have found the experimental result 1 + 2 = 3 , in reasonable agreement with theory. The advent of OAM provides an additional, quantized, degree of freedom to neutron interferometry, enlarging the qubit structure available for tests of quantum information processing and foundations of quantum physics.
Transverse and longitudinal angular momenta of light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bliokh, Konstantin Y.; Nori, Franco
2015-08-01
We review basic physics and novel types of optical angular momentum. We start with a theoretical overview of momentum and angular momentum properties of generic optical fields, and discuss methods for their experimental measurements. In particular, we describe the well-known longitudinal (i.e., aligned with the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta in polarized vortex beams. Then, we focus on the transverse (i.e., orthogonal to the mean momentum) spin and orbital angular momenta, which were recently actively discussed in theory and observed in experiments. First, the recently-discovered transverse spin angular momenta appear in various structured fields: evanescent waves, interference fields, and focused beams. We show that there are several kinds of transverse spin angular momentum, which differ strongly in their origins and physical properties. We describe extraordinary features of the transverse optical spins and overview recent experiments. In particular, the helicity-independent transverse spin inherent in edge evanescent waves offers robust spin-direction coupling at optical interfaces (the quantum spin Hall effect of light). Second, we overview the transverse orbital angular momenta of light, which can be both extrinsic and intrinsic. These two types of the transverse orbital angular momentum are produced by spatial shifts of the optical beams (e.g., in the spin Hall effect of light) and their Lorentz boosts, respectively. Our review is underpinned by a unified theory of the angular momentum of light based on the canonical momentum and spin densities, which avoids complications associated with the separation of spin and orbital angular momenta in the Poynting picture. It allows us to construct a comprehensive classification of all known optical angular momenta based on their key parameters and main physical properties.
The angular power spectra of polarized Galactic synchrotron
M. Tucci; E. Carretti; S. Cecchini; R. Fabbri; M. Orsini; E. Pierpaoli
2000-06-27
We derive the angular power spectra of intensity and polarization of Galactic synchrotron emission in the range 36 < l < 10^3 from the Parkes survey mapping the southern Galactic plane at 2.4 GHz. The polarization spectra of both electric and magnetic parity up to l \\simeq 10^3 are approximated very well by power laws with slope coefficients \\simeq 1.4, quite different from the CMB spectra. We show that no problem should arise from Galactic synchrotron for measurements of CMB polarization in the cosmological window.
Angular-Rate Estimation Using Quaternion Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Azor, Ruth; Bar-Itzhack, Y.; Deutschmann, Julie K.; Harman, Richard R.
1998-01-01
In most spacecraft (SC) there is a need to know the SC angular rate. Precise angular rate is required for attitude determination, and a coarse rate is needed for attitude control damping. Classically, angular rate information is obtained from gyro measurements. These days, there is a tendency to build smaller, lighter and cheaper SC, therefore the inclination now is to do away with gyros and use other means and methods to determine the angular rate. The latter is also needed even in gyro equipped satellites when performing high rate maneuvers whose angular-rate is out of range of the on board gyros or in case of gyro failure. There are several ways to obtain the angular rate in a gyro-less SC. When the attitude is known, one can differentiate the attitude in whatever parameters it is given and use the kinematics equation that connects the derivative of the attitude with the satellite angular-rate and compute the latter. Since SC usually utilize vector measurements for attitude determination, the differentiation of the attitude introduces a considerable noise component in the computed angular-rate vector.
Spin Quantum Number or Rest Angular Momentum
H. Razmi; A. MohammadKazemi
2013-08-01
Considering the fundamental origins of Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, Thomas precession, and the photon spin, it is clear that the origin of spin angular momentum refers to relativity than quantum theory; so, when introducing spin, it is better to know it as rest angular momentum than as an intrinsic quantum quantity.
Angular Momentum Eigenstates for Equivalent Electrons.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tuttle, E. R.; Calvert, J. B.
1981-01-01
Simple and efficient methods for adding angular momenta and for finding angular momentum eigenstates for systems of equivalent electrons are developed. Several different common representations are used in specific examples. The material is suitable for a graduate course in quantum mechanics. (SK)
Orbital angular momentum in the nucleon
Garvey, Gerald T.
2010-05-15
Analysis of the measured value of the integrated d-bar-u-bar asymmetry (I{sub fas} = 0.147 +- 0.027) in the nucleon show it to arise from nucleon fluctuations into baryon plus pion. Requiring angular momentum conservation in these fluctuations shows the associated orbital angular momentum is equal to the value of the flavor asymmetry.
The Angular Momentum-Energy Space
Dan Comanescu
2007-02-09
In this paper we shall define and study the angular momentum-energy space for the classical problem of plane-motions of a particle situated in a potential field of a central force. We shall present the angular momentum-energy space for some important cases.
Specific Angular Momentum of Extrasolar Planetary Systems
John C. Armstrong; Shane L. Larson; Rhett R. Zollinger
2011-09-02
As the number of known planetary systems increases, the ability to follow-up and characterize the extent of any system becomes limited. This paper considers the use of specific angular momentum as a metric to prioritize future observations. We analyze 431 planets in 367 known extrasolar planetary systems from Butler et al. (2006) (including updates to their online catalog, current to April, 2011) and estimate each system's orbital angular momentum. The range of partition- ing of specific angular momentum in these systems is found to be large, spanning several orders of magnitude. The analysis shows that multi-planet systems tend to have the highest values of specific angular momentum normalized against the planetary masses. This suggests that in high angular momentum systems, the dominant contributors have already been discovered, and that single-planet sys- tems with low observed angular momentum may be the most likely candidates for additional undiscovered companions compared to their high angular momentum, single-planet counterparts. The multi-planet system, GJ 581, is considered as a historical case study to demonstrate the concept, examining how the specific angular momentum of the know planetary system evolved with each discovery.
Angular momentum decomposition of Richardson's pairs
Dussel, G. G.; Sofia, H. M.
2008-07-15
The angular momentum decomposition of pairs obtained using Richardson's exact solution of the pairing Hamiltonian for the deformed {sup 174}Yb nucleus are displayed. The probabilities for low angular momenta of the collective pairs are strikingly different from the ones obtained in the BCS ground state.
Orbital Angular Momentum in the Nucleon
Gerald T. Garvey
2010-03-12
Analysis of the measured value of the integrated \\bar{d}-\\bar{u} asymmetry (Ifas = 0.147+-0.027) in the nucleon show it to arise from nucleon fluctuations into baryon plus pion. Requiring angular momentum conservation in these fluctuations shows the associated orbital angular momentum is equal to the value of the flavor asymmetry.
Detecting orbital angular momentum in radio signals
H. Then; B. Thidé; J. T. Mendonça; T. D. Carozzi; J. Bergman; W. A. Baan; S. Mohammadi; B. Eliasson
2008-05-18
Electromagnetic waves with an azimuthal phase shift are known to have a well defined orbital angular momentum. Different methods that allow for the detection of the angular momentum are proposed. For some, we discuss the required experimental setup and explore the range of applicability.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, D. R.; Greenberg, R.; Hebert, F.
1985-01-01
Models of lunar origin in which the Moon accretes in orbit about the Earth from material approaching the Earth from heliocentric orbits must overcome a fundamental problem: the approach orbits of such material would be, in the simplest approximation, equally likely to be prograde or retrograde about the Earth, with the result that accretion of such material adds mass but not angular momentum to circumterrestrial satellites. Satellite orbits would then decay due to the resulting drag, ultimately impacting onto the Earth. One possibility for adding both material and angular momentum to Earth orbit is investigated: imbalance in the delivered angular momentum between pro and retrograde Earth passing orbits which arises from the three body dynamics of planetesimals approaching the Earth from heliocentric space. In order to study angular momentum delivery to circumterrestrial satellites, the near Earth velocities were numerically computed as a function of distance from the Earth for a large array of orbits systematically spanning heliocentric phase space.
The angular momentum of the Oort cloud
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weissman, Paul R.
1991-01-01
An evaluation is made of the work of Marochnik et al. (1988), which estimated that the angular momentum of the Oort cloud is 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than the planetary system's total angular momentum. It is noted that most of the angular momentum in the currently observed Oort cloud is the result of the effects of external perturbers over the solar system's history, and it is demonstrated that the total current angular momentum is probably in the 6.0 x 10 to the 50th to 1.1 x 10 to the 51st g sq cm/sec range; original angular momentum was probably a factor of 5 below such values.
Quark angular momentum in a spectator model
Tianbo Liu; Bo-Qiang Ma
2015-01-06
We investigate the quark angular momentum in a model with the nucleon being a quark and a spectator. Both scalar and axial-vector spectators are included. We perform the calculations in the light-cone formalism where the parton concept is well defined. We calculate the quark helicity and canonical orbital angular momentum. Then we calculate the gravitational form factors which are often related to the kinetic angular momentums, and find that even in a no gauge field model we cannot identify the canonical angular momentums with half the sum of gravitational form factors. In addition, we examine the model relation between the orbital angular momentum and pretzelosity, and find it is violated in the axial-vector case.
Wave function for spontaneous parametric down-conversion with orbital angular momentum
Barbosa, Geraldo A.
2009-12-15
Several wave-function approximations describing spontaneous parametric down-conversion can be found in the literature. Basically all cases are derived from the standard Hamiltonian for parametric down-conversion. Most frequently, particular cases describing collinear or paraxial approximations are described. This work presents a wave function in compact form, valid for all cases of single photon-pair conversion (Type I or Type II), for all angles allowed by the phase-matching conditions and for all orbital angular momentum values l. Examples are given of coincidence structures to be expected for signal and idler photons. Partial transfer of orbital angular momentum from the pump laser to the photon pair is discussed. Some hypothesis for the decay channels of the nontransferred part of the orbital angular momentum is made.
Molecular collisions 21: Semiclassical approximation to atom-symmetric top rotational excitation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Russell, D.; Curtiss, C. F.
1973-01-01
A distorted wave approximation to the T matrix for atom-symmetric top scattering was developed. The approximation is correct to first order in the part of the interaction potential responsible for transitions in the component of rotational angular momentum along the symmetry axis of the top. A semiclassical expression for this T matrix is derived by assuming large values of orbital and rotational angular momentum quantum numbers.
Monitoring Location and Angular Orientation of a Pill
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schipper, John F.
2012-01-01
A mobile pill transmitter system moves through, or adjacent to, one or more organs in an animal or human body, while transmitting signals from its present location and/or present angular orientation. The system also provides signals from which the present roll angle of the pill, about a selected axis, can be determined. When the location coordinates angular orientation and the roll angle of the pill are within selected ranges, an aperture on the pill container releases a selected chemical into, or onto, the body. Optionally, the pill, as it moves, provides a sequence of visually perceptible images. The times for image formation may correspond to times at which the pill transmitter system location or image satisfies one of at least four criteria. This invention provides and supplies an algorithm for exact determination of location coordinates and angular orientation coordinates for a mobile pill transmitter (PT), or other similar device that is introduced into, and moves within, a GI tract of a human or animal body. A set of as many as eight nonlinear equations has been developed and applied, relating propagation of a wireless signal between either two, three, or more transmitting antennas located on the PT, to four or more non-coplanar receiving antennas located on a signal receiver appliance worn by the user. The equations are solved exactly, without approximations or iterations, and are applied in several environments: (1) association of a visual image, transmitted by the PT at each of a second sequence of times, with a PT location and PT angular orientation at that time; (2) determination of a position within the body at which a drug or chemical substance or other treatment is to be delivered to a selected portion of the body; (3) monitoring, after delivery, of the effect(s) of administration of the treatment; and (4) determination of one or more positions within the body where provision and examination of a finer-scale image is warranted.
Angular momentum effects in Michelson-Morley type experiments
Tartaglia, A; Tartaglia, Angelo; Ruggiero, Matteo Luca
2001-01-01
The effect of the angular momentum density of a gravitational source on the times of flight of light rays in an interferometer is analyzed. The calculation is made imagining that the interferometer is at the equator of the gravity source and, as long as possible, the metric, provided it is stationary and axisymmetric, is not approximated. Finally, in order to evaluate the size of the effect in the case of the Earth a weak field approximation is introduced. For laboratory scales and non-geodesic paths the correction turns out to be comparable with the sensitivity expected in gravitational waves interferometric detectors, whereas it drops under the threshold of detectability when using free (geodesic) light rays.
Angular momentum effects in Michelson-Morley type experiments
Angelo Tartaglia; Matteo Luca Ruggiero
2002-07-25
The effect of the angular momentum density of a gravitational source on the times of flight of light rays in an interferometer is analyzed. The calculation is made imagining that the interferometer is at the equator of the gravity source and, as long as possible, the metric, provided it is stationary and axisymmetric, is not approximated. Finally, in order to evaluate the size of the effect in the case of the Earth a weak field approximation is introduced. For laboratory scales and non-geodesic paths the correction turns out to be comparable with the sensitivity expected in gravitational waves interferometric detectors, whereas it drops under the threshold of detectability when using free (geodesic) light rays.
Quasicrystals and crystalline approximants
A. I. Goldman; R. F. Kelton
1993-01-01
Over the past seven years, many examples of periodic crystals closely related to quasicrystalline alloys have been discovered. These crystals have been termed approximants, since the arrangements of atoms within their unit cells closely approximate the local atomic structures in quasicrystals. This colloquium focuses on these approximant structures, their description, and their relationship to quasicrystals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niiniluoto, Ilkka
2014-03-01
Approximation of laws is an important theme in the philosophy of science. If we can make sense of the idea that two scientific laws are "close" to each other, then we can also analyze such methodological notions as approximate explanation of laws, approximate reduction of theories, approximate empirical success of theories, and approximate truth of laws. Proposals for measuring the distance between quantitative scientific laws were given in Niiniluoto (1982, 1987). In this paper, these definitions are reconsidered as a response to the interesting critical remarks by Liu (1999).
Angular momentum in the Local Group
Dunn, A.; Laflamme, R.
1994-04-01
We briefly review models for the Local Group and the acquisition of its angular momentum. We describe early attempts to understand the origin of the spin of the galaxies discussing the hypothesis that the Local Group has little angular momentum. Finally we show that using Peebles` least action principle there should be a rather large amount of orbital angular momentum compared to the magnitude of the spin of its galaxies. Therefore the Local Group cannot be thought as tidally isolated. Using Peebles` trajectories we give a possible set of trajectories for Local Group galaxies which would predict their spin.
Angular momentum conservation for uniformly expanding flows
Sean A. Hayward
2006-11-04
Angular momentum has recently been defined as a surface integral involving an axial vector and a twist 1-form, which measures the twisting around of space-time due to a rotating mass. The axial vector is chosen to be a transverse, divergence-free, coordinate vector, which is compatible with any initial choice of axis and integral curves. Then a conservation equation expresses rate of change of angular momentum along a uniformly expanding flow as a surface integral of angular momentum densities, with the same form as the standard equation for an axial Killing vector, apart from the inclusion of an effective energy tensor for gravitational radiation.
Pretzelosity TMD and Quark Orbital Angular Momentum
C. Lorce'; B. Pasquini
2012-03-22
We study the connection between the quark orbital angular momentum and the pretzelosity transverse-momentum dependent parton distribution function. We discuss the origin of this relation in quark models, identifying as key ingredient for its validity the assumption of spherical symmetry for the nucleon in its rest frame. Finally we show that the individual quark contributions to the orbital angular momentum obtained from this relation can not be interpreted as the intrinsic contributions, but include the contribution from the transverse centre of momentum which cancels out only in the total orbital angular momentum.
Angular momentum decomposition from a QED example
Tianbo Liu; Bo-Qiang Ma
2014-12-25
We investigate the angular momentum decomposition with a quantum electrodynamics example to clarify the proton spin decomposition debates. We adopt the light-front formalism where the parton model is well defined. We prove that the sum of fermion and boson angular momenta is equal to half the sum of the two gravitational form factors $A(0)$ and $B(0)$, as is well known. However, the suggestion to make a separation of the above relation into the fermion and boson pieces, as a way to measure the orbital angular momentum of fermions or bosons, respectively, is not justified from our explicit calculation.
Novel onboard sensor systems for making angular measurements on spinning projectiles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harkins, Thomas E.; Davis, Bradford S.; Hepner, David J.
2001-08-01
Novel sensor have been developed at the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) to provide continuous accurate angular measurements for spinning projectiles in free flight. These systems, which directly measure angular orientations, are distinct from angular rate sensor methodologies that require integration of these rates to estimate angular orientations. Also, many traditional rate sensors are expensive, voluminous and not well-suited to the high-g launch and high spin environment of many projectile-borne munitions. Recent advances in commercially-available magnetic sensors have yielded devices small enough, rugged enough, and/or sensitive enough to be used in body-fixed sensor constellations to make high-speed, high-resolution measurements of attitude and roll rate relative to earth's magnetic field. The addition of a complimentary sensor system measuring orientation relative to another distinct earth-fixed field of known orientation provides the information required to mathematically determine the absolute angular orientation of a spinning body within any desired navigation system, e.g., north, east, and vertical. Such a dual-field measurement system has been implemented utilizing a unique constellation of magnetoresistive sensors and ARL Solar Likeness Indicating Transducers (SLIT) to determine angular orientation with respect to the magnetic and solar fields respectively. The mathematical foundations of this dual-field sensor system will be summarized and flight experiments of the prototype systems will be discussed.
Angular momentum conservation and gravity wave drag parameterization
Wirosoetisno, Djoko
Angular momentum conservation and gravity wave drag parameterization: implications for climate models Article Published Version Shaw, T. A. and Shepherd, T. G. (2007) Angular momentum conservation of Reading Reading's research outputs online #12;Angular Momentum Conservation and Gravity Wave Drag
Digital off-axis holography with angular multiplexing and synthetic aperture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhaomin; Qu, Weijuan; Yang, Fang; Wen, Yongfu; Anand, Asundi
2015-07-01
This paper discusses conventional synthetic-aperture method combined angular multiplexing in digital holography to increase the resolution and to enlarge the field of view at the same time. A structured illumination is used to realize angular multiplexing. A camera is moved by a motorized x-y stage, and scanning is performed at imaging plane. In this way we extend the band-pass for single hologram recording as well as obtain a greater sensor area resulting in a larger numerical aperture (NA). A larger NA enables a more detailed reconstruction combined with a smaller depth of field. Moreover, a phase map of the object is experimentally presented.
Angular dependence of DRAM upset susceptibility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guertin, S. M.; Swift, G. M.; Edmonds, L. D.
2000-01-01
Heavy ion irradiations of two types of commercial DRAMs reveal unexpected angular responses. One device's cross section varied by two orders of magnitude with azimuthal angle. Accurate prediction of space rates requires accommodating this effect.
Strain uniformity through equal channel angular extrusion
Bier, Derek Werner
1997-01-01
The objective of this work is to characterize the processing effects of equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) on aluminum 6063, copper I 10, and filamentary Cu/NbTi composite superconductor. The major objective of this ...
High-resolution electron microscope
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nathan, R.
1977-01-01
Employing scanning transmission electron microscope as interferometer, relative phases of diffraction maximums can be determined by analysis of dark field images. Synthetic aperture technique and Fourier-transform computer processing of amplitude and phase information provide high resolution images at approximately one angstrom.
Angular momentum effects in weak gravitational fields
A. Tartaglia
2002-01-02
It is shown that, contrary to what is normally expected, it is possible to have angular momentum effects on the geometry of space time at the laboratory scale, much bigger than the purely Newtonian effects. This is due to the fact that the ratio between the angular momentum of a body and its mass, expressed as a length, is easily greater than the mass itself, again expressed as a length.
Entanglement of Polarization and Orbital Angular Momentum
Daniel Bhatti; Joachim von Zanthier; Girish S. Agarwal
2015-02-06
We investigate two-photon entangled states using two important degrees of freedom of the electromagnetic field, namely orbital angular momentum (OAM) and spin angular momentum. For photons propagating in the same direction we apply the idea of $\\textit{entanglement duality}$ and develop schemes to do $\\textit{entanglement sorting}$ based either on OAM or polarization. In each case the entanglement is tested using appropriate witnesses. We finally present generalizations of these ideas to three- and four-photon entangled states.
Angular Momentum Operators from Quantized SO(3)
Abutaleb, Ahmad Adel
2015-01-01
In this paper, we derive the form of the Angular Momentum Matrices and Angular Momentum Operators in the case of Quantized Rotations. We find an indication of the need to change all quantum mechanical operators at very small scale (High Energy level) if we assume a quantized nature of the Spacetime. Maybe the main purpose of this paper is to introduce the importance of using a branch of Mathematics called Time Scale calculus in Physical applications.
Partial angular coherence and the angular Schmidt spectrum of entangled two-photon fields
Jha, Anand Kumar; Boyd, Robert W.; Agarwal, Girish S.
2011-12-15
We study partially coherent fields that have a coherent-mode representation in the orbital-angular-momentum-mode basis. For such fields, we introduce the concepts of the angular coherence function and the coherence angle. Such fields are naturally produced by the process of parametric down-conversion--a second-order nonlinear optical process in which a pump photon breaks up into two entangled photons, known as the signal and idler photons. We show that the angular coherence functions of the signal and idler fields are directly related to the angular Schmidt (spiral) spectrum of the down-converted two-photon field and thus that the angular Schmidt spectrum can be measured directly by measuring the angular coherence function of either the signal or the idler field, without requiring coincidence detection.
Angular scattering of sound from solid particles in turbulent suspension.
Moore, Stephanie A; Hay, Alex E
2009-09-01
Sound scattering by solid particles suspended in a turbulent jet is investigated. Measurements of the scattered amplitude were made in a bistatic geometry at frequencies between 1.5 and 4.0 MHz, and at scattering angles from 95 degrees to 165 degrees relative to the forward direction. Two types of particle were used: nearly spherical lead-glass beads and aspherical natural sand grains. For each particle type, experiments were carried out using approximately 200 and approximately 500 microm median diameter grain sizes, corresponding to 0.7 < or approximately ka < or approximately 4. The sphericity of the sand grains, defined as the ratio of projected perimeter size to projected area size, was 1.08. The lead-glass bead results are consistent with an elastic sphere model. A rigid movable sphere model provides the best fit to the sand data, and the best-fit diameter is within 4% of the equivalent volume size. However, the scattering pattern for sand is systematically smoother than predicted: that is, the undulations in the angular scattering pattern predicted by spherical scatterer theory are present, but muted. This observed departure from spherical scatterer theory is attributed to disruption of the interference among creeping waves by the irregular surfaces of natural sand grains. PMID:19739717
Vyas, Urvi; Christensen, Douglas A
2011-11-01
The angular spectrum method is an accurate and computationally efficient method for modeling acoustic wave propagation. The use of the typical 2D fast Fourier transform algorithm makes this a fast technique but it requires that the source pressure (or velocity) be specified on a plane. Here the angular spectrum method is extended to calculate pressure from a spherical transducer-as used extensively in applications such as magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery-to a plane. The approach, called the Ring-Bessel technique, decomposes the curved source into circular rings of increasing radii, each ring a different distance from the intermediate plane, and calculates the angular spectrum of each ring using a Fourier series. Each angular spectrum is then propagated to the intermediate plane where all the propagated angular spectra are summed to obtain the pressure on the plane; subsequent plane-to-plane propagation can be achieved using the traditional angular spectrum method. Since the Ring-Bessel calculations are carried out in the frequency domain, it reduces calculation times by a factor of approximately 24 compared to the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld method and about 82 compared to the Field II technique, while maintaining accuracies of better than 96% as judged by those methods for cases of both solid and phased-array transducers. PMID:22087896
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, R. A.; Wehrly, T.
1976-01-01
Population models for dependence between two angular measurements and for dependence between an angular and a linear observation are proposed. The method of canonical correlations first leads to new population and sample measures of dependence in this latter situation. An example relating wind direction to the level of a pollutant is given. Next, applied to pairs of angular measurements, the method yields previously proposed sample measures in some special cases and a new sample measure in general.
Fujita, H. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); iThemba LABS, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Berg, G. P. A.; Fujimura, H.; Fujita, K.; Hara, K.; Hatanaka, K.; Kamiya, J.; Nakanishi, K.; Sakamoto, N.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Wakasa, T. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Fujita, Y.; Adachi, T.; Shimbara, Y.; Yoshifuku, M. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Rapaport, J. [Department of Physics, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States); Botha, N. T. [Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Kawabata, T. [Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Neveling, R. [iThemba LABS, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa)] (and others)
2009-02-15
The isovector transitions from the ground state (g.s.) of {sup 16}O to the negative parity states in {sup 16}F, i.e., the J{sup {pi}}=0{sup -} g.s., the 0.193 MeV, 1{sup -} state, the 0.424 MeV, 2{sup -} state, the 0.721 MeV, 3{sup -} state, and the 4{sup -}''stretched'' state at 6.372 MeV, were studied by using a high resolution {sup 16}O({sup 3}He,t){sup 16}F reaction at 140 MeV/nucleon. With the help of high energy resolution, these states were, for the first time, clearly resolved in a charge exchange reaction at an intermediate energy, which favorably excites spin-flip states. Angular distributions of the reaction cross sections were measured in the laboratory frame from 0 deg. to 14 deg. Parameters of phenomenological effective interactions were derived so as to reproduce these angular distributions in distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculations. The angular distribution of the 0{sup -} state could be reproduced well at {theta}{sub c.m.}<10 deg. The empirical values, however, are larger by a factor of 2-2.5 in the larger angle region, where the contribution of the so-called 'condensed pion field' is expected. The high resolution also enabled the decay widths of these states to be measured.
Angular Structure of the Radio Sources at Decameter Wavelengths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brazhenko, A. I.; Inyutin, G. A.; Koshovyy, V. V.; Lozins'kyy, A. B.; Lytvinenko, O. A.; Megn, A. V.; Rashkovskiy, S. L.; Shepelyev, V. A.; Vaschishin, R. V.
2006-08-01
The world biggest decameter radio telescope UTR-2 and four smaller arrays forms the Ukrainian VLBI network URAN with an angular resolution up to 1" operated at decameter wavelengths. A number of galactic and extragalactic radio sources were studed with the URAN interferometers. At decimeter and centimeter wavelengths the studied extragalactic radio sources usually possess compact components and a total size of the sources is of about or less than a resolving power of the shortest baseline of the network. The obtained results allow us to affirm that the structure of the studied extragalactic radio sources changes at the decameter wavelengths. The reason of the changes usually is a combination of various phenomena of radio wave generation and propagation. The peculiarities of the brightness distribution in the range are: - The compact details (hot spots and sources associated with AGN) in the radio galaxies and quasars are usually less prominent at the decameter wavelengths because of synchrotron self-absorption. Their angular diameters are equal to those at higher frequencies or enlarged by the interstellar scattering. - Dimensions of lobes are enlarged as a rule. - A characteristic feature of the quasars structure at lower frequencies is extended components with steep spectra producing the main part of a flux of the sources at the decameter wavelengths. Their angular diameters exceed the total size of the source measured at higher frequencies. Such halos have been revealed in some radio galaxies too. The galactic supernova remnants studied with the URAN mainly possess the same features of their structure as at higher frequencies. Some modificatios of their structure at lower frequencies are caused by interstellar scattering, which increases a size of their compact details and difference of spectral indexes that changes relative fluxes of source parts at the decameters.
Distribution of Accreting Gas and Angular Momentum onto Circumplanetary Disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanigawa, Takayuki; Ohtsuki, Keiji; Machida, Masahiro N.
2012-03-01
We investigate gas accretion flow onto a circumplanetary disk from a protoplanetary disk in detail by using high-resolution three-dimensional nested-grid hydrodynamic simulations, in order to provide a basis of formation processes of satellites around giant planets. Based on detailed analyses of gas accretion flow, we find that most of gas accretion onto circumplanetary disks occurs nearly vertically toward the disk surface from high altitude, which generates a shock surface at several scale heights of the circumplanetary disk. The gas that has passed through the shock surface moves inward because its specific angular momentum is smaller than that of the local Keplerian rotation, while gas near the midplane in the protoplanetary disk cannot accrete to the circumplanetary disk. Gas near the midplane within the planet's Hill sphere spirals outward and escapes from the Hill sphere through the two Lagrangian points L1 and L2. We also analyze fluxes of accreting mass and angular momentum in detail and find that the distributions of the fluxes onto the disk surface are well described by power-law functions and that a large fraction of gas accretion occurs at the outer region of the disk, i.e., at about 0.1 times the Hill radius. The nature of power-law functions indicates that, other than the outer edge, there is no specific radius where gas accretion is concentrated. These source functions of mass and angular momentum in the circumplanetary disk would provide us with useful constraints on the structure and evolution of the circumplanetary disk, which is important for satellite formation.
DISTRIBUTION OF ACCRETING GAS AND ANGULAR MOMENTUM ONTO CIRCUMPLANETARY DISKS
Tanigawa, Takayuki; Ohtsuki, Keiji [Center for Planetary Science, Kobe University, Kobe (Japan); Machida, Masahiro N., E-mail: tanigawa@cps-jp.org [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)
2012-03-01
We investigate gas accretion flow onto a circumplanetary disk from a protoplanetary disk in detail by using high-resolution three-dimensional nested-grid hydrodynamic simulations, in order to provide a basis of formation processes of satellites around giant planets. Based on detailed analyses of gas accretion flow, we find that most of gas accretion onto circumplanetary disks occurs nearly vertically toward the disk surface from high altitude, which generates a shock surface at several scale heights of the circumplanetary disk. The gas that has passed through the shock surface moves inward because its specific angular momentum is smaller than that of the local Keplerian rotation, while gas near the midplane in the protoplanetary disk cannot accrete to the circumplanetary disk. Gas near the midplane within the planet's Hill sphere spirals outward and escapes from the Hill sphere through the two Lagrangian points L{sub 1} and L{sub 2}. We also analyze fluxes of accreting mass and angular momentum in detail and find that the distributions of the fluxes onto the disk surface are well described by power-law functions and that a large fraction of gas accretion occurs at the outer region of the disk, i.e., at about 0.1 times the Hill radius. The nature of power-law functions indicates that, other than the outer edge, there is no specific radius where gas accretion is concentrated. These source functions of mass and angular momentum in the circumplanetary disk would provide us with useful constraints on the structure and evolution of the circumplanetary disk, which is important for satellite formation.
Dolmatov, V.K. [Department of Physics and Earth Science, University of North Alabama, Florence, Alabama 35632 (United States); Baltenkov, A.S. [Arifov Institute of Electronics, Akademgorodok, Tashkent 700125 (Uzbekistan); Manson, S.T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30303 (United States)
2003-06-01
It is found that dipole-quadrupole photoelectron angular distribution parameters in regions of np{yields}nd giant dipole resonances in 3d (n=3) and 4d (n=4) transition-metal atoms are resonantly increased to such an extent that they can dominate the effects of dipole transitions on the asymmetry of the photoelectron angular distribution. This is illustrated for 3d photoionization of Cr and Mn, as well as for 4d photoionization of Mo and Tc, where the 'spin-polarized' random-phase approximation with exchange calculations are performed with allowance for correlations in both dipole and quadrupole channels.
Mechanism of Angular Momentum Exchange between Molecules and Laguerre-Gaussian Beams
Alexandrescu, Adrian; Cojoc, Dan; Fabrizio, Enzo Di
2006-06-23
We derive the interaction Hamiltonian between a diatomic molecule and a Laguerre-Gaussian beam under the assumption of a small spread of the center of mass wave function of the molecule in comparison with the beam waist. Considering the dynamical variables of the center of mass, vibrational, rotational, and electronic motion, we show that, within the electronic dipole approximation, the orbital angular momentum of the field couples with the rotational and electronic motion. The changes in the transition probabilities and selection rules induced by the field orbital angular momentum and the applicability of the derived interaction mechanisms for polyatomic molecules are discussed.
Annihilation of angular momentum bias during thrusting and spinning-up maneuvers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Longuski, J. M.; Kia, T.; Breckenridge, W. G.
1989-01-01
During spinning-up and thrusting maneuvers of rockets and spacecraft, undesired transverse torques (from error sources such as thruster misalignment, center-of-mass offset and thruster mismatch) perturb the angular momentum vector from its original orientation. In this paper a maneuver scheme is presented which virtually annihilates the angular momentum vector bias, even though the magnitude and direction of the perturbing body-fixed torques are unknown. In the analysis it is assumed that the torques are small and constant and that the spacecraft or rocket can be approximated by a rigid body, which may be asymmetric. Typical maneuvers of the Galileo spacecraft are simulated to demonstrate the technique.
ALMA Debuts High-Resolution Results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2015-07-01
The exciting results of the highest-resolution test campaign yet attempted by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) are detailed in a recent set of four papers. Animation (click to watch) of the asteroid Juno as seen in mm wavelengths by ALMA's Long Baseline Campaign. Image credit: ALMA (NRAO/ESO/NAOJ) ALMA's array of antennas can be configured so that the baseline of the simulated telescope is as small as 150 m or as large as 15 km across. In its smaller configurations, ALMA studies the large-scale structure of cold objects in the Universe — and this is how the array has been used since it began its first operations in 2011. But now ALMA has begun to test its long-baseline configuration, in which it is able to make its highest-resolution observations and study the small-scale structure of objects in detail. The Targets ALMA's Long Baseline Campaign, run in late 2014, observed five science targets using 22-36 antennas arranged with a baseline of up to the full 15 km. The targets were selected to push the limits of ALMA's capabilities: each target has a small angular size (less than two arcseconds) with fine-scale structure that is largely unresolved in previous observations. Two of the targets, the variable star Mira and the active galaxy 3C138, were primarily used for calibration and comparisons of ALMA data to those of other telescopes. The remaining three targets not only demonstrated ALMA's capabilities, but also resulted in new science discoveries. ALMA's highest resolution observation yet, of the gravitationally lensed galaxy SDP.81. The maximum resolution of this image is 23 milliarcseconds. Image credit: ALMA (NRAO/ESO/NAOJ); B. Saxton NRAO/AUI/NSF Juno is one of the largest asteroids in our solar system's main asteroid belt. ALMA's observations of Juno were made when the asteroid was approximately 295 million km from Earth, and the ten images ALMA took have been stitched together into a brief animation that show the asteroid tumbling through space as it orbits the Sun. The resolution of these images — enough to study the shape and even some surface features of the asteroid! — are unprecedented for this wavelength. HL Tau is a young star surrounded by a protoplanetary disk. ALMA's detailed observations of this region revealed remarkable structure within the disk: a series of light and dark concentric rings indicative of planets caught in the act of forming. Studying this system will help us understand how multi-planet solar systems like our own form and evolve. The star-forming galaxy SDP.81 — located so far away that the light we see was emitted when the Universe was only 15% of its current age — is gravitationally-lensed into a cosmic arc, due to the convenient placement of a nearby foreground galaxy. The combination of the lucky alignment and ALMA's high resolution grant us a spectacularly detailed view of this distant galaxy, allowing us to study its actual shape and the motion within it. The observations from ALMA's first test of its long baseline demonstrate that ALMA is capable of doing the transformational science it promised. As we gear up for the next cycle of observations, it's clear that exciting times are ahead! Citation: ALMA ship et al. 2015 ApJ 808 L1, L2, L3 and L4. Focus on the ALMA Long Baseline Campaign
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dutta, Soumitra
1988-01-01
A model for approximate spatial reasoning using fuzzy logic to represent the uncertainty in the environment is presented. Algorithms are developed which can be used to reason about spatial information expressed in the form of approximate linguistic descriptions similar to the kind of spatial information processed by humans. Particular attention is given to static spatial reasoning.
Approximation Theory for Matrices
A. D. Kennedy
2004-02-27
We review the theory of optimal polynomial and rational Chebyshev approximations, and Zolotarev's formula for the sign function over the range (\\epsilon \\leq |z| \\leq1). We explain how rational approximations can be applied to large sparse matrices efficiently by making use of partial fraction expansions and multi-shift Krylov space solvers.
Parameter identifiability under approximation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kunisch, K.; White, L. W.
1986-01-01
The problem of injectivity of the parameter-to-state map is discussed for Galerkin approximations of a linear parabolic equation. A necessary and sufficient condition is derived and illustrated by means of simple examples. Finally, output least squares identifiability of the Galerkin approximations is discussed.
Extra-tropical QBO signals in angular momentum and wave forcing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baldwin, Mark P.; Tung, Ka Kit
1994-01-01
Although the period of the equatorial stratospheric quasi-biennal oscillation (QBO) is approximately 30 months, quasi-biennial modulation of the extratropical annual cycle may be expected to produce additional spectral peaks at approximately to produce additional spectral peaks at approximately 8.6 and 20 months in the extratropics. Using Northern Hemisphere data for 1964-78 and global data for 1978-93 it is shown that these spectral peaks are robust in both angular momentum and Eliassen-Palm flux divergence. This spectral signature represents a circulation anomaly in both hemispheres, and implies a dynamical origin to the previously observed similar spectral peaks in column ozone in the extratropics.
Angular Dependence of Betatron X-Ray Spectra from a Laser-Wakefield Accelerator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albert, F.; Pollock, B. B.; Shaw, J. L.; Marsh, K. A.; Ralph, J. E.; Chen, Y.-H.; Alessi, D.; Pak, A.; Clayton, C. E.; Glenzer, S. H.; Joshi, C.
2013-12-01
We present the first measurements of the angular dependence of the betatron x-ray spectrum produced by electrons inside the cavity of a laser-wakefield accelerator. Electrons accelerated up to 300 MeV energies produce a beam of broadband, forward-directed betatron x-ray radiation extending up to 80 keV. The angular resolved spectrum from an image plate-based spectrometer with differential filtering provides data in a single laser shot. The simultaneous spectral and spatial x-ray analysis allows for a three-dimensional reconstruction of electron trajectories with micrometer resolution, and we find that the angular dependence of the x-ray spectrum is showing strong evidence of anisotropic electron trajectories.
Digital angular position sensor using wavelength division multiplexing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fritsch, Klaus; Beheim, Glenn; Sotomayor, Jorge
1990-01-01
Future aircraft will use fly-by-light control systems with fiber-linked optical sensors for such measurands as temperature, pressure, and linear and angular position. A digital optical sensor is described which was developed to transmit the angular position of such slowly rotating parts as a throttle of fuel flow control valve on an aircraft. The sensor employs a reflective code plate with ten channels providing a resolution of 0.35 degrees. Two light-emitting diodes with overlapping spectra are used as light sources. A single microoptic multiplexer-demultiplexer composed of a GRIN rod lens and a miniature grating is used to disperse the spectrum and recombine the spectral components from each channel after reflection by the code plate. The results of preliminary environmental tests of this unit are discussed. The sensor has been operated for brief periods of time between -60 C and +125 without adverse effects. Preliminary vibration tests indicate that the unit will work properly at the maximum vibration levels expected in a jet-engine environment.
Digital Angular Position Sensor Using Wavelength Division Multiplexing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fritsch, Klaus; Beheim, Glenn; Sotomayor, Jorge L.
1990-02-01
Future aircraft will use fly-by-light control systems with fiber-linked optical sensors for such measurands as temperature, pressure, and linear and angular position. We describe a digital optical sensor which was developed to transmit the angular position of such slowly rotating parts as a throttle or fuel flow control valve on an aircraft. The sensor employs a reflective code plate with ten channels providing a resolution of 0.35 degrees. Two light-emitting diodes with overlapping spectra are used as light sources. A single micro-optic multiplexer-demultiplexer composed of a GRIN rod lens and a miniature grating is used to disperse the spectrum and recombine the spectral components from each channel after reflection by the code plate. We discuss the results of preliminary environmental tests of this unit. We have operated the sensor for brief periods of time between -60°C and +125°C without adverse effects. Preliminary vibration tests indicate that the unit will work properly at the maximum vibration levels expected in a jet-engine environment. Use of a reference track on the code plate in conjunction with an automatic gain control in the electronic circuit compensates for large changes in transmitted light intensity.
High-resolution infrared mapping of the Galactic center - Imaging and lunar occultations
Simons, D.A.; Hodapp, K.W.; Becklin, E.E. )
1990-09-01
This paper presents 2.2-micron observations of lunar occultations of the Galactic center that occurred in September 1988 and February 1989. These observations were used to determine the angular size of sources in and near IRS 16 with an accuracy of about 0.02 arcsec (or about 200 AU). Also presented are high-resolution images of IRS 16 at 1.65 and 2.2 micron and an analysis of the September 1986 occultation data originally published by Adams et al. (1988). The combined results of the analyses indicate that the major components of IRS 16, namely IRS 16NE, 16C, 16SW, and 16 NW are all compact, with diameters less than about 200 AU. They all have absolute 2.2-micron magnitudes of approximately -8. 30 refs.
Temporal resolution in fluorescence imaging
Mondal, Partha Pratim
2014-01-01
Temporal resolution is a key factor for imaging rapidly occurring events in biology. In this feature article, I investigate an approximate estimate for determining the temporal resolution limit. The condition that led to this limit is, the time taken by the ensemble (99.9%) of excited molecules to relax to ground state, assuming all the emitted photons are detected. In a simplistic three-level system, the temporal resolution is, ?3?p, where ?p = (loge10)/(kf + knr) and, kf and knr are respectively the radiative and non-radiative emission rates. This further assumes the ideal condition that, the quantum efficiency of the detector is unity and there are no other loses. We discuss few state-of-art microscopy techniques that are capable of high temporal resolution. This includes techniques such as multifocal multiphoton microscopy (MMM), multifocal plane microscopy, multiple excitation spot optical microscopy (MESO), multiplane microscopy and multiple light-sheet microscopy (MLSM). PMID:25988152
Observation of High Angular Momentum Excitons in Cuprous Oxide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thewes, J.; Heckötter, J.; Kazimierczuk, T.; Aßmann, M.; Fröhlich, D.; Bayer, M.; Semina, M. A.; Glazov, M. M.
2015-07-01
The recent observation of dipole-allowed P excitons up to principal quantum numbers of n =25 in cuprous oxide has given insight into exciton states with unprecedented spectral resolution. While so far the exciton description as a hydrogenlike complex has been fully adequate for cubic crystals, we demonstrate here distinct deviations: The breaking of rotational symmetry leads to mixing of high angular momentum F and H excitons with the P excitons so that they can be observed in absorption. The F excitons show a threefold splitting that depends systematically on n , in agreement with theoretical considerations. From detailed comparison of experiment and theory we determine the cubic anisotropy parameter of the Cu2O valence band.
Observation of High Angular Momentum Excitons in Cuprous Oxide.
Thewes, J; Heckötter, J; Kazimierczuk, T; Aßmann, M; Fröhlich, D; Bayer, M; Semina, M A; Glazov, M M
2015-07-10
The recent observation of dipole-allowed P excitons up to principal quantum numbers of n=25 in cuprous oxide has given insight into exciton states with unprecedented spectral resolution. While so far the exciton description as a hydrogenlike complex has been fully adequate for cubic crystals, we demonstrate here distinct deviations: The breaking of rotational symmetry leads to mixing of high angular momentum F and H excitons with the P excitons so that they can be observed in absorption. The F excitons show a threefold splitting that depends systematically on n, in agreement with theoretical considerations. From detailed comparison of experiment and theory we determine the cubic anisotropy parameter of the Cu(2)O valence band. PMID:26207502
Establishing an IERS Sub-Center for Ocean Angular Momentum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ponte, Rui M.
2001-01-01
With the objective of establishing the Special Bureau for the Oceans (SBO), a new archival center for ocean angular momentum (OAM) products, we have computed and analyzed a number of OAM products from several ocean models, with and without data assimilation. All three components of OAM (axial term related to length of day variations and equatorial terms related to polar motion) have been examined in detail, in comparison to the respective Earth rotation parameters. An 11+ year time series of OAM given at 5-day intervals has been made publicly available. Other OAM products spanning longer periods and with higher temporal resolution, as well as products calculated from ocean model/data assimilation systems, have been prepared and should become part of the SBO archives in the near future.
Color holography using the angular selectivity of volume recording media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Peiping; Xu, Zhizhan; Liu, Xinsen
1995-02-01
A display hologram of an object can be recorded and reconstructed in three primary colors if the angular selectivity of volume recording media is exploited. Three holograms are recorded in the same medium, each at a different primary color. These three holograms are reconstructed by simultaneous illumination of the hologram with the original reference beams. By proper choice of the angles that the reference beams make to the hologram, it is possible to suppress strongly cross talk between the different reconstructions (e.g., the red object reconstruction in green light). The technique exhibits high resolution, high diffraction efficiency, and vivid colors. Through the addition of three holographically recorded volume gratings it is possible to reconstruct the hologram with a beam of white light. The saturation and brightness of each primary color in the reconstruction can be adjusted by selection of an appropriate thickness for the corresponding grating.
Angular-planar CMB power spectrum
Pereira, Thiago S.; Abramo, L. Raul
2009-09-15
Gaussianity and statistical isotropy of the Universe are modern cosmology's minimal set of hypotheses. In this work we introduce a new statistical test to detect observational deviations from this minimal set. By defining the temperature correlation function over the whole celestial sphere, we are able to independently quantify both angular and planar dependence (modulations) of the CMB temperature power spectrum over different slices of this sphere. Given that planar dependence leads to further modulations of the usual angular power spectrum C{sub l}, this test can potentially reveal richer structures in the morphology of the primordial temperature field. We have also constructed an unbiased estimator for this angular-planar power spectrum which naturally generalizes the estimator for the usual C{sub l}'s. With the help of a chi-square analysis, we have used this estimator to search for observational deviations of statistical isotropy in WMAP's 5 year release data set (ILC5), where we found only slight anomalies on the angular scales l=7 and l=8. Since this angular-planar statistic is model-independent, it is ideal to employ in searches of statistical anisotropy (e.g., contaminations from the galactic plane) and to characterize non-Gaussianities.
Angular momentum conservation for dynamical black holes
Sean A. Hayward
2006-11-04
Angular momentum can be defined by rearranging the Komar surface integral in terms of a twist form, encoding the twisting around of space-time due to a rotating mass, and an axial vector. If the axial vector is a coordinate vector and has vanishing transverse divergence, it can be uniquely specified under certain generic conditions. Along a trapping horizon, a conservation law expresses the rate of change of angular momentum of a general black hole in terms of angular momentum densities of matter and gravitational radiation. This identifies the transverse-normal block of an effective gravitational-radiation energy tensor, whose normal-normal block was recently identified in a corresponding energy conservation law. Angular momentum and energy are dual respectively to the axial vector and a previously identified vector, the conservation equations taking the same form. Including charge conservation, the three conserved quantities yield definitions of an effective energy, electric potential, angular velocity and surface gravity, satisfying a dynamical version of the so-called first law of black-hole mechanics. A corresponding zeroth law holds for null trapping horizons, resolving an ambiguity in taking the null limit.
Angular Filters for Angular Domain Imaging Optical Tomography in Highly Scattering Media
Chapman, Glenn H.
under you, and not an insignificant assortment of science-fiction trivia and tech news due OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF APPLIED SCIENCE in the School of Engineering Science © Paulman Chan Konn Yan Chan Degree: Master of Applied Science Title of Thesis: Angular Filters for Angular Domain
Limitations to resolution in superposition eyes
Eric J. Warrant; Peter D. McIntyre
1990-01-01
1.Limitations to spatial resolution in the ventral refracting superposition eye of the crepuscular dung beetle, Onitis alexis, were investigated using intracellular electrophysiological recordings and optical modelling.2.The measured angular-sensitivity functions for Onitis are narrow compared to many superposition eyes, but display considerable off-axis flanks, or flare. These flanks are reduced as the eye becomes light adapted, but the acceptance angle remains
A circularly polarized beam carries the double angular momentum
A circularly polarized beam carries the double angular momentum Radi I. Khrapko # Moscow Aviation without an azimuthal phase structure carries the double angular momentum in comparison with the prediction light beam without an azimuthal phase structure as total angular momentum of the beam, and the angular
Linear Approximation SAR Azimuth Processing Study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindquist, R. B.; Masnaghetti, R. K.; Belland, E.; Hance, H. V.; Weis, W. G.
1979-01-01
A segmented linear approximation of the quadratic phase function that is used to focus the synthetic antenna of a SAR was studied. Ideal focusing, using a quadratic varying phase focusing function during the time radar target histories are gathered, requires a large number of complex multiplications. These can be largely eliminated by using linear approximation techniques. The result is a reduced processor size and chip count relative to ideally focussed processing and a correspondingly increased feasibility for spaceworthy implementation. A preliminary design and sizing for a spaceworthy linear approximation SAR azimuth processor meeting requirements similar to those of the SEASAT-A SAR was developed. The study resulted in a design with approximately 1500 IC's, 1.2 cubic feet of volume, and 350 watts of power for a single look, 4000 range cell azimuth processor with 25 meters resolution.
Variational Bayes Approximation Rice University
Cevher, Volkan
Variational Bayes Approximation Rice University STAT 631 / ELEC 639: Graphical Models Instructor of variational Bayes (VB) approximation. This is the second example of a deterministic scheme in approximating
Angular momentum conservation in dipolar energy transfer.
Guo, Dong; Knight, Troy E; McCusker, James K
2011-12-23
Conservation of angular momentum is a familiar tenet in science but has seldom been invoked to understand (or predict) chemical processes. We have developed a general formalism based on Wigner's original ideas concerning angular momentum conservation to interpret the photo-induced reactivity of two molecular donor-acceptor assemblies with physical properties synthetically tailored to facilitate intramolecular energy transfer. Steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic data establishing excited-state energy transfer from a rhenium(I)-based charge-transfer state to a chromium(III) acceptor can be fully accounted for by Förster theory, whereas the corresponding cobalt(III) adduct does not undergo an analogous reaction despite having a larger cross-section for dipolar coupling. Because this pronounced difference in reactivity is easily explained within the context of the angular momentum conservation model, this relatively simple construct may provide a means for systematizing a broad range of chemical reactions. PMID:22194572
Electromagnetic angular momentum transport in Saturn's rings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goertz, C. K.; Morfill, G. E.; Ip, W.; Gruen, E.; Havnes, O.
1986-01-01
It is shown here that submicrometer dust particles sporadically elevated above Saturn's ring are subject to electromagnetic forces which will reduce their angular momentum inside synchronous orbit and increase it outside. When the dust is reabsorbed by the ring the angular momentum of the ring is decreased (increased) inside (outside) of synchronous orbit. For the case of the spokes in Saturn's B-ring it is estimated that the timescale for transporting ring material due to this angular momentum coupling effect is comparable to the viscous transport time or even smaller. It is suggested that the minimum in the optical depth of the B-ring at synchronous orbit is due to this effect.
Putting a new spin on angular momentum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glazebrook, Karl
2015-08-01
We expand the work of Obreschkow & Glazebrook (2014) to a sample of clumpy turbulent disks at z~0.1, analogs to z~2 star-forming disks (the DYNAMO sample) and measure their specific angular momentum using integral field spectroscopy to within 20% of total in the low surface brightness outskirts (not accessible in true z~2 galaxies). We find low values, by a factor of 3 compared to normal local spirals, which is the exact value expected for the evolution of the mean angular momentum between z~0 and z~2. This strongly suggests that the fundamental driver of galaxy instability, clump size and morphology over cosmic time is specific angular momentum evolution in LCDM haloes, and is nicely explained in a simple mathematical framework we have developed.
Energy angular momentum closed-loop guidance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patera, Russell P.
2015-03-01
A novel guidance algorithm for launch vehicle ascent to the desired mission orbit is proposed. The algorithm uses total specific energy and orbital angular momentum as new state vector parameters. These parameters are ideally suited for the ascent guidance task, since the guidance algorithm steers the launch vehicle along a pre-flight optimal trajectory in energy angular momentum space. The guidance algorithm targets apogee, perigee, inclination and right ascension of ascending node. Computational complexities are avoided by eliminating time in the guidance computation and replacing it with angular momentum magnitude. As a result, vehicle acceleration, mass, thrust, length of motor burns, and staging times are also eliminated from the pitch plane guidance calculations. The algorithm does not involve launch vehicle or target state propagation, which results in minimal computational effort. Proof of concept of the new algorithm is presented using several numerical examples that illustrate performance results.
Angular Size in a Static Universe
David F. Crawford
1994-07-11
In principle the geometry of the universe can be investigated by measuring the angular size of known objects as a function of distance. Thus the distribution of angular sizes provides a critical test of the stable and static model of the universe described by Crawford (1991,1993) that has a simple and explicit relationship between the angular size of an object and its redshift. The result is that the agreement with observations of galactic diameters and the size of double radio sources with the static model is much better than the standard (Big Bang) theory without evolution. However there is still a small discrepancy at large redshifts that could be due to selection effects.
Pumping angular momentum by driven chaotic scattering
T. Dittrich; F. L. Dubeibe
2008-04-29
Chaotic scattering with an internal degree of freedom and the possibility to generate directed transport of angular momentum is studied in a specific model, a magnetic dipole moving in a periodically modulated magnetic field confined to a compact region in space. We show that this system is an irregular scatterer in large parts of its parameter space. If in addition all spatio-temporal symmetries are broken, directed transport of mass as well as angular momentum occurs. The sensitive parameter dependence of the corresponding currents includes frequent sign reversals. Zeros of either quantity entail the exclusive occurrence of the other and thus give rise in particular to angular-momentum separation without mass transport as a classical analogue of spin-polarized currents.
Quark Orbital Angular Momentum from Lattice QCD
N. Mathur; S. J. Dong; K. F. Liu; L. Mankiewicz; N. C. Mukhopadhyay
1999-12-10
We calculate the quark orbital angular momentum of the nucleon from the quark energy-momentum tensor form factors on the lattice. The disconnected insertion is estimated stochastically which employs the $Z_2$ noise with an unbiased subtraction. This reduced the error by a factor of 4 with negligible overhead. The total quark contribution to the proton spin is found to be $0.30 \\pm 0.07$. From this and the quark spin content we deduce the quark orbital angular momentum to be $0.17 \\pm 0.06$ which is $\\sim 34$% of the proton spin. We further predict that the gluon angular momentum to be $0.20 \\pm 0.07$, i. e. $\\sim$ 40% of the proton spin is due to the glue.
Angular response functions for sodium iodide detectors.
Klann, R. T.; Lou, Q.; Fink, C. L.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Univ. of Illinois
2006-01-01
This paper presents analytical, Monte Carlo and experimental investigations on the angular response functions to gamma sources of typical cylindrical scintillation detectors. A general analytical approach capable of computing the total counting efficiency of geometrically-simple detectors to isotropic point sources is introduced. MCNP5 calculations are performed for several cylindrical NaI(Tl) detectors with different sizes in order to verify this analytical approach. Photopeak efficiency is also computed based on analytically determined total counting efficiency and MCNP5 calculated peak-to-total ratio. Sets of angular measurements are executed for cylindrical NaI detectors of different sizes using Cs-137 and Co-60 sources with appropriate radioactivity. The three means of determining the angular response functions for the total efficiency and photopeak efficiency give consistent results with less than 5% discrepancy over the measured range.
Integrating Approximate Depth Data into Dense Image Correspondence Estimation
Magnor, Marcus
Integrating Approximate Depth Data into Dense Image Correspondence Estimation Kai Ruhl, Felix Klose-resolution depth sensors or coarse geometric proxies to guide the high-resolution image correspondence estimation quality im- proves considerably compared to an unguided algorithm or a pure depth-based interpolation
Cosmic microwave background bispectrum on small angular scales
Pitrou, Cyril; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Bernardeau, Francis [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre and Marie Curie-Paris, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France) and Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, 0315 Oslo (Norway); Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre and Marie Curie-Paris, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France); CEA, IPhT, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France) and CNRS, URA-2306, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)
2008-09-15
This article investigates the nonlinear evolution of cosmological perturbations on sub-Hubble scales in order to evaluate the unavoidable deviations from Gaussianity that arise from the nonlinear dynamics. It shows that the dominant contribution to modes coupling in the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies on small angular scales is driven by the sub-Hubble nonlinear evolution of the dark matter component. The perturbation equations, involving, in particular, the first moments of the Boltzmann equation for photons, are integrated up to second order in perturbations. An analytical analysis of the solutions gives a physical understanding of the result as well as an estimation of its order of magnitude. This allows one to quantify the expected deviation from Gaussianity of the cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropy and, in particular, to compute its bispectrum on small angular scales. Restricting to equilateral configurations, we show that the nonlinear evolution accounts for a contribution that would be equivalent to a constant primordial non-Gaussianity of order f{sub NL}{approx}25 on scales ranging approximately from l{approx}1000 to l{approx}3000.
Photoelectron angular distributions along Ar and Ca isonuclear sequences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pradhan, Gagan B.; Jose, Jobin; Radojevic', Vojislav; Deshmukh, Pranawa C.; Manson, Steven T.
2010-03-01
The dipole angular distribution asymmetry parameter, ?, for photoelectrons resulting from 2p photoionization of members of the Ar and Ca isonuclear sequences (Ar, Ar^6+, Ar^8+, Ca, Ca^2+, Ca^8+) has been studied using the relativistic random phase approximation (RRPA) [1] over a broad range of photon energy. In the absence of relaxation, it known that inner shell cross sections are essentially unchanged, as a function of photon energy, on the removal of outer shell electrons [2]. The situation is found to be different for angular distributions; the ? parameter is not constant, as a function of photon energy, when outer electrons are removed. However, with increasing photon energy, the ?'s arising from the varying stages of ionization become essentially constant. The reason for this behavior is traced to the dependence of ? upon the Coulomb phase shifts which are not constant as a function of photon energy. At the higher energies, the Coulomb phase becomes less important, resulting in the ?'s coalescing. [1] W. R. Johnson and C. D. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 20, 964(1979). [2] G. Nasreen, S. T. Manson and P. C. Deshmukh, Phys. Rev. A 40, 6091(1989).
BAYESIAN ANGULAR POWER SPECTRUM ANALYSIS OF INTERFEROMETRIC DATA
Sutter, P. M.; Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Malu, Siddarth S.
2012-09-15
We present a Bayesian angular power spectrum and signal map inference engine which can be adapted to interferometric observations of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), 21 cm emission line mapping of galactic brightness fluctuations, or 21 cm absorption line mapping of neutral hydrogen in the dark ages. The method uses Gibbs sampling to generate a sampled representation of the angular power spectrum posterior and the posterior of signal maps given a set of measured visibilities in the uv-plane. We use a mock interferometric CMB observation to demonstrate the validity of this method in the flat-sky approximation when adapted to take into account arbitrary coverage of the uv-plane, mode-mode correlations due to observations on a finite patch, and heteroschedastic visibility errors. The computational requirements scale as O(n{sub p} log n{sub p}) where n{sub p} measures the ratio of the size of the detector array to the inter-detector spacing, meaning that Gibbs sampling is a promising technique for meeting the data analysis requirements of future cosmology missions.
Angular momentum transport by internal waves in the solar interior
Jean-Paul Zahn; Suzanne Talon; Jose Matias
1996-11-22
The internal gravity waves of low frequency which are emitted at the base of the solar convection zone are able to extract angular momentum from the radiative interior. We evaluate this transport with some simplifying assumptions: we ignore the Coriolis force, approximate the spectrum of turbulent convection by the Kolmogorov law, and couple this turbulence to the internal waves through their pressure fluctuations, following Press (1981) and Garcia Lopez & Spruit (1991). The local frequency of an internal wave varies with depth in a differentially rotating star, and it can vanish at some location, thus leading to enhanced damping (Goldreich & Nicholson 1989). It is this dissipation mechanism only that we take into account in the exchange of momentum between waves and stellar rotation. The flux of angular momentum is then an implicit function of depth, involving the local rotation rate and an integral representing the cumulative effect of radiative dissipation. We find that the efficiency of this transport process is rather high: it operates on a timescale of 10^7 years, and is probably responsible for the flat rotation profile which has been detected through helioseismology.
Optimization of Angular-Momentum Biases of Reaction Wheels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Clifford; Lee, Allan
2008-01-01
RBOT [RWA Bias Optimization Tool (wherein RWA signifies Reaction Wheel Assembly )] is a computer program designed for computing angular momentum biases for reaction wheels used for providing spacecraft pointing in various directions as required for scientific observations. RBOT is currently deployed to support the Cassini mission to prevent operation of reaction wheels at unsafely high speeds while minimizing time in undesirable low-speed range, where elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication films in bearings become ineffective, leading to premature bearing failure. The problem is formulated as a constrained optimization problem in which maximum wheel speed limit is a hard constraint and a cost functional that increases as speed decreases below a low-speed threshold. The optimization problem is solved using a parametric search routine known as the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm. To increase computational efficiency for extended operation involving large quantity of data, the algorithm is designed to (1) use large time increments during intervals when spacecraft attitudes or rates of rotation are nearly stationary, (2) use sinusoidal-approximation sampling to model repeated long periods of Earth-point rolling maneuvers to reduce computational loads, and (3) utilize an efficient equation to obtain wheel-rate profiles as functions of initial wheel biases based on conservation of angular momentum (in an inertial frame) using pre-computed terms.
Evaluation of the table Mountain Ronchi telescope for angular tracking
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lanyi, G.; Purcell, G.; Treuhaft, R.; Buffington, A.
1992-01-01
The performance of the University of California at San Diego (UCSD) Table Mountain telescope was evaluated to determine the potential of such an instrument for optical angular tracking. This telescope uses a Ronchi ruling to measure differential positions of stars at the meridian. The Ronchi technique is summarized and the operational features of the Table Mountain instrument are described. Results from an analytic model, simulations, and actual data are presented that characterize the telescope's current performance. For a star pair of visual magnitude 7, the differential uncertainty of a 5-min observation is about 50 nrad (10 marcsec), and tropospheric fluctuations are the dominant error source. At magnitude 11, the current differential uncertainty is approximately 800 nrad (approximately 170 marcsec). This magnitude is equivalent to that of a 2-W laser with a 0.4-m aperture transmitting to Earth from a spacecraft at Saturn. Photoelectron noise is the dominant error source for stars of visual magnitude 8.5 and fainter. If the photoelectron noise is reduced, ultimately tropospheric fluctuations will be the limiting source of error at an average level of 35 nrad (7 marcsec) for stars approximately 0.25 deg apart. Three near-term strategies are proposed for improving the performance of the telescope to the 10-nrad level: improving the efficiency of the optics, masking background starlight, and averaging tropospheric fluctuations over multiple observations.
Meheut, H; Lesur, G; Joos, M; Longaretti, P -Y
2015-01-01
Angular momentum transport in accretion discs is often believed to be due to magnetohydrodynamic turbulence mediated by the magnetorotational instability. Despite an abundant literature on the MRI, the parameters governing the saturation amplitude of the turbulence are poorly understood and the existence of an asymptotic behavior in the Ohmic diffusion regime is not clearly established. We investigate the properties of the turbulent state in the small magnetic Prandtl number limit. Since this is extremely computationally expensive, we also study the relevance and range of applicability of the most common subgrid scale models for this problem. Unstratified shearing boxes simulations are performed both in the compressible and incompressible limits, with a resolution up to 800 cells per disc scale height. The latter constitutes the largest resolution ever attained for a simulation of MRI turbulence. In the presence of a mean magnetic field threading the domain, angular momentum transport converges to a finite va...
Relativistic total cross section and angular distribution for Rayleigh scattering by atomic hydrogen
Safari, L; Fritzche, S; Santos, J P; Fratini, F
2012-01-01
We study the total cross section and angular distribution in Rayleigh scattering by hydrogen atom in the ground state, within the framework of Dirac relativistic equation and second-order perturbation theory. The relativistic states used for the calculations are obtained by making use of the finite basis set method and expressed in terms of B-splines and B-polynomials. We pay particular attention to the effects that arise from higher (non-dipole) terms in the expansion of the electron-photon interaction. It is shown that the angular distribution of scattered photons, while it is symmetric with respect to the scattering angle $\\theta$=90$^\\circ$ within the electric dipole approximation, becomes asymmetric when higher multipoles are taken into account. The analytical expression of the angular distribution is parametrized in terms of Legendre polynomials. Detailed calculations are performed for photons in the energy range 0.5 to 10 keV. When possible, results are compared with previous calculations.
Attosecond delay and angular asymmetry in plasmonic photoemission of C60
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barillot, T.; Cauchy, C.; Loriot, V.; Bordas, C.; Lepine, F.; Hervieux, P.-A.; Gisselbrecht, M.; Johnsson, P.; Laksman, J.; Mansson, E.; Sorensen, S.; Canton, S.; Dahlstrom, J.; Magrakvelidze, M.; Chakraborty, H.; Dixit, G.; Madjet, M.
2015-05-01
We present a theory-experiment joint study of effects of the giant plasmon resonance of C60 on photoionization angular asymmetry, phase and time delay. Phases of ionization amplitudes are utilized to compute Wigner-Smith delays and angular asymmetries of emissions from HOMO and HOMO-1 levels in time-dependent local density approximation (TDLDA), uncovering significant plasmon effects. Electron momentum imaging spectroscopy is used to measure the photoelectron angular distribution asymmetry parameter at the plasmon that agreed well with TDLDA. Preliminary results of our experiments using RABITT pump-probe metrology show promise of attosecond measurements of plasmon-driven delays to complement our predictions. *franck.lepine@univ-lyon1.fr **himadri@nwmissouri.edu Supported by the US NSF, CNRS, ANR.
Classical density functional theory of solvation in molecular solvents: Angular grid implementation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gendre, Lionel; Ramirez, Rosa; Borgis, Daniel
2009-06-01
The solvation properties of a solute in a molecular solvent can be obtained by minimization of a position and orientation-dependent free-energy density functional, with the unknown excess term approximated by the angular-dependent direct correlation function of the pure solvent. We show how this function can be extracted from MD simulations of the pure solvent by computing the pair distribution function and solving subsequently the Molecular Ornstein-Zernike equation using angular grids. The corresponding functional can be minimized in the presence of an arbitrary solute on a three-dimensional cubic grid for positions and Gauss-Legendre angular grid for orientations to provide the solvation structure and free-energy. Applications are presented for solvation in acetonitrile.
Unexpectedly low angular extent of journal bearing pressures: experiment and theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Nikhil; Vimal, T.; Chatterjee, Anindya
2015-04-01
Journal bearings have been studied for a long time. Pressure solutions for the same, as presented in textbooks, typically have angular extents exceeding 150°. Here, for a bearing with a relatively larger clearance ratio (0.01 as opposed to, say, 0.001), our experiments show an angular extent of about 50° only. Such small angular extents cannot be predicted, even approximately, by the existing simple theories for journal bearing pressures. However, such theories are based on assumptions whereby only the relative speed between bearing and journal surfaces enters the governing equations. We discuss how these same assumptions motivate some new combinations of boundary conditions that allow reasonably simple numerical treatment. In this paper, the resulting families of possible solutions are computed semi-numerically using a Fourier series expansion in one direction and finite differences and numerical continuation in the other. We find that one such solution family contains small-extent solutions similar to those observed experimentally.
Characteristics Representative Approximately
Swimming Mode Characteristics Representative Image Hovering · Approximately 45° body angle · Low Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA. 2. Australian Antarctic Division, Kingston, TAS, Australia. 3. School of Biology, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA. Introduction Euphausiids, or krill
Tsunami Travel Time Approximation
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Eric Grosfils
Eric Grosfils, Pomona College Summary Students are asked to calculate approximate tsunami travel times across the Pacific basin. The assignment builds off of a lab introducing students to Spatial Analyst, and ...
Total angular momentum from Dirac eigenspinors
Szabados, Laszlo B
2007-01-01
The eigenvalue problem for Dirac operators, constructed from two connections on the spinor bundle over closed spacelike 2-surfaces, is investigated. A class of divergence free vector fields, built from the eigenspinors, are found, which, for the lowest eigenvalue, reproduce the rotation Killing vectors of metric spheres, and provide rotation BMS vector fields at future null infinity. This makes it possible to introduce a well defined, gauge invariant spatial angular momentum at null infinity, which reduces to the standard expression in stationary spacetimes. The general formula for the angular momentum flux carried away be the gravitational radiation is also derived.
Probing Angular Correlations in Sequential Double Ionization
Fleischer, A.; Woerner, H. J.; Arissian, L.; Liu, L. R.; Meckel, M.; Rippert, A.; Doerner, R.; Villeneuve, D. M.; Corkum, P. B.; Staudte, A.
2011-09-09
We study electron correlation in sequential double ionization of noble gas atoms and HCl in intense, femtosecond laser pulses. We measure the photoelectron angular distributions of Ne{sup +} relative to the first electron in a pump-probe experiment with 8 fs, 800 nm, circularly polarized laser pulses at a peak intensity of a few 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. Using a linear-linear pump-probe setup, we further study He, Ar, and HCl. We find a clear angular correlation between the two ionization steps in the sequential double ionization intensity regime.
Angular distribution of emission from hyperbolic metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Lei; Livenere, J. E.; Zhu, G.; Tumkur, T. U.; Hu, H.; Cortes, C. L.; Jacob, Z.; Prokes, S. M.; Noginov, M. A.
2014-12-01
We have studied angular distribution of emission of dye molecules deposited on lamellar metal/dielectric and Si/Ag nanowire based metamaterials with hyperbolic dispersion. In agreement with the theoretical prediction, the emission pattern of dye on top of lamellar metamaterial is similar to that on top of metal. At the same time, the effective medium model predicts the emission patterns of the nanowire array and the dye film deposited on glass to be nearly identical to each other. This is not the case of our experiment. We tentatively explain the nearly Lambertian (~cos?) angular distribution of emission of the nanowire based sample by a surface roughness.
Total angular momentum from Dirac eigenspinors
Laszlo B. Szabados
2007-12-17
The eigenvalue problem for Dirac operators, constructed from two connections on the spinor bundle over closed spacelike 2-surfaces, is investigated. A class of divergence free vector fields, built from the eigenspinors, are found, which, for the lowest eigenvalue, reproduce the rotation Killing vectors of metric spheres, and provide rotation BMS vector fields at future null infinity. This makes it possible to introduce a well defined, gauge invariant spatial angular momentum at null infinity, which reduces to the standard expression in stationary spacetimes. The general formula for the angular momentum flux carried away be the gravitational radiation is also derived.
Orbital angular momentum in the nucleons
Cédric Lorcé
2014-06-26
In the last decade, it has been realized that the orbital angular momentum of partons inside the nucleon plays a major role. It contributes significantly to nucleon properties and is at the origin of many asymmetries observed in spin physics. It is therefore of paramount importance to determine this quantity if we want to understand the nucleon internal structure and experimental observables. This triggered numerous discussions and controversies about the proper definition of orbital angular momentum and its extraction from experimental data. We summarize the present situation and discuss recent developments in this field.
Wilson lines and orbital angular momentum
Cédric Lorcé
2013-01-07
We present an explicit realization of the Chen et al. approach to the proton spin decomposition in terms of Wilson lines, generalizing the light-front gauge-invariant extensions discussed recently by Hatta. Particular attention is drawn to the residual gauge freedom by further separating the pure-gauge term into contour and residual terms. We show that the kinetic orbital angular momentum operator can be expressed in terms of the Wigner operator only when the momentum variable is integrated over. Finally, we confirm from twist-2 arguments that the advanced, retarded and antisymmetric light-front canonical orbital angular momenta are the same.
Angular momentum in spin-phonon processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garanin, D. A.; Chudnovsky, E. M.
2015-07-01
Quantum theory of spin relaxation in the elastic environment is revised with account of the concept of a phonon spin recently introduced by Zhang and Niu [L. Zhang and Q. Niu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 085503 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.085503]. Similar to the case of the electromagnetic field, the division of the angular momentum associated with elastic deformations into the orbital part and the part due to phonon spins proves to be useful for the analysis of the balance of the angular momentum. Such analysis sheds important light on microscopic processes leading to the Einstein-de Haas effect.
Freehand spatial-angular compounding of photoacoustic images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Hyun-Jae; Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Guo, Xiaoyu; Taylor, Russell H.; Boctor, Emad M.
2014-03-01
Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an emerging medical imaging modality that relies on the absorption of optical energy and the subsequent emission of acoustic waves that are detected with a conventional ultrasound probe. PA images are susceptible to background noise artifacts that reduce the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). We investigated spatial-angular compounding of PA images to enhance these image qualities. Spatial-angular compounding was implemented by averaging multiple PA images acquired as an ultrasound probe was rotated about the elevational axis with the laser beam and PA target fixed in the same location. An external tracking system was used to provide the position and orientation (i.e. pose) information of each PA image. Based on this pose information, frames in similar elevational planes were filtered from the acquired image data and compounded using one of two methods. One method registered overlapping signals between frames prior to compounding (using the pose information), while the second method omitted this spatial registration step. These two methods were applied to pre-beamformed RF, beamformed RF, and envelope-detected data, resulting in six different compounding pipelines. Compounded PA images with similar lateral resolution to a single reference image had factors of 1.1 - 1.6, 2.0 - 11.1, and 2.0 - 11.1 improvements in contrast, CNR, and SNR, respectively, when compared to the reference image. These improvements depended on the amount of relative motion between the reference image and the images that were compounded. The inclusion of spatial registration prior to compounding preserved lateral resolution and signal location when the relative rotations about the elevation axis were 3.5° or less for images that were within an elevational distance of 2.5 mm from the reference image, particularly when the method was applied to the enveloped-detected data. Results indicate that spatial-angular compounding has the potential to improve image quality for a variety of photoacoustic imaging applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potapkin, V.; Chumakov, A. I.; Smirnov, G. V.; Rüffer, R.; McCammon, C.; Dubrovinsky, L.
2012-11-01
We have studied experimentally the emission of ?-ray photons by synchrotron-radiation-excited 57Fe nuclei in an iron borate crystal. The crystal was set in the vicinity of the Bragg angle for pure nuclear diffraction of the synchrotron radiation. The electronically forbidden but nuclear-allowed (333) reflection was employed to extract the nuclear scattering signal. The isolation of nuclear scattering was possible for two reasons. First, in contrast to the case of Rayleigh scattering, the phase in nuclear resonant scattering depends on the direction of the magnetic moment. Second, the iron atom spins in a 57FeBO3 crystal are antiferromagnetically ordered. Because they are flashlike excited by synchrotron radiation, the nuclei in the crystal afterwards emit their own recoil-free radiation within a narrow angular range. The angular dependence of the emission was measured with a highly collimated beam by setting the crystal in different angular positions near the Bragg angle. At room temperature the angular dependence of the emission intensity has a functional form with a single symmetric maximum. However, on approaching the Néel temperature, the angular dependence of the emission intensity is transformed dramatically in shape and width. The maximum broadens greatly, splits, and acquires a double-peak shape. The energy and time distributions of the emitted radiation appear to be strongly dependent on the angular position of the crystal relative to the incident beam within the angular range of the emission. The experimental measurements are fully consistent with theoretical predictions. The results obtained can be used in developing synchrotron-radiation-based techniques with neV resolution.
Angular distribution of atoms ejected by laser ablation of different metals
Konomi, I.; Motohiro, T. [Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8511 (Japan); Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc., 41-1 Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Asaoka, T. [Toyota Central Research and Development Laboratories, Inc., 41-1 Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan)
2009-07-01
Angular distributions of 13 different metals ejected by laser ablation using fourth harmonics (wavelength=266 nm) of neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser and a fluence close to near-threshold value (2.3 J/cm{sup 2}) have been investigated with a high angular resolution. The angular distribution which is characterized by the exponent n of cos{sup n} theta distribution showed very broad range of values between 3 and 24 for different metals. A simple relation that the exponent n is proportional to the square root of particle atomic weight as reported previously has not been observed. Instead, a general trend has been found that the metals with higher sublimation energy such as Ta and Zr show narrower angular distribution than those with lower sublimation energy such as Sn and In. While the sublimation energy of metals has a great influence on the angular distribution of ejected atoms, a simple consideration suggests that their thermal conductivity and specific heat have little effect on it.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Che Hasan, Rozaimi; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Laurenson, Laurie
2012-01-01
Backscatter information from multibeam echosounders (MBES) have been shown to contain useful information for the characterisation of benthic habitats. Compared to backscatter imagery, angular response of backscatter has shown advantages for feature discrimination. However its low spatial resolution inhibits the generation of fine scale habitat maps. In this study, angular backscatter response was combined with image segmentation of backscatter imagery to characterise benthic biological habitats in Discovery Bay Marine National Park, Victoria, Australia. Angular response of backscatter data from a Reson Seabat 8101 MBES (240 kHz) was integrated with georeferenced underwater video observations for constructing training data. To produce benthic habitat maps, decision tree supervised classification results were combined with mean shift image segmentation for class assignment. The results from mean angular response characteristics show effects of incidence angle at the outer angle for invertebrates (INV) and mixed red and invertebrates (MRI) classes, whilst mixed brown algae (MB) and mixed brown algae and invertebrates (MBI) showed similar responses independent from incidence angle. Automatic segmentation processing produce over segmented results but showed good discrimination between heterogeneous regions. Accuracy assessment from habitat maps produced overall accuracies of 79.6% (Kappa coefficient = 0.66) and 80.2% (Kappa coefficient = 0.67) for biota and substratum classifications respectively. MRI and MBI produced the lowest average accuracy while INV the highest. The ability to combine angular response and backscatter imagery provides an alternative approach for investigating biological information from acoustic backscatter data.
Contrast sensitivity to angular frequency gratings is not higher than to Cartesian gratings.
Zana, Y; Cavalcanti, A C G T
2004-02-01
When contrast sensitivity functions to Cartesian and angular gratings were compared in previous studies the peak sensitivity to angular stimuli was reported to be 0.21 log units higher. In experiments carried out to repeat this result, we used the same two-alternative forced-choice paradigm, but improved experimental control and precision by increasing contrast resolution from 8 to 12 bits, increasing the screen refresh rate from 30 Hz interlaced to 85 Hz non-interlaced, linearizing the voltage-luminance relation, modulating luminance in frequencies that minimize pixel aliasing, and improving control of the subject's exposure to the stimuli. The contrast sensitivity functions to Cartesian and angular gratings were similar in form and peak sensitivity (2.4 cycles per visual degree (c/deg) and 32 c/360 degrees, respectively) to those reported in a previous study (3 c/deg and 32 c/360 degrees, respectively), but peak sensitivity to angular stimuli was 0.13 log units lower than that to Cartesian stimuli. When the experiment was repeated, this time simulating the experimental control level used in the previous study, no difference between the peak sensitivity to Cartesian and angular stimuli was found. This result agrees with most current models that assume Cartesian filtering at the first visual processing stage. The discrepancy in the results is explained in part by differences in the degree of experimental control. PMID:14762578
Anomalous diffraction approximation limits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Videen, Gorden; Chýlek, Petr
It has been reported in a recent article [Liu, C., Jonas, P.R., Saunders, C.P.R., 1996. Accuracy of the anomalous diffraction approximation to light scattering by column-like ice crystals. Atmos. Res., 41, pp. 63-69] that the anomalous diffraction approximation (ADA) accuracy does not depend on particle refractive index, but instead is dependent on the particle size parameter. Since this is at odds with previous research, we thought these results warranted further discussion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilder, Shawn M.
In general relativity, angular momentum of the gravitational field in some volume bounded by an axially symmetric sphere is well-defined as a boundary integral. The definition relies on the symmetry generating vector field, a Killing field, of the boundary. When no such symmetry exists, one defines angular momentum using an approximate Killing field. Contained in the literature are various approximations that capture certain properties of metric preserving vector fields. We explore the continuity of an angular momentum definition that employs an approximate Killing field that is an eigenvector of a particular second-order differential operator. We find that the eigenvector varies continuously in Hilbert space under smooth perturbations of a smooth boundary geometry. Furthermore, we find that not only is the approximate Killing field continuous but that the eigenvalue problem which defines it is stable in the sense that all of its eigenvalues and eigenvectors are continuous in Hilbert space. We conclude that the stability follows because the eigenvalue problem is strongly elliptic. Additionally, we provide a practical introduction to the mathematical theory of strongly elliptic operators and generalize the above stability results for a large class of such operators.
A 2D eye gaze estimation system with low-resolution webcam images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ince, Ibrahim Furkan; Kim, Jin Woo
2011-12-01
In this article, a low-cost system for 2D eye gaze estimation with low-resolution webcam images is presented. Two algorithms are proposed for this purpose, one for the eye-ball detection with stable approximate pupil-center and the other one for the eye movements' direction detection. Eyeball is detected using deformable angular integral search by minimum intensity (DAISMI) algorithm. Deformable template-based 2D gaze estimation (DTBGE) algorithm is employed as a noise filter for deciding the stable movement decisions. While DTBGE employs binary images, DAISMI employs gray-scale images. Right and left eye estimates are evaluated separately. DAISMI finds the stable approximate pupil-center location by calculating the mass-center of eyeball border vertices to be employed for initial deformable template alignment. DTBGE starts running with initial alignment and updates the template alignment with resulting eye movements and eyeball size frame by frame. The horizontal and vertical deviation of eye movements through eyeball size is considered as if it is directly proportional with the deviation of cursor movements in a certain screen size and resolution. The core advantage of the system is that it does not employ the real pupil-center as a reference point for gaze estimation which is more reliable against corneal reflection. Visual angle accuracy is used for the evaluation and benchmarking of the system. Effectiveness of the proposed system is presented and experimental results are shown.
Energy Versus Angular Momentum in Black Hole Binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damour, Thibault; Nagar, Alessandro; Pollney, Denis; Reisswig, Christian
2012-03-01
Using accurate numerical-relativity simulations of (nonspinning) black-hole binaries with mass ratios 1?1, 2?1, and 3?1, we compute the gauge-invariant relation between the (reduced) binding energy E and the (reduced) angular momentum j of the system. We show that the relation E(j) is an accurate diagnostic of the dynamics of a black-hole binary in a highly relativistic regime. By comparing the numerical-relativity ENR(j) curve with the predictions of several analytic approximation schemes, we find that, while the canonically defined, nonresummed post-Newtonian-expanded EPN(j) relation exhibits large and growing deviations from ENR(j), the prediction of the effective one body formalism, based purely on known analytical results (without any calibration to numerical relativity), agrees strikingly well with the numerical-relativity results.
Energy versus Angular Momentum in Black Hole Binaries
Thibault Damour; Alessandro Nagar; Denis Pollney; Christian Reisswig
2011-10-13
Using accurate numerical relativity simulations of (nonspinning) black-hole binaries with mass ratios 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 we compute the gauge invariant relation between the (reduced) binding energy $E$ and the (reduced) angular momentum $j$ of the system. We show that the relation $E(j)$ is an accurate diagnostic of the dynamics of a black-hole binary in a highly relativistic regime. By comparing the numerical-relativity $E^{\\rm NR} (j)$ curve with the predictions of several analytic approximation schemes, we find that, while the usual, non-resummed post-Newtonian-expanded $E^{\\rm PN} (j)$ relation exhibits large and growing deviations from $E^{\\rm NR} (j)$, the prediction of the effective one-body formalism, based purely on known analytical results (without any calibration to numerical relativity), agrees strikingly well with the numerical-relativity results.
Angular moment model for the Fokker-Planck equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubroca, B.; Feugeas, J.-L.; Frank, M.
2010-11-01
An accurate and rapid kinetic model describing the collisional transport of particles is presented. It is derived from the Fokker-Planck equation and involves an angular closure in the phase space leading to a set of hyperbolic equations for the moments of the distribution function evolving in time, space and energy. This method provides an alternative to the prohibitive cost of a direct solution to the full kinetic equation. Moreover, it is exact for the cases of collimated beams and the quasi-isotropic distributions. It can be approximated with the usual numerical schemes of the non-linear hyperbolic analysis. This model has features that are required to simulate the electron or ion transport for the inertial confinement fusion and the dose deposition for radiation therapy of cancers.
Approximate kernel competitive learning.
Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang
2015-03-01
Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches. PMID:25528318
A New Automatic System for Angular Measurement and Calibration in Radiometric Instruments
Marquez, Jose Manuel Andujar; Bohórquez, Miguel Ángel Martínez; Garcia, Jonathan Medina; Nieto, Francisco Jose Aguilar
2010-01-01
This paper puts forward the design, construction and testing of a new automatic system for angular-response measurement and calibration in radiometric instruments. Its main characteristics include precision, speed, resolution, noise immunity, easy programming and operation. The developed system calculates the cosine error of the radiometer under test by means of a virtual instrument, from the measures it takes and through a mathematical procedure, thus allowing correcting the radiometer with the aim of preventing cosine error in its measurements. PMID:22319320
THE ANGULAR DISTRIBUTION OF Ly{alpha} RESONANT PHOTONS EMERGING FROM AN OPTICALLY THICK MEDIUM
Yang Yang; Shu Chiwang; Roy, Ishani; Fang Lizhi
2013-07-20
We investigate the angular distribution of Ly{alpha} photons scattering or emerging from an optically thick medium. Since the evolution of specific intensity I in frequency space and angular space are coupled with each other, we first develop the WENO numerical solver to find the time-dependent solutions of the integro-differential equation of I in frequency and angular space simultaneously. We first show that the solutions with the Eddington approximation, which assume that I is linearly dependent on the angular variable {mu}, yield similar frequency profiles of the photon flux as those without the Eddington approximation. However, the solutions of the {mu} distribution evolution are significantly different from those given by the Eddington approximation. First, the angular distribution of I is found to be substantially dependent on the frequency of the photons. For photons with the resonant frequency {nu}{sub 0}, I contains only a linear term of {mu}. For photons with frequencies at the double peaks of the flux, the {mu}-distribution is highly anisotropic; most photons are emitted radially forward. Moreover, either at {nu}{sub 0} or at the double peaks, the {mu} distributions actually are independent of the initial {mu} distribution of photons of the source. This is because the photons with frequencies either at {nu}{sub 0} or the double peaks undergo the process of forgetting their initial conditions due to resonant scattering. We also show that the optically thick medium is a collimator of photons at the double peaks. Photons from the double peaks form a forward beam with a very small opening angle.
A Novel Permanent Magnetic Angular Acceleration Sensor
Zhao, Hao; Feng, Hao
2015-01-01
Angular acceleration is an important parameter for status monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotary machinery. Therefore, we developed a novel permanent magnetic angular acceleration sensor, which is without rotation angle limitations and could directly measure the instantaneous angular acceleration of the rotating system. The sensor rotor only needs to be coaxially connected with the rotating system, which enables convenient sensor installation. For the cup structure of the sensor rotor, it has a relatively small rotational inertia. Due to the unique mechanical structure of the sensor, the output signal of the sensor can be directed without a slip ring, which avoids signal weakening effect. In this paper, the operating principle of the sensor is described, and simulated using finite element method. The sensitivity of the sensor is calibrated by torsional pendulum and angle sensor, yielding an experimental result of about 0.88 mV/(rad·s?2). Finally, the angular acceleration of the actual rotating system has been tested, using both a single-phase asynchronous motor and a step motor. Experimental result confirms the operating principle of the sensor and indicates that the sensor has good practicability. PMID:26151217
Monodromy, diabolic points, and angular momentum coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadovskií, D. A.; Z?ilinskií, B. I.
1999-06-01
Monodromy, or the most basic obstruction to global action-angle coordinates is shown to be present in the well known problem of two coupled angular momenta. It is also shown that in the corresponding quantum problem monodromy manifests itself as the redistribution of energy levels between different multiplets of the quantum spectrum.
Angular spectrum of quantized light beams
A. Aiello; J. Visser; G. Nienhuis; J. P. Woerdman
2006-02-20
We introduce a generalized angular spectrum representation for quantized light beams. By using our formalism, we are able to derive simple expressions for the electromagnetic vector potential operator in the case of: {a)} time-independent paraxial fields, {b)} time-dependent paraxial fields, and {c)} non-paraxial fields. For the first case, the well known paraxial results are fully recovered.
The Role of Angularity in Route Choice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turner, Alasdair
The paths of 2425 individual motorcycle trips made in London were analyzed in order to uncover the route choice decisions made by drivers. The paths were derived from global positioning system (GPS) data collected by a courier company for each of their drivers, using algorithms developed for the purpose of this paper. Motorcycle couriers were chosen due to the fact that they both know streets very well and that they do not rely on the GPS to guide their navigation. Each trace was mapped to the underlying road network, and two competing hypotheses for route choice decisions were compared: (a) that riders attempt to minimize the Manhattan distance between locations and (b) that they attempt to minimize the angular distance. In each case, the distance actually traveled was compared to the minimum possible either block or angular distance through the road network. It is usually believed that drivers who know streets well will navigate trips that reduce Manhattan distance; however, here it is shown that angularity appears to play an important role in route choice. 63% of trips made took the minimum possible angular distance between origin and destination, while 51% of trips followed the minimum possible block distance. This implies that impact of turns on cognitive distance plays an important role in decision making, even when a driver has good knowledge of the spatial network.
On the quantisation of the angular momentum
Ho, V B
1994-01-01
When a hydrogen-like atom is treated as a two dimensional system whose configuration space is multiply connected, then in order to obtain the same energy spectrum as in the Bohr model the angular momentum must be half-integral.
On the quantisation of the angular momentum
Vu B Ho
1994-01-13
When a hydrogen-like atom is treated as a two dimensional system whose configuration space is multiply connected, then in order to obtain the same energy spectrum as in the Bohr model the angular momentum must be half-integral.
Heteromodal conceptual processing in the angular gyrus
Bonner, Michael F.; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Cook, Philip A.; Grossman, Murray
2013-01-01
Concepts bind together the features commonly associated with objects and events to form networks in long-term semantic memory. These conceptual networks are the basis of human knowledge and underlie perception, imagination, and the ability to communicate about experiences and the contents of the environment. Although it is often assumed that this distributed semantic information is integrated in higher-level heteromodal association cortices, open questions remain about the role and anatomic basis of heteromodal representations in semantic memory. Here we used combined neuroimaging evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize the cortical networks underlying concept representation. Using a lexical decision task, we examined the processing of concepts in four semantic categories that varied on their sensory-motor feature associations (sight, sound, manipulation, and abstract). We found that the angular gyrus was activated across all categories regardless of their modality-specific feature associations, consistent with a heteromodal account for the angular gyrus. Exploratory analyses suggested that categories with weighted sensory-motor features additionally recruited modality-specific association cortices. Furthermore, DTI tractography identified white matter tracts connecting these regions of modality-specific functional activation with the angular gyrus. These findings are consistent with a distributed semantic network that includes a heteromodal, integrative component in the angular gyrus in combination with sensory-motor feature representations in modality-specific association cortices. PMID:23333416
Spacecraft Angular State Estimation After Sensor Failure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor); BarItzhack, Itzhack Y.; Harman, Richard R.
2002-01-01
This work describes two algorithms for computing the angular rate and attitude in case of a gyro failure in a spacecraft (SC) with a special mission profile. The source of the problem is presented, two algorithms are suggested, an observability study is carried out, and the efficiency of the algorithms is demonstrated.
Inclusion of angular momentum in FREYA
Randrup, Jørgen; Vogt, Ramona
2015-01-01
The event-by-event fission model FREYA generates large samples of complete fission events from which any observable can extracted, including fluctuations of the observables and the correlations between them. We describe here how FREYA was recently refined to include angular momentum throughout. Subsequently we present some recent results for both neutron and photon observables.
Optical Broadband Angular Selectivity Yichen Shen,1
-visible-spectrum, p-polarized angularly selective material system. Our method enables transparency throughout angle. 1 #12;The ability to control light has long been a major scientific and technological goal. The ability to select light according to each of these separate properties would be an essential step
Angular momentum of the physical electron
A. M. Stewart
2009-04-29
The angular momentum of the physical electron, modelled as a Dirac fermion coupled to the electromagnetic field, is found to be hbar/2, the same as that of a bare Dirac fermion and independent of the size of the electric charge.
An angular momentum bound at null infinity
Piotr T. Chru?ciel; Paul Tod
2007-06-27
We prove an inequality relating the trace of the extrinsic curvature, the total angular momentum, the centre of mass, and the Trautman-Bondi mass for a class of gravitational initial data sets with constant mean curvature extending to null infinity. As an application we obtain non-existence results for the asymptotic Dirichlet problem for CMC hypersurfaces in stationary space-times.
Photon Orbital Angular Momentum in Astrophysics
Martin Harwit
2003-07-24
Astronomical observations of the orbital angular momentum of photons, a property of electromagnetic radiation that has come to the fore in recent years, have apparently never been attempted. Here, I show that measurements of this property of photons have a number of astrophysical applications.
Wigner Functions and Quark Orbital Angular Momentum
Asmita Mukherjee; Sreeraj Nair; Vikash Kumar Ojha
2014-09-25
Wigner distributions contain combined position and momentum space information of the quark distributions and are related to both generalized parton distributions (GPDs) and transverse momentum dependent parton distributions (TMDs). We report on a recent model calculation of the Wigner distributions for the quark and their relation to the orbital angular momentum.
A high-resolution optical see-through head-mounted display with eyetracking capability.
Hua, Hong; Hu, Xinda; Gao, Chunyu
2013-12-16
A head-mounted display system with fully-integrated eyetracking capability offers multi-fold benefits, not only to fundamental scientific research but also to emerging applications of such technology. A key limitation of the state-of-the-art eyetracked head-mounted display (ET-HMD) technology is the lack of compactness and portability. In this paper, we present an innovative design of a high resolution optical see-through ET-HMD system based on freeform optical technology. A prototype system is demonstrated, which offers a goggle-like compact form factor, non-obstructive see-through field of view and true high-definition image resolution for the virtual display. The see-through view, via the combination of a freeform prism and corrector, achieved better than 0.5 arc minute of angular resolution for the central region of approximately 40-degrees to ensure minimal impacts on the see-through vision of an HMD user. PMID:24514672
Ren, Huazhong; Yan, Guangjian; Liu, Rongyuan; Li, Zhao-Liang; Qin, Qiming; Nerry, Françoise; Liu, Qiang
2015-01-01
Multi-angular observation of land surface thermal radiation is considered to be a promising method of performing the angular normalization of land surface temperature (LST) retrieved from remote sensing data. This paper focuses on an investigation of the minimum requirements of viewing angles to perform such normalizations on LST. The normally kernel-driven bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) is first extended to the thermal infrared (TIR) domain as TIR-BRDF model, and its uncertainty is shown to be less than 0.3 K when used to fit the hemispheric directional thermal radiation. A local optimum three-angle combination is found and verified using the TIR-BRDF model based on two patterns: the single-point pattern and the linear-array pattern. The TIR-BRDF is applied to an airborne multi-angular dataset to retrieve LST at nadir (Te-nadir) from different viewing directions, and the results show that this model can obtain reliable Te-nadir from 3 to 4 directional observations with large angle intervals, thus corresponding to large temperature angular variations. The Te-nadir is generally larger than temperature of the slant direction, with a difference of approximately 0.5~2.0 K for vegetated pixels and up to several Kelvins for non-vegetated pixels. The findings of this paper will facilitate the future development of multi-angular thermal infrared sensors. PMID:25825975
Krause, H.F.; Barrett, J.H.; Datz, S.; Dittner, P.F.; Jones, N.L.; Gomez del Campo, J.; Vane, C.R. )
1994-01-01
We have studied the angular distributions for 6--30-MeV C[sup [ital q]+] ([ital q]=4--6) and 2--9-MeV H[sup +] ions axially channeled in the [001] direction of a thin silicon crystal (1792 and 1900 A). We report highly structured two-dimensional angular distributions that depend sensitively on the projectile's velocity and incident charge state and the target's thickness and azimuthal orientation. Some structure in the angular contour maps is the result of a rainbow effect in axial channeling (i.e., extrema in the classical deflection function). State-to-state charge-state distributions, which are required to interpret the data accurately, have also been measured. All measured angular distributions have been explained via Monte Carlo trajectory calculations using Moliere's approximation to the Thomas-Fermi screening function and a screening length given by target electrons alone. The calculations indicate that all projectile velocity and charge-state effects and the target-thickness effects observed are the result of the projectile's transverse oscillatory motion in the channel. Using this information, we show that swift heavy-ion and proton angular distributions are simply related using a scaling law that depends only on the projectile's velocity and charge-to-mass ratio and on the crystal thickness.
Angular Momentum Role in the Hypercritical Accretion of Binary-Driven Hypernovae
L. Becerra; F. Cipolletta; C. L. Fryer; Jorge A. Rueda; R. Ruffini
2015-08-05
The induced gravitational collapse (IGC) paradigm explains a class of energetic, $E_{\\rm iso}\\gtrsim 10^{52}$~erg, long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) associated with Ic supernovae, recently named binary-driven hypernovae (BdHNe). The progenitor is a tight binary system formed of a carbon-oxygen (CO) core and a neutron star companion. The supernova ejecta of the exploding CO core triggers a hypercritical accretion process onto the neutron star, which reaches in a few seconds the critical mass, and gravitationally collapses to a black hole emitting a GRB. In our previous simulations of this process we adopted a spherically symmetric approximation to compute the features of the hypercritical accretion process. We here present the first estimates of the angular momentum transported by the supernova ejecta, $L_{\\rm acc}$, and perform numerical simulations of the angular momentum transfer to the neutron star during the hyperaccretion process in full general relativity. We show that the neutron star: i) reaches in a few seconds either mass-shedding limit or the secular axisymmetric instability depending on its initial mass; ii) reaches a maximum dimensionless angular momentum value, $[c J/(G M^2)]_{\\rm max}\\approx 0.7$; iii) can support less angular momentum than the one transported by supernova ejecta, $L_{\\rm acc} > J_{\\rm NS,max}$, hence there is an angular momentum excess which necessarily leads to jetted emission.
Ren, Huazhong; Yan, Guangjian; Liu, Rongyuan; Li, Zhao-Liang; Qin, Qiming; Nerry, Françoise; Liu, Qiang
2015-01-01
Multi-angular observation of land surface thermal radiation is considered to be a promising method of performing the angular normalization of land surface temperature (LST) retrieved from remote sensing data. This paper focuses on an investigation of the minimum requirements of viewing angles to perform such normalizations on LST. The normally kernel-driven bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) is first extended to the thermal infrared (TIR) domain as TIR-BRDF model, and its uncertainty is shown to be less than 0.3 K when used to fit the hemispheric directional thermal radiation. A local optimum three-angle combination is found and verified using the TIR-BRDF model based on two patterns: the single-point pattern and the linear-array pattern. The TIR-BRDF is applied to an airborne multi-angular dataset to retrieve LST at nadir (Te-nadir) from different viewing directions, and the results show that this model can obtain reliable Te-nadir from 3 to 4 directional observations with large angle intervals, thus corresponding to large temperature angular variations. The Te-nadir is generally larger than temperature of the slant direction, with a difference of approximately 0.5~2.0 K for vegetated pixels and up to several Kelvins for non-vegetated pixels. The findings of this paper will facilitate the future development of multi-angular thermal infrared sensors. PMID:25825975
Angular momentum evolution of Algol binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibano?lu, C.; Soydugan, F.; Soydugan, E.; Dervi?o?lu, A.
2006-11-01
We have compiled the well-determined absolute parameters of Algol-type binaries. The lists contain the parameters of 74 detached and 61 semidetached close binaries. The double-lined eclipsing binaries provide not only the most accurate determinations of stellar mass, radius and temperatures but also distance-independent luminosity for each of their individual components. The distributions of the primary and secondary masses of detached binaries (DBs) are similar, whilst the secondary masses of the semidetached binaries (SDBs) are mostly smaller than 2 Msolar with a peak in the M2-bin (0.21-1.0). The components of the DBs are almost all located in the main-sequence band. On the contrary, the secondary components of the SDBs have larger radii and luminosity with respect to the same mass and the same effective temperature of main-sequence counterparts. They occupy a region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram between terminal-age main sequence and giants. Moreover, the total angular momenta and specific angular momenta are larger for the SDBs of orbital periods with P > 5 d than those of the shorter period ones. The specific angular momenta of SDBs with periods longer than 5 d are 65 per cent greater than that of the short period group with the same mass. The DBs and the SDBs with orbital periods longer and shorter than 5 d are separated into three groups in the J/M5/3 - q diagram. The SDBs with mass ratios greater than 0.3 and P > 5 d have almost the same angular momentum to those of DBs. However, the SDBs with short periods have the smallest angular momentum even though they have the same mass ratios. This result reveals that angular momentum loss (AML) considerably affects the evolution of close binary systems. Recently, Chen, Li & Qian suggested that, in addition to magnetic braking, a circumbinary disc may play an important role in AML from Algol-type binaries. Their calculations indicated that the evolution of Algol-type binaries can be significantly affected by the circumbinary disc. Our results show that the evolution of close binaries begins as a DB and losing angular momentum, first via stellar wind and then magnetic braking plus circumbinary disc the period is shortened and orbit shrinks. Thereafter, the evolution of the system is accelerated and mass transfer rates are enhanced which result in a smaller mass ratios.
Covariant approximation averaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shintani, Eigo; Arthur, Rudy; Blum, Thomas; Izubuchi, Taku; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph
2015-06-01
We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in Nf=2 +1 lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.
Covariant approximation averaging
Eigo Shintani; Rudy Arthur; Thomas Blum; Taku Izubuchi; Chulwoo Jung; Christoph Lehner
2015-07-08
We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte-Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte-Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.
Approximate Degradable Quantum Channels
David Sutter; Volkher B. Scholz; Andreas Winter; Renato Renner
2015-08-31
Degradable quantum channels are an important class of completely positive trace-preserving maps. Among other properties, they offer a single-letter formula for the quantum and the private classical capacity and are characterized by the fact that the complementary channel can be obtained from the channel by applying a degrading map. In this work we introduce the concept of approximate degradable channels, which satisfy this condition up to some finite $\\varepsilon\\geq 0$. That is, there exists a degrading map which upon composition with the channel is $\\varepsilon$-close in the diamond norm to the complementary channel. We show that for any fixed channel the smallest such $\\varepsilon$ can be efficiently determined via a semidefinite program. Moreover, these approximate degradable channels also approximately inherit all other properties of degradable channels. As an application, we derive improved upper bounds to the quantum and private classical capacity for certain channels of interest in quantum communication.
Approximate Bayesian Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cisewski, Jessi
2015-08-01
Explicitly specifying a likelihood function is becoming increasingly difficult for many problems in astronomy. Astronomers often specify a simpler approximate likelihood - leaving out important aspects of a more realistic model. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) provides a framework for performing inference in cases where the likelihood is not available or intractable. I will introduce ABC and explain how it can be a useful tool for astronomers. In particular, I will focus on the eccentricity distribution for a sample of exoplanets with multiple sub-populations.
Cluster dynamics and object resolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perrella, Albert J., Jr.
1992-08-01
This paper documents an analytical effort that looks at the expectation of being able to resolve individual members of a cluster of objects as a function of the parameters of time after deployment, the number and distribution of objects in the cluster, their relative separation velocities, sensor resolution capability, and the shape of the cluster -- essentially local object density. Multiple methods of modeling object clusters were investigated and found to be equivalent in their results. A simple set of equations has been derived that fits modeled data over a wide range of the parameter variations. For N objects in a cluster of average density equals d objects per resolution cell; R approximately equals N (DOT) e-d equals the expected number of objects resolved, and P approximately equals (N - R)/d equals the expected number of subclusters perceived. For uniform cluster densities, d is inversely proportional to time squared, and a method is shown for calculating d for non-uniform cluster densities. In addition, an approximately constant relationship between the number of objects perceived and the number of resolved objects is shown; R approximately equals P2/N. Several applications of these relationships which are of interest to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) are examined, including the `Cheshire Cat Effect' wherein the number of perceived objects as a function of resolution and sensor sensitivity is discussed. In addition, system level implications of the effects of target density during boost phase and during the cluster tracking phase of mid-course are covered. The behavior of large numbers of clusters in a threat tube is examined and characterized as the individual clusters overlap each other as they expand and form a `supercluster.' An equilibrium limit of resolution possible within a `supercluster' is shown.
Molecular collisions. 11: Semiclassical approximation to atom-symmetric top rotational excitation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Russell, D.; Curtiss, C. F.
1973-01-01
In a paper of this series a distorted wave approximation to the T matrix for atom-symmetric top scattering was developed which is correct to first order in the part of the interaction potential responsible for transitions in the component of rotational angular momentum along the symmetry axis of the top. A semiclassical expression for this T matrix is derived by assuming large values of orbital and rotational angular momentum quantum numbers.
Verdu, G.; Capilla, M.; Talavera, C. F.; Ginestar, D.
2012-07-01
PL equations are classical high order approximations to the transport equations which are based on the expansion of the angular dependence of the angular neutron flux and the nuclear cross sections in terms of spherical harmonics. A nodal collocation method is used to discretize the PL equations associated with a neutron source transport problem. The performance of the method is tested solving two 1D problems with analytical solution for the transport equation and a classical 2D problem. (authors)
Ambrosio, Leonardo A.; Hernández-Figueroa, Hugo E.
2011-01-01
We investigate optical torques over absorbent negative refractive index spherical scatterers under the influence of linear and circularly polarized TEM00 focused Gaussian beams, in the framework of the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory with the integral localized approximation. The fundamental differences between optical torques due to spin angular momentum transfer in positive and negative refractive index optical trapping are outlined, revealing the effect of the Mie scattering coefficients in one of the most fundamental properties in optical trapping systems. PMID:21833372
F. Liguori; F. Buonocore; D. Ninno; G. Iadonisi
2001-01-01
We present a random-phase approximation calculation of the collective plasmon excitation spectrum of a one-dimensional electron gas confined in cylindrical and rectangular semiconductor quantum wires. The plasmon spectrum for the cylindrical case is calculated considering up to three occupied subbands. Taking into account the twofold angular degeneracy of the single-particle energy spectrum, we derive different expressions for the electron-electron interaction
Classical density functional theory of solvation in molecular solvents: Angular grid implementation
Lionel Gendre; Rosa Ramirez; Daniel Borgis
2009-01-01
The solvation properties of a solute in a molecular solvent can be obtained by minimization of a position and orientation-dependent free-energy density functional, with the unknown excess term approximated by the angular-dependent direct correlation function of the pure solvent. We show how this function can be extracted from MD simulations of the pure solvent by computing the pair distribution function
Mode density of orbital angular momentum modes in a cylindrical cavity and in free space
Andersson, Mauritz; Björk, Gunnar
2015-01-01
In this short note we derive an approximate expression for the mode density of modes carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) in a cylindrical cavity which is large compared to the inverse wavevector in any direction. We argue that in the large cavity limit the modes asymptotically converges to the corresponding OAM modes in free space. We compare the result to Weyl's law. It is found, as expected, that the mode density does not depend on whether or not the modes carry OAM.
PARALLEL COST APPROXIMATION ALGORITHMS
Patriksson, Michael
9 PARALLEL COST APPROXIMATION ALGORITHMS FOR DIFFERENTIABLE OPTIMIZATION Michael Patriksson Department of Mathematics, Box 354350 University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195Â4350 ABSTRACT, a synchronized parallel algorithm which encompasses the Jacobi method, and a parÂ tially asynchronous parallel
The parabolic approximation method
Fred D. Tappert
This article has dealt with various aspects of parabolic approximation methods in underwater acoustics, mostly for propagation of sinusoidal signals. Extensions of these methods to time-dependent problems are also available: pulse propagation, moving sources and receivers, frequency shifting effects due to rapid temporal variations of oceanic conditions, and so forth. However, an adequate description of these extensions would require another
approximate replication a dissertation
Pratt, Vaughan
approximate replication a dissertation submitted to the department of computer science Alden Remi Olston 2003 All Rights Reserved ii #12; I certify that I have read this dissertation and that, in my opinion, it is fully adequate in scope and quality as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor
approximate replication a dissertation
Pratt, Vaughan
approximate replication a dissertation submitted to the department of computer science Alden Remi Olston 2003 All Rights Reserved ii #12;I certify that I have read this dissertation and that, in my opinion, it is fully adequate in scope and quality as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor
Approximating Integrals Using Probability
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maruszewski, Richard F., Jr.; Caudle, Kyle A.
2005-01-01
As part of a discussion on Monte Carlo methods, which outlines how to use probability expectations to approximate the value of a definite integral. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on this technique and then to show several examples using visual basic as a programming tool. It is an interesting method because it combines two branches of…
Angular momentum dependent orbital-free density functional theory: Formulation and implementation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ke, Youqi; Libisch, Florian; Xia, Junchao; Carter, Emily A.
2014-04-01
Orbital-free density functional theory (OFDFT) directly solves for the ground-state electron density. It scales linearly with respect to system size, providing a promising tool for large-scale material simulations. Removal of the orbitals requires use of approximate noninteracting kinetic energy density functionals. If replacing ionic cores with pseudopotentials, removal of the orbitals also requires these pseudopotentials to be local. These are two severe challenges to the capabilities of conventional OFDFT. While main group elements are often well described within conventional OFDFT, transition metals remain intractable due to their localized d electrons. To advance the accuracy and general applicability of OFDFT, we have recently reported a general angular momentum dependent formulation as a next-generation OFDFT. In this formalism, we incorporate the angular momenta of electrons by devising a hybrid scheme based on a muffin tin geometry: inside spheres centered at the ionic cores, the electron density is expanded in a set of atom-centered basis functions combined with an onsite density matrix. The explicit treatment of the angular momenta of electrons provides an important basis for accurately describing the important ionic core region, which is not possible in conventional OFDFT. In addition to the conventional OFDFT total energy functional, we introduce a nonlocal energy term containing a set of angular momentum dependent energies to correct the errors due to the approximate kinetic energy density functional and local pseudopotentials. Our approach greatly increases the accuracy of OFDFT while largely preserving its numerical simplicity. Here, we provide details of the theoretical formulation and practical implementation, including the hybrid scheme, the derivation of the nonlocal energy term, the choice of basis functions, the direct minimization of the total energy, the procedure to determine the angular momentum dependent energies, the force formula with Pulay correction, and the solution to emerging numerical instability. To test the angular momentum dependent OFDFT formalism and its numerical implementations, we calculate a diverse set of properties of the transition metal Ti and compare with different levels of DFT approximation. The results suggest that angular momentum dependent OFDFT ultimately will extend the reliable reach of OFDFT to the rest of the periodic table.
Moretto, L.G.; Blau, S.; Pacheco, A.
1980-12-01
The angular momentum misalignment for fragments produced in deep inelastic scattering is discussed in terms of the thermal excitation of angular-momentum-bearing modes in the intermediate complex. Analytical expressions for the in- and out-of-plane angular distributions are obtained for sequentially emitted particles and fission fragments. The angular momentum dependence of the ratio between particle and neutron decay width is explicitly treated and found to be quite important. Similarly angular distributions are obtained both for dipole and quadrupole gamma decay. The theoretical results are compared with experimental angular distributions of sequential fission fragments, sequential alphas and gamma rays and a good agreement is found.
Laplace equation, magnetic recording and the Karlqvist approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tannous, C.
2015-09-01
Magnetic recording head theory is based on the Karlqvist approximation to solve the Laplace equation over a polygonal domain that originates from a magnetostatic approach to describe the magnetic field produced by the read/write head in the recording medium. The approximation is reviewed and compared to various approaches dealing with solving the Laplace equation using different boundary conditions. The solution is obtained by the Green function, Fourier transform, Fourier series and finally by conformal mapping methods that allow us, on one hand, to comply with the Sommerfeld edge condition required at angular points and on the other, to obtain exact results.
Satellite Angular Rate Estimation From Vector Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Azor, Ruth; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.; Harman, Richard R.
1996-01-01
This paper presents an algorithm for estimating the angular rate vector of a satellite which is based on the time derivatives of vector measurements expressed in a reference and body coordinate. The computed derivatives are fed into a spacial Kalman filter which yields an estimate of the spacecraft angular velocity. The filter, named Extended Interlaced Kalman Filter (EIKF), is an extension of the Kalman filter which, although being linear, estimates the state of a nonlinear dynamic system. It consists of two or three parallel Kalman filters whose individual estimates are fed to one another and are considered as known inputs by the other parallel filter(s). The nonlinear dynamics stem from the nonlinear differential equation that describes the rotation of a three dimensional body. Initial results, using simulated data, and real Rossi X ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data indicate that the algorithm is efficient and robust.
The Angular Power Spectrum of EDSGC Galaxies
Dragan Huterer; Lloyd Knox; Robert C. Nichol
2001-01-30
We determine the angular power spectrum, C_l, of the Edinburgh/Durham Southern Galaxy Catalog (EDSGC) and use this statistic to constrain cosmological parameters. Our methods for determining C_l, and the parameters that affect it are based on those developed for the analysis of cosmic microwave background maps. We expect them to be useful for future surveys. Assuming flat cold dark matter models with a cosmological constant (constrained by COBE/DMR and local cluster abundances), and a scale--independent bias, b, we find good fits to the EDSGC angular power spectrum with 1.11 < b < 2.35 and 0.2 < Omega_m < 0.55 at 95% confidence. These results are not significantly affected by the ``integral constraint'' or extinction by interstellar dust, but may be by our assumption of Gaussianity.
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marriage, Tobias; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Araujo, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Boone, F.; Chan, M.; Cho, H.; Chuss, D. T.; Colazo, F.; Crowe, E.; Denis, K.; Dünner, R.; Eimer, J.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Huang, C.; Irwin, K.; Jones, G.; Karakla, J.; Kogut, A. J.; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Lowry, L.; Mehrle, N.; Miller, A. D.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Novak, G.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; Stevenson, T.; Towner, D.; U-Yen, K.; Wagner, E.; Watts, D.; Wollack, E.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.
2014-01-01
Some of the most compelling inflation models predict a background of primordial gravitational waves (PGW) detectable by their imprint of a curl-like "B-mode" pattern in the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a novel array of telescopes to measure the B-mode signature of the PGW. By targeting the largest angular scales (>2°) with a multifrequency array, novel polarization modulation and detectors optimized for both control of systematics and sensitivity, CLASS sets itself apart in the field of CMB polarization surveys and opens an exciting new discovery space for the PGW and inflation. This poster presents an overview of the CLASS project.
Phenomenological Determination of the Orbital Angular Momentum
Ramsey, Gordon P. [Physics Department, Loyola University, Chicago, IL 60626 (United States) and High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Lab, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)
2009-08-04
Measurements involving the gluon spin, {delta}G(x, t) and the corresponding asymmetry, A(x,t) = {delta}G(x,t)/G(x,t) play an important role in quantitative understanding of proton structure. We have modeled the asymmetry perturbatively and calculated model corrections to obtain information about non-perturbative spin-orbit effects. These models are consistent with existing COMPASS and HERMES data on the gluon asymmetry. The J{sub z} = (1/2) sum rule is used to generate values of orbital angular momentum at LO and NLO. For models consistent with data, the orbital angular momentum is small. Our studies specify accuracy that future measurements should achieve to constrain theoretical models for nucleon structure.
Optimizing the Zeldovich approximation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melott, Adrian L.; Pellman, Todd F.; Shandarin, Sergei F.
1994-01-01
We have recently learned that the Zeldovich approximation can be successfully used for a far wider range of gravitational instability scenarios than formerly proposed; we study here how to extend this range. In previous work (Coles, Melott and Shandarin 1993, hereafter CMS) we studied the accuracy of several analytic approximations to gravitational clustering in the mildly nonlinear regime. We found that what we called the 'truncated Zeldovich approximation' (TZA) was better than any other (except in one case the ordinary Zeldovich approximation) over a wide range from linear to mildly nonlinear (sigma approximately 3) regimes. TZA was specified by setting Fourier amplitudes equal to zero for all wavenumbers greater than k(sub nl), where k(sub nl) marks the transition to the nonlinear regime. Here, we study the cross correlation of generalized TZA with a group of n-body simulations for three shapes of window function: sharp k-truncation (as in CMS), a tophat in coordinate space, or a Gaussian. We also study the variation in the crosscorrelation as a function of initial truncation scale within each type. We find that k-truncation, which was so much better than other things tried in CMS, is the worst of these three window shapes. We find that a Gaussian window e(exp(-k(exp 2)/2k(exp 2, sub G))) applied to the initial Fourier amplitudes is the best choice. It produces a greatly improved crosscorrelation in those cases which most needed improvement, e.g. those with more small-scale power in the initial conditions. The optimum choice of kG for the Gaussian window is (a somewhat spectrum-dependent) 1 to 1.5 times k(sub nl). Although all three windows produce similar power spectra and density distribution functions after application of the Zeldovich approximation, the agreement of the phases of the Fourier components with the n-body simulation is better for the Gaussian window. We therefore ascribe the success of the best-choice Gaussian window to its superior treatment of phases in the nonlinear regime. We also report on the accuracy of particle positions and velocities produced by TZA.
Quantized angular momenta in the laser gyro
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolf, E. L.
1982-07-01
A brief discussion is presented of the operation of the traveling-wave ring laser as a sensor of rotation. The description, based on the azimuthal probability function P(?) associated with a linear combination of oppositely directed and conserved angular momenta Lz = ±mh/, is free of certain restrictions inherent in the conventional treatment, as well as providing a simple and transparent picture of the physical origin of gyroscopic action.(AIP)
Angular quadratures for improved transport computations
Abu-Shumays, I.K.
1999-07-22
This paper introduces new octant-range, composite-type Gauss and mid-point rule angular quadrature formulas for neutron and photon transport computations. A generalization to octant-range quadratures is also introduced in order to allow for discontinuities at material interfaces for two- and three-dimensional transport problems which can be modeled with 60-degree triangular or hexagonal mesh subdivisions in the x-y plane.
Angular momentum quantization from Planck's energy quantization
Sales, J H O; Bonafe, D S
2007-01-01
We present in this work a pedagogical way of quantizing the atomic orbit for the hydrogen's atom model proposed by Bohr without using his hypothesis of angular momentum quantization. In contrast to the usual treatment for the orbital quantization, we show that using energy conservation, correspondence principle and Plank's energy quantization Bohr's hypothesis can be deduced from and is a consequence of the Planck's energy quantization.
Modern Physics Problem: Angular Wave Functions
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Wolfgang Christian
The two Physlets show a density plot of the Hydrogenic wavefunction and the solution to the angular, that is, polar, equation. The word "density" refers to a method for plotting 3-D information on a two dimensional screen. Here it has nothing to do with the probability density in quantum mechanics. The polar solutions used here are the unnormalized associated Legendre polynomials, Plm(q,f). Note that the x and z coordinates range from -1 to +1.
Angular momentum quantization from Planck's energy quantization
J. H. O. Sales; A. T. Suzuki; D. S. Bonafe
2007-09-26
We present in this work a pedagogical way of quantizing the atomic orbit for the hydrogen's atom model proposed by Bohr without using his hypothesis of angular momentum quantization. In contrast to the usual treatment for the orbital quantization, we show that using energy conservation, correspondence principle and Plank's energy quantization Bohr's hypothesis can be deduced from and is a consequence of the Planck's energy quantization.
Oscillations in the angular velocity of pulsars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahabasyan, K. M.; Shahabasyan, M. K.
2011-03-01
Observational data on long-period oscillations in the angular velocity of pulsars are examined. The characteristic radii of the superfluid regions of pulsars are determined assuming that these oscillations are collective elastic oscillations of a superfluid vortex lattice (Tkachenko oscillations). These radii are compared with values obtained in various theoretical models of neutron stars which assume the existence of a superfluid quark "CFL"-core or a superfluid hyperon core. This method can be used to estimate the radii of pulsars.
Wigner distributions and quark orbital angular momentum
Cedric Lorce; Barbara Pasquini
2012-08-15
We discuss the quark phase-space or Wigner distributions of the nucleon which combine in a single picture all the information contained in the generalized parton distributions and the transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions. In particular, we present results for the distribution of unpolarized quarks in a longitudinally polarized nucleon obtained in a light-front constituent quark model. We show how the quark orbital angular momentum can be extracted from the Wigner distributions and compare it with alternative definitions.
High-resolution light field cameras based on a hybrid imaging system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Feng; Lu, Jing; Ma, Yike; Zhang, Yongdong
2014-11-01
Compared to traditional digital cameras, light field (LF) cameras measure not only the intensity of rays, but also their light field information. As LF cameras trade a good deal of spatial resolution for extra angular information, they provide lower spatial resolution than traditional digital cameras. In this paper, we show a hybrid imaging system consisting of a LF camera and a high-resolution traditional digital camera, achieving both high spatial resolution and high angular resolution. We build an example prototype using a Lytro camera and a DSLR camera to generate a LF image with 10 megapixel spatial resolution and get high-resolution digital refocused images, multi-view images and all-focused images.
Angular Momentum Exchange in White Dwarf Binaries Accreting Through Direct Impact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sepinsky, J. F.; Kalogera, V.
2014-04-01
We examine the exchange of angular momentum between the component spins and the orbit in semi-detached double white dwarf binaries undergoing mass transfer through direct impact of the transfer stream. We approximate the stream as a series of discrete massive particles ejected in the ballistic limit at the inner Lagrangian point of the donor toward the accretor. This work improves upon similar earlier studies in a number of ways. First, we self-consistently calculate the total angular momentum of the orbit at all times. This includes changes in the orbital angular momentum during the ballistic trajectory of the ejected mass, as well as changes during the ejection/accretion due to the radial component of the particle's velocity. Second, we calculate the particle's ballistic trajectory for each system, which allows us to determine the precise position and velocity of the particle upon accretion. We can then include specific information about the radius of the accretor as well as the angle of impact. Finally, we ensure that the total angular momentum is conserved, which requires the donor star spin to vary self-consistently. With these improvements, we calculate the angular momentum change of the orbit and each binary component across the entire parameter space of direct impact double white dwarf binary systems. We find a significant decrease in the amount of angular momentum removed from the orbit during mass transfer, as well as cases where this process increases the angular momentum of the orbit at the expense of the spin angular momentum of the donor. We conclude that, unlike earlier claims in the literature, mass transfer through direct impact need not destabilize the binary and that the quantity and sign of the orbital angular momentum transfer depends on the binary properties, particularly the masses of the double white dwarf binary component stars. This stabilization may significantly impact the population synthesis calculations of the expected numbers of events/systems for which double white dwarfs may be a progenitor, e.g., Type Ia supernovae, Type.Ia supernovae, and AM CVn.
Angular momentum exchange in white dwarf binaries accreting through direct impact
Sepinsky, J. F.; Kalogera, V. E-mail: vicky@northwestern.edu
2014-04-20
We examine the exchange of angular momentum between the component spins and the orbit in semi-detached double white dwarf binaries undergoing mass transfer through direct impact of the transfer stream. We approximate the stream as a series of discrete massive particles ejected in the ballistic limit at the inner Lagrangian point of the donor toward the accretor. This work improves upon similar earlier studies in a number of ways. First, we self-consistently calculate the total angular momentum of the orbit at all times. This includes changes in the orbital angular momentum during the ballistic trajectory of the ejected mass, as well as changes during the ejection/accretion due to the radial component of the particle's velocity. Second, we calculate the particle's ballistic trajectory for each system, which allows us to determine the precise position and velocity of the particle upon accretion. We can then include specific information about the radius of the accretor as well as the angle of impact. Finally, we ensure that the total angular momentum is conserved, which requires the donor star spin to vary self-consistently. With these improvements, we calculate the angular momentum change of the orbit and each binary component across the entire parameter space of direct impact double white dwarf binary systems. We find a significant decrease in the amount of angular momentum removed from the orbit during mass transfer, as well as cases where this process increases the angular momentum of the orbit at the expense of the spin angular momentum of the donor. We conclude that, unlike earlier claims in the literature, mass transfer through direct impact need not destabilize the binary and that the quantity and sign of the orbital angular momentum transfer depends on the binary properties, particularly the masses of the double white dwarf binary component stars. This stabilization may significantly impact the population synthesis calculations of the expected numbers of events/systems for which double white dwarfs may be a progenitor, e.g., Type Ia supernovae, Type.Ia supernovae, and AM CVn.
Ioan Turcu; Radu Bratfalean; Silvia Neamtu
2008-01-01
The adequacy of the effective phase function (EPF) used to describe the light scattered at small angles was tested on aqueous suspensions of polystyrene microspheres. Angular resolved light scattering measurements were performed on two types of latex suspension, which contained polystyrene spheres of 3 µm and 5 µm diameters, respectively. The experimental data were fitted with two EPF approximants. If
Introduction 1.1 Angular Broadening, Pulse Broadening, and Scintillation
Gwinn, Carl
1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Angular Broadening, Pulse Broadening, and Scintillation The dispersion the radiation, resulting in angular broadening, pulse broadening, and interstellar scintillation. While models broadening, scattering also causes interstellar scintillation. Interference among multiple rays creates
ANGULAR RADII OF STARS VIA MICROLENSING B. Scott Gaudi1
Gaudi, B. Scott
occultations, interferometry, and eclipsing binaries. Lunar occultation measurements yield precise angular routinely and in a model- independent way. Classical direct methods of measuring stellar radii include lunar on line. Unfortunately, both lunar occultation and interfero- metric angular diameter measurements have
Physics from angular projection of rectangular grids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Ashmeet
2015-03-01
In this paper, we present a mathematical model for the angular projection of a rectangular arrangement of points in a grid. This simple yet interesting, problem has both scholarly value and applications for data extraction techniques to study the physics of various systems. Our work may help undergraduate students to understand subtle points in the angular projection of a grid and describes various quantities of interest in the projection with completeness and sufficient rigour. We show that for certain angular ranges, the projection has non-distinctness, and calculate the details of such angles, and correspondingly, the number of distinct points and the total projected length. We focus on interesting trends obtained for the projected length of the grid elements and present a simple application of the model to determine the geometry of an unknown grid whose spatial extensions are known, using measurement of the grid projection at two angles only. Towards the end, our model is shown to have potential applications in various branches of physical sciences, including crystallography, astrophysics, and bulk properties of materials.
Physics from Angular Projection of Rectangular Grids
Ashmeet Singh
2014-12-08
In this paper, we present a mathematical model for the angular projection of a rectangular arrangement of points in a grid. This simple, yet interesting problem, has both a scholarly value and applications for data extraction techniques to study the physics of various systems. Our work can interest undergraduate students to understand subtle points in the angular projection of a grid and describes various quantities of interest in the projection with completeness and sufficient rigour. We show that for certain angular ranges, the projection has non-distinctness, and calculate the details of such angles, and correspondingly, the number of distinct points and the total projected length. We focus on interesting trends obtained for the projected length of the grid elements and present a simple application of the model to determine the geometry of an unknown grid whose spatial extensions are known, using measurement of the grid projection at two angles only. Towards the end, our model is shown to have potential applications in various branches of physical sciences including crystallography, astrophysics and bulk properties of materials.
Quark Wigner Distributions and Orbital Angular Momentum
Cedric Lorce; Barbara Pasquini
2011-06-01
We study the Wigner functions of the nucleon which provide multidimensional images of the quark distributions in phase space. These functions can be obtained through a Fourier transform in the transverse space of the generalized transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions. They depend on both the transverse position and the three-momentum of the quark relative to the nucleon, and therefore combine in a single picture all the information contained in the generalized parton distributions and the transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions. We focus the discussion on the distributions of unpolarized/longitudinally polarized quark in an unpolarized/longitudinally polarized nucleon. In this way, we can study the role of the orbital angular momentum of the quark in shaping the nucleon and its correlations with the quark and nucleon polarizations. The quark orbital angular momentum is also calculated from its phase-space average weighted with the Wigner distribution of unpolarized quarks in a longitudinally polarized nucleon. The corresponding results obtained within different light-cone quark models are compared with alternative definitions of the quark orbital angular momentum, as given in terms of generalized parton distributions and transverse-momentum dependent parton distributions.
Ordinances and Resolutions ORDINANCES, RESOLUTIONS AND REGULATIONS
Brierley, Andrew
Page 2.1 Ordinances and Resolutions ORDINANCES, RESOLUTIONS AND REGULATIONS 1. ORDINANCES AND RESOLUTIONS I. REGULATIONS FOR RESEARCH STUDENTS AND APPOINTMENT OF RESEARCH FELLOWS Ordinance 350, and Supplementary Regulations by the Senatus Academicus 1. Ordinance No. 61 (General No. 23) of the Commissioners
Fast Approximate Spectral Clustering
Donghui Yan; Ling Huang; Michael I. Jordan
2009-01-01
Spectral clustering refers to a flexible class of clustering proce- dures that can produce high-quality clusterings on small data sets but which has limited applicability to large-scale problems due to its computational complexity of O(n3), with n the number of data points. We extend the range of spectral clustering by develop- ing a general framework for fast approximate spectral clustering
Localization of angular momentum in optical waves propagating through turbulence.
Sanchez, Darryl J; Oesch, Denis W
2011-12-01
This is the first in a series of papers demonstrating that photons with orbital angular momentum can be created in optical waves propagating through distributed turbulence. The scope of this first paper is much narrower. Here, we demonstrate that atmospheric turbulence can impart non-trivial angular momentum to beams and that this non-trivial angular momentum is highly localized. Furthermore, creation of this angular momentum is a normal part of propagation through atmospheric turbulence. PMID:22273930
Interpolation function for approximating knee joint behavior in human gait
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toth-Ta?c?u, Mirela; Pater, Flavius; Stoia, Dan Ioan
2013-10-01
Starting from the importance of analyzing the kinematic data of the lower limb in gait movement, especially the angular variation of the knee joint, the paper propose an approximation function that can be used for processing the correlation among a multitude of knee cycles. The approximation of the raw knee data was done by Lagrange polynomial interpolation on a signal acquired using Zebris Gait Analysis System. The signal used in approximation belongs to a typical subject extracted from a lot of ten investigated subjects, but the function domain of definition belongs to the entire group. The study of the knee joint kinematics plays an important role in understanding the kinematics of the gait, this articulation having the largest range of motion in whole joints, in gait. The study does not propose to find an approximation function for the adduction-abduction movement of the knee, this being considered a residual movement comparing to the flexion-extension.
Photoionization study of Xe 5s: ionization cross sections and photoelectron angular distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aarthi, G.; Jose, J.; Deshmukh, S.; Radojevic, V.; Deshmukh, P. C.; Manson, S. T.
2014-01-01
We report studies of photoelectron angular distribution and cross-section for photoionization of xenon 5s electrons using the relativistic multiconfiguration Tamm-Dancoff (MCTD) approximation. We find that MCTD provides a significantly improved agreement with experiment, compared to some of the other relativistic many body approximations such as the relativistic random phase approximation and the relativistic random phase approximation with relaxation, over the entire photon energy region bracketing the near-threshold 5s Cooper minimum, from the 5s threshold up to about 70 eV. The MCTD results in the length form are in much better agreement with the experiment than those in the velocity form, suggesting residual correlations that must be of importance.
Angular momentum redistribution by mixed modes in evolved low-mass stars. I. Theoretical formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belkacem, K.; Marques, J. P.; Goupil, M. J.; Sonoi, T.; Ouazzani, R. M.; Dupret, M. A.; Mathis, S.; Mosser, B.; Grosjean, M.
2015-07-01
Seismic observations by the space-borne mission Kepler have shown that the core of red giant stars slows down while evolving, requiring an efficient physical mechanism to extract angular momentum from the inner layers. Current stellar evolution codes fail to reproduce the observed rotation rates by several orders of magnitude and instead predict a drastic spin-up of red giant cores. New efficient mechanisms of angular momentum transport are thus required. In this framework, our aim is to investigate the possibility that mixed modes extract angular momentum from the inner radiative regions of evolved low-mass stars. To this end, we consider the transformed Eulerian mean (TEM) formalism, which allows us to consider the combined effect of both the wave momentum flux in the mean angular momentum equation and the wave heat flux in the mean entropy equation as well as their interplay with the meridional circulation. In radiative layers of evolved low-mass stars, the quasi-adiabatic approximation, the limit of slow rotation, and the asymptotic regime can be applied for mixed modes and enable us to establish a prescription for the wave fluxes in the mean equations. The formalism is finally applied to a 1.3 M? benchmark model, representative of observed CoRoT and Kepler oscillating evolved stars. We show that the influence of the wave heat flux on the mean angular momentum is not negligible and that the overall effect of mixed modes is to extract angular momentum from the innermost region of the star. A quantitative and accurate estimate requires realistic values of mode amplitudes. This is provided in a companion paper. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
Free-space coherent optical communication with orbital angular, momentum
Yoo, S. J. Ben
Free-space coherent optical communication with orbital angular, momentum multiplexing demonstrate free-space space-division-multiplexing (SDM) with 15 orbital angular momentum (OAM) states using, "Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes," Phys. Rev
ANGULAR MOMENTUM: AN APPROACH TO COMBINATORIAL SPACE-TIME
Baez, John
ANGULAR MOMENTUM: AN APPROACH TO COMBINATORIAL SPACE-TIME ROGER PENROSE I want to describe an idea is connected with the structure of space-time in a very intimate way, is in angular momentum. The idea here, then, is to start with the concept of angular momentum-- here one has a discrete spectrum--and use
Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum
Marrucci, Lorenzo
Polarization control of single photon quantum orbital angular momentum states E. Nagali1, F, Italy Abstract: The orbital angular momentum of photons, being defined in an infinite angular momentum of single photons and vice versa. All our schemes exploit a newly developed optical
ERRATA TO 2ND PRINTING OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM
Zare, Richard N.
Chapter 7 ERRATA TO 2ND PRINTING OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM #12;194 CHAPTER 7. ERRATA TO 2ND PRINTING OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM The following errata have been collected from many sources to which we express our below Eq. (2.1) replace Eq. (1.16) by Eq. (1.8). pg. 66 In line 9 replace "total angular momentum
The angular momentum constraint on climate sensitivity and downward influence
Wirosoetisno, Djoko
The angular momentum constraint on climate sensitivity and downward influence in the middle atmosphere Article Published Version Shepherd, T. G. and Shaw, T. A. (2004) The angular momentum constraint American Meteorological Society The Angular Momentum Constraint on Climate Sensitivity and Downward
Angularly-resolved elastic light scattering of micro-particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aptowicz, Kevin B.
From microbiology to astrophysics, the scientific community has long embraced elastic light scattering from small particles as a diagnostic tool. Elastic light scattering has an extremely large scattering cross-section, allowing for single particle interrogation. This is critical in applications where trace amounts of suspect particles are to be detected in a diverse background of natural aerosols. By angularly-resolving the elastically scattered light, features can be detected in these patterns that are sensitive to a particle's morphology (shape, size, internal structure, and composition). An apparatus to collect LA TAOS (Large-Angle Two-dimensional Angular Optical Scattering) patterns from single particles in-situ and in real-time was designed and constructed. The setup utilizes a cross-beam trigger system to minimize the effects of the aberration coma stemming from the main collection optic, an ellipsoidal mirror. LA TAOS patterns of ambient aerosols were collected and analyzed. Approximately 15% of the ambient aerosol had a sphere-like shape. The refractive index of these spheres was estimated by curve-fitting to Lorenz-Mie theory. In addition, the island features prevalent in the LA TAOS pattern were analyzed. Metrics generated from these were used to get partial discrimination between clusters of Bacillus subtilis spores (a simulant for anthrax) and aerosol particles found in the ambient atmosphere. A novel experimental setup for collecting simultaneously LA TAOS patterns at two wavelengths in the mid-infrared was also implemented. With this setup, the relative strength of single-particle absorption could be discerned at the two illuminating wavelengths.
Analyzing Angular and Up-Scalling Effects in the Thermal Infrared Region From DAIS Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sobrino, J. A.; Jimenez-Munoz, J. C.; Gomez, M.; Soria, G.; El-Kharraz, J.; Romaguera, M.
2003-04-01
Land surface temperature and emissivity retrieved from thermal infrared data are key variables for interpreting carbon, water and energy fluxes at the biosphere-atmosphere interface. Several authors have studied angular effects in the thermal infrared region, which is an important issue to obtain valuable information on canopy characteristics and in order to work with relatively new sensors including directional thermal infrared radiometer as ATSR-2 (onboard ERS-2) and AATSR (onboard ENVISAT). In this paper, angular effects on land surface temperature and emissivity are analyzed using two consecutive images with different view angles acquired over the Barrax site (Albacete, Spain) with the DAIS (Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer) sensor in the framework of the DAISEX (DAIS Experiment) campaigns carried out by the European Space Agency (ESA). Angular effects for a mixed pixel (corn) using a geometrical model have been also analyzed. Finally, the very-high spatial resolution of DAIS images (5 by 5 meters) allow us to study up-scalling effects on land surface temperature and emissivity reproducing Landsat-TM6 pixels (120 by 120 meters) and NOAA AVHRR pixels (1000 by 1000 meters) using two different equations to obtain average values. The analysis shows that angular effects only becomes important for view angles higher than 30^o.
Polarization-Dependent Measurements of Molecular Super Rotors with Oriented Angular Momenta
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murray, Matthew J.; Toro, Carlos; Liu, Qingnan; Mullin, Amy S.
2014-05-01
Controlling molecular motion would enable manipulation of energy flow between molecules. Here we have used an optical centrifuge to investigate energy transfer between molecular super rotors with oriented angular momenta. The polarizable electron cloud of the molecules interacts with the electric field of linearly polarized light that angularly accelerates over the time of the optical pulse. This process drives molecules into high angular momentum states that are oriented with the optical field and have energies far from equilibrium. High resolution transient IR spectroscopy reveals the dynamics of collisional energy transfer for these super excited rotors. The results of this study leads to a more fundamental understanding of energy balance in non-equilibrium environments and the physical and chemical properties of gases in a new regime of energy states. Results will be presented for several super rotor species including carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and acetylene. Polarization-dependent measurements reveal the extent to which the super rotors maintain spatial orientation of high angular momentum states.
High range resolution micro-Doppler analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cammenga, Zachary A.; Smith, Graeme E.; Baker, Christopher J.
2015-05-01
This paper addresses use of the micro-Doppler effect and the use of high range-resolution profiles to observe complex targets in complex target scenes. The combination of micro-Doppler and high range-resolution provides the ability to separate the motion of complex targets from one another. This ability leads to the differentiation of targets based on their micro-Doppler signatures. Without the high-range resolution, this would not be possible because the individual signatures would not be separable. This paper also addresses the use of the micro-Doppler information and high range-resolution profiles to generate an approximation of the scattering properties of a complex target. This approximation gives insight into the structure of the complex target and, critically, is created without using a pre-determined target model.
High Resolution Spectroscopy and Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Povey, Chad A.
With the ever increasing spectral resolution now achievable with modern spectrometers we do not just observe dark lines anymore but molecular absorption features at very high resolution. These features are governed by the kinematics of the molecules and can be examined carefully by using high resolution spectroscopy. A detailed description of the setup and performance of the tunable diode laser spectrometer (TDL) system used in my research is presented. This tunable laser system has been used to complete several high resolution line shape studies on the upsilon1+upsilon2+upsilon4+upsilon5 and upsilon1+upsilon3 combination bands of acetylene. The major focus of the presented results has been on the temperature dependence of the retrieved parameters and the identification of the best fitting line shape profile used in the present investigation. Improved spectral resolution also requires better understanding of its effects on the recorded data that could not have been observed on data obtained with low resolution instruments. One of these effects is known as line mixing and it occurs when neighbouring transitions interfere with each other causing a slight asymmetry in the spectral profile. In this Thesis I have examined the line mixing effect in CO2 spectra and the temperature dependence of these line mixing coefficients. The analysis is performed by using two common line mixing models; (1) the energy correct sudden approximation and (2) the exponential power gap law. Finally I will present a project based on the application of high resolution spectroscopy that involves monitoring N2O concentration at remote locations through the use of a long path gas cell and a tunable diode laser spectrometer system. The initial testing and setup of this monitoring system will be presented and discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, P.; Ghebremedhin, A.; Ariyasinghe, W. M.; Powers, D.
1995-03-01
Angular distributions from 45° to 135° in 15° intervals of LMM Auger electrons produced by 1.2-MeV and 1.8-MeV He+-ion bombardment of argon, methyl chloride (CH3Cl), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) have been measured. The LMM total Auger yields were measured at 1.8-eV resolution with an experimental probable error not exceeding 9%. The results revealed that the angular distributions of the LMM total Auger yields of Ar, Cl, and S were isotropic at these bombarding energies.
A gear rattle metric based on the wavelet multi-resolution analysis: Experimental investigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brancati, Renato; Rocca, Ernesto; Savino, Sergio
2015-01-01
In the article an investigation about the feasibility of a wavelet analysis for gear rattle metric in transmission gears, due to tooth impacts under unloaded conditions, is conducted. The technique adopts the discrete wavelet transform (DWT), following the Multi-resolution analysis, to decompose an experimental signal of the relative angular motion of gears into an approximation and in some detail vectors. The described procedure, previously developed by the authors, permits the qualitative evaluation of the impacts occurring between the teeth by examining in particular the detail vectors coming out from the wavelet decomposition. The technique enables discriminating between the impacts occurring on the two different sides of tooth. This situation is typical of the double-sided gear rattle produced in the automotive gear boxes. This paper considers the influence of oil lubricant, inserted between the teeth, in reducing the impacts. Analysis is performed by comparing three different lubrication conditions, and some of the classical wavelet functions adopted in literature are tested as "mother" wavelet. Moreover, comparisons with a metric based on the harmonic analysis by means of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), often adopted in this field, are conducted to put in evidence the advantages of the Wavelet technique with reference to the influence of some fundamental operative parameters. The experimental signals of the relative angular rotation of gear are acquired by two high resolution incremental encoders on a specific test rig for lightly loaded gears. The results of the proposed method appear optimistic also in the detection of defects that could produce little variations in the dynamic behavior of unloaded gears.
Chalasani, P.; Saias, I.; Jha, S.
1996-04-08
As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.
ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND GALAXY FORMATION REVISITED
Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Fall, S. Michael
2012-12-15
Motivated by a new wave of kinematical tracers in the outer regions of early-type galaxies (ellipticals and lenticulars), we re-examine the role of angular momentum in galaxies of all types. We present new methods for quantifying the specific angular momentum j, focusing mainly on the more challenging case of early-type galaxies, in order to derive firm empirical relations between stellar j{sub *} and mass M{sub *} (thus extending earlier work by Fall). We carry out detailed analyses of eight galaxies with kinematical data extending as far out as 10 effective radii, and find that data at two effective radii are generally sufficient to estimate total j{sub *} reliably. Our results contravene suggestions that ellipticals could harbor large reservoirs of hidden j{sub *} in their outer regions owing to angular momentum transport in major mergers. We then carry out a comprehensive analysis of extended kinematic data from the literature for a sample of {approx}100 nearby bright galaxies of all types, placing them on a diagram of j{sub *} versus M{sub *}. The ellipticals and spirals form two parallel j{sub *}-M{sub *} tracks, with log-slopes of {approx}0.6, which for the spirals are closely related to the Tully-Fisher relation, but for the ellipticals derives from a remarkable conspiracy between masses, sizes, and rotation velocities. The ellipticals contain less angular momentum on average than spirals of equal mass, with the quantitative disparity depending on the adopted K-band stellar mass-to-light ratios of the galaxies: it is a factor of {approx}3-4 if mass-to-light ratio variations are neglected for simplicity, and {approx}7 if they are included. We decompose the spirals into disks and bulges and find that these subcomponents follow j{sub *}-M{sub *} trends similar to the overall ones for spirals and ellipticals. The lenticulars have an intermediate trend, and we propose that the morphological types of galaxies reflect disk and bulge subcomponents that follow separate, fundamental j{sub *}-M{sub *} scaling relations. This provides a physical motivation for characterizing galaxies most basically with two parameters: mass and bulge-to-disk ratio. Next, in an approach complementary to numerical simulations, we construct idealized models of angular momentum content in a cosmological context, using estimates of dark matter halo spin and mass from theoretical and empirical studies. We find that the width of the halo spin distribution cannot account for the differences between spiral and elliptical j{sub *}, but that the observations are reproduced well if these galaxies simply retained different fractions of their initial j complement ({approx}60% and {approx}10%, respectively). We consider various physical mechanisms for the simultaneous evolution of j{sub *} and M{sub *} (including outflows, stripping, collapse bias, and merging), emphasizing that the vector sum of all such processes must produce the observed j{sub *}-M{sub *} relations. We suggest that a combination of early collapse and multiple mergers (major or minor) may account naturally for the trend for ellipticals. More generally, the observed variations in angular momentum represent simple but fundamental constraints for any model of galaxy formation.
Anytime Classification by Ontology Approximation
ten Teije, Annette
for classification based on approximate subsumption. We give the formal definitions for approximate subsumption. In both cases, approximate reasoning can be useful, in particular when algorithms are monotonic: whenAnytime Classification by Ontology Approximation S.Schlobach, E.Blaauw, M.El Kebir, A.ten Teije, F
Dangerous angular Kaluza-Klein/glueball relics in string theory cosmology
Dufaux, J. F.; Kofman, L.; Peloso, M.
2008-07-15
The presence of Kaluza-Klein (KK) particles in the universe is a potential manifestation of string theory cosmology. In general, they can be present in the high temperature bath of the early universe. In particular examples, string theory inflation often ends with brane-antibrane annihilation followed by the energy cascading through massive closed string loops to KK modes which then decay into lighter standard model particles. However, massive KK modes in the early universe may become dangerous cosmological relics if the inner manifold contains warped throat(s) with approximate isometries. In the complimentary picture, in the AdS/CFT dual gauge theory with extra isometries, massive glueballs of various spins become the dangerous cosmological relics. The decay of these angular KK modes/glueballs, located around the tip of the throat, is caused by isometry breaking which results from gluing the throat to the compact Calabi-Yau (CY) manifold. We address the problem of these angular KK particles/glueballs, studying their interactions and decay channels, from the theory side, and the resulting cosmological constraints on the warped compactification parameters, from the phenomenology side. The abundance and decay time of the long-lived nonrelativistic angular KK modes depend strongly on the parameters of the warped geometry, so that observational constraints rule out a significant fraction of the parameter space. In particular, the coupling of the angular KK particles can be weaker than gravitational.
Angular distribution in two-particle emission induced by neutrinos and electrons
I. Ruiz Simo; C. Albertus; J. E. Amaro; M. B. Barbaro; J. A. Caballero; T. W. Donnelly
2014-10-15
The angular distribution of the phase space arising in two-particle emission reactions induced by electrons and neutrinos is computed in the laboratory (Lab) system by boosting the isotropic distribution in the center of mass (CM) system used in Monte Carlo generators. The Lab distribution has a singularity for some angular values, coming from the Jacobian of the angular transformation between CM and Lab systems. We recover the formula we obtained in a previous calculation for the Lab angular distribution. This is in accordance with the Monte Carlo method used to generate two-particle events for neutrino scattering\\cite{Sob12}. Inversely, by performing the transformation to the CM system, it can be shown that the phase-space function, which is proportional to the two particle-two hole (2p-2h) hadronic tensor for a constant current operator, can be computed analytically in the frozen nucleon approximation, if Pauli blocking is absent. The results in the CM frame confirm our previous work done using an alternative approach in the Lab frame. The possibilities of using this method to compute the hadronic tensor by a boost to the CM system are analyzed.
Approximate Bayesian Computation
Sunnåker, Mikael; Corander, Jukka; Foll, Matthieu; Dessimoz, Christophe
2013-01-01
Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) constitutes a class of computational methods rooted in Bayesian statistics. In all model-based statistical inference, the likelihood function is of central importance, since it expresses the probability of the observed data under a particular statistical model, and thus quantifies the support data lend to particular values of parameters and to choices among different models. For simple models, an analytical formula for the likelihood function can typically be derived. However, for more complex models, an analytical formula might be elusive or the likelihood function might be computationally very costly to evaluate. ABC methods bypass the evaluation of the likelihood function. In this way, ABC methods widen the realm of models for which statistical inference can be considered. ABC methods are mathematically well-founded, but they inevitably make assumptions and approximations whose impact needs to be carefully assessed. Furthermore, the wider application domain of ABC exacerbates the challenges of parameter estimation and model selection. ABC has rapidly gained popularity over the last years and in particular for the analysis of complex problems arising in biological sciences (e.g., in population genetics, ecology, epidemiology, and systems biology). PMID:23341757
Approximate Bayesian computation.
Sunnåker, Mikael; Busetto, Alberto Giovanni; Numminen, Elina; Corander, Jukka; Foll, Matthieu; Dessimoz, Christophe
2013-01-01
Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) constitutes a class of computational methods rooted in Bayesian statistics. In all model-based statistical inference, the likelihood function is of central importance, since it expresses the probability of the observed data under a particular statistical model, and thus quantifies the support data lend to particular values of parameters and to choices among different models. For simple models, an analytical formula for the likelihood function can typically be derived. However, for more complex models, an analytical formula might be elusive or the likelihood function might be computationally very costly to evaluate. ABC methods bypass the evaluation of the likelihood function. In this way, ABC methods widen the realm of models for which statistical inference can be considered. ABC methods are mathematically well-founded, but they inevitably make assumptions and approximations whose impact needs to be carefully assessed. Furthermore, the wider application domain of ABC exacerbates the challenges of parameter estimation and model selection. ABC has rapidly gained popularity over the last years and in particular for the analysis of complex problems arising in biological sciences (e.g., in population genetics, ecology, epidemiology, and systems biology). PMID:23341757
Whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent.
Silverman, Anne K; Neptune, Richard R; Sinitski, Emily H; Wilken, Jason M
2014-04-01
The generation of whole-body angular momentum is essential in many locomotor tasks and must be regulated in order to maintain dynamic balance. However, angular momentum has not been investigated during stair walking, which is an activity that presents a biomechanical challenge for balance-impaired populations. We investigated three-dimensional whole-body angular momentum during stair ascent and descent and compared it to level walking. Three-dimensional body-segment kinematic and ground reaction force (GRF) data were collected from 30 healthy subjects. Angular momentum was calculated using a 13-segment whole-body model. GRFs, external moment arms and net joint moments were used to interpret the angular momentum results. The range of frontal plane angular momentum was greater for stair ascent relative to level walking. In the transverse and sagittal planes, the range of angular momentum was smaller in stair ascent and descent relative to level walking. Significant differences were also found in the ground reaction forces, external moment arms and net joint moments. The sagittal plane angular momentum results suggest that individuals alter angular momentum to effectively counteract potential trips during stair ascent, and reduce the range of angular momentum to avoid falling forward during stair descent. Further, significant differences in joint moments suggest potential neuromuscular mechanisms that account for the differences in angular momentum between walking conditions. These results provide a baseline for comparison to impaired populations that have difficulty maintaining dynamic balance, particularly during stair ascent and descent. PMID:24636222
Mass and Angular Momentum in General Relativity
J. L. Jaramillo; E. Gourgoulhon
2010-04-30
We present an introduction to mass and angular momentum in General Relativity. After briefly reviewing energy-momentum for matter fields, first in the flat Minkowski case (Special Relativity) and then in curved spacetimes with or without symmetries, we focus on the discussion of energy-momentum for the gravitational field. We illustrate the difficulties rooted in the Equivalence Principle for defining a local energy-momentum density for the gravitational field. This leads to the understanding of gravitational energy-momentum and angular momentum as non-local observables that make sense, at best, for extended domains of spacetime. After introducing Komar quantities associated with spacetime symmetries, it is shown how total energy-momentum can be unambiguously defined for isolated systems, providing fundamental tests for the internal consistency of General Relativity as well as setting the conceptual basis for the understanding of energy loss by gravitational radiation. Finally, several attempts to formulate quasi-local notions of mass and angular momentum associated with extended but finite spacetime domains are presented, together with some illustrations of the relations between total and quasi-local quantities in the particular context of black hole spacetimes. This article is not intended to be a rigorous and exhaustive review of the subject, but rather an invitation to the topic for non-experts. In this sense we follow essentially the expositions in Szabados 2004, Gourgoulhon 2007, Poisson 2004 and Wald 84, and refer the reader interested in further developments to the existing literature, in particular to the excellent and comprehensive review by Szabados (2004).
Angular correlation studies in noble gases
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coleman, P. G.
1990-01-01
There has been a recent revival of interest in the measurement of angular correlation of annihilation photons from the decay of positrons and positronium in gases. This revival has been stimulated by the possibility offered by the technique to shed new light on the apparently low positronium formation fraction in the heavier noble gases and to provide information on positronium quenching processes in gases such as oxygen. There is also the potential for learning about positronium slowing down in gases. This review focuses on experimental noble gas work and considers what new information has been, and may be, gained from these studies.
EQUAL CHANNEL ANGULAR EXTRUSION (ECAE) OF BERYLLIUM.
Field, R. D. (Richard D.); Hartwig, K. T.; Necker, C. T. (Carl T.); Bingert, J. F. (John F.); Agnew, S. R. (Sean R.)
2001-01-01
The Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE) technique has been applied to a P/M source Be alloy. Single and two-pass extrusions have been successfully completed, using two different processing routes, on Ni-canned billets of Be at 400 C. No cracking was observed in the billet and significant grain refinement was achieved. In this paper, microstructural features and dislocation structures are discussed for the single-pass material, including evidence of
Time-dependent angularly averaged inverse transport
Guillaume Bal; Alexandre Jollivet
2009-05-07
This paper concerns the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters in a time-dependent linear transport equation from knowledge of angularly averaged measurements performed at the boundary of a domain of interest. We show that the absorption coefficient and the spatial component of the scattering coefficient are uniquely determined by such measurements. We obtain stability results on the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters with respect to the measured albedo operator. The stability results are obtained by a precise decomposition of the measurements into components with different singular behavior in the time domain.
Angular dependence of coercivity in magnetic nanotubes
J. Escrig; M. Daub; P. Landeros; K. Nielsch; D. Altbir
2007-10-30
The nucleation field for infinite magnetic nanotubes, in the case of a magnetic field applied parallel to the long axis of the tubes, is calculated as a function of their geometric parameters and compared with those produced inside the pores of anodic alumina membranes by atomic layer deposition. We also extended this result to the case of an angular dependence. We observed a transition from curling-mode rotation to coherent-mode rotation as a function of the angle in which the external magnetic field is applied. Finally, we observed that the internal radii of the tubes favors the magnetization curling reversal.
Angular momentum flux of counterpropagating paraxial beams.
Alexeyev, Constantine N; Yavorsky, Maxim A; Shvedov, Vladlen G
2008-03-01
We study the angular momentum (AM) of the arbitrary superposition of counterpropagating paraxial beams that have the same magnitude of the wavenumber. We derive compact analytical expressions for the total AM in a transverse cross section (linear AM density) and the total AM flux through the cross section. We demonstrate that whereas for the time-averaged linear AM density its separation into the spin and orbital parts is not, generally, observed, the total time-averaged AM flux is separated into well-identifiable spin and orbital constituents. Moreover, we show that such a flux is also naturally separated into the fluxes of forward- and backward-propagating beams. PMID:18311232
Linear and angular retroreflecting interferometric alignment target
Maxey, L. Curtis (Powell, TN)
2001-01-01
The present invention provides a method and apparatus for measuring both the linear displacement and angular displacement of an object using a linear interferometer system and an optical target comprising a lens, a reflective surface and a retroreflector. The lens, reflecting surface and retroreflector are specifically aligned and fixed in optical connection with one another, creating a single optical target which moves as a unit that provides multi-axis displacement information for the object with which it is associated. This displacement information is useful in many applications including machine tool control systems and laser tracker systems, among others.
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eimer, Joseph; Ali, A.; Amiri, M.; Appel, J. W.; Araujo, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Boone, F.; Chan, M.; Cho, H.; Chuss, D. T.; Colazo, F.; Crowe, E.; Denis, K.; Dünner, R.; Essinger-Hileman, T.; Gothe, D.; Halpern, M.; Harrington, K.; Hilton, G.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Huang, C.; Irwin, K.; Jones, G.; Karakla, J.; Kogut, A. J.; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Lowry, L.; Marriage, T.; Mehrle, N.; Miller, A. D.; Miller, N.; Moseley, S. H.; Novak, G.; Reintsema, C.; Rostem, K.; Stevenson, T.; Towner, D.; U-Yen, K.; Wagner, E.; Watts, D.; Wollack, E.; Xu, Z.; Zeng, L.
2014-01-01
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an array of telescopes designed to search for the signature of inflation in the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). By combining the strategy of targeting large scales (>2 deg) with novel front-end polarization modulation and novel detectors at multiple frequencies, CLASS will pioneer a new frontier in ground-based CMB polarization surveys. In this talk, I give an overview of the CLASS instrument, survey, and outlook on setting important new limits on the energy scale of inflation.
Angular Momentum Distribution of Fission Fragments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stetcu, I.; Talou, P.; Kawano, T.; Jandel, M.
2014-04-01
Latest generation fission experiments provide an excellent testing ground for theoretical models. In this contribution we compare the measurements obtained with the DANCE calorimeter at LANSCE with our full-scale simulation of the primary fragment de-excitation, using the recently developed CGMF code, based on a Monte-Carlo implementation of the Hauser-Feshbach theoretical model. We compute the isomeric ratios as a function of the initial angular momentum of the fission fragments. Comparison with the available experimental data allows us to determine the initial spin distribution. Finally, we study the sensitivity to the discrete spectra input.
Quark Orbital Angular Momentum in the Baryon
Xiaotong Song
2001-06-25
Analytical and numerical results, for the orbital and spin content carried by different quark flavors in the baryons, are given in the chiral quark model with symmetry breaking. The reduction of the quark spin, due to the spin dilution in the chiral splitting processes, is transferred into the orbital motion of quarks and antiquarks. The orbital angular momentum for each quark flavor in the proton as a function of the partition factor $\\kappa$ and the chiral splitting probability $a$ is shown. The cancellation between the spin and orbital contributions in the spin sum rule and in the baryon magnetic moments is discussed.
Characterization of the angular memory effect of scattered light in biological tissues
Schott, Sam; Léger, Jean-Francois; Bourdieu, Laurent; Gigan, Sylvain
2015-01-01
High resolution optical microscopy is essential in neuroscience but suffers from scattering in biological tissues. It therefore grants access to superficial layers only. Recently developed techniques use scattered photons for imaging by exploiting angular correlations in transmitted light and could potentially increase imaging depths. But those correlations (`angular memory effect') are of very short range and, in theory, only present behind and not inside scattering media. From measurements on neural tissues and complementary simulations, we find that strong forward scattering in biological tissues can enhance the memory effect range (and thus the possible field-of-view) by more than an order of magnitude compared to isotropic scattering for $\\sim$1\\,mm thick tissue layers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Le; Ma, Suihua; Ji, Yanhong; Chong, Xinyuan; Liu, Zhiyi; He, Yonghong; Guo, Jihua
2011-02-01
We describe a two-dimensional polarization interferometry based parallel scan angular surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensing technique. The method of line-shaped light illumination and parallel scan offers a high throughput. The simultaneous record of SPR angular spectrum enables the system to be unaffected by the time-dependent variation of the light source. The polarization interferometry technique lowers the minimum of the SPR dip and thereby reduces the noise related to the light intensity. Refractive index resolutions of 1.4 × 10-6 refractive index unit (RIU) under normal condition and 4.6 × 10-7 RIU under a more time-consuming condition are achieved in our angle interrogation based sensor. Meanwhile, a manually prepared DNA microarray has been detected, showing the potential applications of this technique in microarray analysis.
Moriya, Toshio; Acar, Erman; Cheng, R Holland; Ruotsalainen, Ulla
2015-09-01
In the single particle reconstruction, the initial 3D structure often suffers from the limited angular sampling artifact. Selecting 2D class averages of particle images generally improves the accuracy and efficiency of the reference-free 3D angle estimation, but causes an insufficient angular sampling to fill the information of the target object in the 3D frequency space. Similarly, the initial 3D structure by the random-conical tilt reconstruction has the well-known "missing cone" artifact. Here, we attempted to solve the limited angular sampling problem by sequentially applying maximum a posteriori estimate with expectation maximization algorithm (sMAP-EM). Using both simulated and experimental cryo-electron microscope images, the sMAP-EM was compared to the direct Fourier method on the basis of reconstruction error and resolution. To establish selection criteria of the final regularization weight for the sMAP-EM, the effects of noise level and sampling sparseness on the reconstructions were examined with evenly distributed sampling simulations. The frequency information filled in the missing cone of the conical tilt sampling simulations was assessed by developing new quantitative measurements. All the results of visual and numerical evaluations showed the sMAP-EM performed better than the direct Fourier method, regardless of the sampling method, noise level, and sampling sparseness. Furthermore, the frequency domain analysis demonstrated that the sMAP-EM can fill the meaningful information in the unmeasured angular space without detailed a priori knowledge of the objects. The current research demonstrated that the sMAP-EM has a high potential to facilitate the determination of 3D protein structures at near atomic-resolution. PMID:26193484
Angular clustering in the SUMSS radio survey
Chris Blake; Tom Mauch; Elaine M. Sadler
2003-10-05
We measure the angular correlation function of radio galaxies selected by the 843 MHz Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey (SUMSS). We find that the characteristic imprint of large-scale structure is clearly detectable, and that the survey is very uniform. Through comparison with similar analyses for other wide-area radio surveys - the 1400 MHz NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) and the 325 MHz Westerbork Northern Sky Survey (WENSS) - we are able to derive consistent angular clustering parameters, including a steep slope for the clustering function, $w(\\theta) \\propto \\theta^{-1.1}$. We revise upwards previous estimates of the NVSS clustering amplitude, and find no evidence for dependence of clustering properties on radio frequency. It is important to incorporate the full covariance matrix when fitting parameters to the measured correlation function. Once the redshift distribution for mJy radio galaxies has been determined, these projected clustering measurements will permit a robust description of large-scale structure at $z \\sim 0.8$, the median redshift of the sources.
High spectral resolution reflectance spectroscopy of minerals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clark, Roger N.; King, Trude V. V.; Klejwa, Matthew; Swayze, Gregg A.; Vergo, Norma
1990-01-01
The reflectance spectra of minerals are studied as a function of spectral resolution in the range from 0.2 to 3.0 microns. Selected absorption bands were studied at resolving powers as high as 2240. At resolving powers of approximately 1000, many OH-bearing minerals show diagnostic sharp absorptions at the resolution limit. At low resolution, some minerals may not be distinguishable, but as the resolution is increased, most can be easily identified. As the resolution is increased, many minerals show fine structure, particularly in the OH-stretching overtone region near 1.4 micron. The fine structure can enhance the ability to discriminate between minerals, and in some cases the fine structure can be used to determine elemental composition.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taketomi, Susamu
1985-01-01
Using the stress tensor expression for liquid crystals (nematics) and with two approximations, we obtain the same stress tensor as that for magnetic fluids with an intrinsic angular momentum obtained by Shliomis and independently by Tanahashi et al. The two approximations consist of neglect of the terms higher order than the second in a director \\mbi{n} and neglect of the terms which originate from distortion energy. We also make clear through these approximation procedures that Shliomis and Tanahashi et al.’s formula involve the assumptoin of noninteraction between colloidal particles in the magnetic fluids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwartz, Adam Micah
1998-12-01
The effects of space-charge have been investigated for the past half-century; the longevity of this research stems from the difficulty of the problem and from the technological advances which have availed new opportunities in which to study the phenomena. This thesis investigates a specific effect, the degradation in image resolution, as observed in two advanced technologies: SCattering with Angular Limitation Projection Electron Lithography (SCALPEL) and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). These particular technologies were chosen for their technological relevance and their distinct mechanisms of image formation--SCALPEL exploits amplitude contrast while HRTEM exploits phase contrast. To provide insights into the occurring space-charge physics in both technologies, this thesis uses analytical modeling, Monte Carlo simulations and experimental techniques. Using these techniques, an approximation based on the nearest neighbor (NN) is developed, and its applicability to each system is presented. The NN predictions are compared to existing theories. Furthermore, design considerations and fundamental limitations for each technique are discussed. Lastly, future research directions are suggested.
Verification of the method of average angular response for dose measurement on different detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Y.; Zhou, R.; Yang, C.
2015-07-01
At present most radiation dose meters have serious problems on aspects of energy response and angular response. In order to improve the accuracy of dose measurements, a method of average angular response has been proposed. The method can not only correct the energy response, but also the angular response. This method has been verified on NaI(Tl)(50 mm× 50 mm) scintillation detectors, but has not been proved on other types and sizes of detectors, In this paper the method is also verified for LaBr3(Ce) scintillation detectors and HPGe detector To apply the method, first of all, five detectors are simulated by Geant4 and average angular response values are calculated. Then experiments are performed to get the count rates of full energy peak by standard point source of 137Cs, 60Co and 152Eu. After that the dose values of five detectors are calculated with the method of average angular response. Finally experimental results are got. These results are divided into two groups to analyze the impact of detectors of various types and sizes. The result of the first group shows that the method is appropriate for different types of detector to measure dose, with deviations of less than 5% compared with theoretical values. Moreover, when the detector's energy resolution is better and the count rate of the full energy peak is calculated more precisely, the measured dose can be obtained more precisely. At the same time, the result of the second group illustrates that the method is also suited for different sizes of detectors, with deviations of less than 8% compared with theoretical values.
Alignment of the angular momentum vectors of planetary nebulae in the Galactic Bulge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rees, B.; Zijlstra, A. A.
2013-10-01
We use high-resolution H? images of 130 planetary nebulae (PNe) to investigate whether there is a preferred orientation for PNe within the Galactic Bulge. The orientations of the full sample have a uniform distribution. However, at a significance level of 0.01, there is evidence for a non-uniform distribution for those PNe with evident bipolar morphology. If we assume that the bipolar PNe have a unimodal distribution of the polar axis in Galactic coordinates, the mean Galactic position angle is consistent with 90°, i.e. along the Galactic Plane, and the significance level is better than 0.001 (the equivalent of a 3.7? significance level for a Gaussian distribution). The shapes of PNe are related to angular momentum of the original star or stellar system, where the long axis of the nebula measures the angular momentum vector. In old, low-mass stars, the angular momentum is largely in binary orbital motion. Consequently, the alignment of bipolar nebulae that we have found indicates that the orbital planes of the binary systems are oriented perpendicular to the Galactic Plane. We propose that strong magnetic fields aligned along the Galactic Plane acted during the original star formation process to slow the contraction of the star-forming cloud in the direction perpendicular to the Plane. This would have produced a propensity for wider binaries with higher angular momentum with orbital axes parallel to the Galactic Plane. Our findings provide the first indication of a strong, organized magnetic field along the Galactic Plane that impacted on the angular momentum vectors of the resulting stellar population.
LIME (Large-area Imaging Mwpc Experiment) - A high resolution space borne telescope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Soggiu, E.
1989-11-01
This paper describes the Multiwire Proportional Counter (MWPC) designed and built at the prototype level at the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale. This position-sensitive detector will be flown on board a balloon-borne experiment as a high-resolution/wide-angle hard X-ray telescope and will produce sky images with arcmin angular resolution, good spectral resolution, and milli-Crab sensitivity, during a typical observation time of 10,000 sec.
SPECT imaging with resolution recovery
Bronnikov, A. V. [Bronnikov Algorithms, P.O. Box 77, 6800AB Arnhem (Netherlands)
2011-07-01
Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a method of choice for imaging spatial distributions of radioisotopes. Many applications of this method are found in nuclear industry, medicine, and biomedical research. We study mathematical modeling of a micro-SPECT system by using a point-spread function (PSF) and implement an OSEM-based iterative algorithm for image reconstruction with resolution recovery. Unlike other known implementations of the OSEM algorithm, we apply en efficient computation scheme based on a useful approximation of the PSF, which ensures relatively fast computations. The proposed approach can be applied with the data acquired with any type of collimators, including parallel-beam fan-beam, cone-beam and pinhole collimators. Experimental results obtained with a micro SPECT system demonstrate high efficiency of resolution recovery. (authors)
Resolutions of the Coulomb Operator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gill, Peter
2007-03-01
The ``Resolution of the Identity Operator'' I ?| ?n>=
The coupled states approximation for scattering of two diatoms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heil, T. G.; Kouri, D. J.; Green, S.
1978-01-01
The paper presents a detailed development of the coupled-states approximation for the general case of two colliding diatomic molecules. The high-energy limit of the exact Lippman-Schwinger equation is applied, and the analysis follows the Shimoni and Kouri (1977) treatment of atom-diatom collisions where the coupled rotor angular momentum and projection replace the single diatom angular momentum and projection. Parallels to the expression for the differential scattering amplitude, the opacity function, and the nondiagonality of the T matrix are reported. Symmetrized expressions and symmetrized coupled equations are derived. The present correctly labeled coupled-states theory is tested by comparing its calculated results with other computed results for three cases: H2-H2 collisions, ortho-para H2-H2 scattering, and H2-HCl.
Hoover, Wm G; Hoover, Carol G; Merritt, Elizabeth C
2004-01-01
Smooth-particle applied mechanics (SPAM) provides several approaches to approximate solutions of the continuum equations for both fluids and solids. Though many of the usual formulations conserve mass, (linear) momentum, and energy, the angular momentum is typically not conserved by SPAM. A second difficulty with the usual formulations is that tensile stress states often exhibit an exponentially fast high-frequency short-wavelength instability, "tensile instability." We discuss these twin defects of SPAM and illustrate them for a rotating elastic body. We formulate ways to conserve angular momentum while at the same time delaying the symptoms of tensile instability for many sound-traversal times. These ideas should prove useful in more general situations. PMID:14995750
Variation of photoelectron angular distributions along the Ar and Ca isonuclear sequences
Pradhan, G. B.; Jose, J.; Deshmukh, P. C. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Radojevic, V. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Institute of Physics, Pregrevica 118, Post Office Box 68, 11080 Beograd, Zemun (Serbia); Manson, S. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30303 (United States)
2010-06-15
The dipole angular distribution asymmetry parameter, {beta}, for photoelectrons resulting from 2p photoionization of Ar, Ar{sup 6+}, and Ar{sup 8+} and Ca, Ca{sup 2+}, and Ca{sup 8+} of the Ar (Z=18) and Ca (Z=20) isonuclear sequences, respectively, have been studied using the relativistic random-phase approximation over a broad range of photon energy. In the absence of relaxation, it is known that inner-shell cross sections are essentially unchanged, as a function of photon energy, upon the removal of outer-shell electrons. The present results show that this is not true for the photoelectron angular distribution asymmetry parameters, particularly near the ionization thresholds.
Limits of the M1 and M2 angular moments models for kinetic plasma physics studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guisset, S.; Moreau, J. G.; Nuter, R.; Brull, S.; d’ Humières, E.; Dubroca, B.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.
2015-08-01
Angular moments closures are widely used in numerical solutions of kinetic equations. While in the strongly collisional limit they provide a good approximation of the full kinetic equation, their validity domain in the weakly collisional limit is unknown. This work is devoted to defining the validity domain of the M1 model and its extensions, the two populations M1 and the M2 angular moments models for the collisionless kinetic physics applications. Three typical kinetic plasma effects are considered, which are the charged particle beams interaction, the Landau damping and the electromagnetic wave absorption in an overdense semi-infinite plasma. For each case, a perturbative analysis is performed and the dispersion relation is established using the moments models. These relations are compared with those computed by considering the Vlasov equation. The validity limits of each model are demonstrated.
Role of misalignment-induced angular chirp in the electro-optic detection of THz waves.
Walsh, D A; Cliffe, M J; Pan, R; Snedden, E W; Graham, D M; Gillespie, W A; Jamison, S P
2014-05-19
A general description of electro-optic detection including non-collinear phase matching and finite transverse beam profiles is presented. It is shown theoretically and experimentally that non-collinear phase matching in ZnTe (and similar materials) produces an angular chirp in the ?(2)-generated optical signal. Due to this, in non-collinear THz and probe arrangements such as single-shot THz measurements or through accidental misalignment, measurement of an undistorted THz signal is critically dependent on having sufficient angular acceptance in the optical probe path. The associated spatial walk-off can also preclude the phase retardation approximation used in THz-TDS. The rate of misalignment-induced chirping in commonly used ZnTe and GaP schemes is tabulated, allowing ready analysis of a detection system. PMID:24921322
Exploring Machin's Approximation of Exploring Machin's Approximation of
Knaust, Helmut
#12;Exploring Machin's Approximation of Precursors Method of Exhaustion `a la Archimedes Archimedes of Precursors Method of Exhaustion `a la Archimedes Archimedes of Syracuse ( 287212 BC) approximated la Archimedes Archimedes of Syracuse ( 287212 BC) approximated by the Method of Exhaustion: 3
Space-angle approximations in the variational nodal method.
Lewis, E. E.; Palmiotti, G.; Taiwo, T.
1999-03-12
The variational nodal method is formulated such that the angular and spatial approximations maybe examined separately. Spherical harmonic, simplified spherical harmonic, and discrete ordinate approximations are coupled to the primal hybrid finite element treatment of the spatial variables. Within this framework, two classes of spatial trial functions are presented: (1) orthogonal polynomials for the treatment of homogeneous nodes and (2) bilinear finite subelement trial functions for the treatment of fuel assembly sized nodes in which fuel-pin cell cross sections are represented explicitly. Polynomial and subelement trial functions are applied to benchmark water-reactor problems containing MOX fuel using spherical harmonic and simplified spherical harmonic approximations. The resulting accuracy and computing costs are compared.
Tsuyoshi Ito; Stacey Jeffery
2015-07-02
Span programs are a model of computation that have been used to design quantum algorithms, mainly in the query model. For any decision problem, there exists a span program that leads to an algorithm with optimal quantum query complexity, but finding such an algorithm is generally challenging. We consider new ways of designing quantum algorithms using span programs. We show how any span program that decides a problem $f$ can also be used to decide "property testing" versions of $f$, or more generally, approximate the span program witness size, a property of the input related to $f$. For example, using our techniques, the span program for OR, which can be used to design an optimal algorithm for the OR function, can also be used to design optimal algorithms for: threshold functions, in which we want to decide if the Hamming weight of a string is above a threshold or far below, given the promise that one of these is true; and approximate counting, in which we want to estimate the Hamming weight of the input. We achieve these results by relaxing the requirement that 1-inputs hit some target exactly in the span program, which could make design of span programs easier. We also give an exposition of span program structure, which increases the understanding of this important model. One implication is alternative algorithms for estimating the witness size when the phase gap of a certain unitary can be lower bounded. We show how to lower bound this phase gap in some cases. As applications, we give the first upper bounds in the adjacency query model on the quantum time complexity of estimating the effective resistance between $s$ and $t$, $R_{s,t}(G)$, of $\\tilde O(\\frac{1}{\\epsilon^{3/2}}n\\sqrt{R_{s,t}(G)})$, and, when $\\mu$ is a lower bound on $\\lambda_2(G)$, by our phase gap lower bound, we can obtain $\\tilde O(\\frac{1}{\\epsilon}n\\sqrt{R_{s,t}(G)/\\mu})$, both using $O(\\log n)$ space.
Angular distributions of photoelectrons from free Na clusters
Wopperer, P.; Dinh, P. M. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, IRSAMC, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex, France and CNRS, UMR 5152, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex (France); Faber, B.; Reinhard, P.-G. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Erlangen, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Suraud, E. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, IRSAMC, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex, France and CNRS, UMR 5152, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex (France); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Erlangen, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)
2010-12-15
We explore, from a theoretical perspective, photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) of the Na clusters Na{sub 8}, Na{sub 10}, Na{sub 12}, Na{sub 18}, Na{sub 3}{sup +}, Na{sub 11}{sup +}, Na{sub 13}{sup +}, and Na{sub 19}{sup +}. The basis of the description is the time-dependent local-density approximation (TDLDA), augmented by a self-interaction correction (SIC) to describe ionization properties correctly. The scheme is solved on a numerical grid in coordinate space with absorbing bounds. We assume for each cluster system an isotropic ensemble of free clusters and develop for the case of one-photon emission analytical formulas for computing the orientation-averaged PAD on the basis of a few TDLDA-SIC calculations for properly chosen reference orientations. It turns out that all the information in the averaged PAD is contained in one anisotropy parameter. We find that this parameter varies very little with system size, but as a whole is crucially influenced by the detailed ionic structure. We also make comparisons with direct orientation averaging and consider one example reaching outside the perturbative regime.