Science.gov

Sample records for anhydrit alstom bowl

  1. Basketball Bowling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirabile, Chris; Cooper, Michael; Petrie, Heather

    2006-01-01

    Basketball bowling was developed after students in the authors' physical education class participated in a bowling unit sponsored through Bowl America. Basketball bowling is a lead-up activity for elementary-age students that incorporates basic skills from basketball and bowling. The general object of this activity is to be the first team to roll…

  2. Mars Bowling

    NASA Video Gallery

    More than 140 fourth and fifth graders from Kraft Elementary School in Hampton learned how Newton's laws of motion apply to bowling and the Mars Curiosity rover during "The Science of Bowling," an ...

  3. Partially decentralized control for ALSTOM gasifier.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen; Lou, Guannan; Liang, Luping

    2011-07-01

    The gasifier plays a key role in the operation of the whole IGCC power plant. It is a typical multivariable control system with strict constraints on the inputs and outputs which makes it very difficult to control. This paper presents a partially decentralized controller design method based on the stabilizer idea. The method only requires identifying some closed-loop transfer functions and solving an H(∞) optimization problem. The final partially decentralized controller is easy to implement and test in practice. Two partially decentralized controllers are designed for the ALSTOM gasifier benchmark problem, and simulation results show that they both meet the design specifications. PMID:21356534

  4. Alstom 3-MW Wind Turbine Installed at NWTC (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    The 3-MW Alstom wind turbine was installed at NREL's NWTC in October 2010. Test data will be used to validate advanced turbine design and analysis tools. NREL signed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with Alstom in 2010 to conduct certification testing on the company's 3-MW ECO 100 wind turbine and to validate models of Alstom's unique drivetrain concept. The turbine was installed at NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) in October 2010 and engineers began certification testing in 2011. Tests to be conducted by NREL include a power quality test to finalize the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) requirements for type certification of the 60-Hz unit. The successful outcome of this test will enable Alstom to begin commercial production of ECO 100 in the United States. NREL also will obtain additional measurements of power performance, acoustic noise, and system frequency to complement the 50 Hz results previously completed in Europe. After NREL completes the certification testing on the ECO 100, it will conduct long-term testing to validate gearbox performance to gain a better understanding of the machine's unique ALSTOM PURE TORQUE{trademark} drivetrain concept. In conventional wind turbines, the rotor is supported by the shaft-bearing gearbox assembly. Rotor loads are partially transmitted to the gearbox and may reduce gearbox reliability. In the ALSTOM PURE TORQUE concept, the rotor is supported by a cast frame running through the hub, which transfers bending loads directly to the tower. Torque is transmitted to the shaft through an elastic coupling at the front of the hub. According to Alstom, this system will increase wind turbine reliability and reduce operation and maintenance costs by isolating the gearbox from rotor loads. Gearbox reliability has challenged the wind energy industry for more than two decades. Gearbox failures require expensive and time-consuming replacement, significantly increasing the cost of wind plant

  5. Bowls for the Hungry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Nate

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how to make soup bowls as a class project. The slab method is used to construct the soup bowls, but bowls could just as easily be made on the potter's wheel for advanced students, using the pinch method with beginners, or with the coil method for intermediate students. Found objects from around a garage or…

  6. The Tibetan singing bowl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, John; Terwagne, Denis

    2010-11-01

    Tibetan singing bowls have been used for centuries for healing, meditation and shamanic journeying. The bowls are partially filled with water, then excited by either striking or rubbing the walls of the bowl with a mallet. A wealth of curious fluid mechanical phenomena arise, and will be elucidated in our combined experimental and theoretical investigation.

  7. From Birdbaths to Bowls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reitbauer, George J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project where students worked together in teams of two in order to create lightweight, primitive-looking bowls. States that after researching a cultural motif, students decorate each bowl individually using acrylics. Includes a list of supplies and describes the process in detail. (CMK)

  8. [The pewter bleeding bowls].

    PubMed

    Renner, Claude

    2004-01-01

    In the late seventeenth century, then along the eighteen and nineteenth centuries the amount of the bloodlettings was measured by means of three pewter bleeding bowls that held three ounces of blood, about 300 millilitres. In the middle of the nineteenth century new and large bleeding bowls with metric graduations were manufactured only by the Parisian potters. PMID:15359483

  9. Double bowl piston

    DOEpatents

    Meffert, Darrel Henry; Urven, Jr., Roger Leroy; Brown, Cory Andrew; Runge, Mark Harold

    2007-03-06

    A piston for an internal combustion engine is disclosed. The piston has a piston crown with a face having an interior annular edge. The piston also has first piston bowl recessed within the face of the piston crown. The first piston bowl has a bottom surface and an outer wall. A line extending from the interior annular edge of the face and tangent with the outer wall forms an interior angle greater than 90 degrees with the face of the piston. The piston also has a second piston bowl that is centrally located and has an upper edge located below a face of the piston crown.

  10. Anhydrite precipitation in seafloor hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theissen-Krah, Sonja; Rüpke, Lars H.

    2016-04-01

    The composition and metal concentration of hydrothermal fluids venting at the seafloor is strongly temperature-dependent and fluids above 300°C are required to transport metals to the seafloor (Hannington et al. 2010). Ore-forming hydrothermal systems and high temperature vents in general are often associated with faults and fracture zones, i.e. zones of enhanced permeabilities that act as channels for the uprising hydrothermal fluid (Heinrich & Candela, 2014). Previous numerical models (Jupp and Schultz, 2000; Andersen et al. 2015) however have shown that high permeabilities tend to decrease fluid flow temperatures due to mixing with cold seawater and the resulting high fluid fluxes that lead to short residence times of the fluid near the heat source. A possible mechanism to reduce the permeability and thereby to focus high temperature fluid flow are mineral precipitation reactions that clog the pore space. Anhydrite for example precipitates from seawater if it is heated to temperatures above ~150°C or due to mixing of seawater with hydrothermal fluids that usually have high Calcium concentrations. We have implemented anhydrite reactions (precipitation and dissolution) in our finite element numerical models of hydrothermal circulation. The initial results show that the precipitation of anhydrite efficiently alters the permeability field, which affects the hydrothermal flow field as well as the resulting vent temperatures. C. Andersen et al. (2015), Fault geometry and permeability contrast control vent temperatures at the Logatchev 1 hydrothermal field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Geology, 43(1), 51-54. M. D. Hannington et al. (2010), Modern Sea-Floor Massive Sulfides and Base Metal Resources: Toward an Estimate of Global Sea-Floor Massive Sulfide Potential, in The Challenge of Finding New Mineral Resources: Global Metallogeny, Innovative Exploration, and New Discoveries, edited by R. J. Goldfarb, E. E. Marsh and T. Monecke, pp. 317-338, Society of Economic Geologists

  11. Alstom Francis Turbine Ring Gates: from Retrofitting to Commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A, Nguyen P.; G, Labrecque; M-O, Thibault; M, Bergeron; A, Steinhilber; D, Havard

    2014-03-01

    The Ring Gate synchronisation system developed by Alstom is new and patented. It uses hydraulic cylinders connected in pairs by a serial connection. The new hydraulic synchronisation system, when compared to the previous mechanical synchronisation system, has several advantages. It is a compact design; it reduces the number of mechanical components as well as maintenance costs. The new system maintains the Ring Gates robustness. The new approach is an evolution from mechanical to hydraulic synchronization assisted by electronic control. The new synchronization system eliminates several mechanical components that used to add wear and friction and which are usually difficult to adjust during maintenance. Tension chains and sprockets and associated controls are eliminated. Through the position sensors, the redundancy of the ring gate synchronization system makes it predictable and reliable. The electronic control compensates for any variation in operation, for example a leak in the hydraulic system. An emergency closing is possible without the electronic control system due to the stiffness of hydraulic serial connection in the hydraulic cylinder pairs. The Ring Gate can work safely against uneven loads and frictions. The development will be reviewed and its application discussed through commissioning results.

  12. Crazy Patchwork Clay Bowl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Janice

    2007-01-01

    Crazy patchwork quilts, which inspired this bowl, are as American as apple pie. In 1876, the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition opened and the American society fell instantly in love with Japanese ceramics and asymmetrical art. Victorian ladies incorporated the idea of asymmetrical design into their quilts, which became known as crazy quilts. The…

  13. Bowling: Entertainment for All Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2011-01-01

    Of all American pastimes, bowling is one of the easiest to pursue. Just show up at the neighborhood bowling center, rent the required shoes, use the balls provided, and pay a reasonable fee to bowl as many games as one likes. The game itself--rolling a ball down a long wooden lane to strike club-shaped pins--appeals to all ages and is within the…

  14. Anhydrite EOS and Phase Diagram in Relation to Shock Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, B. A.; Langenhorst, F.; Deutsch, A.; Hornemann, U.

    2004-01-01

    In the context of the Chicxulub impact, it became recently obvious that experimental and theoretical research on the shock behavior of sulfates is essential for an assessment of the role of shock-released gases in the K/T mass extinction. The Chicxulub crater is the most important large impact structure where the bolide penetrated a sedimentary layer with large amounts of interbedded anhydrite (Haughton has also significant anhydrite in the target). The sulfuric gas production by shock compression/decompression of anhydrite is an important issue, even if the size of Chicxulub crater is only half of the so far assumed size. The comparison of experimental data for anhydrite, shocked with different techniques at various laboratories, reveals large differences in the threshold pressures for melting and decomposition. To gain insight into this issue, we have made a theoretical investigation of the thermodynamic properties of anhydrite. The project includes the review of data published in the last 40 years - reasons to study anhydrite cover a wide field of interests: from industrial problems of cement and ceramic production to the analysis of nuclear underground explosions in salt domes, conducted in the USA and USSR in the 1970th.

  15. Textural evidence for origin of salt dome anhydrite cap rocks, Winnfield Dome, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, M.R.; Kyle, J.R.; Price, P.E.

    1985-02-01

    Textures within anhydrite cap rock are products of repeated cycles of halie dissolution and residual anhydrite accretion at tops of salt stocks. Quarrying operations at Winnfield dome have exposed extensive portions of the anhydrite cap rock zone. This zone is composed primarily of unoriented, xenoblastic anhydrite crystals in laminae less than 1 mm to several centimeters thick. Laminations are defined by thin, dark sulfide accumulations and pressure solution of anhydrite. Deformed, banded anhydrite clasts are contained locally within laminae. Multiple-laminated, concave downward anhydrite mounds occur along some horizons. They may contain anhydrite breccia fragments or sulfides. Coarsely crystalline salt mounds, containing disseminated idioblastic anhydrite also occur along horizons. Mound morphologies vary from tall and thin to broad and squat; maximum dimensions range from less than 0.5 to about 2.0 m. These moundlike structures are related spatially and genetically. Moundlike structures are believed to form from salt spines along the salt-anhydrite contact. As the spine dissolves through several cycles of dissolution and accretion, a laminated anhydrite mound is preserved; if the spine becomes isolated from dissolution, then a salt inclusion is preserved. Anhydrite beds within the Louann Salt, deformed during diapirism, are preserved as deformed anhydrite clasts. Steeply dipping, bedded anhydrite zones within the salt stock may produce brecciated anhydrite mounds when incorporated into the cap rock. Sulfides record the movement of metalliferous fluids through the salt-anhydrite contact.

  16. An experiment with Saxon bowls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Allan; Kincanon, Eric

    2000-02-01

    To introduce our first-semester physics students to some basic analytic methods, we integrate a bit of history and a unique timing device into our lab. The story is that the Saxons placed a bowl with a hole in its bottom in water and used the time it took the bowl to submerge to limit orations. (A famous Greek prostitute also used such bowls to allocate her customer's time, an example we do not use in class.) We have our students find a relationship between the diameter of the hole and the time till submergence. Though the original Saxon bowls varied both in hole size and bowl size, for simplicity we vary only the size of the hole.

  17. Processes and controls in swelling anhydritic clay rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutschler, Thomas; Blum, Philipp; Butscher, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Referring to the swelling of anhydritic clay rocks in tunneling, Leopold Müller-Salzburg noted in the third volume on tunneling of his fundamental text book on rock engineering that "a truly coherent explanation of these phenomena is still owing" (Müller-Salzburg 1978, p. 306). This valuation is still true after more than three decades of research in the field of swelling anhydritic clay rocks. One of the reasons is our limited knowledge of the processes involved in the swelling of such rocks, and of the geological, mineralogical, hydraulic, chemical and mechanical controls of the swelling. In this contribution, a review of processes in swelling anhydritic clay rocks and of associated controls is presented. Also numerical models that aim at simulating the swelling processes and controls are included in this review, and some of the remaining open questions are pointed out. By focusing on process-oriented work in this review, the presentation intends to stimulate further research across disciplines in the field of swelling anhydritic clay rocks to finally get a step further in managing the swelling problem in geotechnical engineering projects. Keywords: swelling; anhydritic clay rocks; review

  18. Physical modeling of Tibetan bowls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, Jose; Inacio, Octavio

    2001-05-01

    Tibetan bowls produce rich penetrating sounds, used in musical contexts and to induce a state of relaxation for meditation or therapy purposes. To understand the dynamics of these instruments under impact and rubbing excitation, we developed a simulation method based on the modal approach, following our previous papers on physical modeling of plucked/bowed strings and impacted/bowed bars. This technique is based on a compact representation of the system dynamics, in terms of the unconstrained bowl modes. Nonlinear contact/friction interaction forces, between the exciter (puja) and the bowl, are computed at each time step and projected on the bowl modal basis, followed by step integration of the modal equations. We explore the behavior of two different-sized bowls, for extensive ranges of excitation conditions (contact/friction parameters, normal force, and tangential puja velocity). Numerical results and experiments show that various self-excited motions may arise depending on the playing conditions and, mainly, on the contact/friction interaction parameters. Indeed, triggering of a given bowl modal frequency mainly depends on the puja material. Computed animations and experiments demonstrate that self-excited modes spin, following the puja motion. Accordingly, the sensed pressure field pulsates, with frequency controlled by the puja spinning velocity and the spatial pattern of the singing mode.

  19. Physical properties of salt, anhydrite and gypsum : preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Eugene C.; Robie, Richard A.; Books, Kenneth G.

    1958-01-01

    This summary is the result of a search of the available literature. Emphasis is placed on the mechanical and calorimetric properties of salt; the measurements of elastic, thermal, magnetic, and mass properties of salt are merely tabulated. Under hydrostatic pressure 100 percent at a nearly constant stress difference of about 300 kg/cm2. Similarily, under temperatures > 400?C at one atmosphere, salt deforms plastically to strains > 100 percent under stress differences of about 100 kg/cm2. Entha1pies were calculated for various temperatures to 2,000? C from the low temperature and high temperature heat capacities and the heats of solution of the following minerals: salt (or halite), NaCl; anhydrite, CaS04; quartz, Si02; and calcite, CaC03. Three combinations of these minerals were assumed to represent three possible natural salt beds, and the heats required to raise the temperature of each to 1,500?C and to 2,000?C were calculated. For a half and half mixture of salt and anhydrite, 1,300 cal/gm were required to raise the temperature to 2,000?C. For an evaporite containing 60 percent salt and about equal amounts of anhydrite, calcite, and quartz, 1,100 cal/gm are required to raise the temperature to 2,OOO?C. Most of the measurements of the elastic moduli were made on single crystals of salt, anhydrite, and gypsum. For the most part, the measurements of density, magnetic susceptibility, and other properties were made on natural salt samples.

  20. Reduction-Fired Seedpod Bowls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyke, Rod

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on a reduction-firing process with an aim of producing high-quality blackware similar to the black-on-black pottery of Maria Martinez and other American Indian potters. Includes a lesson on creating reduction-fired seedpod bowls, lists of instructional resources and materials, and the objectives and evaluation. (CMK)

  1. Goldfish Bowls Inspired by Matisse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity in which elementary students reproduce the artwork, "The Goldfish Bowl," that was originally created by Henri Matisse. Explains that the students utilize the same art technique that Matisse used: decoupage. Discusses the process of creating the artwork in detail. (CMK)

  2. REE Behavior During Anhydrite and Gypsum Formations of the Kuroko Type Massive Sulfide-Sulfate Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yasumasa; Shikazono, Naotatsu

    2006-05-01

    The Sr and rare earth elements (REEs) concentrations and Sr isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sr) of anhydrite and gypsum have been determined for samples from the Matsumine, Shakanai and Hanaoka Kuroko-type massive sulfide-sulfate deposits in the Hokuroku District in Akita Pref. in northern Japan. The anhydrite samples exhibit two styles of chondrite-normalized REE patterns; one with a decrease from light to heavy REEs (Type I), and another with a light REE-depleted pattern with peak in Sm (Type II). The Sr content of Type I anhydrite is higher than that of Type II. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of all anhydrite samples are intermediate between that of middle Miocene seawater and that of country rocks. 87Sr/86Sr of Type I anhydrite is closer to Miocene seawater, and that of Type II is closer to the country rocks. Based on the Sr data obtained by this study and previous reports on geochemical data on the Kuroko mineralization, geochemical environment of anhydrite formation was investigated. However, from that investigation, it is inferred that REE fractionation would not occur during the primary anhydrite precipitation. Gypsum, which partially replaces anhydrite in the Kuroko deposits, also exhibits two distinct chondrite-normalized REE patterns. Because LREEs are likely to be more easily mobilized during the secondary process such as dissolution and re-crystallization, it is hypothesized that LREE release from Type I anhydrite, resulting in the formation of secondary Type II anhydrite with LREE depleted profiles.

  3. The thermal expansion of anhydrite to 1000° C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, Howard T., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal expansion of anhydrite, CaSO4, has been measured from 22° to 1,000° C by X-ray diffraction, using the Guinier-Lenné heating powder camera. The heating patterns were calibrated with Guinier-Hägg patterns at 25° C, using quartz as internal standard. Heating experiments were run on natural anhydrite (Bancroft, Ontario), which at room temperature has lattice constants in close agreement with those of synthetic material. The orthorhombic unit cell at 22° C (space groupAmma) has a=7.003 (1) Å, b=6.996 (2) Å and c=6.242 (1) Å, V=305.9 (2) Å3. At room temperature, the thermal expansion coefficients α and β (α in °C−1×104, β in °C−2×108) are for a, 0.10, −0.69; forb, 0.08, 0.19; for c, 0.18, 1.60; for V, 0.37, 1.14. Second-order coefficients provide an excellent fit over the whole range to 1,000° C.

  4. Role of anhydrite diagenesis in the creation of porosity in middle Permian dolostone reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Jacka, A.D.

    1986-03-01

    In middle Permian dolostone reservoirs, the most abundant pore type is secondary intercrystalline porosity. Generally ranking second in abundance, but first in many instances, are pores created by dissolution of anhydrite that occurred in the Permian. Much anhydrite was emplaced diagenetically during and following early dolomitization, as nodules, blocky porphyroblasts, and cement, and as combination cement and replacement. Generally, anhydritization was followed by an influx of a low-salinity fluid, which dissolved anhydrite - creating tertiary porosity - or altered it to gypsum, hemihydrate, silica, calcite, or fluorite. Dissolution of anhydrite nodules and porphyroblasts creates distinctive molds with angular and stair-step outlines. Dissolution of anhydrite, which was emplaced as cement and replacement, enhances the original primary and secondary pores by the increment that was replaced. This dissolution also produces voids with angular and stair-step outlines. Replacive anhydrite tends to nucleate within organic-rich components, such as burrows, stromatolites, skeletal grains, ooids, and peloids. Many dolomite crystals have cloudy organic-rich centers, which represent the original replacive crystals, and clear rims of epitaxial dolomite cement. Anhydrite preferentially nucleates within the organic-rich cores, and subsequent dissolution produces hollowed dolomite crystals or intracrystalline porosity. Intracrystalline pores constitute the predominant pore types within many intervals. Anhydrite commonly replaces skeletal grains or ooids, and the replacement of such anhydrite produces a mold that replicates the original shell (biomold). It is possible to determine how many biomolds actually record dissolution of replacive anhydrite. The best Permian reservoirs contain intercrystalline porosity in conjunction with pores created by dissolution of anhydrite and grains.

  5. Ferry Lake, Rodessa, and Punta Gorda Anhydrite bed correlation, lower cretaceous, offshore eastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, A.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Ferry Lake and Punta Gorda Anhydrite have been used as marker beds throughout Gulf of Mexico, and divided into nine individual anhydrite beds traceable from southern Mississippi to southern Florida. The underlying Rodessa Formation has an equally well-developed anhydrite section in the offshore Eastern Gulf of Mexico and is divided into twelve basinwide anhydrite bed groupings. The anhydrites of Ferry Lake and Rodessa Formation are traceable to the anhydrites of the Punta Gorda and Lehigh Acres Formations of South Florida. Anhydrite beds appear to thicken in the central part of the trend interfingering with carbonates of the Lower Cretaceous shelf edge reef. Paleontologic data indicate that depositional water depths of the interbedded carbonates range from sea level to 100 meters. Carbonates and anhydrites may be deposited simultaneously with carbonate patchreefs developing on crests of paleo anhydrites may be deposited simultaneously with carbonate patchreefs developing on crests of paleo highs with evaporites precipitating out of a hyper-saline solution on the flanks. Areas where poor anhydrite bed development occurs may indicate areas of patch reefs and, therefore, the best potential for hydrocarbon reservoirs. Individual anhydrite beds have been correlated and color-coded on photocopies of compensated neutron density logs to determine their geographic distribution. Prepared cross sections show some beds to be areawide while others are more restricted. Isopach maps show the configuration of the basin in which these beds were deposited with the basin`s long isopach axis parallel to the reef trend. Anhydrite deposition occurred with evaporation of restricted highstand waters behind reefs that rimmed the shelf edge.

  6. A Bowl of Hematite-Rich 'Berries'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This graph shows two spectra of outcrop regions near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site. The blue line shows data for a region dubbed 'Berry Bowl,' which contains a handful of the sphere-like grains dubbed 'blueberries.' The yellow line represents an area called 'Empty' next to Berry Bowl that is devoid of berries. Berry Bowl's spectrum still shows typical outcrop characteristics, but also exhibits an intense hematite signature, seen as a 'magnetic sextet.' Hematite is an iron-bearing mineral often formed in water. These spectra were taken by the rover's Moessbauer spectrometer on the 46th (Empty) and 48th (Berry Bowl) martian days, or sols, of its mission.

  7. Effects of anhydrite and pressure on the mechanical behavior of synthetic rocksalt

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.H.

    1982-09-01

    Bimineralic, polycrystalline rocksalt specimens ranging in composition from pure halite to pure anhydrite have been fabricated in hydrostatic compression at 150 MPa and 100/sup 0/C for 15 minutes. Resulting porosities of the compacted samples increased with increasing anhydrite content, ranging from .02 for pure halite to .14 for pure anhydrite. Twenty-three compacted samples were then deformed in triaxial compression experiments at confining pressures of 10, 100, and 200 MPa, a nominal strain rate of 10/sup -4/ sec/sup -1/ and a temperature of 200/sup 0/C. Sample strength at 10 percent axial strain was directly related to both anhydrite content and pressure. Relatively small strength increases were observed for increases in anhydrite content up to 75 percent, by weight, and for all pressure increases. Much larger increases in strength were observed when the anhydrite content was increased from 75 to 100 percent. Ductilites of less than 10 percent were seen in only two sets of data, the 100 and 75 percent anhydrite samples run at 10 MPa confining pressure, and these data indicated a trend of increasing ductility with increasing halite content and/or confining pressure. All samples exhibited strain hardening except for the 75 percent halite samples at all three pressures and the 50 percent sample of 10 MPa, which exhibited slight strain softening.

  8. Calcium pumping and anhydrite/halite relationships in Silurian A unit of Michigan basin

    SciTech Connect

    Leibold, A.W.; Howell, P.D.

    1989-03-01

    Observed relationships between anhydrite and halite in the A unit of the Michigan basin are not easily explained by classical evaporite depositional models. Within the Northern Reef trend, productive Niagaran pinnacle reefs are surrounded by A unit halite, which commonly exceeds 100 m in total thickness. However, A unit evaporites consist of thick anhydrite deposits on reef flanks and above reefs in the A-1 and A-2, respectively, Stratigraphic data suggest that the anhydrites surrounding reefs are contemporaneous with off-reef halite deposits. This reef-evaporite relationship poses three problems. (1) Why would gypsum precipitate from a halite-saturated brine (2) Why are anhydrites associated with the reefs (3) Why are anhydrites significantly thicker than predicted by evaporation models In a normal marine evaporation sequence (Hardie-Eugster model), gypsum is deposited from a brine until calcium is depleted. Upon further evaporation, the resultant halite-saturated brine would precipitate gypsum only in contact with a calcium source. The authors propose a calcium pumping mechanism whereby calcium-rich water associated with pinnacle reefs is responsible for gypsum precipitation around these reefs contemporaneous with off-reef halite. The additional supply of calcium also explains the anomalous thickness of these anhydrite deposits. Similar anhydrite halos around pinnacle reefs have been observed in the Devonian Elk Point basin.

  9. Experimental Shock Transformation of Gypsum to Anhydrite: A New Low Pressure Regime Shock Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Mary S.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    The shock behavior of gypsum is important in understanding the Cretaceous/Paleogene event and other terrestrial impacts that contain evaporite sediments in their targets (e.g., Mars Exploration Rover Spirit detected sulfate at Gusev crater, [1]). Most interest focuses on issues of devolatilization to quantify the production of SO2 to better understand its role in generating a temporary atmosphere and its effects on climate and biota [2,3]. Kondo and Ahrens [4] measured induced radiation emitted from single crystal gypsum shocked to 30 and 40 GPa. They observed greybody emission spectra corresponding to temperatures in the range of 3,000 to 4,000 K that are a factor of 2 to 10 times greater than calculated pressure-density energy equation of state temperatures (Hugoniot) and are high enough to melt gypsum. Chen et al. [5] reported results of shock experiments on anhydrite, gypsum, and mixtures of these phases with silica. Their observations indicated little or no devolatilization of anhydrite shocked to 42 GPa and that the fraction of sulfur, by mass, that degassed is approx.10(exp -2) of theoretical prediction. In another report of shock experiments on calcite, anhydrite, and gypsum, Badjukov et al. [6] observed only intensive plastic deformation in anhydrite shock loaded at 63 GPa, and gypsum converted to anhydrite when shock loaded at 56 GPa but have not experimentally shocked gypsum in a step-wise manner to constrain possible incipient transformation effects. Schmitt and Hornemann [7] shock loaded anhydrite and quartz to a peak pressure of 60 GPa and report the platy anhydrite grains were completely pseudomorphed by small crystallized anhydrite grains. However, no evidence of interaction between the two phases could be observed and they suggested that recrystallization of anhydrite grains is the result of a solid-state transformation. They concluded that significant decomposition of anhydrite requires shock pressures higher than 60 GPa. Gupta et al. [8

  10. Assessing the Role of Anhydrite in the KT Mass Extinction: Hints from Shock-loading Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skala, R.; Lnagenhorst, F.; Hoerz, F.

    2004-01-01

    Various killing mechanisms have been suggested to contribute to the mass extinctions at the KT boundary, including severe, global deterioration of the atmosphere and hydrosphere due to SO(x) released from heavily shocked, sulfate-bearing target rocks. The devolatilization of anhydrite is predominantly inferred from thermodynamic considerations and lacks experimental confirmation. To date, the experimentally determined shock behavior of anhydrite is limited to solid-state effects employing X-ray diffraction methods. The present report employs additional methods to characterize experimentally shocked anhydrite.

  11. From Dust Bowl to Conservation Tillage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Dale

    1992-01-01

    Examines the causes of the dust bowl and recent changes in tillage practices in Oklahoma and other prairie states that conserve soil. Briefly discusses the success of programs that target school children for conservation education. (LZ)

  12. Isoguanine octamer: From bowl to ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jiande; Wang, Jing; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2007-09-01

    Isoguanine (2-oxo-6-amino-guanine, isoG) can form the higher-order self-pairing ionophore structures by regulating the concentration of metal ions. The metal ion coordinated isoG-tetrads adopt bowl-like shape with the metal ion located at the bottom of the bowl. The present study of the formation of the H-bonded octamers ((isoG 4-M +) 2; M + = Na +, K +) illustrates that the bowl-shaped isoG 4-M + complexes are able to form the extraordinary ball-shaped octamers (isoG 4-M +) 2 H-bonded through the H(N6) and N7 sites. A moderate energy barrier predicted for the process of separating the ball-shaped octamer into two bowl-shaped tetrads and the unique structural features of the octamer suggests a possibility towards construction of the self-assembled isoG nanostructures.

  13. 25 Years of AAPT's PhysicsBowl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faleski, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The PhysicsBowl is a contest for high school students that was first introduced in 1985. In this article, we discuss both some of the history of the contest as well as the 25th contest occurring this year.

  14. Environmental and sequence stratigraphic implications of anhydrite textures: A case from the Lower Triassic of the Central Persian Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleali, M.; Rahimpour-Bonab, H.; Moussavi-Harami, R.; Jahani, D.

    2013-10-01

    The Lower Triassic Kangan Formation in the Persian Gulf (South Pars Gas Field) and its adjacent areas are composed of carbonate-evaporite sequences. These sediments were deposited in a shallow marine homoclinal ramp. Study of the anhydrite-bearing intervals shows various structures and textures. The anhydrite structures are mainly bedded, massive, chicken-wire and nodular type and the main textures are felted, sparse crystal, needle shape, lath shape, equant and fibrous. Pervasive and poikilotopic cement together with replacement and porphyroblastic gypsum are accounted as the most common diagenetic features in anhydrite. Evaluation of anhydrite occurrences and features support both primary and secondary formations. The nodular to chicken-wire anhydrite formed under synsedimentary sabkha conditions, whereas anhydrite cements occurred during the late stages of diagenesis (shallow burial stage). Massive to bedded anhydrite could have been formed under subaqueous conditions or originated by coalescing and continued growth of anhydrite nodules in the sabkha zone. Anhydrite fabrics impose a significant control on the reservoir quality of the Kangan carbonates at the South Pars Gas Field. Thick massive and bedded anhydrite could have been formed as an intraformational seals and anhydrite cements occluded pore spaces and reduced the poroperm values. The sequence stratigraphic analysis revealed two depositional sequences in the studied intervals, which are composed of TST and HST. Investigation of anhydrite throughout depositional sequences indicates a change in the content and style of anhydrite texture. Anhydrite content (volume) decreases upward through transgressive system tract (sea-level rise) whereas, it enhances during highstand system tract (sea-level fall). Pervasive and poikilotopic anhydrite cements together with replacement by anhydrite are prevalent features during transgressive and early highstand system tract. At the late HST, with a progradational stacking

  15. Frictional properties of simulated anhydrite-dolomite fault gouge and implications for seismogenic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluymakers, A. M. H.; Niemeijer, A. R.; Spiers, C. J.

    2016-03-01

    The frictional properties of anhydrite-dolomite fault gouges, and the effects of CO2 upon them, are of key importance in assessing the risks associated with CO2 storage in reservoir formations capped by anhydrite-dolomite sequences, and in understanding seismicity occurring in such formations (such as the Italian Apennines). Therefore, we performed velocity-stepping direct-shear experiments on simulated dolomite, anhydrite and 50:50 anhydrite/dolomite gouges, at representative in-situ conditions (120 °C and σne = 25 MPa). They were conducted under vacuum, or else using water or CO2-saturated water as pore fluid (Pf = 15 MPa). Friction coefficients varied between 0.55 and 0.7. All dry samples exhibited velocity-weakening behavior, whereas all wet samples exhibited velocity-strengthening behavior, without or with CO2. This is consistent with trends previously reported for such gouges. A compilation of literature data shows that the transition from velocity-strengthening to velocity-weakening occurs in these materials between 80 and 120 °C when dry, and between 100 and 150 °C when wet. This implies little seismogenic potential for wet dolomite, anhydrite and mixed gouges under CO2 storage conditions at 2-4 km depth. Seismic slip in the Italian Apennines at depths of ∼6 km and beyond may be explained by the velocity-weakening behavior expected in anhydrite and especially dolomite at temperatures above 150 °C.

  16. Estimating Rheological Parameters of Anhydrite from Folded Evaporite sequences: Implications for Internal Dynamics of Salt Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamuszek, Marta; Dabrowski, Marcin; Schmalholz, Stefan M.; Urai, Janos L.; Raith, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Salt structures have been identified as a potential target for hydrocarbon, CO2, or radioactive waste storage. The most suitable locations for magazines are considered in the thick and relatively homogeneous rock salt layers. However, salt structures often consist of the evaporite sequence including rock salt intercalated with other rock types e.g.: anhydrite, gypsum, potassium and magnesium salt, calcite, dolomite, or shale. The presence of such heterogeneities causes a serious disturbance in the structure management. Detailed analysis of the internal architecture and internal dynamics of the salt structure are crucial for evaluating them as suitable repositories and also their long-term stability. The goal of this study is to analyse the influence of the presence of anhydrite layers on the internal dynamics of salt structures. Anhydrite is a common rock in evaporite sequences. Its physical and mechanical properties strongly differ from the properties of rock salt. The density of anhydrite is much higher than the density of salt, thus anhydrite is likely to sink in salt causing the disturbance of the surrounding structures. This suggestion was the starting point to the discussion about the long-term stability of the magazines in salt structures [1]. However, the other important parameter that has to be taken into account is the viscosity of anhydrite. The high viscosity ratio between salt and anhydrite can restrain the layer from sinking. The rheological behaviour of anhydrite has been studied in laboratory experiments [2], but the results only provide information about the short-term behaviour. The long-term behaviour can be best predicted using indirect methods e.g. based on the analysis of natural structures that developed over geological time scale. One of the most promising are fold structures, the shape of which is very sensitive to the rheological parameters of the deforming materials. Folds can develop in mechanically stratified materials during layer

  17. Sharing a bowl of tea.

    PubMed

    Sen, S

    1993-06-01

    Soshitsu Sen's keynote speech before a symposium on population and the environment is summarized unofficially by the editorial staff. The instability of human thinking is given as the cause for the present destruction of the environment. In a visit to the His Majesty King of Sweden, Sen remarked that stabilizing human minds can be achieved within the tea ceremony through "serving tea heartily, receiving it with gratitude, and offering it to another." In this way, the spirit of concern for others can be practiced in everyday life and tranquility of mind reached. News broadcasts of starving parents and children as victims of civil war are disheartening. The Japanese people are not suffering such hunger, even though the economy has not been as robust as desired. The analogy is provided in the story by Chuang Chou about King Hun Dun and King Xiu and man's good intentions, which nonetheless destroy the earth. Japan has experienced forest and environmental destruction on the road to economic prosperity and satisfaction of self-interests. The advice on living in accord with nature is to appreciate each season for its own changes. For example, when it is the winter season, the complaint is about the cold and the desire is for spring; but when spring comes, the desire is for the cooler weather of fall. the ordinary way is to appreciate all seasons and is the best way of sustaining a healthy environment. In the garden of the tea hut, humans enter without their worldly title, position, and means; at the water basin, hands and mouth are cleansed, and entrance is made through a small hole into the hut much the same as emerging from the womb. Worldly matters are dispensed with and purity of thought is shared in the sharing of the bowl of green tea, saying "after you" to one another. Christianity and the Way of Tea share the same symbols of purification. The black tea bowl is in harmony with the green tea. Fatigue is relieved when gazing upon the color green; examples are given

  18. Experimental investigations for the modeling of chemo-mechanical processes of anhydritic rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Tara; Pimentel, Erich; Anagnostou, Georg

    2015-04-01

    When anhydritic rock comes into contact with water, the anhydrite dissolves and gypsum precipitates as a result of an oversaturation of the sulphate and calcium ions in the water. This anhydrite to gypsum transformation (AGT) leads to an increase in the solid volume by roughly 61% and possibly also of the pore volume, thus resulting in macroscopic swelling. In tunneling, swelling rock can cause massive damage, since it can exhibit high pressures on the lining or result in large deformations of the lining. Even though this phenomenon has already been observed more than a century ago, AGT in sulphatic rock still raises many open questions. One question we focus on is the mechanical (i.e. stress, strain) behavior of anhydritic rock during swelling. The coupled chemo-mechanical processes, i.e. the development of stresses and strains during AGT, has not been fully understood so far. A chemo-mechanical model must be considered which take anhydrite dissolution, gypsum precipitation as well as stresses and strains into account. In this contribution we present some fundamental research which was done in order to establish a relationship between AGT and the resulting or applied strains and stresses. The research contains experiments on samples consisting of anhydrite and kaolin under oedometric conditions. In order to reduce uncertainties due to swelling of clay as well as inhomogeneous compositions and structures of the natural rock samples, the experiments at the present stage of this research are performed on artificially created, reproducible samples. The samples contain 40% industrial anhydritic powder and 60% Polwhite E Chinaclay (of which the main component is kaolinite). The powders are mixed and compacted in a steel ring under high axial pressure, thus creating intact discs with a dry density of roughly 1.9 g/cm3. In a first series of Oedometer tests the swelling strain under various constant axial stress is measured until the maximal strain is reached. At the

  19. Formation of bowl-shaped craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piekutowski, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    High-explosive charges are used to form, in several types of granular media, laboratory-scale examples of the bowl-shaped craters that are found to be the largest and simplest class of impact structure on planetary and lunar surfaces. High-speed films of the experiments yield crater growth rate and particle displacement data, including quantitative stress, strain, displacement, and velocity data. These results are compared with the particle displacement and velocity data from large explosion experiments which have produced bowl-shaped craters. A time-sequence description of large, bowl-shaped impact crater formation is developed from the results of these comparisons, as well as those of the morphological features and structural deformations of large explosions and impact craters.

  20. Reduction of Microbial Aerosols by Automatic Toilet Bowl Cleaners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahya, Moyasar; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of the impact of automatic toilet bowl cleaners on aerosol generation. Three toilet bowl cleaners containing 2.5, 6.7 or 18.2 percent surfactant materials were evaluated. Results indicate these cleaners significantly (p 0.05) reduce bacteria ejected from the bowl, and the cleaner containing the greatest amount of surfactant was the most…

  1. The Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction: A lethal mechanism involving anhydrite target rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brett, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Chicxulub Crater, Yucatan, Mexico, is a leading contender as the site for the impact event that caused the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) extinctions. A considerable thickness of anhydrite (CaSO4) forms part of the target rock. High temperatures resulting from impact would drive SO2 off from the anhydrite. Hundreds of billions of tonnes of sulfuric acid aerosol would thus enter the stratosphere and cause considerable cooling of the Earth's surface, decrease photosynthesis by orders of magnitude, deplete the ozone layer, and permit increased UV radiation to reach the Earth's surface. Finally, the aerosol would fall back to Earth as acid rain and devastate land and some lacustrine biota and near-surface marine creatures. The presence of anhydrite in the Chicxulub target rock may thus help explain the many extinctions observed at the K-T boundary. ?? 1992.

  2. The Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction - A lethal mechanism involving anhydrite target rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brett, Robin

    1992-09-01

    The Chicxulub Crater, Yucatan, Mexico, is a leading contender as the site for the impact event that caused the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) extinctions. A considerable thickness of anhydrite (CaSO4) forms part of the target rock. High temperatures resulting from impact would drive SO2 off from the anhydrite. Hundreds of billions of tonnes of sulfuric acid aerosol would thus enter the stratosphere and cause considerable cooling of the earth's surface, decrease photosynthesis by orders of magnitude, deplete the ozone layer, and permit increased UV radiation to reach the earth's surface. Finally, the aerosol would fall back to earth as acid rain and devastate land and some lacustrine biota and near-surface marine creatures. The presence of anhydrite in the Chicxulub target rock may thus help explain the many extinctions observed at the K-T boundary.

  3. High-pressure and high-temperature study of the phase transition in anhydrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y. M.; Zhou, Q.; He, Z.; Li, F. F.; Yang, K. F.; Cui, Q. L.; Zou, G. T.

    2007-10-01

    The high-pressure and high-temperature behaviors of anhydrite (CaSO4) are studied up to 53.5 GPa and 1800 K using double-sided laser heating Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction in diamond anvil cells. The evidence of phase transition from an anhydrite structure to the monazite type was observed at about 2 GPa under cold compression. Another phase transition and a change in color of the sample from transparent to black have been also observed at a pressure of 33.2 GPa after laser heating. The new phase after laser heating persists to 53.5 GPa and 1800 K.

  4. Replacive sulfide formation in anhydrite chimneys from the Pacmanus hydrothermal field, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Los, Catharina; Bach, Wolfgang; Plümper, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Hydrothermal flow within the oceanic crust is an important process for the exchange of energy and mass between the lithosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. Infiltrated seawater heats up and interacts with wall rock, causing mineral replacement reactions. These play a large role in the formation of ore deposits; at the discharge zone, a hot, acidic and metal-rich potential ore fluid exits the crust. It mixes with seawater and forms chimneys, built up of sulfate minerals such as anhydrite (CaSO4), which are subsequently replaced by sulfide minerals. Sulfide formation is related to fluid pathways, defined by cracks and pores in the sulfate chimney. Over time, these systems might develop into massive sulfide deposits. The big question is then: how is sulfate-sulfide replacement related to the evolution of rock porosity? To address this question, sulfide-bearing anhydrite chimneys from the Pacmanus hydrothermal field (Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea) were studied using X-ray tomography, EMPA, FIB-SEM and -TEM. The apparently massive anhydrite turns out highly porous on the micro scale, with sulfide minerals in anhydrite cleavage planes and along grain boundaries. The size of the sulfide grains relates to the pores they grew into, suggesting a tight coupling between dissolution (porosity generation) and growth of replacive minerals. Some of the sulfide grains are hollow and apparently used the dissolving anhydrite as a substrate to start growth in a pore. Another mode of sulfide development is aggregates of euhedral pyrite cores surrounded by colloform chalcopyrite. This occurrence implies that fluid pathways have remained open for some time to allow several stages of precipitation during fluid evolution. To start the replacement and to keep it going, porosity generation is crucial. Our samples show that dissolution of anhydrite occurred along pathways where fluid could enter, such as cleavage planes and grain boundaries. It appears that fluids ascending within the inner

  5. Bowling: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Special Olympics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The manual, part of a series on Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Programs, presents ideas for coaching and teaching bowling skills to mentally retarded persons. An overview introduces the sport and lists long-term goals, short-term objectives, and benefits. Warm up exercises are followed by two levels of skill instruction for rolling,…

  6. Oxygen isotope fractionation factors between anhydrite and water from 100 to 550°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Hitoshi; Kusakabe, Minoru; Hirano, Shin-Ichi; Matsuo, Sadao; Somiya, Shigeyuki

    1981-03-01

    Oxygen isotope exchange between anhydrite and water was studied from 100 to 550°C, using the partial equilibrium method. The exchange rate was extremely low in NaCl solution. In the lower-temperature range, acid solutions were used to produce sufficient reaction to determine the oxygen isotope fractionation factors. The fractionation factors obtained in the present study are definitely different from those given by Lloyd [8]. They are similar to those for the HSO 4--water system studied by Mizutani and Rafter [19], and are consistently 2‰ higher than those of the barite-water system by Kusakabe and Robinson [5]. The temperature dependence of the oxygen isotope fractionation factors was calculated by the least squares method in which the weight was taken to be inversely proportional to the experimental error. The fractionation is given by: 10 3lnαanhydrite-water=3.21×(10 3/T) 2-4.72 Available δ 18O values of natural anhydrite were used to test the validity of this expression. It is shown that this newly revised geothermometer can be successfully applied to natural hydrothermal anhydrite.

  7. Diagenetic compaction of simulated anhydrite fault gouge under static conditions and implications for fault healing behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluymakers, A.; Peach, C. J.; Spiers, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    For geological storage of CO2 in depleted oil and gas reservoirs to be effective, the stored gas must remain isolated from the atmosphere for thousands of years. Faults that cut the reservoir/seal system are considered one of the most likely leakage pathways, especially if fault reactivation leads to fault dilation. However, when fault movement ceases, newly formed fault gouge will heal as a function of time. To estimate the time scale on which such healing occurs, an understanding of the deformation mechanisms that control fault (gouge) compaction is needed. Anhydrite is a common caprock in many oil and gas fields around the world and in the Netherlands in particular, where anhydrite-capped reservoirs present several options for CO2 storage. For this reason, we performed uniaxial compaction experiments on simulated anhydrite fault gouge to investigate the deformation and healing processes that operate under simulated post-slip conditions, i.e. static conditions. The gouge was prepared by crushing and sieving nearly pure anhydrite (>95wt%) derived from exploration boreholes in the north of the Netherlands. Constant stress (5-12 MPa) and stress stepping experiments (5/7.5/10 MPa) were conducted at 80°C on fault gouge samples of different initial grain size (20-500μm), under both wet and dry conditions. We also performed preliminary experiments to determine the effect of CO2 on the healing behaviour of anhydrite gouge. Dry samples showed little or no compaction creep, whereas wet samples (i.e. samples flooded with saturated CaSO4 solution) showed compaction at easily measureable rates. In the case of wet samples, our mechanical data and microstructural observations showed that, for fine grain sizes and low stresses, the rate of gouge compaction is controlled by pressure solution under diffusion-control. With increasing grain size and stress, however, fluid-assisted subcritical microcracking becomes the dominant deformation mechanism. Pressurizing the pore fluid

  8. Anthropogenic Aerosols and the Dust Bowl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazavilan, E. J.; Leibensperger, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    We use a general circulation model (GISS GCM ModelE) to study the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on the 1930s Dust Bowl. The Dust Bowl was primarily forced by anomalous sea surface temperatures, but may have been partially shaped by the large amounts of black carbon emitted at that time. A simulation using observed 1932-1938 sea surface temperature and sea ice distributions reveal drier and warmer conditions in the central U.S. Adding the influence of 1930s anthropogenic aerosols exacerbates the drying and warm conditions (0.2 °C increase over mid-west continental US, and a decrease of -0.1 mm/day of precipitation). We find that these changes are concurrent with a weakening and shift of the Bermuda High.

  9. Opportunity Dips in to 'Berry Bowl'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    Scientists are hunting down the recipe for the 'blueberries' they've discovered on Mars. Taken with the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's front hazard-avoidance camera on the 45th martian day, or sol, of the rover's mission (March 10, 2004), this image shows the area dubbed 'Berry Bowl,' where many dark and mysterious spherules or 'blueberries' collected in a depression on the surface of a rock. Opportunity is studying the blueberries for clues to their chemical composition with its suite of scientific instruments. 'Berry Bowl' is located within the rock outcrop that lines the inner edge of the crater where the rover landed.

  10. Numerical simulation of pore size dependent anhydrite precipitation in geothermal reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mürmann, Mario; Kühn, Michael; Pape, Hansgeorg; Clauser, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    Porosity and permeability of reservoirs are key parameters for an economical use of hot water from geothermal installations and can be significantly reduced by precipitation of minerals, such as anhydrite. The borehole Allermöhe 1 near Hamburg (Germany) represents a failed attempt of geothermal heat mining due to anhydrite precipitation (Baermann et al. 2000). For a risk assessment of future boreholes it is essential to understand how and when anhydrite cementation occurred under reservoir conditions. From core samples of the Allermöhe borehole it was determined that anhydrite precipitation took place in regions of relatively high porosity while regions of low porosity remained uncemented (Wagner et al. 2005). These findings correspond to the fact that e.g. halite precipitation in porous media is found only in relatively large pores (Putnis and Mauthe 2001). This study and others underline that pore size controls crystallization and that it is therefore necessary to establish a relation between pore size and nucleation. The work presented here is based on investigations of Emmanuel and Berkowitz (2007) who present such a relation by applying a thermodynamic approach. However this approach cannot explain the heterogeneous precipitation observed in the Allermöhe core samples. We chose an advanced approach by considering electric system properties resulting in another relation between pore size and crystallization. It is well known that a high fluid supersaturation can be maintained in porous rocks (Putnis and Mauthe 2001). This clearly indicates that a supersaturation threshold exists exceeding thermodynamic equilibrium considerably. In order to quantify spatially heterogeneous anhydrite cementation a theoretical approach was chosen which considered the electric interaction between surface charges of the matrix and calcium and sulphate ions in the fluid. This approach was implemented into the numerical code SHEMAT (Clauser 2003) and used to simulate anhydrite

  11. Shock induced vaporization of anhydrite CaSO4 and calcite CaCO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Satish C.; Ahrens, Thomas J.; Yang, Wenbo

    2000-04-01

    Discovery of abundant anhydrite (CaSO4) and gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) in the otherwise carbonate sediments comprising the upper portion of the rocks contained within the Chicxulub impact crater has prompted research on the shock-induced vaporization of these minerals. We use a vaporization criterion determined by shock-induced entropy. We reanalyze the shock wave experiments of Yang [1]. He shocked 30% porous anhydrite and 46% porous calcite. Post-shock adiabatic expansion of the sample across a 5 mm-thick gap and then impact upon an aluminum witness plate backed by LiF window that is monitored with a VISAR. Reanalysis uses Herrman's P-α model [2] for porous materials, and a realistic interpolation gas equation-of-state for vaporization products. Derived values of the entropies for incipient and complete vaporization for anhydrite are 1.65±0.12 and 3.17±0.12 kJ(kg.K)-1, and for calcite these are 0.99±0.11 and 1.93±0.11 kJ(kg.K)-1. Corresponding pressures for incipient and complete vaporization along the Hugoniot of non-porous anhydrite are 32.5±2.5 and 122±13 GPa and for non-porous calcite are 17.8±2.9 and 54.1±5.3 GPa, respectively. These pressures are a factor of 2-3 lower than reported earlier by Yang.

  12. Database of Mechanical and Hydrological Properties of WIPP Anhydrite Derived from Laboratory-Scale Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, F.D.; Pfeifle, T.W.

    1998-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for the purpose of demonstrating safe management, storage, and disposal of radioactive transuranic (TRU) waste generated by U.S. defense programs. The WIPP is located in southeastern New Mexico, and the underground facilities of the WIPP (i.e., experimental rooms, disposal rooms, etc.) are sited in the bedded salt of the Salado Formation at a depth of about 660 meters. The DOE has authorized the continuance of scientific research and engineering analysis related to the performance of the WIPP repository. One area of additional research relates to characterization of the mechanical and hydrological properties of anhydrite interbeds within the Salado Formation. These anhydrite interbeds have been penetrated by the shafts that provide access to the underground facilities and also lie in close proximity to the proposed radioactive waste disposal rooms at the repository horizon. Properties of particular interest are mechanical strength, deforrnational behavior, and fluid transport properties such as permeability. These properties will be used in calculationskmalyses of the mechanical and hydrological behavior of the anhydrite, in particular, and the shaft sealing system and disposal rooms, in general.

  13. Solar bowl research results (February 1983-May). Results on solar bowl technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Research on the Fixed Mirror Distributed Focus solar thermal technology, or solar bowl technology, needed for a solar-steam electric power plant is presented. Wind loads, dust erosion, fluid flow, solar optical power concentration, and mirror panel testing are all discussed separately. The research was performed at Texas Tech University. (BCS)

  14. Serving Bowl Selection Biases the Amount of Food Served

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kleef, Ellen; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Wansink, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine how common serving bowls containing food for multiple persons influence serving behavior and consumption and whether they do so independently of satiation and food evaluation. Methods: In this between-subjects experiment, 68 participants were randomly assigned to either a group serving pasta from a large-sized bowl (6.9-L…

  15. Future STEM Leaders Prepare for the National Science Bowl

    ScienceCinema

    Benjamin, Angela

    2014-09-15

    Each year, students from across the country converge on Washington, DC, for the National Science Bowl, an intense academic competition that tests the students' knowledge in science, engineering, chemistry, math and Earth science. Follow one team, from Washington DC's Woodrow Wilson High School, as they prepare for and compete in the 2014 National Science Bowl.

  16. Future STEM Leaders Prepare for the National Science Bowl

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, Angela

    2014-06-11

    Each year, students from across the country converge on Washington, DC, for the National Science Bowl, an intense academic competition that tests the students' knowledge in science, engineering, chemistry, math and Earth science. Follow one team, from Washington DC's Woodrow Wilson High School, as they prepare for and compete in the 2014 National Science Bowl.

  17. Permeability Evolution of Fractured Anhydrite Caused by Chemical and Mechanical Alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detwiler, R. L.; Elkhoury, J. E.; Ameli, P.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration requires competent structural seals (caprock) to prevent leakage over decadal time scales. Injection of large volumes of CO2 perturbs the target formation from chemical and mechanical equilibrium leading to the possible creation or enhancement of leakage pathways. We investigate the potential for leakage pathways (fractures) to grow over time under reservoir conditions in a series of anhydrite (Ca2SO4) cores. To simulate a potential leakage event in the laboratory, we fractured and jacketed the cores, and placed them in a flow-through reactor vessel. A high-pressure syringe pump applied confining stresses ranging from 7 to 17 MPa and another syringe pump pushed water through the sample at a constant flow rate with pressure control at the outlet. Effluent was sampled periodically and analyzed for Ca2+ and SO42- using an ion chromatograph. Before and after each experiment, we characterized the surfaces of the fractures using a high-resolution optical profilometer and a scanning electron microscope. Careful alignment of the surfaces during optical profiling allowed reproduction of the fracture aperture before and after each experiment. We present results from several experiments each carried out under different conditions in similar fractured anhydrite cores. One involved a well-mated pre-existing fracture and results showed that the permeability of the fractured core was similar to the intact rock matrix (O(10-18 m2); chemical alteration of the core was largely limited to the inflow face of the core and the fracture surfaces remained largely unaltered. To enhance permeability during subsequent experiments, we imposed a small (380 μm) shear displacement between the fracture surfaces resulting in a four-order-of-magnitude increase in initial permeability. The first of these was run at a constant flow rate of 0.6 ml/min for a period of 7 days. The measured pressure gradient within the core increased slowly for a period of 4 days followed

  18. Uniaxial Compression Analysis and Microdeformation Characterization of Kevin Dome Anhydrite Caprock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malenda, M. G.; Frash, L.; Carey, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Department of Energy currently manages the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) in efforts to develop techniques to characterize promising CO2 storage sites, efficient and durable technology for injection, and suitable regulations for future CO2 storage. Within the RCSP, the Montana State University-Bozeman led Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Project has focused on potential CO2 storage sites, including the Kevin Dome in northern Montana. The 750mi2 large dome lies along the north-southwest trending Sweetgrass Arch and is a natural CO2 reservoir with the potential to produce one million tonnes of CO2. The Project intends to extract and reinject this one million tonnes of CO2back into the water-leg of the Dome within the dolomitic, middle Duperow Formation to monitor impacts on the surrounding environment and communities. The caprock system includes extremely low porosity dolomite in the upper Duperow that is overlain by the anhydrite-dominated Potlatch caprock. Core was extracted by the Project from the Wallawein 22-1 well. Six 1"-diameter sub-samples were taken at depths of 3687 and 3689' of the 4"-diameter core in both vertical and horizontal directions. Unconfined uniaxial compression tests were conducted at room temperature using an Instron 4483 load frame with a 150kN load cell operated at a strain rate of 6.835-5mm per second. Samples were instrumented with four strain gages to record elastic moduli and characterize fracture behavior. The Potlatch anhydrite has demonstrated to be both strong and stiff with an average uniaxial compressive strength of 150.62±23.95MPa, a Young's modulus of 89.96±10.22GPa, and a Poisson's ratio of 0.32±0.05. These three variables are essential to developing geomechanical models that assess caprock responses to injection during CO2 sequestration. Petrographic characterizations of the fractured samples reveal an 80% groundmass of subeuhedral anhydrite crystals measuring 97-625μm and 20% 0.12-1mm wide veins

  19. Energetics of anhydrite, barite, celestine, and anglesite: a high-temperature and differential scanning calorimetry study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majzlan, J.; Navrotsky, A.; Neil, J. M.

    2002-05-01

    The thermochemistry of anhydrous sulfates (anglesite, anhydrite, arcanite, barite, celestine) was investigated by high-temperature oxide melt calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Complete retention and uniform speciation of sulfur in the solvent was documented by (a) chemical analyses of the solvent (3Na 2O · 4MoO 3) with dissolved sulfates, (b) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirming the absence of sulfur species in the gases above the solvent, and (c) consistency of experimental determination of the enthalpy of drop solution of SO 3 in the solvent. Thus, the principal conclusion of this study is that high-temperature oxide melt calorimetry with 3Na 2O · 4MoO 3 solvent is a valid technique for measurement of enthalpies of formation of anhydrous sulfates. Enthalpies of formation (in kJ/mol) from the elements (ΔH fo) were determined for synthetic anhydrite (CaSO 4) (-1433.8 ± 3.2), celestine (SrSO 4) (-1452.1 ± 3.3), anglesite (PbSO 4) (-909.9 ± 3.4), and two natural barite (BaSO 4) samples (-1464.2 ± 3.7, -1464.9 ± 3.7). The heat capacity of anhydrite, barite, and celestine was measured between 245 and 1100 K, with low- and high-temperature Netzsch (DSC-404) differential scanning calorimeters. The results for each sample were fitted to a Haas-Fisher polynomial of the form C p(245 K < T < 1100 K) = a + bT + cT -2 + dT -0.5 + eT 2. The coefficients of the equation are as follows: for anhydrite a = 409.7, b = -1.764 × 10 -1, c = 2.672 × 10 6, d = -5.130 × 10 3, e = 8.460 × 10 -5; for barite, a = 230.5, b = -0.7395 × 10 -1, c = -1.170 × 10 6, d = -1.587 × 10 3, e = 4.784 × 10 -5; and for celestine, a = 82.1, b = 0.8831 × 10 -1, c = -1.213 × 10 6, d = 0.1890 × 10 3, e = -1.449 × 10 -5. The 95% confidence interval of the measured C p varies from 1 to 2% of the measured value at low temperature up to 2 to 5% at high temperature. The measured thermochemical data improve or augment the thermodynamic database for anhydrous

  20. Whole blood analysis rotor assembly having removable cellular sedimentation bowl

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.

    1975-08-26

    A rotor assembly for performing photometric analyses using whole blood samples is described. Following static loading of a gross blood sample within a centrally located, removable, cell sedimentation bowl, the red blood cells in the gross sample are centrifugally separated from the plasma, the plasm displaced from the sedimentation bowl, and measured subvolumes of plasma distributed to respective sample analysis cuvettes positioned in an annular array about the rotor periphery. Means for adding reagents to the respective cuvettes are also described. (auth)

  1. Hydration of anhydrite of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}.II) in a ball mill

    SciTech Connect

    Sievert, T.; Wolter, A.; Singh, N.B

    2005-04-01

    The hydration of an anhydrite of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}.II) in a ball mill was studied as a function of time and temperature. The amount of gypsum formed at different intervals of time was determined by weight loss method and powder X-ray diffraction technique. Specific surface area at different time intervals was determined by LASER granulometric method. The results showed that the maximum rate of formation of gypsum was at a longer time than the time for the development of maximum specific surface area. In the presence of activators, the time for maximum rate of gypsum formation and maximum specific surface area shifted towards lower hydration time. Morphological changes during the course of hydration have been studied by the scanning electron microscopic (SEM) technique. A mechanism of hydration has been proposed.

  2. Influence of solidification accelerators on structure formation of anhydrite-containing binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anikanova, L.; Volkova, O.; Kudyakov, A.; Sarkisov, Y.; Tolstov, D.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents results of scientific analysis of chemical additives influence on acid fluoride binder. It was found that the influence of sulfate nature additives on the process of hydration and solidification of the binder is similar to influence of additives on indissoluble anhydrite. Additives with SO42- anion NO- are more efficient. The mentioned additives according to accelerating effect belong to the following succession: K2SO4 > Na2SO4 > FeSO4 > MgSO4. Facilitation of the process of hydration and solidification of the binder, increase in density and durability of the binder (32 MPa) is to the greatest extent achieved with the introduction of 2% sodium sulfate additive of the binder's mass into the composition of the binder along with the ultrasonic treatment of water solution. Directed crystal formation process with healing of porous structure by new growths presented as calcium sulfate dehydrate and hydroglauberite provides positive effect.

  3. Stress-strain relations for swelling anhydritic clay rocks – A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, Simon; Blum, Philipp; Butscher, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    The swelling of clay-sulfate rocks is a major threat in tunnel engineering, causing serious damage to tunnels and producing high additional costs during tunnel construction and operation. The swelling leads to geomechanical processes that may result in heave of the tunnel invert, destruction of the lining or uplift of the entire tunnel section. Heave-pressure-time relations are needed when predictions should be made about the mechanical behavior of swelling rock. For pure clay rocks, there is a linear relation between the swelling heave (strain) and the logarithm of pressure (Grob 1972). A generally accepted relation for clay-sulfate rocks, however, is still lacking to date. Therefore, finding appropriate and sustainable counter measures for an actual tunneling project affected by swelling remains extremely difficult. Grob (1972) proposed the linear relation between heave and the logarithm of pressure ("semi-logarithmic swelling law") not only for clay rocks, but also for clay-sulfate rocks. Pimentel (2007), however, presented laboratory experiments indicating that the semi-logarithmic swelling law may be inadequate for describing the swelling of clay-sulfate rocks. The laboratory tests revealed three different stages in the swelling process, including minimal deformation and prevented gypsum crystallization at high pressures (> 6 MPa); large deformation and gypsum crystallization at medium pressures; and only small deformation, possibly along with gypsum dissolution, at low pressures (< 4 MPa). He pointed at a "tri-linear" relation to describe the different stages. Kirschke (1995) generally doubts the existence of a fixed relation between swelling strain and (final) pressure. According to him, swelling pressures and their temporal development are controlled by water inflow into the rock, which cannot be reflected by general strain-stress relations. The present study critically reviews stress-strain relations for swelling anhydritic clay rocks proposed by various

  4. Screen bowl centrifuge: a high-efficiency particle size separator

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, M.K.; Zhang, B.; Khanna, N.; Palit, A.; Dube, B.

    2008-05-15

    Over the years, screen bowl centrifuges have been widely used for dewatering fine coal in coal preparation plants in the United States and elsewhere. It is generally recognized in the engineering and scientific communities that screen bowl centrifuges provide some degree of particle size separation while dewatering fine coal in a common application. However, the extent of differential partitioning of coarse and fine particles achievable by a screen bowl centrifuge has not been systematically studied in the past. The present investigation was aimed at conducting a parametric study using a statistically designed experimental program to better understand and optimize the size classification performance of a screen bowl centrifuge. A continuously operating screen bowl centrifuge having a bowl diameter of 0.5 m was used for this study at the Illinois Coal Development Park. Three key operating parameters, i.e., feed flow rate, feed solid content and pool depth, were varied to conduct a total of 17 experiments using a three-level factorial test matrix. Some of the best size separation performances achieved in this study may be described as having an imperfection value of 0.13 at an effective separation size (d(50c)) of 38 mu m and an imperfection value of 0.27 at an effective separation size (d(50c)) of 2.8 mu m. Due to an effective separation of ultrafine high ash materials, the ash content of the screen bowl feed was reduced from 22.3% to a minimum of 8.84% with a combustible recovery of 84.1% and an ash rejection of 71.6%. A higher combustible recovery of 92.1% was achieved at a product ash content of 12.5% with a d(50c) of 2.8 mu m and imperfection of 0.27.

  5. [Acute compartment syndrome after a bowling game].

    PubMed

    Meyer, C Y; Braun, K F; Huber-Wagner, S; Neu, J

    2015-11-01

    A 28-year-old male patient was initially conservatively treated by a general physician for muscle strain of the right calf after a bowling game. Due to increasing pain and swelling of the lower leg 5 days later, the differential diagnosis of a deep vein thrombosis was considered. Furthermore, the onset of neurological deficits and problems with raising the foot prompted inclusion of compartment syndrome in the differential diagnosis for the first time. Admission to hospital for surgical intervention was scheduled for the following day. At this point in time the laboratory results showed a negative d-dimer value and greatly increased C-reactive protein level. On day 6 a dermatofasciotomy was performed which revealed extensive muscular necrosis with complete palsy of the peroneal nerve. In the following lawsuit the patient accused the surgeon of having misdiagnosed the slow-onset compartment syndrome and thus delaying correct and mandatory treatment. The arbitration board ruled that the surgeon should have performed fasciotomy immediately on day 5 at the patient's consultation. The clinical presentation of progressive pain, swelling of the lower leg in combination with peroneal palsy must lead to the differential diagnosis of compartment syndrome resulting in adequate therapy. The delay of immediate surgery, therefore, was assessed to be faulty as this knowledge is to be expected of a surgeon. PMID:26440405

  6. Discovery Served Up in a Bowl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera is an approximate true-color rendering of the exceptional rock called 'Berry Bowl' in the 'Eagle Crater' outcrop. The study of this 'blueberry-strewn' area and the identification of hematite as the major iron-bearing element within these sphere-like grains helped scientists confirm their hypothesis that the hematite in these martian spherules was deposited in water. To separately analyze the mineralogical content of three main features within this area -- blueberries, dust and rock -- it was important that the rock abrasion tool's brush was able to rest on a relatively berry-free spot. The rock's small size and crowd of berries made the 10-minute brushing a challenge to plan and execute. The successful brushing on the target whimsically referred to as 'Near Empty' on the rover's 48th sol on Mars left a dust-free impression for subsequent examination by the rover's spectrometers. No grinding was necessary on the rock because spectral data obtained on the dust-free surface were sufficient to verify that the rock's chemical composition differs significantly from the hematite-rich berries.

  7. Enhanced Cellular Uptake of Bowl-like Microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiying; Zhang, Wenbo; Tong, Weijun; Gao, Changyou

    2016-05-11

    Among several properties of colloidal particles, shape is emerging as an important parameter for tailoring the interactions between particles and cells. In this study, bowl-like multilayer microcapsules were prepared by osmotic-induced invagination of their spherical counterparts in a concentrated polyelectrolyte solution. The internalization behaviors of bowl-like and spherical microcapsules were compared by coincubation with smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and macrophages. The bowl-like capsules tended to attach onto the cell membranes from the bend side and could be enwrapped by the membranes of SMCs, leading to a faster uptake rate and larger accumulation inside cells than those of their spherical counterparts. These results are important for understanding the shape-dependent internalization behavior, providing useful guidance for further materials design especially in biomedical applications. PMID:27119770

  8. Otoplasty: the problem of the deep conchal bowl.

    PubMed

    Beasley, N J; Jones, N S

    1996-09-01

    The correction of prominent ears requires a logical approach to address each of the anatomical defects present while bearing in mind the overall shape of the ear. The two most common problems encountered are the lack of an antihelix and a deep conchal bowl. We describe a method of reducing the depth of the conchal bowl which avoids some of the problems previously encountered such as occlusion of the external auditory meatus and visible irregularity on the external surface of the pinna. Resection of the inferomedial part of the conchal bowl and thinning of the ponticulus allow realignment of the ear and prevent prominence of the antitragus. The ear is then secured with concha-mastoid sutures and the scapha-conchal angle can then be corrected to form an antihelix if necessary. PMID:8949299

  9. Clay hydration and crystal growth in expansive anhydritic claystone. The Ascó Power Plant case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Eduardo; Ramon, Anna

    2015-04-01

    A large power plant directly founded on a hard claystone experienced, soon after the construction of the foundation slabs, a continuous heave developing at decreasing rate, which has been active for the last 35 years. When undisturbed (i.e., at some depth, in the range of several meters) Ascó claystone exhibits high unconfined compressive strengths (30-40 MPa). In high quality cores the rock has a massive aspect and discontinuities are difficult to observe. The rock has a Tertiary origin and horizontal layers at spacing of 1-4 m could be identified. Whitish seams of gypsum, bassanite or anhydrite are also observed within the reddish rock matrix. Minerals identified in deep cores are quartz (10%), calcite and dolomite (50-70%), clay minerals (10-20%) and gypsum and anhydrite (2-20%). Among the clay minerals, illite dominates (10%). Smectite or smectite-interbedded minerals do not amount in general to more than 5%. The undisturbed rock has a low porosity (6-11%) and low water content (2-5%). Because of the presence of hydrated sulphates, water content and degree of saturation (Sr=0.8-0.9 was found) are somewhat uncertain. However, high suctions were found in recovered cores. This rock changes into a weathered material at shallow depths. Mineralogy is not much affected but porosity increases to 22-29% and water content increases to 10-19%. Strength drops to small values (soil like) and a lower "in situ" suction has been measured (0.4-7.1 MPa). The added pore volume of the weathered material, if compared with the deep rock, is filled with water. The heave of the station was attributed to the hydration of undisturbed rock under the building slabs of the power plant. In fact, large excavations preceded the layout of foundations. As a result, atmospheric water had an easy access to the intact rock. The installation of a compacted soil fill around the buildings allowed the presence of a permanent water table which could infiltrate into the rock. Piezometric data provided

  10. 76 FR 73996 - Special Local Regulations; Orange Bowl International Youth Regatta, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Orange Bowl International..., Florida during the Orange Bowl International Youth Regatta, a series of sailboat races. The Orange Bowl... this rule because the Coast Guard did not receive necessary information about the Orange...

  11. A Critical Evaluation of the Dust Bowl and its Causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, T. E.; Lee, J. A.

    2006-12-01

    The Dust Bowl was an environmental nut sack catastrophe, a natural hazard (multiannual drought) in the 1930s in the Southern Great Plains of the USA, resulting in the activation of a geomorphic process (intense wind erosion) which, when human society could not adapt to it, cascaded into unprecedented agricultural, economic, and societal collapse in its core region. Over the years, the cause of the Dust Bowl has been variably ascribed to specific climatic or meteorological phenomena or land management practices. Drought and wind erosion have been notable phenomena in the Southern Great Plains throughout the Holocene, occurring long before conversion of the land to agricultural use, and still continue today. Numerous studies, using modeling and/or proxy data, have related the Dust Bowl- associated drought of the 1930s to a unique combination of large-scale climatic drivers and put it in a better temporal context. The 1930s drought was one of many decadal to centennial-scale droughts to affect North America in the late Holocene, but probably not one of the most severe ones. It was necessary, but not sufficient in itself be called the "cause of the Dust Bowl." Conversely, certain soil scientists, agricultural researchers and historians have blamed the Dust Bowl catastrophe squarely on inappropriate cropping practices, especially clearing vegetative cover from the land surface, as well as the advent of mechanized agriculture which accelerated overcultivation. Some geographers and meteorologists have ascribed the Dust Bowl to increased wind speeds and an increased frequency of cyclone passages in the 1930s as compared to other significant droughts since European settlement of the Plains. In reality, the Dust Bowl almost certainly cannot be said to have been caused by any one factor, but is better visualized as a complex interplay of multiple triggers, including geomorphic, climatic, meteorological, and/or human elements. For example, a synergistic combination of climatic

  12. Hydraulic fracturing tests in anhydrite interbeds in the WIPP, Marker Beds 139 and 140

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, C L [RE Wawersik, W. R.; Carlson, L. V.; Henfling, J. A.; Borns, D. J.; Beauheim, R. L.; Roberts, R. M.

    1997-05-01

    Hydraulic fracturing tests were integrated with hydrologic tests to estimate the conditions under which gas pressure in the disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, NM (WIPP) will initiate and advance fracturing in nearby anhydrite interbeds. The measurements were made in two marker beds in the Salado formation, MB139 and MB140, to explore the consequences of existing excavations for the extrapolation of results to undisturbed ground. The interpretation of these measurements is based on the pressure-time records in two injection boreholes and several nearby hydrologic observation holes. Data interpretations were aided by post-test borehole video surveys of fracture traces that were made visible by ultraviolet illumination of fluorescent dye in the hydraulic fracturing fluid. The conclusions of this report relate to the upper- and lower-bound gas pressures in the WIPP, the paths of hydraulically and gas-driven fractures in MB139 and MB140, the stress states in MB139 and MB140, and the probable in situ stress states in these interbeds in undisturbed ground far away from the WIPP.

  13. Constraints On Fluid Evolution During Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Circulation From Anhydrite Sampled by ODP Hole 1256D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith-Duque, C.; Teagle, D. A.; Alt, J. C.; Cooper, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    Anhydrite is potentially a useful mineral for recording the evolution of seawater-derived fluids during mid- ocean ridge hydrothermal circulation because it exhibits retrograde solubility, and hence may precipitate due to the heating of seawater or the sub-surface mixing of seawater with black smoker-like fluids. Here we provide new insights into the chemical and thermal evolution of seawater during hydrothermal circulation through analyses of anhydrite recovered from ODP Hole 1256D, the first complete penetration of intact upper oceanic crust down to gabbros. Previously, crustal anhydrite has been recovered only from Hole 504B. Measurements of 87Sr/86Sr, major element ratios, Rare Earth Elements and δ18O in anhydrite constrain the changing composition of fluids as they chemically interact with basalt. Anhydrite fills veins and pore-space in the lower lava sequences from ~530 to ~1000 meters sub- basement (msb), but is concentrated in the lava-dike transition (754 to 811 msb) and uppermost sheeted dikes. Although present in greater quantities than in Hole 504B, the amount of anhydrite recovered from the Site 1256 crust is low compared to that predicted by models of hydrothermal circulation (e.g., Sleep, 1991). Two distinct populations of anhydrite are indicated by measurements of 87Sr/86Sr suggesting different fluid evolution paths within Site 1256. One group of anhydrites have 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7070 to 0.7085, close to that of 15 Ma seawater (0.70878), suggesting that some fluids penetrate through the lavas and into the sheeted dikes with only minimal Sr-exchange with the host basalts. A second group, with low 87Sr/86Sr between 0.7048 and 0.7052, indicates precipitation from a fluid that has undergone far greater interaction with basalt. This range is close to that estimated from Sr-isotopic analyses of epidote for the Hole 1256D hydrothermal fluids (87Sr/86Sr ~0.705). Sr/Ca and 87Sr/86Sr indicate a similar relationship to that seen at ODP Hole 504B suggesting that

  14. Stability of Basalt plus Anhydrite plus Calcite at HP-HT: Implications for Venus, the Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, A. M.; Righter, K.; Treiman, A. H.

    2010-01-01

    "Canali" observed at Venus surface by Magellan are evidence for very long melt flows, but their composition and origin remain uncertain. The hypothesis of water-rich flow is not reasonable regarding the temperature at Venus surface. The length of these channels could not be explained by a silicate melt composition but more likely, by a carbonate-sulfate melt which has a much lower viscosity (Kargel et al 1994). One hypothesis is that calcite CaCO3 and anhydrite CaSO4 which are alteration products of basalts melted during meteorite impacts. A famous example recorded on the Earth (Chicxulub) produced melt and gas rich in carbon and sulfur. Calcite and sulfate evaporites are also present on Mars surface, associated with basalts. An impact on these materials might release C- and S-rich melt or fluid. Another type of planetary phenomenon (affecting only the Earth) might provoke a high pressure destabilization of basalt+anhydrite+calcite. Very high contents of C and S are measured in some Earth s magmas, either dissolved or in the form of crystals (Luhr 2008). As shown by the high H content and high fO2 of primary igneous anhydrite-bearing lavas, the high S content in their source may be explained by subduction of an anhydrite-bearing oceanic crust, either directly (by melting followed by eruption) or indirectly (by release of S-rich melt or fluid that metasomatize the mantle) . Calcite is a major product of oceanic sedimentation and alteration of the crust. Therefore, sulfate- and calcite-rich material may be subducted to high pressures and high temperatures (HP-HT) and release S- and C-rich melts or fluids which could influence the composition of subduction zone lavas or gases. Both phenomena - meteorite impact and subduction - imply HP-HT conditions - although the P-T-time paths are different. Some HP experimental/theoretical studies have been performed on basalt/eclogite, calcite and anhydrite separately or on a combination of two. In this study we performed piston

  15. Saving the Dust Bowl: "Big Hugh" Bennett's Triumph over Tragedy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    In the 1930s, years of injudicious cultivation had devastated 100 million acres of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Colorado, and New Mexico. This was the Dust Bowl, and it exposed a problem that had silently plagued American agriculture for centuries--soil erosion. Farmers, scientists, and the government alike considered it trivial until Hugh Hammond…

  16. Interpreting the Dust Bowl: Teaching Environmental Philosophy through Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, John R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides a discussion of the structure and procedures of a classroom exercise using scenes from "The Grapes of Wrath," to illustrate different environmental philosophies. After viewing scenes from the film, students prepare presentations examining the Dust Bowl from one of four philosophical positions: environmental causation,…

  17. Message in a Bottle: University Advertising during Bowl Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    Through this descriptive qualitative study of institutional advertisements aired on television during the 2006-2007 college football bowl season, I sought to understand the messages communicated by colleges and universities to external audiences. The findings demonstrate the focus on selling the private benefits of higher education and call into…

  18. College Bowl Sponsorship and the Increased Commercialization of Amateur Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Matthew P.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on the increased influence of advertising and commercialism in society by investigating the increased economic centrality and symbolic visibility of corporate sponsors to college football bowl games. Argues that corporate sponsorship further devalues the integrity and essence of amateur sports. (SR)

  19. Cultural Connections: Bowl with Frieze of Lions Attacking Bulls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article gives a brief description of the piece of art titled "Bowl with Frieze of Lions Attacking Bulls" which is thought to be the product of a court or palace of the Neo-Assyrian period and dates to the late seventh to eighth century BC, between the reigns of Sargon and Ashurbanipal. The article highlights the piece's most notable cultural…

  20. Discussion Based Fish Bowl Strategy in Learning Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates the learning problems in psychology at Master of Education(M.Ed.,) in Bharathiar University and finds the effectiveness of Discussion Based Fish Bowl Strategy in learning psychology. Single group Experimental method was adopted for the study. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were adopted for this study.…

  1. The Intercollegiate Ethics Bowl: An Active Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the Intercollegiate Ethics Bowl (IEB) as a means of promoting active learning in the realm of marketing ethics. The cases discussed in the competition are based on current ethical issues and require students to provide a coherent analysis of what are generally complex, ambiguous, and highly viewpoint dependent issues. The…

  2. The Status of Women Faculty at Bowling Green State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowling Green State Univ., OH.

    In response to the increasing concern in the academic professions about the systematic sex bias faced by women academicians, the Faculty Senate of Bowling Green State University appointed an Ad Hoc committee on the Status of Women Faculty in the fall of 1971. The committee was charged with conducting an empirical study on existing sex…

  3. Bowls made of Laser Light to Corral Ultracold Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, John

    2010-10-01

    Using stable lasers, it is now possible to create nearly perfect bowls made of pure light, which are smaller than a piece of lint and store atoms for several minutes in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. These almost frictionless bowls are ideal for cooling atoms by evaporation, the same way that alcohol cools the skin. In just a few seconds, atoms trapped in the bowl are cooled to temperatures of ten of billionths of a degree above absolute zero, where the de Broglie wavelength is several microns. These ultracold atoms occupy the quantum energy levels of the bowl, producing a giant quantum system that can be directly observed using laser flash photography. I will describe our laser trapping methods and show how they can be use to study a unique quantum gas of spin-up and spin-down ^6Li atoms, which are fermions that obey the Pauli exclusion principle. I will describe how this ultracold atomic gas now tests predictions in nearly all fields of physics, from high temperature superconductors to neutron stars, the quark-gluon plasma of the Big Bang, and even string theory.

  4. Discrepant Event: The Great Bowling Ball Float-Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mason; Griffith, William F.; Hogue, Sharon E.; Holley, Kathleen; Hunter, Kirk

    2004-01-01

    The two things that usually attract students include sports and observing the unexpected. These activities which can be adapted for any class investigating the physical property of density, addresses both using an interactive, cross-disciplinary, open-ended investigation centered on determining mathematically whether a bowling ball will sink or…

  5. A Critical Analysis of Football Bowl Subdivision Coaching Contract Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Justin Keith

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study is designed to inventory and analyze contract components used by Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) institutions in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) to further contribute to the body research. The FBS is comprised of 120 institutions and 94 of those institutions submitted contracts to "USA Today"…

  6. The effect of pressure on the kinetics of γ-anhydrite crystallization investigated by diamond anvil cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chuanjiang; Zheng, Haifei; Du, Jianguo; Wang, Duojun

    2015-01-01

    The crystallization kinetics of γ-anhydrite was investigated in the temperature and pressure ranges of 373-473 K and 1094-1903 MPa using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC) and Raman spectroscopy. A calcium sulfate solution was formed by dissolving gypsum in water at high pressure, and γ-anhydrite crystallized due to the increasing temperature. The relationship among the reaction rate, k, the temperature, T, and the pressure, P was established as k=-1.75×10-3+1.83×10-6P+3.57×10-7T, with an R2 value of 0.943, of which the applicable range is 373 K≤T≤473 K and 1196 MPa≤P≤1903 MPa. An elevation of T or P will accelerate the crystallization rate of γ-anhydrite. The time exponent n obtained between 0.96 and 1.29 indicates that the process of crystallization should be controlled by instant nucleation on the grain boundary and diffusion controlled growth. In the process of crystallization, the volume is reduced because of the decrease of pressure, and the volume change ΔV is equal to -6.05×10-6 m3/mol. The calculated activation energy Ea is 10.7 kJ/mol, and the pre-exponential factor A is 2.27×10-2 s-1.

  7. Multiple causes of wind erosion in the Dust Bowl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeffrey A.; Gill, Thomas E.

    2015-12-01

    The Dust Bowl refers to a disaster focused in the Southern Great Plains of North America during the 1930s, when the region experienced extreme wind erosion. Dry farming techniques increased soil erodibility. Drought reduced both soil cohesion, making it more erodible, and land cover, leaving the soil less protected from wind action. Low crop prices (driven by the Great Depression), extremely poor harvests (driven by drought), and lack of knowledge of regionally-appropriate tillage practices left farmers unable to implement erosion control on their land. The 1930s drought was severe, but neither unusual in the region nor extreme in length from a climatological perspective. Sea-surface temperature changes in the Atlantic and Pacific forced changes in the large-scale atmospheric circulation over North America. The result was persistent, intensifying drought within the Southern Great Plains for multiple years, causing a cascade of desiccation. Increased atmospheric dust and increased frequency of cyclones crossing the region may also have exacerbated Dust Bowl conditions. The Dust Bowl resulted from the simultaneous combination of drought and economic depression in a region where farmers had not yet learned effective land management techniques. Economic recovery, cessation of drought, and implementation of erosion control programs combined to end the Dust Bowl by the end of the 1930s. Many lessons were learned from the 1930s Dust Bowl regarding the physical and anthropogenic causes of dust storms and how to mitigate them. As a result, though dust storms continue on the Southern Great Plains, their severity is significantly reduced. Before our plow breaks open the soil at all, It's necessary to study the ways of the winds And the changing ways of the skies, and also to know… What crops will prosper there and what will not.

  8. Multiple causes of wind erosion in the Dust Bowl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeffrey A.; Gill, Thomas E.

    2015-12-01

    The Dust Bowl refers to a disaster focused in the Southern Great Plains of North America during the 1930s, when the region experienced extreme wind erosion. Dry farming techniques increased soil erodibility. Drought reduced both soil cohesion, making it more erodible, and land cover, leaving the soil less protected from wind action. Low crop prices (driven by the Great Depression), extremely poor harvests (driven by drought), and lack of knowledge of regionally-appropriate tillage practices left farmers unable to implement erosion control on their land. The 1930s drought was severe, but neither unusual in the region nor extreme in length from a climatological perspective. Sea-surface temperature changes in the Atlantic and Pacific forced changes in the large-scale atmospheric circulation over North America. The result was persistent, intensifying drought within the Southern Great Plains for multiple years, causing a cascade of desiccation. Increased atmospheric dust and increased frequency of cyclones crossing the region may also have exacerbated Dust Bowl conditions. The Dust Bowl resulted from the simultaneous combination of drought and economic depression in a region where farmers had not yet learned effective land management techniques. Economic recovery, cessation of drought, and implementation of erosion control programs combined to end the Dust Bowl by the end of the 1930s. Many lessons were learned from the 1930s Dust Bowl regarding the physical and anthropogenic causes of dust storms and how to mitigate them. As a result, though dust storms continue on the Southern Great Plains, their severity is significantly reduced.

  9. Structures in an anhydrite layer embedded in halite matrix: Results from thermomechanical experiments under bulk plain strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertineit, M.; Zulauf, G.; Peinl, M.; Zanella, F.; Bornemann, O.

    2009-04-01

    Anhydrite layers from Gorleben salt dome, embedded in a halite matrix from Asse salt dome, both northern Germany, were deformed under bulk plain strain using a thermomechenical apparatus (Zulauf et al., 2007, 2009). The initial layer thickness Hi ranges from 0.85 to 2.5 mm. Further deformation conditions were as follows: T =345˚ C, max=4.59 MPa, ezmax=-40%, Ä-=2*10-7s-1. During the deformation process, load cells record the stress along Y and Z. The displaced material could escape in X. The deformed samples were scanned using a computer tomograph at the Universitätsklinikum Frankfurt/Main. The CT data allow the generation of 3D-modells using the software Smoooth. We deformed six samples with the layer (S) perpendicular to the X-axis and four samples with the layer perpendicular to the Z-axis. Depending on the orientation of the layer (S⊥X or S⊥Z), the expected structures should be folds or boudins, respectively, the geometry of which should strongly depend on Hi. In cases were the layer was orientated parallel to the shortening axis (S⊥X), the anhydrite layer shows Mohr-Coulomb fractures. The fracture walls were thrust on top of each other. The space between hanging and foot wall is filled with salt. The angle between the fractures and the YZ-plain ranges from 10˚ to 25˚ , rarely up to 70˚ , dependent on the finite strain. In thin layers (Hi=0.85 and 1 mm) rarely non-cylindrical folds developed. In both cases (S⊥X and S⊥Z) the layer thickness did not significantly change during deformation. In cases were the layer was orientated perpendicular to the shortening axis (S⊥Z) boudins developed by extensional fracture. The number of boudins and their size depend strongly on the initial layer thickness Hi. With increasing layer thickness Hi the width of boudins Wa increases linearly. Wa = -0.2 + 1.4 * Hi (1) This relation between Hi and Wa is further compatible with equation (16.4) of Price and Cosgrove (1990) which also

  10. On the Cause of the 1930s Dust Bowl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried D.; Suarez, Max J.; Pegion, Philip J.; Koster, Randal D.; Bacmeister, Julio T.

    2004-01-01

    The 1930s was characterized by a decade of rainfall deficits and high temperatures that desiccated much of the United States Great Plains. Numerous dust storms created one of the most severe environmental catastrophes in U.S. history and led to the popular characterization of much of the southern Great Plains as the Dust Bowl . In this study, we show that the origin of the drought was in the anomalous tropical sea surface temperatures that occurred during that decade. We further show that interactions between the atmosphere and the land surface were essential to the development of the severe drought conditions. The results are based on simulations with the NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project general circulation model forced with observed and idealized sea surface temperatures. We contrast the 1930s drought with other major droughts of the 20th century, and speculate on the possibility of another Dust Bowl developing in the foreseeable future.

  11. Kiwifruit: taking its place in the global fruit bowl.

    PubMed

    Ward, Carol; Courtney, David

    2013-01-01

    While the world total production of kiwifruit has increased by over 50% during the last decade, the kiwifruit remains a niche fruit, taking up an estimated 0.22% of the global fruit bowl, which is dominated by apples, oranges, and bananas. Even though kiwifruit's share of the global fruit bowl has remained largely unchanged over the past 15 years, the scope for growth in the category is significant, with the nutritional and production characteristics of kiwifruit being on the right side of key global consumer trends around health and sustainability. Taking advantage of these consumer trends is one of two key challenges for the global kiwifruit industry. The second challenge is to harness the diverse natural and cultivated range of kiwifruit varieties (colors, flavors, sizes, and shapes) to stimulate the interest of consumers and grow the share of kiwifruit in the fruit basket through selecting cultivars that can develop meaningful market segments and meet consumer demand. PMID:23394979

  12. Method and device for disinfecting a toilet bowl

    DOEpatents

    Almon, Amy C.

    1997-01-01

    Method and device for disinfecting a flush toilet. The device is an electrocell mounted in the tank of the toilet, with two wire mesh electrodes immersed in the water in the tank and a battery applying approximately one to two volts of electric potential to the electrodes so that they chemically reduce a portion of the water in the tank to hydrogen peroxide. Then, when the tank is flushed, the peroxide is carried into the bowl where it can kill bacteria.

  13. Numerical Modeling of the Hydrothermal System at East Pacific Rise 9°50'N Including Anhydrite Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolandaivelu, K. P.; Lowell, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    To better understand the effects of anhydrite precipitation on mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems, we conducted 2-D numerical simulations of two-phase hydrothermal circulation in a NaCl-H2O fluid at the East Pacific Rise 9°50'N. The simulations were constrained by key observational thermal data and seismicity that suggests the fluid flow is primarily along axis with recharge focused into a small zone near a 4th order discontinuity. The simulations considered an open-top square box with a fixed seafloor pressure of 25 MPa, and nominal seafloor temperature of 10 °C. The sides of the box were assumed to be impermeable and insulated. We considered two models: a homogeneous model with a permeability of 10-13 m2 and a heterogeneous model in which layer 2A extrusives were given a higher permeability. Both models had a fixed bottom temperature distribution and initial porosity of 0.1. Assuming that anhydrite precipitation resulted from the decrease in solubility with increasing temperature as downwelling fluid gets heated, we calculated the rate of porosity decrease and sealing times in each cell at certain time snapshots in the simulations. The results showed that sealing would occur most rapidly in limited regions near the base of the high-temperature plumes, where complete sealing could occur on decadal time scales. Though more detailed analysis is needed, it appeared that the areas of rapid sealing would likely have negligible impact on the overall circulation pattern and hydrothermal vent temperatures. The simulations also indicated that sealing due to anhydrite precipitation would occur more slowly at the margins of the ascending plumes. The sealing times in the deep recharge zone determined in these simulations were considerably greater than estimated from 1D analytical calculations, suggesting that with a 2D model, focused recharge at the EPR 9°50'N site may occur, at least on a decadal time scale.

  14. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications. Task 4 - Testing in Alstom's 15 MWth Boiler Simulation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs; Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF); Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools; Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems; Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost; and, Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project is scheduled for completion by April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a matrix of

  15. Literature review and recommendation of methods for measuring relative permeability of anhydrite from the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, R.L.; Howarth, S.M.

    1995-08-01

    This report documents a literature review of methods for measuring relative permeability as applied to low permeability anhydrite rock samples from the Salado Formation. About one hundred papers were reviewed, and four methods were identified as promising techniques for measuring the relative permeability of the Salado anhydrite: (1) the unsteady-state high-rate method, (2) the unsteady-state stationary-liquid method, (3) the unsteady-state centrifuge method, and (4) the unsteady-state low-rate method. Except for the centrifuge method, all have been used for low permeability rocks. The unsteady-state high-rate method is preferred for measuring relative permeability of Salado anhydrite, and the unsteady-state stationary-liquid method could be well suited for measuring gas relative permeability of Salado anhydrite. The unsteady-state low-rate method, which combines capillary pressure effects with relative permeability concepts may also prove effective. Likewise, the unsteady-state centrifuge method may be an efficient means for measuring brine relative permeability for Salado anhydrite, especially at high gas saturations.

  16. Impact-induced devolatilization of CaSO4 anhydrite and implications for K-T extinctions: Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyburczy, James A.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    The recent suggestions that the target area for the K-T bolide may have been a sulfate-rich evaporite and that the resulting sulfuric acid-rich aerosol was responsible for the subsequent cooling of the Earth and the resulting biological extinctions has prompted us to experimentally examine the impact-induced devolatization of the sulfate minerals anhydrite (CaSO4) and gypsum (CaSO4(2H2O)). Preliminary results for anhydrite are reported. Up to 42 GPa peak shock pressure, little or no devolatilization occurs, consistent with chemical thermodynamic calculations. Calculation of the influence of the partial pressure of the gas species on impact-induced devolatilization suggests that an even greater amount of sulfur than that proposed by Brett could have been released to the atmosphere by an impact into a sulfate-rich layer. Solid recovery, impact-induced devolatilization experiments were performed on the Caltech 20mm gun using vented, stainless steel sample assemblies.

  17. Lessons from the Dust Bowl: Human-Environment Education on the Great Plains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Jess

    2012-01-01

    This article documents regional demand for human-environment educational resources via assessment of public knowledge of the environmental crisis known as the Dust Bowl. The steadily eroding knowledge-base on the topic is discussed along with the desire for enhanced Dust Bowl educational resources. Regionally focused educational activities…

  18. 77 FR 75550 - Special Local Regulations; 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle Championship, Biscayne Bay, Miami, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle... in Miami, FL during the 2013 Orange Bowl Paddle Championship. The event will take place on January...

  19. English As a Second Language and the Salad Bowl Concept. World Education Monograph Series, Number Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, Rosalie M.

    The salad bowl concept is discussed and the increasing importance of teaching English as a second language (ESL) is examined in this paper. When melting pot theory failed to preserve the values of cultural creativity and diversity of America's many immigrant groups, a new and better idea was born--the notion of the salad bowl. This concept implies…

  20. Effectiveness of bowl trapping and netting for inventory of a bee community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grundel, R.; Frohnapple, K.J.; Jean, R.P.; Pavlovic, N.B.

    2011-01-01

    Concern over the status of bees has increased the need to inventory bee communities and, consequently, has increased the need to understand effectiveness of different bee sampling methods. We sampled bees using bowl traps and netting at 25 northwest Indiana sites ranging from open grasslands to forests. Assemblages of bees captured in bowl traps and by netting were very similar, but this similarity was driven by similar relative abundances of commonly captured species. Less common species were often not shared between collection methods (bowls, netting) and only about half of the species were shared between methods. About one-quarter of species were more often captured by one of the two collection methods. Rapid accumulation of species was aided by sampling at temporal and habitat extremes. In particular, collecting samples early and late in the adult flight season and in open and forest habitats was effective in capturing the most species with the fewest samples. The number of samples estimated necessary to achieve a complete inventory using bowls and netting together was high. For example, ≈72% of species estimated capturable in bowls were captured among the 3,159 bees collected in bowls in this study, but ≈30,000–35,000 additional bees would need to be collected to achieve a 100% complete inventory. For bowl trapping, increasing the number of sampling dates or sampling sites was more effective than adding more bowls per sampling date in completing the inventory with the fewest specimens collected.

  1. A Viewer Survey of the Expanded WBGU-TV Audience, Bowling Green, Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David W.

    Contained in this report are the results of a telephone survey conducted among 961 households in the television market for Bowling Green, Ohio. The purpose of the survey was to determine the characteristics of the viewing audience for WBGU. WBGU--owned by Bowling Green State University--became the public television station for a 19-county area in…

  2. Empty Bowls Feed the Hungry: Service Learning across the Curriculum with the Visual Arts at the Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namnoun, Donna

    2002-01-01

    Describes a school-wide, cross-curricular project called, "Empty Bowls", at Hall High School (West Hartford, Connecticut). Explains that students created ceramic bowls and made soup to fill the bowls to raise money to fight hunger. Provides a description of how the school became involved and raised the money. (CMK)

  3. U.S. agriculture in a modern Dust Bowl drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glotter, M.; Chryssanthacopoulos, J.; Moyer, E. J.; Elliott, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Drought-induced agricultural loss is one of the leading weather-related harms to the U.S. economy, but little is known about the effects of extreme droughts or of consecutive multi-year drought events on agriculture. Three droughts in the early 1930s make the Dust Bowl era the driest and hottest for agriculture in modern U.S. history and a useful analog to study extreme weather and its impact on human society. Improvements in technology and farm management over the last eight decades have dramatically increased average crop yields in the U.S., but the elimination of most non-climatic crop stresses means rainfed yields are now more tightly linked to climate. To understand how a 1930s-type drought would affect agriculture in the modern U.S., we drive empirical and biophysical process-based crop models with 1930s weather -- with and without increases in mean temperature -- to estimate effects of successive droughts on current and near-future U.S. maize, soy and wheat production. Our results suggest that Dust-Bowl-type droughts today would have unprecedented consequences for agricultural productivity, with single-year losses up to ~50% larger than the central U.S. drought of 2012, one of the most severe for modern agriculture. Sensitivity tests imply that damages at these extremes are highly sensitive to temperature. If extreme drought conditions are even modestly warmer (1-4 oC), single-year losses jump to more than twice the 2012 drought. Assuming that repeated crop failure over a relatively short period is likely to induce changes to land-use and management, we find that a future Dust-Bowl-like drought, especially under higher temperature scenarios, could lead to significant long-term consequences for U.S. agriculture. Changes in climate may increase the severity and frequency of future droughts, so understanding the complex interactions of weather extremes and a changing agricultural system is critical to effective preparation and response if and when the next Dust

  4. Revising the Dust Bowl: High Above the Kansas Grasslands.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Kenneth M; Rupley, Eric S A

    2012-07-01

    This article reconstructs land cover patterns in Depressionera Kansas from historical aerial photos and compares the locations of crop fields to areas of submarginal land identified in modern digital soil survey maps. The analysis argues that New Deal land retirement programs overestimated the degree of bad land use because they lacked the basic science to make comprehensive assessments. The findings demonstrate that the misuse of land unfit for cultivation was relatively rare across the central plains but especially in the Dust Bowl region. PMID:25288873

  5. Method and device for disinfecting a toilet bowl

    DOEpatents

    Almon, A.C.

    1997-03-18

    Method and device are disclosed for disinfecting a flush toilet. The device is an electrolytic cell mounted in the tank of the toilet, with two wire mesh electrodes immersed in the water in the tank and a battery applying approximately one to two volts of electric potential to the electrodes so that they chemically reduce a portion of the water in the tank to hydrogen peroxide. Then, when the tank is flushed, the peroxide is carried into the bowl where it can kill bacteria. 2 figs.

  6. Method and device for disinfecting a toilet bowl

    SciTech Connect

    Almon, A.C.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a method and device for disinfecting a flush toilet. The device is an electrocell mounted in the tank of the toilet, with two wire mesh electrodes immersed in the water in the tank and a battery applying approximately one to two volts of electric potential to the electrodes so that they chemically reduce a portion of the water in the tank to hydrogen peroxide. Then, when the tank is flushed, the peroxide is carried into the bowl where it can kill bacteria.

  7. Revising the Dust Bowl: High Above the Kansas Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Sylvester, Kenneth M.; Rupley, Eric S.A.

    2014-01-01

    This article reconstructs land cover patterns in Depressionera Kansas from historical aerial photos and compares the locations of crop fields to areas of submarginal land identified in modern digital soil survey maps. The analysis argues that New Deal land retirement programs overestimated the degree of bad land use because they lacked the basic science to make comprehensive assessments. The findings demonstrate that the misuse of land unfit for cultivation was relatively rare across the central plains but especially in the Dust Bowl region. PMID:25288873

  8. Subseafloor Boiling Within the PACMANUS Hydrothermal System Indicated by Anhydrite-Hosted Fluid Inclusions from ODP Leg 193 Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanko, D. A.; Bach, W.; Scott, S. D.; Yeats, C.; Roberts, S.; Beaudoin, Y.

    2001-12-01

    Drilling during Leg 193 was in an area of active hydrothermal venting from dacitic rocks on Pual Ridge in the Manus Basin. All the cored rocks underlying the fresh surficial volcanic rocks are intensively hydrothermally altered. Primary fluid inclusions preserved in anhydrite veins provide unique fluid samples that provide direct evidence on the chemical and physical properties of hydrothermal fluids present beneath the seafloor. Site 1188 is located on Snowcap Knoll, an area of diffuse warm venting at a water depth of ~1645 m. Fluid inclusions have been studied from a coarse anhydrite +/- pyrite vein from ~123 m below the seafloor. The ambient hydrostatic pressure for this sample is calculated to be ~180 bars. The ambient temperature is unknown, but the T measured after 8 days of thermal rebound at a depth of 360 m in this hole was 313° C. Primary fluid inclusions measuring up to 100 μ m across are dominantly two-phase L + V inclusions, yet fluid inclusions with up to three daughter crystals are also observed. The largest daughter crystal is halite, commonly accompanied by a small transparent granular daughter crystal and an even smaller granular opaque crystal. Consequently, optical inspection alone demonstrates the co-occurrence of both hypersaline, multicomponent brines and less saline aqueous fluids. Ice melting temperatures for L+V inclusions vary from -0.1° to -14.5° C, with a strong mode at -2° C, corresponding to a seawater-like salinity. However, the range in Tm(ice) indicates that a significant number contain quite fresh water, and others contain quite saline water. Ice melting temperatures from the multiphase inclusions, measured in the presence of hydrohalite, range from -29.5° to -39.9° C, confirming their hypersaline composition. These data, as well as measured halite dissolution temperatures ranging from 125° to 257° C, indicate salinities of ~30+/-3 wt.% NaCl equivalent. Most two-phase inclusions homogenize to liquid between 191° C and

  9. Isotopic evidence for the source of Ca and S in soil gypsum, anhydrite and calcite in the Atacama Desert, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rech, Jason A.; Quade, Jay; Hart, William S.

    The origin of pedogenic salts in the Atacama Desert has long been debated. Possible salt sources include in situ weathering at the soil site, local sources such as aerosols from the adjacent Pacific Ocean or salt-encrusted playas (salars), and extra-local atmospheric dust. To identify the origin of Ca and S in Atacama soil salts, we determined δ 34S and 87Sr/ 86Sr values of soil gypsum/anhydrite and 87Sr/ 86Sr values of soil calcite along three east-west trending transects. Our results demonstrate the strong influence of marine aerosols on soil gypsum/anhydrite development in areas where marine fog penetrates inland. Results from an east-west transect located along a breach in the Coastal Cordillera show that most soils within 90 km of the coast, and below 1300 m in elevation, are influenced by marine aerosols and that soils within 50 km, and below 800 m in elevation, receive >50% of Ca and S from marine aerosols (δ 34S values > 14‰ and 87Sr/ 86Sr values >0.7083). In areas where the Coastal Cordillera is >1200 m in elevation, however, coastal fog cannot penetrate inland and the contribution of marine aerosols to soils is greatly reduced. Most pedogenic salts from inland soils have δ 34S values between +5.0 to +8.0‰ and 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios between 0.7070 and 0.7076. These values are similar to average δ 34S and 87Sr/ 86Sr values of salts from local streams, lakes, and salars (+5.4 ±2‰ δ 34S and 0.70749 ± 0.00045 87Sr/ 86Sr) in the Andes and Atacama, suggesting extensive eolian reworking of salar salts onto the surrounding landscape. Ultimately, salar salts are precipitated from evaporated ground water, which has acquired its dissolved solutes from water-rock interactions (both high and low-temperature) along flowpaths from recharge areas in the Andes. Therefore, the main source for Ca and S in gypsum/anhydrite in non-coastal soils is indirect and involves bedrock alteration, not surficially on the hyperarid landscape, but in the subsurface by ground water

  10. The effect of anhydrite saturation on the fate of sulfur during fluid-present melting of subducting basaltic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jego, S.; Dasgupta, R.

    2012-12-01

    The apparent sulfur enrichment of sub-arc mantle is thought to derive from an oxidized downgoing slab, and it has been suggested that the slab-derived sulfate species is responsible for oxidizing the mantle wedge [1]. However, the conditions and extent of sulfur transfer from the subducting slab to the mantle wedge are poorly understood. In particular, the relative mobility of sulfur as a function of oxygen fugacity (fO2) is unconstrained at sub-arc depths. To add to our recent study on sulfur mobility during fluid-present melting of a sulfide-bearing basaltic crust [2], here we constrain the fate of sulfur during similar melting at relatively oxidizing conditions, i.e., at sulfate saturation. Experiments were performed using a piston cylinder device at P = 2-3 GPa, T = 950-1050 °C. A synthetic MORB + 6.8 wt.% H2O doped with 1 wt% S (added as pyrite) was contained in AuPd inner capsules and hematite-magnetite (HM: ~FMQ+3.9 to +4.6) mixture used as fO2 buffer was housed in Pt outer capsules, following the recently proposed design of ref. [3]. Sulfur concentration in quenched silicate glasses, the major element phase compositions, and fO2 of the experiments based on dissolved Fe contents in AuPd and added Pt sensor [4, 5], were determined using EPMA. All experiments contain silicate melt, cpx, garnet, anhydrite, rutile and/or Ti-magnetite, and are fluid saturated. The partial melt compositions are rhyolitic to rhyodacitic with increasing T and melting degree. Sulfur contents in the melt range from ~700 to 3000 ppm, and increase with increasing P and T, in agreement with published SCAS models [6, 7]. Mass balance calculations show that the proportion of sulfur dissolved in silicate melt can be >13% of the bulk sulfur at 1050 °C. However, at slab surface (<900 °C), the major part of the bulk sulfur present in the slab is dissolved in the aqueous fluid phase, the rest being stored as anhydrite crystals. Moreover, our results suggest that sulfur partition coefficient

  11. Reactive transport modeling of hydrothermal circulation in oceanic crust: effect of anhydrite precipitation on the dynamics of submarine hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.

    2009-12-01

    Hydrothermal fluid circulation represents an extremely efficient mechanism for the exchange of heat and matter between seawater and oceanic crust. Precipitation and dissolution of minerals associated with hydrothermal flow at ridge axes can alter the crustal porosity and permeability and hence influence the dynamics of hydrothermal systems. In this study, a fully coupled fluid flow, heat transfer and reactive mass transport model was developed using TOUGHREACT to evaluate the role of mineral precipitation and dissolution on the evolution of hydrothermal flow systems, with a particular attention focused on anhydrite precipitation upon heating of seawater in recharge zones and the resultant change in the crustal porosity and permeability. A series of numerical case studies were carried out to assess the effect of temperature and aqueous phase inflow concentrations on the reactive geochemical system. The impact of chemically induced porosity and permeability changes on the dynamics of hydrothermal systems was also addressed.

  12. Characteristics of bowl-shaped coils for transcranial magnetic stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Keita; Suyama, Momoko; Takiyama, Yoshihiro; Kim, Dongmin; Saitoh, Youichi; Sekino, Masaki

    2015-05-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has recently been used as a method for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Daily TMS sessions can provide continuous therapeutic effectiveness, and the installation of TMS systems at patients' homes has been proposed. A figure-eight coil, which is normally used for TMS therapy, induces a highly localized electric field; however, it is challenging to achieve accurate coil positioning above the targeted brain area using this coil. In this paper, a bowl-shaped coil for stimulating a localized but wider area of the brain is proposed. The coil's electromagnetic characteristics were analyzed using finite element methods, and the analysis showed that the bowl-shaped coil induced electric fields in a wider area of the brain model than a figure-eight coil. The expanded distribution of the electric field led to greater robustness of the coil to the coil-positioning error. To improve the efficiency of the coil, the relationship between individual coil design parameters and the resulting coil characteristics was numerically analyzed. It was concluded that lengthening the outer spherical radius and narrowing the width of the coil were effective methods for obtaining a more effective and more uniform distribution of the electric field.

  13. 76 FR 52733 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Change in Use of Aeronautical Property at Bowling Green-Warren County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Bowling Green--Warren County Regional Airport, Bowling Green, KY AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... requesting public comment on request by the Bowling Green--Warren County Airport Board to change a portion of airport property ] from aeronautical to non-aeronautical use at the Bowling Green--Warren County...

  14. A new approach to kinetics study of the anhydrite crystallization at 373 K using a diamond anvil cell with Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, C J; Zheng, H F

    2013-04-01

    A new approach to the kinetics study of anhydrite (CaSO4) crystallization has been performed in situ using a hydrothermal diamond anvil cell with Raman spectroscopy in the pressure range 896-1322 MPa and a constant temperature of 373 K. Transformed volume fraction X(t) was determined from Raman peak intensity of the sulfate ion in aqueous solution. The transformation-time plots display a sigmoidal shape with time, which indicates that the reaction rate is different at each stage of anhydrite crystallization. At 373 K, the rate constant k increases from 1.14 × 10(-4) s(-1) to 1.86 × 10(-3) s(-1), demonstrating a positive effect of pressure on the overall rate at isothermal condition. We first achieved the molar volume change (ΔVm) equal to -1.82 × 10(-5) m(3)∕mol in the course of anhydrite crystallization through Avrami kinetic theory, showing a process of reduction in volume at high pressure and high temperature. According to the exponent n derived from our experiments, a grain-boundary nucleation and diffusion-controlled growth kinetically dominates the crystallization of anhydrite. PMID:23635213

  15. Spatial patterns of bee captures in North American bowl trapping surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Droege, Sam; Tepedino, Vincent J.; Lebuhn, Gretchen; Link, William; Minckley, Robert L.; Chen, Qian; Conrad, Casey

    2010-01-01

    1. Bowl and pan traps are now commonly used to capture bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) for research and surveys. 2. Studies of how arrangement and spacing of bowl traps affect captures of bees are needed to increase the efficiency of this capture technique. 3. We present results from seven studies of bowl traps placed in trapping webs, grids, and transects in four North American ecoregions (Mid-Atlantic, Coastal California, Chihuahuan Desert, and Columbia Plateau). 4. Over 6000 specimens from 31 bee genera were captured and analysed across the studies. 5. Based on the results from trapping webs and distance tests, the per bowl capture rate of bees does not plateau until bowls are spaced 3–5 m apart. 6. Minor clumping of bee captures within transects was detected, with 26 of 56 transects having index of dispersion values that conform to a clumped distribution and 39 transects having positive Green's index values, 13 with zero, and only four negative. However, degree of clumping was slight with an average value of only 0.06 (the index ranges from -1 to 1) with only five values >0.15. Similarly, runs tests were significant for only 5.9% of the transects. 7. Results indicate that (i) capture rates are unaffected by short distances between bowls within transects and (ii) that bowls and transects should be dispersed throughout a study site.

  16. Interpreting irregularity in small-scale, cyclical precipitation of halite-anhydrite couplets within the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation, Paradox Basin, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, K. R.; Agena, W. F.; Dubiel, R. F.; Lee, M. W.; Pitman, J. K.

    2012-12-01

    The Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation (Hermosa Group) contains 33 documented evaporite cycles consisting of thick (6-240 m) halite successions interbedded with anhydrite, silty dolomite, and black shale. The evaporite deposits precipitated from marine brines under restricted circulation conditions in the Paradox Basin, a northwest-southeast trending asymmetrical trough formed adjacent to the Uncompahgre uplift, where periodic glacioeustatic sea-level fluctuations and intermittent meteoric water influxes altered salinity gradients. Each salt cycle contains rhythmically bedded halite-anhydrite couplets, in which anhedral to euhedral bottom-growth halite crystals are overlain by thin (mm-scale), subaqueously precipitated layers of anhydrite in the form of "snow-on-the-roof" texture. Discrete grains of sylvite, which are red due to hematite inclusions, locally occur as bands or aggregates throughout most salt packages. In order to delineate controls on high-frequency halite-anhydrite precipitation, the thickness of distinct couplets were measured in four salt cycles, two (Cycles 3 and 5) in the Cane Creek No.1 corehole and two (Cycles 5 and 13) in the Shafer No. 1 corehole. The cores were drilled approximately 8 km apart within the central portion of the basin near the crests of the Cane Creek and Shafer salt anticlines. The thickness of halite-anhydrite couplets ranges between 1-90 cm for all measured cycles, with the most commonly occurring thickness of approximately 3-4 cm. Despite the proximity of the two cores, the salt cycles in the Shafer No. 1 core are 12-15m thicker than in the Cane Creek No. 1 core, and individual couplets thicken within the middle (~20 m) of the salt section. In contrast, couplets thicken near the top of the halite bed in the Cane Creek No.1 core, which is most pronounced in Cycle 5. Locally disrupted and distorted laminae due to salt flowage, however, complicates some laminae measurements. The small-scale, cyclical pattern of halite-anhydrite

  17. The mechanical behaviour of anhydrite and the effect of deformation on permeability development - implications for caprock integrity during geological storage of CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hangx, Suzanne; Spiers, Christopher; Peach, Colin

    2010-05-01

    Depleted oil and gas reservoirs offer one of the most easily and cheaply implemented options for geological storage of CO2. Most of the stored CO2 will mainly be present in the supercritical fluid phase and dissolved in the formation fluid, as CO2 mineralisation reactions are slow and the mineralisation potential of most reservoirs is low. Therefore, long-term top-seal or caprock integrity is pre-requisite for guaranteeing the integrity of depleted reservoir storage systems. In the long term, caprock integrity may be affected by fluid-rock interaction, i.e. chemical attack. However, as mentioned earlier, such reaction effects are slow and it is unlikely that they alone are significant for typical shale, mudstone or anhydrite caprock compositions and thicknesses. Probably more important is mechanical damage in the form of dilatation, fracturing, shear failure and associated permeability development, which can be caused by caprock deformation and the stress changes accompanying localised reservoir compaction during depletion, or localised heave during CO2 injection. One of the most widespread sealing formations topping hydrocarbon reservoirs around the world is anhydrite rock. Anhydrite also forms the caprock at several trial CO2 injection sites currently under operation (e.g. Teapot Dome, USA; the Weyburn and Zama Fields, Canada; the K12-B field, the Netherlands). Furthermore, in the Netherlands and North Sea for example, many potential storage sites are overlain by the basal anhydrite of the Permian Zechstein evaporate sequence. For these reasons, there is accordingly much interest in quantifying damage development in anhydrite. Recent work by Hangx et al. has delineated the stress conditions under which anhydrite rock is mechanically stable, versus the conditions under which dilatant damage and failure occur. However, the magnitude of the permeability change accompanying dilatation and failure of anhydrite under reservoir conditions remains unknown. We determined

  18. On the Causes of the 1930s Dust Bowl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Suarez, Max; Pegion, Philip; Koster, Randal; Bacmeister, Julie

    2004-01-01

    During the 1930s the United States experienced one of the most devastating droughts of the last century. The drought affected almost 2/3 of the country and parts of Mexico and Canada and was infamous for the numerous dust storms that lead to the characterization of much of the Great Plains as the 'Dust Bowl'. Results from an ensemble of 100-year simulations with the NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP-1) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) forced with observed SSTs show that the model reproduces the basic features of the 1930s drought. In this study we exploit this realism in the model simulation to examine in more detail the role of the SST and soil moisture in the development and maintenance the 1930s drought. Results will be presented from simulations in which the SST anomalies are confined to the separate ocean basins, as well as from runs in which soil moisture feedback is turn off.

  19. Synthesis of Nano-Bowls with a Janus Template

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Chris D.; Zhang, Chen; Anzenberg, Paula; Akkiraju, Siddhartha; Lal, Ratnesh

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal particles with two or more different surface properties (Janus particles) are of interest in catalysis, biological imaging, and drug delivery. Eccentric nanoparticles are a type of Janus particle consisting of a shell that envelops the majority of a core particle, leaving a portion of the core surface exposed. Previous work to synthesize eccentric nanoparticles from silica and polystyrene have only used microemulsion techniques. In contrast we report the solgel synthesis of eccentric Janus nanoparticles composed of a silica shell around a carboxylate-modified polystyrene core (Janus templates). In addition, we have synthesized nano-bowl-like structures after the removal of the polystyrene core by organic solvent. These Janus templates and nanobowls can be used as a versatile platform for site-specific functionalization or controlled theranostic delivery. PMID:25431230

  20. Synthesis of nano-bowls with a Janus template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Alexander H.; Landon, Preston B.; Emerson, Chris D.; Zhang, Chen; Anzenberg, Paula; Akkiraju, Siddhartha; Lal, Ratnesh

    2014-12-01

    Colloidal particles with two or more different surface properties (Janus particles) are of interest in catalysis, biological imaging, and drug delivery. Eccentric nanoparticles are a type of Janus particle consisting of a shell that envelops the majority of a core particle, leaving a portion of the core surface exposed. Previous work to synthesize eccentric nanoparticles from silica and polystyrene have only used microemulsion techniques. In contrast we report the sol-gel synthesis of eccentric Janus nanoparticles composed of a silica shell around a carboxylate-modified polystyrene core (Janus templates). In addition, we have synthesized nano-bowl-like structures after the removal of the polystyrene core by organic solvent. These Janus templates and nanobowls can be used as a versatile platform for site-specific functionalization or controlled theranostic delivery.Colloidal particles with two or more different surface properties (Janus particles) are of interest in catalysis, biological imaging, and drug delivery. Eccentric nanoparticles are a type of Janus particle consisting of a shell that envelops the majority of a core particle, leaving a portion of the core surface exposed. Previous work to synthesize eccentric nanoparticles from silica and polystyrene have only used microemulsion techniques. In contrast we report the sol-gel synthesis of eccentric Janus nanoparticles composed of a silica shell around a carboxylate-modified polystyrene core (Janus templates). In addition, we have synthesized nano-bowl-like structures after the removal of the polystyrene core by organic solvent. These Janus templates and nanobowls can be used as a versatile platform for site-specific functionalization or controlled theranostic delivery. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Particle size distribution before and after centrifugation during the wash process, SEM and TEM images used in quantification of Janus template yield and population break down. See DOI: 10

  1. Validation/Uncertainty Quantification for Large Eddy Simulations of the heat flux in the Tangentially Fired Oxy-Coal Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.J.; Eddings, E.G.; Ring, T.; Thornock, J.; Draper, T.; Isaac, B.; Rezeai, D.; Toth, P.; Wu, Y.; Kelly, K.

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this task is to produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for the heat flux in commercial-scale, tangentially fired, oxy-coal boilers. Validation data came from the Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF) for tangentially fired, oxy-coal operation. This task brings together experimental data collected under Alstom’s DOE project for measuring oxy-firing performance parameters in the BSF with this University of Utah project for large eddy simulation (LES) and validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ). The Utah work includes V/UQ with measurements in the single-burner facility where advanced strategies for O2 injection can be more easily controlled and data more easily obtained. Highlights of the work include: • Simulations of Alstom’s 15 megawatt (MW) BSF, exploring the uncertainty in thermal boundary conditions. A V/UQ analysis showed consistency between experimental results and simulation results, identifying uncertainty bounds on the quantities of interest for this system (Subtask 9.1) • A simulation study of the University of Utah’s oxy-fuel combustor (OFC) focused on heat flux (Subtask 9.2). A V/UQ analysis was used to show consistency between experimental and simulation results. • Measurement of heat flux and temperature with new optical diagnostic techniques and comparison with conventional measurements (Subtask 9.3). Various optical diagnostics systems were created to provide experimental data to the simulation team. The final configuration utilized a mid-wave infrared (MWIR) camera to measure heat flux and temperature, which was synchronized with a high-speed, visible camera to utilize two-color pyrometry to measure temperature and soot concentration. • Collection of heat flux and temperature measurements in the University of Utah’s OFC for use is subtasks 9.2 and 9.3 (Subtask 9.4). Several replicates were carried to better assess the experimental error. Experiments were specifically designed for the

  2. Volatile Evolution and Anhydrite-Bearing Dacite, Yanacocha Gold Deposit, Cajamarca, Peru: Relevance for the Sulfur Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambefort, I. S.; Dilles, J. H.

    2006-12-01

    Magmatic water, sulfur and chlorine evolved during volcanic eruptions have important climactic effects, but during passive degassing these volatiles may transport metals and produce hydrothermal ore deposits. At the Yanacocha Mine, we are examining the volatile evolution of the Miocene andesitic to dacitic volcanic rocks (ca 20 to 8 Ma). High sulfidation epithermal deposits contain >50 Moz of gold in oxides with additional deeper sulfide resources containing >5 Mt of copper. Large volumes (>10 km3) of rock are hydrothermally altered by sulfate-rich and low pH fluid to quartz, quartz-alunite, quartz-pyrophyllite, illite. Pyrite (1-5 vol.%), native sulfur, covellite, enargite and chalcopyrite constitute reduced S-species. In total, at least 500 M tonnes of sulfur were added during alteration. The San Jose ignimbrite (SJI) erupted 30 km3 magma in two cooling units at 11.50 and 11.28 Ma, and immediately predates the bulk of gold mineralization at about 10.80 Ma (Longo, 2005). This hornblende- plagioclase dacitic magma is highly oxidized with fO2 ≍ 2 NNO. Low-Al2O3 (~7 wt.%), and high- Al2O3 (~12 wt.%) amphiboles coexist in most of the samples. Plag-hbl thermobarometry on low-Al content amphibole yields ca. 1.5-2 kb and 800°C. High-Al pargasitic hornblende forms sparse crystals up to 1 cm long that often show resorption or oxide rims associated with oxyhornblende breakdown. Apatite is an inclusion but generally not plagioclase or oxide. These petrographic relations suggest that the high-Al hornblende is the liquidus phase (at 950 to 1000°C, PH2O > 3 kb) in an andesitic or basaltic magma. The high-Al amphibole in two samples contains anhydrite inclusions, one with >5 vol.% anhydrite associated with apatite having up to 1.2 wt.% SO3. Comparison of these data with experimental sulfate solubilities at NNO+2 suggests the andesitic or basaltic melt dissolved at least 1000 ppm S. One low-Al amphibole contains anhydrite, demonstrating that the cooler dacite magma was also

  3. Super ready: how a regional approach to Super Bowl EMS paid off.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Terry; Cortacans, Henry P

    2014-07-01

    The Super Bowl and its associated activities represent one of the largest special events in the world. Super Bowl XLVIII was geographically unique because the NFL's and Super Bowl Host Committee's activities, venues and events encompassed two states and fell across numerous jurisdictions within six counties (Bergen, Hudson, Morris, Essex, Middlesex, and Manhattan).This Super Bowl was the first to do this. EMS was one of the largest operational components during this event. Last and most important, it is the people and relationships that make any planning initiative and event a success. Sit down and have a cup a coffee with your colleagues, partners and neighbors in and out of state to discuss your planning initiatives. Do it early-it will make your efforts less painful should an event of this magnitude come to a city near you! PMID:25181868

  4. The influence of bowl offset on air motion in a direct injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    McKinley, T.L.; Primus, R.J

    1988-01-01

    The influence of bowl offset on motored mean flow and turbulence in a direct injection diesel engine has been examined with the aid of a multi-dimensional flow code. Results are presented for three piston geometries. The bowl geometry of each piston was the same, while the offset between the bowl and the cylinder axis was varied from 0.0 to 9.6% of the bore. The swirl ratio at intake valve closing was also varied from 2.60 to 4.27. It was found that the angular momentum of the air at TDC was decreased by less than 8% when the bowl was offset. Nevertheless, the mean (squish and swirl) flows were strongly affected by the offset. In addition, the distribution of turbulent kinetic energy (predicted by the /delta/-e model) was modified. Moderate increases (10% or less) in mass averaged turbulence intensity at TDC with offset were observed.

  5. What we learned from the Dust Bowl: lessons in science, policy, and adaptation.

    PubMed

    McLeman, Robert A; Dupre, Juliette; Berrang Ford, Lea; Ford, James; Gajewski, Konrad; Marchildon, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a review and synthesis of scholarly knowledge of Depression-era droughts on the North American Great Plains, a time and place known colloquially as the Dust Bowl era or the Dirty Thirties. Recent events, including the 2008 financial crisis, severe droughts in the US corn belt, and the release of a popular documentary film, have spawned a resurgence in public interest in the Dust Bowl. Events of the Dust Bowl era have also proven in recent years to be of considerable interest to scholars researching phenomena related to global environmental change, including atmospheric circulation, drought modeling, land management, institutional behavior, adaptation processes, and human migration. In this review, we draw out common themes in terms of not only what natural and social scientists have learned about the Dust Bowl era itself, but also how insights gained from the study of that period are helping to enhance our understanding of climate-human relations more generally. PMID:24829518

  6. The development of a novel cricket bowling system: recreating spin and swing bowling deliveries at the elite level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, A. A.; Justham, L.

    2008-03-01

    During the game of cricket, bowlers create different deliveries by altering the manner in which they release the ball from their hand. The orientation of the seam, the speed at which the ball is released and the magnitude and direction of the spin combine to determine the motion of the ball through the air and its movement after impact with the wicket. These factors have to be considered if automatic training machines are to be capable of replicating elite bowling deliveries. The need for automotive systems for batting and fielding training at the elite level has arisen due to: (i) the capabilities of human bowlers are limited by the onset of fatigue and the risk of injury and (ii) a large number of accurate and repeatable deliveries to be ''programmable'' by coaches to ensure batsmen and fielders are tested to the limits of their abilities and a training benefit is achieved.

  7. The B32 cluster has the most stable bowl structure with a remarkable heptagonal hole.

    PubMed

    Tai, Truong Ba; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2015-05-01

    The neutral B32 exhibits an aromatic bowl structure containing one heptagonal hole, while two anionic species, one having a bowl structure and the other a quasi-planar structure, are almost degenerate in energy. These findings not only give more insight into the structural features of boron clusters, but also present a key result explaining the presence of heptagonal holes in the fullerene B40. PMID:25845816

  8. 3D Petrography - Serendipitous Discovery of Magmatic Vapor Deposition of Anhydrite at Mount Pinatubo by SEM Imaging of Outer Crystal Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournelle, J. H.; Jakubowski, R. T.; Welch, S.; Swope, R. J.

    2003-12-01

    A standard petrographic technique focuses upon examination of surfaces or planes cut through rock samples, with one approach studying chemical variations in a core to rim traverse using various microprobes, and more recently, another determining the distribution of crystal sizes to obtain information about nucleation and growth. We show that another mineral domain deserves petrographic attention: the outer surfaces of crystals, which are normally relegated to nearly invisible thin lines in a cut section. In studying anhydrite phenocrysts from the 1991 climactic eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, SEM examination of "raw" pumice fragments showed the existence of a Ca-sulfur-rich phase with hexagonal morphology residing upon plagioclase phenocryst surfaces in vesicles (Fournelle et al,1996, Fig 9). In 1992, Terry Gerlach suggested that the Pinatubo anhydrite phenocrysts should be evaluated with XRD to determine if they were indeed orthorhombic anhydrite (β -CaSO4), and not a lower temperature polymorph (i.e., α or γ ). In 1998, we recommenced this project, mounting several dozen 100-200 micron-size phenocrysts of the proper density fraction on tape (minerals had been separated from the pumices using standard techniques). They were examined by low resolution SEM with EDS to distinguish the anhydrite from apatite, prior to single-crystal XRD. We were surprised to find that many of the anhydrite surfaces were decorated with small mounds, which upon examination by high resolution SEM turned out to be micron and smaller pyramids, with some surfaces bearing hundreds. Single-crystal XRD verified that the phenocrysts were orthorhombic anhydrite, and EBSD verified that the small pyramids were the same. Eventually we found that these surface pyramids are common phenomena in experimental or industrial chemical vapor deposition processes when nucleation overwhelms growth. Textural relations were consistent with these pyramids being deposited in situ, within the Pinatubo magma chamber

  9. The anisotropy of dielectric properties in the orthorhombic and hexagonal structures of Anhydrite - an ab initio and hybrid DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallia, Giuseppe; Dovesi, Roberto; Corà, Furio

    2006-10-01

    The effects of an electric field on the electronic properties of a typical ionic-covalent compound, Anhydrite (CaSO4), are investigated within the HF level of theory and two different formulations of hybrid DFT functionals (B3LYP [A. Becke, J. Chem. Phys. 98, 5648 (1993)] and F 0.6-BLYP [F. Corà et al., Structure and Bonding 113, 171-232 (2004)]). An external electric field is applied along each of the three periodic lattice vectors of the orthorhombic and hexagonal structures in order to detect the anisotropy of the response. The perturbation introduced by the field is analysed in terms of Mulliken charges and electron density maps. The largest response is due to a polarisation of the covalent SO bonds of the sulfate ions. The high frequency dielectric tensor, , is computed and compared with the experimental value; its anisotropy can be rationalised by the orientation of the sulfate ions relative to the three crystallographic directions. We find that the calculated value of decreases on increasing the percentage of HF exchange in the Hamiltonian; the best match with experiment is given by B3LYP, but a higher percentage of HF exchange is required to reproduce the anisotropy in , a feature that we attribute to the better representation of the equilibrium geometry and bond distances in the latter case.

  10. Experimentally Shock-loaded Anhydrite: Unit-Cell Dimensions, Microstrain and Domain Size from X-Ray Diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skala, R.; Hoerz, F.

    2003-01-01

    Cretaceous Tertiary (K/T) boundary is traditionally associated with one of the most dramatic mass extinctions in the Earth history. A number of killing mechanisms have been suggested to contribute to the widespread extinctions of Cretaceous biota at this boundary, including severe, global deterioration of the atmosphere and hydrosphere from the shock-induced release of CO2 and SO(x) from carbonate- and sulfate-bearing target rocks, respectively. Recently carried out calculations revealed that the global warming caused by CO2 release was considerably less important than the cooling due to SO(x) gases release during the Chicxulub impact event. Considering apparent potential importance of the response of sulfates to the shock metamorphism, relative lack of the data on shock behavior of sulfates as well as some general difficulties encountered during thermodynamic modeling of the shock-induced CO2 loss from carbonates we subjected anhydrite to a series of shock experiments designed for complete recovery of the shocked material. We report here on the detail X-ray diffraction analysis of seven samples that were subjected to experimental shock-loading from 10 to 65 GPa.

  11. Fused Dibenzo[a,m]rubicene: A New Bowl-Shaped Subunit of C70 Containing Two Pentagons.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junzhi; Osella, Silvio; Ma, Ji; Berger, Reinhard; Beljonne, David; Schollmeyer, Dieter; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus

    2016-07-13

    Total synthetic approaches of fullerenes are the holy grail for organic chemistry. So far, the main attempts have focused on the synthesis of the buckminsterfullerene C60. In contrast, access to subunits of the homologue C70 remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate an efficient bottom-up strategy toward a novel bowl-shaped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) C34 with two pentagons. This PAH represents a subunit for C70 and of other higher fullerenes. The bowl-shaped structure was unambiguously determined by X-ray crystallography. A bowl-to-bowl inversion for a C70 fragment in solution was investigated by dynamic NMR analysis, showing a bowl-to-bowl inversion energy (ΔG(⧧)) of 16.7 kcal mol(-1), which is further corroborated by DFT calculations. PMID:27355697

  12. Crystal-structure analysis of four mineral samples of anhydrite, CaSO[subscript 4], using synchrotron high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction data

    SciTech Connect

    Antao, Sytle M.

    2014-05-28

    The crystal structures of four samples of anhydrite, CaSO{sub 4}, were obtained by Rietveld refinements using synchrotron high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (HRPXRD) data and space group Amma. As an example, for one sample of anhydrite from Hants County, Nova Scotia, the unit-cell parameters are a = 7.00032(2), b = 6.99234(1), c = 6.24097(1) {angstrom}, and V = 305.487(1) {angstrom}{sup 3} with a > b. The eight-coordinated Ca atom has an average distance of 2.4667(4) {angstrom}. The tetrahedral SO{sub 4} group has two independent S-O distances of 1.484(1) to O1 and 1.478(1) {angstrom} to O2 and an average distance of 1.4810(5) {angstrom}. The three independent O-S-O angles [108.99(8) x 1, 110.38(3) x 4, 106.34(9){sup o} x 1; average [6] = 109.47(2){sup o}] and S-O distances indicate that the geometry of the SO{sub 4} group is quite distorted in anhydrite. The four anhydrite samples have structural trends where the a, b, and c unit-cell parameters increase linearly with increasing unit-cell volume, V, and their average and distances are nearly constant. The grand mean = 2.4660(2) {angstrom}, and grand mean = 1.4848(3) {angstrom}, the latter is longer than 1.480(1) {angstrom} in celestite, SrSO{sub 4}, as expected.

  13. Evaluation of American Indian Science and Engineering Society Intertribal Middle School Science and Math Bowl Project

    SciTech Connect

    AISES, None

    2013-09-25

    The American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES) has been funded under a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) grant (Grant Award No. DE-SC0004058) to host an Intertribal Middle-School Science and Math Bowl (IMSSMB) comprised of teams made up of a majority of American Indian students from Bureau of Indian Education-funded schools and public schools. The intent of the AISES middle school science and math bowl is to increase participation of American Indian students at the DOE-sponsored National Science Bowl. Although national in its recruitment scope, the AISES Intertribal Science and Math Bowl is considered a “regional” science bowl, equivalent to the other 50 regional science bowls which are geographically limited to states. Most regional bowls do not have American Indian student teams competing, hence the AISES bowl is meant to encourage American Indian student teams to increase their science knowledge in order to participate at the national level. The AISES competition brings together teams from various American Indian communities across the nation. Each team is provided with funds for travel to and from the event, as well as for lodging and meals. In 2011 and 2012, there were 10 teams participating; in 2013, the number of teams participating doubled to 20. Each Science and Math Bowl team is comprised of four middle school — grades 6 through 8 — students, one alternate, and a teacher who serves as advisor and coach — although in at least two cases, the coach was not a teacher, but was the Indian Education Coordinator. Each team member must have at least a 3.0 GPA. Furthermore, the majority of students in each team must be comprised of American Indian, Alaska Native or Native Hawaiian students. Under the current DOE grant, AISES sponsored three annual middle school science bowl competitions over the years 2011, 2012 and 2013. The science and math bowls have been held in late March concurrently with the National American Indian Science and

  14. On the Causes of the 1930s Dust Bowl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Suarez, Max; Pegion, Philip

    2003-01-01

    During the 1930s the United States experienced one of the most devastating droughts of the last century. The drought affected almost 2/3 of the country and parts of Mexico and Canada and was infamous for the numerous dust storms that lead to the characterization of much of the Great Plains as the "Dust Bowl". Results from an ensemble of 100-year simulations with the NASA Seasonal- to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP-1) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) forced with observed SSTs show that the model reproduces the basic features of the 1930s drought. In t h s study we exploit this realism in the model simulation to examine in more detail the role of the SST and soil moisture in the development and maintenance the 1930s drought. Results will be presented from simulations in which the SST anomalies are confined to the separate ocean basins, as well as from runs in which soil moisture feedback is turn off.

  15. Study of flow through a bowl mill model

    SciTech Connect

    Murty, G.V.R.; Babu, U.S.

    1998-07-01

    Bowl Mills are used in Thermal Power plants for pulverizing the raw coal, while drying, to the required fineness and achieve the desired combustion efficiency in the boiler. The Indian coals contain high ash content (some times as high as 60%) and as such the primary air has to handle media of different density namely the coal and the quartz. In this context, the distribution of air in the mill plays a significant role in the lifting of particles from the mill. The wear on the rotating components is increased through repetitive grinding because of improper distribution of air within the mill. Reduction of wear and enhancement of life of mill internals including the rotating components is a continuing goal and few more studies have been carried out in this direction. One such study is the replacement of rotating vane wheel and deflector in the separator body with an air guide ring and air diversion plate. Model studies have been carried out by traversing a five hole prove at different locations within the mill to study the distribution of flow as a result of this modification. The variation of absolute velocity and the associated flow direction has been calculated to describe the flow structure within the mill. The results are presented in non dimensional form to draw suitable conclusions. The present study indicated the possibility of improvement in the distribution of flow within the mill with increased magnitude of velocity at different locations.

  16. The athletic profile of fast bowling in cricket: a review.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, James A; Mitchell, Andrew C S; Hughes, Gerwyn; Watson, Tim; Ford, Paul A; Garrett, Andrew T

    2014-05-01

    Cricket is a global sport played in over 100 countries with elite performers attracting multimillion dollar contracts. Therefore, performers maintaining optimum physical fitness and remaining injury free is important. Fast bowlers have a vital position in a cricket team, and there is an increasing body of scientific literature that has reviewed this role over the past decade. Previous research on fast bowlers has tended to focus on biomechanical analysis and injury prevention in performers. However, this review aims to critically analyze the emerging contribution of physiological-based literature linked to fast bowling in cricket, highlight the current evidence related to simulated and competitive in-match performance, and relate this practically to the conditioning coach. Furthermore, the review considers limitations with past research and possible avenues for future investigation. It is clear with the advent of new applied mobile monitoring technology that there is scope for more ecologically valid and longitudinal exploration capturing in-match data, providing quantification of physiological workloads, and analysis of the physical demands across the differing formats of the game. Currently, strength and conditioning specialists do not have a critical academic resource with which to shape professional practice, and this review aims to provide a starting point for evidence in the specific area. PMID:23897016

  17. The effect of a flexed elbow on bowling speed in cricket.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Robert; Ferdinands, René

    2003-01-01

    The laws of bowling in cricket state 'a ball is fairly delivered in respect of the arm if, once the bowler's arm has reached the level of the shoulder in the delivery swing, the elbow joint is not straightened partially or completely from that point until the ball has left the hand'. Recently two prominent bowlers, under suspicion for transgressing this law, suggested that they are not 'throwing' but due to an elbow deformity are forced to bowl with a bent bowling arm. This study examined whether such bowlers can produce an additional contribution to wrist/ball release speed by internal rotation of the upper arm. The kinematics of a bowling arm were calculated using a simple two-link model (upper arm and forearm). Using reported internal rotation speeds of the upper arm from baseball and waterpolo, and bowling arm kinematics from cricket, the change in wrist speed was calculated as a function of effective arm length, and wrist distance from the internal rotation axis. A significant increase in wrist speed was noted. This suggests that bowlers who can maintain a fixed elbow flexion during delivery can produce distinctly greater wrist/ball speeds by using upper arm internal rotation. PMID:14658246

  18. Lumbar spinal loading during bowling in cricket: a kinetic analysis using a musculoskeletal modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanxin; Ma, Ye; Liu, Guangyu

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate two types of cricket bowling techniques by comparing the lumbar spinal loading using a musculoskeletal modelling approach. Three-dimensional kinematic data were recorded by a Vicon motion capture system under two cricket bowling conditions: (1) participants bowled at their absolute maximal speeds (max condition), and (2) participants bowled at their absolute maximal speeds while simultaneously forcing their navel down towards their thighs starting just prior to ball release (max-trunk condition). A three-dimensional musculoskeletal model comprised of the pelvis, sacrum, lumbar vertebrae and torso segments, which enabled the motion of the individual lumbar vertebrae in the sagittal, frontal and coronal planes to be actuated by 210 muscle-tendon units, was used to simulate spinal loading based on the recorded kinematic data. The maximal lumbar spine compressive force is 4.89 ± 0.88BW for the max condition and 4.58 ± 0.54BW for the max-trunk condition. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two techniques in trunk moments and lumbar spine forces. This indicates that the max-trunk technique may not increase lower back injury risks. The method proposed in this study could be served as a tool to evaluate lower back injury risks for cricket bowling as well as other throwing activities. PMID:26343905

  19. Quantifying elbow extension and elbow hyperextension in cricket bowling: a case study of Jenny Gunn.

    PubMed

    King, Mark A; Yeadon, Maurice R

    2012-05-01

    In this study a method for determining elbow extension and elbow abduction for a cricket bowling delivery was developed and assessed for Jenny Gunn who has hypermobility in both elbows and whose bowling action has been repeatedly queried by umpires. Bowling is a dynamic activity which is assessed visually in real time in a cricket match by an umpire. When the legality of a bowler's action is questioned by an umpire a quantitative analysis is undertaken using a marker based motion analysis system. This method of quantifying elbow extension should agree with a visual assessment of when the arm is "straight" and should minimise the effects of marker movement. A set of six markers on the bowling arm were used to calculate elbow angles. Differences of up to 1° for elbow extension and up to 2° for elbow abduction were found when angles calculated from the marker set for static straight arm trials were compared with measurements taken by a chartered sports physiotherapist. In addition comparison of elbow extension angles at ball release calculated from the markers during bowling trials with those measured from high speed video also showed good agreement with mean differences of 0°±2°. PMID:22548307

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: JOINT (NSF-EPA) VERIFICATION STATEMENT AND REPORT: TRITON SYSTEMS, LLC SOLID BOWL CENTRIFUGE, MODEL TS-5000

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verification testing of the Triton Systems, LLC Solid Bowl Centrifuge Model TS-5000 (TS-5000) was conducted at the Lake Wheeler Road Field Laboratory Swine Educational Unit in Raleigh, North Carolina. The TS-5000 was 48" in diameter and 30" deep, with a bowl capacity of 16 ft3. ...

  1. Shadow Bowl 2003: a collaborative exercise in community readiness, agency cooperation, and medical response.

    PubMed

    Balch, David; Taylor, Carl; Rosenthal, David; Bausch, Chris; Warner, Dave; Morris, Ray

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a model for homeland security, community readiness, and medical response that was applied during an operational exercise around Super Bowl XXXVII. In addition, it describes the products provided by private companies involved in the exercise and how they would have contributed to a medical disaster had one occurred. The purpose of Shadow Bowl was to demonstrate community readiness and medical response to a mass casualty event. The goals of the project were to: (1) provide enhanced public safety using an advanced communication network and sensor grid; (2) develop mass casualty surge capabilities through medical reach-back; and (3) build a collaboration model between civilian, military, public, and private partners. The results of the Shadow Bowl Exercise accentuated the value of new telehealth and disaster medicine tools in treating large numbers of patients when infrastructure overload occurs. PMID:15650528

  2. Anhydrite pseudomorphs and the origin of stratiform Cu-Co ores in the Katangan Copperbelt (Democratic Republic of Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchez, Ph.; Vanderhaeghen, P.; El Desouky, H.; Schneider, J.; Boyce, A.; Dewaele, S.; Cailteux, J.

    2008-07-01

    The stratiform Cu-Co ore mineralisation in the Katangan Copperbelt consists of dispersed sulphides and sulphides in nodules and lenses, which are often pseudomorphs after evaporites. Two types of pseudomorphs can be distinguished in the nodules and lenses. In type 1 examples, dolomite precipitated first and was subsequently replaced by Cu-Co sulphides and authigenic quartz, whereas in type 2 examples, authigenic quartz and Cu-Co sulphides precipitated prior to dolomite and are coarse-grained. The sulphur isotopic composition of the copper-cobalt sulphides in the type 1 pseudomorphs is between -10.3 and 3.1‰ relative to the Vienna Canyon Diablo Troilite, indicating that the sulphide component was derived from bacterial sulphate reduction (BSR). The generation of {text{HCO}}_3^ - during this process caused the precipitation and replacement of anhydrite by dolomite. A second product of BSR is the generation of H2S, resulting in the precipitation of Cu-Co sulphides from the mineralising fluids. Initial sulphide precipitation occurred along the rim of the pseudomorphs and continued towards the core. Precipitation of authigenic quartz was most likely induced by a pH decrease during sulphide precipitation. Fluid inclusion data from quartz indicate the presence of a high-salinity (8-18 eq. wt.% NaCl) fluid, possibly derived from evaporated seawater which migrated through the deep subsurface. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of dolomite in type 1 nodules range between 0.71012 and 0.73576, significantly more radiogenic than the strontium isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic marine carbonates (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7056-0.7087). This suggests intense interaction with siliciclastic sedimentary rocks and/or the granitic basement. The low carbon isotopic composition of the dolomite in the pseudomorphs (-7.02 and -9.93‰ relative to the Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite, V-PDB) compared to the host rock dolomite (-4.90 and +1.31‰ V-PDB) resulted from the oxidation of organic matter during BSR.

  3. Stability of polar frosts in spherical bowl-shaped craters on the moon, Mercury, and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Svitek, Tomas; Murray, Bruce C.

    1992-01-01

    A model of spherical bowl-shaped craters is described and applied to the moon, Mercury, and Mars. The maximum temperature of permanently shadowed areas are calculated using estimates of the depth/diameter ratios of typical lunar bowl-shaped craters and assuming a saturated surface in which the craters are completely overlapping. For Mars, two cases are considered: water frost in radiative equilibrium and subliming CO2 frost in vapor equilibrium. Energy budgets and temperatures are used to determine whether a craterlike depression loses mass faster or slower than a flat horizontal surface. This reveals qualitatively whether the frost surface becomes rougher or smoother as it sublimes.

  4. Corannulene-Helicene Hybrids: Chiral π-Systems Comprising Both Bowl and Helical Motifs.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Takao; Preda, Dorin V; Segawa, Yasutomo; Itami, Kenichiro; Scott, Lawrence T

    2016-08-19

    Two distinct structural elements that render π-systems nonplanar, i.e., geodesic curvature and helical motifs, have been combined into new polyarenes that contain both features. The resultant corannulene-[n]helicenes (n = 5, 6) show unique molecular dynamics in their enantiomerization processes, including inversion motions of both the bowl and the helix. Optical resolution of a corannulene-based skeletally chiral molecule was also achieved for the first time, and the influence of the bowl-motif annulation on the chiroptical properties was investigated. PMID:27490184

  5. Depositional setting of the Upper Jurassic Hith Anhydrite of the Arabian Gulf: An analog to holocene evaporites of the United Arab Emirates and Lake MacLeod of Western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Alsharhan, A.S. ); Kendall, C.G.St.C. )

    1994-07-01

    The Upper Jurassic Hith Anhydrite is a major hydrocarbon seal in the Arabian Gulf region. Outcrops, core samples from the subsurface, and the literature indicate that the Hith Formation is composed mainly of anhydrite. In most locations where a section of the Hith Formation has been measured, this unit contains less than 20% carbonate much of which is in the form of thin laminations. This lack of carbonate, locally thick layers of salt, and the predominance of anhydrite favor a playa for the setting in which this sediment was accumulated. In fact, much of the Hith has the sedimentary characteristics of the Holocene Lake MacLeod playa of Western Australia, which is dominated by layers of gypsum and halite (what little carbonate that occurs is found in layers at the base of the section). Locally the Hith appears to have accumulated in a sabkha setting, particularly toward central Abu Dhabi where it pinches out into shallow-water, and peritidal carbonate. This sabkha setting is indicated by the interbedded relationship of the Hith anhydrites with these carbonates and the local predominance of horizontally flattened nodules and enterolithic layers of anhydrite. These latter features match some of the characteristic fabrics found in the Holocene coastal sabkhas of the United Arab Emirates. As with the local occurrences in the Hith, the Holocene sabkhas are dominated by carbonates and are divisible into a series of lateral facies belts. These are also expressed as equivalent vertical layers. Traced from seaward to landward, or from the base of the vertical sequence upward, these facies are characterized by (1) algal mat, (2) a layer of a gypsum crystal mush (3) active anhydrite replacement of gypsum (4) anhydrite with no gypsum mush, and (5) recycled eolianite and storm-washover sediments.

  6. Experimental study of the dehydration reactions gypsum-bassanite and bassanite-anhydrite at high pressure: Indication of anomalous behavior of H2O at high pressure in the temperature range of 50-300 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirwald, Peter W.

    2008-02-01

    The system CaSO4-H2O, characterized by the three dehydration reactions gypsum-anhydrite, gypsum-bassanite, and bassanite-anhydrite, was reexamined by in situ differential pressure analysis in the temperature range of 60-350°C up to 3.5GPa pressure. The investigation revealed a fine structure in the dehydration boundaries of gypsum-bassanite and bassanite-anhydrite, each characterized by three inflections at 0.9-1.0, 1.9-2.0, and 2.6-28GPa. In addition, the phase transition of anhydrite high pressure anhydrite (monazite structure) was established for the first time at high P-T conditions intersecting the bassanite-anhydrite dehydration boundary at 2.15GPa /250°C. Furthermore, the triple point gypsum-bassanite-anhydrite was redetermined with 235MPa/80.5°C. The evaluation of the gypsum-bassanite dehydration boundary with respect to the volume and entropy change of the reaction, ΔVreact and ΔSreact, by means of the Clausius-Clapeyron relation yields for the entropy parameter an unusually large increase over the range of the noted inflections. This is interpreted as anomalous entropy behavior of H2O related presumably to a dramatic increase in fluctuations of the hydrogen network of the liquid leading possibly into a new structural state. The effect is strongly related to the three noted pressure levels of 0.9-1.0, 1.9-2.0, and 2.6-28GPa. In a synopsis of data including also a previous high pressure study in the temperature range between 0 and 80°C, a tentative P-T diagram of H2O is proposed.

  7. Rare earth element distribution in >400 °C hot hydrothermal fluids from 5°S, MAR: The role of anhydrite in controlling highly variable distribution patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, K.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.; Bau, M.; Koschinsky, A.

    2010-07-01

    Two submarine hydrothermal vent fields at 5°S, Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) - Turtle Pits and Comfortless Cove - emanate vapor-phase fluids at conditions close to the critical point of seawater (407 °C, 298 bars). In this study, the concentration and distribution of rare earth element (REE) and yttrium (Y) has been investigated. Independent of the major element composition, the fluids display a strong temporal variability of their REE + Y concentrations and relative distributions at different time scales of minutes to years. Chondrite-normalized distributions range from common fluid patterns with light REE enrichment relative to the heavy REE, accompanied by positive Eu anomalies (type I), to strongly REE + Y enriched patterns with a concave-downward distribution with a maximum enrichment of Sm and weakly positive or even negative Eu anomalies (type II). The larger the sum of REE, the smaller Ce CN/Yb CN and Eu/Eu∗. We also observed a strong variability in fluid flow and changing fluid temperatures, correlating with the compositional variability. As evident by the positive correlation of total REE, Ca, and Sr concentrations in Turtle Pits and Comfortless Cove fluids, precipitation/dissolution of hydrothermal anhydrite controls the variability in REE concentrations and distributions in these fluids and the transformation of one fluid type to the other. The variable distribution of REE can be explained by the accumulation of particulate anhydrite (with concave-downward REE distribution and negative Eu anomaly) into a fluid with common REE distribution (type I), followed by the modification of the REE fluid signature due to dissolution of incorporated anhydrite. A second model, in which the type II fluids represent a primary REE reaction zone fluid pattern, which is variably modified by precipitation of anhydrite, can also explain the observed correlations of total REE, fractionation of LREE/HREE and size of Eu anomaly as well as Ca, Sr. The emanation of such a fluid

  8. Visions in the Dust: A Child's Perspective of the Dust Bowl. Learning Page Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jan; Nisbet, Rena

    Much of history is interpreted from an adult point of view. But in Karen Hesse's Newbery Award-winning "Out of the Dust," the Great Depression's Dust Bowl is seen through the eyes of a child. By using the novel, this lesson plan gives students the opportunity to identify with the personal experiences of youth in the 1930s. In addition, students…

  9. The Will to Conservation: A Burkeian Analysis of Dust Bowl Rhetoric and American Farming Motives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Tarla Rai

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes the rhetoric of agricultural conservationists focusing on the 1930s Dust Bowl, revealing that its potential for promoting environmentally sound land-use practices was limited. Argues that the vulnerability of conservation efforts to competing forces was largely a function of the hierarchy of motives associated with land use. (SRT)

  10. Selling College: A Longitudinal Study of American College Football Bowl Game Public Service Announcements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobolowsky, Barbara F.; Lowery, John Wesley

    2014-01-01

    Using ideological analysis as a frame, researchers analyzed institutionally created commercials (PSAs) that appeared in 28 U.S. college football bowl games over a seven-year period (2003-2009) to better understand the universities' brands as represented in these advertisements. They found many common elements such as showing traditional…

  11. Ecological catastrophes: threshold responses to climate, soil, and land use drivers of the dust bowl

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dust Bowl was one of the largest ecological disasters, yet is among the least well-studied for regional-scale impacts. Much of the central grasslands region (CGR) of North America experienced a multi-year drought in the 1930s that combined with poor land management practices to result in broad-s...

  12. Spatial Patterns of Bee Captures in North American Bowl Trapping Surveys.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bowl and pan traps are now commonly used to capture and survey bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) for research. To increase the efficiency of this technique, studies of how arrangement and spacing of traps affects captures of bees are needed. We present results from seven studies of traps placed in tr...

  13. Research and Learning Intensive: Bowling Green State University Commits to Both

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.; Hakel, Milton D.; Gromko, Mark H.

    2006-01-01

    The question that has shaped the work at Bowling Green State University (BGSU) for the past ten years was raised by President Sidney A. Ribeau shortly after he assumed office in 1995. Could a large, complex doctoral-research intensive university also become the premier learning community in Ohio and one of the best in the nation? Even with some…

  14. Reach for Reference. Nostalgia for Teachers, History for Students: Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the U-X-L encyclopedia "Bowling, Beatniks, and Bell-Bottoms: Pop Culture of 20th Century America," a five-volume set, arranged chronologically with two decades in each volume. Each decade then is divided into topics, such as commerce (more exciting than it sounds with lots of inventions, consumer goods, and technology); film…

  15. Selling Exclusion: Images of Students of Color in Bowl Game Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Michael S.; Bourke, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Each winter, the best collegiate football programs compete in the Bowl Championship Series. in addition to showcasing their prowess of the field, each school is afforded opportunities to highlight other aspects of their institution in the form of advertising spots. The current study analyzed each of these spots for the 43 university participants…

  16. Community Awareness Planning in Academic Libraries: The Bowling Green State University Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabol, Laurie; Parrish, Marilyn

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the diversity of academic library users and the need for community awareness planning, and describes a program developed at Bowling Green State University libraries that evolved around a celebration of National Library Week. Topics discussed include free computer searches, displays and exhibits, publicity, read-a-thons, fundraising, and…

  17. The kinematic differences between off-spin and leg-spin bowling in cricket.

    PubMed

    Beach, Aaron J; Ferdinands, René E D; Sinclair, Peter J

    2016-09-01

    Spin bowling is generally coached using a standard technical framework, but this practice has not been based upon a comparative biomechanical analysis of leg-spin and off-spin bowling. This study analysed the three-dimensional (3D) kinematics of 23 off-spin and 20 leg-spin bowlers using a Cortex motion analysis system to identify how aspects of the respective techniques differed. A multivariate ANOVA found that certain data tended to validate some of the stated differences in the coaching literature. Off-spin bowlers had a significantly shorter stride length (p = 0.006) and spin rate (p = 0.001), but a greater release height than leg-spinners (p = 0.007). In addition, a number of other kinematic differences were identified that were not previously documented in coaching literature. These included a larger rear knee flexion (p = 0.007), faster approach speed (p < 0.001), and flexing elbow action during the arm acceleration compared with an extension action used by most of the off-spin bowlers. Off-spin and leg-spin bowlers also deviated from the standard coaching model for the shoulder alignment, front knee angle at release, and forearm mechanics. This study suggests that off-spin and leg-spin are distinct bowling techniques, supporting the development of two different coaching models in spin bowling. PMID:27126895

  18. Thickening of ultrafine coal-water slurries in a solid-bowl centrifuge

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkerton, A.P.; Klima, M.S.; Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.

    1999-07-01

    As part of a study being conducted for the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) to evaluate ultrafine coal dewatering technologies, testing was carried out to investigate the use of a solid-bowl (high-g) centrifuge for thickening ultrafine coalwater slurries. The objective of this study was to increase the solids concentration to a level suitable for use as a coal-water slurry fuel, while maximizing overall solids recovery. Feed material was collected from the combined discharge (centrate) streams from several screen-bowl centrifuges. These devices are currently being used in a commercial coal cleaning facility to dewater the clean coal product from a froth flotation circuit. Current plant practice is to discharge the centrate to settling ponds. The screen bowl centrate averages 5% solids by weight and contains nearly 60% material finer than 10 {mu}m. The current study examined the effects of operating conditions on centrifuge performance. The test conditions included centrifuge bowl and scroll speeds and volumetric feed rate. In addition to thickening, some cleaning was also achieved, because the finest particles (e.g. < 3 {micro}m), which contained a large percentage of liberated clays, were removed with the bulk of the water. The centrifuge products were analyzed for solids concentration, particle size distribution, and ash content. Size selectivity curves were also used to evaluate centrifuge performance.

  19. Does Becoming a Member of the Football Bowl Subdivision Increase Institutional Attractiveness to Potential Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Willis A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a number of colleges and universities have made the decision to pursue membership in the NCAA's Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) with the idea that participating in higher profile intercollegiate football can help attract students to their institution. This belief, however, has not been empirically examined. Using…

  20. Reclassification to the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision: A Case Study at Western Kentucky University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upright, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the reclassification process of Western Kentucky University's football program from the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) to the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), the highest and most visible level of NCAA competition. Three research questions guided the study: (a) Why did Western Kentucky University…

  1. Unidirectional Threading into a Bowl-Shaped Macrocyclic Trimer of Boron-Dipyrrin Complexes through Multipoint Recognition.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Gento; Nabeshima, Tatsuya

    2016-08-01

    Bowl-shaped macrocycles have the distinctive feature that their two sides are differentiated, and thus can be developed into elaborate hosts that fix a target molecule in a controlled geometry through multipoint interactions. We now report the synthesis of a bowl-shaped macrocyclic trimer of the boron-dipyrrin (BODIPY) complex and its unidirectional threading of guest molecules. Six polarized B(δ+) -F(δ-) bonds are directed towards the center of the macrocycle, which enables strong recognition of cationic guests. Specifically, the benzylbutylammonium ion is bound in a manner in which the benzyl group is located at the convex face of the bowl and the butyl group at its concave face. Furthermore, adrenaline was strongly captured on the convex side of the bowl by hydrogen bonding, Coulomb forces, and C-H⋅⋅⋅π interactions. PMID:27351597

  2. Rheological stratification in Zechstein rock salt caused by thermodynamically controlled reorganization of grain boundary fluids? A test using gravitationally induced sinking of anhydrite-dolomite stringers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urai, Janos L.; Raith, Alexander F.

    2016-04-01

    The rheology of rock salt during slow deformation in nature is controlled by the dominant deformation mechanism. Newtonian viscous rheology is associated with solution precipitation processes, while power law rheology is associated with dislocation creep. In large strain deformation during salt tectonics these two processes both contribute equally to the total strain rate, and grain boundaries contain mobile brine films. It has been shown that after the end of active salt tectonics, these fluid films neck down into arrays of disconnected brine inclusions, rendering the grain boundaries immobile and thus stopping solution-precipitation creep. This results in very low gravitational sinking rates of isolated anhydrite-dolomite stringers in Zechstein salt in the Tertiary, consistent with power law creep, while in Newtonian salt the stringers would sink to the bottom in geologically short time. In a recent paper Ghanbarzadeh et al., (Science, Nov 2015) provided evidence that below approximately 2 km depth the thermodynamically controlled dihedral angle between solid-liquid and solid-solid grain boundaries decreases to below 60 degrees, so that a connected grain boundary triple junction network of fluid channels is formed and permeability of the salt increases. The same process can be argued to lead to permanently mobile grain boundaries below this critical depth, activating solution-precipitation creep even in the absence of active tectonics. We test this hypothesis by comparing estimated gravitationally induced sinking rates of isolated anhydrite-dolomite stringers in the Zechstein of NE-Netherlands, based on 3D sesmic data, at depths above and below this proposed transition. First results suggest that there is no significant change in stringer sinking rate with depth.

  3. Dust and sea surface temperature forcing of the 1930s ``Dust Bowl'' drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Miller, Ron L.; Seager, Richard

    2008-04-01

    Droughts over the central United States (US) are modulated by sea surface temperature (SST) variations in the eastern tropical Pacific. Many models, however, are unable to reproduce the severity and spatial pattern of the ``Dust Bowl'' drought of the 1930s with SST forcing alone. We force an atmosphere general circulation model with 1930s SSTs and model-generated dust emission from the Great Plains region. The SSTs alone force a drought over the US similar to observations, but with a weaker precipitation anomaly that is centered too far south. Inclusion of dust radiative forcing, centered over the area of observed wind erosion, increases the intensity of the drought and shifts its center northward. While our conclusions are tempered by limited quantitative observations of the dust aerosol load and soil erosion during this period, our study suggests that unprecedented atmospheric dust loading over the continental US exacerbated the ``Dust Bowl'' drought.

  4. Velocity filter mechanism for ion bowl disributions (Bimodal conics). [in high altitude auroral regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horwitz, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The 'bowl-shaped' ion distributions in the high altitude auroral region observed by Klumpar et al. (1984) were originally interpreted as being due to a two-stage acceleration involving transverse ion heating and upward-aligned electric field acceleration. In this paper, it is shown that qualitatively similar bowl-shaped distributions can also be formed by transverse heating in a region of finite horizontal extent, followed by essentially adiabatic convective flow to the observation location. The latter stage contributes a velocity-filtering effect which produces some characteristics of the distributions observed. It is suggested it may be possible to use ion species observations to distinguish the mechanism proposed by Klumpar et al. from the alternative mechanism outlined in the present study.

  5. On the "bowl-shaped" deformation of planetary equatorial current sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyganenko, N. A.; Andreeva, V. A.

    2014-02-01

    Arridge et al. (2008) reported evidence for the formation of a "bowl-shaped" equatorial current disk in Saturn's magnetosphere during epochs with large planetary dipole tilt angle from perpendicularity with the Sun-planet axis. Using a large multiyear set of Geotail, Polar, and Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions spacecraft data and a simple model of the magnetic field reversal surface, we found that a similar kind of the tilt-related magnetic field deformation is present in the Earth's magnetosphere. Based on the properties of a tilted vacuum magnetic field configuration, we conclude that the bowl-shaped distortion is a universal feature of magnetospheres with a tilted planetary dipole, resulting from the joint effect of the north-south asymmetry due to the tilt and of the day-night asymmetry imposed by the solar wind flow.

  6. Polar Switching in a Lyotropic Columnar Nematic Liquid Crystal Made of Bowl-Shaped Molecules.

    PubMed

    Guilleme, Julia; Cavero, Emma; Sierra, Teresa; Ortega, Josu; Folcia, César L; Etxebarria, Jesus; Torres, Tomás; González-Rodríguez, David

    2015-08-01

    A polar response in a lyotropic columnar nematic material is reported. The material accommodates bowl-shaped molecules with strong axial dipole moments in column segments without head-to-tail invariance. Optical second-harmonic-generation methods confirm that the nematic columns align unidirectionally under an applied electric field and the material develops remnant macroscopic polarization observable for hours. The switching takes place by a flip of the columns. PMID:26078047

  7. The use of a solid-bowl centrifuge for ultrafine coal thickening

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkerton, A.P.; Klima, M.S.; Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.

    2000-07-01

    Testing was carried out to investigate the use of a solid-bowl (decanter) centrifuge for thickening ultrafine coal-water slurries. This study was conducted for Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) to evaluate ultrafine dewatering technologies. The objective was to increase the solids concentration of an ultrafine coal discard stream to a level suitable for use as a coal-water slurry fuel, while maximizing overall solids recovery. The feed material was collected from the combined discharge (centrate) streams from several screen-bowl centrifuges, which are currently being used in a commercial coal cleaning facility to dewater froth flotation product. The centrate averages 5% solids by weight and contains nearly 60% material finer than 10 {micro}m. This study examined the effects of operating conditions on centrifuge performance, including centrifuge bowl and scroll speeds, and feed solids concentration. The effects of flocculation addition on centrifuge performance and slurry rheology were also examined. The results indicated that solids concentrations exceeding 55% were obtained in nearly all cases.

  8. The effect of digitisation of the humeral epicondyles on quantifying elbow kinematics during cricket bowling.

    PubMed

    Eftaxiopoulou, Theofano; Gupte, Chinmay M; Dear, John P; Bull, Anthony M J

    2013-01-01

    In the sport of cricket the objective of the "no-ball" law is to allow no performance advantage through elbow extension during ball delivery. However, recently it has been shown that even bowlers with actions that are considered within the law show some elbow extension. The objective of this study was to investigate: [1] the effect of elbow orientation during anatomical landmark digitisation and [2] the choice of upper arm tracking cluster on the measurement of elbow angles during cricket bowling. We compared the mean elbow angles for four different elbow postures; with the joint flexed at approximately 130°, 90°, in full extension and with the elbow flexed with the humerus internally rotated, and two upper arm clusters in two different situations: [1] during a controlled movement of pure flexion-extension and [2] during cricket bowling. The digitised postures of the anatomical landmarks where the elbow was extended and at 90° of flexion were more repeatable than the other two postures. The recommendation of this study when analysing cricket bowling is to digitise the humeral epicondyles with the joint flexed at 90°, or in full extension, and to relate their positions to an upper arm cluster fixed close to the elbow. PMID:23879677

  9. Interface-mediated fabrication of bowl-like and deflated ballon-like hollow carbon nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haijiao; Li, Xia

    2015-08-15

    In our work, two kinds of hollow carbon nanospheres with controlled morphologies have been successfully prepared from low-cost and nontoxic glucose as the sole carbon precursor under neutral aqueous medium via a simple hydrothermal route. During the process, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) and triblock copolymer P123 ((EO)20(PO)70(EO)20) was skillfully selected as the structure-directing agent, respectively. SEM, TEM and AFM results revealed that the two products showed bowl-like and deflated-balloon-like morphology with uniform particle sizes, respectively. Based on the experimental observations, a possible formation mechanism was also discussed, in which the growth of the carbon nanospheres involved an interface-medicated assembly process. The present method was easy, green and mild. Apart from the unique nanostructure, the obtained bowl-like hollow carbon nanospheres exhibited excellent biocompatibility. In particular, it should be mentioned that the open window formed by the bowl-like morphology can facilitate ion transport, thus improving their performances. PMID:25935285

  10. Comparison of total and cardiovascular death rates in the same city during a losing versus winning super bowl championship.

    PubMed

    Kloner, Robert A; McDonald, Scott; Leeka, Justin; Poole, W Kenneth

    2009-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were changes in death rates when a local football team participated in the Super Bowl. Los Angeles (LA) played in the Super Bowl twice: on January 20, 1980 (LA Rams vs Pittsburgh Steelers, which LA lost), and on January 22, 1984 (LA Raiders vs Washington Redskins, which LA won). Data from LA County were analyzed for all-cause and circulatory death rates for the Super Bowl and the following 14 days when LA played (Super Bowl-related days) and control days (from January 15 to the end of February for 1980 to 1983 and 1984 to 1988). The Super Bowl-related days during LA's losing 1980 game were associated with higher daily death rates in LA County (per 100,000 population) for all deaths (2.4482 vs 2.0968 for control days, p <0.0001), circulatory deaths (1.3024 vs 1.0665 for control days, p <0.0001), deaths from ischemic heart disease (0.8551 vs 0.7143 for control days, p <0.0001), and deaths from acute myocardial infarctions (0.2710 vs 0.2322 for control days, p = 0.0213). In contrast, the Super Bowl-related days during the winning 1984 game were associated with a lower rate of all-cause death (2.1870 vs 2.3205 for control days, p = 0.0302). In conclusion, the emotional stress of loss and/or the intensity of a game played by a sports team in a highly publicized rivalry such as the Super Bowl can trigger total and cardiovascular deaths. PMID:19539070

  11. The case for a southeastern Australian Dust Bowl, 1895-1945

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattle, Stephen R.

    2016-06-01

    Australia has an anecdotal history of severe wind erosion and dust storm activity, but there has been no lasting public perception of periods of extreme dust storm activity in this country, such as that developed in the USA following the Dust Bowl of the 1930s. Newspaper accounts of droughts and dust storms in southeastern (SE) Australia between 1895 and 1945 suggest that, at various times, the scale of these events was comparable to those experienced in the USA Dust Bowl. During this 50-year period, average annual rainfall values in this region were substantially below long-term averages, air temperatures were distinctly warmer, marginal lands were actively cropped and grazed, and rabbits were a burgeoning grazing pest. From the beginning of the Federation Drought of 1895-1902, dust storm activity increased markedly, with the downwind coastal cities of Sydney and Melbourne experiencing dust hazes, dust storms and falls of red rain relatively regularly. Between 1935 and 1945, Sydney and Melbourne received ten and nine long-distance dust events, respectively, with the years of 1938 and 1944/45 being the most intensely dusty. Entire topsoil horizons were blown away, sand drift was extreme, and crops and sheep flocks were destroyed. Although these periods of extreme dust storm activity were not as sustained as those experienced in the USA in the mid-1930s, there is a strong case to support the contention that SE Australia experienced its own extended, somewhat episodic version of a Dust Bowl, with a similar combination of causal factors and landscape effects.

  12. Piston Bowl Optimization for RCCI Combustion in a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Reed M; Curran, Scott; Wagner, Robert M; Reitz, Rolf; Kokjohn, Sage

    2012-01-01

    Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an engine combustion strategy that that produces low NO{sub x} and PM emissions with high thermal efficiency. Previous RCCI research has been investigated in single-cylinder heavy-duty engines. The current study investigates RCCI operation in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine at 3 operating points. These operating points were chosen to cover a range of conditions seen in the US EPA light-duty FTP test. The operating points were chosen by the Ad Hoc working group to simulate operation in the FTP test. The fueling strategy for the engine experiments consisted of in-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel-injection (PFI) of gasoline and early-cycle, direct-injection (DI) of diesel fuel. At these 3 points, the stock engine configuration is compared to operation with both the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and custom machined pistons designed for RCCI operation. The pistons were designed with assistance from the KIVA 3V computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. By using a genetic algorithm optimization, in conjunction with KIVA, the piston bowl profile was optimized for dedicated RCCI operation to reduce unburned fuel emissions and piston bowl surface area. By reducing these parameters, the thermal efficiency of the engine was improved while maintaining low NOx and PM emissions. Results show that with the new piston bowl profile and an optimized injection schedule, RCCI brake thermal efficiency was increased from 37%, with the stock EURO IV configuration, to 40% at the 2,600 rev/min, 6.9 bar BMEP condition, and NOx and PM emissions targets were met without the need for exhaust after-treatment.

  13. 2D-ordered dielectric sub-micron bowls on a metal surface: a useful hybrid plasmonic-photonic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yue; Wang, Shiqiang; Yin, Xianpeng; Liang, Yun; Dong, Hao; Gao, Ning; Li, Jian; Wang, Hui; Li, Guangtao

    2016-07-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that the combination of periodic dielectric structures with metallic structures provides an efficient means to yield a synergetic optical response or functionality in the resultant hybrid plasmonic-photonic systems. In this work, a new hybrid plasmonic-photonic structure of 2D-ordered dielectric sub-micron bowls on a flat gold surface was proposed, prepared, and theoretically and experimentally characterized. This hybrid structure supports two types of modes: surface plasmon polaritons bound at the metallic surface and waveguided mode of light confined in the cavity of bowls. Optical responses of this hybrid structure as well as the spatial electric field distribution of each mode are found to be strongly dependent on the structural parameters of this system, and thus could be widely modified on demand. Importantly, compared to the widely studied hybrid systems, namely the flat metallic surface coated with a monolayer array of latex spheres, the waveguided mode with strong field enhancement appearing in the cavities of bowls is more facilely accessible and thus suitable for practical use. For demonstration, a 2D-ordered silica sub-micron bowl array deposited on a flat gold surface was fabricated and used as a regenerable platform for fluorescence enhancement by simply accommodating emitters in bowls. All the simulation and experiment results indicate that the 2D-ordered dielectric sub-micron bowls on a metal surface should be a useful hybrid plasmonic-photonic system with great potential for applications such as sensors or tunable emitting devices if appropriate periods and materials are employed.Recently, it has been demonstrated that the combination of periodic dielectric structures with metallic structures provides an efficient means to yield a synergetic optical response or functionality in the resultant hybrid plasmonic-photonic systems. In this work, a new hybrid plasmonic-photonic structure of 2D-ordered dielectric sub

  14. Temperature dependence of nonlinear optical properties in Li doped nano-carbon bowl material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei-qi; Zhou, Xin; Chang, Ying; Quan Tian, Wei; Sun, Xiu-Dong

    2013-04-01

    The mechanism for change of nonlinear optical (NLO) properties with temperature is proposed for a nonlinear optical material, Li doped curved nano-carbon bowl. Four stable conformations of Li doped corannulene were located and their electronic properties were investigated in detail. The NLO response of those Li doped conformations varies with relative position of doping agent on the curved carbon surface of corannulene. Conversion among those Li doped conformations, which could be controlled by temperature, changes the NLO response of bulk material. Thus, conformation change of alkali metal doped carbon nano-material with temperature rationalizes the variation of NLO properties of those materials.

  15. High-explosive cratering analogs for bowl-shaped, central uplift, and multiring impact craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roddy, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes six experimental explosion craters in terms of their basic morphology, subsurface structural deformation, and surrounding ejecta blanket. These craters exhibit one or more of the following features: bowl shapes with underlying breccia lens, central uplifts, multirings, terraced walls, rim strata, zones of concentric rim deformation, inner continuous ground cover of ejecta blankets formed by overturned flaps, secondary cratering, and fused alluvium. These craters were formed by large shock wave energy transfers at or near zero heights-of-burst, and it is possible that impact craters with analogous morphologic and structural features may have formed under similar surface energy transfer conditions.

  16. 2D-ordered dielectric sub-micron bowls on a metal surface: a useful hybrid plasmonic-photonic structure.

    PubMed

    Lan, Yue; Wang, Shiqiang; Yin, Xianpeng; Liang, Yun; Dong, Hao; Gao, Ning; Li, Jian; Wang, Hui; Li, Guangtao

    2016-07-21

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that the combination of periodic dielectric structures with metallic structures provides an efficient means to yield a synergetic optical response or functionality in the resultant hybrid plasmonic-photonic systems. In this work, a new hybrid plasmonic-photonic structure of 2D-ordered dielectric sub-micron bowls on a flat gold surface was proposed, prepared, and theoretically and experimentally characterized. This hybrid structure supports two types of modes: surface plasmon polaritons bound at the metallic surface and waveguided mode of light confined in the cavity of bowls. Optical responses of this hybrid structure as well as the spatial electric field distribution of each mode are found to be strongly dependent on the structural parameters of this system, and thus could be widely modified on demand. Importantly, compared to the widely studied hybrid systems, namely the flat metallic surface coated with a monolayer array of latex spheres, the waveguided mode with strong field enhancement appearing in the cavities of bowls is more facilely accessible and thus suitable for practical use. For demonstration, a 2D-ordered silica sub-micron bowl array deposited on a flat gold surface was fabricated and used as a regenerable platform for fluorescence enhancement by simply accommodating emitters in bowls. All the simulation and experiment results indicate that the 2D-ordered dielectric sub-micron bowls on a metal surface should be a useful hybrid plasmonic-photonic system with great potential for applications such as sensors or tunable emitting devices if appropriate periods and materials are employed. PMID:27349558

  17. Extraordinary heat during the 1930s US Dust Bowl and associated large-scale conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donat, Markus G.; King, Andrew D.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Durre, Imke; Karoly, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Unusually hot summer conditions occurred during the 1930s over the central United States and undoubtedly contributed to the severity of the Dust Bowl drought. We investigate local and large-scale conditions in association with the extraordinary heat and drought events, making use of novel datasets of observed climate extremes and climate reanalysis covering the past century. We show that the unprecedented summer heat during the Dust Bowl years was likely exacerbated by land-surface feedbacks associated with springtime precipitation deficits. The reanalysis results indicate that these deficits were associated with the coincidence of anomalously warm North Atlantic and Northeast Pacific surface waters and a shift in atmospheric pressure patterns leading to reduced flow of moist air into the central US. Thus, the combination of springtime ocean temperatures and atmospheric flow anomalies, leading to reduced precipitation, also holds potential for enhanced predictability of summer heat events. The results suggest that hot drought, more severe than experienced during the most recent 2011 and 2012 heat waves, is to be expected when ocean temperature anomalies like those observed in the 1930s occur in a world that has seen significant mean warming.

  18. Causes of the Extraordinary Summer Heat during the 1930s US Dust Bowl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donat, Markus G.; King, Andrew D.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Durre, Imke; Karoly, David

    2014-05-01

    The climate over much of the US during the 1930s was characterized by extremely hot and dry conditions, often referred to as the "Dust Bowl". Based on novel observational datasets of climate extremes and century-long reanalysis data, we show that this exceptional summer heat was unrivaled in the 110-year record. Modeling studies have shown that forcing with observed sea surface temperatures may generate drought conditions over North America, and thus may at least partly explain the Dust Bowl. However, it remains to be answered which mechanisms actually led to the particularly hot conditions. In agreement with previous studies, we show that summer heat often follows a spring drought. In addition, we show that spring precipitation deficits over the central US are strongly related to atmospheric flow anomalies which suppress the moisture transport from the Gulf of Mexico into the continent. These atmospheric flow anomalies are caused by shifts in the dominating pressure patterns, in particular a northward extension of the Atlantic Subtropical High, related to warm anomalies in the North Atlantic. This suggests there is potential for predictability of summer droughts and heat waves from the combination of both spring-time ocean surface temperatures and atmospheric flow.

  19. [The influence of Nintendo-Wii® bowling upon residents of retirement homes].

    PubMed

    Wittelsberger, R; Krug, S; Tittlbach, S; Bös, K

    2013-07-01

    The few studies dealing with the positive effects of health and well-being of older people are only one-sided. The aim of the study therefore was to analyze the effects of Nintendo-Wii® bowling on daily function, state of dementia, quality of life, cognition and motor skills in retirement home inhabitants. The study was performed with 27 study participants (13 women, 14 men) between the ages of 49 and 95 years (mean = 71, SD = 14). They were randomly assigned to a control group (KG) and an intervention group (IG). Between pre- and posttest, the IG played 60 min/twice a week Nintendo-Wii® Bowling over 6 weeks. The improvement of IG was significant in the analysis of variance concerning strength (arm curls: F df = 2 = 7.199; p = 0,013; η(2) = 0,231) and showed a significant trend concerning coordination (tracking lines: F df = 2 = 3.99; p = 0,058; η(2) = 0,154) compared with KG. The area of rapidity (catching bars: F df = 2 = 28.511; p = 0,008; η(2) = 0,279) showed a significant decline in the IG compared with the KG. However, closer examination shows that the short time of intervention and the wide age range could have affected the results. Thus, further studies should take these critical aspects into consideration. PMID:23203904

  20. Thermo-responsive cross-linked liquid crystal bowl-shaped colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei-Shao; Xia, Yu; Yang, Shu; Yodh, A. G.

    In this work we create and investigate cross-linked bowl-shaped nematic liquid crystal (NLC) colloidal particles. Janus colloids are first formed via solvent-induced phase separation in emulsions consisting of NLC monomers and isotropic polymers. This scheme enables us to realize different particle morphologies such as bowl-shape by fine-tuning the confinement of NLCs within the droplets, e.g. by varying the size of droplets, the volume ratio between NLC and polymer, and the type/concentration of surfactants in aqueous background phase. The NLC compartment is composed of RM82 (1,4-Bis-[4-(6-acryloyloxyhexyloxy)benzoyloxy]-2-methylbenzene) monomers, which are then photocrosslinked by dithiol groups to form nematic liquid crystal elastomer. Finally, we remove the polymer parts of Janus colloids to obtain the target structures, which are temperature sensitive due to change of elasticity and molecular alignment of NLC near the isotropic to nematic phase transition temperature. We will explore novel mechanical and optical properties from the thermo-responsive structures as well as their applications, such as biomimic swimming behaviors and adjustable lensing effects. This work is supported by the foundation through NSF Grant DMR12-05463, NSF-MRSEC Grant DMR11-20901, and NASA Grant NNX08AO0G.

  1. Laser forming of a bowl shaped surface with a stationary laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Shitanshu Shekhar; More, Harshit; Nath, Ashish Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Despite a lot of research done in the field of laser forming, generation of a symmetric bowl shaped surface by this process is still a challenge mainly because only a portion of the sheet is momentarily deformed in this process, unlike conventional sheet metal forming like deep drawing where the entire blank undergoes forming simultaneously reducing asymmetry to a minimum. The motion of laser beam also makes the process asymmetric. To counter these limitations this work proposes a new approach for laser forming of a bowl shaped surface by irradiating the centre of a flat circular blank with a stationary laser beam. With high power lasers, power density sufficient for laser forming, can be availed at reasonably large spot sizes. This advantage is exploited in this technique. Effects of duration of laser irradiation and beam spot diameter on the amount of bending and asymmetry in the formed surface were investigated. Laser power was kept constant while varying irradiation time. While varying laser spot diameter laser power was chosen so as to keep the surface temperature nearly constant at just below melting. Experimental conditions promoted almost uniform heating through sheet thickness. The amount of bending increased with irradiation time and spot diameter. It was interesting to observe that blanks bent towards the laser beam for smaller laser beam diameters and the reverse happened for larger spot diameters (~10 times of the sheet thickness). Effect of spot diameter variation has been explained with the help of coupled thermal-structural finite element simulations.

  2. Microbial Content of "Bowl Water" Used for Communal Handwashing in Preschools within Accra Metropolis, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Tetteh-Quarcoo, Patience B; Anim-Baidoo, Isaac; Attah, Simon Kwaku; Abdul-Latif Baako, Bawa; Opintan, Japheth A; Minamor, Andrew A; Abdul-Rahman, Mubarak; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed at determining the microbial content of "bowl water" used for communal handwashing in preschools within the Accra Metropolis. Method. Six (6) preschools in the Accra Metropolis were involved in the study. Water samples and swabs from the hands of the preschool children were collected. The samples were analysed and tested for bacteria, fungi, parasites, and rotavirus. Results. Eight different bacteria, two different parasites, and a fungus were isolated while no rotavirus was detected. Unlike the rest of the microbes, bacterial isolates were found among samples from all the schools, with Staphylococcus species being the most prevalent (40.9%). Out of the three schools that had parasites in their water, two of them had Cryptosporidium parvum. The fungus isolated from two out of the six schools was Aspergillus niger. All bacteria isolated were found to be resistant to cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin and susceptible to amikacin and levofloxacin. Conclusion. Although handwashing has the ability to get rid of microbes, communal handwashing practices using water in bowls could be considered a possible transmission route and may be of public concern. PMID:27555872

  3. Isolation and characterization of an early colonizing Rhizobium sp. R8 from a household toilet bowl.

    PubMed

    Fukano, Toru; Gomi, Mitsuhiro; Osaki, Yukihiko; Morikawa, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial community structure was compared between the third days', one week', and three weeks' biofilm samples from the surface of a household toilet bowl. It was found that the PCR-DGGE band pattern of 16S rRNA gene was dramatically changed after the third day and was not further changed until three weeks. This result suggests that there are early and late colonizing bacterial groups. One of the early colonizers isolated from the third days' sample was Rhizobium sp. R8, a closest relative to Rhizobium giardinii, which exhibited the highest biofilm formation activity in an artificial urine condition. R8 produced extracellular polysaccharides containing galactose, glucose, and mannose at the molar ratio of 8:1:1, which were probably responsible for the biofilm formation. Its excelled biofilm formation and urease activities together with the lack of nodulation and nitrogen fixing genes in R8 suggest that this strain has been specifically adapted to urine condition in a toilet bowl. PMID:25707633

  4. Monte Carlo simulations of GeoPET experiments: 3D images of tracer distributions (18F, 124I and 58Co) in Opalinus clay, anhydrite and quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakhnini, Abdelhamid; Kulenkampff, Johannes; Sauerzapf, Sophie; Pietrzyk, Uwe; Lippmann-Pipke, Johanna

    2013-08-01

    Understanding conservative fluid flow and reactive tracer transport in soils and rock formations requires quantitative transport visualization methods in 3D+t. After a decade of research and development we established the GeoPET as a non-destructive method with unrivalled sensitivity and selectivity, with due spatial and temporal resolution by applying Positron Emission Tomography (PET), a nuclear medicine imaging method, to dense rock material. Requirements for reaching the physical limit of image resolution of nearly 1 mm are (a) a high-resolution PET-camera, like our ClearPET scanner (Raytest), and (b) appropriate correction methods for scatter and attenuation of 511 keV—photons in the dense geological material. The latter are by far more significant in dense geological material than in human and small animal body tissue (water). Here we present data from Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) reflecting selected GeoPET experiments. The MCS consider all involved nuclear physical processes of the measurement with the ClearPET-system and allow us to quantify the sensitivity of the method and the scatter fractions in geological media as function of material (quartz, Opalinus clay and anhydrite compared to water), PET isotope (18F, 58Co and 124I), and geometric system parameters. The synthetic data sets obtained by MCS are the basis for detailed performance assessment studies allowing for image quality improvements. A scatter correction method is applied exemplarily by subtracting projections of simulated scattered coincidences from experimental data sets prior to image reconstruction with an iterative reconstruction process.

  5. Socialist Revolution: Samuel Bowles, Herbert Gintis, and the Emergence of Marxist Thought in the Field of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottesman, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    Upon its publication in 1976, Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis' "Schooling in Capitalist America" was the most sophisticated and nuanced Marxian social and political analysis of schooling in the United States. Thirty-five years after its publication, "Schooling" continues to have a strong impact on thinking about education. Despite its…

  6. Three-dimensional æolian dynamics within a bowl blowout during offshore winds: Greenwich Dunes, Prince Edward Island, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesp, Patrick A.; Walker, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the æolian dynamics of a deep bowl blowout within the foredune of the Greenwich Dunes, on the northeastern shore or Prince Edward Island, Canada. Masts of cup anemometers and sonic anemometers were utilized to measure flow velocities and directions during a strong regional ESE (offshore) wind event. The flow across the blowout immediately separated at the upwind rim crest, and within the blowout was strongly reversed. High, negative vertical flows occurred down the downwind (but seaward) vertical scarp which projected into the separation envelope and topographically forced flow back into the blowout. A pronounced, accelerated jet flow existed near the surface across the blowout basin, and the flow exhibited a complex, anti-clockwise structure with the near-surface flow following the contours around the blowout basin and lower slopes. Significant æolian sediment transport occurred across the whole bowl basin and sediment was delivered by saltation and suspension out the blowout to the east. This study demonstrates that strong offshore winds produce pronounced topographically forced flow steering, separation, reversal, and more complex three-dimensional motions within a bowl blowout, and that such winds within a bowl blowout play a notable role in transporting sediment within and beyond deep topographic hollows in the foredune.

  7. Online Responses to a Multilingual Super Bowl Ad: Is "America the Beautiful" by Any Other Language Still America, the Beautiful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Brooke Y.

    2016-01-01

    On 2 February 2014, an advertisement entitled "It's Beautiful" debuted during Super Bowl XLVIII, which was watched by 111.5 million people in the USA. The Coca-Cola advertisement portrayed people of various ethnicities and was accompanied by "America the Beautiful" sung in nine languages. Using critical discourse analysis, I…

  8. The effect of spin in swing bowling in cricket: model trajectories for spin alone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Garry; Robinson, Ian

    2015-02-01

    In ‘swing’ bowling, as employed by fast and fast-medium bowlers in cricket, back-spin along the line of the seam is normally applied in order to keep the seam vertical and to provide stability against ‘wobble’ of the seam. Whilst spin is normally thought of as primarily being the slow bowler's domain, the spin applied by the swing bowler has the side-effect of generating a lift or Magnus force. This force, depending on the orientation of the seam and hence that of the back-spin, can have a side-ways component as well as the expected vertical ‘lift’ component. The effect of the spin itself, in influencing the trajectory of the fast bowler's delivery, is normally not considered, presumably being thought of as negligible. The purpose of this paper is to investigate, using calculated model trajectories, the amount of side-ways movement due to the spin and to see how this predicted movement compares with the total observed side-ways movement. The size of the vertical lift component is also estimated. It is found that, although the spin is an essential part of the successful swing bowler's delivery, the amount of side-ways movement due to the spin itself amounts to a few centimetres or so, and is therefore small, but perhaps not negligible, compared to the total amount of side-ways movement observed. The spin does, however, provide a considerable amount of lift compared to the equivalent delivery bowled without spin, altering the point of pitching by up to 3 m, a very large amount indeed. Thus, for example, bowling a ball with the seam pointing directly down the pitch and not designed to swing side-ways at all, but with the amount of back-spin varied, could provide a very powerful additional weapon in the fast bowler's arsenal. So-called ‘sling bowlers’, who use a very low arm action, can take advantage of spin since effectively they can apply side-spin to the ball, giving rise to a large side-ways movement, ˜ 20{}^\\circ cm or more, which certainly is

  9. Evidence on early-life income and late-life health from America's Dust Bowl era.

    PubMed

    Cutler, David M; Miller, Grant; Norton, Douglas M

    2007-08-14

    In recent decades, elderly Americans have enjoyed enormous gains in longevity and reductions in disability. The causes of this progress remain unclear, however. This paper investigates the role of fetal programming, exploring how economic progress early in the 20th century might be related to declining disability today. Specifically, we match sudden unexpected economic changes experienced in utero in America's Dust Bowl during the Great Depression to unusually detailed individual-level information about old-age disability and chronic disease. We are unable to detect any meaningful relationship between early life factors and outcomes in later life. We conclude that, if such a relationship exists in the United States, it is most likely not a quantitatively important explanation for declining disability today. PMID:17686988

  10. Simultaneous dewatering and reconstitution in a high-gravity solid-bowl centrifuge

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, W.W.; Gray, M.L.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Finseth, D.H.

    1994-12-31

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center has developed a dewatering and reconstitution process in which bitumen emulsion is added to a fine clean coal slurry ahead of the dewatering device. The process simultaneously improves dewatering efficiency and reduces dustiness of the fine coal product during subsequent handling. This paper describes the test results from dewatering and reconstitution of fine coal in a 500 lb. per hour continuous bench scale high-gravity solid-bowl centrifuge in PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility. Test results will be evaluated in terms of type and dosage of emulsion, product moisture and strength, and product handling and dust reduction efficiency. A preliminary cost analysis will also be included.

  11. Duodenal duplication manifested by abdominal pain and bowl obstruction in an adolescent: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiaoyu; Fan, Ying; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Wei; Song, Yanglin

    2015-01-01

    Duodenal duplication (DD) is a rare congenital anomaly reported mainly in infancy and childhood, but seldom in adolescent and adults. Symptoms, such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or dyspepsia may present depending on the location and type of the lesion. DD can result in several complications, including pancreatitis, bowl obstruction, gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation and jaundice. Surgery is still the optimal method for treatment, although endoscopic fenestration has been described recently. Here, we report a case of a DD on the second portion of the duodenum in a 17-year-old adolescent complaining of transient epigastric pain and vomiting after meal. We suspected the diagnosis of DD by abdominal computerized tomography and endoscopic ultrasonography. We treated her by subtotal excision and internal derivation. Eventually, we confirmed our diagnosis with histopathological result. PMID:26885132

  12. Determination of the residual stress in a centrifuge bowl by neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albertini, G.; Giuliani, A.; Lin Peng, R.; Manescu, A.; Ponzetti, A.

    An experimental study of the stress field in centrifuges for food processing and for agricultural applications was undertaken. The model, the dimensions and the material of the sample are those of the most recent line of production of the Nuova M.A.I.P. company. The rotor is also one of the largest rotors produced by that firm. The residual strains and stresses were determined by using neutron-diffraction techniques before centrifugation and after centrifugation, to evaluate the evolution of stress induced by centrifuging. The upper part of the rotating bowl is investigated, where the highest stress field during centrifugation is theoretically forecast to occur. A data elaboration aiming at avoiding systematic errors leads to the conclusion that no appreciable residual stress is induced by centrifugation.

  13. Evidence on early-life income and late-life health from America's Dust Bowl era

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, David M.; Miller, Grant; Norton, Douglas M.

    2007-01-01

    In recent decades, elderly Americans have enjoyed enormous gains in longevity and reductions in disability. The causes of this progress remain unclear, however. This paper investigates the role of fetal programming, exploring how economic progress early in the 20th century might be related to declining disability today. Specifically, we match sudden unexpected economic changes experienced in utero in America's Dust Bowl during the Great Depression to unusually detailed individual-level information about old-age disability and chronic disease. We are unable to detect any meaningful relationship between early life factors and outcomes in later life. We conclude that, if such a relationship exists in the United States, it is most likely not a quantitatively important explanation for declining disability today. PMID:17686988

  14. Duodenal duplication manifested by abdominal pain and bowl obstruction in an adolescent: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaoyu; Fan, Ying; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Wei; Song, Yanglin

    2015-01-01

    Duodenal duplication (DD) is a rare congenital anomaly reported mainly in infancy and childhood, but seldom in adolescent and adults. Symptoms, such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting or dyspepsia may present depending on the location and type of the lesion. DD can result in several complications, including pancreatitis, bowl obstruction, gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation and jaundice. Surgery is still the optimal method for treatment, although endoscopic fenestration has been described recently. Here, we report a case of a DD on the second portion of the duodenum in a 17-year-old adolescent complaining of transient epigastric pain and vomiting after meal. We suspected the diagnosis of DD by abdominal computerized tomography and endoscopic ultrasonography. We treated her by subtotal excision and internal derivation. Eventually, we confirmed our diagnosis with histopathological result. PMID:26885132

  15. Amplification of the North American 'Dust Bowl' drought through human induced land degradation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, B. I.; Miller, R. L.; Seager, R.

    2008-12-01

    The 'Dust Bowl' drought of the 1930s was highly unusual for North America, deviating from the typical pattern forced by 'La Nina' with the maximum drying in the central and northern Plains, warm temperature anomalies across almost the entire continent, and widespread dust storms. General circulation models (GCMs), forced by sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the 1930s, produce a serious drought, but one that is centered in southwestern North America and without the warming centered in the middle of the continent. Here we show that the inclusion of forcing from human land degradation during the period, in addition to the anomalous SSTs, is necessary to reproduce the anomalous features of the Dust Bowl drought. The degradation over the Great Plains is represented in the GCM as a reduction in vegetation cover (crop failure) and the addition of a soil dust aerosol source. As a result of land surface feedbacks, the simulation of the drought is much improved when the new dust aerosol and vegetation boundary conditions are included. Vegetation reductions explain the high temperature anomaly over the northern U.S. and the dust aerosols intensify the drought and move it northward of the purely ocean-forced drought pattern. When both factors are included in the model simulations, the precipitation and temperature anomalies are of similar magnitude and in a similar location compared to the observations. It is concluded that human-induced land degradation not only led to the dust storms of the 1930s, but also amplified the drought and these together turned a typical SST- forced drought into one of the worst environmental disasters the U.S. has experienced.

  16. Amplification of the North American "Dust Bowl" drought through human-induced land degradation.

    PubMed

    Cook, Benjamin I; Miller, Ron L; Seager, Richard

    2009-03-31

    The "Dust Bowl" drought of the 1930s was highly unusual for North America, deviating from the typical pattern forced by "La Nina" with the maximum drying in the central and northern Plains, warm temperature anomalies across almost the entire continent, and widespread dust storms. General circulation models (GCMs), forced by sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from the 1930s, produce a drought, but one that is centered in southwestern North America and without the warming centered in the middle of the continent. Here, we show that the inclusion of forcing from human land degradation during the period, in addition to the anomalous SSTs, is necessary to reproduce the anomalous features of the Dust Bowl drought. The degradation over the Great Plains is represented in the GCM as a reduction in vegetation cover and the addition of a soil dust aerosol source, both consequences of crop failure. As a result of land surface feedbacks, the simulation of the drought is much improved when the new dust aerosol and vegetation boundary conditions are included. Vegetation reductions explain the high temperature anomaly over the northern U.S., and the dust aerosols intensify the drought and move it northward of the purely ocean-forced drought pattern. When both factors are included in the model simulations, the precipitation and temperature anomalies are of similar magnitude and in a similar location compared with the observations. Human-induced land degradation is likely to have not only contributed to the dust storms of the 1930s but also amplified the drought, and these together turned a modest SST-forced drought into one of the worst environmental disasters the U.S. has experienced. PMID:19289836

  17. The Role of Obliteration in the Achievement of a Dry Mastoid Bowl

    PubMed Central

    Harun, Aisha; Clark, James; Semenov, Yevgeniy R.; Francis, Howard W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of mastoid obliteration on the achievement of a dry mastoid bowl and frequency of maintenance care. Study Design Retrospective chart review. Setting Academic medical center. Patients There were 63 canal-wall-down mastoidectomies for chronic otitis media with or without cholesteatoma between 2007 and 2014 with follow-up of at least 6 months. Eighteen mastoids were nonobliterated and 45 were obliterated. Thirteen underwent secondary obliteration of existing mastoid bowls with chronic drainage, whereas 32 underwent primary obliteration at the original canal-wall-down procedure. Intervention Mastoid obliteration. Main Outcome Measures Achievement of a dry healed mastoid cavity and frequency of outpatient visits. Results In more than 80% of the cases, a dry ear was achieved, with no significant difference between the obliterated and nonobliterated cases (p = 0.786). Eleven of the 13 secondary cases experienced cessation of otorrhea, achieving dry ears at rates similar to that of the primary and nonobliterated cases. The secondary obliteration population was also significantly younger than the primary group (22.1 versus 43.5 years, p = 0.002). Multivariable-mixed effects analysis demonstrated a reduction in 0.1 visits per 6-month period following surgery overtime (p < 0.001). Conclusions Mastoid obliteration may be valuable in the management of the well-developed and chronically wet mastoid cavity, particularly when the drainage emanates from mucosal disease or cell tracts in a deep sinodural angle. Younger patients may require secondary obliteration because of continued craniofacial maturation several years following canal-wall-down surgery. PMID:26375974

  18. Overlapping Ballistic Ejecta Fields: Separating Distinct Blasts at Kings Bowl, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, C.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Hughes, S. S.; Sears, D. W. G.; Heldmann, J. L.; Lim, D. S. S.; Haberle, C. W.; Sears, H.; Elphic, R. C.; Kobayashi, L.; Garry, W. B.; Neish, C.; Karunatillake, S.; Button, N.; Purcell, S.; Mallonee, H.; Ostler, B.

    2015-12-01

    Kings Bowl is a ~2200ka pit crater created by a phreatic blast along a volcanic fissure in the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP), Idaho. The main crater measures approximately 80m in length, 30m in width, and 30m in depth, with smaller pits located nearby on the Great Rift fissure, and has been targeted by the FINESSE team as a possible analogue for Cyane Fossae, Mars. The phreatic eruption is believed to have occurred due to the interaction of groundwater with lava draining back into the fissure following a lava lake high stand, erupting already solidified basalt from this and previous ERSP lava flows. The contemporaneous draw back of the lava with the explosions may conceal some smaller possible blast pits as more lava drained into the newly formed pits. Ballistic ejecta from the blasts occur on both sides of the fissure. To the east, the ballistic blocks are mantled by fine tephra mixed with eolian dust, the result of a westerly wind during the explosions. We use differential GPS to map the distribution of ballistic blocks on the west side of the fissure, recording position, percent vesiculation, and the length of 3 mutually perpendicular axes for each block >20cm along multiple transects parallel to the fissure. From the several hundred blocks recorded, we have been able to separate the ballistic field into several distinct blast deposits on the basis of size distributions and block concentration. The smaller pits identified from the ballistic fields correspond broadly to the northern and southern limits of the tephra/dust field east of the fissure. Soil formation and bioturbation of the tephra by sagebrush have obliterated any tephrostratigraphy that could have been linked to individual blasts. The ballistic block patterns at Kings Bowl may be used to identify distinct ejecta groups in high-resolution imagery of Mars or other planetary bodies.

  19. Aggregation of C70-Fragment Buckybowls on Surfaces: π-H and π-π Bonding in Bowl Up-Side-Down Ensembles.

    PubMed

    Stöckl, Quirin S; Hsieh, Ya-Chu; Mairena, Anaïs; Wu, Yao-Ting; Ernst, Karl-Heinz

    2016-05-18

    The self-assembly of the C38H14-buckybowl, a fragment bowl of the C70 fullerene, has been studied with scanning tunneling microscopy on the Cu(111) surface. Isolated molecules adsorb bowl opening-up with the center C6 ring parallel to the surface. In extended 2D islands, however, 1/3 of the molecules are oriented such that the bowl opening points down. From a detailed analysis of relative orientation of the molecules, the nature of intermolecular lateral interactions is identified. In densely packed islands, π-π bonding between convex sides of the bowls dominate, while π-H bonding between rim and convex sides plays the important role in small molecular 2D clusters. PMID:27139340

  20. Anhydrite Solubility and Ca Isotope Fractionation in the Vapor-Liquid Field of the NaCl-H2O System: Implications for Hydrothermal Vent Fluids at Mid-ocean Ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuermann, P.; Syverson, D. D.; Higgins, J. A.; Seyfried, W. E., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal experiments were performed at 410, 420 and 450°C between 180-450 bar to investigate anhydrite (CaSO4) solubility and Ca isotope fractionation in the liquid-vapor stability field of the NaCl-H2O system. Experiments were conducted in flexible gold reaction cells and a fixed volume Ti reactor to reach all pressures between the critical curve and three-phase boundary. During isothermal decompression at 410°C, anhydrite solubility in the liquid phase increases (1 to 9 mmol/kg Ca), whereas the solubility decreases in the vapor phase (130 to < 10 umol/kg Ca). At 410°C and 290-270 bar, the partition coefficient, log Km = log (mv / ml), for Ca decreases from -1.35 to -2.46, and that of SO4 decreases from -1.76 to -2.82. At 420°C the Ca:SO4 ratio of the starting solution was 2:1, and the pH25°C decreases in the liquid and increases in the vapor upon decompression. Ca hydrolysis in the liquid and complex interactions between undetermined aqueous species in the vapor could explain this pattern. At 410 and 450°C, the experiments started with a Ca:SO4 ratio of 1:1. Along the 410°C isotherm, pH25°C initially increases in both the liquid and vapor, potentially caused by precipitation of an H+ bearing salt, such as NaHSO4. 30-40 bar below the critical curve there is a sudden decrease in pH25°C as the putative salt phase may become unstable and dissolve. At 450°C, pH25°C decreases in the vapor and increases in the liquid, as HCl and H2SO4 partition into the vapor. Ca isotope data at 420°C between 375-300 bar indicate that the vapor is isotopically light relative to the liquid. At lower pressures both phases approach the isotopic composition of the coexisting anhydrite, suggesting that dissolved Ca speciation becomes more structurally similar to anhydrite. This study furthers our understanding of elemental partitioning and isotopic fractionation in mineral-fluid systems with implications for mass transfer reactions at/near the magma-hydrothermal boundary at

  1. Family fun or cultural free-for-all? A critique of the 2015 National Football League Super Bowl commercials

    PubMed Central

    Basch, Corey H.; Kernan, William D; Reeves, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to enumerate and describe violent and risky behaviors as well as other general health behaviors exhibited in the advertisements during the National Football League (NFL) Super Bowl 2015. Methods: Commercials during the NFL Super Bowl 2015 were assessed for violent and risky behaviors. Additional health behaviors were indicated such as the advertisement of unhealthy food, promotion of physical activity, and sexual content. Results: A total of 110 commercials were documented, accounting for 64 minutes of broadcast time. Commercials promoting automobiles, television shows, food, and movies were the most prevalent, representing just over half (53.7%) of all of the advertisements featured. Depictions of unsafe driving were found in 10.9% (n = 12) of the commercials. All 12 commercials contained some sort of risky or wild driving behavior, and speeding was observed in 11 of the 12 commercials. A total of 32 (29.1%) of the commercials were coded as including violent content.Physical activity behavior was present in 3 (2.7%) of the commercials. Conversely, substance use was observed in 3 (2.7%) of the commercials, none of which included health promotion messaging. Of the 110 commercials aired during the 2015 Super Bowl, 12.7% (n = 14) included sexual content. Conclusion: Parents should consider the possibility that their children may observe acts of violence or conflicting safety messages during commercial breaks. PMID:27123435

  2. Concentric dual π aromaticity in bowl-like B30 cluster: an all-boron analogue of corannulene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kang; Li, Da-Zhi; Li, Rui; Feng, Lin-Yan; Wang, Ying-Jin; Zhai, Hua-Jin

    2016-08-17

    A chemical bonding model is presented for the bowl-like C5v B30 global-minimum cluster with a central pentagonal hole. The B30 cluster is composed of three concentric boron rings: first B5, second B10, and third B15. The first and second B rings constitute an inner double-chain ribbon and support a delocalized π sextet. The second and third rings form an outer double-chain ribbon, where 14π delocalized electrons are situated. The unique π systems lead to concentric dual π aromaticity for B30, a concept established from concerted computational data on the bases of canonical molecular orbital (CMO) analysis, adaptive natural density partitioning (AdNDP), nucleus-independent chemical shifts (NICS), and natural charge calculations. A proposal is put forward that the bowl-like B30 cluster is an exact all-boron analogue of corannulene (C20H10), a fragment of C60 fullerene. The bonding nature of corannulene is revisited and fully elucidated herein. A comparison of the bonding patterns in bowl-like C5v B30 cluster and two other structural isomers (Cs and C1) unravels the mechanism as to why the defective hole prefers to be positioned at the center. PMID:27499231

  3. King's Bowl Pit Crater, Lava Field and Eruptive Fissure, Idaho - A Multipurpose Volcanic Planetary Analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, S. S.; Garry, B.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Sears, D. W. G.; Borg, C.; Elphic, R. C.; Haberle, C. W.; Kobayashi, L.; Lim, D. S. S.; Sears, H.; Skok, J. R.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    King's Bowl (KB) and its associated eruptive fissure and lava field on the eastern Snake River Plain, is being investigated by the NASA SSERVI FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team as a planetary analog to similar pits on the Moon, Mars and Vesta. The 2,220 ± 100 BP basaltic eruption in Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve represents early stages of low shield growth, which was aborted when magma supply was cut off. Compared to mature shields, KB is miniscule, with ~0.02 km3 of lava over ~3 km2, yet the ~6 km long series of fissures, cracks and pits are well-preserved for analog studies of volcanic processes. The termination of eruption was likely related to proximity of the 2,270 ± 50 BP eruption of the much larger Wapi lava field (~5.5 km3 over 325 km2 area) on the same rift. Our investigation extends early work by R. Greeley and colleagues, focusing on imagery, compositional variations, ejecta distribution, dGPS profiles and LiDAR scans of features related to: (1) fissure eruptions - spatter ramparts, cones, feeder dikes, extension cracks; (2) lava lake formation - surface morphology, squeeze-ups, slab pahoehoe lava mounds, lava drain-back, flow lobe overlaps; and (3) phreatic steam blasts - explosion pits, ejecta blankets of ash and blocks. Preliminary results indicate multiple fissure eruptions and growth of a basin-filled lava lake up to ~ 10 m thick with outflow sheet lava flows. Remnant mounds of original lake crust reveal an early high lava lake level, which subsided as much as 5 m as the molten interior drained back into the fissure system. Rapid loss of magma supply led to the collapse of fissure walls allowing groundwater influx that triggered multiple steam blasts along at least 500 m. Early blasts occurred while lake magma pressure was still high enough to produce squeeze-ups when penetrated by ejecta blocks. The King's Bowl pit crater exemplifies processes of a small, but highly energetic

  4. Spin-bowling in cricket re-visited: model trajectories for various spin-vector angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Garry; Robinson, Ian

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we investigate, via the calculation of model trajectories appropriate to slow bowling in cricket, the effects on the flight path of the ball before pitching due to changes in the angle of the spin-vector. This was accomplished by allowing the spin-vector to vary in three ways. Firstly, from off-spin, where the spin-vector points horizontally and directly down the pitch, to top-spin where it points horizontally towards the off-side of the pitch. Secondly, from off-spin to side-spin where, for side-spin, the spin-vector points vertically upwards. Thirdly, where the spin-vector points horizontally and at 45° to the pitch (in the general direction of ‘point’, as viewed by the bowler), and is varied towards the vertical, while maintaining the 45° angle in the horizontal plane. It is found that, as is well known, top-spin causes the ball to dip in flight, side-spin causes the ball to move side-ways in flight and, perhaps most importantly, off-spin can cause the ball to drift to the off-side of the pitch late in its flight as it begins to fall. At a more subtle level it is found that, if the total spin is kept constant and a small amount of top-spin is added to the ball at the expense of some off-spin, there is little change in the side-ways drift. However, a considerable reduction in the length at which the ball pitches occurs, ∼25 cm, an amount that batsmen can ignore at their peril. On the other hand, a small amount of side-spin introduced to a top-spin delivery does not alter the point of pitching significantly, but produces a considerable amount of side-ways drift, ∼10 cm or more. For pure side-spin the side-ways drift is up to ∼30 cm. When a side-spin component is added to the spin of a ball bowled with a mixture of off-spin and top-spin in equal proportions, significant movement occurs in both the side-ways direction and in the point of pitching, of the order of a few tens of centimetres.

  5. Tuning the Structural Color of a 2D Photonic Crystal Using a Bowl-like Nanostructure.

    PubMed

    Umh, Ha Nee; Yu, Sungju; Kim, Yong Hwa; Lee, Su Young; Yi, Jongheop

    2016-06-22

    Structural colors of the ordered photonic nanostructures are widely used as an effective platform for manipulating the propagation of light. Although several approaches have been explored in attempts to mimic the structural colors, improving the reproducibility, mechanical stability, and the economic feasibility of sophisticated photonic crystals prepared by complicated processes continues to pose a challenge. In this study, we report on an alternative, simple method for fabricating a tunable photonic crystal at room temperature. A bowl-like nanostructure of TiO2 was periodically arranged on a thin Ti sheet through a two-step anodization process where its diameters were systemically controlled by changing the applied voltage. Consequently, they displayed a broad color distribution, ranging from red to indigo, and the principal reason for color generation followed the Bragg diffraction theory. This noncolorant method was capable of reproducing a Mondrian painting on a centimeter scale without the need to employ complex architectures, where the generated structural colors were highly stable under mechanical or chemical influence. Such a color printing technique represents a potentially promising platform for practical applications for anticounterfeit trademarks, wearable sensors, and displays. PMID:27245939

  6. Dust and the Dust Bowl: Connections between 1930's drought and dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, T. A.; Sloan, L. C.; Solmon, F.; Snyder, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    There have been a number of investigations into the causes and physical mechanisms of the 1930's Dust Bowl, and together they provide a reasonable explanation of the drought in terms of its length and severity. However no published investigations have considered the possible climatic effects caused by the considerable amount of airborne dust that was generated as a consequence of poor land use management in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In order to investigate the effects of airborne dust on North American climate during the 1930's, we have performed a climate model sensitivity study that isolates the effects of dust on climate in a regional climate model. The results of the study show that an essentially permanent dust cloud existed over North America through the duration of the drought. The dust cloud, which we show was quite thick over its center in the Midwest, blocked enough solar radiation to reduce surface temperatures by about 1 K. In addition, we show that a complex feedback between dust and drought caused a spatial redistribution of precipitation, in which various regions gained or lost an average of about 1 mm/day of precipitation.

  7. Evaluation of the aromaticity of non-planar and bowl-shaped molecules by NICS criterion.

    PubMed

    Reisi-Vanani, Adel; Rezaei, Ali Asghar

    2015-09-01

    Nucleus independent chemical shift (NICS) criterion was used to gauge the amount of aromaticity in a lot of publications in two last decades. Non-planar molecules with many polygons in different sheets that make angle together have not been studied by this criterion. Perhaps, one ascribes this deficiency to NICS index, but we think it is concern to depauperation in evaluation methods. Therefore, in this work, we try to evaluate aromaticity of two fullerene substructures bowl-shaped molecules, namely corannulene and sumanene as typical non-planar molecules by using of the NICSzz-scan method. The gauge-independent atomic orbital (GIAO) NMR calculations were done at B3LYP/6-311+G(d) level of theory. Energetic criterion as another tool for evaluation of the aromaticity of compounds was used and discussed. Results shows that pentagon and hexagon rings in corannulene have antiaromatic and aromatic character, respectively and in sumanene, pentagon and outer hexagon rings have antiaromatic and aromatic character, respectively. However, the picture obtained based on the NICS computations did not provide any insight towards the real nature of current density in the corannulene and sumanene. PMID:26188797

  8. The effect of marker placement around the elbow on calculated elbow extension during bowling in cricket.

    PubMed

    Yeadon, Maurice R; King, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    The elbow extension angle during bowling in cricket may be calculated from the positions of markers attached around the shoulder, elbow and wrist using an automated laboratory-based motion analysis system. The effects of two elbow-marker sets were compared. In the first, a pair of markers was placed medially and laterally close to the condyles while in the second a triad of markers was placed on the back of the upper arm close to the elbow. The root mean square (RMS) difference in elbow extension angle between the two methods at four key instants was 8° for 12 fast bowlers and 4° for 12 spin bowlers. When evaluated against video estimates of the elbow extension angle for the fast bowlers, the elbow extension angle calculated using the pair method had an RMS error of 2° while the triad method had an RMS error of 8°. The corresponding errors for the spin bowlers were 3° and 5°, respectively. It is thought that the greater errors associated with the triad is a consequence of soft tissue movement in this dynamic activity. This is consistent with the finding of greater error for the fast bowlers compared with the spin bowlers. PMID:25682835

  9. Airborne Dust Modified the North American Climate During the 1930's Dust Bowl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, T. A.; Solmon, F.; Sloan, L. C.; Snyder, M. A.

    2007-05-01

    In the 1930's Dust Bowl, drought in Mid-Western North America, in conjunction with wide-scale planting of drought-vulnerable crops, resulted in massive dust storms. The presence of dust in the atmosphere may have directly altered the energy budget of North America by the scattering and absorption of radiation and thus may have acted as a feedback to the regional drought conditions. Through a climate modeling sensitivity study of North American climate investigating the impact of airborne dust during the 1930's (using a regional model, RegCM3), we find that areas with moderate to high dust-loading have reduced surface temperatures (~1K) and reduced evapotranspiration (~0.5 mm/day). We also find spatially-coherent, statistically significant changes in precipitation patterns over eastern North America during Spring, Summer, and Fall: areas gain and lose as much as 2 mm/day of precipitation. We are working on a more detailed analysis to determine the causal relationship(s) between airborne dust and precipitation patterns; we hypothesize that the spatially non-uniform change in the energy budget, caused by dust loading, modifies regional dynamics and indirectly modifies precipitation patterns.

  10. The effect of elbow hyperextension on ball speed in cricket fast bowling.

    PubMed

    Felton, P J; King, M A

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates how elbow hyperextension affects ball release speed in fast bowling. A two-segment planar computer simulation model comprising an upper arm and forearm + hand was customised to an elite fast bowler. A constant torque was applied at the shoulder and elbow hyperextension was represented using a damped linear torsional spring at the elbow. The magnitude of the constant shoulder torque and the torsional spring parameters were determined by concurrently matching three performances. Close agreement was found between the simulations and the performances with an average difference of 3.8%. The simulation model with these parameter values was then evaluated using one additional performance. Optimising ball speed by varying the torsional spring parameters found that elbow hyperextension increased ball release speed. Perturbing the elbow torsional spring stiffness indicated that the increase in ball release speed was governed by the magnitude of peak elbow hyperextension and the amount that the elbow recoils back towards a straight arm after reaching peak elbow hyperextension. This finding provides a clear understanding that a bowler who hyperextends at the elbow and recoils optimally will have an increase in ball speed compared to a similar bowler who cannot hyperextend. A fast bowler with 20° of elbow hyperextension and an optimal level of recoil will have increased ball speeds of around 5% over a bowler without hyperextension. PMID:26821838

  11. Dust Bowl migration as an analog for possible global warming-induced migration from Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.H.; Longstreth, J.D.; Johnson, A.K.; Rosenberg, N.J.

    1994-06-01

    As a result of increases in CO{sub 2} and other radiatively important trace gases, scientists have predicted increases in mean worldwide temperatures of 2--5 degrees C over the next 50 to 100 years. Such temperature increases may result in climate modifications that would in turn be associated with increases in drought and desertification and could even change the patterns of the monsoons and tropical rains, which are important to agriculture throughout the world. They predicted that the rise in sea level caused by melting and thermal expansion of glaciers and polar icecaps could flood large population centers, destroying habitation and displacing populations. This will result in approximately 50 million ``environmental refugees`` worldwide, triple the number of today. The expected shifts in precipitation are also likely to result in (1) increased runoff contaminated with pesticides, salts, garbage, sewage, and eroded soil, and (2) drought also leading to increased soil erosion and salinization, as well as depletion of limited water resources. The total impact of global warming on agriculture and human habitation could considerably slow the economic development of some nations and would particularly affect agricultural production. Loss of homes, the inability to raise food, an increased prevalence of disease and worsened economic conditions may drive people to leave their homelands, seeking entry into countries which have more resources and greater resistance to the economic consequences of climatic change. This report looks at the possible environmental impacts and economic impacts of the greenhouse effect on Mexico while using the American Dust Bowl event as an analog.

  12. Isotopic and geologic studies of the veins of the Bowling Green Fault Zone, Ohio, and their genetic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, E.H. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The veins of the Bowling Green Fault Zone, a prominent tectonic feature in the eastern Midwest, provide new data on the control of this structure by a zone of basement weakness. The dominant phase of the veins is brown calcite which contains a component of radiogenic strontium that is absent in the vug calcite of the region. These 1--50 cm thick veins occur along the margins of the northerly trending fault zone and occupy steeply dipping extension fractures that strike approximately N40 W. Similar northwest trending extension veins that lack the brown calcite are common elsewhere in the area at sites distanced from the fault. The Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio of the brown calcite is 0.70897 [+-] 2 while those of the Late Silurian host dolostone and vug calcite at Waterville, Ohio, are 0.70861 [+-] 2 and 0.70854 [+-] 2, respectively. Minor pyrite, which coats the walls, and successive layers of solid hydrocarbons and colorless calcite, which line vugs in the veins, allow the broken calcite to be placed in the paragenetic sequence of the region. The vein calcite is both UV fluorescent and cathodoluminescent; minor amounts of manganese are present in this material. The strontium of the brown calcite was derived from the underlying rocks, supporting a genetic link between the Bowling Green Fault and the Grenville Front. The vein calcite postdates the last movement of the Bowling Green Fault and predates the Late Paleozoic hydrocarbons and brine-deposited zinc and lead sulfides that are widespread in the vuggy Silurian and Devonian carbonate rocks of the region. The temporal equivalence of these sulfides and those occurring below along fractures zones in the Middle Ordovician Trenton Limestone is probable, based on the similarity of their parageneses.

  13. Outreach for Families and Girls- Astronomy at Outdoor Concerts and at Super Bowl or Halloween Star Parties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2011-05-01

    Bring telescope to where the people are! Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) is a NASA-funded as astronomy outreach program at community parks and music festivals (1000 - 25,000 people/event). While there have been many astronomy outreach activities and telescope observations at sidewalks and parks, this program targets a different audience - music lovers who are attending concerts in community parks or festivals. These music lovers who may not have visited science museums, planetariums, or star parties are exposed to telescope observations and astronomy information with no additional travel costs. MAUS includes solar observing, telescope observations including a live imaging system, an astronomical video, astronomy banners/posters, and hands-on activities. MAUS increased awareness, engagement, and interest in astronomy at classical, pop, rock, and ethnic music concerts. Since 2009 over 50,000 people have participated in these outreach activities including a significant number of families and young girls. In addition to concerts in local Long Island parks, there were MUAS events at Tanglewood (summer home of the Boston Symphony Orchestra), Jazz in Central Park, and Astronomy Night on the National Mall (co-sponsored by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy). In 2011 MUAS will be expanded to include Ravinia (summer home of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra), the Newport Folk Festival, and the Bethel Woods Center for the Arts (site of the 1969 Woodstock festival). According to our survey results, music lovers became more informed about astronomy. Expanding Hofstra University's successful outreach programs, I propose the creation of a National Halloween Stars event targeting children and a National Super Bowl Star Party targeting girls, women, and the 2/3 of Americans who do not watch the Super Bowl. This can be combined with astronomers or amateur astronomers bringing telescopes to Super Bowl parties for football fans to stargaze during

  14. Use of a single-bowl continuous-flow centrifuge for dewatering suspended sediments: effect on sediment physical and chemical characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rees, T.F.; Leenheer, J.A.; Ranville, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    Sediment-recovery efficiency of 86-91% is comparable to that of other types of CFC units. The recovery efficiency is limited by the particle-size distribution of the feed water and by the limiting particle diameter that is retained in the centrifuge bowl. Contamination by trace metals and organics is minimized by coating all surfaces that come in contact with the sample with either FEP or PFA Teflon and using a removable FEP Teflon liner in the centrifuge bowl. -from Authors

  15. Microbial Content of “Bowl Water” Used for Communal Handwashing in Preschools within Accra Metropolis, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Anim-Baidoo, Isaac; Attah, Simon Kwaku; Abdul-Latif Baako, Bawa; Opintan, Japheth A.; Minamor, Andrew A.; Abdul-Rahman, Mubarak; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed at determining the microbial content of “bowl water” used for communal handwashing in preschools within the Accra Metropolis. Method. Six (6) preschools in the Accra Metropolis were involved in the study. Water samples and swabs from the hands of the preschool children were collected. The samples were analysed and tested for bacteria, fungi, parasites, and rotavirus. Results. Eight different bacteria, two different parasites, and a fungus were isolated while no rotavirus was detected. Unlike the rest of the microbes, bacterial isolates were found among samples from all the schools, with Staphylococcus species being the most prevalent (40.9%). Out of the three schools that had parasites in their water, two of them had Cryptosporidium parvum. The fungus isolated from two out of the six schools was Aspergillus niger. All bacteria isolated were found to be resistant to cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin and susceptible to amikacin and levofloxacin. Conclusion. Although handwashing has the ability to get rid of microbes, communal handwashing practices using water in bowls could be considered a possible transmission route and may be of public concern. PMID:27555872

  16. Coronates, spherical containers, bowl-shaped surfaces, porous 1D-, 2D-, 3D-metallo-coordination polymers, and metallodendrimers.

    PubMed

    Saalfrank, Rolf W; Scheurer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular coordination cages and polymers bear exceptional advantages over their organic counterparts. They are available in one-pot reactions and in high yields and display physical properties that are generally inaccessible with organic species. Moreover, their weak, reversible, noncovalent bonding interactions facilitate error checking and self-correction. This review emphasizes the achievements in supramolecular coordination container as well as polymer chemistry initiated by serendipity and their materialization based on rational design. The recognition of similarities in the synthesis of different supramolecular assemblies allows prediction of potential structures in related cases. The combination of detailed symmetry considerations with the basic rules of coordination chemistry has only recently allowed for the design of rational strategies for the construction of a variety of nanosized spherical containers, bowls, 1D-, 2D-, and 3D-coordination polymers with specified size and shape. PMID:22160460

  17. Public Health Surveillance Strategies for Mass Gatherings: Super Bowl XLIX and Related Events, Maricopa County, Arizona, 2015.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Aurimar; Berisha, Vjollca; Goodin, Kate; Pogreba-Brown, Kristen; Levy, Craig; McKinney, Benita; Koski, Lia; Imholte, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Super Bowl XLIX took place on February 1, 2015, in Glendale, Arizona. In preparation for this event and associated activities, the Maricopa County Department of Public Health (MCDPH) developed methods for enhanced surveillance, situational awareness, and early detection of public health emergencies. Surveillance strategies implemented from January 22 to February 6, 2015, included enhanced surveillance alerts; animal disease surveillance; review of NFL clinic visits; syndromic surveillance for emergency room visits, urgent care facilities, and hotels; real-time onsite syndromic surveillance; all-hazards mortality surveillance; emergency medical services surveillance, review of poison control center reports; media surveillance; and aberration detection algorithms for notifiable diseases. Surveillance results included increased influenzalike illness activity reported from urgent care centers and a few influenza cases reported in the NFL clinic. A cyanide single event exposure was investigated and determined not to be a public health threat. Real-time field syndromic surveillance documented minor injuries at all events and sporadic cases of gastrointestinal and neurological (mostly headaches) disease. Animal surveillance reports included a cat suspected of carrying plague and tularemia and an investigation of highly pathogenic avian influenza in a backyard chicken flock. Laboratory results in both instances were negative. Aberration detection and syndromic surveillance detected an increase in measles reports associated with a Disneyland exposure, and syndromic surveillance was used successfully during this investigation. Coordinated enhanced epidemiologic surveillance during Super Bowl XLIX increased the response capacity and preparedness of MCDPH to make informed decisions and take public health actions in a timely manner during these mass gathering events. PMID:27314657

  18. Phenotypic differentiation between wild and domesticated varieties of Crescentia cujete L. and culturally relevant uses of their fruits as bowls in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Selection criteria are important for analyzing domestication of perennial plant species, which experience a selection pressure throughout several human generations. We analyze the preferred morphological characteristics of Crescentia cujete fruits, which are used as bowls by the Maya of Yucatan, according to the uses they are given and the phenotypic consequences of artificial selection between one wild and three domesticated varieties. Methods We performed 40 semi-structured interviews in seven communities. We calculated Sutrop’s salience index (S) of five classes of ceremonial and daily life uses, and of each item from the two most salient classes. We sampled 238 bowls at homes of people interviewed and compared their shape, volume and thickness with 139 fruits collected in homegardens and 179 from the wild. Morphology of varieties was assessed in fruit (n = 114 trees) and vegetative characters (n = 136 trees). Differences between varieties were evaluated through linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Results Use of bowls as containers for the Day of the Dead offerings was the most salient class (S = 0.489) with chocolate as its most salient beverage (S = 0.491), followed by consumption of daily beverages (S = 0.423), especially maize-based pozol (S = 0.412). The sacred saka’ and balche' are offered in different sized bowls during agricultural and domestic rituals. Roundness was the most relevant character for these uses, as bowls from households showed a strong selection towards round shapes compared with wild and homegarden fruits. Larger fruits from domesticated varieties were also preferred over small wild fruits, although in the household different sizes of the domesticated varieties are useful. LDA separated wild from domesticated trees (p < 0.001) according to both fruit and vegetative variables, but domesticated varieties were not different among themselves. Conclusions The association between C. cujete bowls and

  19. A bowl-shaped circular trinuclear helicate generated from a TiO4 N2 motif by a multicomponent self-assembly approach.

    PubMed

    Mobian, Pierre; Baradel, Nathalie; Kyritsakas, Nathalie; Khalil, Georges; Henry, Marc

    2015-02-01

    The synthesis of a bowl-shaped trinuclear circular titanium-based helicate is reported. The strategy allowing access to this neutral architecture is based on a multicomponent self-assembly approach in which the ligands involved in the process are a bis-biphenol strand and 2,2'- bipyrimidine. By reacting the bis-biphenol ligand and 2,2'-bipyrimidine with an equimolar amount [Ti(OiPr)4 ], a bowl-shaped architecture is obtained through the formation of 18 new coordination bonds. This aggregate built from three octahedral TiO4 N2 nodes displays an unusually high stability in solution compared to related species. In addition, by modifying the stoichiometry of the initial components, two assemblies incorporating two titanium centers bridged by a 2,2'-bipyrimidine ligand are obtained. The crystal structures of these species are reported. PMID:25490957

  20. A Study of the King's Bowl Phreatic Explosion Crater as an Analog to Pits on Solar System Exploration Target Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Hughes, S. S.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Borg, C.; Kim, K. J.; Sears, H.; Skok, J. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Lim, D. S. S.; Heldmann, J. L.; Haberle, C. W.; Guy, H.; Kobayashi, L.; Garry, B.; Neish, C.

    2014-12-01

    The phreatic explosion crater King's Bowl (KB), at Craters of the Moon, Idaho, can serve as an analog to pits with similar morphologies on the Moon, Mars, and Vesta. These pits are associated with the release of water and are of interest to the planetary science and astrobiology research communities. KB crater was formed 2,220 ± 100 B.P. when a magmatic dike encountered subsurface water. The resulting explosion created an 85 m long, 30 m wide and 30 m deep crater and ejected blocks distances in excess of 100 m. Here we describe fieldwork and observations performed by the NASA SSERVI FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science) team. Our objective is to utilize the distribution of ejecta blocks at King's Bowl to better understand the formation energetics associated with such pits and to quantify the amount of water necessary to produce them on other planetary bodies. We focused on the western KB ejecta field, and ran a westerly line, a line N45oW, and a line S45oW. Along these transects, we photographed and recorded the location, size and mass (when <18 kg) of every block > 20 cm. We collected photographs normal to the surface, every 10 m, to determine block number density. Thirdly, we walked in a raster pattern through the field cataloging blocks >20 cm. Finally, we mapped the perimeter of the crater. Initial results suggest similarities between KB ejecta distributions and ejecta of impact craters on Earth, asteroids, Phobos, Deimos, and the Moon. These similarities are; the radial extent of the ejecta, the decrease in number density with distance, the aspect ratio of the blocks, proximity of the largest blocks to the rim, and the size of the largest blocks relative to the crater diameter. This implies a similar physics of formation on differing bodies whether derived through impact or phreatic explosion. Further studies at KB crater will provide insight to the formation of phreatic explosion pits on other planetary bodies, most especially the

  1. Iron tetraanthracenotetraazaporphyrins: synthesis, structural characterization, ligand binding properties, and unexpected selectivity of a bis-"bowl" tetraazaporphyrin.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Jeffrey P; Lebenson, Joshua R; Wang, Guangbin; Yee, Gordon T; Noll, Bruce C; Sommer, Roger D

    2008-06-01

    The synthesis and characterization, by optical spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction, of six iron complexes of tetraanthracenotetraazaporphyrin (TATAP) are reported. Eight benzo groups, flanking the macrocycle periphery, form a nonpolar "bowl" on each face of the porphyrazine and prevent mu-oxo dimer formation. Fe(TATAP) readily binds THF, a variety of neutral nitrogenous axial ligands, and carbon monoxide. The equilibrium binding constants for the first two are higher than those of analogous porphyrins while those of the latter are smaller. We attribute these differences to the higher pi acidity of the porphyrazine ligand. Fe(TATAP) also shows different relative magnitudes of the successive equilibrium binding constants, K1 and K2, for hindered nitrogenous ligands when compared to those of porphyrin analogues. Surprisingly, Fe(TATAP), in toluene solution, shows no affinity for O2 when exposed to 1 atm partial pressure of O2 at 25 degrees C. These results are explained in terms of an unusually positive iron(III/II) redox potential when coordinated by the TATAP ligand. PMID:18459768

  2. Plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation from hybrid ZnO-covered silver-bowl array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mingming; Shen, Shaoxin; Wang, Xiangjie; Yu, Binbin; Huang, Shengli; Xu, Die; Hu, Jiawen; Yang, Zhilin

    2016-06-01

    High-efficient, plasmon-enhanced nonlinear phenomena based on hybrid nanostructures, which combine nonlinear dielectrics with plasmonic metals, are of fundamental importance for various applications ranging from all-optical switching to imaging or bio-sensing. However, the high loss of the excitation energy in nanostructures and the poor spatial overlap between the plasmon enhancement and the bulk of nonlinear materials largely limit the operation of plasmon-enhanced nonlinear effects, resulting in low nonlinear conversion efficiency. Here, we design and fabricate a ZnO-covered, 2D silver-bowl array, which can serve as an efficient platform for plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation (PESHG). Validated by experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that the high spatial overlap between the near-field enhancement and the ZnO film plays the key role for this nanostructure-based PESHG process. The enhancement mainly originates from the fundamental wavelength-derived plasmon resonance, providing an enhancement factor of approximately 33 times. These results achieved pave the way for future applications, which require localized light sources at nanoscale.

  3. Plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation from hybrid ZnO-covered silver-bowl array.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingming; Shen, Shaoxin; Wang, Xiangjie; Yu, Binbin; Huang, Shengli; Xu, Die; Hu, Jiawen; Yang, Zhilin

    2016-06-01

    High-efficient, plasmon-enhanced nonlinear phenomena based on hybrid nanostructures, which combine nonlinear dielectrics with plasmonic metals, are of fundamental importance for various applications ranging from all-optical switching to imaging or bio-sensing. However, the high loss of the excitation energy in nanostructures and the poor spatial overlap between the plasmon enhancement and the bulk of nonlinear materials largely limit the operation of plasmon-enhanced nonlinear effects, resulting in low nonlinear conversion efficiency. Here, we design and fabricate a ZnO-covered, 2D silver-bowl array, which can serve as an efficient platform for plasmon-enhanced second-harmonic generation (PESHG). Validated by experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that the high spatial overlap between the near-field enhancement and the ZnO film plays the key role for this nanostructure-based PESHG process. The enhancement mainly originates from the fundamental wavelength-derived plasmon resonance, providing an enhancement factor of approximately 33 times. These results achieved pave the way for future applications, which require localized light sources at nanoscale. PMID:27145724

  4. Polypyrrole-enveloped Pd and Fe3O4 nanoparticle binary hollow and bowl-like superstructures as recyclable catalysts for industrial wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue; Lin, Min; Lin, Xiaoying; Zhang, Chunting; Wei, Haotong; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Bai

    2014-01-01

    Metal and metal-oxide nanoparticles (NPs) are promising catalysts for dye degradation in wastewater treatment despite the challenges of NP recovery and recycling. In this study, water-dispersible NP superstructures with spherical morphology were constructed from hydrophobic Pd and Fe3O4 NPs by virtue of the oil droplets in an oil-in-water microemulsion as templates. Control of the evaporation rate of organic solvents in the oil droplets produces solid, hollow, and bowl-like superstructures. The component Fe3O4 and in particular Pd NPs can catalyze H2O2 degradation to create hydroxyl radicals and therewith degrade various dyes, and the magnetic Fe3O4 NPs also permit recycling of the superstructures with a magnet. Because the hollow and bowl-like superstructures increase the contact area of the NPs with their surroundings in comparison to solid superstructures, the catalytic activity is greatly enhanced. To improve the structural stability, the superstructures were further enveloped with a thin polypyrrole (PPy) shell, which does not weaken the catalytic activity. Because the current method is facile and feasible to create recyclable catalysts, it will promote the practicability of NP catalysts in treating industrial polluted water. PMID:24266702

  5. Recovery of ultra fine bituminous coal from screen-bowl centrifuge effluent: A possible feedstock for coal-water slurry fuels?

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.; Battista, J.J.

    1998-07-01

    Coal fines have historically been viewed as a size fraction which are difficult to handle and expensive to clean and dewater. Consequently, many coal suppliers in the past have chosen to discard their coal fines in slurry impoundments rather than beneficiating them. These disposal costs are then passed onto the end user. Today, with the advent of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies, more stringent environmental policies, and increased pressure by coal-fired utilities to reduce their operating costs, the industry is taking a more progressive look at fine coal recovery options. This paper discusses a fine coal recovery project which is currently being conducted at the Homer City Coal Cleaning Plant (HCCCP) located in western Pennsylvania. The HCCCP utilizes heavy media cyclone, spiral, and conventional froth flotation circuits to clean approximately 4.3 million tons of low to medium volatile bituminous coal annually for the adjacent 1,884 net MW{sub e} Homer City Generating Station. The project focuses on recovering minus 325 mesh coal fines from the effluent of screen-bowl centrifuges. The HCCCP screen-bowl effluent contains approximately 3 to 5 wt.% of suspended coal fines. Approximately 100,000 tons of coal fines are estimated to be lost per year. These coal fines represent a Btu loss, require flocculant prior to the static thickeners and belt presses, contribute excess moisture to the plant refuse which leads to handling and compaction problems during refuse disposal, and contribute to the premature filling of the refuse site.

  6. Recovery of ultra fine bituminous coal from screen-bowl centrifuge effluent: A possible feedstock for coal-water slurry fuels?

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.; Battista, J.J.

    1998-04-01

    Coal fines have historically been viewed as a size fraction which are difficult to handle and expensive to clean and dewater. Consequently, many coal suppliers in the past have chosen to discard their coal fines in slurry impoundments rather than beneficiating them. These disposal costs are then passed onto the end user. Today, with the advent of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies, more stringent environmental policies, and increased pressure by coal-fired utilities to reduce their operating costs, the industry is taking a more progressive look at fine coal recovery options. This paper discusses a fine coal recovery project which is currently being conducted at the Homer City Coal Cleaning Plant (HCCCP) located in western Pennsylvania. The HCCCP utilizes heavy media cyclone, spiral, and conventional froth flotation circuits to clean approximately 4.3 million tons of low to medium volatile bituminous coal annually for the adjacent 1,884 net MW{sub e} Homer City Generating Station. The project focuses on recovering minus 325 mesh coal fines from the effluent of screen-bowl centrifuges. The HCCCP screen-bowl effluent contains approximately 3 to 5 wt.% of suspended coal fines. Approximately 100,000 tons of coal fines are estimated to be lost per year. These coal fines represent a Btu loss, require flocculent prior to the static thickeners and belt presses, contribute excess moisture to the plant refuse which leads to handling and compaction problems during refuse disposal, and contribute to the premature filling of the refuse site.

  7. Super Bowl Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Considers using a football game to provide a group activity on physics reasoning. Groups determine how long the coin toss was in the air, distance of kickoff, velocity of ball leaving the tee, maximum height of ball, force applied to the ball when passed by the quarterback, etc. Provides possible solutions to each question. (MVL)

  8. The inverted bowl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, G. H. A.

    ch. 1. Planets orbiting the sun and other stars. 1.1. General features of the solar system. 1.2. The terrestrial planetary bodies. 1.3. The characteristics of a planetary body. 1.4. Maximum and minimum conditions. 1.5. Planetary bodies: cold bodies. 1.6. Methods used to detect bodies of planetary mass. 1.7. Observed exo-planets. 1.8. Relevance for the occurrence of advanced life. 1.9. Summary -- ch. 2. The dynamic earth. 2.1. The geological divisions. 2.2. The formation and isothermal structure of the earth. 2.3. Internal thermal balance. 2.4. Geochronology: measurement of rock radioactivity. 2.5. Measurement of remanent magnetisation. 2.6. The land surfaces - the development of continents. 2.7. The surface temperature. 2.8. The climate. 2.9. The atmosphere. 2.10. Energy absorbed from solar radiation. 2.11. Astronomical factors affecting the atmosphere. 2.12. Effects of volcanoes. 2.13. Ice ages. 2.14. External impacts. 2.15. Summary -- ch. 3. Life in water: the precambrian. 3.1. Constructing the very early times. 3.2. Life begins. 3.3. Life develops. 3.4. ATP: a biological battery. 3.5. Life expands. 3.6. Oxygen and internally differentiated cells. 3.7. Complex cells. 3.8. Sex arrives - genetic diversity and stability. 3.9. Primitive senses. 3.10. Some images from the middle cambrian burgess shale -- ch. 4. Life develops in the phanerozoic. 4.1. Invasion of the land. 4.2. The seed and the amniotic egg. 4.3. Creatures come and go: some fly away. 4.4. The role of extinctions. 4.5. Evolution of eyes. 4.6. Brief comment on climate. 4.7. Summary -- ch. 5. Hominids - homo sapiens. 5.1. Nomenclature. 5.2. Development of more modern forms. 5.3. Hominids diversify. 5.4. The line homo sapiens. 5.5. The future of homo sapiens sapiens? 5.6. Summary -- ch. 6. A universe of exo-life? 6.1. Preliminary information. 6.2. A stellar time scale. 6.3. Abiogenisis - how did life form? 6.4. Where did life form - in situ or panspermia? 6.5. Where can life live?. 6.6. Suitable exo-planetary systems. 6.7. Isolation of the systems. 6.8. The fermi paradox and Drake equation. 6.9. Contacting other civilisations: SETI and METI. 6.10. Space travel. 6.11. General validity of evolutionary processes. 6.12. The role of information. 6.13. Role of automata. 6.14. Summary.

  9. Slab Leaf Bowls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suitor, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    In science class, fourth graders investigate the structure of plants and leaves from trees and how the process of photosynthesis turns sunlight into sugar proteins. In this article, the author fuses art and science for a creative and successful clay slab project in her elementary art classroom. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  10. Lickin' the Bowl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Elaine; Good, Rosemary

    Teaching materials and home-based activities for teachers and parents of preschool children provide learning activities that explore and use a variety of nutritious foods along with teaching language, mathematics, science, reading, and motor skills. A series of nine newsletters to be sent to parents contains an introduction to the program and…

  11. Pyrene-Bridged Boron Subphthalocyanine Dimers: Combination of Planar and Bowl-Shaped π-Conjugated Systems for Creating Uniquely Curved π-Conjugated Systems.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Shota; Kage, Yuto; Furuta, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Nagao; Shimizu, Soji

    2016-06-01

    Pyrene-bridged boron subphthalocyanine dimers were synthesized from a mixed-condensation reaction of 2,7-di-tert-butyl-4,5,9,10-tetracyanopyrene and tetrafluorophthalonitrile, and their syn and anti isomers arising from the result of connecting two bowl-shaped boron subphthalocyanine molecules were successfully separated. Expansion of the conjugated system of boron subphthalocyanine through a pyrene bridge caused a redshift of the Q band absorption relative to the parent pyrene-fused monomer, whereas combining the curved π-conjugation of boron subphthalocyanine with the planar π-conjugation of pyrene enabled facile embracement of C60 molecules, owing to the enhanced concave-convex π-π stacking interactions. PMID:27120415

  12. An investigation of the cratering-induced motions occurring during the formation of bowl-shaped craters. [using high explosive charges as the cratering source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piekutowski, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of the dynamic processes which occur during crater formation were examined using small hemispherical high-explosive charges detonated in a tank which had one wall constructed of a thick piece of clear plexiglas. Crater formation and the motions of numerous tracer particles installed in the cratering medium at the medium-wall interface were viewed through the wall of this quarter-space tank and recorded with high-speed cameras. Subsequent study and analysis of particle motions and events recorded on the film provide data needed to develop a time-sequence description of the formation of a bowl-shaped crater. Tables show the dimensions of craters produced in a quarter-space tank compared with dimensions of craters produced in normal half-space tanks. Crater growth rate summaries are also tabulated.

  13. Bowl-shaped superstructures of CdSe nanocrystals with the narrow-sized distribution for a high-performance photoswitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Shen, Yongtao; Feng, Yiyu; Qin, Chengqun; Huang, Zhengcheng; Feng, Wei

    2015-07-01

    The bowl-shaped CdSe superstructure with a diameter of 1-2 μm and the thickness of hundreds nanometers was synthesized using Cd(SA)2 and Se powder in an organic phase. The CdSe nanocrystals for assembling superstructures had a narrow-sized distribution indicated by a sharp emission peak in the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. Moreover, an organic-inorganic hybrid photoswitch based on CdSe superstructures were fabricated. The device exhibited an on/off switching ratio of ∼100 with a good cycling stability. The excellent photo-responsible performance illustrates that the superstructures hold a great promise for the application of photoelectric devices.

  14. [Linguistic concerns and lexical mechanisms in the "Introducción a la Historia Natural, y a la Geografía Fisica de España" by William Bowles].

    PubMed

    Díez de Revenga Torres, Pilar; Puche Lorenzo, Miguel Angel

    2007-01-01

    Linguistic mechanisms of 18th century scientific language are studied in the first Natural History text originally drafted in Spanish. William Bowles describes linguistic concerns in science over the definition of terms that refer to realities in the three natural kingdoms. Diatopic and diastratic variants and definition procedures are reported, demonstrating the importance of these texts to the History of Science and the History of the Spanish Language. PMID:18351164

  15. Retention and Attrition Factors for Female Certified Athletic Trainers in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Subdivision Setting

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Ashley; Mensch, James M.; Jay, Michelle; French, Karen E.; Mitchell, Murray F.; Fritz, Stacy L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Organizational effectiveness and the continuity of patient care can be affected by certain levels of attrition. However, little is known about the retention and attrition of female certified athletic trainers (ATs) in certain settings. Objective: To gain insight and understanding into the factors and circumstances affecting female ATs' decisions to persist in or leave the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (NCAA D-I FBS) setting. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: The 12 NCAA D-I FBS institutions within the Southeastern Conference. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 23 women who were current full-time ATs (n  =  12) or former full-time ATs (n  =  11) at Southeastern Conference institutions participated. Data Collection and Analysis: Data were collected via in-depth, semistructured interviews, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed via a grounded theory approach. Peer review and member checking methods were performed to establish trustworthiness. Results: The decision to persist involved 4 main factors: (1) increased autonomy, (2) increased social support, (3) enjoyment of job/fitting the NCAA D-I mold, and (4) kinship responsibility. Two subfactors of persistence, the NCAA D-I atmosphere and positive athlete dynamics, emerged under the main factor of enjoyment of job/fitting the NCAA D-I mold. The decision to leave included 3 main factors: (1) life balance issues, (2) role conflict and role overload, and (3) kinship responsibility. Two subfactors of leaving, supervisory/coach conflict and decreased autonomy, emerged under the main factor of role conflict and role overload. Conclusions: A female AT's decision to persist in or leave the NCAA D-I FBS setting can involve several factors. In order to retain capable ATs long term in the NCAA D-I setting, an individual's attributes and obligations, the setting's cultural issues, and an organization's social support paradigm should be considered

  16. Changing Pattern of Crop Fraction in Late Blight Induced Potato Crops in Potato Bowl of West Bengal by using Multi-temporal Time Series AWiFs Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Abhisek

    2016-07-01

    Crop fraction is the ratio of crop occupying a unit area in ground pixel, is very important for monitoring crop growth. One of the most important variables in crop growth monitoring is the fraction of available solar radiation intercepted by foliage. Late blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum), caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is considered to be the most destructive crop diseases of potato worldwide. Under favourable climatic conditions, and without intervention (i.e. fungicide sprays), the disease can destroy potato crop within few weeks. Therefore it is important to evaluate the crop fraction for monitoring the healthy and late blight affected potato crops. This study was conducted in potato bowl of West Bengal, which consists of districts of Hooghly, Howrah, Burdwan, Bankuara, and Paschim Medinipur. In this study different crop fraction estimation method like linear spectral un-mixing, Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) based DPM model (Zhang et al. 2013), Ratio vegetation index based DPM model, improved Pixel Dichotomy Model (Li et al. 2014) ware evaluated using multi-temporal IRS AWiFs data in two successive potato growing season of 2012-13 and 2013-14 over the study area and compared with measured crop fraction. The comparative study based on measured healthy and late blight affected potato crop fraction showed that improved Pixel Dichotomy Model maintain the high coefficient of determination (R2= 0.835) with low root mean square error (RMSE=0.21) whereas the correlation values of NDVI based DPM model and RVI based DPM model is 0.763 and 0.694 respectively. The changing pattern of crop fraction profile of late blight affected potato crop was studied in respect of healthy potato crop fraction which was extracted from the 269 GPS points of potato field. It showed that the healthy potato crop fraction profile maintained the normal phenological trend whereas the late blight affected potato crop fraction profile suddenly fallen

  17. Rural Development: Part 7, (1) Balanced National Growth Policy; (2) National Rural Development Program; (3) S. 1612, The Rural Community Development Revenue Sharing Act of 1971; (4) Reorganization of U.S. Department of Agriculture and Related Agencies. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Rural Development of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, 92d Congress, 1st Session, December 14, 1971, Bowling Green, Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    Transcripts of the 1971 Senate hearings on rural development held in Bowling Green, Ohio are presented in this document. These hearings include statements of private citizens, State and Federal legislators (Ohio, Oregon, and Minnesota), and representatives from: (1) Southern Ohio and Kentucky United Farm Workers Organizing Committee; (2) La Raza…

  18. Bench-scale testing of DOE/PETC`s GranuFlow Process for fine coal dewatering and handling. 1: Results using a high-gravity solid-bowl centrifuge

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, W.W.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Lowman, R.H.; Elstrodt, R.

    1995-12-31

    Most advanced fine-coal cleaning processes involve the use of water. Utility companies are concerned not only with the lower Btu content of the resulting wet, cleaned coal, but more importantly with its handleability problems. Solutions to these problems would enhance the utilization of fine-coal cleaning processes in the utility industry. This paper describes testing of the GranuFlow Process, developed and patented by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the US Department of Energy, using a high-gravity solid bowl centrifuge for dewatering and reconstitution of fine-cleaned-coal slurry at 300 lb per hour in PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility. Fine-cleaned-coal slurry was treated with a bitumen emulsion before dewatering in a high-gravity solid-bowl centrifuge. The treated products appeared to be dry and in a free-flowing granular form, while the untreated products were wet, lumpy, sticky, and difficult to handle. Specifically, test results indicated that the moisture content, handleability, and dust reduction of the dewatered coal product improved as the addition of emulsion increased from 2% to 8%. The improvement in handleability was most visible for the 200 mesh (75 micron) x 0 coal, when compared with 150 mesh (106 micron) x 0, 65 mesh (212 micron) x 0 or 28 mesh (600 micron) x 0 coals. Test results also showed that the moisture content was dramatically reduced (26--37% reduction) for the four different sizes of coals at 6 or 8% emulsion addition. Because of the moisture reduction and the granular form of the product, the freezing problem was also alleviated.

  19. Alstom's chilled ammonia CO{sub 2} capture process advances toward commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2008-02-15

    Carbon dioxide emissions aren't yet regulated by the EPA, but it is likely they will be soon. There are many technically feasible, but as-yet-undemonstrated ways to reduce the considerable carbon footprint of any coal-fired plant, whether it uses conventional or unconventional technology. One promising approach to removing CO{sub 2} from a plant's flue gas uses chilled ammonium bicarbonate to drive the separation process.

  20. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy/Monte Carlo simulation approach for the non-destructive analysis of corrosion patina-bearing alloys in archaeological bronzes: The case of the bowl from the Fareleira 3 site (Vidigueira, South Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottaini, C.; Mirão, J.; Figuereido, M.; Candeias, A.; Brunetti, A.; Schiavon, N.

    2015-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) is a well-known technique for non-destructive and in situ analysis of archaeological artifacts both in terms of the qualitative and quantitative elemental composition because of its rapidity and non-destructiveness. In this study EDXRF and realistic Monte Carlo simulation using the X-ray Monte Carlo (XRMC) code package have been combined to characterize a Cu-based bowl from the Iron Age burial from Fareleira 3 (Southern Portugal). The artifact displays a multilayered structure made up of three distinct layers: a) alloy substrate; b) green oxidized corrosion patina; and c) brownish carbonate soil-derived crust. To assess the reliability of Monte Carlo simulation in reproducing the composition of the bulk metal of the objects without recurring to potentially damaging patina's and crust's removal, portable EDXRF analysis was performed on cleaned and patina/crust coated areas of the artifact. Patina has been characterized by micro X-ray Diffractometry (μXRD) and Back-Scattered Scanning Electron Microscopy + Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (BSEM + EDS). Results indicate that the EDXRF/Monte Carlo protocol is well suited when a two-layered model is considered, whereas in areas where the patina + crust surface coating is too thick, X-rays from the alloy substrate are not able to exit the sample.

  1. Toilet bowl cleaners and deodorizers poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Wax PM, Yarema M. Corrosives. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 98. Wax PM, Young A. Caustics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger ...

  2. My Super Bowl of Favorite Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trede, Mildred

    1992-01-01

    Various learning activities in language arts, mathematics, social studies, and science are presented, using the theme of favorite foods. Sample activities include thinking of similes and metaphors related to food, calculating calories eaten in a day, and listing foods associated with specific countries. (JDD)

  3. Studying Law in a Goldfish Bowl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benet, James

    1977-01-01

    A law firm, Equal Rights Advocates, Inc., specializing in sex discrimination cases, has become a magnet for law students in the San Francisco Bay Area. It is involved in a cooperative program with area universities in which a new model for clinical teaching is offered. Fifteen students each semester spend at least two days a week with the firm.…

  4. King Solomon and the Bowl of Spaghetti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltai, Leslie

    1977-01-01

    Reviews the advantages of utilizing part-time faculty. Also discusses the problems of calculating pro rata pay and the impossibility of granting tenure to part-time teachers and analyzes the role of unions in obtaining such benefits. (DC)

  5. Wellhead bowl protector and retrieving tool

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.A.

    1991-09-03

    This patent describes improvement in a wellhead protection system including a wear bushing and a retrieving tool. The improvement comprises a wear bushing supported within the wellhead, wherein the wear bushing includes an enlarged upper end having an external support shoulder for engagement with an internal support shoulder formed in the wellhead; wherein the wear bushing further includes an internal circumferential slot intersected by at least one vertically extending slot, the vertical slot extending from the circumferential slot to the upper end of the wear bushing; a retrieving tool having at least one outwardly biased, retractable lug member mounted thereon; and wherein the retrieving tool includes an enlarged portion adapted to be received within the enlarged upper end of the wear bushing. This patent also describes a method of retrieving a wear bushing from a wellhead comprising the steps of: lowering a retrieving tool into the wellhead for locking engagement with the wear bushing; aligning the retrieving tool with the wear bushing for automatically forcing lug members carried by the retrieving tool outwardly into locking engagement with the wear bushing; monitoring drill string weight for determining engagement of the retrieving tool with the wear bushing, wherein a substantial decrease in drill string weight is an indication that the retrieving tool is engaged with the wear bushing; and removing the wear bushing from the wellhead.

  6. On Bowling Alone and Building Character.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hume, Julie

    1997-01-01

    Briefly discusses Alexis de Tocqueville's observation that the United States is a nation largely defined by its civic and social organizations. Contrasts this with the recent assertion that the nation is suffering a decline in social capital. Proposes a combination of character and citizenship education as a possible remedy for this. (MJP)

  7. A context for the 1930's Dust Bowl Drought in the Northern Great Plains, U.S. based on a rainfall reconstruction using H-isotopes of terrestrial leaf waxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toney, J. L.; Fritz, S. C.; Grimm, E. C.; Baker, P. A.; Nyren, P. E.; Huang, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Existing records of drought from Northern Great Plains (NGP) are based on pollen or on lake-water ion concentration (salinity) reconstructions from fossil assemblages (diatom-inferred salinity) and trace-elements (ostracode Mg/Ca) that reflect lake response to hydrological variability (precipitation (PCP) minus evaporation). In this study, we show that H-isotopes of terrestrial leaf waxes (n-acids) are a proxy for growing season PCP in the region. With this proxy we reconstruct growing season PCP at Lake George, ND at 35-yr resolution over the past 9.4 ka, at 8-yr resolution over the past 1.8 ka, and at nearly annual resolution for the past 150 years. Our PCP proxy is calibrated against the instrumental record for the past 100-yrs and validated at three regional lakes sites. We show low PCP during the early Holocene beginning at 9.1 ka, with peak drought at 8.4 ka, The H-isotopes (dD) suggest that PCP was highly variable from 8.2 ka to 3.5 ka, with alternating wet-dry periods. This variability is not evident in prior lake studies, which had lower temporal resolution in the mid-Holocene. The dD also indicates generally low rainfall but high-amplitude variation from 6.0 to 3.5 ka and low and less variable rainfall from 2.3 to 0.3 ka. The dD suggest that the 1930’s Dust Bowl Drought is one of only seven drought events throughout the past 9.4 ka to reach that severity, and only three events were more severe (8.1, 2.4, and 0.6 ka). Within the past 1.8 ka, the low rainfall events generally coincide with phases inferred to be dry in regional lakes by in-lake proxies (Rice Lake, ND, Coldwater Lake, ND, Moon Lake, ND, and Elk Lake, MN), although the decreased PCP events are abrupt and less prolonged than the inferred lake response to P-E. Spectral analysis of the H-isotope rainfall proxy does not support the 400-yr spacing of dry lake phases in the region observed in some paleosalinity records, which suggests that this spacing may be strongly affected by temperature

  8. Alstom's Chemical Looping Combustion Prototype for CO{sub 2} Capture from Existing Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Andrus, Herbert; Chiu, John; Edberg, Carl; Thibeault, Paul; Turek, David

    2012-09-30

    Alstom’s Limestone Chemical Looping (LCL™) process has the potential to capture CO{sub 2} from new and existing coal-fired power plants while maintaining high plant power generation efficiency. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion- gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology. This process could also be potentially configured as a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas or hydrogen for various applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. The targets set for this technology is to capture over 90% of the total carbon in the coal at cost of electricity which is less than 20% greater than Conventional PC or CFB units. Previous work with bench scale test and a 65 kWt Process Development Unit Development (PDU) has validated the chemistry required for the chemical looping process and provided for the investigation of the solids transport mechanisms and design requirements. The objective of this project is to continue development of the combustion option of chemical looping (LCL-C™) by designing, building and testing a 3 MWt prototype facility. The prototype includes all of the equipment that is required to operate the chemical looping plant in a fully integrated manner with all major systems in service. Data from the design, construction, and testing will be used to characterize environmental performance, identify and address technical risks, reassess commercial plant economics, and develop design information for a demonstration plant planned to follow the proposed Prototype. A cold flow model of the prototype will be used to predict operating conditions for the prototype and help in operator training. Operation of the prototype will provide operator experience with this new technology and performance data of the LCL-C™ process, which will be applied to the commercial design and economics and plan for a future demonstration plant.

  9. On the cause of the 1930s Dust Bowl.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Siegfried D; Suarez, Max J; Pegion, Philip J; Koster, Randal D; Bacmeister, Julio T

    2004-03-19

    During the 1930s, the United States experienced one of the most devastating droughts of the past century. The drought affected almost two-thirds of the country and parts of Mexico and Canada and was infamous for the numerous dust storms that occurred in the southern Great Plains. In this study, we present model results that indicate that the drought was caused by anomalous tropical sea surface temperatures during that decade and that interactions between the atmosphere and the land surface increased its severity. We also contrast the 1930s drought with other North American droughts of the 20th century. PMID:15031502

  10. Iron cycling in a late Paleozoic dust bowl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, J. D.; Soreghan, G. S.; Gerhardt, A.; Sur, S.; Lyons, T. W.

    2009-12-01

    The late Paleozoic glaciation (~300 million years ago) marks the last major, pre-Cenozoic icehouse climate. In addition, emerging research suggests that this was a particularly dusty time, evinced by abundant dust (loessite) deposits throughout western equatorial Pangaea. Delivery of reactive Fe-rich eolian particles to the nutrient-depleted open ocean potentially stimulates primary production during glacial intervals, yet the details remain unclear for recent glaciations and completely unknown for the ancient. Bioavailable Fe is a limiting nutrient in high nitrate, low chlorophyll portions of the open ocean. Because primary abundances of the most labile forms of Fe are not easily assessed in ancient sediments, we use highly reactive Fe (FeHR) (mostly crystalline oxides, some or most of which might have been more soluble precursors at the time of deposition) as determined by a well-calibrated sequential extraction scheme as a proxy for bioavailable Fe. Here we present data from multiple Pennsylvanian-Permian loess and intercalated paleosol (ancient soil) deposits, as well as a modern dust site. We also compare ratios of total Fe (FeT) to Al to ratios of FeHR to FeT to assess whether increased Fe reactivity in dust reflects a net Fe addition or internal mineral repartitioning. We are finding that these paired proxies may provide a unique fingerprint of source relationships. Modern arid Saharan soil dust deposited in the Turks and Caicos Islands has high FeT/Al ratios (0.75 versus ~0.5 for average continental crust), with corresponding FeHR/FeT enrichments (0.48 compared to ~0.38 for typical riverine input). The ancient loessite samples do not show a similar pattern, instead suggesting an antithetic relationship between FeT/Al and FeHR/FeT. Therefore, FeHR was enriched and, by inference, bioavailable despite net Fe loss reflected in sub-crustal FeT/Al ratios. Most work to date has presumed an arid soil source for most bioavailable Fe. However, in light of our work and recent studies in modern glacial settings, we are exploring the possibility that ancient loessites may have a more direct tie to glacial processes.

  11. Solar thermal bowl concepts and economic comparisons for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Allemann, R.T.; Coomes, E.P.; Craig, S.N.; Drost, M.K.; Humphreys, K.K.; Nomura, K.K.

    1988-04-01

    This study is aimed at providing a relative comparison of the thermodynamic and economic performance in electric applications for fixed mirror distributed focus (FMDF) solar thermal concepts which have been studied and developed in the DOE solar thermal program. Following the completion of earlier systems comparison studies in the late 1970's there have been a number of years of progress in solar thermal technology. This progress includes developing new solar components, improving component and system design details, constructing working systems, and collecting operating data on the systems. This study povides an update of the expected performance and cost of the major components, and an overall system energy cost for the FMDDF concepts evaluated. The projections in this study are for the late 1990's and are based on the potential capabilities that might be achieved with further technology development.

  12. Research and programs that lessen likelihood of dust bowl reoccurrence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind erosion is a serious problem in many parts of the world especially in arid and semiarid regions. It physically removes from the field the most fertile portion of soil. Soil from damaged land enters suspension and becomes part of the atmospheric dust load. Dust obscures visibility and pollute...

  13. The Million Dollar Bowl. OSHA in the Office.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Carl

    Accidents to office workers add up to 40,000 injuries and more than 200 deaths a year, amounting to expenses from medical assistance and loss of productivity of $100 million. Leading types of accidents are falling caused by slipping on slick or wet floors, tripping over file drawers, slipping on debris on stairs, injuries from poor lighting,…

  14. Implementation of Simpson-Bowles Spending Reductions Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Johnson, Ron [R-WI

    2011-12-01

    12/01/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. A Polymeric Bowl for Multi-Agent Delivery.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Dong Choon

    2015-08-01

    This paper describes a simple system for multi-agent delivery. The system consists of a biodegradable polymer particle with a hollow interior, together with a hole on its surface that can be completely or partially sealed via thermal annealing. A hydrophobic dye, Nile-red, entrapped within the shell of hollow particles presents a sustained release behavior while methylene blue, a hydrophilic model agent, encapsulated in the hollow interior shows a fast release manner. The release profiles of the probes can be further independently controlled by encapsulating methylene blue-loaded polymer nanoparticles, instead of free dye, in the hollow particle with a small hole on its surface. PMID:26033149

  16. The Influence of "Goldfish Bowl" Bargaining in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magruder, Donald R.

    The effects of Florida's "sunshine" law opening collective bargaining sessions to the public are outlined in this presentation, which summarizes the results of a survey of school board members, superintendents, and negotiators. Of the 101 school board members (one-third of Florida's total) responding to the questionnaire, 68 said that they prefer…

  17. Academic Game Bowls as a Teaching/Learning Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Andrea T.

    1986-01-01

    The article describes an academic events program in which gifted and talented students (grades one to 12) voluntarily participated in a variety of different academic contests. Development and planning aspects are reviewed and several activities suggested. (Author/CL)

  18. A Case Study: Evaluating Faculty at Bowling Green State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partin, Ronald L.

    1984-01-01

    A system of evaluating faculty performance in research and scholarly activity, service, and teaching by awarding points for specific activities is outlined. The point system is used to distribute merit monies allotted by the university. Advantages of the system include predictability, specificity, and flexibility for faculty to develop individual…

  19. A 'Super Bowl' Approach to Mars Rover Touchdown Loads Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Chia-Yen; Ortiz, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Touchdown Driving Requirement: The mechanical system surface element shall be capable of facilitating a safe, stable landing at terrain angles up to 15 degrees, given an initial vertical velocity of 1 m/sec, horizontal velocity of 0.5 m/sec, and Z-axis spin rate of [4] deg/sec.Touchdown Loads Development: A multi-year development effort has been successfully conducted leading to an innovative analytical methodology for the prediction of rover touchdown design loads and the assessment of rover touchdown stability.

  20. 49 CFR 179.400-10 - Sump or siphon bowl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... metal that is compatible with the inner tank shell; (b) The stress in any orientation under any condition does not exceed the circumferential stress in the inner tank shell; and (c) The wall thickness...

  1. 49 CFR 179.400-10 - Sump or siphon bowl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... metal that is compatible with the inner tank shell; (b) The stress in any orientation under any condition does not exceed the circumferential stress in the inner tank shell; and (c) The wall thickness...

  2. 49 CFR 179.400-10 - Sump or siphon bowl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... metal that is compatible with the inner tank shell; (b) The stress in any orientation under any condition does not exceed the circumferential stress in the inner tank shell; and (c) The wall thickness...

  3. 49 CFR 179.400-10 - Sump or siphon bowl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of weldable quality metal that is compatible with the inner tank shell; (b) The stress in any orientation under any condition does not exceed the circumferential stress in the inner tank shell; and...

  4. HLA is unlikely to be a major component of risk in familial inflammatory bowl disease

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, C.G.; Naom, I.S.; Hodgson, S.V.

    1994-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the bowel which is confined to the colon in ulcerative colitis (UC) or may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract in Crohn`s disease (CD). The cause of IBD is unknown, but a genetic component is suggested by a 10-fold increase in risk to first degree relatives, and a higher concordance of disease in MZ versus DZ twins. Distinct associations of HLA DR2 with UC and DR1/DQw5 with CD have been reported. We are searching for susceptibility genes in IBD by linkage analysis in a panel of 43 families with 3 or more living affected members, which includes 12 families with CD, 17 with UC and 14 {open_quotes}mixed{close_quotes} families with UC and CD. In view of the reported HLA associations in IBD, we have analyzed 5 microsatellite markers from the major histocompatibility complex for linkage to IBD using both parametric and nonparametric methods. LOD scores were calculated for 4 different genetic models, including both dominant and recessive inheritance, and haplotype sharing was analyzed in affected siblings. LOD scores for the MHC locus were negative in the full data set, and in the 3 classes of family (UC,CD,mixed). Haplotype sharing in affected sibs was very close to that expected if no linkage was present. We conclude that genes from the HLA region are unlikely to be a major component of risk in familial IBD. Linkage analysis of genes which cause chronic colitis when disrupted in transgenic mice is in progress.

  5. Escaping the regulatory dust bowl: fugitive dust and the Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Probst, G.L.; Becker, R.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) regulatory program, as it relates to particulates, is overly complicated. In attempting to accommodate statutory language insensitive to particulate differences, after becoming aware of the varying effects of different-sized particles, EPA has developed an unworkable program. Although agricultural, recreational, transportation, and industrial activities contribute to the airborne dust (or, in the Clean Air Act vernacular, fugitive dust), this article focuses on mining activities. Surface mining inevitably stirs up considerable fugitive dust, and a description of mining activities in arid conditions, and how they fit in with a developing regulatory program, reveals a story of a national program that fails to provide for rational policy and regional flexibility. The article also recommends some regulatory and statutory solutions that could relatively easily correct EPA's fugitive dust program.

  6. Ethnicity and Class: The Schooling of Dust Bowl and Mexican Migrants during the Depression Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul; Donato, Ruben

    1993-01-01

    Although both Mexican-American and "Okie" migrants to California and the Pacific Northwest suffered discrimination, the assimilation and mobility of later generations of Okies contrasts with the racism, school segregation, and perpetuation of class divisions in the experience of Mexican Americans. (SK)

  7. Children of the Harvest: The Schooling of Dust Bowl and Mexican Migrants during the Depression Era.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theobald, Paul; Donato, Ruben

    1990-01-01

    Chronicles experiences of depression era "Okies," juxtaposes them against experiences of Mexican Americans, and illuminates the diminution of agricultural labor in an industrializing society. Schooling for those groups was legitimized by their low occupational status. When economic circumstances improved, whites escaped from migrant labor, but…

  8. Send Your Team to the Dust Bowl: Team Cleaning Wins Points for Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shideler, Larry

    1997-01-01

    District custodial costs can be cut without sacrificing quality by adopting team cleaning. A team of trained cleaning specialists performs specific tasks (dusting, vacuuming, and restroom and utility cleaning) systematically, thereby achieving total cleaning with higher productivity and quality. If internal personnel are retrained, contracting out…

  9. Paddy crop yield estimation in Kashmir Himalayan rice bowl using remote sensing and simulation model.

    PubMed

    Muslim, Mohammad; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad; Rather, A Q

    2015-06-01

    The Kashmir Himalayan region of India is expected to be highly prone to the change in agricultural land use because of its geo-ecological fragility, strategic location vis-à-vis the Himalayan landscape, its trans-boundary river basins, and inherent socio-economic instabilities. Food security and sustainability of the region are thus greatly challenged by these impacts. The effect of future climate change, increased competition for land and water, labor from non-agricultural sectors, and increasing population adds to this complex problem. In current study, paddy rice yield at regional level was estimated using GIS-based environment policy integrated climate (GEPIC) model. The general approach of current study involved combining regional level crop database, regional soil data base, farm management data, and climatic data outputs with GEPIC model. The simulated yield showed that estimated production to be 4305.55 kg/ha (43.05 q h(-1)). The crop varieties like Jhelum, K-39, Chenab, China 1039, China-1007, and Shalimar rice-1 grown in plains recorded average yield of 4783.3 kg/ha (47.83 q ha(-1)). Meanwhile, high altitude areas with varieties like Kohsaar, K-78 (Barkat), and K-332 recorded yield of 4102.2 kg/ha (41.02 q ha(-1)). The observed and simulated yield showed a good match with R (2) = 0.95, RMSE = 132.24 kg/ha, respectively. PMID:25937498

  10. A resolution congratulating the Baltimore Ravens for winning Super Bowl XLVII.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Cardin, Benjamin L. [D-MD

    2013-02-14

    02/14/2013 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S789-790; text as passed Senate: CR S787) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. A resolution congratulating the New York Giants for winning Super Bowl XLVI.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Schumer, Charles E. [D-NY

    2012-02-07

    02/07/2012 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S392; text as passed Senate: CR S392; text of measure as introduced: CR S391) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. A resolution congratulating the Pittsburgh Steelers on winning Super Bowl XLIII.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Casey, Robert P., Jr. [D-PA

    2009-02-04

    02/04/2009 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S1612-1613; text as passed Senate: CR S1613; text of measure as introduced: CR S1550) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Bowl breakout: Escaping the positive region when searching for saddle points

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, Andreas; Luiser, Mathieu

    2014-07-14

    We present a scheme improving the minimum-mode following method for finding first order saddle points by confining the displacements of atoms to the subset of those subject to the largest force. By doing so it is ensured that the displacement remains of a local character within regions where all eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix are positive. However, as soon as a region is entered where an eigenvalue turns negative all atoms are released to maintain the ability of determining concerted moves. Applying the proposed scheme reduces the required number of force calls for the determination of connected saddle points by a factor two or more compared to a free search. Furthermore, a wider distribution of the relevant low barrier saddle points is obtained. Finally, the dependency on the initial distortion and the applied maximal step size is reduced making minimum-mode guided searches both more robust and applicable.

  14. A resolution congratulating the Green Bay Packers on winning Super Bowl XLV.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Kohl, Herb [D-WI

    2011-02-10

    02/10/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S650; text as passed Senate: CR S650; text of measure as introduced: CR S646) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Broom Closet or Fish Bowl? An Ethnographic Exploration of a University Queer Center and Oneself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teman, Eric D.; Lahman, Maria K. E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors detail an educational ethnography of a university queer cultural center's role on campus and in the surrounding community. The data include participant observation, in-depth interviews, and artifacts. The authors review lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, ally, and questioning (LGBTAQ) issues in higher education, heterosexual…

  16. The Caribbean Sugar Bowl: A Case Study of "Human-Environment Interaction."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, Tom L.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a middle school lesson on the geographic theme of human-environmental interaction. Explains that the natural environments of the Dominican Republic and the gulf region of Alabama are compared and contrasted in the production of sugar cane. Includes maps, graphs, a historic speech, and suggested texts. (DK)

  17. Tailoring the curvature, bowl rigidity and stability of heterobuckybowls: theoretical design of synthetic strategies towards heterosumanenes.

    PubMed

    Priyakumar, U D; Sastry, G N

    2001-01-01

    Quantum mechanical calculations predict that larger heteroatom substituents on the periphery increase the feasibility of the crucial third ring closure in sumanene and are responsible for the accompanying modulations in the curvature, rigidity, stability and some of the physicochemical properties of the resulting heterosumanenes. Systematic application of semiempirical, ab initio, and DFT methods reveal that the qualitative trends obtained and our principal conclusions are independent of level of theory, albeit with minor quantitative differences. PMID:11391879

  18. FLEC Day: Planning a Super Bowl of FL Competition and Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsop, Thomas W.

    1982-01-01

    Foreign Language Exploration Competition Day consists of competitive activities for junior high school students of French, German, and Spanish. Students choose from a list of 17 contests and 7 prepared displays requiring students to use language skills learned in the classroom. Awards include ribbons, certificates, and a trophy. (MSE)

  19. Competition Makes a Comeback: Academic Bees and Bowls Attract Top Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronholz, June

    2010-01-01

    Americans thrive on competition. But American schools have been suspicious of competition for generations, and are generally horrified by the idea that success should be accompanied by a reward like a title, a trophy, or a cash prize. In this article, the author stresses that the self-esteem movement in the 1990s made many educators squeamish…

  20. Concept Teaching in Movement and Music. Profiles/Tommie Bowling and Karen Delgado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Peter H.

    1982-01-01

    In a South Carolina elementary school, the music teacher and physical education teacher, working together, have developed a curriculum to reinforce and complement learning of concepts common to both areas. Concepts such as space, force (dynamics), time, flow, rhythm, and pitch (level) are taught concurrently. (PP)

  1. Children's Sensitivity to External Food Cues: How Distance to Serving Bowl Influences Children's Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Young, Kathleen M.; Laurene, Kimberly; Galliger, Courtney; Hauser, Jessica; Wagner Oehlhof, Marissa

    2010-01-01

    Overweight is increasing in children, leading to negative health consequences. Children also lack appropriate levels of important vitamins and nutrients in their diets. Environmental cues, such as food proximity, have been shown to influence consumption rates in adults. The present study has tested whether proximity to either a nutrient-dense or…

  2. Feeding Many Birds with One Bowl: Collaborative Inquiry as a Context for Faculty Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Catherine; Moore, Jessie L.

    2013-01-01

    Collaborative inquiry among faculty focused on common teaching and learning questions can result in a rich array of outcomes. This paper reports on Digital Literacies, a collaborative inquiry project focused on infusing the use of computers and collaborative on-line writing environments into our college writing program. Participants were members…

  3. Heat capacities and entropies from 8 to 1000 K of langbeinite (K2Mg2(SO4)3), anhydrite (CaSO4) and of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, Richard A.; Russell-Robinson, Susan; Hemingway, Bruce S.

    1989-01-01

    Although Bond (Bell Sys. Tech. J., 22 (1943) 145) reported that langbeinite was piezoelectric at room temperature, we found no evidence in our Cpo measurements for a Curie temperature above which langbeinite would no longer be piezoelectric.

  4. Fifteen years of verticillium wilt of lettuce in america’s salad bowl: a tale of immigration, subjugation and abatement.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lettuce is a popular leafy vegetable that is globally cultivated. The US ranks second in production, with coastal California producing half of the US supply. In 1995, Verticillium wilt caused by the soil borne fungus Verticillium dahliae was identified as a disease of lettuce in coastal California, ...

  5. The fish (IMRT) needs a bicycle (MLC)? The bicycle factories seem flourishing; not so the goldfish-bowl factories.

    PubMed

    Webb, S

    2011-07-01

    In this brief letter the arguments of Sherouse in 2002, that the delivery of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) does not necessarily require a multileaf collimator (MLC), are extended with specific reference to the possibility to use the jaws-only (JO) of an accelerator or some moving mask. With reference to the work in the last decade to develop JO IMRT the argument is made that it is not just the limitations of JO that are precluding its commercial development but also the commercial/business and reimbursement situations. A new moving-mask-IMRT technique that has high monitor-unit (MU) efficiency, but low MU per component, is illustrated. The letter is intended to stimulate debate and is not a criticism by the author of current MLC-based IMRT. PMID:21292523

  6. Operation Dominic, Fish Bowl Series. Project Officer's report. Project 9. 1b. Ionospheric wind and diffusion measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Champion, K.; Manring, E.R.

    1985-09-01

    The aim of this project was to measure high-altitude wind velocities and diffusion coefficients in the altitude region between 60 and 150 km. The method involved the ejection of a sodium vapor trail from a Cajun rocket at dust or dawn twilight. The sodium was sunlit, and as a result of emission of resonance radiation, was visible against a darkened background for about 20 minutes. The trail was photographed simultaneously from four different sites, allowing for subsequent triangulation to determine the altitude of various parts of the cloud. A major application of these wind and diffusion data, taken at dusk and dawn following the high-altitude nuclear tests, was to aid in determining the disposition of the nuclear debris.

  7. The Role of Music in Environmental Education: Lessons from the Cod Fishery Crisis and the Dust Bowl Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Doug

    2002-01-01

    Uses lyrics and musical styles to illustrate the role of music in educating young people about ecosystem fragility and the cultural importance of rural resources. Describes the east coast fishery prior to and following the announcement of the Northern Cod fishery moratorium in 1992. (Contains 40 references.) (Author/YDS)

  8. Sports Adaptations for Unilateral and Bilateral Upper-Limb Amputees: Archery/Badminton/Baseball/Softball/Bowling/Golf/Table Tennis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowart, Jim

    1979-01-01

    The booklet discusses sports adaptations for unilateral and bilateral upper limb amputees. Designs for adapted equipment are illustrated and information on adaptations are described for archery (including an archery release aid and a stationary bow holder); badminton (serving tray); baseball/softball (adaptations for catching, throwing, and…

  9. Placement and Follow-up Development Project. Vocational Education Region Four, Bowling Green, Kentucky. Final Report, Fiscal Year 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Robert R.

    This project report includes a brief narrative, the model placement and followup system developed for statewide implementation in vocational education programs, and an employer survey. The guide for the establishment and operation of a school-based placement and followup system is divided into two sections: general information and operational…

  10. US agricultural policy, land use change, and biofuels: are we driving our way to the next dust bowl?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Christopher K.

    2015-05-01

    Lark et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 044003), analyze recent shifts in US agricultural land use (2008-2012) using newly-available, high-resolution geospatial information, the Cropland Data Layer. Cropland expansion documented by Lark et al suggests the need to reform national agricultural policies in the wake of an emerging, new era of US agriculture characterized by rapid land cover/land use change.

  11. A resolution congratulating the University of Alabama Crimson Tide for winning the 2012 Bowl Championship Series National Championship.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Shelby, Richard C. [R-AL

    2013-01-28

    01/28/2013 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S333; text as passed Senate: CR S332-333) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. A resolution congratulating the Auburn University football team for winning the 2010 Bowl Championship Series National Championship.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Sessions, Jeff [R-AL

    2011-02-02

    02/02/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S492-494; text as passed Senate: CR S493; text of measure as introduced: CR S487) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Catfish and Goldfish in the Same Bowl: Perceived Outcomes and Effects of Accreditation at the Institutional Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Lisa Louise Riley

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about the value and quality of higher education have led to increased scrutiny of the U.S. system of peer accreditation. Public policy-makers have begun to question the extent to which accrediting agencies achieve their quality assurance and quality improvement objectives in the colleges and universities they accredit. Some have begun to…

  14. Kodamaea Y. Yamada, T. Suzuki, Matsuda & Mikata emend. Rosa, Lachance, Starmer, Barker, Bowles & Schlag-Edler (1999)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the ascomycete yeast genus Kodamaea and is to be published in The Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition. The genus Kodamaea has five assigned species and all are associated with wood boring insects. Many of the species appear worldwide in distribution. One of the species, K...

  15. Feeling good about the iron rice bowl: Economic sector and happiness in post-reform urban China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Xie, Yu

    2015-09-01

    Situated in China's market transition, this study examines the relationship between economic sector and a worker's happiness in post-reform urban China. Using datasets from the Chinese General Social Surveys 2003, 2006 and 2008, we find that workers in the state sector enjoy a subjective premium in well-being - reporting significantly higher levels of happiness than their counterparts in the private sector. We also find that during a period when a large wave of workers moved from the state sector to the private sector, those remaining in the state sector reported being significantly happier than did former state sector workers who had moved, whether the move was voluntary or involuntary. We attribute the higher level of reported happiness in the state sector than in the private sector to the disparity by sector in the provision of social welfare benefits. Those who made voluntary state-to-private moves experienced a trade-off in enjoying higher payoffs while losing job security, whereas involuntary mobiles experienced downward mobility and suffered a long-term psychological penalty. PMID:26188448

  16. Operation Dominic. Christmas and Fish Bowl Series. Project Officers report -- Project 7. 1. Electromagnetic signal, underwater measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, A.P.; Bittner, B.J.; Peckham, V.D.; Moorhead, A.D.; Cole, E.L.

    1985-04-01

    This project was conducted to obtain measurements of the electromangetic (EM) signals from nuclear detonations at large distances from the detonation point, above and beneath the sea surface. The planned use of the data is that of determining the feasibility of an Indirect Bomb Damage Assessment (IBDA) system based on the nuclear EM signature. The specific tests were conducted from two ships. The EM signatures recorded both above and below the water surface for the various nuclear events are unique, recognizable, and predictable to a useful degree. It appears entirely feasible to utilize this nuclear EM signal as a method of IBDA. The significance of the data presented herein lies primarily in the demonstrated ability to detect an above-water EM signal with an underwater antenna system. Signal characteristics are changed in magnitude and phase but are very easily recognizable with but a minimum of measuring equipment.

  17. Bowling Green-Warren County Consumer-Career Education Handbook for Exceptional Education. Grades 1-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowling Green Independent School District, KY.

    The document contains consumer and career education curriculum guides for elementary and secondary teachers of handicapped children. Various units are grouped into the following disability categories: primary, intermediate, and secondary educable mentally handicapped; trainable mentally handicapped; emotionally disturbed; physically handicapped;…

  18. A resolution congratulating the University of Alabama Crimson Tide football team for winning the 2011 Bowl Championship Series National Championship.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Shelby, Richard C. [R-AL

    2012-01-31

    01/31/2012 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S222-224; text as passed Senate: CR S222-223; text of measure as introduced: CR S213-214) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. A resolution congratulating the Florida State University football team for winning the 2014 Bowl Championship Series national championship.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Nelson, Bill [D-FL

    2014-01-13

    01/13/2014 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S297-298; text as passed Senate: CR S292) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. A resolution commending the Seattle Seahawks for winning Super Bowl XLVIII and the 12th Man for their critical support.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Cantwell, Maria [D-WA

    2014-02-12

    02/12/2014 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S964; text of measure as introduced: CR S958-959) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Feeling Good About the Iron Rice Bowl: Economic Sector and Happiness in Post-Reform Urban China*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia; Xie, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Situated in China’s market transition, this study examines the relationship between economic sector and a worker’s happiness in post-reform urban China. Using datasets from the Chinese General Social Surveys 2003, 2006 and 2008, we find that workers in the state sector enjoy a subjective premium in well-being – reporting significantly higher levels of happiness than their counterparts in the private sector. We also find that during a period when a large wave of workers moved from the state sector to the private sector, those remaining in the state sector reported being significantly happier than did former state sector workers who had moved, whether the move was voluntary or involuntary. We attribute the higher level of reported happiness in the state sector than in the private sector to the disparity by sector in the provision of social welfare benefits. Those who made voluntary state-to-private moves experienced a trade-off in enjoying higher payoffs while losing job security, whereas involuntary mobiles experienced downward mobility and suffered a long-term psychological penalty. PMID:26188448

  2. 14 CFR 27.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... system has a sediment bowl or chamber that is accessible for preflight drainage and has a minimum... the sediment bowl or chamber. (b) Each sump, sediment bowl, and sediment chamber drain required...

  3. 14 CFR 27.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... system has a sediment bowl or chamber that is accessible for preflight drainage and has a minimum... the sediment bowl or chamber. (b) Each sump, sediment bowl, and sediment chamber drain required...

  4. 14 CFR 27.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... system has a sediment bowl or chamber that is accessible for preflight drainage and has a minimum... the sediment bowl or chamber. (b) Each sump, sediment bowl, and sediment chamber drain required...

  5. 14 CFR 27.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... system has a sediment bowl or chamber that is accessible for preflight drainage and has a minimum... the sediment bowl or chamber. (b) Each sump, sediment bowl, and sediment chamber drain required...

  6. Falling for Clay Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  7. Familiar Sports and Activities Adapted for Multiply Impaired Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Mary Lou, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Means of adapting some familiar and popular physical activities for multiply impaired persons are described. Games reviewed are dice baseball, one base baseball, in-house bowling, wheelchair bowling, ramp bowling, swing-ball bowling, table tennis, shuffleboard, beanbag bingo and tic-tac-toe, balloon basketball, circle football, and wheelchair…

  8. S.Res.27 — 111th Congress (2009-2010) A resolution congratulating the Pittsburgh Steelers on winning Super Bowl XLIII.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Casey, Robert P., Jr. [D-PA

    2009-02-04

    02/04/2009 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S1612-1613; text as passed Senate: CR S1613; text of measure as introduced: CR S1550) (All Actions)

  9. “Like Throwing a Bowling Ball at a Battle Ship” Audience Responses to Australian News Stories about Alcohol Pricing and Promotion Policies: A Qualitative Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, Andrea S.; Chapman, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Policies affecting alcohol’s price and promotion are effective measures to reduce harms. Yet policies targeting populations are unpopular with the public, whose views can be influenced by news framings of policy narratives. In Australia, alcohol taxation receives high news coverage, while advertising restrictions have not until recently, and narratives are highly contested for each. However, research specifically examining how audiences respond to such news stories is scant. We sought to explore audience understanding of news reports about two alcohol policy proposals. Method From June to August 2012, 46 participants were recruited for 8 focus groups in age-brackets of young people aged 18–25 years, parents of young people, and adults aged 25 or older. Groups were split by education. Participants were asked their prior knowledge of alcohol policies, before watching and discussing four news stories about alcohol taxation and advertising. Results Participants were clear that alcohol poses problems, yet thought policy solutions were ineffective in a drinking culture they viewed as unamenable to change and unaffected by alcohol’s price or promotion. Without knowledge of its actual effect on consumption, they cited the 2008 alcopops tax as a policy failure, blaming cheaper substitution. Participants had low knowledge of advertising restrictions, yet were concerned about underage exposure. They offered conditional support for restrictions, while doubting its effectiveness. There was marked distrust of statistics and news actors in broadcasts, yet discussions matched previous research findings. Conclusions News coverage has resulted in strong audience understanding of alcohol related problems but framed solutions have not always provided clear messages, despite audience support for policies. Future advocacy will need to continue recent moves to address the links between alcohol’s price and promotion with the drinking culture, as well as facilitate understandings of how this culture is amenable to change through the use of evidence-based policies. PMID:23755205

  10. Knight Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics: Quantitative and Qualitative Research with Football Bowl Subdivision University Presidents on the Costs and Financing of Intercollegiate Athletics. Report of Findings and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Knight Commission's landmark 1991 report, "Keeping Faith with the Student-Athlete: A New Model for Intercollegiate Athletics," proposed a new "one-plus-three" model for intercollegiate athletics--presidential control directed toward academic integrity, fiscal integrity, and an independent certification process to verify that integrity. Indeed,…

  11. S.Res.48 — 112th Congress (2011-2012) A resolution congratulating the Green Bay Packers on winning Super Bowl XLV.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Kohl, Herb [D-WI

    2011-02-10

    02/10/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S650; text as passed Senate: CR S650; text of measure as introduced: CR S646) (All Actions)

  12. S.Res.39 — 112th Congress (2011-2012) A resolution congratulating the Auburn University football team for winning the 2010 Bowl Championship Series National Championship.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Sessions, Jeff [R-AL

    2011-02-02

    02/02/2011 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S492-494; text as passed Senate: CR S493; text of measure as introduced: CR S487) (All Actions)

  13. S.Res.369 — 112th Congress (2011-2012) A resolution congratulating the New York Giants for winning Super Bowl XLVI.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Schumer, Charles E. [D-NY

    2012-02-07

    02/07/2012 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S392; text as passed Senate: CR S392; text of measure as introduced: CR S391) (All Actions)

  14. The Paleozoic Dust Bowl: Dust Deposition in Tropical Western Pangaea (Midcontinent U.S.) at the Terminus of the Late Paleozoic Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soreghan, G. S.; Heavens, N. G.; Benison, K. C.; Soreghan, M. J.; Mahowald, N. M.; Foster, T.; Zambito, J.; Sweet, A.; Kane, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric dust is well recognized and studied as both an archive and agent of climate change in Earth's relatively recent past. Archives of past dust include loess deposits and dust recovered from ocean- and ice-cores. Dust remains poorly known in Earth's past prior to the Cenozoic, but is increasingly recognized in the form of paleo-loess deposits, and (epeiric) marine strata that accumulated isolated from fluvio-deltaic influx. Here, we report on the growing recognition of voluminous dust deposits preserved in the Permian record of the U.S. Midcontinent (western tropical Pangaea). Fine-grained redbeds predominate in Permian strata throughout the U.S. Midcontinent, but notably in a swath extending from Oklahoma through South Dakota. These units consist predominantly of red mudstone and siltstone in commonly massive units, but sedimentary structures and bedding that signal aqueous processes (e.g. laminations, ripples) have led most to infer deltaic or tidal deposition. The absence of channel systems to deliver the sediment, as well as the predominantly massive and laterally continuous character and the uniform fine grain size signal wind transport, implying that these units record sustained dust deposition overprinted at times by sub-aqueous deposition in lakes, including ephemeral saline and acid lakes that led to evaporite cementation. Detrital zircon geochronology indicates that much of the dust originated in the relatively distant Appalachian-Ouachita orogenic systems, which formed part of the central Pangaean mountains (CPM), the collisional zone that sutured the supercontinent. Within the Anadarko basin of Oklahoma, Permian redbeds record >2 km of predominantly dust deposition, some of the thickest dust deposits yet documented in Earth's record. Yet the tropical setting is remarkably non-uniformitarian, as much Quaternary loess occurs in mid- to high-latitude regions, commonly linked to glacial genesis. We are currently investigating with both data and modeling possible causes and consequences of this massive dust record, which may include (1) partial glacial genesis in the CPM, (2) the action of the Pangaean mega-monsoon, and (3) particularly effective dust traps in the Midcontinent region. Modeling constrains the erosivity (the effect of winds and soil moisture effects) of a range of possible climate states on dust mobilization and underscores the relative difficulty of sourcing dust directly from the Appalachian-Ouachita orogenic system under most circumstances. Combining data and modeling helps constrain the erodibility (sediment availability, coherence, etc.) of dust sources. Reconstructions of marine dust deposition to the south and the west of the Anadarko basin suggest glacial-interglacial timescale erodibility changes were similar to those seen in the Midcontinent in the last 20,000 years, when it was at a much higher latitude.

  15. The National Ocean Sciences Bowl: Extending the Reach of a High School Academic Competition to College, Careers, and a Lifelong Commitment to Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kristina; Walters, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have begun tracking a group of high ability high school students from high school into college study. These students indicated an interest in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) content areas, and specifically ocean sciences, through participation in a regional or national academic competition in high school--The…

  16. Metallic sulfide deposits in Winnefield salt dome, Louisiana: evidence for episodic introduction of metalliferous brines during cap rock formation

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, M.R.

    1984-09-01

    Winnfield dome is a shallow piercement salt structure that penetrates Late Jurassic through early Tertiary siliciclastic and carbonate strata of the North Louisiana basin. Quarrying operations in the calcite and anhydrite portions of the cap rock have exposed zones of metallic sulfides and barite. A roughly laminated massive sulfide lens is exposed at the calcite to anhydrite transition zone. These sulfide concentrations are believed to have originated from the interaction of metalliferous basinal brines with reduced sulfur trapped within the cap rock. Textural relationships and variations in chemical compositions between the sulfide layers in the anhydrite portion of the cap rock suggest that distinct pulses of metalliferous brines were responsible for the sulfide concentrations. Anhydrite grains outside the mineralized areas are deformed and tightly intergrown. These textures suggest that mineralizing fluids were introduced episodically along the salt and anhydrite interface at the zone of salt dissolution before that portion of the anhydrite zone was compressed and accreted to overlying anhydrite cap rock. Therefore, the earliest formed sulfides originating by this mechanism occur at the top of the anhydrite cap rock zone, whereas the last sulfides to form are found at the base. Extensive sulfide concentrations along the anhydrite-calcite contact suggest that this contact also acted as a permeable zone allowing metalliferous brines into the cap rock. Textural and compositional relationships suggest that sulfides that formed along the anhydrite-calcite contact are locally superimposed on sulfides that formed at the salt-anhydrite contact.

  17. Cockroach Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... regularly. Avoid leaving pet food out in a bowl. Clean the bowl regularly, like other dirty dishes. Fix leaky pipes ... Medical Review October 2015. Insect Allergies Cockroach Allergy Dust Mite Allergy Types of Allergies Drug Allergy Food ...

  18. 77 FR 23499 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Museum of Indian Arts & Culture/Laboratory of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Items The 29 cultural items to be repatriated are funerary objects consisting of two Agua Fria glaze bowl fragments, four Agua Fria glaze- on-red bowls, one Cieneguilla glaze-on-yellow cup, one Santa...

  19. 76 FR 28068 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Utah State University/College of Eastern Utah Prehistoric Museum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... 33 associated funerary objects are 2 small black-on-white bowls, 1 small corrugated, partially reconstructed jar, 1 Mesa Verde black-on-white mug, 1 reconstructed Ivie Creek black-on-white bowl,...

  20. The role of mechanical heterogeneities in evaporite sequence during deformation initiated by basement fault activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamuszek, Marta; Dabrowski, Marcin; Burliga, Stanisław

    2016-04-01

    Kłodawa Salt Structure (KSS) situated in the centre of the Polish Zechstein Basin started to rise above a basement fault in the Early Triassic. Geological studies of the KSS revealed significant differences in the deformation patterns between the PZ1-PZ2 (intensely deformed) and PZ3-PZ4 (less deformed) cycle evaporites. These two older and two younger cycle evaporite complexes are separated by the thick Main Anhydrite (A3) bed. We use numerical simulations to assess the impact of a thick anhydrite bed on intrasalt deformation. In our models, the overburden consists of clastic sediments. A normal fault located in the rigid basement beneath the salt is activated due to model extension. At the same time, the sedimentation process takes place. The evaporites consist of a salt bed intercalated with a thick anhydrite layer of varying position and geometry. To understand the role of anhydrite layer, we run comparative simulations, in which no anhydrite layer is present. In the study, we use our own numerical codes implemented in MATLAB combined with the MILAMIN and MUTILS numerical packages. Our investigations revealed a significant influence of the anhydrite on deformation style in the evaporate series. The supra-anhydrite domain is characterized by weaker deformation and lower rates of salt flow in comparison to the sub-anhydrite domain. The highest contrast in the rate of salt flow between the two domains is observed in the case of the anhydrite layer situated close to the bottom of the salt complex. The thick anhydrite layer additionally diminishes the deformation rate in the supra-anhydrite domain and can lead to detachment of the basement deformation from its overlay. Our numerical simulations showed that the presence of the A3 Main Anhydrite bed could be the dominant factor responsible for the decoupling of deformation in the KSS salt complex.

  1. 78 FR 56733 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Beloit, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... objects are 1 ceramic bowl, 1 ceramic tripod bottle, 1 broken ceramic jar, 2 chipped-stone picks or... probably made late in that period. The tripod bottle has a composite design, and Arkansas Archeological... crosshatched triangles around the bottle neck is often seen around rims of bowls (Hempstead Engraved bowls...

  2. 14 CFR 23.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... system must have a sediment bowl or chamber that is accessible for drainage; has a capacity of 1 ounce... normal flight attitude, water will drain from all parts of the tank except the sump to the sediment bowl or chamber. (d) Each sump, sediment bowl, and sediment chamber drain required by paragraphs (a),...

  3. SmAll That Jazz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluemel, Dina

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how Viktor Schreckengost's work had been a learning experience for the students of Grant Elementary School. Viktor's most famous work, "Jazz Bowl," was the focus of the author's curriculum. Viktor created this punch bowl for Eleanor Roosevelt in the 1930s. The bowl was so popular that a series of them were produced. The…

  4. 14 CFR 23.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... system must have a sediment bowl or chamber that is accessible for drainage; has a capacity of 1 ounce... normal flight attitude, water will drain from all parts of the tank except the sump to the sediment bowl or chamber. (d) Each sump, sediment bowl, and sediment chamber drain required by paragraphs (a),...

  5. 14 CFR 23.971 - Fuel tank sump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... system must have a sediment bowl or chamber that is accessible for drainage; has a capacity of 1 ounce... normal flight attitude, water will drain from all parts of the tank except the sump to the sediment bowl or chamber. (d) Each sump, sediment bowl, and sediment chamber drain required by paragraphs (a),...

  6. Effect of Information Load and Time on Observational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslin, Gavin; Hodges, Nicola J.; Williams, A. Mark

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether altering the amount of and moment when visual information is presented affected observational learning for participants practicing a bowling skill. On Day 1, four groups practiced a cricket bowling action. Three groups viewed a full-body point-light model, the model's bowling arm, or between-limb coordination of the model's…

  7. Stop Tobacco in Restaurants: Fifth-Grade Students STIR City Hall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gifted Child Today, 2004

    2004-01-01

    It all started with a night of bowling in Austin, Texas, when fifth-grade student Amit had an evening of fun with his grandparents. When Amit returned to his home in Lubbock, TX, and tried to replicate his newfound recreation, his night of bowling fun ended after 10 minutes in an asthma attack. His second attempt at Lubbock bowling also brought a…

  8. Acknowledgments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-11-01

    The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems benefits from the following Organizer, Co-organizers and Sponsors. Tsinghua UniveristyJiangsu Univeristy Tsinghua UniveristyJiangsu Univeristy State Key LaboratoryXi'an University State Key Laboratory ofXi'an University of Technology Hydroscience and Engineering, China CAUHarbin China Agricultural UniversityNational Engineering Center of Hydropower Equipment (Harbin Electric Machinery Co Ltd) DongfangToshiba Hydro Power Dongfang Electric Machinery Co LtdToshiba Hydro Power (Hangzhou) Co Ltd ZhejiangVoith Hydro Zhejiang Fuchunjiang HydropowerVoith Hydro Alstom Hydro Alstom Hydro

  9. Sponsorship statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-08-01

    The 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems benefits from the generous support of the following sponsors: National Authority for Scientific Research, RomaniaANCS logo Hidroelectrica S.A., RomaniaHidroelectrica_logo Machine Buiding Factory - UCM Reşiţa, RomaniaUCM Resita logo Hydro-Engineering S.A., RomaniaHydro Engineering logo Voith Hydro Holding GmbH, GermanyVoith_logo Andritz Hydro GmbH, AustriaAndritz_logo_large logo Alstom Hydro, FranceAlstom logo Advanced Design Technology Ltd., United Kingdomadt_logo logo

  10. S.Res.361 — 112th Congress (2011-2012) A resolution congratulating the University of Alabama Crimson Tide football team for winning the 2011 Bowl Championship Series National Championship.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Shelby, Richard C. [R-AL

    2012-01-31

    01/31/2012 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S222-224; text as passed Senate: CR S222-223; text of measure as introduced: CR S213-214) (All Actions)

  11. S.Res.358 — 113th Congress (2013-2014) A resolution commending the Seattle Seahawks for winning Super Bowl XLVIII and the 12th Man for their critical support.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Cantwell, Maria [D-WA

    2014-02-12

    02/12/2014 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S964; text of measure as introduced: CR S958-959) (All Actions)

  12. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect

    Ray Chamberland; Aku Raino; David Towle

    2006-09-30

    For more than two decades, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has developed a range of low cost, in-furnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes ALSTOM's internally developed TFS 2000 firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As of 2004, more than 200 units representing approximately 75,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with ALSTOM low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coals to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coals, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing (retrofit) boiler equipment. If enacted, proposed Clear Skies legislation will, by 2008, require an average, effective, domestic NOx emissions rate of 0.16 lb/MMBtu, which number will be reduced to 0.13 lb/MMBtu by 2018. Such levels represent a 60% and 67% reduction, respectively, from the effective 2000 level of 0.40 lb/MMBtu. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. In light of these needs, ALSTOM, in cooperation with the DOE, is developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner which, when integrated with ALSTOM's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems, will provide a means to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx at less than 3/4 the cost of an SCR with low to no impact on balance of plant issues when firing a high volatile bituminous coal. Such coals can be more economic to fire than subbituminous or Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, but are more problematic from a NOx control standpoint as existing

  13. Don't NOx Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Mathis, J.D.; Lachowicz, Y.

    2005-07-01

    Modifications to boiler combustion systems allow Fayette Power Projects units 1 and 2 to meet new NOx emissions limits east of La Grange in Eastern Texas. The article describes modifications executed by Alstom in 2004 which attained an overall reduction in NOx emissions of almost 69%. 4 figs., 1 tab., 1 photo.

  14. Redox-Dependent Transformation of a Hydrazinobuckybowl between Curved and Planar Geometries.

    PubMed

    Higashibayashi, Shuhei; Pandit, Palash; Haruki, Rie; Adachi, Shin-Ichi; Kumai, Reiji

    2016-08-26

    A red-fluorescent heterobuckybowl with an embedded hydrazine structure was synthesized from a cyclobiphenothiazine derivative via a strained cyclobicarbazole. The hydrazinobuckybowl was found to possess bowl and twist structures in the neutral state, a shallow bowl structure in the monocation state, and a planar structure in the dication state by means of X-ray crystallographic analysis, DFT calculations, and a comparison of experimental and calculated (13) C NMR chemical shifts. The hydrazinobuckybowl is the first buckybowl that changes its geometry between curved bowl/twist structures and a planar structure depending on the oxidation state. The drastic geometrical change was possible as a result of the presence of two heteroatoms in the bowl skeleton and the multiple reversible redox reactions of the compound. Owing to the two kinds of bowl and twist conformations, the bowl-inversion dynamics of the hydrazinobuckybowl were found to follow a triple-well potential model. PMID:27491494

  15. Initiation and growth of gypsum piercement structures in the Zechstein Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams-Stroud, S. C.; Paul, J.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of tectonic processes in initiating halite diapirs has become much better understood in recent years. Less well understood is the development of diapiric structures involving rocks composed predominantly of gypsum. Below about 1000 m, gypsum dehydrates to anhydrite, which often obscures primary sedimentary textures. If the strain associated with diapiric rise in the rock induces the transition to anhydrite, obliteration of primary features in the gypsum can be expected. In our study, we infer that the diapiric movement in the Werra Anhydrite member of cycle 1 of the Zechstein Formation of Europe occurred before the initial transition of gypsum to anhydrite based on the presence of pseudomorphs of bedded primary gypsum crystals, the overburden lithologies and depositional environment, and the mechanical properties of gypsum, anhydrite and carbonate rocks. Faulting and differential loading of a shallow overburden were the key components in initiating the gypsum diapirism. The transition to anhydrite occurred after burial and after cessation of diapirism. In comparison, the diapirism of calcium sulfate of the Leine Anhydrite into the Leine Halite members of cycle 3 of the Zechstein Formation probably occurred much later after burial and appears to have been triggered by halite diapirism, which in turn triggered the dehydration reaction, causing the calcium sulfate to become the incompetent phase relative to the halite. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  16. Geochemical effects of deep-well injection of the Paradox Valley brine into Paleozoic carbonate rocks, Colorado, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenbauer, R.J.; Bischoff, J.L.; Kharaka, Y.K.

    1992-01-01

    Brine seepage into the Dolores River from ground water in Paradox Valley, Colorado constitutes a major source of salt to the Colorado River. Plants are enderway to remove this source of salt by drawing down the Paradox Valley brine (PVB) and forcibly injecting it into a deep disposal well (4.8 km). Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of deep-well injection of PVB. The results show that PVB is near saturation with anhydrite at 25??C, and that heating results in anhydrite precipitation. The amount and the rate at which anhydrite forms is temperature, pressure, and substrate dependent. Paradox Valley brine heated in the presence of Precambrian rocks from the drill core produces the same amount of anhydrite as PVB heated alone, but at a greatly accelerated rate. A 30% dilution of PVB with Dolores River water completely eliminates anhydrite precipitation when the fluid is heated with the Precambrian rocks. Interaction of PVB and Leadville Limestone is characterized by dolomitization of calcite by brine Mg which releases Ca to solution. This added Ca reacts with SO4 to form increased amounts of anhydrite. A 20% dilution of PVB by Dolores River water has no effect on dolomitization and reduces the amount of anhydrite only slightly. A 65% dilution of PVB by Dolores River water still does not prevent dolomitization but does suppress anhydrite formation. Computer modeling of PVB by programs utilizing the Pitzer ion-interaction parameters is in general agreement with the experimental results. Ion-activity products calculated by both SOLMINEQ and PHRQPITZ are close to equilibrium with both anhydrite and dolomite whenever these phases are present experimentally, although the calculations over-estimate by a factor of 2 the degree of saturation. Some discrepancies in the calculated results between the two programs are due largely to differences in mineral solubility data. ?? 1992.

  17. Petrography and geochemistry of the Artesia Group, Palo Duro Basin, Texas Panhandle: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Havorka, S.D.; Fisher, R.S.; Nance, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Artesia Group of the Texas Panhandle is an evaporite red-bed sequence which has been intensely altered by interaction of evaporites with ground water. Comparison of the upper, most altered part of the sequence with the lower, least altered part allows identification of the diagenetic sequence. The least altered lower part of the Artesia Group includes anhydrite beds, anhydritic halite, mudstone-halite mixtures, mudstone, claystone, siltstone, and sandstone. Diagenetic processes include cementation by halite, replacement of gypsum by anhydrite and minor polyhalite, and minor replacement of halite by dolomite and anhydrite. Halite is present throughout the lower part of the Artesia Group as bedded halite, as isolated halite crystals and veins, and as halite cement in clastic beds. The altered interval in the upper part of the Artesia Group is characterized by mudstone-anhydrite-dolomite breccias, thin, wavy laminae of anhydrite and dolomite, and abundant fractures filled with fibrous anhydrite and gypsum in mudstone, claystone, siltstone, and thin anhydrite beds. Halite is absent, and removal of halite is interpreted as the principal cause of the alteration, either directly, by dissolution and collapse, or indirectly, by increasing porosity and allowing increased ground-water penetration. At the top of the Artesia Group, anhydrite has been hydrated to gypsum, and minor amounts of gypsum have been replaced by calcite. The geochemistry of preserved halite in the lower part of the Artesia Group shows that meteoric waters have been included in halite and that halite has been recycled by dissolution and reprecipitation. The occurrence of this type of alteration might indicate that the halite of the Artesia Group was invaded by waters from the overlying aquifers. However, the stratigraphic and textural relationships in the halite indicate that the alteration reflects continental influences in the clastic-dominated depositional environment. 32 refs., 45 figs., 1 tab.

  18. 5 CFR 532.221 - Industries included in regular nonappropriated fund surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... machine operators. 71391 Golf courses and country clubs. 71395 Bowling centers. 72111 Hotels (except casino hotels) and motels. 7224 Drinking places (alcoholic beverages). 7225 Restaurants and other...

  19. 75 FR 15673 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Export Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, this notice announces the Animal and Plant Health... United States, contact Dr. Joyce Bowling- Heyward, Assistant Director, Technical Trade Services...

  20. Seabed measurements of modern corrosion rates on the Florida escarpment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paull, C.K.; Commeau, R.F.; Curray, Joseph R.; Neumann, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    A mooring containing diverse carbonate and anhydrite substrates was exposed to bottom waters for 9 months at the base of the Florida Escarpment to determine the influence of dissolution on the development of this continental margin. Weight loss was measured on all samples. Etching, pitting, and loss of the original framework components were observed on substrates with known characteristics. Extrapolations of modern dissolution rates predict only about 1.6 meters of corrosion per million years. However, more rapid anhydrite dissolution, up to 1 km per million years, would cause exposed anhydrite beds to undercut and destabilize intercalated limestones. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  1. Phase transformations and indications for acoustic mode softening in Tb-Gd orthophosphate

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tschauner, Oliver; Ushakov, Sergey V.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Boatner, Lynn A.

    2016-01-06

    At ambient conditions the anhydrous rare-earth orthophosphates assume either the xenotime (zircon) or the monazite structure, with the latter favored for the heavier rare earths. Tb0.5Gd0.5PO4 assumes the xenotime structure at ambient conditions but is at the border between the xenotime and monazite structures. Here we show that, at high pressure, Tb0.5Gd0.5PO4 does not transform directly to monazite but through an intermediate anhydrite-type structure. We show softening of (c1133 + c1313) combined elastic moduli close to the transition from the anhydrite to the monazite structure. Stress response of rare-earth orthophosphate ceramics can be affected by both formation of the anhydrite-typemore » phase and the elastic softening in the vicinity of the monazite-phase. In conclusion, we report the first structural data for an anhydrite-type rare earth orthophosphate.« less

  2. Relative Shock Effects in Mixed Powders of Calcite, Gypsum, and Quartz: A Calibration Scheme from Shock Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Mary S.

    2009-01-01

    The shock behavior of calcite and gypsum is important in understanding the Cretaceous/Tertiary event and other terrestrial impacts that contain evaporite sediments in their targets. Most interest focuses on issues of devolatilization to quantify the production of CO2 or SO2 to better understand their role in generating a temporary atmosphere and its effects on climate and biota [e.g., papers in 1,2,3,4]. Devolatilization of carbonate is also important because the dispersion and fragmentation of ejecta is strongly controlled by the expansion of large volumes of gas during the impact process as well [5,6]. Shock recovery experiments for calcite yield seemingly conflicting results: early experimental devolatilization studies [7,8,9] suggested that calcite was substantially outgassed at 30 GPa (> 50%). However, the recent petrographic work of [10,11,12] presented evidence that essentially intact calcite is recovered from 60 GPa experiments. [13] reported results of shock experiments on anhydrite, gypsum, and mixtures of those phases with silica. Their observations indicate little or no devolatilization of anhydrite shocked to 42 GPa and that the fraction of sulfur, by mass, that degassed is approx.10(exp -2) of theoretical prediction. In another (preliminary) report of shock experiments on calcite, anhydrite, and gypsum, [14] observe calcite recrystallization when shock loaded at 61 GPa, only intensive plastic deformation in anhydrite shock loaded at 63 GPa, and gypsum converted to anhydrite when shock loaded at 56 GPa. [15] shock loaded anhydrite and quartz to a peak pressure of 60 GPa. All of the quartz grains were trans-formed to glass and the platy anhydrite grains were completely pseudomorphed by small crystallized anhydrite grains. However, no evidence of interaction between the two phases could be observed and they suggest that recrystallization of anhydrite grains is the result of a solid state transformation. [16] reanalyzed the calcite and anhydrite shock

  3. Importance des algues Dasycladales révélée par la cathodoluminescence des évaporites triasiques (Trias des Forages GPF Ardèche, France). Role of Dasycladals algae displayed by the cathodoluminescence of Triassic evaporites (GPF deep bore holes, Ardèche, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cros, Pierre; Arbey, François

    1999-06-01

    Two metastable minerals (the biogenic aragonite of Dasycladals algae and the diagenetic gypsum replaced by dolomite, anhydrite and quartz) appear to be significant for the diagenesis of Triassic evaporites of Ardèche, France (GPF cored deep drillings: Balazuc 1 and Morte-Mérie 1). The cathodoluminescence colours of dolomite, anhydrite and authigenic quartz, are digitally enhanced and compared with the high magnification pictures of SEM electron-excited cathodoluminescence (200-800 nm).

  4. 77 FR 11577 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... funerary objects in a Notice of Inventory Completion previously published in the Federal Register (76 FR... to 103. In the Federal Register notice (76 FR 14064-14067, March 15, 2011), paragraph four is... yucca fiber apron, 1 basketry bowl, 2 cradleboards, 1 basketry tump strap, 3 ceramic bowls, 1...

  5. Lightweight Shield for Centrifuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luper, C.

    1982-01-01

    Centrifuge bowl composed of laminated aluminum offers required combination of high strength at reduced weight. Around outside wall of bowl core of 1/16 inch thick spun aluminum are wrapped two layers of aluminum, each also one-sixteenth inch thick. Layered structure prevents cracks from propagating through wall.

  6. METHOD OF CENTRIFUGE OPERATION

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, K.

    1960-05-10

    A method of isotope separation is described in which two streams are flowed axially of, and countercurrently through, a cylindrical centrifuge bowl. Under the influence of a centrifugal field, the light fraction is concentrated in a stream flowing through the central portion of the bowl, whereas the heavy fraction is concentrated in a stream at the periphery thereof.

  7. CENTRIFUGE APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Skarstrom, C.; Urey, H.C.; Cohen, K.

    1960-08-01

    A high-speed centrifuge for the separation of gaseous isotopes is designed comprising a centrifugal pump mounted on the outlet of a centrifuge bowl and arranged to pump the heavy and light fractions out of the centrifuge bowl in two separate streams.

  8. 75 FR 4308 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant... bowl assembly with a two-piece MGB filter bowl assembly and replacing the existing mounting studs. The... including those associated with a damaged MGB filter or mounting stud resulting from high...

  9. 75 FR 27409 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation (Sikorsky) Model S-92A Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... 27, 2010 (75 FR 4308). That action proposed to require replacing the MGB filter bowl assembly with a... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant... filter bowl assembly and replacing the existing mounting studs. The AD also requires inspecting the...

  10. IQism as Ideology and the Political Economy of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaine, Jack

    1979-01-01

    Examines conceptions of political influences on education in "Schooling in Capitalist America" (Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis, 1976) and "Deschooling Society" (Ivan Illich, 1971). Reviews also Bowles and Gintis' treatment of the social function of intelligence, social change, and genetic versus environmental determinants of IQ. (DB)

  11. 76 FR 19381 - Buy American Exceptions Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... published on April 23, 2009 (74 FR 18449), this notice advises the public that, on March 17, 2011, the... of dual flush toilets at the Bowling Green High Rise Apartments. An exception was also granted to the... respect to work, using CFRFC grant funds, in connection with the Bowling Green High Rise Apartments....

  12. 76 FR 25334 - Notice of Receipt of Requests To Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    .... 047371-00150 TB-910 Disinfectant Hydrochloric acid. Bowl Cleaner & 1-Decanaminium, N- Deodorant. decyl-N...%C16). 047371-00172 TB-A165 Hydrochloric acid. Disinfectant Bowl Cleaner. 1-Decanaminium, N- decyl-N,N... acid, methyl- monopotassium salt. Carbamodithioic acid, cyano- disodium salt. 005481-00551 Ambush...

  13. The Psychology of Cigarette Advertising: Professional Puffery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Gary Alan

    1974-01-01

    Concludes that cigarette advertising both exploits and creates popular culture, and that the popular culture is intimately tied to the cognitive and affective mechanisms of people. Available from: Editor, Journal of Popular Culture, University Hall, Bowling Green University, Bowling Green, Ohio 43403. (RB)

  14. The synthesis of hexafluorosumanene and its congeners.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Bernd M; Topolinski, Berit; Higashibayashi, Shuhei; Kojima, Tatsuhiro; Kawano, Masaki; Lentz, Dieter; Sakurai, Hidehiro

    2013-03-01

    Bowled over: A family of gem-difluorinated sumanenes was synthesised, including the highly symmetric hexafluorosumanene (see figure). The favourable columnar structure is maintained upon fluorination. Substitution by electron-withdrawing substituents increases the bowl depth and results in a large cathodic shift of the reduction potential. PMID:23401124

  15. odd-skipped genes and lines organize the notum anterior-posterior axis using autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Del Signore, Steven J; Hayashi, Teru; Hatini, Victor

    2012-07-01

    The growth and patterning of Drosophila wing and notum primordia depend on their subdivision into progressively smaller domains by secreted signals that emanate from localized sources termed organizers. While the mechanisms that organize the wing primordium have been studied extensively, those that organize the notum are incompletely understood. The genes odd-skipped (odd), drumstick (drm), sob, and bowl comprise the odd-skipped family of C(2)H(2) zinc finger genes, which has been implicated in notum growth and patterning. Here we show that drm, Bowl, and eyegone (eyg), a gene required for notum patterning, accumulate in nested domains in the anterior notum. Ectopic drm organized the nested expression of these anterior notum genes and downregulated the expression of posterior notum genes. The cell-autonomous induction of Bowl and Eyg required bowl, while the non-autonomous effects were independent of bowl. The homeodomain protein Bar is expressed along the anterior border of the notum adjacent to cells expressing the Notch (N) ligand Delta (Dl). bowl was required to promote Bar and repress Dl expression to pattern the anterior notum in a cell-autonomous manner, while lines acted antagonistically to bowl posterior to the Bowl domain. Our data suggest that the odd-skipped genes act at the anterior notum border to organize the notum anterior-posterior (AP) axis using both autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms. PMID:22613630

  16. Obtaining Old Radio Programs: A List of Sources for Research and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensman, Marvin R.

    1978-01-01

    Provides sources of broadcast programs arranged in the following categories: scholarly associations/publications; university collections; libraries/museums; collectors' publications; clubs with newsletters; sellers of tapes and discs. Available from Popular Culture Center, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403; sc $6. (PD)

  17. The Pinch Pot Technique and Raku.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demery, Marie

    Since the 16th century, the small Japanese raku tea bowl has reflected the merged cultural influences of art, religion, and other countries on the art of Japanese pottery. Artistically, the bowl is a combination of ceramics (pinching) and sculpture (carving). The dictates of the Zen Buddhist tea masters determine its sculptural process and steps,…

  18. Players Off the Field. How Jim Delany and Roy Kramer Took over Big-Time College Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggs, Welch

    2000-01-01

    Traces the history of the college football bowl system and describes the movement toward replacing the bowl game system with a national championship playoff system. Focuses on the roles of J. Delany, commission of the Big Ten Conference and R. Kramer, commissioner of the Southeastern Conference, in perpetuating the current college football bowl…

  19. Task Type and Reactivity of Verbal Reports in SLA: A First Look at a L2 Task Other than Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the frequency with which verbal reports are used in SLA to gather data on learners' cognitive processes (e.g., Bowles, 2003, 2004; Mackey, Gass, & McDonough, 2000; Rosa & Leow, 2004a, 2004b), only two studies (Bowles & Leow, 2005; Leow & Morgan-Short, 2004) have investigated verbal reports' reactivity (i.e., whether they alter cognitive…

  20. Quantifying the Chasm: Exploring the Impact of the BCS on Total Football Revenues for Division One Football Programs from 2002-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Cary A.

    2014-01-01

    The Bowl Championship Series served as a collection of bowl games that were designed to crown the national champion in Division One football. The BCS created two classifications of institutions in Division football, those that were granted automatic access (AQ) to the post-season games, and those that were not (non-AQ). The BCS also generated…

  1. Down. Set. March.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee, Craig T.

    2012-01-01

    Black college football teams do not play in bowl games. The only venues that come close to duplicating a bowl atmosphere are the annual classic games that are played during the regular season at a variety of locales across the U.S. Over the years, "classic" games have come on the scene and the results have been mixed. Some remain viable while…

  2. Acquisition of Leisure Skills by a Severely Handicapped Adolescent: A Data Based Instructional Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleien, Stuart J.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A 16-year-old severely handicapped student was trained to bowl, purchase a drink from the concession, and use a vending machine in the bowling alley in six weeks. The subject successfully transferred the skill to similar environment and materials. (CL)

  3. Evidence for episodic basin dewatering in salt-dome cap rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Hallager, W.S. ); Ulrich, M.R. ); Kyle, J.R.; Gose, W.A. ); Price, P.E. )

    1990-08-01

    A detailed record of episodic basin-dewatering events is preserved in the anhydrite cap rocks to two Gulf Coast salt domes. Metal rich brines were intermittently expelled geopressured zones deep in the stratigraphic section and were channeled upward along escape structures bounding the salt diapirs. Overhanging anhydrite cap rock helped to focus some escaping fluid into the zone of dissolution between the top of salt and overlying residual anhydrite cap rock. Iron, lead, and zinc sulfide solubilities were exceeded in this zone, possibly in response to dissolution and reduction of cap-rock sulfates. Because the metalliferous brines entered the dissolution zone intermittently, they were recorded as relatively thin horizontal bands of sulfide sandwiched between thicker accumulations of anhydrite. Continued dissolution of salt and underplating of residual anhydrite caused the sulfide bands to be displaced upward relative to the base of the cap, leading to an inverted stratigraphic record of basin-dewatering events. Paleomagnetic data from the Winnfield salt dome suggest the sulfide-producing basin-dewatering events and anhydrite cap-rock accumulation occurred between 157 and 145 Ma.

  4. Improving Wind Turbine Drivetrain Reliability Using a Combined Experimental, Computational, and Analytical Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Y.; van Dam, J.; Bergua, R.; Jove, J.; Campbell, J.

    2015-03-01

    Nontorque loads induced by the wind turbine rotor overhang weight and aerodynamic forces can greatly affect drivetrain loads and responses. If not addressed properly, these loads can result in a decrease in gearbox component life. This work uses analytical modeling, computational modeling, and experimental data to evaluate a unique drivetrain design that minimizes the effects of nontorque loads on gearbox reliability: the Pure Torque(R) drivetrain developed by Alstom. The drivetrain has a hub-support configuration that transmits nontorque loads directly into the tower rather than through the gearbox as in other design approaches. An analytical model of Alstom's Pure Torque drivetrain provides insight into the relationships among turbine component weights, aerodynamic forces, and the resulting drivetrain loads. Main shaft bending loads are orders of magnitude lower than the rated torque and are hardly affected by wind conditions and turbine operations.

  5. CFB: technology of the future?

    SciTech Connect

    Blankship, S.

    2008-02-15

    Fuel flexibility and a smaller carbon footprint are behind renewed interest in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology. The article explains the technology of CFB and discusses development of CFB units since the late 1990s. China is seeing an explosion in the number of utility-size CFBs. Alstom, Foster Wheeler, Babcock and Wilson and Alex Kvaener are today's major CFB boiler manufacturers. Alstom is testing and developing oxy-firing and post-combustion carbon capture strategies on CFB boilers. One CFB asset is its ability to burn a variety of fuels including waste coal, high sulfur coal and even discarded tires. The article mentions successful CFB projects at the Seward Station using waste coal and at the Gilbert 3 plant in the USA. Lamar is converting its Light and Power Plant from natural gas to burn coal in a 38.5 MW CFB boiler. 1 tab., 3 photos.

  6. Experience from the 300 MWe CFB Demontration Plant in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauvillé, P.; Semedard, J.-C.; Darling, S.

    This paper will describe the background and current status of the 300MWe CFB Demonstration Project located at the Baima Power Plant in Sichuan Province. This project was the first 300MWe class CFB in China and the first project built under the Transfer of Technology from Alstom. The plant entered commercial operation in early 2006. The fuel is a high-ash anthracite which has presented significant challenges in terms of higher-than-expected ash content and top size. While this fuel has been problematic for the adjacent suspension-fired boilers, performance in the CFB boiler has been excellent, with low carbon content in the ash, low turndown and low emissions. Key boiler performance parameters will be described along with a comparison of design and actual performance and the operational experience will be addressed. Finally, the paper will describe Alstom's process for scaling the CFB technology from 300MWe to 600MWe, and our supercritical CFB design.

  7. Improved Wind Turbine Drivetrain Reliability using a Combined Experimental, Computational, and Analytical Approach (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yi; Bergua, R.; van Dam, J.; Jove, J.; Campbell, J.

    2014-08-01

    Nontorque loads induced by the wind turbine rotor overhang weight and aerodynamic forces can greatly affect drivetrain loads and responses. If not addressed properly, these loads can result in a decrease in gearbox component life. This work uses analytical modeling, computational modeling, and experimental data to evaluate a unique drivetrain design that minimize the effects of nontorque loads on gearbox reliability: the Pure Torque drivetrain developed by Alstom. The drivetrain has a hub-support configuration that transmits nontorque loads directly into the tower rather than through the gearbox as in other design approaches. An analytical model of Alstom's Pure Torque drivetrain provides insight into the relationships among turbine component weights, aerodynamic forces, and the resulting drivetrain loads. Main shaft bending loads are orders of magnitude lower than the rated torque and are hardly affected by wind speed and turbine operations.

  8. A vareity of Hg capture solutions are available

    SciTech Connect

    Blankinship, S.

    2009-06-15

    While vacating the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) has postponed implementation of capturing mercury emitted by coal-fired power plants improvements in ways to capture and monitor mercury have continued. One method of enhancing Hg capture from FGD and SCR is to treat the coal by adding a halogen, such as calcium bromide in Alstom's KNX process prior to combustion. Power plants without FGD usually use sorbent injection, mostly an activated carbon, upstream of a particulate control device. 1 fig.

  9. Turbine Aeration Design Software for Mitigating Adverse Environmental Impacts Resulting From Conventional Hydropower Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Gulliver, John S.

    2015-03-01

    Conventional hydropower turbine aeration test-bed for computational routines and software tools for improving environmental mitigation technologies for conventional hydropower systems. In achieving this goal, we have partnered with Alstom, a global leader in energy technology development and United States power generation, with additional funding from the Initiative for Renewable Energy and the Environment (IREE) and the College of Science and Engineering (CSE) at the UMN

  10. Is There any Relationship Between the Santa Elena Depression and Chicxulub Impact Crater, Northwestern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefticariu, L.

    2005-05-01

    The Terminal Cretaceous Chicxulub Impact Crater had a strong control on the depositional and diagenetic history of the northern Yucatan Platform during most of the Cenozoic Era. The Chicxulub Sedimentary Basin (henceforth Basin), which approximately coincides with the impact crater, is circumscribed by a concentration of karstic sinkholes known as the Ring of Cenotes. Santa Elena Depression (henceforth Depression) is the name proposed for the bowl-shaped buried feature, first contoured by geophysical studies, immediately south of the Basin, in the area where the Ticul 1 and UNAM 5 wells were drilled. Lithologic, petrographic, and biostratigraphic data on PEMEX, UNAM, and ICDP cores show that: 1) Cenozoic deposits are much thicker inside the Basin than inside the Depression, 2) in general, the Cenozoic formations from inside the Depression are the thickest among those outside the Basin, 3) variably dolomitized pelagic or outer-platform wackestone or mudstone occur both inside the Basin and Depression, 4) the age of the deeper-water sedimentary carbonate rocks is Paleocene-Eocene inside the Basin and Paleocene?-Early Eocene inside the Depression, 5) the oldest formations that crop out are of Middle Eocene age at the edge of the Basin and Early-Middle Eocene age inside the Depression, 6) saline lake deposits, that consist chiefly of anhydrite, gypsum, and fine carbonate, and also contain quartz, chert, clay, zeolite, potassium feldspar, pyrite, and fragments of wood, are present in the Cenozoic section of the UNAM 5 core between 282 and 198 m below the present land surface, 7) the dolomite, subaerial exposure features (subaerial crusts, vugs, karst, dedolomite), and vug-filling cement from the Eocene formations are more abundant inside the Depression than inside the Basin. The depositional environments that are proposed for explaining the Cenozoic facies succession within the Santa Elena Depression are: 1) deeper marine water (Paleocene?-Early Eocene), 2) relatively

  11. Sulfate Saturated Hydrous Magmas Associated with Hydrothermal Gold Ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambefort, I.; Dilles, J. H.; Kent, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    Hydrothermal ore deposits associated with arc magmatism represent important sulfur anomalies. During degassing of magmatic systems the volatile may transport metals and sulfur and produce deposits. The ultimate origin of the magma-derived sulfur is still uncertain. The Yanacocha high-sulfidation epithermal Au deposit, Peru, is hosted by a Miocene volcanic succession (ca. 16 to 8 Ma). Magmatic rocks are highly oxidized >NNO+2 and show a range of composition from andesite to dacite. Two populations of amphibole occur in the Yanacocha dacitic ignimbrite deposits (~7 and 12 wt% Al2O3). Low Al amphiboles crystallized at ~ 1.5-2 kbar and 800°C (Plag-Hb thermobarometry) in equilibrium with plagioclase and pyroxene. High Al amphiboles only contain inclusions of anhydrite associated with apatite (up to 1.2 wt% SO3), and have a higher Cr2O3 content (up to 1000 ppm). We estimate these amphiboles form near the magma's liquidus at P(H2O)> 3kbar and 950 to 1000°C of a basaltic, basaltic andesite ascending magma. Low Al amphibole presents an REE pattern with negative anomalies in Sr, Ti and Eu, characteristic of plagioclase and titanite fractionation in the magma. High Al amphiboles are less enriched in REE and have no Sr, Ti, or Eu anomaly. Rare crystals of high Al amphibole display a low Al rim marked by higher REE contents compared to the core and a negative Eu anomaly. Magmatic sulfate occurrences have been discovered through the 8 m.y. volcanic sequence. Rounded anhydrite crystals are found included within clinopyroxene and both high and low Al amphibole. The rare high Al amphiboles (from the sample RC6) contain up to ~10 vol.%, ~5-80 micrometer-long anhydrite as irregularly shaped (amoeboid) blebs that do not show crystallographic forms and do not follow host cleavages. Extremely rare sulfide inclusions are found in plagioclase (Brennecka, 2006). The major and trace element contents of Yanacocha magmatic anhydrite have been analyzed by electron microprobe and LA

  12. Fuel primer for float type carburetors

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, W.A.

    1988-04-19

    A fuel primer for float type carburetors having a fuel bowl, the fuel bowl coupled with a fuel inlet, an outlet vent, and a nozzle, the fuel inlet coupled with a fuel source and the nozzle coupled with an intake path, the primer is described comprising: means coupled with the outlet for introducing a pressurized fluid flow in the fuel bowl and means associated with the fuel bowl and ambient air for automatically enabling ambient air flow to enter into the fuel bowl upon start up and for enabling fuel flow to enter into the intake path from the fuel bowl during pressurization of the fluid while preventing the fuel flow from exiting the air flow means during pressurization of the fluid such that air enters an engine through the means associated with the fuel bowl and the engine begins to run and continues to run during start up enabling an operator to move a choke from a closed to an open position for continuous operation of the engine.

  13. Cryo-EM structure of dodecameric Vps4p and its 2:1 complex with Vta1p

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhiheng; Gonciarz, Malgorzata D.; Sundquist, Wesley I.; Hill, Christopher P.; Jensen, Grant J.

    2008-01-01

    The type I AAA ATPase Vps4 and its co-factor Vta1p/LIP5 function in membrane remodeling events that accompany cytokinesis, multivesicular body biogenesis, and retrovirus budding, apparently by driving disassembly and recycling of membrane-associated ESCRT-III complexes. Here, we present cryo-EM reconstructions of dodecameric yeast Vps4p complexes with and without their MIT N-terminal domains and Vta1p co-factors. The ATPase domains of Vps4p form a bowl-like structure composed of stacked hexameric rings. The two rings adopt dramatically different conformations, with the “upper” ring forming an open assembly that defines the sides of the bowl and the lower ring forming a closed assembly that forms the bottom of the bowl. The N-terminal MIT domains of the upper ring localize on the symmetry axis above the cavity of the bowl, and the binding of six extended Vta1p monomers causes additional density to appear both above and below the bowl. The structures suggest models in which Vps4p MIT and Vta1p domains engage ESCRT-III substrates above the bowl and help transfer them into the bowl to be pumped through the center of the dodecameric assembly. PMID:18280501

  14. Insect Pollinators in Iowa Cornfields: Community Identification and Trapping Method Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Availability of mass flowering plants in landscapes dominated by agriculture can have a strong positive impact on the density of generalist, native pollinators. Row-crop production in Iowa accounts for 75% of the arable acres, with corn, Zea mays, representing the majority of hectares planted. To date, there has been no description of the insect pollinator community found within Iowa cornfields. We report a field study to determine the optimal sampling methodology to characterize the community of insect pollinators within cornfields. During 2012 and 2013, 3,616 insect pollinators representing 51 species were captured using bee bowls, and 945 individuals representing 10 species were captured using sticky cards. We examined the effects of trap type, height, and bowl color on the described community. Bee bowls captured a more abundant and species rich community than sticky cards with all species captured on sticky cards also present in bee bowls. Traps deployed at the height of the tassels describe a more abundant and species rich community of pollinators than traps at ear height (2x as many individuals) or ground height (4x as many individuals). Blue bowls captured more bees than white (2.75x as many individuals) or yellow bowls (3.5x as many individuals); and yellow bowls captured more flies than white (2x as many individuals) or blue (2.3x as many individuals). To provide the most complete description of the community of insect pollinators using cornfields as a resource, we suggest sampling-using bee bowls at the height of the tassels using all three bee bowl colors. PMID:27459648

  15. Insect Pollinators in Iowa Cornfields: Community Identification and Trapping Method Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wheelock, M J; O'Neal, M E

    2016-01-01

    Availability of mass flowering plants in landscapes dominated by agriculture can have a strong positive impact on the density of generalist, native pollinators. Row-crop production in Iowa accounts for 75% of the arable acres, with corn, Zea mays, representing the majority of hectares planted. To date, there has been no description of the insect pollinator community found within Iowa cornfields. We report a field study to determine the optimal sampling methodology to characterize the community of insect pollinators within cornfields. During 2012 and 2013, 3,616 insect pollinators representing 51 species were captured using bee bowls, and 945 individuals representing 10 species were captured using sticky cards. We examined the effects of trap type, height, and bowl color on the described community. Bee bowls captured a more abundant and species rich community than sticky cards with all species captured on sticky cards also present in bee bowls. Traps deployed at the height of the tassels describe a more abundant and species rich community of pollinators than traps at ear height (2x as many individuals) or ground height (4x as many individuals). Blue bowls captured more bees than white (2.75x as many individuals) or yellow bowls (3.5x as many individuals); and yellow bowls captured more flies than white (2x as many individuals) or blue (2.3x as many individuals). To provide the most complete description of the community of insect pollinators using cornfields as a resource, we suggest sampling-using bee bowls at the height of the tassels using all three bee bowl colors. PMID:27459648

  16. A resolution expressing the sense of the Senate that all necessary measures should be taken to protect children in the United States from human trafficking, especially during the upcoming Super Bowl, an event around which many children are trafficked for sex.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Blumenthal, Richard [D-CT

    2014-01-28

    02/03/2014 Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. CFD simulation of centrifugal cells washers.

    PubMed

    Kellet, Beth E; Binbing, Han; Dandy, David S; Wickramasinghe, S Ranil

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of using computational fluid dynamics to guide the design of better centrifuges for processing shed blood is explored here. The velocity field and the rate of protein removal from the shed blood have been studied. The results indicate that computational fluid dynamics could help screen preliminary centrifuge bowl designs thus reducing the number of initial experimental tests required when developing new centrifuge bowls. Though the focus of this work is on washing shed blood the methods developed here are applicable to the design of centrifuge bowls for other blood processing applications. PMID:15133962

  18. Raman spectra of the different phases in the CaSO4-H2O system.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Taboada, Nagore; Gómez-Laserna, Olivia; Martínez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; Olazabal, María Ángeles; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2014-10-21

    Although it is known that the CaSO4/H2O system is formed by at least five different phases, this fact is not correctly documented in Raman spectroscopy studies. The main problem detected in the literature was the incorrect definition of the anhydrite, which produced the assignation of different spectra for a single compound. In this sense, two different spectra were clearly identified from the bibliography, which showed different main Raman bands at 1017 or 1025 cm(-1), although anhydrite could be present even as three different polymorphous species with different structures. A better understanding of the whole system obtained from a review of the literature allowed new conclusions to be established. Thanks to that revision and the development of different thermodynamical experiments by Raman spectroscopy, the Raman spectra of each phase were successfully identified for the first time. In this way, the main Raman bands of gypsum, bassanite, anhydrite III, anhydrite II and anhydrite I were identified at 1008, 1015, 1025, 1017 and 1017 cm(-1), respectively. To conclude this work, the contradictions found in literature were critically summarized. PMID:25226433

  19. Petrographic study of evaporite deformation near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Borns, D.J.

    1983-06-01

    The Delaware Basin of southeastern New Mexico contains about 1000 m of layered evaporites. Areas in the northern Delaware Basin, bordering the Capitan reef, have anomalous seismic reflection characteristics, such as loss in reflector continuity. Core from holes within this zone exhibits complex mesoscopic folds and extension structures. On a larger scale, anticlines and synclines are indicated by structure contours based on boreholes. The deformation is probably gravity-driven. Such a process is initiated by basin tilting during either a Mesozoic or Cenozoic period of uplift. Small-scale structures suggest that deformation was episodic with an early, syndepositional stage of isoclinal folding. Later, open-to-tight asymmetric folding is more penetrative and exhibits a sense of asymmetry opposite to that of the earlier isoclinal folding. The younger folds are associated with development of zonal crenulation cleavage and microboundinage of more competent carbonate layers. At the same time, halite beds developed dimensional fabrics and convolute folds in anhydrite stringers. Late-stage, near-vertical fractures formed in competent anhydrite layers. Microscopic textures exhibit rotated anhydrite porphyroblasts, stress shadow growth, and microboundinage. Except during late-stage deformation, anhydrite and halite recrystallized synkinematically. Drastic strength reduction in anhydrites through dynamic recrystallization occurs experimentally near 200/sup 0/C. However, evaporites of the WIPP site never experienced temperatures > 40/sup 0/C. Microscopic fabrics and P, T history of the evaporites suggest that pressure solution was the active mechanism during deformation of evaporites at the WIPP site.

  20. The geologic structures observed in drillhole DOE-2 and their possible origins: Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Borns, D.J.

    1987-07-01

    Questions remain as the origins of evaporite deformation within the Salado and Castile formations. Two miles north of the WIPP site, a stacked sequence of depressions was indicated by shallow boreholes. Such structures raise questions regarding the role of dissolution and gravity tectonics at the WIPP site. To investigate these structures, DOE drilled hole DOE-2 north of the WIPP site. At DOE-2, the downward displacement of stratigraphic markers in the Salado confirmed the presence of stacked depressions, which were the primary target of the drilling program. The halitic units between the marker beds were thickened compared to the average section determined from basin-wide drilling. The remaining question is whether dissolution occurred in the underlying Castile and resulted in the deformation of the Salado. Markers in the anhydrite units indicate recumbent structures and thickening of the anhydrite units by folding. As a consequence, the Castile Formation is nearly its average thickness, with the folded thickness of anhydrite compensating for the missing halite. The nearby thickening of halite within the Castile, the absence of relic anhydrite laminae in the attenuated halite units, and the high strain fabric of the remaining halite suggest that dissolution was not the dominant process in the Castile. The favored hypothesis for the Castile structures is salt flow in response to gravity inversion of the anhydrite and halite units of the Castile. 21 refs., 18 figs.

  1. Microfabrics and 3D grain shape of Gorleben rock salt: Constraints on deformation mechanisms and paleodifferential stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemeyer, Nicolas; Zulauf, Gernold; Mertineit, Michael; Linckens, Jolien; Pusch, Maximilian; Hammer, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    The Permian Knäuel- and Streifensalz formations (z2HS1 and z2HS2) are main constituents of the Gorleben salt dome (Northern Germany) and show different amounts and distributions of anhydrite. The reconstruction of 3D halite grain shape ellipsoids reveals small grain size (3.4 ± 0.6 mm) and heterogeneous grain shapes in both formations, the latter attributed to the polyphase deformation of the rock salt during diapirism. The halite microfabrics of both formations indicate that strain-induced grain boundary migration was active during deformation. Crystal plastic deformation of halite is further documented by lattice bending, subgrain formation and minor subgrain rotation. Evidence for pressure solution of halite has not been found, but cannot be excluded because of the small grain size, the lack of LPO and the low differential stress (1.1-1.3 MPa) as deduced from subgrain-size piezometry. Anhydrite has been deformed in the brittle-ductile regime by solution precipitation creep, minor dislocation creep and brittle boudinage. No continuous anhydrite layers are preserved, and halite has acted as a sealing matrix embedding the disrupted anhydrite fragments prohibiting any potential migration pathways for fluids. Thus, anhydrite should not have a negative effect on the barrier properties of the Gorleben rock salts investigated in this study.

  2. Celestite replacements of evaporites in the Salina Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Ernest H.

    1987-09-01

    Replacements of evaporites by celestite were discovered recently at three sites in northwestern Ohio. These replacements are more durable than the original evaporites and provide new paleoenvironmental data for the upper Silurian rocks of the region. The occurrences are situated along the western margin of the Ohio (Cayugan) Basin and appear in the Greenfield Dolomite and in undifferentiated Salina dolostones. The replacements include: lenticular and prismatic crystals of gypsum, nodules of anhydrite and laminar evaporites. The lenticular crystals contain inclusions of carbonate and anhydrite, and are believed to have altered to anhydrite prior to replacement. The prismatic crystals are exceptionally well-preserved, with euhedral, deeply embayed outlines and internally zoned growth bands containing large numbers of inclusions of dolostone and anhydrite. Optical data for the latter crystals indicate that they are oriented replacements of gypsum, and suggest that the original gypsum was unchanged prior to replacement. The nodular and laminar occurrences display features such as chicken-wire and enterolithic structures, and were comprised of anhydrite prior to replacement. Replacement postdates the dolomitization and cementation of the Salina sediments enclosing the evaporites, but occurred prior to deep burial. The rocks hosting the replacements, therefore, did not provide the strontium. The strontium may have been released from dolomitization of the underlying Lockport (Niagaran) beds or from dissolution of subaerially exposed Salina gypsum prior to the middle Devonian.

  3. Characterization of diagenetically altered carbonate reservoirs, South Cowden Grayburg Reservoir, West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, F.J.; Ruppel, S.C.

    1996-12-31

    Much of the difficulty in constructing carbonate reservoir models for fluid-flow simulation results from diagenetic overprinting of depositional permeability patterns. In the South Cowden field, diagenetic effects result in (1) low porosity and permeability in the western and northern areas due to reduction of porosity by means of dolomitization and post-dolomitization compaction, (2) elimination of the petrophysical effects of depositional texture resulting from changes in particle size due to dolomitization, and (3) creation of a touching-vug pore system due to anhydrite dissolution. The extent of anhydrite alteration can be mapped to show three distinct diagenetic areas: those dominated by unaltered, altered, or dissolved anhydrite. Each alteration type has a unique acoustic-porosity transform that can be used to map the diagenetic areas and to calculate porosity when only acoustic logs are available. A single porosity-permeability transform characterizes the areas having unaltered and altered anhydrite, and the depositional stratigraphy is useful in constructing a reservoir model. A more favorable transform characterizes the area of dissolved anhydrite, and depositional stratigraphy is not useful in constructing a reservoir model because of the large effect of the diagenetic overprint.

  4. Shoulder replacement

    MedlinePlus

    ... are able to return to sports such as golf, swimming, gardening, bowling, and others. Your new shoulder ... important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , ...

  5. Epilepsy or seizures - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... activities include: Jogging Aerobics Cross-country skiing Tennis Golf Hiking Bowling There should always be a lifeguard ... important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , ...

  6. Epilepsy - children - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... jogging, aerobics, moderate cross-country skiing, dancing, tennis, golf, hiking, and bowling. Games and playing in gym ... important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , ...

  7. 7 CFR 29.8001 - Designation of tobacco markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., 1936. 1 FR 1416. (f) Kentucky Burley—Type 31 Bowling Green, KyCynthiana, Ky. Horse Cave, Ky. Mt... July 5, 1996 61 FR 27997. (mmm) Kentucky Burley Horse Cave-Glasgow-Greensburg, KY July 15, 1996 61...

  8. 7 CFR 29.8001 - Designation of tobacco markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., 1936. 1 FR 1416. (f) Kentucky Burley—Type 31 Bowling Green, KyCynthiana, Ky. Horse Cave, Ky. Mt... July 5, 1996 61 FR 27997. (mmm) Kentucky Burley Horse Cave-Glasgow-Greensburg, KY July 15, 1996 61...

  9. 7 CFR 29.8001 - Designation of tobacco markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., 1936. 1 FR 1416. (f) Kentucky Burley—Type 31 Bowling Green, KyCynthiana, Ky. Horse Cave, Ky. Mt... July 5, 1996 61 FR 27997. (mmm) Kentucky Burley Horse Cave-Glasgow-Greensburg, KY July 15, 1996 61...

  10. 7 CFR 29.8001 - Designation of tobacco markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., 1936. 1 FR 1416. (f) Kentucky Burley—Type 31 Bowling Green, KyCynthiana, Ky. Horse Cave, Ky. Mt... July 5, 1996 61 FR 27997. (mmm) Kentucky Burley Horse Cave-Glasgow-Greensburg, KY July 15, 1996 61...

  11. 7 CFR 29.8001 - Designation of tobacco markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., 1936. 1 FR 1416. (f) Kentucky Burley—Type 31 Bowling Green, KyCynthiana, Ky. Horse Cave, Ky. Mt... July 5, 1996 61 FR 27997. (mmm) Kentucky Burley Horse Cave-Glasgow-Greensburg, KY July 15, 1996 61...

  12. 5 CFR 532.221 - Industries included in regular nonappropriated fund surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Vending machine operators. 71391 Golf courses and country clubs. 71395 Bowling centers. 72111 Hotels (except casino hotels) and motels. 7221 Full-service restaurants. 7222 Limited-service eating places....

  13. 5 CFR 532.221 - Industries included in regular nonappropriated fund surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Vending machine operators. 71391 Golf courses and country clubs. 71395 Bowling centers. 72111 Hotels (except casino hotels) and motels. 7221 Full-service restaurants. 7222 Limited-service eating places....

  14. 5 CFR 532.221 - Industries included in regular nonappropriated fund surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Vending machine operators. 71391 Golf courses and country clubs. 71395 Bowling centers. 72111 Hotels (except casino hotels) and motels. 7221 Full-service restaurants. 7222 Limited-service eating places....

  15. 5 CFR 532.221 - Industries included in regular nonappropriated fund surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Vending machine operators. 71391 Golf courses and country clubs. 71395 Bowling centers. 72111 Hotels (except casino hotels) and motels. 7221 Full-service restaurants. 7222 Limited-service eating places....

  16. Delicious Heart-Healthy Latino Recipes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the chicken mixture is cooling, place the corn flour in a large mixing bowl and gradually stir ... cup egg substitute • 2 egg whites • 1 tablespoon flour 62 Delicious and Heart Healthy Latino Recipes Substitutos ...

  17. Exercise and activity for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... light activity such as cleaning house or playing baseball or golf 370 to 460 calories doing activity ... or karate class. You could also join a baseball or bowling team, or even a mall-walking ...

  18. "Beyond the Diagnosis" Making the Invisible Patients Visible | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease patient. Artists have donated their time and talents to create paintings of rare disease patients for ... bowling on Xbox Kinect, and swinging in his new sensory room. During his weekly four-hour infusion, ...

  19. The Crossbyton project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichert, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    The Analog Design Verification System (ADVS), the largest single solar collector built, was tested. Referred to as the Solar Gridiron or Bowl Concept, it employs a stationary mirror, with tracking accomplished by the mirror.

  20. Fitness and Your 13- to 18-year-old

    MedlinePlus

    ... listening to music, surfing online, and playing video games. So it's no surprise that they can't ... videos, which are fine. But while exercise video games (like tennis or bowling) are a good alternative ...

  1. Solar thermal technology evaluation, fiscal year 1982. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Three primary solar concepts the central receiver, parabolic dish, and parabolic trough are investigated. To a lesser extent, the hemispherical bowl and salt-gradient solar pond are also being studied. Each technology is described.

  2. Centralized Accounting and Electronic Filing Provides Efficient Receivables Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1983

    1983-01-01

    An electronic filing system makes financial control manageable at Bowling Green State University, Ohio. The system enables quick access to computer-stored consolidated account data and microfilm images of charges, statements, and other billing documents. (MLF)

  3. A Model for Multiple Competency Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gargiulo, Richard M.; Swartz, Stanley L.

    1977-01-01

    Project Merge is an undergraduate, preservice education program at Bowling Green University providing training and experience leading to dual or triple certification in elementary education plus educable mental retardation and/or learning disabilities behavior disorders. (MB)

  4. Pet Food Palatability Evaluation: A Review of Standard Assay Techniques and Interpretation of Results with a Primary Focus on Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich, Gregory C.; Koppel, Kadri

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Palatability of pet foods is typically measured using a single-bowl or a two-bowl test. While these tests give a general understanding of the liking or preference of one food over another, opportunities exist for further method development. Abstract The pet food industry continues to grow steadily as a result of new innovative products. Quality control and product development tests for pet foods are typically conducted through palatability testing with dogs and cats. Palatability is the measure of intake of a food that indicates acceptance or the measure of preference of one food over another. Pet food palatability is most commonly measured using a single-bowl or a two-bowl assay. While these tests answer some questions about the animals’ perception of the food, there are many limitations as well. This review addresses some of these limitations and indicates opportunities for future research. PMID:26479136

  5. Marxism and Education: A Brief Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, John

    1982-01-01

    Traces the origins of Marxism and surveys its political, intellectual, and educational effects in the United States and Canada. Comments upon Marxist critiques of education, reviewing Bowles and Gintis's "Schooling in Capitalist America" and Apple's "Ideology and Curriculum." (DMM)

  6. Students Use Xbox Kinect to Enhance Visualizations of Earth

    NASA Video Gallery

    Students at NASA have found that dance battles and bowling aren't the only things you can do with Kinect videogame technology. Instead of linking Microsoft's Kinect to an Xbox, students in NASA's t...

  7. HealthLines for Pregnancy …healthy eating, exercising, and 10 more handy sources of information

    MedlinePlus

    ... Keep healthy foods on hand . A bowl of apples, bananas, peaches, oranges, and grapes makes it easy ... Alcohol . Instead of wine, beer, or liquor, drink apple cider, tomato juice, sparkling water, or other nonalcoholic ...

  8. Building a Recycling Program: A Case Study in Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabol, Laurie

    1992-01-01

    Presents the development and ongoing operation of a library recycling program established at Bowling Green State University in Ohio. Discusses the initiation and projects of the library recycling committee, logistics, and future projections for library recycling operations. (two references) (MCO)

  9. Producing Positive Interaction among Down Syndrome and Nonhandicapped Teenagers through Cooperative Goal Structuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Rynders, John E.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic goal structures were compared on the dimensions of interpersonal interaction and attraction with 18 nonhandicapped and 12 Down's syndrome junior high school students who participated in eight weekly sessions of recreational bowling. (Author)

  10. Diaphragm

    MedlinePlus

    ... a dome-shaped bowl made of thin, flexible rubber that sits over the cervix. How Does It ... or baby oil. These substances can cause the rubber to become brittle and crack. Other vaginal creams, ...

  11. [Treatment of uterine descent and prolapse with the cube pessary].

    PubMed

    Seyffarth, K; Arabin, H

    1990-01-01

    The cube pessary is the best possibility of therapy for not surgical patients with descensus or prolapsus uteri. It is very advantageous opposite usual bowl- and ringpessary because of its efficacy and sociableness. PMID:2275295

  12. Numerical simulation of casting process to assist in defects reduction in complex steel tidal power component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, E. J.; Zhao, S. C.; Wang, L. P.; Wu, T.; Xin, B. P.; Tan, J. J.; Jia, H. L.

    2016-03-01

    In order to reduce defects and improve casting quality, ProCAST software is performed to study the solidification process of discharge bowl. Simulated results of original casting process show that the hot tearing is serious at the intersection of blades and outer or inner rings. The shrinkage porosity appears at the bottom of discharge bowl and the transition area of wall thickness. Based on the formation mechanisms of the defects, the structure of chills attached on the outer surface of discharge bowl casting is optimized. The thickness of chills ranges from 25mm to 35mm. The positions of chills corresponded to the outer surface of the T-shaped parts. Compared to the original casting design (without chills), the hot tearing and shrinkage porosity of the discharge bowl are greatly improved with addition of chills.

  13. The Oldest Person You've Known

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Sarah B.; Karp, Karen S.; Albanese, Judy; Dillon, Fred

    2014-01-01

    What better way to interest students in mathematics than using a Super Bowl® commercial? A Prudential® insurance commercial aired during the Super Bowl in 2013 was the impetus for this lesson (see it here on You-Tube™: http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=IsNiKGMSHUQ). In the commercial, four hundred people were polled on "How Old Is the Oldest…

  14. Marker Bed 139: a study of drillcore from a systematic array. [Salado Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Borns, D.J.

    1985-08-01

    In southeastern New Mexico, Marker Bed 139 (referred to in this report as MB139) is one of 45 numbered siliceous or sulfatic units within the Salado Formation of the northern Delaware Basin. MB139 is divided into five zones. Zones I and V are the upper and lower contact zones, respectively. Zone II is a syndepositionally deformed subunit of polyhalitic anhydrite. Zone III is mixed anhydrite and polyhalitic anhydrite, a distinctive pale-green and pink, with subhorizontal fractures. Zone IV consists of interlayered halite and anhydrite without the overprint of polyhalite. This sequence was transitional between submarine and subaerial. The anhydritic units of MB139 formed in salt-pan or mudflat environments or both. Undulations observed along the upper contact of MB139 are interpreted to result from traction deposits or from reworking of the upper portion of the marker bed during the transition from anhydrite to halite deposition. Zones II and III exhibit soft-sediment deformation and later traces of dewatering; e.g., formation of stylolites. Such deformation is not observed in the halite above MB139 or in Zone V and the halite units below MB139. A distinctive set of subhorizontal fractures occurs in MB139 in mid-Zone III and, to some extent, in Zone IV. These fractures are partially infilled with halite and polyhalite. Brine occurrences at the mined facility horizon at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant may be related to these fractures. The fractures formed either in response to stress cycles that were functions of sedimentation and erosion, or in response to deformation in the underlying Castile Formation. The subhorizontal orientation, dominant in the sampling to date, is more consistent with the interplay between stress and sedimentation cycles.

  15. Permeability Evolution and the Mechanisms of Porosity Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W.; Gribbin, J. L.; Tivey, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding subsurface fluid flow is of critical importance to such geological and engineering applications as faulting mechanics, hydrothermal venting and resource recovery. Mechanical, chemical and thermal loads can significantly alter microscopic pore geometry and thus affect macroscopic permeability. Recently, we measured the permeability and porosity of massive anhydrite deposits recovered from various seafloor hydrothermal vent fields. Together, these deposits comprise anhydrite samples that have undergone different stages of formation. For anhydrite samples with porosities greater than 5%, the dependence of permeability to porosity change is best characterized by a power-law relationship with an exponent n~9. At porosities less than 5%, a much gentler trend of n~1 is observed. These permeability-porosity relationships (PPRs) in anhydrite deposits are in stark contrast to those of Fontainebleau sandstone, a quartz arenite with various degrees of quartz cementation. Fontainebleau sandstone shows a power-law dependence of PPR with an exponent of n~3 for samples with porosities greater than 7%, and a much steeper trend of n~8 at low porosities [Bourbie and Zinszner, 1985]. Microstructural analysis and numerical models suggest that the significant loss in pore connectivity below 7% is responsible for the steeper PPR trend in Fontainebleau sandstone [Zhu et al., 1995]. In anhydrite deposits, petrographic analyses show evidence for both dissolution and precipitation, consistent with the observed PPRs resulting from pore-size controlled solubility. Precipitation of anhydrite takes place preferentially in large pores within the anhydrite deposits, with precipitation limited in small pores, which is proposed to be due to the change in interfacial energy of the growing crystal (e.g., as described by Emmanuel and Ague [2009]). With abundant large voids in high porosity anhydrite samples, the growth of sulfates would result in a drastic loss of pore connectivity and

  16. The Role of Gas-Silicate Chemisorption Reactions in Modifying Planetary Crusts and Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, P. L.; Henley, R. W.; Wykes, J. L.; Renggli, C.; Troitzsch, U.; Clark, D.; O'Neill, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    Evidence for gas-solid reactions is found throughout the solar system: for example, sulfidation reactions in some meteorites and secondary phases coating lunar pyroclastic glasses. On Earth, the products of gas-solid reactions are documented in volcanic systems, metalliferous mineral deposits, impact craters, and on dust or meteorites after passage through the atmosphere - such reactions are also likely on the surfaces of Mars and Venus. To understand the chemical dynamics of such gas-solid reactions, we are undertaking systematic experiments and thermochemical modelling. Experiments were conducted in a vertical gas-mixing furnace at 600 - 800 °C and 1 bar, using SO2and a range of Ca-bearing materials: labradorite, feldspar glass and anorthosite (rock). In each case, anhydrite formed rapidly. In shorter experiments with labradorite, isolated anhydrite is observed surrounded by 'moats' of Ca-depleted silicate. In longer experiments, anhydrite is found as clusters of crystals that, in some cases, extend from the substrate forming precarious 'towers' (Figure). Anhydrite fills cracks in porous samples. We propose that the nucleation and rapid growth of anhydrite on the surface of these Ca-rich phases occurs by chemisorption of SO2(g) molecules with slightly negatively charged oxygen onto available near-surface calcium with slight positive charge. Anhydrite growth is sustained by SO2(g) chemisorption and Ca migration through the reacting silicate lattice, accelerated by increased bond lengths at high temperature. Significantly, the chemisorption reaction indicates that SO2 disproportionates to form both oxidized sulfur (as anhydrite) and a reduced sulfur species (e.g., an S* radical ion). On Earth, in the presence of H2O, the predominant reduced sulfur species is H2S, through an overall reaction: 3CaAl2Si2O8 + 4 SO2(g)+ H2O(g) → 3CaSO4 + 3Al2SiO5 + 3SiO2 + H2S(g)The reduced sulfur may react with gas phase Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu cluster compounds to form metal sulfides

  17. The effect of hydrocarbons on the microstructural evolution in rock salt: a case study on hydrocarbon bearing Ara salt from the South Oman Salt Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmatz, Joyce; Urai, Janos L.; Wübbeler, Franziska M. M.; Sadler, Marc

    2014-05-01

    It has been shown that dilatant deformation promotes the incorporation of hydrocarbons into typically low permeable rock salt (Schoenherr et al., 2007). However, there is not much knowledge on subsequent mechanisms related to recrystallization processes, which cause morphological and chemical changes of the carbonic inclusions. This work aims to contribute to an increased understanding of fluid inclusion dynamics related to grain boundary migration recrystallization and hence to facilitate the interpretation of complex microstructures in recrystallized, multiphase salt rocks. In this case study we investigate hydrocarbon-impregnated salt from the Cambrian Ara Group in the South Oman Salt Basin. The samples were cored from cm-m thick anhydrite-salt sequences overlying hydrocarbon bearing carbonate stringers in 3300 m depth. The anhydrite layers consist mainly of fine-grained anhydrite, which contains calcite, dolomite, and olivine inclusions. Solid bitumen and lighter hydrocarbon phases are observed in between the anhydrite grains and along cracks. Anhydrite layers host salt veins, which contain fragments of anhydrite. These fragments do not differ in composition or structure from the host material and the related vein microstructures indicate crack-seal mechanisms. Halite in the salt layers is almost entirely recrystallized with solid inclusions consisting of anhydrite, calcite, dolomite and olivine with hydrocarbon-coatings present inside grains and along grain boundaries. Solid inclusions cause pinning indicated by a decreased recrystallized grain size and by the presence of grains with preserved substructures representing earlier deformation phases. We observe two types of carbonic inclusions: I) solid bitumen coatings along grain boundaries and microcracks, interpreted to be incorporated into the salt in an overpressure state that allowed dilatancy of the salt, and II) less degraded, liquid hydrocarbons along grain boundaries in the vicinity of the anhydrite

  18. Managing Chemistry Underground: Is Co-Sequestration an Option in Selected Formations?

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, Diana H.; Murphy, Ellyn M.

    2011-04-19

    Geochemical simulations indicate that, although co-injection of CO2 and SO2 in glauconitic sandstone may not result in the permanent sequestration of SO2, other formations are more favorable. In a predominantly dolomite formation, dissolution of calcite, and to a lesser extent, dolomite will provide Ca in solution to promote the precipitation of anhydrite, thus removing the SO2 from solution. In basalt, dissolution of basaltic glass under acidic conditions provides Ca and Fe in solution which promote the sequestration of SO2 as anhydrite and eventually, pyrite.

  19. Testing and Modeling of a 3-MW Wind Turbine Using Fully Coupled Simulation Codes (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    LaCava, W.; Guo, Y.; Van Dam, J.; Bergua, R.; Casanovas, C.; Cugat, C.

    2012-06-01

    This poster describes the NREL/Alstom Wind testing and model verification of the Alstom 3-MW wind turbine located at NREL's National Wind Technology Center. NREL,in collaboration with ALSTOM Wind, is studying a 3-MW wind turbine installed at the National Wind Technology Center(NWTC). The project analyzes the turbine design using a state-of-the-art simulation code validated with detailed test data. This poster describes the testing and the model validation effort, and provides conclusions about the performance of the unique drive train configuration used in this wind turbine. The 3-MW machine has been operating at the NWTC since March 2011, and drive train measurements will be collected through the spring of 2012. The NWTC testing site has particularly turbulent wind patterns that allow for the measurement of large transient loads and the resulting turbine response. This poster describes the 3-MW turbine test project, the instrumentation installed, and the load cases captured. The design of a reliable wind turbine drive train increasingly relies on the use of advanced simulation to predict structural responses in a varying wind field. This poster presents a fully coupled, aero-elastic and dynamic model of the wind turbine. It also shows the methodology used to validate the model, including the use of measured tower modes, model-to-model comparisons of the power curve, and mainshaft bending predictions for various load cases. The drivetrain is designed to only transmit torque to the gearbox, eliminating non-torque moments that are known to cause gear misalignment. Preliminary results show that the drivetrain is able to divert bending loads in extreme loading cases, and that a significantly smaller bending moment is induced on the mainshaft compared to a three-point mounting design.

  20. Procurement and Initial Characterization of Alloy 230 and CMS Alloy 617

    SciTech Connect

    Terry C. Totemeier; Wejiu Ren

    2006-05-01

    Material for initial testing of alloy 230 and a controlled-chemistry variant of alloy 617 has been procured in the form of plates. ¾-inch thick alloy 230 plate was commercially procured from Haynes International, and 2-inch thick CCA 617, an existing controlled-chemistry variant of alloy 617, was obtained from Alstom Power through the ultra-supercritical fossil energy program. This report describes the procurement of these plates and their characteristics in terms of vendor-supplied chemistry and mechanical properties. Further detailed characterization tests are planned for this fiscal year, and this report will be updated in September 2006 to include the results of these tests.

  1. Dan jiang kou hydropower station turbine refurbishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R. Y.; Nie, S. Q.; Bazin, D.; Cheng, J. H.

    2012-11-01

    Dan jiangkou hydropower station refurbished project, isan important project of Chinese refurbishment market. Tianjin Alstom Hydro Co., ltd won this contract by right of good performance and design technology,Its design took into account all the constraints linked to the existing frame. It results in a specific and highly advanced shape.The objective of this paper is to introduce the successful turbine hydraulic design, model test and mechanical design of Dan jiangkou project; and also analyze the cavitation phenomena occurred on runner band surface of Unit 4 after putting into commercial operation. These technology and feedback shall be a good reference and experience for other similar projects

  2. Trends in increasing gas-turbine units efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A. S.; Kostennikov, S. V.

    2008-06-01

    A review of the latest models of gas-turbine units (GTUs) manufactured by leading firms of the world is given. With the example of units made by General Electric, Siemens, and Alstom, modern approaches to the problem of increasing the efficiency of gas-turbine units are dealt with. Basic principles of designing of moderate-size capacity gas turbine units are discussed, and comparison between characteristics of foreign-made GTUs belonging to this class and the advanced domestic GTE-65 unit is made.

  3. E.A. Gilbert Generating Unit, Maysville, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Wicker, K.

    2005-08-01

    The new, 368-MW E.A. Gilbert Generating Unit at the H.L. Spurlock Power Station in Maysville isn't just the cleanest coal-burning plant in Kentucky. Thanks to its circulating liquidized bed boiler from Alstom, it is one of the cleanest in the US. The boiler's ability to burn a wide variety of coals and even pet coke, biomass, or tire-derived fuels - also was a factor in Power's decision to name E.A. Gilbert a Top Plant of 2005. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Integrated Distribution Management System for Alabama Principal Investigator

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, Joe

    2013-03-31

    Southern Company Services, under contract with the Department of Energy, along with Alabama Power, Alstom Grid (formerly AREVA T&D) and others moved the work product developed in the first phase of the Integrated Distribution Management System (IDMS) from “Proof of Concept” to true deployment through the activity described in this Final Report. This Project – Integrated Distribution Management Systems in Alabama – advanced earlier developed proof of concept activities into actual implementation and furthermore completed additional requirements to fully realize the benefits of an IDMS. These tasks include development and implementation of a Distribution System based Model that enables data access and enterprise application integration.

  5. Bulb turbine operating at medium head: XIA JIANG case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiseau, F.; Desrats, C.; Petit, P.; Liu, J.

    2012-11-01

    With lots of references for 4-blade bulb turbines, such as these of Wu Jin Xia (4 units - 36.1 MW per unit - 9.2 m rated head), Chang Zhou (15 units - 46.7 MW per unit - 9.5 m rated head) and Tong Wan (4 units - 46.2 MW per unit - 11 m rated head), ALSTOM Power Hydro is one of the major suppliers of bulb turbines operating under medium head for the Chinese market. ALSTOM Power Hydro has been awarded in November 2010 a contract by Jiang Xi Province Xia Jiang Water Control Project Headquarters to equip Xia Jiang's new hydropower plant. The power dam is located on the Gan Jiang river, at about 160 km away from Nan Chang town in South Eastern China. The supply will consist in 5 bulb units including the furniture of both the turbine and its generator, for a total capacity of 200 MW, under a rated net head of 8.6 m. The prototype turbine is a 7.8 m diameter runner, rotating at 71.4 rpm speed. For this project, ALSTOM has proposed a fully new design of 4-blade bulb runner. This paper outlines the main steps of the hydraulic development. First of all, a fine tuning of the blade geometry was performed to enhance the runner behaviour at high loads and low heads, so that to fulfill the demanding requirements of efficiencies and maximum output. The challenge was also to keep an excellent cavitation behaviour, especially at the outer blade diameter in order to avoid cavitation erosion on the prototype. The shape of the blade was optimized by using the latest tools in computational fluid dynamics. Steady state simulations of the distributor and the runner were performed, in order to simulate more accurately the pressure fields on the blade and the velocity distribution at the outlet of the runner. Moreover, draft tube computations have been performed close to the design point and at higher loads. Then, a model fully homologous with the prototype was manufactured and tested at ALSTOM's laboratory in Grenoble (France). The model test results confirmed the predicted ones: the

  6. Baclofen reduces fat intake under binge-type conditions.

    PubMed

    Buda-Levin, Ariel; Wojnicki, Francis H E; Corwin, Rebecca L

    2005-09-15

    The GABA-B agonist baclofen reduces drug self-administration in rats and has shown promise clinically in the treatment of substance abuse. Baclofen generally does not reduce food intake in non-binge feeding protocols. In this study, baclofen was tested in a fat-binge protocol. Thirty male rats were divided into three groups (B: binge; FM: fat-matched; C: chow). B received a bowl of vegetable shortening for 2 h on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday (MWF) and continuous access to powdered chow (regular chow) in all phases. FM had continuous access to a regular chow+shortening mixture (FM chow) that provided the same proportion of shortening and regular chow that the B rats consumed in all phases. In addition, FM had the following: phase 1: no separate bowl of shortening; phase 2: 2-h MWF access to a separate bowl of shortening; phase 3, daily 2-h access to a separate bowl of shortening; C rats had continuous access to the regular chow in all phases. In addition, C had the following: phase 1: no separate bowl of shortening; phase 2: 2-h MWF access to a separate bowl of shortening; in phase 3, daily 2-h access to a separate bowl of shortening. Baclofen (1.0, 1.8 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced shortening intake regardless of access condition. Baclofen had no effect on, or stimulated, FM and regular chow intake. These results demonstrate that baclofen can reduce fat intake in rats under binge-type conditions. Furthermore, these results indicate that bingeing, as modeled in our protocol, is different from other forms of food intake and may share similarities with substance abuse. PMID:16140347

  7. Phase transformations and indications for acoustic mode softening in Tb-Gd orthophosphate.

    PubMed

    Tschauner, O; Ushakov, S V; Navrotsky, A; Boatner, L A

    2016-01-27

    At ambient conditions the anhydrous rare earth orthophosphates assume either the xenotime (zircon) or the monazite structure, with the latter favored for the heavier rare earths and by increasing pressure. Tb0.5Gd0.5PO4 assumes the xenotime structure at ambient conditions but is at the border between the xenotime and monazite structures. Here we show that, at high pressure, Tb0.5Gd0.5PO4 does not transform directly to monazite but through an intermediate anhydrite-type structure. Axial deformation of the unit cell near the anhydrite- to monazite-type transition indicates softening of the (c1133  +  c1313) combined elastic moduli. Stress response of rare-earth orthophosphate ceramics can be affected by both formation of the anhydrite-type phase and the elastic softening in the vicinity of the monazite-phase. We report the first structural data for an anhydrite-type rare earth orthophosphate. PMID:26733233

  8. The application of high resolution X-ray computed tomography on naturally deformed rock salt: Multi-scale investigations of the structural inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiemeyer, Nicolas; Habersetzer, Jörg; Peinl, Mark; Zulauf, Gernold; Hammer, Jörg

    2015-08-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) represents a useful technique providing new perspectives and insights for the structural investigation of naturally-deformed rock salt. Several samples of Permian rock salt from Gorleben, Asse and Teutschenthal (Germany) were investigated by exploiting the non-destructive nature of μCT and nCT techniques particularly for salt rocks. CT imaging enabled the visualization and quantification of anhydrite impurities, pore space and fluid phases located along grain-boundaries or trapped as intracrystalline inclusions. Disseminated grains and aggregates of anhydrite in rock salt of the Gorleben salt dome have been visualized and quantified by μCT for the first time in order to portray their spatial occurrence. The visualization of anhydrite aggregates and pore space shows no correlation between their spatial distributions. This independence excludes the anhydrite to be responsible for elevated porosity (0.87 ± 0.07 vol.-%). High-resolution nCT scans (≤1 μm voxel size) of single intracrystalline and grain-boundary fluid inclusions from Gorleben and Asse rock salt allowed the visualization and quantification of their various phase components. A major achievement is the detailed description of the morphology and shape of the fluid inclusions and of their phase components, which has not been conducted in rock salt research by high-resolution X-ray CT imaging before.

  9. Isotopic geochemistry of a mid-Proterozoic evaporite basin: Balmat, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whelan, J.F.; Rye, R.O.; De Lorraine, W.; Ohmoto, H.

    1990-01-01

    Lenses of Proterozoic meta-evaporitic anhydrite as much as 60 m thick occur in a 1150 to 1300 Ma Grenville Series marble sequence near Balmat, New York. ??34Sanhy values in the oldest lens average 8.2 permil; progressively younger lenses average 19.6, 27.2, 26.7, and 19.1 permil. The thickest and isotopically heaviest lens displays coincident upsection increases in ??34Sanhy (24.1-30.2 permil) and ??18Oanhy (19.8-22.5 permil) values. These increases and the overall 34S enrichment of the anhydrite indicate that anhydrite precipitation was concurrent with large-scale bacterial sulfate reduction in the depositional basin. The arid climate and high evaporation rates implied by evaporite deposition result in 18O enrichment of the basin waters and the carbonates precipitated from them. The evidence of arid climate and the variability and 34S-enrichment of the anhydrite imply that the Balmat environment was a closed or restricted basin in which evaporation and bacterial sulfate reduction combined to produce a 34S-enriched, sulfate-rich brine. -from Authors

  10. Danburite in evaporites of the Paradox basin, Utah.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raup, O.B.; Madsen, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Danburite (CaB2Si2O8) has been found as nodules in Pennsylvanian age marine evaporites. The occurrence of danburite and its relation to the host rock in the Paradox basin evaporites indicates that it most likely formed by diagenetic reaction of boron-rich, high-salinity brines with constituents in the anhydrite host rock.-from Authors

  11. Automation of the Technological Process to Produce Building Frame-Monolithic Modules Based on Fluoranhydrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorchuk, J.; Sadenova, M.; Rusina, O.

    2016-01-01

    The paper first proposes the automation of the technological process to produce building frame-monolithic modules from production wastes, namely technogenic anhydrite and fluoranhydrite. A functional diagram of the process automation is developed, the devices to perform control and maintenance with account of the production characteristics are chosen.

  12. The failure of the geothermal exploration at Allermöhe (Germany) - Explications from reactive transport modeling -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, M.; Günther, A.

    2003-04-01

    The bore Allermöhe (Hamburg, Germany) was deepened to a depth of 3,300 m in 1997. It taps a Rhaetian (Keuper) sandstone aquifer with a net thickness of 70 m and a temperature of 125oC. Although thickness and temperature of the aquifer agree with the conditions needed for geothermal energy use, the pore spaces, originally open with porosities up to 20 %, are filled to a large extent by anhydrite. The extractable amount of water, 3 m3/h, determined by a pumping test, is too low for an economical use of the resource. The investigated area is located SE of Hamburg (53o24' and 53o30' North; 10o00' and 10o10' East) and its structure is highly influenced by two salt domes (Meckelfeld and Reitbrook). Halokinesis of the Zechstein salt started in Late Triassic times, with the salt diapirs formed in Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous times. The stratigraphic development of the location is displayed in a sequence of cross-sections starting in Keuper times and ending with the recent structure of Allermöhe. The SHEMAT software was used in order to numerically determine the thermal-reactive flow-deformational history of the site in 2D and 3D simulations and to explain the observed anhydrite cementation. The 3D model (area 11 km x 11 km, depth 6 km) was set up by digitizing and attributing georeferenced structural contour lines of major stratigraphic units. For the 2D simulations, cross-sections were cut out of the 3D GIS-based model. The 2D numerical studies revealed that free convection leads to transport of solutes, washed off from the salt domes, resulting in precipitation of anhydrite in various stratigraphic formations. It can be shown that occurrence of anhydrite is closely related to the geometric conditions. Only within the recent structure of the Allermöhe site anhydrite precipitation has been observed in the Rhaetian sandstone. Nevertheless, the calculated anhydrite amount is too low to explain the actual cementation at Allermöhe in a reasonable time span. Even

  13. The electrical properties of calcium sulfate rocks from decametric to micrometric scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinea, Ander; Playà, Elisabet; Rivero, Lluís; Ledo, Juan José; Queralt, Pilar

    2012-10-01

    Sulfate rocks have a sedimentary evaporitic origin and are present in many deposits worldwide. Among them, gypsum (dihydrated calcium sulfate) is the most common and is exploited for industrial purposes. Anhydrite (calcium sulfate) is frequently found in gypsum quarries and in non-outcropping sulfates. The greater hardness of anhydrite compared to gypsum causes a problem for gypsum extraction; quarry fronts have to be halted as soon as anhydrite is found. In this work the electrical properties of calcium sulfates have been studied by means of geoelectrical methods. A direct relationship between the electrical conductivity values of the calcium sulfate rocks and their lithological composition has been established with the lutitic matrix being the main controlling factor when it is well connected. When the matrix is under the percolation threshold the sulfate phases are dominant, and the electrical response of the rocks depends on the percentage of each phase. When the rock is matrix dominant, the electrical resistivity trend fits with the Hashin-Shtrikman lower bound for multiphase systems (considering gypsum, anhydrite and matrix as the components). On the other hand, when the rock is calcium sulfate dominant the trend shows the one of the Hashin-Shtrikman upper bound. The reference electrical resistivity value of pure anhydrite rocks has been defined as 104 Ω·m and geoelectrical classification for calcium sulfate rocks has been elaborated. With this classification it is possible to differentiate between calcium sulfate rocks with different composition from their electrical resistivity value. This classification has been checked with field examples and calculating the theoretical resistivity value of thin section photographs with the program ELECFEM2D. The electrical behavior of calcium sulfate rocks is a good reference for other type of rocks with electrically differentiated components, and similar methods can be used to define their geoelectrical responses.

  14. Intracrystalline porosity - a newly discovered pore type in dolostone reservoirs and implications for dedolomitization and pseudospiculites

    SciTech Connect

    Jacka, A.D.

    1984-04-01

    Intracrystalline porosity consists of hollow dolomite crystals. It forms when anhydrite, which had replaced cores of dolomite crystals, was dissolved. Significant volumes of intracrystalline porosity have been preserved in subsurface Permian dolostones of the Permian basin and in outcrops of Lower Cretaceous dolostones of Texas. Anhydrite can be seen replacing organic-rich cores of dolomite crystals in Permian and Jurassic (Smackover) dolostones. Dolomite crystals, which replace original carbonate, commonly appear cloudy because of organic inclusions. After dolomitization, continued flux of the dolomitizing fluid caused precipitation of clear rims on the ''cloudy'' crystals. Anhydrite tends to replace the organic-rich cores, leaving the clear epitaxial rims to form ''pill box'' structures. When anhydrite was dissolved, many hollow dolomite crystals collapsed and fragments became transported as vadose internal sediment. Obtuse and acute angles of these hollow dolomite rims superficially resemble sponge spicules, and pseudospiculites are layers of vadose internal sediment in which numerous fragments of hollow dolomite rims have been deposited in solution channels. Hollow dolomite crystals and pseudospiculites constitute evidence for disconformity and also represent subtle indications of vanished sulfates. In many instances, calcite cement was precipitated within intracrystalline pores and is misinterpreted as partial dedolomitization. Such calcite cement can be distinguished from dedolomite, because the calcite is not syntaxial with dolomite rims, as it would be in dedolomitization. In some Permian dolostone intervals, intracrystalline porosity is predominant pore type. Molds formed by dissolution of replacement porphyroblasts and nodules of anhydrite also commonly were formed along with intracrystalline pores and all represent tertiary (third order) voids.

  15. The Chicxulub crater - impact metamorphism of sulfate and carbonate lithologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, A.; Langenhorst, F.; Hornemann, U.; Ivanov, B. A.

    2003-04-01

    It is discussed whether in the aftermath of the Chicxulub event, impact-released CO_2 and SO_x have changed the Earth's climate, acting also as lethal thread for life. Undoubtedly, vaporization of carbonates and sulfates, which are major target lithologies at the Chicxulub impact site, occurred in the footprint of the projectile. What happened to these lithologies outside this very restricted zone was so far unconstrained. Petrologic observations on PEMEX and UNAM as well as on the CSDP cores allow to set up a general classification for shock-related pro-grade effects on sulfate and carbonate sedimentary rocks. Shock effects in lithic breccias are restricted to brecciation and formation of twins in calcite. Suevites mostly lack melted carbonate clasts; annealing effects in anhydrite fragments are absent. The underlying melt breccias contain anhydrite fragments still displaying a sedimentary texture, and limestone clasts, whose texture reflect crystallization from melt. Impact melt breccias from deeper levels frequently contain partially resorbed anhydrite clasts and a melt matrix with the Ca-rich mineral assemblage quartz + plagioclase + clinopyroxene; this mineral assemblage provides evidence for partial dissociation of CaSO_4. Large clasts of anhydrite consist of equant crystals with 120^o triple junctions, a feature indicative for re-crystallization in the solid state. Tagamites (impact melt rocks) are virtually free of clasts from sedimentary lithologies. These rocks have an extremely high formation temperature, which caused total dissociation of CaSO_4 and CaCO_3. Finally, up to 100 μm wide veins of anhydrite + calcite + quartz cut the matrix of all lithologies except the tagamites. They probably represent "degassing vents". The given scheme is in qualitative accordance with data of shock recovery and annealing experiments as well as with modeling results. In addition, it substantiates that annealing plays a fundamental role in the impact metamorphism of

  16. A thermodynamic model for the prediction of phase equilibria and speciation in the H 2O-CO 2-NaCl-CaCO 3-CaSO 4 system from 0 to 250 °C, 1 to 1000 bar with NaCl concentrations up to halite saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Duan, Zhenhao

    2011-08-01

    A thermodynamic model is developed for the calculation of both phase and speciation equilibrium in the H 2O-CO 2-NaCl-CaCO 3-CaSO 4 system from 0 to 250 °C, and from 1 to 1000 bar with NaCl concentrations up to the saturation of halite. The vapor-liquid-solid (calcite, gypsum, anhydrite and halite) equilibrium together with the chemical equilibrium of H+,Na+,Ca, CaHCO3+,Ca(OH)+,OH-,Cl-, HCO3-,HSO4-,SO42-, CO32-,CO,CaCO and CaSO 4(aq) in the aqueous liquid phase as a function of temperature, pressure and salt concentrations can be calculated with accuracy close to the experimental results. Based on this model validated from experimental data, it can be seen that temperature, pressure and salinity all have significant effects on pH, alkalinity and speciations of aqueous solutions and on the solubility of calcite, halite, anhydrite and gypsum. The solubility of anhydrite and gypsum will decrease as temperature increases (e.g. the solubility will decrease by 90% from 360 K to 460 K). The increase of pressure may increase the solubility of sulphate minerals (e.g. gypsum solubility increases by about 20-40% from vapor pressure to 600 bar). Addition of NaCl to the solution may increase mineral solubility up to about 3 molality of NaCl, adding more NaCl beyond that may slightly decrease its solubility. Dissolved CO 2 in solution may decrease the solubility of minerals. The influence of dissolved calcite on the solubility of gypsum and anhydrite can be ignored, but dissolved gypsum or anhydrite has a big influence on the calcite solubility. Online calculation is made available on www.geochem-model.org/model.

  17. Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture and Storage Project Topical Report: Preliminary Public Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Guy Cerimele

    2011-09-30

    This Preliminary Public Design Report consolidates for public use nonproprietary design information on the Mountaineer Commercial Scale Carbon Capture & Storage project. The report is based on the preliminary design information developed during the Phase I - Project Definition Phase, spanning the time period of February 1, 2010 through September 30, 2011. The report includes descriptions and/or discussions for: (1) DOE's Clean Coal Power Initiative, overall project & Phase I objectives, and the historical evolution of DOE and American Electric Power (AEP) sponsored projects leading to the current project; (2) Alstom's Chilled Ammonia Process (CAP) carbon capture retrofit technology and the carbon storage and monitoring system; (3) AEP's retrofit approach in terms of plant operational and integration philosophy; (4) The process island equipment and balance of plant systems for the CAP technology; (5) The carbon storage system, addressing injection wells, monitoring wells, system monitoring and controls logic philosophy; (6) Overall project estimate that includes the overnight cost estimate, cost escalation for future year expenditures, and major project risks that factored into the development of the risk based contingency; and (7) AEP's decision to suspend further work on the project at the end of Phase I, notwithstanding its assessment that the Alstom CAP technology is ready for commercial demonstration at the intended scale.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES AND ANALYTICAL CAPABILITIES FOR VISION 21 ENERGY PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Madhava Syamlal, Ph.D.

    2001-01-23

    To complete project planning, various project groups conducted several meetings and teleconferences. As a result a draft project management plan was written and circulated. The plan will be finalized in a project kick off meeting to be held on January 16, 2001 in Lebanon, NH, which will be attended by all project participants (Task 1.0). Various project personnel have been trained in the use of Fluent and Aspen Plus, which completes all the training tasks except for Aspen Plus and IDL training for Alstom Power (Task 2.1). A preliminary version of User Requirements Document (preURD) was written. This document will be sent to key users of Aspen Plus and FLUENT and their responses will be collected in January (Task 2.3). A prototype of Fluent integration with Aspen Plus was constructed for understanding the required software design. The development of a general architecture for the integrated software suite has been started (Task 2.6). Invitation letters for participation in an Advisory Board were sent out to several Vision 21 contractors. Their responses will be used to form an Advisory Board in January (Task 5.0). Fluent has awarded subcontracts to Alstom Power, CERC, and Aspen Tech and negotiations with Intergraph are underway. Aspen Plus and FLUENT were installed on a computer at CERC. The design of a project web site was completed, and the site setup was started (Task 7.0).

  19. Crosbyton Solar Power Project. Volume 8: Preliminary design of 55-MWe solar-fossil hybrid electric power plant at Crosbyton, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-02-01

    This report presents the preliminary design and the construction cost for a 5 MWe Solar Hybrid Electric Energy Plant (SHEEP) to be built at Crosbyton, Texas. The plant has been designed to serve as a small size, commercially operable power plant which fully demonstrates the function, performance, and cost of this solar technology and integrated steam management concept. Good lifetime performance at minimum cost were the critical design objectives. The major solar components of this plant are ten 203 foot diameter stationary tilted quartersphere solar bowls. Each with a slender 58 foot solar receiver which tracks the solar focus produced by the bowl. At peak insolation the ten bowls will produce sufficient steam to generate 5 MWe. This plant has only a few minutes of thermal storage capability. The plant has a fossil boiler (oil or gas fired) which is integrated into the solar-turbine steam loop to provide supplemental steam for electric generation at night or during periods of low insolation.

  20. Enhancement of lettuce yield by manipulation of light and nitrogen nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, S. L.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    Several levels of photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) were tested for effects on growth of 4 cultivars of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) under controlled-environment conditions. Growth of 'Salad Bowl', 'Bibb', and 'Ruby' was greater at 932 micromoles s-1 m-2 than at < or = 644 micromoles s-1 m-2 under a 16-hour photoperiod. Thirty mM NO3- or 5 mM NH4+ + 25 mM NO3- increased leaf dry weight while reducing leaf chlorosis in 'Salad Bowl' and 'Grand Rapids' relative to that with 15 mM NO3-, and reduced leaf purpling in 'Bibb' and 'Ruby' with little or no effect on yield. Continuous illumination with 455 or 918 micromoles s-1 m-2 stimulated yield of 'Salad Bowl' and 'Bibb' when 30 mM N as NH4+ + NO3- was used relative to that with 15 mM NO3-.

  1. Redox-Active Corannulene Buckybowls in a Crystalline Hybrid Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Fellows, W Brett; Rice, Allison M; Williams, Derek E; Dolgopolova, Ekaterina A; Vannucci, Aaron K; Pellechia, Perry J; Smith, Mark D; Krause, Jeanette A; Shustova, Natalia B

    2016-02-01

    A porous crystalline corannulene-containing scaffold, which combines the periodicity, dimensionality, and structural modularity of hybrid frameworks with the intrinsic properties of redox-active π-bowls, has been prepared. Single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, ab initio density functional theory computations, gas sorption analysis, fluorescence spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry were employed to study the properties of the novel corannulene derivatives and the buckybowl-based hybrid materials. X-ray diffraction studies revealed the preservation of the corannulene bowl inside the prepared rigid matrix, which offers the unique opportunity to extend the scaffold dimensionality through the buckybowl curvature. Merging the inherent properties of hybrid frameworks with the intrinsic properties of π-bowls opens a new avenue for preparing redox-active materials and potentially improving charge transport in the scaffold. PMID:26694541

  2. Two wheeled lunar dumptruck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brus, Michael R.; Haleblain, Ray; Hernandez, Tomas L.; Jensen, Paul E.; Kraynick, Ronald L.; Langley, Stan J.; Shuman, Alan G.

    1988-01-01

    The design of a two wheel bulk material transport vehicle is described in detail. The design consists of a modified cylindrical bowl, two independently controlled direct drive motors, and two deformable wheels. The bowl has a carrying capacity of 2.8 m (100 ft) and is constructed of aluminum. The low speed, high HP motors are directly connected to the wheels, thus yielding only two moving parts. The wheels, specifically designed for lunar applications, utilize the chevron tread pattern for optimum traction. The vehicle is maneuvered by varying the relative angular velocities of the wheels. The bulk material being transported is unloaded by utilizing the motors to oscillate the bowl back and forth to a height at which dumping is achieved. The analytical models were tested using a scaled prototype of the lunar transport vehicle. The experimental data correlated well with theoretical predictions. Thus, the design established provides a feasible alternative for the handling of bulk material on the moon.

  3. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2003-05-15

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department

  4. Sedimentary environment of a halite-mudrock mélange (Haselgebirge Formation, Eastern Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Christoph; Köster, Mathias H.; Neubauer, Franz

    2015-04-01

    During Variscan orogeny in Carboniferous times, Gondwana and Europe collided to form Pangea (Stampfli et al., 2013). The succeeding Permian was a time of continental consolidation and erosion of the uplifted Vaiscan mountain belt but also its destruction by rifting processes forming the Tethys Sea (in its initial definition). During late Permian (c. 255-250 Ma), when the later Eastern Alps were located around north of the equator, evaporites of the Haselgebirge Formation (now exposed in Northern Calcareous Alps) were deposited. The location of the deposits was at around 10° north of the equator, which would be at the transition from a tropical climate to a moderate to semi-aride climate nowadays (Blakey, 2008), but on the other side the average temperature can be assumed higher than today (Berner, 1998). In salt mines, the Haselgebirge Fm. consists of a two-component tectonite of c. 50 % halite and 50 % sedimentary clastic and other evaporite rocks (Schauberger, 1986; Spötl 1998). Most of the clastic rocks are mud- to siltstones ("mudrock"). Its present appearance as a tectonic mélange is a result of the superimposed stages of Alpine orogenic events during Jurassic, Cretaceous and Cenocoic times. During the present study, we investigated the sedimentary/ diagenetic development of the evaporite rocks by field work in underground salt mines (Hallstatt, Berchtesgaden, Bad Dürrnberg, Altaussee), thin section analysis, SEM, RDX and EMPA. Mudrock needs a quiet or non-turbulent environment to settle down. Higher water energy leads to non-horizontal structures like ripples, re-sedimentation of clasts and a larger grain size. Therefore, water depth was in general deeper than 5 m, but the question remains unanswered how deep the basin could become in its deepest parts. Massive anhydrite rock precipitated from sea water (layered, black), while nodular/mosaic anhydrite (red) crystallized within the sediment (earlier or coevally). The transition gypsum  anhydrite

  5. Formation of dense structures induced by filament collisions. Correlation of density, kinematics, and magnetic field in the Pipe nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frau, P.; Girart, J. M.; Alves, F. O.; Franco, G. A. P.; Onishi, T.; Román-Zúñiga, C. G.

    2015-02-01

    Context. The Pipe nebula is a molecular cloud that lacks star formation feedback and has a relatively simple morphology and velocity structure. This makes it an ideal target for testing cloud evolution through collisions. Aims: We aim at drawing a comprehensive picture of this relatively simple cloud to better understand the formation and evolution of molecular clouds on large scales. Methods: We use archival data to compare the optical polarization properties, the visual extinction, and the 13CO velocities and linewidths of the entire cloud in order to identify trends among the observables. Results: The Pipe nebula can be roughly divided into two filaments with different orientations and gas velocity ranges: E-W at 2-4 km s-1 and N-S at 6-7 km s-1. The two filaments overlap at the bowl, where the gas shows a velocity gradient spanning from 2 to 7 km s-1. Compared to the rest of the Pipe nebula, the bowl gas appears to be denser and exhibits larger linewidths. In addition, the polarization data at the bowl shows lower angular dispersion and higher polarization degree. Cores in the bowl tend to cluster in space and to follow the 13CO velocity gradient. In the stem, cores tend to cluster in regions with properties similar to those of the bowl. Conclusions: The velocity pattern points to a collision between the filaments in the bowl region. The magnetic field seems to be compressed and strengthened in the shocked region. The proportional increase in density and magnetic field strength by a factor similar to the Alfvénic Mach number suggests a continuous shock at low Alfvénic Mach number under the flux-freezing condition. Shocked regions seem to enhance the formation and clustering of dense cores. A movie associated to Fig. 2 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  6. Gas centrifuge purge method

    DOEpatents

    Theurich, Gordon R.

    1976-01-01

    1. In a method of separating isotopes in a high speed gas centrifuge wherein a vertically oriented cylindrical rotor bowl is adapted to rotate about its axis within an evacuated chamber, and wherein an annular molecular pump having an intake end and a discharge end encircles the uppermost portion of said rotor bowl, said molecular pump being attached along its periphery in a leak-tight manner to said evacuated chamber, and wherein end cap closure means are affixed to the upper end of said rotor bowl, and a process gas withdrawal and insertion system enters said bowl through said end cap closure means, said evacuated chamber, molecular pump and end cap defining an upper zone at the discharge end of said molecular pump, said evacuated chamber, molecular pump and rotor bowl defining a lower annular zone at the intake end of said molecular pump, a method for removing gases from said upper and lower zones during centrifuge operation with a minimum loss of process gas from said rotor bowl, comprising, in combination: continuously measuring the pressure in said upper zone, pumping gas from said lower zone from the time the pressure in said upper zone equals a first preselected value until the pressure in said upper zone is equal to a second preselected value, said first preselected value being greater than said second preselected value, and continuously pumping gas from said upper zone from the time the pressure in said upper zone equals a third preselected value until the pressure in said upper zone is equal to a fourth preselected value, said third preselected value being greater than said first, second and fourth preselected values.

  7. Changing surface hydro- and oleophobicity with resorcinarene multilayers-a simple water/oil proofing process.

    PubMed

    Davis, Frank; Frary, Elaine; Stirling, Charles J M

    2004-10-12

    Resorcinarenes (resorcinol-aldehyde tetramers) of appropriate structures have been shown to change the hydro- and oleophilicities of a variety of surfaces. The phenomenon results from attachment of the rim of the bowl-like molecules to hydrophilic surfaces. Hydrophobic (alkyl) and oleophobic (perfluoro alkyl) "legs" attached to the bowls then determine the immediate surface property. Amounts required to modify surfaces are only between 2 and 10 mg m(-2) treated, and there is evidence of multilayer formation. Penetration of surfaces by a variety of liquids has been studied and cannot easily be understood as a function of density, viscosity, or surface tension. PMID:15461489

  8. Process for selective grinding of coal

    DOEpatents

    Venkatachari, Mukund K.; Benz, August D.; Huettenhain, Horst

    1991-01-01

    A process for preparing coal for use as a fuel. Forming a coal-water slurry having solid coal particles with a particle size not exceeding about 80 microns, transferring the coal-water slurry to a solid bowl centrifuge, and operating same to classify the ground coal-water slurry to provide a centrate containing solid particles with a particle size distribution of from about 5 microns to about 20 microns and a centrifuge cake of solids having a particle size distribution of from about 10 microns to about 80 microns. The classifer cake is reground and mixed with fresh feed to the solid bowl centrifuge for additional classification.

  9. (αR,4R,4aR,6aS,7R,8S,10R,11S)-Methyl α-acet-oxy-4-(3-furan-yl)-10-hy-droxy-4a,7,9,9-tetra-methyl-2,13-dioxo-1,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,8,9,10,11,12-dodeca-hydro-7,11-methano-2H-cyclo-octa-[f][2]benzopyran-8-acetate (6-O-acetyl-swietenolide) from the seeds of Swietenia macrophylla.

    PubMed

    Goh, Bey Hing; Abdul Kadir, Habsah; Abdul Malek, Sri Nurestri; Ng, Seik Weng

    2010-01-01

    The mol-ecule of O-acetyl-swietenolide, C(29)H(36)O(9), isolated from the seeds of Swietenia macrophylla, features four six-membered rings connected together in the shape of a bowl; one of the inner rings adopts a twisted chair conformation owing to the C=C double bond. The furyl substitutent is connected to an outer ring, and it points away from the bowl cavity. The hy-droxy group is connected to a carbonyl O atom of an adjacent mol-ecule by an O-H⋯O hydrogen bond, generating a chain running along the b axis. PMID:21588997

  10. 'Blueberry' Triplets Born in Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This microscopic image, taken at the outcrop region dubbed 'Berry Bowl' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site, shows the sphere-like grains or 'blueberries' that fill Berry Bowl. Of particular interest is the blueberry triplet, which indicates that these geologic features grew in pre-existing wet sediments. Other sphere-like grains that form in the air, such as impact spherules or ejected volcanic material called lapilli, are unlikely to fuse along a line and form triplets. This image was taken by the rover's microscopic imager on the 46th martian day, or sol, of its mission.

  11. SEAL FOR HIGH SPEED CENTRIFUGE

    DOEpatents

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1957-12-17

    A seal is described for a high speed centrifuge wherein the centrifugal force of rotation acts on the gasket to form a tight seal. The cylindrical rotating bowl of the centrifuge contains a closure member resting on a shoulder in the bowl wall having a lower surface containing bands of gasket material, parallel and adjacent to the cylinder wall. As the centrifuge speed increases, centrifugal force acts on the bands of gasket material forcing them in to a sealing contact against the cylinder wall. This arrangememt forms a simple and effective seal for high speed centrifuges, replacing more costly methods such as welding a closure in place.

  12. Acid alteration in the fumarolic environment of Usu volcano, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Africano, F.; Bernard, A.

    2000-04-01

    The last eruptive activity of Usu volcano in 1977-78 involved the development of high temperature (550-710°C) fumaroles. The gases emitted were H 2O-rich (95-99 mol%) with Cl/S=0.05-0.9, F/Cl=0.3-0.2 and with RH=-2.5 close to the rock buffer (FeO/FeO 1.5). Cooling and oxidation of the high temperature gases resulted in the formation of acidic condensates (pH=1.6) that interacted with the wall rock. Complete leaching of the cations (Ca, Na, Mg, Al and Fe) from the primary minerals and matrix glass occurred leaving in place only silica. These mobilized cations precipitated as secondary minerals from acidic fluids that circulated in microcracks. SEM study shows mineral associations reflecting increasing fluid oxidation: (a) Al fluorides such as ralstonite (NaMgAlF 6·H 2O), pyrite, and anhydrite/gypsum; (b) an Al hydroxide, hematite, gypsum and amorphous silica or cristobalite; (c) Al sulfates such as hydronium alunite [(H 3O)Al 3(SO 4) 2(OH) 6], alunite [KAl 3(SO 4) 2(OH) 6], amorphous silica, cristobalite, hematite and anhydrite/gypsum; (d) Al sulfates, Al fluorides, amorphous silica, cristobalite, pyrite and anhydrite/gypsum. A Ti oxide, a Fe-Mg sulfate and barite are present in minor amounts. Clay minerals are absent from the observed assemblages. Primary phenocrysts and matrix glass undergo a complete transformation to silica enriched in fluorine (1-7 wt%). This fluorine enrichment in the silicified parts of silicates and in silica incrustations suggests that F may play a role in silica mobilization. Modeling of the cooling of the high-temperature gases was performed with the program GASWORKS. The calculations suggest that 66% of the total sulfur from the gases may be lost by deposition as native sulfur at temperatures below 160°C. Thermochemical modeling of condensate-rock interaction using CHILLER indicates that the cooling of gases was the source of the altering solutions. Oxidation, by atmospheric O 2, of the sulfur-reduced species in the volcanic gas

  13. Mount St. Augustine volcano fumarole wall rock alteration: mineralogy, zoning, composition and numerical models of its formation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getahun, Aberra; Reed, Mark H.; Symonds, Robert

    1996-05-01

    Intensely altered wall rock was collected from high-temperature (640 °C) and low-temperature (375 °C) vents at Augustine volcano in July 1989. The high-temperature altered rock exhibits distinct mineral zoning differentiated by color bands. In order of decreasing temperature, the color bands and their mineral assemblages are: (a) white to grey (tridymite-anhydrite); (b) pink to red (tridymite-hematite-Fe hydroxide-molysite (FeCl 3) with minor amounts of anhydrite and halite); and (c) dark green to green (anhydrite-halite-sylvite-tridymite with minor amounts of molysite, soda and potash alum, and other sodium and potassium sulfates). The alteration products around the low-temperature vents are dominantly cristobalite and amorphous silica with minor potash and soda alum, aphthitalite, alunogen and anhydrite. Compared to fresh 1986 Augustine lava, the altered rocks exhibit enrichments in silica, base metals, halogens and sulfur and show very strong depletions in Al in all alteration zones and in iron, alkali and alkaline earth elements in some of the alteration zones. To help understand the origins of the mineral assemblages in altered Augustine rocks, we applied the thermochemical modeling program, GASWORKS, in calculations of: (a) reaction of the 1987 and 1989 gases with wall rock at 640 and 375 °C; (b) cooling of the 1987 gas from 870 to 100 °C with and without mineral fractionation; (c) cooling of the 1989 gas from 757 to 100 °C with and without mineral fractionation; and (d) mixing of the 1987 and 1989 gases with air. The 640 °C gas-rock reaction produces an assemblage consisting of silicates (tridymite, albite, diopside, sanidine and andalusite), oxides (magnetite and hercynite) and sulfides (bornite, chalcocite, molybdenite and sphalerite). The 375 °C gas-rock reaction produces dominantly silicates (quartz, albite, andalusite, microcline, cordierite, anorthite and tremolite) and subordinate amounts of sulfides (pyrite, chalcocite and wurtzite), oxides

  14. A note on the chemistry of seawater in the range 350°-500°C

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, James L.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    The chemistry of seawater at conditions of 350° to 500°C, 220 to 1000 bars (22 to 100 MPa) is controlled by reactions involving magnesium hydroxide sulfate (MHSH) and anhydrite. During progressive heating from 350° to 500°C at 1000 bars (100 MPa), MHSH with a  ratio of 1.25 is formed via precipitation from solution and via reaction of solution with pre-existing anhydrite. During adiabatic expansion the MHSH extracts additional SO4 from seawater and converts to a stoichiometry in which . These reactions control and greatly change the concentrations of Ca, Mg, SO4 in solution and produce significant ionizable hydrogen, attaining 11.7 mmoles kg−1 at maximum conditions.

  15. Potash ore reserves in the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant area, Eddy County, southeastern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, Charles B.; Cheeseman, R.J.; Lorenz, J.C.; Millgate, M.L.

    1978-01-01

    The proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) area includes about 18,960 acres in Tps. 22 and 23 S., Rs. 30 and 31 E., New Mexico Principal Meridian, Eddy County, southeastern New Mexico. It is located within the Carlsbad Mining District about 25 miles east of Carlsbad. The WIPP area is immediately south of the Capitan Limestone subcrop, which formed the northern margin of the Delaware basin in Permian time. During Late Permian (Ochoan) time, gypsum, anhydrite, and halite were deposited in the seas of the Delaware basin to form the Castile Formation. These deposits have a maximum thickness of about 2,000 feet and grade upward into the more argillaceous beds of the Salado Formation. The Salado Formation contains abundant sulfate minerals, notably anhydrite and polyhalite. The potash ore minerals, langbeinite and sylvite, occur in the upper part of the Salado Formation in the McNutt potash zone, a local name applied to a potassium-rich zone.

  16. Interpretation of a carbonate reservoir using P-P and P-SV seismic data

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.L.M.; Stewart, R.R.; Lawton, D.C.; Harrison, M.P.; Szata, K.J.

    1994-12-31

    Two orthogonal three-component seismic lines were acquired by Unocal Canada Ltd., in January, 1987, over the Nisku Lousana Field in central Alberta. The purpose of the survey was to investigate a Late Devonian Nisku patch reef though to be separated from the Nisku shelf to the east by an anhydrite basin. The data are of good quality and major events were correlated between P-P and P-SV sections of both lines using offset synthetic seismograms. Interpretation of P-P and P-SV sections show time interval, V{sub p}/V{sub s}, and amplitude variations in the zone of interest. A change in lithology from anhydrite to dolomite, increased porosity, and small quantities of gas could be contributing to the observed decrease in V{sub p}/V{sub s} in an interval containing the reservoir.

  17. Major ion chemistry and weathering processes in the Midyan Basin, northwestern Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ghrefat, Habes A; Batayneh, Awni; Zaman, Haider; Zumlot, Taisser; Elawadi, Eslam; Nazzal, Yousef

    2013-10-01

    Chemical characteristics of 72 groundwater samples collected from Midyan Basin have been studied to evaluate major ion chemistry together with the geochemical and weathering processes controlling the water composition. Water chemistry of the study area is mainly dominated by Na, Ca, SO4, and Cl. The molar ratios of (Ca + Mg)/total cations, (Na + K)/total cations, (Ca + Mg)/(Na + K), (Ca + Mg)/(HCO3 + SO4), (Ca + Mg)/HCO3, and Na/Cl reveal that water chemistry of the Midyan Basin is controlled by evaporite dissolution (gypsum and/or anhydrite, and halite), silicate weathering, and minor contribution of carbonate weathering. The studied groundwater samples are largely undersaturated with respect to dolomite, gypsum, and anhydrite. These waters are capable of dissolving more of these minerals under suitable physicochemical conditions. PMID:23609922

  18. A note on the chemistry of seawater in the range 350°-500°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, James L.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    The chemistry of seawater at conditions of 350° to 500°C, 220 to 1000 bars (22 to 100 MPa) is controlled by reactions involving magnesium hydroxide sulfate (MHSH) and anhydrite. During progressive heating from 350° to 500°C at 1000 bars (100 MPa), MHSH with a Mg/SO 4 ratio of 1.25 is formed via precipitation from solution and via reaction of solution with pre-existing anhydrite. During adiabatic expansion the MHSH extracts additional SO 4 from seawater and converts to a stoichiometry in which Mg/SO 4 = 1.16 . These reactions control and greatly change the concentrations of Ca, Mg, SO 4 in solution and produce significant ionizable hydrogen, attaining 11.7 mmoles kg -1 at maximum conditions.

  19. Patterns of groundwater salinity changes in a deep continental-oceanic transect off the southeastern Atlantic coast of the U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F. T.; Paull, C.K.

    1981-01-01

    Investigations of formation-fluid salinities in a transect from western Georgia to the edge of the Blake Plateau off the coast of Georgia show surprisingly similar hydrochemical features offshore and onshore. A fresh-brackish wedge of groundwater ( 100 g/kg) occur in Lower Cretaceous (?) strata. These strata have a pronounced evaporitic (anhydritic) character in the offshore segment. Strong salinity gradients in interstitial waters signify buried evaporite deposits at drill sites beneath the Blake Plateau. ?? 1981.

  20. Basin Analysis of the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and Petroleum System Modeling of the Jurassic Smackover Formation, Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain, Final Report and Topical Reports 5-8 on Smackover Petroleum system and Underdevelopment Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, Ernest A.; Puckett, T. Markham; Parcell, William C.; Llinas, Juan Carlos; Kopaska-Merkel, David C.; Townsend, Roger N.

    2002-03-05

    The Smackover Formation, a major hydrocarbon-producing horizon in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin (MISB), conformably overlies the Norphlet Formation and is conformably overlain by the Buckner Anhydrite Member of the Haynesville Formation. The Norphlet-Smackover contact can be either gradational or abrupt. The thickness and lithofacies distribution of the Smackover Formation were controlled by the configuration of incipient paleotopography. The Smackover Formation has been subdivided into three informal members, referred to as the lower, middle and upper members.

  1. Mineral resource of the month: gypsum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crangle, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    You may not realize it, but the walls of your office are probably made from a mineral: gypsum. Gypsum is an abundant, evaporite-derived sedimentary mineral with deposits located throughout the world. It is often associated with paleoenvironmental lake and marine environments. In its pure form, gypsum consists of calcium sulfate dihydrate, although most crude gypsum naturally occurs in combination with anhydrite, clay, dolomite and/or limestone.

  2. The influence of compound admixtures on the properties of high-content slag cement

    SciTech Connect

    Dongxu, L.; Xuequan, W.; Jinlin, S.; Yujiang, W.

    2000-01-01

    Based on the activation theory of alkali and sulfate, the influence of compound admixtures on the properties of high-content slag cement was studied by testing the strength, pore structure, hydrates, and microstructure, Test results show that compound admixtures can obviously improve the properties of high-content slag cement. The emphasis of the present research is two-fold: substituting gypsum with anhydrite and calcining gypsum. These both can improve early and later performance.

  3. Diagenesis of Paleozoic playa-lake and ephemeral-stream deposits from the Pimenta Bueno Formation, Siluro-Devonian (?) of the Parecis Basin, central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, K.; Morad, S.; Al-Aasm, I. S.; De Ros, L. F.

    2011-07-01

    The Parecis Basin is a large intracratonic rift located in central Brazil and filled with Paleozoic carbonate, evaporite and siliciclastic sediments. The occurrence of gas seeps has recently attracted significant exploration interest by the Brazilian petroleum agency and by Petrobras. The continuously cored PB-01-RO well provided the first opportunity to study the depositional environments, diagenetic evolution and hydrocarbon potential of the largely unknown sedimentary successions of the Parecis Basin. The cored lithologies, belonging to the Siluro-Devonian (?) Pimenta Bueno Formation, are interpreted as deposited in playa-lake and ephemeral-stream environments. The deposits display a strong facies control on the diagenetic mineral assemblages and evolution. Diagenetic minerals in the ephemeral-stream deposits include eogenetic hematite and smectitic clay coats and quartz cement, and the mesogenetic process includes precipitation of sulfates (anhydrite and barite) and carbonates (calcite, dolomite and kutnahorite-ankerite-huntite), followed by partial dissolution of these carbonates and sulfates, and of feldspar grains. Telogenetic processes include the precipitation of hematite and kaolinite within secondary pores, and the replacement of anhydrite by gypsum. A second burial phase and mesodiagenesis is indicated by the precipitation of discrete K-feldspar crystals within moldic pores after dissolved feldspars, and by the illitization of etched, telogenetic kaolinite. The playa-lake deposits show early diagenetic dolomitization of lime mud, precipitation of anhydrite nodules and extensive silicification. The anhydrite nodules were replaced by gypsum and chalcedony during telodiagenesis. Potential source rocks are locally represented by organic shales. The fluvial sandstones show fair reservoir quality and limited compaction, as indicated by their intergranular volume, suggesting that the succession has undergone moderate burial. Potential seals for hydrocarbon

  4. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G.

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Byoung Yoon (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Holland, John F. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-09-01

    An error was discovered in the ALGEBBRA script used to calculate the disturbed rock zone around the disposal room and the shear failure zone in the anhydrite layers in the original version. To correct the error, a memorandum of correction was submitted according to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Quality Assurance program. The recommended course of action was to correct the error, to repeat the post-process, and to rewrite Section 7.4, 7.5, 8, and Appendix B in the original report. The sections and appendix revised by the post-process using the corrected ALGEBRA scripts are provided in this revision. The original report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the WIPP repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. Calculations were then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: (1) Disposal room porosity, (2) Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and (3) Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the propagation of the DRZ into the surrounding rock salt does not penetrate through MB 139 in the case of both the original horizon and the raised room. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 150 years. The shear failure does not occur in either the upper or lower anhydrite layers at the moment of excavation, but appears above and below the middle of the pillar one day after the excavation. The damaged anhydrite is not expected to heal as the salt in the DRZ is expected to.

  5. Conclusions after eleven years of studying brine at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, D.E.; Bills, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was established to demonstrate the safe disposal of defense-generated transuranic waste in the United States. When excavations began at the WIPP in 1982, small brine seepages (weeps) were observed on the walls. WIPP performance assessment activities raised the concern that the brine could cause anoxic corrosion of metal in the waste storage drums and waste inventory, potentially producing large quantities of hydrogen gas, which would affect the long-term performance of Thee repository. Th WIPP Brine Sampling and Evaluation Program was developed to investigate the origins, hydraulic characteristics, extent, and composition of brine occurrences. The WIPP is excavated in the Salado Formation, which is bedded salt of Permian age. The sediments exposed in the excavations consist of clear halite and polyhalitic halite, halite containing clay, thin clay seams, and interbedded anhydrite layers. The clear halite beds contain little brine and are effectively impermeable. The clay within the salt and in the clay seams contains brine that is released to the excavations, although virtually all of the brine release occurs within the first few years of mining. Consequently, by the time the waste storage rooms at the WIPP are filled and sealed, most of the brine that can be derived from the clay will have evaporated. These is no observed evidence from the WIPP excavations that brine will seep into the working from the anhydrite beds. It has been postulated, however, that brine could seep through the underlying anhydrite Marker Bed 139 (MB139). Recently acquired data on the hydrologic properties of MB139 show that, even if flow through the anhydrite occurs, the brine released to the storage rooms could only corrode a small percentage of the susceptible metal in the repository.

  6. Porosity, single-phase permeability, and capillary pressure data from preliminary laboratory experiments on selected samples from Marker Bed 139 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 3 of 3: Appendices C, D, E, and F

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, S.M.; Christian-Frear, T.

    1997-08-01

    This volume contains the mineralogy, porosity, and permeability results from the Marker Bed 139 anhydrite specimens evaluated by TerraTek, Inc. for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This volume also documents the brine recipe used by RE/SPEC, Inc., the parameter package submitted to Performance Assessment based on all the data, and a memo on the mixed Brooks and Corey two-phase characteristic curves.

  7. Analogue Modelling of Evaporite Diapirs on Ellef Ringnes Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAuley, J.; Cruden, A.; Brent, T.; Stephenson, R.

    2009-05-01

    Ellef Ringnes Island is located in the Sverdrup Basin, a pericratonic trough that began rifting in the Carboniferous. The island contains several ovate domes composed of evaporites derived from the Carboniferous Otto Fiord formation. The domes consist of 300-500 m thick, relatively undeformed anhydrite caps underlain by halite cores of unknown thickness with sheared anhydrite margins. The initiation and rate of vertical migration of the diapirs are poorly constrained due to the lack of high quality seismic images, particularly at depths of 8-13 km, at which the evaporite source layer is thought to occur. Buoyancy is argued to provide a fundamental driving force for salt tectonics, however the presence of dense anhydrite caps reduce the effect of buoyancy driven diapirism. Several processes have been suggested for the initiation of salt movement in the Sverdrup Basin, the two most accepted being reactive diapirism due to rift related extension and differential loading from prograding sedimentary sequences. Interpretation of available seismic reflection profiles reveal asymmetric dome geometries with gently arched sedimentary sequences located on their western margins and rim synclines and sediment thickening on their eastern margins. From these observations we propose that basement faults played a significant role in the formation of asymmetric dome structures by acting as planes of weakness that controlled the initiation and direction of salt movement. Preliminary results from scaled 2D analogue models are presented that focus on (1) the emplacement of competent and relatively undeformed blocks of dense anhydrite on top of buoyant salt structures, and (2) the role of basement faults in producing asymmetric dome geometries. The experiments involve forced injection of fluids into a downbuilding overburden of sand as analogues for syn-sedimentary diapiric growth.

  8. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further improve NOx emissions and

  9. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2004-10-27

    Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and

  10. FINAL SIMULATION RESULTS FOR DEMONSTRATION CASE 1 AND 2

    SciTech Connect

    David Sloan; Woodrow Fiveland

    2003-10-15

    The goal of this DOE Vision-21 project work scope was to develop an integrated suite of software tools that could be used to simulate and visualize advanced plant concepts. Existing process simulation software did not meet the DOE's objective of ''virtual simulation'' which was needed to evaluate complex cycles. The overall intent of the DOE was to improve predictive tools for cycle analysis, and to improve the component models that are used in turn to simulate equipment in the cycle. Advanced component models are available; however, a generic coupling capability that would link the advanced component models to the cycle simulation software remained to be developed. In the current project, the coupling of the cycle analysis and cycle component simulation software was based on an existing suite of programs. The challenge was to develop a general-purpose software and communications link between the cycle analysis software Aspen Plus{reg_sign} (marketed by Aspen Technology, Inc.), and specialized component modeling packages, as exemplified by industrial proprietary codes (utilized by ALSTOM Power Inc.) and the FLUENT{reg_sign} computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code (provided by Fluent Inc). A software interface and controller, based on an open CAPE-OPEN standard, has been developed and extensively tested. Various test runs and demonstration cases have been utilized to confirm the viability and reliability of the software. ALSTOM Power was tasked with the responsibility to select and run two demonstration cases to test the software--(1) a conventional steam cycle (designated as Demonstration Case 1), and (2) a combined cycle test case (designated as Demonstration Case 2). Demonstration Case 1 is a 30 MWe coal-fired power plant for municipal electricity generation, while Demonstration Case 2 is a 270 MWe, natural gas-fired, combined cycle power plant. Sufficient data was available from the operation of both power plants to complete the cycle configurations. Three runs

  11. Simply Great Cooking Instruction. A Manual for Teaching Cooking to Non-Reading Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesto, Cameron

    This manual presents a method of teaching cooking to nonreaders. The language of the method consists of visual symbols, such as drawings of bowls, spoons, and ingredients, and color. The "Simply Great" method consists of three basic formats: the one-step booklet, the full-page format, and the simply written for the student with some reading…

  12. "Harmony with Voice:" Poetry with Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassig, Ronda

    2012-01-01

    Harmony Middle School educators recently undertook a project that combined poetry and real-service action for students. The students worked with a published poet and wrote beautiful poems and then blogged with art students in the district. The art students made ceramic bowls that represented the poems. The combined project was done for True Light,…

  13. Language Development among Immigrant Students from the Perspectives of Two Different Assimilated Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porras, Dehlly; Matthews, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The authors present two experiences of assimilation, "melting-pot" and "salad-bowl" processes, their connections to the WASP framework of skin color, language, and religion, and their influences in the classroom. They focus on how fluency in the English language is the dominant assimilation factor for immigrant students and share their experiences…

  14. A Comparison of African & Mainstream Culture on African-American Students in Public Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green-Gibson, Andrea; Collett, April

    2014-01-01

    The public educational system is comprised of diverse demographics wherein each student has a distinct cultural personal history (O'Brien, 1998). In America, the traditional perception was that a melting pot society existed. But deMarrais and LeCompte (1999) maintain that a stew pot or salad bowl would be a more appropriate analogy. Melting…

  15. Use of fine resolution terrain data in soil loss equations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dust Bowl of the 1930's focused US attention on soil erosion and land conservation. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was the result of this effort and has remained one of the most widely used equations for soil erosion prediction world-wide. This empirical relationship has been incorporat...

  16. Optical Properties of Aeolian Dusts Common to West Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Both recent models and historical events such as the Dust Bowl and volcanic eruptions have illustrated aerosols can play a significant role in climate change through direct and indirect optical effects. Soil dust aerosols generated by Aeolian processes represent a significant fraction of the total ...

  17. FROZEN THIN SECTIONS OF FRESH TISSUE FOR ELECTRON MICROSCOPY, WITH A DESCRIPTION OF PANCREAS AND LIVER

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, A. Kent

    1971-01-01

    A simple method has been developed that allows frozen thin sections of fresh-frozen tissue to be cut on a virtually unmodified ultramicrotome kept at room temperature. A bowl-shaped Dewar flask with a knifeholder in its depths replaces the stage of the microtome; a bar extends down into the bowl from the microtome's cutting arm and bears the frozen tissue near its lower end. When the microtome is operated, the tissue passes a glass or diamond knife in the depths of the bowl as in normal cutting. The cutting temperature is maintained by flushing the bowl with cold nitrogen gas, and can be set anywhere from about -160°C up to about -30°C. The microtome is set for a cutting thickness of 540–1000 A. Sections are picked up from the dry knife edge, and are placed on membrane-coated grids, flattened with the polished end of a copper rod, and either dried in nitrogen gas or freeze-dried. Throughout the entire process the tissue is kept cold and does not come in contact with any solvent. The morphology seen in frozen thin sections of rat pancreas and liver generally resembles that in conventional preparations, although freezing damage and low contrast limit the detail that can be discerned. Among unusual findings is a frequent abundance of mitochondrial granules in material prepared by this method. PMID:4942776

  18. 1998 Arthur Ashe Jr. Sports Scholars Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenoweth, Karin; Evelyn, Jamilah

    1998-01-01

    Announces the Sports Scholars Awards for 1998. One male and one female college athlete are profiled, and others are named for baseball, softball, basketball, fencing, riflery, bowling, football, wrestling, soccer, lacrosse, field hockey, swimming/diving, gymnastics, crew, tennis, golf, volleyball, track/field, cross country, downhill skiing, and…

  19. Sampling Bee Communities (Hymenoptera: Apiformes) in a Desert Landscape: Are Pan Traps Sufficient?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pan traps (colored plastic bowls) are frequently used as efficient standardized method of sampling bee faunas. We explored the utility of pan traps in three colors compared to net collecting using simultaneous sampling at biweekly intervals throughout the flowering season (May-Sep) at 11 sites in t...

  20. Learning Communities and First-Year Programs: Lessons for Planners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.

    2003-01-01

    Bowling Green State University, Ohio, carried out a study of learning communities and first-year programs to determine their success in facilitating student success, increasing engagement, and promoting connections. Findings from 10 learning communities show the overall success of these programs and provide favorable cost estimates. (SLD)

  1. Rural School District Reorganization on the Great Plains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Miles

    2002-01-01

    Rural school district reorganization and school consolidation are put into perspective by reviewing the large population increases that fueled small-school growth in the Great Plains, 1870-1930. Since the Dust Bowl and Great Depression, population losses, improvements in transportation, and arguments advocating economies of scale and increased…

  2. The Buffalo Commons: Great Plains Residents' Responses to a Radical Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    The American Great Plains has gained and shed various regional meanings since Euro-American exploration began. From a desert to a garden to a dust bowl to a breadbasket, this region's identity has shifted radically and dramatically over the last 200 years. In the mid-1980s unusual things were happening on the Plains that suggested yet another…

  3. Usability Testing for e-Resource Discovery: How Students Find and Choose e-Resources Using Library Web Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Amy; Rich, Linda

    2011-01-01

    In early 2010, library staff at Bowling Green State University (BGSU) in Ohio designed and conducted a usability study of key parts of the library web site, focusing on the web pages generated by the library's electronic resources management system (ERM) that list and describe the library's databases. The goal was to discover how users find and…

  4. Enhancing Study Skills in an Introductory Sociology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeller, Richard A.; Wells, Janis J.

    1990-01-01

    Evaluated the effects of the study skills enhancement technique taught at Bowling Green State University Study Skills Laboratory on the test-taking performance of Sociology 101 students. Found that those students who participated in the program four or more hours per week performed better on tests. (SLM)

  5. Prefrontal cortex activity, sympatho-vagal reaction and behaviour distinguish between situations of feed reward and frustration in dwarf goats.

    PubMed

    Gygax, Lorenz; Reefmann, Nadine; Wolf, Martin; Langbein, Jan

    2013-02-15

    Recent concepts relating to animal welfare accept that animals experience affective states. These are notoriously difficult to measure in non-verbal species, but it is generally agreed that emotional reactions consist of well-coordinated reactions in behaviour, autonomic and brain activation. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether each or a combination of these aspects can differentiate between situations presumed to differ in emotional content. To this end, we repeatedly confronted dwarf goats at short intervals with a covered and an uncovered feed bowl (i.e. presumably frustrating and rewarding situations respectively) whilst simultaneously observing their behaviour, measuring heart-rate and heart-rate variability and haemodynamic changes in the prefrontal cortex using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. When faced with a covered feed bowl, goats occupied themselves at locations away from the bowl and showed increased locomotion, while there was a general increase in prefrontal cortical activity. There was little indication of autonomic changes. In contrast, when feed was accessible, the goats reduced locomotion, focused their behaviour on the feed bowl, showed signs of sympathetically mediated arousal reflecting anticipation and, if any cortical activity at all was present, it was concentrated to the left hemisphere. We thus observed patterns in behaviour, sympathetic reaction and brain activity that distinguished between a situation of frustration and one of reward in dwarf goats. These patterns consisted of a well-coordinated set of reactions appropriate in respect of the emotional content of the stimuli used. PMID:23142369

  6. Ohio Conference on Migrant Education, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Carlos; And Others

    A workshop conducted in Bowling Green, Ohio, in the summer of 1969 focused attention on identifying problem areas of migrant education and considered some solutions to these problems. The report includes 3 presentations made to the seminar participants. The presentations are entitled (1) The Linguistic Approach in Teaching English as a Second…

  7. Study Guide for TCT in Health and Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullan, Marie R.

    This study guide is designed for those individuals preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in health and physical education. The test covers nine broad subareas: (1) health, body systems, disease; (2) tennis, handball, fencing, bowling, track, and recreational games; (3) development, hygiene, safety, nutrition; (4) softball,…

  8. Processing Coordination Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2010-01-01

    We examined temporarily ambiguous coordination structures such as "put the butter in the bowl and the pan on the towel." Minimal Attachment predicts that the ambiguous noun phrase "the pan" will be interpreted as a noun-phrase coordination structure because it is syntactically simpler than clausal coordination. Constraint-based theories assume…

  9. Game Changers: The Role Athletic Identity and Racial Identity Play on Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimper, Albert Y., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which athletic and racial identity predict the academic outcomes of Black student athletes participating in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 Football Bowl Series football. The academic outcomes of Black student athletes are a growing concern to both scholars and…

  10. Unpacking the Hidden Efficacies of Learning in Productive Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, David; Chen, Victor; Lim, Seo Hong

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a framework for learning where learners undergo experimentations with the phenomena at hand according to progressive and staged goals. Bowling is used as a case study in this paper. The premise for experimentations is that learners can experience hidden efficacies, including the formation of "bad habits." A distinction is made…

  11. 77 FR 19696 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: California Department of Parks and Recreation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ..., Coyote Canyon, Clark Valley, the Santa Rosa Mountains, Jackass Flat, Rockhouse Canyon, and Horse Canyon... visitor collected a pipe bowl fragment from an unidentified site in the Coyote Canyon area of Anza Borrego..., California; Los Coyotes Band of Cahuilla and Cupeno Indians, California (formerly the Los Coyotes Band...

  12. Project RAISE: Rural America Institute for Special Educators--A Preservice Teacher Training Program for Rural Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Steven C.; And Others

    Project RAISE (Rural America Institute for Special Educators) is a preservice teacher training program specifically designed for preparing special educators for the demands of rural settings. The project is being conducted by the Department of Special Education at Bowling Green State University and concentrates on training special educators in a…

  13. 41 CFR 102-41.210 - What are some examples of drug paraphernalia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are some examples of drug paraphernalia? 102-41.210 Section 102-41.210 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... pipes with or without screens, permanent screens, hashish heads, or punctured metal bowls; (b)...

  14. The Adult Learner in the Online Writing Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Because a gap in scholarly literature exists concerning the adult learner in the online writing course, I researched the effects of the online learning environment on adult learners in an online intermediate writing course offered through the Adult Learner Services Program at Bowling Green State University. This dissertation argues that online…

  15. Facilitator's Manual: Summer Transitions. 2nd Edition, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Charlotte L., Ed.

    This teacher handbook provides guidelines and materials for graduate students who prepare entering freshmen at Bowling Green State University for the rigors of academic life. A series of exercises show summer instructors, called "facilitators," how to get students to: map their environment, use local resources, read and mark textbooks, study and…

  16. Facilitator's Manual: Summer Transitions. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuenzli, Linda A., Ed.

    A facilitator's manual for the Summer Transition Enrichment Program at Bowling Green State University is presented. The overall objectives of the program are: (1) to facilitate the transition of entering freshmen into the academic and cultural life of the university; and (2) to assist students in their personal growth and adjustment to the…

  17. Participation in Anti-War Demonstrations: A Test of the Parental Continuity Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spreitzer, Elmer; And Others

    This study replicates earlier research on student activism, but within the context of a non-elite and relatively apolitical university campus, namely, Bowling Green University. A basic finding of the earlier research is that student activists represent an extension of parental values rather than a generational rebellion. This paper tests the…

  18. Beyond the Sponge Model: Encouraging Students' Questioning Skills in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Stuart M.; Ali, Rahan; Gebing, Tracy

    1998-01-01

    Argues that educators should provide students with explicit training in asking critical questions. Describes a training strategy taught in abnormal psychology courses at Bowling Green State University (Ohio). Based on a pre- and post-test, results support the promise of using explicit questioning training in promoting the evaluative aspects of…

  19. Habitat eradication and cropland intensification may reduce parasitoid diversity and natural pest control services in annual crop fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    California’s central coast differs from many agricultural areas in the U.S., which feature large tracts of monoculture production fields and relatively simple landscapes. Known as the nation’s salad bowl, and producing up to 90% of U.S. production of lettuces, broccoli and Brussels sprouts, this reg...

  20. Come--Walk With Me.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimson, Elizabeth

    This paper discusses two early childhood education courses offered in the Department of Educational Curriculum and Instruction at Bowling Green State University. Early Childhood Competency I (ECC I) is a course offering sophomores and juniors the opportunity to work on a one-to-one basis with a youngster under the age of three years in the child's…