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Sample records for animal behaviour neglecting

  1. Marine animal behaviour: neglecting ocean currents can lead us up the wrong track

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Philippe; Georges, Jean-Yves; Fossette, Sabrina; Lenoble, Arnaud; Ferraroli, Sandra; Le Maho, Yvon

    2006-01-01

    Tracks of marine animals in the wild, now increasingly acquired by electronic tagging of individuals, are of prime interest not only to identify habitats and high-risk areas, but also to gain detailed information about the behaviour of these animals. Using recent satellite-derived current estimates and leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) tracking data, we demonstrate that oceanic currents, usually neglected when analysing tracking data, can substantially distort the observed trajectories. Consequently, this will affect several important results deduced from the analysis of tracking data, such as the evaluation of the orientation skills and the energy budget of animals or the identification of foraging areas. We conclude that currents should be systematically taken into account to ensure the unbiased interpretation of tracking data, which now play a major role in marine conservation biology. PMID:17015330

  2. Animal models of cerebral neglect and its cancellation.

    PubMed

    Payne, Bertram R; Rushmore, R Jarrett

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this perspective is twofold: 1) to alert and inform the neurospychology and neurology communities on how animal models can improve our understanding of spatial neglect in humans, and 2) to serve as a guide to rehabilitation strategies. Spatial neglect is a neurological syndrome that is inextricably linked to the ability to overtly or covertly reorient attention to new loci. Literature describing variants of neglect leads to the perception of lesion-induced neglect as a uniquely human syndrome for which there are limited treatment options. To the contrary, neglect has been reversed in laboratory animals, and results show that adequate neural representations and motor mechanisms for reversal are present despite damaged or deactivated cerebral cortex. These results and conclusions provoke thought on strategies that can be employed on humans to cancel neglect, and they suggest that long-term amelioration of neglect can be induced by training of specific bypass circuits. PMID:14678577

  3. Collective behaviour across animal species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M.; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  4. Collective behaviour across animal species

    PubMed Central

    DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M.; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment. PMID:24430561

  5. Forensic pathology of companion animal abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Gerdin, J A; McDonough, S P

    2013-11-01

    Submission of cases of suspected animal abuse and neglect (AAN) to veterinary pathologists is increasingly frequent. These cases require modification of postmortem procedures and written reports, as the questions asked by courts typically differ from those asked in routine diagnostic cases. Here we review the practice of veterinary forensic pathology as it applies to cases of companion AAN, as well as the fundamental principles of forensic pathology, the components of a forensic necropsy, and the goals of the necropsy in cases of blunt-force trauma, projectile wounds, and starvation. Future directions and endeavors in veterinary forensic pathology are broached. PMID:23686766

  6. Animal hoarding: slipping into the darkness of comorbid animal and self-neglect.

    PubMed

    Nathanson, Jane N

    2009-10-01

    Substantial research and literature indicate how people and companion animals form relationships that are, for the most part, mutually beneficial. Yet there are highly dysfunctional human-animal relationships that do occur, meriting attention and remediation. One of the most perplexing and problematic human-animal relationships is encountered in cases of animal hoarding--a deviant behavior associated with extremely deleterious conditions of comorbid animal and self-neglect. Adult Protective Services workers often encounter theoretical and methodological dilemmas with these complex cases. To intervene most effectively, it becomes critical to elucidate some of the developmental factors of animal hoarding behavior and its correlation with self-neglecting behaviors in general. This article presents an in-depth diagnostic perspective as derived from the author's research and clinical experience. An analysis of the complex dynamics of the relationship between animal hoarders and their pets is presented in conjunction with accepted theories of self-neglect. With enhanced knowledge and understanding of animal hoarding, human service professionals will be better prepared to respond to these clients, evoke greater rapport and cooperation, and engage in the interdisciplinary efforts that are essential for optimal resolution. PMID:20183137

  7. Virtual ethology of aquatic animal heterogeneous behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, ChenKim; Tan, KianLam

    2016-08-01

    In the virtual world, the simulation of flocking behaviour has been actively investigated since the 1980 through the boid models. However, ethology is a niche study of animal behaviour from the biological perspective that is rarely instil in the interest of the younger learners nowadays. The keystone of the research is to be able to disseminate the study of animal behaviours through the boid model with the aid of technology. Through the simulation, complex movement of animal behaviours are reproduced based on the extension of basic behaviours of boid algorithm. The techniques here are to (i) Analyse a high-level behavioural framework of motion in the animal behaviours and (ii) Evolves particles to other animal representations to portray more real-time examples of steering behaviours. Although the generality of the results is limited by the number of case study, it also supports the hypothesis that interactive simulation system of virtual ethology can aid the improvement of animal studies.

  8. The principles of collective animal behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Sumpter, D.J.T

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of self-organization has been used to understand collective behaviour of animals. The central tenet of self-organization is that simple repeated interactions between individuals can produce complex adaptive patterns at the level of the group. Inspiration comes from patterns seen in physical systems, such as spiralling chemical waves, which arise without complexity at the level of the individual units of which the system is composed. The suggestion is that biological structures such as termite mounds, ant trail networks and even human crowds can be explained in terms of repeated interactions between the animals and their environment, without invoking individual complexity. Here, I review cases in which the self-organization approach has been successful in explaining collective behaviour of animal groups and societies. Ant pheromone trail networks, aggregation of cockroaches, the applause of opera audiences and the migration of fish schools have all been accurately described in terms of individuals following simple sets of rules. Unlike the simple units composing physical systems, however, animals are themselves complex entities, and other examples of collective behaviour, such as honey bee foraging with its myriad of dance signals and behavioural cues, cannot be fully understood in terms of simple individuals alone. I argue that the key to understanding collective behaviour lies in identifying the principles of the behavioural algorithms followed by individual animals and of how information flows between the animals. These principles, such as positive feedback, response thresholds and individual integrity, are repeatedly observed in very different animal societies. The future of collective behaviour research lies in classifying these principles, establishing the properties they produce at a group level and asking why they have evolved in so many different and distinct natural systems. Ultimately, this research could inform not only our

  9. Teachers' Reporting of Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect: Behaviour and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goebbels, A. F. G.; Nicholson, J. M.; Walsh, K.; De Vries, H.

    2008-01-01

    By reporting suspected child abuse and neglect, teachers can make an important contribution to the early detection and prevention of abuse. However, teachers are sometimes reluctant to report their suspicions. This study investigated the determinants of teachers' reporting behaviour using concepts from the Integrated Change Model. Self-report data…

  10. Reviving a neglected celestial underwater polarization compass for aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Talbot H

    2006-02-01

    Substantial in situ measurements on clear days in a variety of marine environments at depths in the water down to 200 m have demonstrated the ubiquitous daytime presence of sun-related e-vector (=plane of polarization) patterns. In most lines of sight the e-vectors tilt from horizontal towards the sun at angles equal to the apparent underwater refracted zenith angle of the sun. A maximum tilt-angle of approximately 48.5 degrees , is reached in horizontal lines of sight at 90 degrees to the sun's bearing (the plane of incidence). This tilt limit is set by Snell's window, when the sun is on the horizon. The biological literature since the 1980s has been pervaded with assumptions that daytime aquatic e-vectors are mainly horizontal. This review attempts to set the record straight concerning the potential use of underwater e-vectors as a visual compass and to reopen the field to productive research on aquatic animals' orientation and navigation. PMID:16271158

  11. Goal neglect and knowledge chunking in the construction of novel behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Apoorva; Duncan, John

    2014-01-01

    Task complexity is critical in cognitive efficiency and fluid intelligence. To examine functional limits in task complexity, we examine the phenomenon of goal neglect, where participants with low fluid intelligence fail to follow task rules that they otherwise understand. Though neglect is known to increase with task complexity, here we show that - in contrast to previous accounts - the critical factor is not the total complexity of all task rules. Instead, when the space of task requirements can be divided into separate sub-parts, neglect is controlled by the complexity of each component part. The data also show that neglect develops and stabilizes over the first few performance trials, i.e. as instructions are first used to generate behaviour. In all complex behaviour, a critical process is combination of task events with retrieved task requirements to create focused attentional episodes dealing with each decision in turn. In large part, we suggest, fluid intelligence may reflect this process of converting complex requirements into effective attentional episodes. PMID:24141034

  12. The modelling cycle for collective animal behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Sumpter, David J. T.; Mann, Richard P.; Perna, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Collective animal behaviour is the study of how interactions between individuals produce group level patterns, and why these interactions have evolved. This study has proved itself uniquely interdisciplinary, involving physicists, mathematicians, engineers as well as biologists. Almost all experimental work in this area is related directly or indirectly to mathematical models, with regular movement back and forth between models, experimental data and statistical fitting. In this paper, we describe how the modelling cycle works in the study of collective animal behaviour. We classify studies as addressing questions at different levels or linking different levels, i.e. as local, local to global, global to local or global. We also describe three distinct approaches—theory-driven, data-driven and model selection—to these questions. We show, with reference to our own research on species across different taxa, how we move between these different levels of description and how these various approaches can be applied to link levels together. PMID:23173077

  13. Impaired oculo-motor behaviour affects both reading and scene perception in neglect patients.

    PubMed

    Primativo, Silvia; Arduino, Lisa S; Daini, Roberta; De Luca, Maria; Toneatto, Carlo; Martelli, Marialuisa

    2015-04-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is a common neuropsychological disorder following a right-sided brain lesion. Although USN is mostly characterized by symptoms involving the left hemispace, other symptoms are not left lateralized. Recently, it was shown that patients with neglect dyslexia, a reading disturbance that affects about 40% of USN patients, manifest a non-lateralized impairment of eye movement behaviour in association with their reading deficit when they read aloud and perform non-verbal saccadic tasks (Primativo et al., 2013). In the present paper, we aimed to demonstrate that the eye movement impairment shown by some USN patients reflects a more general oculo-motor disorder that is not confined to orthographic material, the horizontal axis or constrained saccadic tasks. We conjectured that inaccurate oculo-motor behaviour in USN patients indicates the presence of a reading deficit. With this aim we evaluated 20 patients, i.e., 10 right-sided brain-damaged patients without neglect and 10 patients affected by USN. On the basis of the patients' eye movement patterns during a scene exploration task, we found that 4 out of the 10 USN patients presented an abnormal oculo-motor pattern. These same four patients (but not the others) also failed in performing 5 different saccadic tasks and produced neglect dyslexia reading errors in both single words and texts. First, we show that a large proportion of USN patients have inaccurate eye movement behaviour in non-reading tasks. Second, we demonstrate that this exploratory deficit is predictive of the reading impairment. Thus, we conclude that the eye movement deficit prevents reading and impairs the performance on many other perceptual tests, including scene exploration. The large percentage of patients with impaired eye-movement pattern suggests that particular attention should be paid to eye movement behaviour during the diagnostic phase in order to program the best rehabilitation strategy for each patient. PMID

  14. Role of U.S. animal control agencies in equine neglect, cruelty, and abandonment investigations.

    PubMed

    Stull, C L; Holcomb, K E

    2014-05-01

    Every state in the United States has regulations prohibiting acts of neglect and cruelty against animals. Local law enforcement and animal control agencies are responsible in many communities to enforce these statutes. As society's perception of horses has changed from their origin as livestock to companion animals in modern times, owners have transitioned their care and management. The goal of this study was to identify the role and capacities of local animal control services in the United States that investigate equine neglect, cruelty, and abandonment investigations and to identify challenges and outcomes of the investigations. A 128-question online survey was accessible for animal agencies to complete. Comprehensive questions included their capacity for investigating equine cases, funding, housing for horses, and causes and outcomes of investigations. Respondents also were asked to select a single case and provide detailed information on the condition of horses, seizure and custody procedures, costs, and prosecution proceedings. A total of 165 respondents from 26 states completed all or the majority of the questions. A total of 6,864 equine investigations were initiated between 2007 and 2009 by 90 agencies, which extrapolates to 38 investigations annually per agency. A typical agency has an average annual budget of $740,000, employs 7 animal control officers, and spends about $10,000 annually on equine cases. Neglect was ranked as the most common reason for investigation. Owner ignorance, economic hardship, and lack of responsibility were the highest ranked causes of neglect and cruelty. Individual cases were provided by 91 agencies concerning 749 equines. The physical condition of the horse was the primary factor of investigation, and low body condition, parasite infestation, and compromised dental condition were present in most seized horses. Over half of the equine owners previously had been investigated or charged with neglect or cruelty of animals or were

  15. Conceptualising Animal Abuse with an Antisocial Behaviour Framework

    PubMed Central

    Gullone, Eleonora

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary There is increasing acceptance of the links between animal abuse and aggressive or antisocial behaviours toward humans. Nevertheless, researchers and other professionals continue to call for methodologically sound empirical research amongst claims that current animal abuse research is methodologically limited. Below, I argue that current conceptualizations of antisocial and aggressive human behavior logically incorporate animal abuse. Given that the body of empirical evidence available to support of theories of antisocial and aggressive behaviour is large and sound, conceptualization of animal abuse as an aggressive behaviour rather than a behaviour that is somehow different, enables us to confidently promote putting current understanding into practice. Abstract This paper reviews current findings in the human aggression and antisocial behaviour literature and those in the animal abuse literature with the aim of highlighting the overlap in conceptualisation. The major aim of this review is to highlight that the co-occurrence between animal abuse behaviours and aggression and violence toward humans can be logically understood through examination of the research evidence for antisocial and aggressive behaviour. From examination through this framework, it is not at all surprising that the two co-occur. Indeed, it would be surprising if they did not. Animal abuse is one expression of antisocial behaviour. What is also known from the extensive antisocial behaviour literature is that antisocial behaviours co-occur such that the presence of one form of antisocial behaviour is highly predictive of the presence of other antisocial behaviours. From such a framework, it becomes evident that animal abuse should be considered an important indicator of antisocial behaviour and violence as are other aggressive and antisocial behaviours. The implications of such a stance are that law enforcement, health and other professionals should not minimize the presence of

  16. Host behaviour-parasite feedback: an essential link between animal behaviour and disease ecology.

    PubMed

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Archie, Elizabeth A; Craft, Meggan E; Hawley, Dana M; Martin, Lynn B; Moore, Janice; White, Lauren

    2016-04-13

    Animal behaviour and the ecology and evolution of parasites are inextricably linked. For this reason, animal behaviourists and disease ecologists have been interested in the intersection of their respective fields for decades. Despite this interest, most research at the behaviour-disease interface focuses either on how host behaviour affects parasites or how parasites affect behaviour, with little overlap between the two. Yet, the majority of interactions between hosts and parasites are probably reciprocal, such that host behaviour feeds back on parasites and vice versa. Explicitly considering these feedbacks is essential for understanding the complex connections between animal behaviour and parasite ecology and evolution. To illustrate this point, we discuss how host behaviour-parasite feedbacks might operate and explore the consequences of feedback for studies of animal behaviour and parasites. For example, ignoring the feedback of host social structure on parasite dynamics can limit the accuracy of predictions about parasite spread. Likewise, considering feedback in studies of parasites and animal personalities may provide unique insight about the maintenance of variation in personality types. Finally, applying the feedback concept to links between host behaviour and beneficial, rather than pathogenic, microbes may shed new light on transitions between mutualism and parasitism. More generally, accounting for host behaviour-parasite feedbacks can help identify critical gaps in our understanding of how key host behaviours and parasite traits evolve and are maintained. PMID:27053751

  17. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship.

    PubMed

    Ward, Samantha J; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman's zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals' latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: "attitude towards the animals" and "knowledge and experience of the animals". In this novel study, data demonstrated unique dyads

  18. Remote Laboratory and Animal Behaviour: An Interactive Open Field System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiore, Lorenzo; Ratti, Giovannino

    2007-01-01

    Remote laboratories can provide distant learners with practical acquisitions which would otherwise remain precluded. Our proposal here is a remote laboratory on a behavioural test (open field test), with the aim of introducing learners to the observation and analysis of stereotyped behaviour in animals. A real-time video of a mouse in an…

  19. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Samantha J.; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman’s zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals’ latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: “attitude towards the animals” and “knowledge and experience of the animals”. In this novel study, data demonstrated

  20. The Spatial Behaviour of Animals and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindley, T. S.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some common patterns of animal spatial behavior, and discusses spatial relationships that can be observed as an important component of human social behavior. Reports the results of a study relating to the interpersonal distances of people in bus queues in Britain. (JR)

  1. From Sensor Data to Animal Behaviour: An Oystercatcher Example

    PubMed Central

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Bom, Roeland; van Loon, E. Emiel; Ens, Bruno J.; Oosterbeek, Kees; Bouten, Willem

    2012-01-01

    Animal-borne sensors enable researchers to remotely track animals, their physiological state and body movements. Accelerometers, for example, have been used in several studies to measure body movement, posture, and energy expenditure, although predominantly in marine animals. In many studies, behaviour is often inferred from expert interpretation of sensor data and not validated with direct observations of the animal. The aim of this study was to derive models that could be used to classify oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus) behaviour based on sensor data. We measured the location, speed, and tri-axial acceleration of three oystercatchers using a flexible GPS tracking system and conducted simultaneous visual observations of the behaviour of these birds in their natural environment. We then used these data to develop three supervised classification trees of behaviour and finally applied one of the models to calculate time-activity budgets. The model based on accelerometer data developed to classify three behaviours (fly, terrestrial locomotion, and no movement) was much more accurate (cross-validation error = 0.14) than the model based on GPS-speed alone (cross-validation error = 0.35). The most parsimonious acceleration model designed to classify eight behaviours could distinguish five: fly, forage, body care, stand, and sit (cross-validation error = 0.28); other behaviours that were observed, such as aggression or handling of prey, could not be distinguished. Model limitations and potential improvements are discussed. The workflow design presented in this study can facilitate model development, be adapted to a wide range of species, and together with the appropriate measurements, can foster the study of behaviour and habitat use of free living animals throughout their annual routine. PMID:22693586

  2. Eating Behaviours of British University Students: A Cluster Analysis on a Neglected Issue

    PubMed Central

    Tanton, Jina; Dodd, Lorna J.; Woodfield, Lorayne; Mabhala, Mzwandile

    2015-01-01

    Unhealthy diet is a primary risk factor for noncommunicable diseases. University student populations are known to engage in health risking lifestyle behaviours including risky eating behaviours. The purpose of this study was to examine eating behaviour patterns in a population of British university students using a two-step cluster analysis. Consumption prevalence of snack, convenience, and fast foods in addition to fruit and vegetables was measured using a self-report “Student Eating Behaviours” questionnaire on 345 undergraduate university students. Four clusters were identified: “risky eating behaviours,” “mixed eating behaviours,” “moderate eating behaviours,” and “favourable eating behaviours.” Nineteen percent of students were categorised as having “favourable eating behaviours” whilst just under a third of students were categorised within the two most risky clusters. Riskier eating behaviour patterns were associated with living on campus and Christian faith. The findings of this study highlight the importance of university microenvironments on eating behaviours in university student populations. Religion as a mediator of eating behaviours is a novel finding. PMID:26550495

  3. [Cognitive enrichment in zoo and farm animals--implications for animal behaviour and welfare].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Susann; Puppe, Birger; Langbein, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Animals in the wild are facing a wide variety of challenges and ever-changing environmental stimuli. For successful coping, animals use both innate behavioural programs and their cognitive skills. In contrast, zoo- and farm animals have to cope with restricted husbandry conditions, which offer only few opportunities to adequately satisfy their various needs. Consequences could be sensory and cognitive underchallenge that can cause boredom and frustration as well as behavioural disturbances. Initially intended for improvement of management and husbandry, different forms of operant behavioural training have been applied firstly in zoo- and later also in farm animals. It has been suggested that successful coping with appropriate cognitive challenges is a source of positive emotions and may lead to improved welfare. Under the term cognitive enrichment, new approaches have been developed to integrate cognitive challenges into the housing of zoo- and farm animals. The present article reviews actual research in the field. Previous results indicate that, beyond improvement of management and handling routines, such approaches can positively affect animal behaviour and welfare. The combination of explorative and appetitive behaviour with successful learning improves environmental predictability and controllability for the animals, activates reward-related brain systems and can directly affect emotional processes of appraisal. For practical implementation in farm animal husbandry, it sounds promising to link individual access to e.g. automated feeders or milking systems with previously conditioned stimuli and/or discriminatory learning tasks. First experimental approaches in pigs, dwarf goats and cattle are available and will be discussed in the present article. PMID:21141273

  4. Adult protective services and animal welfare: should animal abuse and neglect be assessed during adult protective services screening?

    PubMed

    Peak, Terry; Ascione, Frank; Doney, Jylisa

    2012-01-01

    Past research has examined links among animal abuse, child maltreatment, and intimate partner violence and demonstrated the importance of addressing the needs of both human and animal victims. We hypothesized that there might be a similar link between animal abuse and older adult welfare issues. As a first step in the earlier research was the development of a screening protocol that shed light on the link between domestic violence and animal abuse, we decided to follow a similar route to explore this new topic by asking state government representatives about their experiences, if any, with this topic. Here we report the results of a national survey of state Adult Protective Services agencies regarding their protocols for assessing animal welfare issues in the context of older adult maltreatment. We also describe a model assessment protocol we developed in collaboration with the Utah Division of Aging and Adult Services. PMID:22206511

  5. Landscape Utilisation, Animal Behaviour and Hendra Virus Risk.

    PubMed

    Field, H E; Smith, C S; de Jong, C E; Melville, D; Broos, A; Kung, N; Thompson, J; Dechmann, D K N

    2016-03-01

    Hendra virus causes sporadic fatal disease in horses and humans in eastern Australia. Pteropid bats (flying-foxes) are the natural host of the virus. The mode of flying-fox to horse transmission remains unclear, but oro-nasal contact with flying-fox urine, faeces or saliva is the most plausible. We used GPS data logger technology to explore the landscape utilisation of black flying-foxes and horses to gain new insight into equine exposure risk. Flying-fox foraging was repetitious, with individuals returning night after night to the same location. There was a preference for fragmented arboreal landscape and non-native plant species, resulting in increased flying-fox activity around rural infrastructure. Our preliminary equine data logger study identified significant variation between diurnal and nocturnal grazing behaviour that, combined with the observed flying-fox foraging behaviour, could contribute to Hendra virus exposure risk. While we found no significant risk-exposing difference in individual horse movement behaviour in this study, the prospect warrants further investigation, as does the broader role of animal behaviour and landscape utilisation on the transmission dynamics of Hendra virus. PMID:26403793

  6. Social behaviour and collective motion in plant-animal worms.

    PubMed

    Franks, Nigel R; Worley, Alan; Grant, Katherine A J; Gorman, Alice R; Vizard, Victoria; Plackett, Harriet; Doran, Carolina; Gamble, Margaret L; Stumpe, Martin C; Sendova-Franks, Ana B

    2016-02-24

    Social behaviour may enable organisms to occupy ecological niches that would otherwise be unavailable to them. Here, we test this major evolutionary principle by demonstrating self-organizing social behaviour in the plant-animal, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. These marine aceol flat worms rely for all of their nutrition on the algae within their bodies: hence their common name. We show that individual worms interact with one another to coordinate their movements so that even at low densities they begin to swim in small polarized groups and at increasing densities such flotillas turn into circular mills. We use computer simulations to: (i) determine if real worms interact socially by comparing them with virtual worms that do not interact and (ii) show that the social phase transitions of the real worms can occur based only on local interactions between and among them. We hypothesize that such social behaviour helps the worms to form the dense biofilms or mats observed on certain sun-exposed sandy beaches in the upper intertidal of the East Atlantic and to become in effect a super-organismic seaweed in a habitat where macro-algal seaweeds cannot anchor themselves. Symsagittifera roscoffensis, a model organism in many other areas in biology (including stem cell regeneration), also seems to be an ideal model for understanding how individual behaviours can lead, through collective movement, to social assemblages. PMID:26911961

  7. Bringing a Time-Depth Perspective to Collective Animal Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Biro, Dora; Sasaki, Takao; Portugal, Steven J

    2016-07-01

    The field of collective animal behaviour examines how relatively simple, local interactions between individuals in groups combine to produce global-level outcomes. Existing mathematical models and empirical work have identified candidate mechanisms for numerous collective phenomena but have typically focused on one-off or short-term performance. We argue that feedback between collective performance and learning - giving the former the capacity to become an adaptive, and potentially cumulative, process - is a currently poorly explored but crucial mechanism in understanding collective systems. We synthesise material ranging from swarm intelligence in social insects through collective movements in vertebrates to collective decision making in animal and human groups, to propose avenues for future research to identify the potential for changes in these systems to accumulate over time. PMID:27105543

  8. Frigatebird behaviour at the ocean–atmosphere interface: integrating animal behaviour with multi-satellite data

    PubMed Central

    De Monte, Silvia; Cotté, Cedric; d'Ovidio, Francesco; Lévy, Marina; Le Corre, Matthieu; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2012-01-01

    Marine top predators such as seabirds are useful indicators of the integrated response of the marine ecosystem to environmental variability at different scales. Large-scale physical gradients constrain seabird habitat. Birds however respond behaviourally to physical heterogeneity at much smaller scales. Here, we use, for the first time, three-dimensional GPS tracking of a seabird, the great frigatebird (Fregata minor), in the Mozambique Channel. These data, which provide at the same time high-resolution vertical and horizontal positions, allow us to relate the behaviour of frigatebirds to the physical environment at the (sub-)mesoscale (10–100 km, days–weeks). Behavioural patterns are classified based on the birds’ vertical displacement (e.g. fast/slow ascents and descents), and are overlaid on maps of physical properties of the ocean–atmosphere interface, obtained by a nonlinear analysis of multi-satellite data. We find that frigatebirds modify their behaviours concurrently to transport and thermal fronts. Our results suggest that the birds’ co-occurrence with these structures is a consequence of their search not only for food (preferentially searched over thermal fronts) but also for upward vertical wind. This is also supported by their relationship with mesoscale patterns of wind divergence. Our multi-disciplinary method can be applied to forthcoming high-resolution animal tracking data, and aims to provide a mechanistic understanding of animals' habitat choice and of marine ecosystem responses to environmental change. PMID:22951344

  9. What is the animal doing? Tools for exploring behavioural structure in animal movements.

    PubMed

    Gurarie, Eliezer; Bracis, Chloe; Delgado, Maria; Meckley, Trevor D; Kojola, Ilpo; Wagner, C Michael

    2016-01-01

    Movement data provide a window - often our only window - into the cognitive, social and biological processes that underlie the behavioural ecology of animals in the wild. Robust methods for identifying and interpreting distinct modes of movement behaviour are of great importance, but complicated by the fact that movement data are complex, multivariate and dependent. Many different approaches to exploratory analysis of movement have been developed to answer similar questions, and practitioners are often at a loss for how to choose an appropriate tool for a specific question. We apply and compare four methodological approaches: first passage time (FPT), Bayesian partitioning of Markov models (BPMM), behavioural change point analysis (BCPA) and a fitted multistate random walk (MRW) to three simulated tracks and two animal trajectories - a sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) tracked for 12 h and a wolf (Canis lupus) tracked for 1 year. The simulations - in which, respectively, velocity, tortuosity and spatial bias change - highlight the sensitivity of all methods to model misspecification. Methods that do not account for autocorrelation in the movement variables lead to spurious change points, while methods that do not account for spatial bias completely miss changes in orientation. When applied to the animal data, the methods broadly agree on the structure of the movement behaviours. Important discrepancies, however, reflect differences in the assumptions and nature of the outputs. Important trade-offs are between the strength of the a priori assumptions (low in BCPA, high in MRW), complexity of output (high in the BCPA, low in the BPMM and MRW) and explanatory potential (highest in the MRW). The animal track analysis suggests some general principles for the exploratory analysis of movement data, including ways to exploit the strengths of the various methods. We argue for close and detailed exploratory analysis of movement before fitting complex movement models. PMID

  10. Behavioural phenotype affects social interactions in an animal network

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Thomas W; Samanta, Madhumita; Lindström, Jan; Royle, Nick J

    2008-01-01

    Animal social networks can be extremely complex and are characterized by highly non-random interactions between group members. However, very little is known about the underlying factors affecting interaction preferences, and hence network structure. One possibility is that behavioural differences between individuals, such as how bold or shy they are, can affect the frequency and distribution of their interactions within a network. We tested this using individually marked three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), and found that bold individuals had fewer overall interactions than shy fish, but tended to distribute their interactions more evenly across all group members. Shy fish, on the other hand, tended to associate preferentially with a small number of other group members, leading to a highly skewed distribution of interactions. This was mediated by the reduced tendency of shy fish to move to a new location within the tank when they were interacting with another individual; bold fish showed no such tendency and were equally likely to move irrespective of whether they were interacting or not. The results show that animal social network structure can be affected by the behavioural composition of group members and have important implications for understanding the spread of information and disease in social groups. PMID:18647713

  11. Characterization of MicroRNAs from Orientobilharzia turkestanicum, a Neglected Blood Fluke of Human and Animal Health Significance

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jing-Hua; Nisbet, Alasdair J.; Chang, Qiao-Cheng; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Huang, Si-Yang; Zou, Feng-Cai; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-01-01

    The neglected blood flukes Orientobilharzia spp. belonging to the Platyhelminthes, infect animals in a number of countries of the world, and cause cercarial dermatitis in humans, as well as significant diseases and even death in economically-important animals. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are now considered to be a key mechanism of gene regulation. Herein, we investigated the global miRNA expression profile of adult O. turkestanicum using next-generation sequencing technology and real-time quantitative PCR, to gain further information on the role of these molecules in host invasion and the parasitic lifestyle of this species. A total of 13.48 million high quality reads were obtained out of 13.78 million raw sequencing reads, with 828 expressed miRNAs identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the miRNAs of O. turkestanicum were still rapidly evolving and there was a “directed mutation” pattern compared with that of other species. Target mRNAs were successfully predicted to 518 miRNAs. These targets included energy metabolism, transcription initiation factors, signal transduction, growth factor receptors. miRNAs targeting egg proteins, including major egg antigen p40, and heat shock proteins were also found. Enrichment analysis indicated enrichment for mRNAs involved in catalytic, binding, transcription regulators and translation regulators. The present study represented the first large-scale characterization of O. turkestanicum miRNAs, which provides novel resources for better understanding the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, which, in turn, has implications for the effective control of the disease it causes. PMID:23071694

  12. Laboratory animal welfare: cage enrichment and mouse behaviour.

    PubMed

    Wolfer, David P; Litvin, Oxana; Morf, Samuel; Nitsch, Roger M; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Würbel, Hanno

    2004-12-16

    Mice housed in standard cages show impaired brain development, abnormal repetitive behaviours (stereotypies) and an anxious behavioural profile, all of which can be lessened by making the cage environment more stimulating. But concerns have been raised that enriched housing might disrupt standardization and so affect the precision and reproducibility of behavioural-test results (for example, see ref. 4). Here we show that environmental enrichment increases neither individual variability in behavioural tests nor the risk of obtaining conflicting data in replicate studies. Our findings indicate that the housing conditions of laboratory mice can be markedly improved without affecting the standardization of results. PMID:15602544

  13. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Handcock, Rebecca N.; Swain, Dave L.; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J.; Patison, Kym P.; Wark, Tim; Valencia, Philip; Corke, Peter; O'Neill, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Remote monitoring of animal behaviour in the environment can assist in managing both the animal and its environmental impact. GPS collars which record animal locations with high temporal frequency allow researchers to monitor both animal behaviour and interactions with the environment. These ground-based sensors can be combined with remotely-sensed satellite images to understand animal-landscape interactions. The key to combining these technologies is communication methods such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor behavioural preferences and social behaviour of cattle. PMID:22412327

  14. Host behaviour–parasite feedback: an essential link between animal behaviour and disease ecology

    PubMed Central

    Archie, Elizabeth A.; Craft, Meggan E.; Hawley, Dana M.; Martin, Lynn B.; Moore, Janice; White, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Animal behaviour and the ecology and evolution of parasites are inextricably linked. For this reason, animal behaviourists and disease ecologists have been interested in the intersection of their respective fields for decades. Despite this interest, most research at the behaviour–disease interface focuses either on how host behaviour affects parasites or how parasites affect behaviour, with little overlap between the two. Yet, the majority of interactions between hosts and parasites are probably reciprocal, such that host behaviour feeds back on parasites and vice versa. Explicitly considering these feedbacks is essential for understanding the complex connections between animal behaviour and parasite ecology and evolution. To illustrate this point, we discuss how host behaviour–parasite feedbacks might operate and explore the consequences of feedback for studies of animal behaviour and parasites. For example, ignoring the feedback of host social structure on parasite dynamics can limit the accuracy of predictions about parasite spread. Likewise, considering feedback in studies of parasites and animal personalities may provide unique insight about the maintenance of variation in personality types. Finally, applying the feedback concept to links between host behaviour and beneficial, rather than pathogenic, microbes may shed new light on transitions between mutualism and parasitism. More generally, accounting for host behaviour–parasite feedbacks can help identify critical gaps in our understanding of how key host behaviours and parasite traits evolve and are maintained. PMID:27053751

  15. Animal-assisted therapy with children suffering from insecure attachment due to abuse and neglect: a method to lower the risk of intergenerational transmission of abuse?

    PubMed

    Parish-Plass, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Children suffering from insecure attachment due to severe abuse and/or neglect are often characterized by internal working models which, although perhaps adaptive within the original family situation, are inappropriate and maladaptive in other relationships and situations. Such children have a higher probability than the general population of becoming abusing or neglecting parents. Besides the usual goals of psychotherapy, an overall goal is to stop the cycle of abuse in which abused children may grow up to be abusing parents. Therapy with these children is complicated by their distrust in adults as well as difficulties in symbolization due to trauma during the preverbal stage. Animal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) provides avenues for circumventing these difficulties, as well as providing additional tools for reaching the inner world of the client. This article gives a brief background of the connection between insecure attachment and intergenerational transmission of abuse and neglect as well as a brief overview of the principles of AAT in a play therapy setting. A rationale for the use of AAT as a unique therapy technique for children having suffered from abuse and neglect is followed by a number of clinical examples illustrating AAT. PMID:18411863

  16. Progress in assessing animal welfare in relation to new legislation: opportunities for behavioural researchers.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Penny

    2014-08-30

    Recent revisions to international legislation and guidelines on the care and use of animals in research and testing emphasise the importance of minimising suffering and improving welfare. Achieving this requires effective systems for recognising, recording, analysing and assessing animal behaviour, in order to identify relevant indicators of pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm so that any suffering can be rapidly recognised and ameliorated. Behavioural researchers can assist by disseminating information on developments in techniques and approaches for recognising, observing, monitoring, analysing and interpreting behaviour, both within their own facilities and more widely. They can also help to facilitate better welfare assessment by continuing to develop systems for measuring behaviours - including indicators of positive welfare - while also ensuring that harms within behavioural research are minimised. PMID:24565951

  17. Maternal neglect: oxytocin, dopamine and the neurobiology of attachment.

    PubMed

    Strathearn, L

    2011-11-01

    Maternal neglect, including physical and emotional neglect, is a pervasive public health challenge with serious long-term effects on child health and development. I provide an overview of the neurobiological basis of maternal caregiving, aiming to better understand how to prevent and respond to maternal neglect. Drawing from both animal and human studies, key biological systems are identified that contribute to maternal caregiving behaviour, focusing on the oxytocinergic and dopaminergic systems. Mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine pathways contribute to the processing of infant-related sensory cues leading to a behavioural response. Oxytocin may activate the dopaminergic reward pathways in response to social cues. Human neuroimaging studies are summarised that demonstrate parallels between animal and human maternal caregiving responses in the brain. By comparing different patterns of human adult attachment, we gain a clearer understanding of how differences in maternal brain and endocrine responses may contribute to maternal neglect. For example, in insecure/dismissing attachment, which may be associated with emotional neglect, we see reduced activation of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine reward system in response to infant face cues, as well as decreased peripheral oxytocin response to mother-infant contact. We are currently testing whether the administration of intranasal oxytocin, as part of a randomised placebo controlled trial, may reverse some of these neurological differences, and potentially augment psychosocial and behavioural interventions for maternal neglect. PMID:21951160

  18. Deriving Animal Behaviour from High-Frequency GPS: Tracking Cows in Open and Forested Habitat.

    PubMed

    de Weerd, Nelleke; van Langevelde, Frank; van Oeveren, Herman; Nolet, Bart A; Kölzsch, Andrea; Prins, Herbert H T; de Boer, W Fred

    2015-01-01

    The increasing spatiotemporal accuracy of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) tracking systems opens the possibility to infer animal behaviour from tracking data. We studied the relationship between high-frequency GNSS data and behaviour, aimed at developing an easily interpretable classification method to infer behaviour from location data. Behavioural observations were carried out during tracking of cows (Bos Taurus) fitted with high-frequency GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers. Data were obtained in an open field and forested area, and movement metrics were calculated for 1 min, 12 s and 2 s intervals. We observed four behaviour types (Foraging, Lying, Standing and Walking). We subsequently used Classification and Regression Trees to classify the simultaneously obtained GPS data as these behaviour types, based on distances and turning angles between fixes. GPS data with a 1 min interval from the open field was classified correctly for more than 70% of the samples. Data from the 12 s and 2 s interval could not be classified successfully, emphasizing that the interval should be long enough for the behaviour to be defined by its characteristic movement metrics. Data obtained in the forested area were classified with a lower accuracy (57%) than the data from the open field, due to a larger positional error of GPS locations and differences in behavioural performance influenced by the habitat type. This demonstrates the importance of understanding the relationship between behaviour and movement metrics, derived from GNSS fixes at different frequencies and in different habitats, in order to successfully infer behaviour. When spatially accurate location data can be obtained, behaviour can be inferred from high-frequency GNSS fixes by calculating simple movement metrics and using easily interpretable decision trees. This allows for the combined study of animal behaviour and habitat use based on location data, and might make it possible to detect deviations

  19. Deriving Animal Behaviour from High-Frequency GPS: Tracking Cows in Open and Forested Habitat

    PubMed Central

    de Weerd, Nelleke; van Langevelde, Frank; van Oeveren, Herman; Nolet, Bart A.; Kölzsch, Andrea; Prins, Herbert H. T.; de Boer, W. Fred

    2015-01-01

    The increasing spatiotemporal accuracy of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) tracking systems opens the possibility to infer animal behaviour from tracking data. We studied the relationship between high-frequency GNSS data and behaviour, aimed at developing an easily interpretable classification method to infer behaviour from location data. Behavioural observations were carried out during tracking of cows (Bos Taurus) fitted with high-frequency GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers. Data were obtained in an open field and forested area, and movement metrics were calculated for 1 min, 12 s and 2 s intervals. We observed four behaviour types (Foraging, Lying, Standing and Walking). We subsequently used Classification and Regression Trees to classify the simultaneously obtained GPS data as these behaviour types, based on distances and turning angles between fixes. GPS data with a 1 min interval from the open field was classified correctly for more than 70% of the samples. Data from the 12 s and 2 s interval could not be classified successfully, emphasizing that the interval should be long enough for the behaviour to be defined by its characteristic movement metrics. Data obtained in the forested area were classified with a lower accuracy (57%) than the data from the open field, due to a larger positional error of GPS locations and differences in behavioural performance influenced by the habitat type. This demonstrates the importance of understanding the relationship between behaviour and movement metrics, derived from GNSS fixes at different frequencies and in different habitats, in order to successfully infer behaviour. When spatially accurate location data can be obtained, behaviour can be inferred from high-frequency GNSS fixes by calculating simple movement metrics and using easily interpretable decision trees. This allows for the combined study of animal behaviour and habitat use based on location data, and might make it possible to detect deviations

  20. [Two-ring maze for research behaviour of animals].

    PubMed

    Filatova, E V; Orlov, A A; Afanas'ev, S V

    2014-01-01

    Animal behavior is studied using a two-ring maze in which the animal has to choose one of two paths, the same length and then self-returning to the starting compartment. All sections of the labyrinth: the starting chamber, signal space, arms and food compartment blocked by one-way doors. Time periods of passing different chambers reflect different aspects of behavior: level of motivation, attention, short-term and long-term memory, cognitive (make a decision) and emotion and etc. The analysis of these time parameters allows evaluate various behavioral components, depending on the impact on the animal. We suppose that this behavior model can be useful in various neurophysiology experiments. PMID:25464718

  1. Scaling behaviour of lattice animals at the upper critical dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Ferber, C.; Foster, D.; Hsu, H. P.; Kenna, R.

    2011-09-01

    We perform numerical simulations of the lattice-animal problem at the upper critical dimension d = 8 on hypercubic lattices in order to investigate logarithmic corrections to scaling there. Our stochastic sampling method is based on the pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method (PERM), appropriate to linear polymers, and yields high statistics with animals comprised of up to 8000 sites. We estimate both the partition sums (number of different animals) and the radii of gyration. We re-verify the Parisi-Sourlas prediction for the leading exponents and compare the logarithmic-correction exponents to two partially differing sets of predictions from the literature. Finally, we propose, and test, a new Parisi-Sourlas-type scaling relation appropriate for the logarithmic-correction exponents.

  2. Neglect and Self-Neglect

    MedlinePlus

    ... A national study of self-neglecting adult protective services clients.Richmond, VA: Virginia Department of Social Services. Fulmer, T. & Paveza, G. Neglect in the elderly patient. (1998). Nursing Clinics of North America. 33(3), ...

  3. Sex differences in operant discrimination behaviour in an animal model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Berger, D F; Sagvolden, T

    1998-07-01

    The present study was aimed at determining whether the behaviour of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), an animal model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), showed sex differences parallel to those seen in ADHD children. The experimental protocol contained an operant discrimination task, a two-component multiple (mult) 2-min fixed interval (FI) 5-min extinction (EXT) schedule of water reinforcement, a reliable behavioural paradigm for testing activity levels, discrimination behaviour and impulsiveness. The results indicated that both male and female SHRs show some of the most important behavioural traits of ADHD. Both were hyperactive and showed discrimination problems in terms of a behavioural extinction deficit towards the end of the EXT component. Still their behaviour differed markedly, which was probably due to quite different underlying mechanisms. The behavioural characteristics of the female SHRs may be compatible with an attention-deficit interpretation, whereas the behavioural characteristics of the male SHRs may be due to a shorter than normal delay-of-reinforcement gradient. The present study strengthens the position of SHR as an animal model of ADHD for future studies that may elucidate details in the underlying neurobiological deficits and for testing various treatment strategies. PMID:9708841

  4. Quick, Accurate, Smart: 3D Computer Vision Technology Helps Assessing Confined Animals' Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Shanis; Calderara, Simone; Pistocchi, Simone; Cucchiara, Rita; Podaliri-Vulpiani, Michele; Messori, Stefano; Ferri, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Mankind directly controls the environment and lifestyles of several domestic species for purposes ranging from production and research to conservation and companionship. These environments and lifestyles may not offer these animals the best quality of life. Behaviour is a direct reflection of how the animal is coping with its environment. Behavioural indicators are thus among the preferred parameters to assess welfare. However, behavioural recording (usually from video) can be very time consuming and the accuracy and reliability of the output rely on the experience and background of the observers. The outburst of new video technology and computer image processing gives the basis for promising solutions. In this pilot study, we present a new prototype software able to automatically infer the behaviour of dogs housed in kennels from 3D visual data and through structured machine learning frameworks. Depth information acquired through 3D features, body part detection and training are the key elements that allow the machine to recognise postures, trajectories inside the kennel and patterns of movement that can be later labelled at convenience. The main innovation of the software is its ability to automatically cluster frequently observed temporal patterns of movement without any pre-set ethogram. Conversely, when common patterns are defined through training, a deviation from normal behaviour in time or between individuals could be assessed. The software accuracy in correctly detecting the dogs' behaviour was checked through a validation process. An automatic behaviour recognition system, independent from human subjectivity, could add scientific knowledge on animals' quality of life in confinement as well as saving time and resources. This 3D framework was designed to be invariant to the dog's shape and size and could be extended to farm, laboratory and zoo quadrupeds in artificial housing. The computer vision technique applied to this software is innovative in non

  5. Experimental evidence for inherent Lévy search behaviour in foraging animals.

    PubMed

    Kölzsch, Andrea; Alzate, Adriana; Bartumeus, Frederic; de Jager, Monique; Weerman, Ellen J; Hengeveld, Geerten M; Naguib, Marc; Nolet, Bart A; van de Koppel, Johan

    2015-05-22

    Recently, Lévy walks have been put forward as a new paradigm for animal search and many cases have been made for its presence in nature. However, it remains debated whether Lévy walks are an inherent behavioural strategy or emerge from the animal reacting to its habitat. Here, we demonstrate signatures of Lévy behaviour in the search movement of mud snails (Hydrobia ulvae) based on a novel, direct assessment of movement properties in an experimental set-up using different food distributions. Our experimental data uncovered clusters of small movement steps alternating with long moves independent of food encounter and landscape complexity. Moreover, size distributions of these clusters followed truncated power laws. These two findings are characteristic signatures of mechanisms underlying inherent Lévy-like movement. Thus, our study provides clear experimental evidence that such multi-scale movement is an inherent behaviour rather than resulting from the animal interacting with its environment. PMID:25904671

  6. Experimental evidence for inherent Lévy search behaviour in foraging animals

    PubMed Central

    Kölzsch, Andrea; Alzate, Adriana; Bartumeus, Frederic; de Jager, Monique; Weerman, Ellen J.; Hengeveld, Geerten M.; Naguib, Marc; Nolet, Bart A.; van de Koppel, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Lévy walks have been put forward as a new paradigm for animal search and many cases have been made for its presence in nature. However, it remains debated whether Lévy walks are an inherent behavioural strategy or emerge from the animal reacting to its habitat. Here, we demonstrate signatures of Lévy behaviour in the search movement of mud snails (Hydrobia ulvae) based on a novel, direct assessment of movement properties in an experimental set-up using different food distributions. Our experimental data uncovered clusters of small movement steps alternating with long moves independent of food encounter and landscape complexity. Moreover, size distributions of these clusters followed truncated power laws. These two findings are characteristic signatures of mechanisms underlying inherent Lévy-like movement. Thus, our study provides clear experimental evidence that such multi-scale movement is an inherent behaviour rather than resulting from the animal interacting with its environment. PMID:25904671

  7. Joint estimation over multiple individuals improves behavioural state inference from animal movement data

    PubMed Central

    Jonsen, Ian

    2016-01-01

    State-space models provide a powerful way to scale up inference of movement behaviours from individuals to populations when the inference is made across multiple individuals. Here, I show how a joint estimation approach that assumes individuals share identical movement parameters can lead to improved inference of behavioural states associated with different movement processes. I use simulated movement paths with known behavioural states to compare estimation error between nonhierarchical and joint estimation formulations of an otherwise identical state-space model. Behavioural state estimation error was strongly affected by the degree of similarity between movement patterns characterising the behavioural states, with less error when movements were strongly dissimilar between states. The joint estimation model improved behavioural state estimation relative to the nonhierarchical model for simulated data with heavy-tailed Argos location errors. When applied to Argos telemetry datasets from 10 Weddell seals, the nonhierarchical model estimated highly uncertain behavioural state switching probabilities for most individuals whereas the joint estimation model yielded substantially less uncertainty. The joint estimation model better resolved the behavioural state sequences across all seals. Hierarchical or joint estimation models should be the preferred choice for estimating behavioural states from animal movement data, especially when location data are error-prone. PMID:26853261

  8. Elder neglect.

    PubMed

    del Carmen, Tessa; LoFaso, Veronica M

    2014-11-01

    Because neglect is the most common form of elder abuse, identifying patients who are vulnerable to neglect allows clinicians to intervene early and potentially prevent situations that can escalate and lead to harm or even death. Health care workers have a unique opportunity to uncover these unfortunate situations and in many cases may be the only other contact isolated vulnerable patients have with the outside world. Responding appropriately and quickly when neglect is suspected and using a team approach can improve the health and well-being of older victims of neglect. PMID:25439641

  9. Recent advances in the analysis of behavioural organization and interpretation as indicators of animal welfare

    PubMed Central

    Asher, Lucy; Collins, Lisa M.; Ortiz-Pelaez, Angel; Drewe, Julian A.; Nicol, Christine J.; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.

    2009-01-01

    While the incorporation of mathematical and engineering methods has greatly advanced in other areas of the life sciences, they have been under-utilized in the field of animal welfare. Exceptions are beginning to emerge and share a common motivation to quantify ‘hidden’ aspects in the structure of the behaviour of an individual, or group of animals. Such analyses have the potential to quantify behavioural markers of pain and stress and quantify abnormal behaviour objectively. This review seeks to explore the scope of such analytical methods as behavioural indicators of welfare. We outline four classes of analyses that can be used to quantify aspects of behavioural organization. The underlying principles, possible applications and limitations are described for: fractal analysis, temporal methods, social network analysis, and agent-based modelling and simulation. We hope to encourage further application of analyses of behavioural organization by highlighting potential applications in the assessment of animal welfare, and increasing awareness of the scope for the development of new mathematical methods in this area. PMID:19740922

  10. Effect of drugs of abuse on social behaviour: a review of animal models.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Gandía, Maria C; Mateos-García, Ana; García-Pardo, Maria P; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Aguilar, María A

    2015-09-01

    Social behaviour is disturbed in many substance abuse and psychiatric disorders. Given the consensus that social behaviours of lower mammals may help to understand some human emotional reactions, the aim of the present work was to provide an up-to-date review of studies on the changes in social behaviour induced by drugs of abuse. Various animal models have been used to study the relationship between drugs of abuse and social behaviour. Herein, we describe the effects of different substances of abuse on the three most commonly used animal models of social behaviour: the social play test, the social interaction test and the resident-intruder paradigm. The first is the most widely used test to assess adolescent behaviour in rodents, the second is generally used to evaluate a wide repertoire of behaviours in adulthood and the latter is specific to aggressive behaviour. Throughout the review we will explore the most relevant studies carried out to date to evaluate the effects of alcohol, cocaine, opioids, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cannabinoids, nicotine and other drugs of abuse on these three paradigms, taking into account the influence of different variables, such as social history, age and type of exposure. Drugs of diverse pharmacological classes induce alterations in social behaviour, although they can be contrasting depending on several factors (drug, individual differences and environmental conditions). Ethanol and nicotine increase social interaction at low doses but reduce it at high doses. Psychostimulants, MDMA and cannabinoids reduce social interaction, whereas opiates increase it. Ethanol and psychostimulants enhance aggression, whereas MDMA, opiates, cannabinoids and nicotine reduce it. Prenatal drug exposure alters social behaviour, whereas drug withdrawal decreases sociability and enhances aggression. As a whole, this evidence has improved our understanding of the social dimension of drug addiction. PMID:26221831

  11. Ethology and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Osterhoff, D R

    1981-12-01

    Much scientific information concerning animal behaviour has become available only recently and it continues to increase rapidly. There is evidence indicating that the behavioural needs of animals have sometimes been neglected when natural life-style are replaced by artificially contrived ones. More attention to and study of animals' social and other behavioural requirements would be mutually beneficial to both man and beast. If those needs can be met more adequately, animals will be easier to handle, stress will be reduced and productivity improved. Animal welfare legislation in different countries is mentioned and ethological research as basis for new legislation discussed. The development in this critical field of Ethology and Animal Welfare is advancing fast and the South African Veterinarian must be aware of the new movement from Animal Science to Animal Rights. PMID:7341784

  12. Movement Activity Based Classification of Animal Behaviour with an Application to Data from Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)

    PubMed Central

    Grünewälder, Steffen; Broekhuis, Femke; Macdonald, David Whyte; Wilson, Alan Martin; McNutt, John Weldon; Shawe-Taylor, John; Hailes, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method, based on machine learning techniques, for the analysis of a combination of continuous data from dataloggers and a sampling of contemporaneous behaviour observations. This data combination provides an opportunity for biologists to study behaviour at a previously unknown level of detail and accuracy; however, continuously recorded data are of little use unless the resulting large volumes of raw data can be reliably translated into actual behaviour. We address this problem by applying a Support Vector Machine and a Hidden-Markov Model that allows us to classify an animal's behaviour using a small set of field observations to calibrate continuously recorded activity data. Such classified data can be applied quantitatively to the behaviour of animals over extended periods and at times during which observation is difficult or impossible. We demonstrate the usefulness of the method by applying it to data from six cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Cumulative activity data scores were recorded every five minutes by accelerometers embedded in GPS radio-collars for around one year on average. Direct behaviour sampling of each of the six cheetah were collected in the field for comparatively short periods. Using this approach we are able to classify each five minute activity score into a set of three key behaviour (feeding, mobile and stationary), creating a continuous behavioural sequence for the entire period for which the collars were deployed. Evaluation of our classifier with cross-validation shows the accuracy to be , but that the accuracy for individual classes is reduced with decreasing sample size of direct observations. We demonstrate how these processed data can be used to study behaviour identifying seasonal and gender differences in daily activity and feeding times. Results given here are unlike any that could be obtained using traditional approaches in both accuracy and detail. PMID:23185301

  13. Movement activity based classification of animal behaviour with an application to data from cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Grünewälder, Steffen; Broekhuis, Femke; Macdonald, David Whyte; Wilson, Alan Martin; McNutt, John Weldon; Shawe-Taylor, John; Hailes, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method, based on machine learning techniques, for the analysis of a combination of continuous data from dataloggers and a sampling of contemporaneous behaviour observations. This data combination provides an opportunity for biologists to study behaviour at a previously unknown level of detail and accuracy; however, continuously recorded data are of little use unless the resulting large volumes of raw data can be reliably translated into actual behaviour. We address this problem by applying a Support Vector Machine and a Hidden-Markov Model that allows us to classify an animal's behaviour using a small set of field observations to calibrate continuously recorded activity data. Such classified data can be applied quantitatively to the behaviour of animals over extended periods and at times during which observation is difficult or impossible. We demonstrate the usefulness of the method by applying it to data from six cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Cumulative activity data scores were recorded every five minutes by accelerometers embedded in GPS radio-collars for around one year on average. Direct behaviour sampling of each of the six cheetah were collected in the field for comparatively short periods. Using this approach we are able to classify each five minute activity score into a set of three key behaviour (feeding, mobile and stationary), creating a continuous behavioural sequence for the entire period for which the collars were deployed. Evaluation of our classifier with cross-validation shows the accuracy to be 83%-94%, but that the accuracy for individual classes is reduced with decreasing sample size of direct observations. We demonstrate how these processed data can be used to study behaviour identifying seasonal and gender differences in daily activity and feeding times. Results given here are unlike any that could be obtained using traditional approaches in both accuracy and detail. PMID:23185301

  14. Friends of friends: are indirect connections in social networks important to animal behaviour?

    PubMed Central

    Brent, Lauren J. N.

    2015-01-01

    Friend of a friend relationships, or the indirect connections between people, influence our health, well-being, financial success and reproductive output. As with humans, social behaviours in other animals often occur within a broad interconnected network of social ties. Yet studies of animal social behaviour tend to focus on associations between pairs of individuals. With the increase in popularity of social network analysis, researchers have started to look beyond the dyad to examine the role of indirect connections in animal societies. Here, I provide an overview of the new knowledge that has been uncovered by these studies. I focus on research that has addressed both the causes of social behaviours, i.e. the cognitive and genetic basis of indirect connections, as well as their consequences, i.e. the impact of indirect connections on social cohesion, information transfer, cultural practices and fitness. From these studies, it is apparent that indirect connections play an important role in animal behaviour, although future research is needed to clarify their contribution. PMID:25937639

  15. Animal Behaviour Fieldwork: Introducing Psychology Students to the Process of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickins, Thomas E.; Donovan, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the development and running of a residential animal behaviour field trip. The trip has a number of elements that challenge and develop the students. First, this trip is open to students at levels two, three and M. This allows us to engineer a certain amount of peer assisted learning. Second, the students live together and…

  16. Toxoplasma gondii infection, from predation to schizophrenia: can animal behaviour help us understand human behaviour?

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Joanne P.; Kaushik, Maya; Bristow, Greg C.; McConkey, Glenn A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary We examine the role of the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii as a manipulatory parasite and question what role study of infections in its natural intermediate rodent hosts and other secondary hosts, including humans, may elucidate in terms of the epidemiology, evolution and clinical applications of infection. In particular, we focus on the potential association between T. gondii and schizophrenia. We introduce the novel term ‘T. gondii–rat manipulation–schizophrenia model’ and propose how future behavioural research on this model should be performed from a biological, clinical and ethically appropriate perspective. PMID:23225872

  17. Sickness behaviour in the cricket Gryllus texensis: Comparison with animals across phyla.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Ken; Fairn, Evan; Adamo, Shelley A

    2016-07-01

    Immune activation alters behaviour (i.e. sickness behaviour) in animals across phyla and is thought to aid recovery from infection. Hypotheses regarding the adaptive function of different sickness behaviours (e.g. decreased movement and appetite) include the energy conservation and predator avoidance hypotheses. These hypotheses were originally developed for mammals (e.g. Hart, 1988), however similar sickness behaviours are also observed in insects (e.g., crickets). We predicted that immune-challenged crickets (Gryllus texensis) would reduce feeding, grooming, and locomotion as well as increase shelter use, consistent with the energy conservation and predator avoidance hypotheses. We found evidence of illness-induced anorexia in adult and juvenile crickets, consistent with previous research (Adamo et al., 2010), but contrary to expectations, we found an increase in grooming, and no evidence that crickets decreased locomotion or increased shelter use in response to immune challenge. Therefore, our results do not support the energy conservation or predator avoidance hypotheses. The difference in sickness behaviour between insects and mammals is probably due, in part, to the lack of physiological fever in insects. We hypothesize that the lack of physiological fever reduces the need for energy conservation, decreasing the benefits of some sickness behaviours such as increased shelter use. These results, taken together with others in the literature, suggest that ectotherms and endotherms may differ significantly in the selective forces leading to the evolution of most sickness behaviours. PMID:27189926

  18. Spatial neglect

    PubMed Central

    Li, Korina; Malhotra, Paresh A

    2015-01-01

    The syndrome of visuospatial neglect is a common consequence of unilateral brain injury. It is most often associated with stroke and is more severe and persistent following right hemisphere damage, with reported frequencies in the acute stage of up to 80%. Neglect is primarily a disorder of attention whereby patients characteristically fail to orientate, to report or to respond to stimuli located on the contralesional side. Neglect is usually caused by large strokes in the middle cerebral artery territory and is heterogeneous, such that most patients do not manifest every feature of the syndrome. A number of treatments may improve neglect, but there is no widely accepted universal approach to therapy. Although most patients recover spontaneously, the evidence suggests that they continue to have significant cognitive impairments, particularly relating to attention. PMID:26023203

  19. Spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Li, Korina; Malhotra, Paresh A

    2015-10-01

    The syndrome of visuospatial neglect is a common consequence of unilateral brain injury. It is most often associated with stroke and is more severe and persistent following right hemisphere damage, with reported frequencies in the acute stage of up to 80%. Neglect is primarily a disorder of attention whereby patients characteristically fail to orientate, to report or to respond to stimuli located on the contralesional side. Neglect is usually caused by large strokes in the middle cerebral artery territory and is heterogeneous, such that most patients do not manifest every feature of the syndrome. A number of treatments may improve neglect, but there is no widely accepted universal approach to therapy. Although most patients recover spontaneously, the evidence suggests that they continue to have significant cognitive impairments, particularly relating to attention. PMID:26023203

  20. A Knockout Experiment: Disciplinary Divides and Experimental Skill in Animal Behaviour Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Nicole C.

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1990s, a set of new techniques for manipulating mouse DNA allowed researchers to ‘knock out’ specific genes and observe the effects of removing them on a live mouse. In animal behaviour genetics, questions about how to deploy these techniques to study the molecular basis of behaviour became quite controversial, with a number of key methodological issues dissecting the interdisciplinary research field along disciplinary lines. This paper examines debates that took place during the 1990s between a predominately North American group of molecular biologists and animal behaviourists around how to design, conduct, and interpret behavioural knockout experiments. Drawing from and extending Harry Collins’s work on how research communities negotiate what counts as a ‘well-done experiment,’ I argue that the positions practitioners took on questions of experimental skill reflected not only the experimental traditions they were trained in but also their differing ontological and epistemological commitments. Different assumptions about the nature of gene action, eg., were tied to different positions in the knockout mouse debates on how to implement experimental controls. I conclude by showing that examining representations of skill in the context of a community’s knowledge commitments sheds light on some of the contradictory ways in which contemporary animal behaviour geneticists talk about their own laboratory work as a highly skilled endeavour that also could be mechanised, as easy to perform and yet difficult to perform well. PMID:26090739

  1. Conceptual framework alignment between primary literature and education in animal behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierema, Andrea Marie-Kryger

    In 1963, Tinbergen revolutionized the study of animal behaviour in his paper On aims and methods of ethology (Zeitschrift Tierpsycholgie, 20, 410-433) by revamping the conceptual framework of the discipline. His framework suggests an integration of four questions: causation, ontogeny, survival value, and evolution. The National Research Council Committee (U.S.) on Undergraduate Biology Education to Prepare Research Scientists for the 21st Century published BIO2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists (Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2003), which suggests alignment between current research and undergraduate education. Unfortunately, alignment has been rarely studied in college biology, especially for fundamental concepts. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to determine if the conceptual framework used by animal behaviour scientists, as presented in current primary literature, aligns with what students are exposed to in undergraduate biology education. After determining the most commonly listed textbooks from randomlyselected animal behaviour syllabi, four of the most popular textbooks, as well as the course descriptions provided in the collected syllabi, underwent content analysis in order to determine the extent that each of Tinbergen's four questions is being applied in education. Mainstream animal behaviour journal articles from 2013 were also assessed via content analysis in order to evaluate the current research framework. It was discovered that over 80% of the textbook text covered only two of Tinbergen's questions (survival value and causation). The other two questions, evolution and ontogeny, were rarely described in the text. A similar trend was found in journal articles. Therefore, alignment is occurring between primary literature and education, but neither aligns with the established conceptual framework of the discipline. According to course descriptions, many instructors intend to use an integrated

  2. N-dimensional animal energetic niches clarify behavioural options in a variable marine environment.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rory P; McMahon, Clive R; Quintana, Flavio; Frere, Esteban; Scolaro, Alejandro; Hays, Graeme C; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2011-02-15

    Animals respond to environmental variation by exhibiting a number of different behaviours and/or rates of activity, which result in corresponding variation in energy expenditure. Successful animals generally maximize efficiency or rate of energy gain through foraging. Quantification of all features that modulate energy expenditure can theoretically be modelled as an animal energetic niche or power envelope; with total power being represented by the vertical axis and n-dimensional horizontal axes representing extents of processes that affect energy expenditure. Such an energetic niche could be used to assess the energetic consequences of animals adopting particular behaviours under various environmental conditions. This value of this approach was tested by constructing a simple mechanistic energetics model based on data collected from recording devices deployed on 41 free-living Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), foraging from four different colonies in Argentina and consequently catching four different types of prey. Energy expenditure was calculated as a function of total distance swum underwater (horizontal axis 1) and maximum depth reached (horizontal axis 2). The resultant power envelope was invariant, irrespective of colony location, but penguins from the different colonies tended to use different areas of the envelope. The different colony solutions appeared to represent particular behavioural options for exploiting the available prey and demonstrate how penguins respond to environmental circumstance (prey distribution), the energetic consequences that this has for them, and how this affects the balance of energy acquisition through foraging and expenditure strategy. PMID:21270314

  3. Animal behaviour: use of dung as a tool by burrowing owls.

    PubMed

    Levey, Douglas J; Duncan, R Scot; Levins, Carrie F

    2004-09-01

    Reports of tool usage by birds tend to be anecdotal as only a few individuals may be involved and the behaviour observed can often be interpreted in other ways. Here we describe the widespread collection of mammalian dung by burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) and show that they use this dung as a bait to attract dung beetles, a major item of prey. Our controlled investigation provides an unambiguous estimate of the importance of tool use in a wild animal. PMID:15343324

  4. Target evaluation of deoxyhypusine synthase from Theileria parva the neglected animal parasite and its relationship to Plasmodium.

    PubMed

    Njuguna, James T; von Koschitzky, Imke; Gerhardt, Heike; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Choucry, Ali; Pink, Mario; Schmitz-Spahnke, Simone; Bakheit, Mohammed A; Strube, Christina; Kaiser, Annette

    2014-08-01

    East Coast fever (ECF) is a tick-borne disease caused by the parasite Theileria parva which infects cattle. In Sub-Saharan Africa it leads to enormous economic costs. After a bite of a tick, sporozoites invade the host lymphocytes and develop into schizonts. At this stage the parasite transforms host lymphocytes resulting in the clonal expansion of infected lymphocytes. Animals develop a lymphoma like disorder after infection which is rapidly fatal. Hitherto, a few drugs of the quinone type can cure the disease. However, therapy can only be successful after early diagnosis. The genera Theileria and Plasmodium, which includes the causative agent of human malaria, are closely related apicomplexan parasites. Enzymes of the hypusine pathway, a posttranslational modification in eukaryotic initiation factor EIF-5A, have shown to be druggable targets in Plasmodium. We identified the first enzyme of the hypusine pathway from T. parva, the deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS), which is located on chromosome 2 of the Muguga strain. Transcription is significantly increased in schizonts. The expressed T. parva DHS reveals an open reading frame (ORF) of 370 amino acids after expression in Escherichia coli Rosetta cells with a molecular size of 41.26 kDa and a theoretical pI of 5.26. Screening of the Malaria Box which consists of 400 active compounds resulted in a novel heterocyclic compound with a guanyl spacer which reduced the activity of T. parva DHS to 45%. In sum, the guanyl residue seems to be an important lead structure for inhibition of Theileria DHS. Currently, more different guanyl analogues from the Malaria Box are tested in inhibitor experiments to determine their efficacy. PMID:24909679

  5. Animal behaviour shapes the ecological effects of ocean acidification and warming: moving from individual to community-level responses.

    PubMed

    Nagelkerken, Ivan; Munday, Philip L

    2016-03-01

    Biological communities are shaped by complex interactions between organisms and their environment as well as interactions with other species. Humans are rapidly changing the marine environment through increasing greenhouse gas emissions, resulting in ocean warming and acidification. The first response by animals to environmental change is predominantly through modification of their behaviour, which in turn affects species interactions and ecological processes. Yet, many climate change studies ignore animal behaviour. Furthermore, our current knowledge of how global change alters animal behaviour is mostly restricted to single species, life phases and stressors, leading to an incomplete view of how coinciding climate stressors can affect the ecological interactions that structure biological communities. Here, we first review studies on the effects of warming and acidification on the behaviour of marine animals. We demonstrate how pervasive the effects of global change are on a wide range of critical behaviours that determine the persistence of species and their success in ecological communities. We then evaluate several approaches to studying the ecological effects of warming and acidification, and identify knowledge gaps that need to be filled, to better understand how global change will affect marine populations and communities through altered animal behaviours. Our review provides a synthesis of the far-reaching consequences that behavioural changes could have for marine ecosystems in a rapidly changing environment. Without considering the pervasive effects of climate change on animal behaviour we will limit our ability to forecast the impacts of ocean change and provide insights that can aid management strategies. PMID:26700211

  6. Mechanistic models of animal migration behaviour – their diversity, structure and use

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Silke; Klaassen, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Migration is a wide-spread phenomenon in the animal kingdom, including many taxonomic groups and modes of locomotion. Developing an understanding of the proximate and ultimate causes for this behaviour not only addresses fundamental ecological questions but has relevance to many other fields, e.g. in relation to the spread of emerging zoonotic diseases, the proliferation of invasive species, aeronautical safety as well as the conservation of migrants.Theoretical methods can make important contributions to our understanding of migration, by allowing us to integrate findings on this complex behaviour, identify caveats in our understanding and guide future empirical research efforts. Various mechanistic models exist to date but their applications seem to be scattered and far from evenly distributed across taxonomic units.Therefore, we provide an overview of the major mechanistic modelling approaches used in the study of migration behaviour and characterise their fundamental features, assumptions and limitations, and discuss their typical data requirements both for model parameterisation and for scrutinizing model predictions.Furthermore, we review 155 studies that have used mechanistic models to study animal migration and analyse them with regard to the approaches used, focal species and also explore their contribution of advancing current knowledge within six broad migration ecology research themes.This identifies important gaps in our present knowledge, which should be tackled in future research using existing and to-be developed theoretical approaches. PMID:23373515

  7. Neglected Bacterial Zoonoses

    PubMed Central

    Chikeka, Ijeuru; Dumler, J. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial zoonoses comprise a group of diseases in humans or animals acquired by direct contact with or by oral consumption of contaminated animal materials, or via arthropod vectors. Among neglected infections, bacterial zoonoses are among the most neglected given emerging data on incidence and prevalence as causes of acute febrile illness, even in areas where recognized neglected tropical diseases occur frequently. While many other bacterial infections could also be considered in this neglected category, five distinct infections stand out because they are globally distributed, are acute febrile diseases, have high rates of morbidity and case fatality, and are reported as commonly as malaria, typhoid or dengue virus infections in carefully designed studies in which a broad spectrum diagnoses are actively sought. Thus, this review will focus attention on leptospirosis, relapsing fever borreliosis, and rickettsioses, including scrub typhus, murine typhus and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. Of greatest interest is the lack of distinguishing clinical features among these infections when in humans, which confounds diagnosis where laboratory confirmation is lacking, and in regions where clinical diagnosis is often attributed to one of several perceived more common threats. As diseases such as malaria come under improved control, the real impact of these common and under-recognized infections will become evident, as will the requirement for the strategies and allocation of resources for their control. PMID:25964152

  8. Neglect dysgraphia.

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, D M; Warrington, E K

    1983-01-01

    A phonological dysgraphic syndrome is documented in a left handed man with a right-hemisphere lesion. His spelling was significantly affected by word length but neither word frequency nor the orthographical irregularity or word class proved to be relevant variables. Words were spelled equally efficiently forwards as backwards. A clear gradient of letter errors was shown to exist with letters on the left being mis-spelled more often than letters on the right of a word, irrespective of word length. These findings are discussed in terms of current models of spelling and their relevance to theories of unilateral neglect. Images PMID:6663305

  9. Global positioning system and associated technologies in animal behaviour and ecological research.

    PubMed

    Tomkiewicz, Stanley M; Fuller, Mark R; Kie, John G; Bates, Kirk K

    2010-07-27

    Biologists can equip animals with global positioning system (GPS) technology to obtain accurate (less than or equal to 30 m) locations that can be combined with sensor data to study animal behaviour and ecology. We provide the background of GPS techniques that have been used to gather data for wildlife studies. We review how GPS has been integrated into functional systems with data storage, data transfer, power supplies, packaging and sensor technologies to collect temperature, activity, proximity and mortality data from terrestrial species and birds. GPS 'rapid fixing' technologies combined with sensors provide location, dive frequency and duration profiles, and underwater acoustic information for the study of marine species. We examine how these rapid fixing technologies may be applied to terrestrial and avian applications. We discuss positional data quality and the capability for high-frequency sampling associated with GPS locations. We present alternatives for storing and retrieving data by using dataloggers (biologging), radio-frequency download systems (e.g. very high frequency, spread spectrum), integration of GPS with other satellite systems (e.g. Argos, Globalstar) and potential new data recovery technologies (e.g. network nodes). GPS is one component among many rapidly evolving technologies. Therefore, we recommend that users and suppliers interact to ensure the availability of appropriate equipment to meet animal research objectives. PMID:20566494

  10. Global positioning system and associated technologies in animal behaviour and ecological research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tomkiewicz, Stanley M.; Fuller, Mark R.; Kie, John G.; Bates, Kirk K.

    2010-01-01

    Biologists can equip animals with global positioning system (GPS) technology to obtain accurate (less than or equal to 30 m) locations that can be combined with sensor data to study animal behaviour and ecology. We provide the background of GPS techniques that have been used to gather data for wildlife studies. We review how GPS has been integrated into functional systems with data storage, data transfer, power supplies, packaging and sensor technologies to collect temperature, activity, proximity and mortality data from terrestrial species and birds. GPS 'rapid fixing' technologies combined with sensors provide location, dive frequency and duration profiles, and underwater acoustic information for the study of marine species. We examine how these rapid fixing technologies may be applied to terrestrial and avian applications. We discuss positional data quality and the capability for high-frequency sampling associated with GPS locations. We present alternatives for storing and retrieving data by using dataloggers (biologging), radio-frequency download systems (e.g. very high frequency, spread spectrum), integration of GPS with other satellite systems (e.g. Argos, Globalstar) and potential new data recovery technologies (e.g. network nodes). GPS is one component among many rapidly evolving technologies. Therefore, we recommend that users and suppliers interact to ensure the availability of appropriate equipment to meet animal research objectives.

  11. Global positioning system and associated technologies in animal behaviour and ecological research

    PubMed Central

    Tomkiewicz, Stanley M.; Fuller, Mark R.; Kie, John G.; Bates, Kirk K.

    2010-01-01

    Biologists can equip animals with global positioning system (GPS) technology to obtain accurate (less than or equal to 30 m) locations that can be combined with sensor data to study animal behaviour and ecology. We provide the background of GPS techniques that have been used to gather data for wildlife studies. We review how GPS has been integrated into functional systems with data storage, data transfer, power supplies, packaging and sensor technologies to collect temperature, activity, proximity and mortality data from terrestrial species and birds. GPS ‘rapid fixing’ technologies combined with sensors provide location, dive frequency and duration profiles, and underwater acoustic information for the study of marine species. We examine how these rapid fixing technologies may be applied to terrestrial and avian applications. We discuss positional data quality and the capability for high-frequency sampling associated with GPS locations. We present alternatives for storing and retrieving data by using dataloggers (biologging), radio-frequency download systems (e.g. very high frequency, spread spectrum), integration of GPS with other satellite systems (e.g. Argos, Globalstar) and potential new data recovery technologies (e.g. network nodes). GPS is one component among many rapidly evolving technologies. Therefore, we recommend that users and suppliers interact to ensure the availability of appropriate equipment to meet animal research objectives. PMID:20566494

  12. A conceptual and practical guide to the behavioural evaluation of animal models of the symptomatology and therapy of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Benjamin K.; Singer, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic debilitating brain disorder characterized by a complex set of perceptual and behavioural symptoms that severely disrupt and undermine the patient’s psychological well-being and quality of life. Since the exact disease mechanisms remain essentially unknown, holistic animal models are indispensable tools for any serious investigation into the neurobiology of schizophrenia, including the search of remedies, prevention, and possible biological markers. This review provides some practical advice to those confronted with the task of evaluating their animal models for relevance to schizophrenia that inevitably involves behavioural tests with animals. To a novice, this challenge is not only a technical one, as it also entails attention to interpretative issues concerning validity and translational power. Here, we attempt to offer some guidance to help overcome these obstacles by drawing on our experience on diverse animal models of schizophrenia based on genetics, strain difference, brain lesions, pharmacological induction, and early life developmental manipulations. The review pays equal emphasis on the general (theoretical) considerations in experimental design and the illustration of the problematics related to test parameters and data analysis of selected exemplar behavioural tests. Finally, the individual difference of behavioural expression in relevant tests observed in wild type animals may offer an alternative approach to explore the mechanism of schizophrenia-related behavioural dysfunction at the molecular, cellular and structural levels that are of more immediate relevance to cell and tissue research. PMID:23579553

  13. The Use of Acceleration to Code for Animal Behaviours; A Case Study in Free-Ranging Eurasian Beavers Castor fiber

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Patricia M.; Wilson, Rory P.; Qasem, Lama; Hackländer, Klaus; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological innovations have led to the development of miniature, accelerometer-containing electronic loggers which can be attached to free-living animals. Accelerometers provide information on both body posture and dynamism which can be used as descriptors to define behaviour. We deployed tri-axial accelerometer loggers on 12 free-ranging Eurasian beavers Castor fiber in the county of Telemark, Norway, and on four captive beavers (two Eurasian beavers and two North American beavers C. canadensis) to corroborate acceleration signals with observed behaviours. By using random forests for classifying behavioural patterns of beavers from accelerometry data, we were able to distinguish seven behaviours; standing, walking, swimming, feeding, grooming, diving and sleeping. We show how to apply the use of acceleration to determine behaviour, and emphasise the ease with which this non-invasive method can be implemented. Furthermore, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this, and the implementation of accelerometry on animals, illustrating limitations, suggestions and solutions. Ultimately, this approach may also serve as a template facilitating studies on other animals with similar locomotor modes and deliver new insights into hitherto unknown aspects of behavioural ecology. PMID:26317623

  14. The Use of Acceleration to Code for Animal Behaviours; A Case Study in Free-Ranging Eurasian Beavers Castor fiber.

    PubMed

    Graf, Patricia M; Wilson, Rory P; Qasem, Lama; Hackländer, Klaus; Rosell, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological innovations have led to the development of miniature, accelerometer-containing electronic loggers which can be attached to free-living animals. Accelerometers provide information on both body posture and dynamism which can be used as descriptors to define behaviour. We deployed tri-axial accelerometer loggers on 12 free-ranging Eurasian beavers Castor fiber in the county of Telemark, Norway, and on four captive beavers (two Eurasian beavers and two North American beavers C. canadensis) to corroborate acceleration signals with observed behaviours. By using random forests for classifying behavioural patterns of beavers from accelerometry data, we were able to distinguish seven behaviours; standing, walking, swimming, feeding, grooming, diving and sleeping. We show how to apply the use of acceleration to determine behaviour, and emphasise the ease with which this non-invasive method can be implemented. Furthermore, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of this, and the implementation of accelerometry on animals, illustrating limitations, suggestions and solutions. Ultimately, this approach may also serve as a template facilitating studies on other animals with similar locomotor modes and deliver new insights into hitherto unknown aspects of behavioural ecology. PMID:26317623

  15. Behavioural and neurophysiological evidence for face identity and face emotion processing in animals

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Andrew J; Fischer, Hanno; Leigh, Andrea E; Kendrick, Keith M

    2006-01-01

    Visual cues from faces provide important social information relating to individual identity, sexual attraction and emotional state. Behavioural and neurophysiological studies on both monkeys and sheep have shown that specialized skills and neural systems for processing these complex cues to guide behaviour have evolved in a number of mammals and are not present exclusively in humans. Indeed, there are remarkable similarities in the ways that faces are processed by the brain in humans and other mammalian species. While human studies with brain imaging and gross neurophysiological recording approaches have revealed global aspects of the face-processing network, they cannot investigate how information is encoded by specific neural networks. Single neuron electrophysiological recording approaches in both monkeys and sheep have, however, provided some insights into the neural encoding principles involved and, particularly, the presence of a remarkable degree of high-level encoding even at the level of a specific face. Recent developments that allow simultaneous recordings to be made from many hundreds of individual neurons are also beginning to reveal evidence for global aspects of a population-based code. This review will summarize what we have learned so far from these animal-based studies about the way the mammalian brain processes the faces and the emotions they can communicate, as well as associated capacities such as how identity and emotion cues are dissociated and how face imagery might be generated. It will also try to highlight what questions and advances in knowledge still challenge us in order to provide a complete understanding of just how brain networks perform this complex and important social recognition task. PMID:17118930

  16. Hormonal and behavioural abnormalities induced by stress in utero: an animal model for depression.

    PubMed

    Maccari, S; Darnaudery, M; Van Reeth, O

    2001-09-01

    Prenatal stress in rats can exert profound influence on the off spring's development, inducing abnormalities such as increased "anxiety", "emotionality" or "depression-like" behaviours.Prenatal stress has long-term effects on the development of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal(HPA) axis and forebrain cholinergic systems. These long-term neuroendocrinological effects are mediated, at least in part, by stress-induced maternal corticosterone increase during pregnancy and stress-induced maternal anxiety during the postnatal period. We have shown a significant phase advance in the circadian rhythms of corticosterone secretion and locomotor activity in prenatally-stressed (PNS) rats. When subjected to an abrupt shift in the light-dark(LD) cycle, PNS rats resynchronized their activity rhythm more slowly than control rats. In view of the data suggesting abnormalities in the circadian timing system in these animals, we have investigated the effects of prenatal stress on the sleep-wake cycle in adult male rats. PNS rats exhibited various changes in sleep-wake parameters, including a dramatic increase in the amount of paradoxical sleep. Taken together, our results indicate that prenatal stress can induce increased responses to stress and abnormal circadian rhythms and sleep in adult rats.Various clinical observations in humans suggest a possible pathophysiological link between depression and disturbances in circadian rhythmicity. Circadian abnormalities in depression can be related to those found in PNS rats. Interestingly, we have recently shown that the increased immobility in the forced swimming test observed in PNS rats can be corrected by chronic treatment with the antidepressant tianeptine, or with melatonin or S23478, a melatonin agonist. Those results reinforce the idea of the usefulness of PNS rats as an appropriate animal model to study human depression and support a new antidepressant-like effect of melatonin and the melatonin agonist S23478. PMID:22432138

  17. Using photographs to study animal social cognition and behaviour: Do capuchins' responses to photos reflect reality?

    PubMed

    Morton, F Blake; Brosnan, Sarah F; Prétôt, Laurent; Buchanan-Smith, Hannah M; O'Sullivan, Eoin; Stocker, Martina; D'Mello, Daniel; Wilson, Vanessa A D

    2016-03-01

    Behavioural responses to photos are often used to infer what animals understand about their social environment, but are rarely validated against the same stimuli in real life. If subjects' responses to photos do not reflect responses to the same live stimuli, it is difficult to conclude what happens in reality based on photo responses alone. We compared capuchins' responses to photos versus live stimuli in an identical scenario within research cubicles. Subjects had the opportunity to approach food placed in front of an alpha group member and, in a separate condition, photos depicting the same individual. Subjects' latencies to approach food when placed in front of the real alpha negatively correlated with time subjects spent in close proximity to the alpha in their main enclosure. We therefore predicted subjects' latencies to approach food in the presence of photos would positively correlate with their latencies to approach food in the presence of the real alpha inside the cubicles, but negatively correlate with time they spent in proximity to the alpha in their enclosure. Neither prediction was supported. While not necessarily surprising, we explain why these results should be an important reminder that care is needed when interpreting results from photo studies. PMID:26476153

  18. Other Safety Concerns and Self-Neglect

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Area Confidentiality & Safety Get Informed What Is Abuse? What Is Neglect? What is Financial Exploitation? Other Safety Concerns? History ... adults. These are commonly reported signs of self-neglect* reported to Adult ... of clutter Animal feces in home Residence is extremely dirty, filled ...

  19. Integrative modelling of animal movement: incorporating in situ habitat and behavioural information for a migratory marine predator.

    PubMed

    Bestley, Sophie; Jonsen, Ian D; Hindell, Mark A; Guinet, Christophe; Charrassin, Jean-Benoît

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental goal in animal ecology is to quantify how environmental (and other) factors influence individual movement, as this is key to understanding responsiveness of populations to future change. However, quantitative interpretation of individual-based telemetry data is hampered by the complexity of, and error within, these multi-dimensional data. Here, we present an integrative hierarchical Bayesian state-space modelling approach where, for the first time, the mechanistic process model for the movement state of animals directly incorporates both environmental and other behavioural information, and observation and process model parameters are estimated within a single model. When applied to a migratory marine predator, the southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina), we find the switch from directed to resident movement state was associated with colder water temperatures, relatively short dive bottom time and rapid descent rates. The approach presented here can have widespread utility for quantifying movement-behaviour (diving or other)-environment relationships across species and systems. PMID:23135676

  20. Animal models of neuropsychiatry revisited: a personal tribute to Teitelbaum.

    PubMed

    Robbins, T W

    2012-06-01

    Several themes and principles of behavioural neuroscience are evident in the work of Phillip Teitelbaum. He has emphasised the importance of studying behaviour in simple preparations, of re-synthesising complex behavioural patterns from these elemental 'building-blocks' and understanding their often hierarchical organisation. He also more recently has become interested in the possible power of behavioural endophenotypes. His work has resulted in a new emphasis on animal neuropsychology which is highly relevant to human psychopathology. This article illustrates these themes from examples taken from animal models of sensory neglect, drug addiction and cognitive syndromes associated with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22440232

  1. How Growing Complexity of Consumer Choices and Drivers of Consumption Behaviour Affect Demand for Animal Source Foods.

    PubMed

    Perry, B D; Grace, D C

    2015-12-01

    Many societies are spoiled for choice when they purchase meat and other livestock products, and around the globe food choice has grown dramatically in the last two decades. What is more, besides the cost and obvious health concerns influencing commodity section, an increasing proportion of choices is made to contribute to the achievement of certain ideals, such as natural resource management, climate change mitigation, animal welfare concerns and personal lifestyle. At the same time, human health considerations are becoming more important for consumption choices as richer societies, and increasingly the urban poor in low- and middle-income countries, face an unprecedented epidemic of over-consumption and associated diet-related non-communicable diseases. Animal source foods are considered significant contributors to this trend. This paper reviews this complicated arena, and explores the range of considerations that influence consumers' preferences for meat and other animal source foods. This paper also argues that deeper drivers of consumption behaviour of many foods may act in opposition to the articulated preferences for choices around animal source food consumption. We review how the returns to different causes are being valued, how emerging metrics are helping to manage and influence consumption behaviours, and draw conclusions regarding options which influence food choice. PMID:26682899

  2. Neural coding of basic reward terms of animal learning theory, game theory, microeconomics and behavioural ecology.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2004-04-01

    Neurons in a small number of brain structures detect rewards and reward-predicting stimuli and are active during the expectation of predictable food and liquid rewards. These neurons code the reward information according to basic terms of various behavioural theories that seek to explain reward-directed learning, approach behaviour and decision-making. The involved brain structures include groups of dopamine neurons, the striatum including the nucleus accumbens, the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala. The reward information is fed to brain structures involved in decision-making and organisation of behaviour, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and possibly the parietal cortex. The neural coding of basic reward terms derived from formal theories puts the neurophysiological investigation of reward mechanisms on firm conceptual grounds and provides neural correlates for the function of rewards in learning, approach behaviour and decision-making. PMID:15082317

  3. Modulation of early stress-induced neurobiological changes: a review of behavioural and pharmacological interventions in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, E L; Baune, B T

    2014-01-01

    Childhood adversity alters the predisposition to psychiatric disorders later in life. Those with psychiatric conditions and a history of early adversity exhibit a higher incidence of treatment resistance compared with individuals with no such history. Modulation of the influence early stress exerts over neurobiology may help to prevent the development of psychiatric disorders in some cases, while attenuating the extent of treatment resistance in those with established psychiatric disorders. This review aims to critically evaluate the ability of behavioural, environmental and pharmacologic interventions to modulate neurobiological changes induced by early stress in animal models. Databases were systematically searched to locate literature relevant to this review. Early adversity was defined as stress that resulted from manipulation of the mother–infant relationship. Analysis was restricted to animal models to enable characterisation of how a given intervention altered specific neurobiological changes induced by early stress. A wide variety of changes in neurobiology due to early stress are amenable to intervention. Behavioural interventions in childhood, exercise in adolescence and administration of epigenetic-modifying drugs throughout life appear to best modulate cellar and behavioural alterations induced by childhood adversity. Other pharmacotherapies, such as endocannabinoid system modulators, anti-inflammatories and antidepressants can also influence these neurobiological and behavioural changes that result from early stress, although findings are less consistent at present and require further investigation. Further work is required to examine the influence that behavioural interventions, exercise and epigenetic-modifying drugs exert over alterations that occur following childhood stress in human studies, before possible translational into clinical practice is possible. PMID:24825729

  4. A new behavioural apparatus to reduce animal numbers in multiple types of spontaneous object recognition paradigms in rats.

    PubMed

    Ameen-Ali, K E; Eacott, M J; Easton, A

    2012-10-15

    Standard object recognition procedures assess animals' memory through their spontaneous exploration of novel objects or novel configurations of objects with other aspects of their environment. Such tasks are widely used in memory research, but also in pharmaceutical companies screening new drug treatments. However, behaviour in these tasks may be driven by influences other than novelty such as stress from handling which can subsequently influence performance. This extra-experimental variance means that large numbers of animals are required to maintain power. In addition, accumulation of data is time consuming as animals typically perform only one trial per day. The present study aimed to explore how effectively recognition memory could be tested with a new continual trials apparatus which allows for multiple trials within a session and reduced handling stress through combining features of delayed nonmatching-to-sample and spontaneous object recognition tasks. In this apparatus Lister hooded rats displayed performance significantly above chance levels in object recognition tasks (Experiments 1 and 2) and in tasks of object-location (Experiment 3) and object-in-context memory (Experiment 4) with data from only five animals or fewer per experimental group. The findings indicated that the results were comparable to those of previous reports in the literature and maintained statistical power whilst using less than a third of the number of animals typically used in spontaneous recognition paradigms. Overall, the results highlight the potential benefit of the continual trials apparatus to reduce the number of animals used in recognition memory tasks. PMID:22917958

  5. Does the Animal Fun program improve social-emotional and behavioural outcomes in children aged 4-6 years?

    PubMed

    Piek, Jan P; Kane, Robert; Rigoli, Daniela; McLaren, Sue; Roberts, Clare M; Rooney, Rosanna; Jensen, Lynn; Dender, Alma; Packer, Tanya; Straker, Leon

    2015-10-01

    Animal Fun was designed to enhance motor and social development in young children. Its efficacy in improving motor skills was presented previously using a randomised controlled trial and a multivariate nested cohort design. Based on the Environmental Stress Hypothesis, it was argued that the program would also result in positive mental health outcomes, investigated in the current study. Pre-intervention scores were recorded for 511 children aged 4.83-6.17 years (M=5.42, SD=.30). Intervention and control groups were compared 6 months following intervention, and again in their first school year. Changes in teacher-rated prosocial behaviour and total difficulties were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and data analysed using Generalised Linear Mixed Models. There was a significant improvement in prosocial behaviour of children in the intervention group six months after initial testing, which remained at 18-month follow-up. Total difficulties decreased at 6 months for the intervention group, with no change at 18 months. This effect was present only for the hyperactivity/inattention subscale. The only significant change for the control group was an increase in hyperactivity/inattention scores from pre-intervention to 18-month follow-up. The Animal Fun program appears to be effective in improving social and behavioural outcomes. PMID:26298689

  6. Neglected and endemic zoonoses

    PubMed Central

    Maudlin, Ian; Eisler, Mark Charles; Welburn, Susan Christina

    2009-01-01

    Endemic zoonoses are found throughout the developing world, wherever people live in close proximity to their animals, affecting not only the health of poor people but often also their livelihoods through the health of their livestock. Unlike newly emerging zoonoses that attract the attention of the developed world, these endemic zoonoses are by comparison neglected. This is, in part, a consequence of under-reporting, resulting in underestimation of their global burden, which in turn artificially downgrades their importance in the eyes of administrators and funding agencies. The development of cheap and effective vaccines is no guarantee that these endemic diseases will be eliminated in the near future. However, simply increasing awareness about their causes and how they may be prevented—often with very simple technologies—could reduce the incidence of many endemic zoonoses. Sustainable control of zoonoses is reliant on surveillance, but, as with other public-sector animal health services, this is rarely implemented in the developing world, not least because of the lack of sufficiently cheap diagnostics. Public–private partnerships have already provided advocacy for human disease control and could be equally effective in addressing endemic zoonoses. PMID:19687045

  7. Self-Injurious Behaviour: Limbic Dysregulation and Stress Effects in an Animal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehlmann, A. M.; Kies, S. D.; Turner, C. A.; Wolfman, S.; Lewis, M. H.; Devine, D. P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Self-injurious behaviour (SIB) is prevalent in neurodevelopmental disorders, but its expression is highly variable within, and between diagnostic categories. This raises questions about the factors that contribute to aetiology and expression of SIB. Expression of SIB is generally described in relation to social reinforcement. However,…

  8. Patient neglect in healthcare institutions: a systematic review and conceptual model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient neglect is an issue of increasing public concern in Europe and North America, yet remains poorly understood. This is the first systematic review on the nature, frequency and causes of patient neglect as distinct from patient safety topics such as medical error. Method The Pubmed, Science Direct, and Medline databases were searched in order to identify research studies investigating patient neglect. Ten articles and four government reports met the inclusion criteria of reporting primary data on the occurrence or causes of patient neglect. Qualitative and quantitative data extraction investigated (1) the definition of patient neglect, (2) the forms of behaviour associated with neglect, (3) the reported frequency of neglect, and (4) the causes of neglect. Results Patient neglect is found to have two aspects. First, procedure neglect, which refers to failures of healthcare staff to achieve objective standards of care. Second, caring neglect, which refers to behaviours that lead patients and observers to believe that staff have uncaring attitudes. The perceived frequency of neglectful behaviour varies by observer. Patients and their family members are more likely to report neglect than healthcare staff, and nurses are more likely to report on the neglectful behaviours of other nurses than on their own behaviour. The causes of patient neglect frequently relate to organisational factors (e.g. high workloads that constrain the behaviours of healthcare staff, burnout), and the relationship between carers and patients. Conclusion A social psychology-based conceptual model is developed to explain the occurrence and nature of patient neglect. This model will facilitate investigations of i) differences between patients and healthcare staff in how they perceive neglect, ii) the association with patient neglect and health outcomes, iii) the relative importance of system and organisational factors in causing neglect, and iv) the design of interventions and

  9. Who Neglects Neglected Tropical Diseases? - Korean Perspective.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min-Ho; Yu, Jae-Ran; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2015-11-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of tropical infectious diseases of poorest people. Of 17 NTDs managed by WHO, two, guinea worm disease (by 2015) and yaws (by 2020) are targeted for eradication, and four (blinding trachoma, human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy, and lymphatic filariasis) for elimination by 2020. The goals look promising but 11 others are still highly prevalent. Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are one NTD which prevail over the world including temperate zones. They had been highly prevalent in Korea but are mostly disappearing at present through systematic and sustainable control activity. The successful experience of STH control enables Korean experts to develop many programs of NTD control in developing countries. Several programs of both official development aid and non-governmental organizations are now targeting NTDs. Most NTDs are low in health priority compared to their health threats because they are chronic, insidious, and of low mortality. No one, including the victims, raised priority of NTD control with a loud voice in the endemic field of the diseases. After the millennium development goals declared disease control over the world, NTDs are becoming less neglected globally. Even with limited resources, beginning a sustainable national program is the key for the control and elimination of NTDs. No more neglect, especially no more self-neglect, can eliminate diseases and upgrade quality of life of the neglected people. PMID:26617444

  10. Who Neglects Neglected Tropical Diseases? - Korean Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Min-Ho; Yu, Jae-Ran

    2015-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of tropical infectious diseases of poorest people. Of 17 NTDs managed by WHO, two, guinea worm disease (by 2015) and yaws (by 2020) are targeted for eradication, and four (blinding trachoma, human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy, and lymphatic filariasis) for elimination by 2020. The goals look promising but 11 others are still highly prevalent. Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are one NTD which prevail over the world including temperate zones. They had been highly prevalent in Korea but are mostly disappearing at present through systematic and sustainable control activity. The successful experience of STH control enables Korean experts to develop many programs of NTD control in developing countries. Several programs of both official development aid and non-governmental organizations are now targeting NTDs. Most NTDs are low in health priority compared to their health threats because they are chronic, insidious, and of low mortality. No one, including the victims, raised priority of NTD control with a loud voice in the endemic field of the diseases. After the millennium development goals declared disease control over the world, NTDs are becoming less neglected globally. Even with limited resources, beginning a sustainable national program is the key for the control and elimination of NTDs. No more neglect, especially no more self-neglect, can eliminate diseases and upgrade quality of life of the neglected people. PMID:26617444

  11. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  12. Liver irradiation causes distal bystander effects in the rat brain and affects animal behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Kovalchuk, Anna; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Muhammad, Arif; Hossain, Shakhawat; Ilnytskyy, Slava; Ghose, Abhijit; Kirkby, Charles; Ghasroddashti, Esmaeel; Kovalchuk, Olga; Kolb, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy can not only produce effects on targeted organs, but can also influence shielded bystander organs, such as the brain in targeted liver irradiation. The brain is sensitive to radiation exposure, and irradiation causes significant neuro-cognitive deficits, including deficits in attention, concentration, memory, and executive and visuospatial functions. The mechanisms of their occurrence are not understood, although they may be related to the bystander effects. We analyzed the induction, mechanisms, and behavioural repercussions of bystander effects in the brain upon liver irradiation in a well-established rat model. Here, we show for the first time that bystander effects occur in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus regions upon liver irradiation, where they manifest as altered gene expression and somewhat increased levels of γH2AX. We also report that bystander effects in the brain are associated with neuroanatomical and behavioural changes, and are more pronounced in females than in males. PMID:26678032

  13. Hypermnesia in unilateral neglect.

    PubMed

    Bisiach, E; Ricci, R; Silani, G; Cossa, F M; Crespi, M G

    1999-12-01

    Thirteen right brain-damaged patients who were found to neglect pictures presented on the left of a display were presented the same stimuli, intermixed with foils, in a yes-no recognition test. Fifty per cent of patients claimed to have already seen one or more of the previously neglected pictures. This demonstrates that visual information that fails to access consciousness in neglect patients does retain the ability to surface as explicit memory at a later stage. PMID:10656637

  14. Cognitive Enrichment in Piglet Rearing: An Approach to Enhance Animal Welfare and to Reduce Aggressive Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Rauterberg, Sally; Viazzi, Stefano; Oczak, Maciej; Bahr, Claudia; Guarino, Marcella; Vranken, Erik; Berckmans, Daniel; Hartung, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    It is known that pigs raised in enriched environments express less aggressive behaviour. For this reason, a new method of cognitive environmental enrichment was experimented at the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Germany. In the first phase, 78 suckling piglets were trained to learn the link between a sound given by an electronic feeder and a feed reward in the form of chocolate candies during a period of 8 days. In the second phase, the same piglets were used in resident-intruder tests to verify the potential of the feeding system to interrupt aggressive behaviour. The analysis of all training rounds revealed that piglets learned the commands during 8 days of training and the interest of the piglets increased within training days (P < 0.05). In the resident-intruder test, 79.5% of aggressive interactions were broken by feeder activation. In interactions where either the aggressor or the receiver reacted, a high number of fights were stopped (96.7% versus 93.1%) indicating that it was not relevant if the aggressor or the receiver responded to the feeder activation. We conclude that the electronic feeding system has the potential to be used as cognitive enrichment for piglets, being suitable for reducing aggressive behaviour in resident-intruder situations. PMID:24198969

  15. Social behaviour of dogs encountering AIBO, an animal-like robot in a neutral and in a feeding situation.

    PubMed

    Kubinyi, Eniko; Miklósi, Adám; Kaplan, Frédéric; Gácsi, Márta; Topál, József; Csányi, Vilmos

    2004-03-31

    The use of animal-like autonomous robots might offer new possibilities in the study of animal interactions, if the subject recognises it as a social partner. In this paper we investigate whether AIBO, a dog-like robot of the Sony Corp. can be used for this purpose. Twenty-four adult and sixteen 4-5 months old pet dogs were tested in two situations where subjects encountered one of four different test-partners: (1) a remote controlled car; (2) an AIBO robot; (3) AIBO with a puppy-scented furry cover; and (4) a 2-month-old puppy. In the neutral situation the dog could interact freely with one of the partners for 1 min in a closed arena in the presence of its owner. In the feeding situation the encounters were started while the dog was eating food. Our results show that age and context influence the social behaviour of dogs. Further, we have found that although both age groups differentiated the living and non-living test-partners for some extent, the furry AIBO evoked significantly increased responses in comparison to the car. These experiments show the first steps towards the application of robots in behavioural studies, notwithstanding that at present AIBO's limited ability to move constrains its effectiveness as social partner for dogs. PMID:14998660

  16. Behavioural defences in animals against pathogens and parasites: parallels with the pillars of medicine in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Benjamin L.

    2011-01-01

    No other theme in animal biology seems to be more central than the concept of employing strategies to survive and successfully reproduce. In nature, controlling or avoiding pathogens and parasites is an essential fitness strategy because of the ever-present disease-causing organisms. The disease-control strategies discussed here are: physical avoidance and removal of pathogens and parasites; quarantine or peripheralization of conspecifics that could be carrying potential pathogens; herbal medicine, animal style, to prevent or treat an infection; potentiation of the immune system; and care of sick or injured group members. These strategies are seen as also encompassing the pillars of human medicine: (i) quarantine; (ii) immune-boosting vaccinations; (iii) use of medicinal products; and (iv) caring or nursing. In contrast to animals, in humans, the disease-control strategies have been consolidated into a consistent and extensive medical system. A hypothesis that explains some of this difference between animals and humans is that humans are sick more often than animals. This increase in sickness in humans leading to an extensive, cognitively driven medical system is attributed to an evolutionary dietary transition from mostly natural vegetation to a meat-based diet, with an increase in health-eroding free radicals and a dietary reduction of free-radical-scavenging antioxidants. PMID:22042917

  17. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 1. Gut absorption.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Isamov, N; Howard, B J; Voigt, G; Beresford, N A; Sanzharova, N

    2007-01-01

    An extensive programme of experiments was conducted in the former USSR on transfer of radionuclides to a wide range of different agricultural animals. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews of gastrointestinal uptake. The paper gives extended information on Russian research on radionuclide absorption in the gut of farm animals performed in controlled field and laboratory experiments from the 1960s to the current time. The data presented in the paper, together with English language values, will be used to provide recommended values of absorption specifically for farm animals within the revision of the IAEA Handbook of Parameter Values IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1994. Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Temperate Environments, IAEA technical reports series No. 364. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna]. PMID:17728027

  18. Perinatal Influences of Valproate on Brain and Behaviour: An Animal Model for Autism.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Peter; Ellenbroek, Bart A

    2016-01-01

    Valproic acid or valproate (VPA) is an anti-convulsant and mood stabiliser effective in treating epilepsy and bipolar disorders. Although in adults VPA is well tolerated and safe, there is convincing evidence that it has teratogenic properties, ranging from mild neurodevelopmental changes to severe congenital malformations. In particular, studies involving humans and other animals have shown that prenatal exposure to VPA can induce developmental abnormalities reminiscent of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this chapter, we discuss the connection between VPA and ASD, evaluate the VPA animal model of ASD, and describe the possible molecular mechanisms underlying VPA's teratogenic properties. PMID:26510739

  19. Love thy neighbour: automatic animal behavioural classification of acceleration data using the K-nearest neighbour algorithm.

    PubMed

    Bidder, Owen R; Campbell, Hamish A; Gómez-Laich, Agustina; Urgé, Patricia; Walker, James; Cai, Yuzhi; Gao, Lianli; Quintana, Flavio; Wilson, Rory P

    2014-01-01

    Researchers hoping to elucidate the behaviour of species that aren't readily observed are able to do so using biotelemetry methods. Accelerometers in particular are proving particularly effective and have been used on terrestrial, aquatic and volant species with success. In the past, behavioural modes were detected in accelerometer data through manual inspection, but with developments in technology, modern accelerometers now record at frequencies that make this impractical. In light of this, some researchers have suggested the use of various machine learning approaches as a means to classify accelerometer data automatically. We feel uptake of this approach by the scientific community is inhibited for two reasons; 1) Most machine learning algorithms require selection of summary statistics which obscure the decision mechanisms by which classifications are arrived, and 2) they are difficult to implement without appreciable computational skill. We present a method which allows researchers to classify accelerometer data into behavioural classes automatically using a primitive machine learning algorithm, k-nearest neighbour (KNN). Raw acceleration data may be used in KNN without selection of summary statistics, and it is easily implemented using the freeware program R. The method is evaluated by detecting 5 behavioural modes in 8 species, with examples of quadrupedal, bipedal and volant species. Accuracy and Precision were found to be comparable with other, more complex methods. In order to assist in the application of this method, the script required to run KNN analysis in R is provided. We envisage that the KNN method may be coupled with methods for investigating animal position, such as GPS telemetry or dead-reckoning, in order to implement an integrated approach to movement ecology research. PMID:24586354

  20. Recent advances in bio-logging science: Technologies and methods for understanding animal behaviour and physiology and their environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, K.; Lea, M.-A.; Patterson, T. A.

    2013-04-01

    The deployment of an ever-evolving array of animal-borne telemetry and data logging devices is rapidly increasing our understanding of the movement, behaviour and physiology of a variety species and the complex, and often highly dynamic, environments they use and respond to. The rapid rate at which new technologies, improvements to current technologies and new analytical techniques are being developed has meant that movements, behaviour and physiological processes are being quantified at finer spatial and temporal scales than ever before. The Fourth International Symposium on Bio-logging Science, held on 14-18 March in Hobart, Australia, brought together scientists across multiple disciplines to discuss the latest innovations in technology, applications and analytical techniques in bio-logging science, building on research presented at three previous conferences. Here we present an update on the state of bio-logging research and provide some views on the future of this field of research. Papers were grouped into five theme areas: (i) Southern Ocean ecosystems; (ii) fishery and biodiversity management applications; (iii) from individuals to populations—inferences of population dynamics from individuals; (iv) conservation biology and (v) habitat modelling. Papers reflected wider uptake of newer technologies, with a greater proportion of studies utilising accelerometry and incorporating advances in statistical modelling of behaviour and habitats, especially via state space modelling methods. Environmental data collected by tags at increasing accuracies are now having wider application beyond the bio-logging community, providing important oceanographic data from regions difficult to sample using traditional methodologies. Partnerships between multiple organisations are also now enabling regional assessments of species movements, behaviour and physiology at population scales and will continue to be important for applying bio-logging technologies to species

  1. Love Thy Neighbour: Automatic Animal Behavioural Classification of Acceleration Data Using the K-Nearest Neighbour Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Bidder, Owen R.; Campbell, Hamish A.; Gómez-Laich, Agustina; Urgé, Patricia; Walker, James; Cai, Yuzhi; Gao, Lianli; Quintana, Flavio; Wilson, Rory P.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers hoping to elucidate the behaviour of species that aren’t readily observed are able to do so using biotelemetry methods. Accelerometers in particular are proving particularly effective and have been used on terrestrial, aquatic and volant species with success. In the past, behavioural modes were detected in accelerometer data through manual inspection, but with developments in technology, modern accelerometers now record at frequencies that make this impractical. In light of this, some researchers have suggested the use of various machine learning approaches as a means to classify accelerometer data automatically. We feel uptake of this approach by the scientific community is inhibited for two reasons; 1) Most machine learning algorithms require selection of summary statistics which obscure the decision mechanisms by which classifications are arrived, and 2) they are difficult to implement without appreciable computational skill. We present a method which allows researchers to classify accelerometer data into behavioural classes automatically using a primitive machine learning algorithm, k-nearest neighbour (KNN). Raw acceleration data may be used in KNN without selection of summary statistics, and it is easily implemented using the freeware program R. The method is evaluated by detecting 5 behavioural modes in 8 species, with examples of quadrupedal, bipedal and volant species. Accuracy and Precision were found to be comparable with other, more complex methods. In order to assist in the application of this method, the script required to run KNN analysis in R is provided. We envisage that the KNN method may be coupled with methods for investigating animal position, such as GPS telemetry or dead-reckoning, in order to implement an integrated approach to movement ecology research. PMID:24586354

  2. Perfluoroalkylated substances in edible livers of farm animals, including depuration behaviour in young sheep fed with contaminated grass.

    PubMed

    Zafeiraki, Effrosyni; Vassiliadou, Irene; Costopoulou, Danae; Leondiadis, Leondios; Schafft, Helmut A; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J

    2016-08-01

    Perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) present a potential health risk for consumers. In animals these compounds are known to accumulate in livers. In order to determine potential PFASs contamination in commercially available livers, samples from farmed sheep, horses, cows, pigs and chicken were collected from the Dutch market. PFOS was the only detectable PFAS and its concentration was higher in free ranging animals like cows and sheep. The detected levels of PFOS in the liver samples were very low (up to 4.5 ng g(-1) ww). To further study the kinetic behaviour in foraging animals, samples from a study in which sheep were fed with grass obtained from a river floodplain, were examined. PFOS was the only detectable PFAS in the contaminated grass pellets, showing a level of about 0.5 μg kg(-1). Young blackhead sheep were fed with either clean or contaminated grass for a period up to 112 days. A time-dependent increase in liver PFOS concentrations was observed from 2.4 to 10.9 ng g(-1) ww after 8 and 112 days respectively. A time-dependent depuration was observed in livers of animals switched to clean grass after 56 days of exposure, from 9.2 to 4.7 ng g(-1) ww after 64 and 112 days respectively. The percentage of PFOS ingested from the grass and retained in the liver was estimated to be 12% at day 56, and decreased gradually to 6% after 56 days on clean grass, showing that the decrease in levels is not only caused by an increase in liver weight. Levels detected in commercial livers but also those in the sheep study would not lead to exceedance of the current TDI for PFOS set by EFSA. Therefore, it can be assumed that they do not present a risk for human health. PMID:27179427

  3. Characterisation of sensory abnormalities observed in an animal model of multiple sclerosis: a behavioural and pharmacological study.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Karine; Calvino, Bernard; Pezet, Sophie

    2011-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease, associated, in 50-80% of patients, with persistent pain. While the type of pain that affects these patients is being more documented, the mechanisms underlying this pathology are still poorly understood and animal models of such chronic pain associated with MS are required. The aim of our study was to characterize the sensory abnormalities and in particular the clinical signs linked to persistent pain in two models of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the rat. This behavioural characterization tested several sensory modalities such as mechanical and thermal (heat/cold) hyperalgesia or allodynia and explored some of these modalities on two different extremities: the hindpaws and the tail. Our study showed that while one of the model produced more robust motor impairment, animals of both models suffer from mechanical hyperalgesia and thermal allodynia to cold, both at the level of the tail and the hindpaws. While the time-course changes of some of these modalities are shifted in the time between the two models, they represent good models of the sensory abnormalities experienced by MS patients. The second part of our study aimed at characterizing from a pharmacological point of view the most robust model ("EAE+Cyclosporine") and showed that Gabapentin, Duloxetine and Tramadol partially relieved some of the clinical signs. Our results suggest that the model "EAE+Cyclosporine" in the rat is a good model of chronic sensory abnormalities observed in MS patients both from a behavioural and pharmacological point of view. PMID:20829083

  4. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 2. Transfer to milk.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Howard, B J; Isamov, N; Voigt, G; Beresford, N A; Sanzharova, N; Barnett, C L

    2007-01-01

    An overview of original information available from Russian language papers on radionuclide transfer to milk is provided. Most of the data presented have not been taken into account in international reviews. The transfer coefficient (F(m)) values for radioactive isotopes of strontium, caesium and iodine are in good agreement with those previously published. The Russian language data, often based on experiments with many animals, constitute a considerable increase to the available data for many less well-studied radionuclides. In some instances, the Russian language data suggest changes in recommended values (e.g. Zr and Ru). The information presented here substantially increases the amount of available data on radionuclide transfer to milk and will be included in the current revision of the IAEA TRS Handbook of parameter values for radionuclide transfer. PMID:17766017

  5. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: 3. Transfer to muscle.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Isamov, N; Howard, B J; Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Sanzharova, N; Voigt, G

    2009-03-01

    Over 150 publications reporting studies conducted in the former USSR were reviewed to provide transfer coefficients (F(f)) to the muscle of domestic animals from experiments using chronic administration, often for long timescales in large scale experiments. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews. The values derived have been compared with expected values reported by the IAEA's Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments (TRS 364) where possible. The information presented here has been used in the current updating of parameters recommended for environmental assessments by the IAEA. Many of the reported values are for Sr due to the Mayak accident and Cs due to the Chernobyl accident. Nevertheless, the reported data for a wide range of radionuclides, in particular for Ru, Sb, and Zn markedly improve the extent of available data. PMID:19157656

  6. Early ant trajectories: spatial behaviour before behaviourism.

    PubMed

    Wehner, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    In the beginning of the twentieth century, when Jacques Loeb's and John Watson's mechanistic view of life started to dominate animal physiology and behavioural biology, several scientists with different academic backgrounds got engaged in studying the wayfinding behaviour of ants. Largely unaffected by the scientific spirit of the time, they worked independently of each other in different countries: in Algeria, Tunisia, Spain, Switzerland and the United States of America. In the current literature on spatial cognition these early ant researchers--Victor Cornetz, Felix Santschi, Charles Turner and Rudolf Brun--are barely mentioned. Moreover, it is virtually unknown that the great neuroanatomist Santiago Ramón y Cajal had also worked on spatial orientation in ants. This general neglect is certainly due to the fact that nearly all these ant researchers were scientific loners, who did their idiosyncratic investigations outside the realm of comparative physiology, neurobiology and the behavioural sciences of the time, and published their results in French, German, and Spanish at rather inaccessible places. Even though one might argue that much of their work resulted in mainly anecdotal evidence, the conceptual approaches of these early ant researchers preempt much of the present-day discussions on spatial representation in animals. PMID:26898725

  7. Neglecting posture: differences in balance impairments between peripersonal and extrapersonal neglect.

    PubMed

    Nijboer, Tanja C W; Ten Brink, Antonia F; van der Stoep, Nathan; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A

    2014-12-01

    Neglect is a heterogeneous disorder and may be specific for only peripersonal or extrapersonal space. Behavioural consequences at the level of independency in basic activities of daily living differ between patients with peripersonal and those with extrapersonal neglect. One of the most important factors that determine independency in basic activities of daily living is balance. Here, potential differences in postural imbalance between patients with peripersonal and those with extrapersonal neglect were investigated. A total of 81 stroke patients were screened within the first 2 weeks after admission to the rehabilitation centre. Mediolateral (horizontal) and anteroposterior (vertical) displacements of the centre of pressure (CoP) were measured using a Nintendo Wii Balance Board in an eyes-open and eyes-closed condition. Patients with peripersonal neglect showed a significant displacement of mediolateral CoP from the ideal CoP, but not in the anteroposterior dimension or postural sway. Patients with extrapersonal neglect did not differ from the no-neglect patients in terms of displacement of both mediolateral and anteroposterior CoP and postural sway. There were no differences between the eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions in any of the groups. Consequences of region-specific neglect on postural imbalance appear to be very specific and cannot be accounted for by neglecting visual information only. The current findings might directly reflect a relation between body perception and body representation and (actions in) peripersonal space. When diagnosing neglect, it is relevant to distinguish the type of region-specific neglect and, when needed, to adjust the rehabilitation programme accordingly. PMID:25340562

  8. Attending to and neglecting people: bridging neuroscience, psychology and sociology.

    PubMed

    Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-05-01

    Human behaviour is context-dependent-based on predictions and influenced by the environment and other people. We live in a dynamic world where both the social stimuli and their context are constantly changing. Similar dynamic, natural stimuli should, in the future, be increasingly used to study social brain functions, with parallel development of appropriate signal-analysis methods. Understanding dynamic neural processes also requires accurate time-sensitive characterization of the behaviour. To go beyond the traditional stimulus-response approaches, brain activity should be recorded simultaneously from two interacting subjects to reveal why human social interaction is critically different from just reacting to each other. This theme issue on Attending to and neglecting people contains original work and review papers on person perception and social interaction. The articles cover research from neuroscience, psychology, robotics, animal interaction research and microsociology. Some of the papers are co-authored by scientists who presented their own, independent views in the recent Attention and Performance XXVI conference but were brave enough to join forces with a colleague having a different background and views. In the future, information needs to converge across disciplines to provide us a more holistic view of human behaviour, its interactive nature, as well as the temporal dynamics of our social world. PMID:27069043

  9. Attending to and neglecting people: bridging neuroscience, psychology and sociology

    PubMed Central

    Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    Human behaviour is context-dependent—based on predictions and influenced by the environment and other people. We live in a dynamic world where both the social stimuli and their context are constantly changing. Similar dynamic, natural stimuli should, in the future, be increasingly used to study social brain functions, with parallel development of appropriate signal-analysis methods. Understanding dynamic neural processes also requires accurate time-sensitive characterization of the behaviour. To go beyond the traditional stimulus–response approaches, brain activity should be recorded simultaneously from two interacting subjects to reveal why human social interaction is critically different from just reacting to each other. This theme issue on Attending to and neglecting people contains original work and review papers on person perception and social interaction. The articles cover research from neuroscience, psychology, robotics, animal interaction research and microsociology. Some of the papers are co-authored by scientists who presented their own, independent views in the recent Attention and Performance XXVI conference but were brave enough to join forces with a colleague having a different background and views. In the future, information needs to converge across disciplines to provide us a more holistic view of human behaviour, its interactive nature, as well as the temporal dynamics of our social world. PMID:27069043

  10. The Neglect of Virtue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockett, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    This chapter argues that schooling neglects virtue through the dominant quest for right answers. This is not only intellectually disreputable in presuming the correctness of what is taught, but it undermines the development of necessary intellectual virtues, such as open-mindedness, impartiality, and accuracy in the school curriculum, and it fails…

  11. Today's "Neglected Majority"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley, Rod A.

    2007-01-01

    In 1985, then American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) President Dale Parnell wrote of the "neglected majority," a phrase he coined for the astounding 70 percent of high school graduates who did not plan or aspire to attain baccalaureate degrees. Twenty-two years later, community college and public policy leaders still face the challenge…

  12. Reaching the Neglected 95%

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoSchiavo, Frank M.; Shatz, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Comments on an article by J. J. Arnett regarding the assertion that American psychology focuses too narrowly on Americans while neglecting the other 95% of the world's population. The authors' comments focus on why American psychologists have become overreliant on American samples, and they provide alternative suggestions for broadening the scope…

  13. NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES IN BIOSOCIAL PERSPECTIVE.

    PubMed

    Parker, Melissa; Polman, Katja; Allen, Tim

    2016-09-01

    The term 'neglected tropical diseases' (NTDs) points to the need for a biosocial perspective. Although 'diseases' are widely understood as biological phenomena, 'neglect' is inherently social. Social priorities, social relations and social behaviour profoundly influence the design, implementation and evaluation of control programmes. Yet, these dimensions of neglect are, themselves, neglected. Instead, emphasis is being placed on preventive chemotherapy - a technical, context-free approach which relies almost entirely on the mass distribution of drugs, at regular intervals, to populations living in endemic areas. This article reflects on the processes which have enabled an NTD 'brand' identity to emerge, and it comments on a disquieting disengagement with some of the more critical insights about the consequences of mass drug administration. Building on the work of biosocial scholars studying other aspects of health and disease, a more adequate, evidence-based approach is delineated. Developing such an approach is an iterative process, requiring on-going engagement with both biological and social insights as they emerge. Considerable theoretical, methodological and political challenges lie ahead, but it is essential they are overcome, if the sustainable control of NTDs is to become a reality. PMID:27428062

  14. Influence of Municipal Abattoir Conditions and Animal-related Factors on Avoidance-related Behaviour, Bleeding Times at Slaughter and the Quality of Lamb Meat

    PubMed Central

    Njisane, Yonela Z.; Muchenje, Voster

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months) lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s) BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s). Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04%) values than castrates (35.1±0.95%). Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N) than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N). There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality. PMID:25049733

  15. Increased anxiety-like behaviour and altered GABAergic system in the amygdala and cerebellum of VPA rats - An animal model of autism.

    PubMed

    Olexová, Lucia; Štefánik, Peter; Kršková, Lucia

    2016-08-26

    Anxiety is one of the associated symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. According to the literature, increases in anxiety are accompanied by GABAergic system deregulation. The aim of our study, performed using an animal model of autism in the form of rats prenatally treated with valproic acid (VPA rats), was to investigate changes in anxiety-like behaviour and the gene expression of molecules that control levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. Anxiety-like behaviours were investigated using zone preferences in the open field test. The levels of the 65 and 67kDa enzymes of l-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) mRNAs and type 1 GABA transporter (GAT1) were evaluated in the amygdala, as well as GABA producing enzymes in the cortex layer of the cerebellum. Our research showed that adult VPA rats spent less time in the inner zone of the testing chamber and more time in the outer zone of the testing chamber in the open field test. We also found that adult VPA rats had increased expression of GAT1 in the amygdala, as well as decreased levels of GAD65 and GAD67 mRNA in the cerebellum compared to control animals. These findings support the existence of a relationship between increased anxiety-like behaviour and changes in the regulation of the GABAergic system in VPA rats. PMID:27353514

  16. Mirror neuron therapy for hemispatial neglect patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Ji, Xiangtong; Ye, Qian; Chen, Wenli; Ni, Jun; Shen, Guangyu; Zhang, Bing; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Shan, Chunlei

    2015-01-01

    Mirror neuron system(MNS) based therapy has been employed to treat stroke induced movement disorders. However, its potential effects on patients with hemispatial neglect were uninvestigated. The present study set out to test the therapeutic efficiency of video watching of series of hand actions/movements (protocol A) in two patients with left hemispatial neglect, due to the right hemisphere stroke. The video containing dynamic landscape of natural scene or cities but not human/animals was used as the protocol B. The “ABA” training procedure for 3 weeks therefore allows us to internally control the individual differences. Before and after each week of training, the Chinese behavioral inattention test- Hongkong version (CBIT-HK) was implemented to evaluate the hemispatial neglect severity. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment was implemented in two health subjects to reveal the difference of brain activation between protocol A and B. The results showed that protocol A rather than protocol B significantly improved the CBIT-HK scores at first and third weeks, respectively. Protocol A induced more bilateral activations including right inferior parietal lobe (supramarginal gyrus), which belongs to MNS and is also critical region resulting to hemineglect. Conclusion: MNS activation can provide a novel therapy for hemispatial neglect patients. PMID:25727354

  17. Hypnosis: useful, neglected, available.

    PubMed

    Douglas, D B

    1999-01-01

    Hypnosis is presented as a valuable and frequently neglected resource for many patients with chronic and terminal illness. Particular attention is given herein to the use of hypnosis in attaining relaxation, overcoming insomnia, helping the patient achieve pain relief, and, most particularly, teaching the patient to work with relatives and other persons close to them, as caregivers in a special relationship that can be a very important source of relief to the patient. A brief overview of indications, contraindications, errors, and safeguards is given. Sources of education and training are briefly reviewed and a bibliography is included to identify the nature of professional societies, three in the United States and one international, together with some standard publications. The purpose of this article is to affirm the value of hypnosis as a complementary or alternative therapy for hospice patients, to summarize its clinical applications, and to list the most standard and best known professional societies and publications. PMID:11141670

  18. The dissociation of visuospatial neglect and neglect dyslexia.

    PubMed Central

    Costello, A D; Warrington, E K

    1987-01-01

    A right-handed man with a left hemisphere lesion extending into the right hemisphere, with evidence of both a left-sided neglect dyslexia and right-sided visuospatial neglect is reported. When copying simple geometric designs he omitted to copy figures on the right-hand side of the page, when bisecting lines he tended to bisect the line to the left of the line's actual centre. He had a neglect dyslexia which was characterised by paralexic errors affecting the beginning (that is, left) of words. The occurrence of these two phenomena provides evidence of a dissociation of these forms of neglect. The findings are discussed in relation to the possible mechanisms of unilateral neglect. Images PMID:3668560

  19. Lyme borreliosis: A neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elhelw, Rehab A; El-Enbaawy, Mona I; Samir, Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causal organism of Lyme borreliosis. In Egypt, available data about the occurrence of Lyme disease are scarce and no structured studies documented the presence of Lyme borreliosis in Egyptian animals and tick reservoirs verifying its zoonotic evidence. Besides, no successful trials to isolate B. burgdorferi from clinical samples have occurred. This study was conducted to investigate B. burgdorferi infection as an emerging zoonosis neglected in Egypt. A total number of 92 animals, tick and human companion specimens were collected and subjected for culture, PCR and/or serodetection. B. burgdorferi has been detected and isolated from Egyptian animal breeds. We also detected the presence of outer surface protein A gene of B. burgdorferi by PCR as well as anti-B. burgdorferi IgM by ELISA in human contacts who were suffering from fever of unknown origin. This report represents the first systematic study on animals associated with patients suffering from febrile illness to confirm the emerging of such neglected zoonosis in Egypt. PMID:25239124

  20. Hypoglycemia: The neglected complication

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Mukherjee, Jagat Jyoti; Venkataraman, Subramanium; Bantwal, Ganapathi; Shaikh, Shehla; Saboo, Banshi; Das, Ashok Kumar; Ramachandran, Ambady

    2013-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is an important complication of glucose-lowering therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus. Attempts made at intensive glycemic control invariably increases the risk of hypoglycemia. A six-fold increase in deaths due to diabetes has been attributed to patients experiencing severe hypoglycemia in comparison to those not experiencing severe hypoglycemia Repeated episodes of hypoglycemia can lead to impairment of the counter-regulatory system with the potential for development of hypoglycemia unawareness. The short- and long-term complications of diabetes related hypoglycemia include precipitation of acute cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarction, neurocognitive dysfunction, retinal cell death and loss of vision in addition to health-related quality of life issues pertaining to sleep, driving, employment, recreational activities involving exercise and travel. There is an urgent need to examine the clinical spectrum and burden of hypoglycemia so that adequate control measures can be implemented against this neglected life-threatening complication. Early recognition of hypoglycemia risk factors, self-monitoring of blood glucose, selection of appropriate treatment regimens with minimal or no risk of hypoglycemia and appropriate educational programs for healthcare professionals and patients with diabetes are the major ways forward to maintain good glycemic control, minimize the risk of hypoglycemia and thereby prevent long-term complications. PMID:24083163

  1. Auditory neglect and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Dykstra, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Neglect is a neurologic disorder, typically associated with lesions of the right hemisphere, in which patients are biased towards their ipsilesional - usually right - side of space while awareness for their contralesional - usually left - side is reduced or absent. Neglect is a multimodal disorder that often includes deficits in the auditory domain. Classically, auditory extinction, in which left-sided sounds that are correctly perceived in isolation are not detected in the presence of synchronous right-sided stimulation, has been considered the primary sign of auditory neglect. However, auditory extinction can also be observed after unilateral auditory cortex lesions and is thus not specific for neglect. Recent research has shown that patients with neglect are also impaired in maintaining sustained attention, on both sides, a fact that is reflected by an impairment of auditory target detection in continuous stimulation conditions. Perhaps the most impressive auditory symptom in full-blown neglect is alloacusis, in which patients mislocalize left-sided sound sources to their right, although even patients with less severe neglect still often show disturbance of auditory spatial perception, most commonly a lateralization bias towards the right. We discuss how these various disorders may be explained by a single model of neglect and review emerging interventions for patient rehabilitation. PMID:25726290

  2. The Period of Salutary Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, John T.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Presents a lesson designed to teach students about the period of Salutary Neglect (100 years before the French and Indian Wars) and its effects on later historical events. Provides an advance organizer which puts students in a situation of salutary neglect and includes student and teacher resources on the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts, and the…

  3. Self-Neglect: Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Day, Mary Rose; Leahy-Warren, Patricia; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Self-neglect is a significant international public health issue. Estimates suggest that there may be over one million cases per year in the United States. Aging populations will put more people at risk of self-neglect. This chapter presents background literature, self-neglect definitions and policy context, risk factors, and a brief overview of research on perspectives of self-neglect from both clients and community health and social care professionals. A case study is presented from the perspective of an individual and is used to explore ethical issues therein. A person-centered assessment within a multidisciplinary team approach is required for building a therapeutic relationship with clients. Capacity is a central issue in the management of responses to self-neglect. Ethical considerations of importance for community health and social care professionals include beneficence and nonmaleficence, autonomy and capacity, and respect for people's rights and dignity. A model of ethical justification is presented to explain dilemmas, challenges, and actions. Competence of professionals, multidisciplinary team working, informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, and best interest are also critical considerations. Effective decision making by an interdisciplinary team of professionals needs to be person-centered and give due consideration to the best interest of self-neglecting clients. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an in-depth discussion and examination of ethical issues and challenges relating to self-neglecting clients. PMID:26673378

  4. Effect of animal-borne camera and flash on the diving behaviour of the female Antarctic fur seal ( Arctocephalus gazella)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaslip, Susan G.; Hooker, Sascha K.

    2008-09-01

    Studies have documented effects of drag created by data-logging units attached to seals, but the effect of visual stimuli from such units has not been investigated. We evaluated potential effects of camera attachment including near-infrared flash operation by comparing the diving behaviour of 15 female Antarctic fur seals ( Arctocephalus gazella) with cameras and 10 seals without cameras. Irrespective of the presence of the camera or flash, all seals exhibited an expected diel dive pattern with shallower, shorter dives, less time at the bottom of a dive, and slower ascent and descent rates at night following krill vertical migration. We also observed a previously unreported foraging trip dive pattern with faster ascents and descents near the end of trips. With cameras present, dive duration and bottom time increased and ascents were slower. During flash operation, dive duration increased and bottom time remained constant throughout the day contrary to the expected diel trend. Also during flash operation, bottom time was shorter at the beginning of a foraging trip and dives were deeper, with longer duration and bottom time later in the trip. We were unable to conclude whether the flash emission spectrum overlapped with the visual sensitivity of seals and Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) since visual sensitivity data for seals and krill at longer wavelengths were not available. It is possible that the flash was bright enough for the seals or krill to detect; however, although there was a change in diving behaviour observed during flash operation this behaviour was within the range of values normally observed for these seals and should not cause ethical concern.

  5. More Ideas for Monitoring Biological Experiments with the BBC Computer: Absorption Spectra, Yeast Growth, Enzyme Reactions and Animal Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Presented are five ideas for A-level biology experiments using a laboratory computer interface. Topics investigated include photosynthesis, yeast growth, animal movements, pulse rates, and oxygen consumption and production by organisms. Includes instructions specific to the BBC computer system. (CW)

  6. Rapid urbanization of red foxes in Estonia: distribution, behaviour, attacks on domestic animals, and health-risks related to zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Plumer, Liivi; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47) in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans. PMID:25531399

  7. Rapid Urbanization of Red Foxes in Estonia: Distribution, Behaviour, Attacks on Domestic Animals, and Health-Risks Related to Zoonotic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Plumer, Liivi; Davison, John; Saarma, Urmas

    2014-01-01

    Urban areas are becoming increasingly important for wildlife as diminishing natural habitats no longer represent a suitable environment for many species. Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are nowadays common in many cities worldwide, and in recent years they have colonized urban areas in Estonia. We used a public web-based questionnaire approach to evaluate the distribution and behaviour of Estonian urban foxes, to detect related problems and to assess health risks to humans and domestic animals. In total, 1205 responses were collected throughout the country. Foxes have colonized the majority of Estonian towns (33 out of 47) in a relatively short period of time, and have already established breeding dens in several towns. Despite their recent arrival, the behaviour of Estonian urban foxes is similar to that reported in longer-established urban fox populations: they are mostly active during night-time, often visit city centres and some also have dens in such locations. Certain characteristics of urban foxes serve as a basis for conflict with humans: foxes have entered houses and attacked domestic animals, killing cats and poultry. About 8% of reported foxes exhibited symptoms of sarcoptic mange, a disease that also infects domestic animals, especially dogs. The proportion of mange-infected foxes was higher in large urban areas. In addition to mange, a substantial fraction of red foxes in Estonia are known to be infected with the life-threatening tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis. Therefore, urban foxes may represent a source of serious infectious disease for pets and humans. PMID:25531399

  8. Child physical abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Samantha; Christian, Cindy W

    2014-04-01

    This article provides an overview of child physical abuse and neglect, and describes the magnitude of the problem and the triggers and factors that place children at risk for abuse and neglect. After examining the legal and clinical definitions of child abuse and neglect, common clinical outcomes and therapeutic strategies are reviewed, including the lifelong poor physical and mental health of victims and evidence-supported treatment interventions. Mandated reporting laws, and facilitating collaboration among child welfare, judicial, and health care systems are considered. Important tools and resources for addressing child maltreatment in clinical practice are discussed, and future approaches posited. PMID:24656582

  9. Symbiosis: Rich, Exciting, Neglected Topic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Jane Thomas

    1974-01-01

    Argues that the topic of symbiosis has been greatly neglected and underemphasized in general-biology textbooks. Discusses many types and examples of symbiosis, and provides an extensive bibliography of the literature related to this topic. (JR)

  10. Development of automatic surveillance of animal behaviour and welfare using image analysis and machine learned segmentation technique.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, M; Herlin, A H; Ardö, H; Guzhva, O; Åström, K; Bergsten, C

    2015-11-01

    In this paper the feasibility to extract the proportion of pigs located in different areas of a pig pen by advanced image analysis technique is explored and discussed for possible applications. For example, pigs generally locate themselves in the wet dunging area at high ambient temperatures in order to avoid heat stress, as wetting the body surface is the major path to dissipate the heat by evaporation. Thus, the portion of pigs in the dunging area and resting area, respectively, could be used as an indicator of failure of controlling the climate in the pig environment as pigs are not supposed to rest in the dunging area. The computer vision methodology utilizes a learning based segmentation approach using several features extracted from the image. The learning based approach applied is based on extended state-of-the-art features in combination with a structured prediction framework based on a logistic regression solver using elastic net regularization. In addition, the method is able to produce a probability per pixel rather than form a hard decision. This overcomes some of the limitations found in a setup using grey-scale information only. The pig pen is a difficult imaging environment because of challenging lighting conditions like shadows, poor lighting and poor contrast between pig and background. In order to test practical conditions, a pen containing nine young pigs was filmed from a top view perspective by an Axis M3006 camera with a resolution of 640 × 480 in three, 10-min sessions under different lighting conditions. The results indicate that a learning based method improves, in comparison with greyscale methods, the possibility to reliable identify proportions of pigs in different areas of the pen. Pigs with a changed behaviour (location) in the pen may indicate changed climate conditions. Changed individual behaviour may also indicate inferior health or acute illness. PMID:26189971

  11. Child neglect: injuries of omission.

    PubMed

    Cowen, P S

    1999-01-01

    Child neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment in the United States. Researchers have indicated that child neglect is strongly correlated with poverty, single-parent caretakers, unemployment, and multifaceted family problems. When neglect is present, it is usually pervasive in the lives of all family members, with both parents and children often perceiving themselves to be powerless and viewing attempts at goal achievement to be futile. Treatment for neglectful families requires multidisciplinary efforts to improve family functioning and promote a safe and supportive environment. Nurses have a variety of roles in the assessment of and primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention interventions for child neglect, with child safety and optimal family functioning as the desired outcomes. Early identification and intervention has the potential for reducing or preventing the developmental consequences associated with the deprivations of neglect. The nurse's role as child/family advocate is often the critical determinant of whether "at-risk" families are identified and receive the therapeutic interventions and tangible services they need. Additionally, nurses often have direct responsibilities for monitoring and remediating parenting patterns that have placed the child in hazardous conditions. PMID:12024360

  12. Patient neglect in 21st century health-care institutions: a community health psychology perspective.

    PubMed

    Reader, Tom W; Gillespie, Alex; Mannell, Jenevieve

    2014-01-01

    Despite the technological and organisational advances of 21st century health-care systems, care scandals and burgeoning complaints from patients have raised concerns about patient neglect in hospitals. This article reviews the concept of patient neglect and the role of community health psychology in understanding its occurrence. Patient neglect has previously been conceptualised as a problem associated with hospital staff attitudes and behaviours, with regulation and training cited as solutions. Yet, a community health psychology perspective shows that the wider symbolic, material and relational aspects of care are crucial for understanding why patient neglect occurs and for outlining new solutions to augment existing interventions. PMID:24058107

  13. Bisecting or Not Bisecting: This Is the Neglect Question. Line Bisection Performance in the Diagnosis of Neglect in Right Brain-Damaged Patients

    PubMed Central

    Guariglia, Paola; Matano, Alessandro; Piccardi, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we analysed the bisecting behaviour of 287 chronic right brain-damaged patients by taking into account the presence and severity of extrapersonal and/or personal neglect diagnosed with the hemineglect battery. We also analysed right brain-damaged patients who had (or did not have) neglect according to their line bisection performance. Our results showed that performance of the line bisection task correlates with performance of cancellation tasks, reading and perceptual tasks, but not with the presence of personal neglect. Personal neglect seems to be unrelated to line bisection behaviour. Indeed, patients affected by extrapersonal and personal neglect do not show more severe neglect in line bisection than patients with only extrapersonal neglect. Furthermore, we observed that 20.56% of the patients were considered affected or not by neglect on the line bisection task compared with the other spatial tasks of the hemineglect battery. We conclude that using a battery with multiple tests is the only way to guarantee a reliable diagnosis and effectively plan for rehabilitative training. PMID:24937472

  14. Bisecting or not bisecting: this is the neglect question. Line bisection performance in the diagnosis of neglect in right brain-damaged patients.

    PubMed

    Guariglia, Paola; Matano, Alessandro; Piccardi, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we analysed the bisecting behaviour of 287 chronic right brain-damaged patients by taking into account the presence and severity of extrapersonal and/or personal neglect diagnosed with the hemineglect battery. We also analysed right brain-damaged patients who had (or did not have) neglect according to their line bisection performance. Our results showed that performance of the line bisection task correlates with performance of cancellation tasks, reading and perceptual tasks, but not with the presence of personal neglect. Personal neglect seems to be unrelated to line bisection behaviour. Indeed, patients affected by extrapersonal and personal neglect do not show more severe neglect in line bisection than patients with only extrapersonal neglect. Furthermore, we observed that 20.56% of the patients were considered affected or not by neglect on the line bisection task compared with the other spatial tasks of the hemineglect battery. We conclude that using a battery with multiple tests is the only way to guarantee a reliable diagnosis and effectively plan for rehabilitative training. PMID:24937472

  15. Closing the gap between clinic and cage: sensori-motor and cognitive behavioural testing regimens in neurotoxin-induced animal models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pienaar, Ilse S; Lu, Bingwei; Schallert, Timothy

    2012-11-01

    Animal models that make use of chemical toxins to adversely affect the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway of rodents and primates have contributed significantly towards the development of symptomatic therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Although their use in developing neuro-therapeutic and -regenerative compounds remains to be ascertained, toxin-based mammalian and a range of non-mammalian models of PD are important tools in the identification and validation of candidate biomarkers for earlier diagnosis, as well as in the development of novel treatments that are currently working their way into the clinic. Toxin models of PD have and continue to be important models to use for understanding the consequences of nigrostriatal dopamine cell loss. Functional assessment of these models is also a critical component for eventual translational success. Sensitive behavioural testing regimens for assessing the extent of dysfunction exhibited in the toxin models, the degree of protection or improvement afforded by potential treatment modalities, and the correlation of these findings with what is observed clinically in PD patients, ultimately determines whether a potential treatment moves to clinical trials. Here, we review existing published work that describes the use of such behavioural outcome measures associated with toxin models of parkinsonism. In particular, we focus on tests assessing sensorimotor and cognitive function, both of which are significantly and progressively impaired in PD. PMID:22910679

  16. Applying One Health to behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bower, Caroline

    2014-11-01

    The British Veterinary Behaviour Association and the Association of Pet Behaviour Counsellors held a meeting last month to highlight the One Health principle with regard to the behaviour of people and animals, particularly pets. Caroline Bower reports. PMID:25377201

  17. [Current situation of endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases in China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Zhu, Hong-Run; Yang, Guo-Jing

    2013-06-01

    Neglected zoonotic diseases not only threaten the health of human, especially to the livestock keepers in poverty-stricken areas but also cause great economic losses to the animal husbandry. This paper reviews the current situation of the endemic status, prevention and control of neglected zoonotic diseases existing in China including rabies, bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, anthrax, leptospirosis, echinococcosis, cysticercosis, leishmaniasis and fascioliasis, so as to provide the basic information for better controlling, even eliminating, the neglected zoonotic diseases in China. PMID:24024457

  18. Weak rappers rock more: hermit crabs assess their own agonistic behaviour.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Elizabeth; Briffa, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Fighting animals use a variety of information sources to make strategic decisions. A neglected potential source of information is an individual's own performance during a fight. Surprisingly, this possibility has yet to be incorporated into the large body of theory concerning the evolution of aggressive behaviour. Here, by experimentally dampening the impact of their shell rapping behaviour, we test for the possibility that attacking hermit crabs monitor their own fight performance. Attackers with dampened raps did not show a reduction in the number of raps used. By contrast, they showed an increased frequency of a less intense agonistic behaviour, shell rocking. This change in behaviour, in attackers that are forced to rap weakly, indicates that they assess their own agonistic behaviour. PMID:26740563

  19. Cognitive Processes Associated with Child Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildyard, Kathryn; Wolfe, David

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare neglectful and non-neglectful mothers on information processing tasks related to child emotions, behaviors, the caregiving relationship, and recall of child-related information. Method: A natural group design was used. Neglectful mothers (N = 34) were chosen from active, chronic caseloads; non-neglectful comparison mothers (N…

  20. [Old age: knowing what self-neglect is].

    PubMed

    Hazif-Thomas, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    The issue of self-neglect in the elderly concerns society as well as caregivers who, in their practice, are ill at ease and frequently disorientated when faced with this behaviour which hampers the care approach. Here more than elsewhere, the choices of the people in question seem to collide with the care objectives, in such a way that it is important to remain curious in the face of what appears to be the height of incuriosity. PMID:26100291

  1. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    PubMed

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. PMID:23664009

  2. Child neglect and emotional abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... depressed, shows bizarre behavior, or uses alcohol or drugs WHAT YOU CAN DO TO HELP If you think a child is in immediate danger because of abuse or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Know that ...

  3. Neglected zoonotic helminths: Hymenolepis nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R C A

    2015-05-01

    The majority of helminth parasites that are considered by WHO to be the cause of 'neglected diseases' are zoonotic. In terms of their impact on human health, the role of animal reservoirs and polyparasitism are both emerging issues in understanding the epidemiology of a number of these zoonoses. As such, Hymenolepis (Rodentolepis) nana, Echinococcus canadensis and Ancylostoma ceylanicum all qualify for consideration. They have been neglected and there is increasing evidence that all three parasite infections deserve more attention in terms of their impact on public health as well as their control. PMID:25743998

  4. Abuse and neglect in schools.

    PubMed

    Sugar, M

    1990-10-01

    Maltreatment in the classroom by students of teachers, and teachers of students, is widespread with emotional, physical, sexual, and neglect aspects. Its frequency and long-term developmental effects are undocumented. We know of the consequences in some who become our patients; but for the others we can only speculate based on reports about parental abuse and neglect. This paper presents these issues about the four types of abuse with representative cases. Idealization and transference feelings seem to contribute to the lack of reporting of abuse by teachers. Perhaps teachers do not report being abused by students for fear of retaliation. Some approaches to management are considered. The seriousness of this problem is underlined even more by the paucity of research and reports despite the obvious need. Hopefully, documentation of incidence and developmental effects will be forthcoming. PMID:2285074

  5. Cognitive maps in imagery neglect.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Liana; Ranieri, Giulia; Nemmi, Federico; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2012-04-01

    Patients with imagery neglect (RI+) show peculiar difficulties in orienting themselves in the environment. Navigational impairments could be due to a deficit in creating or using a mental representation of the environment (Guariglia, Piccardi, Iaria, Nico, & Pizzamiglio, 2005) or, according to the BBB model (Burgess, Becker, King, & O'Keefe, 2001), to a specific deficit in a mechanism that transforms an allocentric representation into an egocentric one and vice versa. Previous studies, however, do not allow discerning between a deficit in forming or in using a cognitive map, taking no notice of the fact that these are two different abilities underlain by different neuroanatomical areas, which could be independently impaired. Furthermore, the BBB model has never been verified in a population of brain-damaged patients. Therefore, we administered two tasks that separately assess the ability to create and use a cognitive map of the environment to 28 right brain-damaged patients (4 patients with imagery neglect and 4 patients with perceptual neglect) and 11 healthy participants. RI+ patients showed no specific deficit in creating or using a cognitive map, but failed to transform an egocentric representation of the environment into an allocentric one and vice versa, as predicted by the BBB model. PMID:22310104

  6. [Nursing care of unilateral neglect patients].

    PubMed

    Dai, Chin-Ying; Lin, Li-Chan

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of unilateral neglect among stroke patients has risen to 82% and 69%, respectively, in acute wards and rehabilitation units. Neglect may restrict the activities of patients and reduce their quality of life. Patients are often unaware of their neglect behavior and of their inability to see or feel persons or objects on their affected side. Healthcare providers should pay greater attention to the signs of neglect behavior in patients. Neglect is a silent syndrome for both patients and healthcare providers. This article reviews the definition of unilateral neglect as well as its associated characteristics, theoretical interpretations, rehabilitation, and nursing care. The authors hope that the contents of this article may help healthcare professionals assess and provide care to patients with neglect problems in order to decrease the negative impacts of neglect on patients and improve their daily functions. PMID:25631189

  7. Self-Neglect: Development and Evaluation of a Self-Neglect (SN-37) Measurement Instrument.

    PubMed

    Day, Mary Rose; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-08-01

    Self-neglect (SN) is a global phenomenon, largely hidden, poorly defined, and a serious public health issue. It can be intentional or unintentional and depends on the individual's capacity. Creating a safe living environment for self-neglecting adults can present complex ethical challenges. The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument to measure professional's perceptions of self-neglect. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used in this two-stage study. Stage 1 involved the generation of an item pool (90 items), face and content validity; and pilot testing of the instrument. In stage 2, the questionnaire was posted to a national sample of community health and social care professionals (n=566) across Ireland, with a 60% response (n=339). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted using scale development guidelines to identify scales and subscales of the instrument. Construct validity was established using EFA. The result was a 37-item SN instrument, composed of five factors: environment, social networks, emotional and behavioural liability, health avoidance, and self-determinism which explained 55.6% of the total variance. Factor loadings were ≥0.40 for all items on each of the five subscales. Cronbach's alpha (α) for four subscales ranged from 0.83 to 0.89 and one subscale was 0.69. The SN-37 can be used not only to measure SN, but also to develop interventions in practice. Further testing of the SN-37 in primary care settings with diverse populations is recommended. PMID:27455922

  8. How To Define Child Abuse and Neglect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Nora M.

    This paper examines definitions of child abuse and neglect as put forth by the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and the Child Abuse Amendments of 1984. Four types of child abuse and neglect are identified and briefly described: physical abuse, child neglect, sexual abuse, and mental injury (also referred to as emotional/psychological…

  9. Variations in Perceptions of Child Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Susan J.; Meezan, William

    1996-01-01

    Explored differences in perceptions of the seriousness of nine components of neglect among mothers from three cultural groups and child welfare workers from two areas of child protection. Found members of minorities perceive some types of neglect as more serious than do Caucasians, and that mothers see most neglect as more serious than do service…

  10. What Is Child Abuse and Neglect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…

  11. Repeated lysergic acid diethylamide in an animal model of depression: Normalisation of learning behaviour and hippocampal serotonin 5-HT2 signalling.

    PubMed

    Buchborn, Tobias; Schröder, Helmut; Höllt, Volker; Grecksch, Gisela

    2014-06-01

    A re-balance of postsynaptic serotonin (5-HT) receptor signalling, with an increase in 5-HT1A and a decrease in 5-HT2A signalling, is a final common pathway multiple antidepressants share. Given that the 5-HT1A/2A agonist lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), when repeatedly applied, selectively downregulates 5-HT2A, but not 5-HT1A receptors, one might expect LSD to similarly re-balance the postsynaptic 5-HT signalling. Challenging this idea, we use an animal model of depression specifically responding to repeated antidepressant treatment (olfactory bulbectomy), and test the antidepressant-like properties of repeated LSD treatment (0.13 mg/kg/d, 11 d). In line with former findings, we observe that bulbectomised rats show marked deficits in active avoidance learning. These deficits, similarly as we earlier noted with imipramine, are largely reversed by repeated LSD administration. Additionally, bulbectomised rats exhibit distinct anomalies of monoamine receptor signalling in hippocampus and/or frontal cortex; from these, only the hippocampal decrease in 5-HT2 related [(35)S]-GTP-gamma-S binding is normalised by LSD. Importantly, the sham-operated rats do not profit from LSD, and exhibit reduced hippocampal 5-HT2 signalling. As behavioural deficits after bulbectomy respond to agents classified as antidepressants only, we conclude that the effect of LSD in this model can be considered antidepressant-like, and discuss it in terms of a re-balance of hippocampal 5-HT2/5-HT1A signalling. PMID:24785760

  12. Infant abuse and neglect: lessons from the primate laboratory.

    PubMed

    Reite, M

    1987-01-01

    We review the several areas in which research on nonhuman primates contributes to our understanding of child abuse and neglect in human children. One special advantage of primate studies is that the experimental method can be utilized to examine the short- and long-term effects of relatively well-defined and circumscribed alterations in early experience and the manner in which they can affect later behavioral and physiological development. Four studies in M. nemestrina (pigtail) monkeys are described in which relatively short social separation experiences in infancy were associated with evidence of persistent changes in certain aspects of social behavioral functioning and immunological functioning, up to six years later, when the previously separated animals were in late adolescence or early adulthood. Such findings suggest that nonhuman primates may be used as animal model systems with considerable relevance to issues surrounding human child abuse and neglect. PMID:3676891

  13. Child, neglect and oral health

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite advancements in oral health policies, dental caries still a problem. The lack of parents/caregiver’s care regarding child’s oral health, which characterizes neglect, may lead to a high prevalence of caries. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the relation between dental caries and neglect in five year-old children. Methods Quantitative study performed in two different moments. First, the children underwent oral examinations and physical inspection. Then, a semi-structured interview was performed with parents of children with high and low caries rate. Results In all, 149 physical inspections and oral exams were performed. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth – dmf-t was 2.75 (SD 2.83); 16 children had extremely high values (dmf-t ≥7), 85 intermediate values (1 ≤ dmf-t ≥ 6) and 48 extremely low (dmf-t = 0). Nearly all caregivers were female (96.7%; n = 29), mostly mothers (93.3%; n = 28). Associations were found between caries experience and reason of the last consultation (p = 0.011), decayed teeth and child’s oral health perception (p = 0.001). There was a trend towards a significant association between general health and decayed teeth (p = 0.079), general hygiene and caries experience (p = 0.083), and caries experience and number of times the child brushes the teeth (p = 0.086). Conclusion There’s a relation between caries experience and children’s oral health perception by caregivers, as well as between caries experience and children’s access to dental care. There is a trend towards association between caries experience and risk factors suggestive of neglect. PMID:24238222

  14. Emotion knowledge in young neglected children.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Margaret W; Bennett, David S; Carpenter, Kim; Lewis, Michael

    2008-08-01

    Young neglected children may be at risk for emotion knowledge deficits. Children with histories of neglect or with no maltreatment were initially seen at age 4 and again 1 year later to assess their emotion knowledge. Higher IQ was associated with better emotion knowledge, but neglected children had consistently poorer emotion knowledge over time compared to non-neglected children after controlling for IQ. Because both neglected status and IQ may contribute to deficits in emotional knowledge, both should be assessed when evaluating these children to appropriately design and pace emotion knowledge interventions. PMID:18299632

  15. Children neglected: Where cumulative risk theory fails.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Mandy; Legano, Lori; Homel, Peter; Walker-Descartes, Ingrid; Rojas, Mary; Laraque, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    Neglected children, by far the majority of children maltreated, experience an environment most deficient in cognitive stimulation and language exchange. When physical abuse co-occurs with neglect, there is more stimulation through negative parent-child interaction, which may lead to better cognitive outcomes, contrary to Cumulative Risk Theory. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether children only neglected perform worse on cognitive tasks than children neglected and physically abused. Utilizing LONGSCAN archived data, 271 children only neglected and 101 children neglected and physically abused in the first four years of life were compared. The two groups were assessed at age 6 on the WPPSI-R vocabulary and block design subtests, correlates of cognitive intelligence. Regression analyses were performed, controlling for additional predictors of poor cognitive outcome, including socioeconomic variables and caregiver depression. Children only neglected scored significantly worse than children neglected and abused on the WPPSI-R vocabulary subtest (p=0.03). The groups did not differ on the block design subtest (p=0.4). This study shows that for neglected children, additional abuse may not additively accumulate risk when considering intelligence outcomes. Children experiencing only neglect may need to be referred for services that address cognitive development, with emphasis on the linguistic environment, in order to best support the developmental challenges of neglected children. PMID:25869185

  16. Child neglect identification: The health visitor's role.

    PubMed

    Akehurst, Rachel

    2015-11-01

    Child neglect is a significant public health issue, with impact often persisting into adulthood. However, neglect is not easily identifiable and may go undetected for many years. This library-based literature review critically analyses the research to uncover effective practices to aid neglect identification. The literature identifies that professionals may observe particular risk factors in a child's life that make neglect more probable. Additionally, children who suffer neglect, and parents who neglect their children, may display signs that practitioners can be alert to. However, a number of barriers exist that make identification difficult. The literature highlights that health visitors have a significant role to play in identifying neglect. Final conclusions relate to the need for professional supervision, use of assessment tools and frameworks, multi-agency training, and timely interventions to safeguard children. PMID:26749615

  17. Child neglect and forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Benecke, M; Lessig, R

    2001-08-15

    Close co-operation between forensic scientists, medico-legal doctors, and police forces made it possible to estimate not only the post-mortem interval but also the time since a child was neglected. On the skin surface under the diaper (anal-genital area), third instar larvae of the false stable fly Muscina stabulans FALLEN, and the lesser house fly Fannia canicularis L. were found. F. canicularis adults are attracted to both feces and urine. From the face, larvae of the bluebottle fly Calliphora vomitoria L. were collected. C. vomitoria maggots are typical early inhabitants of corpses. From the developmental times of the flies, it was estimated that the anal-genital area of the child had not been cleaned for about 14 days (7-21 day range), and that death occurred only 6-8 days prior to discovery of the body. This is the first report where an examination of the maggot fauna on a person illustrated neglect that had occurred prior to death. PMID:11457624

  18. Fatal neglect of the elderly.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, C; Fechner, G; Bajanowski, T; Brinkmann, B

    2001-01-01

    Maltreatment of the elderly is a common problem that affects more than 3% of the elderly. We report on two cases of fatal neglect. Risk factors of victims and caregivers were analysed in the context of the social history. In both cases, the victims had a dominant personality and the abusers (the sons) had been strictly controlled and formed by the parent. The victims showed typical risk factors such as living together with the abuser, isolation, dependence on care, income and money administration. Initially, the victims declined help from outside and self-neglect occurred. The unemployed perpetrators lived in social isolation and depended financially and mentally on the victims. In both cases no mental illness was present but there was a decrease of social competence. Legal medicine is predominantly involved in fatal cases in connection with external post-mortem examinations and autopsies. Also in the living, the medico-legal expert can assist in the identification of findings in elderly persons in cases of suspected abuse. PMID:11296894

  19. Social sciences research in neglected tropical diseases 1: the ongoing neglect in the neglected tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Allotey, Pascale; Reidpath, Daniel D; Pokhrel, Subhash

    2010-01-01

    Centuries of scientific advances and developments in biomedical sciences have brought us a long way to understanding and managing disease processes, by reducing them to simplified cause-effect models. For most of the infectious diseases known today, we have the methods and technology to identify the causative agent, understand the mechanism by which pathology is induced and develop the treatment (drugs, vaccines, medical or surgical procedures) to cure, manage or control.Disease, however, occurs within a context of lives fraught with complexity. For any given infectious disease, who gets it, when, why, the duration, the severity, the outcome, the sequelae, are bound by a complex interplay of factors related as much to the individual as it is to the physical, social, cultural, political and economic environments. Furthermore each of these factors is in a dynamic state of change, evolving over time as they interact with each other. Simple solutions to infectious diseases are therefore rarely sustainable solutions. Sustainability would require the development of interdisciplinary sciences that allow us to acknowledge, understand and address these complexities as they occur, rather than rely solely on a form of science based on reducing the management of disease to simple paradigms.In this review we examine the current global health responses to the 'neglected' tropical diseases, which have been prioritised on the basis of an acknowledgment of the complexity of the poverty-disease cycle. However research and interventions for neglected tropical diseases, largely neglect the social and ecological contextual, factors that make these diseases persist in the target populations, continuing instead to focus on the simple biomedical interventions. We highlight the gaps in the approaches and explore the potential of enhanced interdisciplinary work in the development of long term solutions to disease control. PMID:20961461

  20. Social sciences research in neglected tropical diseases 1: the ongoing neglect in the neglected tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Centuries of scientific advances and developments in biomedical sciences have brought us a long way to understanding and managing disease processes, by reducing them to simplified cause-effect models. For most of the infectious diseases known today, we have the methods and technology to identify the causative agent, understand the mechanism by which pathology is induced and develop the treatment (drugs, vaccines, medical or surgical procedures) to cure, manage or control. Disease, however, occurs within a context of lives fraught with complexity. For any given infectious disease, who gets it, when, why, the duration, the severity, the outcome, the sequelae, are bound by a complex interplay of factors related as much to the individual as it is to the physical, social, cultural, political and economic environments. Furthermore each of these factors is in a dynamic state of change, evolving over time as they interact with each other. Simple solutions to infectious diseases are therefore rarely sustainable solutions. Sustainability would require the development of interdisciplinary sciences that allow us to acknowledge, understand and address these complexities as they occur, rather than rely solely on a form of science based on reducing the management of disease to simple paradigms. In this review we examine the current global health responses to the 'neglected' tropical diseases, which have been prioritised on the basis of an acknowledgment of the complexity of the poverty-disease cycle. However research and interventions for neglected tropical diseases, largely neglect the social and ecological contextual, factors that make these diseases persist in the target populations, continuing instead to focus on the simple biomedical interventions. We highlight the gaps in the approaches and explore the potential of enhanced interdisciplinary work in the development of long term solutions to disease control. PMID:20961461

  1. Self-neglect and neglect of vulnerable older adults: reexamination of etiology.

    PubMed

    Choi, Namkee G; Kim, Jinseok; Asseff, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Using assessment and investigation data from the reported APS cases in Texas, this study examines the types of elder self-neglect and neglect, including medical neglect. It then examines the association between self-neglect and neglect and individual economic resources as well as health care and social service programs for the poor. The findings show that elder self-neglect/neglect is, in large part, attributable to frail older adults' and their families' lack of resources to pay for essential goods and services and the inadequate healthcare and other formal support programs for the older adults and their caregivers. This inadequate public policy coverage, rather than individual and intrafamily risk factors per se, needs to be considered as a significant cause of elder self-neglect/neglect. PMID:19197638

  2. Target repurposing for neglected diseases.

    PubMed

    Pollastri, Michael P; Campbell, Robert K

    2011-08-01

    Infectious diseases are an enormous burden to global health and ,since drug discovery is costly, those infectious diseases that affect the developing world are often not pursued by commercial drug-discovery efforts. Therefore, pragmatic means by which new therapeutics can be discovered are needed. One such approach is target repurposing, where pathogen targets are matched with homologous human targets that have been pursued for drug discovery for other indications. In many cases, the medicinal chemistry, structural biology and biochemistry knowledge around these human targets can be directly repurposed to launch and accelerate new drug-discovery efforts against the pathogen targets. This article describes the overarching strategy of target repurposing as a tool for initiating and prosecuting neglected disease drug-discovery programs, highlighting this approach with three case studies. PMID:21859304

  3. CHROMOBLASTOMYCOSIS: A NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASE.

    PubMed

    Queiroz-Telles, Flavio

    2015-09-01

    Chromoblastomycosis (CMB) is a chronic fungal infection of the skin and the subcutaneous tissue caused by a transcutaneous traumatic inoculation of a specific group of dematiaceous fungi occurring mainly in tropical and subtropical zones worldwide. If not diagnosed at early stages, patients with CBM require long term therapy with systemic antifungals, sometimes associated with physical methods. Unlike other neglected endemic mycoses, comparative clinical trials have not been performed for this disease. Nowadays, therapy is based on a few open trials and on expert opinion. Itraconazole either as monotherapy or associated with other drugs, or with physical methods, is widely used. Recently, photodynamic therapy has been successfully employed in combination with antifungals in patients presenting with CBM. In the present revision the most used therapeutic options against CBM are reviewed as well as the several factors that may have impact on the patient's outcome. PMID:26465369

  4. CHROMOBLASTOMYCOSIS: A NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    QUEIROZ-TELLES, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Chromoblastomycosis (CMB) is a chronic fungal infection of the skin and the subcutaneous tissue caused by a transcutaneous traumatic inoculation of a specific group of dematiaceous fungi occurring mainly in tropical and subtropical zones worldwide. If not diagnosed at early stages, patients with CBM require long term therapy with systemic antifungals, sometimes associated with physical methods. Unlike other neglected endemic mycoses, comparative clinical trials have not been performed for this disease. Nowadays, therapy is based on a few open trials and on expert opinion. Itraconazole either as monotherapy or associated with other drugs, or with physical methods, is widely used. Recently, photodynamic therapy has been successfully employed in combination with antifungals in patients presenting with CBM. In the present revision the most used therapeutic options against CBM are reviewed as well as the several factors that may have impact on the patient's outcome. PMID:26465369

  5. Neglect following stroke: the role of sensory sensitivity in visuo-spatial performance.

    PubMed

    Duclos, Noémie C; Maynard, Luc; Abbas, Djawad; Mesure, Serge

    2014-11-01

    Both proprioceptive and visual manipulations have led to some improvement of the spatial neglect syndrome. Until now, their effects on visuo-spatial behaviour have never been compared simultaneously. The objective of this study was to determine their influence, as a function of the presence of neglect and the side of the brain damage. 19 stroke patients with right and 14 with left brain damage, without or with neglect; realized the Bells test in 5 conditions: a reference condition and 4 sensory conditions, defined according to the side of application (contralesional vs ipsilesional) and the type of perturbation (visual vs proprioceptive). The visuo-spatial behaviour was analyzed for global and spatial aspects and for individual extreme performances. For the neglect group, the restriction of the visual field to the ipsilesional hemi-field significantly diverted the centre of exploration towards the ipsilesional side compared to all other conditions. The weighting of visual cues from the ipsilesional hemi-field seems to be increased in sensory-motor integration processes in neglect patients. In all the groups, although some improvements in performance did occur with sensory manipulation, they were dependent on the individual, particularly for neglect patients. A same performance can be achieved through the use of different sensory-motor strategies, which are individual-related. It is thus important to consider the sensory sensitivity and the responsiveness of each patient before beginning any sensory therapies. PMID:25240591

  6. Ipsilesional 'where' with contralesional 'what' neglect.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jay Cheol; Ahn, Sunyoung; Kim, Sunghee; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2012-01-01

    Whereas contralesional spatial neglect is usually caused by right temporo-parietal lesions, ipsilesional spatial neglect is induced primarily by right frontal lesions. This report describes a 73-year-old woman with a right inferior parietal lesion who on 'where' tasks (line bisection and midline pointing) demonstrated ipsilesional neglect, but on 'what' tests (gap vs. no-gap detection cancellation and clothing tape removal) demonstrated contralesional neglect. This 'what' and 'where' directional dissociation provides evidence for independent 'what' and 'where' attentional networks; however, the reason this parietal lesion causes this contralesional vs. ipsilesional spatial attentional 'what' and 'where' dichotomy remains to be determined. PMID:22136591

  7. Scabies: new future for a neglected disease.

    PubMed

    Walton, Shelley F; Holt, Deborah C; Currie, Bart J; Kemp, David J

    2004-01-01

    Scabies is a disease of global proportions in both human and animal populations, resulting from infestation of the skin with the "itch" mite Sarcoptes scabiei. Despite the availability of effective chemotherapy the intensely itching lesions engender significant morbidity primarily due to secondary sepsis and post-infective complications. Some patients experience an extreme form of the disease, crusted scabies, in which many hundreds of mites may infest the skin causin severe crusting and hyperkeratosis. Overcrowded living conditions and poverty have been identified as significant confounding factors in transmission of the mite in humans. Control is hindered by difficulties with diagnosis, the cost of treatment, evidence for emerging resistance and lack of effective vaccines. Historically research on scabies has been extremely limited because of the difficulty in obtaining sufficient quantities of the organism. Recent molecular approaches have enabled considerable advances in the study of population genetics and transmission dynamics of S. scabiei. However, the most exciting and promising development is the potential exploitation of newly available data from S. scabiei cDNA libraries and EST projects. Ultimately this knowledge may aid early identification of disease, novel forms of chemotherapy, vaccine development and new treatment possibilities for this important but neglected parasite. PMID:15504541

  8. Influenza virus vaccine for neglected hosts: horses and dogs.

    PubMed

    Na, Woonsung; Yeom, Minjoo; Yuk, Huijoon; Moon, Hyoungjoon; Kang, Bokyu; Song, Daesub

    2016-07-01

    This study provides information regarding vaccine research and the epidemiology of influenza virus in neglected hosts (horses and dogs). Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes a highly contagious disease in horses and other equids, and outbreaks have occurred worldwide. EIV has resulted in costly damage to the horse industry and has the ability of cross the host species barrier from horses to dogs. Canine influenza is a virus of equine or avian origin and infects companion animals that live in close contact with humans; this results in possible exposure to the seasonal epizootic influenza virus. There have been case reports of genetic reassortment between human and canine influenza viruses, which results in high virulence and the ability of transmission to ferrets. This emphasizes the need for vaccine research on neglected hosts to update knowledge on current strains and to advance technology for controlling influenza outbreaks for public health. PMID:27489801

  9. Influenza virus vaccine for neglected hosts: horses and dogs

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study provides information regarding vaccine research and the epidemiology of influenza virus in neglected hosts (horses and dogs). Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes a highly contagious disease in horses and other equids, and outbreaks have occurred worldwide. EIV has resulted in costly damage to the horse industry and has the ability of cross the host species barrier from horses to dogs. Canine influenza is a virus of equine or avian origin and infects companion animals that live in close contact with humans; this results in possible exposure to the seasonal epizootic influenza virus. There have been case reports of genetic reassortment between human and canine influenza viruses, which results in high virulence and the ability of transmission to ferrets. This emphasizes the need for vaccine research on neglected hosts to update knowledge on current strains and to advance technology for controlling influenza outbreaks for public health. PMID:27489801

  10. Neurocysticercosis: A disease of neglect

    PubMed Central

    Mewara, Abhishek; Goyal, Kapil; Sehgal, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a neglected tropical disease caused by larval forms of the parasite Taenia solium lodging in central nervous system (CNS). There is a huge morbidity and debilitation due to CNS manifestations of NCC in developing and underdeveloped regions of the globe, mainly Asian, African and Latin American countries. It is the cause of epilepsy in about 1% of the population of endemic countries and is the underlying etiology in about 15-50% persons with epilepsy, depending upon the geographical region. There is no perfect diagnostic method and the diagnosis relies on a combination of clinical, radio-imaging, immunologic and epidemiologic data. Treatment includes anti-parasitic treatment by cysticidal drugs and management of associated symptoms and complications. The disease is eradicable and control depends on an integrated and coordinated involvement of international bodies like the World Health Organization along with scientific institutions and political and administrative strata of the endemic countries to provide the essential tools such as adequate sanitation, live-stock management, health education and improved socio-economic conditions. PMID:24470993

  11. Neglecting Neglect: Some Thoughts about Children Who Have Lacked Good Input, and Are "Undrawn" and "Unenjoyed"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music, Graham

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at emotional neglect in the early years of life, and postulates some probable long-term sequelae of such neglect. It argues that there is a continuum of neglect; ranging from the severest form, as seen in institutional orphanages, to milder variations. A range of theoretical and research traditions, including developmental…

  12. Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect: Legal Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yell, Mitchell L.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews federal and state legal mandates to report child abuse. It addresses the issue of immunity from civil suit and criminal prosecution for reporting suspected child abuse or neglect, along with the criminal prosecution that may result if suspected child abuse or neglect is not reported. (CR)

  13. Empathy and Child Neglect: A Theoretical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Paul, Joaquin; Guibert, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To present an explanatory theory-based model of child neglect. This model does not address neglectful behaviors of parents with mental retardation, alcohol or drug abuse, or severe mental health problems. In this model parental behavior aimed to satisfy a child's need is considered a helping behavior and, as a consequence, child neglect…

  14. Child Neglect: Developmental Issues and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildyard, Kathryn L.; Wolfe, David A.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the effects of child neglect on three developmental periods: infancy/preschool, school-aged and younger adolescents, and older adolescents and adults. The severe cognitive and academic deficits, the social withdrawal and limited peer interactions, and the internalizing problems of neglected children relative to physically…

  15. Child Dental Neglect: A Short Review

    PubMed Central

    Ramazani, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Context: Child dental neglect is a terrible tragedy with a high prevalence. Dealing with this issue is important regarding psychological and physical health policies. The current review was conducted to provide health professionals insight into the different aspects of child dental neglect as reported in previous literature. Evidence Acquisition: Our review was prepared through an electronic search using Pub Med, Science Direct, Medline, Google, Cochran Library, Google Scholar and EMBASE databases. Relevant papers published since 2000 until now in English, discussing child dental neglect were retrieved. Both original and review papers were included. Eligible articles were fully read by the author. A data form was used to record useful findings. Results: Distinguishing the direct and indirect signs of dental neglect is the first step for improvement of this matter. The dental team are the main professionals who can improve parental knowledge about the consequences of child dental neglect. Victims suffer from short and long-term adverse outcomes. Collaborative attempts need to be made by different health professionals to deal with this problem. Conclusions: Child dental neglect has many long-term impacts. The main professionals who are responsible for identification, intervention and treatment of child dental neglect are dental practitioners. However, other professionals cannot ignore this task. Finally, child dental neglect, despite its derivative outcomes, may be a presentation of a broader maltreatment. PMID:25741483

  16. Base Rates: Both Neglected and Intuitive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennycook, Gordon; Trippas, Dries; Handley, Simon J.; Thompson, Valerie A.

    2014-01-01

    Base-rate neglect refers to the tendency for people to underweight base-rate probabilities in favor of diagnostic information. It is commonly held that base-rate neglect occurs because effortful (Type 2) reasoning is required to process base-rate information, whereas diagnostic information is accessible to fast, intuitive (Type 1) processing…

  17. Large-scale changes in network interactions as a physiological signature of spatial neglect

    PubMed Central

    Baldassarre, Antonello; Ramsey, Lenny; Hacker, Carl L.; Callejas, Alicia; Astafiev, Serguei V.; Metcalf, Nicholas V.; Zinn, Kristi; Rengachary, Jennifer; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Carter, Alex R.; Shulman, Gordon L.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between spontaneous brain activity and behaviour following focal injury is not well understood. Here, we report a large-scale study of resting state functional connectivity MRI and spatial neglect following stroke in a large (n = 84) heterogeneous sample of first-ever stroke patients (within 1–2 weeks). Spatial neglect, which is typically more severe after right than left hemisphere injury, includes deficits of spatial attention and motor actions contralateral to the lesion, and low general attention due to impaired vigilance/arousal. Patients underwent structural and resting state functional MRI scans, and spatial neglect was measured using the Posner spatial cueing task, and Mesulam and Behavioural Inattention Test cancellation tests. A principal component analysis of the behavioural tests revealed a main factor accounting for 34% of variance that captured three correlated behavioural deficits: visual neglect of the contralesional visual field, visuomotor neglect of the contralesional field, and low overall performance. In an independent sample (21 healthy subjects), we defined 10 resting state networks consisting of 169 brain regions: visual-fovea and visual-periphery, sensory-motor, auditory, dorsal attention, ventral attention, language, fronto-parietal control, cingulo-opercular control, and default mode. We correlated the neglect factor score with the strength of resting state functional connectivity within and across the 10 resting state networks. All damaged brain voxels were removed from the functional connectivity:behaviour correlational analysis. We found that the correlated behavioural deficits summarized by the factor score were associated with correlated multi-network patterns of abnormal functional connectivity involving large swaths of cortex. Specifically, dorsal attention and sensory-motor networks showed: (i) reduced interhemispheric functional connectivity; (ii) reduced anti-correlation with fronto-parietal and default mode

  18. The medial habenula: still neglected

    PubMed Central

    Viswanath, Humsini; Carter, Asasia Q.; Baldwin, Philip R.; Molfese, David L.; Salas, Ramiro

    2013-01-01

    The habenula is a small, bilateral brain structure located at the dorsal end of the diencephalon. This structure sends projections to the dopaminergic striatum and receives inputs from the limbic forebrain, making the habenula a unique modulator of cross-talk between these brain regions. Despite strong interest in the habenula during the seventies and eighties (Herkenham and Nauta, 1977; Beckstead, 1979; Beckstead et al., 1979; Herkenham and Nauta, 1979; Caldecott-Hazard et al., 1988), interest waned due to lack of a clearly identifiable functional role. Following Matsumoto and Hikosaka's seminal work on the lateral habenula as a predictor of negative reward in monkeys, the habenula has undergone a resurgence of scientific interest. Matsumoto and Hikosaka demonstrated an increase in habenular neuron firing when monkeys did not receive an expected juice reward (Matsumoto and Hikosaka, 2007). Studies have shown that increased habenular activity inactivates dopaminergic cells in the Rostromedial Tegmental Nucleus (RMTg) through GABAergic mechanisms (Jhou et al., 2009a,b). Additional studies link habenular activity to the regulation of serotonin and norepinephrine, suggesting the habenula modulates multiple brain systems (Strecker and Rosengren, 1989; Amat et al., 2001). These discoveries ushered in a series of new studies that have refocused attention on the lateral habenula and the importance of this small brain structure (Bianco and Wilson, 2009; Jhou et al., 2009a; Matsumoto and Hikosaka, 2009; Sartorius et al., 2010; Savitz et al., 2011). Recently, Geisler and Trimble reviewed this renewed interest in: The Lateral Habenula: No Longer Neglected (Geisler and Trimble, 2008). While the lateral habenula (LHb) has been extensively studied, the anatomically and histochemically distinct medial habenula (MHb) remains largely understudied. This short review argues that the MHb is functionally important and should be studied more aggressively. PMID:24478666

  19. Current pipelines for neglected diseases.

    PubMed

    di Procolo, Paolo; Jommi, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs), through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i) disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii) yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%), and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%), especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%), which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%), followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%), foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%). Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%), whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location, target

  20. Current Pipelines for Neglected Diseases

    PubMed Central

    di Procolo, Paolo; Jommi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs), through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i) disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii) yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%), and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%), especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%), which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%), followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%), foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%). Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%), whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location, target

  1. The medial habenula: still neglected.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Humsini; Carter, Asasia Q; Baldwin, Philip R; Molfese, David L; Salas, Ramiro

    2013-01-01

    The habenula is a small, bilateral brain structure located at the dorsal end of the diencephalon. This structure sends projections to the dopaminergic striatum and receives inputs from the limbic forebrain, making the habenula a unique modulator of cross-talk between these brain regions. Despite strong interest in the habenula during the seventies and eighties (Herkenham and Nauta, 1977; Beckstead, 1979; Beckstead et al., 1979; Herkenham and Nauta, 1979; Caldecott-Hazard et al., 1988), interest waned due to lack of a clearly identifiable functional role. Following Matsumoto and Hikosaka's seminal work on the lateral habenula as a predictor of negative reward in monkeys, the habenula has undergone a resurgence of scientific interest. Matsumoto and Hikosaka demonstrated an increase in habenular neuron firing when monkeys did not receive an expected juice reward (Matsumoto and Hikosaka, 2007). Studies have shown that increased habenular activity inactivates dopaminergic cells in the Rostromedial Tegmental Nucleus (RMTg) through GABAergic mechanisms (Jhou et al., 2009a,b). Additional studies link habenular activity to the regulation of serotonin and norepinephrine, suggesting the habenula modulates multiple brain systems (Strecker and Rosengren, 1989; Amat et al., 2001). These discoveries ushered in a series of new studies that have refocused attention on the lateral habenula and the importance of this small brain structure (Bianco and Wilson, 2009; Jhou et al., 2009a; Matsumoto and Hikosaka, 2009; Sartorius et al., 2010; Savitz et al., 2011). Recently, Geisler and Trimble reviewed this renewed interest in: The Lateral Habenula: No Longer Neglected (Geisler and Trimble, 2008). While the lateral habenula (LHb) has been extensively studied, the anatomically and histochemically distinct medial habenula (MHb) remains largely understudied. This short review argues that the MHb is functionally important and should be studied more aggressively. PMID:24478666

  2. Epidermal parasitic skin diseases: a neglected category of poverty-associated plagues

    PubMed Central

    Heukelbach, Jorg

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Epidermal parasitic skin diseases (EPSD) are a heterogeneous category of infectious diseases in which parasite–host interactions are confined to the upper layer of the skin. The six major EPSD are scabies, pediculosis (capitis, corporis and pubis), tungiasis and hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans. We summarize the current knowledge on EPSD and show that these diseases are widespread, polyparasitism is common, and significant primary and secondary morbidity occurs. We show that poverty favours the presence of animal reservoirs, ensures ongoing transmission, facilitates atypical methods of spreading infectious agents and increases the chances of exposure. This results in an extraordinarily high prevalence and intensity of infestation of EPSD in resource-poor populations. Stigma, lack of access to health care and deficient behaviour in seeking health care are the reasons why EPSD frequently progress untreated and why in resource-poor populations severe morbidity is common. The ongoing uncontrolled urbanization in many developing countries makes it likely that EPSD will remain the overriding parasitic diseases for people living in extreme poverty. We advocate integrating control of EPSD into intervention measures directed against other neglected diseases such as filariasis and intestinal helminthiases. PMID:19274368

  3. The effect of external marking on the behaviour of the common pill woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Drahokoupilová, Táňa; Tuf, Ivan Hadrián

    2012-01-01

    Zoologists distinguish individual animals using marking techniques. Generally they test the potential influence of marking on survival only; the influence on behaviour is usually neglected. We evaluated the influence of two external marking techniques (nail polish and queen-bee marker) on the behaviour of common pill woodlouse, Armadillidium vulgare. The behaviour was examined from two points of view: (1) activity during 24 hours and (2) specific expressions of behaviour (exploring, feeding, resting and hiding) over a 24 hour period. We compared behaviour among woodlice marked with nail polish and queen-bee marker with the unmarked control group during a nine-day experiment. Although we did not find any influence of marking on survival, there was an evident influence on behaviour in most cases. Generally, in the groups of marked individuals of Armadillidium vulgare there were large differences observed against the control group in the overall activity. Activity of marked individuals was significantly reduced and they preferred hiding. The influence of polish and marker on the overall frequencies of behavioural categories was evident, mainly in feeding, resting and hiding. The influence on the frequency of exploring was significant in the polish marked group only. PMID:22536105

  4. The effect of external marking on the behaviour of the common pill woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Drahokoupilová, Táňa; Tuf, Ivan Hadrián

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Zoologists distinguish individual animals using marking techniques. Generally they test the potential influence of marking on survival only; the influence on behaviour is usually neglected. We evaluated the influence of two external marking techniques (nail polish and queen-bee marker) on the behaviour of common pill woodlouse, Armadillidium vulgare. The behaviour was examined from two points of view: (1) activity during 24 hours and (2) specific expressions of behaviour (exploring, feeding, resting and hiding) over a 24 hour period. We compared behaviour among woodlice marked with nail polish and queen-bee marker with the unmarked control group during a nine-day experiment. Although we did not find any influence of marking on survival, there was an evident influence on behaviour in most cases. Generally, in the groups of marked individuals of Armadillidium vulgare there were large differences observed against the control group in the overall activity. Activity of marked individuals was significantly reduced and they preferred hiding. The influence of polish and marker on the overall frequencies of behavioural categories was evident, mainly in feeding, resting and hiding. The influence on the frequency of exploring was significant in the polish marked group only. PMID:22536105

  5. Towards a Definition of Serendipity in Information Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agarwal, Naresh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Serendipitous or accidental discovery of information has often been neglected in information behaviour models, which tend to focus on information seeking, a more goal-directed behaviour. Method: This theoretical paper seeks to map the conceptual space of serendipity in information behaviour and to arrive at a definition. This is done…

  6. Tocopherol in Elder Self-Neglect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aung, K.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C.; Smith, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Although elder self-neglect is the most common form of elder mistreatment, its pathophysiology is not well understood. Alpha-tocopherol is a lipid soluble antioxidant required for the preservation of cell membranes. Since the association between tocopherol and cognitive impairment in older adults has been described, we explored the possibility of its role in elder self-neglect. OBJECTIVE: (1) To determine whether serum tocopherol levels are associated with elder self-neglect, and (2) to assess the association of serum tocopherol levels and cognitive function in elder self-neglect. METHODS: Serum tocopherol levels were measured in a cohort of 67 self-neglecting elders and 67 matched controls, recruited for the Consortium for Research in Elder Self-neglect of Texas. Pearson s correlation tests were performed to assess bivariate associations between serum tocopherol levels and cognitive function. RESULTS: Mean serum alpha-tocopherol levels were 10.8 +/- 4.7 ug/mL in self-neglect group and 13.0 +/- 4.9 ug/mL in control group (p = 0.006, unpaired student s t-test). None of the participants from either group had alpha-tocopherol level lower than the reference range. Mean serum gamma-tocopherol levels were 2.0 +/- 1.0 ug/mL in self-neglect group and 2.0 +/- 1.1 in control group (p=0.83). Proportion of the elders with gamma-tocopherol level lower than the reference range were 4.5% (3/66) in self-neglect group and 10.4% (7/67) in control group (p=0.32, Fisher s Exact Test). Among the self-neglecting elders, no association was found between serum alpha-tocopherol levels and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) or the Wolf-Klein Clock Drawing Test (CDT) scores (r =-0.42, p=0.75 for MMSE; r=0.08, p=0.54 for CDT). No association was found between serum gamma-tocopherol levels and the MMSE or the CDT (r=-0.12, p=0.35 for MMSE; r=0.05, p=0.68 for CDT). CONCLUSION: In our sample, neither alpha-tocopherol nor gamma-tocopherol appears to have a role in pathophysiology of elder

  7. Behavioural profile of Wistar rats with unilateral striatal lesion by quinolinic acid (animal model of Huntington disease) post-injection of apomorphine and exposure to static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Giorgetto, Carolina; Silva, Elaine Cristina Mazzei; Kitabatake, Takae Tamy; Bertolino, Guilherme; de Araujo, João Eduardo

    2015-05-01

    We analysed the motor behaviour of Wistar rats after 7 days lesion in the left striatum, injected with apomorphine (APO) and stimulated by a continuous magnetic field of 3,200 Gauss. For the behaviour assessment, we utilised the activity cage test and the rotarod test. Sixty-eight male Wistar rats were divided into six groups: control, sham, sham magnetic, lesion, and stimulated South and North Poles. After the experiments, coronal sections of the striatum were taken and stained with Nissl for analysis of the lesion. In the activity cage test for distance (F = 3.19), time of activity (F = 5.46) and crossings (F = 3.31) in all groups, except for the North Pole-stimulated group, we observed a significant increase in these behaviours when compared to the control group. Considering the number of counterclockwise turns, we observed a significant increase in the lesion in the South and North Pole stimulation groups compared with the control group. Highlighting the minor number of counterclockwise turns observed in the North Pole-stimulated group in relation to the South Pole-stimulated and Lesion groups (F = 16.01). The rotarod test revealed a decrease in the time spent in this apparatus for the Lesion group when compared to all other groups (F = 5.46). The morphometric analysis showed a reduction in the number of neurons in the Lesion group in relation to all other groups (F = 5.13). Thus, the results suggest that the static magnetic field north and south promoted a distinct behavioural profile and morphological preservation after 7 days of lesion with quinolinic acid associated with APO. PMID:25665872

  8. Representational neglect in "invisible" drawing from memory.

    PubMed

    Cristinzio, Chiara; Bourlon, Clémence; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Trojano, Luigi; Grossi, Dario; Chokron, Sylvie; Bartolomeo, Paolo

    2009-03-01

    We describe the case of a patient with right hemisphere damage and left unilateral neglect. The patient was asked to draw from memory common objects, either with or without visual feedback. In the conditions without visual feedback the patient was either blindfolded or he made "invisible" drawings using a pen with the cap on, the drawings being recorded with carbon paper underneath. Results showed more neglect without than with visual feedback, contrary to previously published cases. This patient's pattern of performance may result from the contribution of a deficit of spatial working memory. Alternatively or in addition, the patient, who was undergoing cognitive rehabilitation for neglect, may have found easier to compensate for his neglect with visual feedback, which allowed him to visually explore the left part of his drawings. PMID:18718580

  9. How neglect and punitiveness influence emotion knowledge.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Carmody, Dennis P; Lewis, Michael

    2010-06-01

    To explore whether punitive parenting styles contribute to early-acquired emotion knowledge deficits observable in neglected children, we observed 42 preschool children's emotion knowledge, expression recognition time, and IQ. The children's mothers completed the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales to assess the recent use of three types of discipline strategies (nonviolent, physically punitive, and psychological aggression), as well as neglectful parenting. Fifteen of the children were identified as neglected by Child Protective Services (CPS) reports; 27 children had no record of CPS involvement and served as the comparison group. There were no differences between the neglect and comparison groups in the demographic factors of gender, age, home language, minority status, or public assistance, nor on IQ. Hierarchical multiple regression modeling showed that neglect significantly predicted emotion knowledge. The addition of IQ contributed a significant amount of additional variance to the model and maintained the fit. Adding parental punitiveness in the final stage contributed little additional variance and did not significantly improve the fit. Thus, deficits in children's emotion knowledge may be due primarily to lower IQ or neglect. IQ was unrelated to speed of emotion recognition. Punitiveness did not directly contribute to emotion knowledge deficits but appeared in exploratory analysis to be related to speed of emotion recognition. PMID:20099078

  10. Anthropogenic extinction of top carnivores and interspecific animal behaviour: implications of the rapid decoupling of a web involving wolves, bears, moose and ravens.

    PubMed

    Berger, J

    1999-11-22

    The recent extinction of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and wolves (Canis lupus) by humans from 95-99% of the contiguous USA and Mexico in less than 100 years has resulted in dramatically altered and expanded prey communities. Such rampant ecological change and putative ecological instability has not occurred in North American northern boreal zones. This geographical variation in the loss of large carnivores as a consequence of anthropogenic disturbance offers opportunities for examining the potential consequences of extinction on subtle but important ecological patterns involving behaviour and interspecific ecological interactions. In Alaska, where scavengers and large carnivores are associated with carcasses, field experiments involving sound playback simulations have demonstrated that at least one prey species, moose (Alces alces), is sensitive to the vocalizations of ravens (Corvus corax) and may rely on their cues to avoid predation. However, a similar relationship is absent on a predator-free island in Alaska's Cook Inlet and at two sites in the Jackson Hole region of the Rocky Mountains (USA) where grizzly bears and wolves have been extinct for 50-70 years. While prior study of birds and mammals has demonstrated that prey may retain predator recognition capabilities for thousands of years even after predation as a selective force has been relaxed, the results presented here establish that a desensitization in interspecific responsiveness can also occur in less than ten generations. These results affirm (i) a rapid decoupling in behaviour involving prey and scavengers as a consequence of anthropogenic-caused predator-prey disequilibriums, and (ii) subtle, community-level modifications in terrestrial ecosystems where large carnivores no longer exist. If knowledge about ecological and behavioural processes in extant systems is to be enhanced, the potential effects of recently extinct carnivores must be incorporated into current programmes. PMID:10629976

  11. Anthropogenic extinction of top carnivores and interspecific animal behaviour: implications of the rapid decoupling of a web involving wolves, bears, moose and ravens.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, J

    1999-01-01

    The recent extinction of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and wolves (Canis lupus) by humans from 95-99% of the contiguous USA and Mexico in less than 100 years has resulted in dramatically altered and expanded prey communities. Such rampant ecological change and putative ecological instability has not occurred in North American northern boreal zones. This geographical variation in the loss of large carnivores as a consequence of anthropogenic disturbance offers opportunities for examining the potential consequences of extinction on subtle but important ecological patterns involving behaviour and interspecific ecological interactions. In Alaska, where scavengers and large carnivores are associated with carcasses, field experiments involving sound playback simulations have demonstrated that at least one prey species, moose (Alces alces), is sensitive to the vocalizations of ravens (Corvus corax) and may rely on their cues to avoid predation. However, a similar relationship is absent on a predator-free island in Alaska's Cook Inlet and at two sites in the Jackson Hole region of the Rocky Mountains (USA) where grizzly bears and wolves have been extinct for 50-70 years. While prior study of birds and mammals has demonstrated that prey may retain predator recognition capabilities for thousands of years even after predation as a selective force has been relaxed, the results presented here establish that a desensitization in interspecific responsiveness can also occur in less than ten generations. These results affirm (i) a rapid decoupling in behaviour involving prey and scavengers as a consequence of anthropogenic-caused predator-prey disequilibriums, and (ii) subtle, community-level modifications in terrestrial ecosystems where large carnivores no longer exist. If knowledge about ecological and behavioural processes in extant systems is to be enhanced, the potential effects of recently extinct carnivores must be incorporated into current programmes. PMID:10629976

  12. Animal transportation networks.

    PubMed

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-11-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  13. Animal transportation networks

    PubMed Central

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  14. Novel Insights in the Rehabilitation of Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Fasotti, Luciano; van Kessel, Marlies

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial neglect due to right hemisphere damage, usually a stroke, is a major cause of disability, impairing the ability to perform a whole range of everyday life activities. Conventional and long-established methods for the rehabilitation of neglect like visual scanning training, optokinetic stimulation, or limb activation training have produced positive results, with varying degrees of generalization to (un)trained tasks, lasting from several minutes up to various months after training. Nevertheless, some promising novel approaches to the remediation of left visuospatial neglect have emerged in the last decade. These new therapy methods can be broadly classified into four categories. First, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), after a period of mainly diagnostic utilization, are increasingly applied as neurorehabilitative tools. Second, two classes of drugs, dopaminergic and noradrenergic, have been investigated for their potential effectiveness in rehabilitating neglect. Third, prism adaptation treatment has been shown to improve several neglect symptoms consistently, sometimes during longer periods of time. Finally, virtual reality technologies hold new opportunities for the development of effective training techniques for neglect. They provide realistic, rich, and highly controllable training environments. In this paper the degree of effectiveness and the evidence gathered to support the therapeutic claims of these new approaches is reviewed and discussed. The conclusion is that for all these approaches there still is insufficient unbiased evidence to support their effectiveness. Further neglect rehabilitation research should focus on the maintenance of therapy results over time, on a more functional evaluation of treatment effects, on the design and execution of true replication studies and on the exploration of optimal combinations of treatments

  15. Behavioural social choice: a status report

    PubMed Central

    Regenwetter, Michel; Grofman, Bernard; Popova, Anna; Messner, William; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.; Cavagnaro, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural social choice has been proposed as a social choice parallel to seminal developments in other decision sciences, such as behavioural decision theory, behavioural economics, behavioural finance and behavioural game theory. Behavioural paradigms compare how rational actors should make certain types of decisions with how real decision makers behave empirically. We highlight that important theoretical predictions in social choice theory change dramatically under even minute violations of standard assumptions. Empirical data violate those critical assumptions. We argue that the nature of preference distributions in electorates is ultimately an empirical question, which social choice theory has often neglected. We also emphasize important insights for research on decision making by individuals. When researchers aggregate individual choice behaviour in laboratory experiments to report summary statistics, they are implicitly applying social choice rules. Thus, they should be aware of the potential for aggregation paradoxes. We hypothesize that such problems may substantially mar the conclusions of a number of (sometimes seminal) papers in behavioural decision research. PMID:19073478

  16. Neglected Thoraco Lumbar Traumatic Spine Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Kavin; Sharma, Vijay; Gupta, Babita; Gamanagatti, Shivanand

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To outline the etiology, complications and management difficulties encountered in the management of neglected thoracolumbar spine injuries. Overview of Literature The English literature describes overlooked diagnosis as the most common cause of neglected spine injuries. However, the reasons differ in developing or under-developed nations. Moreover, there is scarcity of literature about the neglected spinal injuries. Methods Patients presenting with thoracolumbar traumatic injuries who had not received any form of treatment for more than three weeks were included in the study. The demographic details, operative procedure performed and complications encountered, along with American Spinal Injury Association grade and spinal cord independence measure score recorded on the history sheets were noted. The data were analyzed. Results Forty patients were included in the study. Inadequate treatment at the first contact hospital (45%) followed by late presentation (38%) and missed injury (17%) were the major etiological factors for the neglected traumatic injuries in the thoracolumbar spine. The most common complications seen in the management of these cases were pressure sores (58%), back pain (57%), urinary tract infection (42%) and residual kyphotic deformity (42%). Conclusions Management of neglected thoracolumbar injuries is challenging. The delay in presentation should not prevent spine surgeon in proceeding with operative intervention as good results can be expected. PMID:27559447

  17. Spatial attention systems in spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2015-08-01

    It has been established that processes relating to 'spatial attention' are implemented at cortical level by goal-directed (top-down) and stimulus-driven (bottom-up) networks. Spatial neglect in brain-damaged individuals has been interpreted as a distinguished exemplar for a disturbance of these processes. The present paper elaborates this assumption. Functioning of the two attentional networks seem to dissociate in spatial neglect; behavioral studies of patients' orienting and exploration behavior point to a disturbed stimulus-driven but preserved goal-directed attention system. When a target suddenly appears somewhere in space, neglect patients demonstrate disturbed detection and orienting if it is located in contralesional direction. In contrast, if neglect patients explore a scene with voluntarily, top-down controlled shifts of spatial attention, they perform movements that are oriented into all spatial directions without any direction-specific disturbances. The paper thus argues that not the top-down control of spatial attention itself, rather a body-related matrix on top of which this process is executed, seems affected. In that sense, the traditional role of spatial neglect as a stroke model for 'spatial attention' requires adjustment. Beyond its insights into the human stimulus-driven attentional system, the disorder most notably provides vistas in how our brain encodes topographical information and organizes spatially oriented action - including the top-down control of spatial attention - in relation to body position. PMID:26004064

  18. Neglect Dyslexia: Frequency, Association with Other Hemispatial Neglects, and Lesion Localization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Byung Hwa; Suh, Mee Kyung; Kim, Eun-Joo; Seo, Sang Won; Choi, Kyung Mook; Kim, Gyeong-Moon; Chung, Chin-Sang; Heilman, Kenneth M.; Na, Duk L.

    2009-01-01

    Patients with right hemisphere injury often omit or misread words on the left side of a page or the beginning letters of single words (neglect dyslexia). Our study involving a large sample of acute right hemisphere stroke investigated (1) the frequency of neglect dyslexia (ND), (2) the association between ND and other types of contralesional…

  19. Neglected Children, Shame-Proneness, and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, David S.; Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Lewis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Neglected children may be at increased risk for depressive symptoms. This study examines shame-proneness as an outcome of child neglect and as a potential explanatory variable in the relation between neglect and depressive symptoms. Participants were 111 children (52 with a Child Protective Services [CPS] allegation of neglect) seen at age 7. Neglected children reported more shame-proneness and more depressive symptoms than comparison children. Guilt-proneness, in contrast, was unrelated to neglect and depressive symptoms, indicating specificity for shame-proneness. The potential role of shame as a process variable that can help explain how some neglected children exhibit depressive symptoms is discussed. PMID:20724372

  20. Treatment of neglected femoral neck fracture

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anil K; Mukunth, R; Srivastava, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Intra-capsular femoral neck fractures are seen commonly in elderly people following a low energy trauma. Femoral neck fracture has a devastating effect on the blood supply of the femoral head, which is directly proportional to the severity of trauma and displacement of the fracture. Various authors have described a wide array of options for treatment of neglected/nonunion (NU) femoral neck fracture. There is lack of consensus in general, regarding the best option. This Instructional course article is an analysis of available treatment options used for neglected femoral neck fracture in the literature and attempt to suggest treatment guides for neglected femoral neck fracture. We conducted the “Pubmed” search with the keywords “NU femoral neck fracture and/or neglected femoral neck fracture, muscle-pedicle bone graft in femoral neck fracture, fibular graft in femoral neck fracture and valgus osteotomy in femoral neck fracture.” A total of 203 print articles were obtained as the search result. Thirty three articles were included in the analysis and were categorized into four subgroups based on treatment options. (a) treated by muscle-pedicle bone grafting (MPBG), (b) closed/open reduction internal fixation and fibular grafting (c) open reduction and internal fixation with valgus osteotomy, (d) miscellaneous procedures. The data was pooled from all groups for mean neglect, the type of study (prospective or retrospective), classification used, procedure performed, mean followup available, outcome, complications, and reoperation if any. The outcome of neglected femoral neck fracture depends on the duration of neglect, as the changes occurring in the fracture area and fracture fragments decides the need and type of biological stimulus required for fracture union. In stage I and stage II (Sandhu's staging) neglected femoral neck fracture osteosynthesis with open reduction and bone grafting with MPBG or Valgus Osteotomy achieves fracture union in almost 90% cases

  1. Goal neglect and knowledge chunking in the construction of novel behaviour☆

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Apoorva; Duncan, John

    2014-01-01

    Task complexity is critical in cognitive efficiency and fluid intelligence. To examine functional limits in task complexity, we examine the phenomenon of goal neglect, where participants with low fluid intelligence fail to follow task rules that they otherwise understand. Though neglect is known to increase with task complexity, here we show that – in contrast to previous accounts – the critical factor is not the total complexity of all task rules. Instead, when the space of task requirements can be divided into separate sub-parts, neglect is controlled by the complexity of each component part. The data also show that neglect develops and stabilizes over the first few performance trials, i.e. as instructions are first used to generate behaviour. In all complex behaviour, a critical process is combination of task events with retrieved task requirements to create focused attentional episodes dealing with each decision in turn. In large part, we suggest, fluid intelligence may reflect this process of converting complex requirements into effective attentional episodes. PMID:24141034

  2. Modelling the differential effects of prisms on perception and action in neglect.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Steven; Danckert, James; Eliasmith, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Damage to the right parietal cortex often leads to a syndrome known as unilateral neglect in which the patient fails to attend or respond to stimuli in left space. Recent work attempting to rehabilitate the disorder has made use of rightward-shifting prisms that displace visual input further rightward. After a brief period of adaptation to prisms, many of the symptoms of neglect show improvements that can last for hours or longer, depending on the adaptation procedure. Recent work has shown, however, that differential effects of prisms can be observed on actions (which are typically improved) and perceptual biases (which often remain unchanged). Here, we present a computational model capable of explaining some basic symptoms of neglect (line bisection behaviour), the effects of prism adaptation in both healthy controls and neglect patients and the observed dissociation between action and perception following prisms. The results of our simulations support recent contentions that prisms primarily influence behaviours normally thought to be controlled by the dorsal stream. PMID:25430546

  3. Spatial attention and neglect: parietal, frontal and cingulate contributions to the mental representation and attentional targeting of salient extrapersonal events.

    PubMed Central

    Mesulam, M M

    1999-01-01

    The syndrome of contralesional neglect reflects a lateralized disruption of spatial attention. In the human, the left hemisphere shifts attention predominantly in the contralateral hemispace and in a contraversive direction whereas the right hemisphere distributes attention more evenly, in both hemispaces and both directions. As a consequence of this asymmetry, severe contralesional neglect occurs almost exclusively after right hemisphere lesions. Patients with left neglect experience a loss of salience in the mental representation and conscious perception of the left side and display a reluctance to direct orientating and exploratory behaviours to the left. Neglect is distributed according to egocentric, allocentric, world-centred, and object-centred frames of reference. Neglected events can continue to exert an implicit influence on behaviour, indicating that the attentional filtering occurs at the level of an internalized representation rather than at the level of peripheral sensory input. The unilateral neglect syndrome is caused by a dysfunction of a large-scale neurocognitive network, the cortical epicentres of which are located in posterior parietal cortex, the frontal eye fields, and the cingulate gyrus. This network coordinates all aspects of spatial attention, regardless of the modality of input or output. It helps to compile a mental representation of extrapersonal events in terms of their motivational salience, and to generate 'kinetic strategies' so that the attentional focus can shift from one target to another. PMID:10466154

  4. Animal models of neurological deficits: how relevant is the rat?

    PubMed

    Cenci, M Angela; Whishaw, Ian Q; Schallert, Timothy

    2002-07-01

    Animal models of neurological deficits are essential for the assessment of new therapeutic options. It has been suggested that rats are not as appropriate as primates for the symptomatic modelling of disease, but a large body of data argues against this view. Comparative analyses of movements in rats and primates show homology of many motor patterns across species. Advances have been made in identifying rat equivalents of akinesia, tremor, postural deficits and dyskinesia, which are relevant to Parkinson's disease. Rat models of hemiplegia, neglect and tactile extinction are useful in assessing the outcome of ischaemic or traumatic brain injury, and in monitoring the effects of therapeutic interventions. Studies in rodents that emphasize careful behavioural analysis should continue to be developed as effective and inexpensive models that complement studies in primates. PMID:12094213

  5. U.S. Books Abroad: Neglected Ambassadors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Curtis G.

    Emphasizing that books are keys to cultural development, catalysts to trade, and unparalleled (but "neglected") ambassadors of American culture, this report points out the need for a new international outlook on the part of the entire United States publishing community. The report calls for a renewed cooperative approach, which would bring…

  6. How Neglect and Punitiveness Influence Emotion Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Carmody, Dennis P.; Lewis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether punitive parenting styles contribute to early-acquired emotion knowledge deficits observable in neglected children, we observed 42 preschool children's emotion knowledge, expression recognition time, and IQ. The children's mothers completed the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales to assess the recent use of three types of…

  7. Drowning in a child: accidental or neglect?

    PubMed

    Faridah, M N; Khairani, O

    2003-12-01

    We report the case of an infant who was found dead in the toilet of a nursery. Examination of the scene revealed an element of neglect in the care of the child. Postmortem showed evidence of drowning. Her blood sample showed a toxicologic evidence of alcohol exposure. PMID:15190669

  8. Pure Left Neglect for Arabic Numerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arranged along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…

  9. Child Abuse and Neglect. Data Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DC Action for Children, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The number of substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect in the District rose by 27 percent in FY 2009. This dramatic spike came after two consecutive years of decline in the number of substantiated cases reported the D.C. Child and Family Services Agency (CFSA). In FY 2010, the number of closed, substantiated cases dropped back down to 1,691,…

  10. Child Abuse and Neglect in American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischler, Ronald S.

    Child abuse and neglect among American Indians is a political as well as a clinical problem, as the victims belong to one cultural group and health professionls who detect maltreatment generally belong to another. Reluctance to diagnose and report child abuse, although universal, is probably more significant in Indian communities for several…

  11. Child Abuse and Neglect Thesaurus, May, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herner and Co., Washington, DC.

    The thesaurus contains approximately 4,000 terms used in indexing material for the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. It is explained that the descriptor compilation was first developed in 1975 from existing thesauri and dictionaries. Descriptors are arranged in alphabetic, permuted and group displays, and listings include references to…

  12. The Neglected Majority--20th Anniversary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Anthony E.; Walleri, R. Dan

    2005-01-01

    It is the 20th anniversary of the release of Dale Parnell's landmark book "The Neglected Majority". In this book, Parnell pointed out that for too long America's educational system has focused on the highest and lowest achievers. He made the case that most of those students in the middle two high school quartiles neither prepare for nor aspire to…

  13. The Neglected Tools Can Work for You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Mac M.

    2012-01-01

    Of all the resources and techniques available to the classroom teacher of English as a second or foreign language, none are more neglected than audiovisual aids. Properly planned, constructed, and employed, such aids can help not only to improve the overall language program but also to enhance the classroom atmosphere and to ensure greater student…

  14. Teacher Awareness of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Thomas C.

    1987-01-01

    Results of surveying 440 teachers indicated most teachers believed they had never had an abused or neglected child in class, that they would recognize signs of physical abuse but not sexual abuse, and that they knew their responsibilities under law (though few would report suspected cases if parents or principal objected). (DB)

  15. Child Abuse and Neglect in India.

    PubMed

    Seth, Rajeev

    2015-08-01

    India is home to the largest child population in the world, with almost 41 % of the total population under 18 y of age. The health and security of the country's children is integral to any vision for its progress and development. Doctors and health care professionals are often the first point of contact for abused and neglected children. They play a key role in detecting child abuse and neglect, provide immediate and longer term care and support to children. Despite being important stakeholders, often physicians have a limited understanding on how to protect these vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for systematic training for physicians to prevent, detect and respond to cases of child abuse and neglect in the clinical setting. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview of child abuse and neglect from a medical assessment to a socio-legal perspective in India, in order to ensure a prompt and comprehensive multidisciplinary response to victims of child abuse and neglect. During their busy clinical practice, medical professionals can also use the telephone help line (CHILDLINE telephone 1098) to refer cases of child abuse, thus connecting them to socio-legal services. The physicians should be aware of the new legislation, Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012, which requires mandatory reporting of cases of child sexual abuse, failing which they can be penalized. Moreover, doctors and allied medical professionals can help prevent child sexual abuse by delivering the message of personal space and privacy to their young patients and parents. PMID:25465678

  16. Quo vadis venomics? A roadmap to neglected venomous invertebrates.

    PubMed

    von Reumont, Bjoern Marcus; Campbell, Lahcen I; Jenner, Ronald A

    2014-01-01

    Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms. PMID:25533518

  17. Quo Vadis Venomics? A Roadmap to Neglected Venomous Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    von Reumont, Bjoern Marcus; Campbell, Lahcen I.; Jenner, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    Venomics research is being revolutionized by the increased use of sensitive -omics techniques to identify venom toxins and their transcripts in both well studied and neglected venomous taxa. The study of neglected venomous taxa is necessary both for understanding the full diversity of venom systems that have evolved in the animal kingdom, and to robustly answer fundamental questions about the biology and evolution of venoms without the distorting effect that can result from the current bias introduced by some heavily studied taxa. In this review we draw the outlines of a roadmap into the diversity of poorly studied and understood venomous and putatively venomous invertebrates, which together represent tens of thousands of unique venoms. The main groups we discuss are crustaceans, flies, centipedes, non-spider and non-scorpion arachnids, annelids, molluscs, platyhelminths, nemerteans, and echinoderms. We review what is known about the morphology of the venom systems in these groups, the composition of their venoms, and the bioactivities of the venoms to provide researchers with an entry into a large and scattered literature. We conclude with a short discussion of some important methodological aspects that have come to light with the recent use of new -omics techniques in the study of venoms. PMID:25533518

  18. Motivational control of sign-tracking behaviour: A theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Anselme, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Learning and motivation are two psychological processes allowing animals to form and express Pavlovian associations between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (UCS). However, most models have attempted to capture the mechanisms of learning while neglecting the role that motivation (or incentive salience) may actively play in the expression of behaviour. There is now a body of neurobehavioural evidence showing that incentive salience represents a major determinant of Pavlovian performance. This article presents a motivational model of sign-tracking behaviour whose aim is to explain a wide range of behavioural effects, including those related to partial reinforcement, physiological changes, competition between CSs, and individual differences in responding to a CS. In this model, associative learning is assumed to determine the ability to produce a Pavlovian conditioned response rather than to control the strength and the quality of that response. The model is in keeping with the incentive salience hypothesis and will therefore be discussed in the context of dopamine's role in the brain. PMID:27016362

  19. Prototype chicken galectins revisited: characterization of a third protein with distinctive hydrodynamic behaviour and expression pattern in organs of adult animals.

    PubMed

    Kaltner, Herbert; Solís, Dolores; Kopitz, Jürgen; Lensch, Martin; Lohr, Michaela; Manning, Joachim C; Mürnseer, Michael; Schnölzer, Martina; André, Sabine; Sáiz, José Luis; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2008-01-15

    Prototype galectins are versatile modulators of cell adhesion and growth via their reactivity to certain carbohydrate and protein ligands. These functions and the galectins' marked developmental regulation explain their attractiveness as models to dissect divergent evolution after gene duplication. Only two members have so far been assumed to constitute this group in chicken, namely the embryonic muscle/liver form {C-16 or CLL-I [16 kDa; chicken lactose lectin, later named CG-16 (chicken galectin-16)]} and the embryonic skin/intestine form (CLL-II or C-14; later named CG-14). In the present study, we report on the cloning and expression of a third prototype CG. It has deceptively similar electrophoretic mobility compared with recombinant C-14, the protein first isolated from embryonic skin, and turned out to be identical with the intestinal protein. Hydrodynamic properties unusual for a homodimeric galectin and characteristic traits in the proximal promoter region set it apart from the two already known CGs. Their structural vicinity to galectin-1 prompts their classification as CG-1A (CG-16)/CG-1B (CG-14), whereas sequence similarity to mammalian galectin-2 gives reason to refer to the intestinal protein as CG-2. The expression profiling by immunohistochemistry with specific antibodies discerned non-overlapping expression patterns for the three CGs in several organs of adult animals. Overall, the results reveal a network of three prototype galectins in chicken. PMID:17887955

  20. Nutritional Status in Self-Neglecting Elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, S. Mathews; Kelly, P. A.; Pickens, S.; Burnett, J.; Dyer, C. B.; Smith, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Elder self-neglect is the most common, and most compelling form of elder mistreatment. Individuals who cannot provide the basic needs for themselves may develop social, functional, and physical deficits. The CREST project has the goal of systematically characterizing these individuals, and the objective of the study reported here is to characterize aspects of their nutritional status. Self-neglect (SN) subjects referred from Adult Protective Services were recruited and consented. Control (CN) subjects were matched for age, gender, race, and socio-economic status when possible. Reported here are data on 47 SN subjects (age 77 +/- 7, mean +/- SD; body weight 76 kg +/- 26) and 40 CN subjects (77 +/- 7, 79 kg +/- 20). Blood samples were analyzed for indices of nutritional status. SN subjects had higher serum concentrations of homocysteine (p < 0.01) and methylmalonic acid (p < 0.05). Red blood cell folate levels were lower (p < 0.01) in the SN subjects and serum folate levels tended (p < 0.07) to be lower, also. C-reactive protein concentrations were higher than 10 mg/dL in 36% of SN subjects and 18% of CN subjects. Total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were similar in the two groups. These data demonstrate that the self-neglecting elderly population is at risk with respect to several markers of nutritional status.

  1. Vaccines to combat the neglected tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bethony, Jeffrey M.; Cole, Rhea N.; Guo, Xiaoti; Kamhawi, Shaden; Lightowlers, Marshall W.; Loukas, Alex; Petri, William; Reed, Steven; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Hotez, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent a group of parasitic and related infectious diseases such as amebiasis, Chagas disease, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hookworm, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis. Together, these conditions are considered the most common infections in low- and middle-income countries, where they produce a level of global disability and human suffering equivalent to better known conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and malaria. Despite their global public health importance, progress on developing vaccines for NTD pathogens has lagged because of some key technical hurdles and the fact that these infections occur almost exclusively in the world’s poorest people living below the World Bank poverty line. In the absence of financial incentives for new products, the multinational pharmaceutical companies have not embarked on substantive research and development programs for the neglected tropical disease vaccines. Here, we review the current status of scientific and technical progress in the development of new neglected tropical disease vaccines, highlighting the successes that have been achieved (cysticercosis and echinococcosis) and identifying the challenges and opportunities for development of new vaccines for NTDs. Also highlighted are the contributions being made by non-profit product development partnerships that are working to overcome some of the economic challenges in vaccine manufacture, clinical testing, and global access. PMID:21198676

  2. Vaccines to combat the neglected tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Bethony, Jeffrey M; Cole, Rhea N; Guo, Xiaoti; Kamhawi, Shaden; Lightowlers, Marshall W; Loukas, Alex; Petri, William; Reed, Steven; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Hotez, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) represent a group of parasitic and related infectious diseases such as amebiasis, Chagas disease, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hookworm, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis. Together, these conditions are considered the most common infections in low- and middle-income countries, where they produce a level of global disability and human suffering equivalent to better known conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and malaria. Despite their global public health importance, progress on developing vaccines for NTD pathogens has lagged because of some key technical hurdles and the fact that these infections occur almost exclusively in the world's poorest people living below the World Bank poverty line. In the absence of financial incentives for new products, the multinational pharmaceutical companies have not embarked on substantive research and development programs for the neglected tropical disease vaccines. Here, we review the current status of scientific and technical progress in the development of new neglected tropical disease vaccines, highlighting the successes that have been achieved (cysticercosis and echinococcosis) and identifying the challenges and opportunities for development of new vaccines for NTDs. Also highlighted are the contributions being made by non-profit product development partnerships that are working to overcome some of the economic challenges in vaccine manufacture, clinical testing, and global access. PMID:21198676

  3. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... System Glossary Listen < Back to Search National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary Published: March 31, ... document is the glossary for the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), including terms from ...

  4. Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities: Statistics and Interventions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities 2014: Statistics and Interventions Series Title: Numbers and Trends Author(s): Child Welfare ... Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities 2014: Statistics and Interventions Series: Numbers and Trends Year Published: 2016 https:// ...

  5. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data System Glossary Listen < Back to Search National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary Published: March 31, ... This document is the glossary for the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), including terms from ...

  6. Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Glossary previous page Related Documents PDF Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Preventing Elder Abuse and Neglect in Older Adults Tools and Tips ...

  7. Neglect Contributing to Tertiary Hospitalization in Childhood Asthma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxer, Gary H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study examined the extent to which child neglect and family dysfunction have contributed to the need for hospitalization of asthmatic children. Using a measure of global functioning, psychologic morbidity is associated with medical neglect. (Author/DB)

  8. Representation and disconnection in imaginal neglect.

    PubMed

    Rode, G; Cotton, F; Revol, P; Jacquin-Courtois, S; Rossetti, Y; Bartolomeo, P

    2010-08-01

    Patients with neglect failure to detect, orient, or respond to stimuli from a spatially confined region, usually on their left side. Often, the presence of perceptual input increases left omissions, while sensory deprivation decreases them, possibly by removing attention-catching right-sided stimuli (Bartolomeo, 2007). However, such an influence of visual deprivation on representational neglect was not observed in patients while they were imagining a map of France (Rode et al., 2007). Therefore, these patients with imaginal neglect either failed to generate the left side of mental images (Bisiach & Luzzatti, 1978), or suffered from a co-occurrence of deficits in automatic (bottom-up) and voluntary (top-down) orienting of attention. However, in Rode et al.'s experiment visual input was not directly relevant to the task; moreover, distraction from visual input might primarily manifest itself when representation guides somatomotor actions, beyond those involved in the generation and mental exploration of an internal map (Thomas, 1999). To explore these possibilities, we asked a patient with right hemisphere damage, R.D., to explore visual and imagined versions of a map of France in three conditions: (1) 'imagine the map in your mind' (imaginal); (2) 'describe a real map' (visual); and (3) 'list the names of French towns' (propositional). For the imaginal and visual conditions, verbal and manual pointing responses were collected; the task was also given before and after mental rotation of the map by 180 degrees . R.D. mentioned more towns on the right side of the map in the imaginal and visual conditions, but showed no representational deficit in the propositional condition. The rightward inner exploration bias in the imaginal and visual conditions was similar in magnitude and was not influenced by mental rotation or response type (verbal responses or manual pointing to locations on a map), thus suggesting that the representational deficit was robust and independent of

  9. The Effect of Syntax on Reading in Neglect Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedmann, Naama; Tzailer-Gross, Lital; Gvion, Aviah

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with text-based neglect dyslexia omit words on the neglected side of the sentence or text, usually on the left side. This study tested whether the syntactic structure of the target sentence affects reading in this type of neglect dyslexia. Because Hebrew is read from right to left, it enables testing whether the beginning of the…

  10. Emotional Neglect and Family Structure: Impact on Student Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wark, Mary Jo; Kruczek, Theresa; Boley, Amanda

    2003-01-01

    A study involving 69 female and 22 male undergraduates found participants who reported childhood emotional neglect by a primary female caregiver described greater current psychological distress and lower cohesion and adaptability in their family of origin than those reporting no neglect or neglect by a primary male caregiver. (Contains…

  11. Perceptions and Attitudes of Mothers about Child Neglect in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Selda; Tasar, Aysin; Ozkan, Secil; Yeltekin, Sevinc; Cakir, Bahar Cuhac; Akbaba, Sevil; Sahin, Figen; Camurdan, Aysu Duyan; Beyazova, Ufuk

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceptions and attitudes about child neglect of a group of mothers, in Ankara, Turkey, and to determine the factors affecting perception and attitudes of these mothers about child neglect. A questionnaire consisting of 15 scenarios about perception of child neglect and 12 behavioral descriptions about…

  12. Child Abuse and Neglect: A Shared Community Concern. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS/OHDS), Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this publication is to help the reader understand the problems of child abuse and neglect and become familiar with prevention and intervention efforts. Introductory pages define child abuse and neglect, suggest the scope of the problem, delineate reasons for its occurrence, and explain how to recognize abuse or neglect. This section…

  13. Is "Object-Centred Neglect" a Homogeneous Entity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainotti, Guido; Ciaraffa, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The nature of object-centred (allocentric) neglect and the possibility of dissociating it from egocentric (subject-centred) forms of neglect are controversial. Originally, allocentric neglect was described by and in patients who reproduced all the elements of a multi-object scene, but left unfinished the left side of one or more of them. More…

  14. Defining Child Neglect Based on Child Protective Services Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubowitz, H.; Pitts, S.C.; Litrownik, A.J.; Cox, C.E.; Runyan, D.; Black, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives:: To compare neglect defined by Child Protective Services official codes with neglect defined by a review of CPS narrative data, and to examine the validity of the different neglect measures using children's functioning at age 8 years. Methods:: Data are from 740 children participating in a consortium of longitudinal studies on child…

  15. Child Neglect: A Guide for Intervention. The User Manual Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudin, James M., Jr.

    This manual provides a state-of-the art review of child neglect in the United States, its nature, causes, and the implications of that knowledge for preventive and remedial intervention. After an introduction, the first chapter considers the definition of neglect including types of neglect, the withholding of medically indicated treatment from…

  16. Nonverbal Behavior of Young Abused and Neglected Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecht, Michael L.; And Others

    A study was conducted to examine the effects of child abuse and neglect on children's nonverbal behaviors. It was hypothesized that abused and neglected children would be less active nonverbally than would control group children. Eight abused and neglected children, aged one through three years, were videotaped interacting with their caregivers in…

  17. 1978 Annual Review of Child Abuse and Neglect Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Mary Porter; Klaus, Susan L.

    The review of research on child abuse and neglect presents brief abstracts of studies collected by the Clearinghouse of the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. Material is organized into five subject areas (sample subtopics in parentheses): definition of abuse and neglect; incidence (national and selected geographic estimates);…

  18. Example Elaboration as a Neglected Instructional Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Girill, T R

    2001-07-18

    Over the last decade an unfolding cognitive-psychology research program on how learners use examples to develop effective problem solving expertise has yielded well-established empirical findings. Chi et al., Renkl, Reimann, and Neubert (in various papers) have confirmed statistically significant differences in how good and poor learners inferentially elaborate (self explain) example steps as they study. Such example elaboration is highly relevant to software documentation and training, yet largely neglected in the current literature. This paper summarizes the neglected research on example use and puts its neglect in a disciplinary perspective. The author then shows that differences in support for example elaboration in commercial software documentation reveal previously over looked usability issues. These issues involve example summaries, using goals and goal structures to reinforce example elaborations, and prompting readers to recognize the role of example parts. Secondly, I show how these same example elaboration techniques can build cognitive maturity among underperforming high school students who study technical writing. Principle based elaborations, condition elaborations, and role recognition of example steps all have their place in innovative, high school level, technical writing exercises, and all promote far transfer problem solving. Finally, I use these studies to clarify the constructivist debate over what writers and readers contribute to text meaning. I argue that writers can influence how readers elaborate on examples, and that because of the great empirical differences in example study effectiveness (and reader choices) writers should do what they can (through within text design features) to encourage readers to elaborate examples in the most successful ways. Example elaboration is a uniquely effective way to learn from worked technical examples. This paper summarizes years of research that clarifies example elaboration. I then show how example

  19. Kessler Foundation Neglect Assessment Process uniquely measures spatial neglect during activities of daily living

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Peii; Chen, Christine C.; Hreha, Kimberly; Goedert, Kelly M.; Barrett, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the factor structure of the Kessler Foundation Neglect Assessment Process (KF-NAP), and evaluate the prevalence and clinical significance of spatial neglect among stroke survivors. Design Inception cohort. Setting Inpatient rehabilitation facility (IRF). Participants 121 participants with unilateral brain damage from their first stroke were assessed within 72 hours of admission to an IRF, and 108 were assessed again within 72 hours before IRF discharge. Interventions Usual and standard IRF care. Main Outcome Measures During each assessment session, occupational therapists measured patients’ functions with the KF-NAP, Functional Independence Measure (FIM™) and Barthel Index (BI). Results The KF-NAP showed excellent internal consistency with a single-factor structure. The exploratory factor analysis revealed the KF-NAP to be unique from both the FIM and BI even though all three scales were correlated. 67.8% of the participants at admission and 47.2% at discharge presented with symptoms of spatial neglect (KF-NAP > 0). Participants showing the disorder at IRF admission were hospitalized longer than those showing no symptoms. Among those presenting with symptoms, the regression analysis showed that the KF-NAP scores at admission negatively predicted FIM scores at discharge, after controlling for age, FIM at admission, and length of stay. Conclusions The KF-NAP uniquely quantifies symptoms of spatial neglect by measuring functional difficulties that are not captured by the FIM or BI. Using the KF-NAP to measure spatial neglect, we found the disorder persistent after inpatient rehabilitation, and replicated previous findings showing that spatial neglect adversely affects rehabilitation outcome even after prolonged IRF care. PMID:25461827

  20. Eurytrematosis: An emerging and neglected disease in South Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Schwertz, Claiton Ismael; Lucca, Neuber Jose; da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; Baska, Piotr; Bonetto, Gustavo; Gabriel, Mateus Eloir; Centofanti, Fábio; Mendes, Ricardo Evandro

    2015-01-01

    The trematodes of the genus Eurytrema are low pathogenic pancreatic parasites, but can be related to a decrease in cattle productive performance and eventually death. Parasitized animals develop chronic interstitial pancreatitis and may show a productive performance drop and emaciation. Human infection by Eurytrema sp. has already been reported in other countries as an incidental finding during autopsy or routine tests, but the parasite has not been found in humans in Brazil. However, it is possible that a large number of people could be infected, since parasitological tests have low sensitivity and the parasite is neglected as a pathogen for humans and even animals. Attempts to control and treat Eurytrematosis have generally presented low effectiveness. With the aim to control the disease and provide more information regarding its pathogenicity, our research group is developing a number of studies about Eurytrema spp. We hope to determine the damage in productivity, as well as, establish an efficient protocol for treatment and control of Eurytrematosis based on immunoprophylaxis and antiparasitical drug therapy. PMID:26309817

  1. [Neglected children: birth, life and survival].

    PubMed

    Bednarek, Stéphanie; Absil, Gaëtan; Vandoorne, Chantal; Lachaussée, Sophie; Vanmeerbeek, Marc

    2009-03-01

    Child neglect leads to numerous and serious consequences. The physical and neurophysiological development can be altered by the lack of stimulation or via a chronic stress which increases the production of cortisol. Gradually, psychomotor and cognitive deficits can appear. The emotions can be deeply touched and cause dysfunctional social relationship, ranging from withdrawal to aggressiveness. Primary care health practitioners have a role to play in the screening of risk situations and long term follow-up of the families. The interventions should ideally begin early, be participatory and based on an enhancement of the parent-child relationship. PMID:19168321

  2. Mansonelliasis, a neglected parasitic disease in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Raccurt, Christian Pierre; Brasseur, Philippe; Boncy, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Reported in Haiti as early as 1923, Mansonella ozzardi is still a neglected disease ignored by the health authorities of the country. This review is an update on the geographic distribution of the coastal foci of mansonelliasis in Haiti, the epidemiological profile and prevalence rates of microfilariae in people living in endemic areas, the clinical impact of the parasite on health and the efficiency of the transmission of the parasite among three Culicoides biting-midge species identified as vectors in Haiti. Additionally, interest in establishing a treatment programme to combat this parasite using a single dose of ivermectin is emphasised. PMID:25317697

  3. Neglected foreign body aspiration mimicking bronchial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Afghani, Reza; Khandashpour Ghomi, Mahmoud; Khandoozi, Seyed Reza; Yari, Behrouz

    2016-07-01

    Foreign body aspiration can occur in any age group, but it is more commonly seen in children. In adults, there is usually a predisposing condition that poses a risk of aspiration. If aspiration occurs, prompt diagnosis and extraction of the foreign body is needed to prevent early and late complications. We report a rare case of neglected foreign body aspiration in a 45-year-old schizophrenic opium addicted patient, which resulted in an occlusive lesion in the bronchus, mimicking bronchial carcinoma. PMID:27273232

  4. Disentangling the neuroanatomical correlates of perseveration from unilateral spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Jonathan T; DuBois, Jeffery C; Newhart, Melissa; Hillis, Argye E

    2013-01-01

    Perseverative behavior, manifest as re-cancelling or re-visiting targets, is distinct from spatial neglect. Perseveration is thought to reflect frontal or parietal lobe dysfunction, but the neuroanatomical correlates remain poorly defined and the interplay between neglect and perseveration is incompletely understood. We enrolled 87 consecutive patients with diffusion-weighted, perfusion-weighted imaging, and spatial neglect testing within 24 hours of right hemisphere ischemic stroke. The degrees of spatial neglect and perseveration were analyzed. Perseveration was apparent in 46% (40/87) of the patients; 28% (24/87) showed perseveration only; 18% (16/87) showed both perseveration and neglect; and 3% (3/87) showed neglect only. Perseverative behaviors occur in an inverted "U" shape: little neglect was associated with few perseverations; moderate neglect with high perseverations; and in severe neglect targets may not enter consciousness and perseverative responses decrease. Brodmann areas of dysfunction, and the caudate and putament, were assessed and volumetrically measured. In this study, the caudate and putamen were not associated with perseveration. After controlling for neglect, and volume of dysfunctional tissue, only Brodmann area 46 was associated with perseveration. Our results further support the notion that perseveration and neglect are distinct entities; while they often co-occur, acute dorsolateral prefrontal cortex ischemia is associated with perseveration specifically. PMID:22713393

  5. Neural mechanisms underlying the evolvability of behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Paul S.

    2011-01-01

    The complexity of nervous systems alters the evolvability of behaviour. Complex nervous systems are phylogenetically constrained; nevertheless particular species-specific behaviours have repeatedly evolved, suggesting a predisposition towards those behaviours. Independently evolved behaviours in animals that share a common neural architecture are generally produced by homologous neural structures, homologous neural pathways and even in the case of some invertebrates, homologous identified neurons. Such parallel evolution has been documented in the chromatic sensitivity of visual systems, motor behaviours and complex social behaviours such as pair-bonding. The appearance of homoplasious behaviours produced by homologous neural substrates suggests that there might be features of these nervous systems that favoured the repeated evolution of particular behaviours. Neuromodulation may be one such feature because it allows anatomically defined neural circuitry to be re-purposed. The developmental, genetic and physiological mechanisms that contribute to nervous system complexity may also bias the evolution of behaviour, thereby affecting the evolvability of species-specific behaviour. PMID:21690127

  6. Seeing and imagining the "same" objects in unilateral neglect.

    PubMed

    Bourlon, Clémence; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Duret, Christophe; Azouvi, Philippe; Bartolomeo, Paolo

    2008-08-01

    Dissociations between perceptual and imaginal neglect are typically investigated by using very different tasks (e.g. visual target cancellation vs. place descriptions). Here we report patients' performance on imaginal and perceptual tasks which shared identical stimuli and procedure, except for the modality of stimulus presentation. In different tasks, participants either saw towns/regions on a map of France or heard their names, and pressed one of two keys according to the stimulus location (left or right of Paris). Neglect patients as a group were less accurate for left-sided stimuli in both modalities, but on single-case analysis only one patient with perceptual neglect had asymmetrical imaginal accuracy. These results confirmed that imaginal neglect is relatively rare, and is usually associated with perceptual neglect. Perceptual neglect resulted more frequent and severe than imaginal neglect, also when assessed using strictly comparable tests, consistent with the exogenous orienting bias typically observed in these patients. PMID:18486952

  7. Incorporating animal spatial memory in step selection functions.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Santos, Luiz Gustavo R; Forester, James D; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Tomas, Walfrido M; Fernandez, Fernando A S

    2016-03-01

    Memory is among the most important and neglected forces that shapes animal movement patterns. Research on the movement-memory interface is crucial to understand how animals use spatial learning to navigate across space because memory-based navigation is directly linked to animals' space use and home range behaviour; however, because memory cannot be measured directly, it is difficult to account for. Here, we incorporated spatial memory into step selection functions (SSF) to understand how resource selection and spatial memory affect space use of feral hogs (Sus scrofa). We used Biased Random Bridge kernel estimates linked to residence time as a surrogate for memory and tested four conceptually different dynamic maps of spatial memory. We applied this memory-based SSF to a data set of hog relocations to evaluate the importance of land cover type, time of day and spatial memory on the animals' space use. Our approach has shown how the incorporation of spatial memory into animal movement models can improve estimates of habitat selection. Memory-based SSF provided a feasible way to gain insight into how animals use spatial learning to guide their movement decisions. We found that while hogs selected forested areas and water bodies and avoided grasslands during the day (primarily at noon), they had a strong tendency to select previously visited areas, mainly those held in recent memory. Beyond actively updating their memory with recent experiences, hogs were able to discriminate among spatial memories encoded at different circadian phases of their activity. Even though hogs are thought to have long memory retention, they likely relied on recent experiences because the local food resources are quickly depleted and slowly renewed, yielding an uncertain spatial distribution of resources. PMID:26714244

  8. Animal behaviour: monarchs catch a cold.

    PubMed

    Kyriacou, Charalambos P

    2013-03-18

    The spectacular migration of the Monarch from northeastern America to its overwintering grounds in Mexico requires the butterfly to set its time-compensated compass south in the autumn, then north in the spring for its return home. The stimulus responsible for compass resetting has been identified as a reduction in temperature. PMID:23518052

  9. Lateral specialization in unilateral spatial neglect: a cognitive robotics model.

    PubMed

    Conti, Daniela; Di Nuovo, Santo; Cangelosi, Angelo; Di Nuovo, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present the experimental results of an embodied cognitive robotic approach for modelling the human cognitive deficit known as unilateral spatial neglect (USN). To this end, we introduce an artificial neural network architecture designed and trained to control the spatial attentional focus of the iCub robotic platform. Like the human brain, the architecture is divided into two hemispheres and it incorporates bio-inspired plasticity mechanisms, which allow the development of the phenomenon of the specialization of the right hemisphere for spatial attention. In this study, we validate the model by replicating a previous experiment with human patients affected by the USN and numerical results show that the robot mimics the behaviours previously exhibited by humans. We also simulated recovery after the damage to compare the performance of each of the two hemispheres as additional validation of the model. Finally, we highlight some possible advantages of modelling cognitive dysfunctions of the human brain by means of robotic platforms, which can supplement traditional approaches for studying spatial impairments in humans. PMID:27018020

  10. Drug design for neglected disease in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Giarolla, Jeanine; Ferreira, Elizabeth Igne

    2015-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTD) are a group of 17 diseases transmitted by virus, protozoa, helminthes and bacteria. These illnesses are responsible for millions of deaths per year, affecting mainly the poorest populations in the world. The therapeutic drugs available are obsolete, toxic, have questionable efficacy and there are reports of resistance. Therefore, the discovery of new, safe, effective and affordable active molecules is urgently needed. Considering that, the main purpose of this mini-review is to show the current scenario concerning drug design for neglected disease in Brazil. NTD are a very broad topic. Thus, we selected four infections for discussion: Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, malaria and tuberculosis. According to CNPq (National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development) directories, there are many Brazilian groups studying these respective diseases. The papers published possess high quality and some of them, the most recent, are briefly discussed here. Medicinal chemistry approaches such as synthesis of novel series of molecules and biological activity evaluation, studies of structure-activity relationships (qualitative and quantitative), molecular modeling calculations and electrochemistry are some of the tools applied in the design of the compounds. PMID:25769971